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How To Right A Dog Gone Wrong: A Road Map For Rehabilitating Aggressive Dogs Updated and Expanded Edition

How To Right A Dog Gone Wrong: A Road Map For Rehabilitating Aggressive Dogs Updated and Expanded Edition

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How To Right A Dog Gone Wrong: A Road Map For Rehabilitating Aggressive Dogs Updated and Expanded Edition

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Lançado em:
Jan 1, 2016
ISBN:
9780996665551
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Livro

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This Updated & Expanded Edition will help anyone with a dog that has aggressive tendencies, whether it is a young dog that shows aggression when you remove the food bowl, a dog-aggressive dog that you are afraid to walk in the park, or a dog that is aggressive towards family and friends. The original book was printed in 2005 and I've certainly learned new strategies and protocols since then! Readers will gain an understanding of the causes of aggression and the various ways of dealing with it – including a step by step program of rehabilitation that has been used successfully on hundreds of dogs, large and small, in all breeds.

Does your dog have an aggression problem? Take this simple quiz:

• Would you rather parachute into enemy territory with the Navy SEALS than take your dog for a walk?

• Do you only go out with your dog at midnight or 4 a.m. and wish you had an infrared camera to detect and then avoid anyone else who might be around?

• Do you stop breathing or panic when someone approaches? (Do you ever breathe at all when you are walking your canine buddy?)

• Have you rearranged your entire life to make sure that your dog doesn’t see (and subsequently attack) other dogs or people?

• Are you embarrassed by the way your dog behaves when people come to your house?

• Are people nervous when they come to your house?

• Do people still actually come to your house?

• Do you worry about losing your home insurance if the insurance company finds out you have a dog that throws himself at the door in a frenzy whenever someone rings the doorbell?

• Do you get tired of coming up with clever responses to people who scream, “You should learn to control that dog!”

• Do you feel like a failure because your dog growls and/or lunges at people or dogs?”

If you said yes to these, you need this book! Don’t hide in the darkness any longer. Answers are within reach.

Lançado em:
Jan 1, 2016
ISBN:
9780996665551
Formato:
Livro

Sobre o autor

Pam Dennison, CDBC, CWRI is a member of the DWAA (Dog Writers Association of America) and is a Certified Dog Behavior Consultant with the IAABC (International Association of Animal Behavior Consultants), member of The Pet Professional Guild, Truly Dog Friendly and former member of NADOI and Association of Professional Dog Trainers. Many of her books and articles have won and been nominated over the years for special awards by the DWAA.

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How To Right A Dog Gone Wrong - Pamela Dennison

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Introduction

There is no greater joy in the world than working with and seeing progress from your aggressive dog. The process of retraining an aggressive dog is not quick or easy. The dedication and patience you put in will pay off, not just in improved behavior from your dog, but in incredible self-esteem and sense of accomplishment for yourself. Being able to take your dog to places once fraught with danger is an enabling and life-changing experience. Stopping inappropriate behaviors before they get out of hand is even better!

That’s how it happened for me. I adopted a one-year-old Border Collie that turned out to be human-aggressive. After having Shadow for only two weeks, I was ready to send him back to the rescue group, but hesitated to do so because I knew he would have to be euthanized. I happened to be talking to one of my students and I mentioned that I was thinking about sending Shadow back. She said, No—this is terrific! You can learn how to handle him and teach us! As soon as she said that, it hit me: If I give up on this dog, how can I expect my students not to give up on theirs? I decided to keep him and work on his issues. Because of the time I spent with him, he was able to compete successfully in agility, Rally obedience, Competition Obedience, Tracking and Canine Water Sports. And more importantly, he became a pretty normal dog in mainstream life. I have been able to take the positive principles that led to Shadow’s accomplishments and use them to guide owners of other aggressive dogs, and I have seen many of those dogs graduate into a more normal lifestyle. To witness the growing expertise and confidence of these students both human and canine, gives me goose bumps!

There are no magic potions, special tools, complicated training methods or mysterious mumbo-jumbo gimmicks I can give to you to work with your aggressive dog. However, I will show you proven, solid, easy-to-understand basics, and lay out the science you’ll need for the process. Understanding your best, albeit complex, friend, is not as difficult as you think. The simpler the process is kept, the better off you and your dog will be. The basics, pure and simple—classical conditioning, operant conditioning, counterconditioning and systematic desensitization—are what you’ll find here. By understanding and utilizing positive principles, you will better be able to find a solution to your dog’s problems as well as avoid issues in the future. I also discuss how your own reactions very often can have a strong effect on your dog’s behavior.

I used to think that every dog could be turned around. However, the more I work with aggressive/reactive dogs, the less I believe it. If you live in a more urban area, that kind of unpredictable environment when combined with the intensity of a particular dog’s response, the number of his triggers, and other factors such as the size and age of the dog may very well reach a critical point—a point at which rehabilitation in another context might be possible but in the city simply cannot be achieved.

I hate this—I wish fervently that there were hope for every dog. Sometimes the dog is just so damaged and the real world he lives in cannot possibly accommodate his enormous needs. There is an outer limit to workability—if you have a 120-pound dog that is severely human-aggressive and you live on the 10th floor of a high-rise, the reality is that nothing will help you work with your dog. You need to either move or euthanize the dog. There is a lot you can do to help repair your dog even if you live in a big city, but there are real limits as well. The severity of your dog’s behavior problems combined with the limited extent to which you can control the circumstances may cause the whole thing to become unworkable in terms of real change in your dog and safety for others.

We don’t like to hear this. We love our dogs, inappropriate behavior notwithstanding. The decision to euthanize for any reason never comes easily and never comes without regret for what might have been had this or that been different.

However, for many dogs, most of the time, remarkable improvements are possible. Even if your dog-reactive dog sometimes runs headfirst into another dog coming around the corner. Even if your human-reactive dog can’t always be prevented from seeing and hearing people walk by. Even if you don’t dare take the elevator in your apartment building lest someone else get on. Even if your dog-aggressive dog is attacked by a dog that lives around the corner from you and is always off leash. Yes, improvements will come more slowly than they would if you lived in a more rural area, and setbacks will be more frequent. But the improvements really can happen. Patience, ingenuity and being able to think and react fast will become your best tools.

I have laid out these terms and behaviors in a user-friendly manner and they will soon be as familiar and as comfortable as your favorite pair of shoes. Each behavior and context is broken down into small steps for you, just as you will learn to break down each scenario for your dog. If your dog’s issues don’t exactly match the examples here—perhaps your dog isn’t wildly aggressive, but you have lived through a few incidents that you aren’t happy about—you should have no problem adjusting the exercises listed in this book to fit your needs.

If, when reading these pages, you see things that you may have done incorrectly, try not to kick yourself. Learn from your mistakes, adjust your mind-set, help your dog and move on. Without a clear plan of action, owning an aggressive dog can be depressing, frightening, disheartening, debilitating, embarrassing and intensely frustrating. This book is designed to give you that plan of action and with it, hope.

Pamela S. Dennison

September 2016

1

Is Your Dog Aggressive?

Aggression: What is it used for?

Before I get into more depth on the signs and causes of aggression, it is important to understand that aggression is a normal behavior. An aggressive act is scary as heck to watch and frequently misinterpreted, especially if you don’t understand the use and need for it. Aggression helps every species remain alive, procreate, and keep them safe from real or perceived danger. Most acts of aggression, no matter how frightening to watch, are actually not meant to do harm, but, rather, to warn away danger or a competitor.

Every species must have ritualized methods of avoiding severe, fight to the death aggression, otherwise the species would quickly become extinct. For instance, many wild animals—lions, rams, wild horses, bears, and even squirrels have specific ways of duking it out, while still leaving the opponent intact and no real damage done. However, once humans come into the picture, trying to remedy this scary but perfectly normal stuff, we usually blunder and botch it so that our dogs do, sometimes fight to the death.

As Konrad Lorenz says in his book On Aggression, … Aggression of so many animals toward members of their own species is in no way detrimental to the species, but, on the contrary, is essential for its preservation. In addition, Lorenz further states, Darwin had already raised the question of the survival value of fighting, and he had given us an enlightening answer: It is always favorable to the future of the species if the stronger of the two rivals takes possession either of the territory or of the desired female.

Our dogs do not need to fight to stay alive because we care for them, feed and clothe them, take care of their medical needs, and give them a warm place by the fire and a soft place at the foot of our beds. However, the instinctual need for aggression still remains within them. Even if your dog hasn’t progressed very far yet down this road, it is best to stop it now, before it becomes a real problem. Sometimes however, the dog is so damaged, that he is a threat to the general public. If that is the case, you need to think long and hard about the safety of you and others.

We humans also have a need to exhibit aggression, although it isn’t necessary to our survival in this day and age. As Murray Sidman mentions in his book, Coercion and Its Fallout, … prohibited by social custom and law from striking each other, we watch football, wrestling or boxing; bridge, chess and checkers too, are socially approved forms of competitive aggression.

To co-exist with you in our human society, you must teach your dog that aggressive behaviors are no longer essential, and channel those behaviors into socially approved forms of competitive aggression. For your dogs, you can concentrate their energies and training toward sports such as agility, tracking, sheep herding, Freestyle, Rally Obedience and many other dog sports.

I am limiting the next few chapters to the ways that humans cause aggression in dogs, since that is the one we can most easily control.

What’s in a label?

There seems to be a big push lately for labels for each type of aggression; dominance aggression, fear aggression, idiopathic (which actually means that the person giving out the diagnosis has no idea as to why the dog is aggressive) aggression, inter-animal aggression, pain aggression, play aggression, predatory aggression, territorial aggression, food-related aggression, maternal aggression, and possessive aggression. I feel that while these labels may be important to the owner on some level; knowing the name of the disease may make you feel better, what is really more important is not the label itself, but knowing exactly what triggers your dog to aggress and exactly what behaviors your dog is presenting. It may be people, dogs or other animals, the food bowl, tactile (touching), guarding objects, territory or people. Can you see how much easier it is to just define what your dog reacts to, rather than seeking out words that don’t help you rectify the issues that most of us have to look up in the dictionary?

Oftentimes, the label itself becomes too complicated and confusing for understanding or perhaps your dog doesn’t exactly fit into those categories and thus the treatment may get bogged down. In addition, once the diagnosis is given, the owner may then feel that the behavior is incurable and thus can’t be changed. Then they give up completely by either euthanizing the dog or dumping him in an unsuspecting shelter.

The information you will receive in this book will help you and your dog, no matter what his issues are. Yes, your dog is special, but the ways and means for the systematic desensitization process are all the same. I’d rather you look at each specific behavior your dog is presenting in each instance and go from there, rather than following the muddy trail of looking for a diagnosis.

Many reactive or aggressive dogs have more than one issue and you’ll need to recognize and define each one as a separate entity. To start the systematic desensitization process, you’ll need to write down a list of each thing your dog is afraid of in exacting detail.

What Are The Issues?

The following are some examples of different things human aggressive dogs may find scary:

  Eye contact from a stranger

  Body parts, hands, legs or feet moving in weird or even normal ways (such as reaching out to pet the dog) or leaning over

  Loud sounds from people

  People coming up from behind

  Large groups of people

  Small groups of people

  Men (especially those with facial hair or wearing hats)

  Women

  Kids on bikes or skateboards

  People in a training building (such as during a group class)

When I take on a new client, I always ask them to write down exactly what their dog’s issues are, what they’ve tried to do to rectify the problem(s), what’s worked and what hasn’t. Oftentimes, when they write it down, it helps to coalesce it in their own mind and they start to think, really think about what behaviors need to be addressed. In addition, when they actually see on paper what hasn’t worked, they stop doing those (usually) punitive tactics and are then more receptive to do what will help solve their problems.

The following are some examples of different things a dog aggressive dog may find scary:

  Another dog looking at them

  Another dog running or chasing something, such as a ball or toy or even running agility

  Another dog barking, lunging or pulling on leash

  Large groups of other dogs

  Small groups of other dogs

  Dogs getting too close, either outside or inside a training building

  Certain breeds of dogs

  Certain sexes of dogs

I’ve seen many dogs that are fine in large groups of people, but react when there’s only a single person. I think it’s because in a large group, it’s harder for the dog to focus on one person. The dog may be shut down, or intimidated and thus isn’t reactive.

Your dog may have other issues, such as:

  Accepting tactile (touching) or any other grooming/handling issues

  People, dogs, cars, kids going past your fence line

  Aggression on leash, but he is fine off leash (more commonly called leash aggression)

  Being afraid of certain inanimate objects

Say your dog is human aggressive, not accepting of grooming (even from you), and bulky winter coats.

Let’s break this down even more. Ask yourself—exactly how and in what situations is he aggressive toward people? Is it large groups of people, or only one person that he can focus onto? Is it direct contact (touching), direct eye contact, fast moving people, kids, loud noises, or moving body parts? Is he aggressive off leash, on leash, through a fence, up close (define how close), at home, away from home, far away (define far away), or people that come out of nowhere? What part of grooming is he sensitive about? Nails, shaving, ear cleaning, scissoring around his face or legs, or hind end brushing? Is he afraid of you leaning over him, being on the table, or on the floor? Is he afraid of men, women or kids wearing the coat? Does he aggress even if familiar people that he likes wear the coat?

Say your dog is dog aggressive, afraid of the garbage truck and flags. Let’s break this scenario down. Is he aggressive toward one dog, many dogs, at what distance? Does he aggress at neutered or intact male dogs, spayed or intact female dogs, puppies? Is he more aggressive when he is on leash or off leash, behind a barrier, in his own yard, away from home, when dogs come straight up to him, from behind him, or any particular breed(s) of dogs? What is the other dog doing when he reacts? Are they playing, lunging, barking, chasing or minding their own business? Is your dog afraid of the noise, sight or movement of the garbage truck or the sound or movement of the flag?

The generic terms, human aggressive or dog aggressive or even the labels some people like to give out, are really so limiting. Do you see how much more information you can uncover, just by breaking down each issue into its exact components? You must do this, otherwise you may be inadvertently setting your dog up to aggress because you haven’t defined and recognized each distinct problem in its entirety. Such a log sheet can look like this:

Date: ________________________________

Things my dog aggresses at:

Inanimate objects:

There is a blank form in the appendix that you can copy and use to make it clear what your dogs precise issues are. I recommend you fill it out, date it and every six months, review and redo. That way you will be able to see progress and that will keep you focused.

Once you have examined the ins and outs of your dog’s issues and written them down, you now have a place to start in addressing them. You will be incorporating your new-found foundation behaviors into each context and you’ll start to see progress if you continue to move slowly through the desensitization process. In order to cope with your dog in the real world, you must have an intimate understanding of his specific triggers.

What your dog is trying to tell you

An important part of the desensitization process is to fully understand your dog’s body language so that you can effectively start a session while he is calm and end a session before he aggresses. The most noteworthy research in this field has been done by Turid Rugaas, a dog trainer from Norway. Through her incredible observational skills, Ms. Rugaas has been instrumental in unraveling the mystery of our dogs’ signals that they use to communicate, consequently providing thousands of owners and trainers a more accurate understanding of their dog’s behavior. If you are alert and attentive to what your dog is telling you, it is much easier to effectively help him. For more in-depth reading and viewing, Ms. Rugaas’ book and video are listed in the appendix and is a must have for every dog owner’s library.

The short list of signals a dog will give off (as long as they haven’t been punished for them in the past), from mild to more severe or obvious (hot:)

Mild

Head turning away, eyes turning away, blinking, panting, yawning, sniffing, drooling, lip licking, arcing (or curving), and raising a paw (as if to shake).

Lip licking. Photo: M. Irizarry

Medium

Grass eating, poop eating, short attention span, frantically wagging tail, spinning/circling, water drinking and staring.

This dog is staring at another dog, her nose is just starting to be pushed forward and her face is showing stress wrinkles.

Photo: M. Irizarry

Hot

Slow reluctant behaviors, stopped or frozen (in an awkward position), laying down, sitting, body shivering (as if they are cold), shaking (as if they were shaking off water), sweaty paws, raised temperature (ears can get hot and with male dogs, they may stick their penis out of the sheath, in an attempt to cool themselves down) scratching, sneezing.

The same dog is now giving off more active go away behaviors—teeth showing, face pushed forward, ears back.

Photo: M. Irizarry

Bring out the fire extinguisher

Chewing, digging, diarrhea, loss of appetite (won’t take treats), complete body turns away from you, hackles raised, biting the leash, stress shedding and dandruff, hyper behavior, self-mutilation, whining, barking, howling, growling, teeth bared, aggression.

The two main players in this photo are the Border collies closer to the foreground.

Will there be a dog fight? The simple answer is no, there wasn’t a dog fight. The dog on the left is showing his weapons, as is the dog on the right. However, the dog on the right also has his tongue sticking out slightly. In my experience, if I see tongue and teeth, most likely there won’t be a fight, as long as the other dog is respecting the tongue (calming signal/white flag). Photo: K. Chittenden

If you see any of the signs listed above, you’ll need to back off your distance, duration or intensity to your dog’s provoking stimuli. Ignore the earlier signs of stress and he just might escalate into the more severe ones and you will miss the opportunity to redirect him to a positive activity. If you can recognize these signs at the earliest possible moment, (mild) you can end the session and rethink your criteria before your dog explodes.

Annie had a punishment-based training background. She wanted to learn how to do Rally obedience using positive techniques and came to my class. Her Australian Shepherd Bonnie was starting to aggress at certain people and was very nervous in general, presenting such signals as stress shedding, head turns, lip licking, yawning, and slow reluctant behaviors. I noticed that Bonnie had huge patches where there was no fur and asked if she had recently been spayed. Annie told me that Bonnie had always chewed on herself. After six weeks of training and a greater understanding of reading her dog, Annie was able to make better training decisions and told me that Bonnie had stopped the self-mutilating behavior completely. After twelve weeks of classes, she has stopped aggressing at people as well.

Pushing the session. Testing. If you push the dog or test him, you will be sorry. Really. Never test a dog. Been there, done that (once), it was really stupid on my part. Trust me, I know first hand. After Shadow (my recovering human aggressive dog) earned his Canine Good Citizen certificate, I apparently lost my mind. I knew he wasn’t cured, but I screwed up royally and tested him. I failed. It wasn’t a major setback thank goodness, but it did cure me of being stupid.

At the time, I was still working with Ted Turner (long distance) and I emailed him the gory details. He reamed me up and down, no holds barred, no soft words and he was right. I would willingly share what he sent me, but I lost that email a few computer crashes ago. The gist of it was, Never test your animal.

So how do you get your dog to the next level? By guessing? By crossing your fingers while you put him into a situation you have no clue if he will be successful? By pushing him, without having some solid foundation work under your belt, and without really knowing if he is ready?

Nope, by gradually systematically and carefully raising criteria. It’s kind of like shaping a behavior - any behavior. You don’t move on until your dog has mastered the previous skill, right? Let’s say you want to train ride a skateboard. You wouldn’t expect your dog to do it from the get-go; you’d shape any kind of interaction with it - looking at the board, sniffing it, one foot, two feet, pushing it, etc.

So when you raise criteria when working with an aggressive/reactive dog, you’d do the same thing. Look at what you want your dogs final behavior to be and break it down into the smallest of approximations. Would you go from let’s say 100 feet away to 10 feet away in one step? I certainly hope not! Great way to set your dog up to fail.

You may however raise your criteria, based on many factors; knowledge of your dog’s body language, skill set in place at any given moment, length of session, target goal for that particular session, and success in the previous session.

An observant handler should be sensitive to evidence that their dog is experiencing stress. Since signs of stress can manifest itself in various ways from dog to dog, I call these personal stress signals; a general tightening of posture or stiffening of muscles is a fairly reliable barometer of increasing tension. You may see a stiffening of the tail or ears, a change in the appearance of the muzzle and mouth, a heightened, more intense look in the eyes, including pupils, puffed cheeks and short, explosive breaths, foaming at the mouth (significantly different from drooling), and a noticeable tightness of the mouth when taking food.

When working with my dog Shadow on, for example, the stand for exam, I was so cognizant of his stress signs that I knew when I could push the session (as in raise criteria) and when to back off. When I started to work on this behavior, if his pupils got large, the shape of his eyes changed, if he turned his head away or his mouth got tight, I was able to end the session. Further along in his recovery, I ended the session way before he ever even thought about showing these signs.

Early Warning Indicators

There are many early warning signs that your dog is becoming aggressive. Dogs don’t just wake up one morning and say to themselves, I think I’ll be aggressive from now on. It usually has been building and escalating for quite some time, until Voila! You now have full-blown aggression. It takes a keen eye and understanding of what is and is not appropriate dog behavior to recognize the warning signs that your dog is becoming aggressive. Knowing these signals will help you understand your dog’s behavior in a different way, and allow you to make positive training choices before the situation gets out of hand.

Signs that your dog is starting to develop some issues can include any or all of the following:

  He won’t allow you or other people to handle him.

  He tries to bite you to get you to stop petting or brushing him.

  He bites and nips excessively while playing.

  His reactivity (barking, lunging, backing away, growling) to dogs, adults or children is out of proportion to the situation and he can’t calm down within a few seconds.

  He doesn’t respond well to change and startles at any new thing he sees or hears.

  He freaks out when someone comes to the door and can’t calm down within a few seconds.

  Any new person or dog he sees causes him to go crazy.

  He has been kicked out of obedience class because he is disruptive to the other students.

  He guards objects—food and water bowls, toys, rooms, his crate, furniture and even possibly you.

You think he is demented, deranged, derailed and insane because the slightest things set him off into an aggressive display. You are

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