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## Dados do livro

# International Gear Conference 2014: 26th-28th August 2014, Lyon

## Ações de livro

Comece a ler- Editora:
- Elsevier Science
- Lançado em:
- Sep 18, 2014
- ISBN:
- 9781782421955
- Formato:
- Livro

## Descrição

## Ações de livro

Comece a ler## Dados do livro

# International Gear Conference 2014: 26th-28th August 2014, Lyon

## Descrição

- Editora:
- Elsevier Science
- Lançado em:
- Sep 18, 2014
- ISBN:
- 9781782421955
- Formato:
- Livro

## Sobre o autor

## Relacionado a International Gear Conference 2014

## Amostra do livro

### International Gear Conference 2014 - Philippe Velex

Plenary Papers

**High ratio transmissions – the key component for future mechatronic systems **

*B.-R. Höhn Technical University of Munich, Germany *

Mechatronic systems are combinations of an electric engine, high-ratio transmissions and a sophisticated electronic control unit. Most of the mechatronic systems are part of a machine, where high torque is required on the output-shaft at low or very low speeds. That means that the power demand is not very high, and a mechanical transmission must be used to transfer the low torque from the electric engine to the high torque on the output member.

In this presentation, three examples illustrating the solutions for these special requirements are detailed. These are:

- Wind-turbines with high-ratio transmission with the main focus being efficiency

- Robots with high-ratio gears to drive the two main axes with the objective of minimum backlash

- Seat adjustments for passenger cars with the main focus on low cost and reduced volume.

*Bernd-Robert Höhn is Emeritus Professor at the Technical University of Munich. He worked on gear development at Audi, Ingolstadt from 1979 to 1989. He is the former Director of the Gear Research Centre (FZG, 1989-2011) and currently serves as CEO of ZG GmbH, specialized in driveline systems with epicyclic transmissions. Prof. Höhn is the coordinator for a SPP 1551 (Schwerpunktprogramm der DFG) Ressourceneffiziente Konstruktionslelemente and leader of the Evaluation-group GAG4 of the AIF (Arbeitsgemeinschaft industrieller Forschungsvereinigungen). He is the leader for a Koselleck-project of DFG gears with no external lubricants. *

**Tribo-dynamic behavior of gear pairs **

*A. Kahraman The Ohio State University, USA *

Conditions dictating the tribological conditions of gear systems are coupled to the dynamic behavior. There are various mechanisms coupling the dynamics to tribology of gears. Tribology of the gear meshes determines the dynamic friction forces causing vibrations along the off-line-of-action direction as well as dictating the damping at the gear mesh. At the same time, vibratory motions as well as dynamic loads at the gear mesh interface impact the elastohydrodynamic lubrication conditions. Such two-way interactions have often been neglected in the fields of gear dynamics and gear tribology. This talk attempts to bring attention to such interactions through a simplified *tribodynamics *model for a spur gear pair. An iterative computational scheme is used to implement a gear mesh lubrication model and a gear pair dynamics model to demonstrate this two-way relationship and quantify the impact of operating conditions, surface roughness and lubrication characteristics on the tribo-dynamics response.

*Ahmet Kahraman is the Howard D. Winbigler Professor of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering at The Ohio State University. He is the Director of Gleason Gear and Power Transmission Research Laboratory. He also directs Pratt & Whitney Center of Excellence in Gearbox Technology. He received his Ph.D. degree in Mechanical Engineering from Ohio State in 1990. He worked for General Motors for 10 years before moving to academia. His research focuses on several areas of power transmission and gearing including gear system design and analysis, gear and transmission dynamics, gear lubrication and efficiency, wear and fatigue life prediction, and test methodologies. His current research program is funded by an industrial consortium of 70 companies as well as individual grants from various companies and government agencies. He authored more than 150 papers on gear research. He was the past chairman of the ASME Power Transmission of Gearing (PTG) Committee and Chairman of the 2007 and 2009 ASME PTG Conferences. He was a former associate editor of ASME Journal of Mechanical Design and Mechanics Based Design of Structures and Machines. He currently serves at the editorial boards of Journal of Sound and Vibration and Journal of Multi-body Dynamics. He is a fellow of ASME. *

**Influence of enveloping stressed volume and trochoidal interference on durability of gear teeth **

*A. Kubo Kyoto University, Japan *

The magnitude of Hertzian contact pressure and minimum oil film thickness between contacting tooth flanks is commonly accepted as a criterion to evaluate the surface durability of gear tooth flanks. Recent trends in gearbox design include the reduction in volume and in weight which have highlighted surface failure of dedendum that cannot be adequately explained by a theory based solely on contact pressure and lubrication. Surface failure in highly loaded pinion with small tooth numbers usually occurs on the dedendum whereas the mating addendum tooth flank of the wheel is not damaged. The surface and subsurface states of stress calculated by the elastic contact theory is nevertheless symmetric at the surface and inside of both contacting bodies. The difference between the deteriorations on the pinion tooth dedendum and those on the mating tooth addendum on the wheel is so significant that it can hardly be explained by hypotheses such as oil trapping in cracks

or the difference in slip and rolling directions

. The traditional theory on material fatigue can also not explain this difference in the initiation and progress of the failure. Moreover the tooth flank near the lower end of contact limit on tooth form suffers often considerable trochoidal interference and crush of wear debris. All those induce very high contact stress and large heat on the surface that is enough to melt the steel. The surface temperature there becomes very high and the hardness of material becomes low. Tooth failure is often the result of positive feedback behavior of such dynamic system of surface failure. In this presentation, I introduce many examples to understand such model of tooth flank failures. I hope, many gear researcher have an interest in these failure modes and will be encouraged to carry out research on this topic.

*Aizoh KUBO is Emeritus Professor of Mechanical Engineering at Kyoto University and is now the general manager of the Research Institute for Applied Sciences, Kyoto, Japan. He has a consulting office KBGT(Kubo’s Gear Technologies Co). He was a guest member of FZG, 1972/73, TU Munich and was the chairman of IFToMM Gear TC from 1994 to 1997. His main field of research is design and trouble shooting of gears concerning failure and vibration and noise problems. He also has interest in analyzing gear tooth manufacturing and in development of measuring technique for the geometrical accuracy of gears. He works mainly in gear research group of the Japan Society of Mechanical Engineers. He received LA MEDAILLE D'OR de la Profession, pour collaboration aux travaux des methodes de calcul a l'ISO from the Syndicat National des Fabricants d'Engrenages et Constructeurs d'Organes de Transmission, France, 1986. He also received research paper Awards 1991 and 2009 from JSME and Invention Prize from the Japan Institute of Invention and Innovation (JIII) on the development of design method of railway traction gears, 2002. He received the Dudley Award in 2011 by the PTG division of the ASME, USA. *

**Gearbox power losses – Influence of lubricants, tooth and casing geometry **

*J. Seabra Faculdade de Engenharia da Universidade do Porto, Portugal *

Power loss and heat evacuation mechanisms in gearboxes have been widely discussed. Typically, the power loss sources are grouped in no-load and load dependent losses, generated by gears, rolling bearings and seals, which are strongly dependent on operating conditions (torque and speed), lubricant formulation and type of lubrication, gear tooth geometry, type of rolling bearings and case design, among others.

Thus, modelling gearbox power loss is a complex task: several different sub-models and parameters should be taken into account in order to obtain good predictions of the power loss associated with each mechanism and of the overall gearbox power loss. Furthermore, it is possible to measure accurately the overall power loss of a gearbox, but it is quite difficult to measure the contribution related to each mechanism and each mechanical component.

In this work several sub-models and experimental strategies are presented, discussed and validated in order to:

• Accurately predict rolling bearing power loss, depending on rolling bearing geometry, operating conditions and lubricant formulation.

• Predict the coefficient of friction between gear teeth, depending on the operating conditions and lubricant formulation, and to predict the gear loss factor (Hv) depending on gear tooth geometry.

• Predict and measure the no-load gearbox power loss for a particular gearbox design, operating conditions and lubricant formulation.

These sub-models and experimental measurements are used to predict the power loss in complex gearboxes with several stages, under significantly wide ranges of the operating conditions.

*Jorge Seabra is Professor of Mechanical Engineering at FEUP (Faculdade de Engenharia da Universidade do Porto), Portugal, and President of the Institute of Mechanical Engineering and Industrial Management (INEGI). He graduated from FEUP in 1981 and obtained a PhD in Mechanical Engineering from INSA Lyon in 1988. He is a member of STLE and his research topics comprise Contact Mechanics, EHD Lubrication, Gears, Rolling Bearings, Cams, Surface Failures - Wear, Micropitting, Scuffing, Lubricants, Rheology, In-service Lubricant Analysis. *

**Session 1 **

Worm Gears

**Measurement of helix deviation for planar double enveloping hourglass worms **

*B. Yu ¹ ; Z.Y. Shi ¹ ; L. Yan ¹ ; M. Zhang ¹ ; F.Y. He ¹ ; Y. Ye ² ; Y. Fu ² ¹ College of Mechanical Engineering and Applied Electronics Technology, Beijing University of Technology, P.R. China *

*² Woteam Measurement Control Technology Co. Ltd, P.R. China *

**ABSTRACT **

Compared with cylindrical worms, planar double enveloping hourglass worms (TP worms) have plenty of advantages. The measurement of TP worms is a key problem limiting the application of the worms. With regards to this, we present a measurement method for TP worms and develop a special worm measuring machine which can achieve the purpose of measuring geometric deviations. The working principle and constitution of the machine are introduced, and the principle of the measurement based on the mathematical model of each geometric deviation is explained in detail. An example of helix deviation measurement shows the whole process of the measurement.

## Keywords

**Planar Double Enveloping Hourglass Worm **

**Helix Deviation **

**Worm Measurement **

**Measuring Machine **

## NOMENCLATURE

*a *

*a*

Centre distance between the axes of the worm and the worm gear (*mm*)

** rb **Radius of the basic circle (

*mm*)

*β *

*β*

Inclination angle of the forming plane (°)

** Zw **Number of threads

** i 12 ** Transmission ratio

** D 1 ** Reference diameter in the middle plane (

*mm*)

** ui t **Variables in the forming plane (

*mm*)

** φ 1 ** Worm turns angle(°)

** φ 2 ** Forming plane turns angle (°)

**S j (O j –X j Y j Z j ) ** Static coordinate systems of the worm, Z

*j*is in the direction of the axis of the worm

**S n (O n –X n Y n Z n ) ** Static coordinate systems of the worm gear, Z

*n*is in the direction of the axis of the worm

**S1(O1–X1Y1Z1) ** Rotation coordinate systems of the worm, Z1 is in the direction of the axis of the worm

**( x 1,y 1,z 1) ** Coordinate values in S1(O1–X1Y1Z1)

**S2(O2–X2Y2Z2) ** Rotation coordinate systems of the worm gear, Z2 is in the direction of the axis of the worm

**( x 2,y 2,z 2) ** Coordinate values in S2(O2–X2Y2Z2)

**S3(O3–X3Y3Z3) ** Moving coordinate system fixed with the forming plane, the X3 axis of which is the tangent line of the basic circle on point O3

**(O – XYZΘ) ** Machine coordinate system whose X-axis is in the radial direction, Y-axis is in the vertical direction, Z-axis is in the axial direction and Θ -axis is the rotatory movement of the shaft

**( x,y,z,θ) ** Coordinate values in the machine coordinate system

** Ri **Radius of the arc with O2 as the centre in the X1O1Z1 plane (

*mm*)

** zhi **Position of the middle plane in the machine coordinate system when locating the middle plane for the

*i*th time (

*mm*)

** f h1_i **Helix deviation when the position of the middle plane is

*zhi*(

*mm*)

**( zpk, χmk, Zmk, θmk ) ** Data of the probe, the X-axis grating, the Z-axis grating and the Θ -axis grating at point

*k*

**Δ k **Deviation at point

*k*(

*mm*)

**Δmin,Δmax ** Minimum and maximum of Δ *k *(*mm*)

**Δ f h1 ** Helix deviation (

*mm*)

** rp **Radius of the probe (

*mm*)

**1 INTRODUCTION **

A planar double enveloping hourglass worm, as shown in **Figure 1, is a grinding worm formed by grinding wheel plane enveloping. Compared with cylindrical worm transmission, it has plenty of advantages, such as more simultaneous meshing teeth, worm flank with double-lines contact, high load capacity, high transmission efficiency, long service life and grinding which conforms to modification principle, (1). **

**Figure 1 **A planar double enveloping hourglass worm

In order to reduce running noise and improve the transmission quality, manufacturers have higher demands on the TP worm gear transmission precision. However, what limits the application of TP worm is its precise measurement. So far, there are two major ways in the testing research field. One is that the measurements of the individual deviation are accomplished on a CMM or on a CNC gear measurement instrument, and the other is developing the special testing instrument which can proceed with the composite measurement. There have been reported on measurements of the helix deviation and the tooth profile deviation of the TP worm, (**2, 3). One research institution in China developed the first TP worm testing instrument which in essential belonged to the composite measurement for Shougang machinery factory, (4). **

So far, the researches on the TP worm testing haven’t solved the actual measurement problem in the production process, which hindered the promotion of this kind of worm.

**2 WORKING PRINCIPLE AND CONSTITUTION OF THE MACHINE **

**2.1 Working principle **

The TP worm measuring machine is based on electronic generative metrology which can form special space curves (e.g. helix and tooth profile curve) in the generation system consisting of computer, drive device and transmission device, (**5). The electronic generative worm measuring machine has the advantages of compact mechanical structure, constant precision and changing the parameters of the measured worm easily. **

The measuring machine using a control system realizes the translation movement of the radial direction (X-axis) and axial direction (Z-axis) and the rotatory movement of the shaft (Θ -axis), and acquires the data of the grating of each axis and the probe through the data acquisition system. The acquired data is processed in the measurement software. Finally, the measurement of the deviations of the TP worm is accomplished.

**2.2 Constitution of the machine **

The TP worm measuring machine consists of a mechanical system and a measurementcontrol system.

**2.2.1 Mechanical system **

The mechanical system is composed of linear guide rails in the directions of X-axis, Y-axis and Z-axis and a rotary shaft (Θ -axis), **Figure 2. X-axis and Y-axis are equipped with SP level linear guide rails whose strokes are 150 mm and 70 mm, respectively, and Z-axis uses a SP level V-plane rail with a stroke of 850 mm. The radial runout of Θ -axis is 1 μm and the face runout is 1.5 μm. X-axis, Z-axis and Θ -axis driven by servo motor realize the three-axis linkage with the usage of control system, but Y-axis is manually controlled. The resolutions of the high precision linear gratings and circular grating with two read heads are 0.5 μm and 1.8", respectively. On Y-axis, there is a one-dimensional inductance probe with the stroke of ± 0.6 mm and the resolution of 0.15 μm. **

**Figure 2 **The mechanical system of the TP worm measuring machine

**2.2.2 Measurement-control system **

The main functions of the measurement-control system are receiving the computer command, controlling the mechanical system to realize the movement, acquiring the data of the probe and gratings and sending the data to the computer. The measurement-control system consists of a kinetic control system, a data acquisition system and measurement software, as shown in **Figure 3. The kinetic control system is composed of a motion controller, drives, motors and a position feedback system and its function is to control the speed and the position of each axis in the measurement process. A data acquisition card, a one-dimensional inductance probe, the grating of each axis and a signal processing circuit are the major parts of the data acquisition system which is used for collecting the data of the probe and gratings. The measurement software is an important part of the whole system, which implements the automatic measurement process. **

**Figure 3 **The measurement-control system of the TP worm measuring machine

**3 MEASUREMENT PRINCIPLE **

Considering the complicated shape of the TP worm, there are many kinds of deviations to evaluate the precision and two main deviations are the helix deviation and the tooth profile deviation. For different deviations, the mathematical models should be built, which are based on the space meshing principle. Then changing the form of the models, they could be expressed in the way of two translations and a rotation. Using the Newton’s method, we can solve the numerical solution of the coordinate values of the control path which will be sent to the computer. The machine controls the movement of the axes and finally, gets the results of the deviations. An example of helix deviation measurement shows the whole process of the measurement.

**3.1 Mathematical model of the worm **

The building process of the mathematical model is consistent with the processing of the worm. Both of them are based on the rotation of a forming plane around basic circle and the rotation of the worm around itself with a fixed transmission ratio. Actually, the whole process is that the contact lines on the forming plane are copied onto the surface of the worm after twice coordinate transformations.

In order to explain it easily, we build the coordinate systems first, as shown in **Figure 4. S j (O j -X j Y j Z j ) and S n (O n -X n Y n Z n ) are the static coordinates systems of the worm and the worm gear, respectively, and S1(O1-X1Y1Z1) and S2(O2-X2Y2Z2) are the rotation coordinate systems of them, respectively. Z j and Z1 axes are in the direction of the axis of the worm and Z n and Z2 axes are in the direction of the axis of the worm gear.S3(O3-X3Y3Z3) is the moving coordinate system fixed with the forming plane, the X3 axis of which is the tangent line of the basic circle on point O3, (6, 7). **

**Figure 4 **The coordinate systems of the worm gear pair

The crossed axes angle of the worm and the gear is *π */ 2, and the distance between the axes is *a*. The radius of the basic circle is *rb *.

The equation of the forming plane is built in coordinate system S2. Based on the meshing principle, the equation of the contact line on the forming plane can be derived, which is copied to the surface of the worm in the coordinate system S1 after coordinate transformations, when the forming plane turns to *φ *2 :

## **(i) **

The inclination angle of the forming plane is *β*. *u *and *t *are parameters of the forming plane. The worm turns *φ *1. For different *φ *2, we can get the contact lines of different positions which form the surface of the worm. Therefore, regarding *φ *2 as a variable, **equation (i) will be the equation of the worm which is simplified as f(x 1,y 1,z 1) = 0(x 1,y 1 and z 1 are all the functions of u and φ 2). **

**3.2 Measurement of the helix deviation **

**3.2.1 Equation of the helix **

The surface of the worm and a rotation surface around the axis of the worm intersect, and the line of intersection is the helix, as shown in **Figure 5. The variation of the lead of the TP worm is different from that of the cylindrical worm, which changes along the axial direction. **

**Figure 5 **The helix of the worm

There is an arc with its radius of *Ri *in the X1O1Z1 plane, **Figure 6. When the arc turns around the Z1-axis, we will get the equation of the rotation surface: **

**(ii) **

**Figure 6 **The rotation surface

The equation of the helix can be derived from **(i) and (ii): **

**(iii) **

**3.2.2 Measurement of the helix deviation **

**3.2.2.1 Numerical solution of the mathematical model **

The numerical solution of the mathematical model of each deviation is an important part of the TP worm measurement. According to 3.3.1, the numerical solution of (*x *1,*y *1,*z *1) of **equation (iii) can be acquired using Newton method. As the measuring machine works by controlling the X-axis, Z-axis and Θ -axis simultaneously, ( x 1,y 1,z 1) should be transformed to the polar coordinates: **

**(iv) **

The kinetic control system accomplishes route planning based on the array of (*xi *, *zi *,*θi *) sent to the measurement-control system.

**3.2.2.2 Locating the middle plane of the worm **

1) Using the probe to locate the transverse plane which is the processing benchmark of the worm to be measured is the basis of locating the initial position *z h*0 of the middle plane which is set as the zero position of Z-axis. The helix deviation *f h*1_0 is measured regarding *z h*0 as the zero position.

2) After the first measurement, the position *z h*1 which is located by moving *z h*0 5 ~ 10 *μm *or − 5 ~ − 10 *μm *along the Z-axis is set as the middle plane and one more helix deviation *f h*1_1 will be got.

3) Repeat step 2) 10 times and make sure that the middle planes of the 10 measurements are uniformly distributed around the initial position. The position *zhi *whose helix deviation *f h*1_*i *is the minimum will be the middle plane of the measured worm in the machine coordinate system.

**3.2.2.3 Movement control and data acquisition **

After setting the position of the middle plane, the route in 3.2.2.1 can be fixed to the machine coordinate system. Then, the machine could realize the movement of each axis and scan the helix along the route. At the same time, the data acquisition card collects the real time data (*zpk,xmk,zmk,θmk *) of the probe and gratings with equally space. After the measurement, the computer processes the data and plot the deviation curve.

**4 DATA PROCESSING **

The following is an experiment of the measurement of a TP worm. **Table 1 shows the parameters of the worm to be measured. **

**Table 1 **

**Parameters of the measured gear in the experiment **

The system acquires the measured data (*zpk *,*xmk *,*zmk *,*θmk *) of point *k *which doesn’t have the theoretical value. Therefore, (*xmk *,*θmk *) should be transformed to (*x *1*k *,*y *1*k *) for calculating the theoretical value (*x *1*k *,*y *1*k *,*z *1*k *) of point *k *through *f*(*x *1,*y *1,*z *1) = 0. Then, the deviation at point *k *is easy to get:

**(v) **

And the sum of the maximum and the minimum of Δ *k *is the helix deviation Δ*f h*1, (**8): **

**(vi) **

According to the result of the experiment, as shown in **Figure 7, the helix deviation of the measured worm can be calculated: **

**Figure 7 **The deviation curves of the left side (a) and the right side (b)

Left side:

## **(vii) **

Right side:

## **(viii) **

What is mentioned above is just the result of the experiment of one type worm. Actually, many kinds of worms with centre distances ranging from 100 *mm *to 200 *mm *are tested and the results indicate that this method can realize the precise measurement of the TP worm.

**5 CONCLUSIONS **

A TP worm measuring machine is developed, which can implement the measurement of the helix deviation, the tooth profile deviation, index deviation and the axial tooth thickness deviation. It can provide reliable data to improve the processing and can contribute to improve the quality of the TP worm gears. The mathematical model of the worm is built based on the space meshing principle. Considering different characteristics of different geometric deviations, the model of each deviation can be derived as the basis of the TP worm measurement method. Finally, with the measurement of the helix deviation as an example, the precise results prove the feasibility of the method.

**REFERENCES **

(1) Zhou LY. Hourglass worm modification principle and manufacturing. *technology. *2005;10–13.

(2) Qin DT, Yan J, Zhang GH. Diagnosis of Machining Errors and Improvement of Manufacture Precision on Plane-generated Hourglass Worm. *Mechanical Transmission. *1996;2:34–37.

(3) Ji YJ, Lao QC. Study on Measurement of Hourglass Worm with Gear Measuring Center. *Tool Engineering. *2008;12:102–105.

(4) Xie HK, Zhang XM, Wang C. The New Tester Developed for Double Enveloping Worm Gearing. *Tool Engineering. *1994;28(10):32–36.

(5) SHI ZY, YE Y, DING Y, et al. CNC High Precision Measuring Machine for Hobs. *Chinese Journal of Scientific Instrument. *1999;20(5):91–93.

(6) Shen YF. *The Spatial Meshing Principle and SG-71 Type Worm. *In: Metallurgical Industry Press; 1983:177–180 15062.3935.

(7) Mohan LV, Shunmugam MS. Geometrical aspects of double enveloping worm gear drive. *Mechanism and Machine Theory. *2009;44:2053–2065.

(8) Dudás Dr. Illés, Bodzás Sándor. *The analysis of cutting edges of face gear hob with analytical calculation and three coordinate measuring machine. *In: The 11th International Symposium of Measurement Technology and Intelligent Instruments; 2013:30–36.

**Calculation of the efficiency of worm gear drives **

*B. Magyar; B. Sauer University of Kaiserslautern, Institute of Machine Elements, Gears, and Transmissions, Germany *

**ABSTRACT **

This paper presents a physically grounded calculation method to determine the efficiency of worm gear drives. This computation is based on the MEGT tribological simulation, which can determine the local tooth friction coefficients (1). In their knowledge the other power losses such as the bearings, oil churnings and seals power losses can also be calculated. So in the next step the estimation of the efficiency of the gear box is possible. After the description of this complex analysis their validation with measurements and the short investigation of the power loss sources are shown.

**1 INTRODUCTION **

Worm gears belong to the cross axis drives; with them a very high gear ratio can be realised in one stage. But this advantage is coupled with a high sliding velocity between the meshing gear teeth. Therefore the tooth friction and also the tooth friction power losses are higher than by other gear variants. By the construction of gear solutions it is important to know their future efficiency. Previous calculations can help the engineers to compare the different solution principles with each other and to choose the best variant. In this case a single worm gear box competes with a complex multi stage helical gear bevel gear transmission. By the last variant more responsible empirical equations exist to predict the power losses in all stages (**2,3,4). Unfortunately the standardized empirical calculation method in (5) to determine the efficiency of worm gear drives is not useful if the gear ratio differs from 20.5. Another disadvantage of this calculation is that it takes no notice of the variation of the lubricant oil and the surface roughness. This prejudicial makes the prediction of the efficiency of the worm gear drives more difficult. At the University of Kaiserslautern a calculation method to determine the tribological behavior of the worm gear drives has been developed. This method is able to calculate the local tooth friction and thereby the efficiency of the gear meshing. Taking into consideration the other loss components in the gear box the efficiency of the complete gear unit can also be calculated. This calculation method will be presented in detail in this paper. **

**2 POWER FLOW IN WORM GEAR DRIVES **

Worm gear units are very compact. A single gear box includes only two shafts with the coupled worm and worm wheel, bearings, seals and oil sump. These machine elements cause power losses in the transmission. Therefore the losses in worm gear drives can basically be traced back to four reasons; tooth friction *P *ltf, oil churning *P *lchur, bearings *P *lbear and shaft seals *P *lseal losses. The potential loss sources in a worm gear box and the power flow assigned to the shafts 1 and 2 in a worm gear drive are illustrated in **Figure 1. To determine these power losses it is necessary to know the local loads of every machine element. The loss sources can be divided into load-dependent and no-load dependent components. Load-dependent power losses are the tooth friction power losses and the bearing power losses. But latter has also a no-load dependent part. Other no-load dependent power losses are the churning and the shaft seals power losses. In the next point the determination of the power losses will be described. **

**Figure 1 **Power losses and power flow in a worm gear unit.

**3 CALCULATION OF THE POWER LOSSES BY WORM GEAR DRIVES **

**3.1 Tooth friction power losses **

To determine the tooth friction by worm gear drives a tribological calculation method has been developed at the Institute of Machine Elements, Gears, and Transmissions (MEGT), University of Kaiserslautern (**1). This simplified tribological model of the tooth meshing by worm gears is shown in Figure 2. **

**Figure 2 **Simplified tribological modelling of tooth meshing by worm gear drives.

The first step of this calculation is determining the contact. Worm gear drives have a line contact. Several points of the current contact line are calculated by a solution of the equation of meshing. According to the equation of meshing, the normal vector of the common surface is perpendicular to the relative velocity vector of the bodies at the contact point (**6). Between two calculated contact points of a single contact line according to Niemann´s idea, the tooth flanks are substituted by rolls which radius coincides with their reduced radius of the curvature, and the rolls perform rotational motion of the same or opposite direction as the velocity valid for the given contact point. If the pressure mound above the flattening was approached according to Hertz, then the oil film thickness between the pairs of rolls can be calculated analytically (compare Figure 2). Because worm gear drives are usually working under mixed lubrication it is necessary to determine the local proportions of the dry and the fluid friction mechanisms. It is estimated with pre-computed division curve, which represents the rate of boundary lubrication depending on the dimensionless film thickness. The generation of this curve is based upon the statistical description of the representative roughness profiles of the tooth flanks and the contact mechanics (1). In knowledge of the film thickness and the rate of boundary lubrication the load distribution along the contact lines can be calculated iterative. This technique was developed by Bouché (7) and it is based on the special wear properties of worm gears with full contact pattern. In the next step of the simulation a mixed friction coefficient between a pair of rolls is recorded. The friction between the teeth generates heat rise. Therefore both the contacting surfaces and the oil film between them are heated up by friction heat. The calculation of the surface temperature is based on the numerical solution of Fourier’s law for heat conduction. Our solution-technique is founded on Plote´s method with Fourier integrals (8). The oil temperature in the contact is calculated according to the simplified energy equation of the oil film. To calculate the surface temperatures and the oil middle temperature the Fourier and the energy equations are solved simultaneously. In the knowledge of the distribution of the oil temperature an oil viscosity and an oil film shearing can be calculated too. This shearing is two-dimensional in the gap by worm gear drives. By integrating the shear stress along the penetration surface the frictional force arising from hydrodynamic lubrication can be elaborated. In mixed lubrication, the friction coefficient consists of a component arising from boundary lubrication and one arising from hydrodynamic lubrication. These components are weight by the above mentioned division curve and so the coefficient of the mixed friction is already known. As this value was freely chosen at the beginning of the thermal calculation, the last computation steps must be repeated in an iteration loop until the error is acceptable. After this calculation the local parameter, for example oil film thickness, contact pressure, surface temperatures and the coefficient of the tooth friction are known. **

To analyse the efficiency of the worm gear drives the average coefficient of the tooth friction was determined in every meshing position. In this paper a *ZK *profile worm gear drive with *a* = 100 mm centre distance and *i* = 20.5 gear ratio was analysed. **Figure 3 shows the calculated local tooth friction coefficients above the meshing field and their average value above the meshing position. In this case the input driving speed was n 1 = 1500 1/min and the output torque T 2 = 500 Nm, mineral oil lubrication was used with viscosity class ISO VG 150 by sump temperature ϑs = 60 °C. **

**Figure 3 **The calculated local tooth friction coefficient above the zone of contact (left), the average tooth friction coefficient computed from this, further the gear meshing efficiency above the meshing position (right) derived from latter.

**Figure 3 represents that the local coefficient of the tooth friction is changing strong along a single contact line (the same colour belongs to the same meshing position of the worm). It assumes its maximum value at the middle of the tooth where the sum velocity is nearly zero and therefore the boundary lubrication dominates. The average coefficient of the tooth friction μ tf is also changing strongly depending on the meshing position of the worm φ 1. The curve of the gear meshing efficiency η mesh follows the change in the average coefficient of the tooth friction with the reverse trend. It can be calculated by using this formula (9): **

*γ *m is the lead angle of the worm and *α *0 stands for the pressure angle. In the knowledge of the gear meshing efficiency the input torque *T *1 of the gear pair can be calculated. In the next step, based on the technical mechanic, the bearing reaction forces can be determined. By worm gear drives by both shafts generally adjusted bearing arrangements were used. The additional pre-stress load of the bearing is computed according to (**10). **

**3.2 Bearing losses **

Knowing the radial and the axial bearing forces and the rotational speed of the shaft the power loss torque by each bearing can be estimated according to the four source friction model of the company SKF (**10). This determines the total friction moment in a bearing M l,bear as a sum of the rolling frictional moment M rr, the sliding frictional moment M sl, the frictional moment of seals M seal and the frictional moment of drag losses M drag: **

The details of their calculation are described in (**10). This method was used by all four bearings of the gears to determine the bearing power loss. **

**3.3 Oil churning power losses **

At the Mechanical Engineering Department of ECAM a physically grounded calculation procedure was developed to determine the churning power loss of a pinion, which immerged in an oil sump (**11). A similar method by worm gear drives is unknown; therefore the mentioned calculation was also used in this paper to estimate the drag torques M l,chur: **

Where *ρ *oil is the oil density, *n *the rotational speed of the pinion, *A *the wetted surface area of the pinion, *d *m the pitch diameter of the pinion and *C *m the dimensionless drag torque coefficient, which can be calculated as follows:

Here means *h *the submerged depth of the pinion, *V *0 the oil volume, Fr the Froude and Re the Reynolds number. Both equations are given in the convention used with SI units.

**3.4 Shaft seals power losses **

To determine the frictional loss torque of the seals *M *l,seal the following simple equation according to (**12) was used: **

Where *d *shaft is the diameter of the shaft, *b *contact is the contact width of the sealing, *μ *is the coefficient of the friction in the sealing contact and *p*a is the average contact pressure in the sealing contact. At this point the use of the SI units is necessary.

**3.5 Energy balance of the worm gear unit **

In the knowledge of every loss component calculated with the presented methods, the efficiency of the worm gear drives can be determined. This calculation is based on the energy balance of the worm gear unit. It expresses that the sum of the input power, the output power and the power losses is zero (compare **Figure 1). Based on this principle of energy conservation the efficiency of the worm gear unit can be calculated as follows: **

Here the power of the worm *P *worm is increased with the power losses of the input shaft; this sum corresponds with the input power of the gear box. The power of the worm wheel *P *wheel is reduced with the power losses of the output shaft; this sum is the output power of the gear box. Both the power of the worm and the power of the wheel were calculated during the tribological simulation of the worm gear drives.

**3.6 Influence of the power losses on the power losses **

The developed tribological simulation of worm gear drives can only determine the tooth friction power losses of the gear box. The other power losses, such as the bearings, oil churnings and seals power losses reduce also the output power. Therefore a higher input power than used at the beginning of the tribological calculation is needed to cover the necessary output power of the gear box. It means that an iterative calculation has to be used to determine the real operational condition of the worm gear unit. **Figure 4 shows the changing of the input and output torque and the changing of the efficiency during this iteration process. It can be seen, that in the first calculation step the output torque of the gear box reduced by losses is smaller than the necessary value T 2 = 430 Nm. In the second iteration step the input torque was increased with the loss torque, which was calculated in the first step. Whereupon the determined output torque is approximately equal with the necessary value. After four iteration steps the calculated output torque of the gear box is exactly equal with the expected torque. Nevertheless, the last two iteration steps are unnecessary from a practical point of view. Using the corrected torques in the second iteration step has little influence on the efficiency as well. The efficiency of the gear meshing is slightly decreasing and the efficiency of the gear box is slightly growing. **

**Figure 4 **Changing of the input and output torques (left) and changing of the efficiency during the iteration (right).

**3.7 Summary of the described calculation procedure **

At this point a short overview about the developed simulation method will be given to determine the efficiency of worm gear drives. The calculation process is illustrated in **Figure 5. In the first step of the analyses the local tooth friction coefficients of the worm gear drive were calculated according to point 3.1. Afterwards, from the local tooth friction coefficients the average tooth friction coefficient was determined, which belongs to the current meshing position. In the knowledge of these the gear meshing forces and the bearing reaction forces are calculated based on the static equilibrium equations. With the mentioned method at points 3.2-3.4 the additional power losses such as bearings, oil churnings and seals power losses can be also estimated. These power losses modify the input and output torque of the gear boxes, therefore a new tribological calculation is necessary. If the accuracy of the iteration process is acceptable, the calculation procedure can be stopped and the solutions can be put out. **

**Figure 5 **Flow chart of the calculation of the gear box efficiency.

**4 COMPARISON OF THE MEASUREMENT AND THE SIMULATION **

To validate the developed calculation method a test bench was built at the laboratory of MEGT to study the efficiency of worm gear drives. During the experiment the input and output torques and speeds were detected by different operational conditions. **Figure 6 shows the comparison of the efficiency calculated from the measured values and the simulated average efficiency of the above mentioned ZK type gear box by the load T 2 = 430 Nm and by the sump temperature ϑ S = 60 °C. The simulated curve of the efficiency concurs very well with the measured values. So the developed simulation technique can be used as a reliable calculation method to determine the efficiency of worm gear drives. **

**Figure 6 **Comparison of the measured and simulated efficiency of the analysed gear box.

**5 ANALYSIS OF THE POWER LOSSES **

The presented, physically grounded calculation method to determine the efficiency of worm gear boxes has a main advantage compared to conventional empirical equations. Latter differentiate only between the load-dependent and no-load dependent power losses, the presented calculation method separates also between the power loss sources. This enables the engineers not only to estimate the total power loss but also to better understand every power loss source. So it is possible to optimize the gear boxes and the reduction of the losses.

**Figure 7 shows the course of all four power loss sources during one rotation of the worm by the load T 2 = 430 Nm and by the input rotational speed n 1 = 1500 1/min. Depending from the meshing position, the tooth friction power loss changes strongly similar to the changing of the tooth friction coefficient in Figure 3. Its average value is ca. three times higher than the second largest power loss, the sum of the four bearing power losses. This is also three times higher in the investigated operational point than the oil churning losses. The smallest share has the sum of the three shaft seal power losses. For further analysis of the power sources the power losses were divided in two groups depending from the location of their generation. Figure 8 shows the power losses by the input (left) and by the output shaft (right). It also shows, that the power losses by the output shaft can be neglected compared with losses by the input shaft. The no-load depending character of the oil churning and the shaft seals power loss should also be easily recognisable in Figure 8. The high value of the bearing power losses can be explained with the high axial force component of the bearing reaction force and with the high rotational speed of the worm. In the investigated case the worm submerged fully in the sump therefore the churning loss was accordingly high. Whereas the wheel teeth slightly immersed in the oil sump. **

**Figure 7 **Power loss components of the worm gear drive above the meshing position.

**Figure 8 **Power loss components of the worm gear drives by the input (left) and the output shaft (right) above the meshing position.

This brief study shows the potential of increasing the efficiency of worm gear drives through reducing the tooth friction power losses and through reducing the bearing power losses by the worm. The first is possible through the optimisation of the gear geometry, through reducing the surface roughness and trough using an adequate lubrication. As for the second a good bearing concept can be helpful.

**6 CONCLUSION **

The comparison between the measured and the simulated efficiency of the investigated gear box has shown a very good concordance. It means that the described complex calculation method can reliably predict the efficiency of worm gear drives. This simulation is also suitable to analyse each loss component of gears, therefore it can help the engineers to optimize drive solutions.

**7 REFERENCES **

(1) Magyar B. *Tribo-dynamische Untersuchungen von Zylinderschneckengetrieben. *University of Kaiserslautern; 2012 PhD-thesis.

(2) Doleschel A. *Wirkungsgradberechnung von Zahnradgetrieben in Abhängigkeit vom Schmierstoff. *2003 PhD-thesis, TU München.

(3) ISO/TR 14179-2:2001: Gears - Thermal capacity - Part 2: Thermal load-carrying capacity.

(4) Klingenberg J. *Kegelräder. *Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer-Verlag; 2008.

(5) DIN 3996:2012-09. *Calculation of load capacity of cylindrical worm gear pairs with rectangular crossing axes. *Berling: Beuth-Verlag; 2012 (in German).

(6) Litvin FL, Fuentes A. *Gear Geometrie and Applied Theory. *Cambridge: Cambridge University Press; 2004.

(7) Bouché B. *Reibungszahlen von Schneckengetrieben im Mischreibungsgebiet. *Ruhr-Universität Bochum; 1991 PhD-thesis.

(8) Plote H. *Zur Berechnung thermo-elasto-hydrodynamischer Kontakte. *TU Clausthal; 1997 PhD-thesis.

(9) Steinhilper W, Sauer B. *Konstruktionselemente des Maschinenbaues 2. *Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer-Verlag; 2008.

(10) SKF Rolling bearings Catalogue 10000/EN, October 2012.

(11) Changenet C, Pasquier M. *Power Losses and Heat Exchange in Reduction Gears: Numerical and Experimental Results. *In: 2nd International Conference on Gears (VDI Berichte 1665); Düsseldorf: VDI-Verlag; 2002:603–613.

(12) Tietze W, Riedl A. *Taschenbuch Dichtungstechnik. *Essen: Vulkan-Verlag; 2005.

**Strength of plastic helical wheels meshed with various types of worms **

*T. Koide ¹ ; Y. Ishida ¹ ; A. Ueda ² ; M. Nomura ¹ ; A. Tamura ¹ ¹ Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Tottori University, Japan *

*² Amtec Inc., Japan *

**ABSTRACT **

This study investigates the strength of plastic helical wheels meshed with enveloping and cylindrical worms whose tooth profiles mesh in line contact with helical wheels. Running fatigue tests of plastic helical wheels together with a conventional cylindrical involute worm, a line contact enveloping worm, and a line contact cylindrical worm were conducted. The tooth bearings, tooth temperatures, and fatigue lives of plastic helical wheels meshed with the different worms were examined at various center distances. From these results, the effects of worm tooth forms on the strength of the plastic helical wheels were determined.

**1 INTRODUCTION **

Plastic worm gears are usually constructed with helical wheels, which are more easily fabricated by injection molding than worm wheels (**1). However, because helical wheels establish point contact with conventional involute worms, their strengths tend to be lower than those of worm wheels, which are meshed in line contact with involute worms. In fact, one of the authors has determined that the life of helical wheels meshed with conventional involute steel worms is shorter than that of worm wheels, over practical ranges of torque and rotational speed (2). If worms that establish line contact with helical wheels were developed and used, the strength of plastic helical wheels would probably improve. **

This study investigates the strength of plastic helical wheels meshed with enveloping and cylindrical worms whose tooth profiles mesh in line contact with helical wheels. Running fatigue tests of plastic helical wheels together with a conventional cylindrical involute worm (CIW), a line contact enveloping worm (LCEW), and a line contact cylindrical worm (LCCW®) were conducted using a power-absorbing-type worm gear test machine (**2). The tooth bearings, tooth temperatures, and fatigue lives of plastic helical wheels meshed with the different worms were examined at various center distances (backlashes). From these results, the effects of worm tooth forms on the strength of the plastic helical wheels were determined. **

**2 EXPERIMENTAL METHOD AND APPARATUS **

**2.1 Test gears **

The test wheels were plastic helical wheels composed of standard grade polyacetal homopolymer (POM-H; POLYPENCO® ACETAL) (**3). Figure 1 shows the bending strength and bending elasticity of the POM-H as functions of temperature. Both properties are highly dependent on temperature. The helical wheels were hobbed from rod stock. No annealing was performed after hobbing. The worms were a conventional cylindrical involute worm (CIW), a line contact enveloping worm (LCEW), and a line contact cylindrical worm (LCCW®). The designs of the LCEW and LCCW® tooth profiles, that establish line contact with helical wheels, were based on the profile of the mating helical wheel (4). These worms were constructed from S45C steel whose chemical composition almost matches that of AISI/SAE1045. The CIW was through hardened, and the teeth surfaces were ground. The LCEW and LCCW® were thermally refined, and the teeth were cut on a machining center. The dimensions and materials of the worms and wheels used in this experiment are summarized in Table 1. Figures 2 and 3 illustrate the shapes of the tested wheels and worms, respectively. Figure 4 shows the tooth profiles and lead diagrams of a helical wheel. **

**Fig. 1 **Bending strength and elasticity of POM-H

**Table 1 **

**Dimensions of test gears **

**Fig. 2 **Shapes of helical wheel

**Fig. 3 **Shapes of worms

**Fig. 4 **Tooth profile and lead diagrams of wheel

The tooth bearing renderings of worm gears were calculated by the simulation software involute Σ (Worm and Helical Gear)

of Amtec INC. (**4). The results are shown in Fig. 5. The helical wheels meshed with the LCEW and LCCW established line contacts, and those meshed with CIW established point contacts. **

**Fig. 5 **Tooth profile rendering

**2.2 Experimental apparatus **

The plastic worm gears were tested by a power-absorbing-type worm gear test machine (**2), in which the center distance and shaft angle are variable, and through which the transmission efficiency can be measured. The maximum torque of the wheel shaft was T whmax = 20 Nm, and the rotational speed of the worm shaft was n w = 200–4000 rpm. The worm gear test machine and assembled worm gears are shown in Figs. 6 and 7, respectively. The worm shaft was driven by an electric motor, and a powder brake was used as the power absorber. The center distance a and shaft angle Σ were arbitrarily changed within the ranges a = (28 ± 0.5) mm and Σ = (90 ± 1)°. Torque meters were attached to the worm (driving) and wheel (driven) shafts. **

**Fig. 6 **Worm gear test machine

**Fig. 7 **Assembled worm gears

**2.3 Experimental conditions **

Running tests of the worm gears were conducted under grease lubrication conditions at wheel shaft torques *T *wh = 10–20 Nm and worm rotational speeds *n *w = 500–3000 rpm. The grease was Daphne grease PG produced by Idemitsu Kosan Co., Ltd. The shaft angle was *Σ* = 90°, and the atmospheric temperature was controlled at (23 ± 2)°C. The tooth temperatures of the plastic helical wheels during operation were measured by an infrared thermo sensor, positioned as shown in **Fig. 8. The power transmission efficiencies between the meshing gear teeth were determined by measuring the torques of the worm and wheel shafts. The fatigue life of the wheel was defined as the number of load cycles until failure. **

**Fig. 8 **Position of infrared thermo sensor

**3 EXPERIMENTAL RESULTS AND DISCUSSION **

**3.1 Failure mode **

The failure mode of helical wheels meshed with various worms under grease lubrication conditions was tooth breakage. Representative photographs of failed teeth are shown in **Fig. 9. **

**Fig. 9 **Failure modes of helical wheels meshed with different worms

**3.2 Tooth bearings **

**Figure 10 shows the tooth bearings of helical wheels meshed with the CIW, LCEW, and LCCW® at various circumferential backlashes j t. The tooth bearings were obtained using the red lead primer at various center distances. The number of point contact wheel teeth that simultaneously meshed with the CIW was essentially independent of backlash. By contrast, the number of line contact wheel teeth that simultaneously meshed with the LCEW and LCCW® increased with decreasing backlash. **

**Fig. 10 **Tooth bearings

**3.3 Tooth temperature **

**Figure 11 shows how the maximum tooth temperature θ of the helical wheels meshed with various worms depends on the number of load cycles N wh at applied torques of T wh = 14 and 20 Nm and rotational speed n w = 600 min− 1. The tooth temperature increased as the number of load cycles increased, up to tooth breakage. For all worm types, the tooth surface temperatures at steady state were independent of the circumferential backlash j t of the wheel and were increasing functions of T w. The temperature increase was more sensitive to applied torque when the helical wheels were meshed with the LCEW and LCCW® than when meshed with the CIW. **

**Fig. 11 **Tooth surface temperature of wheels

**Figure 12 compares the tooth surface temperatures θ in the steady state at T wh = 14 and 20 Nm, with n w = 600 min− 1. At the lower applied torque, the tooth surface temperatures of helical wheels during operation were independent of worm type. At the higher applied torque, the tooth temperature was higher for line contact helical wheels meshed with the LCEW and LCCW® than for point contact helical wheels meshed with the CIW. **

**Fig. 12 **Tooth surface temperatures of wheels engaged with different worm types (*n *w = 600 min− 1)

**Figure 13 plots the relationship between the equilibrium (steady-state) tooth temperatures of wheels and the operating conditions. The equilibrium tooth temperatures increased with increasing applied torque and rotational speed of worms for all worm types. At higher rotational speeds ( n w > 1000 min− 1), the equilibrium tooth temperatures of wheels meshed with the LCEW exceeded those of wheels meshed with the CIW, and the difference enlarged as n w increased. At lower rotational speeds (n w < 1000 min − 1), the temperatures were very similar among the worm types. **

**Fig. 13 **Relationship between test condition and equilibrium temperature of wheel *θ *m

**3.4 Power transmission efficiencies **

**Figure 14 shows how the power transmission efficiency η of helical wheels meshed with various worms depends on the number of load cycles N wh. The applied torques were T wh = 14 and 20 Nm, and the rotational speed n w was 600 min− 1. For all worm types, the power transmission efficiencies at steady state were independent of the circumferential backlash j t of the wheel and increased with increasing T w. **

**Fig. 14 **Power transmission efficiencies

**Figure 15 compares the steady-state power transmission efficiencies η at T wh = 14 and 20 Nm, with n w = 600 min− 1. Regardless of worm type and backlash, the ηs of the helical wheels were approximately 60 and 65% at T wh = 14 and 20 Nm, respectively. **

**Fig. 15 **Power transmission efficiencies of worm gears (*n *w = 600 min− 1)

**3.5 Wheel lives **

**Figure 16 shows the fatigue lives (numbers of load cycles until tooth breakage) of helical wheels meshed with various worms under T wh = 14 and 20 Nm, with n w = 600 min− 1. The lives of helical wheels meshed with various worms depended on backlash. In addition, the lives of helical wheels meshed with the LCEW and LCCW® were more sensitive to backlash than wheels meshed with the CIW. From Fig. 16, the optimum backlash that maximized the fatigue life of helical wheels meshed with any worm type was j t = 0.05 mm. At T wh = 14 Nm, the life for the optimum backlash was longer for wheels engaged with the LCEW and LCCW® than for wheels engaged with the CIW. At T wh = 20 Nm, the fatigue life was dramatically reduced for all worm types, and the difference among the worm types was small. **

**Fig. 16 **Fatigue lives of wheels (*n *w = 600 min− 1)

**4 CONCLUSION **

The main results of this investigation are summarized below.

(1) The number of teeth that simultaneously meshed with the line contact wheels and worms increased as the backlash decreased. By contrast, the number of teeth meshing with point contact wheels was independent of backlash.

(2) The teeth surface temperatures of helical wheels during operation were independent of backlash and also of worm type at smaller applied torques. At higher torques, the teeth temperature depended on worm type.

(3) The teeth surface temperatures of line contact helical wheels during operation exceeded those of point contact wheels at higher rotational speeds and applied torques, but the difference reduced at lower rotational speeds and applied torques.

(4) The lives of both line and point contact wheels depended upon backlash, but the lives of line contact wheels were more sensitive to backlash than those of point contact wheels.

(5) At the backlash that maximizes the wheel life, the line contact wheels lasted longer than point contact wheels at smaller applied torques, but the influence of worm type on wheel life reduced at higher applied torque.

**REFERENCES **

(1) Predki W, Pech M. In: Proc. of Int. Conf. on Gears, VDI-Berichte 2108; 2010:75–86 Vol. 1.

(2) Koide T, Takahashi M, Takahashi H, Miyachika K. In: Proc. of the ASME 2011 International Design Engineering Technical Conferences & Computers and Information in Engineering Conference (IDETC/CIE 2011); 2011 on CD-ROM, DETC2011-47557.

(3) **http://www.polypenco.co.jp/products_e/pp_as/index.html. **

(4) Amtec INC. *Gear Design Program. *2012 Vol. 15.

**Loaded behaviour of steel/bronze worm gear **

*D. Jbily; M. Guingand; J.-P. de Vaujany Université de Lyon, CNRS, INSA-Lyon, LaMCoS UMR5259, France *

**ABSTRACT **

Worm gears are widely used in power transmission applications, in which a compact high reduction and a relatively low speed drive is required. This paper presents a numerical model developed to compute the quasi-static load sharing. This method uses the equation of displacement compatibility and the influence coefficient method, which allows a fast and accurate computing. The bending deflections of the gear teeth and worm threads, and the local contact deformations of mating surfaces are included. The bending deflections of the gears are determined with the combination of: only one standard FEM computation and interpolation functions. To calculate the local contact deformations, the Boussinesq theory is used. The model allows to obtain numerous results, such as the load sharing, the contact pressure distribution or the loaded transmission error. The method allows taking into account the environment of the gear meshing, such as the actual shafts, rim, web, bearing locations…

## Keywords

**worm gears **

**load sharing **

**influence coefficients **

**1 INTRODUCTION **

Worm gears are one of the most important technical devices for transmitting torque between spatial crossed axes. Due to their high transmission ratio and compact structure, they are widely used in power transmission applications in which high reduction is required. Comparable parallel axis gearing would normally require two or three stages to achieve the same ratio with a consequent increase in complexity

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