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iHorizon-Enabled Energy Management for Electrified Vehicles

iHorizon-Enabled Energy Management for Electrified Vehicles

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iHorizon-Enabled Energy Management for Electrified Vehicles

Comprimento:
822 página
8 horas
Lançado em:
Sep 11, 2018
ISBN:
9780128150115
Formato:
Livro

Descrição

iHorizon-Enabled Energy Management for Electrified Vehicles proposes a realistic solution that assumes only scarce information is available prior to the start of a journey and that limited computational capability can be allocated for energy management. This type of framework exploits the available resources and closely emulates optimal results that are generated with an offline global optimal algorithm. In addition, the authors consider the present and future of the automotive industry and the move towards increasing levels of automation. Driver vehicle-infrastructure is integrated to address the high level of interdependence of hybrid powertrains and to comply with connected vehicle infrastructure.

This book targets upper-division undergraduate students and graduate students interested in control applied to the automotive sector, including electrified powertrains, ADAS features, and vehicle automation.

  • Addresses the level of integration of electrified powertrains
  • Presents the state-of-the-art of electrified vehicle energy control
  • Offers a novel concept able to perform dynamic speed profile and energy demand prediction
Lançado em:
Sep 11, 2018
ISBN:
9780128150115
Formato:
Livro

Sobre o autor

Dr. Clara Marina Martínez is currently working for Porsche Engineering Service. Her current position involves virtual testing of driver assisstance and automated features. She obtained a 5-year degree in Industrial Engineering in the Seville University, an MSc degree in Automotive Mechatronics from Cranfield University and a PhD within industry and Cranfield University. She has contributed in over 10 publications during PhD studies and has collaborated in several reseach projects.

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Amostra do Livro

iHorizon-Enabled Energy Management for Electrified Vehicles - Clara Marina Martinez

iHorizon-Enabled Energy Management for Electrified Vehicles

First Edition

Clara Marina Martínez

Dongpu Cao

Table of Contents

Cover image

Title page

Copyright

1: Introduction

Abstract

1.1 Introduction

1.2 Electrified powertrain state-of-the-art

1.3 Electrified vehicles and disruptive technology

1.4 Today's mobility challenges

1.5 Conclusion

2: Integrated energy management for electrified vehicles

Abstract

2.1 Vehicle electrification levels

2.2 HEV vs PHEV control complexity

2.3 Experience transformed into rules

2.4 Optimisation-based control

2.5 The role of the driver

2.6 Energy management interaction with the infrastructure

2.7 Future trends

2.8 Intelligent horizon

2.9 Conclusion

3: The driver in the loop

Abstract

3.1 What is driving style?

3.2 Driver driving style influencing factors

3.3 Data for driver driving style

3.4 Driving style recognition algorithms

3.5 Subjective driver perception and key statistics

3.6 Finding style in data

3.7 The future driver

3.8 Conclusion

4: iHorizon in cycle-length windows

Abstract

4.1 Dynamic cycle-length horizon development

4.2 Data collection for future speed prediction

4.3 Speed profile statistics

4.4 Speed modelling with markov chains

4.5 Markov chain model candidates for speed prediction

4.6 Cycle-length speed prediction potentials for fuel savings

4.7 Conclusion

5: iHorizon in short-term windows

Abstract

5.1 Dynamic accurate short-term predictions

5.2 Speed profile processing for short-term horizons

5.3 Markov chains for speed modelling

5.4 Short-term speed prediction results

5.5 Conclusion

6: iHorizon driver energy management for PHEV real-time control

Abstract

6.1 Online PHEV energy management

6.2 Expert data

6.3 Neural network design

6.4 Training and testing

6.5 Training and testing results—Input set 1

6.6 Training and testing results—Input set 2

6.7 Conclusion

7: iHorizon extension for vehicle applications

Abstract

7.1 Sensor fusion in autonomous vehicles

7.2 Sensor uncertainty prediction: Odometry measurement

7.3 Algorithm design and testing

7.4 Vehicle location test results

7.5 Conclusions

8: Conclusions, discussion and future direction for research

Abstract

8.1 Driving style and driver autonomy acceptance

8.2 Speed prediction under increasing levels of information

8.3 Results discussion: Neural networks for energy management

8.4 iHorizon for today's and tomorrow's mobility

8.5 Future trends and research directions

Appendix

A.1 Machine learning

A.2 Machine learning algorithms

A.3 Markov chains

A.4 Training algorithms for neural networks of various configurations

Index

Copyright

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This book and the individual contributions contained in it are protected under copyright by the Publisher (other than as may be noted herein).

Notices

Knowledge and best practice in this field are constantly changing. As new research and experience broaden our understanding, changes in research methods, professional practices, or medical treatment may become necessary.

Practitioners and researchers must always rely on their own experience and knowledge in evaluating and using any information, methods, compounds, or experiments described herein. In using such information or methods they should be mindful of their own safety and the safety of others, including parties for whom they have a professional responsibility.

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ISBN: 978-0-12-815010-8

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1

Introduction

Abstract

Electric and hybrid electric vehicles have experienced intense research and development in the past decades. Most vehicle manufacturers have developed electrified powertrains that are already in production or under development. These are not only purchased by private owners, but are also used for public transport, police official vehicles, dustcarts, etc. However, what reasons justify shifting into a new technology that is more complex, more expensive and underperforms the existing one? The answer might be obvious from an environmental perspective, but the true momentum change is driven by legislation and emissions restrictions. This chapter highlights the key issues of the transport sector along with the legislative incentives to correct these issues, including local to global policies. Furthermore, the necessity and support for vehicle electrification is put into context and the electric vehicle is identified as an example of disruptive innovation and is analysed as a solution for current and future mobility problems.

Keywords

Disruptive technology; Electrified vehicle; Emissions legislation; Mobility of the future; Renewable electricity generation; Renewable energy generation

1.1 Introduction

Nowadays, technology evolves at a hectic pace and information technology systems, automation, robotics and artificial intelligence have become part of the terminology used on a daily basis in many areas. This frenetic pace seems to have been transmitted to the field of transportation, through increasing environmental awareness, safety concerns and mobility problems in large metropolitan areas. As emission legislation strangles vehicle manufacturers, electrification has been forced into every brand must-do list. Despite the 2015 CO2 target having already been met by original equipment manufacturers (OEMs), encouraging a wide range of engine sizes and hybrid high power vehicles, the 2021 target will not be accomplished unless further vehicle electrification is achieved. Hybrid electric vehicles that operate in charge sustaining mode might be sufficient for ordinary small powertrains, but large and high-performance ones require additional measures. Some manufacturers have already developed plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs). These vehicles improve the overall powertrain efficiency by replacing low-efficiency internal combustion engines with highly efficient electric motors. Furthermore, PHEV allow for full battery discharge, which can further reduce fuel consumption when compared to regular HEV. Nevertheless, despite the fact that intense research in optimal and close-to-optimal energy management has been ongoing for years, these vehicles implement simple strategies that are not able to optimise battery depletion for specific routes. The problem has been solved offline and on paper, but issues such as computational effort, route information and strategy robustness have prevented the solution from being transferred to production.

"How did we get to this point? Where are we going? How are we getting there?" There is no single right answer for any of these questions. Most likely, the best solution will be a compound of different proposals able to compensate for each other's drawbacks, allowing better hybrid solutions. Here, some of the previous questions are partially addressed, although the spotlight is focused on the transition to fully electrified transport. The problem is analysed and possible solutions are proposed and elaborated on, to explore how to find the best modus operandi, address the current difficulties and include adaptability in foreseeable future development of vehicle technology and infrastructure. This chapter defines the problem at hand and sets the context for research needs, whilst Chapter 2 surveys the recent progress in electrified vehicle control and future trends. Chapter 2 ends with a proposal for a new framework able to palliate the issues mentioned for the immediate future—the intelligent horizon—which is elaborated on in the remaining chapters. Chapter 3 analyses the importance of the driver and driving style and describes a driving style recognition algorithm based on semi-unsupervised learning. Chapters 4 and 5 make use of the previous information and propose a future speed-prediction algorithm for variable time-window lengths. Chapter 6 culminates the intelligent horizon framework with a real-time energy management algorithm using Chapters 3–5 findings. Finally, Chapter 7 anticipates future infrastructure development and the introduction of increasing automation for the particular problem of vehicle localisation, in order to complete a holistic study of the past, present and future of electrified powertrains in the mobility sector. Chapter 8 concludes the research and provides further discussions and directions for future research.

1.2 Electrified powertrain state-of-the-art

Electrified powertrains, which include at least a second battery-independent power source, are considerably more complex than conventional and battery electric vehicles (BEVs). Nevertheless, it is obvious from the increasing popularity that these powertrains are being used in all domains from research to production. Despite the fact that reasons for abandoning conventional and well-proven technology are now generally agreed upon, the levels of complexity and further challenges of electrified vehicles are yet to be resolved. In this context, the long-term strategy seems to favor BEVs and alternative zero emission powertrains as substitutes for conventional vehicles, but the reality is that hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) currently dominate electrified vehicle sales. Hybrid vehicles, based on internal combustion engines combined with electric motor(s), are most likely temporary solutions, but will remain as long as important hindering factors such as high battery cost, long charging duration, insufficient electric range and lack of charging infrastructure are unresolved.

1.2.1 Environmental issues and fuel dependency

The world population is currently waking up to the impact of human activity on the environment through climate change and rapid reduction of fossil fuel resources. Numerous reports and analyses from environmental agencies provide plenty of evidence of this problem, but air pollution is probably the clearest proof and the most immediate consequence for urban populations. Air quality is directly related to respiratory illnesses, forest destruction and premature deaths. Besides its short- and long-term effects on health, pollution is visible daily in large metropolitan areas suffering from smog episodes [1]. Fig. 1.1 shows the consequences of air pollution on the Beijing skyline, where the brownish colour of the smog can be easily confused with mist on a clear sunny morning.

Fig. 1.1 Beijing forbidden city during a heavy smog episode.

Furthermore, gases considered nonharmful to the respiratory system, such as CO2 and CH4, can still have a disastrous outcome on climate through the abnormal increments of the greenhouse effect. The consequence of this disruption is a gradual temperature rise and consequent alteration of climatological phenomena that tends to accentuate extremes. Climate change affects ecosystems and humans directly and has a high associated cost, which is unevenly distributed among the countries of the world, affecting poorer areas with greater intensity [1,2]. According to the United Nations, the cost of adapting to climate change in developing countries will be between $280 and $500 billion per year by 2050, as updated in May 2016 [2]. Although the transport sector was associated with 23% of the CO2 emissions in Europe in 2015 [3,4], it is nonetheless worth highlighting that, despite the large impact of transportation on air pollution. Its minimisation or even eradication will not solve climate change in the short or even long term. Broader policies affecting other contributing sectors, such as industrialisation and deforestation, also need to be addressed to effectively tackle environmental problems.

Besides, even ignoring the effect of conventional transportation on the environment, fossil fuel reserves are draining rapidly. Despite the fact that new extracting systems such as fracking and cracking were developed and became viable due to the rise in oil prices, fossil fuel resources will soon be scarce. Fossil fuel shortages and high prices could cause political instability among countries and strongly disrupt the global economy as a result of their great influence on global energy production and transport, possible issues that have precedents in the recent economy. Thereupon, it is in our best interest to swiftly develop alternative energy sources that are inexhaustible and readily available in nature with minimal impact on ecosystems when compared to conventional sources.

According to the European Commission, industrial activity, energy generation and transport are the sectors contributing most of the emissions proceeding from human activity. Systems that are more efficient, using renewable energy sources and cleaner powertrains, could reduce the environmental impact. The analysis of greenhouse emissions by sectors in the EU-28 in 2015 revealed that 23% was associated with transport [4]. Furthermore, the harmful emissions associated with road transport exhausts and nonexhausts in the EU-28 were: CO 23%, NOx 32% and particulate matter (PM) 20%, as depicted in Fig. 1.2 [5].

Fig. 1.2 Detailed emissions produced by the transport sector in the EU-28. Figure modified from E.E. Agency, E. Commission, Emissions of Air Pollutants From Transport, 2016. Available from: https://www.eea.europa.eu/data-and-maps/daviz/contribution-of-the-transport-sector-3#tab-chart_1_filters=%7B%22rowFilters%22%3A%7B%7D%3B%22columnFilters%22%3A%7B%7D%3B%22sortFilter%22%3A%5B%22pollutant_name%22%5D%7D. (Accessed 26 September 2017) to include the percentages assigned to road transport exhaust and nonexhaust.

Similarly, the contribution of transport to United States greenhouse gases was 27%, according to the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) in 2015 [6], where the transportation sector was associated with more than 50% of NOx, over 20% of PM and over 30% of volatile organic compounds in the United States of America [7].

Despite the fact that a clear emissions reduction has been seen since 1990, as environmental awareness has become of increasing importance, it is evident that the necessity to further reduce air pollution generalises to all sectors and particularly in highly populated urban areas [5]. The previous numbers that affect road transport might seem trivial when compared to other contributors, such as energy generation and industry, but it is not a negligible quantity in absolute figures. Although the need is evident for intervening and coordinating a broad global emissions policy that includes all sectors, road transport's particular contribution to air quality is of great importance on its own.

1.2.2 Legislation

Pollution caused by the transport sector can be a pressure point for governments through the popularity of green technology, smog episodes and associated economic costs. Policies implemented in developed countries all over the world have come into force to tackle these issues in response. Some of these regulations target harmful gases, the so-called tailpipe emissions previously mentioned, which are products of secondary reactions taking place during combustion, including NOx, CO, unburned HC, particle matter and sulphur oxides, although in smaller proportions [1,8].

Although those products are not dominant, the components created are highly injurious to living beings. For instance, NO2 takes part in the smog and causes its characteristic brown colour. It can also dilute in water to produce acid rain and the consequent degradation of forests and marble constructions, among others, which endangers natural ecosystems and historical architectural structures. Besides, CO is toxic to the respiratory system. Its composition and specific weight resemble that of O2, a reason why CO can combine with haemoglobin in place of O2. This combination can reduce oxygen absorption and cause suffocation. Furthermore, CO creates a stronger bond with haemoglobin than those associated with O2 and CO2 and can require special treatments to be eliminated. Likewise, unburned HCs have various effects on health, depending on their composition. These are part of smog and when combined with NO produce ozone, which is again very poisonous [1,9].

The alarming rise in these components has not been ignored by the European Union, which has applied limits on these gases since 1992 with Euro I up to 2014 with Euro VI. These policies have contributed to the development of catalyst technology and exhaust gases after-treatment. Figs 1.3 and 1.4 illustrate the evolution from Euro I to Euro VI in diesel and gasoline passenger vehicles, where it is possible to notice the policy strengthening, particularly since Euro IV [10,11].

Fig. 1.3 Emissions limit for compression ignition passenger vehicles from Euro I to Euro VI. Proceeding from EU road legislation summarised in Ref. [10].

Fig. 1.4 Emissions limit for positive ignition passenger vehicles from Euro I to Euro VI. Proceeding from EU road legislation summarised in Ref. [10].

As the strong pressure on tailpipe emissions had its final stage with Euro VI, the spotlight is currently focused on CO2, which along with CH4 is a greenhouse gas and responsible for the increase in the greenhouse effect and therefore climate change [1]. Unfortunately, CO2 is a product of the ideal combustion reaction and therefore the only method to meet the targets is to reduce the amount of fuel burned.

According to the European Union official analysis, up to 12% of the CO2 emissions are produced by passenger vehicles, a figure used to promote a mandatory reduction target planned on two milestones. The 2015 target imposed 130 gCO2/km, whilst the 2021 target will limit it to 95 gCO2/km. The CO2 emissions of a specific vehicle manufacturer are calculated over the fleet average: that is to say, considering all vehicles sold by the same manufacturer, including high and low performance powertrains. Consequently, large vehicles can still be produced and sold as long as that manufacturer compensates for the overemissions with vehicle series under the CO2 curve. Failure to meet these targets is penalised with increasing amounts according to the CO2 excess: 5€ for the first gram/km extra over the CO2 target, 15€ for the second gram/km, 25€ for the third gram/km and 95€ for each subsequent gram/km [12]. Provided that the 2015 legislation is applied, 131 gCO2/km, 132 gCO2/km, 133 gCO2/km and 134 gCO2/km are associated with an overcost per vehicle sold equal to 5€, 20€, 45€ and 140€ respectively, with 140€ plus 95€ for every additional gram per kilometre.

Fortunately, the European Union is not the only entity promoting limits on CO2 emissions. Similarly, the US EPA has established a target limit of 163 g/mile for 2025, which is equivalent to 54.5 mpg and 101 g/km, 6 g/km more permissive compared to its analogous European target for 2021 [13]. Tailpipe emissions regulations also came into force in the United States [14]. Likewise, similar policies affect the Japanese market. These are examples of emission restrictions that affect worldwide the main automotive markets and force vehicle manufacturers to heavily invest in advanced technology. In addition, this challenging milestone deeply influence future directions of transportation towards alternative powertrains, car share, cooperative driving and gradually increasing automation levels.

The main strategies followed by OEMs directed to meet these requirements include lightweighting by improving structure efficiency and replacing the materials used by lighter ones. According to Joost, a 10% weight reduction can be associated with approximately 8% CO2 reduction. In addition, this also allows engine downsizing whilst maintaining the vehicle performance. Likewise, a 10% weight reduction also supports a 6.8% fuel reduction due to engine resizing, according to the survey presented by Joost [15]. Nevertheless, this measure is not sufficient, particularly for large vehicle sizes. These can only reduce emissions with further engine size reduction, either compromising performance or introducing alternative propulsion systems such as HEVs, plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs), fuel cell hybrid vehicles (FCHVs) or BEVs.

1.2.3 Restrictions applied locally and temporarily

Despite legislative efforts targeting the reduction of air pollution, the former policies are insufficient and do not solve environmental problems originating in locations that suffer heavy traffic, such as large metropolitan areas. The crude reality is that air pollution directly affects population health in both the short and long term, provoking numerous deaths, life quality reduction and extra health-care system expenses. Approximately seven million deaths could be associated with air pollution in 2012, according to the World Health Organization (WHO), which in proportion is one-eighth of the total deaths occurring that year [16]. As a consequence, and in recent years, emissions are measured real-time in highly populated areas to trigger emergency actions and protect the population from critical air pollution levels, according to specific thresholds previously defined. These strategies have a precedent in the Tokyo Metropolitan Government, which initiated its Pollution Control Ordinance in 2000 with the intention to protect its citizens, particularly as related to industrial emissions in this case [17,18]. In response to sporadic but abnormally high contamination levels, temporary restrictions have been applied to passenger vehicles in cities such as Oslo and Madrid in recent years [19]. These include speed limit restrictions to lower values, vehicle restrictions to certain areas or selective constraints on most polluting vehicles. Furthermore, odd-even number plate limits for longer periods of time have been announced in Beijing, anticipating events such as the Olympics and the yearly military parade [20].

In addition to the former, some metropolitan areas are announcing long-term and even permanent restrictions to further improve their air quality and avoid sporadic extreme measures and achieving critical pollution scenarios. Paris, Madrid, Athens and Mexico City are examples of cities that have announced the banning of diesel vehicles from 2525 [21,19]. Similarly, the local government in Barcelona has recently announced strict restrictions over most polluting vehicles, including not only the city but also the surrounding areas, by 2020 [22]. In addition, the German government has taken a step further in favour of prohibiting internal combustion engines by 2030, a restriction that particularly affects old powertrains and diesel engines [23,24]. Some other cities have already implemented low emission areas to dissuade drivers from entering the central areas. London and its Congestion Charge zone is a good example, establishing a charge for vehicles driving in the designated area from 7:00 to 18:00 during weekdays, a restriction that will be extended to 24 h, seven days a week, by 2020 with the installation of the Ultra Low Emission Zone [25].

The most recent release announces a new target of 23% emissions reduction by 2020 established by Madrid's local government. The goal is to be achieved by following a long list of measures that includes a zero emission area, only accessible by residents and authorised vehicles starting in 2018, and a speed limit reduction to 70 km/h in the Madrid ring road. Further measures will also be applied to nonenvironmentally friendly vehicles by 2025 [26]. In contrast, other policies are directed towards encouraging the use of public transport by reduction of ticket prices under heavy congestion scenarios. These measures are at times implemented with an agreement between transport and medium to large size companies, which allow for free ticket access.

These recent announcements and milestones will definitely have a great influence on citizens’ life quality and lifestyle, an effect that would most certainly be perceived in electric vehicle and hybrid vehicles sales and in the expansion of car hire applications. These measures benefit low emissions powertrains and encourage society, through economic incentives, to opt for more environmentally friendly means of transport. Furthermore, public transport improvements and the expansion of car-sharing platforms are modifying the concept of transport in large metropolitan areas.

1.2.4 Zero emissions transport

Hybrid electric vehicles have proven in recent years to be an effective, although temporary, solution to displace fossil fuel consumption, reduce oil dependency and improve air quality [27]. With that being an agreed-upon fact, the next step in mobility is demanding comprehensive information about the driving environment with an eye to the future of autonomous features, but also with a real interest in further electrified and close-to-optimal hybrid powertrains in the present and oncoming years. Nevertheless, and despite electrification allowing for a theoretical zero emissions transport, the emissions reduction is only real when the electricity used to propel the vehicles is free from emissions. That is to say, the electricity must be generated through renewable and alternative nonpolluting sources. Thereupon, vehicle electrification transfers the responsibility of emissions reduction to governmental energy policies. The failure to replace polluting energy generation with alternative sources would slightly reduce the overall pollution, but only displace highly polluted areas out of the metropolis to less populated areas.

According to Eurostats, in 2015 only 26.7% of the energy produced in the European Union came from renewable sources. When focusing exclusively on electricity production, only 28.8% had a renewable origin, with Germany, Italy and France being the larger producers of renewables [28]. Despite the low figures seen here, these percentages are well above the 14.9% of energy produced from renewable sources in the United States in 2016 [29] and the 7.41% produced in 2015 in Japan, which is known to be a country that bases its energy policies on nuclear sources [30]. Considering the great pressure applied on road transport, the lack of involvement of these governments in the implementation of greener measures seems ironic if not contradictory. Nevertheless, the proportion improves when isolating electricity production from other energy sources, which would be the real value affecting transportation emissions reduction. Fig. 1.5 illustrates the distribution of percentages over global electricity generation in European countries and Table 1.1 specifies the exact proportion of renewable sources of the total electricity produced in countries that are part of the European Union [31].

Fig. 1.5 Map indicating the percentage of electricity generated from renewable sources considering the percentage of gross electricity consumption of countries in Europe [31].

Table 1.1

a The Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia.

Data from Eurostat, Electricity Generated from Renewable Sources—% of Gross Electricity Consumption, European Commission, 2016. Available from: http://ec.europa.eu/eurostat/tgm/table.do?tab=table&plugin=1&language=en&pcode=tsdcc330. (Accessed 26 September 2017).

The table highlights Norway as a country that not only presents a high percentage of clean electricity production, but also compensates for the pollution caused. Countries such as Iceland, Albania, Sweden, Portugal, Latvia and Denmark in this respective order present a percentage above 50%, whilst countries such as Malta, Luxembourg and Cyprus present values below 10%.

Despite the clear difference between the origin of energy and policies in favour of cleaner transportation, it is also worth mentioning that electrical powertrain components have higher efficiency than thermal machines. Internal combustion engines can reach a maximum efficiency of approximately 33%, whilst electric motors present efficiencies above 70% and can even reach and surpass 80% values in some applications [32]. This implies that, even though the electricity might not be emissions free, the total emissions produced could still be reduced when replacing thermal machines with electrical homologous power sources.

1.3 Electrified vehicles and disruptive technology

The principle of disruptive technology was introduced by Clayton M. Christensen in 1995 and has become an influencing theory for innovation-based development. In his article [33], Christensen defines disruptive technology using the example of innovative products that usually result in worse performance when compared to existing technology, at least in the short-term, and consequently are initially perceived as failures, which prevents them from attracting investors’ interest. Nonetheless, despite the fact that these innovations do not meet current technology performance, they bring along new assets that no other technology can provide. Disruptive products can be either cheaper, of reduced size, simpler or more convenient for specific applications that become relevant in the future. Thanks to these new characteristics, ignored at the first stage, and despite initial failure, these new technologies can fill other user needs and eventually displace previous existing technology [33].

One of the most popular examples of disruptive innovation is the electric vehicle itself. Despite the fact that the electric vehicle has not been an immediate threat to conventional vehicles, mostly due to clear deficiencies in battery technology, cost and charging infrastructure, it could potentially disrupt the future automotive market with cheaper, cleaner and more efficient energy consumption [33]. The development of the charging infrastructure, improvements in battery production and capacity and policies in favour of cleaner transport solutions might turn the cost difference between powertrains upside down and eradicate internal combustion engines, at least from city transportation.

Nonetheless, herewith electric vehicles are not considered alone as a disruptive technology, but along with intelligent and autonomous vehicle development. Due to constraints in battery and charging technology, it seems that the real insertion of full electric drive will overcome all difficulties when autonomous vehicles become a reality. A fleet of autonomous electric vehicles could optimally schedule their charging and operation times to avoid long delays for their users and guarantee that enough battery charge is always available to achieve the destinations and that charging points are not congested. These measures would eliminate range anxiety, balance the use of charging points, reduce the stress applied to the electrical network and recalculate vehicle routes to reduce trip length and duration and avoid congestion episodes. Consequently, along with the development of electrified powertrains, it is of utmost importance to include intelligent and autonomous vehicles as a research perspective to guarantee that future electrified powertrains welcome increasing levels of automation and do not experience failure as a long-term technology.

1.4 Today's mobility challenges

Emissions reduction and energy issues can be palliated by modifying the current mobility model to promote alternative powertrains that are less polluting or even free from emissions, provide incentives to public transport, develop alternative models for car ownership such as car sharing, and impose gradually increasing limits on vehicle manufacturers to encourage ever-cleaner vehicle designs. These solutions could tackle not only air pollution, but also reduce traffic congestion and simultaneously reduce idling time, with the consequent additional benefit of better air quality in highly populated areas.

Nevertheless, these new concepts require the support of an infrastructure that has to provide enough charging points for plug-in hybrid electric vehicles and battery electric vehicles and a vehicle fleet that guarantees an efficient network for car sharing. Further environmental benefits and even safer driving could be achieved by applying information and communications technology to the transport sector [34]. Information about the road congestion state and optimal route selection can be used to coordinate traffic and optimise the overall fleet travel duration. The available information could be valuable to coordinate users and trips and support car sharing simultaneously. In addition, this information can also be advantageous to facilitate charging point usage and reduce waiting times by means of a scheduling system: that is to say, a network of charging points that allows identifying free spots and charging times to optimise their use [34]. Furthermore, private passenger vehicles have a very low daily usage, around 2 h in Germany for instance, and the rest of the time are parked, occupying useful surface and ageing without actual benefit for the owners. In this context, public transport, car sharing and autonomous car sharing could reduce the necessity of car ownership, further reducing road congestion [35].

Furthermore, the need for a change in mobility could be considered as an opportunity to solve other problems in cities, such as mobility of disabled people, or even nonmobility related issues such as electricity network ramp balancing between high and low consumption hours. The expansion of BEVs and PHEVs will provoke extra stress in the electric network, which nonetheless could be conveniently scheduled to also absorb peaks in consumption and unbalancing caused by renewable sources [36]. These combined assets of electric and autonomous vehicles would definitely aid in supporting the infrastructure investment required to establish this technology.

1.5 Conclusion

The substitution of electrified and environmentally friendly transport in place of conventional mobility solutions has known benefits in both health and economic costs. Legislation, the rising awareness of the global population and fossil fuel instability all postulate electrification as an undeniable future. Nonetheless, despite this generalised agreement, the technology to provide the transition toward full electrification is not clear. How can we develop better hybrid powertrains? How can we optimise their operation? How can we design a technology that solves today's problems and also has a space in the future? The great investment that this new technology requires deserves a holistic transportation plan able to foresee and meet future challenges, whilst solving the environmentally critical current situation.

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2

Integrated energy management for electrified vehicles

Abstract

Electrified vehicles have evolved in the past years from a rare technology of limited applications into a consolidated reality. Nevertheless, the complexity of such powertrains has not been conveniently addressed by either the research community or by industry. Optimisation of fuel consumption requires a comprehensive analysis of the vehicle components and architectures, a holistic analysis of vehicle design and energy management and incorporation of the state-of-the-art of vehicle connectivity capabilities. This chapter reviews all possible vehicle electrification approaches and the latest developments in terms of heuristic and optimisation-based energy management. The advantages and disadvantages are highlighted along with opportunities for improvement within the context of the connected vehicle framework. The chapter closes with the future trends in electrified vehicle control and the proposal of a predictive framework robust to limited connectivity and learning capabilities for in-vehicle application, as an immediate solution for fuel consumption minimisation in ordinary electrified powertrains.

Keywords

Dynamic programming; Electrified vehicle; Electronic horizon; Energy management; Intelligent horizon; Intelligent transportation systems; Machine learning; Model predictive control; Optimal control; Vehicle-to-infrastructure communication; Vehicle-to-vehicle communication

Electrified vehicles incorporate a plethora of new challenges and implementation issues that are not always transparent to designers and customers. When focusing on hybrid electric vehicles, the complexity of full electric and conventional vehicles is multiplied. On the one hand, conventional vehicle developers are forced to adapt engine calibration to the new powertrain characteristics, the vehicle transmission becomes more complex, new expertise in electric components and power electronics becomes necessary and more complex control strategies need to be developed. On the other hand, the end customer is unaware of the level of complexity achieved in hybrid electric vehicles and generally receives limited information about the strategy followed to reduce fuel consumption. In order to properly understand electrified vehicle control, it is necessary to analyse in detail the powertrain's characteristics, layout possibilities and consequent capabilities from low-level components to a high-level controller's perspective. This chapter briefly reviews the basics of electrified vehicles with special attention on the transition from conventional to full electric powertrains, highlighting their key characteristics and providing a comprehensive review of the main energy management strategies used for electrified vehicle control. The advantages and disadvantages of existing controllers are analysed and future solutions for vehicle control are proposed within the context of the current infrastructure capabilities and the forecasted development directions of the automotive industry. The chapter is closed with the proposal of a new framework able to serve as an immediate solution to achieve close-to-optimal real-time control of electrified vehicle consumption and a future merger with more sophisticated connectivity features under development.

2.1 Vehicle electrification levels

Conventional vehicles have dominated the road networks with undoubted supremacy for decades. Nonetheless, in recent years their leadership is being threatened by electrified powertrain solutions.

Within conventional vehicles, with 0% electrification level, and battery electric vehicles (BEVs), with 100% electrification level, there is a large electrification range and a wide variety of hybrid powertrains. Although several alternative classifications can be found in the literature, the generally accepted arrangement agrees with a lower to higher electrification level that includes micro-hybrids, mild-hybrids, full-hybrids, plug-in hybrids and range-extended [1].

The first electrification step is taken with the micro-hybrids, which are a controversial class as they consist of vehicles that only integrate a starter generator able to perform the Start-Stop feature and do not have the capability of providing torque assist in the vehicle propulsion. Micro-hybrid powertrains can considerably reduce idling time and therefore fuel consumption, but since the electric motor does not assist the internal combustion engine, they are not considered to be ‘proper’ hybrids by many authors. The next electrification step includes mild-hybrids, which integrate a low power electric motor able to assist the internal combustion engine so as to absorb transients and improve the overall efficiency. Unfortunately, neither the electric motor power limits nor the battery capacity allow for electric-only mode; that is, the electric motor is not able to be used alone to propel the vehicle. In contrast, full hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) integrate electric components sufficiently powerful to allow for electric drive and perform vehicle modes associated with full electric vehicles. That is the case of the electric launch available in the Toyota Prius. By incorporating the plug-in feature, the vehicles can incorporate larger and more powerful electric components, which implies wider margin for fuel displacement and emissions reduction. Besides, the grid support allows for depleting the battery charge completely and therefore replaces the equivalent fuel consumption with electricity. Finally, range-extended vehicles are a particular type of plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV) in series configuration, where the engine is not mechanically connected to the wheels but is used instead as a generator to produce electricity to recharge the battery when necessary. Range-extended vehicles are in essence plug-in electric vehicles provided with an additional on-board source of power that produces electricity from electric sources.

Range-extended vehicles can only be fully understood by taking into account the possible configurations of both electric motor or motors and the internal combustion engine. Various hybrid architectures with different capabilities can be developed by modifying the connection of the power sources. This connection can be either mechanical or electrical, when the machines are mechanically linked to the wheels and through power transmitted through cables, respectively. These connections allow differentiating between series, parallel and power-split. The first are fully propelled using the electric motor exclusively, whilst the internal combustion engine is electrically connected and used to produce electricity to extend the vehicle range. In this configuration, the internal combustion engine is detached from the driver power demands and operates instead in steady-state, high-efficiency conditions. Due to the fact that series hybrids are exclusively propelled by the electric motor or motors, these require the installation of powerful enough electric machines able to satisfy the driver demand alone. In addition, extra losses are added to the battery charging and discharging operations through the internal combustion engine. That is, the energy produced in the combustion is not directly used to propel the vehicle but is transformed into electricity, accumulated and discharged as a result of the charging and discharging operation. The series configuration is implemented in the Opel Ampera and in the range-extended version of the i3.

In contrast, in parallel vehicles both electric motor and internal combustion engine are mechanically connected and cooperate together in the vehicle propulsion. Finally, power-split configurations, also known as series–parallel, incorporate both series and parallel architectures. Usually they integrate two electric machines: one is calibrated as generator and used to produce electricity through engine recharging mode or regenerative braking, whilst the second is calibrated to assist in the propulsion. Both parallel and power-split configurations require a torque split device able to couple the machine's torque mechanically. Figs 2.1–2.3 illustrate series, parallel and power-split vehicle configurations, respectively. Notice that wide line connections mean mechanical link and thin lines electrical link [1].

Fig. 2.1 Series configuration of a hybrid electric vehicle. The electric motor is used alone to propel the vehicle, whilst the internal combustion engine is connected to a generator and therefore electrically to the powertrain so as to produce extra electricity.

Fig. 2.2 Parallel configuration of a hybrid electric vehicle. Both the electric motor and internal combustion engine are coupled and cooperate in the vehicle propulsion.

Fig. 2.3 Power-split configuration of a hybrid electric vehicle.

These hybrid architectures also imply important differences in terms of control and support the necessity of this book. Whilst conventional vehicles and battery electric vehicles have a single source of torque, hybrid electric vehicles have at least two sources that have to be coordinated; that is, there is at least one degree of freedom that needs to be supplied by a controller. Both series and parallel configurations incorporate one degree of freedom, whilst power-split powertrains have two, assuming both series and parallel vehicles implement only one electric motor and the power-split integrates two. The energy management strategy is the module that fills the degree or degrees of freedom and provides guidelines for the low-level controller of the components [1]. Nevertheless, these degrees of freedom are not equally complex in mild-HEVs, full-HEVs and PHEVs. The low margin for battery use and vehicle modes allowed in mild-HEVs does not require the development of sophisticated controllers, whilst the co-leadership of electric motor and internal combustion engine in PHEVs is a complex control task.

2.2 HEV vs PHEV control complexity

Electrified vehicles have been present on public roads for a few years, registering a substantial increase in the recent past. The hybrid electric vehicle has been the most popular version but is giving way gradually to PHEVs and BEVs in response to even more challenging emissions legislation. Mild and limited full hybrid electric vehicles are well-proven technologies due to experience with them over the past few years and their simpler technology in terms of electric components and power electronics, in comparison to higher electrification levels. Nevertheless, current plug-in hybrid electric vehicle energy management is far from exploiting the full capability of this technology. On the one hand, hybrid vehicles incorporate reduced-size batteries and operate within a small range of charge windows, on the order of 20% [1], which can be effectively managed with suboptimal controllers and which do not provide any major benefits when implementing more sophisticated optimised strategies. On the other hand, plug-in hybrid

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