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Fuel Systems for IC Engines

Fuel Systems for IC Engines

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Fuel Systems for IC Engines

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Lançado em:
Mar 6, 2012


This book presents the papers from the latest conference in this successful series on fuel injection systems for internal combustion engines. It is vital for the automotive industry to continue to meet the demands of the modern environmental agenda. In order to excel, manufacturers must research and develop fuel systems that guarantee the best engine performance, ensuring minimal emissions and maximum profit. The papers from this unique conference focus on the latest technology for state-of-the-art system design, characterisation, measurement, and modelling, addressing all technological aspects of diesel and gasoline fuel injection systems. Topics range from fundamental fuel spray theory, component design, to effects on engine performance, fuel economy and emissions.
  • Presents the papers from the IMechE conference on fuel injection systems for internal combustion engines
  • Papers focus on the latest technology for state-of-the-art system design, characterisation, measurement and modelling; addressing all technological aspects of diesel and gasoline fuel injection systems
  • Topics range from fundamental fuel spray theory and component design to effects on engine performance, fuel economy and emissions
Lançado em:
Mar 6, 2012

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The Institution of Mechanical Engineers is one of the leading professional engineering institutions in the world.

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Fuel Systems for IC Engines - Institution of Mechanical Engineers


Energy prognosis until 2030; reserves; transport fuels

K.-H. Schult-Bornemann,     Dozent, Otto-von-Guericke-Universität Magdeburg Germany

A prognosis about the development of the worldwide energy demand and the possibilities of the necessary supply has to take into account several factors. It is not just the availability of primary energy sources like oil, gas or coal, but also the development of the gross domestic product (GDP), inflation and energy efficiency has to be assessed. The transport sector is still dominated by the internal combustion engine, burning gasoline and diesel and will stay so for decades to come. It has to earn the financial means for future development in the propulsion area. Thus, it is nurturing its own competition. CNG, LPG, bio fuels, electricity, fuel cells and hydrogen are either already in use or very heavy R&D-budgets are being spent on these areas. Government support ranges from direct subsidies and tax exemptions to regulations prescribing the use of certain energy sources, e.g. biofuels. All of these primary energy sources are competing in several ways against each other, not only in the area of automotive fuels. Because of this interdependency a view on availability, price and future acceptance of all primary energy sources has to be the basis for a closer look on fuels for transport purposes.

The most important part in each prognosis, though, is the human being, because humans are deciding which energies are used in which way, e.g. by heating their home, lighting it, cooking or how they are going to produce industrial goods like cars.


Political decisions significantly influence future energy use and supply and have to be accounted for just as the technical and economic development. Political decisions are not always rational and may be changed very quickly. A prognosis is something entirely different than a scenario. In a prognosis, sector by sector is assessed and calculated regarding both availability and consumption. A scenario on the other hand starts from a set of assumptions which are the basis for further calculations, either in the upward or in the downward direction. Obviously the big difference is that within scenarios certain desired outcomes are influencing the basic assumptions and thus the results, both as limitation and driving factor. In the prognosis on the other hand the technical, economic and political development will be evaluated on the basis of probabilities. If that is done professionally, meaning not influenced by political factors and desired results, generally they are a lot more exact. In the last two decades the energy prognosis by ExxonMobil has proven to be the most correct worldwide in retrospective. That's why it is used here as a basis for this purpose; it is a prognosis very similar to that of the IEA (International Energy Agency). During its creation process it is permanently compared with other research work, e.g. that one of CERA (Cambridge Energy Research Associates).


The most important factor looking at future energy use is the number of people. In 2011 we welcomed human being No.7 billion on this planet, in 2030 the 8-billion mark will be reached. Non-OECD-countries account for 95% of the global population growth, in many OECD-countries the population is stagnating or even shrinking. Each of these humans is using energy. In the OECD-countries this energy use is inseparably linked with our present lifestyle; the per capita energy use is much higher than in the Non-OECD-countries. In the non- developed countries there are still a lot of people energywise living more or less on a stone-age-level. They have no access to modern energy. Today about 2.5 billion people are cooking and heating with wood or dried animal dung, 1.6 billion people have no access to electricity. All of these people are trying to increase their standards of living, as well as the people in the industrial countries. In the poorer countries progress is inevitably linked with higher energy consumption. It is therefore a safe prediction that the mere increase of the global population will lead to a significant increase in energy consumption. Moreover, the ongoing jump in light and heavy vehicles in China and India will cause a considerable push in energy consumption through the production of these vehicles and later on by their consumption.


The second decisive factor is the economic activity of the human being. As soon as the stone-age level is left and e.g. automobiles are produced, the GNP is growing. The worldwide GDP will continue to grow strongly. In contrast to the growth in population, the contribution of the OECD-countries to the increase of GDP will be stronger than that of the Non-OECD-countries. In the period from 2005 to 2030 the prognosis is assuming an annual growth rate of 2.7 % which has only received a small dent during the economic crisis in 2008/2009. Previous experience shows that the economic development always is going through cyclic periods; in the long run, though, the GD-growth rate is surprisingly stable.


If you bring the two factors together – population growth and growth of GNP – there is a nearly inevitable growth of the energy demand, very probably around 1.2 % p.a. By this figure, 1.2 %, which is notably less than half of the growth in GNP, it is obvious that here a very important assumption has been made: the energy efficiency will continue to grow very significantly. In the OECD-countries, in the past decades a considerable contribution to the increase in energy efficiency has already been achieved. This tendency will become even stronger in the future, because a lot of different political incentives will support that development. You may call energy efficiency the most important energy source of the future.


The energy savings in the period from 2005 to 2030 will amount to around 300 quadrillions BTU (British Thermal Units) if the present path of energy efficiency is prolonged into the future. Oil will be the most important primary energy source even in 2030 with an annual growth rate of 0.8 %. Even stronger, 1.8 % per year, gas will grow and the energy sources with the strongest growth rate are the renewables wind, solar and bio fuels. Nevertheless, their contribution to total primary energy supply will remain small.


Most of the primary energy will be used for electricity generation, followed by the consumption in the industry sector and only the third place is taken by transport. The residual and commercial sector is taking the smallest part. Even in 2030 about 80 % of the energy demand is supplied by the fossil energy sources oil, gas and coal, followed by biomass and nuclear energy. Germany is the only country in the world which is presently reducing existing nuclear capacities, worldwide the nuclear sector will grow significantly, even after Fukushima. The existing nuclear facilities, though, are presently checked very thoroughly in many countries. Special attention is given to external power supply, availability of emergency power supply and its duration and protection against flooding, as all facilities are located near sources of cooling water.

If you look at the oil consumption only, it is nearly completely used in the traffic sector which will grow with a rate of 1.8 % per year. That is bigger than the average of oil use, which will be at 1.4 % in the years 2000 to 2030. The oil demand in the industry will grow by 1.3 % in this period, in the private homes by only 0.2 %. In electricity generation, on contrast, oil is going down because it will be replaced by other energies, especially gas. A significant part of this gas will come from shale gas and formations with very tight pores, demanding special production techniques, e.g. fracking.


Oil consumption in the transport sector will be caused nearly at equal parts from light and heavy duty vehicles, and the part of air traffic is equalling the marine consumption. For rail transport oil plays only a very minor role. Presently, the transport sector is using about 13 % of the energy in the world. In the year 2030 the transport sector will have grown to about 20 % of the worldwide energy use, with oil staying the most important fuel. Through the influence of government regulation the part of the bio fuels will have grown stronger, but even in 2030 the amount of gas and bio fuels is dwarfed by that of oil in the transport sector. The expected annual growth rate of 1.4 % in the period from 2005 to 2030 is already assuming a considerable increase in energy efficiency.


If you look at the different consumption segments within the transport sector in more detail, the heavy duty vehicles running on diesel in every region of the world will have the biggest part even in the year 2030. In some regions, light vehicles' consumption is stagnating already now, mainly due to increasing energy efficiency in this area, triggered -among others- by CO2 regulations. In spite of the certain successes in energy efficiency in the air transport sector, the prognosis sees a growth of energy use in that area with an annual rate of 1.2 %. This is simply due to the enormous growth of air traffic. Even stronger the marine consumption will increase because the worldwide trade is more and more depending on marine transport. Here the economies of scale are nearly unbeatable: Shipping one bottle of wine from New Zealand to London is causing costs of about 10 Eurocents, one bottle of wine from Burgundy to the same destination is causing costs of about 40 cents, both already inclusive insurance.


Very interesting is the development in the number of light duty vehicles which in the EU is nearly stagnating from 2015 on. The USA is still leading with about 280 million vehicles. The steepest curve is displayed in China as an example of the BRIC-countries where an increase from 1 million vehicles in the year 1990 to over 100 million cars in the year 2030 already is and will be a remarkable development. The development of the average consumption per car is worth a second look as well. While in the USA during the influence of a special tax regulation that actually supported the sale of SUVs, a permanent growth of the consumption per car could be determined, this curve is already going down since the economic crisis in the years 2008/2009.A new administration and the higher price, together with a higher attention on environmental matters in the US has additionally contributed.


In the transport sector even in the year 2030 the country with the most cars, USA, has not caught with the EU or China in terms of the energy efficiency of new cars. China is running up to the EU but still lacking a little bit. The energy efficiency steps are even clearer if you look at the future energy consumption of light vehicles. In the USA consumption is going down thanks to energy efficiency measures from 2010, coupled with an increase in bio fuels. Even stronger is the reduction in the EU which started from a lower level in the first place. For the EU, it is safe to assume that government regulations will lead to an increase in bio fuels. In China the situation is entirely different. The growth in the number of cars is leading to a growth in consumption in a nearly linear manner. The growth rate there would have been even higher, if not for government regulation aiming at energy efficiency and cleaner air as well.


Consumption of gasoline in light duty vehicles in the USA will peak about 2015 and then decline by 10 % up to 2030. This will be more than compensated by the growth in diesel consumption which is due to the higher transport capacity on the road. Despite of this, in 2030 total fuel consumption in the USA will be lower than today.

In Europe, the total fuel consumption will not grow from now on because the reduction in consumption of light duty vehicles is so significant that it will compensate the growth in diesel both on the road and on rail traffic. That is the main reason why many refineries in Europe are for sale now or will be closed in the near future.

China, in contrast, has a growth in all areas.


Words like peak oil seem to signal the immediate depletion of the oil reservoirs. This assumption is wrong, as a closer look shows. The growth of the proved reserves in the last decades has always been larger than the growth in consumption. This is the result of technological progress. Higher productions from existing reservoirs, new reservoirs in areas that have been closed to earlier attempts (deep see, arctic, Russia and China) as well as progress in pipeline- and production-technology, which allow commercial development of small reservoirs as well, have been key to that development. Reserve development at natural gas looks very similar.

Despite this development the alleged immediate depletion of all reservoirs has been permanently used as a reason for the subsidised development of alternate fuels. Therefore the correct understanding of the word proven or proved reserves which is used in all reservoir figures, is important. In short, the following three conditions have to be met to define a reservoir as proved. Only those reserves are falling into that category which have been

a) proved by drilling,

b) can be extracted with today's technology and

c) are economically viable at present prices.

These very restrictive criteria which have been developed by the American Security and Exchange Commission (SEC) allow only a very small part of the known resources to be taken into that category. Because the progress in all technical developments in the exploration and production has not been slower but rather quicker in the past, the reserves in the last two decades have always been growing stronger than the production. In 2011, e.g. when the oil production practically stagnated, the proven reserves were growing by around 3,6%(prel.).

While a purely static approach to the so called Oil- or Gas-Ranges (reserves of one year divided by the consumption of the same year) is oscillating since decades between forty and fifty years for oil and around sixty years for gas (including shale gas, this figure is up to 250 years), the real range of the oil resources is lying at some hundred years, even with growing consumption. Gas resources are even bigger and coal is already today standing at four hundred years, even with a purely static approach.


To sum up, we will have oil in the future even when we don't use it in the way we do it today. Should oil e.g. in the year 2100 be completely replaced by other forms of propulsion, it will be irreplaceable in the petrochemical area. That is why the development in the exploration and production area will go on every day, as well as in technology leading to a higher energy efficiency. The end of oil will come when other forms of energy generation have taken over. The sentence of the former Saudi Oil-Minister Sheikh Yamani, spoken about 20 years ago, is still correct: The oil age will not come to an end because of a lack of oil, exactly like the stone-age did not end because of a lack of stones. Oil will be there when we have found other forms of energy supply, but it will be very hard to beat in the transport sector.


Because of the strong speculative influence on the oil price, any price prediction would be speculative itself. Presently the prices are ranging between 95$ and 115$ per barrel. With this price all technically challenging exploration and production investments are manageable from a financial point of view. That the time of the cheap oil is over is evident in the face of much more difficult ways of finding and producing oil (arctic, deep sea, deep drilling). The largest bottleneck for the future of oil production is presently rather lying in the renationalizing of the oil industry in some countries and in directing the flow of the financial means to capable investors.

Capable in this sense means not only to be capable to round up the financial means, but to abstain from short-turn oriented gambling instead of long-term investments with pay-out periods counting in decades.

Systems Architecture

CO2 savings due to electronically controlled fuel pumps in fuel delivery modules

D. Collins(1), A. Frilling(2), I. Hislaire(2), A.V. Iseghem(2), H. Cremer(2), M. Sanchez(2), S. Schilling(2) and R. Bouloc(3),     (1)Delphi – Mexico Technical Center, Mexico; (2)Delphi – Customer Technology Center, Luxembourg; (3)Delphi – Blois Technical Center, France


Since the start of the CO2 reduction discussions, the internal combustion engines and all necessary subsystems to run the engine are directly affected. Moreover the new proposed targets for the CO2 emissions of new registered vehicles in 2020 are very challenging.This paper is describing Delphi’s next generation of fuel delivery modules, entering production in 2013. Such a module is equipped with a brushless electronically controlled fuel pump (EC-pump) and a controller integrated in the cover in order to minimize the power losses.Thanks to the brushless technology it is possible to reduce the CO2 emissions between 1 to 3 grams/km, depending on the flow/pressure requirement for the engine.


Road transport (passenger cars and commercial vehicles) contributes 14 percent of total man-made carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions (1). Although new cars now emit significantly less CO2, road transportation remains one of the few sectors where emissions keep rising.

In Europe a system of tax incentives have be settled up to force car OEMs to contribute containing the CO2 emissions. The European legislation, in addition to exhaust emissions standards (CO, HC, NOx, …), also specified CO2 emissions targets, whereas some others regions / authorities stay focused on fuel consumption to address the passenger car contribution in global warming. (See Table 1)

Table 1

Overview of regulations specifications (2)

In 2006, actors involved in EU-ETS (European – Emission Trading System) traded a ton of CO2 at prices around or below 20€, the penalty was 100€ per tons of CO2. This level could also be applied to manufacturers as of 2012 by translating the amount of g/km into tons of CO2, taking into account the typical mileage of the cars concerned.

First predictions say that still a minimum of 95% of the vehicles in 2020 will be equipped with an internal combustion engine. Out of this knowledge it is much more important to understand and analyze what kind of C02 saving potential could be found in the subsystems which are necessary to run the engines.


The CO2 emissions are measured on a standardized driving cycle: NEDC which stands for New European Driving Cycle, which is also called NMVEG (New Motor Vehicle Emissions Group).

This cycle has been designed in order to reflect the typical driving conditions one can expect to see in Europe. It is being used to evaluate passenger cars emissions and fuel economy; it is basically a repetition of four times the former driving cycle ECE-15, corresponding to urban driving conditions, and one repetition of the EUDC (Extra Urban Driving Cycle). The total duration of the cycle is 1200 seconds, and is divided in several portions of accelerations and deceleration phases; the description of the cycle is shown on Figure 1.

Figure 1 NEDC cycle description

The various fuel consumptions are measured either in portion of the cycle (urban and extra-urban) either on the entire cycle (average fuel consumption). Even if the CO2 emissions are measured on the entire cycle, the main portion of the cycle does not correspond to full engine demand / power. Therefore one can easily imagine that the contribution of the Fuel System in CO2 emissions can be optimized by adjusting the demand to the actual needs of the vehicle during the NEDC.


3.1 Diesel Common rail architecture

Most OEMs are only proposing in their Diesel fleet Common Rail (CR) engines, which have already experienced several optimizations: second, third and even further generation of CR. They are all following the same drivers: meeting new regulation (particles, emissions, fuel economy…) while containing system costs. The new regulation levels (Euro 6 and Euro 7) forcing the system suppliers to chase any efficiency gain.

The CR architectures are all based on following key components:

- High Pressure (HP) pump: injection pressure is in the range of 1500 to 2000 bars, the efficiency of this pump is improved by pressurizing its inlet.

- Lift Pump or Low pressure Pump: could either be inside the fuel tank (electrical), in-line (electrical) or attached to the High Pressure pump (mechanical). The service pressure for this component is the range of 2 to 7 bars.

- Common Rail including injectors: injection pressure may reach 2000 bars.

An example of a Delphi Common Rail system is described on Figure 2.

Figure 2 Example of current Delphi Common Rail system

3.2 Fuel Module / Low pressure Fuel Pump description

The fuel module, which is located inside the fuel tank, comprises either an electrical lift pump or a suction pipe in case the High Pressure pump contains a first stage drawing the fuel directly from the fuel tank. In addition to the electric lift pump, the Fuel Module also contain a fuel level indicator, interface device with the fuel tank, eventually pressure regulation or pressure limiting components. An example of a current fuel module is shown on Figure 3.

Figure 3 Example of current Delphi Fuel

The current electrical fuel pumps are based on continuous current motor technology (so called DC pumps). The pumping section may differ from one application to the others: turbine, when flow / pressure requirements are low enough, positive displacement (gerotor or roller-vane) for more stringent flow-pressure requirements. The Figure 4 and Figure 5 show examples of DC pumps.

Figure 4 Example of turbine DC pump

Figure 5 Example of gerotor DC pump

When considering the latest Common Rail engines, the lift pump has to provide a significant flow (above 150 l/h) at pressure levels in the range of 500 to 700 kPa. This kind of requirements led to the utilization of positive displacement pumps (gerotor or rollervane). The pump has to be sized to consider the worst case conditions, with efficiency close to 20 %. A typical efficiency curve of a DC gerotor pump is shown on Figure 6.

Figure 6 Typical efficiency of DC gerotor electrical lift pump


4.1 The Brushless technology

Brushless type motors are commonly used in the automotive and non-automotive industry. The concept is as follows: magnet is located on the rotating part while the rotating field is generated by the coils located on the stator.

Stator is a three phases winding topology, which means 3 electrical connections (Phase U, Phase V, and Phase W). With this technology, two phases are always supplied at the same time. One is connected to the V + terminal and the other one to the V- terminal. This generates a field through the 2 phases.

Electronic Control Unit determines which phase to connect to generate the electromagnetic field at the right place at the right time.

Two phases connected at the same time means that one is not. This unused coil is used to determine the position of the rotor and therefore the speed of the rotor.

The magnetic field of the rotor (permanent magnet) goes through this unused coil and generates a voltage at its terminals. This voltage, back EMF (Electro-Magnetic Field), varies according to the position of the rotor. So, the back EMF is sense to determine when the commutation (supply next phase) has to be done. In addition, it is used to define the speed of the rotor.

Figure 7 Brushless motor

The speed of the motor depends of the voltage applied (battery voltage) to each phase. So, according to the speed desired, the control unit adapts this voltage using PWM (Pulse Width Modulation) technology to run the pump at the desired

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