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DESIGN THESIS

ILLUSION MUSEUM

J.V.Umamaheswara Rao
99058, B.Arch, IX Sem SPA JNTU Guide: Mr. S. Aditya

JNTU School of Planning & Architecture


Mahavir marg, Hyderabad-28, Andhra Pradesh

Department of Architecture

I / We certify that the dissertation entitled ILLUSION

MUSEUM

submitted by Mr. J.V.Umamaheswara Rao bearing Roll No. 99058 on this __________________ day of _______________________2007 in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the award of the degree of Bachelor of Architecture of J.N.T. University is a bonafied work to the best of my / our knowledge and may be placed before the examination board for their consideration.

______________________ Supervisor/s

____________________ Co-ordinator

______________________ Head of the Dept.

_____________________ Director

_____________________ External Examiner

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

I would like to express my gratitude to all those who gave me the possibility to complete this thesis. I would like to express my thanks to my thesis supervisor and guide Mr. S. Aditya in giving me valuable suggestions at every stage of my work. Especially, I would like to give my special thanks to my parents and my wife, whose love and support enabled me to complete this work.

J.V.Umamaheswara Rao

CONTENTS

S.No. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9.

Chapter Name Synopsis Literature Study Data Collection Desktop Study Case Study Comparative Analysis Site Analysis illusion exhibits types

Page No. 1 4 16 30 46 71 77 85 90

Final Design Views & Drawings

Design Thesis - ILLUSION MUSEUM

1. Synopsis

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Synopsis

Design Thesis - ILLUSION MUSEUM

1. INTRODUCTION

MUSEUM
A building where objects of interest or value are collected, conserved, exhibited, and interpreted. The discipline of designing, organizing (curating and preparing exhibits), and directing museums is called museology. Museums continue to evolve and change. New technologies, emerging art forms and collections, and diverse audiences have given rise to new museums and exhibition environments. The functional and operational requirements that are unique to the museums.

ILLUSION
An illusion is a distortion of a sensory perception. Each of the human senses can be deceived by illusions, but visual illusions are the most well known. Some illusions are subjective, different people may experience an illusion differently. Illusions are a very nice window into how the brain works, because illusions can reveal the hidden constraints of the visual system in a way that normal perception fails to do so. In addition, illusions are fun, because they combine both the element of joy as well as the element of surprise.

Many illusions are found in architecture. Many of these were recognized long before painting developed beyond its primitive stages. The classic Greek architecture displays a highly developed knowledge of many geometrical illusions and the architects of those far-off centuries carefully worked out details for counteracting them.

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ILLUSION MUSEUM
There are different kinds of illusions. For many years many people around the world have been working on the illusions and implementing in different ways. In order to preserve and exhibit to the people one museum is required. When the illusions are placed in the environment like museum, the space shall carry a special interest. And also the ideas about the possibilities to make wonders with shapes and materials. It is most like a learning place and entertainment to help the students and people to give idea about the illusions while having fun. Illusions can be in different mediums like paintings, sculptures and interactive exhibits. These kinds of exhibits can be preserved and displayed in the museum.

Aims and objectives:


To achieve the expression of freedom in the form and display spaces. To improve the aesthetics in the form and finishing. To make dynamic and interesting spaces with illusions. And also to make museum spaces more interactive and illusive.

Scope and limitations:


The illusions are related to geometrical shapes, colours, materials, light and many things. The concept of illusion can give lot of scope to think and achieve the functional spaces more lively and with lot of expression. It helps to develop the futuristic ideas for the designing all kinds of architecture needs. All the illusions which can be achieved on paper can not be achieved in architectural form, some illusions might possible.

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2. Literature Study

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Literature Study

Design Thesis - ILLUSION MUSEUM

There are a number of reasons to present a Gallery of Illusions.


Fun Basis to learn about Sensation and Perception Basis to learn about Research Methods in Psychology* Presentation of visual effects which may interest artists and graphic artists

(*Psychology is both an academic and applied discipline involving the scientific study of mental processes and behavior. Psychologists study such phenomena as perception, cognition, emotion, personality, behavior, and interpersonal relationships.) (Source-http://dragon.uml.edu/psych/illusion.html)

ILLUSION
An illusion is a distortion of a sensory perception, revealing how the brain normally organizes and interprets sensory stimulation. While illusions distort reality, they are generally shared by most people.[1] Illusions may occur with more of the human senses than vision, but visual illusions, optical illusions, are the most well known and understood. The emphasis on visual illusions occurs because vision often dominates the other senses. For example, individuals watching a ventriloquist will perceive the voice is coming from the dummy since they are able to see the dummy mouth the words. Some illusions are based on general assumptions the brain makes during perception. These assumptions are made using organizational principles, like Gestalt, an individual's ability of depth perception and motion perception, and perceptual constancy.

Types of illusion
An Optical Illusion is caused by info received by our eyes then wrongfully interpreted by the brain. The main classes of illusions are Physiological and Cognitive. Physiological illusions are caused by excessive stimulation of brightness, color, contrast, movement, etc. Examples: Afterimages such as seeing "spots" after getting a camera flashed in your eyes. Cognitive illusions interact with our natural visual assumptions and are misinterpreted. Cognitive illusions are divided into ambiguous, distortion, and paradox illusions. Ambiguous Illusions are images that 'change' appearance right before our eyes. Perception switches back and forth -- as available visual data does not confirm a single view. Illusions that give the impression of motion also fall into this group. Distorting Illusions produce distortions of scale, size, or curvature. Paradox illusions include images that are contradictory or not possible. These illusions are caused by our brain's misunderstanding that adjacent edges must join. 5
Literature Study

Design Thesis - ILLUSION MUSEUM

The renaissance artists had clearly achieved through careful observation of nature, including studies of anatomical dissections, was a means to recreate the 3-dimensional physical reality of the human form on 2-dimensional surfaces. In part, the key to this achievement lay in understanding the underlying, hidden structure of the human body which then enabled the artist to produce realistic representations of what he saw on the flat surface of a wall in the case of frescoes or on a wooden panel or paper in the case of drawings. Examples for illusion:

1. We can see and read it as TEACH or LEARN. Right is Hanging water tap

Impossible stairs

Glass elevation vanishes the building

Two way boxes on left. Center and right one are impossible shapes.

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Literature Study

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The collonnade of the Annunciation is a mathematical -- and artistic -- tour de force, and is reminiscent of the architectural tromp l'oeil of an actual "perspective" collonade in the Palazzo Spada, fashioned by Galileo's contemporary, Boromini, in Rome.

Here you can see the long colonnaded portico, with a monumental sculpture in the distance. But this is actually an illusion, a trick of the eye played with the help of mathematical perspective, and the trick is revealed as these two figures of equal height show the perspective at work. Mathematics was equally important to Renaissance artists in determining the correct proportions for the figures they drew. Leonardo da Vinci followed such principles explicitly, measuring not only the proper proportions of the human head.

Reflection of floor on a steel column 7


Literature Study

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M. C. Escher
(a famous illusion artist) (Source-http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/M._C._Escher) Maurits Cornelis Escher (June 17, 1898 March 27, 1972), usually referred to as M. C. Escher, was a Dutch graphic artist. He is known for his often mathematically inspired woodcuts, lithographs, and mezzotints. These feature impossible constructions, explorations of infinity, architecture, and tessellations. Below are the some famous works by the artist.

Although Escher did not have a mathematical traininghis understanding of mathematics was largely visual and intuitiveEscher's work has a strong mathematical component, and more than a few of the worlds which he drew are built around impossible objects such as the Necker cube and the Penrose triangle. Many of Escher's works employed repeated tilings called tessellations. Escher's artwork is especially well-liked by mathematicians and scientists, who enjoy his use of polyhedra and geometric distortions. For example, in Gravity, multi-colored turtles poke their heads out of a stellated dodecahedron. Many well known museums include original works by Escher in their collections. Some leading public collections include the following: The National Gallery of Art in Washington, D.C., The National Gallery of Canada in Ottawa, The Israel Museum in Jerusalem, The Escher Museum at The Hague, The Netherlands, and the Fine Arts Museums of San Francisco. Escher's work 8
Literature Study

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appears in many of the finest private collections including the Schwartz Collection of Boston, the Walker Collection of San Diego, the Vess Collection of Detroit, the Roosevelt Collection of Palm Beach, the Price Collection of Connecticut, and the Elder Collection of San Francisco.

Illusions are a very nice window into how the brain works, because illusions can reveal the hidden constraints of the visual system in a way that normal perception fails to do so. In addition, illusions are fun, because they combine both the element of joy as well as the element of surprise.

The figures above represent probably the best known of all ambiguous depth figures, and many such figures exist. Fixate on any one of them and with very little effort you should experience a spontaneous depth reversal. In some cases you will perceive a change in orientation and in others the numbers of cubes or prongs will change. Notice that your brain only chooses one interpretation at a time, and not some odd mixture of both interpretations. Your visual system is constrained by how it interprets a two-dimensional image into a three-dimensional mental representation. These two-dimensional figures 9
Literature Study

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suggest a three-dimensional object, but these drawings also give contradictory cues for depth perception. The two-dimensional figure is unstable because in the real three-dimensional world, these figures could equally exist in one of two different configurations. When two constraints are in conflict you get an ambiguous figure, which "flip-flops."

Move your eyes around the image. Does the circular middle section appear to separate from the rest of the figure? Does it appear to be at a different depth and even move? Consistent with this, the man in the background appears to be further away from you than the person in the foreground. What is not consistent, however, is that the background figure is not proportionally smaller to its identical counterpart in the foreground. When a figure normally recedes into the distance, it gets smaller, i.e., its visual angle gets smaller. Here, the background figure remains the same size (and same visual angle) as the foreground figure. Your visual system assumes that since both figures have the same visual angle, but are at differing distances, the one in the background must be larger. This demonstrates that what you see is not necessarily what you perceive.Your visual system is constantly making inferences based on constraints derived from the regularities of your visual environment.You can discover some of those normally hidden rules by playing with this demonstration. For example, if you move the background figure to the same elevation or height as the foreground figure, the size illusion disappears.This is because, on a level surface, as objects recede into the distance, not only does their visual angle get smaller, but they also rise in the visual field in relation to the horizon.

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Literature Study

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This illustration depicts two people on a level surface at differing distances. The man in the background, although smaller, looks perfectly normal when compared to the man in the foreground. In the lower right, you will see that the man in the background has been brought to the same elevation as the man in the foreground. Now you have another size illusion. This illustration is the opposite of the previous Shepard illustration. In the Shepard illustration, the foreground figure (normally with a larger visual angle) is placed in the background. This causes the background figure to appear larger in comparison with the foreground figure. In this illustration, the background figure (with the normally smaller visual angle) is moved to the foreground.

Why do the two identical twins in this room appear to be drastically different in size? There are two illusions associated with the Ames Room. First the room appears cubic when viewed monocularly from a special viewing point (the true 11
Literature Study

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shape of the room is trapezoidal). Secondly, within an Ames Room people or objects can appear to grow or shrink when moving from one corner to the other. When you look (through a peephole -- to remove any cues from stereopsis) into an Ames Room, the room looks normal and cubic, but its true shape is cleverly distorted. The floor, ceiling, some walls, and the far windows are actually trapezoidal surfaces. Although the floor appears level, it is actually at an incline (the far left corner is much lower than the near right corner). The walls appear perpendicular to the floor, although they are actually slanted outwards.

This diagram shows how the Ames Room forms an identical image of a normal cubic room on your retina. If a straight line (representing a ray of light) is drawn from one corner of an imaginary cubic room to your eye, the corner can meet this ray at any point along its length and still appear cubic. Since the two visible corners of the room subtend the same visual angle to the eye through the peephole, the two corners appear to be the same size and distance away. The left corner, however, is actually twice as far away as the right corner. When the view sees the room from another angle the true shape of the room is revealed. The retinal image produced by the distorted room is identical with (and therefore indistinguishable from) that of a normal cubic room. In fact, there are an infinite number of possibilities that will give rise to this same retinal image. How does your visual system discard this infinity of possible Ames Rooms and settle on one single interpretation?

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This photograph by English visual psychologist Richard Gregory shows two people, placed at differing distances, so that their images differ in size just as in the Ames Room. Most people looking at this photograph stated that the nearer person looks a little nearer, but also a lot larger. The two subjects maintained a constant horizontal foot level independent of thier distance from the viewer (this was accomplished by having the camera placed at ground level). The effect still occured, but it is ambiguous due to the lack of a perspective background. In a normal situation, the smaller figure should be on a higher level in the visual plane than the larger and closer figure. A perspective background would also be present.

How can this man be leaning off the wall without falling? No, he is not being held up by invisible ropes. How are balls able to roll up hill on their own accord as seen in the right photograph? 13
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When you enter the house, you will notice that it has a strange tilt. All references to the true horizontal are removed from your sight. This is always true whether you are just outside the house or inside it. For example, there is always a wooden fence around the house to remove any significant comparisons to the true horizontal.

The anti-gravity house is actually built at an angle of 25 off the true horizontal. This will explain every effect seen. Once in the area of an anti-gravity house you are always comparing the effects to what you are used to -- normallevel floors and walls that are perpendicular to the ground. The Leaning Off Walls Effect On the left-top diagram you see the actual tilt of the house to the true horizontal.Both people are perpendicular to the true horizontal. On the left-bottom, you see the situation as it is perceived by the people inside the room. They have no access to the true horizontal, and are judging their surroundings by a horizontal that is created by the room. This causes one to have an internal change of reference frames, which causes the people to appear as they are actually leaning off the walls. 14
Literature Study

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Clinging Objects Effect The same reason as above accounts for this mysterious phenomena. In the middle-top diagram you can see that the Earth's gravity fully holds the chair against the wall. However, to the observer inside the room, the chair appears to mysteriously stay against the wall.

Objects Rolling/Water Flowing Uphill On the right-top diagram, the board or trough is at a very slight downhill incline from the true horizontal (about 5 to 7 degrees). On the right-bottom, you can see how the effect appears to the observer. The house is tilted at an angle of 25 degrees. Someone inside the house perceives the upwards incline of the ramp to be 20 degrees, which is a pretty dramatic incline!

This building is on King George V in Paris.

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3. Data Collection

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Data Collection

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Site selection
During selection of site for a museum the following points must be considered. 1. It should have security against theft, environmental factors such as flood and earthquakes. 2. The site should have provision for further expansion. 3. The site should be easily accessible through public transport and should be within reach of educational institutions. 4. There should be clear access to the site from main road. A museum which is to be built in an isolated spot or reserved space needs to be surrounded by an enclosure, especially if the site forms part of an extensive area. For the visitor this enclosure will provide a fore taste of the museums architecture and thus must not constitute a psychological barrier though the fundamental aim of security which has to serve must not be sacrificed.

Zoning
Based on environmental needs, security considerations as well as levels of finish the total museum space can be divided in to following zones. 1. Exhibition galleries and study areas with public access. These are expensively built and finished well. 2. Entrance, reception, toilets, cloak rooms, phone booths, educational rooms, library, cafeteria, auditorium. 3. Stores, laboratories, unloading and loading areas etc. 4. Staff offices, workshop, stores.

Types of spaces
1. Galleries 2. Gallery support space Permanent Temporary Curatorial office and related space. Conservation laboratories. Collection handling and registration space. Photographic, media, publications Storage of collection and related materials. Storage of pre-rational supplies. Collection storage. Library Computer rooms and class rooms Studios, training labs.

3. Museum storage

4. Study areas

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5. Public services

Auditorium and related space. Museum shop sales. Dining and support space. Cloak rooms and toilets. Reception areas. Museum programs and related

6. Administrative space administerative offices. 7. Operations

Security protection and related space. Surveillance room. Maintenance, staff lounge, toilets. AC and electricity control rooms Public and non-public. Services.

8. Circulation space

Shape of rooms
The rooms which are all of same size become very monotonous. By varying the dimensions and relation between height and width and also by using different colours for the walls and different kinds of flooring we can provide a spontaneous and unconscious stimulus to attention monotony also results when a number of rooms follow the another in a straight line. When this cannot be avoided, the doors should not face one another providing a telescopic view trough the buildings.

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Different ways of dividing up exhibition space.

The doors should be placed in such a way that visitor coming through will see the full length of opposite wall. It is therefore not advisable for it to face window, since the visitor will then be dazzled just as he comes in. Oblong rooms, divided by partitions to certain height but with one ceiling and skylight however be avoided. This system has proved unsatisfactory worth from aesthetic and functional point of view. A square room when it exceeds a certain size about 7mts, has no advantage over an oblong one either from the point of view of cost or from that of use of space in the satisfactory display of exhibits, especially if they are rare paintings.

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(a) to (d) floor plans for the location of doors in relation to the use of space. (1) Traditional location of doors. (2) to (8) secondary doors. (9) to (15) polygonal enclosures.

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Space organization diagram 21


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Types of Exhibits
They can be divided as follows: Static exhibits: These are historic exhibits, reproduction of original objects. Active exhibits: They are the exhibits which are static till a visitor activates them into producing sound and motion. Working models are the best examples. Interactive exhibits: They are the most advanced and allow the visitor to activate and give them a multiple choice of options and then give various results. The visitor can accommodate with exhibits. These exhibits allow the visitors to experiment.

Classification of exhibits:
Permanent exhibits Temporary exhibits

The permanent exhibits undergo periodical change from 5-10 years. The changes are minimal but they have permanent effects and goals to achieve. The temporary exhibits, the museum organizes the exhibition for a limited period and for a specific cause. They are two spaces internal and external.

Mode of display
The idea of exhibits considerably changed during years rather than awesome display of exhibits with do not touch restriction, the display has formed a team of inactive, active and interactive types. The worLbhop concept (active/interactive) encourages public participation through visual demonstration and the filmshows and lectures are more encouraging and entertaining.

Measurement
The approximate eyelevel and the levels of comfortable visibility are given in the figures with little eye movement people usually see and recognize the things which are within an approximately, elliptical come of vision with apex at the cone at eyeball height. Studies have shown that in general the adults absorb an area only about one foot above his own eye level to 3 feet below it at an average distance of 2448 arraying objects above or below these limits, places a strain on seldom used muscles and produces aching backs, tired feet, burning eyes and stiff necks some large objects such as to temples or dinosaurs will inevitably saw above these viewing limits. The visitors must be permitted space to back away from the object to comprehend it. 22
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Measurements of adult and six year old visitors in relation to cases. Right side picture shows the difficulties encountered in viewing details more than 3ft below or 1ft above ones eye level.

Viewing distance should increase with greater size of object. 23


Data Collection

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Exhibition rooms
Certain general relationships between spaces and such preferred organizations on plan and selection may increase the possible museum user in other words some building forms, but never only one make museum installation easier than others, principally these performances concern the movement of the visitors. Except for the isolation exhibits, the typical museum experience is one of the image viewing in a sequence. Which refused by a walking observer meeting static objects, the design may ensure if necessary that the images are viewed in one particular sequence with themes in which objects are not icons but are to be viewed in context with proceeding and succeeding ones. The theme comes first and then objects of various kinds are devised and assembled in some sequence that would produce a message of that communicates the theme.

Possible gallery arrangements.

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Visual Perception
The following list of factors must be considered in the qualitative analysis of visual perception. Experience and attention of the observer. The characteristics of the form, optical size inherent contrast, colour, texture, secularity, reflectance etc. Simultaneous contrast context information content, patterns figures background separation etc. Adaptation illumination qualities geometry dispersion characteristic directionality, spectral type, quality polarization number and type of sources consistency of directional characteristics and colour rendering effect etc presence or absence of focus or distraction in the luminous environment.

Circulation
Circulating pattern should be designed keeping in mind that there is general tendency to turn right to enter an exhibit hall. Depending upon the rate of flow of visitors the areas inside the gallery can be described below: Areas of constant crowd flow: These are the areas where terse repetitive exhibits that can be easily understood by the visitors are placed. Areas of crowd slope-age: These are characterized by the general display of nature along with the exhibits of conceptual nature requiring time to absorb. Areas of variable crowd flow: The exhibits allow visitors to choose among simple and complex exhibits.

The circulation of public and staff, service areas has to be separated from each other and the visitor should be able to approach a particular gallery of his or her choice as directly as possible. He should not be obliged to return or proceed through galleries he is not interested in. The location of temporary exhibit hall should take into consideration of the possibility of large number of visitors. A separate entrance is advisable.

Circulation Patterns
Star/Fan pattern: The main part is generally continuous, but the path leads to series of self contained units which have a more varied path within them. Arterial pattern: The main path is continuous and no option exists for the visitors. It is used where presentation is dependent upon a fixed sequence. Block pattern: This is the most commonly used pattern in the interactive sessions of science and technology museums. It offers a relatively unconstructed pattern witch can be random and self directive as desired by a visitor. Comb pattern: Main circulation path and optional alcoves are provided which a visitor may enter or bypass. Radial pattern: This pattern is a series of alternatives from a central area.

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Circulation for Elderly and Handicapped


Their need should be met according to the guidelines below: Usage of ramps and doorways to accommodate wheel chairs frequent and easily accessible resting areas.

Pacing
Pacing is a means of reducing both mental and physical fatigue for the museum visitor. Methods of pacing: Providing contrasts and diversity in spaces so as to hold visitors interest. Easy organization and layout of spaces for easy orientation. Provision of rest areas to change of pace activities.

Lighting
Lighting is of primary importance in visual oriented buildings like museum. The following guidelines may be followed in creating luminous environment. The amount of light to view exhibits in less than to perform tasks. Both daylight and artificial light must be taken into account. Colour temperatures must be considered and need for natural light must be explored. Qualitative aspect of light must be considered, glares should be avoided. Natural light must be controlled by using louvers, blinds etc, use of high level lighting for even light and more display diffuse. Point source of artificial light can create exception glare, hence careful choice must be done(most applicable tungsten halogen and florescent). 26
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Even in well day lit room electrical lighting is to be used on winter afternoons when daylight fades. When side lit room deep enough for work requiring luminance 500 to be carried out at a distance from window greater than height of window head above working place, electrical light required for more than 15% of the working year as day light factor will probably be less than 10%. If tinted glazing is used these depths are greatly reduced. Therefore the general lighting luminaries should be arranged in rows parallel to window wall and each row should have separate switches. The switches should be located so that they can be conveniently operated by occupants. Florescent lamps should be chosen from intermediate colour range compatible with the colour rendering requirements and with warmth of lighting required at night. For maximum conservation if energy automatic control should be installed in a new building to switch off or preferably dim those rows of luminaries lighting the work areas which are not required when daylight rises to provide luminance at that depth such that full electrical lighting is not necessary. In top lit interiors with sufficient glazing to provide an average daylight factor of 10% over working year for tasks on which 500lx required and for longer than this where higher luminance required or DI provided. The whole installation can be linked to a photo electric switch or photo electric dimming contol where florescent lighting is used.

Different methods of admitting natural light from above. (a) cross section (b) to (h) cross section and view from above. (i) and (j) cross section. 27
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Structural System
The system which is flexible and gives large unobstructed spaces should be adopted in galleries. Easy integration of services such as air conditioning ducts, lighting fixtures and fans should be there. The building should be secured against vibrations, damp rising from ground, fire and theft etc.

(Source from the books of: Time-saver standards for building types by Glenn Arbonies and Sandra Vlock- page no.677 to 692. and Time-saver standards for building types by Joseph De Chiara and Jhon callender- page no.329 to 340.)

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4. Desktop Study

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The Creation Museum


Petersburg, Kentucky, USA

(Source- http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Creation_Museum)

The Creation Museum is a 60,000 square foot museum in the United States designed to promote young Earth creationism. The museum presents an account of the origins of the universe, life, mankind, and man's early history according to a literal reading of the book of Genesis. The museum, which is said to have cost $27 million, is privately-funded through donations to the apologetics ministry Answers in Genesis and opened its doors to the public on May 28, 2007.

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Displays and exhibits The museum's many displays and exhibits are designed to be state-of-theart, and include 52 professionally-made videos. In addition to large movie screens showing a young-Earth history of the world, the museum also features a 78-seat planetarium depicting creationist cosmologies and a 200-seat special-effects theater with seats that vibrate and jets that can spray the audience with mist. Many of the displays were designed by Patrick Marsh, who had formerly worked for Universal Studios designing attractions such as Jaws and King Kong before becoming a born-again Christian and young Earth creationist. Among its exhibits, the museum features life-size dinosaur models, over 80 of them animatronic (animated and motion-sensitive). Model dinosaurs are depicted in the Garden of Eden, many of them side-by-side with human figures.[30] In one exhibit, a model Triceratops is shown wearing a saddle and another, along with a Stegosaurus, is shown aboard a scale model of Noah's Ark. The museum also includes a restaurant, outdoor walking trails, and a medieval-themed gift shop. The museum's aim is to teach visitors how to answer attacks on the Bible's authority in geology, biology and so on, while providing a family-friendly experience. The exhibits are as whizzy as any in a theme park. But starting with scripture and trying to force the facts to fit makes for odd science.

Visitors view exhibits at the new Creation Museum where among other things dinosaurs sail on Noah's Ark.
(Source-http://www.creationmuseum.org/about)

The Creation Museum presents a unique and unparalleled experience, a walk through time portraying significant, life-altering events of the past, illuminating the effects of biblical history on our present and future world. The area within the museum has been divided into unusually configured spaces that allow for personal interaction with each of the 160 exhibits. Several parts of the museum, including the stunning forty-foot high portico with its cliff wall and floor-to-ceiling glass windows, flaunt open spaces and remarkable designs.
(Source - http://www.nytimes.com/2007/05/24/arts/24crea.html)

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The entrance gates here are topped with metallic Stegosauruses. The grounds include a giant tyrannosaur standing amid the trees, and a stonelined lobby sports varied sauropods. It could be like any other natural history museum, luring families with the promise of immense fossils and dinosaur adventures. But step a little farther into the entrance hall, and you come upon a pastoral scene undreamt of by any natural history museum. Two prehistoric children play near a burbling waterfall, thoroughly at home in the natural world. Dinosaurs cavort nearby, their animatronics mechanisms turning them into alluring companions, their gaping mouths seeming not threatening, but almost welcoming, as an Apatosaurus munches on leaves a few yards away. Outside the museum scientists may assert that the universe is billions of years old, that fossils are the remains of animals living hundreds of millions of years ago, and that lifes diversity is the result of evolution by natural selection. But inside the museum the Earth is barely 6,000 years old, dinosaurs were created on the sixth day, and Jesus is the savior who will one day repair the trauma of mans fall. The Creation Museum actually stands the natural history museum on its head. Natural history museums developed out of the Enlightenment: encyclopedic collections of natural objects were made subject to ever more searching forms of inquiry and organization. The natural history museum gave order to the natural world, taming its seeming chaos with the principles of human reason. And Darwins theory which gave life a compelling order in time as well as space became central to its purpose. Put on display was the prehistory of civilization, seeming to allude not just to the evolution of species but also cultures (which is why primitive cultures were long part of its domain). The natural history museum is a hall of human origins. But for debates, a visitor goes elsewhere. The Creation Museum offers an alternate world that has its fascinations, even for a skeptic wary of the effect of so many unanswered assertions. He leaves feeling a bit like Adam emerging from Eden, all the world before him, freshly amazed at its strangeness and extravagant peculiarities.

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de Young Art Museum


Classic and impressionist art in Golden Gate Park, San Francisco, California.

(Source - http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/De_Young_Museum)

The museum originally opened in 1895 as an outgrowth of the California Midwinter International Exposition of 1894. The building was originally decorated with cast-concrete ornaments on the faade. The ornaments were removed in 1949 as they began to fall and had become a hazard. The 1989 Loma Prieta Earthquake severely damaged the building. Architects Jacques Herzog and Pierre de Meuron and engineers Arup designed the newly rebuilt structure, which reopened on October 15, 2005. Copper plating, which will change colors through exposure to the elements, surrounds the present building. A 144 ft. (44 m) observation tower allows visitors to see much of Golden Gate Park's Music Concourse (See Below) and rises above the Park's treetops for a new view of the Golden Gate and Marin headlands. The courtyard of the de Young features a sculptural installation by Andy Goldsworthy named Drawn Stone. The de Young also exhibits American decorative pieces, textiles, and paintings from the Rockefeller Collection of American Art. It is home to the annual floral exhibition Bouquets to Art. Other permanent collections include the African and Oceanic collections which, along with the 'Art of the America's' collection, were curated by Kathleen Berrin.

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(Source - http://www.arcspace.com/architects/herzog_meuron/de_young.html)

Constructed of warm, natural materials, including copper, stone, wood and glass, the new de Young blends into and complement its surroundings. Historic elements from the former de Young, such as the sphinxes, the original palm trees, and the Pool of Enchantment, have been retained or reconstructed.

The dramatic copper facade is perforated and textured to replicate the impression made by light filtering through a tree canopy. The copper skin, chosen for its changeable quality through oxidation, will assume a rich green patina over time that will blend gracefully with the surrounding environment. The educational department is housed in a 144-foot tower that spirals gently from the ground floor and aligns at the top with the grid formed by the surrounding neighborhood. The building is threaded with a series of courtyards that draw visitors and the landscape into the museums interior. The main entrance leads through a courtyard paved in Yorkshire limestone.

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The exterior is encircled by ribbons of windows that reflect the landscape and allow park visitors glimpses of the art within the museum, while simultaneously providing museum visitors views of the park. A public observation floor offers panoramic views of the entire Bay Area.

Broad staircases lead from the double-height interior lobby to the open, expansive galleries, paved with honeyed colored hardwood, that houses the museums diverse collections of world art.

Several areas of the museum force you to view the beauty of the gardens and park with sweeping views of San Francisco. The combination of the stunning views with the art makes for an incredible combination. Some areas are airy and crowned with skylights-- others are set in semidarkness in rooms with heavy wooden floors. The design of various rooms is a commentary on the art and how different pieces relate to each other. The museum's president (Dede Wilsley) was heavily involved in the museum's design throughout the construction phases. She gifted the museum with a Gerhard Richter mural. The de Young museum is a combination of tourist attraction and civic icon that is wowing crowds from around the globe.

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(Source-http://www.designbuild-network.com/projects/de_young/).

It also managed to provide an open and light-filled environment, which enhanced the art viewing experience. The design features include:

Pathways through the museum from the park, which are natural extensions of park paths, allowing pedestrians to weave in and out of the museum space along their route Outdoor spaces and interior courtyards surrounding and penetrating the exhibit spaces, and extensive windows providing views into the museum and art collections, as well as views out into the park A nine-storey education tower housing the arts education programs and providing expansive views of the city skyline State-of-the-art seismic engineering Historic elements from the existing De Young, such as the Sphinxes, the original 100-year-old palm trees and the Pool of Enchantment A sweeping low-rise building of steel and glass. Many critics have hailed it as a masterpiece of modern design. The 293,000ft museum, surrounded by several sculpture gardens, includes a 144ft-high viewing tower set on the axis of the city streets. The museum has a three-storey main level and a nine-storey educational tower topped by an observation deck with sweeping views of the Golden Gate Bridge, Ocean Beach and Twin Peaks. The steel structure of the building features a unique base isolation foundation system and a custom copper exterior faade, which is the largest of its kind in the world. The museum has numerous exhibition spaces including: permanent collection galleries (61,200ft), temporary exhibition galleries (12,000ft), art display areas (11,000ft), education areas (20,000ft) and conservation facilities (13,200ft).The museum also includes a caf (3,700ft), a gift shop (3,900ft), a 300 seat theatre / auditorium (3,900ft) and extensive office space. The museum will now be able to showcase priceless collections of American art, and art of the native Americas, Africa and the Pacific and will once again be able to offer Federal insurance for exhibits. 37
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INTERIORS AND EXTERIORS, MATERIALS AND CONCEPTS The building was constructed of warm natural materials including copper, stone, glass and wood so that it would blend in with the natural surroundings of Golden Gate Park and complement the retained features of the old museum building. The windows were designed in a ribbon style to blur the boundary between the museum interior and the sumptuous natural environment outside. The building has a dramatic copper faade, which is perforated and textured to replicate a pattern caused by light filtering through a tree canopy. The copper 'skin' was chosen for its aging and changeable qualities through the oxidation process, which will give it a rich green patina over a period of time allowing it to blend with the natural surroundings. The education tower at the northeast corner of the building spirals from the ground floor to form a parallelogram and aligns at the top with the grid formed by the streets of the Richmond and Sunset neighbourhoods. The public observation floor (2,500ft) at the top of the tower offers panoramic views of the bay area, and is free of charge. The lobby floors of the museum are made of Italian Porphyry stone and there is also Arcustone in the areas near the information desks. The buildings are equipped with acoustic ceilings and the galleries have 'Sydney blue' sustainable source eucalyptus wood floors and stretch fabric ceilings. The caf has hand blown glass light fixtures. LANDSCAPE DESIGN The outdoor environment of the museum is as important to the project as the interior of the buildings. The gardens feature the Barbro Osher Sculpture Garden and terrace (35,000ft), situated beneath a cantilevered roof, and the George and Judy Marcus Children's garden of enchantment (47,500ft). The landscaping provides an organic link between the building and the surrounding environment on all four sides and incorporates features from the old museum. The entry court of the main entrance is also a landscape feature (1,100ft). The paved areas of the exterior have been paved with 'Appleton Greenmore' Yorkshire sandstone. Andy Goldsworthy produced his 'Faultline' sculpture for the museum courtyard, which is a drawing in stone, that will draw visitors into the new museum along a meandering crack running from the roadway in the front through a series of eight cleaved boulders that can be sat on. Cleveland Marble Mosaic aided the sculpture in the construction and Sheedy Drayage Co moved the boulders into place. The sculpture is made from the same Appleton Greenmoore sandstone from Yorkshire and is a rich ironoxidised orange colour that complements the museum's copper skin. 38
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Redwood, cypress, eucalyptus, ferns and other native and non-native plants have been planted both inside and outside the museum to emphasise the sense of blending the park and museum together. There are 5.12 acres of new landscape with 344 new trees planted; 48 trees were planted inside building. The Pool of Enchantment had 69 of its historic boulders returned and seven new turtle sunning rocks were provided. BUILDING STATISTICS The building includes 5,122t of structural steel, 2,500t of rebar and 1,500t of concrete. The faade includes 950,000lb (70,000ft) of copper sheet, 300,000lb of glass panels and 7,200 custom-built artistic panels with 1,500,000 embossing. An underground parking garage was created for 800 cars by digging a tunnel beneath 10th Avenue from Fulton Street. The parking garage is shared with its neighbour the new California Academy of Sciences. This decreased the amount of on-street parking, which was in effect taken underground to ease congestion.

The museum will showcase priceless collections of art and will once again be able to offer Federal insurance for exhibits.

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Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum


New York City
(Source - http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Solomon_R._Guggenheim_Museum)

The Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum, founded in 1937, is a modern art museum located on the Upper East Side in New York City. It is the best-known of several museums owned and/or operated by the Solomon R. Guggenheim Foundation, and is often called simply The Guggenheim. It is one of the bestknown museums in New York City. Originally called "The Museum of Non-Objective Painting," the Guggenheim was founded to showcase avant-garde art by early modernists such as Wassily Kandinsky and Piet Mondrian. It moved to its present location, at the corners of 89th Street and Fifth Avenue (overlooking Central Park), in 1959, when Frank Lloyd Wright's design for the site was completed. Internally, the viewing gallery forms a gentle spiral from the ground level up to the top of the building. Paintings are displayed along the walls of the spiral and also in viewing rooms found at stages along the way.

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Most criticism of the building has focused on the idea that it overshadows the artworks displayed within, and that it is particularly difficult to properly hang paintings in the shallow windowless exhibition niches which surround the central spiral. Although the rotunda is generously lit by a large skylight, the niches are heavily shadowed by the walkway itself, leaving the art to be lit largely by artificial light. The walls of the niches are neither vertical nor flat (most are gently concave) meaning canvasses must be mounted proud of the wall's surface. The limited space within the niches means that sculptures are generally relegated to plinths amid the main spiral walkway itself. Prior to its opening, twenty-one artists signed a letter protesting the display of their work in such a space. In 1992, the building was supplemented by an adjoining rectangular tower, taller than the original spiral, designed by Gwathmey Siegel and Associates Architects. By that point, the building had become iconic enough that this augmentation of Wright's original design was itself controversial.In October 2005, Lisa Dennison was appointed director of the Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum in New York. She hopes to improve the permanent collection, renew excitement, attract new board members, and bring new, exciting shows to the New York Museum.

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Top picture shows the sectional view, Above pictures shows the internal ramp and atrium

Much of the interior of the building was restored during the 1992 renovation and addition by Gwathmey Siegel and Associates Architects. The 2007-2008 restoration primarily addresses the exterior of the original building and the infrastructure. This includes the skylights, windows, doors, concrete and gunite facades and exterior sidewalk, as well as the climate-control. The goal will be to preserve as much significant historical fabric of the Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum as possible, while accomplishing necessary repairs and attaining a suitable environment for the buildings continuing use as a museum....link to podcast about restoration (10 MB, audio only, 8 min 45 sec) The $29 million restoration is made possible through the support of Peter B. Lewis, the Board of Trustees of the Solomon R. Guggenheim Foundation, the City of New York and the State of New York. The restoration work is projected to be complete and the scaffolding to come down by late spring of 2008. ...link to streaming video, broadband only.

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Guggenheim Museum Bilbao


Bilbao, Basque Country, Spain
( Source- http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Guggenheim_Museum_Bilbao)

The Guggenheim Museum Bilbao is a modern and contemporary art museum designed by Canadian-American architect Frank Gehry and located in Bilbao, Basque Country, Spain. It is built alongside the Nervion River, which runs through the city of Bilbao to the Atlantic Coast. The Guggenheim is one of several museums of the Solomon R. Guggenheim Foundation. The museum features both permanent and visiting exhibits featuring works of both Spanish and international artists.

The Guggenheim Museum Bilbao, along the Nervin River in downtown Bilbao, with the Maman, a huge spider by Louise Bourgeois The Curves on the building have been designed to appear random, the architect has been quoted saying "the randomness of the curves are designed to catch the light". Designed by Canadian/American architect Frank Gehry and opened to the public in 1997, was immediately vaulted to prominence as one of the world's most spectacular buildings in the style of Deconstructivism. Architect Philip Johnson called it "the greatest building of our time". The museum's design and construction serve as an object lesson in Gehry's style and method. Like much of Gehry's other work, the structure consists of radically sculpted, organic contours. Sited as it is in a port town, it is intended to resemble a ship. Its brilliantly reflective panels resemble fish scales, echoing the other organic life (and, in particular, fish-like) forms that recur commonly in Gehry's designs, as well as the river Nervin upon which the museum sits. Also in typical Gehry fashion, the building is uniquely a product of the period's technology. 43
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Computer-aided design (CATIA) and visualizations were used heavily in the structure's design. Computer simulations of the building's structure made it feasible to build shapes that architects of earlier eras would have found nearly impossible to construct. Also important is that while the museum is a spectacular monument from the river, on street level it is quite modest and does not overwhelm its traditional surroundings. The museum was opened as part of a revitalization effort for the city of Bilbao and for the Basque Country. Almost immediately after its opening, the Guggenheim Bilbao became a popular tourist attraction, drawing visitors from around the globe.[1] It was widely credited with "putting Bilbao on the map" and subsequently inspired other structures of similar design across the globe, such as the Cerritos Millennium Library in Cerritos, California. The building was constructed on time and budget, which is rare for architecture of this type. In an interview in Harvard Design Magazine [2] Gehry explained how he did it. First, he ensured that what he calls the "organization of the artist" prevailed during construction, in order to prevent political and business interests from interfering with the design. Second, he made sure he had a detailed and realistic cost estimate before proceeding. Third, he used CATIA and close collaboration with the individual building trades to control costs during construction. The Guggenheim museum in Bilbao, Spain, which is made of glass, titanium, and limestone.

Puppy by Jeff Koons in front of the Guggenheim. The exhibitions in the museum itself change often, the museum hosts thematic exhibitions, centered for example on Chinese or Russian art. The museum's permanent collection concerns 20th century art -- traditional paintings and sculptures are a minority compared to installations and electronic forms. The highlight of the collection, and its only permanent exhibit, is The Matter of Time, a series of weathering steel sculptures designed by Richard Serra and housed in 44
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the 430-foot Arcelor Gallery (formerly known as the Fish Gallery but renamed in 2005 for the steel manufacturer that sponsored the project.

Above pictures show the interiors of the museum

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5. Case Study
Salar Jung Museum, Hyderabad

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Case Study Salar Jung Museum

Design Thesis - ILLUSION MUSEUM

Salar Jung Museum,Hyderabad


The Salarjung Museum that is dream for any art visionary is blessed to be the third largest museum in India that features the greatest number of one-man collection of antiques. The Salarjung Museum that is located on the southern bank of the Musi River boasts of the prized displays that belong to the different civilizations dating back to the 1 st century. The museum was a noble attempt of Nawab Mir Yosuouf Ali Khan Salar Jung III, former Prime Minister of the seventh Nizam of Hyderabad, who wished to take the priceless collection on a much larger platform. The Salar Jung museum in Hyderabad is one of the oldest museums in the city. It is the only museum that has the largest compilation of personally collected artifacts from all around the world. This museum has the greatest collection of rare antiques and knick-knacks from all over the world. One needs to devote an entire day for touring the museum itself. The portraits of the Salar Jung, the Nizams of the Hyderabad city can be found in the Founder's Gallery. The Indian art is exhibited in an assortment of stone sculptures, bronze images, painted textiles, wooden carvings, miniature paintings, modern art, ivory carvings, jade carvings, metal-ware, manuscripts, arms & armor etc. One can also find Middle Eastern Art in the collection of carpets, paper (manuscripts), glass, metalware, furniture, lacquer etc. These have been collected from Persia, Arabia, Syria, and Egypt. The Museum is also horded with porcelain, bronze, enamel, lacquerware, embroidery and paintings, which have been skillfully done in China, Japan, Tibet, Nepal and Thailand. The European chamber of artifacts in the Salar Jung Museum comprises of oil and water paintings. These paintings originate from countries like England, France, Italy and Germany. A well-preserved library within the museum provides a rare treat to all book lovers. The main attractions of the museum are the statue of Veiled Rebecca, crafted knives of Mughal Emperor Jehangir and Queen Noor Jehan, famous European paintings like Venice, etc. A huge clock in which a tiny soldier comes out to strike the gong should not be missed and is a special attraction of the Salar Jung Museum.

Salar jung Museum in old building on left and new building on the right side. 47
Case Study Salar Jung Museum

Design Thesis - ILLUSION MUSEUM

< A satellite image of Salar jung Museum A Main block B Western block C Far Eastern block D Entrance gate

The Salar jung Museum is the largest museum in India that features the greatest number of one-man collection of antiques. The museum is located on the southern bank of the musi river boasts of the prized displays that belong to the different civilizations dating back to the 1st century. The Salar jung museum was brought into existence in December, 1951 in the Diwan Deodhi, the residential palace of Salar jung III. Later shifted in 1968 to the present location which was built for the museum.

New look of the block. Right is the portico of the western block. Elevation of the main block was renovated by adding big windows and domes on the top of the block. Western block and far eastern blocks were added on either sides of the main block and opened on 30th April 1999. The design of both western and eastern blocks are similar.

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Design Thesis - ILLUSION MUSEUM

Left side photo shows the pathway in-between the main block and western block which leads to the parking area. A over bridge connecting main building and western block is also seen. Right side image shows the rock sculptures in the lawn in front of the main block. Main block galleries:

Ground floor galleries : 1-Founders privacy, 2-Founders gallery, 3-Bronzes and painted textiles, 4-Palkees, 5-Indian sculpture, 6-Minor arts of south India, 7-Indian textiles and mughal glass, 8,9,10,12- Childrens section, 11-Ivory room, 13-European statuary, 14-Arms gallery, 15- Metal ware, 16-Modern Indian paintings, 17-Indian miniature paintings, a- Museum shop, b-Canteen, c- Ladies toilet, d- Clock shed.

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First floor galleries: 33-Western paintings, 32- European porcelain, 31- Store, 30- French room, 29- European glass, 28- Jade and other mineral objects, 27- European bronzes, 26- Egyptian room, 25- Carpets, 24- Clock room, 23- Manuscripts, 22- Far eastern porcelain, 21- Kashmir room, 20- Far eastern statuary, 19- Chinese art, 18- Japanese art.

Second floor: 1- Reading hall, 2-Library (Urdu section), 3-Manuscripts section, 4- Manuscripts reserves, 5 to 15 -Stores, 16- auditorium, 17-Referance library, 18-Library (English section).

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Third floor: 1-Board room, 2-Documentation section, 3-Directors chamber, 4-PA to director, 5to8- Keepers rooms, 9-A&AO room, 10-ADM & Account office, 11- Board office, 12- Stores (office), 13-Photo section, 14- Keeper (display) 15-Picture restoration section, 16-Store for display section, 17-Conservation laboratory, 18- Chemist.
(Source from the book Museum collections concepts of preserventive conservation published by Salar jung museum in 1997.)

The main building is having four floors. Ground and first floors are having galleries. Second floor is having library and stores. Third floor is having administration area. Second and third floors are restricted from public entry. The western and far eastern blocks are connected to the main block in the first floor. The two blocks are also having separate entrances in the ground floor of the blocks. Security check and the surveillance area are provided at the entrance lobby. There are 38 galleries in the main block spread in two floors. The ground floor has 20 galleries and 18 galleries on the first floor. For getting relief from museum fatigue the visitors are provided with benches in the corridors of the galleries. Separate toilets for Gents, ladies and physically challenged people are provided on all the floors. Sculptures were arranged in corridor spaces. Large courtyards which are open to sky for good light into the corridors. Landscaping was done with palm trees and other plants. Wide corridors of 100 width. Fire fighting equipment is provided. Galleries are illuminated with the artificial lighting.

AC is provided in all the galleries. AC ducts are visible in the corridors. Visitors are not allowed to go to second and third floors.

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Interior arrangement of the founders galleries.

Above is the Interior arrangement of the painted textile gallery. Below is the arrangements in the minor arts of south India gallery. Both are in ground floor.

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Interior arrangement of the Indian sculpture gallery.

Above picture shows the arrangement in the Arms gallery.

Above picture shows the arrangement in the Metal ware gallery.

Clock shed is situated in the courtyard of the ground floor. 53


Case Study Salar Jung Museum

Design Thesis - ILLUSION MUSEUM

Big mirrors of 10 height with ornamental metal frames are arranged in the corridors. Wide staircase of 7 width. Walls along the side of staircase are clad in marble. Sign boards are indicating gallery name and number provided to indicate the gallery easily.

Arrangements in the manuscript gallery. Right side picture shows the arrangement of chandeliers in the galleries.

View of Far eastern Statuary 54


Case Study Salar Jung Museum

Design Thesis - ILLUSION MUSEUM

Far Eastern Block:

This block is connected to the main block of the museum at the eastern side of first floor. It consists of only two floors. A separate entrance to the block is provided in the ground floor of the block. Ground floor is having the administration area where as the exhibition spaces are provided in the first floor.

Western block (or) European block: This block is connected to the main block of the museum at the western side of first floor. It consists of only two floors. A separate entrance to the block is provided in the ground floor of the block. Ground floor is having the administration area where as the exhibition spaces are provided in the first floor. 55
Case Study Salar Jung Museum

Design Thesis - ILLUSION MUSEUM

Left side picture shows a statue of an illusion which has two sculptures back to back. One side it looks like a man back side it looks like a woman. Right side picture shows the arrangement of sculptures in the European sculpture gallery.

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Case Study
B.M. Birla Science Museum, Hyderabad

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Case Study B.M.Birla Science Museum

Design Thesis - ILLUSION MUSEUM

B. M. Birla Science Museum, Hyderabad


Established in 1990, B M Birla Science Museum is located in Saifabad. The Birla Science Museum is another beautiful structure, reflecting the advances made in science and technology. The interior dcor matches the architectural exterior of the Centre built over 10,000 Sq. Ft. It is an RCC construction building.

Above images shows the front view of the museum. It show the glass panels and the walls are clad in stone. The curved steel space frame is on top of the building.

Above image is the satellite picture of the museum. Dot indicates the museum block. Illusions section has exhibits like young or old, cage the bird and face or vase?, that would tease your grey cells and visual capabilities. The Mechanics section included pedal power, defying gravity, antigravity cone, suspension bridge, pendulum patterns, etc. Holograms, soap films, the marble race, black hole, race the rollers, race the rollers and so on formed a part of the Perceptions section. The interesting exhibits are, however, invisible string wherein if you run your palm across the wooden instrument thus blocking the light emitted from the bulb(s) hidden in the hollow of the instrument, you can create your own raagas from classical to western to desi to filmi. The other interesting objects on display that may catch your immediate attention are see heat, climbing spark, pendulum patterns, black hole, split personality, grow & shrink, color mixer, et al. There is a 58
Case Study B.M.Birla Science Museum

Design Thesis - ILLUSION MUSEUM

special section for the kids called Children which has video games, mini cars, aeroplanes, horses, etc, for their entertainment. However, one major disappointment is that a few of the exhibits are either not functioning or dont contain the brief about how they work. The other most interesting objects are the see heat, climbing spark, spilt personality, color mixer and grow & shrink.

Left side picture shows the main entrance gate of the museum. Right side picture shows the security post besides the main gate.

Left side picture shows the snacks bar near the entrance gate. Right side picture shows the booking counter which is also near the entrance gate.

Above picture shows the parking areas of two wheelers and four wheelers. Parking areas are scattered to many areas with in the site. The parking area is meant for the visitors, staff and for the offices situated in the building. Below picture shows the sculptures and greenery around the building in the site.

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Design Thesis - ILLUSION MUSEUM

Left side picture shows the sign board to indicate the buildings in the site. Right side image shows the sculptures near the main entrance of the museum building.

Ground Level (Ground floor): Area - 23,980 sq.ft. Interactive science centre, reception, entrance, store, toilet, office and shops are located in this floor. Interactive science centre is having the galleries like globe & trishul, illusions, electronics, mechanics, glass and mirrors, fun mirrors, colour mixer, store, and children area. 60
Case Study B.M.Birla Science Museum

Design Thesis - ILLUSION MUSEUM

The entrance lobby is finished with granite flooring and the walls are also covered with the red colour granite up to a level of 2.5m height. Seating is provided around the coloumns for the visitors in the lobby area. In the interactive science centre which is also in the same floor, the partition walls are provided to separate the gallery spaces. These are curvilinear and clad with ceramic tiles. The incandescent lights placed in the steel frames hanging from the ceiling. There is no false ceiling.

Exhibition spaces of the interactive science gallery located on the ground floor. Lower level (cellar): Area 22,820 sq.ft. Archaeological and art galleries are there in this floor. A store, exhibit development laboratory and a store have been placed. A 200 people capacity auditorium is there. Flooring is done with ceramic tiles. There is no provision of natural lighting and ventilation Articles are arranged in showcases with glass. False ceiling was done with POP. Gallery spaces are in different levels in flooring. Porcelain statues, ivory items, books, carpets, vases, metal statues, arms, paintings, excavated ancient materials, wooden crafts, stone sculptures are placed in this floor.

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Design Thesis - ILLUSION MUSEUM

First Upper level (First floor): Area 23,980 sq.ft. Simulators, NRSA, dwaraka in miniature and Antarctica in miniature are located in this floor. Satellite pictures are displayed in the remote sensing area. Gray colour granite tiles flooring in the lobby area. Some portion of the floor is not in usage. There is no ventilation in the dwaraka section. Ceramic tiles flooring in the exhibition areas.

Second Upper level (Second floor): Dinosaurium Area 14,230 sq.ft., open terrace of 9,000 sq.ft.

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Design Thesis - ILLUSION MUSEUM

Above pictures show the entrance to the Dinosaurium gallery. And also showing the open terrace with columns and space frames. Open terrace is having mosaic flooring.

Inside the dinosaurium a skeleton of a sauroped dinosaur is arranged. 36 height railing is provided around the skeleton. Columns are clad with stone fossils in POP. False ceiling is in POP. Dino egg fossil, dino area set, paintings, fossils of ancient materials are arranged. It is a new section opened in 25th July 2000.

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Design Thesis - ILLUSION MUSEUM

Case Study _______________________


A.P. State Museum, Hyderabad

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Case Study A.P.State Museum

Design Thesis - ILLUSION MUSEUM

A.P. State Museum, Public Gardens, Hyderabad


One cannot miss this enchanting building as one passes by the Public Gardens. The A P State Archaeology Department museum has a large collection of stone and metal sculptures from ancient and medieval Andhra - from the Satavahana and Ikshvaku periods - in its five galleries, besides a pavilion dedicated to Ajanta and Deccani painting. A unique feature of the museum is its Modern Art Gallery that has a sizeable collection of paintings and sculptures of contemporary artistes of Hyderabad.

Left side image is showing the main entrance of the museum. Right side image is showing the satellite picture of the museum. Arrow marks show the access to the museum from the main road. The museum is located in the east side of the public gardens, nampally.

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Case Study A.P.State Museum

Design Thesis - ILLUSION MUSEUM

Built during the time of the VII Nizam in 1920, the museum is considered among the best in the country. Among its attractions are an Egyptian mummy, coins dating back to the Satavahana period of about second century BC, important Buddhist and Jain relics and sculpture of different periods and dynasties. The museum contains a Buddist gallery, Brahmanical & Jain gallery, Arms & Armour gallery Numissmatics gallery, Ajanta gallery & more. Adjacent to the State Museum is the Contempary Art Museum. The museum garden holds a re-installed hall complete with columns and ornate ceiling from Ghanapur, and a wooden temple chariot with monsters carved on the beams.

Left side image showing the sign board with location of galleries and other places at the entrance. Centre image shows the cannons placed on either side of the main entrance. Right side image is showing the parking area near the entrance gate. It is common parking for all the visitors of the public gardens.

Left side image shows the central courtyard and the circular blocks around the main block. The right side and the centre pictures are showing the sculptures arrangement interestingly as the natural setting in the courtyard lawns. 66
Case Study A.P.State Museum

Design Thesis - ILLUSION MUSEUM

Staircase leads to the Egyptian mummy gallery and decorative art gallery. Right side image shows the interiors of Egyptian mummy gallery. Both Egyptian mummy gallery and decorative art gallery are located in the first floor of entrance block. Egyptian mummy gallery and decorative art gallery are newly arranged galleries. Each display is given importance and arranged in different style in the both galleries. Natural light and ventilation is provided in both the galleries.

Above pictures show the arrangement of artifacts. Atmosphere of display is very interesting. Literature is placed at every display.

Some invaluable sculptures are not taken care properly, they were thrown in the courtyard lawns.

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Design Thesis - ILLUSION MUSEUM

Main block: 1&2 Sculptures at front corridors, 3- Surveillance room, 4-Lobby, 5- Ajanta Gallery & Buddist sculptures, 6- Buddist sculptures, 7- Back corridor with sculptures in cases, 8- water cooler, 9-office room, 10- staircase.

Arrangement of sculptures in the main block corridors. Provision of natural light into the galleries and corridors.

Ajanta gallery and buddist sculptures. Halogen light is used to illuminate the gallery.

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Sculptures are placed in the showcases at the back corridor. Right side picture shows the display of sculptures in the buddist gallery. Sufficient space is provided to observe the exhibits. Natural light and ventilation in to the galleries.

Access to the main road is closed which is backside of the main block. Right side picture shows the backside pathway leads to the contemporary art block.

Entrance and the double height lobby at the contemporary art gallery. Arrangement is interesting but lack of proper lighting. A ramp is provided to go to the first floor. Paintings are displayed along one side wall of the ramp.

Above pictures show the arrangements in the contemporary art galleries. Insufficient lighting in the galleries. Exhaust fans were fixed for the ventilation. 69
Case Study A.P.State Museum

Design Thesis - ILLUSION MUSEUM

Paintings and miniature paintings are displayed in showcases. They are illuminated with tube lights. Some exhibits are not visible because of lack of lighting. Seating is provided inside the gallery.

Bhagwan mahaveer auditorium is located in the ground floor of the contemporary art gallery.

Sculptures at jain gallery which is next to the contemporary art gallery. Sufficient natural light and ventilation into the galleries.

Above pictures show the exterior sculpture gallery and the landscape features and pathways near the jain gallery and towards exit gate. 70
Case Study A.P.State Museum

6. Comparative Analysis

Comparative Analysis of case study


DESCRIPTION Structural system SALARJUNG MUSEUM
RCC framed structure. Columns are visible only in the corridors.

B.M.BIRLA SCIENCE MUSEUM


RCC framed structure. Columns are placed in the galleries but they are not disturbing the circulation of the visitors , as they partitions are placed along them. It is at the heart of the city near Nampally in Hyderabad.

A.P.STATE MUSEUM
Old block is an RCC load bearing structure. Where as the new block is an RCC framed structure.

INFERENCES
The RCC framed structure is flexible and giving large unobstructed spaces can be adopted in galleries.

Location

It is on the southern bank of Musi river at afjulgunj and near to charminar of oldcity, in Hyderabad There are no levels in the site. Side by the road but traffic is less Old block is in the combination of muslim and Persian style. The new blocks are modern and contemporary. Building was designed for the museum.

It is at the heart of the city in public gardens, near Nampally in Hyderabad.

Site

Site is on the hill. So the land is very undulated. Away from traffic. Modern and contemporary.

There are no levels in the site. Side by the busy and heavy traffic road. Old block is in the combination of muslim and Persian style. The new blocks are modern and contemporary. The old Building was adopted for the museum. The new blocks were designed for the museum. Main importance is given to sculptures from ancient period. And also other exhibits like paintings and artifacts are there.

Site must be planned such that the traffic noise is cut as much as possible. It should reflect the content of the museum and in contemporary.

Architecture

Building design

Type of exhibits

Exhibits include all kinds of objects

Building was designed for the museum. But some places are used by the private people as tenents. Science related exhibits on the ground floor and other exhibits in the remaining floor.

It should be designed for the museum

Collection Future expansion

A huge collection A lot of space is around the museum, so future expansion is possible. RCC and bricks are the basic materials. Wood is used for the doors and windows extensively because of large openings. Steel is used for gates and grills. Vitrified tiles and granite are used in the new block along with conventional materials Three blocks are there. The main block is the oldest one and the far eastern block and the western blocks are added later. There are four floors, ground, first second and third floors in the main and the old block. But only ground and first floors are meant for the galleries. Only ground and first floors are there in the new blocks Lawn, trees and garden with sculptures are there.

Less collection A lot of space is around the museum, so future expansion is possible. Stone, glass, steel in space frames, tiles with primary colors, polished granite and ceramic tiles have been used along with conventional materials.

Less collection A lot of space is around the museum, so future expansion is possible. RCC and bricks are the basic materials. Wood is used for the doors and windows extensively because of large openings. Steel is used for gates and grills. Vitrified tiles and granite are used in the new block along with conventional materials There are two old blocks, one is the central block which is the main block, another one is surrounded by it. Only ground and first floors are there in all the blocks Future expansion must be kept in mind before locating building on site. New materials and latest technologies shall be used and bright colours are recommended.

Materials

Museum blocks

It is occupied in the single building.

Floors

There are three floors and a basement.

Landscape

Lawn, trees and garden with sculptures are there.

Parking

A separate space is provided for the parking.

Parking areas are scattered through out the site. A common parking along with the other activity buildings in the same site.

Lawn, trees and garden with sculptures are there. A separate sculpture court is there. A common parking along with the other activities as it is present in the public gardens.

Landsape with lawns and trees are necessary as the museum will have outdoor exhibits like sculptures. A separate parking area is preferable.

Main Entrance

Entrance for the main block is on the ground floor. For the new blocks entrances are from the old block which are on the first floor, also they have entrances on ground floor.

As the site is on a hill, the entrance seems to be on the ground but it is on the first floor.

Entrance is on the ground floor for the old and the new blocks.

The entrance preferably on the ground floor, so that the visitor is no need to go down and up again in the same path. Entrance to the building must be highlighted, so that ir is easier for public to locate it. Training programmes are necessary for all age groups. Museum should attract large number of visitors.

Training programmes visitors

No training programmes, but they conduct seminars. All kinds of visitors of all age groups visit the museum. Visitors floating is more. Large spaces for the galleries

No training programmes

No training programmes

All kinds of visitors of all age groups visit the museum. Visitors floating is less. Large spaces for the galleries

All kinds of visitors of all age groups visit the museum. Visitors floating is less. Large spaces for the galleries

Galleries

Large spaces for the galleries must be provided for the better viewing of the artifacts. Auditorium should be provided for at least 150 members. Natural lighting must be effectively used and care must be taken to see that the light does not glare the exhibits.

Auditorium Natural lighting

200 persons capacity auditorium is provided Natural light is provided in the corridors through the courtyards which are open to sky. In sufficient natural light in the galleries so artificial lighting is used. Artificial lighting is necessary. In all the galleries

200 persons capacity auditorium is provided. Natural lighting is not sufficient so it is used only to light up the circulation spaces along the walls in upper floors, but in cellar there is no natural light. Artificial lighting is necessary. Lighting fixture are hung in the form of frames. Galleries are well connected and have sufficient lobby spaces

100 persons capacity auditorium is provided. Natural light is provided in the old building efficiently. Where as lighting in the new building is very poor.

Artificial lighting

Artificial lighting is necessary in the contemporary art gallery.

Circulation

Galleries are well connected and have sufficient lobby spaces. Wide corridors are there.

Galleries are well connected and have sufficient lobby spaces. Wide corridors are there.

Artificial lighting fixtures must be fixed keeping in mind the type of exhibits and also the intensity of light required. All galleries must be easily accessible from the entrance or lobby.

Circulation in galleries

Block and arterial forms of circulation.

Block and arterial forms of circulation

Block and arterial forms of circulation

Block and arterial forms of circulation are found suitable and should be used according to design convenience. All the spaces must be utilized , thus giving importance to all parts of the building.

Spaces

All the spaces are utilized to its maximum

Huge spaces are not utilized for the museum purpose. Some are given on rent No shop

Huge spaces are not utilized for the museum purpose.

Museum shop

Museum shop on the ground floor to sell books and posters on the museum. Separate toilets for gents and ladies are provided. A separate toilet for physically handicapped is also provided. Fire fighting equipment is installed at all floors.

No shop

Toilets

Separate toilets for gents and ladies are provided.

Separate toilets for gents and ladies are provided.

Separate toilets for gents, ladies and physically handicapped should be provided.

Fire fighting

Only small fire fighting extinguishers are placed at few points.

Only small fire fighting extinguishers are placed at few points. They are placed in the galleries also. At the entrance

Fire fighting equipment must be installed properly.

Cloak room Ticket counter Canteen

At the entrance

At the entrance

It should be provided at the entrance. It should be provided at the entrance. Canteen should be provided in case of large museums.

At the entrance

At the entrance

At the entrance

It is provided at the parking area and beside the ticket counter and also in the ground floor of the main block and the first floor lobby of western block.

It is provided at the entrance gate and neat parking.

No canteen

Security post Surveillance room

At the main entrance gate.

At the main entrance gate.

There is no separate post.

Security post should be provided right at the entrance. It is must to monitor the visitors movement and for security.

It is provided in the ground floor near the entrance and cc cameras were installed throughoutt the museum. Provided with water coolers

It is provided in the ground floor near the entrance and cc cameras were installed throughout the museum. Provided with water coolers

It is provided in the ground floor near the entrance and cc cameras were installed throughout the museum. Provided with water coolers

Drinking water Stores Electrical room and transformer

Drinking water should be provided. Stores should be provided to store the artifacts. An electrical room and transformer with 125kv for present use and 125 kv for future use.

Store is provided

Store is provided

Store is provided

Workshop Library Office space Air conditioning

It is provided It is provided with huge collection of books. It is provided Air conditioning in all galleries through centralized ac ducts. Ac plant is provided at the back of museum block. it is provided at the back of museum block. Through electronic gate at the main entrance.

It is provided It is provided

It is provided It is provided

It is to repair the artifacts It should be provided

It is provided Air conditioning in all galleries through centralized ac ducts. Ac plant is provided at the back of museum block. it is provided at the back of museum block. Not at the main entrance.

It is provided No AC.

It should be provided in the ground floor. Air conditioning should be provided for good ventilation.

Generator room Security checking

it is provided at the back of museum block. Not at the main entrance.

For power supply in case of cut off electric supply. Security checking through electronic gate at the main entrance.

7. Site Analysis

Site: Public gardens, Nampally, Hyderabad, Andhra Pradesh


Hyderabad is the capital city of the Indian state of Andhra Pradesh. Situated in the region of Andhra Pradesh. Hyderabad has an estimated metropolitan population of 6.1 million (61 lakh), making it India's sixth-largest metropolitan area. Hyderabad is known for its rich history, culture and architecture representing its unique character as a meeting point for North and South India, and its multilingual culture, both geographically and culturally. Hyderabad also called as- The City of Nawabs, is also one of the most developed cities in the country. It is now a hub of information technology (or IT), ITES (BPO) and biotechnology. Hyderabad and Secunderabad are the twin cities, separated by the Husain Sagar. City is having many tourist places like Charminar, Golkonda, Hussain sagar, Birlamandir, Salarjung museum and many. Culture and Languages - Hyderabad has been the meeting place of many different cultures and traditions. Historically, Hyderabad has been the city where distinct cultural and linguistic traditions of North India and South India meet. It is thus considered as the gateway to the South or gateway to the North. Hyderabad is a cosmopolitan city and home to people practicing many religions. Hyderabadis, as residents of the city are known, have developed a distinctive culture which is a mixture of ancient Hindu traditions of [[Telugu people]] and Islamic Culture. Telugu, Urdu and Hindi are the principal languages spoken in Hyderabad.

Historic monument Charminar

Golkonda fort

Birla Temple

Public gardens
One of the several gardens of Hyderabad. Located in the centre of the city. The Public Gardens is the biggest and the oldest park of Hyderabad, the capital of Andhra Pradesh. It is one of the prime attractions for children as a Children's train that takes visitors around this beautiful garden is a popular attraction. The Public Gardens are an important landmark of Hyderabad city. They are famous not only for the well-maintained lawns and greenery, but also the famous buildings that lie within the Garden. This brilliantly laid out Garden also houses two museums, the Andhra Pradesh State Archaeological Museum and the Health Museum. Besides the museums, there is a park where kids can play endlessly, a mini school called Jawahar Bal Bhavan for children to be trained in Fine Arts and an auditorium called Indira Gandhi Auditorium. The Lalitha Kala Thoranam, an open-air theater, has been a venue for many film festivals, fashion shows and beauty pageants. The building of the Department of Horticulture and an ancient mosque are among other fascinating places in the premises.

Lalita kala toranam- open auditorium

AP state museum

Climatological data of Hyderabad


Climate Hot and dry Latitude 17*26 N Longitude 78*26E Altitude 542 m above MSL Annual Max. Temp.- 36.6* Annual Min. Temp. -9.8* Annual mean Temp. 26.7* Annual global radiation 2527 kwh/sq.m.

JAN Temp. (*C) Max. Min. Average Relative Humidity (%) Morning Evening Rainfall(mm) Rainfall Wind speed (m/sec) Wind speed Wind direction Morning Evening 24.6 9.5 17.0

FEB 27.9 12.0 19.9

MAR 33.3 17.1 25.3

APR 38.3 22.4 30.3

MAY 41.6 27.3 34.4

JUN 40.1 28.5 34.3

JUL 38.7 26.8 30.2

AUG 33.2 25.2 29.2

SEPT 34.2 24.1 29.4

OCT 34.7 19.6 27.6

NOV 31.4 13.9 22.6

DEC 26.7 10.7 18.7

30.0 27.0 7.3

44.0 20.0 5.1

35.0 17.0 1.9

31.0 15.0 2.2

43.0 16.0 6.4

60.0 30.0 30.9

75.0 34.0 121.8

81.0 61.0 145.5

74.0 48.0 47.4

48.0 24.0 6.8

38.0 22.0 3.3

42.0 26.0 1.5

2.5

2.4

2.7

2.8

4.2

5.1

4.6

3.6

2.9

1.8

1.6

2.0

NE NE

NE NE

NE W

SW W

SW SW

SW SW

SW SW

SW SW

SW SW

NE SW

NE NE

NE NE

The site is very near to all the important places of Hyderabad city. Because it is located at the heart of the city . There is a very good transportation facility to the site. Nampally railway station is only a half kilometre away. Lakdikapul MMTS station is only one kilometre away. Central bus station near koti is only four kilometres away from the site.

Bus stops are there in front of the site on east side to go to any place in the city. Site is a plane ground with out any levels. There are many trees in the site towards north and along the boundry of the site. Railing is there on east and south sides of the site. There is a lake on the west side of the site. There is a pathway along the lake. An electric transformer is there in the site at south east corner. Parking facility is there in the common parking lots with in the park which are near AP state museum and Jubilee hall. Lalitha kalathoranam, an open auditorium is there on the south west side of the site. A boating point is there on the north side of the site. There are many colleges, universities and schools in and around the nampally area which are near to the site. Many tourist places are near to the site, such as Lumbini park, necklace road, birla mandir and birla science museum, Ravindra bharati.

It is also near to the Assembly, LB stadium and secretariat. It is very near to the shopping places in Abids and nampally.

Design Thesis - ILLUSION MUSEUM

8. Illusion Exhibits - Types


(Divided to exhibit in different galleries)

85
Exhibit-types

Design Thesis - ILLUSION MUSEUM

Paintings

86
Exhibit-types

Design Thesis - ILLUSION MUSEUM

Interactive

Find it

87
Exhibit-types

Design Thesis - ILLUSION MUSEUM

Graphics

Two way

88
Exhibit-types

Design Thesis - ILLUSION MUSEUM

Confusion

Photographs

89
Exhibit-types

Design Thesis - ILLUSION MUSEUM

9. Final design Views & Drawings

90