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Art Deco Tiles

Art Deco Tiles

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Art Deco Tiles

Comprimento:
123 página
56 minutos
Lançado em:
Oct 10, 2012
ISBN:
9780747812746
Formato:
Livro

Descrição

Art Deco was arguably the twentieth century's most popular and memorable design movement, and has come to define the inter-war period with its clean sleek lines, streamlined shapes, bold abstract forms and bright colours. Art Deco Tiles charts the impact of this daring new style on the production of tiles and architectural faience in Britain: it shows how they were made and decorated, examines the output of firms like Carter, Pilkington's and Doulton, and describes the innovations introduced by creative designers like Edward Bawden and Dora Batty. With photographs of the work individually and in situ in buildings and homes, the author examines the diverse range of animal, floral, human and abstract Art Deco designs.
Lançado em:
Oct 10, 2012
ISBN:
9780747812746
Formato:
Livro

Sobre o autor


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Art Deco Tiles - Hans van Lemmen

1931.

INTRODUCTION

ART DECO is recognised as the leading design movement of the 1920s and 1930s and, as such, affected many aspects of art, design and architecture, including tiles and architectural faience. It superseded Art Nouveau, which was the dominant decorative style in Europe in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. Notable characteristics of Art Nouveau had been its sinuous floral designs with complex interwoven patterns of stems, leaves and flowers, and its female figures with long streaming hair, but, although things were changing, it is not always easy to draw a clear dividing line between these two design movements. The roots of Art Deco were already discernible before the onset of the First World War (1914–18), and Art Deco can be seen both as a reaction to Art Nouveau and as a continuation of it.

The term ‘Art Deco’ comes from the important international design exhibition held in Paris in 1925 under the name Exposition Internationale des Arts Décoratifs. It ran for six months and was seen by over fifteen million people. Such international gatherings were important venues for the dissemination and exchange of new design ideas and this exhibition in particular was intended to give an overview of the best of the modern design produced by the industrialised nations of the post-war world. With the notable exceptions of Germany and the United States, many countries were represented. Not only did France, the host country, have a national pavilion, but notable French manufacturers such as Sèvres and fashionable Paris design stores such as Galeries Lafayette also had their own individual pavilions. The latter’s pavilion was called ‘La Maitrise’, where the latest French designs of the 1920s were on show, with an emphasis on elegance, hand-applied decoration and the use of expensive materials and processes. Visitors entered the pavilion by walking under a spectacular sunburst motif that was to become the iconic design symbol of Art Deco style. The British pavilion showed the wares of British manufacturers and craftsmen such as the ceramics manufacturer Carter & Co. However, during the inter-war period the term ‘Art Deco’ was not used, but the words ‘modern’ or the French ‘moderne’ were used instead. The term ‘Art Deco’ was first used by the design critic Bevis Hillier in 1968, in his book Art Deco of the Twenties and Thirties. This was followed by a groundbreaking exhibition at the Minneapolis Institute of Arts in the United States in 1971 called ‘The World of Art Deco’. Since then Art Deco has become recognised as one of the most exciting and important episodes in the history of twentieth-century design, noted for its sleek aerodynamic lines, highly stylised figurative designs and bold colourful abstract patterns.

Art Deco was an eclectic style that drew on many different stylistic influences, such as European avant-garde (particularly the abstract art of painters such as Kandinsky, Malevich and Mondrian), classical architecture, the ancient civilisations of Egypt and South America and exotic cultures from the Far East. These myriad sources can also be seen in the design of tiles and architectural faience, but how this manifested itself varied greatly from country to country. Art Deco was a much more vehement design force on the continent of Europe and in the United States than in Britain, and, before examining what happened in Britain in more detail, it may be useful to look briefly at what was produced elsewhere by designers and manufacturers in the 1920s and 1930s.

In France, Art Deco tiles and faience were often characterised by stylised and elegant designs with much emphasis on hand-crafted forms and techniques. The firm Fourmaintraux in Desvres produced some interesting work of this kind. In the Netherlands there was a strong predilection for expressionist and exotic designs, of which the famous Tuschinski Theatre in Amsterdam is a case in point. The faience decorations on the exterior of this building range from human and animal forms cowering under jagged thunderbolts, to ornamental features borrowed from Hindu temples in Indonesia, including elephants’ heads. In Belgium the designer Joseph Roelants created some dazzling Art Deco tile panels for the firm Gilliot & Cie at Hemiksem, depicting subjects such as the Greek sun god Apollo descending from the heavens in a chariot, executed in gold and silver tiles. Even in Spain the Art Deco style manifested itself often with typical southern exuberance. Tiled dados for the entrances of Spanish houses featured bright abstract designs and colours, augmented with cartoon characters suvh as Mickey Mouse, showing how the

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