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Linearization and Efficiency Enhancement Techniques for Silicon Power Amplifiers: From RF to mmW

Linearization and Efficiency Enhancement Techniques for Silicon Power Amplifiers: From RF to mmW

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Linearization and Efficiency Enhancement Techniques for Silicon Power Amplifiers: From RF to mmW

Comprimento:
264 página
2 horas
Lançado em:
Jan 7, 2015
ISBN:
9780124186811
Formato:
Livro

Descrição

This book provides an overview of current efficiency enhancement and linearization techniques for silicon power amplifier designs. It examines the latest state of the art technologies and design techniques to address challenges for RF cellular mobile, base stations, and RF and mmW WLAN applications. Coverage includes material on current silicon (CMOS, SiGe) RF and mmW power amplifier designs, focusing on advantages and disadvantages compared with traditional GaAs implementations.

With this book you will learn:

  • The principles of linearization and efficiency improvement techniques
  • The architectures allowing the optimum design of multimode Si RF and mmW power amplifiers
  • How to make designs more efficient by employing new design techniques such as linearization and efficiency improvement
  • Layout considerations
  • Examples of schematic, layout, simulation and measurement results
  • Addresses the problems of high power generation, faithful construction of non-constant envelope constellations, and efficient and well control power radiation from integrated silicon chips
  • Demonstrates how silicon technology can solve problems and trade-offs of power amplifier design, including price, size, complexity and efficiency
  • Written and edited by the top contributors to the field
Lançado em:
Jan 7, 2015
ISBN:
9780124186811
Formato:
Livro

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Amostra do Livro

Linearization and Efficiency Enhancement Techniques for Silicon Power Amplifiers - Academic Press

Germany

Chapter 1

Holistic Approaches for Power Generation, Linearization, and Radiation in CMOS

Ali Hajimiri and Kaushik Dasgupta,    California Institute of Technology (Caltech), Pasadena, CA

The field of wireless communications has experienced an exponential growth over the past four decades, going from the realm of science fiction to becoming so ubiquitous and natural that the younger generations have a difficult time imagining a world without it. This has been made possible through many breakthroughs in our understanding of the nature of wireless communications and, more importantly, numerous innovative enabling technologies that have made personal wireless communication an everyday reality.

Keywords

Wireless; communications; technologies

The field of wireless communications has experienced an exponential growth over the past four decades, going from the realm of science fiction to becoming so ubiquitous and natural that the younger generations have a difficult time imagining a world without it. This has been made possible through many breakthroughs in our understanding of the nature of wireless communications and, more importantly, numerous innovative enabling technologies that have made personal wireless communication an everyday reality.

Creating the fascinating edifice that is the connected world of ubiquitous access to information has been made possible through effective complexity management performed through a process of divide and conquer. This is possible through a systematic process of specialization and subspecialization in electrical engineering and its associated fields that have been part of the historic trends in this area, creating levels of abstractions within which a small group of people can design for a given set of specifications. This is what has enabled this complexity management. These levels of abstraction have played a key role in our ability to deploy such complex systems such as our wireless communication systems. A typical example of the hierarchy of these levels of abstractions is shown in Figure 1.1.

Figure 1.1 Levels of abstraction in a system.

In radiofrequency integrated circuit (RFIC) design, the same trends have been present since the inception of RFIC and monolithic microwave integrated circuits (MMICs). The system architectures are defined and created at a separate time and by a different group of engineers than those who define the chip architectures and those who design the transistor levels circuit blocks. The electromagnetic design (e.g., antenna and off-chip passive components) has also been generally performed by yet another group of designers. This partitioning of tasks has enabled speedy and tractable design of such systems; however, it has also created impediments in the way of innovation by limiting the number of possibilities that can be considered in the design of the entire system by constraining the design space to a limited subset of all possibilities (Figure 1.2).

Figure 1.2 The design space and its subspaces, limiting the range of design possibilities considered.

These somewhat arbitrary levels of abstractions have resulted in some of the classical approaches to RFIC design, with the individual circuit elements considered as lumped components and the effects of nonidealities and the couplings modeled using additional parasitic components. This allows for continuous application of long-known circuit simulation techniques essentially based on nodal analysis (Figure 1.3). Even in the realm of MMIC, the approach has been only partially extended by analyzing the nonlumped blocks such as transmission lines and on-chip antennas as separate units and representing them as scatter parameter boxes (Figure 1.4).

Figure 1.3 A classical RFIC integrated circuit.

Figure 1.4 A standard MMIC operating at high frequencies.

However, the ever-increasing complexity of wireless systems and the associated integrated circuits combined with the constantly growing standards and frequency bands of operations have created strong interconnections among these levels of abstractions. This is a challenge if examined from the point of view of classical levels of abstractions. It manifests itself as a cohort of problems such as cross talk, electromagnetic coupling, impedance mismatches, parasitic elements, and others. This situation has been exacerbated by the scaling of the transistors; the cutoff wavelength (the wavelength associated with the cutoff frequency of the transistors) is constantly shrinking and the dimensions of the integrated circuits have been growing, as conceptually shown in Figure 1.5. This has resulted in a crossing of the two curves (which happens approximately at the 250-nm CMOS nodes), leaving us in a nonlumped regime.

Figure 1.5 The conceptual plot of the cutoff wavelengths and chip dimensions versus time.

However, if one is willing to look at the problem in a broader context and not be confined by the classical levels of abstraction, then this can present a tremendous opportunity to overcome some of the classical problems in RFIC design. This can be accomplished by using a holistic approach to co-design of various parts of the system [1,2]. The holistic approach relies on a more close interaction of the electromagnetics and the transistors. It generally achieves this through a large number of transistors and small passive structures with strong electromagnetic coupling operating in concert (Figure 1.6).

Figure 1.6 Highly parallel, strongly coupled holistic integrated EM structures.

These structures can be used to enable simultaneous and active control of the electric and magnetic field profiles (E and H), enabling a much richer combination of field profiles and a much broader set of functions. This is an example of holistic integration of architecture, circuits, electromagnetics, and devices.

Although promising, such holistic approaches require the designers to obtain a broader set of skills ranging from a more thorough understanding of the system level matters to deeper device and physics-oriented aspects of the system. However, once the walls between classical levels of abstraction are removed, it becomes possible to design circuits that can outperform the classical solutions. More sophisticated approaches to simulation of these systems, which necessitate rethinking of the whole design flow, are also necessary.

A holistic approach inevitably leads to several underlying trends in the design methodology. Some of those trends are:

1. Parallelism: One of the most significant features of today’s silicon integrated circuits is the practically unlimited number of transistors they offer. As integrated circuits find their way into every conceivable part of wireless systems, it becomes essential to take full advantage of the large number of transistors. This unlimited number of transistors, however, comes at the cost of more limited power-handling capability of individual ones. This makes electromagnetically parallel structures much more compelling and a necessity in these approaches. This mindset can be loosely stated as "the army of mice versus the giant

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