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Airbrushing and Finishing Scale Models

Airbrushing and Finishing Scale Models

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Airbrushing and Finishing Scale Models

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4/5 (4 avaliações)
Comprimento:
401 página
2 horas
Lançado em:
Jan 1, 2011
ISBN:
9781849087254
Formato:
Livro

Descrição

ALSO AVAILABLE AS AN E-BOOK. Brett Green details the prerequisites of airbrushing, including the different types of spray equipment and air sources available, offering advice on appropriate thinners, paint ratios and air pressures to ensure the most appropriate paint coverage across a range of different airbrushing applications. He then examines various airbrushing techniques across a wide range of models. Ten step-by-step, illustrated studies ranging from weathered military aircraft to pristine, high gloss motor vehicles, science fiction models, fantasy figures, groundwork and buildings will complete this in-depth guide to getting the best results on your models.
Lançado em:
Jan 1, 2011
ISBN:
9781849087254
Formato:
Livro

Sobre o autor

Brett Green, M.A., L.M.F.T. (Licensed Marriage & Family Therapist), has tremendous expertise and experience in regards to the personal journey of trauma survivors. He seeks to help those in need find their unique paths in the worlds of grief, healing, growth, recovery. He has been in the mental health field for nearly twentytwo years. His career is truly eclectic in that he started as a probation counselor before transitioning into a part-time county mental health position where he felt he could do more and serve more children, individuals and families. He later became the coordinator of a nonprofit agency overseeing an adult outpatient program that provided established, interesting, quality and unique services to an excess of 350 clients per week. His administrative abilities and clinical insight eventually found him working as a family court mediator in two separate counties and court systems. He was tasked with mediating between disputing high-conflict parents in both superior courts, while making child custody recommendations that always maintained the best interests of the children in mind. During this phase, he also opened up a private practice office and earned county certifications to operate a child abuse and neglect program and a domestic violence education program. This practice has grown and offers six separate programs. He also serves the individual or family needing one-on-one therapeutic supports as well. However, in 2006, at the apex of his career, he experienced a traumatic brain injury that forever changed his life. Although his private practice remained in operation, his focus is now on advocating for trauma survivors and the disabled—people misunderstood, unrepresented and (quite oft en) still neglected! He now offers a very unique and experienced blend of therapeutic services, workshops, and presentations. These services include advocacy for trauma survivors and disabled people. He also provides expertise and insight in the following arenas: the management of anger, child abuse prevention, domestic violence intervention, family enrichment and positive parenting education, and high conflict parenting and private mediation counseling. He has been a “court appointed expert” in both child custody and domestic violence cases. He is an expert in movement disorders, action myoclonus specifically. His goal is not to provide information to the public merely. He seeks to educate and change lives within each counseling session or workshop presentation so the participant leaves with a new perspective. He was most recently selected to be a member of the California State Department of Mental Health – Human Resources (NP) committee. He hopes to work specifically to advance the underrepresented culture of disabled people (including trauma survivors). He sincerely hopes that people will find a renewed strength after reading the experiences detailed within this book. He hopes they can begin to regain their own sense of normalcy and right to grieve! This may ultimately serve as a stepping stone toward true healing. As stated, he believes we all have the right to move forward and heal—no matter what the circumstances are! It’s not how many times we fall that will define us… it’s how many times we choose to get back up that will!


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Airbrushing and Finishing Scale Models - Brett Green

OSPREY MASTERCLASS

Airbrushing and Finishing Scale Models

Brett Green

Series editors Marcus Cowper and Nikolai Bogdanovic

Contents

Introduction

Chapter 1 Fundamentals of the airbrush

Chapter 2 A brief history of colour

Chapter 3 Getting started with your airbrush

Chapter 4 Basic airbrush techniques

Chapter 5 Painting your models

Chapter 6 Painting and finishing aviation models

Chapter 7 Painting and finishing armour models

Chapter 8 Painting and finishing other models

Chapter 9 Resources

INTRODUCTION

This must be a Golden Age for modellers. New technologies have brought us remarkable kits and accessories that deliver unprecedented detail. A new generation of micro power tools are available for modifying or scratch-building parts. The Internet now represents an almost boundless and wholly accessible source of reference and consultation for any question a modeller may have on historical or technical matters.

Nevertheless, despite these blossoming global communities, super-detailed kits and hightechnology tools, a scale model will still look like a piece of plastic without a well-planned paint job.

When I started building scale models in the 1960s, I finished my kits using enamel paints applied with a cheap brush. Even now, the smell of Humbrol paints can still transport me back to hot summer days with the windows open, cicadas chirping and me rushing to slap some approximation of the suggested colour scheme onto a 1/72-scale Airfix, Frog or Revell bagged kit, purchased the same morning with my 40 cents pocket money.

Esci’s old 1/48-scale Macchi MB.326 is still a respectable kit despite its age. A careful paint job helps highight the detail.

By the last years of high school, my attention was diverted from plastic and towards girls and cars. I was not to return to the plastic modelling until the late 1980s. It was only then that I discovered some of the luxurious accoutrements to the hobby – specialized tools, acrylic paints, model clubs and, perhaps the most intriguing of all, the airbrush.

I bought my first airbrush, a simple single-action model, not long after re-entering the hobby. It was inexpensive and clearly limited in capability, but it was equally a revelation. Suddenly, a whole range of finishes that could only be imagined in my childhood modelling years was literally at my fingertips.

I quickly understood that I needed more control over the airbrush than the single-action model provided so, within months, I splashed out and bought a Paasche Type VL. Previously, I had painted complex and irregular schemes such as Luftwaffe mottles with a sponge, or by stippling paint using a cut-down paintbrush. Now, I could spray the finish in the same way as the paint was applied to the real aircraft.

This 1/48-scale Achilles tank destroyer is a conversion of Tamiya’s M10. Painting and weathering was largely achieved using an airbrush.

These early airbrushing years brought with them equal measures of delight and frustration. I knew what the finish should look like from reference photos, but I struggled with problems such as spatter, overspray and paint runs. I was often impatient to move onto the next colour or the second coat; I probably should have spent more time cleaning the airbrush too.

It was only when I met other modellers at my local hobby shop and at the IPMS New South Wales model club that my technique and attitude started to improve. I had a chance to see beautifully painted plastic masterpieces, and speak to the modellers about their experiences and attitudes. This put me on the right track.

Certainly the most influential modeller that I know is Chris Wauchop. He owned a Sydney hobby shop in the late 1980s where his models were on display, a source of both inspiration and education. Chris was always willing to offer advice and suggest techniques. He was equally willing to take new ideas on board.

At the time, Chris was using a strange looking airbrush called the Aztek. Unlike all the cylindrical chromed airbrushes that I had seen to date, this was grey plastic and ergonomically shaped to fit the hand. Instead of the myriad of needles, nozzles, springs and handles squeezed inside most airbrushes, the Aztek featured simple replaceable tips of various widths for different painting tasks. I tested the new airbrush out and was immediately hooked. The improvement in my airbrushing was obvious and immediate. Both Chris and I still use Testor Aztek airbrushes 20 years later.

A true impresario of the airbrush can work wonders, such as Chris Wauchop with his large-scale Medusa figure. Most of this work has been done with an Aztek airbrush.

My painting technique and general modelling skills also developed by entering competitions at my local IPMS model club. We were fortunate to have a supportive and encouraging crew at our club when I was new to the hobby. Although I did not often place in these early competitions, I always took the opportunity to read feedback on the judging forms, and also to talk to judges in order to benefit from their greater experience. If you don’t recognize what is wrong with your technique or application, you can’t fix the problem. Later, our club devised a system that offered more detailed written feedback on the judging form, so even those too bashful to ask might benefit.

An airbrush is especially useful for large models such as the brand-new Airfix 1/48-scale Canberra B(I).8. This model has been finished with extensive masking and subtle weathering. These techniques will be discussed in detail over the coming chapters.

This book is designed to offer a practical guide to airbrushing techniques for all sorts of scale modelling. We will cover some basic theory early in the book, but the emphasis will be very much on painting techniques and plenty of step-by-step case studies. Most of the examples are aircraft models, but we will also cover cars, tanks, military vehicles and maritime vessels.

The airbrush is a fabulous tool for the modeller, but it is far from the only accessory you will need to finish your model authentically. We will therefore also discuss related tools and supplemental techniques that will often be used in tandem with your airbrush.

Brett Green

FUNDAMENTALS OF THE AIRBRUSH

Before we start painting, let us examine the origins of the airbrush, its components, and air sources.

AIRBRUSH ORIGINS

The airbrush is far from a new invention. Indeed, many prehistoric cave paintings were created using tinted liquid blown through hollow bones or tubes over a simple shape such as a hand. This primitive artwork was created using the same general principles employed in today’s airbrush.

Even the airbrush as a technical tool pre-dates scale modelling by 50 years. The airbrush was first conceived by Abner Peeler of Webster City, Iowa in 1879. This makeshift device comprised a spoon, a sewing machine needle, some narrow soldering pipes and bent metal, all attached to a handle made from two wooden blocks connected at a right angle. Peeler named his invention the ‘Paint Distributor’, and it was originally intended for watercolour painting. This primitive airbrush featured two triggers – one for controlling airflow and a second delivering paint, so two-handed operation was required.

This is the Paasche Model VL. The Paasche Airbrush Company dates back to 1904.

The Paasche VL is a doubleaction, internal mix, siphon-feed airbrush. Various sized jars or cups may be attached to the bottom of the airbrush. The trigger is pressed down to control the airflow...

...and pulled back to control paint flow. In this way, both paint and air may be regulated with a one-handed operation.

Airbrushes often have different sized needles and nozzles. These are paired, and will deliver different flows of paint depending on the size of the nozzle (the larger the nozzle diameter, the greater the flow).

I use several Testor Aztek airbrushes. On the left is the metal-bodied A480 model, and on the right is the plastic A470 – my regular weapon of choice. Unlike a conventional airbrush, the Aztek provides a selection of disposable tips for different paint applications.

My air source is a ‘Silair’ silent compressor with a holding tank. This was an expensive investment, but it has given me many years of reliable service.

Most good compressors will come fitted with a water trap, an air regulator and a pressure meter. The black knob on top of my compressor controls the airflow, and I can monitor the pressure on the circular gauge.

Liberty and Charles Walkup purchased the patent from Peeler in 1881, and a number of improvements were made to the design. These included the introduction of ‘double action’ in 1883. This permitted a single trigger to independently control both the air and paint mixture, making it much easier to operate the airbrush. The Walkups formed the Airbrush Manufacturing Company. The new airbrush proved especially popular as a retouching and enhancement tool in the emerging art of photography. It was particularly useful for modifying or adding colour to these early monochrome images.

Early airbrush designs blew air downwards. In 1889, Charles L. Burdick patented the first airbrush to blow air forwards. Burdick further refined his design by introducing the world’s first internal mix airbrush in 1891. What we might recognize as the first modern airbrush was patented by Thayer & Chandler in 1895. This was an internal mix, double-action airbrush with a simplified trigger.

In 1904, Jens Paasche established the Paasche Airbrush Company. The original Paasche airbrush was the direct ancestor of the Paasche Type AB, still in wide use today. Indeed, the Paasche Airbrush Company is still in business more than 100 years later. The other traditional name in the airbrush industry, Badger, started business in 1963. A number of prominent airbrush companies have emerged in more recent times, including Iwata of Japan. Although Iwata is sometimes considered a relative newcomer, the business was actually founded in May 1926.

Iwata offers a small final filter that fits between the air hose and the airbrush.

The filter may be seen fitted to the Iwata HP-C Plus airbrush in this photo. In addition to ensuring clean air, the filter acts as a handy pistol grip. Note the cut-out at the rear of the handle with a scroll wheel permitting stopping down of the needle.

THE AIRBRUSH TODAY

More than one hundred years after it first appeared, the airbrush is still used for its original applications of photographic retouching, signage and fine art. New roles have also emerged in recent decades including automotive art, nail art, make-up, tanning and airbrushing for scale models.

The basic elements of an airbrush are the same today as they were one hundred years ago. An airbrush will typically be cylindrical, and around the same length and thickness as a pen. All airbrushes atomize and propel liquids, such as paints, inks or dyes, using compressed air from an external source, such as a compressor, an air tank or an aerosol can.

This external source supplies air to the body of the airbrush and passes through a Venturi, which reduces air pressure inside the head of the airbrush. This reduction of pressure allows paint to be drawn into the tip of the airbrush. The resulting high velocity of the air atomizes the liquid into tiny particles, which then pass through the narrow tip and are directed onto the surface of the object being painted.

The elements common to most airbrushes are:

BODY

This is the metal housing in which the mechanics of the airbrush are housed

TRIGGER

The trigger is usually located on top of the airbrush and will control airflow and/or paint flow. Many airbrushes will be fitted with supplementary stops and control wheels to provide finer control to the air and paint flow.

NOZZLE

In the case of an internal mix airbrush, paint and air are mixed in the nozzle. The nozzle is usually interchangeable, and often available in different sizes depending on the width of the spray required. The finer the spray, the smaller the nozzle and its opening.

NEEDLE

The needle is matched to the nozzle. The needle is operated by pulling back on the trigger, thus opening the hole in the nozzle and permitting the pressurized and atomized liquid to escape. The more the needle is pulled back, the larger the opening and the greater the quantity of paint being sprayed.

COLOUR CUP

All airbrushes need a source of liquid. A colour cup is typical but by no means the only type. Jars are also common.

AIR HOSE

The air hose connects the air source to the airbrush.

There are several categories of airbrush today. The most basic airbrushes are single action. The trigger delivers a pre-determined mix of paint and air. Any variation in line width may only be achieved by altering the distance from the subject (moving further away will result in a wider spray with a softer edge, while moving closer will deliver a narrower line with a sharper edge), or changing the tip and nozzle. A single-action airbrush therefore offers limited scope for fine and varied airbrushing effects.

Dual-action airbrushes offer more control, as the trigger may be used to independently direct both air and paint. When the trigger is depressed, more air is delivered. When the trigger is pulled back, more paint is available for the mix. This permits variation in spray width, even as part of the same stroke.

An airbrush may receive its paint feed in a number of ways. Siphon-feed airbrushes will draw paint up through a tube or cup attached to the bottom of the

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