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Fashion Law: O Direito está na moda
Fashion Law: O Direito está na moda
Fashion Law: O Direito está na moda
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Fashion Law: O Direito está na moda

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O livro aborda aspectos legais e regulatórios envolvendo a indústria da moda, as violações sofridas pelo setor e a dificuldade de se obter solução judicial adequada. A convivência com a contrafação causa enormes prejuízos à indústria mas, paradoxalmente, argumentam os autores, pode funcionar como incentivo à inovação.
IdiomaPortuguês
Data de lançamento17 de jun. de 2020
ISBN9786586352047
Fashion Law: O Direito está na moda
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    Fashion Law - Editora Singular

    Coordenação

    Juliana Oliveira Domingues

    Apresentação

    Susan Scafidi e Jeff Trexler

    Organizadores

    Juliana Oliveira Domingues, Pietra Daneluzzi Quinelato, Beatriz Hernandes, Rhasmye El Rafih e Aluísio de Freitas Miele

    Autores

    Alessandro Hirata, Aluísio de Freitas Miele, Angélica Rosa Fakhouri, Beatriz Hernandes, Breno Fraga M. e Silva, Bruna Rego Lins, Cassio Mosse, Cristina Godoy B. de Oliveira, Daniela Favaretto, Daniela Menengoti G. Ribeiro, Drielly Rigotti Yamada, Eduardo Saad-Diniz, Fernanda Lopes Martins, Flavia Mansur Murad Schaal, Gabriel Lochagin, Isabella Estabile, Juliana Oliveira Domingues, Kaleo Dornaika Guaraty, Luciana Martorano, Marcela Saddi, Maria Eugênia de Souza, Monica L. Cavalcanti de A. D. M. Nóbrega, Pietra Daneluzzi Quinelato, Pietra Marques Moreira, Samara Araujo Medeiros, Simone Henrique, Thays Leite Toschi e Valquíria M. Sabóia

    1.ª edição

    São Paulo – 2020

    Dados Internacionais de Catalogação na Publicação (CIP)

    Agência Brasileira do ISBN – Bibliotecária Priscila Pena Machado CRB-7/6971


    F248

    Fashion law : o direito está na moda / coord. Juliana Oliveira Domingues. 1. ed. – São Paulo: Singular, 2019.

    408 p. ; 23 cm.

    Inclui bibliografia.

    ISBN 978-85-53066-21-6

    1. Moda – Legislação – Brasil. I. Domingues, Juliana Oliveira. II. Título.

    CDD: 346.81048


    Coordenação editorial: José Carlos Busto

    Diagramação ebook: Microart Design Editorial

    Imagem da capa: Fashion Designer Sketch Drawing Costume Concept – Shutterstock

    © 2020 Editora Singular Ltda.

    Todos os direitos reservados. Nenhuma parte deste livro poderá ser reproduzida, por qualquer

    processo, sem a permissão expressa dos editores. É proibida a reprodução por xerox.

    Editora Singular Ltda.

    Tel./Fax: (11) 3862-1242

    www.editorasingular.com.br

    singular@editorasingular.com.br

    Impresso no Brasil | Printed in Brazil

    Sumário

    Capa

    Folha de rosto

    Folha de rosto

    Ficha catalográfica

    Sobre os autores

    A fashion perspective in time and the emergence of fashion law

    Susan Scafidi e Jeff Trexler

    Fashion law: a nova moda entre o penal e o econômico1

    Eduardo Saad-Diniz e Juliana Oliveira Domingues

    Uma perspectiva da moda no tempo e do surgimento do fashion law

    Pietra Daneluzzi Quinelato

    Entre a imitação e o elogio: qual o limite das paródias?

    Marcela Saddi

    Modelos e imagem no direito da moda

    Valquíria Sabóia

    Aspectos dos direitos de autor e direito à imagem no mundo da moda

    Thays Leite Toschi

    Trade dress no fashion law: uma análise de casos brasileiros

    Maria Eugênia C. de Souza

    A aplicação de medidas antidumping e as condenações por dumping social no mercado brasileiro da moda

    Isabella Estabile

    Proteção às marcas de luxo e restrições verticais em contratos empresariais: limites da legalidade

    Luciana Martorano

    Das cláusulas contratuais aplicadas à indústria da moda: a importância da cláusula de confidencialidade nas relações firmadas

    Daniela Favaretto

    Dumping social na indústria da moda: tratamento jurídico à luz da jurisprudência pátria

    Samara Araujo Medeiros e Daniela Menengoti G. Ribeiro

    A moda na construção dos direitos das mulheres no Brasil

    Drielly Rigotti Yamada

    A indústria da moda e suas repercussões no direito privado

    Alessandro Hirata e Beatriz Hernandes

    A representatividade afro-feminina brasileira na moda como expressão de direito constitucional econômico - fashion law e prática da agenda 2030 para o desenvolvimento sustentável da ONU

    Simone Henrique

    O problema jurídico das cópias no mundo da moda: buscando as tendências, além das tendências

    Cristina Godoy Bernardo de Oliveira e Kaleo Dornaika Guaraty

    Fast fashion e a regulação da terceirização na índústria da moda no Brasil

    Gabriel Lochagin e Fernanda Martins

    Divulgação comercial não autorizada: o uso indevido da imagem de consumidor famoso e suas limitações por meio da proteção dos direitos fundamentais no Brasil

    Monica Lucia de A. D. M. Nóbrega

    Baixa tutela jurídica da moda: do equilíbrio benéfico à adversidade

    Angélica Rosa Fakhouri e Pietra Marques Moreira

    Licença de uso de marca no mundo da moda

    Bruna Rego Lins

    O valor e proteção da criação da moda não-registrada

    Cassio Mosse

    Importação paralela e concorrência desleal: a importância para o fashion law – do debate teórico a uma análise jurisprudencial1

    Juliana Oliveira Domingues e Aluísio de Freitas Miele

    O direito à igualdade veste calças? a identidade cidadã e a moda a partir da perspectiva de gênero

    Juliana Oliveira Domingues e

    Breno Fraga M. e Silva

    Sobre os autores

    Coordenadora

    Juliana Oliveira Domingues – Professora Doutora de Direito Econômico da FDRP/USP, onde leciona para graduação e pós-graduacão. Foi Visiting Scholar na Georgetown University (2018), com fomento do programa International Scholar in Residence da American Bar Association (2018). Criadora do grupo de pesquisa em Fashion Law na FDRP/USP (2013) e pioneira ao coordenar curso de extensão de Direito e Moda na USP. Professora convidada de diversos cursos e pós-graduação em Fashion Law. Advogada e Consultora.

    Organizadores

    Juliana Oliveira Domingues – Professora Doutora de Direito Econômico da FDRP/USP, onde leciona para graduação e pós-graduacão. Foi Visiting Scholar na Georgetown University (2018), com fomento do programa International Scholar in Residence da American Bar Association (2018). Criadora do grupo de pesquisa em Fashion Law na FDRP/USP (2013) e pioneira ao coordenar curso de extensão de Direito e Moda na USP. Professora convidada de diversos cursos e pós-graduação em Fashion Law. Advogada e Consultora.

    Pietra Daneluzzi Quinelato – Mestranda em Direito e Desenvolvimento pela Universidade de São Paulo (FDRP). Bacharel em Direito pela FDRP, USP. Advogada atuante em Propriedade Intelectual e Direito Digital. Droit des Affaires – Université Lumière Lyon II, França. Curso de Extensão em Fashion Law na FDRP, USP. Curso de Treinamento em Propriedade Intelectual – ABAPI. Certificado DPO Practitioner EXIN. Comitê Privacy, BR. Membro da Comissão de Fashion Law da OAB/SP. Professora de Fashion Law do Trilhante.

    Beatriz Hernandes – Mestranda em Direito Romano e sistemas jurídicos contemporâneos pela Universidade de São Paulo (FD/USP). Advogada graduada na FDRP/USP com ênfase em Contratos. Membro do Grupo de estudos de Fashion Law da USP Ribeirão Preto (FDRP/USP). Assistente jurídica do Tribunal de Justiça do Estado de São Paulo (TJ/SP). Mérito Acadêmico na Graduação e Menção Honrosa no 24º SIICUSP. Professora de direito civil do curso Trilhante.

    Rhasmye El Rafih – Mestranda em Direito e Desenvolvimento pela Universidade de São Paulo (FDRP/USP). Especialista em Direito Econômico pela Universidade de São Paulo (FDRP/USP). Especialista em Ciências Criminais pela PUC/MG. Bacharel em Direito pela Universidade Estadual Paulista (FCHS-UNESP). Membro do Grupo de estudos de Fashion Law da FDRP/USP. Advogada.

    Aluísio de Freitas Miele – Mestrando em Direito Econômico pela FDRP/USP. Graduado em Direito pela UNESP. Especialista em Direito Tributário. Membro do Grupo de Estudos de Fashion Law da Faculdade de Direito de Ribeirão Preto (FDRP/USP). Membro do Grupo de Estudo de Concorrência e Inovação da Faculdade de Direito de Ribeirão Preto (FDRP/USP). Advogado e Professor.

    Apresentação

    Susan Scafidi – Professora, fundadora e presidente do Fashion Law Institute, em Nova York. Referência internacional na área por ter cunhado o termo Fashion Law e criado os primeiros cursos voltados para a consolidação desta nova área.

    Jeff Trexler – Professor e diretor associado do Fashion Law Institute, em Nova York.

    Introdução

    Juliana Oliveira Domingues – Professora Doutora de Direito Econômico da FDRP/USP. Foi Visiting Scholar na Georgetown University (2018), com fomento do programa International Scholar in Residence da American Bar Association (2018). Criadora do grupo de pesquisa em Fashion Law na FDRP/USP (2013) e pioneira ao coordenar curso de extensão de Direito e Moda na USP. Professora convidada de diversos cursos e pós-graduação em Fashion Law. Consultora e Advogada.

    Eduardo Saad-Diniz – Professor de Graduação e de Pós Graduação da FDRP - USP. Livre docente na FDRP/USP. Bacharel e Doutor em Direito pela Universidade de São Paulo. Doutor em Direito pela Universidade de Sevilha, Espanha; Bolsista Doutorado Sanduíche DAAD/Capes na Universidade de Regensburg, Alemanha; Especialização em Vitimologia pela Universidade de Sevilha, Espanha.

    Autores (ordem alfabética)

    Alessandro Hirata – Professor Associado da Faculdade de Direito de Ribeirão Preto da Universidade de São Paulo. Graduado em direito pela Universidade de São Paulo (2001), doutorado em direito pela Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität München (2007) e livre-docente em direito romano pela Universidade de São Paulo (2008). Foi Professor Assistente junto ao Leopold-Wenger-Institut da Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität München.

    Aluísio de Freitas Miele – Mestrando em Direito Econômico pela FDRP/USP. Graduado em Direito pela UNESP. Especialista em Direito Tributário. Membro do Grupo de Estudos de Fashion Law da Faculdade de Direito de Ribeirão Preto (FDRP/USP). Membro do Grupo de Estudo de Concorrência e Inovação da Faculdade de Direito de Ribeirão Preto (FDRP/USP). Advogado e Professor.

    Angélica Rosa Fakhouri – Graduanda em Direito pela Faculdade de Direito de Ribeirão Preto (FDRP-USP). Integrante do Grupo de Pesquisa Fashion Law FDRP USP.

    Beatriz Hernandes – Mestranda em Direito Romano e sistemas jurídicos contemporâneos pela Universidade de São Paulo (FD/USP). Advogada graduada na FDRP/USP com ênfase em Contratos. Membro do Grupo de estudos de Fashion Law da USP Ribeirão Preto (FDRP/USP). Assistente jurídica do Tribunal de Justiça do Estado de São Paulo (TJ/SP). Mérito Acadêmico na Graduação e Menção Honrosa no 24º SIICUSP. Professora de direito civil do curso Trilhante.

    Breno Fraga M. e Silva – Mestrando em Direito pela Universidade de São Paulo (FDRP/USP). Membro do Grupo de Estudos de Fashion Law da Faculdade de Direito de Ribeirão Preto (FDRP/USP). Membro do Grupo de Estudo de Concorrência e Inovação da Faculdade de Direito de Ribeirão Preto (FDRP/USP). Assessor no Tribunal Administrativo de Defesa Econômica. Advogado.

    Bruna Rego Lins – LLM em Propriedade Industrial pela The Washington University e mestrado em inovação pelo INPI. Co-fundadora do Instituto Brasileiro de Negócios e Direito de Moda FBLI. Advogada coordenadora da área de Propriedade Intelectual, Tecnologia e inovação.

    Cassio Mosse – Mestre em Propriedade Intelectual e Direito da Moda pela Queen Mary, University of London. Professor do curso de pós-graduação em Fashion Law da Faculdade Santa Marcelina. Professor convidado do mestrado em gestão de moda da Antwerp Management School (Antwerp, Bélgica). Professor convidado do mestrado em Propriedade Intelectual da Universidad Austral (Buenos Aires, Argentina).

    Cristina Godoy Bernardo de Oliveira – Professora da Faculdade de Direito da FDRP/USP. Pós-doutorado pela Université Paris I Panthéon-Sorbonne. Academic Visitor Faculty of Law of University of Oxford. Doutorado pela Faculdade de Direito da USP. Graduada pela Faculdade de Direito da USP.

    Daniela Favaretto – Especialista em Direito Penal e Processual. Penal pela Escola Paulista de Direito (EPD). Pós-graduanda em LLM em Direito dos Contratos pelo INSPER e Pós-graduanda em Fashion Law pela Faculdade Santa Marcelina (FASM). Advogada na área contratual.

    Daniela Menengoti G. Ribeiro – Doutora em Direito-Relações Econômicas Internacionais pela Pontifícia Universidade Católica de São Paulo (PUC/SP) com período de pesquisa (doutorado sanduíche) na Université Paris 1 - Panthéon-Sorbonne, França. Professora do Programa de Mestrado em Ciências Jurídicas do Centro Universitário de Maringá (UNICESUMAR). Pesquisadora do Instituto Cesumar de Ciência, Tecnologia e Inovação (ICETI).

    Drielly Rigotti Yamada – Pós-graduanda em Direito Digital e Compliance pela Damásio Educacional. Bacharel em Direito pelo Centro Universitário Padre Albino. Advogada.

    Eduardo Saad-Diniz – Professor de Graduação e de Pós Graduação da FDRP- USP. Livre docente na FDRP/USP. Bacharel e Doutor em Direito pela Universidade de São Paulo. Doutor em Direito pela Universidade de Sevilha, Espanha; Bolsista Doutorado Sanduíche DAAD/Capes na Universidade de Regensburg, Alemanha; Especialização em Vitimologia pela Universidade de Sevilha, Espanha.

    Fernanda Martins – Bacharel em Direito pela Faculdade de Direito de Ribeirão Preto (FDRP-USP). Integrante do Grupo de Pesquisa Fashion Law FDRP-USP. Advogada.

    Flavia Mansur Murad Schaal – Mestre na Université de Paris e Doutora na Université de Lorraine. Advogada especialista em Propriedade Intelectual. Coordenadora do curso de Propriedade Intelectual da Escola de Direito. Professora na pós-graduação de Fashion Law na Faculdade Santa Marcelina. Fundadora do portal MORE BRANDS and Fashion.

    Gabriel Lochagin – Professor Doutor da Faculdade de Direito de Ribeirão Preto, Universidade de São Paulo, na área de Direito Econômico e Financeiro. Doutor (2016) e Mestre (2012) em Direito Econômico-Financeiro pela Universidade de São Paulo. Pesquisador visitante da Humboldt Universität, em Berlim, Alemanha, de 2014 a 2015.

    Isabella Estabile – Mestranda em Análise e Gestão de Políticas Internacionais pela PUC-Rio, com foco de pesquisa em Cadeias Globais de Produção da Indústria da Moda e Desenvolvimento. Advogada na área de Direito Internacional, com ênfase em Comércio Exterior e Direito da Moda, graduada pela PUC-Rio, com cursos de extensão em Direito da Moda pela IBMEC e ESA/OAB.

    Kaleo Dornaika Guaraty – Mestrando em Direito e Desenvolvimento pela Universidade de São Paulo (FDRP/USP). Bacharel em Direito pela Faculdade de Direito de Ribeirão Preto da Universidade de São Paulo (FDRP-USP). Advogado.

    Luciana Martorano – Mestre em Direito Comercial pela Universidade de São Paulo (USP). Bacharel em Direito pela Universidade Presbiteriana Mackenzie. Membro da American Bar Association (ABA), Instituto Brasileiro de Estudos de Concorrência, Consumo e Comércio Internacional (IBRAC) e da Comissão de Estudos da Concorrência e Regulação Econômica da OAB-SP. Autora de diversos livros e artigos sobre direito da concorrência.

    Marcela Saddi – Graduanda em Direito pela Faculdade de Direito de Ribeirão Preto (FDRP-USP). Integrante do Grupo de Pesquisa Fashion Law FDRP USP.

    Maria Eugênia C. de Souza – Graduada em Direito pela Faculdade de Direito de Ribeirão Preto da Universidade de São Paulo (FDRP-USP). Advogada em Propriedade Intelectual. Membro do Grupo Fashion Law da FDRP/USP.

    Monica Lucia Cavalcanti de A. D. M. Nóbrega – Professora Doutora do Centro de Ciências Jurídicas da Universidade Estadual da Paraíba (UEPB). Doutora pela Universidade de Valência, Espanha. Professora convidada do Máster sobre Violéncia de Género, da Universidade de Valência (Espanha). Vice-presidente das Comissões de Ensino Jurídico e de Direito da Moda da OAB/PB. Membro relatora do Tribunal de Ética da OAB/PB. Advogada.

    Pietra Daneluzzi Quinelato – Mestranda em Direito e Desenvolvimento pela Universidade de São Paulo (FDRP). Bacharel em Direito pela FDRP, USP. Advogada atuante em Propriedade Intelectual e Direito Digital. Droit des Affaires – Université Lumière Lyon II, França. Curso de Extensão em Fashion Law na FDRP, USP. Curso de Treinamento em Propriedade Intelectual – ABAPI. Certificado DPO Practitioner EXIN. Comitê Privacy, BR. Membro da Comissão de Fashion Law da OAB/SP. Professora de Fashion Law do Trilhante.

    Pietra Marques Moreira – Graduanda em Direito pela Faculdade de Direito de Ribeirão Preto (FDRP-USP). Integrante do Grupo de Pesquisa Fashion Law FDRP/USP.

    Samara Araujo Medeiros – Mestre em Ciências Jurídicas pelo Centro Universitário de Maringá – UniCesumar. Graduada em Direito pela Pontifícia Universidade Católica do Paraná. Membro do grupo de pesquisa/CNPq: Instrumentos jurisdicionais de efetivação dos direitos da personalidade. Advogada. Desenvolve pesquisas na área de Fashion Law.

    Simone Henrique – Doutoranda e mestre em Direitos Humanos (USP). Pesquisadora do Gepebio USP (Grupo de Estudos e Pesquisas em Bioética e Biodireito) e professora em cursos de graduação e pós-graduação.

    Thays Leite Toschi – Graduada e Pós-Graduada em Direito Empresarial pelo Mackenzie e em Direito Público pela Escola Superior de Advocacia da OAB SP; Cursos de extensão e aperfeiçoamento na PUC SP, IBMEC, FGV SP, WIPO e INPI. Conselheira Secional e Presidente da Comissão de Estudos em Direito da Moda da OAB SP. Membro Consultora da Comissão Especial de Cultura e Arte da OAB Federal (2017/2019). Professora Universitária. Professora convidada da Université de Paris. Coautora de obras jurídicas. Advogada.

    Valquíria Sabóia – Presidente do IBRADIM – Instituto Brasileiro de Arte, Direito e Moda e editora do blog Fashion Law VS. Foi avaliadora da Comissão de Modelos do SATED-SP. Em 2013, na OAB-SP, organizou o primeiro seminário de Fashion Law e foi coautora do projeto de criação da Comissão de Estudos em Direito da Moda, na qual ocupou o cargo de Coordenadora Executiva. Integrante do Grupo de Pesquisa em Fashion Law da FDRP-USP. Advogada.

    A fashion perspective in time and the emergence of fashion law

    Susan Scafidi¹

    Jeff Trexler²

    INTRODUCTION

    The regulation of fashion is almost as old as fashion itself, but the recognition of fashion law as a legal field is relatively new. Professor Scafidi’s Counterfeit Chic,³ the first fashion law website, went live on the web in 2005, and she taught the first Fashion Law course less than a year later, at Fordham School of Law in New York. Although it may seem like the Fashion Law Institute has always been part of our lives, Diane von Furstenberg did not bang the gavel to mark its official opening until September 8, 2010.⁴

    This book embodies what happened next: fashion law’s exponential growth into an international movement. Bar associations around the world created fashion law sections; law firms established fashion law practice groups; fashion law websites and news stories multiplied beyond number; and law and design schools followed with their own fashion law courses. The potential for this global expansion became apparent immediately after we announced the first Fashion Law Bootcamp. Although we initially thought that most of the attendees would be from New York, we soon received a veritable flood of inquiries from every continent except Antarctica and continue to do so to this day for both Bootcamp and our Fashion Law master’s programs. In fact, authors of several chapters that follow are Fashion Law Institute alumni.

    From one angle the still-unfolding story of fashion law would seem to be an inevitable by-product of fashion’s economic significance: if there is a common value shared by lawyers everywhere it is money, and fashion is a multi-trillion-dollar global industry.⁵ Nonetheless, fashion was ignored by many in the modern legal world for decades, if not centuries, even as banking law, securities law, technology law, health law, entertainment law, and even sports law became universally accepted areas of study and practice.

    The fact that the fashion industry is at long last receiving the attention it deserves from the legal profession actually speaks more to fashion’s fundamental importance in communication and empowerment than simply to money. Fashion is an industry that many in law dismissed as frivolous in no small part due to its association with women and gay men, and the enthusiastic embrace of fashion law as a legal field stems in large part from its giving voice to many who sensed that the gates of the law were otherwise not open to them.

    This aspect of fashion law – its significance not just as an area of study but as a transformative social movement – has yet to receive considerable attention. To help us all understand what we can learn from this movement’s formative years, this chapter provides an overview how the global recognition of fashion law as a legal field is transforming perspectives on fashion, the fashion industry, and the very meaning of fashion law itself.

    1. TRANSFORMING PERSPECTIVES ON FASHION DESIGN

    The story behind Counterfeit Chic is indicative of how the legal profession perceived fashion – and, to a certain degree, how the law treated fashion as well. When Professor Scafidi first expressed her interest in conducting research on the fashion industry at the law school where she taught prior to Fordham, her senior colleagues ridiculed the project and implied that it would destroy her career. Fashion, they told her, was too girly and too frivolous to be taken seriously as a subject of legal analysis, notwithstanding the trillions of dollars spent in the international fashion trade, the theoretical issues involved, and the nascent field of fashion studies outside the legal academy.

    Once she received tenure, Professor Scafidi decided to create Counterfeit Chic as a way to explore publicly the legal substance of style. Comparative international law was central to this project from the start. Counterfeit Chic and her path breaking academic writing on fashion law explained that in contrast to France, which built its textile industry and haute couture fashion houses into economic engines through the protection of fabric designs and the shape of garments in copyright and industrial design laws, United States law had historically classified fashion as intrinsically utilitarian in nature. This placed most garments outside the scope of both copyright law and design patent, the U.S. analogue to the design rights that protect ornamental designs of manufactured articles in much of the rest of the world.

    The gendered nature of the U.S. approach was particularly evident in the legislative history of the current Copyright Act, which specifically referred to ladies’ dress as unsuitable for the protection provided to other original pictorial, graphic, or sculptural works with features distinguishable from the useful elements of the objects in which they appeared.⁷ In short, just as women were all too often dismissed as irrational and vain, in the United States and elsewhere the creative elements of fashion were characterized as capricious and devoid of any discernable purpose outside of signaling one’s status through wasteful expenditures on costly attire. ⁸

    The cavalier dismissal of fashion in the United States and other countries with an underdeveloped creative sector had a range of negative consequences. Within the legal profession, it limited the options available for specialized training to serve the industry’s legal needs. Not only did students who might have otherwise been interested in fashion law careers lack professional guidance and means of certification, but for decades fashion businesses – with no organic connection to law schools – staffed positions in departments such as licensing, supply chain management, and compliance with individuals who did not have legal training. As indicated by the demographics of Fashion Law Institute events and degree programs, the impact of the divide between fashion and law fell mostly on women and minorities, outsiders to traditional legal culture for whom fashion law could have served as a more rewarding alternative.

    More generally, gaps in intellectual property protection distorted the fashion market. Most conspicuous was the privileging of highly capitalized brands with the financial capacity to absorb losses from copyright or with a business model built on copying others’ designers. With little to no protection available for their designs, small and medium-sized enterprises often saw the financial rewards for their most successful original work go to copyists who had invested neither time nor money in its creation.

    As a result, the U.S. fashion industry was for most of its history seen as derivative at best, with an institutional structure favoring commodified copies and the concentration of wealth. While the fashion industry in the aggregate might have grown, the businesses of emerging designers for the most part had little chance of going to scale, let alone surviving⁹.

    The limited scope of protection also had a distorting effect on fashion designs. When, in the 1950s, courts in the United States first started recognizing the copyrightability of fabric prints, the availability of protection for surface designs skewed the economic incentive in favor of two-dimensional graphics over innovative three-dimensional designs – a company could protect its t-shirt prints and fabric patterns, but an original dress design was a gift to parasitical competitors.

    Similarly, in the late-1970s and 1980s, global brands with significant sales volume in markets with little protection for fashion designs realized the strategic value of trademark protection and made their logos a more prominent, even defining feature of their products. This logomania grew to the point that garments and accessories could appear to be an incidental adjunct to the trademarks they displayed. One might argue that the characterization of fashion in terms of capriciousness and status seeking had become a self-fulfilling prophecy; by fostering a culture that regarded innovative fashion as unworthy of protection, the law created incentives for re-making at least some fashion items into what its critics so disdained.

    The emergence of fashion law has played a significant role in changing fashion’s legal valence, starting in the U.S. and continuing around the world. The first and most important factor in this regard has been fashion law’s institutional development. The power of giving the field a name cannot be overstated; when academics and other legal professionals started to recognize the validity of fashion law as a legitimate field of inquiry, the prejudice implicit in disdaining a field dominated by women and minorities became rather stark. Counterfeit Chic, the first Fashion Law course, and the subsequent launch of the Fashion Law Institute presented fashion law as a subject worthy of serious analysis; in addition, they provided means for people interested in fashion law to connect and fostered new relationships between law and the fashion industry, from internship opportunities to a rising generation of attorneys, designers, and executives with formal fashion law training.

    One of the most important developments has been the emergence of a network of attorneys, academics, designers and others working with the Fashion Law Institute to build the fashion law movement in their respective countries, with Brazil’s fashion law community a longstanding and valued partner. As fashion law went viral worldwide the caricature of fashion as girly, frivolous, and unworthy of respect soon seemed frivolous itself.

    Advocacy of legal reform is another important means by which the fashion law movement has changed the perception of fashion. Within the United States, the reform initiative that initially caught the attention of the legal profession, the fashion industry, and the public at large was the campaign to enact a limited form of copyright protection for fashion design.

    The fashion copyright bill, sequentially known as the Design Piracy Prohibition Act, the Innovative Design Protection and Piracy Prevention Act, and the Innovative Design Protection Act, ultimately stalled after its final introduction in the Senate in 2012, but it nevertheless succeeded in presenting fashion copyright as a matter of public concern. Professor Scafidi’s testimony provided the template for a host of subsequent articles reiterating its core arguments; noted designers such as Jeffrey Banks, Narciso Rodriguez, and Proenza Schouler’s Lazaro Hernandez offered cogent pleas regarding the importance of protecting designs; and the Council of Fashion Designers of America and its then-President, the iconic Diane von Furstenberg, received ample press coverage for their campaign regarding the importance of creative fashion.

    The gender dynamics at play in the dismissal of fashion also surfaced in the debate, with Congresswoman Maxine Waters in particular calling out a male speaker for his lack of familiarity with what was traditionally a woman’s domain:

    You asked what Congress knows about that. Well, when we talk about women’s fashion and design, fortunately there are a lot of women in Congress now. We know a lot about it. We shop. We buy these labels¹⁰.

    In addition to legislative reform, the emergence of fashion law is also reshaping fashion’s treatment in the courts, to the extent that in the United States we are arguably now in the midst of a transition akin to what took place in France in the early 20th century, when couturiers and couturières persuaded judges to affirm fashion’s eligibility for protection under the country’s copyright and industrial design right laws.¹¹ For the contemporary United States, the most important development in this regard came in 2017, with the Supreme Court’s landmark ruling in Star Athletica v. Varsity Brands ¹²

    This case, involving a dispute over copied designs on cheerleader uniforms, marked the first time that the Supreme Court considered the copyrightability of fashion. Bringing the case to the Supreme Court was Star Athletica, a company arguing that fashion design was inherently utilitarian and thus outside copyright’s scope. In contrast, Varsity Brands, for which Professor Scafidi was an expert witness and the Fashion Law Institute wrote a supporting brief,¹³ sought to persuade the Court that fashion has creative value distinct from its underlying useful elements.

    The Court ruled in Varsity Brands’ favor, incontrovertibly establishing that features of fashion designs could qualify for copyright protection if they (1) could be perceived as two- or three-dimensional works of art separate from the useful article and (2) would qualify as protectable pictorial, graphic, or sculptural works – either on their own in or another tangible medium of expression – when imagined separately from the useful article into which they were incorporated.¹⁴ In its opinion, the Court followed the Fashion Law institute’s recommendation that it apply the standard found in the text of the copyright statute rather than create a special test, but the significance of the Court’s ruling goes beyond the technicalities of interpreting U.S. copyright law.

    By confirming that textile designs and three-dimensional shapes were equally susceptible to being envisioned as original creative works distinct from their useful components, the Court brought an end to the reduction of fashion to nothing more than a useful object with no creative qualities.

    In reaching this conclusion, the Court reflected a broader cultural shift in how people perceive creativity and utility, a trend in which the reinterpretation of fashion has been both a consequence and cause. Besides the Star Athletica ruling in copyright, relatively recent court decisions have increased the appeal of seeking design patent protection, a shift that is bringing it somewhat closer to other countries’ industrial design rights.

    Although U.S. design patents are still subject to a novelty requirement and examination process typically not found in other countries’ industrial design right regimes, the standard for design patent infringement no longer looks to whether the allegedly infringing article exhibits the same points of ornamental novelty of the patented article. In addition, the standard for determining whether a feature is functional, or ornamental is arguably more forgiving for design patents, inasmuch as design patent protection is denied on utility grounds only if a particular shape is dictated by function without any aesthetic considerations. The arrangement of stripes on sneakers, the signature hole-filled style of Crocs shoes, the fabric panels on a bridesmaid dress convertible into eveningwear, and the look of an Apple Watch are just a few of the ornamental features for which design patents have been secured.

    The application of design patent law is another area in which fashion law has had an impact, in part simply by promoting awareness of what had been an obscure and infrequently used form of fashion design protection. Today it is not unusual for designers seeking help through our pro bono Fashion Law Pop-Up Clinic to raise the possibility of design patent protection on their own, and journalists writing about design patent disputes regularly seek fashion law expertise. Beyond educating the fashion and fashion law communities, research in fashion-related design patents is also increasing, and we have in multiple instances advised, offered expert testimony, or written briefs for parties in important design patent cases.

    A related area where fashion law is effecting change is the evolving awareness of fashion as a technological phenomenon. This was something we saw firsthand during the early days of Counterfeit Chic, which soon after its launch became the first fashion website to be the subject of an article in The New York Times. What stands out about this now in retrospect is that this article was not part of the newspaper’s Styles section but instead featured the site as technology news, inasmuch as the use of the web to discuss fashion and law was at the time wholly new. But as Counterfeit Chic and our subsequent articles and educational programs would go on to explain, the connection between fashion and tech – indeed, the significance of fashion as a form of technology – had deep historical roots.

    For example, the technological evolution of weaving has shaped society in notable ways, from the role of woman in ancient Greece (e.g., Penelope at the loom as she waits for her husband Odysseus to return home from the Trojan War) to the invention of the Jacquard loom in 1804, which used a system of punch cards to expedite production through programmed designs. At the time, this machine helped give rise to the Industrial Revolution, not to mention an industry of copycat fashion built on fast and cheap replication of others’ designs. More recently, the Jacquard loom provided the operational basis for the modern computer, as the punch cards used to set the patterns of a particular weave were adapted to other types of programming.¹⁵

    The integration of computer technology with fashion is now entering a new era of innovation, with fashion law a key component. Wearable tech products such as the Apple Watch and Beats headphones are just two examples of a far more expansive fashion tech market, which also includes smart fabric, smart mirrors, VR goggles, digitized contact lenses, blockchain supply chain management, and anti-counterfeiting nanotech. Each technological advance brings with it legal issues, whether it involves the privacy rights of users whose data is captured by digital mirrors or the protection of consumers using the latest scientifically advanced cosmetics claiming to rejuvenate their skin. Moreover, just as fashion law has attracted a number of women and minorities in search of opportunities for more fulfilling legal work, fashion tech is emerging as a field within the STEM (science, technology, engineering, and mathematics) sector to which the same constituencies have been gravitating, as evidenced by a rising generation of technologically savvy fashion brands founded by women, such as Loomia, Lively, and ADAY.

    At the opposite end of the spectrum, fashion law has also played a role in changing the perception of traditional cultural expressions that have little basis for protection under contemporary intellectual property law. For example, the legal dispute between the Navajo Nation and Urban Outfitters over the latter’s selling such items as Navajo hipster panties brought international attention to the concept of cultural appropriation. This case – another in which Professor Scafidi served as an expert, in this instance for the Navajo nation – started with Urban Outfitters trying to nullify statutory protection for the Navajo tribal name and ended with the parties agreeing to collaborate on culturally non-objectionable products. ¹⁶

    The outcome highlighted the value of taking a respectful approach to historically disadvantaged source communities, acknowledging their traditional designs, and, in certain circumstances, offering them an economic stake commensurate to that applicable to licensed intellectual property – much like the practices of Osklen and Nanacay in Brasil. For brands with a presence in countries with sizable and vocal native communities, not understanding the history of cultural appropriation in fashion can put its reputational equity at risk; at the same time, the heightened awareness of appropriation and the emergence of industry norms for addressing it is strengthening appreciation for culturally specific fashion designs once seen as having no intrinsic economic value.

    Of course, much work remains to be done to overcome years of fashion being treated with insufficient respect, and not all outcomes are optimal or even consistent. After all, the U.S. Supreme Court’s Star Athletica ruling did not take place in void; it was the final step in a process that began with a district court’s (now overturned) ruling that the designs in the case did not merit protection. In the realm of luxury fashion, disputes in various jurisdictions around the world over the legitimacy of the Christian Louboutin red-sole trademark have also been especially revealing.

    In the U.S., for example, a federal appeals court had to overturn a lower court decision holding that a single color could never qualify for trademark protection in international class 25 (clothing, footwear, and headgear), though the appeals court weakened the trademark somewhat by concluding that a red sole does not constitute infringement if the upper portion of the shoe is also red.¹⁷ The European Court of Justice likewise upheld the validity of the Louboutin red sole trademark against claims that it was invalid as a mark consisting exclusively of a shape which gives substantial value to the goods.¹⁸

    In contrast, however, Switzerland’s Supreme Court declared the Louboutin red sole mark to be void, concluding that it was simply a common stylistic element and not a recognizable source indicator. Whatever the ultimate disposition of such cases, collectively they underscore the need for attorneys and legal experts with more than a casual acquaintance with fashion and fashion law.¹⁹

    2. TRANSFORMING PERSPECTIVES ON THE FASHION INDUSTRY

    The fashion industry is rife with sexual abuse, human trafficking, child slavery, and wanton destruction of the environment – or at least that’s the distorted image of the fashion industry often conveyed in sensationalistic news reports and popular documentaries. The reality is far more complex, and the existence of fashion law helps explain why.

    Far from being devoid of regulation, the fashion industry has been at the forefront of integrating ethical standards throughout the supply chain, including the adoption of comprehensive corporate ethics codes and use of third-party standards to assess and to upgrade working conditions. Where imperfections exist – and as with any industry, they are inescapable – they are often the product not so much of a lack of a concern as what legal scholar and federal judge Guido Calabresi called a tragic choice, in which decision makers have to make difficult allocations in light of limited resources and conflicting values.²⁰

    The fashion industry’s history of dealing with sexual harassment illustrates the inadequacy of framing the fashion industry as a sector marked by a heightened degree of disregard for law and social norms. The industry’s awareness of sexual harassment did not start with 21st century activists; reports of attempts to curb sexual abuse, especially by managers pressuring their subordinates, can be found as far back as the 1830s, in the early days of the Industrial Revolution and factories with a primarily female workforce and male owners. Calls for textile and garment factory owners to curb harassment rose with the emergence of textile and garment workers’ unions, some of which used contract negotiations to devise a system for complaints, investigations, and protection from retaliation that provided a prototype for the approach subsequently adopted in federal sexual harassment law.²¹

    The fact that the fashion industry was experimenting with self-regulatory mechanisms for addressing sexual harassment decades before the term sexual harassment existed was no accident. As a unionized industry in which most of the laborers were women, fashion was a space where women could give voice to their shared grievances and use their collective power to demand that employers implement solutions. Indeed, one could argue that the legal framework for sexual harassment law in the 1970s was in part a response to two seismic cultural shifts: the decline of unionized labor due to factories’ moving to non-union jurisdictions, coupled with the expansion of women’s avenues for advancement in the white-collar corporate office beyond the secretarial class. Heightened stakes and reduced collective power raised the pressure for a legislative solution. As the legal framework became the new normal, earlier attempts at self-regulating with the fashion industry were by-and-large forgotten.

    The fashion law movement can help prevent similar forgetfulness regarding concrete fashion industry reform programs that took place prior to the #MeToo movement. For instance, although the months immediately following #MeToo saw a number of press reports and activist claims portraying the fashion industry as having turned a blind eye to the harassment of models, the fact is that in September 2017, a month before the first New Yorker #MeToo exposé, two of fashion’s largest multinational conglomerates, LVMH – a founding supporter of the Fashion Law Institute – and Kering, on whose Ethics Committee Professor Trexler serves as a member – announced the implementation of a joint Charter on the Working Relations with Fashion Models and Their Well-Being.²²

    This code of ethics provided a set of procedures for curbing the sexual harassment of models – who, as independent contractors, fall outside the scope of protection provided by federal sexual harassment law – and also addressed such matters as eating disorders, mental health care, fair compensation, private dressing areas at fashion shows, the procedure for complaints, and ongoing review.

    The joint LVMH/Kering charter was not the first effort within the contemporary fashion industry to address concerns over the harassment of models and others in the industry’s employ. The contemporary era of instant global electronic communication had made brands even more sensitive to the potential for reports of harassment to damage their reputation among women consumers, and the rise of new online fashion media, which started publishing accounts of harassment in fashion years before #MeToo, made addressing the issue a substantial concern. Kering, for instance, established regional Ethics Commitees with hotlines in which workers can seek additional help outside Human Resource channels.²³

    Many brands have put in place standards and audited procedures for addressing sexual harassment in factories around the world. Similarly, the Fashion Law Institute was a co-founder of The Model Alliance and worked with the Council of Fashion Designers of America to develop guidelines

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