INORGANIC PHOSPHORS

COMPOSITIONS, PREPARATION AND OPTICAL PROPERTIES

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INORGANIC PHOSPHORS
COMPOSITIONS, PREPARATION AND OPTICAL PROPERTIES

Wi l l i a m M . Ye n a n d M a r v i n J . We b e r

CRC PR E S S
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Inorganic phosphors : compositions, preparation, and optical properties / editors, William M. Yen, Marvin J. Weber. p. cm. Includes bibliographical references and index. ISBN 0-8493-1949-8 (alk. paper) 1. Phosphors. 2. Phosphors—Optical properties. I. Yen, W. M. (William M.) II. Weber, Marvin J., 1932QC476.7.I55 2004 620.1'1295—dc22

2004047813

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Willi and Renate Lehmann (circa 1970).

TABLE OF CONTENTS
FOREWORD PREFACE PART 1: LEHMANN’S PHOSPHOR COOKBOOK AND PHOSPHOR TABLES SECTION 1: INTRODUCTION SECTION 2: PHOSPHOR PREPARATION 2.1 Starting Materials 2.2 Amounts 2.3 Mixing 2.4 Containers 2.5 Furnace 2.6 Firing Atmospheres 2.7 Treatments after Firing SECTION 3: PURIFICATION OF SOME STARTING MATERIALS 3.1 Carbonates 3.2 Sulfates 3.3 Oxalates 3.4 Sulfur SECTION 4: PHOSPHOR DATA 4.1 Description of Data 4.2 Simple Oxides 4.3 Silicates 4.4 Halosilicates 4.5 Phosphates 4.6 Halophosphates 4.7 Borates 4.8 Aluminates and Gallates 4.9 Molybdates and Tungstates 4.10 Miscellaneous Oxides 4.11 Halides and Oxyhalides 4.12 Sulfates 4.13 ZnS-Type Sulfides 4.14 CaS-Type Sulfides 4.15 Double Sulfides 4.16 Miscellaneous Sulfides and Oxysulfides SECTION 5: PREPARATION OF PHOSPHOR SCREENS 5.1 Phosphor Screens by Brushing 5.2 Phosphor Screens by Settling in a Kasil Solution

5.3 Phosphor Screens by Cathaphoretic Deposition 5.4 Filming of Phosphor Screens

PART 2: ADDITIONAL DEVELOPMENTS SECTION 6: PHOSPHOR SYNTHESIS 6.1 Alternative Preparation Methods 6.2 Combustion Synthesis of Phosphors 6.3 Preparation of Phosphors by Sol–Gel Techniques SECTION 7: OTHER PHOSPHOR DATA 7.1 Oxides 7.2 Silicates 7.3 Phosphates, Halophosphates, and Borates 7.4 Aluminates 7.5 Halides and Oxyhalides 7.6 CaS and ZnS-Type Sulfides 7.7 Other Compounds SECTION 8: COMMERCIAL PHOSPHORS AND SCINTILLATORS APPENDICES Appendix I Appendix II Appendix III

Historical Note on Phosphor Recipes Phosphor Materials Arranged in Order of Emission Wavelength Willi Lehmann: A Brief Biography

MATERIALS INDEX

Foreword
Willi Lehmann
It is a truism that all individuals are unique. However, in the case of the late Willi Lehmann this is true in the strongest sense possible. One often hears of a person with a “one-track” mind. That concept describes Willi perfectly. He was indeed one of a kind. As far as I know, he lived for and only thought about phosphors. He was a very oriented, strong willed and, yes, stubborn individual. It is my pleasure to have known him and have been his manager (in truth, no one “managed” Willi) for several interesting and productive years. I knew very little about Willi’s life in Germany. Fortunately, I was able to obtain a copy of an autobiography Willi wrote for his family and was able to learn something about his history. Bill Yen and I present a brief summary of Willi’s life and times in Appendix III. I knew that he served in the German army during World War II, first on the Russian front and then on the Western front. It is difficult for me to conceive of him as a member of a military unit. He always had a very un-Germanic disregard for authority. This undoubtedly explains why, after working his way up to grade sergeant, he was “busted” back to private. I believe he objected to officers riding in comfortable first-class carriages while enlisted men rode in overcrowded second-class carriages. Another un-Germanic trait was that he disliked beer; he called it “seifewasser” (soapy water). Willi was always resourceful (surely a good trait for a scientist). At the end of the war, after being captured by the French, he managed to escape and be recaptured by the Americans because he knew they treated their German captives better. While he was in POW camp a request came asking whether any prisoner could repair typewriters. Willi, who actually had no prior experience in this line, promptly volunteered and became a successful “typewriter mechanic” overnight. Also during his time as a prisoner he spent his spare time recalling and writing down the essentials of his previously studied elementary physics textbook. I suppose he “borrowed” the necessary paper and pencils from the offices where he repaired typewriters. After the war Willi studied physics (I am not sure at what university) under Prof. Erich Krautz, who had an interest in luminescence. Later, Krautz became Director of Research at a branch of the Osram Lamp Co., located in Augsburg, near Munich. At that time, the Lamp Division of the Westinghouse Electric Corp., located in Bloomfield, New Jersey, had a patent and technical interchange agreement with Osram. On a visit to Augsburg, E.G.F. Arnott, Director of Research in Bloomfield, asked Prof. Krautz to recommend two of his former students who were interested in luminescence and would like to immigrate to the United States. Krautz recommended Willi Lehmann and Claus Haake, and both accepted the offer. This was probably in 1955, as Willi published his first American papers (Phys. Rev., 101, 489; J. Electrochem. Soc., 103, 667 and Illum. Eng., 51, 684) in 1956. Willi remained with Westinghouse, first in Bloomfield and then in Pittsburg for many years, while Claus left after about 2 years to move to Arizona for reasons of his wife’s health. In 1956 I was Manager of the Phosphor Research Section of the Westinghouse Lamp Division and thus suddenly found myself responsible for two foreigners about whom I knew nothing. The situation was conceivably complicated by the fact that I was Jewish; I didn’t know how they would react to me and vice versa. Fortunately, this never presented a

problem. Both Willi and Claus turned out to be very diligent and skilled workers (Prof. Krautz would not have recommended dummies). Their knowledge of the English language was good, although Willi always spoke with a pronounced Germanic accent, probably because he spoke only German at home. (I must admit that while Willi worked for me I always edited his scientific papers before publication, but endeavored to leave them sounding like Willi.) During those years in Bloomfield the attention of the Phosphor Section was directed primarily to electroluminescence, then in its infancy. I can truthfully say the best (brightest and longest lived) electroluminescent phosphors made anywhere in that era were made by Willi Lehmann. This activity, and that elsewhere, is summarized in my book, Electroluminescence and Related Effects (Academic Press, 1963). I was later made a fellow of the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) and an Honorary Member of the Electrochemical Society for “leadership in the advancement of the science of luminescence.” However, the work which resulted in these honors was primarily due to three outstanding members of the section: Willi Lehmann, William A. Thornton, and Anselm Wachtel. My effort was mainly that of support, coordination, and interpretation. My approach to “management” of scientific activity was essentially minimalist, consisting of four steps: (1) hire the most capable and self-motivated people, (2) provide them with the necessary equipment and facilities, (3) point them in the directions of interest to the company, and (4) don’t bother them, except for occasional encouragement and suggestions as to questions for which no one had an answer at the moment. This minimalist approach certainly worked well with Willi, who was never a “team player.” I also learned that minor infractions of company rules could be overlooked unless they were officially brought to my attention: sometimes ignorance of events can be good. Although trained as a physicist, Willi actually performed best as a self-taught chemist; he was more interested in making better phosphors than in explaining how or why they worked. He was always an enthusiastic worker. I remember one day Claus Haake stuck his head in my door and said, “Willi just made a three-gott-damn phosphor!” I said, “What does that mean?” Claus replied, “Well, when Willi has made a new sample and finds that it tests good, he says ‘Gott damn!’ Today he tested his latest sample and said, ‘Gott damn! Gott damn! GOTT DAMN!’” About 1963 both Willi and I transferred to the central Westinghouse Research Laboratories in Pittsburgh, but to different departments. I joined the Optical Physics Department, which was primarily concerned with lasers, and in 1969 became manager of the department. Willi went to the Solid State Physics Department, where he continued to work on phosphors, mainly for applications to fluorescent lamps and cathode-ray tubes. Nevertheless, we kept in frequent contact and he always put me on the distribution list for his research reports. It was during this period of his career that he organized the material for his Phosphor Cookbook. Willi always maintained his independence and disregard for rules which seemed pointless to him. There were four types of scientific documents at Westinghouse: patent disclosures, papers to be published, summary research reports for internal use, and short research “memos.” For some strange (probably historical) reason, memos had to be addressed to a particular individual, although they could have an extended distribution list. Once Willi (in Pittsburgh) apparently had trouble deciding to whom a certain memo should be addressed so in the proper place he wrote, “The Queen of England.” Some unwitting secretary typed it up that way and sent it to his department manager for signature. Considerable consternation ensued, but Willi survived unscathed and hardly ruffled. For Willi, rules were usually meant for lesser beings; he had more important things (phosphors) to think about.

When Willi Lehmann was alive and active he was one hell of a great phosphor maker. finally solves that waste problem.” The present volume by Bill Yen and Marv Weber. I am sorry to say that I lost contact with him after 1988. I have learned since that Willi passed away in January 1993 and that he is survived by his wife Renate and four children. George. He said then. and Mary. North Carolina. In 1988 he wrote to inform me that he had been invited to contribute to a book entitled Phosphors. He left many important published papers. 2003 .Willi retired from Westinghouse in about 1985 (the reason for my vagueness about dates is that Westinghouse is now defunct and I have no way of accessing company files). with reference to the original publications. Caren. Florida April 1. this book was never published. All appear to be prospering and the family has given its approval to the belated publication of Willi’s Phosphor Cookbook and Phosphor Tables he so carefully compiled nearly two decades ago. Henry Ivey Coconut Creek. He enclosed a copy of his contribution. “My Phosphor Tables are completed and I don’t like the idea of them going to waste. Hans. It will serve as a fitting and belated recognition of the valuable work this unusual individual contributed to the science of luminescence. However. in Connecticut. He went to live in Hendersonville. an extended collection of the main properties of about 300 of the best-known inorganic phosphors. and apparently did consultation on electroluminescence for the Rogers Corp. which combines his Phosphor Cookbook and his Phosphor Tables. It was his obsession and sole occupation.

Thus. of past methodologies. thus such information is absent for many compounds. a volume in the CRC Lasers and Optical Sciences and Technology Series. However. The phosphor data presented in Section 4 combine the results of both manuscripts. Though it might be argued that the art of phosphors synthesis and characterization has advanced considerably since Lehmann’s time. This volume is divided into two parts. if nothing else. the two unpublished manuscripts represent a reasonably complete summary of the state of knowledge on phosphors up to the late 1980’s. of course. one of us (WMY). several members of the phosphor/luminescence community called my attention to an existing backlog of published and unpublished literature addressed to this subject. Almost all modern phosphors are synthesized by solid-state reactions at high temperatures. Though for various reasons this effort ultimately turned futile. no composition or preparation information was included in the Phosphor Tables. in response to a federal broad agency announcement. The scholarship contained in the Phosphor Cookbook and the Phosphor Tables is quite remarkable and comprises a great deal of meticulous and careful work characterizing Willi Lehmann’s career as a phosphor synthesizer. He later updated and extended this work in 1988 in his Phosphor Tables in which the phosphor properties of over 300 luminescent materials were summarized in tabular form. was preserved and given to us by Dr. Lehmann. A copy of these tables. In the second part of the volume we have attempted to supplement Lehmann’s work with additional . Updated versions of these techniques are presented in this volume along with other techniques such as sol–gel and combustion that have been developed in the past few decades. it appeared to us that the content of these two unpublished manuscripts fully deserved publication as a record. initiated an effort to establish a baseline for the state of knowledge concerning the methodology for synthesis and the optical properties of a variety of phosphors used for display and other technical applications. Ronald Petersen (of Motorola. at the time) first presented us with a copy of Willi Lehmann’s opus (Phosphor Cookbook) on methods for synthesis and properties of over 200 phosphors. This resulted. Henry Ivey. was a principal in the development of many of the phosphors included in his cookbook. for example. The list of materials presented in the compilations is large and the manuscripts preserve and summarize synthesis and optical data on most of the commonly used phosphors (as well as some less common ones). these methodologies are often abandoned and forgotten but often need to be rediscovered and revived when circumstances warrant it. we believe that these contributions need to be preserved as part of the phosphor art.Preface About a decade ago. in our becoming aware of the existence of the Phosphor Handbook published in Japanese under the auspices of the Japan Phosphor Society and led to its eventual translation and publication as the Phosphor Handbook. This report dates from the late 1970’s and covered the majority of phosphors then in use. In connection with efforts to establish a phosphor database. which was prepared for a publication that never appeared. Most of the contents of Lehmann’s Phosphor Cookbook and Phosphor Tables are preserved in the first part with either no or only slight changes in style and format. Henry had a close working relationship with Willi at Westinghouse as the Foreword to this volume attests. Dr. In the absence of any systematic database on phosphors.

Much additional information on the synthesis and characterization of a phosphor or luminescent material information can be found in the aforementioned Phosphor Handbook. It follows that recipes for compounds doped with a certain ion of a series very likely will also be effective for other members of that series. William M. we emphasize that all normal safety precautions (fume hoods. The preparation methods described in this volume generally entail the use of laboratory procedures which are normally encountered in solid-state chemistry and which expose the experimenter to the usual perils. three appendices have been added. We are very appreciative of their help and that of Ron Petersen and Henry Ivey for having preserved the original manuscripts. these volumes contain a great deal of material which is extremely useful in developing an understanding as to what can and cannot be synthesized. As such. suggestions. We have restricted consideration to materials that are accessible in the open literature and have not included any recipes or description of phosphors that are proprietary. eye protection. Mike Caplinger and Jeff Deroshia for their computing assistance. however. in the second a table of phosphors is arranged in order of emission wavelength as a guide in selecting phosphors for particular applications. so that the synthesis of any new compounds remains an area of experimentation. the listing is not exhaustive but rather representative of some of the more significant phosphors developed in recent years.) should be observed in the preparation and synthesis of the phosphors described in the volume. In this effort we have benefitted from numerous comments. Sarah Dunning for typing the manuscript. Other considerations (such as ion sizes) will enter. Yen Athens. Georgia Marvin J. Weber Berkeley. The third gives a brief summary of Willi Lehmann’s life. Only a relatively few phosphors have achieved commercial success. We are aware that. I–VI) and the sequel Phase Equilibrium Diagrams (Vols. and the valuable interactions with CRC Project Editor James McGovern and Development Manager Helena Redshaw. as noted in the Foreword. a good beginning point. We note with special appreciation the excellent work of Sergei Basun in preparing the many figures and the final manuscript. Finally. It may be noted that the elements belonging to series such as the lanthanides (4f) have chemical behaviors that are nearly identical to each other. California April 2004 . The American Ceramic Society in collaboration with the National Institutes of Standards and Technology (NIST) has continued to publish and revise Phase Diagrams for Ceramists (Vols.developments including recent synthesis methods and new phosphors. We hope that the publication of Inorganic Phosphors serves to fulfill his wish. this volume should be considered a tribute to this unusual individual and his contributions to the phosphor art. We are also very thankful to the Lehmann family for giving their permission to use this material. Indeed. Because of the plethora of phosphor compositions reported in recent decades. The first presents an historical perspective on phosphors. Willi Lehmann was anxious to have the material that he had prepared with such care published in some form. and contributions from our Editorial Board. would be with the procedures that are presented here. etc. Section 8 presents a list of many commercial phosphor and scintillator materials and the peak wavelength of their emission. VII–XII).

1989. and Scintillators: Applications of Photoluminescence. Vol. 1998. 151. SPIE Milestone Series. R. Berlin. Bellingham. P. Materials and Devices. R. Boca Raton. New York. 1998. 1980. FL. P. 1966. M. Luminescence of Inorganic Solids. Optical Spectroscopy of Inorganic Solids. Selected papers on Phosphors. A. 1993.H. Yen. and R.H. SPIE Press.C.M. A. S. New York. 2002. 1994. Oxford. .Further Readings Introduction to Solid-State Lighting. Ropp. Fluorescent Lamp Phosphors: Technology and Theory. Zukauskas. Luminescence and the Solid State. Imbusch. Academic Press. B. Clarendon Press. Elsevier. Solid State Luminescence: Theory. 1997.. Butler. Chapman & Hall.A. WA. The Chemistry of Artificial Lighting Devices. CRC Press. G. Weber. Gaska. Cathodoluminescence. Physical Processes in Inorganic Scintillators. John Wiley & Sons. Amsterdam. Shionoya and W. Eds. Ed. Grabmaier. 1993. Boca Raton. Kitai. Goldberg. Shur.. Elsevier.C.. FL. Ed. Rodnyi. and Radioluminescence.F.. London. University Park. Pennsylvania University Press. Springer. Phosphor Handbook. Henderson and G. 1991.J. Amsterdam. M. Ed. Electroluminescence. Light Emitting Diodes. Luminescent Materials. Ropp. CRC Press. Blasse and B.C. K.

he retired from the Wisconsin system in 1990. and the American Ceramics Society. the American Association for the Advancement of Science.B. Yen has been the recipient of a J. In 1973 Dr. He is presently a scientist in the Department of Nuclear Medicine and Functional Imaging of the Life Sciences Division at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. Morey Award of the American Ceramics Society. in Physics from Washington University (St.. Yen has been elected to fellowship in the American Physical Society. He has been appointed to Visiting Professorships at the University of Tokyo (1972). Berkeley. as Head of Basic Materials Research and Assistant Program Leader. and the University of California—Santa Barbara (1982.. Dr. Department of Energy in Washington. From 1983 to 1985 he accepted a transfer assignment with the Office of Basic Energy Sciences of the U. degrees in physics at the University of California. he is the recipient of the International Conference on Luminescence Prize. Guggenheim Foundation Fellowship (1979–1980). Dr.D.The Editors William M. Weber is Editor-in-Chief of the multi-volume CRC Handbook Series of Laser Science and Technology and a Fellow of the American Physical Society. (Physics) degree from the University of Redlands. and the Electrochemical Society. and Ph. He was granted tenure at Wisconsin in 1968 and promoted to a full professorship in 1972. the University of Paris—South (1976).S. He was also named by Washington University (St. where he was a Principal Scientist working in the areas of spectroscopy and quantum electronics. Scientist Award (1985). Weber received the A. Stanford University. von Humboldt Senior U. Louis) as the first Edwin T. Weber was a Visiting Research Associate in the Department of Physics. Yen is the co-editor of the Phosphor Handbook published by CRC Press. Among several honors. Jaynes Visiting Professor for the Fall of 2004. He served a term of 3 years (1962–1965) as a Research Associate at Stanford University under the tutelage of Professor A. 1985). Marvin J.L. Weber joined the Research Division of the Raytheon Co. of a A. 1995). Redlands. Schawlow and accepted a faculty position at the University of Wisconsin—Madison in 1965.S. and an Industrial Research IR-100 Award for research and development of fluorophosphate laser glass.S. California in 1956 and his Ph. Yen obtained his B. Weber joined the Laser Program at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory where. Dr. He has been a member of the technical staff at the AT&T Bell Telephone Laboratories (1966) and of the Laser Fusion Project at Lawrence Livermore Labs (1974–1975). Dr. the Federal University of Pernambuco—Recife (1980). Louis) in 1962. Dr. M. After graduation. In 1966 to 1967 Dr. the Optical Society of America.D. George W. In 1987 he was appointed to the Graham Perdue Professorship at the University of Georgia—Athens where he has established a research program in the properties of phosphors and other light-emitting materials. the Australian National University (1980. Weber returned to the Chemistry and Materials Science Department at LLNL in 1986 and served as Associate Division Leader for condensed matter research and as spokesperson for the University of California/National Laboratories research facilities at the Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory. and of a Senior Fulbright to Australia (1995). . the Optical Society of America. DC. he was responsible for the physics and characterization of optical materials for high-power laser used in inertial confinement fusion research. Dr.S.A.

New York Dr. Petersburg. F. Henry Ivey 3392 NW 47th Avenue Coconut Creek. New Jersey Dr. Guy A. C. Russia Dr. Massachusetts Dr. Germany Dr. Hill 31 Abbey Street Faversham United Kingdom Dr. Lauren Shea Sandia National Labs Albuquerque. Cees Ronda Philips Research Laboratory Aachen D-52085 Aachen. New Mexico Dr. Srivastava GE Corporate R&D Center Schenectady. Puerto Rico Dr. Alok M. C. Ropp 138 Mountain Avenue Warren. Sergei Basun A. Richard. Weiyi Jia Department of Physics University of Puerto Rico—Mayaguez Mayaguez. Madis Raukas Osram Sylvania Beverly. Ioffe Physico-Technical Institute Russian Academy of Sciences St. Japan .Editorial Board Dr. Hajime Yamamoto Department of Electrical Engineering Tokyo University of Technology Tokyo 192-0982. Florida Dr.

Part 1: Lehmann’s Phosphor Cookbook and Phosphor Tables .

Section 1: Introduction .

prepared and tested roughly 2 104 individual samples of inorganic phosphors of various kinds.” Peculiarly. but some are new and have never been mentioned anywhere else. It may remain to the individual phosphor chemist to work out such improvements. The phosphor collection covered by this “cookbook” is not complete. The following tables give. a brief description of how to prepare it and an equally brief description of its main properties. What remains are relatively few. The professional phosphor chemist has often. a guide to help anyone new in the field in the successful preparation of phosphors. Most of the following two sections (with the exceptions of Sections 2. etc. at least).3) are predominantly taken verbatim from Lehmann's report. To fill out this gap is the purpose of this report. This report describes some 200 phosphors which are commercially in use already. It will never be. In the abstract to the report Lehmann expected that the cookbook would be useful as: 1.2 and 2. been referred to as “phosphor cook. References to open publications or internal reports. only half jokingly. during about 25 years of practical experience. of the same materials. the writer believes that most of the recipes still permit substantial improvements. It has been tried in this laboratory and it works. which appear to have some potential to become commercially useful. for each phosphor. and despite of the fact that so many different phosphors are now available. are added to help anyone wishing to know more about a particular material than these tables can give. or which are otherwise somehow “interesting” (to the writer. . a start for the experienced phosphor chemist in the improvement of known materials or in the development of new ones. Most of them are well known (more or less). Each one of the recipes is only a suggestion. there has been no phosphor cookbook before. 3. In fact. Many others were just repetitions during optimizations. but it does not mean that a variation of the recipe does not work. of course. It may anyway serve as a convenient guide for all occasional or professional users of phosphorus showing essentially what is available.Section 1 INTRODUCTION The following is Willi Lehmann's introduction to his Phosphor Cookbook: The writer of this report has. 2. It is unavoidable in such work that many samples perform too poorly to be worth mentioning. a survey of materials for which properties are available to the occasional user of phosphors. where available.

1 2.3 2.7 Starting Materials Amounts Mixing Containers Furnace Firing Atmospheres Treatments After Firing .Section 2: Phosphor Preparation 2.6 2.5 2.2 2.4 2.

. The chemicals mentioned in the individual recipes are those that usually are the most readily available..” Even the final host material frequently is formed only during the firing by solid-state reactions between several starting materials. 2. Similarly. CaO2. the chemicals needed to prepare CaS-type phosphors are not normally available in the required purity. Both activators and (if necessary) co-activators are diffused into the host crystal at elevated temperatures. Almost all good inorganic phosphors consist of a crystalline “host material” in which small amounts of certain impurities. MnCO3 can be replaced by MnO2.” are necessary in some (not in all) cases to dissolve the activator impurities into the host crystal. Section 3 of this report describes some techniques that can be used to purify commercial compounds to prepare CaS-type phosphors. They can frequently be exchanged with others. the “activators” are dissolved. the crystallization is facilitated at lower temperatures by addition of a “flux” (frequently a halide) to the raw mix before firing. Lehmann's Phosphor Cookbook. Many points probably are trivial to the professional phosphor chemist but they are certainly not so to the novice or to anyone preparing phosphors only once in a while. Lehmann) to make the phosphors described in this report. * This section is from W. MnS. the “co-activators. Sufficiently pure ZnS and CdS are available not to require additional purification for the preparation of ZnS-type phosphors. or only to a very minor degree. and so on. MnSO4. analytical reagent grade.1 Starting Materials Commercially available high-purity grade chemicals (e. the “firing. CaCO3 can frequently be replaced by CaO. Ca(NO3)2. However.Section 2 PHOSPHOR PREPARATION* The following methods are essentially the preparation procedures used by the writer (W.g. sometimes down to the parts per million range. What counts are only the necessary amounts of the particular chemical elements measured in moles. MnO. participate in the luminescence process. or Ca(OH)2. The firing temperature often is little below the melting temperature of the host material. Other impurities. Mn(C2H3O2)2. luminescent grade) are adequate to prepare most of the phosphors. The activators are primarily responsible for the luminescence. Only sulfide-type phosphors are exceptions because they are sensitive to undesired impurities. If that is impractical because of excessively high-melting temperatures of the host material. Co-activators do not. For instance. and that the used compounds decompose readily during the firing of the phosphor to provide the necessary building blocks to the final material.

Only some materials (the alkali elements. This method is least time-consuming and most practical for small samples but the mixes are less uniform down to the microscopic scale than any one prepared by the other methods. However.. 2.3 Mixing Very thorough mixing of the starting materials before firing is extremely important for the successful preparation of a good phosphor. Some materials (e. all amounts can be reduced by constant factors as long as the molar ratios between the individual components in the recipe are maintained. firing not only once but also several times and mortaring every time in between can usually eliminate them. Variations of ±10% of the mentioned activator concentrations normally have little effect on the performance of the final phosphor. otherwise it is the most ideal. This method avoids the time-consuming drying of the slurry but it works only for powders. Wet Ball-Milling The slurry prepared above is ball-milled with porcelain pebbles for a time (about 1–2 hours) to ensure a moist thorough mix and. a breakup of all possible lumps in the slurry. Whenever such non-uniformities occur. This method has been used for most of the recipes of this report. etc. Roughly. Corresponding non-uniformities of the final phosphor may be the result. or any other inert and volatile liquid to a uniform slurry. The materials become poorly reproducible with such very small amounts. Whenever such large amounts of phosphors are not needed or wanted. The weightings of the starting materials are not very critical. Water-soluble activator chemicals. in particular. in particular) react too badly with quartz . Phosphor properties vary relatively little only with a variation of the starting material ratios.2. it is impractical to reduce the amounts to less than about 1 or 2 g of the final phosphor. which stay free flowing all the time. The slurry is then dried in air and the dry material is mechanically powderized.2 Amounts The recipes in this report are given in whole molar units to make them as clear as possible. The slurry is dried and the dried material. is powderized in a mortar as well as possible. Dry Ball-Milling The dry powder mix is ball-milled with porcelain pebbles for 1–2 hours. ZnO) are not free flowing and cannot be mixed this way. Some of the best methods are: Slurrying The finely powdered starting materials are mixed into water. The smaller amounts of the activating chemicals involved are even less critical. 2. Several firing steps are appropriate in many cases for other chemical reasons. the amounts of the chemicals involved in the formation of the host materials need to be weighed only within ±1% of the mentioned proportions. can be added dissolved in water.4 Containers The best container material for the preparation of most phosphors is clear quartz glass (silica).g. which sometimes is a more or less hard crust. Mortaring The dry powders are simply mixed by mortaring together to make the mix as uniform as possible. This method is a bit cumbersome and it is impractical for small samples (a few grams). sometimes even within still wider tolerances. alcohol.

. better up to about 1400ºC.) may be fired in oxidizing (air. they consist of two tubes each closed at one end and both loosely fitting into each other. Raw mixes which do contain volatile constituents (e. Capped silica tubes are widely used in our laboratory. silicates. Any desired temperature should be maintained during firing by means of an automatic temperature controller to within ±20ºC or better. Pure alumina serves fairly well in these cases.5 Furnace Phosphor firing requires an electric furnace permitting temperatures between about 500ºC and at least 1200ºC. Many of these gases are interchangeable. A reliable temperature control clearly is one of the weak points of phosphor preparation. Figure 1 Schemata of different containers during phosphor firing. . NH3). Oxygen-dominated phosphors (oxides. inert (N2. whether a phosphor is fired in N2 or in Ar. Loosely covered crucibles are appropriate wherever alumina is the container material. 2. Only these ends of the firing tubes are in the furnaces during firing.g. Sulfurization of sulfide phosphors may be achieved by firing either in H2S or in an inert gas loaded with CS2.6 Firing Atmospheres The various phosphors are fired in different atmospheres depending on the materials and the desired reactions. or reducing atmospheres (CO. H2. The writer has yet to see a furnace whose temperature does not occasionally deviate from that indicated by the controller. 2. Some typical arrangements are shown in Figure 1. phosphates. All these containers are placed near the closed ends of bigger firing tubes made of silica. Some arrangements used to handle the various gases in the firing tubes are shown in Figure 2 assuming the phosphor containers are both open boats. A simple on–off control is acceptable. The only way to eliminate this problem is frequent recalibration of furnace and controller by means of a good thermocouple and a millivolt comparator. halides) are better fired in loosely covered containers permitting some contact with the surrounding atmosphere but still keeping at least some of the volatile part in the container.glass at firing temperatures and are better fired in other container materials. for instance. Phosphor raw mixes not containing volatile (at firing conditions) constituents are best fired in open boats so that the charge is fully exposed to the desired atmosphere surrounding the material. forming gas. O2). Ar). It makes no difference. etc.

The open ends of the latter are closed by ordinary rubber stoppers with two holes for gas inlet and outlet. Some carbon black is placed in a separate open container next to the phosphor container in the firing tube. If the phosphor is fired in H2 or in H2S. it is extremely important first to flush all air out the firing tube with an inert gas (e. The vapor pressure of the water is too low at room temperature to have much effect. otherwise the effect (explosion) will be spectacular when the firing tube enters the furnace. CS2 An inert carrier gas (e. N2) bubbles though a flask containing some liquid CS2 in front of the firing tube. Air Firing a phosphor in air requires nothing but the container in the firing tube whose open end is left open or. As in cases of H2 and H2S. Be extremely cautious! CO This gas is about the most convenient for firing an oxygen-dominated phosphor in a reducing atmosphere. otherwise condensing liquid water might block the gas flow.g. When the charge enters the furnace. Gases from tanks (or other supplies) These can be piped into the firing tubes via long and thin gas inlet tubes (silica) reaching as far into the firing tubes as possible. N2. closed by a bit of loose glass wool to prevent dust particles from drifting in during firing.g. be very careful to flush all the air out the firing tube before admitting the CS2-loaded gas..) bubbles through a flask containing some water in front of the firing tube. etc.Figure 2 Schemata of different containers during phosphor firing. The stopper is protected against radiant heat by a bit of loose glass wool in front of it. The tube connection between flask and firing tube should be as short and straight as possible. Escaping unused CS2 gas can be burned at the end of an outlet tube. . some of the carbon black burns to CO in situ.. N2) before admitting the final gas. the vapor pressure of the CS2 is high enough at room temperature. Steam This arrangement resembles that used for CS2. Do not heat the flask. at most. A carrier gas (air. so it is necessary to heat the flask to gentle boiling. The air is flushed out by plain O2 and the gas inlet tube is then closed (but leave the inlet open).

All phosphors that are not immediately used up for some application should be stored in closed and labeled containers. However.. Al2O3. All phosphors should finally be screened to remove undesired big particles. Phosphors coming out the furnace as badly sintered lumps indicate that something is wrong. most likely the firing temperature was too high. This powderizing usually is possible by gentle grinding or milling. CaO) but they are a good practice also for all others. Phosphors that stubbornly refuse to become free flowing with any additive can still be wet screened in a suspension in water. halides). A 200-mesh stainless steel sieve is adequate for most general purposes but some special applications may require finer screens. Phosphors of recipes that do not mention a washing do not need it. Closed containers obviously are necessary for any phosphor that is not completely stable in room air (e. Remember that good phosphors are precious materials. Some phosphors are free flowing and easily screened. usually to remove one or the other undesired residues (e. Such cases are noted in the recipes of this report. . of course. methanol. etc. Sb2O3. Some phosphors require special washings after firing.7 Treatments after Firing Fired phosphors often (not always) are slightly sintered cakes that have to be powderized to obtain the desired fine powder.g. Avoid all hard milling because it is likely to damage the phosphor. Such materials can easily be made free flowing by addition of small amounts (roughly 1/10% by weight) of some additives like very fine SiO2. Unfortunately there is no general rule to pick the best additive. this still requires subsequent drying. etc.g. Others tend to lump and are not screenable with any reasonable effort.2.. to find one remains up to the ingenuity of the experimenter.

1 3.Section 3: Purification of Some Starting Materials 3.4 Carbonates Sulfates Oxalates Sulfur .3 3.2 3.

decant). It can be converted to CaO by firing in an open quartz boat. Both are better prepared via the oxalates. Then filter through a milli-pore filter (0. Solution A: Dissolve 1 g-mole of Ca(NO3)·4H2O (= 236 g) in about 1 liter water at room temperature. Fe.) of commercially available starting materials are good enough to prepare almost every phosphor mentioned in this cookbook. stir. for ~½ hour. Consequently. for ~½ hour. luminescent grade. . It helps to crush the chunks but do not try to speed up the dissolution by heating. It is best converted to MgO by heating in an open boat. air ~500–1000ºC. 3. The carbonate usually comes in big chunks which take considerable time to dissolve.) in the starting materials are better kept below this level. Slowly add solution A to B (or vice versa) while stirring.1 Carbonates (described using the example of CaCO3) Prepare two separate solutions. Do not filter this solution. Properties Mg carbonate prepared in this way is of somewhat uncertain composition. Solution B: Dissolve about 1. Decant the excess liquid. SrCO3 and BaCO3 both precipitate in too fine particles which almost behave like a gel in the water and do not readily settle. White CaCO3 precipitates and some CO2 develops. ~1000–1200ºC. Dry with methanol in filter funnel and then completely in open air. harmful impurities (mainly metals like Mn.g. etc. CaCO3 precipitates and settles readily. Let settle. Add a few cubic centimeters of freshly prepared NH4-sulfide solution. * This section is from W. air. Lehmann's Phosphor Cookbook. Mn) show up in the CaS-type phosphors in concentrations as low as 1 ppm.1 g-mole of the (NH4)2CO3 (= 105 g) in 1 liter water at room temperature. Only some CaS-type phosphors are exceptions. Wash the carbonate in de-ionized water several times (stir.Section 3 PURIFICATION OF SOME STARTING MATERIALS* The normal purities (analytical reagent grade. let settle.45 µm pore size). etc.. Let stand overnight. Some impurities (e.

1 g-mole of the (NH4)2SO4 in 1 liter water.45 µm pore size). H2C2O4·2H2O. Slowly pour solution A into B (or vice versa) while stirring. decant). Solution B: Dissolve about 1. air ~500–1000ºC. Solution A: Dissolve 1 g-mole (= 273 g) of Ba-acetate. for about ½ hour. in 1 liter water at room temperature.1 g-mole (= 138 g) of oxalic acid. Filter through a milli-pore filter (0. Let stand overnight. stir. SrSO4 is still manageable but BaSO4 tends to be of too fine particles which behave almost like a gel in the water and do not readily settle. Let stand overnight. It can be converted to the more stable anhydrite by heating in open boats.45 µm pore size). Sr and Ba sulfates precipitate immediately as anhydrous sulfates. Add a few cubic centimeters of freshly prepared NH4 sulfide solution. stir. Solution A: Dissolve 1 g-mole (= 212 g) of Sr(NO3)2 in about 1 liter water.2 Sulfates (described using the example of SrSO4) Prepare two separate solutions. Wash in de-ionized water several times (stir. Solution B: Dissolve about 1. Add a few cubic centimeters of freshly prepared NH4 sulfide solution.3. Then filter through a milli-pore filter (0. Let settle. let settle. Decant the excess liquid.45 µm pore size). stir. Let settle. Slowly pour solution A into B (or vice versa) while stirring. Dry with methanol in filter funnel over filter paper and then completely in open air. Dry with methanol in a filter funnel over filter paper and then completely in open air. Then filter through a milli-pore filter (0. Then filter through a milli-pore filter (0. decant). Add NH4OH to make the solution slightly alkalinic. let settle. 3. Ba(C2H3O2)·H2O in about 1 liter water at room temperature. Wash in de-ionized water several times (stir. . CaSO4 precipitates as gypsum. Properties Mg sulfate cannot be prepared in this way (MgSO4 = epsom salt). CaSO4·2H2O.3 Oxalates (described using the example of BaC2O4) Prepare two separate solutions. White sulfate will precipitate.45 µm pore size). Decant the excess liquid. White BaC2O4 will precipitate out and readily settles down. Add a few cubic centimeters of NH4OH.

Ba-oxalate precipitates as BaC2O4 which can be converted to BaCO3 by firing in an open boat. stir or shake vigorously. ~½ hour. decant).4 Sulfur Dissolve ordinary precipitated (not sublimed) sulfur in as little CS2 as possible.) will remain on the paper. Dry in filter funnel over filter paper and then completely in open air. Black impurities (metal sulfides. Wash the sulfur several times in acetone (stir. air. air. In contrast to SrCO3. It converts to CaCO3 by heating in an open boat. etc. It converts completely to MgO by heating in an open boat. sufficiently pure for all preparation work of sulfidetype phosphors. BaCO3 is not as easily converted into the oxide by firing in H2. ~1 hour.Properties Mg oxalate precipitates as MgC2O4·2H2O. Yellow sulfur will precipitate. Ca oxalate precipitates as CaC2O4·H2O. ~500–1000°C. ~1100°C. It converts to SrCO3 by firing in an open boat. ~500–1000°C. Further conversion to SrO is not practically possible by firing in an open boat. let settle. Filter the solution though a dense paper filter. ~1100ºC. add the same amount (by volume) of pure acetone. Pour the filtered solution into a clean flask. ~1 hour. 3. Sr oxalate precipitates as SrC2O4·H2O. ~½ hour. ~500ºC. ~ ½ hour. air. Properties This is a coarse yellow powder. . H2. H2.

9 4.Section 4: Phosphor Data 4.10 4.3 4.6 4.7 4.15 4.1 4.14 4.4 4.11 4.16 Description of Data Simple Oxides Silicates Halosilicates Phosphates Halophosphates Borates Aluminates and Gallates Molybdates and Tungstates Miscellaneous Oxides Halides and Oxyhalides Sulfates ZnS-Type Sulfides CaS-Type Sulfides Double Sulfides Miscellaneous Sulfides and Oxysulfides .5 4.12 4.13 4.8 4.2 4.

The emission peak corresponds to the spectral position where the diffuse band has a maximum.. is always a possibility that cannot be ruled out. Lehmann’s Phosphor Cookbook. – = efficiencies below 10%. The efficiencies by electron beam excitation in vacuum are described by the energy ratio (i.or 254-nm ultraviolet (UV) — both the main emissions of a Hg discharge lamp — are given in Lehmann's Phosphor Tables in terms of quanta (i. perhaps by using modified preparation conditions.e. the ratio of emitted light quanta over irradiated UV quanta). (Lehmann notes that one should keep in mind that an efficiency improvement of a phosphor. Additional impurities (co-activators.1 to 0.Section 4 PHOSPHOR DATA 4. In this instance the symbols mean: ++ = efficiencies of 10% or more. to the spectral range of the main part of a complex emission. The phosphor composition and a brief description of the preparation conditions used by Lehmann are given in his Phosphor Cookbook but not in the Phosphor Tables. The symbols mean: ++ = efficiencies in the 50–100% range.) are specified only in some cases where they have a strong effect on the final luminescence of the phosphor..) Efficiencies under optical excitation.2 eV. others are complex in shape or consist of discrete (although sometimes somewhat diffuse) lines. etc.1 Description of Data* This section presents information about inorganic phosphors.e. either from Lehmann's Phosphor Cookbook or from Lehmann's Phosphor Tables. . – = efficiencies below 1%. Almost all inorganic phosphors consist of a host material into which small amounts of an activator impurity have been dissolved. only observed efficiencies of the best samples known to Lehmann are shown. The activation includes only the activator and its ionic state as far as it is known. by either 365. Many emission spectra consist of diffuse bands extending over a certain range. the ratio of emitted light energy over irradiated electron beam energy). The width corresponds only to band emission and indicates the width of the band at half of its peak intensity (full width at half maximum—FWHM). + = efficiencies in the 10–50% range. Because efficiencies obtained on poor phosphor samples are of limited usefulness. *This subsection is adapted from W. The emission color is that as it appears to the human eye. + = efficiencies in the 1–10% range. Optical properties summarize the emissions of the phosphors. The chemical formula corresponding to the host crystal generally is well established but the crystal structure may not be available. Both the peak and bandwidth frequently depend on preparation conditions and are reproducible only within about ±0. or to one or two strongest lines in case of line emission.

but not necessarily at the optimum in every case. Absence of a reference means that none is known.88 eV Only the main references to original publications are given. that is. All spectra are plotted on a quantum basis. nm) and quantum energy (in eV) is (nm) = 1240/(eV) Using this conversion. The emission and absorption spectra measured by Lehmann are all for room temperature and for the activator concentrations shown.40 eV 254 nm — 4. The simple conversion between wavelength (in nanometers. the abscissa is calibrated in electron volts (eV) rather than wavelength units because luminescence processes are quantum processes. the two optical wavelengths used for excitation correspond to: 365 nm — 3. Too few excitation spectra were available to be included. These concentrations are close to. It is also easier to compare the widths of approximately Gaussian-shaped emission bands plotted in eV than it is to compare the widths of very nonGaussian-shaped bands plotted in wavelength units. .The luminescence decay time is the time for the emission either to decay to 1/10 or to 1/e of its initial value. The absorption spectra indicate where the materials may be excited (no absorption—no emission).

4.023 Preparation Mix by slurrying in water or methanol. Store in well-closed container. 1 hour.390 0. Keep dry.2 Simple Oxides The following host compounds and activators are included in this subsection: CaO:Bi3+ CaO:Cd2+ CaO:Cu+ CaO:Eu3+ CaO:Eu3+. Fire in capped quartz tubes. Na+ CaO:Mn2+ CaO:Pb2+ CaO:Sb3+ CaO:Sm3+ CaO:Tb3+ CaO:Tl+ CaO:Zn2+ ZnO:Al3+. Powderize. . stagnant air.01 (of Bi) By weight (g) 100 0. Dry in air.5 0. 1200ºC. Powderize when dry.Ga3+ ZnO:Ga3+ ZnO:S ZnO:Se ThO2:Eu3+ ThO2:Pr3+ ThO2:Tb3+ Y2O3:Bi3+ Y2O3:Er3+ Y2O3:Eu3+ (YOE) Y2O3:Ho3+ Y2O3:Tb3+ La2O3:Bi3+ La2O3:Eu3+ La2O3:Pb2+ CaO:Bi3+ Structure: Cubic (NaCl) Composition Ingredient CaCO3 CaF2 Bi2O3 Mole % 100 0.

++ (3. References 1... 6. Store in well-closed container.29 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (3. N. and Asano. Powderize. 455 (1973). Luminescence-centers of Ca(S. J. may vary between about 3.4 eV).3 By weight (g) 100 0. Status Solidi B. Phys.Se):Bi3+ and CaO:Bi3+ phosphors.385 Preparation Mix by slurrying in water or methanol. Luminescence spectra of Bi3+ ions in MgO and CaO. Phys.40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: 5% Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 50 2 3 Remark This phosphor is very sensitive to traces of Mn.. 1 hour. A. A. Fire in capped quartz tubes. Jpn. 40.. Yamashita. 2.90 and 4. stagnant air.E. Calcium oxide phosphors. Soc.Optical Properties Emission color: Violet + UV Emission peak: 3. Optical Properties Emission color: UV Emission peak: Somewhat uncertain. 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 CaO:Cd2+ Structure: Cubic (NaCl) Composition Ingredient CaCO3 CdO Mole % 100 0. 3.. Dry in air.00 eV Absorption (%) 100 Emission .17 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0. and Pells. G. Use only purest CaCO3. Keep dry.P.. Lumin. 707 (1975). 144 (1976). Hughes. W. Lehmann. J. 71. Powderize when dry. 1200ºC..

Fire in capped quartz tubes. W. Powderize when dry. Abh. Lumin. Store in well-closed container. add solution to the CaCO3 + CaF2 mix.88 eV). Optical Properties Emission color: Bluish + UV Emission peak: Two overlapping bands.. – (3. 10. Powderize. 6.380 0... Lehmann. about 230 µsec Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 50 2 3 References 1. 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 CaO:Cu+ Structure: Cubic (NaCl)l Composition Ingredient CaCO3 CaF2 CuSO4·5H2O Mole % 100 0. Lange. Dry in air. Keep dry. 455 (1973). Tech. J. Wise.18 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0. 1 hour. ~2. 87 (1969).01 By weight (g) 100 0. 1200ºC.025 Preparation Dissolve the copper sulfate in a little water. 2.77 and ~3. Calcium oxide phosphors.Emission width (FWHM): 0.5 0.75 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: + (4.63 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: – (4.. H. Slurry in water. – (3. OSRAM Ges.40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: 6–7% Decay to 10% : Exponential. CO.40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: 2% Absorption (%) 100 Emission .88 eV).

Spectra 800 700 600 500 400 Wavelength (nm) 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Reference 1.2 2. N2.1 Preparation Mix by slurrying in water or methanol. Calcium oxide phosphors. 2 hours.. Lehmann.88 eV). J. Keep dry. – (3. After this firing. Fire in open quartz boats. 3. 1200ºC. N2 loaded with H2O. CaO:Eu3+ Structure: Cubic (NaCl) Composition Ingredient CaCO3 CaF2 Eu2O3 Mole % 100 1. Optical Properties Emission color: Red. Powderize. 1200ºC. Lumin. 455 (1973). Powderize when dry. 6.40 eV by addition of Bi (see CaO:Bi3+) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: Poor Absorption (%) 100 Emission . Fire in capped quartz tubes. After this firing. 1200ºC. Fire in open quartz boats. quench again to room temperature as quickly as possible. Store in well-closed container. W. quench again to room temperature as quickly as possible. 1. 1 hour. Powderize.40 eV).2 (of Eu) By weight (g) 100 1. Powderize. 2.015 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4.. slightly deeper red than that of YOE Emission peak: Main line at 2. ~20 min. can be sensitized for excitation at 3.5 1. Dry in air. stagnant air.

. References 1. Naturforsch. P. The red Eu3+ emission shown in the preceding figure appears only if no alkali is present. Naturforsch. Addition of Li. 561 (1951). Top efficiency requires that the phosphor passes through this range as rapidly as possible after second and third firings. 455 (1973). 3. 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 CaO:Eu3+. It performs very poorly. Na+ Structure: Cubic (NaCl) Optical Properties Emission color: Orange-yellow Emission peak: 2. 6.. 2. Pt. 2.10 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4. W. Z. The phosphor reacts to a “bad” temperature range (~800–1100ºC) by greatly reduced efficiency. A. Brauer.. or K (perhaps for charge compensation. Lehmann. Na. – (3.015 eV to appear.Spectra 800 700 600 500 400 Wavelength (nm) 300 50 2 3 Remarks 1. Lumin. 12.40 eV) Spectra 800 700 600 500 400 Wavelength (nm) 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Absorption (%) 100 Emission Absorption (%) 100 Emission . J. 6. A. Z. 4. Pt. and Uber eu-ionen in erdalkalioxyden und erdalkali-sulfiden.88 eV). Calcium oxide phosphors. Li+ + Eu3+ = 2Ca2+) causes the red line at 2. This CaO:Eu3+ phosphor has been tested in fluorescent lamps. The fluorine in the above recipe can be replaced by chlorine or bromine but a phosphor so prepared is badly hygroscopic probably because of leftover CaCl2 or CaBr2. 233 (1957).

1 hour.40 eV). 1. otherwise the Mn stays separate as MnO2. Studies on the concept of large activator centers in crystal phosphors. Keep dry. J. Soc.. CO. Strong Mn2+ emission appears from about 1 ppm to 10% of Mn or Ca. can be sensitized to respond to 4. and Lee. Dependence of luminescent efficiency on concentration of activator size of luminescent centers.390 0. Dry in air.20 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: – (4.88 eV).5 0. can be sensitized to respond to 3. Optical Properties Emission color: Orange-yellow Emission peak: 2. References 1.88 eV by addition of Pb (see CaO:Pb2+). 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Absorption (%) 100 Emission . Fire in capped quartz tubes. N. The phosphor must be fired in a reducing atmosphere. The Mn concentration is not critical.40 eV by addition of Bi (see CaO:Bi3+) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: 5% Decay to 10%: Exponential. Powderize when dry. Electrochem.07 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0. Ewles. about 22 msec Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 50 2 3 Remarks 1..1 By weight (g) 100 0. Store in well-closed container. 100. Powderize.CaO:Mn2+ Structure: Cubic (NaCl) Composition Ingredient CaCO3 CaF2 MnCO3 Mole % 100 0. 392 (1953). 1200ºC. 2.. – (3. J.115 Preparation Mix by slurrying in water.

and Fredericks. 455 (1973)..88 eV). Chem.2. Powderize. Hühninger.390 0. K. J. Lumin. 3.5 0. 6.21 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4. Calcium oxide phosphors. 1 hour. 37. A. Excitation efficiency by e-beam: 10% Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) (3.J. Calcium oxide phosphors. W..022 Preparation Mix by slurrying in water or methanol.. Dry in air. W.. Optical Properties Emission color: UV Emission peak: 3.. Wise.42 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0. Store in well-closed container. Phys. 41 (1963). OSRAM Ges. 6. Fire in capped quartz tubes.01 By weight (g) 100 0. W. Powderize when dry.M.. 1. 455 (1973). CaO:Pb2+ Structure: Cubic (NaCl) Composition Ingredient CaCO3 CaF2 PbO Mole % 100 0. 1200ºC. Sancier. Lumin. J. stagnant air.. Absorption (%) 100 Emission . M. Abh. 854 (1962). Wise.40 eV) 400 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Reference 1. Techn. 37... Keep dry. Lehmann. 4. J. Luminescence spectra.. and Ruffler. Lehmann. H.. Luminescence of solids excited by surface recombination of atoms.

1200ºC. 2. Lumin. Lehmann. CO. 56 (1964)..51 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: (4. K. Witzmann. Keep dry. Fire in capped quartz tubes. Absorption (%) 100 Emission . Chem.88 and 3. 455 (1973).840 Preparation Mix by slurrying in water.CaO:Sb3+ Structure: Cubic (NaCl) Composition Ingredient CaCO3 Sb2O3 NaHCO3 Mole % 100 0. Herzog. Powderize when dry.1 (of Sb) 1 By weight (g) 100 0.88 eV). H. W.145 0. Z.40 eV UV by addition Bi (see CaO:Bi3+) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: Poor Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 References 1. J.. Dry in air. Phys. Calcium oxide phosphors. Optical Properties Emission color: Yellow-green Emission peak: 2.40 eV). Powderize.. 227. and Kunstler. (3... can be sensitized for excitation by 4. 1 hour. 6. G.30 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0. Store in well-closed container. Zur lumineszenz antimonaktivierter erdalkalioxide insonderheit des systems CaO-Sb. (Leipzig).

520 Preparation Mix by slurrying in water or methanol. 1 hour. 4 (1955). R.88 and 3.CaO:Sm3+ Structure: Cubic (NaCl) Composition Ingredient CaCO3 CaF2 Sm2O3 Mole % 100 0. and Raths. and 2.5 0. W. 1200ºC. J.. 33 (1970). G. Herzog. stagnant air.. Beitrag zur thermolumineszenz des samariumaktivierten calciumoxids. J.40 eV). Atomic configurations in luminescent centres. Powderize when dry.88 eV by addition of Pb (see CaO:Pb2+). Phys. Phys. J.16.. Keep dry. 2.00.3 (of Sm) By weight (g) 100 0. and Abel. 5. J... Dry in air. Phys.88 eV). Herzog. (Leipzig). Fire in capped quartz tubes. can be sensitized for 4.. Store in well-closed container. 125 (1953). Chem. W. Chem.. Crozet. 6. Runciman. S78. Calcium oxide phosphors. Z. Optical Properties Emission color: Orange-yellow Emission peak: 2. Br..19 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: – (4.A.. (Leipzig). H.380 0. 4. 243. Fiquet. Chem. 225. 228.Thermoluminescence of phosphors CaO-Sm and CaO-Bi (calcium oxide-samarium and-bismuth). G. Rad. Phys. Z.. Powderize. Herzog. 13 (1965). Suppl. G. 332 (1964). ..40 eV excitation by addition of Bi (see CaO:Bi3+) Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 References 1. and Janin. and Wuntke. A. 2. 14. Lumin. Z. Absorption (%) 100 Emission . 6. Witzmann. can be sensitized to respond to 4. W.. 455 (1973). Appl.. J. 3.. – (3. Phys. (Leipzig). K. Lehmann.

8 Preparation Mix by slurrying in water or methanol. 455 (1973).5 1.540 Absorption (%) 100 Emission . Fire in capped quartz tubes. Lehmann.CaO:Tb3+ Structure: Cubic (NaCl) Composition Ingredient CaCO3 CaF2 Tb4O7 Mole % 100 0. Lumin. Keep dry. 1200ºC..380 2. Store in well-closed container. Calcium oxide phosphors.40 eV). strongest near 2.. Dry in air.26–2. 6.066 0. W. low because of dark body color Excitation efficiency by e-beam: Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Reference 1. CaO:Tl+ Structure: Cubic (NaCl) Composition Ingredient CaO TlOH NH4Cl Mole % 100 0.28 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: + (4.03 1 By weight (g) 56 0. Optical Properties Emission color: Pale green Emission peak: Many lines. J.5 (of Tb) By weight (g) 100 0. CO. – (3. Powderize when dry.88 eV). Powderize. 1 hour.

227. Zur photoelektrischen messung geringer lumineszenzintensitaten. Optical Properties Emission color: Pale yellow + IR Emission peaks: 2. Phys. Powderize.5 0. 1 hour. 1200ºC. Z. Calcium oxide phosphors. Keep dry. stagnant air. Fire in capped quartz tubes. stagnant air. Lumin. Now admit the TlOH by dry grinding. 130 (1964).40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: 3% (Including both bands) Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 References 1. 1200ºC. 1200ºC. Powderize Store in well-closed container. 1 hour.88 eV). Fire in capped quartz tubes..Preparation First mix only the CaO and NH4Cl by dry grinding.. Dry in air. H. Chem.48 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: + (4. 2. 1 hour. Anderson.11 and 1. J. 2. CaO:Zn2+ Structure: Cubic (NaCl) Composition Ingredient CaCO3 CaF2 ZnO Mole % 100 0.240 Preparation Mix by slurrying in water or methanol. Fire in capped quartz tubes. W.390 0. 6. 1. N2. – (3.5 eV (IR) Emission width (FWHM): 0. 455 (1973). Lehmann. Absorption (%) 100 Emission .3 By weight (g) 100 0.. (Leipzig). Powderize when dry.

Absorption (%) 100 Emission . Nucl... (3.40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: + References 1..80 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: (4. Optical Properties Emission color: UV Emission peak: Somewhat uncertain.20 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0.65 and 3. Calcium oxide phosphors. Instrum. Solid State Electron. Store in well-closed container.. Luckey. varying between about 3.40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: 10% Decay to 10%: Exponential. 63. 2. Instrum.88 eV). 358 (1968). Nucl.Powderize.88 eV). Edge emission of n-type conducting ZnO and CdS. about 300 sec Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 50 2 3 Reference 1.13 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: + (4. Methods. 119 (1968). Lehmann. Correction. 455 (1973). 62. Keep dry. D. J. 9.Ga3+ Structure: Hexagonal (wurtzite) Optical Properties Emission color: UV Emission peak: 3. 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 ZnO:Al3+. Lumin.. D. 1107 (1966). W. Methods. A fast inorganic scintillator. + (3. Lehmann. W.. 6. Luckey.

195 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: + (4. 119 (1968). Nucl. When cool. Edge emission of n-type conducting ZnO and CdS. Phosphor has gray (not white) body color. 2. 1107 (1966). Solid State Electron. nothing else.40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: 1–1.2% Decay to 10%: Less than 1 nsec Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 50 2 3 Remarks 1.88 eV).280 1. Material should be almost or completely dead. Luckey. 2. 1100ºC. Methods. Lehmann. slowly flowing H2. A fast inorganic scintillator. References 1.3 1 By weight (g) 81 0. Methods. 63. D.4 Preparation Mix by slurrying in water or methanol. Remove all portions which look different. Instrum. 62. Dry in air.. D. + (3. 3. Fire when dry. Instrum. inspect again under UV lamp.. 358 (1968).. Powderize. 2. Do not heat to greater than 300ºC. Avoid all sulfur like the plague. 9. Nucl. It is thermally in a semi-stable state. When cool. Screen through 200 mesh (stainless steel sieve OK). 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Absorption (%) 100 Emission . Luckey. Optical Properties Emission color: Deep violet + UV Emission peak: 3. Remove any suspicious parts. Fire in capped quartz tubes. stagnant air. This material is sensitive to traces of sulfur during preparation.. W. except in H2. inspect under UV lamp. 1 hour. Material should show deep violet luminescence. 1. 800ºC. 1 hour. Fire in open quartz boats. Correction.ZnO:Ga3+ Structure: Hexagonal (wurtzite) Composition Ingredient ZnO Ga2O3 ZnCl2 Mole % 100 0.

1 hour. 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 . Chem. Smith. S... + (3. References 1. Zinc oxide and zinc-cadmium oxide phosphors. 538 (1968).88 eV).. This common bluish-green emission of ZnO is greatly enhanced by the addition of sulfur during firing. and towards yellow by replacing 10% of the Zn by Cd. 2. 155 (1952). W. 2.2 By weight (g) 81 ~0. 770 (1950). Thomsen.ZnO:S Structure: Hexagonal (wurtzite) Composition Ingredient ZnO S Mole % 100 ~0. J. Electrochem.41 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: + (4. CO. Excitation efficiency by e-beam: + Decay to 10%: In the 1–10 sec range Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 60% 400 300 100 Emission 50 2 3 Remarks 1.40 eV).M.L. Zinc-magnesium oxide and zinc-magnesium sulfide phosphors.064 Preparation Fire in capped tubes. Lehmann. Soc.45 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0. 18. Sulfide in zinc-oxide luminophors. 115. Soc. 3. The emission can be shifted towards blue by replacing 20% of the Zn by Mg. 900ºC.. Optical Properties Emission color: Blue-green Emission peak: 2.. J. A. 99.. Electrochem. J. Phys.

J. 2. and Oshanskaya. + (3.40 eV). Markovski. Zinc oxide and zinc-cadmium oxide phosphors. Optical Properties Emission color: Orange Emission peak: 1.. References 1.98 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0..88 eV)..S.51 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: + (4. 1 hour. N. . 40 (1960). Electrochem. 900ºC.. CO.ZnO:Se Structure: Hexagonal (wurtzite) Composition Ingredient ZnO Se Mole % 100 ~0. 538 (1968).2 By weight (g) 81 0.. W. oxidizing) of ZnSe in air but the efficiency of this ZnO:Se is lower.160 Preparation Fire in capped quartz tubes.Y. Optics and Spectr. 115. Soc. Lehmann. L. 50–60% Excitation efficiency by e-beam: Afterglow tail observed into the millisecond range Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 100 Emission 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Remark This material can be obtained also by “burning” (i. 9.e..

– (3. and 2. Dry. Optika I Spektrosk.5 (of Eu) 10 By weight (g) 232 2. 127 (1957).7 Preparation Mix by slurrying in water.. Powderize when dry. 1. 1 hour.. H.V.ThO2:Eu3+ Structure: Rutile Composition Ingredient ThO2 Eu2O3 NH4F Mole % 100 1. 2. References 1. Fok. Powderize. 2. Pat.J.88 eV).. Absorption (%) 100 Emission .40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: 4% Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Remark This phosphor has been proposed for X-ray excitation because of the high stopping power of ThO2 for x-rays. Wash in concentrated nitric acid and then in water until neutral. 2. 1300ºC.3 3.. Dry in air. N2.97.S. Fire in capped quartz tubes. Borchard.04. 3 408 303 (1968). Optical Properties Emission color: Pinkish orange-red Emission peak: Three strongest lines. U.095 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4. M.

7 Preparation Mix by slurrying in water or methanol.89. Fire in capped quartz tubes. Powderize.88 eV).ThO2:Pr3+ Structure: Rutile Composition Ingredient ThO2 Pr2O3 NH4F Mole % 100 0.2 (of Tb) 10 By weight (g) 232 0. Dry. Dry in air. – (3. and 2. 1 hour.2 (of Pr) 10 By weight (g) 232 0. Optical Properties Emission color: Blue-greenish white Emission peak: Strongest lines: at 1. N2. Wash in concentrated nitric acid and then in water until neutral.40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: 3% Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 ThO2:Tb3+ Structure: Rutile Composition Ingredient ThO2 Tb4O7 NH4F Mole % 100 0.52 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: + (4. Powderize when dry.375 3.48.330 3.7 Absorption (%) 100 Emission . 2. 1300ºC.

Absorption (%) 100 Emission .88 eV).5 By weight (g) 108 0.J. – (3.230 1. CO.285 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: + (4. 1300ºC. Fire in capped quartz tubes. 3 408 303 (1968). Dry in air. Dry in air. Y2O3:Bi3+ Structure: Cubic Composition Ingredient Y 2O 3 Bi2O3 CaF2 Mole % 100 (of Y) 0. Pat. Powderize. 1 hour. stagnant air.1 (of Bi) 2. Reference 1.Preparation Mix by slurrying in water. Dry. Fire in capped quartz tubes. Powderize when dry. H.40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: 3% Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Remark This phosphor has been proposed for X-ray excitation (high stopping power of ThO2 for Xrays). Borchard. Optical Properties Emission color: Bluish-greenish Emission peak: Strongest at 2.S.. 1300ºC. Powderize when dry.. 1 hour. Wash in concentrated nitric acid and then in water until neutral.95 Preparation Mix by slurrying in water or methanol. U.

Toma. Conf. et al. Dry in air. Blasse. 1. 217 (1968).35 and 3. + (3. and Palumbo. G. 116. Electrochem. 274 (1969).95 Preparation Mix by slurrying in water or methanol.. Lumin. Fire in capped quartz tubes. D. Electrochem. Chem. 48. Luminescence of some bismuth-activated oxides. J. Soc.. 1300ºC... R.1 (of Bi) 2.5 By weight (g) 108 0..35 eV band showing up Emission width (FWHM): 0.83 eV (for 2. Luminescent behavior of bismuth in rare-earth oxides. Investigations on BI3+-activated phosphors.230 1. 114. frequently only the 2. Sometimes it is difficult to recognize the bands in the very diffuse emission spectrum.Optical Properties Emission color: Pale blue-greenish white Emission peak: 2. A. Proc. 1 hour.Z..T. p. 530 (1972). 3..88 eV). J. .. 1137 (1967). and Bril. stagnant air. Boulon. 4.00 eV. Soc..K. Phys. Powderize when dry.35 eV peak) Excitation efficiency by UV: + (4. Datta. Y2O3:Er3+ Structure: Cubic Composition Ingredient Y 2O 3 Bi2O3 CaF2 Mole % 100 (of Y) 0.. S. Intern.40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: Low in either case Decay to 10%: 1 sec Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 100 Absorption (%) Emission 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Remark The Bi3+ emission in Y2O3 is very poorly expressed. G. References 1. Leningrad. J. 2.

230 1.5 By weight (g) 108 0. Fire in open quartz boats. Dry in air. Fire in capped quartz tubes.2. Optical Properties Emission color: Red Emission peak: Strongest line at 2. stagnant air. 1300ºC. Powderize.40 eV). 1 hour. Powderize when dry. see below) Absorption (%) 100 Emission .40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: Efficiency not tested. is low for the visible part because of strong competition by IR emission Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Y2O3:Eu3+ (YOE) Structure: Cubic Composition Ingredient Y 2O 3 Bi2O3 CaF2 Mole % 100 (of Y) 0. Optical Properties Emission color: Pale green Emission peak: Strongest line at 2. – (3. 80% Excitation efficiency by e-beam: 7–8% (if Eu conc: = 3%.88 eV).03 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4. Fire in capped quartz tubes. 1 hour. Powderize. 1300ºC. stagnant air.206 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: – (4. air.95 Preparation Mix by slurrying in water or methanol.1 (of Bi) 2. 1300ºC. (3.88 eV). 1 hour.

C. Ropp. Electrochem. Soc. 34. Soc. and Lefever. Fire in capped quartz tubes. 47 (1964). 311 (1964). R. Wickersheim.. 4. Spectral properties of rare earth oxide phosphors. 111. Electrochem. 2. 1.C. Electrochem. Fluorescence and stimulated emission from trivalent europium in yttrium oxide. 1 hour. 111. The above recipe gives a phosphor optimized for excitation by 4. Powderize when dry.K.. Y2O3:Ho3+ Structure: Cubic Composition Ingredient Y 2O 3 Bi2O3 CaF2 Mole % 100 (of Y) 0. Phys. 1300ºC.. J. Soc.Spectra 800 700 600 500 400 Wavelength (nm) 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Remarks 1. J.. 2. Datta. stagnant air. 181 (1965).. 3500 (1963).1 (of Bi) 2. 2.88 eV UV. K.. 1 hour. Electrochem.. Appl.88 eV. Absorption (%) 100 Emission ..5 By weight (g) 108 0. Soc.. Dry in air.. J. Luminescent behavior of the rare earths in yttrium oxide and related hosts. N.C.40 eV UV but reduces the efficiency for excitation by 4. Fire in capped quartz tubes. J. Luminescence of europium in ternary system — A2O3-Gd2O3-Y2O3.95 Preparation Mix by slurrying in water or methanol. To obtain a phosphor optimized for e-beam excitation use only ½ of the above Eu concentration. R. R. References 1. 3. R.. Ropp. 114. 112. Sensitization by Bi causes excitability by 3. 1300ºC. Chang. J. stagnant air.A.230 1. 5. 1137 (1967).A. Luminescent behavior of bismuth in rare-earth oxides. Powderize.

40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: 2–3% (if Tb conc. 1 hour.40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: Efficiency not tested. Fire in capped quartz tubes.266 and 2. CO. 1300ºC. 1300ºC. – (3.1 (of Bi) 2. (3. CO. Optical Properties Emission color: Pale green Emission peak: Strongest lines at 2.286 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: + (4.Optical Properties Emission color: Yellow-green Emission peak: Two lines in the visible at 2.88 eV). 2. is low for the visible part because of the strong competition by IR emission Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Y2O3:Tb3+ Structure: Cubic Composition Ingredient Y 2O 3 Bi2O3 CaF2 Mole % 100 (of Y) 0. = 1%.230 1.30 eV. see below) Absorption (%) 100 Emission .88 eV).5 By weight (g) 108 0. plus many lines in the IR Excitation efficiency by UV: – (4.95 Preparation Mix by slurrying in water or methanol. Powderize when dry. 1 hour. Dry in air.253 and 2. Fire in capped quartz tubes. Powderize. 1.

5%) of Tb. Spectral properties of rare earth oxide phosphors. 311 (1964).C.27 µsec Absorption (%) 100 Emission . Ropp..1 (of Bi) 2. 111.49 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4. stagnant air. – (3. Re-fire. Dry in air. 2.88 eV). To obtain a phosphor optimized for e-beam excitation use only 1% (instead of 2. Reference 1.67 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0. Powderize when dry. R.95 Preparation Mix by slurrying in water or methanol.Spectra 800 700 600 500 400 Wavelength (nm) 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Remarks 1. otherwise Tb3+ oxidizes to Tb4+. 1200 C. Optical Properties Color: Bluish Emission peak: 2. The above recipe gives a phosphor optimized for excitation by 4. J. same conditions as above.230 1. Store in well-closed container. La2O3:Bi3+ Structure: Cubic Composition Ingredient La2O3 Bi2O3 CaF2 Mole % 100 (of Y) 0.88 eV. 1 hour. Powderize..5 By weight (g) 163 0. Powderize.40 eV) Decay to 1/e: 0. Soc. Fire in capped quartz tubes. Electrochem. This phosphor must be fired in reducing atmosphere.

3.K. – (3.. Fluorescent properties of red-emitting europium-activated phosphors with cathode ray excitation. 1300ºC. Electrochem. stagnant air. 1 hour. Bril.. 124 (1965).Spectra 800 700 600 500 400 Wavelength (nm) 300 100 Absorption (%) Emission 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 References 1. C... Powderize when dry. J. 1137 (1967). A. Luminescent behavior of bismuth in rare-earth oxides...1 (of Bi) 2. Soc. Datta. 112. 2. Ropp.. Fire in capped quartz tubes.88 eV).230 1. Dry in air. W. 111 (1965). 1300ºC. Wanmaker. Electrochem. Electrochem. Powderize. Powderize.40 eV) . Luminescence of europium in ternary system — A2O3-Gd2O3-Y2O3. 1. La2O3:Eu3+ Structure: Cubic Composition Ingredient La2O3 Bi2O3 CaF2 Mole % 100 (of Y) 0..5 By weight (g) 163 0.985 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: – (4. 1 hour. Optical Properties Emission color: Red Emission peak: Strongest line at 1. and deLaat. J. R. R. stagnant air. J.C. 112. Soc. 2. Fire in capped quartz tubes.L.95 Preparation Mix by slurrying in water or methanol. Soc. Store in well-closed container. 114.

. Soc. R.Spectra 800 700 600 500 400 Wavelength (nm) 300 50 2 3 References 1. Phys...H. J.A.95 Optical Properties Emission color: Yellow-green Emission peak: 2.C.. Spectral properties of rare earth oxide phosphors. 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 La2O3:Pb2+ Structure: Cubic Composition Ingredient La2O3 Bi2O3 CaF2 Mole % 100 (of Y) 0. G.. and Dieke. Phys.. 6. Luminescence of europium in ternary system — A2O3-Gd2O3-Y2O3. 112.. Barasch. R. Fluorescent properties of red-emitting europium-activated phosphors with cathode ray excitation. Appl. + (3. 4. J. Electrochem. R..C. A. 3. Electrochem.88 eV). Soc.27 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0. 2.. 311 (1964)..230 1. 3500 (1963).51 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4. Luminescent behavior of the rare earths in yttrium oxide and related hosts. and Lefever. Electrochem.C. G. J. W. Datta. Chang.E. J. 111 (1965). and deLaat.L.K. 1137 (1967). Bril. R. 34. 112. J. Soc. 988 (1965). Soc.. 114. Fluorescence and stimulated emission from trivalent europium in yttrium oxide. K. 111. 181 (1965)..A.. Wickersheim.5 By weight (g) 163 0.40 eV) Absorption (%) 100 Emission .. 47 (1964). J. J. Electrochem.. C... 7.. Ropp..1 (of Bi) 2. 111. Wanmaker. 43. Fluorescence decay of rare-earth ions in crystals. Ropp. Electrochem. N. 5. Soc. Chem. Luminescent behavior of bismuth in rare-earth oxides.

Spectra 800 700 600 500 400 Wavelength (nm) 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Absorption (%) 100 Emission .

Mn2+ Sr3MgSi2O8:Eu2+ Ca5B2SiO10:Eu3+ Ca3Al2Si3O12:Eu2+ LiCeBa4Si4O14:Mn2+ LiCeSrBa3Si4O14:Mn2+ .4.As5+ Zn2SiO4:Ti4+ (Zn+Be)2SiO4:Mn2+ Sr2SiO4:Eu2+ SrBaSiO4:Eu2+ Ba2SiO4:Eu2+ Ba2SiO4:Ce3+.Mn2+ MgSrBa2Si2O7:Eu2+ MgBa3Si2O8:Eu2+ MgSr3Si2O8:Eu2+.Mn2+ BaSi2O5:Eu2+ BaSi2O5:Pb2+ Y2SiO5:Ce3+ CaMgSi2O6:Eu2+ CaMgSi2O6:Eu2+.P Zn2SiO4:Mn2+.Mn2+ Be2SiO4:Mn2+ Mg2SiO4:Mn2+ Zn2SiO4:Mn2+ Zn2SiO4:Mn2+.Mn2+ Ca2MgSi2O7:Eu2+ Ca2MgSi2O7 Ca2MgSi2O7:Eu2+.3 Silicates The following host compounds and activators are included in this subsection: CaSiO3:Ce3+ CaSiO 3:Eu2+ CaSiO 3:Pb2+ CaSiO3:Ti4+ CaSiO3:Pb2+.Mn2+ Sr2MgSi2O7:Eu2+ Ba2MgSi2O7:Eu2+ BaMg2Si2O7:Eu2+ BaSrMgSi2O7:Eu2+ Ba2Li2Si2O7:Eu2+ Ba2Li2Si2O7:Sn2+ Ba2Li2Si2O7:Sn2+.Li+.

Elsevier..A. Fire in capped quartz tubes. 1100ºC. F.00 eV.80 1.176 1. Dry in air. 1 hour. Kröger.CaSiO3:Ce3+ Structure: Triclinic (pseudowollastonite) Composition Ingredient CaCO3 SiO2 TiO2 CaF2 Mole % 97 100 1 2 By weight (g) 97 100 0. Some Aspects of the Luminescence of Solids. Optical Properties Emission color: Violet + UV Emission peak: 3. CO. 3.42 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: + (4. Powderize when dry. 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 CaSiO3:Eu2+ Structure: Triclinic (pseudowollastonite) Composition Ingredient CaCO3 SiO2 Eu2O3 CaF2 Mole % 98 100 0.56 Preparation Mix by slurrying in water.88 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: + Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 50 2 3 Reference 1.1 (of Eu) 2 By weight (g) 98 60 0.56 Absorption (%) 100 Emission . Amsterdam (1948).

1100º C. + (3.40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: + Absorption (%) 100 Emission . Powderize when dry. 1100ºC. Optical Properties Emission color: Violet Emission peak: 2.25 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: + (4. Powderize when dry. Optical Properties Emission color: UV Emission peak: 3. N2.70 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0. Dry in air.93 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0.88 eV). 1 hour. Fire in capped quartz tubes. CO.87 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4.56 Preparation Mix by slurrying in water or methanol.40 eV) Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 CaSiO3:Pb2+ Structure: Triclinic (pseudowollastonite) Composition Ingredient CaCO3 SiO2 PbO CaF2 Mole % 97 100 1 2 By weight (g) 97 60 2.23 1. – (3. 1 hour. Dry in air.88 eV).Preparation Mix by slurrying in water. Fire in capped quartz tubes.

J. J. Butler. University Park (1980). Phys. R. 3. and Hoffman.. 5.. 1100ºC. Powderize when dry. Soc.. and Ruffler.. Electrochem. M. J.. Tech. 43. Rep. 346 (1954). Calcium zinc silicate phosphor.. and Claffy. Soc. 41 (1963). W. 106. C. Dry in air. 269 (1964). Philips Res. Fire in capped quartz tubes. Fluorescent Lamp Phosphors. 1 hour. A.. Soc.56 Preparation Mix by slurrying in water or methanol. CaSiO3:Ti4+ Structure: Triclinic (pseudowollastonite) Composition Ingredient CaCO3 SiO2 TiO2 CaF2 Mole % 97 100 1 2 By weight (g) 97 100 0. 139.W.Pb)...W. air. Schulman. Absorption (%) 100 Emission .H. Bril. 123 (1950). 99. D. Mooney.H. Ginther. W. Harrison. R. J. Abh. J. A. Electrochem.. 137 (1952). The calcium silicate Mn + Pb phosphor phase relationships and preparation. and Hoekstra.E. 9. A study of the mechanism of sensitized luminescence of solids. 16.. 7. M. 6. Bril. 106. Rep.V. 19. Electrochem. Pennsylvania University Press. Wei. K. 10. E.. Am. 2. Soc. and Hoekstra. Hüniger.. Opt. J. 97. Ginther. Lange. Electrochem..C.80 1...J..W.. H. R. H. 4.L. 800 (1959).. Soc.K. Note on the properties of calcium silicate phosphors.. Optical properties of tin-activated and lead-activated calcium metasilicate phosphors.. 955 (1959).J. and Wollentin. Z... Philips Res. C.. 8.Spectra 800 700 600 500 400 Wavelength (nm) 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 References 1. 8.. J.H. 318 (1953). R. Die manganbanden und ihre trennung im lumineszenzspektrum von calciumsilikat (Mn. Schulman... R. 356 (1961). and Klick. OSRAM Ges. Wiss... Nagy.

1 hour.Mn2+ Structure: Triclinic (pseudowollastonite) Composition Ingredient CaCO3 SiO2 PbO MnCO3 CaF2 Mole % 97. 1000ºC.5 100 0. Wash in water several times.40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: 60% (estimated) Decay to 10% : Slightly non exponential ( 35 msec) followed by a long but weaker afterglow tail extending into seconds Absorption (%) 100 Emission .17 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0. Optical Properties Emission color: Orange Emission peak: 2. Dry. Fire in capped quartz tubes.Optical Properties Emission color: Bluish Emission peak: 2. Fire in capped quartz tubes. N2.5 2 2 By weight (g) 97. 1150ºC. CO. Powderize.88 eV). Dry in air. 1.56 Preparation Mix by slurrying in methanol plus a few cubic centimeters water. Powderize when dry. 1 hour. 2.3 1. Powderize.42 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4.12 2. – (3.5 60 1.92 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: + (4.88 eV) Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 CaSiO3:Pb2+.93 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0.

Electrochem. magnesium. Some new complex silicate phosphors containing calcium. 96.40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: + Mg2SiO4:Mn2+ Structure: Orthorhombic (forsterite) Optical Properties Emission color: Red Emission peak: 1. Be2SiO4:Mn2+ Structure: Trigonal (phenakite) Optical Properties Emission color: Orange-red Emission peak: 1. – (3.97 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: – (4.L.Spectra 800 700 600 500 400 Wavelength (nm) 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Reference 1.88 eV).9 Absorption (%) 100 Emission . A. J. Smith. – (3..40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: + Zn2SiO4:Mn2+ Structure: Trigonal (willemite) Composition Ingredient ZnO SiO2 MnCO3 Mole % 194 110 6 By weight (g) 158 66 6. 287 (1949)..88 eV). and beryllium.88 eV Emission width (FWHM): eV Excitation efficiency by UV: – (4. Soc.

. Emission peak moves slightly to longer wavelength with increasing Mn concentration. 229 (1979).. 4. 1 hour. A. E. (1974). and Holland. 4. D. air. 6. 443. Efficiency for excitation by UV and by e-beam. J.35 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0.J. 5.. 1200ºC. Green-emitting phosphors. Bull. I.T.W. Chang. 48.E. and Chapman & Hall. 5. System MgO-ZnO-SiO2. 123. New York.W.. – (3. Lumin. Soc.. 98. Bauer. 409 (1965). and Shafer. 35. A. Palumbo.N.Preparation Mix by ball-milling in water about 2 hours. 117. Phys. J.. Electrochem.. G. and Vink. References 1. 371 (1951).T. 3. Electrochem. Kinetics of X-ray irradiation-caused degradation of photoluminescence of some phosphors. 2.. An Introduction to Luminescence of Solids. G. Leverenz. A. Electrochem.. Segnit.. 3. Parts or all of the Si can be replaced by Ge (but not by Sn).L.F.F. Electronic states of Mn2+-activated phosphors. Dry in air. 80–90% Excitation efficiency by e-beam: 7%/+ Decay: Near exponential with time constant ~10 msec (22–25 msec to 1/10) Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 50 2 3 Remarks 1. Soc. Fire in open quartz containers. Appl... 1 hour. C. London (1950). Soc. Powderize by dry milling. Optical Properties Emission color: Green Emission peak: 2. and decay after excitation by e-beam pulse. H.R.. 2. Am.88 eV). Soc. 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Absorption (%) 100 Emission .. Stevels.40 eV). Fire in open quartz containers. The thermoluminescence characteristics of silicate phosphors activated by manganese and arsenic. 1.T.. J. 8. depend on the Mn concentration used. 1184 (1970). 1200ºC.. Ceram.. Powderize when dry. J. J.. J. Very thorough mixing of the ingredients is essential. Up to ~20% of the Zn can be replaced by Mg without visible effect of the Mg on the emission. and Brown. 79 (1976). John Wiley & Sons. 1. 7. 2. M.18 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4. and Garlick. Efficiency enhancement in manganese-doped zinc silicate phosphor with AIPO4 substitution. forming gas. Lett.

Soc. Dry in air.1 0. – (3.35 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4.. Powderize when dry. commercially available as “Silanox.40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: + Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 100 Emission 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Zn2SiO4:Mn2+. 1 hour.02 (of As) By weight (g) 163 0. and Schulman.P Structure: Trigonal (willemite) Optical Properties Emission color: Green. Optical Properties Emission color: Green Emission peak: 2.230 62.H.02 (* This requires extremely fine SiO2. Opt. 42. air. Am. J. J.As5+ Structure: Trigonal (willemite) Composition Ingredient ZnO MnCO3 SiO2* As2O3 Mole % 200 0..18 eV .) Preparation Mix by ball-milling in water about 2 hours. 910 (1952). C. On the luminescence of divalent manganese in solids. orange Emission peak: 2. Klick..” “Cab-O-Sil. 1200ºC. Fire in capped quartz tubes.” etc.35 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0.8.04 and 2.C.88 eV).2 102 0. Zn2SiO4:Mn2+.

– (3. Chem. Phys. 46. 3.R.C. H. References 1.. Electrochem. Very thorough mixing of the ingredients is important.02 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4.. Froelich. later part non-exponential and extending to several seconds or longer Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 100 Emission 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Remarks 1. 2. G. C. Soc. The thermoluminescence characteristics of silicate phosphors activated by manganese and arsenic. The afterglow due to As5+ appears only when the phosphor has been fired in oxidizing atmosphere.88 eV). and Fonda.Excitation efficiency by e-beam: 3–4% Decay: Decay consisting of two subsequent branches. 2.. 98. Ordinary silicic acid cannot be used for this phosphor (too coarse). J.40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: + Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 100 Emission 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 .. Bull. G. 371 (1951).F. Zn2SiO4:Ti4+ Structure: Trigonal (willemite) Optical Properties Emission color: Violet Emission peak: 3. 878 (1942). J. and Garlick. first branch near-exponential with time constant (to 1/e) 12 msec...

K. Elsevier.Reference 1. (Zn+Be)2SiO4:Mn2+ Structure: Trigonal (willemite) Optical Properties Emission color: Green.88 eV). 2. 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Butler.40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: + Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 100 Emission 50 2 3 Reference 1..A. Amsterdam (1948). Pennsylvania University Press.. University Park (1980).60 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4. orange Emission peak: 2. F.H.40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: + . – (3. Fluorescent Lamp Phosphors.35 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4.04 eV. – (3. Kröger.23 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0.168. 244. Some Aspects of the Luminescence of Solids.88 eV). p. p. Sr2SiO4:Eu2+ Structure: Orthorhombic Optical Properties Emission color: Green-yellow Emission peak: 2.

Equilibria and Eu2+ luminescence of subsolidus phases bounded by Ba3MgSi2O8. et al. CO. 31.4 Preparation Mix by slurrying in water. A.5 5. 3 Blasse. Soc.88 eV) . Rep. 2. Wash in water several times (pH goes to ~10–12). Powderize when dry. Rev. mix by dry milling... 1. Dry in air. Powderize by dry milling. Blasse. The absorption and emission spectra of some important activators.4 g NH4Cl.. 23. Sr3MgSi2O8. Dry. J. T. Characteristic luminescence.. 1 hour.Spectra 800 700 600 500 400 Wavelength (nm) 300 100 Emission 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 References 1. Fluorescence of Eu2+ activated silicates. Powderize.40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: + ..L. G. 115.36 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0. CO. 189 (1968). SrBaSiO4:Eu2+ Composition Ingredient SrCO3 BaCO3 SiO2 Eu2O3 NH4Cl Mole % 98 100 105 2 (of Eu) 10 By weight (g) 145 197 63 3. Fire in capped quartz tubes. Optical Properties Emission color: Yellow-green Emission peak: 2. 1100ºC. Add another 5.. G. 304 (1970). 733 (1968). 2. and Ca3MgSi2O8. Then ball-mill in water. Philips Res. 1 hour. Fire in capped quartz tubes. 1.. 1100ºC. Barry. and Bril. + (3. Electrochem. Philips Tech.32 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4.

Fluorescence of Eu2+-activated phases in binary alkaline earth orthosilicate systems. Barry. 2..5 63 5. Soc.Spectra 800 700 600 500 400 Wavelength (nm) 300 50 2 3 Remark This phosphor is an intermediate between Sr2SiO4:Eu2+ (yellow. CO. J. 1. Powderize. + (3. Equilibria and Eu2+ luminescence of subsolidus phases bounded by Ba3MgSi2O8. CO. Electrochem. Optical Properties Emission color: Blue-green Emission peak: 2. 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Ba2SiO4:Eu2+ Structure: Orthorhombic Composition Ingredient BaCO3 Eu2O3 SiO2 NH4Cl Mole % 198 2 (of Eu) 105 10 By weight (g) 390 3. J.. unstable) which are miscible in any ratio.40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: + Absorption (%) 100 Emission .28 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4. Add another ~5. Wash in water (to remove leftover halide).. Powderize by hard milling or grinding. 115. Dry in air. 115. References 1. Fire in capped quartz tubes.L. 733 (1968). Sr3MgSi2O8. Barry. Fire in capped quartz tubes. 1 hour. Store in a well-closed container. T.L. and Ca3MgSi2O8. 1181 (1968).4 g NH4Cl. mix well.4 Preparation Mix by milling or grinding. T. 1 hour. Soc. 2..44 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0. stable in water) and Ba2SiO4:Eu2+ (green. 1100ºC. The stability of SrBaSiO4:Eu2+ may not be good enough for use in lamps. 1000ºC. Electrochem.88 eV).

1 hour. Soc.8 10 Preparation First mix by dry ball-milling or grinding only in the BaCO3. 900ºC.Mn2+ Structure: Orthorhombic Composition Ingredient BaCO3 SiO2 CeO2 Li2CO3 MnCO3 NH4Br Mole % 75 50 10 20 (of Li) 5 10 By weight (g) 148 30 17 7. Philips Res. Barry. J. CO. Part or all of the Ba can be replaced by Sr causing increasing stability against water and shift of the emission towards yellow. J. Electrochem. Dry in air. Fluorescence of Eu2+ activated silicates. 1181 (1968). CeO2. 115.Spectra 800 700 600 500 400 Wavelength (nm) 300 50 2 3 Remarks 1. 2. H2.Li+. 2. et al. 23. Sr3MgSi2O8. Rep. Powderize. 1 hour.L. Soc.. Powderize. References 1. 1 hour. and Fluorescence of Eu2+-activated phases in binary alkaline earth orthosilicate systems. Material is unstable in water. Equilibria and Eu2+ luminescence of subsolidus phases bounded by Ba3MgSi2O8. Electrochem. Absorption (%) 100 Emission . 900ºC. G. Fire in open quartz boats.. 733 (1968). Fire in open quartz boats..4 5. 115. Blasse. T. N2. SiO2. 3. Powderize when dry. 1. Fire in capped quartz tubes. and Ca3MgSi2O8. and Li2CO3. 189 (1968). 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Ba2SiO4:Ce3+.. 2. Now admit MnCO3 and NH4Br by slurrying in methanol. 900ºC.

50 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4. ++ (3. A. 3.C..H. and 5% Mn. J. 105. Br. McKeag. 78 (1958).88 eV).. 2. Partial replacement of Ba by Sr shifts the emission into somewhat deeper red.Optical Properties Emission color: Orange-red Emission peak: 2. Soc. Emission changes color from orange-red at room temperature to yellow at 150ºC and whitish at 300ºC. J. References 1. Such phosphor has been known as “triple silicate” in England. 26 (1955). Electrochem.88 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: + BaSi2O5:Pb2+ Structure: Orthorhombic Absorption (%) 100 Emission .24 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4. Phys. McKeag. Phosphor is believed to be a modification of Ba2SiO4 (in which Mn2+ is nonluminescent) with 25% of Ba replaced by 10% Ce. and Steward. improves temperature stability of the emission. Temperature characteristics of barium strontium lithium silicate phosphors. The luminescent properties and crystal structure of some new phosphor systems.H. 10% Li. and improves chemical stability of the material. E..46 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0. 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 BaSi2O5:Eu2+ Structure: Orthorhombic Optical Properties Emission color: Blue-green Emission peak: 2.. Appl.40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: Very poor Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 50 2 3 Remarks 1. A.015 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0.. 4. 2.

C. . Phosphors based on rare earth phosphates fast decay phosphors. 2. Electrochem.99 eV Emission width (FWHM): eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4. Powderize when dry. 1. Y2SiO5:Ce3+ Optical Properties Emission color: Violet Emission peak: 2..4 Preparation Mix by slurrying in methanol plus a few cubic centimeters water. Fluorescent Lamp Phosphors.88 eV).39 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4. N2. University Park (1980). 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Ropp..40 eV) Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 100 Emission 50 2 3 References 1. R.54 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0. Fire in capped quartz tubes. 531 (1968).H. K.. 1000ºC. – (3. + (3.5 21. 169..88 eV). 115. Dry in air. Pennsylvania University Press.40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: + CaMgSi2O6:Eu2+ Structure: Monoclinic (diopside) Composition Ingredient CaO MgO SiO2 Eu2O3 NH4Cl Mole % 118 100 210 2 (of Eu) 40 By weight (g) 66 40 126 3. 1 hour. p. Butler.Optical Properties Emission color: UV Emission peak: 3. J. Soc.

96. Some new complex silicate phosphors containing calcium. Smith.25 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4. CO. A. Fire in capped quartz tubes. and beryllium. 1150ºC. Fire in capped quartz tubes. Powderize. Optical Properties Emission color: Blue Emission peak: 2. ++ (3.88 eV). N2. Soc.L. 2.Mn2+ Structure: Monoclinic (diopside) Composition Ingredient CaO MgO SiO2 Eu2O3 MnCO3 NH4Cl Mole % 114 100 210 2 (of Eu) 4 40 By weight (g) 64 40 126 3. Powderize. 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 CaMgSi2O6:Eu2+. Wash in water several times.40 eV). 1 hour. 287 (1949). 1 hour. 1150ºC. Powderize when dry. 1000ºC. Wash in water several times. Electrochem.2.. Powderize.4 Preparation First mix by slurrying in methanol plus a few cubic centimeters water.77 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0. J. 1. magnesium. CO. Dry.. Absorption (%) 100 Emission . Powderize. Fire in capped quartz tubes. 1 hour.5 4.6 21. 60% (estimated) Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 50 2 3 Reference 1. Dry. Dry in air.

40 eV).Optical Properties Emission color: Reddish-purple.29 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0. Fire in capped quartz tubes. CO.5 21. 1 hour. ++ (3. Spectra 800 700 600 500 400 Wavelength (nm) 60% (estimated) 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Ca2MgSi2O7:Eu2+ Structure: Tetragonal (ackermanite) Composition Ingredient CaO MgO SiO2 Eu2O3 NH4Cl Mole % 200 100 210 2 (of Eu) 40 By weight (g) 112 40 126 3. Powderize.37 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4.4 Preparation First mix by slurrying in methanol plus a few cubic centimeters water. ++ (3. 1 hour. Powderize when dry. Dry in air.40 eV). 1. Optical Properties Emission color: Yellow-green Emission peak: 2. Fire in capped quartz tubes.88 eV). Emission peak: 1. 1000ºC. 2.80 eV.77 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4.12 eV. N2. 1150ºC. 2.88 eV). 25% Absorption (%) 100 Emission . 2.

17 eV Excitation efficiency by e-beam: + Ca2MgSi2O7:Eu2+. 1150ºC. Fire in capped quartz tubes. Dry in air.80 eV. 2. 1 hour. Powderize when dry.29 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0.21 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: Excited by all UV plus visible blue Absorption (%) 100 Emission .Spectra 800 700 600 500 400 Wavelength (nm) 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Ca2MgSi2O7 Structure: Tetragonal (ackermanite) Optical Properties Emission color: UV Emission peak: 3.2 5. N2. 1 hour. 1000ºC. Fire in capped quartz tubes. Optical Properties Emission color: Deep red plus weaker yellow-green Emission peak: 1.Mn2+ Structure: Tetragonal (ackermanite) Composition Ingredient CaO MgO SiO2 Eu2O3 MnCO3 NH4Cl Mole % 205 100 210 2 (of Eu) 8 10 By weight (g) 115 40 126 3. CO.4 Preparation First mix by slurrying in methanol plus a few cubic centimeters water.5 9. Powderize. 1. 2.

G. W..3 Preparation Mix by ball-milling in methanol.. Rep. Blasse. 2. Fire in capped quartz tubes. CO. Wanmaker. Blasse.6 40.68 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0. Powderize when dry. 673 (1968). 1150ºC. J. Electrochem.. Powderize.27 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: + (4. Dry in air.88 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: + Absorption (%) 100 Emission . 1 hour. Philips Res. 1. et al.3 126 5. G. Soc. Fire in capped quartz tubes.W. Sr2MgSi2O7:Eu2+ Structure: Tetragonal (ackermanite) Composition Ingredient SrCO2 SrF2 MgO SiO2 Eu2O3 Mole % 187 10 100 210 3 (of Eu) By weight (g) 276 12. Fluorescence of Eu2+-activated silicates. Optical Properties Emission color: Blue Emission peak: 2. N2. 1000ºC. 2. J. and terVrugt. 189 (1968).L. 115. Some new classes of efficient Eu2+ activated phosphors. 1 hour...Spectra 800 700 600 500 400 Wavelength (nm) 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 References 1.. 23.

(1968). 23.3 126 5.88 eV). Fluorescence of Eu2+-activated silicates. Rep.Spectra 800 700 600 500 400 Wavelength (nm) 300 100 Emission 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Reference 1.40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: + . Dry in air.5 40. 1000ºC. N2. 1 hour. 1 hour. + (3.41 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: + (4. 2.42 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0..3 Preparation Mix by ball-milling in methanol. CO. G. Fire in capped quartz tubes. Optical Properties Emission color: Blue-green Emission peak: 2. et al.. 1. 1100ºC. Powderize when dry. Philips Res. Blasse. Fire in capped quartz tubes. 189. Ba2MgSi2O7:Eu2+ Structure: Tetragonal (melinite) Composition Ingredient BaCO3 BaF2 MgO SiO2 Eu2O3 Mole % 187 10 100 210 3 (of Eu) By weight (g) 369 17. Powderize.

2. J..L. Rev.40 eV) Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 100 Emission 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 .. and Bril.Spectra 800 700 600 500 400 Wavelength (nm) 300 100 Emission 50 2 3 References 1. Some new classes of efficient Eu2+ activated phosphors.3 126 5. Blasse. Soc.. 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 BaMg2Si2O7:Eu2+ Structure: Tetragonal (melinite) Composition Ingredient BaCO3 BaF2 MgO SiO2 Eu2O3 Mole % 187 10 100 210 3 (of Eu) By weight (g) 369 17. J. Philips Tech. G.3 Optical Properties Emission color: Violet + UV Emission peak: 3. 304 (1970).88 eV).10 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0. 1.. Electrochem. Characteristic luminescence.. and terVrugt. Wanmaker. W. 31.5 40. 673 (1968).. G.19 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4. The absorption and emission spectra of some important activators. 115. + (3. Blasse.W.. A.

Fluorescence of Eu2+-activated silicates. 115.. K. CO. 189 (1968). (1980). G.W. Fire in capped quartz tubes. Blasse. G. 1. 117. et al. Butler..5 40. University Park.. 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 . Fluorescent Lamp Phosphors. Soc. 1100ºC. Wanmaker. T. 23.3 126 5. Pennsylvania University Press. Fire in capped quartz tubes. and terVrugt. 673 (1968). W.. Philips Res. 3..6 143. 381 (1970)..27 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4.. Blasse.. Some new classes of efficient Eu2+ activated phosphors. Luminescent properties of Eu2+ and Eu2+ + Mn2+ activated BaMg2Si2O7. 2. Rep.3 Preparation Mix by ball-milling in methanol. Electrochem. BaSrMgSi2O7:Eu2+ Structure: Ackermanite Composition Ingredient BaCO3 SrCO3 BaF2 MgO SiO2 Eu2O3 Mole % 90 97 10 100 210 3 (of Eu) By weight (g) 177.Reference 1. 1 hour.82 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0. J.J. Dry in air. Electrochem.. Powderize when dry. Soc.40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: + Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 100 Emission 50 2 3 References 1. J. 2. 1 hour. J. 1000ºC. ++ (3. Powderize.2 17. Barry.H. Optical Properties Emission color: Blue Emission peak: 2.88 eV). N2.L.

Powderize.88 eV).Ba2Li2Si2O7:Eu2+ Composition Ingredient BaCO3 Li2CO3 SiO2 Eu2O3 NH4Br Mole % 97 110 (of Li) 110 3 (of Eu) 50 By weight (g) 191 41 66 5. Fire in open quartz boats. H2. 16 hours (overnight). Fire in open quartz boats. Phosphor is chemically unstable in water and deteriorates in moist air. 1 hour. 850ºC. 1. Powderize. 850ºC. Fire in capped quartz tubes. 2. excited by all UV Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Remarks 1. CO. Gradual replacement of Ba by Sr causes rapid decrease of efficiency without visible change of color. + (3. Store in a well-closed container. 2. Now admit the NH4Br by slurrying in methanol plus a few cubic centimeters water. 1 hour. Optical Properties Emission color: Blue-green Emission peak: 2.30 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4. N2. Powderize when dry.40 eV). Dry in air.44 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0.3 49 Preparation First mix all ingredients but the NH4Br by dry grinding or milling . 3. 850ºC. Absorption (%) 100 Emission .

causing a shift of the emission towards bluegreen. Dry in air. Absorption (%) 100 Emission . Make slurry in methanol and stir to uniformity. CO.Mn2+). Now admit the SnO + NH4Br. 1. H2. QE fairly high Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Remarks 1. ~16 hours (overnight). 1 hour. 1 hour. Optical Properties Emission color: Violet Emission peak: 2. 850ºC. Fire in open quartz boats.40 eV). 3. Part or all of the Ba can be replaced by Sr.8 49 Preparation First mix by dry grinding or milling the BaCO3 + Li2CO3 + SiO2 . Powderize.Ba2Li2Si2O7:Sn2+ Composition Ingredient BaCO3 Li2CO3 SiO2 SnO NH4Br Mole % 95 110 (of Li) 110 5 50 By weight (g) 187 41 66 6. Phosphor is chemically unstable in water and deteriorates even in moist air.88 eV).89 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0.22 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4. The Sn2+ emission sensitizes Mn2+ (see: Ba2Li2Si2O7:Sn2+. Powderize when dry. Powderize. 850ºC. Store in a well-closed container. N2. ++ (3. 2. Fire in capped quartz tubes. 3. 850ºC. 2. Fire in open boats.

and decreasing efficiency. 2. ++ (3.40 eV). CO. 1 hour. Make a slurry in methanol and stir to uniformity. Absorption (%) 100 Emission .5 110 (of Li) 110 5 1.16 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4. Increasing replacement of Ba by Sr causes gradual shift of the emission towards red.88 eV).7 49 Preparation First mix by dry grinding or milling the BaCO3 + Li2CO3 + SiO2.Ba2Li2Si2O7:Sn2+. Now admit the SnO + MnCO3 + NH4Br. QE (estimated) Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 60–70% 400 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Remarks 1. Phosphor is chemically unstable in water and deteriorates even in moist air. Dry in air. broadening and slight deformation of the emission band. N2. 850ºC. Store in a well-closed container. 2. ~16 hours (overnight). Powderize. Fire in open boats. 850ºC. 1 hour. 1. H2. Powderize. Fire in open quartz boats. 850ºC.32 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0.5 50 By weight (g) 185 41 66 6. 3. Fire in capped quartz tubes.Mn2+ Composition Ingredient BaCO3 Li2CO3 SiO2 SnO MnCO3 NH4Br Mole % 93. Optical Properties Emission color: Green Emission peak: 2.8 1. Powderize.

Philips Res. Electrochem.L.MgSrBaSi2O7:Eu2+ Structure: Ackermanite Optical Properties Emission color: Blue Emission peak: 2. ++ (3. . and Ca3MgSi2O8. Soc. Equilibria and Eu2+ luminescence of subsolidus phases bounded by Ba3MgSi2O8. 115.. Sr3MgSi2O8. Blasse. 115.88 eV).. J. Soc. 189 (1968). T..88 eV) Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 100 Emission 50 2 3 References 1.40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: + Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 100 Emission 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 MgBa3Si2O8:Eu2+ Optical Properties Emission color: Blue Emission peak: 2.82 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0. 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 2. Fluorescence of Eu2+ activated silicates. 23. Barry. 733 (1968) and Fluorescence of Eu2+-activated phases in binary alkaline earth orthosilicate systems..82 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0.27 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4. G. et al. J. 1181 (1968).. Rep. Electrochem.22 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4.

G. ++ (3. Fluorescence of Eu2+-activated silicates. Rev.2 sec to 1/e Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 45% 400 300 100 Emission 50 2 3 References 1. Philips Tech. and Bril. Fire in capped quartz tubes. Dry in air. 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 . 23.40 eV).Mn2+ Optical Properties Emission color: Deep red Emission peak: 1. 1000ºC. Optical Properties Emission color: Blue Emission peak: 2.MgSr3Si2O8:Eu2+.. CO..70 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0. G.88 eV) Sr3MgSi2O8:Eu2+ Structure: Ackermanite Composition Ingredient SrCO3 MgO SiO2 Eu2O3 NH4Cl Mole % 295 100 206 5 (of Eu) 30 By weight (g) 435 40 124 8. QE Excitation efficiency by e-beam: 3% Decay: 0. et al. Characteristic luminescence. Philips Res. Fire in capped quartz tubes.88 eV). Blasse. 1100ºC.23 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4. N2. 304 (1970). 1. The absorption and emission spectra of some important activators.8 16 Preparation Mix by ball-milling in methanol about 1 hour. 1. Rep. Powderize 2. 1 hour.. 189 (1968). Powderize when dry. Blasse. A. 2. 31.82 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4. 1 hour...

Powderize.2 8. air.41 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0. air.8 Preparation Mix by dry milling or grinding. 3. Fire in open quartz boats. 1100ºC. 1300ºC. QE Excitation efficiency by e-beam: Poor Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 50–60% 400 300 50 2 3 Remark The chemical stability of this material is somewhat better than that of CaO:Eu3+. 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Ca3Al2Si3O12:Eu2+ Optical Properties Emission color: Pale bluish-green Emission peak: 2.47 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: Excited by all UV but low QE ( 20%) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: Very poor. Fire in open quartz boats. Powderize by milling.40 eV).Ca5B2SiO10:Eu3+ Composition Ingredient CaCO3 H3BO3 SiO2 Eu2O3 Mole % 100 50 22 5 (of Eu) By weight (g) 100 31 13. – (3. 1 hour. 2.88 eV). 1.03 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4. 1 hour. 1 hour. Fire in open quartz boats. air. 0. 1200ºC.5% Absorption (%) 100 Emission . Optical Properties Emission color: Red Emission peak: 2.

Spectra 800 700 600 500 400 Wavelength (nm) 300 100 Emission 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 LiCeBa4Si4O14:Mn2+ Optical Properties Emission color: orange–red Emission peak: ~2.88 eV).24 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4. ++ (3.40 eV) Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 LiCeSrBa3Si4O14:Mn2+ Optical Properties Emission color: Red Emission peak: 1.02 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0. ++ (3.40 eV) Absorption (%) 100 Emission .23 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4.88 eV).99 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0.

Spectra 800 700 600 500 400 Wavelength (nm) 300 100 Emission 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 .

Powderize. Fire in open quartz boats. N2. Fire in capped quartz tubes. Dry in air. Optical Properties Emission color: UV Emission peak: 3. Dry in air.4. Fire in capped quartz tubes. Powderize. 1200 C.35 and 3. 1 hour. N2.88 eV). 2. 3. 500 C. 1. 1200 C. Powderize. Wash in water several times. 1 hour.4 Halosilicates The following host compounds and activators are included in this subsection: LaSiO3Cl:Ce3+ LaSiO3Cl:Ce3+. QE Excitation efficiency by e-beam: 5% Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 90% 400 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Absorption (%) 100 Emission .Tb3+ Ca3SiO4Cl2:Pb2+ Ca3SiO4Cl2:Eu2+ Ba5SiO4Cl6:Eu2+ Sr5Si4O10Cl6:Eu2+ LaSiO3Cl:Ce3+ Composition Ingredient La2O3 SiO2 CeO2 NH4Cl Mole % 100 (of La) 160 20 120 By weight (g) 163 96 34 64 Preparation Mix by slurrying in water (NH3 develops).56 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4. 1 hour. CO. Powderize when dry.

445 (1978). J. ~500 C. Dry in air.Remarks 1. but Cl seems to perform best. Fire in capped quartz tubes. Fire in capped quartz tubes. 1200 C.88 eV). Powderize. Electrochem.40 eV).. 1 hour. Powderize when dry.. Reference 1. N2. Fire in open quartz boats. Powderize. Powderize.29 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4.. Replacement of La by Y is possible but gives somewhat poorer phosphors. CO. W. Optical Properties Emission color: Pale yellow-green Emission peak: 2.H. and Isaaks. 1. T. QE Excitation efficiency by e-beam: +/4% Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 80–90% 400 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Absorption (%) 100 Emission . 2. 125. Dry in air. LaSiO3Cl:Ce3+. Wash in water several times. Lehmann.J. 1 hour. 3. 2. Lanthanum and yttrium halo-silicate phosphors. F or Br can replace the Cl in the above recipe. Soc. N2.Tb3+ Composition Ingredient La2O3 SiO2 CeO2 Tb4O7 NH4Cl Mole % 100 (of La) 180 20 14 (of Tb) 130 By weight (g) 163 108 34 26 60 Preparation Mix by slurrying in water (NH3 develops). + (3. ~1 hour. 1200 C.

Remarks 1. J. Philips Res. and Isaaks. W.44 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0. Luminescence of phosphors with Ca3SiO4Cl.. Ca3SiO4Cl2:Eu2+ Optical Properties Emission color: Blue-green Emission peak: 2.H.. Ca3SiO4Cl2:Pb2+ Optical Properties Emission color: UV Emission peak: 3. Rep. Electrochem. 2. The Cl in the above recipe can be replaced by F or Br but Cl seems to perform best.40 eV) Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 100 Emission 50 2 3 Reference 1. 445 (1978).41 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0. ++ (3.J. – (3. 28. 125.. and Verriet. Replacement of La by Y is possible but gives somewhat poorer phosphors. Soc.G...88 eV). W.31 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: + (4. Lehmann. Reference 1. Lanthanum and yttrium halo-silicate phosphors..39 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4. J. T.88 eV).40 eV) .L. 80 (1973). 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Wanmaker.

and Fouassier. Rep. Electrochem. 126. Latourette. J.88 eV).19 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4. a new blue-emitting photoluminescent material with high quenching temperature... A.L. J. 28. Ba5SiO4Cl6:Eu2+ Optical Properties Emission color: blue Emission peak: 2.82 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0. C. Soc.52 eV .40 eV) Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 100 Emission 50 2 3 Reference 1. W. Ba5SiO4Cl6:Eu.. Sr5Si4O10Cl6:Eu2+ Optical Properties Emission color: Blue-green Emission peak: 2. and Verriet.G.Spectra 800 700 600 500 400 Wavelength (nm) 300 100 Emission 50 2 3 Reference 1. Philips Res. 1734 (1979). Luminescence of phosphors with Ca3SiO4Cl. 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Wanmaker. ++ (3. 80 (1973). B.. 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Garcia..

. . J. Lumin. 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Burrus..38 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4.L.P.. H. K. 3.88 eV).40 eV) Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 100 Emission 50 2 3 References 1. ++ (3. H. and Rooksby. Fluorescence of Eu2+-activated alkaline earth halosilicates. 467 (1971).P..Emission width (FWHM): 0. Nicholson.

Mn2+(Al) -Sr3(PO4)2:Sn2+ -Sr3(PO4)2:Eu2+ Ba3(PO4)2:Eu2+ Na3Ce(PO4)2:Tb3+ -(Ca.Tb3+ YPO4:Eu3+ YPO4:Mn2+.Mg)3(PO4)2:Mn2+ Mg3Ca3(PO4)4:Eu2+ MgSr5(PO4)4:Sn2+ MgBa2(PO4)2:Sn2+ CaSr2(PO4)2:Bi3+ MgBa2(PO4)2:U Sr2P2O7:Eu2+ .Mn2+ -Ca3(PO4)2:Ce3+ CaB2P2O9:Eu2+ -Ca3(PO4)2:Sn2+ -Ca3(PO4)2:Sn2+ -Ca3(PO4)2:Pb2+ -Ca3(PO4)2:Tl+ -Ca3(PO4)2:Ce3+ -Ca3(PO4)2:Eu2+ -Ca3(PO4)2:Eu2+ -Ca3(PO4)2:Eu2+.Mn2+ Ca2P2O7:Eu2+ Li2CaP2O7:Ce3+.5 Phosphates The following host compounds and activators are included in this subsection: YPO4:Ce3+ YPO4:Ce3+.Mn2+ ZnMg2(PO4)2:Mn2+ Zn3(PO4)2:Mn2 (Zn.Mn2+ -Sr3(PO4)2:Sn2+.Th4+ YPO4:V5+ LaPO4:Ce3+ LaPO4:Eu3+ CaP2O6:Mn2+ Sr2P2O7:Sn2+ Ca2P2O7:Ce3+ Ca2P2O7:Eu2+.Mn2+ MgCaP2O7:Mn2+ BaTiP2O7 MgSrP2O7:Eu2+ MgBaP2O7:Eu2+ MgBaP2O7:Eu2+.Sr)3(PO4)2:Sn2+.4.

D. A.R. Effect of thorium on Ce+3 phosphors. Optical Properties Emission color: UV Emission peak: 3. Fire in open quartz boats.. Electrochem.. a new ultrafast scintillator. Soc.. Robbins. and Bril. 67 (1975). 1.. CeP5O14.P. J.. J. 1508 (1971). CO. Wright. mix by dry grinding.. – (3. and Banks..P. Slowly add the H3PO4 solution while stirring. 3. Bauman. Fire in capped quartz tubes. J. Powderize when dry.49 and 3. ~80 nsec to 1/10 Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 References 1. Powderize.. 4. Phys. Fire in open quartz boats. G. Bimburg.88 eV). 4. ~1 hour. Appl. Mandel.40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: 2–3% Decay: Near exponential decay. 304 (1970). G. Solid State Chem.. 118. M. D. ~2 hours. Hoffman. 27..2 64 ccm Preparation Make a thin slurry of Y2O3 and Eu2O3 in methanol. 33. 31. 2. Ultraviolet-absorption bands of Bi3+ and Eu3+ in oxides. Powderize. Electronic transitions of rare earth ions in the infrared region....71 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4. Lett.R. ~500–600ºC. ~1300ºC. 52 (1972). N2. 192 (1960). 85% Mole % 97 (of Y) 3 (of Eu) 105 (of P) By weight (g) 110 5. ~1 hour. and Jeser. The absorption and emission spectra of some important activators. Dry in air. 2. R. Chem. Phys. Blasse. D. Blasse. Add ~5 g of NH4Cl. Absorption (%) 100 Emission . J.. E.YPO4:Ce3+ Structure: Tetragonal Composition Ingredient Y 2O 3 Eu2O2 H3PO4 solution.. 3. 1300ºC. Philips Tech. G. N2. Rev.V. 5..

88 eV).40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: + Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 100 Emission 50 2 3 Reference 1. Electrochem.88 eV). – (3. – (3.40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: + Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 YPO4:Eu3+ Structure: Tetragonal Optical Properties Emission color: Orange-red Excitation efficiency by UV: – (4.Tb3+ Structure: Tetragonal Optical Properties Emission color: Green Emission peak: 2. 115. 841 (1968).C.. Soc. R. 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Ropp..28 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4. Phosphors based on rare earth phosphates.YPO4:Ce3+. Absorption (%) 100 Emission . Spectral properties of some rare earth phosphates. J. 1.

88 eV). and NH4Cl in methanol. Powderize when dry. Dry in air.40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: + Spectra 800 700 600 500 400 Wavelength (nm) 300 100 Emission 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 YPO4:V5+ Structure: Tetragonal Optical Properties Emission color: Blue Emission peak: 2.88 eV) Structure: Monoclinic (monazite) Composition Ingredient La2O3 CeO2 NH4Cl H3PO4 solution. .23 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: – (4. Slowly add the H3PO4 solution while stirring. 85% LaPO4:Ce3+ Mole % 98 (of La) 2 10 105 (of P) By weight (g) 160 3.44 5.59 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0.99 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0.56 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: + (4. – (3.Th4+ Structure: Tetragonal Optical Properties Emission color: Blue-green Emission peak: 2. CeO2 .4 64 ccm Preparation Make a slurry of La2O3.YPO4:Mn2+.

1 hour. Mandel. 1.40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: + Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Reference 1. – (3. 1250ºC.784. Optical Properties Emission color: UV Emission peak: 3. R. 2. Eu2O3. Bauman. 1250ºC. Dry in air.. 1250ºC.4 64 ccm Preparation Make a slurry of La2O3. Powderize. Powderize.94 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4. N2. Electronic transitions of rare earth ions in the infrared region. 192 (1970).88 eV).815. and 2.1 2 Fire in open quartz boats. 2 hours. 1.88eV). Powderize when dry. and NH4Cl in methanol. Structure: Monoclinic (monazite) Composition Ingredient La2O3 Eu2O3 NH4Cl H3PO4 solution. CO. Phys.P. Fire in open quartz boats. G. 2. Fire in open quartz boats.. 1 hour. N2. Optical Properties Emission color: Orange-red Emission peak: Strongest lines are at 1. Fire in open quartz boats. 2 hours. and Banks. Slowly add the H3PO4 solution while stirring.8 5. air. E.117 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: + (4. – (3.67 and 3. 85% LaPO4:Eu3+ Mole % 95 (of La) 5 (of Eu) 10 105 (of P) By weight (g) 155 8.40 eV) Absorption (%) 100 Emission .. 33..097. 1250ºC. Chem. J.

CaP2O6:Mn2+ Optical Properties Emission color: Green Emission peak: 2. Rev. et al. Luminescent properties of Eu-activated phosphors of type A3BVO4. W. Wanmaker.29 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: – (4.Spectra 800 700 600 500 400 Wavelength (nm) 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Reference 1.. 21. Philips Tech.88 eV).30 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0.40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: + Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 100 Emission 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Absorption (%) 100 Emission . – (3. 270 (1966).L..

Sr2P2O7:Sn2+
Spectra
800 700 600 500
2+

400

Wavelength (nm)

300
2+

100

Emission

-Sr2P2O7:Sn

-Sr2P2O7:Sn

50

2

3

Reference 1.

4 Photon Energy (eV)

5

0

Ropp., R.C., and Mooney, R.W., Tin-activated alkaline-earth pyrophosphate phosphors, J. Electrochem. Soc., 107, 15 (1960).

Ca2P2O7:Ce3+
Structure: Tetragonal Composition Ingredient CaHPO4 CeO2 NaHCO3 H3PO4-solution, 85% Mole % 96 2 2 6 (of P) By weight (g) 130 3.4 1.7 4.1 ccm

Preparation Make a slurry of CaHPO4, CeO2 , and NaHCO3 in water or methanol. Add the H3PO4 solution while stirring; stir to uniformity. Dry in air. Powderize when dry. 1. Fire in open quartz boats, N2, ~500–600ºC, ~1/2 hour. Powderize. 2. Fire in open quartz boats, CO, 1200ºC, 1 hour. Optical Properties Emission color: Pale bluish (most of the emission in the UV) Emission peaks: 3.60 and 3.83 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4.88 eV), – (3.40 eV)

Spectra
800 700 600 500

400

Wavelength (nm)

300

50

2

3

4 Photon Energy (eV)

5

0

Reference 1. Ranby, P.W., Mash, D.H., and Henderson, S.T., The investigation of new phosphors, with particular reference to the pyrophosphates, Br. J. Appl. Phys., Suppl. 4, 18 (1955).

Ca2P2O7:Eu2+,Mn2+
Structure: Tetragonal Composition Ingredient CaHPO4 Eu2O3 MnCO3 H3PO4 solution, 85% Mole % 93 2 (of Eu) 5 9 (of P) By weight (g) 126 3.5 5.75 6.1 ccm

Preparation Make a slurry of CaHPO4, Eu2O3 , and MnCO3 in water or methanol. Add the H3PO4 solution while stirring; stir to uniformity. Dry in air. Powderize when dry. 1. Fire in open quartz boats, N2, ~500–600ºC, ~1 hour. Powderize. 2. Fire in open quartz boats, CO, 1200ºC, 1 hour. Optical Properties Emission color: Pink-orange Emission peak: Orange Mn2+ band at ~2.06 eV; Violet Eu2+ band at ~2.98 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0.28 eV (Mn2+ band) Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4.88 eV), ++ (3.40 eV)

Absorption (%)

100

Emission

Spectra
800 700 600 500

400

Wavelength (nm)

300

100

Emission

50

2

3

4 Photon Energy (eV)

5

0

References 1. Kröger, F.A. et al., J. Electrochem. Soc., 96, 132 (1949). 2. Kinney, D.E., Modified calcium pyrophosphate phosphors, J. Electrochem. Soc., 102, 676 (1955). 3. Ranby, P.W., Mash, D.H., and Henderson, S.T., The investigation of new phosphors, with particular reference to the pyrophosphates, Br. J. Appl. Phys., S18, Suppl. 4 (1955). 4. Ropp, R.C., Manganese-activated cadmium pyrophosphate phosphors, J. Electrochem. Soc., 109, 569 (1962).

Ca2P2O7:Eu2+
Structure: Tetragonal Composition Ingredient CaHPO4 Eu2O3 H3PO4 solution, 85% Mole % 98 2 (of Eu) 4 (of P) By weight (g) 133 3.5 2.7 ccm

Preparation Make a slurry of CaHPO4 + Eu2O3 in water or methanol. Add the H3PO4 solution while stirring; stir to uniformity. Dry in air. Powderize when dry. 1. Fire in open quartz boats, N2, ~500–600ºC, ~1 hour. Powderize. 2. Fire in open quartz boats, CO, 1200ºC, 1 hour. Optical Properties Emission color: Violet Emission peak: 2.96 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0.19 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4.88 eV), ++ (3.40 eV)

Spectra
800 700 600 500

400

Wavelength (nm)

300

100

Emission

50

2

3

4 Photon Energy (eV)

5

0

References 1. Kröger, F.A. et al., J. Electrochem. Soc., 96, 132 (1949). 2. Kinney, D.E., Modified calcium pyrophosphate phosphors, J. Electrochem. Soc., 102, 676 (1955). 3. Ranby, P.W., Mash, D.H., and Henderson, S.T., The investigation of new phosphors, with particular reference to the pyrophosphates, Br. J. Appl. Phys., S18, Suppl. 4 (1955). 4. Ropp, R.C., Manganese-activated cadmium pyrophosphate phosphors, J. Electrochem. Soc., 109, 569 (1962).

Li2CaP2O7:Ce3+,Mn2+
Composition Ingredient Li2CO3 CaHPO4 CeO2 MnCO3 H3PO4 solution, 85% Mole % 205 (of Li) 89 3 5 115 (of P) By weight (g) 75.7 121 5.2 5.75 70 ccm

Preparation Make a slurry of Li2CO3 + CaHPO4 + CeO2 + MnCO3 in methanol. Add the H3PO4 solution while stirring (CO2 develops). Dry in air. Powderize when dry. 1. Fire in open quartz boats, N2, ~500–600ºC. Powderize. 2. Fire in open quartz boats, N2, 700ºC, 16 hours (overnight). Optical Properties Emission color: Greenish-yellow Emission peak: 2.16 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0.28 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4.88 eV), – (3.40 eV)

Spectra
800 700 600 500

400

Wavelength (nm)

300

100

Emission

50

2

3

4 Photon Energy (eV)

5

0

MgCaP2O7:Mn2+
Structure: Monoclinic Optical Properties Emission color: Yellow Emission peak: 2.12 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0.20 eV Spectra
800 700 600 500 400
Wavelength (nm)

300

100

Emission

50

2

3

4 Photon Energy (eV)

5

0

BaTiP2O7
Spectra
800 700 600 500 400
Wavelength (nm)

300

100

Emission

50

2

3

4 Photon Energy (eV)

5

0

Reference 1. Henderson, S.T., and Ranby, P.W., Barium titanium phosphate – a new phosphor, J. Electrochem. Soc., 98, 479 (1951).

MgSrP2O7:Eu2+
Structure: Monoclinic Optical Properties Emission color: Violet-UV Emission peak: 3.16 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0.20 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4.88 eV), + (3.40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: + Spectra
800 700 600 500
Wavelength (nm)

400

300

100

Emission

50

2

3

References 1. 2.

4 Photon Energy (eV)

5

0

Hoffman, M.V., Eu+2 activation in some alkaline earth strontium phosphate compounds, J. Electrochem. Soc., 115, 560 (1968). Blasse, G., and Bril, A., The absorption and emission spectra of some important activators, Philips Tech. Rev., 31, 304 (1970).

MgBaP2O7:Eu2+
Structure: Monoclinic Optical Properties Emission color: Violet-UV Emission peak: 3.04 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0.35 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4.88 eV), ++ (3.40 eV)

Spectra
800 700 600 500

400

Wavelength (nm)

300

100

Emission

50

2

3

Reference 1.

4 Photon Energy (eV)

5

0

Lagos, C.C., Luminescence of divalent europium in BaO-MgO-P2O5 system, J. Electrochem. Soc., 115, 1271 (1968).

MgBaP2O7:Eu2+,Mn2+
Structure: Monoclinic Composition Ingredient Mg2P2O7 Ba2P2O7 Eu2O3 MnCO3 H3PO4-solution, 85% Mole % 90 (of Mg) 96 (of Ba) 4 (of Eu) 10 19 (of P) By weight (g) 100 215 7 11.5 12.9 ccm

Preparation Make a slurry of Mg2P2O7 + Ba2P2O7 + Eu2O3 + MnCO3 in water. Add the H3PO4 solution while stirring. Dry in air. Powderize when dry. 1. Fire in open quartz boats, N2, 500–600ºC, 1 hour. Powderize. 2. Fire in open quartz boats, N2, 950ºC, 2 hours. Optical Properties Emission color: Pinkish orange-red Emission peak: Orange-red Mn2+ band at 2.07 eV, violet Eu2+ band at 3.06 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0.18 eV (Mn2+ band) Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4.88 eV), ++ (3.40 eV)

Spectra
800 700 600 500

400

Wavelength (nm)

300

50

2

3

4 Photon Energy (eV)

5

0

-Ca3(PO4)2:Ce3+
Structure: Trigonal Optical Properties Emission color: UV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4.88 eV) Spectra
800 700 600 500 400
Wavelength (nm)

300
16/9 % Ce 2/3 1/9 1/36

100

Emission

50

2

3

Reference 1.

4 Photon Energy (eV)

5

0

Botden, T.P.J., Transfer and transport of energy by resonance processes in luminescent solids, Philips Res. Rep., 7, 197 (1952).
600 500 400
Wavelength (nm)

800 700

300
3+ 2+

100

-Ca3(PO4)2:Ce ,Mn
Emission

50

2

3

4 Photon Energy (eV)

5

0

Absorption (%)

100

Emission

Reference 1. Froelich, H.C., and Margolis, J.M., Calcium phosphate phosphor activated with cerium and manganese, J. Electrochem. Soc., 98, 400 (1951).

CaB2P2O9:Eu2+
Composition Ingredient CaHPO4 H3BO3 Eu2O3 (NH4)2HPO4 Mole % 98 200 2 (of Eu) 106 By weight (g) 134 124 3.5 140

Preparation Make a slurry of the CaHPO4 + Eu2O3 in methanol. Dissolve the H3BO3 + (NH4)2HPO4 together in a little water. Add the solution to the slurry. Stir. Dry in air. Powderize when dry. 1. Fire in open quartz boats, air, ~500–600ºC, 1 hour. Powderize. 2. Fire in open quartz boats, N2, 800ºC, 1 hour. Powderize. 3. Fire in open quartz boats, CO, 1000ºC, 1 hour. Optical Properties Emission color: Deep violet Emission peak: 3.08 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0.21 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4.88 eV), ++ (3.40 eV) Spectra
800 700 600 500
Wavelength (nm)

400

300

50

2

3

4 Photon Energy (eV)

5

0

Absorption (%)

100

Emission

Optical Properties Emission color: Pale blue-green Emission peak: 2. N2. J.35 2 Preparation Mix the CaCO3 + CaHPO4 + SnO by slurrying in methanol. F. Powderize when dry..-Ca3(PO4)2:Sn2+ Structure: Monoclinic Composition Ingredient CaCO3 CaHPO4 SnO (NH4)2CO4 Mole % 10 75 1 12 By weight (g) 10 90 1. Kreidler. 118.61 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4. Now add the crushed (NH4)2CO4 by dry mixing. 801 (1949).44 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0. Fire in capped quartz tubes.40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: + Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 50 2 3 References 1. Physica. Phase equilibria and tin-activated luminescence in system Ca3(PO4)2Ba3(PO4)2. 1 hour. E. 15. A proof of the associated-pair theory for sensitized luminophors. 1250ºC.. – (3.. Dry in air. 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 -Ca3(PO4)2:Sn2+ Structure: Trigonal Composition Ingredient CaCO3 CaHPO4 SnO Mole % 5 75 5 By weight (g) 5 90 6. 2.R. 923 (1971). Electrochem.75 Absorption (%) 100 Emission .88 eV).A. Soc. Kröger.

A proof of the associated-pair theory for sensitized luminophors. J. Absorption (%) 100 Emission . Powderize.40 eV) Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 References 1.88 eV). Physica. Kreidler. 2 hours. Optical Properties Emission color: Pale orange Emission peak: 1. CO. ~500ºC. 801 (1949). 1250ºC. Dry in air. CO. Fire in capped quartz tubes. 1. Powderize when dry. N2.92 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0. 1 hour. Electrochem. E. -Ca3(PO4)2:Pb2+ Structure: Monoclinic Composition Ingredient CaCO3 CaHPO4 PbO Mole % 24 75 1 By weight (g) 24 90 2.. 2.3 Preparation Mix by slurrying in water or methanol. 2 hours.55 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4. Phase equilibria and tin-activated luminescence in system Ca3(PO4)2Ba3(PO4)2..A.Preparation Mix by slurrying in water or methanol. Powderize when dry. 2. N2.. 1. 923 (1971). Soc.R. 1 hour. 118. Kröger. 15. F. Fire in capped quartz tubes. 1100ºC. Fire in capped quartz tubes. Powderize by dry milling. 1100ºC. 2. Fire in capped quartz tubes. – (3. Dry in air.

88 eV). -Ca3(PO4)2:Tl+ Structure: Monoclinic Composition Ingredient CaCO3 CaHPO4 TlOH Al2O3 Mole % 22 75 1 2 (of Al) By weight (g) 22 90 2.40 eV) Absorption (%) 100 Emission . 1250 C. and Ginther. Powderize when dry. Fire in capped quartz tubes.Optical Properties Emission color: UV Emission peak: 3.64 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4. 37.40 eV) Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Reference 1. – (3... – (3. Ultraviolet phosphors and fluorescent sun tan lamps.88 eV). stagnant air. R. Clapp. R. Opt..J. Dry in air.66 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4. J.88 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0. 355 (1947).H. Optical Properties Emission color: UV Emission peak: 3. 1 hour. Soc.68 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0.2 1 Preparation Mix by slurrying in water or methanol. Am.

Spectra
800 700 600 500

400

Wavelength (nm)

300

50

2

3

4 Photon Energy (eV)

5

0

References 1. Froelich, H.C., New ultraviolet phosphors, J. Electrochem. Soc., 91, 241 (1947). 2. Witzmann, H., and Buhrow, J., Ein neuer schwarzlichtphosphor, Naturwissenschaften, 49, 180 (1962). 3. Clapp, R.H., and Ginther, R.J., Ultraviolet phosphors and fluorescent sun tan lamps, J. Opt. Soc. Am., 37, 355 (1947). 4. Bril, A., and Hoekstra, W., Philips Res. Rep., 16, 356, (1961), and Philips Res. Rep., 19, 296 (1964).

-Ca3(PO4)2:Ce3+
Structure: Monoclinic Composition Ingredient CaCO3 CaHPO4 CeO3 NaHCO3 Mole % 15 75 5 5 By weight (g) 15 90 17 8.4

Preparation Mix by slurrying in water. Dry in air. Powderize when dry. Fire in open quartz boats, CO, 1250ºC, 1 hour. Optical Properties Emission color: UV Emission peak: 3.33 eV, 3.57 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4.88 eV), – (3.40 eV)

Absorption (%)

100

Emission

Spectra
800 700 600 500

400

Wavelength (nm)

300

50

2

3

4 Photon Energy (eV)

5

0

References 1. Froelich, H.C., and Margolis, J.M., Calcium phosphate phosphor activated with cerium and manganese, J. Electrochem. Soc., 98, 400 (1951). 2. Botden, T.P.J., Transfer and transport of energy by resonance processes in luminescent solids, Philips Res. Rep., 7, 197 (1952).

-Ca3(PO4)2:Eu2+
Structure: Monoclinic Composition Ingredient CaCO3 CaHPO4 Eu2O3 Mole % 24 75 1 (of Eu) By weight (g) 24 90 1.76

Preparation Mix by slurrying in water. Dry in air. Powderize when dry. Fire in open quartz boats, CO, 1250ºC, 1 hour. Optical Properties Emission color: Whitish blue-green Emission peak: ~2.52 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0.53 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4.88 eV), ++ (3.40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: +

Absorption (%)

100

Emission

Spectra
800 700 600 500

400

Wavelength (nm)

300

50

2

3

4 Photon Energy (eV)

5

0

References 1. Lagos, C.C., Luminescence of divalent europium in Ba-Ca, Ba-Sr, and Ca-Sr orthophosphate and pyrophosphate compositions, J. Electrochem. Soc., 117, 1189 (1970). 2. McCauley, R.A., Hummel, F.A., and Hoffman, M.V., Phase equilibria and Eu2+activated, Tb3+-activated, and Mn2+-activated luminescent phases in CaO-MgO-P2O5 system, J. Electrochem. Soc., 118, 755 (1971).

-Ca3(PO4)2:Eu2+
Structure: Trigonal Composition Ingredient CaCO3 CaHPO4 Eu2O3 Mole % 24 75 1 (of Eu) By weight (g) 24 90 1.76

Preparation Mix by slurrying in water. Dry in air. Powderize when dry. Fire in open quartz boats, CO, 1100ºC, 2 hours. Optical Properties Emission color: Violet Emission peak: 3.02 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0.33 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4.88 eV), ++ (3.40 eV)

Absorption (%)

100

Emission

Spectra
800 700 600 500

400

Wavelength (nm)

300

50

2

3

4 Photon Energy (eV)

5

0

Remark This phosphor easily shows a weak green emission band due to the -phosphate (see Ca3(PO4)2:Eu2+).

-Ca3(PO4)2:Eu2+,Mn2+
Structure: Trigonal Composition Ingredient CaCO3 CaHPO4 Eu2O3 MnCO3 Mole % 19 75 1 (of Eu) 5 By weight (g) 19 90 1.76 5.75

Preparation Mix by slurrying in water. Dry in air. Powderize when dry. Fire in open quartz boats, CO, 1100ºC, 2 hours. Optical Properties Emission color: Pinkish-red Emission peak: ~1.91 eV (Mn2+ band), ~3.01 eV (Eu2+ band) Emission width (FWHM): 0.24 eV (Mn2+ band) Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4.88 eV), ++ (3.40 eV)

Absorption (%)

100

Emission

Spectra
800 700 600 500

400

Wavelength (nm)

300

50

2

3

4 Photon Energy (eV)

5

0

-Sr3(PO4)2:Sn2+,Mn2+(Al)
Structure: Trigonal Composition Ingredient SrCO3 SrHPO4 Al2O3 SnO MnCO3 Mole % 8 45 4 (of Al) 1.5 1 By weight (g) 11.8 75.4 2 2 1.15

Preparation Mix by ball-milling in water. Dry in air. Powderize when dry. Fire in capped quartz tubes, CO, 1100ºC, 2 hours. Optical Properties Emission color: Orange-red Emission peak: 2.02 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0.25 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4.88 eV), – (3.40 eV) Spectra
800 700 600 500
Wavelength (nm)

400

300

50

2

3

4 Photon Energy (eV)

5

0

Absorption (%)

100

Emission

Absorption (%)

100

Emission

Remarks 1. This is a “tricky” phosphor, by no means yet understood or optimized. 2. Partial or complete replacement of Sr by Ca shifts the emission into deeper red. References 1. Kröger, F.A., A proof of the associated-pair theory for sensitized luminophors, Physica, 15, 801 (1949). 2. Botden, T.P.J., Transfer and transport of energy by resonance processes in luminescent solids, Philips Res. Rep., 7, 197 (1952). 3. Sarver, J.F., Hoffman, M.V., and Hummel, F.A., Phase equilibria and tin-activated luminescence in strontium orthophosphate systems, J. Electrochem. Soc., 108, 1103 (1961).

-Sr3(PO4)2:Sn2+
Structure: Trigonal Composition Ingredient SrCO3 SrHPO4 SnO Mole % 20 75 5 By weight (g) 29.5 138 6.75

Preparation Mix by slurrying in water. Dry in air. Powderize when dry. Fire in capped quartz tubes, CO, 1100ºC, 2 hours. Optical Properties Emission color: Violet + UV Emission peak: 3.28 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0.66 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4.88 eV), – (3.40 eV) Spectra
800 700 600 500
Wavelength (nm)

400

300

50

2

3

4 Photon Energy (eV)

5

0

Reference 1. Botden, T.P.J., Transfer and transport of energy by resonance processes in luminescent solids, Philips Res. Rep., 7, 197 (1952).

Absorption (%)

100

Emission

-Sr3(PO4)2:Eu2+
Structure: Trigonal Optical Properties Emission color: Violet Emission peak: 2.94 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0.22 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4.88 eV), + (3.40 eV) Spectra
800 700 600 500
Wavelength (nm)

400

300

50

2

3

4 Photon Energy (eV)

5

0

References 1. Lagos, C.C., Luminescence of divalent europium in Ba-Ca, Ba-Sr, and Ca-Sr orthophosphate and pyrophosphate compositions, J. Electrochem. Soc., 117, 1189 (1970). 2. Hoffman, M.V., Eu+2 activation in some alkaline earth strontium phosphate compounds, J. Electrochem. Soc., 115, 560 (1968).

Ba3(PO4)2:Eu2+
Optical Properties Emission color: Violet Emission peak: 2.99 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0.25 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4.88 eV), + (3.40 eV) Spectra
800 700 600 500
Wavelength (nm)

400

300

100

Emission

50

2

3

4 Photon Energy (eV)

5

0

Absorption (%)

100

Emission

Reference 1. Lagos, C.C., Luminescence of divalent europium in Ba-Ca, Ba-Sr, and Ca-Sr orthophosphate and pyrophosphate compositions, J. Electrochem. Soc., 117, 1189 (1970).

Na3Ce(PO4)2:Tb3+
Optical Properties Emission color: Green Emission peak: 2.27 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4.88 eV), – (3.40 eV) Spectra
800 700 600 500
Wavelength (nm)

400

300

100

Emission

50

2

3

4 Photon Energy (eV)

5

0

Reference 1. Fava, J. et al., Some new efficient luminophors with low-concentration quenching effects, J. Lumin., 18/19, 389 (1979).

-(Ca,Sr)3(PO4)2:Sn2+,Mn2+
Composition Ingredient CaCO3 SrCO3 SrHPO4 SnO MnCO3 Mole % 50 32 205 10 3 By weight (g) 50 47 376 13.5 3.45

Preparation Mix by slurrying in water or methanol. Dry in air. Powderize when dry. 1. Fire in open quartz boats, N2, 500–600ºC. Powderize. 2. Fire in capped quartz tubes, CO, 1150ºC, 2 hours. Optical Properties Emission color: Orange-red Emission peak: 1.97 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0.38 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4.88 eV), – (3.40 eV)

Spectra
800 700 600 500

400

Wavelength (nm)

300

50

2

3

Remarks 1. Increasing Mn concentration causes narrowing of the emission band but decreasing efficiency. 2. The -phosphate structure is maintained from about Ca/Sr of 10/90 to 100/0. Increasing Ca/Sr causes a shift of the Mn2+ band into deeper red. References 1. Butler, K.H., Alkaline earth orthophosphate phosphors, J. Electrochem. Soc., 100, 250 (1953). 2. Koelmans, H., and Cox, A.P.M., Luminescence of modified tin-activated strontium orthophosphate, J. Electrochem. Soc., 104, 442 (1957). 3. Mooney, R.W., Temperature dependence of fluorescence of tin-activated orthophosphates, J. Electrochem. Soc., 105, 456 (1958). 4. Uehara, Y., Kobuke, Y., and Masuda, I., Copper-activated calcium orthophosphate and related phosphors, J. Electrochem. Soc., 106, 200 (1959). 5. Wanmaker, W.L., and Bakker, C., Luminescence of copper-activated calcium and strontium orthophosphates, J. Electrochem. Soc., 106, 1027 (1959). 6. Sarver, J.F., Hoffman, M.V., and Hummel, F.A., Phase equilibria and tin-activated luminescence in strontium orthophosphate systems, J. Electrochem. Soc., 108, 1103 (1961).

4 Photon Energy (eV)

5

0

ZnMg2(PO4)2:Mn2+
Spectra
800 700 600 500 400
Wavelength (nm)

300

100

Emission

50

2

3

4 Photon Energy (eV)

5

0

Absorption (%)

100

Emission

. Powderize when dry. 1. Soc.88 or 3. This is strictly a catholuminescent phosphor.25 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: – (4. 900ºC. Powderize. ~500ºC. J. 960 (1959). Katnack. air. 30 msec to 1/10 Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 100 Emission 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Remarks 1. 2. Sarver. . 1 hour.. Ball-mill the slurry for about 1 hour. – (3. F. Dry in air. Electrochem. Optical Properties Emission color: Light red Emission peak: 1. This phosphor has been used as the red component in early color TV picture tubes. Fire in open quartz boats.. Fire in open quartz boats. It cannot be sensitized to respond to 4. Phase equilibria and manganeseactivated fluorescence in the system Zn3(PO4)2-Mg3(PO4)2.94 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0. 1 hour. air. Reference 1. 950ºC.15 47.S. Slowly add the H3PO4 solution while stirring (slurry heats up). 106..Zn3(PO4)2:Mn2 Structure: Monoclinic Composition Ingredient ZnO MnCO3 H3PO4 solution Mole % 99 1 62 (of P) By weight (g) 81 1. F. Fire in open quartz boats.40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: ~7–8% Decay: Near-exponential decay.88 eV).L. 2 hours.40 eV UV. and Hummel.A.6 ccm Preparation Make a thin slurry of ZnO + MnCO3 in water or methanol. 3. Stir to uniformity as well as possible. Powderize. air. 2. J.

Fire in open quartz boats.. 1. F. 100–1200 msec to 1/10 Spectra 800 700 600 500 400 Wavelength (nm) 300 100 Emission 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Remarks 1.40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: ~6–8% Decay: near-exponential decay..96 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0. F.7 ccm Preparation Make a thin slurry of ZnO + MgO + MnCO3 in water or methanol.A. 3. J. Powderize. This is strictly a catholuminescent phosphor. Electrochem.15 46. 2 hours. Sarver. ~500–600ºC. Optical Properties Emission color: Light red Emission peak: 1. 950ºC. The decay of this phosphor is significantly longer than that of Zn3(PO4)2:Mn2+ (~30 msec to 1/10). Stir to uniformity. Slowly add the H3PO4 solution while stirring. 960 (1959). Phase equilibria and manganeseactivated fluorescence in the system Zn3(PO4)2-Mg3(PO4)2. The 950ºC firing temperature is critical. 2..88 eV).L. J.27 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: – (4.1 1. 106.S. Fire in open quartz boats.. 1000ºC is too high. 900ºC is too low. 1 hour. – (3. .(Zn. 2.Mg)3(PO4)2:Mn2+ Structure: Monoclinic Composition Ingredient ZnO MnO MnCO3 H3PO4 solution Mole % 79 20 1 62 (of P) By weight (g) 65 8. Dry in air. and Hummel. air. Crush forming phosphate by wet mortaring or milling. air. Reference 1. Katnack. Powderize when dry. It cannot be sensitized for UV excitation. Soc.

red Emission peak: 1. Hummel. Tb3+-activated. R.. Electrochem..A. – (3.88 eV).93 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0.40 eV) Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Absorption (%) 100 Emission . 118. M.49 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4.A. J..Mg3Ca3(PO4)4:Eu2+ Structure: Monoclinic Optical Properties Emission color: Blue Emission peak: 2. and Mn2+-activated luminescent phases in CaO-MgO-P2O5 system. 755 (1971). Phase equilibria and Eu2+activated. and Hoffman.. MgSr5(PO4)4:Sn2+ Optical Properties Emission color: Orange.V. F. McCauley. Soc.48 eV Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 100 Emission 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Reference 1.80 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0.

40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: – Absorption (%) 100 Emission Absorption (%) 100 Emission .88 eV) Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 50 2 3 CaSr2(PO4)2:Bi3+ Optical Properties Emission color: UV Emission peak: 3.88 eV).89 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0. ++ (3.27 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4.40 eV) Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 400 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 MgBa2(PO4)2:U Optical Properties Emission color: Green Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4.88 eV).67 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4.MgBa2(PO4)2:Sn2+ Optical Properties Emission color: Greenish Emission peak: 2. – (3.36 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0.

40 eV) Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 100 Emission 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Reference 1. p..Spectra 800 700 600 500 400 Wavelength (nm) 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Sr2P2O7:Eu2+ Optical Properties Emission color: Violet Emission peak: 2. ++ (3. Fluorescent Lamp Phosphors. Butler.H.88 eV). University Park (1980).29 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4. K. 274. Absorption (%) 100 Emission .97 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0. Pennsylvania University Press.

5 Preparation Mix by ball-milling in water or methanol.6 Halophosphates The following host compounds and activators are included in this subsection: Ca5(PO4)3F:Mn2+ Ca5(PO4)3F:Sb3+ Ca5(PO4)3F:Sn2+ Ca5(PO4)3Cl:Eu2+ Ca5(PO4)3Cl:Mn2+ Ca5(PO4)3Cl:Sb3+ Ca5(PO4)3Cl:Sn2+ Sr5(PO4)3Cl:Eu2+ Sr5(PO4)3Cl:Mn2+ Sr5(PO4)3Cl:Sb3+ Sr5(PO4)3F:Mn2+ Sr5(PO4)3F:Sb3+ Sr5(PO4)3F:Sb3+.4.Pr3+ Sr5(PO4)3F:Sn2+ Ba5(PO4)3Cl:Eu2+ Ba5(PO4)3Cl:U Ca2Ba3(PO4)3Cl:Eu2+ Ca5(PO4)3F:Mn2+ Structure: Hexagonal (apatite) Composition Ingredient CaCO3 CaHPO4 CaF2 MnCO3 Mole % 140 400 50 10 By weight (g) 140 360 39 11. 1 hour.17 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0. Dry in air. Powderize when dry.28 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: – (4. Optical Properties Emission color: Yellow Emission peak: 2.88 eV).40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: + . – (3. 1100ºC.Mn2+ Sr5(PO4)3Cl:Eu2+. N2. Fire in capped quartz tubes.

6 Preparation Mix by ball-milling in water or methanol. Alonso.. McKeag. 1 hour. Ca5(PO4)3F:Sb3+ Structure: Hexagonal (apatite) Composition Ingredient CaCO3 CaHPO4 CaF2 Sb2O3 Mole % 140 300 50 10 (of Sb) By weight (g) 140 360 39 14.. P.70 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4. Lumin. 1 (1949).. N2. Soc. or Ce3+. 96.W. Electrochem. H. Excitation-spectra and fluorescent lifetime measurements of Mn2+ in CaF2 and Ca5(PO4)3F2. P. J. R... 2. Jenkins. Alkaline earth halophosphates and related phosphors.88 eV).Spectra 800 700 600 500 400 Wavelength (nm) 300 100 Emission 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Remark Can be sensitized for UV excitation by addition of Sn2+. J. Sb3+.. Fire in capped quartz tubes. Powderize when dry.H. 1100ºC.50 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0. Optical Properties Emission color: Pale blue-green Emission peak: 2. Dry in air. A.J. – (3. 321 (1981).J. References 1.40 eV) . and Alcala. 22. and Ranby.

F.H.W..40 eV) Absorption (%) 100 Emission . 1100ºC. H. J.R.. Chem.00 eV Emission width (FWHM): ~0. and Ranby. A. Electrochem. 1 hour. Molecular orbital model for antimony luminescent centers in fluorophosphate. and Kreidler. McKeag.S. N2. T. 7. T. Phys.Spectra 800 700 600 500 400 Wavelength (nm) 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 References 1. Soc. T.. B. 3. Rev. 2. 1 (1949). 1657 (1973). 96..F. Fire in capped quartz tubes. E. Soules. Alkaline earth halophosphates and related phosphors.. Energy-transfer between antimony and manganese in fluorophosphate phosphors. et al. P.88 eV). Dry in air. Ca5(PO4)3F:Sn2+ Structure: Hexagonal (apatite) Composition Ingredient CaCO3 CaHPO4 CaF2 SnO Mole % 200 300 50 10 By weight (g) 200 360 39 13.J...9 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4. – (3..5 Preparation Mix by ball-milling methanol plus a little water. 1056 (1971).. Powderize when dry. 55. Soules. J. Davis. Optical Properties Emission color: Pale bluish Emission peak: 3. Phys. Jenkins.

Fire in capped quartz tubes.8 Preparation Mix by ball-milling methanol plus a little water.88 eV).W. N2. Alkaline earth halophosphates and related phosphors. Wash in water several times. Powderize.40 eV) Absorption (%) 100 Emission . Dry.Spectra 800 700 600 500 400 Wavelength (nm) 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Reference 1. P. Electrochem.. 96. McKeag. 1 hour. 1 hour. ++ (3. 1100º C.J.. Jenkins. Powderize. 1 (1949). Dry in air. H. J.72 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0. A. Fire in capped quartz tubes. Soc.. N2. 2..23 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4.H. mix by dry grinding or milling. Powderize when dry. 1100ºC. Add 32 g NH4Cl. Optical Properties Emission color: Blue Emission peak: 2. and Ranby. Ca5(PO4)3Cl:Eu2+ Structure: Hexagonal (apatite) Composition Ingredient CaCO3 CaHPO4 NH4Cl Eu2O3 Mole % 200 300 120 5 (of Eu) By weight (g) 200 360 64 8. 1.

2. Bloomfield Report. Optical Properties Emission color: Orange-yellow Emission peak: ~2. Dry in air.. A.40 eV) Absorption (%) 100 Emission . Wash in water several times. 1 hour. 1 hour. Powderize. N2. mix by dry grinding or milling.10 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0. N2. – (3. Powderize. Fire in capped quartz tubes. Dry. 1. BL-R-6-90102-29 (1968).Spectra 800 700 600 500 400 Wavelength (nm) 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Reference 1. 1100ºC.5 Preparation Mix by ball-milling methanol plus a little water. 1100ºC. Add 32 g NH4Cl. Powderize when dry.29 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: – (4. Wachtel. Fire in capped quartz tubes. Ca5(PO4)3Cl:Mn2+ Structure: Hexagonal (apatite) Composition Ingredient CaCO3 CaHPO4 NH4Cl MnCO3 Mole % 200 300 120 10 By weight (g) 200 360 64 11.88 eV).

. Optical Properties Emission color: Pale whitish-green Emission peak: 2. Ca5(PO4)3Cl:Sb3+ Structure: Hexagonal (apatite) Composition Ingredient CaCO3 CaHPO4 NH4Cl MnCO3 Mole % 200 300 120 10 By weight (g) 200 360 64 11. McKeag.. N2. Dry in air. Soc. Powderize when dry. 1 (1949). and Ranby. 96. 1 hour. 1100ºC. Alkaline earth halophosphates and related phosphors. A. Reference 1. Fire in capped quartz tubes. 1. Ce3+..W.88 eV).40 eV) .5 Preparation Mix by ball-milling methanol plus a little water. 1 hour. N2. mix by dry grinding or milling. Fire in capped quartz tubes. Jenkins. Add 32 g NH4Cl. 2. Dry. – (3. Powderize. or Eu2+. J. Wash in water several times.. Electrochem. Sb3+.70 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4. 1100ºC. H.H. P. Powderize.38 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0.Spectra 800 700 600 500 400 Wavelength (nm) 300 100 Emission 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Remark Can be sensitized for UV excitation by addition of Sn2+.J.

Soc. Fire in capped quartz tubes.. P. N2. A. H. 1100ºC. mix by dry grinding or milling. Optical Properties Emission color: Pale pinkish-white Emission peaks: Continuous distribution from the UV into the IR. Add 32 g NH4Cl.. J. Fire in capped quartz tubes. Powderize when dry. 1. 96.H.95 and 3. 1 (1949). Electrochem. Alkaline earth halophosphates and related phosphors.W.. the two peaks near 1. Jenkins. N2.Spectra 800 700 600 500 400 Wavelength (nm) 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Reference 1. 1100ºC. Dry in air. 1 hour. 2. Wash in water several times. and Ranby.. 1 hour. Powderize. – (3.J. Powderize.5 Preparation Mix by ball-milling methanol plus a little water. Dry.40 eV) Absorption (%) 100 Emission .45 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4. Ca5(PO4)3Cl:Sn2+ Structure: Hexagonal (apatite) Composition Ingredient CaCO3 CaHPO4 NH4Cl SnO Mole % 200 300 120 10 By weight (g) 200 360 64 13.88 eV). McKeag.

Optical Properties Emission color: Blue Emission peak: 2. N2. mix by dry grinding or milling. Powderize when dry.8 Preparation Mix by ball-milling methanol plus a little water. Fire in capped quartz tubes. ++ (3. Dry in air. 1. 1100ºC. Powderize. Dry. Wash in water several times. Add 32 g NH4Cl. Fire in capped quartz tubes. N2. 1100ºC.88 eV).19 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4. 1 hour.40 eV) Absorption (%) 100 Emission . Powderize.Spectra 800 700 600 500 400 Wavelength (nm) 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Sr5(PO4)3Cl:Eu2+ Structure: Hexagonal (apatite) Composition Ingredient SrCO3 SrHPO4 NH4Cl Eu2O3 Mole % 200 300 120 5 (of Eu) By weight (g) 295 550 64 8. 2. 1 hour.75 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0.

1100ºC.88 eV). N2. – (3. Optical Properties Emission color: Yellow Emission peak: 2. 1 hour. Powderize.5 Preparation Mix by ball-milling methanol plus a little water.. Fire in capped quartz tubes. Dry. Add 32 g NH4Cl. Sr5(PO4)3Cl:Mn2+ Structure: Hexagonal (apatite) Composition Ingredient SrCO3 SrHPO4 NH4Cl MnCO3 Mole % 200 300 120 10 By weight (g) 295 550 64 11. Wachtel. Wash in water several times. Bloomfield Report. N2. 1. 1 hour.Spectra 800 700 600 500 400 Wavelength (nm) 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Reference 1.32 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: – (4. Powderize when dry. Dry in air. Powderize. BL-R-6-90102-29 (1968). A. Fire in capped quartz tubes.40 eV) Absorption (%) 100 Emission . mix by dry grinding or milling.16 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0. 1100ºC. 2.

– (3.6 Preparation Mix by ball-milling methanol plus a little water. Electrochem. 1100ºC. 1 (1949).Spectra 800 700 600 500 400 Wavelength (nm) 300 100 Emission 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Remark Can be sensitized for UV excitation by addition of Sn2+.31 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0. 1100ºC. Powderize. Sb3+. 96. J. 2. H.. Alkaline earth halophosphates and related phosphors. mix by dry grinding or milling. Soc. and Ranby. Optical Properties Emission color: Whitish-green Emission peak: ~2. Fire in capped quartz tubes. 1.. 1 hour. Reference 1.W. Powderize. Fire in capped quartz tubes. Sr5(PO4)3Cl:Sb3+ Structure: Hexagonal (apatite) Composition Ingredient SrCO3 SrHPO4 NH4Cl Sb2O3 Mole % 200 300 120 10 (of Sb) By weight (g) 295 550 64 14.40 eV) ..88 eV).H. Jenkins. McKeag. A. P. Powderize when dry.68 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4. Ce3+. Add 32 g NH4Cl. Wash in water several times. N2.. or Eu2+.J. Dry in air. Dry. N2. 1 hour.

88 eV). Alkaline earth halophosphates and related phosphors.J.H.5 Preparation Mix by ball-milling methanol plus a little water.. H. A.28 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: – (4. 1 (1949). 1 hour. Dry in air. McKeag.40 eV) Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 100 Emission 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Absorption (%) 100 Emission . 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Sr5(PO4)3F:Mn2+ Structure: Hexagonal (apatite) Composition Ingredient SrCO3 SrHPO4 SrF2 MnCO3 Mole % 200 300 50 10 By weight (g) 295 550 63 11. Fire in capped quartz tubes. Powderize when dry.17 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0. Soc. Jenkins. N2. J. Optical Properties Emission color: Yellow Emission peak: ~2. Electrochem. 96... and Ranby. 1100ºC.. P.Spectra 800 700 600 500 400 Wavelength (nm) 300 50 2 3 Reference 1. – (3.W.

1 hour. Sb3+.75 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4.88 eV). J. P. 96.43 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0.W. Electrochem.40 eV) Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Reference 1. J.H. Electrochem.J. A. A. Powderize when dry.J.6 Preparation Mix by ball-milling methanol plus a little water. Jenkins. P. H. 1 (1949). Soc. Dry in air.. McKeag. Sr5(PO4)3F:Sb3+ Structure: Hexagonal (apatite) Composition Ingredient SrCO3 SrHPO4 SrF2 Sb2O3 Mole % 140 300 50 10 (of Sb) By weight (g) 206 550 63 14. N2.H.....W. Absorption (%) 100 Emission .. 1100ºC. Alkaline earth halophosphates and related phosphors. Fire in capped quartz tubes. 1 (1949). Jenkins. Alkaline earth halophosphates and related phosphors. H.Remark Can be sensitized for UV excitation by addition of Sn2+.. – (3. Reference 1. Optical Properties Emission color: Pale whitish blue-green Emission peak: ~2. and Ranby. McKeag. Soc. or Ce3+. 96. and Ranby..

5 Absorption (%) 100 Emission Absorption (%) 100 Emission .Pr3+ Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Sr5(PO4)3F:Sn2+ Structure: Hexagonal (apatite) Composition Ingredient SrCO3 SrHPO4 SrF2 SnO Mole % 140 300 50 10 By weight (g) 206 550 63 13.Mn2+ Structure: Hexagonal (apatite) Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Sr5(PO4)3Cl:Eu2+.Sr5(PO4)3F:Sb3+.

Powderize when dry. Wash in water several times.75 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0. ++ (3. Optical Properties Emission color: Violet-blue Emission peak: ~2. 1000ºC.40 eV) Absorption (%) 100 Emission . Fire in capped quartz tubes.84 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0. Powderize when dry.75 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4. – (3. 2. Fire in capped quartz tubes. 1. Dry in air. 1000ºC. Dry. mix by dry grinding. Powderize. 1 hour. Add 32 g NH4Cl.88 eV). Dry in air.88 eV).8 Preparation Mix by ball-milling methanol plus a little water. Powderize. 1 hour. Fire in capped quartz tubes. 1 hour.Preparation Mix by ball-milling methanol plus a little water. N2. Optical Properties Emission color: Bluish-white Emission peak: ~2.28 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4. N2. N2.40 eV) Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Ba5(PO4)3Cl:Eu2+ Structure: Hexagonal (apatite) Composition Ingredient BaCO3 BaHPO4 NH4Cl Eu2O3 Mole % 200 300 120 5 (of Eu) By weight (g) 395 700 64 8. 1100ºC.

Powderize. BL-R-6-90102-29 (1968). BaCO3. Dry. Add 32 g NH4Cl. Powderize when dry.88 eV). N2. Dry in air. 1. decant). + (3. mix by dry grinding or milling. Wash in water several times (stir.Spectra 800 700 600 500 400 Wavelength (nm) 300 100 Emission 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Reference 1.40 eV). and NH4Cl.39 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4. N2. Fire in capped quartz tubes. and add the solution to the slurry. 2. Optical Properties Emission color: Green Emission peaks: 2. 2 hours. Ba5(PO4)3Cl:U Structure: Hexagonal (apatite) Composition Ingredient BaHPO4 BaCO3 NH4Cl UO2(C2H3O2)2. 2H2O Mole % 190 150 120 10 By weight (g) 443 295 64 42 Preparation Make a slurry in methanol of BaHPO4.. Dissolve the uranyl acetate in a little methanol. 850ºC. 900ºC. Powderize. Fire in capped quartz tubes. Bloomfield Report. A. let settle. stir to uniformity.12–2. QE Excitation efficiency by e-beam: Poor 50% . Wachtel. 1 hour.

8 Preparation Mix by ball-milling in methanol plus a little water.88 eV). 1..49 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4.Spectra 800 700 600 500 400 Wavelength (nm) 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Reference 1. Powderize when dry. Optical Properties Emission color: Pale blue-green Emission peak: 2. Powderize..40 eV) Absorption (%) 100 Emission .T. 1100ºC. mix by dry grinding.46 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0. 1 hour. Powderize. J. Add 3. R. 414 (1951). Dry..2 g NH4Cl. N2. Electrochem. 2.S. 1100ºC. 1 hour. Luminescent barium and magnesium halophosphates. J. ++ (3. Soc. N2. Ca2Ba3(PO4)3Cl:Eu2+ Structure: Hexagonal (apatite) Composition Ingredient CaCO3 BaHPO4 NH4Cl Eu2O3 Mole % 200 300 120 5 (of Eu) By weight (g) 200 700 64 8. Anderson. 98. Fire in capped quartz tubes. Fire in capped quartz tubes. Dry in air. and Wells. Wash in water several times.

Wachtel.Spectra 800 700 600 500 400 Wavelength (nm) 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Reference 1.. BL-R-6-90102-29 (1968). Absorption (%) 100 Emission . Bloomfield Report. A.

Ce3+.Mn2+ .4.7 Borates The following host compounds and activators are included in this subsection: YBO3:Ce3+ YBO3:Eu3+ LaBO3:Eu3+ -SrO·3B2O3:Pb2+ -SrO·3B2O3:Pb2+.Cl.7:Eu3+ Ca2La2BO6.Br) SrB4O7:Pb2+ SrB4O7:Pb2+.Tb3+ LaAl3B4O12:Eu3+ BaB8O13:Eu2+ SrB8O13:Sm2+ Ca2B5O9Cl:Eu2+ Ca2B5O9Cl:Pb2+ Ca2B5O9Br:Eu2+ Sr2B5O9Cl:Eu2+ CaYB0.Cr3+ YAl3B4O12:Th4+.Mn2+ YAl3B4O12:Ce3+.Mn2+ SrB4O7:Eu2+(F.8O3.5:Pb2+ YAl3B4O12:Ce3+.Mn2+ Cd2B6O11:Mn2+ YAl3B4O12:Ce3+ YAl3B4O12:Bi3+ YAl3B4O12:Eu3+ YAl3B4O12:Eu3+.Cl -SrO·3B2O3:Sm2+ MgB2O4:Mn2+ MgYBO4:Eu3+ CaB2O4:Mn2+ CaB2O4:Pb2+ CaYBO4:Bi3+ CaYBO4:Eu3+ CaLaBO4:Eu3+ ZnB2O4:Mn2+ Ca2B2O5:Mn2+ LaAlB2O6:Eu3+ CaLaB3O7:Ce3+.Mn2+ SrO·3B2O3:Eu2+.

Bril. C. 613 (1967). G.D.. J. Chem. A. A.. J. Electrochem. 4450 (1970). Electrochem. J. 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 YBO3:Eu3+ Structure: Vaterite Composition Ingredient Y 2O 3 Eu2O3 H3BO3 Mole % 92 (of Y) 8 (of Eu) 105 By weight (g) 104 14 65 Preparation Mix by dry grinding or milling.. 5. F.A.. 304 (1970). Solid State Chem.. Ultraviolet-absorption bands of Bi3+ and Eu3+ in oxides... O. 4.88 eV). J.YBO3:Ce3+ Structure: Vaterite Optical Properties Emission color: Violet-UV Emission peak: 3.. Soc. and de Poorter. Soc. and Bril. 3652 (1968). air. Blasse. Sovers.J. Fast-decay phosphors. Phys. A. 3. 1. The absorption and emission spectra of some important activators. Radiationless transitions in Eu3+ center in LaAlO3... . 6. and Bril. Blasse. Blasse. Bril. G. – (3.S.40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: + Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 100 Emission 50 2 3 References 1. Fire in open quartz boats. and Poorter. Blasse.. Rare earth cathodoluminescence in InBO3 and related orthoborates. 4. G. J.. 114. J.J. Fluorescence of Eu3+-activated sodium lanthanide titanates.00 and 3. 48.. and Wiggins. Chem. G..22 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4. J. Phys. Philips Tech.. G. A. 117.A. 53. 52 (1972).... ~500ºC. 31. Rev. Blasse.. 1 hour. 2. Avella. 346 (1970)..

air. Optical Properties Emission color: Red-orange Emission peaks: 1. 114. and Bril. 1 hour. Electrochem. 1.. 1000ºC.40 eV) Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 100 Emission 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 References 1. A. and Wiggins. J. air. Fire in open quartz boats.. air.10 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: + (4. 1000ºC. F. Sovers. A. 1 hour.J. Powderize.2. Fire in open quartz boats. air.. Philips J. 3. 3. Powderize.. Fine structure in the low temperature luminescence of Zn2SiO4:Mn and Mg4Ta2O9:Mn. Avella.98–2. 1 hour. Soc. Powderize. – (3. 613 (1967). 124 (1978). Fire in open quartz boats. Veenis. 33. 1 hour. 2 hours. Res. 1250ºC. Fire in open quartz boats. air. . O.S. 2. C.. Fire in open quartz boats. ~500ºC.88 eV).W.. Rare earth cathodoluminescence in InBO3 and related orthoborates. 1150ºC. Powderize.J. LaBO3:Eu3+ Structure: Orthorhombic (aragonite) Composition Ingredient La2O3 Eu2O3 H3BO3 Mole % 92 (of La) 8 (of Eu) 105 By weight (g) 150 14 65 Preparation Mix by dry grinding or milling.. 2.

10 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: + (4. 2.02. 2 hours.88 eV).7 Preparation Mix by dry grinding or milling. J. air. J. 613 (1967). 1.Optical Properties Emission color: Light red Emission peaks: 1. Fluorescent properties of some europium-activated phosphors.40 eV) Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 References 1. – (3. Electrochem...995. go slowly up with temperature to 600 C. O. W. Fire in capped quartz tubes... Bril.L. Soc. Sovers. F.. Electrochem. 114. Rare earth cathodoluminescence in InBO3 and related orthoborates.33 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: + (4. Avella. Optical Properties Emission color: UV Emission peak: 4. A. N2 . -SrO·3B2O3:Pb2+ Composition Ingredient SrCO3 PbO H3BO3 NH4Cl Mole % 99 1 600 5 By weight (g) 146 2. Fire in capped quartz tubes.J. C. Powderize. 1363 (1964).09 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0..J. and Wanmaker. and then take out. Soc. and Wiggins. and 2. Fire in capped quartz tubes. 3.S. N2 . 2. 16 hours (overnight). Powderize. 2..88 eV) Absorption (%) 100 Emission . 111.3 370 2. Place into cold furnace. 700ºC. 700ºC.

. and Treichler. Z. 3. – (3. 51. 542 (1958).88 eV). Zur lumineszenz kupfer. N2 . Fire in capped quartz tubes. Witzmann. Naturwissenschaften.7 Preparation Mix by dry grinding or milling. 212.22 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: + (4. H. Phys.. W..40 eV). Phys. H. and Müller. 49. (Leipzig). and Müller. Powderize.28 1. Chem. R. Chem. 3. H. Powderize. Fire in capped quartz tubes. and Schreiber. Witzmann. Naturwissenschaften. Boratluminophore MIT UV-emission.. H. G. Zum emissionsvermogen blei-manganaktivierter kalziumboratphosphore (CaO. N2 . Z. 2.Spectra 800 700 600 500 400 Wavelength (nm) 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 References 1.. air. Naturwissenschaften. 43. 4. 1. H. 16 hours (overnight). go slowly up with temperature to 600 C. Witzmann. and Treichler. 205 (1959). 580 (1956). and Semisch. W. 307 (1959). Buhrow. H.. Optical Properties Emission color: Bluish-green Emission peak: 2. QE 45–50% Absorption (%) 100 Emission . Zur uv-emission bleiaktivierter strontiumboratluminophore. Witzmann. J.41 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0.. 181 (1962). Naturwissenschaften. 5. 103 (1964). and then take out. 2 hours. Place into cold furnace.. 700ºC.Mn). 211. 2..15 372 2. Witzmann. R. 45. 700ºC.Mn2+ Composition Ingredient SrCO3 PbO MnCO3 H3BO3 NH4Cl Mole % 98 1 1 600 5 By weight (g) 180 2. Müller.XB2O3-Pb. H. (Leipzig)..und kupferbleiaktivierter strontiumboratphosphore. K... -SrO·3B2O3:Pb2+. 6. Fire in capped quartz tubes.. Witzmann..

Spectra 800 700 600 500 400 Wavelength (nm) 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Reference 1. mix by dry grinding.5 384 27 Preparation Mix all ingredients but the NH4Cl by dry grinding or milling. H. Witzmann.88 eV) Absorption (%) 100 Emission . Zur lumineszenz kupfer. Add the above NH4Cl..37 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0. N2 . ½ hour. 49. Fire in open quartz boats. 700ºC. air. 1 hour. Powderize. 4 hours. Powderize. 1.Cl Composition Ingredient SrCO3 Eu2O3 H3BO3 NH4Cl Mole % 98 2 (of Eu) 620 50 By weight (g) 180 3..und kupferbleiaktivierter strontiumboratphosphore. Optical Properties Emission color: UV Emission peak: 3. Fire in open quartz boats. 3. 2. Powderize. CO .16 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4. Fire in capped quartz tubes. Naturwissenschaften. H. Wash in water several times. SrO·3B2O3:Eu2+. ~500ºC. 181 (1962). and Schreiber. Dry. 850ºC.

40 eV). CO. Optical Properties Emission color: Deep red Emission peak: 1. 900ºC. QE 60% (estimated) Absorption (%) 100 Emission . 1. Place into cold furnace. Powderize. N2. 3. go slowly up with temperature to 600ºC. Fire in open quartz boats. Powderize. 1 hour. 4 hours. and then take out. Fire in open quartz boats.74 370 Preparation Mix by dry grinding or milling. 2. 2. The Cl in this recipe can be replaced by F or Br. 800ºC.Spectra 800 700 600 500 400 Wavelength (nm) 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Remarks 1.812 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (3. The exact chemical formula of this material is still unknown. -SrO·3B2O3:Sm Composition Ingredient SrCO3 Sm2O3 H3BO3 Mole % 99 1 (of Sm) 600 By weight (g) 146 1. air. Fire in open quartz boats.

Fire in open quartz boats. 700ºC. fire 2 hours at 1000ºC.88 eV). N2. Fire in open quartz boats.11 eV (see remark) Emission width (FWHM): 0. For -structure. N2. Powderize. Fire in open quartz boats. fire 4 hours at 850ºC. – (3.3 127 Preparation Mix by dry grinding or milling. 2. 2.32 eV.Spectra 800 700 600 500 400 Wavelength (nm) 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 MgB2O4:Mn2+ Composition Ingredient MgO MnCO3 H3BO3 Mole % 98 2 205 By weight (g) 40 2. Optical Properties Emission color: Red Emission peak: 1.39 eV (see remark) Excitation efficiency by UV: – (4. 1 hour. ~500ºC.88 eV. Powderize. For -structure. N2.40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: + Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 100 Emission 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Absorption (%) 100 Emission . 0. 1. 3.

. air. 1 hour. Reference 1. Peak position depends on modification. air. air. 2. QE Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 25–30% 400 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Absorption (%) 100 Emission . MgYBO4:Eu3+ Composition Ingredient MgO Y 2O 3 Eu2O3 H3BO3 Mole % 100 95 (of Y) 5 (of Eu) 205 By weight (g) 40. and 2.985.88 eV). Pat.035. the high-temperature -phase. Fire in open quartz boats. 1.098 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: + (4. This material comes in two different modifications. Fire in open quartz boats. 3. Powderize.3 107 8. Optical Properties Emission color: Orange-red Emission peaks: 1. Powderize. 1200ºC. Ranby.2 Preparation Mix by dry grinding or milling. Fire in open quartz boats. 2. U. 2. It can be sensitized for UV excitation by addition of Ce3+ + Li+. 1000ºC..S. P. 1 hour. ~500ºC.8 63. and the low-temperature -phase.Remarks 1. 3 014 817 (1961).W.

Naturwissenschaften.Mn). N2.88 eV). Fire in open quartz boats.88 eV). N2. and Müller.. Powderize. CaYBO4:Bi3+ Composition Ingredient CaCO Y 2O 3 Bi2O3 H3BO3 Mole % 100 99 (of Y) 1 (of Bi) 105 By weight (g) 100 112 2.23 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: – (4. – (3.Mn). Add 2 g of NH4Cl. 51. – (3. Witzmann.40 eV) Reference 1. 1000ºC. Powderize.88 eV). Witzmann. 1 hour. and Müller. 2.. 3.. 103 (1964). Zum emissionsvermogen blei-manganaktivierter kalziumboratphosphore(CaO·B2O3-Pb.34 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0. Buhrow. H. J. 1200 C. 103 (1964). Fire in capped quartz tubes. Zum emissionsvermogen blei-manganaktivierter kalziumboratphosphore (CaO·B2O3-Pb.. 1 hour. 3.. CaB2O4:Pb2+ Optical Properties Emission color: UV Emission peak: 3. Optical Properties Emission color: Blue Emission peak: 2.82 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: + (4. J.99 eV (for UV 4.02 eV (for UV 3.. ~500ºC.40 eV) Excitation efficiency by UV: + (4. Fire in capped quartz tubes. ½ hour. 1. Naturwissenschaften.3 65 Preparation Mix by dry grinding or milling. 51. mix by dry grinding. K.CaB2O4:Mn2+ Structure: Orthorhombic Optical Properties Emission color: Green Emission peak: 2. Buhrow. H.88 eV). K.40 eV) . air. – (3.40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: + Reference 1.

Spectra 800 700 600 500 400 Wavelength (nm) 300 100 Absorption (%) Emission exc.88 eV).40 eV) Spectra 800 700 600 500 400 Wavelength (nm) 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Absorption (%) 100 Emission . 1200ºC. Peak position seems to depend on the excitation. 1.3 65 Preparation Mix by dry grinding or milling. 365 nm 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Remark 1. air. Fire in open quartz boats. ~500ºC. 1 hour. 3. air. 1000ºC. Fire in open quartz boats. CaYBO4:Eu3+ Composition Ingredient CaCO Y 2O 3 Eu2O3 H3BO3 Mole % 100 97 (of Y) 3 (of Eu) 105 By weight (g) 100 110 5. ½ hour. Optical Properties Emission color: Light red Emission peak: 2.04 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4. Powderize. 254 nm 50 exc. Powderize. – (3. 1 hour. air. Fire in open quartz boats. 2.

1 hour.40 eV) Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 100 Emission 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Remarks 1. N2. 2. 1 hour. Fire in open quartz boats. air. Powderize. CaLaBO4:Eu3+ Composition Ingredient CaCO La2O3 Eu2O3 H3BO3 Mole % 100 90 (of La) 10 (of Eu) 102 By weight (g) 100 146. Wash in water several times. Blasse.148 Inorganic Phosphors Reference 1. Fire in open quartz boats. Solid State Chem. Powderize. 1000ºC.. Powderize. – (3.. 1200ºC. 52 (1972). G. Powderize. 4. Add 5 g of NH4Cl. G.7 17. Ultraviolet-absorption bands of Bi3+ and Eu3+ in oxides. Dry. J. Fire in open quartz boats. 4. Reference 1. 3. 4. Fire in capped quartz tubes. 2. Optical Properties Emission color: Light red Emission peak: 2.88 eV). N2. J.. This phosphor is somewhat discolored and less efficient if fired in air or oxygen. Ultraviolet-absorption bands of Bi3+ and Eu3+ in oxides.2 Preparation Mix by dry grinding or milling. 1200ºC. Blasse. 1. 16 hours (overnight). mix by dry grinding. N2. Spectrum resembles that of YOE.6 63.03 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4. 52 (1972). ~500ºC.. . Solid State Chem.

. and Otero.. 2.29 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0. Fire in open quartz boats. 1 hour.T. Anhydrous zinc borate as a host crystal in luminescence. and Hummel.. 16. Amsterdam (1948). F. air. 4. Strange.A. 920 (1961).. J. Phase equilibria and fluorescence in the system zinc oxide-boric oxide. Soc. Electrochem. P. Pt... S. – (3. Some Aspects of Luminescence of Solids.. Fire in open quartz boats. air. Optical Properties Emission color: Yellow-green Emission peak: 2.. 900ºC. air. Harrison.21 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: (4. Soc. F. A170. ~500ºC. D. Powderize. Powderize. Cathodo-luminescence. Terol.T. Z. and Henderson. 5. 369 (1946). London. 491 (1956). J. Proc.J. 272 (1939). Phys.W. Growth and decay processes. Elsevier. Fire in open quartz boats. 3. 3. . Naturforsch. 58. 2 hours.5 127 Preparation Mix by dry grinding or milling. 2. Randall. Kröger. M.. Soc. A.40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: +/4–5% Decay: Exponential decay. 1.A. 1.88 eV). J.. about 26 msec to 1/10 Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 100 Emission 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 References 1. 700ºC. S.Section 4: Phosphor Data 149 ZnB2O4:Mn2+ Composition Ingredient ZnO MnCO3 H3BO3 Mole % 97 3 205 By weight (g) 79 3. R.E. 103.

air. air. 1. ~500ºC.88 eV). Fire in open quartz boats. Fire in open quartz boats.40 eV) Spectra 800 700 600 500 400 Wavelength (nm) 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Absorption (%) 100 Emission .205 eV. Powderize. 2. 1 hour. Powderize.10 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4. – (3. air. 1 hour. additionally a weaker line at 2. 1200ºC. 3. Fire in open quartz boats. 1000ºC.015 and 2.150 Inorganic Phosphors Spectra 800 700 600 500 Ca2B2O5:Mn2+ 400 Wavelength (nm) 300 100 Emission 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 LaAlB2O6:Eu3+ Composition Ingredient La2O3 Eu2O3 Al2O3 H3BO3 Mole % 92 (of La) 8 (of Eu) 100 (of Al) 205 By weight (g) 150 14 51 127 Preparation Mix by dry grinding or milling. Optical Properties Emission color: Light red Emission peaks: Two overlapping lines at 2.

Section 4: Phosphor Data 151 CaLaB3O7:Ce3+. – (3.8 3.40 eV) .16 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4. Powderize.Mn2+ Composition Ingredient CaCO3 La2O3 MnCO3 CeO2 H3BO3 Mole % 95 98 (of La) 5 2 310 By weight (g) 95 160 5.40 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0. – (3. 2 hours. Fire in open quartz boats. 3. 700ºC.29 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: + (4. air. Fire in open quartz boats. CO. 900ºC. 2. 1.40 eV) Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 100 Emission 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 SrB4O7:Eu2+(F.Br) Optical Properties Emission color: UV Emission peak: 3.37 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0.88 eV). 1 hour. Powderize. ~500ºC.Cl. Fire in open quartz boats. Optical Properties Emission color: Green Emission peak: 2.88 eV).4 192 Preparation Mix by dry grinding or milling. N2.

Witzmann. 181 (1962). 43.09 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0. Zur lumineszenz kupfer. Adachi. Boratluminophore MIT UV-emission. 101 (1979).. Machida. H.. K.. Luminescence properties of Eu(II)-borates and Eu2+-activated Sr-borates. – (3.34 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4.40 eV) Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 References 1. H.. 21. Naturwissenschaften. Witzmann... Naturwissenschaften.. and Semisch. and Schreiber. J..88 eV). 2. 49. Müller.Spectra 800 700 600 500 400 Wavelength (nm) 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Reference 1.. H. Lumin. R. G. and Shiokawa. SrB4O7:Pb2+ Optical Properties Emission color: UV Emission peak: 4. J. G.und kupferbleiaktivierter strontiumboratphosphore. Absorption (%) 100 Emission Absorption (%) 100 Emission . 580 (1956).

03 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0.22 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4.und kupferbleiaktivierter strontiumboratphosphore.. 2.. G. – (3. and Semisch. H.40 eV) Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 References 1.40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: + Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 100 Emission 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Absorption (%) 100 Emission .88 eV). H.Mn2+ Optical Properties Emission color: Blue-green Emission peak: 2. 4. – (3..88 eV). Boratluminophore MIT UV-emission. Naturwissenschaften. Cd2B6O11:Mn2+ Optical Properties Emission color: Yellow-green Emission peak: eV Excitation efficiency by UV: – (4. R. Müller. 181 (1962). Witzmann..42. Naturwissenschaften. Zur lumineszenz kupfer. 49. 580 (1956).SrB4O7:Pb2+.. H. 43. and Schreiber. Witzmann.

E.A. 900ºC. 2. ~500ºC. The system cadmium oxide-boric oxide. CO.. 1 hour. 104. J. Bril.D...C.57 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4. J. Philips Tech. J. Fire in open quartz boats. Powderize. YAl3B4O12:Ce3+ Structure: Trigonal (huntite) Composition Ingredient Y 2O 3 CeO2 Al2O3 H3BO3 Mole % 90 (of Y) 10 300 (of Al) 410 By weight (g) 102 17. 2. 2. 2. 1 hour. Radiationless transitions in Eu3+ center in LaAlO3. Electrochem. Electrochem. 53. 31.A. Fire in open alumina crucibles. Soc. 4. 1100ºC.. Chem. Optical Properties Emission color: Blue-violet + UV Emission peaks: 3. G. Blasse. Hummel. E. J. Phys. F. Fire in open alumina crucibles. 3. Blasse.A.20 and 3. 616 (1957). 491 (1956). Powderize. Rev. and Poorter. and Bril. The absorption and emission spectra of some important activators.2 153 254 Preparation Mix by dry grinding or milling. 304 (1970). 1200ºC.88 eV). and Hummel. Fire in open alumina crucibles. Soc.40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: + Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 50 2 3 References 1. D. and Subbarao. 1 hour. N2. CO. 103. 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Absorption (%) 100 Emission . A.. Dry. air. 1. 1. Powderize. Harrison. F.. Fluorescence. Phase equilibria and fluorescence in the system zinc oxide-boric oxide.. G. Characteristic luminescence.. Powderize.... 4450 (1970). Wash in hot water several times..References 1. + (3.. A.

Phys. 1200ºC. air.3. Dry. Blasse. Electrochem. 124. Fire in open alumina crucibles.. 1 hour. 48.. H.700 153 254 Preparation Mix by dry grinding or milling. Optical Properties Emission color: UV Emission peak: 4. 4. Fire in open alumina crucibles. and Yamada. 5. O.20 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0. Takahashi. Powderize. 4. Lumin.. Philips Tech. and Bril.40 eV) Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 50 2 3 References 1. air. J. T.. 3652 (1968).33 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: + (4. Rev.. YAl3B4O12:Bi3+ Structure: Trigonal (huntite) Composition Ingredient Y 2O 3 Bi2O3 Al2O3 H3BO3 Mole % 99. Powderize. 1. 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Absorption (%) 100 Emission . Powderize. 1 hour. 304 (1970). 12.. Danielmeyer. Ultraviolet-absorption bands of Bi3+ and Eu3+ in oxides. Chem. Cathodoluminescent properties of yttrium terbium aluminum borate Y1-xTb x Al3B4O12 phosphors. 2... Blasse. 1 hour. 179 (1976). Solid State Chem. 2.. air. air.G. 31. – (3. J. Fluorescence of Eu3+-activated sodium lanthanide titanates.88 eV). A. Fire in open quartz boats. Blasse. A. Powderize. Characteristic luminescence... 955 (1977). Soc.3 (of Bi) 300 (of Al) 410 By weight (g) 113 0. G. J.. 900ºC. Wash in hot water several times. 52 (1972).7 (of Y) 0. 1. Fire in open alumina crucibles. 3. G. 1100ºC.. J. 4. 1 hour. and Bril. G. Efficiency and fluorescence quenching of stoichiometric rare-earth laser materials. ~500ºC. The absorption and emission spectra of some important activators.

– (3. F. J. air. Kellendonk.88 eV). Phys.. Absorption (%) 100 Emission . 900ºC. 304 (1970).01 and 2. 1 hour. Cathodoluminescent properties of yttrium terbium aluminum borate Y1-X TbXAl3B4O12 phosphors. G. J. Powderize. Luminescence of bismuth in yttrium aluminum borate. 4. 2. ~500ºC. J. Dry. Powderize.. Philips Tech. 1 hour.. G.. Lett.6 153 248 Preparation Mix by dry grinding or milling. 1. T.. O. Photoluminescent efficiency of phosphors with electronic transitions in localized centers. Fire in open alumina crucibles. 4. air. 955 (1977). Electrochem. Blasse.40 eV) Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 References 1. Powderize. The absorption and emission spectra of some important activators. Blasse.. Wash in hot water several times. Optical Properties Emission color: Red Emission peaks: 2. Rev.. Fire in open alumina crucibles.. 239 (1979).. G. 2. Soc. 52 (1972).. 4. van Os.. 4. Takahashi.. Electrochem. J. 61. Fire in open quartz boats. 1067 (1968). and Bril. M. Soc. 3. air. Chem. 1. 115.. Solid State Chem. YAl3B4O12:Eu3+ Structure: Trigonal (huntite) Composition Ingredient Y 2O 3 Eu2O3 Al2O3 H3BO3 Mole % 90 (of Y) 10 (of Eu) 300 (of Al) 410 By weight (g) 102 17. and Blasse. Solid State Chem. 5. 52 (1972). Characteristic luminescence.035 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4. Powderize. air. G.... Ultraviolet-absorption bands of Bi3+ and Eu3+ in oxides.3. 1200ºC. and Yamada. A. 124. 1 hour. 3. 1100ºC. G. 1 hour. Blasse. A. and Bril. Fire in open alumina crucibles.. 31. Blasse.A. Ultraviolet-absorption bands of Bi3+ and Eu3+ in oxides.

4 17.40 eV) Reference 1.Mn2+ Structure: Trigonal (huntite) Emission color: green Emission peak: 2. Powderize. Fire in open alumina crucibles.Cr3+ Structure: Trigonal (huntite) Optical Properties Emission color: Deep red Emission peak: 1.7 153 254 Preparation Mix by dry grinding or milling. Powderize. – (3. ~500ºC. CO.77 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4.40 eV) YAl3B4O12:Ce3+. air. YAl3B4O12:Th4+.YAl3B4O12:Eu3+. CO. 20. 1100ºC. G.Tb3+ Structure: Trigonal (huntite) Composition Ingredient Y 2O 3 CeO2 Tb4O7 Al2O3 H3BO3 Mole % 80 (of Y) 10 10 (of Tb) 300 (of Al) 410 By weight (g) 90. 1. 1 hour. – (3. Fire in open quartz boats. 1 hour. Status Solidi..23 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: + (4. 1200ºC.. – (3.40 eV) . Fire in open alumina crucibles. 4. Blasse. Phys. Wash in hot water several times.88 eV). and Bril. Optical Properties Emission color: Green Emission peak: 2.29 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4. 900ºC. Dry.88 eV). Some observations on Cr3+ fluorescence in huntite structure. 3. Fire in open alumina crucibles. Powderize.2 18. A. N2. 2.Ce3+.31 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0.88 eV). 551 (1967). Powderize. 1 hour. 1 hour.

46.40 eV) Absorption (%) 100 Emission . Blasse. Rev.. Eu3+.005 and 2. O. Ce3+ to Sm3+.. T. ~500ºC.. Fluorescence of Eu3+-activated lanthanide oxyhalides LnOX. air. Optical Properties Emission color: Red Emission peak: 2. 2 hours. 2579 (1967). and Bril. Chem. 955 (1977). 900ºC. 2. 1920 (1967). Cathodoluminescent properties of yttrium terbium aluminum borate Y1 xTbxAl3B4O12 phosphors. Phys. Chem. air.. Blasse. Fire in open quartz boats. 3.. Fire in open quartz boats. Powderize. Dy3+. 1 hour. 1. and Study of energy transfer from Sb3+.Spectra 800 700 600 500 400 Wavelength (nm) 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 References 1. G. Bi3+. Electrochem.. 31. and Bril. Fire in open quartz boats.020 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: + (4. Phys. 124. and Yamada. 1200ºC. A. G. air. Characteristic luminescence.88 eV). Philips Tech.. – (3. Takahashi. J. 47. 1. The absorption and emission spectra of some important activators. 304 (1970). 2. Soc.6 153 254 Preparation Mix by dry grinding or milling. J. Powderize. A. LaAl3B4O12:Eu3+ Composition Ingredient La2O3 Eu2O3 Al2O3 H3BO3 Mole % 90 (of La) 10 (of Eu) 300 (of Al) 410 By weight (g) 147 17. J. Tb3+. 3....

. – (3. G. and deVries. Bril. Soc. J.40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: – Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 100 Emission 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Reference 1. 115.28 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4.10 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0. Absorption (%) 100 Emission . Blasse. A. 977 (1968). J. Fluorescence of Eu2+-activated barium octaborate... Electrochem..88 eV).Spectra 800 700 600 500 400 Wavelength (nm) 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 BaB8O13:Eu2+ Optical Properties Emission color: Violet–UV Emission peak: 3.

40 eV) Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Ca2B5O9Cl:Pb2+ Optical Properties Emission color: UV Emission peak: 4. C.F. Ca2B5O9Cl:Eu2+ Optical Properties Emission color: Blue Emission peak: 2.SrB8O13:Sm Optical Properties Emission color: Deep red Emission peak: 1.74 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0. ++ (3. Chenot.88 eV)..S. Pat.81 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: + (4. 3 657 141 (1972).31 eV Absorption (%) 100 Emission Absorption (%) 100 Emission .88 eV).40 eV) Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Reference 1.24 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4. ++ (3.. U.

++ (3.88 eV). ++ (3.40 eV) Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Sr2B5O9Cl:Eu2+ Optical Properties Emission color: Blue-violet Emission peak: 2.92 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0.24 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4.40 eV) Absorption (%) 100 Emission Absorption (%) 100 Emission .Emission width (FWHM): 0.74 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0. – (3.20 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4.88 eV).40 eV) Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Ca2B5O9Br:Eu2+ Optical Properties Emission color: Blue Emission peak: 2.88 eV).34 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4.

7:Eu3+ Optical Properties Emission color: Red Emission peak: 2.8O3. U. 4 202 794 (1980).88 eV). Lehmann.6 65 Absorption (%) 100 Emission Absorption (%) 100 Emission . W.5:Pb2+ Composition Ingredient CaCO3 La2O3 PbO H3BO3 Mole % 198 200 (of La) 2 105 By weight (g) 198 326 4.40 eV) Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 50 2 3 Reference 1.Spectra 800 700 600 500 400 Wavelength (nm) 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 CaYB0. Pat.03 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4.S. 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Ca2La2BO6.. – (3..

++ (3.48 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: + (4. 1 hour. Optical Properties Emission color: Pale yellow-green Emission peak: 2. ~500ºC. N2.40 eV) Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Remark The formula of this peculiar material is still uncertain but the mole ratio Ca-La-B in the formula is close to 2:2:1 YAl3B4O12:Ce3+. Powderize. Powderize. Fire in capped quartz tubes. 1000ºC. 1. 1 hour. air. Fire in capped quartz tubes. 3.28 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0.Mn2+ Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Absorption (%) 100 Emission Absorption (%) 100 Emission . N2. Fire in open quartz boats.Preparation Mix by dry grinding or milling. 2. 1200ºC.88 eV).

Mn2+ Ca0.Mn2+ SrAl12O19:Eu2+.4.Mn2+ SrGa12O19:Mn2+ SrAl12O19:Ce3+.Mn2+ LiAlO2:Fe3+ Structure: NaCl Composition Ingredient Li2CO3 Al2O3 Fe(NO3)3· 9H2O LiF Mole % 101 (of Li) 100 (of Al) 0.8 Aluminates and Gallates The following host compounds and activators are included in this subsection: LiAlO2:Fe3+ LiAlO2:Mn2+ YAlO3:Ce3+ YAlO3:Eu3+ YAlO3:Sm3+ YAlO3:Tb3+ LaAlO3:Eu3+ LaAlO3:Sm3+ MgAl2O4:Mn2+ MgGa2O4:Mn2+ CaAl2O4:Mn2+ CaAl2O4:Eu2+ ZnAl2O4:Mn2+ ZnGa2O4:Mn2+ CaGa2O4:Mn2+ CaGa4O7:Mn2+ SrAl2O4:Eu2+ BaAl2O4:Eu2+ CaAl4O7:Pb2+.Mn2+ LiAl5O8:Fe3+ LiAl5O8:Mn2+ Y4Al2O9:Eu3+ Y3Al5O12:Ce3+ KAl11O17:Tl+ KGa11O17:Mn2+ BaMgAl10O17:Ce3+ Y3Al5O12:Eu3+ BaMgAl10O17:Eu2+ BaMgAl10O17:Eu2+.5Al12O19:Ce3+.6 2 By weight (g) 37.5Ba0.520 .4 51 2.4 0.

. G. 125. 5. W. Luminescence of iron-activated lithium meta-gallate. Electronic states of Fe3+ in LiAl5O2 and LiAl5O8 phosphors. air..A. and manganese luminescence. J. Fire in open quartz boats. A... Stork. iron.. Phys. Place crucibles into a cold furnace. Powderize when dry. Phosphor Handbook. air. Rabatin. Absorption (%) 100 Emission .T. Fire in covered alumina crucibles. and Watchtel.F.Preparation Dissolve iron nitrate in a little water. stir to uniformity... Stir to uniformity. Dry in air. Soc. 3. Hummel. J. J. J.. D. W. air.. go slowly up with temperature to 900ºC. Chem. 2. and Sarver. 111. H. Lehmann. add solution to the mixture of other ingredients.. Illum. Dry in air. Soc. Van Broekhoven. and Mizuno..88 eV). 19 (1971). Wash in diluted acetic acid (~10%). Optical Properties Emission color: Very deep red + IR Emission peak: 1.J. and then in water until neutral.. J. p. FL.H. S.T. CRC Press.. 1250ºC. 3. 2 hours. 46.. Fire in covered alumina crucibles. Add a solution of about 3 g Al(NO3)3·9H2O in little water. The cathodoluminescence of Mn2+ activated and Fe3+ activated magnesium aluminate spinel. – (3. Soc. 78. J. Infrared emitting fluorescent lamp and applications. Boca Raton.. Eng. F.67 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0. Studies of compound formation on alkali-gammaaluminum oxide catalyst systems using chromium. 2496 (1974). and Pott. 4.S. U. 2. 3 857 054 (1974). Fig. 1250ºC. 252 (1964). 6. Powderize when dry. and then take out. Kamiya. Powderize. J. 234 (1974). Lumin. Electrochem. Palumbo. 1 hour. 7. Electrochem. Pat.. 920 (1978).40 eV) Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 References 1. J..20 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4. 4. 422 (1998). 3. 1. Powderize.

. 115. 1250 C. Studies of compound formation on alkali-gammaaluminum oxide catalyst systems using chromium.40 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0.3 Preparation Mix by slurrying in methanol. Fire in open quartz boats..5 eV Absorption (%) 100 Emission .6 254 2.T. G. J. 1 hour. Jaffe. J. Stork. 1/10-time in the 10 msec range. 1.15 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: no sensitizer known to obtain response to this UV Excitation efficiency by e-beam: ~6–8% Decay to 10% (or 1/e. 2.J. long and strong phosphorescence Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 50 2 3 References 1.375 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0.. W. 1200 C.LiAlO2:Mn2+ Structure: NaCl Composition Ingredient Li2CO3 Al2O3 MnCO3 Mole % 99 (of Li) 499 (of Al) 2 By weight (g) 36. and Cr3+ in BeTaLiAl5O8. 2 hours. Dry in air.. Phys. Cathodoluminescence spectra and coordination of Mn2+. N2. 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 YAlO3:Ce3+ Structure: Orthorhombic Optical Properties Emission color: UV Emission peak: 3. as given): Non-exponential decay. Chem. Electrochem.M. Optical Properties Emission color: Green Emission peak: 2. Powderize. Fe3+. Fire in covered alumina crucibles.. P.H. and manganese luminescence. 78. iron. Powderize when dry. 1203 (1968). and Pott. CO. 2496 (1974). 2. Soc.

Takeda. 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 YAlO3:Eu3+ Structure: Orthorhombic Composition Ingredient Y 2O 3 Al2O3 Eu2O3 H3BO3 Mole % 94 (of Y) 100 (of Al) 6 (of Eu) 10 By weight (g) 83. 1. 1 hour.Excitation efficiency by UV: + (4. et al. Appl. 438 (1980)..6 6.88 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: + Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 50 2 3 References 1.785 – 2.40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: + Absorption (%) 100 Emission . 3205 (1973).J. M. – (3. Phys. J.015 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4.6 51 10. 4 hours. 127. 1000ºC. Fire in covered alumina crucibles. Powderize. Weber.. 44. air.88 eV). T.. Soc. Optical-spectra of Ce3+ and Ce3+-sensitized fluorescence in YAlO3.2 Preparation Mix by dry grinding or milling.. air. J. Fire in covered alumina crucibles. Electrochem. 2. Fast decay UV phosphor YAlO3-Ce. 2. Optical Properties Emission color: Light red Emission peaks: 1. 1300ºC.

4 hours. 2.Spectra 800 700 600 500 400 Wavelength (nm) 300 50 2 3 Remark Q yield (UV excitation) is about the same as that of YOE. 1300ºC.197 eV. Optical Properties Emission color: Orange-yellow Emission peaks: 2. strongest line at ~2. 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 YAlO3:Sm3+ Structure: Orthorhombic Composition Ingredient Y 2O 3 Sm2O3 Al2O3 CaF2 Mole % 98 (of Y) 2 (of Sm) 100 (of Al) 10 By weight (g) 110 3. Fire in covered alumina crucibles.40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: + Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Absorption (%) 100 Emission Absorption (%) 100 Emission .6 51 7.8 Preparation Mix by dry grinding or milling.88 eV).06 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: (4. air. air. 1 hour. Fire in covered alumina crucibles.008–3. 2.06. Powderize. 1300ºC. 1. (3.

1. Fire in covered alumina crucibles.YAlO3:Tb3+ Structure: Orthorhombic Composition Ingredient Y 2O 3 Tb4O7 Al2O3 CaF2 Mole % 90 (of Y) 10 (of Tb) 100 (of Al) 10 By weight (g) 102 18.283 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: + (4.40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: + (better than Y2O3:Tb3+) Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 LaAlO3:Eu3+ Structure: Orthorhombic Composition Ingredient La2O3 Al2O3 Eu2O3 H3BO3 Mole % 94 (of La) 105 (of Al) 6 (of Eu) 20 By weight (g) 130.7 51 7. Fire in covered alumina crucibles. CO.8 Preparation Mix by dry grinding or milling. 1300ºC. CO. 2.6 12.4 Absorption (%) 100 Emission .6 53. 1300ºC. 1 hour. Powderize. 4 hours.88 eV). strongest line at ~2. Optical Properties Emission color: Pale green Emission peaks: Typical Tb3+ lines.6 10. – (3.

1. The absorption and emission spectra of some important activators.. air. air. Fire in covered alumina crucibles. 1000ºC.300 12. 4 hours.40 eV) Absorption (%) 100 Emission .88 eV).4 Preparation Mix by dry grinding or milling. Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) (3. G. Blasse. and Bril. 31. 1. Powderize.Preparation Mix by dry grinding or milling. 2. Powderize.88 eV).01–2.6 0. Reference 1.2 (of Sm) 20 By weight (g) 139 53.40 eV) 400 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Remark Q yield (UV excitation) is about ~75% of YOE. 1.925–2. Rev. Characteristic luminescence. Optical Properties Emission color: Orange-red Emission peaks: 2. 1300ºC. Optical Properties Emission color: Yellow Emission peaks: 1. air.10 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4. Fire in covered alumina crucibles. A.. air. 4 hours. 2. 1000ºC. Fire in covered alumina crucibles. LaAlO3:Sm3+ Structure: Trigonal Composition Ingredient La2O3 Al2O3 Sm2O3 H3BO3 Mole % 100 (of La) 105 (of Al) 0.20 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: + (4. 1 hour. Philips Tech. Fire in covered alumina crucibles. 304 (1970). 1 hour. – (3. 1300ºC..

20 msec to 1/10 Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 100 Emission 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Absorption (%) 100 Emission .620 Preparation Mix by dry ball-milling. Fire in covered alumina crucibles. CO.15 107 0.16 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: no sensitizer known to obtain response to this UV Excitation efficiency by e-beam: +/~7–8% Decay: Slightly non-exponential decay. Optical Properties Emission color: Green Emission peak: 2. 2 hours.36 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0. 1250ºC.Spectra 800 700 600 500 400 Wavelength (nm) 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 MgAl2O4:Mn2+ Structure: Tetragonal (spinel) Composition Ingredient MgO MnCO3 Al2O3 MgF2 Mole % 98 1 210 (of Al) 1 By weight (g) 39 1.

Philips Res.. Electrochem. Res...40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: + Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 50 2 3 References 1.. 3.T.. 2. and deBres. J. 2.2% reduces the efficiency of cathodoluminescence to ~4% and increases the 1/10 decay time to ~40 msec.. J. Radielovic. Soc. and Wanmaker. 117. References 1.15 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: + (4. Soc. Luminescence of Mn2+activated spinels in MgO-Li2O-ZnO-Ga2O3-Al2O3 system. 111. 304 (1967). W.. Greenemitting phosphors.Remark Reducing the Mn concentration from 1 to 0. 4. terVrugt. Wanmaker. J. F. MgGa2O4:Mn2+ Structure: Tetragonal (spinel) Optical Properties Emission color: Blue-green Emission peak: 2.W. 120. D. J. J. 5. Rep. The cathodoluminescence of Mn2+ activated and Fe3+ activated magnesium aluminate spinel. J. W. 114. 245 (1967). J.G.A.W. Brown. 3.A. Wanmaker. 25.88 eV). J.. Electrochem.J. Soc. J... D. J.. Soc.. J. Palumbo... Hummel.. 108 (1970). Electrochem.M. Amsterdam (1948). Rep. and Verlijsdonk. Some Aspects of Luminescence of Solids. 252 (1964).L. terVrugt. Kröger. and Brown. Electrochem. 1184 (1970). Luminescence of manganeseactivated aluminiu-substituted magnesium gallate. – (3.46 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0... W. Electronic states of Mn2+-activated phosphors.L.. Manganese-activated luminescence in MgO-Al2O3-Ga2O3 system.. Choice and evaluation of phosphors for application to lamps with improved color rendition.. F. and Sarver. W. Philips Res. Opstelten... Lehmann. 1. J.L. 78-5F4-ZSIBM-R1 (1978).F. Rep..G. 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Absorption (%) 100 Emission . Elsevier. 1400 (1973). 22.

1 hour. Wash in a solution of 20 g NH4Cl in 1 liter of water and then several times in plain water. 1200ºC.28 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0. Powderize. CO.5 5.9 Preparation Mix by slurrying in water.3 3.27 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: no sensitizer known to obtain response to this UV Excitation efficiency by e-beam: ~ a few percent Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 100 Emission 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 CaAl2O4:Eu2+ Structure: Monoclinic Composition Ingredient CaCO3 Al2O3 Eu2O3 NH4Cl Mole % 98 210 (of Al) 2 (of Eu) 10 By weight (g) 98 107 3. 1300ºC. 1.4 .CaAl2O4:Mn2+ Structure: Monoclinic Composition Ingredient CaCO3 Al2O3 MnCO3 CaF2 Mole % 93 200 (of Al) 2 5 By weight (g) 93 102 2. Fire in covered alumina crucibles. Optical Properties Emission color: Yellow-green Emission peak: 2. CO. Dry in air. 1 hour. Fire in open quartz boats. 2. Powderize when dry.

+ (3.40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: 1% Decay: ~1 µsec to 1/10 Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 ZnAl2O4:Mn2+ Structure: Tetragonal (spinel) Optical Properties Emission color: Blue-green Emission peak: 2.Preparation Mix by ball-milling in water. 1.41 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0. Powderize. – (3. CO. Powderize when dry. 2. 1200ºC. Fire in capped quartz tubes. Dry in air. 1200ºC.88 eV).34 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: + (4. CO. 2. Fire in open quartz boats. Wash in a solution of ~20 g NH4Cl in 1 liter of water and then several times in plain water.88 eV).40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: + Absorption (%) 100 Emission . Optical Properties Emission color: Deep blue Emission peak: Single Eu2+ band. 1 hour.13 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: – (4.80 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0. 1 hour.

terVrugt. Luminescence of Mn2+activated spinels in MgO-Li2O-ZnO-Ga2O3-Al2O3 system.47 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0..T. – (3.. Soc. J. J. and Henderson.W.13 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: + (4. H. Leverenz.Spectra 800 700 600 500 400 Wavelength (nm) 300 100 Emission 50 2 3 References 1. Luminescence of gallates.W. John Wiley & Sons. P.. Wanmaker. Electrochem.L. London. Growth and decay processes. Cathodo-luminescence. An Introduction to Luminescence of Solids. Wanmaker. An Introduction to Luminescence of Solids. Strange. John Wiley & Sons. W. New York (1949).L.40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: + Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 100 Emission 50 2 3 References 1.. and terVrugt.. 369 (1946). and Verlijsdonk.. 108 (1970). 2. 2.W. J. Soc.. New York (1949). H..W. Leverenz. Philips Res. 871 (1969). J. Rep.. 58. 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 . S. W. 1.88 eV).G. J.. 3.W. 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 ZnGa2O4:Mn2+ Structure: Cubic (gahnite) Optical Properties Emission color: Blue-green Emission peak: 2. 116. Phys. 25..

CaGa2O4:Mn2+
Structure: Monoclinic Optical Properties Emission color: Yellow-green Emission peak: 2.19 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0.21 eV Spectra
800 700 600 500
Wavelength (nm)

400

300

50

2

3

Reference 1. Brown, J.J., Can. Pat., 821 468 (1970).

4 Photon Energy (eV)

5

0

CaGa4O7:Mn2+
Optical Properties Emission color: Yellow Emission peak: 2.10 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0.21 eV Reference 1. Brown, J.J., Can. Pat., 821 468 (1970).

SrAl2O4:Eu2+
Structure: Monoclinic Composition Ingredient SrCO3 Al2O3 Eu2O3 NH4Cl Mole % 98 210 (of Al) 2 (of Eu) 10 By weight (g) 145 107 3.5 5.4

Absorption (%)

100

Emission

Preparation Mix by ball-milling in water. Dry in air. Powderize when dry. 1. Fire in capped quartz tubes, CO, 1200ºC, 1 hour. Powderize. 2. Fire in open quartz boats, CO, 1200ºC, 1 hour. Wash in a solution of ~20 g NH4Cl in 1 liter of water and then several times in plain water. Dry. Optical Properties Emission color: Green Emission peak: 2.37 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0.34 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4.88 eV), ++ (3.40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: +/~1.5% Decay: ~2 µsec to 1/10 Spectra
800 700 600 500
Wavelength (nm)

400

300

50

2

3

References 1. Blasse, G., and Bril, A., Fluorescence of Eu2+ activated alkaline-earth aluminates, Philips Res. Rep., 23, 201 (1968). 2. Palilla, F.C., Levine, A.K., and Tomkus, M.R., Fluorescent properties of alkaline earth aluminates activated by divalent europium, J. Electrochem. Soc., 115, 642 (1968). 3. Blasse, G., Wanmaker, W.L., and terVrugt, J.W., Some new classes of efficient Eu2+ activated phosphors, J. Electrochem. Soc., 115, 673 (1968). 4. Abbruscato, V., Optical and electrical properties of SrAl2O4-Eu2+, J. Electrochem. Soc., 118, 930 (1971).

4 Photon Energy (eV)

5

0

BaAl2O4:Eu2+
Structure: Hexagonal Composition Ingredient BaCO3 Al2O3 Eu2O3 NH4Cl Mole % 98 210 (of Al) 2 (of Eu) 10 By weight (g) 193 107 3.5 5.4

Absorption (%)

100

Emission

Preparation Mix by ball-milling in water. Dry in air. Powderize when dry. 1. Fire in capped quartz tubes, CO, 1200ºC, 1 hour. Powderize. 2. Fire in open quartz boats, CO, 1200ºC, 1 hour. Wash in a solution of ~20 g NH4Cl + 20 ccm NH4OH in 1 liter of water and then several times in diluted ammonium hydroxide. Dry. Optical Properties Emission color: Blue-green Emission peak: 2.47 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0.35 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4.88 eV), ++ (3.40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: + Spectra
800 700 600 500
Wavelength (nm)

400

300

50

2

3

References 1. Palilla, F.C., Levine, A.K., and Tomkus, M.R., Fluorescent properties of alkaline earth aluminates activated by divalent europium, J. Electrochem. Soc., 115, 642 (1968). 2. Blasse, G., Wanmaker, W.L., and terVrugt, J.W., Some new classes of efficient Eu2+ activated phosphors, J. Electrochem. Soc., 115, 673 (1968). 3. Blasse, G., and Bril, A., Phosphors based on lanthanide oxysulphates (Ln2SO6), Philips Res. Rep., 23, 461 (1968).

4 Photon Energy (eV)

5

0

CaAl4O7:Pb2+,Mn2+
Structure: Monoclinic Optical Properties Emission color: Yellow Emission peak: 2.20 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0.24 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: + (4.88 eV), – (3.40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: +

Absorption (%)

100

Emission

Spectra
800 700 600 500

400

Wavelength (nm)

300

50

2

3

4 Photon Energy (eV)

5

0

LiAl5O8:Fe3+
Structure: Cubic (spinel) Optical Properties Emission color: Very deep red Emission peak: 1.82 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4.88 eV), – (3.40 eV) Spectra
800 700 600 500
Wavelength (nm)

400

300

100

Emission

50

2

3

References 1. Jaffe, P.M., Cathodoluminescence spectra and coordination of Mn2+ Fe3+ and Cr3+ in BeTaLiAl5O8, J. Electrochem. Soc., 115, 1203 (1968). 2. Melamed, N.T., Viccaro, P.J., Barros, F.D.S. et al., Optical properties of Fe3+ in ordered and disordered LiAl5O8, Phys. Rev. B5, 3377 (1972). 3. Neto, J.M., Abritta, T., Barros, F.D. et al., A comparative-study of the optical-properties of Fe3+ in ordered LiGa5O8 and LiAl5O8, J. Lumin., 22, 109 (1981).

4 Photon Energy (eV)

5

0

Absorption (%)

100

Emission

LiAl5O8:Mn2+
Structure: Cubic (spinel) Composition Ingredient Li2CO3 Al2O3 MnCO3 Mole % 99 (of Li) 499 (of Al) 2 By weight (g) 36.6 254 2.3

Preparation Mix by slurrying in methanol. Dry in air. Powderize when dry. 1. Fire in open alumina crucibles, N2, 1200ºC, 1 hour. Powderize. 2. Fire in open quartz boats, CO, 1250ºC, 2 hours. Optical Properties Emission color: Green Emission peak: 2.38 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0.15eV Excitation efficiency by UV: – (4.88 eV), – (3.40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: +/~6–8% Decay: Non-exponential decay, 1/10 time in the 10 msec range; long and strong phosphorescence Spectra
800 700 600 500
Wavelength (nm)

400

300

100

Emission

50

2

3

Reference 1. Jaffe, P.M., Cathodoluminescence spectra and coordination of Mn2+ Fe3+ and Cr3+ in BeTaLiAl5O8, J. Electrochem. Soc., 115, 1203 (1968).

4 Photon Energy (eV)

5

0

Y4Al2O9:Eu3+
Structure: Monoclinic Composition Ingredient Y 2O 3 Al2O3 Eu2O3 H3BO3 Mole % 95 (of Y) 50 (of Al) 5 (of Eu) 10 By weight (g) 84.5 25.5 8.8 6.2

Preparation Mix by dry grinding or milling. 1. Fire in covered alumina crucibles, air, 1000ºC, 1 hour. Powderize. 2. Fire in covered alumina crucibles, air, 1300ºC, 4 hours. Optical Properties Emission color: Light red Emission peaks: Mainly three lines about 1.975, 2.03 eV, and 2.10 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4.88 eV), – (3.40 eV) Spectra
800 700 600 500
Wavelength (nm)

400

300

50

2

3

4 Photon Energy (eV)

5

0

Y3Al5O12:Ce3+
Structure: Cubic (garnet) Composition Ingredient Y 2O 3 Al2O3 CeO2 NH4Cl Mole % 35.5 (of Y) 62.5 (of Al) 2 5 By weight (g) 40 32 3.44 2.7

Absorption (%)

100

Emission

Preparation Mix by slurrying in water. 1. Fire in capped quartz tubes, CO, 1300ºC, 1 hour. Powderize. Add another 2.7 g NH4Cl; mix by dry grinding. 2. Fire in capped quartz tubes, 1300ºC, 2 hours. Powderize. 3. Fire in open quartz boats, CO, 1300ºC, 1 hour. Optical Properties Emission color: Yellow-green Emission peak: 2.37 eV Emission width (FWHM): ~0.45 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: + (4.88 eV), + (3.40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: +/~2% Spectra
800 700 600 500
Wavelength (nm)

400

300

50

2

3

References 1. Blasse, G., and Bril, A., Characteristic luminescence, 1. The absorption and emission spectra of some important activators, Philips Tech. Rev., 31, 304 (1970); and A new phosphor for flying-spot cathode-ray tubes for color television—yellow-emitting Y3Al5O12-Ce3+, Appl. Phys. Lett., 11, 53 (1967). 2. Blasse, G., Bril, A., and Poorter, J.A.D., Radiationless transitions in Eu3+ center in LaAlO3, J. Chem. Phys., 53, 4450 (1970). 3. Blasse, G., and Bril, A., Gibbons, E.F. et al., Ce3+ activated Y3Al5O12 and some of its solid-solutions, J. Electrochem. Soc., 120, 278 (1973); and Gibbons, E.F. et al., Some factors influencing luminous decay characteristics of Y3Al5O12 - Ce3+ , J. Electrochem. Soc., 120, 835 (1973). 4. Tien, T.Y. et al., Ce3+ activated Y3Al5O12 and some of its solid-solutions, J. Electrochem. Soc., 102, 278 (1973). 5. Sang, E., The signal generation mechanism in bistable storage-scan converters, SID Digest, 104 (1973).

4 Photon Energy (eV)

5

0

KAl11O17:Tl+
Structure: Aluminate Optical Properties Emission color: Violet + UV Emission peak: 3.14 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0.49 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4.88 eV)

Absorption (%)

100

Emission

Spectra
800 700 600 500

400

Wavelength (nm)

300

100

Emission

50

2

3

References (see below) Structure: Aluminate

4 Photon Energy (eV)

5

0

KGa11O17:Mn2+

Optical Properties Emission color: Blue-green Emission peak: 2.49 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0.14 eV Spectra
800 700 600 500
Wavelength (nm)

400

300

100

Emission

50

2

3

References 1. Verstegen, J.M., Survey of a group of phosphors, based on hexagonal aluminate and gallate host lattices, J. Electrochem. Soc., 121, 1623 (1974). 2. Verstegen, J.M.P.J., Somerdijk, J.L., and Bril, A., Luminescence of LiBaF3:Eu2+, J. Lumin., 10, 411 (1975).

4 Photon Energy (eV)

5

0

BaMgAl10O17:Ce3+
Structure: Aluminate Optical Properties Emission color: UV Emission peak: 3.40 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0.65 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4.88 eV), – (3.40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: +

Spectra
800 700 600 500

400

Wavelength (nm)

300

50

2

3

Reference 1. Stevels, A.L.N., Ce3+ luminescence in hexagonal aluminates containing large divalent or trivalent cations, J. Electrochem. Soc., 125, 588 (1978).

4 Photon Energy (eV)

5

0

Y3Al5O12:Eu3+
Structure: Cubic (garnet) Optical Properties Emission color: Orange-yellow Emission peak: 2.10 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: + (4.88 eV), – (3.40 eV) Spectra
800 700 600 500
Wavelength (nm)

400

300

50

2

3

4 Photon Energy (eV)

5

0

Absorption (%)

100

Emission

Absorption (%)

100

Emission

5 Preparation Mix by ball-milling in methanol.N. Powderize when dry. 29. Powderize.. Optical Properties Emission color: Blue Emission peak: 2. ++ (3.M. 1250ºC.J.L. A. 1 hour. Dry in air. Absorption (%) 100 Emission . Mater.BaMgAl10O17:Eu2+ Structure: Aluminate Composition Ingredient BaCO3 MgO Al2O3 Eu2O3 BaF2 Mole % 80 100 1050 (of Al) 10 (of Eu) 10 By weight (g) 158 40 536 17. 1250ºC. (1986). 1305. Morphologic and crystallographic properties. 1 hour.34 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4. and Verlijsdonk.88 eV)..G. B. 2..D. J. 1. Rep. Smets. and Schrama. 340 (1974). Fire in open quartz boats. Nov. N2. 21. Res. 1. forming gas. Bull. Vapor-deposited CSi-Na layers..40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: + Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 References 1. Philips Res. Fire in covered alumina crucibles. The luminescence properties of Eu2+-doped and Mn2+-doped barium hexaaluminates.. A. Stevels.77 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0.6 17. 2.

Stevels. 500–600ºC.N.D.5 Preparation Mix by ball-milling in methanol. 340 (1974).2 536 17. 3. Rep. Philips Res. 123.N.D.. 2. CO. A. and Schrama.40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: + Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 50 2 3 Remark This phosphor retains its high efficiency to several 100 C. 1.L.6 17. A. A. 1250ºC. forming gas.40 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0. ++ (3. ½ hour. Stevels. Fire in covered alumina crucibles.. 1.. References 1. A.6 27.13 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4.. 1 hour. 29. Soc.M. J. It may be useful for color correction in arc lamps.M. Powderize. 2. Vapor-deposited CSi-Na layers. 1 hour. 691 (1974).L.Mn2+ Structure: Aluminate Composition Ingredient BaCO3 MgO Al2O3 Eu2O3 MnCO3 BaF2 Mole % 80 70 1050 (of Al) 10 24 10 By weight (g) 158 28. Fire in open quartz boats..BaMgAl10O17:Eu2+. Fire in open quartz boats.88 eV). 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Absorption (%) 100 Emission . Powderize when dry. 1250ºC. Dry in air. Morphologic and crystallographic properties.. and Schrama. Optical Properties Emission color: Bluish-green Emission peak: 2. Electrochem.

125 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4.P. forming gas. Lumin. 3..5% Decay: Near-exponential decay. This phosphor is sensitive to lamp-lehring conditions but very stable once it is in the lamp. Reference 1.41 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0.40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: ~2–2.Mn2+ Composition Ingredient CaCO3 CaF2 BaCO3 Al2O3 CeO2 MnCO3 Mole % 25 10 35 1210 (of Al) 30 24 By weight (g) 25 7. 1 hour. 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Absorption (%) 100 Emission .M. Fire in covered alumina crucibles. J. – (3. Powderize when dry. Stevels. 207 (1976)..Ca0. J.N. CO. 2. Eu2+-Mn2+ energy-transfer in hexagonal aluminates. 2.L. Dry in air.5Al12O19:Ce3+. ~15 msec to 1/10 Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 50 2 3 Remarks 1.5Ba0. and Verstegen. ~½ hour. 1 hour.88 eV). 1250ºC.8 69 617 51. A. Optical Properties Emission color: Bluish-green Emission peak: 2. 1250ºC.6 27. 1. 14. Fire in open quartz boats. This phosphor retains its high efficiency up to several 100ºC. N2.J. ~500–600ºC.6 Preparation Mix by ball-milling in methanol.. Fire in open quartz boats. Powderize.

J...47 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0. Survey of a group of phosphors. 10. and Bril. Somerdijk.L. Luminescence of LiBaF3:Eu2+. J. J. Verstegen.P. A..SrAl12O19:Eu2+.Mn2+ Structure: Aluminate Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 SrGa12O19:Mn2+ Structure: Aluminate Optical Properties Emission color: Blue-green Emission peak: 2. 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Absorption (%) 100 Emission .12 eV Excitation efficiency by e-beam: + Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 100 Emission 50 2 3 References 1. Electrochem. 2.M. J. 121. 411 (1975). J. Lumin. Soc. Verstegen... based on hexagonal aluminate and gallate host lattices..J. 1623 (1974).M.

.J. J.14 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4.Mn2+ Structure: Aluminate Optical Properties Emission color: Green Emission peak: 2. J.39 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0. – (3.N. 207 (1976). 14.L.88 eV). Stevels.. Absorption (%) 100 Emission . Lumin. A.40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: + Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Reference 1.SrAl12O19:Ce3+. Eu2+-Mn2+ energy-transfer in hexagonal aluminates.P. and Verstegen.M.

air. 1100ºC. 1.40 eV) Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Absorption (%) 100 Emission .34 eV Emission width (FWHM): ~0. 1 hour.88 eV).4. air.9 Molybdates and Tungstates The following host compounds and activators are included in this subsection: CaMoO4 CaMoO4:Eu3+ SrMoO4:U MgWO4 CaWO4 Ca3WO6:U Sr3WO6:U Ba3WO6:U La2W3O12:Eu3+ CaMoO4 Structure: Tetragonal Composition Ingredient CaCO3 MoO3 Mole % 100 98 By weight (g) 100 141 Preparation Mix by dry grinding or milling.82 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: + (4. 1000ºC. 2. 1 hour. Optical Properties Emission color: Pale yellow-green Emission peak: ~2. Fire in open quartz boats. – (3. Powderize. Fire in open quartz boats.

1. Powderize. O2.CaMoO4:Eu3+ Structure: Tetragonal Composition Ingredient CaCO3 Eu2O3 NaHCO3 MoO3 Mole % 90 5 (of Eu) 5 105 By weight (g) 90 8.8 4. air. 2. Wash in a strong solution of NaOH (or KOH) in water and then several times in plain water until neutral.02 and ~2. 1100ºC.5–1% Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 SrMoO4:U Structure: Tetragonal Composition Ingredient SrCO3 MoO3 UO2(NO3)2· 6H2O Li2CO3 Mole % 100 105 0.88 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: ~0. Powderize.740 Absorption (%) 100 Emission .2 151 Preparation Mix by dry grinding or milling. Optical Properties Emission color: Red Emission peaks: ~2. Fire in open quartz boats. 1 hour. 1000ºC. Dry. Fire in open quartz boats.03 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4. 1 hour.2 2 (of Li) By weight (g) 148 151 1 0.

Add methanol to make a uniform slurry.875 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: – (4. Powderize when dry. 1200ºC. Dry. add this solution to the other ingredients.88 eV).40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: ~2. + (3.50 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0. 2. air.88 eV).40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 MgWO4 Structure: Monoclinic Composition Ingredient MgO WO3 Mole % 120 100 By weight (g) 48 232 Preparation Mix by slurrying in water. ~20 µsec to 1/10 Absorption (%) 100 Emission . 1. Dry in air.75 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4. O2.Preparation Dissolve the U-nitrate in a little methanol. Powderize. Wash in a strong solution of NaOH (or KOH) in water and then several times in plain water until neutral. Fire in open quartz boats. Fire in open quartz boats. Optical Properties Emission color: Blue-greenish white Emission peak: 2. Fire in open quartz boats. – (3.5% Decay: Near-exponential decay. 1 hour. Powderize when dry. 16 hours (overnight). Optical Properties Emission color: Deep red Emission peak: ~1. 1000ºC. Powderize. Dry in air. O2. 800ºC. 2 hours.

Fire in open quartz boats. 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Absorption (%) 100 Emission Absorption (%) 100 Emission . Optical Properties Emission color: Pale blue Emission peak: 2. – (3. ~16 hours (overnight).77 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4. Powderize when dry. O2. 1200ºC.40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: ~2–2. Dry in air.87 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0.88 eV). ~10 µsec to 1/10 Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 50 2 3 Remark This material is completely intersoluble with CaMoO4 in any proportion.5% Decay: Near-exponential decay.Spectra 800 700 600 500 400 Wavelength (nm) 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 CaWO4 Structure: Tetragonal (scheelite) Composition Ingredient CaCO3 WO3 Mole % 105 100 By weight (g) 105 232 Preparation Mix by slurrying in water.

1200ºC. 4. 473 (1976). and Scharmann. P. Some Aspects of Luminescence of Solids. O2. 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Absorption (%) 100 Emission . and Weiss. R. 2. 2 hours. 68. 1. Lumineszenzuntersuchungen an uran-aktivierten erdalkaliwolframaten und erdalkalimolybdaten. Grasser. A. Phys. Phys..R. 140. Add methanol to make a uniform slurry. Luminescent sites in CaWO4 and CaWO4:Pb crystals. Amsterdam (1948). Lumin... Fire in open quartz boats. W.2 2 (of Li) By weight (g) 300 232 1 0.. ++ (3. Fire in open quartz boats.. Dry in air. Optical Properties Emission color: Green Emission peak: 2. Powderize when dry. Ca3WO6:U Composition Ingredient CaCO3 WO3 UO2(NO3)2·6H2O Li2CO3 Mole % 300 100 0. H. air.A. 148 (1955).41 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0. London. Cook. 3. 1 hour. J. Kröger.References 1.88 eV). F. Z. J. Photoconductivity in calcium tungstate.. 2.. add this solution to the other ingredients.740 Preparation Dissolve the U-nitrate in a little methanol.23 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: – (4. Soc. Gobrecht. 139 (1955).. Powderize by grinding or milling. 900ºC. Elsevier. B.40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: – Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 50 2 3 Remark U is non-luminescent in CaWO4. 12.

.. 1000ºC. Kröger. add this solution to the other ingredients.740 Preparation Dissolve the U-nitrate in a little methanol. Z. H. 2 hours. Gobrecht. W..References 1. Absorption (%) 100 Emission .F. Powderize by grinding or milling.6H2O Li2CO3 Mole % 300 100 0. A. The luminescence of photo-conducting phosphors. Dry in air. Soc. Powderize when dry. Gobrecht. Add methanol to make a uniform slurry.J. Z. Lumineszenzuntersuchungen an uran-aktivierten erdalkaliwolframaten und erdalkalimolybdaten..19 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: + (4. W. 1 hour. Optical Properties Emission color: Yellow-green Emission peak: 2.25 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0. air. Phys. Garlick. 139 (1955).F.. Am.. 3. and Weiss. + (3.88 eV). F. 935 (1949). Amsterdam (1948).A. Fire in open quartz boats. Reference 1. 139 (1955). 1.2 2 (of Li) By weight (g) 443 232 1 0. Phys. 140... Elsevier. 900ºC. Sr3WO6:U Composition Ingredient SrCO3 WO3 UO2(NO3)2. Some Aspects of Luminescence of Solids. Lumineszenzuntersuchungen an uran-aktivierten erdalkaliwolframaten und erdalkalimolybdaten. 140. 2.40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: Poor Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Remark U is non-luminescent in SrWO4. 39. and Weiss... and Gibson. 2. H. Fire in open quartz boats. O2. G. Opt. J.

References 1. 2. 12–13. 1000ºC.H... O2. Powderize by grinding or milling.20 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0. Dry in air. Gobrecht. Fire in open quartz boats. H. Fire in open quartz boats.Ba3WO6:U Composition Ingredient BaCO3 WO3 UO2(NO3)2·6H2O Li2CO3 Mole % 300 100 0.. 140. 2 hours. Z. 900ºC.88 eV). 139 (1955). Luminescence in a new garnet phase with hexavalent metal-ions. G. Add methanol to make a uniform slurry. + (3. Lumineszenzuntersuchungen an uran-aktivierten erdalkaliwolframaten und erdalkalimolybdaten. 1 hour.17 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: + (4. Lumin... 1. W. and Weiss. Alberda. 2. R. J. 687 (1976). Powderize when dry. Phys.740 Preparation Dissolve the U-nitrate in a little methanol. Absorption (%) 100 Emission . add this solution to the other ingredients. and Blasse. air.40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: Poor Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Remark U is non-luminescent in BaWO4. Optical Properties Emission color: Green-yellow Emission peak: 2.2 2 (of Li) By weight (g) 592 232 1 0..

1100ºC.88 eV). air. Powderize.018 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: + (4. Fire in open quartz boats. – (3.40 eV) Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Absorption (%) 100 Emission . 1 hour.6 696 Preparation Mix by dry grinding or milling. 1 hour. 2. air. Optical Properties Emission color: Red Emission peak: Strongest line at 2. Fire in open quartz boats.La2W3O12:Eu3+ Composition Ingredient La2O3 Eu2O3 WO3 Mole % 190 (of La) 10 (of Eu) 300 By weight (g) 310 17. 1000ºC. 1.

air. 950ºC. Powderize. air. – (3.08 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: – (4.4.03 eV and 2.0 eV Excitation efficiency by e-beam: ~5% . Fire in open alumina crucibles. 1.40 eV). 2.5 37. Fire in open alumina crucibles.88 eV). 1 hour.10 Miscellaneous Oxides The following host compounds and activators are included in this subsection: LiInO2:Eu3+ LiInO2:Sm3+ LiLaO2:Eu3+ NaYO2:Eu3+ CaTiO3:Pr3+ CaGeO3:Mn2+ Mg2TiO4:Mn4+ Zn2GeO4:Mn2+ YVO4:Eu3+ LaVO4:Eu3+ YAsO4:Eu3+ LaAsO4:Eu3+ Ca5(VO4)3Cl Mg8Ge2O11F2:Mn4+ CaY2ZrO6:Eu3+ Mg3SiO3F4:Ti4+ LiInO2:Eu3+ Structure: tetragonal Composition Ingredient In2O3 Eu2O3 Li2CO3 Mole % 98 (of In) 2 (of Eu) 101 (of Li) By weight (g) 136 3.4 Preparation Mix by slurrying in methanol. weakly excited at 4. 700ºC. 1 hour. Optical Properties Emission color: Red Emission peaks: 2.

Optical Properties Emission color: Orange Emission peaks: 1. Powderize when dry.15 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: + (4. 1. 700ºC. Eu3+ fluorescence in rocksalt lattice. G. LiInO2:Sm3+ Structure: tetragonal Composition Ingredient In2O3 Sm2O3 Li2CO3 Mole % 99. 45. Dry in air. 5. 950ºC. 1 hour. J.4 Preparation Mix by slurrying in methanol. Fire in open alumina crucibles.40 eV) Absorption (%) 100 Emission .3 (of Sm) 101 (of Li) By weight (g) 138 0.7 (of In) 0. Phys. and Bril. 1 hour.. 2. air. air. 3327 (1966)..Spectra 800 700 600 500 400 Wavelength (nm) 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Reference 1.85–2. On Eu3+ fluorescence in mixed metal oxides.520 37.88 eV). Chem. Fire in open alumina crucibles. Excitation efficiency by e-beam: ~5% (3. Blasse.. Powderize. A.

Fire in open alumina crucibles. Store in a well-closed container.02 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: + (4. air.88 eV).4 Preparation Mix by slurrying in methanol. Dry in air. Powderize. Powderize when dry. 2.Spectra 800 700 600 500 400 Wavelength (nm) 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 LiLaO2:Eu3+ Structure: tetragonal Composition Ingredient La2O3 Eu2O3 Li2CO3 Mole % 95 (of La) 5 (of Eu) 101 (of Li) By weight (g) 155 8.8 37. – (3. Optical Properties Emission color: Red Emission peaks: 1.775–2. 1 hour. Fire in open alumina crucibles. ~600ºC. 1. 1000ºC. Powderize.40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: ~1% Spectra 800 700 600 500 400 Wavelength (nm) 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Absorption (%) 100 Emission Absorption (%) 100 Emission . air.

3327 (1966). G. Dry in air.8 85 Preparation Mix by slurrying in methanol. 2. Fire in open alumina crucibles. 1 hour. the reaction between Li2CO3 and La2O3 apparently does not go to completion.025 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: + (4. ½ hour.40 eV) Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 100 Emission 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 . J. A. 1. and Bril.. Powderize. 2. This material is difficult to prepare. Store in a well-closed container.Remarks 1. air.88 eV). Powderize when dry. Phys. On Eu3+ fluorescence in mixed metal oxides. Powderize. Eu3+ fluorescence in rocksalt lattice. This phosphor is slightly hygroscopic. Fire in open alumina crucibles. – (3. Reference 1. Blasse.. Chem. air.. NaYO2:Eu3+ Structure: Monoclinic Composition Ingredient Y 2O 3 Eu2O3 NaHCO3 Mole % 95 (of Y) 5 (of Eu) 101 By weight (g) 108 8. 900ºC. ~600ºC. 5. Optical Properties Emission color: Red Emission peak: 2. 45.

40 eV) Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Remark The efficiency of this phosphor is not likely improvable because of: (a) much “dead” absorption of the Ti4+-ion in the UV. G. Fire in open quartz boats. the reaction between Na2O and Y2O3 apparently does not go to completion. Phys. On Eu3+ fluorescence in mixed metal oxides. 3327 (1966). air. Reference 1. A.88 eV). Dry in air.64 80 Preparation Mix by slurrying in methanol.05 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: + (4. 1300ºC. and Bril. Absorption (%) 100 Emission . 1. air. 2. Powderize when dry. This phosphor is slightly hygroscopic. J. 1 hour. Optical Properties Emission color: Red Emission peak: 2.Remarks 1.. Eu3+ fluorescence in rocksalt lattice. 1300ºC.025 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0. 1 hour. CaTiO3:Pr3+ Structure: Cubic (perovskite) Composition Ingredient CaCO3 Pr3O4 TiO2 Mole % 100 1 100 By weight (g) 100 1. Fire in open quartz boats. 45. Powderize by grinding or milling. + (3.. Chem. This material is difficult to prepare.. (b) most likely an appreciable amount of emission in the IR. 5. 2. Blasse.

and Verhagen.3 110 2 Preparation Mix by slurrying in water or methanol.88 eV). The fluorescence of binary and ternary germanates of group-II elements. 1150ºC. Electrochem. Attempts to improve this efficiency by addition of various other impurities failed. Absorption (%) 100 Emission . J. H..30 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4.40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: + Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Remark The excitation efficiency of QE ~50–60% under 4. 677 (1959). Soc.C.01 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0. Koelmans.88 eV was observed without addition of a sensitizer to the phosphor.. – (3. Reference 1. C. Powderize when dry. 106. CO. Fire in capped quartz tubes.CaGeO3:Mn2+ Structure: Orthorhombic (wollastonite) Composition Ingredient CaCO3 MnCO3 GeO2 NH4Br Mole % 98 2 105 2 By weight (g) 98 2.M. Optical Properties Emission color: Orange Emission peak: 2.. Dry in air. 2 hours.

F.15 Preparation Mix by slurrying in water or methanol. Zn2GeO4:Mn2+ Structure: Tetragonal (willemite) Composition Ingredient ZnO MgF2 MnCO3 GeO2 Mole % 90 5 5 55 By weight (g) 73. 2. Powderize when dry. O2. ~16 hours (overnight). Fire in open quartz boats. Fire in open quartz boats. Amsterdam (1948).885 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: – (4.40 eV) Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Reference 1.5 Absorption (%) 100 Emission . Elsevier.8 57. air.Mg2TiO4:Mn4+ Structure: Cubic (spinel) Composition Ingredient MgO TiO2 MnCO3 Mole % 300 99 1 By weight (g) 121 79 1.A. 1300ºC. 570ºC.1 5.88 eV). 1. Powderize by grinding or milling. 1 hour.. + (3.2 3. Kröger. Optical Properties Emission color: Deep red Emission peak: 1. Some Aspects of Luminescence of Solids. Dry in air.

20 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4. 2. Manganese-activated zinc beryllium germanate phosphors.31 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0.Preparation Mix by slurrying in water. 1. Luminescence and trapping in phosphors containing gallium. This material forms solid solutions with Zn2SiO4:Mn2+ in all proportions. Ginther. Green-emitting phosphors. Soc. 57 (1949). J. YVO4:Eu3+ Structure: Tetragonal (xenotime) Composition Ingredient Y 2O 3 Eu2O3 NH4VO3 Mole % 95 (of Y) 5 (of Eu) 110 By weight (g) 107 8. 1814 (1971)..T. J.J.J. 1000ºC. Phys. + (3..88 eV).W. and Larach. and Brown. The emission of this phosphor is thermally quenched a little above room temperature. 5 (1953). 21... Soc. Bube.. 117. Electrochem. Fire in capped quartz tubes.40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: + Comparable to that of Zn2SiO4:Mn2+ Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Remarks 1. Electrochem. 1100ºC.8 129 Absorption (%) 100 Emission . Powderize by grinding or milling. 2.. Powderize when dry. J. S. Palumbo. Schulman. Fire in open quartz boats. 2. 1. 96. Electronic states of Mn2+-activated phosphors. CO. Dry in air. E. R. D. 1 hour. J.. References 1. J. water steam. R. and Claffy. 3. 1 hour.H. Optical Properties Emission color: Green Emission peak: 2.H... Chem..

Phys.G. F.. 1200ºC. Powderize. 6. air. J. This phosphor has been used for color correction of Hg arc lamps. R. Phys. Fire in open quartz boats. 1 hour.K...Z. J. 3. J. Spectra of some rare earth vanadates. 3.C. Appl. 2. Dry. 5... Soc. for 3. Electrochem. L. Electrochem. Lett. 112. Role of F-orbital electron wave function mixing in concentration quenching of Eu3+. J. and efficiency of luminescence.Nd. Lett. 407 (1966). A. 4. Chem.88 eV). M. 3. Mikus.Eu) for color television electron beam excitation. 115. Electrochem. Soc. Levine. Fire in open quartz boats.. Ropp.. 1. Wash in a strong solution of NaOH (or KOH) in water and then several times in plain water. Powderize. efficiency of 3. Levine. 702 (1962). 2. 776 (1965).. and Mathers. 1 hour. 5. 1200ºC.F. Unusual crystal-field energy levels and efficient laser properties of YVO4 .R. Energy transfer and fluorescence processes in Bi3+ and Eu3+ activated YVO4.40 eV excitation improving considerably with increasing temperature Excitation efficiency by e-beam: +/7% Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Remarks 1.... Fire in open quartz boats. 114.K. Soc. et al.. 9. 1000ºC. and Rinkevics. Palilla.C. Phys. air. 1 hour.. 36. S. 2.40 eV).E. J. A.Preparation Mix by dry grinding or milling.00 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4. Absorption (%) 100 Emission . O’Connor.40 eV excitation can be somewhat improved by addition of Bi. Optical absorption.C. 118 (1964). + (3. and Palilla. F. Rare earth activated phosphors based on yttriuum orthovanadate and related compounds. Toma. 940 (1968).. Optical Properties Emission color: Red Emission peak: 2.. J. Part of the V can be replaced by P. References 1. F. van Uitert. Appl. air.. 953 (1967). New highly efficient red-emitting cathodoluminescent phosphor (YVO4 .

Technol. 1. 1 hour. LaVO4:Eu3+ Structure: Monoclinic Composition Ingredient La2O3 Eu2O3 NH4VO3 Mole % 95 (of La) 5 (of Eu) 110 By weight (g) 155 8.. 8. G. J. Fire in open quartz boats. 1100ºC... 10. 1100ºC. 1. air. 70. The absorption and emission spectra of some important activators. 1057 (1967)... Appl. Dry. 112.C. and Palilla. Soc. Electrochem. Optics. 5. Electrochem. E.. YVO4-Eu a new highly efficient phosphor for color television. 9..H. F. A.. A. Philips Tech. 11.115 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4. Levine.C. Characteristic luminescence. R.88 eV). Fire in open quartz boats. 2. J.Palilla.K.. air. Wash in a strong solution of NaOH (or KOH) in water and then several times in plain water. Soc. 114. + (3. 304 (1970).. Optical Properties Emission color: Red Emission peaks: 1. On luminescent properties of rare earth vanadates. Electrochem.a highly efficient red-emitting phosphor for high pressure mercury lamps.K. and Levine. Rev. and Bril. 4. F. Brixner.. 3.773–2. Blasse. Powderize. Datta... and Abramson. (1965). Bismuth in yttrium vanadate and yttrium europium vanadate phosphors. 900ºC. Fire in open quartz boats.40 eV) Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Absorption (%) 100 Emission . 1 hour. air. L. 1 hour. 16 (1966). 7. 1467 (1966).K.8 129 Preparation Mix by dry grinding or milling. A. YVO4-Eu. 31. Powderize.

Gently heat up while stirring until reaction (boiling) indicates formations of H3AsO4. 270 (1966).76–2. Aia.09 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: – (4. air. Dry in air. .88 eV). Luminescent properties of Eu-activated phosphors of type A3BVO4. W. 367 (1967). 21.A. Electrochem. Powderize. Soc. 2. Structure and luminescence of phosphate-vanadates of yttrium gadolinium lutetium and lanthanum.. air. Philips Res.40 eV UV upon replacement of some As by V. 1 hour. ~500ºC. M. et al. Fire in open quartz boats. 1200ºC.L.8 75 Preparation Mix by slurrying in 30% H2O2.References 1. YAsO4:Eu3+ Structure: Tetragonal (xenotime) Composition Ingredient Y 2O 3 Eu2O3 As2O3 Mole % 95 (of Y) 5 (of Eu) 100 (of As) By weight (g) 107 8. J. Powderize when dry..40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: + Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 100 Emission 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Remarks 1. – (3.. 114. 1. 2.. Rep. Optical Properties Emission color: Red Emission peaks: 1.88 and by 3. This phosphor becomes excitable by 4. The material forms solid solutions with YVO4:Eu3+ in all proportions. Fire in open quartz boats. 2. Wanmaker.

149 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: + (4.L. Rep. et al. 1000ºC. Wanmaker. Fire in open quartz boats. Absorption (%) 100 Emission . – (3. LaAsO4:Eu3+ Composition Ingredient La2O3 Eu2O3 As2O3 Mole % 95 (of La) 5 (of Eu) 100 (of As) By weight (g) 155 8. air. 21. Gently heat up while stirring until reaction (boiling) indicates formations of H3AsO4.. 2.785–2. Fire in open quartz boats. air. 1 hour. Powderize.40 eV) Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Remarks 1. 270 (1966). Dry in air.40 eV UV upon replacement of a few percent of the As by V.. ~500ºC.. Powderize when dry. 2. Luminescent properties of Eu-activated phosphors of type A3BVO4. The material forms solid solutions with LaVO4 in all proportions. 1. Philips Res.8 75 Preparation Mix by slurrying in 30% H2O2.Reference 1. Optical Properties Emission color: Red Emission peaks: 1. W.88 eV). This material becomes excitable by 3.

Electrochem. Fire in capped quartz tubes. 16 hours (overnight)... Fire in capped quartz tubes. J. 2. 1331 (1966). 113. Blue luminescence in calcium chlorovanadates.Ca5(VO4)3Cl Structure: Apatite Composition Ingredient CaO NH4VO3 NH4Cl Mole % 500 200 200 By weight (g) 280 234 107 Preparation Mix by dry grinding or milling (some NH3 develops). 1000ºC. This phosphor requires a deficiency of V and an excess of Cl in the preparation. ~500ºC. Absorption (%) 100 Emission . Other impurities were tested as prospective activators but are either dead (Mn.88 eV). 1 hour.40 eV) Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Remarks 1. M. Tb. 1. P.85 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0.73 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: + (4. Ho) or very poorly luminescent (Eu3+). air. Reference 1. Soc. 2. Optical Properties Emission color: Bluish Emission peak: 2. The luminescence of this phosphor is due to the vanadate. and Lublin.A. Powderize. – (3. air.. Aia.

783 (1960). 40. 2. ~16 hours (overnight). 1200ºC. Thorington..88 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4.. some parts (mainly Ge fluoride) sublimes out during firing. Optical Properties Emission color: Deep red Emission peak: 1. 1200ºC. References 1. The exact formula of this material is still uncertain.. Temperature dependence of the emission of an improved manganeseactivated magnesium germanate phosphor.2 201 Preparation Mix by dry ball-milling. J.H. Opt. L.. 2. Kemeny. air. J. 33. Fire in capped quartz tubes. 2. Powderize by dry ball-milling. This phosphor has been used for color correction of Hg arc lamps. air. Am.Mg8Ge2O11F2:Mn4+ Composition Ingredient MgO MgF2 MgCO3 GeO2 Mole % 700 100 8 192 By weight (g) 282 62 9. The above formula is only that of the raw mix. Chem. Soc. + (3.40 eV) Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Remarks 1. 1. G.88 eV). C. 579 (1950). Phys.. Activator center in magnesium fluorogermanate phosphors. Fire in open quartz boats. 2 hours. Absorption (%) 100 Emission . and Haake.

88 eV).40 eV) Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Absorption (%) 100 Emission Absorption (%) 100 Emission .40 eV) Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Mg3SiO3F4:Ti4+ Optical Properties Emission color: whitish-yellow Emission peak: 2.CaY2ZrO6:Eu3+ Structure: Perovskite Optical Properties Emission color: Red Emission peak: 2.01 eV Excitation efficiency by UV:++ (4. – (3. – (3.88 eV).15 eV Excitation efficiency by UV:++ (4.

N2. Powderize. stir to uniformity. Dry.Th4+ KMgF3:Eu2+ KMgF3:Mn2+ LiAlF4:Mn2+ K2SiF6:Mn4+ YOBr:Eu3+ YOCl:Ce3+ YOCl:Eu3+ YOF:Eu3+ YOF:Tb3+ LaOF:Eu3+ LaOCl:Bi3+ LaOCl:Eu3+ MgF2:Mn2+ Structure: Tetragonal (sellaite) Composition Ingredient MgF2 MnCO3 Mole % 99 1 By weight (g) 62 1.Mn2+ CaF2:Ce3+. Add ~2 g of NH4F (dissolved in a little water) and ~2–3 ccm of HF acid. . 1 hour.Br.4.Tb3+ CaF2:U CaCl2:Eu2+ in SiO2 CaCl2:Eu2+.Mn2+ in SiO2 CaBr2:Eu2+ in SiO2 CaI2:Eu2+ in SiO2 CaI2:Eu2+.Mn2+ in SiO2 SrF2:Eu2+ SrCl2:Eu2+ in SiO2 Sr(Cl. Fire in capped quartz tubes.11 Halides and Oxyhalides The following host compounds and activators are included in this subsection: MgF2:Mn2+ CaF2:Ce3+ CaF2:Eu2+ CaF2:Mn2+ CaF2:Ce3+.I)2:Eu2+ in SiO2 ZnF2:Mn2+ BaxSr1–xF2:Eu2+ YF3:Mn2+ YF3:Mn2+.15 Preparation Mix by slurrying in methanol. 900ºC.

289 (1947).. Electrochem.. and Eyring. and Scharmann. 2. air. Phys.10 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0.85 4. H.. 869 (1961). F. mix by dry grinding. Dry. 1000ºC. H. 16. Rep.. J. (3. 4. J.25 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: (4. P. F. A.L. Excitation efficiency by e-beam: +/~25% Decay: Exponential. A. New manganese-activated fluoride phosphors. 441 (1953).2 Preparation Start with plain CaF2 and pre-fire it in open quartz boats. Powderize.40 eV). Smith. N2. Zalm.. Fire in capped quartz tubes. 8. 189 (1954). Williams. 101. Bräunlich. 3..O. 1 hour.A.. Add ~1–2 ccm HF acid. Zur thermolumineszenz von MgF2-Mn. and Huysman. Naturforsch. powderize.E.. W. P. Klasens. Chem. Make a slurry of the CaF2 + CeF3 + AlF3 in methanol.. The manganese emission in AbF3 compounds. Z. stir to uniformity.. 15.88 eV). Hanle. The mechanism of the luminescence of solids. Soc. . References 1.. Pt. 1000ºC. A. about 200 msec to 1/10 Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 100 Emission 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Remark No sensitizer is known to permit excitation by these UV wavelengths. 1 hour. Add ~2–3 g of iodine.. CaF2:Ce3+ Structure: Cubic (fluorite) Composition Ingredient CaF2 CeF3 AlF3 Mole % 90 5 5 By weight (g) 70 9. Philips Res.Optical Properties Emission color: Orange-yellow Emission peak: 2.

4. 154. N2. 3.68 eV.350 Preparation Mix by slurrying in methanol (in a plastic container). CaF2:Eu2+ Structure: Cubic (fluorite) Composition Ingredient CaF2 Eu2O3 Mole % 100 0. 5. Fire in capped quartz tubes. J. Kröger. Energy transfer and sensitization in single crystal phosphors... R. Loh. Soc.. Rev.... Investigations of 4f–5d transitions of Ce+3 in CaF2. Leach. Dry. Rev. 74 (1951). Powderize.40 eV) 400 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 References 1. 361 (1968). mix by dry grinding.. 628 (1941). stir to uniformity. Absorption (%) 100 Emission . E. and Whippey. Electrochem.2 (of Eu) By weight (g) 70 0. 800ºC. Phys. Electrochem. Luminescence of K4MnCl6 and KCl (Pb + Mn). 27 (1958). 3. 105. R. 1 hour. J. 8. Physica. M. Excitation efficiency by e-beam: + Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) (3. Ginther. Phys..A.. 2. 171. Add ~2–3 g of iodine.J. Schlesinger.. P.W. Ultraviolet absorption spectra of Ce3+ in alkaline-earth fluorides. and Bakker. Add ~2 ccm HF acid. powderize.88 eV). 270 (1967). J.Optical Properties Emission color: UV Emission peak: 3.88 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4. Soc. 98. F..

Dry. Soc. Fire in capped quartz tubes. J. References 1. Absorption (%) 100 Emission . stir to uniformity. R. mix by dry grinding. Soc. 800ºC. 116. Spectroscopic identification of europium-oxygen complexes in calcium fluoride..93 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0.. J. Add ~2 ccm HF acid... 68 (1969). Electrochem. ++ (3.Optical Properties Emission color: Violet Emission peak: 2.L. 1 hour. Amster. R. powderize. N2. 2.22 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4.88 eV). C. Powderize. 791 (1970). Electrochem.15 Preparation Mix by slurrying in methanol (in a plastic container). Add ~2–3 g of iodine.88 eV by addition of Ce (see CaF2:Ce3+). 117. Amster. CaF2:Mn2+ Structure: Cubic (fluorite) Composition Ingredient CaF2 MnCO3 Mole % 99 1 By weight (g) 77 1.40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: + Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Remark This material can be sensitized for better UV excitation with 4.S. Photosensitization of terbium fluorescence by europium in CaF2.L. and Wiggins..

. 2. 45 msec to 1/10 Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 100 Emission 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Remarks 1. Klasens.88 eV with addition of Ce (see CaF2:Ce3+). W.Optical Properties Emission color: Blue-green Emission peak: 2.. R. J. 4. R. 3.29 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: (4.. M. 441 (1953).. A.. Schmid.F. Soc.88 eV). Decay of cathodoluminescence and nonradiative processes in manganese activated phosphors. (3. Mn concentrations below 1% give somewhat longer decay times.. H..W. Philips Res. 365 (1967). The thermoluminescence of CaF2-Mn. 189 (1954). Rep. The emission shifts to lower energy (= longer wavelength) with increasing Mn concentration.J. J. The manganese emission in AbF3 compounds. R. and Mooney. 104. Electrochem. P. and Kirk. This material can be sensitized for better UV excitation by 3.L. The material can be sensitized for better UV excitation by 4. F.5% Decay: Near-exponential decay.40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: +/1. Soc. Ginther. 340 (1963). 110. J.O.40 eV with addition of Eu (see CaF2:Eu2+). 2.. Soc.J. . 101. Electrochem. Smith. Zalm... 4. New manganese-activated fluoride phosphors. Electrochem.D. and Huysman. J. References 1. 3. Soc. Electrochem.A..F. Garlick. up to ~60 msec to 1/10.. 8. and Sayer.. G. 678 (1962)..50 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0. 109. 5.

1 hour.40 eV) 400 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 References 1. mix by dry grinding.J.. Fire in capped quartz tubes. 1 hour.50 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0. stir to uniformity. N2. Luminescence of K4MnCl6 and KCl (Pb + Mn). Powderize. 98. Make a slurry of all the above ingredients in methanol. 1000ºC.88 eV). powderize. Add ~2–3 g of iodine. Dry. R. 2.A.Tb3+ Structure: Cubic (fluorite) Composition Ingredient CaF2 CeF3 TbF3 AlF3 Mole % 80 5 10 5 By weight (g) 62 9. Kröger.. and Bakker. 628 (1941). Absorption (%) 100 Emission . Electrochem. 1000ºC.2 Preparation Start with plain CaF2 and pre-fire it in open quartz boats. Add ~2 ccm HF acid. CaF2:Ce3+.6 4. air.CaF2:Ce3+. F.85 21.35 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4. 74 (1951). Excitation efficiency by e-beam: + Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) (3. 8. J. Physica.. J. Soc..Mn2+ Structure: Cubic (fluorite) Optical Properties Emission color: Blue-green Emission peak: 2. Ginther.

1 1 By weight (g) 78 0.6H2O LiF Mole % 100 0. Fire in open alumina crucibles.88 eV).88 eV).40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: Very poor Absorption (%) 100 Emission . Dry. Make a slurry of in methanol.500 0.260 Preparation Dissolve the uranyl nitrate in a little methanol. R. 1000ºC.11 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: + (4. CaF2:U Structure: Cubic (fluorite) Composition Ingredient CaF2 UO2(NH3)2. Photosensitization of terbium fluorescence by europium in CaF2.. Optical Properties Emission color: Green Emission peak: 2. powderize. Soc. air. add solution to the CaF2 + LiF mix.Optical Properties Emission color: Pale green Emission peaks: 2. J.L.26–2. 117. + (3.28 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4.345 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0. Reference 1. Powderize. 1 hour. Amster. 791 (1970). stir to uniformity.40 eV) 400 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Remark UV excitation is almost exclusively determined by the Ce3+ absorption (see CaF2:Ce3+). Excitation efficiency by e-beam: + Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) (3. Electrochem.

6 1 (of Eu) 17. Gorlich. Gorlich. Phys... 1.. 551 (1961). 151 (1967). Fire in capped quartz tubes. 1000ºC. 1. Karras. H. 1 hour. Luminescence of hexavalent uranium in CaF2 and SrF2 powders. Uber die optischen eigenschaften der erdalkalihalogenide vom flussspat-typ(I). Nicholas.. Dry. Status Solidi. 2. Powderize.V.76 9. and Lehmann. Phys. 1. J.Spectra 800 700 600 500 400 Wavelength (nm) 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 References 1.97 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0. Optical Properties Emission color: Blue-violet Emission peak: 2. 155. 1000ºC. 387 (1961).195 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4.3 1.. Karras. Uber die optischen eigenschaften der erdalkalihalogenide vom flussspat-typ(II). and Lehmann. R. CaCl2:Eu2+ in SiO2 Structure: Orthorhombic Composition Ingredient CaO Eu2O3 NH4Cl SiO2 Mole % 7. 1 hour. Fire in capped quartz tubes.88 eV).. mix by dry grinding.. H.. 2..5 100 By weight (g) 4. Dry in air. R. Status Solidi. Rev.40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: Absorption (%) 100 Emission . Powderize when dry.4 60 Preparation Mix by slurrying in methanol. Wash in water several times. Powderize. Phys. Add the above amount of NH4Cl once again. N2. plus a little water.. ++ (3. CO. P. P. 3.

N2.5 20 1 (of Eu) 1 100 By weight (g) 4.30 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4. Powderize. W.2 10. Electrochem.09 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0. 1000ºC. mix by dry grinding. Fire in capped quartz tubes.88 eV). Lehmann. Dry in air. CaCl2:Eu2+.40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: Absorption (%) 100 Emission .Spectra 800 700 600 500 400 Wavelength (nm) 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Reference 1. Fire in capped quartz tubes. 2. 1 hour..Mn2+ in SiO2 Structure: Orthorhombic Composition Ingredient CaO NH4Cl Eu2O3 MnCO3 SiO2 Mole % 7. Soc. 900ºC.76 1. Heterogeneous halide-silica phosphors. plus a little water. 748 (1975). Add the above amount of NH4Cl once again. Powderize when dry. Powderize.. 1 hour. ++ (3. J. 122.7 1. Dry. 1. Optical Properties Emission color: Yellow Emission peak: 2. Wash in water several times. CO.15 60 Preparation Mix by slurrying in methanol.

748 (1975).40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: Absorption (%) 100 Emission . Powderize. mix by dry grinding. The Cl in this recipe can be replaced by Br. 122. Reference 1. 1000ºC. Heterogeneous halide-silica phosphors. Add the above amount of NH4Br once again. 1 hour. 2. Powderize when dry. Powderize. Mn2+ and CaBr2:Eu2+. Electrochem. Fire in capped quartz tubes.2 (of Eu) 17.Spectra 800 700 600 500 400 Wavelength (nm) 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Remarks 1. W.88 eV). The emissions of CaCl2:Eu2+.3 2.. Dry in air. 1 hour. Mn2+ are identical. ++ (3.865 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0. J.5 100 By weight (g) 4.1 17. Optical Properties Emission color: Blue Emission peak: ~2. 1. Wash in water several times. Dry. plus a little water. 900ºC. Lehmann. Soc. N2..2 60 Preparation Mix by slurrying in methanol.6 1. Fire in capped quartz tubes. 2.18 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4. CO. CaBr2:Eu2+ in SiO2 Structure: Orthorhombic Composition Ingredient CaO Eu2O3 NH4Br SiO2 Mole % 7.

Dry. Electrochem. Powderize when dry. Powderize..34 3. 748 (1975).88 eV). mix by dry grinding.4 2. Dry in air. ++ (3.67 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0.40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: Absorption (%) 100 Emission . Heterogeneous halide-silica phosphors. 1 hour. plus a little water. CO. W. Add the above amount of NH4I once again. Powderize. CaI2:Eu2+ in SiO2 Composition Ingredient CaO CaF2 Eu2O3 NH4I SiO2 Mole % 6 3 2 (of Eu) 20 100 By weight (g) 3. J. 1. Fire in capped quartz tubes. Optical Properties Emission color: Light blue Emission peak: 2. 1 hour.5 29 60 Preparation Mix by slurrying in methanol. 2. Soc.21 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4. N2.Spectra 800 700 600 500 400 Wavelength (nm) 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Reference 1. Lehmann. 1000ºC. 122. 900ºC. Wash in water several times. Fire in capped quartz tubes..

1 hour. Powderize. Lehmann. Powderize when dry. Wash in water several times. 900ºC.95 eV. 1000ºC. Soc. CO. Dry. 2. Heterogeneous halide-silica phosphors.14 0. Reference 1.115 21 60 Preparation Mix by slurrying in methanol. slightly pinkish hue Emission peak: 1.. Electrochem. additionally a weak Eu2+-emission band at 2.70 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0.78 1. 1.65 (of Eu) 0.. N2. Add the above amount of NH4I once again.Mn2+ in SiO2 Composition Ingredient CaO CaF2 Eu2O3 MnCO3 NH4I SiO2 Mole % 7 1 0.Mn2+). W. ++ (3.29 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4.40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: – Absorption (%) 100 Emission . Powderize. plus a little water.Spectra 800 700 600 500 400 Wavelength (nm) 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Remark This phosphor is sensitive to even very small traces of Mn which causes a red emission band (see CaI2:Eu2+. J. 748 (1975). Fire in capped quartz tubes. Dry in air. Optical Properties Emission color: Light red.1 15 100 By weight (g) 3. 122. CaI2:Eu2+. mix by dry grinding.9 0. 1 hour.88 eV). Fire in capped quartz tubes.

Heterogeneous halide-silica phosphors. Chenot. 122.40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: Absorption (%) 100 Emission . ++ (3. 748 (1975).. Electrochem. SrF2:Eu2+ Structure: Cubic (fluorite) Optical Properties Emission color: Violet Emission peak: 2.06 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0.. Pat.88 eV). 896 453 (1972). Can.. SrCl2:Eu2+ in SiO2 Optical Properties Emission color: Violet Emission peak: 3. Lehmann. J.12 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4..40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: + Reference 1.Spectra 800 700 600 500 400 Wavelength (nm) 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Reference 1.88 eV). Soc..30 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4. C.F.95 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0. ++ (3. W.

122. plus a little water. Sr(Cl. and for SrI2 is 0. Dry in air.. for SrCl2 is at ~3. 1000ºC. Optical Properties Emission color: Violet Emission peaks: Peak position depending on the used halide.. Powderize. Fire in capped quartz tubes.Spectra 800 700 600 500 400 Wavelength (nm) 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Reference 1. 900ºC.40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: Absorption (%) 100 Emission . Wash in water several times. Dry. Powderize. Lehmann. 1 hour. 2.6 9.I)2:Eu2+ in SiO2 Structure: Cubic Composition Ingredient SrO Eu2O3 NH4Cl SiO2 Mole % 8 1. Powderize when dry. W.12 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4. for SrCl2 is 0.3 2.175 eV.5 100 By weight (g) 8. and SrI2 at ~2. 748 (1975).Br.06 eV. J.88 eV). 1.4 60 Preparation Mix by slurrying in methanol.015 eV. N2. Electrochem.16 eV. Emission width (FWHM): Width also depending on used halide. Fire in capped quartz tubes. for SrBr2 is 0. CO. ++ (3. 1 hour. mix by dry grinding. Soc. Heterogeneous halide-silica phosphors.865 eV.5 (of Eu) 17. for SrBr2 at ~3. Add the above amount of NH4I once again.

A. Reference 1.. H. 8. John Wiley & Sons. P. .. Lehmann. 748 (1975). Soc. F. 2. Rep. and Huysman. Electrochem.. The manganese emission in ABF3 compounds.. ZnF2:Mn2+ Structure: Tetragonal Optical Properties Emission color: Orange-yellow Emission peak: 2. An Introduction to Luminescence of Solids. H.. W.40 eV) 400 Wavelength (nm) 300 100 Emission 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 References 1.12 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0. Leverenz.24 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: (4. Klasens.W. Zalm.O. J. 441 (1953).88 eV). Philips Res. New York (1949).. Excitation efficiency by e-beam: + Spectra 800 700 600 500 (3..Spectra 800 700 600 500 400 Wavelength (nm) 300 Emission SrI2 SrBr2 SrCl2 100 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Remark The Cl in this recipe can be replaced by Br or I. Heterogeneous halide-silica phosphors. 122.

Smith. A. 189 (1954). J. Opt. C. Phys. Studer... Opt.04 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4. Rev. Optical properties of zinc fluoride phosphors. and Williams. 101. J. P... Thermoluminescence of manganese-activated zinc fluoride phosphors.6F2:Eu Ba0. F. Energy levels and rate processes in the thallium activated potassium chloride phosphor. and Studer F... New manganese-activated fluoride phosphors.2F2:Eu 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) Wavelength (nm) 5 0 800 700 600 500 2+ 400 300 Excitation BaF2:Eu 50 2 3 References 1..1Sr0. 2. Can. J. 6. ++ (3. Soc.88 eV). 38. J. J.E. Fonda.. Soc. Pat. G. W.2Sr0.F. 39. Johnson. D. 11031–11038 (1993).. 4. 38. 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Absorption (%) 100 .S.. 47 no.. 709 (1949). F. Johnson. Opt.L. 5. Chenot.40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: + Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 SrF2:Eu 2+ Ba0. 1007 (1948). B. Soc. Am.4Sr0. Am. and Williams... Mou.F. BaxSr1–xF2:Eu2+ Structure: Cubic (fluorite) Optical Properties Emission color: varies with composition from yellow to blue Emission peak: varies with composition from 2. Am.R. 7.7F2:Eu 2+ 2+ 2+ 100 Emission 50 Ba0. 20. J. F.3Sr0. The phosphorescence decay of halophosphates and other doubly activated phosphors..D. and McClure.S.J.3.E.9F2:Eu 2+ Ba0. J.. Phys.8F2:Eu 2+ Ba0.04 to 3.. and Rosenbaum.8Sr0.J. Electrochem.. Chem. 124 (1952). Soc. 1007 (1948). Photoionization and trapping of electrons in the system BaF2:Eu:Sm.17. 896 453 (1972)..

(USSR) 13.P. 235 (1962) [Opt. Spectrosc.. 40. Study on characteristics of wideband luminescence of Eu and Yb ions in crystals with fluorite structure. (USSR) 40.38 and 2. A. 99 (1976) [Opt. 55 (1976)].88 eV). Excitation efficiency by e-beam: + (3. 129 (1962)].A. Kaplyansky.88 eV).40 eV) 400 Wavelength (nm) 300 100 Emission 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 YF3:Mn2+. P.. Opt.G. E. Nature of luminescence of bivalent Eu and Yb ions in fluorite-type crystals. Spectrosc.60 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0. 2. 4. Spectra of divalent rare earth ions in crystals of alkali-earth fluorides. 290 (1978)]. Spektr.Th4+ Structure: Orthorhombic Optical Properties Emission color: Light blue Emission peak: 2. YF3:Mn2+ Structure: Orthorhombic Optical Properties Emission color: Greenish Emission peaks: 2. Opt.40 eV) .. Excitation efficiency by e-beam: + Spectra 800 700 600 500 (3.29 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: (4.G. 518 (1978) [Opt. 13. 45. Reut. E. and Feofilov. Spectrosc.60 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: (4.3. (USSR) 45.. Spektr. 5. Europium and Ytterbium. Spektr.. Reut... Opt.

. 3.. Moon. KMgF3:Mn2+ Structure: Cubic (perovskite) Optical Properties Emission color: Orange Emission peak: 2. 293 (1994). J. Two-photon excitation spectroscopy of 4f7 4f7 transitions of Eu2+ ions doped in a KMgF3 crystal. Sommerdijk. Lumin.18 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: – (4. no. J. G. Meijerink. – (3.. J.. Seo. 6I emission and vibronic transitions of Eu2+ in KMgF3 . 59.40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: + .42 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: + (4. A. A..Spectra 800 700 600 500 400 Wavelength (nm) 300 100 Emission 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 KMgF3:Eu2+ Structure: Cubic (perovskite) Optical Properties Emission color: UV Emission peak: 3. Lumin. 12688–12695 (2000).. and Tsuboi.88 eV). Excitation efficiency by e-beam: (3. 11. A. B..L. and Blasse. T. 363 (1976)..K.08 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0.. Divalent europium luminescence in perovskite-like alkaline-earth alkaline fluorides. B. and Bril. Phys.J. H.40 eV) References 1.. 62.88 eV). Ellens. Rev. 2. 19.

Soc. – (3. 109.26 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: – (4.. R. Cathodoluminescent J. Electrochem. 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 characteristics of Mn-activated KMgF3 .88 eV).97 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4.99 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0.40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: + Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 100 Emission 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 K2SiF6:Mn4+ Structure: Cubic Optical Properties Emission color: Red Emission peak: 1..40 eV) . Kurtz. 18 (1962).Spectra 800 700 600 500 400 Wavelength (nm) 300 100 Emission 50 2 3 Reference 1.88 eV).J. ++ (3. LiAlF4:Mn2+ Optical Properties Emission color: Red Emission peak: 1.

150 eV.. Optical Properties Emission color: Red Emission peaks: 1. 1100ºC.40 eV) . J. Wash in water several times. A. 120.996 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: – (4. Boil down to dry (slowly. Paulusz. main line at 1. N2. 1. to let the conversion of Y2O3 to YOBr take place). N2.8 108 Preparation Make a suspension of all ingredients in water. Fire in capped quartz tubes.4 8. Soc. 1 hour.88 eV). ~500ºC. Powderize. YOBr:Eu3+ Structure: Rhombohedral Composition Ingredient Y 2O 3 Eu2O3 NH4Br Mole % 95 (of Y) 5 (of Eu) 110 By weight (g) 107.G. Efficient Mn(IV) emission in fluorine coordination. Powderize. Powderize. Dry. Electrochem. Fire in capped quartz tubes. 2.967–2.Spectra 800 700 600 500 400 Wavelength (nm) 300 100 Emission 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Reference 1. – (3. 942 (1973). ½ hour..

This phosphor is difficult to prepare. G. Photoluminescent efficiency of phosphors with electronic transitions in localized centers. and Bril. 346 (1970). It tends either to be partly reduced (forming Eu2+. Soc.88 eV)... – (3. 115.. This phosphor is hygroscopic. G. Absorption (%) 100 Emission . G. 117.47 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4. 2... A. and Bril. and Bril. Philips Tech. 1067 (1968). Blasse. J. Rev. 304 (1970).Spectra 800 700 600 500 400 Wavelength (nm) 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Remarks 1.A. J. J. 31.. Characteristic luminescence. Blasse. YOCl:Ce3+ Structure: Rhombohedral (matlockite) Optical Properties Emission color: Violet UV Emission peak: 3. blue emission) or to be partly oxidized (liberating brown bromine).D. The absorption and emission spectra of some important activators. A. Fast-decay phosphors. Blasse. 1. and Poorter. Electrochem.24 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0. Electrochem. A.40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: + Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 100 Emission 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 References 1. 3... Soc... Keep dry. 2.

97–2. Blasse. Reference 1.40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Remark This phosphor is hygroscopic. 1 hour. 440 (1966). G. 2. ~500ºC.00 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4. – (3.. Wash in water several times. Boil down to dry (slowly. Powderize. N2. Powderize.8 59 Preparation Make a suspension of all ingredients in water. 1. Powderize. A. ½ hour. main peak at 2. Optical Properties Emission color: Red Emission peaks: 1.14 eV. Phys. Fire in capped quartz tubes. Dry. Fire in capped quartz tubes.88 eV). N2. and Bril. Broad band UV excitation of Sm3+-activated phosphors.YOCl:Eu3+ Structure: Rhombohedral (matlockite) Composition Ingredient Y 2O 3 Eu2O3 NH4Cl Mole % 95 (of Y) 5 (of Eu) 110 By weight (g) 107.. 1100ºC.. Absorption (%) 100 Emission . Lett.4 8. 23. to let the conversion of Y2O3 to YOCl take place). Keep dry.

Dry in air. N2.6 Preparation Mix by slurrying in water or methanol..977.5 49. Powderize.038.88 eV). – (3. N2. A. G. Blasse. 440 (1966). Optical Properties Emission color: Light red Emission peaks: 1. 23.. Fire in capped quartz tubes.4 49. 1.105 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: + (4. YOF:Tb3+ Composition Ingredient Y 2O 3 Tb4O7 YF3 Mole % 61 (of Y) 5 (of Tb) 34 By weight (g) 69 9. 1 hour. 2. Broad band UV excitation of Sm3+-activated phosphors. Powderize when dry. and Bril. Lett.YOF:Eu3+ Composition Ingredient Y 2O 3 Eu2O3 YF3 Mole % 64 (of Y) 2 (of Eu) 34 By weight (g) 72. 1000ºC. 1 hour. Fire in capped quartz tubes. 1200ºC. and 2.40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Reference 1.. 2.3 3.6 Absorption (%) 100 Emission . Phys.

1 hour. Powderize. Fire in capped quartz tubes. Dry in air. main line at 1. Dry in air. N2. 1.8 66. Powderize.145 eV. 2.88 eV). N2. 1000ºC. Fire in capped quartz tubes. Optical Properties Emission color: Red Emission peak: 1.4 8. – (3. 1200ºC. 2. 1200ºC. Fire in capped quartz tubes. LaOF:Eu3+ Composition Ingredient La2O3 Eu2O3 LaF3 Mole % 61 (of La) 5 (of Eu) 34 By weight (g) 99.88 eV). 1000ºC. Optical Properties Emission color: Pale green Emission peaks: 1. – (3.993 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: – (4. Fire in capped quartz tubes.981 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: + (4.982–2.981–2. 1 hour. 1 hour. N2.6 Preparation Mix by slurrying in water or methanol.40 eV) .40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: +/4–5% Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 100 Emission 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Remark UV excitation is very poor (too little absorption) and can probably be improved by addition of Ce3+.Preparation Mix by slurrying in water or methanol. N2. Powderize when dry. 1 hour. 1. Powderize when dry.

Photoluminescence processes in LaOCl-Bi and YOCl-Bi. Conf.. B. 217 (1968).. Chem.. – (3. 48. Proc. 217 (1968).40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: + Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 50 2 3 References 1. 48.. Phys. Jaquier. 95 (1975). G.58 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: + (4.Spectra 800 700 600 500 400 Wavelength (nm) 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 LaOCl:Bi3+ Structure: Rhombohedral (matlockite) Optical Properties Emission color: UV Emission peak: 3. A.. J.. Boulon. J.88 eV). 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Absorption (%) 100 Emission Absorption (%) 100 Emission . Lumin. 2. 10. Int. G. Blasse. Phys. 3. Investigations on BI3+-activated phosphors.56 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0. et al.. and Bril.

Absorption (%) 100 Emission . – (3. Characteristic luminescence.88 eV). A. 304 (1970).02 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: + (4. Blasse... and Bril.LaOCl:Eu3+ Structure: Rhombohedral (matlockite) Optical Properties Emission color: Light red Emission peak: 2. Rev.40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: – Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Reference 1. G. 31. The absorption and emission spectra of some important activators. Philips Tech. 1..

31 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0.88 eV).Mn2+ Mg2Sr(SO4)3:Eu2+ MgSO4:Eu2+ Structure: Orthorhombic Composition Ingredient MgSO4 Eu2O3 (NH4)2SO4 NH4Cl Mole % 97 3 ~10 1 By weight (g) 117 5.3 13. Store in well-closed containers. Powderize.4.540 Preparation Mix by dry grinding or milling. Optical Properties Emission color: UV Emission peak: 3.40 eV) .Mn2+ CaSO4:Pb2+ CaSO4:Bi CaSO4:Ce3+ CaSO4:Ce3+. Fire in capped quartz tubes.Mn2+ CaSO4:Eu2+ SrSO4:Bi SrSO4:Ce3+ SrSO4:Eu2+. + (3. 1000ºC. 1 hour.12 Sulfates The following host compounds and activators are included in this subsection: MgSO4:Eu2+ MgSO4:Pb2+ CaSO4:Eu2+.2 0.24 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: + (4.Mn2+ SrSO4:Eu2+ BaSO4:Ce3+ BaSO4:Eu2+ MgBa(SO4)2:Eu2+ Mg2Ca(SO4)3:Eu2+ Mg2Ca(SO4)3:Eu2+. N2.

40 eV) Absorption (%) 100 Emission . – (3. Keep dry. 1 hour.2 0. N2.Spectra 800 700 600 500 400 Wavelength (nm) 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Remark MgSO4 (epsom salt) is water soluble.65 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0. Powderize. 1000ºC.7 13. Optical Properties Emission color: UV Emission peak: 4. MgSO4:Pb2+ Structure: Orthorhombic Composition Ingredient MgSO4 PbO (NH4)2SO4 NH4Cl Mole % 97 3 ~10 1 By weight (g) 117 56.46 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: – (4. Fire in capped quartz tubes.540 Preparation Mix by dry grinding or milling. Store in well-closed containers.88 eV).

Powderize.20 eV (Eu2+) Emission width (FWHM): 0. Add ~5 g of NH4Br and ~10 g of (NH4)2SO4. This material is excited only by UV of ~240 nm or shorter and apparently is fairly efficient. Optical Properties Emission color: Bluish-green Emission peak: 2. MgSO4 (epsom salt) is water soluble. 1. 900ºC. 2.88 eV). ½ hour.Mn2+ Structure: Orthorhombic (anhydrite) Composition Ingredient CaSO4 Eu2O3 MnCO3 (NH4)2SO4 Mole % 90 5 (of Eu) 5 ~10 By weight (g) 123 8.30 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4.40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: +/1% Absorption (%) 100 Emission . N2.2 Preparation Mix by dry grinding or milling.8 5. Wash in water several times.Spectra 800 700 600 500 400 Wavelength (nm) 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Remarks 1. N2. 1 hour.42 eV (Mn2+). Dry. CaSO4:Eu2+. 2. ++ (3. Fire in capped quartz tubes. 800ºC. Fire in capped quartz tubes. mix by dry grinding. Powderize.75 13. Keep dry. 3.

23 6. Wash in water several times. Add another 6. Fire in capped quartz tubes. Add 5 g of NH4Cl. Fire in capped quartz tubes.780 2. Mix by dry grinding. CaSO4:Pb2+ Structure: Orthorhombic (anhydrite) Composition Ingredient CaSO4 CaF2 PbO (NH4)2SO4 Mole % 98 1 1 ~5 By weight (g) 133 0. – (3. 3. 1050ºC. N2. Fire in capped quartz tubes. Powderize. 1 hour.40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: + Absorption (%) 100 Emission .33 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0. Mix by dry grinding. Powderize. 950ºC.6 Preparation Mix by dry grinding or milling. N2. 1 hour. N2. 1 hour.6 g of (NH4)2SO4. Dry. Optical Properties Emission color: UV Emission peak: 5.88 eV).33 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: – (4. shifting to blue-green for 1% Mn and to yellow-green for 10% Mn. 1. 1000ºC.Spectra 800 700 600 500 400 Wavelength (nm) 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Remark The spectral positions of the Mn2+-emission band depends on the Mn concentration used. 2.

6 Preparation Mix by dry grinding or milling. This phosphor is excited only by UV of ~220 nm or shorter and is fairly efficient.Spectra 800 700 600 500 400 Wavelength (nm) 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 6 0 Remarks 1. It discolors in fluorescent lamps because of (probably) undissolved PbSO4 dissociation to PbO. 2. Dry. 900ºC. N2. mix by dry grinding. Fire in covered alumina crucibles. 1.5 6. 2. 950ºC. Powderize.40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: +/0. Wash in water several times.88 eV). Fire in covered alumina crucibles.16 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: – (4.7% Absorption (%) 100 Emission . 1 hour. 1 hour. N2.3 3. Add another 5–6 g of (NH4)2SO4. Optical Properties Emission color: Light red Emission peak: 2. – (3.02 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0. CaSO4:Bi Structure: Orthorhombic (anhydrite) Composition Ingredient CaSO4 Bi2O3 Na2SO4 (NH4)2SO4 Mole % 98 1 (of Bi) 5 (of Na) ~5 By weight (g) 118 2.

2 3. 1 hour.6 13. Dry. Soc. Bismuth as activator in fluorescent solids. mix by dry grinding. 96. CaSO4:Ce3+ Structure: Orthorhombic (anhydrite) Composition Ingredient CaSO4 CeO2 Na2SO4 (NH4)2SO4 Mole % 94 3 5 (of Na) ~10 By weight (g) 128 5.40 eV) Absorption (%) 100 Emission .. Reference 1..01 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4. Fire in covered alumina crucibles. Fire in covered alumina crucibles. 2. – (3. Powderize.Spectra 800 700 600 500 400 Wavelength (nm) 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Remark The nature of this red emission is still unknown: It is not likely to be due to Bi3+ but it may possibly be due to Bi5+ substituting for S6+. 1.88 eV). Wash in water several times. 1 hour. 900ºC. 900ºC. N2. N2. 132 (1949). J. et al. F. 4..79 eV.2 Preparation Mix by dry grinding or milling. Optical Properties Emission color: UV Emission peak: 3.A. Electrochem. Kröger. Powderize. Add above amounts of Na2SO4 and (NH4)2SO4 once again.

Fire in capped quartz tubes. mix by dry grinding. Powderize. Powderize.Spectra 800 700 600 500 400 Wavelength (nm) 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 CaSO4:Ce3+. N2.2 Preparation Mix by dry grinding or milling. Add ~10 g of (NH4)2SO4. 700ºC. N2. 3. Add ~6 g of (NH4)2SO4.3 6.5 2. 4. 800ºC.9 13. N2. 2. 700ºC. 1. 1 hour. Fire in capped quartz tubes. 1000ºC. Optical Properties Emission color: Yellow-green Emission peak: 2.40 eV) Absorption (%) 100 Emission . Dry.5 6 ~10 By weight (g) 121 4. N2.88 eV). Powderize. Wash in water several times. Fire in capped quartz tubes. ++ (3. mix by dry grinding. Add ~2 g of Li2SO4 and ~6 g of (NH4)2SO4.35 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0.36 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4. mix by dry grinding. Powderize. Fire in capped quartz tubes.Mn2+ Structure: Orthorhombic (anhydrite) Composition Ingredient CaSO4 CeO2 MnCO4 (NH4)2SO4 Mole % 88.

J. and Ruffler. Tech.6 Preparation Mix by dry grinding or milling. 2. N2. N2. ++ (3.20 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0. Abh. 1000ºC.76 6. Electrochem. 3. 232 (1958). Wiss. Dry..88 eV). 950ºC. 2. H.1 µsec to 1/10 Absorption (%) 100 Emission . Washington. 1 hour. about 1..6 g of (NH4)2SO4. 1 hour. mix by dry grinding. Rudolf. 7. Abstr. Powderize. OSRAM Ges. Optical Properties Emission color: Very deep violet Emission peak: 3.Spectra 800 700 600 500 400 Wavelength (nm) 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 References 1.. N2. 950ºC. 1. mix by dry grinding. Wash in water several times.. DC. J. Soc.12 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4. Add another 6.40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: +/4% Decay: Near-exponential decay. Fire in capped quartz tubes. Meeting. Add 5 g of NH4Cl. Fire in capped quartz tubes. CaSO4:Eu2+ Structure: Orthorhombic (anhydrite) Composition Ingredient CaSO4 Eu2O3 (NH4)2SO4 Mole % 99 1 (of Eu) ~5 By weight (g) 135 1. Rabatin. 157 (May 1976). Powderize. Powderize. 1 hour. Fire in capped quartz tubes.

3 669 897 (1971).88 eV). Thermoluminescence of rare earth activated CdSO4.15 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: – (4. N2.. – (3. Fire in covered alumina crucibles. R. Pat.6 Preparation Mix by dry grinding or milling. Fire in covered alumina crucibles. Dixon.40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: +/1–1... Dry. Add another 5–6 g of (NH4)2SO4. Luckey... 8. SrSO4:Bi Structure: Orthorhombic Composition Ingredient SrSO4 Bi2O3 Na2SO4 (NH4)2SO4 Mole % 98 1 (of Bi) 5 (of Na) ~5 By weight (g) 180 2.5% Absorption (%) 100 Emission . 3. Powderize.Spectra 800 700 600 500 400 Wavelength (nm) 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Remark This CaSO4 phosphor is stable in water. Optical Properties Emission color: Orange-red Emission peak: 2. 1 hour. and Ekstrand. U.5 6. mix by dry grinding. 2.3 3.S. Germ. D. References 1.L. 900ºC. Wachtel. Wash in water several times.. N2. 1. Pat. J. 950ºC. A. Lumin. Powderize. 2. 2 051 240 (1971). SrSO4 and BaSO4.04 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0. 1 hour.E. 383 (1974). K..

96. 1 hour. Add the above amounts of Na2SO4 and (NH4)2SO4 once again. SrSO4:Ce3+ Structure: Orthorhombic Composition Ingredient SrSO4 CeO2 Na2SO4 (NH4)2SO4 Mole % 94 3 5 (of Na) ~10 By weight (g) 173 5. J. F. Kröger.88 eV).2 Preparation Mix by dry grinding or milling. 900ºC. N2. Soc. Powderize. Optical Properties Emission color: UV Emission peak: 3.. et al.89 and 4..11 eV (Two overlapping bands) Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4. Wash in water several times.Spectra 800 700 600 500 400 Wavelength (nm) 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Remark The nature of this emission is still unknown: It is not likely to be due to Bi3+ but it may possibly be due to Bi5+ substituting for S6+. Bismuth as activator in fluorescent solids. Powderize. 900ºC. Fire in covered alumina crucibles.A. 1. 2. 1 hour. Fire in covered alumina crucibles.6 13. N2. Dry.2 3. – (3. 132 (1949). Electrochem. mix by dry grinding.40 eV) Absorption (%) 100 Emission . Reference 1.

29 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4. 2.24 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4.26 6. 900ºC. 1 hour.Mn2+ Structure: Orthorhombic Optical Properties Emission color: Orange Emission peak: 2. Powderize.40 eV) SrSO4:Eu2+ Structure: Orthorhombic Composition Ingredient SrSO4 Eu2O3 SrF2 (NH4)2SO4 Mole % 98 2 (of Eu) 1 ~5 By weight (g) 180 3.40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: +/5% Decay: Near-exponential decay.19 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0. 800ºC. N2. Fire in capped quartz tubes.88 eV).5 1. Powderize. mix by dry grinding. Fire in capped quartz tubes. Optical Properties Emission color: UV Emission peak: 3. Dry. Fire in capped quartz tubes. ++ (3. Add 5 g of NH4Cl. ++ (3. 3. 1.30 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0. Add another 6. about 5 µsec to 1/10 Absorption (%) 100 Emission . Wash in water several times. N2. 900ºC. Powderize.88 eV).Spectra 800 700 600 500 400 Wavelength (nm) 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 SrSO4:Eu2+.6 Preparation Mix by dry grinding or milling.6 g of (NH4)2SO4. 1 hour. 1 hour. mix by dry grinding.

SrSO4 and BaSO4. N2. mix by dry grinding.Spectra 800 700 600 500 400 Wavelength (nm) 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 References 1. BaSO4:Ce3+ Structure: Orthorhombic Composition Ingredient BaSO4 CeO2 Na2SO4 (NH4)2SO4 Mole % 94 3 5 (of Na) ~10 By weight (g) 173 5.. Fire in covered alumina crucibles.L. A..2 Preparation Mix by dry grinding or milling.. 2..6 13.. 3 669 897 (1971).. K. Lumin. Wachtel. 900ºC. Pat. 1 hour. Fire in covered alumina crucibles. – (3.S. N2. 2.2 3.E. and Ekstrand. Powderize.. Powderize. Add the above amounts of Na2SO4 and (NH4)2SO4 once again. R. U. Dry. 8. Pat. 900ºC.11 eV (Two overlapping bands) Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4. 383 (1974). Luckey. 3.88 eV). 2 051 240 (1971). J.89 eV. 1 hour. Optical Properties Emission color: UV Emission peak: 3. Germ. Wash in water several times. Thermoluminescence of rare earth activated CdSO4. 4. Dixon. 1.40 eV) Absorption (%) 100 Emission . D.

about 5 µsec to 1/10 Absorption (%) 100 Emission . mix by dry grinding.40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: +/5% Decay: Near-exponential decay. Powderize.30 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0. 900ºC.6 g of (NH4)2SO4. N2. 900ºC. N2. 800ºC. Fire in capped quartz tubes. Powderize.88 eV). 1. 1 hour. Fire in capped quartz tubes.26 6. Add 5 g of NH4Cl.5 1. Add another 6. Dry. 2. + (3.21 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4. mix by dry grinding. 1 hour. Fire in capped quartz tubes. Powderize. 3.Spectra 800 700 600 500 400 Wavelength (nm) 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 BaSO4:Eu2+ Structure: Orthorhombic Composition Ingredient BaSO4 Eu2O3 SrF2 (NH4)2SO4 Mole % 98 2 (of Eu) 1 ~5 By weight (g) 180 3. Optical Properties Emission color: UV Emission peak: 3. 1 hour.6 Preparation Mix by dry grinding or milling. Wash in water several times.

Pat. Store in a well-closed container.40 eV) Absorption (%) 100 Emission ..6 13. Add ~10 g of (NH4)2SO4. 1100ºC. Powderize. – (3.. D. MgBa(SO4)2:Eu2+ Structure: KAl (SO4)2 Composition Ingredient MgSO4 BaSO4 Eu2O3 (NH4)2SO4 Mole % 100 94 6 (of Eu) ~10 By weight (g) 120 219 10. Optical Properties Emission color: UV Emission peak: Main peak at 3. Germ. Fire in capped quartz tubes. N2. Fire in capped quartz tubes. 900ºC. 1. 2. 2 051 240 (1971).88 eV). 1 hour. 1 hour. N2.Spectra 800 700 600 500 400 Wavelength (nm) 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Reference 1.455 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4. Luckey. mix by dry grinding.2 Preparation Mix by dry grinding or milling. Powderize.

Chem. J.. Thermoluminescence characteristics of binary sulfate phosphors. 1. 2.06 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0. 439 (1976). 950ºC. J. 1475 (1974). 3. G.M..M. 17.6 13. J. 38. Soc.88 eV). Electrochem. Optical Properties Emission color: Violet Emission peak: 3. Fine-structure in optical-spectra of divalent europium in alkalineearth sulfates. 900ºC. Fire in capped quartz tubes. 124. Nucl. G. Solid State Chem. Powderize.. References 1. 4. N2. J. Electrochem. 1272 (1977).. Ryan.. Blasse. Soc.. 2. J. et al. 1 hour. et al. N2. M.P. Inorg. and ~10 g of (NH4)2SO4. ++ (3.Spectra 800 700 600 500 400 Wavelength (nm) 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Remark This material decomposes in contact with water or in moist air.. Luminescence of barium magnesium-sulfate. VanDenHeuvel.28 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4.40 eV) Absorption (%) 100 Emission . G.2 Preparation Mix by dry grinding or milling. 121. and Stegenga.. Mg2Ca(SO4)3:Eu2+ Composition Ingredient MgSO4 CaSO4 Eu2O3 (NH4)2SO4 Mole % 200 94 6 (of Eu) ~10 By weight (g) 240 128 10..P. 876 (1976). mix by dry grinding. Sakaguchi..M. Add ~5 g of NH4Br. and VanDenHeuvel. F. Fire in capped quartz tubes. G. Crystal-structure of barium magnesiumsulfate.. Blasse.

Keep dry. 950ºC. 1.Mn2+ Composition Ingredient MgSO4 CaSO4 Eu2O3 MnCO3 (NH4)2SO4 Mole % 200 87 5 (of Eu) 8 ~10 By weight (g) 240 119 8. mix by dry grinding. and ~10 g of (NH4)2SO4.06 eV (Eu2+) Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4. Mg2Ca(SO4)3:Eu2+.2 13. 900ºC.8 9. N2. 1 hour. Fire in capped quartz tubes.88 eV). Powderize. Optical Properties Emission color: Orange-red Emission peak: 2.40 eV) Spectra 800 700 600 500 400 Wavelength (nm) 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Absorption (%) 100 Emission Absorption (%) 100 Emission . 2.Spectra 800 700 600 500 400 Wavelength (nm) 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Remark This material decomposes in contact with water or in moist air.01 eV (Mn2+). N2.2 Preparation Mix by dry grinding or milling. Add ~5 g of NH4Br. ++ (3. Fire in capped quartz tubes. 3.

N2. Absorption (%) 100 Emission . Fire in capped quartz tubes.88 eV).40 eV) Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Remark This material decomposes in contact with water or in moist air.21 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0. Fire in capped quartz tubes.23 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4. 1100ºC. Keep dry. Powderize.2 Preparation Mix by dry grinding or milling. 2. Optical Properties Emission color: Barely visible deep violet Emission peak: 3. Mg2Sr(SO4)3:Eu2+ Composition Ingredient MgO SrSO4 Eu2O3 (NH4)2SO4 Mole % 200 94 6 (of Eu) ~10 By weight (g) 240 173 10. Store in a well-closed container. 900ºC. mix by dry grinding. 1 hour.6 13. Powderize.Remark This material decomposes in contact with water or in moist air. N2. 1. + (3. 1 hour. Add 10 g of (NH4)2SO4.

Dry in air.5 Preparation Dissolve the AgNO3 and the NH4Cl separately. each in a little water. Make a slurry of the ZnS in water or methanol.Cl ZnS:Eu2+ ZnS:Mn2+ ZnS:Mn2+. Powderize when dry. and stir again.Cl ZnS-CdS:Cu.Te2+ ZnS:P ZnS:P3 .Cl ZnS:Pb2+ ZnS:Pb2+.Cl ZnS:Au.3 5 By weight (g) 98 0.Cu ZnS:Sn2+ ZnS:Sn.4.I ZnS-CdS (25-75) ZnS-CdS (50-50) ZnS-CdS (75-25) ZnS-CdS:Ag.Ag ZnS:Sn2+. First add the silver solution.Ni ZnS-CdS:Ag+.050 2.In ZnS:Cl ZnS:Cu.13 ZnS-Type Sulfides The following host compounds and activators are included in this subsection: ZnS:Ag+.Sn ZnS:Cu+.Al3+ ZnS:Cu+.Cl CdS:Ag+.Cl ZnS:Pb. . stir. then add the NH4Cl solution.Cl Structure: Hexagonal (wurtzite) Composition Ingredient ZnS AgNO3 NH4Cl Mole % 100 0.Br long life ZnS-CdS:Cu.Cl CdS:In ZnS-CdS:Cu.Li+ ZnSe:Cu+.Br high brightness ZnS-ZnTe:Mn2+ 98-2 ZnS:Ag+.Br.

Dry. ZnS:Au.40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: ++ Decay: Non-exponential decay in the microsecond range Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Remarks 1.005 0. This phosphor corresponds to the commercial P-22B.Add ~2–3 g of sulfur. Powderize. An Introduction to Luminescence of Solids.In Structure: Hexagonal (wurtzite) Composition Ingredient ZnS Au metal In2O3 NH4Cl Mole % 100 0.5 Preparation Dissolve the gold in a very little amount of aqua regia. Wash in water several times (to remove leftover halide). 1100ºC. Shionoya.88 eV). P. Fire in capped quartz tubes.0023 2. in Luminescence of Inorganic Solids.010 0.34 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4. John Wiley & Sons. Make a slurry in methanol.. Academic Press.80 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0. H. The chlorine in the above recipe may be replaced by bromine. Powderize.. Optical Properties Emission color: Blue Emission peak: 2. ++ (3. Absorption (%) 100 Emission . N2. Goldberg. 2. Ed... 2. Add this solution to the ZnS. S. New York (1949). Leverenz. References 1. Dry. 1 hour.002 (of In) 5 By weight (g) 98 0.W. New York (1966).

67 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0.88 eV). 4.34 eV (First peak) Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4.34 eV.40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: ++ Absorption (%) 100 Emission . ++ (3. Fire in capped quartz tubes. ++ (3.70 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0. mix by dry grinding. Fire in open quartz boats. Optical Properties Emission color: Blue-green. 900ºC. 2. ZnS:Cl Structure: Cubic. Powderize. dry. hexagonal (wurtzite) Optical Properties Emission color: Blue Emission peak: 2. Add about 2–3 g of sulfur. Add the dry NH4Cl and about 2–3 g of sulfur. N2. 1200ºC.40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: + Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Remark The green phosphorescence of this phosphor after excitation by UV or by e-beam is visible for several hours in the dark. Dissolve the In2O3 in a little nitric acid. long afterglow Emission peaks: 2. 1 hour. Make a slurry of the phosphor in methanol. 900ºC. 3. stir. 1 hour. Fire in capped quartz tubes. H2S. add the solution to the slurry. 1 hour.1. 900ºC.88 eV). N2. and powderize. Fire in open quartz boats. Powderize.50 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4. H2S. 2.

. add solution to the ZnS + SnS mix... H2O Mole % 100 0. An Introduction to Luminescence of Solids. P. 1 hour.1 0. Dry. Make a slurry in water or methanol. . S. Fire in capped quartz tubes. Leverenz.Spectra (cubic) 800 700 600 500 400 Wavelength (nm) 300 100 Emission 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) Wavelength (nm) 5 0 Spectra (hexagonal) 800 700 600 500 400 300 100 Emission 50 2 3 References 1..W. 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 ZnS:Cu.Sn Structure: Hexagonal (wurtzite) Composition Ingredient ZnS SnS Cu(C2H3O2)2. 1150ºC.002 Preparation Dissolve the copper acetate in a little water.001 By weight (g) 98 0.150 0. Add ~2–3 g of sulfur. New York (1949). 2. Powderize. Shionoya. Academic Press. Goldberg. in Luminescence of Inorganic Solids. John Wiley & Sons. New York (1966). Ed. N2. H.

88 eV). Add ~2–3 g of sulfur.002 0.38 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0.40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: ++ Decay: Non-exponential decay in the microsecond range Absorption (%) 100 Emission .3 By weight (g) 98 0.32 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4. Add enough water or methanol to make a uniform slurry. Dry.32 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4. This phosphor is much more sensitive to IR than the fairly well-known ZnS:Cu. Dry. Wash in water several times (stir. ZnS:Cu+.001 0. 1 hour. Emission peak: 2. H2S. H2O AlCl3 Mole % 100 0.41 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0. Optical Properties Emission color: Green. 2. Powderize. Add solution to the ZnS mix.Optical Properties Emission color: Green Emission peak: 2.Al3+ Structure: Hexagonal (wurtzite) Composition Ingredient ZnS Cu(C2H3O2)2. let settle) to remove left over chloride. ++ (3.88 eV). 1100ºC.400 Preparation Dissolve the copper acetate and the aluminum chloride together in a little water.40 eV UV causes strong quenching of the green emission. Irradiation of near-IR during excitation by 3. long afterglow tail. Fire in capped quartz tubes.Co phosphor. ++ (3.40 eV) Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Remarks 1.

Kröger. John Wiley & Sons.. An Introduction to Luminescence of Solids. Gool.34 eV.. Philips Res..33 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4. New York (1949). 2.P. This phosphor corresponds to the P-31 cathodoluminescent phosphor.A.Spectra 800 700 600 500 400 Wavelength (nm) 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Remarks 1. Amsterdam (1948). W. Some Aspects of Luminescence of Solids.W. F. ++ (3.79 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0. 2. Leverenz. 238 (1960). The chlorine in the above recipe may be replaced by bromine.88 eV).. A. References 1.Cl Optical Properties Emission color: Blue + green Emission peak: 2. H. Structure: Cubic (zinc blende) ZnS:Cu+. 15. 2. Elsevier. Absorption (%) 100 Emission . and Cleiren. Rep..40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: ++ Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 100 Emission 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Reference 1.

H2S. Optical Properties Emission color: Yellow-green Emission peak: 2.540 Preparation Mix by slurrying in water or methanol. Add ~2–3 g of sulfur. Fire in open quartz boats. Powderize.24 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: + (4. Weaker band at 1. + (3. 1100ºC. Dry. 2. Absorption (%) 100 Emission . Powderize.ZnS:Eu2+ Composition Ingredient ZnS Eu2O3 Mole % 100 0. Fire in open quartz boats. Dry. Powderize.053 Preparation Mix by slurrying in water or methanol. H2S.40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: Poor Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 ZnS:Mn2+ Structure: Hexagonal (wurtzite) Composition Ingredient ZnS MnCO3 NH4Cl Mole % 99 1 1 By weight (g) 97 1. 1 hour.25 eV. 1.15 0.95 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0.88 eV). 1100ºC. 1 hour.03 (of Eu) By weight (g) 98 0.

Te2+ Structure: Hexagonal (wurtzite) Composition Ingredient ZnS MnCO3 ZnTe NH4Br Mole % 94 3 3 2 By weight (g) 92 3. 1100ºC. Leverenz.88 eV). Academic Press. P. ~1 msec to 1/10 Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Remarks 1.. This material is remarkable for its strong triboluminescence... New York (1966).Add ~2–3 g of sulfur. Optical Properties Emission color: Orange-yellow Emission peak: 2.21 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4.5 5. Ed. H. ++ (3.W. Goldberg. 2. S.8 2 Preparation First mix only ZnS + MnCO3 + NH4Br (not yet the ZnTe). References 1. 2.. Shionoya. An Introduction to Luminescence of Solids. Fire in capped quartz tubes. Absorption (%) 100 Emission .40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: +/5% Decay: Exponential. N2 or H2S. 1 hour. New York (1949). The emission shifts slightly to lower energy (= longer wavelength) with increasing Mn concentration.13 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0. ZnS:Mn2+. Make a slurry in water. John Wiley & Sons. in Luminescence of Inorganic Solids.

1 hour. Fire in capped quartz tubes.88 eV). N2. Dry in air.385 0.4 (of P) 0. Effect of tellurium on luminescence properties of zinc sulfide luminors. 2. This phosphor has been developed by A. Now admit the ZnTe.24 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4.92 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0. Smirnova. Powderize when dry. Add ~2–3 g of sulfur. 23. Fire in capped quartz tubes.. H2. and Pron. 2. ++ (3.5 By weight (g) 98 0. This material is remarkable for its strong triboluminescence (red). Absorption (%) 100 Emission .1. mix by milling or grinding. 1200ºC. Powderize.-USSR. 1 hour. 67 (1967).270 Preparation Mix by dry grinding. 1 hour.F.40 eV) Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Remarks 1. Wachtel. Reference 1.. N2. R. Opt. 900ºC.I. G. Spectrosc. ZnS:P Composition Ingredient ZnS Zn3P2 NH4Cl Mole % 100 0. 1100ºC. Wash in a solution of a few percentage of Br in methanol and then several times in plain methanol. Optical Properties Emission color: Red Emission peak: 1. Fire in capped quartz tubes.

J.Optical Properties Emission color: Pale yellow Emission peak: 2. 85 (1949). 2.40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: + Absorption (%) 100 Emission . 2.24. P. Soc.88 eV). and Ranby.50 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4. The amount of P retained in the phosphor after firing certainly is much lower than the amount added.66 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0.. 96. McKeag.W. Long afterglow tail Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Remarks 1. ++ (3. Reference 1. A.. Electrochem. Phosphor is poorly reproducible because of high volatility of Zn3P2 at firing temperature.14 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0. + (3. ZnS:P3–. It shifts to a lower energy (= longer wavelengths) with increasing P. Spectral positions of the emission band depends on the P concentration. New zinc sulfide phosphors activated by phosphorus..H.88 eV).40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: +/5%.Cl Structure: Hexagonal (wurtzite) Optical Properties Emission color: Yellowish Emission peak: 2.50 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: + (4.

H. Preparation and characteristics of zinc sulfide phosphors sensitive to infrared.40 eV) Reference 1... Soc. Am.Spectra 800 700 600 500 400 Wavelength (nm) 300 100 Emission 50 2 3 Reference 1. 382 (1946). Soc. 36. Soc. John Wiley & Sons. Opt. New York (1949).. and Ranby.40 eV) References 1. A.40 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: – (4. 382 (1946). ++ (3.. ZnS:Pb2+.Cl Structure: Hexagonal (wurtzite) Optical Properties Emission color: Greenish Emission peak: 2. Preparation and characteristics of zinc sulfide phosphors sensitive to infrared.54 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0. Fonda...98 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0. 2. + (3. Opt.W. Fonda. G. 36.88 eV). J.. McKeag.88 eV). J. Am. An Introduction to Luminescence of Solids. Leverenz. New zinc sulfide phosphors activated by phosphorus.R.40 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: (4. G.R.. P. J. 85 (1949). 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 ZnS:Pb2+ Structure: Hexagonal (wurtzite) Optical Properties Emission color: Orange Emission peak: 1.W. Electrochem. 96. .H.

N2.1 0. Preparation and characteristics of zinc sulfide phosphors sensitive to infrared. When the afterglow has decreased to a low level. Fonda. ++ (3.99 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0. Add ~2–3 g of sulfur. Absorption (%) 100 Emission . Dry.R. Optical Properties Emission color: Whitish orange during excitation. Reference 1. Am. add the solution to the ZnS.330 0.Cu Structure: Hexagonal (wurtzite) Composition Ingredient ZnS Pb(NO3)2 Cu(C2H3O2)2 Mole % 100 0. J.002 Preparation Dissolve the lead nitrate and copper acetate together in a little water. Soc.ZnS:Pb. irridation of near-IR causes a strong orange emission (stimulation). G. This phosphor is readily excited by UV and shows a long afterglow after excitation. 36.. Powderize.40 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4. Fire in capped quartz tubes. 1 hour. 2. 1100ºC. 352 (1946). orange afterglow Emission peak: 1.40 eV) Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Remarks 1.88 eV). Make a uniform slurry with water or methanol. Opt.001 By weight (g) 98 0..

++ (3.80 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0.40 eV) Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Reference 1. ZnS:Sn.01 By weight (g) 98 0. 45.017 Absorption (%) 100 Emission . S. Polonica A.1 0. 1 hour.5 ~2–3 Preparation Mix by dry grinding.ZnS:Sn2+ Structure: Hexagonal (wurtzite) Composition Ingredient ZnS SnS Sulfur Mole % 99 1 By weight (g) 97 1. Acta Phys.88 eV)..150 0. Kulaszewcz. 1150ºC. Fire in capped quartz tubes. Optical Properties Emission color: Red Emission peak: 1.Ag Structure: Hexagonal (wurtzite) Composition Ingredient ZnS SnS AgNO3 Mole % 100 0. 499 (1974). N2.40 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: + (4.

Li+ Structure: Hexagonal (wurtzite) Optical Properties Emission color: Orange Emission peak: 1.Preparation Dissolve the AgNO3 in a little water. 105. Fire in capped quartz tubes. J..Sn. Reference 1.12 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0.Li phosphor.99 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0. 432 (1958). The Ag in the above recipe can be replaced by Li.88 eV). 1 hour. A. Admit ~2–3 g of sulfur. ZnS-Sn.99.50 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4. Optical Properties Emission color: Pale yellow Emission peak: 1.88 eV). Wachtel. ++ (3. + (3. 1150ºC. In contrast to ZnS:Cu. Dry in air. Make a slurry in water or methanol.50 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: + (4. Powderize when dry.40 eV) Absorption (%) 100 Emission . N2.40 eV) Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Remarks 1. 2.. this phosphor shows only little response (stimulation) to irradiated IR. Add the solutions to the ZnS + SnS. Soc. Electrochem. 2. ZnS:Sn2+.

92 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0.Spectra 800 700 600 500 400 Wavelength (nm) 300 100 Emission 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Reference 1. Wachtel. 24.30 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: (4.40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: ++ Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 100 Emission 50 2 3 References 1. J. 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 . Phys. Solids. Se Cu. Cl.Cl Structure: Cubic (zinc blende) Optical Properties Emission color: Red Emission peak: 1... ZnS-Sn. Leverenz.W. Electrochem. Luminescence in ZnS. 105. ZnSe:Cu+. J. F. Chem. 2. 37 (1963). A..Li phosphor. An Introduction to Luminescence of Solids.F. Soc. + (3. John Wiley & Sons. 202. New York (1949) p.88 eV). Morehead. H. 432 (1958)..

Make a slurry in methanol.40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: + Decay to 10%: Less than 1 nsec . CdS:In Structure: Hexagonal (wurtzite) Composition Ingredient CdS In2O3 Mole % 100 0. New York (1949). 1. 2. 500ºC. Inspect again under UV lamp. Optical Properties Emission color: Green Emission peak: 2. When cool.39 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0.Cl– Structure: Hexagonal (wurtzite) Optical Properties Emission color: IR Emission peak: 1. 900ºC. inspect under UV lamp. H. An Introduction to Luminescence of Solids. + (3. John Wiley & Sons.88 eV). ++ (3.CdS:Ag+.55 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0.08 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: + (4.1 (of In) By weight (g) 145 0. Add ~2–3 g of sulfur. Remove all parts which look different.88 eV). Powderize.40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: ++ Reference 1. Fire in capped quartz tubes. 1 hour. Add the solutions to the CdS. Fire in open quartz boats. H2. H2S.34 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4.139 Preparation Dissolve the In2O3 in a little nitric acid. Powderize.W. Leverenz. Material should now be uniformly green. Dry.. Material should be uniformly red luminescent.

1107 (1966). ZnS-CdS:Cu. Dry. and stir.9 2. Reference 1. then add the NH4I-solution.9 2. 1. 9. Screen through 200 mesh or finer. 2.Spectra 800 700 600 500 400 Wavelength (nm) 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Remarks 1. Solid State Electron.4 2. After this firing. 1 hour. Mix well.5 2 By weight (g) 95. W. each in a little water. Lehmann. 2. Add ~3 4 g of sulfur.I Structure: Hexagonal (wurtzite) Composition Ingredient ZnS CdS Cu(C2H3O2)2. stir. Make a slurry of the ZnS + CdS in methanol. Fire in capped quartz tubes. pull the hot boat with the phosphor out of the furnace into open air and quench rapidly down to room temperature by blowing cold air against it. 800ºC. 1 hour.. N2. Fire in open quartz boats. This phosphor is thermodynamically in an unstable state. Absorption (%) 100 Emission . Do not heat up (except only in H2) to more than about 250ºC. N2. Add the Cu solution. Boil briefly in a solution of about 10 g NaOH (or KOH) + 10 g NaCN (or KCN) in 1 liter of water. Edge emission of n-type conducting ZnO and CdS.. Powderize. 650ºC. Wash in plain water several times until neutral. Dry with methanol in a filter funnel and then in open air. H2O NH4I Mole % 98 2 0.9 Preparation Dissolve the Cu acetate and the NH4I separately. Phosphor has limited use in CR tubes for extremely fast display. Powderize. Powderize. Screen through a medium-fine cloth sieve.

Optical Properties Emission color: Blue Emission peak: 2.88 eV). ++ (3. ++ (3. New York (1949).35 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4.35 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4.38 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0.40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: ++ ZnS-CdS (75-25) Optical Properties Emission color: Green Emission peak: 2. An Introduction to Luminescence of Solids. Leverenz.W. John Wiley & Sons.88 eV). H.35 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4.. ++ (3.88 eV).78 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0.40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: ++ ZnS-CdS (50-50) Optical Properties Emission color: Orange Emission peak: 2.33 eV Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 100 Emission 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Reference 1. ZnS-CdS (25-75) Structure: Wurtzite Optical Properties Emission color: Deep red Emission peak: 1.72 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0.40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: ++ .06 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0.

Leverenz. 1 hour.6 0.686 Preparation Make a slurry of the ZnS + CdS in methanol.Spectra 800 700 600 500 400 Wavelength (nm) 300 ZnS-CdS 40-60 ZnS-CdS 50-50 Emission ZnS-CdS 60-40 ZnS-CdS 70-30 ZnS-CdS 80-20 ZnS-CdS 90-10 ZnS 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 100 50 0 Reference 1. An Introduction to Luminescence of Solids.5 5. Mix well. H2S.37 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4.W. 700ºC. 2. Add ~3–4 g of sulfur. Screen through a medium-fine cloth sieve.7 By weight (g) 93. 45 minutes.13 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0. Powderize.8 0. Dissolve the Cu acetate and the NH4Br together in a little water. 1. Add the solution to the slurry.40 eV) . H.Ni Structure: Hexagonal (wurtzite) Composition Ingredient ZnS CdS Cu(C2H3O2)2. Fire in open quartz boats.Br. Fire in capped quartz tubes. John Wiley & Sons. Powderize. N2. H2O NH4Br Mole % 96 4 0.8 1. stir. Optical Properties Emission color: Orange-yellow Emission peak: 2.88 eV). Dry. New York (1949).. 800ºC. ++ (3. ZnS-CdS:Ag.

Then add the NH4Cl solution. J..050 2. First add the silver solution. stir again. Opt. Optical Properties Emission peak: Peak position depending on the ZnS/CdS ratio Emission width (FWHM): ~0. Reference 1. 1100ºC. Powderize. Nail. The emission intensity increases sharply super-linearly with increasing excitation intensity and decreases with increasing temperature: The best obtained temperature response is about 20% per degree Centigrade near room temperature. 39. Wash in water several times (to remove leftover halide).5 Preparation Dissolve the AgNO3 and the NH4Cl separately. Soc. Dry..03 5 By weight (g) 0.Cl Structure: Hexagonal (wurtzite) Composition Ingredient ZnS + CdS AgNO3 NH4Cl Mole % 100 0. Mix well.88 eV).Spectra 800 700 600 500 400 Wavelength (nm) 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Remarks 1. N2. This phosphor is good for thermal imaging.35 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4. ++ (3... Add ~2–3 g of sulfur. F. ZnS-CdS:Ag+. New observations on superlinear luminescence. Fire in capped quartz tubes. D. Dry. 1 hour. Urbach. Make a slurry of the ZnS + CdS of the desired ratio in water or methanol. stir.R. Am. and Pearlman. N. 690 (1949).40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: 20% Decay to 10%: Non-exponential afterglow in the microsecond range Absorption (%) 100 Emission . each in a little water. 2.

Mix well. 2. Wash in plain water several times until neutral. H2O NH4Br Mole % 96 4 0.8 1.. Leverenz. Powderize. ZnS-CdS:Cu. Dry. pull the hot boat with the phosphor out of the furnace into open air and quench rapidly down to room temperature by blowing cold air against it. Fire in open quartz boats. and stir. Fire in capped quartz tubes. add the solution to the slurry.7 By weight (g) 93. An Introduction to Luminescence of Solids. Wash in plain water several times until neutral.8 0. 800ºC. H2S. Dry with methanol in a filter funnel and then in open air.5 5. 45 minutes. The phosphor of ZnS/CdS 72/28 is commercial P-22G. Powderize. 1 hour. Chlorine in the above recipe may be replaced by bromine. H. Firing includes rapid quenching. Boil again in cyanide solution as above. N2. Add ~3–4 g of sulfur. Reference 1. John Wiley & Sons. New York. After this firing. Powderize. Dissolve the Cu acetate and the NH4Br together in a little water. Dry with methanol in a filter funnel and then in open air. Screen through 200 mesh or finer. 1949. . Boil briefly in a solution of about 10 g NaOH (or KOH) + 10 g NaCN (or KCN) in 1 liter water. Fire the same as 2. 3.6 0.W.Br long life Structure: Hexagonal (wurtzite) Composition Ingredient ZnS CdS Cu(C2H3O2)2. 700ºC. 1. 2. Screen through a medium-fine cloth sieve.686 Preparation Make a slurry of the ZnS + CdS in methanol.Spectra 800 700 600 500 400 Wavelength (nm) 300 Emission CdS ZnS-CdS 25-75 ZnS-CdS 50-50 ZnS-CdS 75-25 ZnS 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 100 50 0 Remarks 1.

H2O NH4Br Mole % 96 4 0.Br high brightness Structure: Hexagonal (wurtzite) Composition Ingredient ZnS CdS Cu(C2H3O2)2.38 eV .5 5. Dissolve the Cu acetate and the NH4Br together in a little water. Mix well. Wash in plain water several times until neutral. 45 minutes. 2. 1. ZnS-CdS:Cu. Screen through 200 mesh or finer. Powderize.35 eV Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 100 Emission 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Remark The zero-hour brightness of this phosphor is ~½ of that of the one on the previous page. After this firing. Wash in about 2 liters of 10% H2O2 solution at room temperature for about 2 hours while stirring. Fire in open quartz boats. 650ºC. N2.Optical Properties Emission color: Green Emission peak: 2. pull the hot boat with the phosphor out of the furnace into open air and quench rapidly down to room temperature by blowing cold air against it.8 0.35 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0. H2S. Dry with methanol in a filter funnel and then in open air.35 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0.686 Preparation Make a slurry of the ZnS + CdS in methanol.3 0. Add ~3–4 g of sulfur. Fire in capped quartz tubes. Wash in plain water. Screen through a medium-fine cloth sieve. and stir. Powderize. Optical Properties Emission color: Green Emission peak: 2.7 By weight (g) 93.600 0. Powderize. add the solution to the slurry. 800ºC. Dry. Boil briefly in a solution of about 10 g NaOH (or KOH) + 10 g NaCN (or KCN) in 1 liter of water. 1 hour.

92 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0. 2. and Pron.. U.-USSR. 3 165 476 (1965). ZnS-ZnTe:Mn2+ 98-2 Structure: Hexagonal (wurtzite) Optical Properties Emission color: Red Emission peak: 1. A.S. The H2O2 wash is an idea by Wachtel.88 eV)..I. R. Effect of tellurium on luminescence properties of zinc sulfide luminors.24 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4. 23. ++ (3. .Spectra 800 700 600 500 400 Wavelength (nm) 300 100 Emission 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Remarks 1.40 eV) Reference 1. its half-life under steady 5 kHz excitation is much shorter than that of the phosphor on the next page. 67 (1967). Pat.F. Spectrosc. Smirnova.. This phosphor has been developed for high zero-hour brightness. G. Opt..

Keep dry. Fire in open quartz boats. mix by dry grinding. 1200ºC. 1.14 CaS-Type Sulfides The following host compounds and activators are included in this subsection: MgS:Eu2+ CaS:Bi3+ CaS:Bi3+.Na+ CaS:Eu2+ CaS:Mn2+ CaS:La3+ CaS:Pb2+. 1 hour.Na CaS:Sm3+ CaS:Sn2+ CaS:Sn2+. 1 hour.176 1 Preparation First mix only the MgO and Eu2O3. N2 loaded with CS2.Na CaS:Ce3+ CaS:Cu+.Cl CaS:Y3+ CaS:Yb2+ CaS:Yb2+.1 (of Eu) 2 By weight (g) 0.Cl CaS:Pb2+ CaS:Pb2+.Mn2+ CaS:Pr3+. 2.Cl SrS:Ce3+ SrS:Cu+.Cl CaS:Sb3+ CaS:Sb3+.4.K MgS:Eu2+ Structure: Cubic (NaCl) Composition Ingredient MgO Eu2O3 NH4Cl Mole % 100 0.Pb2+. 800ºC. Powderize.040 0. Fire in capped quartz tubes.F CaS:Tb3+ CaS:Tb3+. Admit above amount of NH4Cl and also 2–3 g of sulfur. . N2. Powderize. Store in a well-closed container.Na SrS:Eu2+ SrS:Mn2+ BaS:Au.

11 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0..15 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4.. K. Electrochem. and Yamamoto. Megumi. Kasano. Ca1-xMgxS-Ce..88 eV).40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: + Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Absorption (%) 100 Emission . + (3. 131 (1953). – (3..40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: +/8% Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 100 Emission 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Reference 1. CaS:Bi3+ Structure: Cubic (NaCl) Optical Properties Emission color: Near UV Emission peak: 3.88 eV). Soc. H.Optical Properties Emission color: Orange-yellow Emission peak: 2. Cathodoluminescence of Ca1-xMgxS-Eu.27eV Emission width (FWHM):0. H.21 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4. J.

1 hour. Garlick. Soc. Lumin. 91 (1977). 1 hour. 144 (1976). Lehmann. Store in a well-closed container.. 1 hour. 5.. G. J. D.Na Structure: Cubic (NaCl) Composition Ingredient CaCO3 Bi2O3 NaHCO3 Mole % 100 0. Fast cathodoluminescent calcium sulfide phosphors. 4. and Asano. 5. Convert it to CaS by one of the following methods: 1. Activators and co-activators in calcium sulfide phosphors.. Powderize..70 0. Fire in open quartz boats. stagnant air.F. 119. Phys.Se):Bi3+ and CaO:Bi3+ phosphors.88 eV). + (3. Phys. J.. Lehmann. CaS:Bi3+. and also ~ 2–3 g of sulfur. and Ryan. Soc.E.. 3. S. F.5 By weight (g) 100 0. 90 (1949). Electron traps and infrared stimulation of phosphors. 1200ºC. 96. A.03 (of Bi) 0...77 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0. 2. Powderize. 1200ºC. N2. mix by dry grinding.. N. 82. 40.18 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: + (4. 87 (1972).420 Preparation Start from purest CaCO3. W. H2S. Soc. Fire in capped quartz tubes. 2. J. 1100ºC..F. Luminescence-centers of Ca(S. Status Solidi B. W. Optical Properties Emission color: Blue Emission peak: 2.M. Electrochem. Electrochem. Add the above amounts of Bi and Na.References 1. Yamashita. 3. Jpn..40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: 4–5% Decay: Non-exponential decay in the microsecond range. Ellervee. Luminescence of Pb2+ and Bi3+ centers in alkali-earth sulfides and oxides.J. long afterglow tail extending into seconds . J. Fire in capped quartz tubes. 275 (1972). and Mason..

87 (1972). Soc. Electrochem. Luminescence of Pb2+ and Bi3+ centers in alkali-earth sulfides and oxides. D. 2. 5. and Ryan. Soc. Absorption (%) 100 Emission . 275 (1972). F. Electrochem. 1100ºC. 2. Phys. S. N. Soc. Preparation required purest starting materials. Luminescence-centers of Ca(S+Se):Bi3+ and CaO:Bi3+ phosphors. Fast cathodoluminescent calcium sulfide phosphors.F. Lehmann. J. Admit about 1–2 g of NH4Cl by dry grinding or milling. 1.. Status Solidi B. CaS:Ce3+ Structure: Cubic (NaCl) Composition Ingredient CaCO3 CeO2 Mole % 100 0. Powderize. Fire in capped quartz tubes. Add about 2–3 g of sulfur. Electron traps and infrared stimulation of phosphors.. N2. G. Luminescent-grade CaCO3 is not pure enough. References 1.J. 5. Jpn.. and Asano.F.M. 2.. first 1 hour in N2 and then 1 hour in H2S. Garlick. 96. Ellervee.. 82. Contamination by Mn as low as 1 ppm will cause appearance of the yellow Mn2+ emission. Activators and co-activators in calcium sulfide phosphors. J. Yamashita. W.. 40. Na in above recipe can be replaced by Li but Na seems to have a slight edge over it. Powderize. Store in a well-closed container. J.086 Preparation Mix well. and Mason. Lumin. 144 (1976).. 91 (1977). 1 hour. 3. 90 (1949). Fire in open quartz boats.Spectra 800 700 600 500 400 Wavelength (nm) 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Remarks 1. Phys.... Lehmann.. 4.E.. 119. W. 1200ºC. A. J.05 By weight (g) 100 0.

F. 6. Optimum efficiency of cathodoluminescence of inorganic phosphors. and Kato. F. 3. 275 (1972).13 eV. J. J. 477 (1971).88 eV). Soc. Phosphor has a slightly greenish body color due to the combined action of the blue absorption band and the green emission. This phosphor is efficiently luminescent up to ~300ºC. 2. Soc. 4. Cl in the above recipe can be replaced by F. 5. Electrochem. 7.. phosphor showing no color change and little saturation up to the highest current densities Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Remarks 1.. F. Okamoto. 2.. Electrochem. Decay time after excitation by an e-beam pulse can be reduced to ~200 nsec (1/10 of original) by addition of Co. Lehmann.. W.M. 130. 1164 (1971).. 2. W.Optical Properties Emission color: Green Emission peak: 2.. or I.. Lehmann.. 119. 432 (1983).M.. References 1. 118. and Ryan. Electrochem.38 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4. 3. Phosphor can be sensitized for efficient excitation by 3. 118. This phosphor or modifications of it have found applications in CR tubes and for correction in arc lamps. and Ryan. – (3. K.. W. Fast cathodoluminescent calcium sulfide phosphors.40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: ++/20% Decay to 10%: Non-exponential decay in the microsecond range. Lehmann.40 eV by addition of Pb (see CaS:Pb2+). J. Absorption (%) 100 Emission . Electrochem. 4. Br.. Preparation and cathodoluminescence of CaS-Ce and Ca1-xSrxS-Ce phosphors. Soc. Soc. Cathodoluminescence of CaS-Ce3+ and CaS-Eu2+ phosphors J. The distance between the two emission bands (in eV) cannot be changed but the exact positions of the bands depend slightly on the used Ce concentration.

300 1. The peak positions of the two emission bands depend on the alkali used (if any). phosphor showing much less saturation at the high beam current than P-11 Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Remarks 1. References 1. 1 hour. H2. 117. 2. J. 3.25 Preparation Dissolve the copper acetate in a little water. Make a uniform slurry in water or methanol.55 eV. 107. Halides are not co-activators in CaS:Cu (in contrast to ZnS:Cu). and gold. Na in the above recipe can be omitted or be replaced by Li or K. 2. Wachtel. 1 hour.15 1. 1100ºC. Add 800 mg of NaHCO3 plus ~ 2–3 g of sulfur. Soc.88 eV). H2S. silver. Store in a well-closed container.. 2. Electrochem. Powderize.Na+ Structure: Cubic (NaCl) Composition Ingredient CaCO3 Cu(C2H3O2)2·H2O NaHCO3 Mole % 100 0. 1389 (1970). The relative heights of the two emission bands depend on the preparation conditions.. Fire in open quartz boats. Lehmann. 2. Soc. A.5 By weight (g) 100 0. 1. Electrochem. 1000ºC. ++ (3. Fire in covered alumina crucibles. Absorption (%) 100 Emission . Optical Properties Emission color: Light blue Emission peak: 2. 100 sec to 1/10. Mix by dry grinding.. Powderize.. add solution to the CaCO3.Eu electroluminescent phosphors.CaS:Cu+.40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: ++/16% Decay: Non-exponential decay. Alkaline earth sulfide phosphors activated by copper.83 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4. W. Powderize. J. CaS-Cu. Dry. 199 (1960).

1200ºC.088 ~1 Preparation Mix the CaCO3 and the Eu2O3. 4. Br. Optical Properties Emission color: Red Emission peak: 1. 2. Cl). Powderize.40 eV by addition of Sn (see CaS:Sn. Powderize. also ~ 2–3 g of sulfur.91 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0. – (3. Cl in the above recipe can be replaced by F. 3. Store in a well-closed container.F) or by pB (see CaS:Pb). 2.40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: ++/10% (can be improved to ~16% by the addition of Ce. 1 hour.CaS:Eu2+ Structure: Cubic (NaCl) Composition Ingredient CaCO3 Eu2O3 NH4Cl Mole % 100 0. Phosphor can be sensitized for excitation by 3.05 (of Eu) ~2 By weight (g) 100 0. first 1 hour in N2 and then 1 hour in H2S. H2.20 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4. 1100ºC. 1. Add the above amount of NH4Cl. or I. Absorption (%) 100 Emission . Fire in capped quartz tubes. Decay: Non-exponential decay in the microsecond range Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Remarks 1. Fire in open quartz boats. see CaS:Ce3+. This phosphor has a very characteristic pink body color due to the combined actions of the broad blue to yellow absorption band and the red fluorescence. Decay time after excitation by an e-beam pulse can be reduced to ~300 nsec by addition of Co. Mix by dry grinding.88 eV).

6..24 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4. Powderize. 2. 275 (1972). 118. Add the above amount of NH4Cl. Optimum efficiency of cathodoluminescence of inorganic phosphors. and Ryan. A. 102. W. 6. Fire in open quartz boats. 561 (1951). Soc..11 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0. – (3.. Z. P. Z. The emission peak position depends slightly upon the used Eu concentration. This phosphor or modifications of it have found applications in CR tubes and for correction in arc lamps.. Lehmann.. Powderize. This phosphor is efficiently luminescent up to ~300ºC. 4.M. and Ryan. Naturforsch. Powderize. Oxidation states of europium in the alkaline earth oxide and sulfide phosphors. Wachtel. 3.Eu electroluminescent phosphors. 118. N2. Electrochem. Electrochem. Lehmann.. 1 hour. Brauer.. 199 (1960). Soc. J. 2. Pt. Cathodoluminescence of CaS-Ce3+ and CaS-Eu2+ phosphors J..115 ~1 Preparation Mix the CaCO3 and the MnCO3. 107. 119. W. Partial or complete replacement of the Ca by Sr causes the emission to sift to higher energy (= shorter wavelength). 3. J.5. 1 hour. W. 1100ºC. 1. Lehmann. Soc..88 eV). Soc. Electrochem.40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: ++/16% Decay: Near-exponential decay with ~8 msec to 1/10 . F.M. 233 (1957). CaS-Cu.1 ~2 By weight (g) 100 0. F. A. 1164 (1971). 1 hour. Fast cathodoluminescent calcium sulfide phosphors. 8. Optical Properties Emission color: Yellow Emission peak: 2. H2S. J. Fire in capped quartz tubes. 518 (1955). 12. Jaffe. and ~ 2–3 g of sulfur. Soc. Electrochem. Fire in open quartz boats.. H2S.M. Naturforsch Pt A. Store in a well-closed container. Electrochem. CaS:Mn2+ Structure: Cubic (NaCl) Composition Ingredient CaCO3 MnCO3 NH4Cl Mole % 100 0.. P. and Banks. 6. J.. 477 (1971). 5. 1100ºC. References 1. E. and Uber eu-ionen in erdalkalioxyden und erdalkali-sulfiden. Mix by dry grinding.. 7. 1200ºC.

3. and Era. Soc. 118. Electrochem. Levshin.. and Mikhaylin. Sensitization by bismuth of the luminescence of manganese and samarium in calcium sulfide phosphors.. References 1.. S. 30... J. It serves only as a flux and can be replaced by F. The Cl in the above recipe is not a co-activator. W. 5. Activators and co-activators in calcium sulfide phosphors. Lehmann. V. Lumin. Lehmann. – (3. Optimum efficiency of cathodoluminescence of inorganic phosphors. J. B. W. 4. Soc..55 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0. 1164 (1971). K. Budapest (1966). V. 87 (1972).. The emission peak position depends slightly on the Mn concentration used.. or I. 518 (1957). CaS:La3+ Structure: Cubic (NaCl) Optical Properties Emission color: Blue-greenish Emission peak: 2. Shionoya. 4.L. 2.. 2. 3. the Mn2+ emission is fairly strong between about 1 ppm and 5% of Mn/Ca. The Mn concentration is not critical.V. Partial or complete replacement of Ca by Sr shifts it towards green (see SrS:Mn2+).40 eV) Absorption (%) 100 Emission . Lumin. Intern Conf..88 eV).42 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4. Br.Spectra 800 700 600 500 400 Wavelength (nm) 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Remarks 1. Partial (up to 10%) replacement of the Ca by Mg shifts the emission from yellow to orange-red. Chem. Paper 111. Jpn.

N2. 2.5 Preparation Start from purest CaCO3. Fire in capped quartz tubes. Fire in open quartz boats.88 eV). 1200ºC.Spectra 800 700 600 500 400 Wavelength (nm) 300 100 Emission 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Reference 1.39 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0. Add ~1g of NH4Cl. and ~ 2–3 g of sulfur. Powderize.22 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4. 1 hour. Lumin. 87 (1972). Store in a well-closed container.045 1. Powderize. CaS:Pb2+. Activators and co-activators in calcium sulfide phosphors. Mix by dry grinding. 3. and ~ 2–3 g of sulfur. H2S.40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: 15–17% Decay: Non-exponential decay in the microsecond range. decay to be shortened to about 250 nsec (to 1/10) by addition of a trace of cobalt .Cl Structure: Cubic (NaCl) Composition Ingredient CaCO3 PbO NH4Cl Mole % 100 0. N2. Powderize. Convert to CaS by one of the following methods 1...02 3 By weight (g) 100 0. another 2 g of NH4Cl. 1200ºC. Fire in capped quartz tubes. Lehmann. Add the above amount of PbO. 5. Optical Properties Emission color: Near-UV Emission peak: 3. 1 hour. Mix by dry grinding. 1100ºC. + (3. W. J.

1164 (1971). Normal luminescent-grade CaCO3 is not pure enough.22 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4.. Lumin. 2. 118. A. 5. Status Solidi B. Electrochem.. Lehmann. 82. J. J. The NH4Cl in the above recipe can be replaced by NH4Br. Electrochem. Lehmann.F. Fast cathodoluminescent calcium sulfide phosphors. F. This phosphor has limited application as UV emitter in CR tubes.. Preparation requires purest starting materials. 275 (1972).88 eV). and Ryan. Contamination by Mn as low as 1 ppm will cause appearance of the yellow Mn2+ emission. 3. W.. Luminescence of Pb2+ and Bi3+ centers in alkali-earth sulfides and oxides.40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: ++ Absorption (%) 100 Emission . Soc. References 1. Fluoride is much less effective. and Activators and co-activators in calcium sulfide phosphors. 87 (1972). + (3. W. 119.. 2. J. Ellervee.Spectra 800 700 600 500 400 Wavelength (nm) 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Remarks 1. Phys.M. CaS:Pb2+ Structure: Cubic (NaCl) Optical Properties Emission color: UV Emission peak: 3. 91 (1977). Optimum efficiency of cathodoluminescence of inorganic phosphors.39 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0. Soc. 3...

N2. Status Solidi B.. Optical Properties Emission color: Red-orange (not the yellow of CaS:Mn2+ without Pb) Emission peak: 2. Soc. and Ryan.28 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4. Powderize.Spectra 800 700 600 500 400 Wavelength (nm) 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 References 1. Electrochem. W.Mn2+ Structure: Cubic (NaCl) Composition Ingredient CaCO3 MnCO3 PbO NH4Cl Mole % 100 0. J. F. (1977). 5..M. CaS:Pb2+. Luminescence of Pb2+ and Bi3+ centers in alkali-earth sulfides and oxides. Mix by dry grinding.. H2S. Electrochem. 3.04 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0. Lumin. 275 (1972).575 0.5 0. 118. Lehmann. Lehmann. 87 (1972).88 eV). 1 hour. Powderize. 82. Phys. Store in a well-closed container. 1200ºC.. Fire in open quartz boats. Soc. 1164 (1971). 1100ºC.3 2 By weight (g) 100 0. W. 119. 2.670 ~1 Preparation First mix only the CaCO3 and MnCO3. Add the above amounts of PbO and NH4Cl. J. 4.40 eV) Absorption (%) 100 Emission . Activators and co-activators in calcium sulfide phosphors. and also ~ 2–3 g of sulfur. Lehmann. 1 hour. Fire in capped quartz tubes. + (3.F. 1. A. J. 2. Optimum efficiency of cathodoluminescence of inorganic phosphors.. Fast cathodoluminescent calcium sulfide phosphors.. W. Ellervee. 91...

Mix by dry grinding. mainly two line groups in the blue-green and in the red. 3. Store in a well-closed container. 1100ºC.Cl Structure: Cubic (NaCl) Composition Ingredient CaCO3 Pr2O3 PbO NH4Cl Mole % 100 0.5 msec to 1/10 Absorption (%) 100 Emission . 1 hour.Pb2+.02 ~2 By weight (g) 100 0.05 eV in the IR Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4. 1200ºC.85 eV.88 eV). Fire in capped quartz tubes. N2. 1100ºC. Add the above amount of PbO and also ~ 2–3 g of sulfur. H2S. H2. also present (not shown in figure below) a strong line at 1. respectively. Powderize.045 ~1 Preparation First mix only the CaCO3 and MnCO3.40 eV) Decay: Exponential decay. ++ (3. Powderize. CaS:Pr3+. 1 hour. Optical Properties Emission color: Pale greenish-pink Emission peak: 1.Spectra 800 700 600 500 400 Wavelength (nm) 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Remark The Mn2+ emission shifts to lower energy (+ longer wave lengths) with increasing Pb concentration. 1.1 0. Fire in open quartz boats. 2. Add the above amount of NH4Cl and also ~ 2–3 g of sulfur. 2. 1 hour. Fire in capped quartz tubes. Mix by dry grinding.50 eV.165 0. about 0.

5.. J.Spectra 800 700 600 500 400 Wavelength (nm) 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Remark The intensity ratio of the two visible line groups is very sensitive to the details of the preparation and excitation. W. 87 (1972). Lehmann. Reference 1. Lumin.27 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0. W. Activators and co-activators in calcium sulfide phosphors.88 eV). Lehmann. 87 (1972).. J.. Absorption (%) 100 Emission Absorption (%) 100 Emission . – (3. 5.40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: ++ Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 References 1. Activators and co-activators in calcium sulfide phosphors. Lumin.. CaS:Sb3+ Structure: Cubic (NaCl) Optical Properties Emission color: Yellow-green Emission peak: 2.44 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4.

J. Soc. H2S. Fire (purest CaCO3 only) in open quartz boats. 1.5 sec to 1/10) followed by a long but weak phosphorescence tail Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Absorption (%) 100 Emission . Powderize. 3. 35. 1164 (1971).. Ca(S-Se)-Sb3+ phosphors. Add the above amount of Sb2O3 + NaHCO3. Optical Properties Emission color: Yellow-green Emission peak: 2.145 0. Phys.1 (of Sb) 1 By weight (g) 100 0. N.2. and also ~ 2–3 g of sulfur. Luminescence centers of Ca(S-Se) phosphors activated with impurity ions having s-2 configuration.44 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4. Jpn. 2. Powderize. Yamashita. Lehmann. CaS:Sb3+. W. J.27 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0. 1300ºC.. Store in a well-closed container. Optimum efficiency of cathodoluminescence of inorganic phosphors. Fire in covered alumina crucibles. 1 hour..88 eV). 1 hour.840 Preparation 1. 1089 (1973).40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: 18% Decay: Exponential decay (~1.. N2. Mix by dry grinding. – (3. 118. Electrochem. 1100ºC. Soc.Na Structure: Cubic (NaCl) Composition Ingredient CaCO3 Sb2O3 NaHCO3 Mole % 100 0.

Optical Properties Emission color: Orange-yellow Emission peak: Strongest lines at 2. also present (not shown in figure below) two strong lines at 1. Fire in open quartz boats.0175 ~1 Preparation First mix only the CaCO3 and Sm2O3. 1100ºC. 2. 35. Optimum efficiency of cathodoluminescence of inorganic phosphors. Lumin. Fire in open quartz boats.23 eV. – (3.07.. and 2. 118. W. J.34 and 1. first in N2. 3. N2..01 (of Sm) ~2 By weight (g) 100 0.References 1. Electrochem. Store in a well-closed container..38 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4. 1. Lehmann. Lehmann. 1200ºC. 1. Mix by dry grinding. N. Add the above amount of Na4Cl and also ~ 2–3 g of sulfur. CaS:Sm3+ Structure: Cubic (NaCl) Composition Ingredient CaCO3 Sm2O3 Na4Cl Mole % 100 0. Ca(S-Se)-Sb3+ phosphors. Luminescence centers of Ca (S-Se) phosphors activated with impurity ions having s-2 configuration. Yamashita. Powderize. Phys. ~10 msec to 1/10 Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Absorption (%) 100 Emission . Soc. 1100ºC. 1164 (1971). H2S. 1 hour. 2..20. 2.40 eV) Decay: Exponential decay. Powderize. Soc. J. W. 5..04. Fire in capped quartz tubes. 1089 (1973).. Powderize.88 eV). Jpn. ~ 1 hour and then in H2S for 1 hour. 3. 1 hour. Activators and co-activators in calcium sulfide phosphors. J. 2. 87 (1972).

Lehmann.40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: + Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 References 1. C Solid State.. N.. 41. Lumin.F Structure: Cubic (NaCl) Composition Ingredient CaCO3 SnS CaF2 Mole % 100 0.30 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0. ESR of 2s ½-state centers in CaS:Sn3+.. Phys.135 0.. Yamashita. Jpn.Remark Phosphor can be sensitized for excitation by 3. Activators and co-activators in calcium sulfide phosphors. 5. J. Soc. W.. 536 (1976). J. Luminescence-centers of Ca(S:Se):Sn2+ phosphors. Lehmann. CaSe:Sn3+ and CaSe:Pb3+.5 By weight (g) 100 0. CaS:Sn2+. and Asano. 5.40 eV UV by addition of Sn (see CaS:Sn2+). 87 (1972). Reference 1.. Phys. 2. CaS:Sn2+ Structure: Cubic (NaCl) Optical Properties Emission color: Yellow-greenish Emission peak: 2. J.. Yamashita. S..50 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4. Lumin. 87 (1972). W. ++ (3. Activators and co-activators in calcium sulfide phosphors. S.1 0. 3. L65 (1976). and Asano.88 eV). J. N. 9..390 Absorption (%) 100 Emission .

Lumin. Activators and co-activators in calcium sulfide phosphors. Phys. 1100ºC. S.29 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4. J. S. Luminescence-centers of Ca(S.30 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0. Soc..88 eV). 1200ºC.. W.40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: ~4% Decay: Non-exponential decay of about 1 msec to 1/10 Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 References 1.88 eV).Preparation 1. Yamashita. Mix by dry grinding.50 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4. 41. J. Phys. N. Store in a well-closed container. Lehmann.40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: + Absorption (%) 100 Emission . L65 (1976). 1 hour. Yamashita. CaSe:Sn3+ and CaSe:Pb3+. 2. and Asano. Jpn. N. 536 (1976). Fire in plain CaCO3 in open quartz boats.. – (3.Se):Sn2+ phosphors. 1 hour.. 5. 2. Powderize. 87 (1972). ++ (3. Optical Properties Emission color: Pale yellow-green Emission peak: 2. H2S.. N2. 3. Fire in capped quartz tubes.. C Solid State.26–2. Add the above amount of SnS and CaF2 and about 2–3 g of sulfur. Esr of 2s ½-state centers in CaS:Sn3+. and Asano. 9.. CaS:Tb3+ Structure: Cubic (NaCl) Optical Properties Emission color: Green Emission peak: 2. J. Powderize.

Lehmann.Spectra 800 700 600 500 400 Wavelength (nm) 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Reference 1.40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: Relatively poor Decay: Exponential decay.26 and 2. Activators and co-activators in calcium sulfide phosphors. N2. H2S. Powderize. 3. 1 hour. 1100ºC. CaS:Tb3+. 5. 1 hour.6 msec to 1/10 Absorption (%) 100 Emission .88 eV). W. Powderize. N2.. ~ 3. 1200ºC. Add the above amount of NH4Cl. Optical Properties Emission color: Pale green Emission peak: Strongest lines a doublet at 2.187 ~1 Preparation Mix the CaCO3 and the Tb4O7. – (3.1 (of Tb) ~2 By weight (g) 100 0. Lumin. also ~ 2–3 g of sulfur.Cl Structure: Cubic (NaCl) Composition Ingredient CaCO3 Tb4O7 NH4Cl Mole % 100 0. Fire in plain CaCO3 in open quartz boats. Powderize. Fire in capped quartz tubes. J.. 1 hour. Fire in capped quartz tubes. 87 (1972). 1200ºC. 1. Store in a well-closed container. Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4. Mix by dry grinding. 2.29 eV.

87 (1972).Spectra 800 700 600 500 400 Wavelength (nm) 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Reference 1. Absorption (%) 100 Emission . Activators and co-activators in calcium sulfide phosphors. J. Lumin.88 eV).. Lumin. 5. CaS:Y3+ Structure: Cubic (NaCl) Optical Properties Emission color: Bluish Emission peak: 2. 87 (1972). W..40 eV) Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 100 Emission 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Reference 1..78 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4. Lehmann. Lehmann. J.80 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0. 5.. Activators and co-activators in calcium sulfide phosphors. – (3. W.

40 eV) Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Reference 1.Cl Structure: Cubic (NaCl) Composition Ingredient CaCO3 Yb2O3 NH4Cl Mole % 100 0. Powderize. Activators and co-activators in calcium sulfide phosphors. CaS:Yb2+.88 eV). 5.66 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0.197 ~1 Preparation Mix the CaCO3 and the Tb4O7. J. N2. 1 hour.1 (of Yb) ~2 By weight (g) 100 0. Absorption (%) 100 Emission . 1.30 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4. 2. Mix by dry grinding. Add the above amount of NH4Cl and also ~ 2–3 g of sulfur. Lehmann. ++ (3. 1 hour. H2S. 87 (1972). 1 hour. Powderize. 3.. Powderize. 1200ºC. 1200ºC. N2. Fire in capped quartz tubes. W.. Fire in capped quartz tubes. Fire in plain CaCO3 in open quartz boats. 1100ºC. Store in a well-closed container. Lumin.CaS:Yb2+ Structure: Cubic (NaCl) Optical Properties Emission color: IR Emission peak: 1.

66 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0.. 432 (1983).. Absorption (%) 100 Emission .20 eV.88 eV).40 eV) Decay: Non-exponential decay in the 20–50 sec range Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Reference 1.47 eV – or 2. Soc. 87 (1972).Optical Properties Emission color: Very deep red Emission peak: 1. Okamoto. Lehmann. W.. Electrochem. 130. 2. 2. ++ (3. J.. and Kato. SrS:Ce3+ Structure: Cubic (NaCl) Optical Properties Emission color: Blue-green Emission peak: 2. K. Lumin..56 eV in cathodoluminescence Excitation efficiency by UV: + (4. Preparation and cathodoluminescence of CaS-Ce and Ca1-xSrxS-Ce phosphors. 5.88 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: + Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 100 Emission 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Reference 1. F. Activators and co-activators in calcium sulfide phosphors. J.30 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4.3 eV.

H2S.. Reference 1. 1 hour. Dry. This phosphor shows exceptionally long and strong phosphorescence after excitation by UV. ++ (3. silver.. Soc. and gold.SrS:Cu+. 1200ºC. powderize. 2. 1389 (1970). J. Store in a well-closed container. Electrochem. Optical Properties Emission color: Green Emission peak: 2. Lehmann. 117. add this solution to the SrCO3.1 2 By weight (g) 148 0.88 eV).68 Preparation Dissolve the copper sulfate and the NaHCO3 together in a little water.40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: ++/ Very efficient Decay: Non-exponential decay in the 10 sec range followed by long phosphorescence Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Remarks 1. Make a uniform slurry in water or methanol. Powderize. Alkaline earth sulfide phosphors activated by copper. Na in the above recipe cannot be replaced by other alkalies. Absorption (%) 100 Emission . Fire in open alumina boats.31 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4.Na Structure Cubic (NaCl) Composition Ingredient SrCO3 CuSO4·5 H2O NaHCO3 Mole % 100 0. W.33 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0.250 1.

2.SrS:Eu2+ Structure: Cubic (NaCl) Composition Ingredient SrCO3 Eu2O3 NH4Cl Mole % 100 0. Optical Properties Emission color: Orange-red Emission peak: 2.176 1 Preparation First mix only the SrCO3 + Eu2O3.1 (of Eu) 2 By weight (g) 148 0.40 eV excitation by addition of ~0. 2. + (3.26 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4. 1 hour. Add the above amount of NH4Cl. Powderize. Powderize. The Cl in the above recipe may be replaced by F.03 mol% of Pb. Br. also ~ 2–3 g of sulfur. Absorption (%) 100 Emission . N2. 1. Fire in capped quartz tubes. 3.88 eV). Fire in open quartz boats. or I.40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: + Decay: Decay in the microsecond range Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Remarks 1. 1 hour. This phosphor can be sensitized for efficient 3. H2S. The characteristic orange body color of this phosphor is caused by the blue to green absorption band and by the orange-red emission excited by ambient light. Store in a well-closed container. Mix by dry grinding. 1100ºC.00 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0. 1100ºC.

540 Preparation First mix only the SrCO3 + MnCO3. Reference 1. 1100ºC. This also shifts the emission band peak to ~2. Fire in open quartz boats. 1 hour. Technical University of Berlin (1959).23 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4. Mix by dry grinding. Powderize. Fire in capped quartz tubes.245 eV. Powderize. 1100ºC.03 mol% of Pb.1 1 By weight (g) 148 0.40 eV excitation by addition of ~0. Sorge. + (3. Optical Properties Emission color: Yellow-green Emission peak: 2. 3. Absorption (%) 100 Emission . H2S. 1000ºC. Fire in open quartz boats. 1.88 eV). H2S. Powderize. 1 hour. O. 1 hour. Add the above amount of NH4Cl and also ~ 2–3 g of sulfur. Thesis.40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: +/Fairly efficient Decay: Exponential decay requiring ~4 msec to 1/10 Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Remark Phosphor can be sensitized for efficient 3. Store in a well-closed container.. N2. 2.115 0.SrS:Mn2+ Structure: Cubic (NaCl) Composition Ingredient SrCO3 MnCO3 NH4Cl Mole % 100 0.28 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0.

Replacement of K by Na gives near-dead material. or P gives slightly different emission spectra. Lehmann. Store in a well-closed container.690 Preparation Dissolve the Au in a little (as little as possible) aqua regia and the K2CO3 in a little water. 117.. 700ºC. Alkaline earth sulfide phosphors activated by copper.88 eV). H2S. Do not. 1 hour. Cs. 2. Replacement of K in the above recipe by Li. 2. Reference 1. 1 hour. Fire in open alumina boats. F. stir to uniformity.93 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0.K Structure: Cubic (NaCl) Composition Ingredient BaSO4 Au-metal K2CO3 Mole % 100 0. W. This material is very hygroscopic. under any circumstances. . 1389 (1970). Soc. + (3.BaS:Au. Powderize. Fire in open alumina boats. Add both solutions.40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: + Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 100 Emission 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Remarks 1. Optical Properties Emission color: Orange-red Emission peak: 1. 900ºC. J. H2. Powderize. dry and powderize.38 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: + (4. silver. Rb. let it come into contact with water. Make a slurry of the BaSO4 in water or methanol..197 0.1 1 (of K) By weight (g) 233 0. 1. and gold. Electrochem.

7 0. N2.40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: 4. Add the above amount of NaHCO3 and also ~2–3 g of sulfur. 1. Optical Properties Emission color: Bluish Emission peaks: Two overlapping bands ~2. 3.42 and 2. 1 hour. Mix by dry grinding. + (3. Powderize.88 eV).15 Double Sulfides The following host compounds and activators are included in this subsection: CaGa2S4:Ce3+ CaGa2S4:Eu2+ CaGa2S4:Mn2+ CaGa2S4:Pb2+ ZnGa2S4:Mn2+ ZnBa2S3:Mn2+ CaGa2S4:Ce3+ Structure: Orthorhombic Composition Ingredient CaCO3 Ga2O3 CeO2 NaHCO3 Mole % 98 200 (of Ga) 1 1 By weight (g) 98 187 1.840 Preparation First mix only CaCO3 + Ga2O3 + CeO2.68 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4. Fire in covered alumina crucibles. Fire in open quartz boats. 800ºC. Powderize. Fire in open quartz boats. 2. 1 hour.5% . H2S.4. 1 hour. Store in a well-closed container. 800ºC. Powderize. N2. 800ºC.

800ºC. Powderize. 230 (1972). + (3.24 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4.. CaGa2S4:Eu2+ Structure: Orthorhombic Composition Ingredient CaCO3 Ga2O3 Eu2O3 Mole % 99 200 (of Ga) 1 (of Eu) By weight (g) 99 187 1. Peters. Electrochem. J. Soc. dry. J. 1 hour.E. Fire in open quartz boats. 800ºC..22 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0. N2 bubbling through CS2.. and Baglio.76 Preparation Mix by slurrying in water. 1. and powderize. 2. Optical Properties Emission color: Yellow-green Emission peak: 2. Fire in open quartz boats. H2S. T. Reference 1. 119.88 eV).Spectra 800 700 600 500 400 Wavelength (nm) 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Remark This phosphor is slightly unstable in water. Powderize. Luminescence and structural properties of thiogallate phosphors Ce+3 and Eu+2-activated phosphors. 1 hour.A. Store in a well-closed container.40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: 7% Absorption (%) 100 Emission .

119.74 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4.E.C. CaGa2S4:Mn2+ Structure: Orthorhombic Composition Ingredient CaCO3 Ga2O3 MnCO3 Mole % 98 200 (of Ga) 2 By weight (g) 98 187 2. 137 (1974). T. Electrochem. H2S. References 1. Store in a well-closed container. Dry in air. Fire in open quartz boats. Optical Properties Emission color: Deep red Emission peak: 1. Fire in open quartz boats.Se)4.. Powderize..A. Powderize. and Hanlon. N2 loaded with CS2.. 2 hours. 2.. J. Soc.. Powderize when dry. 2. P. and Baglio. J. J.88 eV). 1. 900ºC. Peters.40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: + Absorption (%) 100 Emission . Donohue. Synthesis and photoluminescence of MIIM2III(S. + (3. 1 hour.3 Preparation Mix by slurrying in water. 121. J. 230 (1972).. Soc.Spectra 800 700 600 500 400 Wavelength (nm) 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Remark This phosphor is slightly unstable in water. Electrochem. 800ºC. Luminescence and structural properties of thiogallate phosphors Ce+3 and Eu+2-activated phosphors.E.

800ºC. 1 hour.03 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4. CaGa2S4:Pb2+ Composition Ingredient CaCO3 Ga2O3 PbO Mole % 99 200 (of Ga) 1 By weight (g) 99 187 2. 3. Optical Properties Emission color: Pale whitish-yellow Emission peak: 2. H2S. ++ (3. 1. Fire in capped quartz tubes. 1 hour. 1 hour. 2. Fire in open quartz boats. N2 bubbling through CS2. 800ºC. Powderize. Mix by dry grinding.Spectra 800 700 600 500 400 Wavelength (nm) 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Remark This phosphor is slightly unstable in water.40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: 3.2 Preparation First mix only CaCO3 + Ga2O3. 800ºC. N2. Powderize. Fire in open quartz boats.88 eV). Store in a well-closed container. Add the above amount of PbO and also ~2–3 g of sulfur.5% Absorption (%) 100 Emission .

3. Powderize.Spectra 800 700 600 500 400 Wavelength (nm) 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Remark This phosphor is slightly unstable in water. N2 bubbling through CS2. Powderize. Optical Properties Emission color: Red Emission peak: 1. about 18–20 msec to 1/10 Absorption (%) 100 Emission . 1000ºC. Powderize. 1100ºC. 2. Fire in open quartz boats.92 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0. 1 hour. dry. H2S. and powderize. 800ºC. H2S. Fire in open quartz boats.88 eV).40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: 4% Decay: Exponential decay. 1 hour. ZnGa2S4:Mn2+ Structure: Tetragonal Composition Ingredient ZnS Ga2O3 MnCO3 Mole % 98 200 (of Ga) 2 By weight (g) 96 187 2.3 Preparation Mix by slurrying in water. 1 hour. Fire in open quartz boats. ++ (3. 1.30 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4.

Meeting. ZnBa2S3:Mn2+ Structure: Orthorhombic Composition Ingredient ZnS BaCO3 MnCO3 Mole % 98 200 2 By weight (g) 96 275 2.. A. 700ºC. 92 (May 1974). G. Abstr.F. Powderize. and Smith.935 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0. Fire in open quartz boats. Optical Properties Emission color: Red Emission peak: 1. and powderize. 800ºC. San Francisco. Electrochem. H2. P. 1..3 Preparation Mix by slurrying in water. 1 hour.24 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (3. 1 hour.J. 2. Fire in open quartz boats. H2S.Spectra 800 700 600 500 400 Wavelength (nm) 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Reference 1. dry. Bird. Vecht.40 eV) Excitation efficiency be e-beam: + Absorption (%) 100 Emission .. Soc. Powderize.

J. 93 (May 1974). et al. Absorption (%) 100 Emission .. Vecht. 789 (1973). San Francisco. A.Spectra 800 700 600 500 400 Wavelength (nm) 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Remark This phosphor has been used for DC-EL by A. Meeting. Abstr.. Electrochem. Vecht. References 1. Sci. Vecht. Technol. Vac.. 2. A. Soc. 10. Electroluminescent displays.

E. BaAl2S4:Eu2+ Optical Properties Emission color: Light blue Emission peak: 2. Peters. T.. Soc. J. SrGa2S4:Pb2+ Optical Properties Emission color: Orange Emission peak: 2.21 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: + (4.C.04 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0. Soc. Electrochem. P. 3..50 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0. Luminescence properties of thiogallate phosphors.61 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0. 122.. Synthesis and photoluminescence of MIIM2III(S.88 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: + Reference 1. 98 (1975). Electrochem. Donohue.E.31 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: + (3.16 Miscellaneous Sulfides and Oxysulfides The following host compounds and activators are included in this subsection: SrAl2S4:Eu2+ SrGa2S4:Pb2+ BaAl2S4:Eu2+ SrGa2S4:Ce2+ SrGa2S4:Eu2+ BaGa2S4:Ce3+ BaGa2S4:Eu2+ Y2O2S:Eu3+ Y2O2S:Tb3+ Gd2O2S:Tb3+ SrAl2S4:Eu2+ Optical Properties Emission color: Blue-green Emission peak: 2. Red and white emitting phosphors for flying spot scanner applications.. J.51 eV Excitation efficiency by e-beam: + Reference 1.4.. 137 (1974).40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: + . J. 121. and Hanlon.Se)4.

.20 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (3. J. 3.E. Peters. 98 (1975). Synthesis and photoluminescence of MIIM2III(S.. SrGa2S4:Eu2+ Optical Properties Emission color: Green Emission peak: 2. Peters. Soc. Luminescence properties of thiogallate phosphors.E. Electrochem.C. T. Luminescence and structural properties of thiogallate phosphors Ce+3 and Eu+2-activated phosphors.. Donohue. Electrochem. 119. and Hanlon.53 eV.. J. J.73 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: + (3.E. 2..Se)4. Soc. Soc.. 230 (1972). T.40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: + . 137 (1974). J. and Baglio. 122. Red and white emitting phosphors for flying spot scanner applications..40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: + Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 100 Excitation (%) Emission 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 References 1.A.31 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0. 2..Reference 1. P. SrGa2S4:Ce3+ Optical Properties Emission color: Blue-green Emission peak: 2. 121. J. Electrochem.

230 (1972). Soc..C. 119. 121. Electrochem. 121. Soc. J. 230 (1972). and Baglio. Electrochem.. Synthesis and photoluminescence of MIIM2III(S...Se)4. J. Soc..73 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: + (3.53 eV. Peters. J.Se)4..E. Electrochem.. Donohue.. Donohue. J. Absorption (%) 100 Emission .. BaGa2S4:Ce3+ Optical Properties Emission color: Blue-green Emission peak: 2. 119. J. Luminescence and structural properties of thiogallate phosphors Ce+3 and Eu+2-activated phosphors. J.. 2. Peters. 2. T. Electrochem..E. and Hanlon.40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: + Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 100 Excitation (%) Emission 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 References 1. P. and Baglio. 137 (1974).A. J. Soc. J.Spectra 800 700 600 500 400 Wavelength (nm) 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Reference 1. 137 (1974).E.C. 2.A. T. and Hanlon. Luminescence and structural properties of thiogallate phosphors Ce+3 and Eu+2-activated phosphors.E. Synthesis and photoluminescence of MIIM2III(S.. P.

40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: + Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 References 1.BaGa2S4:Eu2+ Optical Properties Emission color: Blue-green Emission peak: 2.52 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (3. Electrochem. J...40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: ++ Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Absorption (%) 100 Emission Absorption (%) 100 Emission . Soc.E. Y2O2S:Eu3+ Structure: Trigonal Optical Properties Emission color: Orange to red (lines) Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4.A. 121. Donohue. T.C.. J.Se)4. Soc. 2.. 137 (1974). J. Electrochem.. and Baglio. Peters. and Hanlon. + (3. 230 (1972). 119.88 eV). J. Synthesis and photoluminescence of MIIM2III(S. Luminescence and structural properties of thiogallate phosphors Ce+3 and Eu+2-activated phosphors..E. P.

Y2O2S:Tb3+ Optical Properties Emission color: Blue-green Excitation efficiency by UV: + (4.. 124. Soc. Preparation of Y2O2S:Eu phosphor particles of different sizes by a flux method. U. 118 (1970)..88 eV).40 eV) .H. J.26–2.88 eV). Royce. Fonger.. 3. L. W. 2. J.. Electrochem. 3 418 246 (1968). 117. Excitation efficiency by e-beam: ++ (3.. Electrochem. M.S. and Struck..29 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: + (4.R. Soc.References 1.W. Pat. C.40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: ++ Gd2O2S:Tb3+ Optical Properties Emission color: Green Emission peak: 2.. + (3. 413 (1977). Energy loss and energy storage from the Eu3+ chargetransfer states in Y and La oxysulfides. Ozawa.

4 Phosphor Screens by Brushing Phosphor Screens by Settling in a Kasil Solution Phosphor Screens by Cathaphoretic Deposition Filming of Phosphor Screens .Section 5: Preparation of Phosphor Screens 5.1 5.2 5.3 5.

Procedure Place the clean substrate (glass. They are useful but certainly not the only ways of preparing phosphor screens. move the phosphor over the lacquer with a soft hair brush. Try to keep the laquer as uniform in thickness as possible.1 Phosphor Screens by Brushing This method gives excellent. These methods have been tested and used in this laboratory.) on a horizontal surface. 5. . phosphor layers.Section 5 PREPARATION OF PHOSPHOR SCREENS* The following are examples of how to deposit inorganic phosphor powders in thin and uniform layers onto flat surfaces (usually glass). Simultaneously. Lehmann's Phosphor Cookbook. Spray a layer of Krylon-Clear (out of a spray can) onto the substrate. Keep nozzle of the spray can about 5–10 cm over the substrate and spray enough to have the liquid laquer uniformly flowing over the area. Place the substrate. The method is quick and easy and has been extensively used in the laboratory. onto a piece of white paper and some of the phosphor to be coated onto the dry lacquer layer. etc. the lacquer up. thin but dense. Now place all onto an electric hot plate with a flat metal top. Let dry in air. It is especially good for small screens. The lacquer becomes tacky when hot and coats quickly with a very dense yet thin phosphor layer. Heat up the hot plate to a temperature where the paper under the substrate just about turns brown. * This section is from W.

Adv. W. Sr(C2H3O2)2 . 5. Phys. add the weighed amount of phosphor.Take the screen off the hot plate. over the area of the beaker opening.. The phosphor adheres very tightly to the substrate and is not easily damaged. It can easily be burned out by heating in the open air. Zn2SiO4 phosphors give well-adhering screens after 1–2 hours. . and Houston. Prepare two stock solutions. 3% solids Solution B: 1 g Sr acetate. In some cases. Then pour the suspension quickly to the solution A in the beaker. Screen the phosphor through a fine sieve immediately before use (this is an important point). the phosphor will still stick to the substrate but the layer is much softer and easier damaged by accidental touching. 205 (1977). or of Sr silicate from the reaction between parts A and B. R. Dry in air. Decant the excess liquid. Swank. Afterwards. let cool down.K.. Reference 1. face up. 43. however.2 Phosphor Screens by Settling in a Kasil Solution This method gives somewhat less dense (macroscopically) layer than brushing but permits tight thickness control and is easily used for large screens. ZnS-type phosphors react slower and have to stand overnight or longer. into a glass cylinder.. Electron. Cover the beaker and let stand for about 1–24 hours. It is widely in use to prepare phosphor screens for cathode-ray tubes. Lacquer becomes solid. K. a volume equal to that of A. grams per square centimeter.. the organic layer underneath of the phosphor layer cannot be tolerated. Wipe excess loose phosphor particles off with a soft paper tissue. close the upper end of the cylinder with one hand and shake vigorously. Solution A: K-silicate solution in water. Electr. will bind the phosphor to the substrate. Cautiously (as not to damage the still soft phosphor layer) rinse the screen several times in water.* The phosphor settles down during this time and the phosphor layer reacts with the silicate of the solution. * Best reaction times depend on the material. for a few minutes.. About 5–10 mg/cm2 usually is sufficient for most phosphors and purposes. in 1 liter water Pour solution A into the beaker to 20–40% of the volume. Procedure Clean the glass to be coated. Weigh the amount of phosphor to give the desired layer of thickness. The screen is now ready for most applications. J. Reference 1. 2 798 821 (1954). Small amounts of this reaction product. Lehmann.M. 400ºC. Pour solution B. Pat.G. U. Vosburgh.S.. Place it in a sufficiently large beaker.

Reference 1. etc.4 Filming of Phosphor Screens Phosphor layers in commercial CR tubes are backed by a thin metallic Al film which the exciting electrons penetrate to reach the phosphor particles. Soc. Provide a solution of 200 mg MG(NO3)2·H2O in 1 liter methanol. Apply about 100–150 V DC (subtrate = negative). Wash briefly in a solution of about 10 g NaOH (or KOH) + 10 g NaCN (or KCN) in 1 liter water to dissolve the Au film which is no longer needed. 117. Insert the Au-coated substrate and an inert anode (Pt. R. Grosso. .E. Electrophoretic deposition of luminescent materials. 1456 (1970). let the excess phosphor settle. Rinse briefly in water. Current should be about 5–10 mg/cm2.F. Procedure Coat the glass surface to be coated with a very thin. carbon. Distance anode–cathode a few centimeters.. Longer times give thicker but less uniform layers. Electrochem. Keep the solution in suspension by stirring (magnetic stirrer). Pour this solution into a beaker and add a few grams of the phosphor. optically transparent gold layer by evaporation in a vacuum. The Al film provides an optically reflecting rear layer (thus enhancing the output brightness of the tube) and protects the phosphor against damage by ion bombardment from unavoidable gas residues in the tube..) into the upper part of the beaker. Turn off voltage and stirrer.3 Phosphor Screens by Cathaphoretic Deposition This method is used to prepare dense layers of fine-particled phosphors for high-resolution cathode ray screens.. Dry.E. Then take the screen cautiously out of the solution (the phosphor adheres to the substrate even in the absence of any additional binder). and Sargent.. D. J. 5. A very uniform and compact phosphor layer will stick to the substrate within about 10–30 sec. Rinse again in water and then in methanol. P. Rutherford.5.

face up. The cellulose now forms a very thin solid film touching only the tops of the phosphor particles. drop 1–5 drops (depending on the surface area) of the above filming solution onto the water in the beaker. 30 ccm isopropyl alcohol. . 2 ccm octyl acetate. Heat the screen in open air to about 300–400ºC for a few minutes. The cellulose film will burn out leaving behind a shiny Al film.Procedure Place the phosphor screen. The solution will quickly spread over the whole water surface. very thin film of ethyl cellulose floating on the water. It prevents the Al during the subsequent vacuum deposition to penetrate in between the particles. Carefully lift screen out. With an eye dropper. Deposit the Al film by evaporation in vacuum. Add water to cover the screen. Let dry in air. Provide a solution of: 50 ccm ethyl cellulose in amyl acetate (commercial cellulose binder). leaving behind a solid. into a beaker on a metal carrier to permit easy lifting out again. 65 ccm propyl acetate. The solvent evaporates within about 20–30 sec.

Part 2: Additional Developments .

3 Alternative Preparation Methods Combustion Synthesis of Phosphors Preparation of Phosphors by Sol–Gel Techniques .2 6.1 6.Section 6: Phosphor Synthesis 6.

and then co-precipitate forming an intimately commingled starting mixture. an intimate reaction mixture is formed and deposited downstream from the flow. To ensure the proper reactivity between the constituents of the phosphor. The volatile flux often reacts with the starting material and leaves the reaction mixture spontaneously. As the name denotes. and boric acid. the starting materials are dissolved in a solvent. come into contact with each other on an atomic or ionic level. This method is used in cases in which an insoluble salt can be identified for each of the reaction constituents. The use of an interaction medium often results in lower reaction temperatures and allows for the optimization of the grain size of the luminophores being synthesized. Other routes for co-precipitation can involve sulfates or hydroxides. To further facilitate the reaction and to improve the crystallinity of the luminescent materials. As an example. on the order of few mole percent. as the interactive specific surface of the remaining elements increases in these processes. these fluxes are always in the form of a melt. preferably water. volatile and non-volatile. The method of spray drying can also be used to synthesize luminescent materials. the reactants are mixed thoroughly either in dryness or in suspension. Alternatively. the mixture is then heated or fired under an appropriate atmosphere. they generally do not leave the reaction mixture and must be removed by washing with water or other appropriate solvents. The amounts used are typically small. This results in a more reactive mixture. . Reactivity can also be improved by choosing starting materials which are unstable in controlled circumstances. In these processes. In this method. There are two types of fluxes which are used. A suitable flux increases the reactivity of the constituents by dissolving at least one of the reactants and provides a medium to incubate the crystallization of the phosphor. The oxalates obtained in the precipitate can be converted to oxides by heating at a relatively low temperature of 800ºC. A wet co-precipitation method is also being used. Such reactants include the carbonates and the hydroxides which decompose with the emission of CO2 or H2O upon heating the mixture. Examples of salts used for this purpose are Na2MoO4. In this method. The steam heating results in a very fast evaporation of the solvent or water. flux agents or molten salts are often added to provide a more interactive medium for the reaction. Droplets of this solution are then injected into a gas stream and are heated as they are transported downstream. Na2SiO3. Y(NO3)3 and Tb(NO3)3 dissolved in water can be precipitated by the addition of a 2-to-1 solution of oxalic acid dissolved in hot water. Molten salts are used as non-volatile fluxes and generally do not react with the starting materials. Large amounts of the salts are used (up to 30% by weight of the phosphor material). NH4Br. the reactants are generally granular with radii in the micrometer range. and Na4P2O7. through either decomposition or evaporation. the reactants are first dissolved in a solvent.1 Alternative Preparation Methods* The traditional way of preparing phosphors has been by the mix and fire techniques detailed in the earlier sections.Section 6 PHOSPHOR SYNTHESIS 6. AlF3. Commonly used fluxes include NH4Cl. As a result. Na2B4O7. the oxides can also be dissolved directly in hot diluted nitric acid to obtain a treatable precipitate.

grinding and milling) steps. is known as a stoichiometric ratio or composition.The various methods described above pose the advantage of assuring a better and more homogeneous admixture of the reactants to be used in the synthesis and of generally requiring a lower temperature to achieve this synthesis. urea..g. Equation 1 is an example of a stoichiometric combustion reaction of yttrium nitrate. or ammonium perchlorate) and an organic fuel (e. metal nitrates. and carbohydrazide. the advantages of combustion synthesis are in its ability to produce well-crystallized. Rohwer. Later in the mid-1990’s.g. or glycine). and carbohydrazide to form yttrium aluminum garnet. For combustion to occur. as an alternative to time-consuming solid-state reaction and sol–gel processing techniques. CH6N4O. crystalline. 3YN3O9 + 5AlN3O9 + 15CH6N4O YAG(s) + 42N2(g) + 15CO2(g) + 45H2O(g) (1) When complete combustion occurs. exothermic. having a negative enthalpy of reaction ( Hrxn = –3800 kJ/mol). that is the ratio of the oxidizing to reducing components of the metal nitrate-fuel precursor mixture and is defined as: e (coefficie nt of oxidizing elements in specific formula) valency ( 1) (coefficie nt of reducing elements in specific formula) valency (2) *This section was kindly provided by L. it is necessary that a large amount of heat be released during the formation of the products. For oxide phosphors. e. aluminum nitrate. carbohydrazide. Al(NO3)3. fine particle size powders rapidly without extensive high temperature (>1500oC) annealing and mechanical separation (e. several research groups began to investigate the use of combustion synthesis for oxide phosphor preparation4–6 and found it to be a technique of interest for phosphor synthesis in general. A composition of metal nitrates and fuel in which the fuel reacts completely with all of the metal nitrates in the mixture. combustion synthesis has been investigated as a method to produce homogeneous. the only gaseous products.2 Combustion Synthesis of Phosphors* Beginning in the late 1980’s. Grinding has often been implicated in the degradation of luminescent emission intensity through the creation of surface defects that quench the luminescence. are released and no residuals are left in the synthesized YAG material. N2. Y3Al5O12 (YAG). so that no residues remain in the product material.. The reaction of aluminum nitrate. * The above section was kindly provided by Cees Ronda.S. and H2O. Al2O3. is an example of a highly exothermic reaction. fine oxide powders. self-sustaining reactions resulting from the appropriate combination of oxidizers (e. The stoichiometry of metal nitrate-fuel mixtures is expressed in terms of the elemental stoichiometric coefficient. 6.. CO2.1–3 The method produces rapid. to form aluminum oxide. ammonium nitrate.g. .

as noted below. metal nitrates. respectively. these temperatures are clearly much lower than the temperature at which crystallization of the desired phase takes place during conventional processing. and metal cations are considered to be reducing elements and have a negative valence. and Cp is the heat capacity of products at constant pressure. and glycine fuels followed by a heat treatment in air at 1300oC for 1 hour show the effect of flame temperature on the luminescent properties. The fuel alters the energetics and exothermicity of the reaction. For example. In a typical reaction. Combustion reactions using glycine fuel yield amorphous powders or ash which must be annealed to produce crystalline luminescent powders. and ruptures into a flame after about 3–5 minutes. The oxidizer/fuel molar ratio required for a stoichiometric mixture ( e = 1) is determined by summing the total oxidizing and reducing valencies in the oxidizer compounds and dividing by the sum of the total oxidizing and reducing valencies in the fuel compounds. and fuel rich when e < 1.The coefficients of the oxidizing and reducing elements are obtained from the balanced chemical equation for the combustion reaction of metal nitrates and a fuel. oxygen is considered to be the only oxidizing element and has a positive valence while carbon.875 8 (-1) {[1 C (-4)] [6 H (-1)] [4 N 0] [1 O 2]} (3) = 1 and Thus. In these calculations. e Combustion reactions are initiated in a muffle furnace or on a hot plate at temperatures of 500oC or less. the target phase(s) can be achieved with significantly reduced external energy input. or by adjusting the fuel to oxidizer molar ratio so e = 1. in Equation 1. The mixture is stoichiometric when e = 1. it is fuel lean when e > 1. the metal nitrate to carbohydrazide molar ratio is given by: 5 3 {[1 Al (-3)] [3 N 0] [9 O 2]} [1 Y (-3)] [3 N 0] [9 O 2]} 15 8 8 1. For Y3Al5O12 synthesized using carbohydrazide fuel. hydrogen. The photoluminescence emission spectra of YAG:Cr phosphors produced with carbohydrazide. the metal nitrate to carbohydrazide molar ratio = 1. Thus.875 is needed to obtain complete combustion of all components. urea. The maximum . Hess’ law can be used to approximate the adiabatic flame temperature for a combustion reaction: Tf To Hr Cp Hp (4) where Hr and Hp are the enthalpies of formation of the reactants and products. decomposes. Stoichiometric mixtures are reported to produce maximum energy. The chemical energy released during the exothermic reaction between the metal nitrates and fuel can rapidly heat the system to a high temperature (>1800oC) and sustain that high temperature in the absence of an external heat source. The flame temperature can also be increased by adding excess oxidizer such as ammonium nitrate. Powders obtained from combustion reactions with urea or carbohydrazide fuels are luminescent in the as-synthesized state. The type of fuel and the fuel to oxidizer ratio affect the adiabatic flame temperature. Tf. and provides a method to increase or decrease the adiabatic flame temperature. Y(NO3)3 and Al(NO3)3 are oxidizers and the reducing agent is CH6N4O. and fuel boils. the precursor mixture of de-ionized water. Nitrogen is considered to be neutral. dehydrates. The resultant product appears as a porous foam.

This is especially true in low-voltage applications such as in the field emission displays of current interest.. 6. are affected by the flame temperature of the reaction. and Sluzky. McKittrick. Lower temperature and shorter sintering periods give rise to smaller grain size particles. Soc.A. E. Shea. in the wet method. 10. Chem. 6. Lopez. The quality of the displays depends on the nature of the powders used. K. A novel combustion process for the synthesis of fine particle alpha-alumina and related oxide materials. 6. Am. and Patil. The photoluminescence intensity increases for powders obtained from reactions that reached higher flame temperatures. Mater.3 Preparation of Phosphors by Sol–Gel Techniques* 6. al. Sci. 79. 5. such as crystallite size or and degree of disorder of the local environment at the activator ions.. and 1210oC. The grain size of phosphors prepared via solid-state chemical reactions depends on the temperature and the length of the sintering process. L. J. References 1. Alloys Cmpds.A. J..E. 1780. Kingsley. . 905 (1995). J. urea. The addition of a NH4(OH) or oxalic acid causes the metallic hydroxides or oxalates to precipitate from the mixture. wet methods of preparation are often used.. E. 4. lower energy electrons do not penetrate into phosphor grains very deeply. Combustion synthesis of yttria. In these devices. Lett.. Preparation. Chick. et al. The flame temperature is also controlled by the fuel to oxidizer ratio of the particular fuel used. 6 (1990). Synthesis of red-emitting. S.J. Ekambaram. respectively. and glycine were 1825. 25. and Patil. K. Kingsley. et... Mater. J. and Patil.1 Introduction Phosphors used for most emissive display devices are in the form of powders. The integrated photoluminescence intensity is a maximum for reactions at or near stoichiometry.. but both the crystallinity and grain uniformity are poor if the treatment parameters are such as not to allow the chemical reaction to be completed. aqueous solutions of specific constituent metallic salts are employed. O.. fine and uniform powders with good crystallinity are generally preferred. Glycine nitrate combustion synthesis of oxide ceramic powders. Zych. the ingredients of the precipitate are in contact with each other at a molecular level and an efficient chemical reaction normally occurs.. 3. small particle size luminescent oxides used an optimized combustion process.. Jia. 2.3. Lett.C. Mater. K. This is an indication that certain properties of the resulting powders....C.flame temperatures during reactions with carbohydrazide.. To resolve this problem. 8 (2001). and in order to maintain efficiency the size of phosphor grains has to be reduced to reflect this fact..J. J. 1305 (1990). 427 (1988). 323-324. J. Ceram. x-ray analysis and spectroscopic investigation of nanostructured Lu2O3:Tb.. 3257 (1996).C. K. L. Mater.. 5. J.. in these cases. *This section was kindly provided by W. Suresh. Combustion synthesis of fine-particle metal aluminates.

otherwise cracks and striations will appear in the samples. Through the use of the appropriate reagents. This "contamination" does not enter into the lattice and will not affect the intrinsic optical properties of the phosphor. Different . (b) Nanophases can be obtained by phase aggregation from doped SiO2 or other matrices during thermal treatments. for example. 2. and powderized as in other traditional methods. (c) Processing temperature can be very low. The sol–gel method is advantageous inasmuch as thin films or coatings of the phosphor can be formed on substrates directly and/or the sol–gel can be molded into designated forms. This allows the doping of fragile organic and biological molecules into porous inorganic materials and the fabrication of organic– inorganic hybrid materials. To obtain powder or ceramic samples. These metalorganic alkoxides either are in liquid form or are soluble in certain organic solvents. The drying and annealing processes have to be slow and deliberate. Willi Lehmann reported in 1975 that very efficient luminescence was observed in. powderizing may be used and trace of foreign particles can be mix in. The technique has the following disadvantages: 1. The sol–gel technique presents the following advantages: (a) High homogeneity of the chemical composition of the materials produced occurs. Br. A kind of metalorganic compounds. contributions to the optical spectra of these materials from inhomogeneous sources are generally expected to be smaller than those encountered in unordered systems. and NH4Cl. which are commonly used in ceramic technology and contaminate the end products. (d) The microstructure (porosity and size of pores) of the materials can be controlled.The sol–gel method of phosphor preparation is regarded as a wet method. In cases where phosphor powders are prepared by the sol–gel method. or I). the processes hydrolysis and gelation can be induced to produce homogeneous gels from the mixture of alkoxides. It is difficult to completely remove the residual hydroxyls from the sol–gel materials. what he called. No "local" concentration quenching will occur because of impurity clustering. The sol–gel method has been widely used to prepare a number of phosphors10-12 for displays and other materials that are of technical importance. For example. known as alkoxides of metals. (e) Thin films and multi-layers coatings of sol–gel materials can be readily prepared by spinning or dipping methods during the gelation period. Because of the better homogeneity. such as B2O3. prepared by a solid-state reaction. the geletion process then proceeds as before. Molecule-level-homogeneous multi-component materials can be obtained. H3BO3. To get rid of these organic groups. is used as precursors. Fluxes. No milling and grinding are needed.14-17 There are two ways to prepare such nanophosphor composites: (a) Alkoxide solutions of the phosphor are prepared from the appropriate precursors and then blended into the sol of SiO2 (or other matrixes). Nano-scale uniform pores can be obtained at intermediate processing temperature while high-density materials can be produced with higher annealing temperature. samples have to be annealed above 1000°C and this may produce undesirable side effects. sintered. processes are known to contaminate samples. the gels can be baked.13 These materials are similar to those found in the nanoclusters in SiO2 which have been developed recently via the sol–gel method described in the first section. and higher doping concentration becomes possible. (b) High uniformity of doping ions distribution exists. are no longer needed. heterogeneous materials. such as SiO2:CaX2-Eu2+/Mn2+ (where X = Cl. (f) The sol–gel procedures produce little unintentional contamination.

They react readily but are not soluble in water. liquid) or TEOS (tetraethoxysilane. 2.4 A mixture of water. gelation.3. when it was "rediscovered" and found to be very useful in synthesizing various materials of practical importance. Graham1 prepared gels of silica from aqueous salts. including hydrolysis. T. into liquid form. These liquid mixtures of the metal alkoxides are stirred for an extended period. liquid) are commonly used. drying. Si(OC2H5)4. The reaction of alkoxides with water is called hydrolysis. These materials are transparent and can be used for displays and laser devices.3 In general. Doping or activator ions are introduced through either using another alkoxide solution or an aqueous solution of the doping ions. is a composite substance consisting of a continuous solid skeletal structure which results from the gelation of the sol. The sol–gel technique was developed as early as 1864. Because the chemical–physical processes involved are similar for all metal alkoxides. A typical reaction goes as: (OR)3-Si-OR + H2O (OR)3-Si-OH + ROH . This acidic solution is added slowly (dropwise) into the precursor alkoxide mixture.nanophosphor embedded glasses have been fabricated with this method. Preparation of precursor solutions The initial raw materials for sol–gel preparations consist of metal alkoxides either in solid or in liquid form (Table 1). such as optical glasses and solidstate laser materials. alcohol.18. silicate-related materials in this case.2 Sol–gel techniques The sol–gel method is a chemical technique that uses metal alkoxides for the synthesis and production of glasses or ceramics through a series of chemical processes.19 6. and thermal treatment. Since then the method has received considerable attention and has been investigated extensively. Hydrolysis 3. on the other hand. Si(OCH3)4. in hydrolysis. and a solid glass or ceramic is produced in this way. similar procedures are applicable to other oxide compounds. the procedure for the preparation of doped SiO2 sol–gel glasses is described. Some alkoxide solutions are commercially available (see Table 1). 1. while M. The potential of the sol–gel process was not appreciated until 1980. if used. A gel. TMOS (tetramethoxysilane. Since the sol–gel method is a wet chemical method. the particles consist of dense oxide or polymetric clusters formed by the precursors and reagents. we use silicon alkoxides as an illustrative example for the preparation of sol–gel materials. and hydrochloric acid (HCl) is prepared so that it has a pH in the range of 2–5. For these matrices. an alkoxide is a metalorganic compound. in which a hydrogen atom belonging to the hydroxyl (OH) group on an alcohol is replaced by a metal atom. HCl acts as a catalyst in this process. Ebelmen2 obtained silica gels from metal alkoxides. a proper solvent is needed to convert solid alkoxides. This solute can be driven from the gel through thermal treatment. on the order of several hours. a mixture of water to alcohol to HCl with pH ~2–5 is added. a solvent such as MeOH (methanol) or EtOH (ethanol) is normally used to produce the precursor solution. As an example. a hydroxyl (OH) group attaches itself to the metal atom by replacing the alkoxide group (OR) in the TMOS or TEOS. a sol is defined as a colloid of solid particles suspended in a liquid. the gel forms cells which encapsulate colloidal liquids. To stimulate hydrolysis.

If the sol– gels are to be doped. an aqueous solution containing the doping ion/ions is also blended in during the hydrolysis step. and R=C2H5 for TEOS. Table 1. Commonly used metal alkoxides and recommended solvents for solids Name aluminum isopropoxide aluminum n-butoxide aluminum sec-butoxide barium ethoxide barium isopropoxide bismuth isopropoxide calcium ethoxide calcium methoxide cerium isopropoxide copper ethoxide dysprosium isopropoxide erbium isopropoxide gadolinium isopropoxide gallium isopropoxide germanium methoxide germanium ethoxide germanium isopropoxide lanthanum isopropoxide lead isopropoxide magnesium methoxide magnesium ethoxide manganese isopropoxide praseodymium isopropoxide tetraethoxysilane (TEOS) tetramethoxysilane (TMOS) strontium isopropoxide titanium(iv) ethoxide titanium(iv) methoxide titanium(iv) isopropoxide tungsten(vi) ethoxide tungsten(vi) isopropoxide yttrium isopropoxide zinc isopropoxide zirconium n-propoxide zirconium n-butoxide Chemical Formula Al(OC3H7i)3 Al(OC4H9n)3 Al(OC4H9s)3 Ba(OC2H5)2 Ba(OC3H7i)3 Bi(OC3H7i)3 Ca(OC2H5)2 Ca(OCH3)2 Ce(OC3H7i)3 Cu(OC2H5)2 Dy(OC3H7i)3 Er(OC3H7i)3 Gd(OC3H7i)3 Ga(OC3H7i)3 Ge(OCH3)4 Ge(OC2H5)4 Ge(OC3H7i)4 La(OC3H7i)3 Pb(OC3H7i)2 Mg(OCH3)2 Mg(OC2H5)2 Mn(OC3H7i)2 Pr(OC3H7i)3 Si(OC2H5)4 Si(OCH3)4 Sr(OC3H7i)2 Ti(OC2H5)4 Ti(OCH3)4 Ti(OC3H7i)4 W(OC2H5)6 W(OC3H7i)6 Y(OC3H7i)3 Zn(OC3H7i)2 Zr(OC3H7n)4 Zr(OC4H9n)4 Solvents isopropanol n-butanol liquid ethanol isopropanol isopropanol ethanol methanol isopropanol ethanol toluene-isopropanol toluene-isopropanol toluene-isopropanol liquid liquid liquid liquid isopropanol isopropanol methanol ethanol isopropanol toluene-isopropanol liquid liquid isopropanol liquid methanol liquid ethanol isopropanol isopropanol isopropanol n-propanol n-butanol .Here R stands for the alkyl (alkylic radical). Hydrolysis can occur with any one of the (OR) groups of the molecule. CnH2n+1. R=CH3 for TMOS.

sol–gel synthesis is carried out at room temperature. If the gradients are too large. the relative concentration of the alkoxide precursors. colloidal silica is formed. Small clusters suspended in the liquid constitute the sol. during gelation. . though both the sol and gel formation rates are known to increase with increasing temperature. With continuing gelation. The solid network retards the escape of the liquid and prevents structural collapse. In our example. Through the gelation process. dissolution. these clusters begin to grow by combining with monomers or other clusters while releasing or condensing water or alcohols. a common solvent such as alcohol is also normally used as a homogenizing agent. Drying by evaporation under normal conditions gives rise to pressure within the pores that causes shrinkage of the gel network. and the pH of the total admixture.3. Pressure gradients develop through the volume of the gels.4 With the proper thermodynamic conditions. In most cases. Silica gels prepared under more normal condition (pH 5–7) and/or higher water contents produce highly branched clusters which behave as discrete species. The final spanning cluster forms a skeletal framework which encloses cells containing the liquid phase (water or alcohol) and defines the gel phase. chains of polymers can cross-link to form three-dimensional clusters. Different metal alkoxides can also coalesce to form "compound" clusters. larger structures are produced by polymerization. and re-precipitation of monomers or oligomers. and solvent. this may cause cracking of the sample. these clusters link together during gelation. Because water and alkoxysilanes are immiscible. so that the networks are compressed more at the surfaces than in the bulk. Gelation is a continuous process in which two partially hydrolyzed molecules begin to connect and intertwine with each other with the release (condensation) of water when in a water solution: (OR)3-Si-OH + HO-Si-(OR)3 (OR)3-Si-O-Si-(OR)3 + H2O Alcohol. Gelation 3. silica gels prepared at low pH (<3) and low water content (less than 4 mol% water per mole of alkoxide) produce primarily linear polymers with low cross-link density. the viscosity and the elastic modulus of the solution increase rapidly. 4. Aging and drying Aging leads to changes in the structure and other properties of the gel. That is through further condensation. Several factors affect the rate of sol and gel formation including the temperature. gelation occurs. water. Additional cross-links form during gelation and the polymer chains become increasingly entangled. Links between clusters keep on multiplying until a giant cluster forms that spans the vessel. At still higher pH and excess water content. Syneresis or spontaneous shrinkage of the network of the gel takes place as bond formation or attraction between clusters induces a contraction of the network and expulsion of liquid from the pores. ROH. is released when an alcohol solution is employed: (OR)3-Si-OR + HO-Si-(OR)3 (OR)3-Si-O-Si-(OR)3 + ROH ROH is an alcohol: ROH=C2H5OH for TEOS and CH3OH for TMOS.

Livage. Brinker.. and then dried gels can be obtained through the procedures of hydrolysis. Ebelmen. 2288. C. 6. J. and drying. 129 (1864). J. Removal of organics takes place by endothermic carbonization near 200°C. a process by which free excess volume is removed by diffusive motion of the network. by 900°C. the alumina becomes phase when annealed at 1200°C. M.. Ann.W. then wet gels. SPIE Sol–gel Optics III. the gel constituents move by viscous flow or diffusion in such a way as to reduce the solid–vapor interfacial areas and hence reduce porosity.. San Diego (1990). G.. Henry. 7..6 5. J. to make Al2O3. and Oton.07 mol of HCl.. J.. 10. New transparent polycrystalline silicate scintillators. 3.. Sol-gel science: The Physics and Chemistry of SolGel Processing. Jayachandran. and Lakshmanan.D.2D2O). 1758. Chim. 100 mol of H2O. Serna. 2. C. followed by exothermic oxidation at temperatures between 300 and 400°C.5. Soc. the exothermic process is suppressed if the gels are heated under inert conditions. Yoldas. Sol-gel coating for optical chemical sensors and biosensors. 745 (1994). Gel glass-dispersed liquidcrystal optical shutters. further evaporation drives the meniscus of the liquids into the bulk and the rate of evaporation decreases.. B. T. Annealing and porosity control Additional treatment of the sol–gel is required to produce pore-free ceramic materials. as described above. Al(OC4H9)3 (see Table 1) can be used.. R. The resulting dried gel is called a xerogel. B. 41 (1983). The condensation (water or alcohol) and pyrolysis reactions that occur during heating liberate a large volume of gas that can generate high pressures. Sol-gel synthesis of cadmium tin oxide powder. 4. Because of low permeability of the small pores in the network. By heating.T.. For the silicate system of our example. SPIE Sol–Gel Optics III.. and Sanchez.M. this may cause cracking when the samples are heated between room temperature and 400°C. and Yen. Vidal. 518 (1994). gellation. these materials are useful as phosphors. 5. and 0. sintering at high temperatures results in densification driven by interfacial energy considerations. 3943. M.. W.. and Scherer.After shrinkage stops. et al. filters.. Bull. 18. D. E.7 References 1. and vapor sensors. Hydrolysis can be conducted at 80°C with 1 mol of aluminum sec-butoxide. W. Am. 27. 9. 286 (1975).L... Solid State Chem. MacCraith. et al. 318 (1864). Structural relaxation. Chem. B. Jia. Chockalingam. . C.2H2O.J. 8.. Graham. M. the gel is completely densified leaving only a trace of silanols (Si-OH). Techniques for other materials Techniques to prepare other oxide and nitride compounds are similar to those used for SiO2. 6. 16.. Phys. Prog. M. SPIE Sol-Gel Optics V. A. The temperature interval 400–525°C represents a region where considerable skeletal densification occurs with little associated weight loss. SPIE Sol-Gel Optics II. Levy.6 As an example. Serrano. Bescher. Phys. A.J. 476 (1992). Academic Press. Soc. is the predominant shrinkage mechanism in this temperature interval.. 2288. 139 (2000). Isotope effects in the multiphonon relaxation of hydrated and deuterated cesium chloro-manganate (CsMnCl3.. Rev. Brundage.. catalytic substrates. 17.S.. Xerogels are useful in the preparation of dense ceramics and are also interesting because of their high porosity and large surface area.E.7 Monolithic transparent -alumina results when an annealing temperature of 500ºC is used.P. 183 (1988).. Ceram. where oxidation is prevented. there is partial densification of the sol–gel.M. At 800°C. 54. Alumina sols.

W. 8... Electrochem. 122. 13. J. J. R.. 18. Lochhead. D. Quintana... Mater. G. W.. Bommersbach..L. and Uhlmann. . 15. Feofilov. Gel-glass dispersed liquid crystal projection display. 12. 311. 2288.. 783 (1996). and Bray. Chem.. C. Proc.R. 16. J. SPIE Sol–gel Optics III.J.. Boulton. K. 11 (2000). Optically active sol-gel microspheres for flat-panel color displays. and Otón. M. 529 (1994). Costa. 17. Rare-earth clustering and aluminum codoping in solgel silica: Investigation using europium(III) fluorescence spectroscopy..P. Levy.L.. K. 748 (1975).A. and Bray.J. J. 572 (1995). Teowee. Fluorescence line-narrowing study of Eu3+-doped Sol-gel Silica: Effect of modifying cations on the clustering of Eu3+. M. Res.Y3+ codoped SiO2 sol-gel glasses. Spectroscopic study of Eu3+doped and Eu3+. Mater. Jia. 536 (1994).11. 2288. V.. Soc.. W. Second-harmonic generation from sol–gel derived ferroelectric and piezoelectric thin films.. Soc.T.. D. 14. 7. Lehmann. Mater. Reisfeld. Opt. H. SPIE Sol–gel Optics II. Jia. Prospects of sol–gel technology towards luminescent materials. SPIE Sol–gel Optica III. Photoluminescence of Eu3+:Y2O3 nanoclusters embedded in SiO2 Glass.M. R. 519. S. Alloys Compds. J. Symp. Liu. 271 (1998). 16... 1758. Rodrigo.. Chem. et al. X... 19.C. and Jiao.J. 292 (1992). Meltzer... W. Pope.M.M. 1 (2001)... E. Mater. Lochhead..

6 7. and Borates Aluminates Halides and Oxyhalides CaS and ZnS-Type Sulfides Other Compounds .Section 7: Other Phosphor Data 7.1 7.3 7.7 Oxides Silicates Phosphates.2 7.4 7.5 7. Halophosphates.

Shozo Oshio.V)O4:Eu Y2O3:Ce Y2O3:Eu (YOE) Y2O3:Eu3+ Y2O3:Tb3+ Y2O3:Ce3+.Al3+ SrY2O4:Eu3+ SrTiO3:Pr3+. Yoshitaka Sato.Gd)2O3:Eu3+ YTaO4 YTaO4:Nb5+ YVO4:Dy3+ ZnGa2O4 ZnGa2O4:Mn2+ ZnO:Bi3+ ZnO:Zn ZnO:Ga. Yoh Mita. Masaaki Tamatani. Lauren E. 7. Luis Carlos.Tb3+ Y2O2S:Eu (Y.Al3+ SrTiO3:Pr3+ Y(P. Ultrafast ZnO-CdO:Ga. Takashi Hase. and Hajime Yamamoto. Shinji Okamoto.Section 7 OTHER PHOSPHOR DATA Information about the following additional phosphors and their properties has been kindly provided (in Lehmann’s format) by Edith Bourret-Courchesne.1 Oxides The following host compounds and activators are included in this subsection: Bi4Ge3O12 CaTiO3:Eu3+ CaTiO3:Pr3+ Gd3Ga5O12:Cr3+ GdNbO4:Bi3+ K2La2Ti3O10:Eu LuTaO4:Nb5+ SrIn2O4:Pr3+. Madis Raukas. Shea-Rowhler. Willi Lehmann (posthumously). Cees Ronda. Weiyi Jia. Dongdong Jia. Ultrafast Zn2SiO4:Mn .

p. The growth atmosphere has to be oxygen. atmospheric environment. R. and Grabmaier. Phosphors for X-ray detectors in computed tomography. The melting point of the single crystal is 1044°C. and Monchamp. and radio frequency induction heating. J. Luminescent Materials.. Appl. Phys. 2. Rossner. 3. The crystals will only be really colorless when the raw materials Bi2O3 and GeO2 have a high purity.. M. Optical Properties Emission peak: 485 nm Excitation efficiency by UV: – (3. (1994). Use a platinum crucible. Springer-Verlag. 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 . References 1.. B. This contribution is from Hajime Yamamoto.88 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: + Decay to 1/e: 0. Luminescence of Bi4Ge3O12: Spectral and decay properties.. and Grabmaier. 2.J. 4.48.. 179.. 29 (1991). R..C..C. W. 44.Bi4Ge3O12 Structure: Cubic Preparation Grow the crystals of Bi4Ge3O12 from stoichiometric melts. J.40 eV). 3. ++ (4. Weber. B. using Czochralski method. 5495 (1973).3 × 10-6 s Spectra 800 700 600 500 400 Wavelength (nm) 300 100 Excitation (%) Emission 50 2 3 Remarks 1. Blasse. Lumin. otherwise the Pt crucible will be attacked. G. The other growth technique of the horizontal Bridgman–Stockbarger method is now popular to prevent growths forming a core. Heidelberg.

1. Rivera. University of Puerto Rico—Mayaguez (2001). Press into pellets. 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Reference 1. 1000 C. 3 hours. 1 hour.40 eV).209 Preparation Mix by dry grinding or milling. This contribution is from Weiyi Jia.01 7.98 0. Master Degree Thesis. Fire in open quartz boats. Grind and press into pellets again. Fire in air.CaTiO3:Eu3+ Structure: Orthorhombic Composition Ingredient CaCO3 TiO2 Eu2O3 B2O3 Mole % 100 100 1 3 By weight (g) 10. Powderize. I. air. – (4.352 0.. 1300 C. 2. .88 eV) Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 100 Excitation (%) Emission 50 2 3 Remarks 1. 2. This compound is known as calcium titanate. Optical Properties Emission color: Red Emission peak: 612 nm Excitation efficiency by UV: + (3.

I. 1300 C. Nashville. air.313 0..H5 3 600 D2. W. Fire in open quartz boats. Solid State Commun. 2. W. 153 (2003). 1000 C.CaTiO3:Pr3+ Structure: Orthorhombic. This contribution is from Weiyi Jia. + (4. 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 References 1. P1 1 3 x50 1 x10 50 P0 3 3 P0 2 3 Remarks 1. Grind and press into pellets again. 1. Rivera. 180 (2000). Jia.. Rivera. Optical Properties Emission color: Red Emission peak: 612 nm Excitation efficiency by UV: + (3. Effects of compositional phase transitions on luminescence of Sr1-xCaxTiO3:Pr3+. 2... Xu.88 eV) Spectra 800 700 D2. This compound is also known as calcium titanate.6H2O B2O3 Mole % 100 100 0.40 eV). 3 hours.98 0.5 3 By weight (g) 10. Fire in air.. Composition Ingredient CaCO3 TiO2 Pr(NO3)3. Proceedings of the Second National Student Conference of NASA URCSC 2000. 2. Powderize. et al. .01 7.H4 3 500 400 Wavelength (nm) 300 100 Excitation (%) Emission 1 I6.209 Preparation Mix by dry grinding or milling. 126. et al. Press into pellets. I. 1 hour.

5 0. IEEE Trans.. Stir well and add the NH4OH solution. and Grabmaier.. and Ostertag.88 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: + Decay to 1/e: 0. Grabmaier. Broad band fluorescence of transition metal doped garnets and tungstates. 69 (1997). 40. Fire in air.. such as water or methanol. and Huber. 31/32. Mater. Co-doping with a small amount of Ce reduces the afterglow. B.. W. M. G. C. 200. 71 (1984). Wash with water to remove the NH4Cl by-product and excess NH4OH. Dry in air.. Alloys Ingredients.. Ball-mill the powder with a grinding media and a liquid vehicle. Leppert. 27. 17 (1993)..2 0..C. Rossner... 4.. J. Reflectivity (%) 100 Emission . J. Sci.5 By weight (g) 100 86. Bodinger. Fire in flowing O2. J.17 × 10-3 sec Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 50 2 3 Remark This contribution is from Hajime Yamamoto. 1500–1550°C.. 2. 2. H. and Duclos. Petermann.. K. Nucl. Sci.6 Preparation Combine the proper amounts of the oxides with some nitric acid to form a precipitate. 2 hours. Blasse. Greskovich.40 eV). S.. The conversion of high energy radiation to visible light by luminescent ceramics.C. The afterglow mechanism of chromiumdoped gadolinium gallium garnet. + (4. 1. Optical Properties Emission color: Red Emission peak: 730 nm Excitation efficiency by UV: – (3. 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 References 1. B. G. Ceramic scintillators. Rev. 900°C for an hour or more. 3.Structure: Cubic (garnet) Composition Ingredient Gd2O3 Ga2O3 Cr2O3 Gd3Ga5O12:Cr3+ Mole % 37. Lumin.5 62. Annu. 376 (1993).

3 hours. U.GdNbO4:Bi3+ Structure: Tetragonal (scheelite) Composition Ingredient Gd2(C2O4)3·10H2O Nb2O5 Bi2O3 Mole % 41. This phosphor has a general formula of Gd1-xBixNbO4 and per above ingredients yields a stoichiometry with x = 0.51 56. 600–800 C. Store in a well-sealed container.51 By weight (g) 15.. 2.646 0. and Fritsch.A. C.S. Powderize when dry. 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 . Pat. 3 767 589 (1973).98 1. Reference 1.. Optical Properties Emission color: Blue Emission peak: 430 nm Excitation efficiency by UV: Broad range. air. 1. Dry in air.03. This contribution is from Madis Raukas. Fire in covered crucible. air.W. 2.350 Preparation Mix by slurrying in acetone or by dry blende. D. 1 hour.701 6. suitable for 2537 Å Excitation efficiency by e-beam: Good Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 100 Emission 50 2 3 Remarks 1. Grisafe. 1350–1650 C. Fire in covered crucible..

air. R. Pat. Fire in covered alumina crucibles. This contribution is from Madis Raukas. Qi. air. Good electroluminescent properties result when this phosphor is intercalated with conductive polymers or metals. U.90 0. and Zhang. Pat. 1100 C.. Pat. R.02 mol Eu per mole of phosphor.19 By weight (g) 6..06 57..40 eV). 4.S. air.. and screen through a 325-mesh stainless steel sieve. R. U. Reddy. U.K. 2 hours. Powderize.63 9.S. Cool to room temperature. Northrop. and Cox.E.. Reddy..88 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: Characteristic emission at about 1. 24 hours. 5 531 926 (1996). 2. 5 567 351 (1996). Pat.. Optical Properties Emission peaks: Lines at 594.B.E...E.S.. Fire in covered alumina crucibles. and Northrop. Pat..S. Excitation efficiency by UV: + (3.72 19. 5 531 928 (1996).Y.141 Preparation Mix stoichiometric amounts in a paint shaker for 30 minutes with about 20 mol% of excess potassium carbonate to compensate for losses due to volatilization. and Karam. Fire in covered alumina crucibles. Fire in covered alumina crucibles.. S. U. Qi. . Y. Karam. V. R. + (4. increasing from 700 C to 1100 C. over 3 hours.E.. 1100 C. 24 hours. 2. 3. Filter. and Karam.B. 3. V. 617. 5 658 495 (1997).. Reddy. and Karam.1 fL level under focused 15 kV/ 8 A excitation Remarks 1. Washed in de-ionized water. R. S. Karam. 700 C.E..59 12. R. R. dry at 130 C... and 702 nm. The described composition yields a concentration of 0.. 4.03 0. 5. References 1.B..Y.. This phosphor in general formulation of K2La2Ti3O10:Eu is another example of materials belonging to intercalation ingredients. air.K. 5 489 398 (1996).K2La2Ti3O10:Eu Structure: Layered perovskite Composition Ingredient K2CO3 TiO2 La2O3 Eu2O3 Mole % 23. J.S. U. R.R. V.Y. Qi.

2. Wash in methanol. In the cases where flux is used. 10–14 hours. using a Freon solvent as grinding medium.Y. and Chen. Fire in alumina containers. 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Reference 1. either by itself or in the presence of 50% Li2SO4. + (4. 2435 (1983). Soc. Electrochem.LuTaO4:Nb5+ Structure: Monoclinic Composition Ingredient Lu2O3 Ta2O5 Mole % — — By weight (g) — — Preparation Mix stoichiometric quantities of the Lu2O3 and Ta2O5. Optical Properties Emission color: Violet Emission peak: 394 nm Excitation efficiency by UV: (3. On the structural and luminescent properties of the M’ LnTaO4 rare earth tantalates. H. air. Ball-mill.40 eV). J.H.. L. leach with water.. . 1. Brixner. 1250°C. air. 8–10 hours. Fire in alumina containers.. 130. 1200°C. Dry at 130°C.88 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: + Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 100 Excitation (%) Emission 50 2 3 Remark This contribution is from Masaaki Tamatani.

88 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: ++ (10eV–1 keV) Decay to 1/e: ~10 µsec Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Remark This contribution is from Shinji Okamoto.SrIn2O4:Pr3+. Optical Properties Emission peak: 2. Powderize.40 eV). 3 hours. 1250 C. Dry in air.64 0.517 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0.900 Preparation Mix by slurrying in ethanol. Fire in aluminum crucibles.007 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: – (3. ++ (4. Store in air. stagnant air. Absorption (%) 100 Emission .340 3.33 277.2 (of Pr) 5 By weight (g) 147.Al3+ Structure: Orthorhombic Composition Ingredient SrCO3 In2O3 Pr6O11 Al(OH)3 Mole % 99.8 200 (of In) 0.

Fire in air.251 Preparation Mix by grinding in a mortar for 30 minutes. 3 hours.238 0.40 eV) Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 100 Excitation (%) Excitation (%) Emission Exc.000 psi. = 611 nm 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) Wavelength (nm) 5 0 800 700 600 500 400 300 100 Emission Exc. Press into pellets again. Fire in air.3 0. = 270 nm Em. Powderize by dry ball-milling.SrY2O4:Eu3+ Structure: Orthorhombic Composition Ingredient SrCO3 Y 2O 3 Eu2O3 H3BO3 Mole % 100 100 1 6 By weight (g) 10 15. 1350 C. 1. 1000 C. ++ (3. 2. = 250 nm Em. 2 hours. Optical Properties Emission color: Red Emission peak: 611 nm Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (2.88 eV). Press into pellets with a hydraulic press machine at 40. = 616 nm 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 .

Y. Optical Properties Emission peak: 2. SrTiO3:Pr3+. 148. Electrochem. ++ (4. High Li+ self-diffusivity and transport number in novel electrolyte solutions. J. et al.2 (of Pr) 5–30 By weight (g) 147. A1352 (2001).009 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0. W.879 0...Al3+ Structure: Cubic Composition Ingredient SrCO3 TiO2 Pr6O11 Al(OH)3 Mole % 99. Soc. Fire in aluminum crucibles. 1300 C..064 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: – (3. 146. S. References 1. Structure and luminescence of SrY2O4:Eu. Powderize. 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Absorption (%) 100 Emission . 2 hours. 2. stagnant air.Remark This contribution is from Weiyi Jia.H. Yu.40 eV)...33 79. M. Park. B. C.. Soc. J. Videa.J. B.340 3. Xu.8 100 0.900–23. Dry in air..88 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: ++ (10 eV–1 keV) Decay to 1/e: ~100 µsec Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 50 2 3 Remark This contribution is from Shinji Okamoto. Park. et al. Electrochem. 3903 (1999). Geil..401 Preparation Mix by slurrying in ethanol.

78. Phys.41 0. H.. Itoh... F.5 3 By weight (g) 10.. Lett.. 153 (2003). Optical Properties Emission color: Red Emission peak: 615 nm Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (3. J. A new red-emitting phosphor. This compound is also known as strontium titanate. Appl.00 5. 3 hours. Rivera.88 eV) Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 100 Excitation (%) Emission 50 2 3 Remarks 1.. I. Characteristic enhancement of emission from SrTiO3:Pr3+ by addition of group. (2001). Effects of compositional phase transitions on luminescence of Sr1-xCaxTiO3:Pr3+. 6387 (1999). 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Reference 1. air.40 eV). 2.. Jpn. Okamoto. 1 hour. 38.. for low-voltage electron excitation. ++ (4. K. Grind and press into pellets again. 1000 C. Xu.b ions.. This contribution is from Weiyi Jia. Solid State Commun. 2. 2. H. . S. Appl..References 1. SrTiO3:Pr3+. 126. W. Jia. 655. et al. W. Fire in open quartz boats.. Toki. 1. S. Tamura. Powderize.. and Yamamoto. and Kataoka.142 Preparation Mix by dry grinding or milling. Phys.212 0. 1300 C.6H2O B2O3 Mole % 100 100 0. Press into pellets. Fire in air. SrTiO3:Pr3+ Structure: Cubic Composition Ingredient SrCO3 TiO2 Pr(NO3)3.

. U. Budapest.G. Int. and Bres..L.. Pat. 200 C..0 40.L.G.. J. 50 67782 (1975). U. A. ++ (8.S. 3 417 027 (1968). Cool and slurry the powder in 2 wt% (NH4)2CO3 solution. 3 647 708 (1972). Wanmaker. Bril. Proc.40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: + Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 50 2 3 Remark This contribution is from Takashi Hase.W.M. for 2 hours. Fire in 700 C. Cool and lightly mortar to break aggregates. Dry in air.. J. Verlijsdok. Pat.9 85. Luminescence.40 eV)..88 eV).L.. for an additional 2 hours. 3. Wanmaker.V)O4:Eu Structure: Xenotime Composition Ingredient Y 2O 3 Eu2O3 NH4VO3 (NH4)2HPO4 Mole % 48 2 35 65 By weight (g) 104. Optical Properties Emission color: Red Emission peak: 619 nm Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (3. Fire in 1150 C. Cool and break up aggregates. and Verlijsdok.S. W. 9–16 (1966). 51 114388 (1976). Fire in 1150 C.Y(P.. J.. Conf. G. for 2 hours. W. 3. Absorption (%) 100 Emission . Vrugt. 1.T. Wanmaker. 4. and Broos. J. 2. 2.8 7. W.C. Decant with water until neutral. 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 References 1... Japanese Patent Disclosure (Kokai). + (4.8 Preparation Dry-blend all ingredients and place in a capped quartz or alumina crucible.

Sci. C. water and HCl (pH = 7) 1:2:3 By weight (g) — — — certain amount Preparation Stir ingredients. Annealing in N2 + 5% H2 gas flow at 500–900°C to remove residual water.Y2O3:Ce Structure: Cubic Composition Ingredient Mole % Si(OEt)4 100 Y(OC3H7i)3 7 1 CeCl3 (aq.88 eV) Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 100 Excitation (%) Emission 50 2 3 Remark This contribution is from Weiyi Jia.) ethanol. Eng. Optical Properties Emission color: Violet (Ce3+) Emission peak: 375 nm Emission width (FWHM): 30 nm Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (3. 572..40 eV).Tb3+ nanoclusters embedded in SiO2 sol-gel glasses. Cover the cuvette with paraffin film with a pin hole in the center as a outlet of vapor. Photoluminescence of Y2O3:Ce3+. into a small container such as cuvettes. W. Mater. . ++ (4. or other organic groups created and entrapped in the gels during gellation process. et al. add the CeCl3 solution dropwise. After 20 minutes. ethanol. Nanoclusters embedded in SiO2 glasses 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Reference 1. 55 (2001). Place the wet gel in an oven at 40°C for one or two weeks to obtain transparent dry gels. Jia.

9 ethanol.58 Absorption (%) 100 Emission .6 6. at a temperature of about 1300°C for at least 1 hour. however. It can also be used in plasma display panels.5 1. Firing should occur in air. Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Remark This contribution is from Cees Ronda.5 Y(OC3H7i)3 EuCl3·6H2O 0. Powderize. This phosphor is used in fluorescent lamps and also in projection television tubes.5 By weight (g) 108 10.95 1. Y2O3:Eu3+ Structure: Cubic Composition Ingredient Mole % Si(OEt)4 92. and HCl (pH = 2.Y2O3:Eu (YOE) Structure: Cubic Composition Ingredient Y 2O 3 Eu2O3 CaF2 Mole % 94 (Y) 6 (Eu) 2.95 Preparation Mix by slurrying in water or methanol and dry in air. with reduced efficiency at 254 nm. It can be sensitized for excitation at 365 nm using Bi.5) 1:2:3 By weight (g) 100 8. water.

Mater.. Jia. Blend it into the ethanol/water/HCl mix. Feofilov. to obtain transparent dry gels. The wet gel is dried at low temperatures (45°C) for one or two weeks in an oven..8 certain amount ... Alloys Ingredients. 271. 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 References 1. Mix the Si and Y solutions and stir for 20 minutes with a magnetic stirring device. and Jiao.Preparation Dissolve europium chloride in 2–3 g of distilled water. Y2O3 nanoclusters embedded in SiO2 glasses. Meltzer.P. Put the EuCl3/water/ethanol/HCl solution into the Si/Y mixture dropwise while stirring.Y3+ codoped SiO2 sol-gel glasses. Photoluminescence of Eu3+:Y2O3 nanoclusters embedded in SiO2 glass.95 1.. allowing slow evaporating of the excess or resulted water and ethanol. 2. Symp.. R.9 TbCl3.87 eV Excitation efficiency by e-beam: Weakly excited by cathode rays Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 100 Excitation (%) Emission 50 2 3 Remark This contribution is from Weiyi Jia. Liu. water. A wet gel will result. and HCl (pH = 7) 1:2:3 By weight (g) 100 8. J. Optical Properties Emission color: Red Emission peak: 612 nm Emission width (FWHM): 30 nm Excitation efficiency by UV: Weakly excited at 3. W.5 0.6H2O ethanol. W. Soc. Res. or other organic radicals. Proc. ethanol. J. 311 (2000). S. 519 (1998). Y2O3:Tb3+ Composition Ingredient Mole % Si(OEt)4 92. Jia. et al.6 Y(OC3H7i)3 6.. Anneal the dry gel in air at 500–1000°C to remove residual water. Spectroscopic study of Eu3+doped and Eu3+. 11. H. Pour the resulting mixture into a small container with a cover.

++ (4. W. Blend it into the ethanol/water/HCl mix.8 Y(OC3H7i)3 6. and 621 nm Emission width (FWHM): 30 nm Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (3. et al. Minor peaks at 495. Optical Properties Emission color: Green Emission peak: 543 nm.Preparation Dissolve terbium chloride in 2–3 g of distilled water. Nanoclusters embedded in SiO2 glasses. Y2O3:Ce3+. 572. A wet gel will result.Tb3+ Structure: Cubic Composition Ingredient Mole % Si(OEt)4 91. C. Anneal the dry gel in air at 500–1000°C to remove residual water. and HCl (pH = 7) 1:2:3 By weight (g) 100 8. Pour the resulting mixture into a small container with a cover.Tb3+ nanoclusters embedded in SiO2 solgel glasses. to obtain transparent dry gels. 585. Sci. The wet gel is dried at low temperatures (45°C) for one or two weeks in an oven. Eng..95 1. Mix the Si and Y solutions and stir for 20 minutes with a magnetic stirring device. allowing slow evaporating of the excess or resulted water and ethanol. Put the TbCl3/water/ethanol/HCl solution into the Si/Y mixture dropwise while stirring.4 TbCl3·6H2O 0. Photoluminescence of Y2O3:Ce3+. water.53 . 55 (2001).40 eV). 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Reference 1. or other organic radicals.88 eV) Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 100 Excitation (%) Emission x10 50 2 3 Remark This contribution is from Weiyi Jia. ethanol.9 0.61 1. Mater. Jia.9 CeCl3·6H2O ethanol.

Tb3+ nanoclusters embedded in SiO2 sol-gel glasses. Photoluminescence of Y2O3:Ce3+.. Eng. Jia. to obtain transparent dry gels. Sci. Nanoclusters embedded in SiO2 glasses.39 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: Weakly excited by cathode rays Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 100 Excitation (%) Emission 50 2 3 Remark This contribution is from Weiyi Jia. C. or other organic radicals.Preparation Dissolve cerium and terbium chlorides in 2–3 g of distilled water. Mix the Si and Y solutions and stir for 20 minutes with a magnetic stirring device. The wet gel is dried at low temperatures (45°C) for one or two weeks in an oven. Optical Properties Emission color: Violet (Ce3+) Emission peak: 543 nm Emission width (FWHM): 30 nm Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (3. Anneal the dry gel in air at 500–1000°C to remove residual water. 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Reference 1. allowing slow evaporating of the excess or resulting water and ethanol.87 eV). Y2O2S:Eu Composition Ingredient Y 2O 3 Eu2O3 Na2CO3 S Mole % 94 (Y) 3 (Eu) 100 300 By weight (g) 110 5. et al. ++ (5. Mater.3 53 96 . Blend it into the ethanol/water/HCl mix. W. ethanol. Put the Ce-TbCl3/water/ethanol/HCl solution into the Si/Y mixture dropwise while stirring. 572. Pour the resulting mixture into a small container with a cover. 55 (2001). A wet gel will result.

After drying. ++ (4.Preparation Mix the rare-earth oxides by slurrying in water or methanol and dry in air. Preferably. Boca Raton. at a temperature of about 1100°C for a few hours.88 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: + Decay to 1/e: 1 × 10-3 sec . (Y.34Gd0.06O3 compacts can be densified into transparent ceramics by either vacuum sintering at 1800°C or hydrogen-gas sintering at 1800–1900°C. 478 (1998). the powder should be de-agglomerated.60Eu0. Fig. FL. Remark This contribution is from Cees Ronda. if either the sintering or hot-pressing processes are subsequently used to produce the ceramic scintillator. 38. CRC Press. Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 100 Emission 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Spectrum from the Phosphor Handbook. mix the rare earth mixture with Na2CO3 and S by dry mixing. The Y1.Gd)2O3:Eu3+ Structure: Cubic Preparation Oxidize the co-precipitated oxalate at about 800°C. Subsequently. p. the mixture should be powdered in mortar. Die or isostatically press the powder into powder compacts. the reaction product has to be washed a few times with water to remove residual flux. Optical Properties Emission color: Red Emission peak: 610 nm Excitation efficiency by UV: (3. using pressures up to about 300 MPa. Firing should occur in air in a vessel with a well-closing lid.40 eV). After cooling down.

3. Optical Properties Emission color: UV Emission peak: 330 nm Excitation efficiency by UV: – (3. Fire in capped alumina tubes.. Co-doping of a small amount of Pr reduces the afterglow. Dry in air. Mater. and Duclos. Fire in capped alumina tubes. 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 YTaO4 Structure: Monoclinic Preparation Stoichiometric quantities are mixed Y2O3.88 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: + Absorption (%) 100 Emission . C. – (4. 69 (1997). air. 8–10 hours. 1250°C.. Powderize with a Freon solvent as the grinding medium. 10–14 hours. leach with water and follow by methanol rinsing. Rev. Greskovich.Spectra 800 700 600 500 400 Wavelength (nm) 300 50 2 3 Remarks 1. 2. Reference 1. Sci. In the cases where a flux is used. Annu. Ta2O5. 130°C. The sintered samples can be annealed in an oxygen-rich atmosphere to reduce the concentration of point defect/impurity-charge states in the host lattice.40 eV).. S. either by itself or in the presence of 50% Li2SO4. Ceramic scintillators. 27. 1200°C. This contribution is from Hajime Yamamoto.

4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 YTaO4:Nb5+ Structure: Monoclinic Preparation Stoichiometric quantities are mixed Y2O3.40 eV). This contribution is from Masaaki Tamatani. and Torardi. References 1. Powderize with a Freon solvent as the grinding medium. J. Fire in capped alumina tubes. J. Dry in air. On the structural and luminescent properties of the M’ LnTaO4 rare earth tantalates. ++ (4. leach with water and follow by methanol rinsing. 54 (1995). Soc.H..Spectra 800 700 600 500 400 Wavelength (nm) 300 100 Emission 50 2 3 Remarks 1. Issler. either by itself or in the presence of 50% Li2SO4. 229. Ta2O5. Nb2O5. 2. Electrochem. C. Alloys Ingredients. S. 2435 (1983). H. Optical Properties Emission color: Blue Emission peak: 410 nm (x-ray excitation 2% Nb) Excitation efficiency by UV: – (3. 130°C... air. 1200°C.Y. L. 10–14 hours. 2. In the cases where a flux is used. 8–10 hours.C. 2). 1250°C. Fire in capped alumina tubes. 130. and Chen. Solid state chemistry and luminescence of X-ray phosphors. The use of a flux in the synthesis of M’-YTaO4 not only allows the growth of 4–12 µm single crystals but also assists greatly in the formation of the compound (see Ref.88 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: + ..L. Brixner.

On the structural and luminescent properties of the M’ LnTaO4 rare earth tantalates. 2435 (1983). L... Soc.80 0.0 175. Optical Properties Emission color: Yellowish-green Emission peak: Two strong dysprosium peaks at 480 and 570 nm Excitation efficiency by UV: Suitable for 2537 and 3650 Å Spectra 800 700 600 500 400 Wavelength (nm) 300 100 Emission 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 . Rinse with deionized water until neutral. 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Reference 1.Y.0 0. 130. Cool slightly and wash with a hot solution of 15 % NaOH. Brixner.H. Dry in air and powderize.. J. Electrochem.05 By weight (g) 70.Spectra 800 700 600 500 400 Wavelength (nm) 300 100 Excitation (%) Emission 50 2 3 Remarks This contribution is from Masaaki Tamatani.321 Preparation Blend the materials thoroughly and fire in an open quartz crucible for 2 hours at 1700°C.15 82. and Chen. Structure: Tetragonal (zircon) Composition Ingredient Y 2O 3 NH4VO3 Dy2O3 YVO4:Dy3+ Mole % 17. H.

References 1. 3 555 337 (1968). and van Uitert. Pat. Eu. and alike) can be added up to a half of the activator content..L.. Linares.S.S. the emission characteristics can be adjusted. Optical Properties Emission color: Blue Emission peak: 460 nm Emission width (FWHM): 137 nm Absorption edge: 270 nm (4. Ballman. L. Fire in capped quartz crucibles. U. Wash with diluted nitric acid to remove excess flux.7 lm/W or higher at 30 V DC Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 100 Excitation (%) Emission 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 . Structure: Cubic (spinel) Composition Ingredient ZnO Ga2O3 Li3PO4 (Flux) ZnGa2O4 Mole % 50 50 — By weight (g) 8. Pat.14 18.. Sm. Tm.C. Er. 3 322 682 (1967). Other rare-earth elements (Pr. S. 3 hours.G.. 1 hour. D.. Powderize. This recipe yields a phosphor containing 0. Thompson. This contribution is from Madis Raukas. stagnant air. By including such elements or combinations thereof.. Faria.4 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: 0.7 — Preparation Mix by slurrying in water or ethanol.G. Powderize when dry.. 3.. 2. Powderize. R. 1100 C.28 mol% of Dy3+.A. 3 152 085 (1964). which is optimum for excitation with mercury discharge lamps. G. and Palumbo.. U. 2. A. Dry in air.S. U.T. Pat. Re-fire in H2 + N2 atmosphere. 1200°C.Remarks 1. 3.

1 hour. Soc. ZnGa2O4:Mn2+ Structure: Cubic (spinel) Composition Ingredient ZnO Ga2O3 MnSO4 Li3PO4 (Flux) Mole % 48 50 2 By weight (g) 8. Fire in capped quartz crucibles. 1509 (1991). 1100 C.0 lm/W or higher at 30 V DC Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 100 Excitation (%) Emission 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 . Powderize. et al. 3 hours. S. Optical Properties Emission color: Green Emission peak: 505 nm Emission width (FWHM): 25 nm Absorption edge: 270 nm (4.14 18. Itoh.15 Preparation Mix by slurrying in water or ethanol Dry in air. The ZnGa2O4 phosphor for low-voltage blue cathodoluminescence. 138.. Wash with de-ionized water. Add solution of Mn2+ ion. Reference 1. stagnant air.Remark This contribution is from Sato Yoshitaka. Powderize when dry. and vaporize moisture by warming. 1200 C. Electrochem.. J. mix. Re-fire in H2 + N2 atmosphere.4 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: 1. Powderize.7 0.

2.Remark This contribution is from Yoshitaka Sato.4 By weight (g) 10 1. 800ºC.. H. Kataoka. Morimoto. Tech. . Fire in air. Store in well-sealed container. Digest Jpn.. Y. ++ (4. K. 1120ºC... Toki. Display. Fire in capped quartz tubes. ZnGa2O4:Mn green cathodoluminescent phosphors for VFDs. 421 (1992). Master Degree Thesis.26 eV). 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Reference 1.. stagnant air. ZnO:Bi3+ Structure: Hexagonal (wurtzite) Composition Ingredient ZnO Bi2O3 Mole % 97. 1. References 1. 2 hours.6 2.43 Preparation Mix by dry grinding. 2. Proceedings of Japan Display'92. Mosquera Vargas. H. S. Optical Properties Emission color: Red Emission peak: 645 nm Emission width (FWHM): 3540 cm-1 Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (3.. and Itoh.88 eV) Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 100 Excitation (%) Emission 50 2 3 Remark This contribution is from Weiyi Jia. 1 hour. Toki. University of Puerto Rico—Mayaguez (2003). et al. E. (1992).

and dry at room temperature or at moderate heat (e.280 g 1. stir to uniformity.g. add alcohol to make a uniform slurry. 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 ZnO:Ga. Dissolve the ZnCl2 in a little water. Then add a little water to make the raw mix slightly moist.ZnO:Zn Structure: Hexagonal (wurtzite) Composition Ingredient ZnO Mole % 100 By weight (g) 158 Preparation Fire in capped quartz crucibles in reduced atmosphere at 1000 C. add solution to above mix.3 (of Ga) about 1 (not critical) By weight 81 g 0.. Optical Properties Emission color: Green Emission peak: 505 nm Emission width (FWHM): 0. over night).4 eV Absorption edge: 388 nm (300 K) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: 16 lm/W or higher Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 100 Excitation (%) Emission 50 2 3 Remark This contribution is from Yoshitaka Sato. Ultrafast Composition Ingredient ZnO Ga2O3 ZnCl2 (Type WL-1201) Mole % 100 0. . Powderize. .7 g Preparation Mix ZnO and Ga2O3 porcelain dish. 1 hour.

ZnO:Ga and CdS:In. Temperature dependence of the fast. Derenzo. Lehmann. A fast inorganic scintillator.. Fire in loosely capped quartz glass tubes ( about half full. References 1. Instr. Lehmann. 3. When cool. add alcohol to make a uniform slurry. PbI2. ZnO-CdO:Ga. not more). decay < 1 nsec Remarks 1.1 g of NH4Cl. S. Remove suspicious parts and powderize the rest. Nucl. M. 800ºC.195 eV (=388 nm) Excitation by UV: By all UV shorter than about 380 nm Excitation by e-beam: Energy— 1–1.J.7 g Preparation Mix ZnO + CdO + Ga2O3 in a porcelain dish. Edge emission of n-type conducting ZnO and CdS. Luckey. HgI2. Meth. Weber.1. A 486. Remove all parts that look different. 1107 (1966) and U... Do not heat higher than about 300ºC except in pure hydrogen. stagnant air. 62. J. Meth.S. Instr. Electrochem. Lehmann during a visit to the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory in 1987. inspect under UV lamp. In case the material does not show the violet luminescence at all. add solution to above mix. 2. 2. Solid State Electron. W. 3. Ultrafast Composition Ingredient ZnO CdO Ga2O3 ZnCl2 Mole % 90 10 0. D. Dissolve the ZnCl2 in a little water. 214 (2002).2%. 9. Soc. This phosphor is in a frozen-in semistable state. . Avoid all sulfur like the plague. Inspect again under UV lamp. Properties Body color: Gray Particles: About in the 5–10 m size range Emission: Narrow band in the near-UV with a tail extending into the visible violet Peak about 3.. near-band-edge scintillation from CuI.K. slowly flowing H2.. Material should be completely dead.. Nucl. 115.. Zinc oxide and zinc-cadmium oxide phosphors. one-half hour. 1100ºC. The above recipe was provided by W. 2. 119 (1968).E. Cool while in H2 (Important!).2 g 0. Fire in open quartz boats. W. 4. or by about 1 ccm of concentrated HCl acid.. The bulk of the material should show deep violet luminescence (just at the limit of visibility).. Klintenberg.280 g 1. M. stir to uniformity. 538 (1968). Patent 3583929 (issued June 1971).3 (of Ga) about 1 (not critical) By weight 73 g 11. This phosphor is sensitive to traces of sulfur. The ZnCl2 in the above recipe can be replaced by about 1. repeat the last firing step at about 100ºC higher temperature. 1 hour.

or by about 1 ccm of concentrated HCl acid. Lehmann. 10% CdO is the limit of solid solubility. 5. Inspect again under UV lamp. 6. Lehmann during a visit to the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory in 1987. 1 hour. Remove suspicious parts and powderize the rest. The above recipe was provided by W. Electrochem. . D. not more). This phosphor is in a frozen-in semistable state. 1100ºC. Properties Body color: Yellowish-gray Particles: About in the 5–10 µm size range Emission: Narrow band.g.. Color: violet Excitation by UV: By all UV shorter than about 400 nm Excitation by e-beam: Energy— 1–1. Zn2SiO4:Mn Composition Ingredient ZnO SiO2 MnCO3 Mole % 194 110 6 By weight (g) 158 66 6. Fire in loosely capped quartz glass tubes ( about half full. W. 7. 1. Solid State Electron. Patent 3583929 (issued June 1971).. peak about 413 nm. Luckey. inspect under UV lamp. Zinc oxide and zinc-cadmium oxide phosphors. The CdO in the above recipe can be replaced by 17.. slowly flowing H2. Remove any parts (if preaent) that look different. over night).. 7. References 5. Edge emission of n-type conducting ZnO and CdS. J. Do not heat higher than about 300ºC except in pure hydrogen.1 g of NH4Cl.and dry at room temperature or at moderate heat (e. Lehmann. W. stagnant air. This phosphor is sensitive to traces of sulfur. Avoid all sulfur like the plague. Then add a little water to make the raw mix slightly moist. The bulk of the material should be violet luminescent (if it does not. 9. 1107 (1966) and U. Instr. When cool. Cool while in H2 (Important!). 2.9 Preparation Mix by ball-milling or magnetic stirring in water or an alcohol and dry in air. one-half hour. 800ºC. Fire in open quartz boats. Powderize.. Meth. Nucl. 6. Do not add more.2 g CdCO3. Material should be completely dead.. 119 (1968). 538 (1968).. 62. The ZnCl2 in the above recipe can be replaced by about 1.2%. A fast inorganic scintillator. Soc. decay < 1 nsec Remarks 4. 8. Firing should occur in reducing atmosphere at a temperature of about 1150–1250°C for at least an hour. (just at the limit of visibility).S. 115. repeat the last firing step at about 100ºC higher temperature).

T. Higher Mn2+ concentrations adjust to a shorter decay time. C. The quantum efficiency drops less fast than the emission decay time. Lumin. Ronda. 245 (1996).. Evidence for exchange induced luminescence in Zn2SiO4:Mn. Remark This contribution is from Cees Ronda. The emission band shifts to lower energy with increasing Mn2+ concentration. . and Amrein..The efficiency of this material (e-beam and (V)UV excitation) depends on the Mn2+ concentration. J. Reference 1. 69. This phosphor is used in plasma display panels and fluorescent lamps. due to magnetic interactions lifting the spin selection rule. It has been used in monochromic computer monitor tubes and projection television tubes (mixed with other green phosphors).

7. Optical Properties Emission color: Light blue.16 Preparation Mix and grind. 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 .367 4. H3BO3 serves as flux. Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 100 Excitation (%) Emission 50 2 3 Remark This contribution comes from Weiyi Jia. Emission peak: 515 nm Excitation efficiency by UV: Excited by UV from 240 to 440 nm.84 0.2 Silicates The following host compounds and activators are included in this subsection: Ba2MgSi2O7:Eu2+ CaMgSi2O6:Eu2+ Ca2MgSi2O7:Eu2+.40 1.00 1.6 By weight (g) 10.92 39. Powderize and grind.120 0.84 19.00 0. Sinter at 1300°C in N2 + 5% H2 gas flow for 3 hours. Pre-sinter at 900°C in N2 for 2 hours.Mn2+ Ca3MgSi2O8:Eu2+ Ca3Al2Si3O12:Ce3+ Ca3Al2Si3O12:2%Ce3+ SrMgSi2O6:Eu2+ Sr2MgSi2O7:Eu2+ Sr3MgSi2O8:Eu2+ Ba2MgSi2O7:Eu2+ Composition Ingredient BaCO3 MgO SiO2 Eu2O3 H3BO3 Mole % 39.

189 (1968)... CaMgSi2O6:Eu2+ Composition Ingredient CaCO3 MgO SiO2 Eu2O3 H3BO3 Mole % 24. Blasse. Fluorescence of Eu2+activated silicates. Powderize and grind. 287 (1949).W. Jia. and Bril.. 96. 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 References 1. Philips Tech. 2. 1. G..48 Preparation Mix and grind. 23. and Bril. The absorption and emission spectra of some important activators. terVrugt..00 4. Soc.87 49. 2.L. Pre-sinter at 800°C in N2 for 2 hours... A.75 0. Wanmaker. W. A. Rep.04 12. G. Rev. 304 (1970).36 0. W.Reference 1. J..51 2 By weight (g) 10. Optical properties Emission color: Blue Emission peak: 448 nm Excitation efficiency by UV: Excited by UV from 250 to 460 nm Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 100 Excitation (%) Emission 50 2 3 Remark This contribution comes from Weiyi Jia.L. Electrochem. 31.. Characteristic luminescence. A. . J.00 0. Sinter at 1250°C in N2 + 5% H2 gas flow for 3 hours.87 24. Philips Res. H3BO3 serves as flux. Unpublished data. Smith.. Blasse.

Ca2MgSi2O7:Eu2+.61 33. Powderize and grind.22 0. Pre-sinter at 900°C in N2 for 2 hours.83 16.367 4.120 0.68 19.58 By weight (g) 10.16 . 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Composition Ingredient CaCO3 MgO SiO2 Eu2O3 H3BO3 Ca3MgSi2O8:Eu2+ Mole % 49. H3BO3 serves as flux. Jia.40 0.16 Preparation Mix and grind.40 1.68 0.34 1. Reference 1.00 0. respectively Excitation efficiency by UV: Excited by UV from 260 to 420 nm Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 100 Excitation (%) Emission 50 2 3 Remark This contribution comes from Weiyi Jia. Sinter at 1300°C in N2 + 5% H2 gas flow for 3 hours.33 By weight (g) 10..Mn2+ Composition Ingredient CaCO3 MgO SiO2 Eu2O3 MnO H3BO3 Mole % 39.120 0.367 4. Unpublished data.071 0.00 0.00 1.84 39.00 1. Optical properties Emission color: Whitish blue-green Emission peak: Two peaks at 490 and 680 nm. W.

000 psi. 1200 C. Powderize and grind. Press into pellets again. Fire in air. 1. Jia. 2. Reference 1.103 Preparation Mix by grinding in a mortar for 30 minutes. Fire in 95%N2 + 5% H2.Preparation Mix and grind. Powderize by dry ball-milling.. 2 hours. 3 hours . Optical properties Emission color: Light blue Emission peak: 480 nm Excitation efficiency by UV: Excited by UV from 250 to 440nm Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 100 Excitation (%) Emission 50 2 3 Remark This contribution comes from Weiyi Jia.40 6 0. W. Pre-sinter at 900°C in N2 for 2 hours.11 0. Unpublished data. Press into pellets with a hydraulic press machine at 40. H3BO3 serves as flux. Sinter at 1350°C in N2 + 5% H2 gas flow for 3 hours. 900 C. 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Ca3Al2Si3O12:Ce3+ Structure: Cubic Composition Ingredient CaCO3 Al2O3 SiO2 Ce2O3 H3BO3 Mole % 300 100 300 1 5 By weight (g) 10 3.

110 0.00 3. 2 hours.40eV) Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 100 Excitation (%) Emission 50 2 3 Remark This contribution is from Weiyi Jia.. 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Ca3Al2Si3O12:2%Ce3+ Structure: Cubic Composition Ingredient CaCO3 Al2O3 SiO2 Ce2O3 H3BO3 Mole % 300 100 300 1 5 By weight (g) 10.88 eV) . ++ (3. 2. Fire in 95%N2 + 5% H2. W.88 eV). Powderize. Press into pellets with a hydraulic press machine at 40.000 psi. Unpublished data. 1200°C. Fire in air. Grind and press into pellets again. 900°C.Optical Properties Emission color: Violet Emission peak: 410 nm Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (2. 1. 3 hours Optical Properties Emission color: Violet Emission peaks: 280 and 355 nm Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (3. Jia.40 eV).00 0.103 Preparation Mix by dry grinding in a mortar for 30 minutes.40 6. ++ (4. Reference 1.

W.00 2.87 24. 2. 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Composition Ingredient SrCO3 MgO SiO2 Eu2O3 H3BO3 SrMgSi2O6:Eu2+ Mole % 24. Optical properties Emission color: Deep blue Emission peak: 470 nm. H3BO3 serves as flux.238 0. Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 100 Excitation (%) Emission 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 . This contribution is from Weiyi Jia.14 0.75 0.Spectra 800 700 600 500 400 Wavelength (nm) 300 100 Excitation (%) Emission 50 2 3 Remarks 1.74 8. This compound is also known as calcium aluminum silicate. Powderize and grind. Strong afterglow Excitation by UV: Excited by UV from 240 to 450 nm. Jia. Pre-sinter at 700°C in air for 2 hours. Unpublished data. Reference 1..51 2 By weight (g) 10. Sinter at 1050°C in N2 + 5% H2 gas flow for 3 hours.87 49.325 Preparation Mix and grind.

4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 References 1. G.W. Unpublished data.. Jia.163 Preparation Mix and grind. J. 23..L.. Jia.4 1.84 0.00 1. A. and Bril. Powderize and grind.W. 2. H3BO3 (B2O3) serves as flux. Blasse. Optical properties Emission color: Blue Emission peak: 470 nm Excitation by UV: Excited by UV from 250 to 450 nm Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 100 Excitation (%) Emission 50 2 3 Remark This contribution comes from Weiyi Jia. W.84 19. terVrugt.6 By weight (g) 10.. Rep.92 39.Remark This contribution comes from Weiyi Jia... Reference 1. Unpublished data. 189 (1968). Sinter at 1200°C in N2 + 5% H2 gas flow for 3 hours. .119 0.W. Pre-sinter at 800°C in air for 2 hours.072 0.369 4. Philips Res. Sr2MgSi2O7:Eu2+ Composition Ingredient SrCO3 MgO SiO2 Eu2O3 H3BO3 Mole % 39. Wanmaker. Fluorescence of Eu2+activated silicates.

.. Fluorescence of Eu2+activated silicates. 189 (1968). A. 31. Philips Tech.108 Preparation Mix and grind. 1.00 0.. Blasse.34 1. 304 (1970).912 2. 2. Sinter at 1200°C in N2 + 5% H2 gas flow for 3 hours. G. and Bril. 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Reference 1..61 33.83 16. Blasse.33 By weight (g) 10. Wanmaker.715 0. and Bril. Characteristic luminescence. The absorption and emission spectra of some important activators..W. Philips Res.079 0. terVrugt..Sr3MgSi2O8:Eu2+ Composition Ingredient SrCO3 MgO SiO2 Eu2O3 H3BO3 Mole % 49. Powderize and grind.22 0.L. Rev. J.. W. . Rep. Optical properties Emission color: Light blue Emission peak: 470 nm Excitation by UV: Excited by UV from 250 to 450 nm Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 100 Excitation (%) Emission 50 2 3 Remark This contribution comes from Weiyi Jia. G. 23. A.. H3BO3 (B2O3) serves as flux. Pre-sinter at 800°C in air for 2 hours.

Optical Properties Emission color: Green Emission peak: 544 nm Excitation efficiency by UV: Spectra 800 700 600 500 (3. 1.9 83. Fire in capped quartz tubes. air. and Bo rates The following host compounds and activators are included in this subsection: (Y. 2. Lightly mortar.3 Phosphates. Fire in capped quartz tubes.5:Eu2+ SrwFxByOz:Eu2+. Decant with boiling water until neutral. ++ (4.Gd)BO3:Tb Structure: Pseudovaterite Composition Ingredient Y 2O 3 Gd2O3 Tb4O7 H3BO3 Mole % 23 23 2 139 By weight (g) 51. ++ (8.Gd)BO3:Tb (Y.40 eV) 400 Wavelength (nm) 300 100 Excitation (%) Emission 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 . 2 hours. 400–500°C. Slurry powder in boiling 10% HCl for 30 minutes.88 eV).Sm2+ (Y.Gd)BO3:Eu -Ca2P2O7:Sn.4 15. 2 hours. Halophosphates.Mn Sr2B5O9Cl:Eu SrwFxB4O6. 1100°C.9 Preparation Dry blend ingredients.40 eV). reducing atmosphere. Dry at 110°C.7.0 85.

6 80. 1100°C. 613 (1967). Crystal Structure.J. 4. air.88 eV).4 Preparation Mix by dry blend. 52 133 091 (1977).J. and Wiggins. Fire in capped quartz tubes or alumina crucibles. Hoshina... Optical Properties Emission color: Red Emission peak: 619 nm Excitation efficiency by UV: Spectra 800 700 600 500 (3.4 10. 110°C. References 1. 2 hours. R. Sovers. 1. 3.Gd)BO3:Eu Structure: Pseudovaterite Composition Ingredient Y 2O 3 Gd2O3 Eu2O3 H3BO3 Mole % 32 15 3 130 By weight (g) 72. 114. J. ++ (8. Soc.. 2. C. Wash by decanting in boiling water until neutral. Rare earth cathodoluminescence in InBO3 and related orthoborates. 2 hours. Interscience. 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 . Avella. F.W...G. S. O.Remark This contribution is from Takashi Hase.2 54. Fire in capped quartz tubes or alumina crucibles. T. air. New York: (1964). Supplement. 400–500°C. 2nd ed. Japanese Patent Disclosure (Kokai).40 eV). ++ (4. Wyckoff. 92 (1983). 2. Powderize.40 eV) 400 Wavelength (nm) 300 100 Excitation (%) Emission 50 2 3 Remark This contribution is from Takashi Hase.. Dry in air.. Electrochem. Slurry in boiling 10% HCl for 30 minutes. (Y. Sony Research Center Reports.

1200 C.S. and Yokozawa.J.G. 199 (1995). J. Dry in air.. II.. A. nylon balls in a plastic jar on a paint mixer for ½ hour. and Wanmaker.T.. 625 C.. U. Rare earth cathodoluminescence in InBO3 and related orthoborates. 2.40 eV). N2. Koike.. 111.W. 4. Powderize when dry. Composition Ingredient CaHPO4 SrHPO4 Sn2P2O7 MnCO3 (NH4)2HPO4 -Ca2P2O7:Sn.5% N2/0. Eliminate the H2 2.L..04 8. R. 99.. 52 54690 (1977). Pat. + (4.. Japanese Patent Disclosure (Kokai). Bril.. 1. Arbus. Sci. M. 5. Soc. Fournier. Electrochem. Electrochem. Fluorescent properties of some europium-activated phosphors.S. F. Cr... NHK Giken Geppo..32 0...92 0. and Wiggins.J. Acad. A.5%H2. J. and Cousseins. Fire in alumina trays. Sovers. K. New York (1964). G. 22. 613 (1967).88 eV) Excitation by e-beam: Weakly excited Spectra 800 700 600 500 400 Wavelength (nm) 300 100 Emission 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 .73 0.References 1.11 Preparation Mix by shaking with six ½ in. Crystal Structure.28 7.05 9. J. Soc. 320. D.20 1. Fire in alumina trays. 1363 (1964).39 2. Wyckoff. 6. Optical Properties Emission color: Orange-red Emission peaks: 350 and 575 nm Emission width (FWHM): 72 nm (For the latter peak) Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (3.. Avella. Influence of the synthesis method on the luminescent properties of the vaterite-type YBO3-Eu3+. M. Avella. 7. 114. Interscience.Z.J. 3 394 084 (1968).. Cool in N2.Mn Mole % 81. C. W. 2nd ed. Okada. 3. F. O.. ~½ hour.. 176 (1979). 1 hour. Chadeyron.31 By weight (g) 18.

42 0. 3. Wash in hot water.G. P. S. ++ (4. Dry. 1025°C.85 9.5 H2).33 27. and Henderson. S18.S. Ranby. and Peters. 18 (1955).. S. 2 hours.91 0.44 7.E. Soc. Pappalardo. with particular reference to the pyrophosphates. 2. Henderson. Phys.55 45.. T.. This contribution is from Madis Raukas. 2.. 323 (1939).H. Pat.T. U.. Brit.88 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: Weakly excited by cathode rays Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Absorption (%) 100 Emission . A. The investigation of new phosphors. Sr2B5O9Cl:Eu Structure: Tetragonal Composition Ingredient SrCO3 SrCl2 Eu2O3 B2O3 Mole % 26. Cool.. Mash.Remarks 1. Exhibits very strong triboluminescence or mechanoluminescence. 3.25 Preparation Dry blend ingredients. (99. 173. Proc. Fire in molybdenum trays. Optical Properties Emission color: Bluish-white body Emission peak: 425 nm Emission width (FWHM): 30 nm Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (3.W.5 N2:0. R. References 1.71 By weight (g) 8.. J. D. Appl.40 eV). Firing temperature should not exceed 1250 C to prevent formation of -pyrophosphate.T.. R. 4 772 417 (1988).

11 0. Cool the slurry to below 20°C. J.5:Eu2+ Composition Ingredient Sr(NO3)2 SrF2 H3BO3 Eu2O3 Mole % 10. Form a 1:1 solution of acetone and ammonium hydroxide and add to the above solution slowly while stirring vigorously.E. T. Luminescence and structural properties of alkaline earth chloroborates activated with divalent europium. blend.30 247. Nucl. and Baglio.. A fine white precipitate will result and form a slurry.49 61. Cool. Cool and regrind. 1089 (1970).. filter.11 Preparation Dissolve Eu2O3 powder in dilute nitric acid solution and Sr(NO3)2 and boric acid in warm water (80°C).12 By weight (g) 63.00 9. and dry the precipitate in air. 32. Blend the precipitate with half the SrF2 and grind.36 2. Place in an open quartz crucible and fire in air at 800°C for 1 hour. and grind with the remainder of the SrF2 into a fine powder. J. Combine these two solutions. Inorg. Optical Properties Emission color: UV Emission peak: 370 nm Emission width (FWHM): About 20 nm Excitation by UV: In a broad range up to about 360 nm Excitation by e-beam and x-rays: Good excitation by cathode rays Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Absorption (%) 100 Emission .77 80. SrwFxB4O6.Remark This contribution is from Madis Raukas. Peters. Reference 1. Chem.. Fire for 2 hours at 890°C in a flow of H2 in N2 gas in the same open crucible.

. 3 649 550 (1972). and 502 nm due to Sm2+ Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Absorption (%) 100 Emission . IR-emitting phosphor. 420.11 By weight (g) 126. SrwFxByOz:Eu2+.S. Pat. Fire for 2 hours at 900 C in a flow of H2 in N2 gas in the same open crucible.Remarks 1. Pat. U.09 Preparation Dissolve Eu2O3 and Sm2O3 powders in dilute nitric acid solution and Sr(NO3)2 and boric acid in warm water (90°C).12 0. C. A fine white precipitate will result and form a slurry.5:Eu0.029.62B4O6.43 84. 3 448 056 (1969). This is a Eu-sensitized. 2. The resultant is filtered and dried in air. and grind into a fine powder. References 1. The slurry is kept at 80 C for about 2 hours and is cooled to ambient temperature.09 5. U. blend. Chenot. The most efficient version has been determined to be Sr0. Place in an open quartz crucible and fire in air at 900°C for 1–2 hours.. Chenot. 300–390 nm with additional peaks at 395. Cool and re-grind.and low-pressure discharge lamps as well as in CRTs.25 0.98 40. 693. Cool.20 5. Optical Properties Emission color: Narrow red and IR Emission peaks: 684.F. 697. This contribution is from Madis Raukas.S.. 703. which is used in high.28 2.F. 723. 725 and 732 nm Excitation by UV: in broad ranges 250–280. Combine these two solutions. 2. Form a 1:1 solution of acetone and ammonium hydroxide and rapidly add to the above solution while stirring vigorously. C.96F0.Sm2+ Composition Ingredient Sr(NO3)2 SrF2 H3BO3 Eu2O3 Sm2O3 Mole % 10.58 g 309.. Blend the precipitate with SrF2 and grind.

2.. C. Pat. 2. This contribution is from Madis Raukas. Pat. IR-emitting phosphor.F. U.S.5:Eu0. Pat.. 3 693 006 (1972).Sm0.. References 1.S. Chenot. Chenot. This is a Eu-sensitized.96F0. 3 448 056 (1969). which is used in high.62B4O6.011. 3. U.F.. C. Chenot.F.and low-pressure discharge lamps as well as CRTs.Remarks 1.. C.. The most efficient is Sr0. . U.029.S. 3 649 550 (1972).

Mn (BAM:Mn) Composition Ingredient BaCO3 MgO Al2O3 Eu2O3 MnCO3 BaF2 Mole % 80 70 1050 (Al) 10 (Eu) 30 10 By weight (g) 158 28. Powderize.9Al0.2 536 17.Ce3+ Y3Al5O12:Ce Y3Al5O12:Ce3+ Y3Al5O12:Mn4+ Y3Al5O12:Cr3+ BaMgAl10O17:Eu.5 17. The phosphor remains efficient to high temperatures. Fire in a reducing atmosphere at a temperature of about 1200–1500°C for at least 1 hour.7.5 Preparation Mix by ball-milling or magnetic stirring in an alcohol and dry in air.4 Aluminates The following host compounds and activators are included in this subsection: BaMgAl10O17:Eu.6 34. This phosphor can be used in plasma display panels and is in use in fluorescent lamps.1O3:Bi3+ CaYAlO4:Eu3+ MgCeAl11O19:Tb3+ SrAl4O7:Eu3+ SrxBayClzAl2O4-z/2:Mn2+. Powderize.Mn (BAM:Mn) BaMgAl10O17:Eu (BAM) CaAl2O4:Tb3+ CaAl4O7:Ce3+ CaTi0. Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 100 Emission 25 C 300 C O O 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 .

000 psi. 3 hours. with smaller peaks at 590 and 620 nm Emission width (FWHM): 0.139 Preparation Mix by dry grinding in a mortar for 30 minutes.88 eV) .Spectra were provided by Madis Raukas. This phosphor is used in plasma display panels and in fluorescent lamps. Fire in N2. 900°C.2 0.6 17.40 eV). Remark This contribution is from Cees Ronda. 2.5 Preparation Mix by ball-milling or magnetic stirring in an alcohol and dry in air.366 0. 1. BaMgAl10O17:Eu (BAM) Composition Ingredient BaCO3 MgO Al2O3 Eu2O3 BaF2 Mole % 80 100 1050 (Al) 10 (Eu) 10 By weight (g) 158 40 536 17. Powderize Fire in reducing atmosphere at a temperature of about 1200–1500°C for at least 1 hour. + (4. CaAl2O4:Tb3+ Structure: Hexagonal Composition Ingredient CaCO3 Al2O3 Tb2O3 B2O3 Mole % 100 100 1 2 By weight (g) 10 10. 2 hours. The phosphor remains efficient to high temperatures. Press into pellets with a hydraulic press machine at 40. Remark This contribution is from Cees Ronda.48 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (3. Optical Properties Emission color: Green Emission peak: 543 nm. Powderize. Grind and press into pellets again. 1400°C. Fire in N2.

Yen. Jia. Wang. Grind and press into pellets again.Ce3+. Meltzer. Green phosphorescence of CaAl2O4:Tb3+. et al... This compound is known as calcium aluminate.. Phys. 2. Optical Properties Emission color: Violet Emission peak: 407 nm Emission width (FWHM): 4580 cm-1 Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (3..S.40 eV). 93.139 Preparation Mix by dry grinding in a mortar for 30 minutes. R.Ce3+ through persistence energy transfer.J. 2.366 0. 2 hours. This contribution is from Weiyi Jia. Powderize. et al. 1400°C. Appl. X. D.. Jia. Fire in N2.88 eV) . 148 (2003). ++ (4. Press into pellets with a hydraulic press machine at 40.4 0. 2. 80. Appl.M. W. Phys. D. Persistent energy transfer in CaAl2O4:Tb3+. 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 References 1. CaAl4O7:Ce3+ Structure: Monoclinic Composition Ingredient CaCO3 Al2O3 Ce(NO3)3·4H2O B2O3 Mole % 100 200 2 2 By weight (g) 10 20. 3 hours.... Jia. Fire in 95% N2 + 5% H2. W.Spectra 800 700 600 500 400 Wavelength (nm) 300 100 Excitation (%) Emission 50 2 3 Remarks 1. J.000 psi 1. 900°C. Lett.. 1535 (2002).

+ (4. Unpublished data..66 1. 2.1O3:Bi3+ Structure: Orthorhombic Composition Ingredient CaCO3 TiO2 Bi2O3 Al2O3 Mole % 90 90 10 10 By weight (g) 9. Fire in open quartz boats. 1300 C. Optical Properties Emission color: Deep red Emission peak: 760 nm Emission width (FWHM): 440 cm-1 Excitation efficiency by UV: + (3.40 eV).Spectra 800 700 600 500 400 Wavelength (nm) 300 100 Excitation (%) Emission 50 2 3 Remarks 1. 1. Press into pellets. Powderize. Jia. 1 hour. air. W. 3 hours. 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 CaTi0. This compound is known as calcium tetra-aluminate. This contribution is from Weiyi Jia.9Al0. Grind and press into pellets again.18 4.02 Preparation Mix by dry grinding or milling. Reference 1.88 eV) . Fire in air. 2. 1000 C.01 7.

352 0. 1400°C. 3 hours. with weaker peaks at 588 and 702 nm Excitation efficiency by UV: + (3.88 eV) . 1000°C. Energy transfer between Bi3+ and Pr3+ in doped CaTiO3. CaYAlO4:Eu3+ Structure: Tetrahedral Composition Ingredient CaCO3 Y 2O 3 Al2O3 Eu2O3 B2O3 Mole % 100 100 100 1 3 By weight (g) 10. Press into pellets with a hydraulic press machine at 40. J.40 eV). Soc. Jia. 2 hours. This compound is known as calcium titanate.19 0. W. and Rivera. Optical Properties Emission color: Red Emission peak: 621 nm.000 psi.Spectra 800 700 600 500 400 Wavelength (nm) 300 100 Excitation (%) Emission 50 2 3 Remarks 1. + (4. 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Reference 1. Fire in air. Grind and press into pellets again. I. 161 (2003). Fire in air. Perez-Andujar..01 22. Powderize. 2. Electrochem...209 Preparation Mix by dry grinding in a mortar for 30 minutes.. 150.56 10. A. 2. 1. This contribution is from Weiyi Jia.

2 hours.88eV) . Jia. Optical Properties Emission peak: 2.3 55 56.048 eV (9. 2 hours. 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 MgCeAl11O19:Tb3+ Structure: Hexagonal Composition Ingredient Mole % By weight (g) (MgCO3)4·Mg(OH)2·3H2O·2 9. 1600°C. 2.28 eV (543 nm) Emission width (FWHM): 0.1 Al2O3 1 7. reducing atmosphere (95% N2/5% H2). Powderize. Store in a well-sealed container.76 nm) Excitation efficiency by UV: (3.Spectra 800 700 600 500 400 Wavelength (nm) 300 100 Excitation (%) Emission 50 2 3 Remarks 1. Re-fire. W. stagnant air.5 Tb4O7 * Desirable ingredient: (Ce. Powderize by automatic mill.0 CeO2 6 10. Fire in alumina crucibles. Preparation Mix by automatic mill.. Reference 1. This contribution is from Weiyi Jia. This compound is also known as calcium-yttrium aluminate.Tb)Ox (Oxide of coprecipitate as a Ce-Tb ingredient). +++(4. 1650°C.40eV). Unpublished data. in alumina boats.

Powderize. Fire in air.01 7..352 0.000 psi. Oshio.Spectra 800 700 600 500 400 Wavelength (nm) 300 100 Emission 50 2 3 Remark This contribution is from Shozo Oshio. 1350°C.S. T.209 Preparation Mix by dry grinding in a mortar for 30 minutes. 1. Optical Properties Emission color: Red Emission peak: 612 nm Excitation efficiency by UV: + (3. Press into pellets with a hydraulic press machine at 40.88 eV) . Grind and press into pellets again. and Matsuoka. S. 2 hours. T. 1000°C. 2.. 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Reference 1. 6 290 875 (2001). + (4..40 eV).. Pat. Shigeta. 3 hours. SrAl4O7:Eu3+ Structure: Monoclinic Composition Ingredient SrCO3 Al2O3 Eu2O3 B2O3 Mole % 100 200 1 3 By weight (g) 10. U. Fire in air.98 0.

Unpublished data.79 2.Spectra 800 700 600 500 400 Wavelength (nm) 300 100 Excitation (%) Emission 50 2 3 Remarks 1. This compound is also known as strontium tetra-aluminate. Jia. Dry the admixture in air at 160 C for 5 hours. W.10 0.43 117. powders. in a nitrogen atmosphere containing 4% H2.34 By weight (g) 60. Reference 1. 2.02 1..17 68.80 4.24 156.5% solution) Mole % 7. and standard solutions in acetone for 15 minutes. Optical Properties Emission color: Green Emission peak: 512 nm Emission width (FWHM): 32 nm Excitation by UV: In a broad range suitable for mercury discharge Excitation by e-beam and x-rays: Specified as a phosphor for x-ray intensifiers .34 0.4% H2 in N2 gas. Increase the temperature to 1100–1200°C and fire for 4 hours in a flow of 0. This contribution is from Weiyi Jia.64 Preparation Wet blend all components. Cool to ambient temperature and sieve admixture through 100-mesh stainless screen.86 39.Ce3+ Composition Ingredient Sr(OH)2·8H2O Ba(OH)2·8H2O BaCl2 Al(OH)3 Mn(NO3)2 (52% solution) Ce(NO3)3 (47.26 19. Re-fire at 1100–1200°C for about 4 hrs. 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 SrxBayClzAl2O4-z/2:Mn2+. Fire at a temperature below 400 C for an additional 5 hours. Re-blend and place in an open container.

S. (e.. Firing should occur in reducing atmosphere. . U. Chenot.Spectra 800 700 600 500 400 Wavelength (nm) 300 100 Emission 50 2 3 Remarks 1.. 2. C. In LEDs it partially converts blue light into yellow light.F.229Ba0. The approximate formula is Sr0. The material has a pronounced daylight color. forming gas or CO. This contribution is from Madis Raukas. at a temperature of about 1300–1500°C for at least 1 hour). 3 649 550 (1972). 3 693 006 (1972). C..Ce0.. 3. U. Ga). 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Y3Al5O12:Ce Structure: Cubic (garnet) Composition Ingredient Y 2O 3 Al2O3 CeO2 NH4Cl Mole % 35.. Chenot. References 1.S.005. due to the spin-orbit split ground state of Ce3+. In highpressure Hg lamps it reduces the color temperature of the light. Chenot..5 (Al) 2 5 By weight (g) 40 32 3.g. Pat. This phosphor is used in white LED lamps and also in high-pressure Hg lamps.688Cl1.7 Preparation Mix by ball-milling or magnetic stirring in water and dry in air. U. The spectral position of the emission band of Ce3+ can be varied by replacing part of the Al by (e.005. Remark This contribution is from Cees Ronda. The emission spectrum consists of two bands. 3 448 056 (1969). This is a cerium-sensitized xerographic lamp phosphor.F. Pat. C.F.44 2. Pat.5 (Y) 62.437:Mn0. as Ce3+ absorbs in the blue part of the spectral region and emits yellow light. resulting in white light.S.. Powderize. 3.126Al2O0. 2.g.3.

3 hours. Fire in N2. and Rivera. . Press into pellets again. Fire in 95% N2 + 5% H2. W.40 eV).555 0.000 psi Dry in air. 1000ºC. 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Reference 1.. 2. Press into pellets with a hydraulic press machine at 40. Unpublished data.88 eV) Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 100 Excitation (%) Emission 50 2 3 Remark This contribution is from Weiyi Jia.062 Preparation Mix by dry grinding in a mortar for 30 minutes. Powderize when dry.03 0. Jia.. 1400°C. 1. Powderize. 2 hours. E. ++ (4. Optical Properties Emission color: Violet Emission peak: 528 nm Emission width (FWHM): 4580 cm-1 Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (3.Y3Al5O12:Ce3+ Structure: Cubic (garnet) Composition Ingredient Y 2O 3 Al2O3 Ce(NO3)3·4H2O B2O3 Mole % 100 200 2 2 By weight (g) 10 9.

900ºC. Optical Properties Emission color: Deep red Emission peak: 640 and 667 nm Emission width (FWHM): 4580 cm-1 Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (3. 1. Fire in 95% N2 + 5% H2. 2 hours.03 0. W.04 6. Fire in N2. ++ (4.. 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Y3Al5O12:Cr3+ Structure: Cubic (garnet) Composition Ingredient For precursor: Y(NO3)3·6H2O Al(NO3)3 Cr(NO3)3·9H2O Mole % 4. Reference 1.062 Preparation Mix by dry grinding in a mortar for 30 minutes. and Rivera.. Unpublished data.72 0.40 eV).0067 By weight (g) — — — . 3 hours.88 eV) Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 100 Excitation (%) Emission 50 2 3 Remark This contribution is from Weiyi Jia.Y3Al5O12:Mn4+ Structure: Cubic (garnet) Composition Ingredient Y 2O 3 Al2O3 MnCO3 B2O3 Mole % 33 66 19 2 By weight (g) 10 9. Grind. 1400ºC. 2.051 0. Jia. E.

3257 (1996).E. Sluzky. 141.7 CH4N2O (urea) 2. Electrochem. preheated to 500°C. and 1..5 (fuel/oxidizer ratio) C2H5NO2 (glycine) 1. The solution boils..8. the flame lasts for about 15 sec.05 eV at 707 nm Excitation efficiency by UV: 2. American Scientific Publishers. 2. (2003). Sci. Shea-Rohwer. Phosphor development for alpha-silicon liquidcrystal light valve projection display. Display Materials. Ceram.. For carbohydrazide and urea fuels. L. Synthesis and crystallization of yttrium-aluminum-garnet and relatedcompounds.J. Mater. References 1. Lemoine. CA. L. 2. When glycine is used. an amorphous ash is produced that needs to be annealed in air at 1000°C for 1 hour. Place the dish into a muffle furnace.71 eV. dehydrates. J. (688. Soc. 707. and ruptures into a flame in 5–10 minutes. J. Synthesis and Characterization of Phosphors for Flat Panel Displays. This contribution is from Lauren E. Shea Rohwer. 3. and Walko. 1873 (1994). Stevenson Ranch. Eds.. 1.. 79... N. E. Hess. et al. Optical Properties Emission color: Deep red Emission peaks: 1. The spectra obtained have the same structure but the materials produced by higher temperatures show higher intensities.. Handbook of Luminescence. the result is a foamy powder which can be powderized. R. Nalwa and L.75.0 Photon Energy (eV) 2. Soc. Place the mixture in an appropriate flameproof dish and dissolve using de-ionized water (~50 ml). Shea.S. 29.S. 2. M. H. 3172 (1994).2 0 .85 eV (435 nm) Spectra 800 O O 750 700 Wavelength (nm) 650 600 550 Carbohydrazide Urea Glucine 1825 C Emission 100 1780 C 1210 C O 50 1.8 Remark 1. Powders should be placed in well-sealed containers. J..J. et al.E. The combustion flame temperature is dependent on the fuel used. and Hesse.6 1. Am. Rohwer. K.Fuels: CH6N4O (carbohydrazide) 1..5 Preparation Mix the precursor and the fuel thoroughly in a glass mortar. and Devices. carbohydrazide produces the highest temperature (1825°C) while glycine produces the lowest (1210°C). and 725 nm) Emission width: 0.

inert box. Crush after cooling and seal in glass capsule. and 1500 nm light Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 100 Emission 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 .Mn2+ BaY2F8:Er3+. Ar.5 Halides and Oxyhalides The following host compounds and activators are included in this subsection: (ErCl3)0.Pb2+ BaFCl:Eu2+ BaMg3F8:Eu2+. Heat at 1000°C after eliminating water and O2 in stream of N2. Optical Properties Emission color: Mostly green Emission peak: 550 nm Excitation efficiency by IR: Can be excited with 800.Yb3+ YF3:Tm3+.Yb3+ CsI:Tl LaOBr:Tb3+ LaOBr:Tm3+ NaYF4:Er3+.75 Composition Ingredient ErCl3 BaCl2 Mole % 25 75 By weight (g) — — Preparation Mix thoroughly in dry.25(BaCl2)0. and Cl2.25(BaCl2)0.Yb3+ YF3:Er3+. 1000.7.75 Ba2Mg3F10:Eu2+ BaFBr:Eu2+ BaFCl:Eu2+.Yb3+ (ErCl3)0.

4 112 328 (1978).04 37. This contribution is from Madis Raukas.00 1. R.. 2. and Messier. higher temperature is required for activator diffusion. Wang. peaking at around 330 nm Excitation efficiency by e-beam: Good for x-ray intensifier screens Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 100 Excitation (%) Emission 50 2 3 Remarks 1. 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 .. Optical Properties Emission color: Deep blue Emission peak: 415 nm Excitation efficiency by UV: In a broad range.Remarks 1.28 Preparation Dry mix. Ba2Mg3F10:Eu2+ Composition Ingredient BaF2 MgF2 EuF2 Mole % 38.39 2. Fire in 5% volume of H2 in N2. Pat. Appl.W. 830°C. Reference 1.. Phys. 1272 (1993). J. J. U. High-efficiency infrared-to-visible up-conversion of Er3+ in BaCl2..S. Powderize. Although not producing as efficiently luminescent material.80 60. Y. Wolfe..20 By weight (g) 68. This contribution is from Hajime Yamamoto.F. 2 hours. 74.. 2. an inert or even air atmosphere can be used for the reaction. The firing temperature can be lower (down to 700–750°C) for undoped barium magnesium fluoride. R. The phosphor is hygroscopic. Reference 1. and Ohwaki.

55 12143. BaBr2. Kotera et al. Phosphors for X-ray and ionizing radiation.. New York (1998). CRC Press. Kotera et al. and Kurobori. the materials are dried at 200–300°C.Pb2+ Composition Ingredient BaF2 BaCl2 EuCl2 PbF2 Mole % 49. This compound is photostimulable and. 4..S. References 1. Takahashi. Before firing. This contribution is from Masaaki Tamatani. and to protect from dissolving in water during washing.Structure: Tetragonal BaFBr:Eu2+ Preparation Intimate mixtures of raw materials (BaF2.. U.. 55 12145. 2.M. and Yen. W. Phys. 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 BaFCl:Eu2+. + (4. The phosphors are ground and re-fired. S.0096 By weight (g) 14. EuF3) are fired in a H2/N2 atmosphere at 600–1000°C (desirably at 700°C). E.. dried.25 1. Condens. Shionoya..428 0. Radzhabov.. 55 12144. K. The fired material is ground.88 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: + Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 100 Excitation (%) Emission 50 2 3 Remarks 1. 3. 13.40 eV). The Phosphor Handbook. T. washed with cold water or organic liquids.040 . 2. and sieved.13 0. Photoionization processes in barium fluorohalide crystals doped with Eu2+. Care is taken to avoid oxygen during firing. Japanese Patent Kokai. Excess ammonium halide may be used as flux.. Pat. Eds. useful for radiography. 1159 (2001). Matter.70 17. J.52 49. therefore.36 0. 439 458 1. Optical Properties Emission color: UV/blue Excitation efficiency by UV: – (3..

yttrium or lithium can be used for reducing the persistence (see the second reference). 4 057 508 (1977)...W. This contribution is from Madis Raukas. R. Fire in a 5% H2-N2 mixture at 600–1000°C for 1 hour. 2 hours. References 1. This x-ray phosphor is represented by the formula Ba0. Structure: Tetragonal BaFCl:Eu2+ Preparation Stir the following overnight: (1-2x)BaF2(s) + BaCl2(aq) + 2x EuF2(s) 2 Ba1-xEuxFCl(s) A stoichiometric excess of aqueous BaCl2 solution is used. 3. Spray dry the slurry of BaFCl:Eu and aqueous BaCl2. 2. R. ~ 830°C.000–15. O.S.. Pat. Dietz. 3 951 848 (1976). Pat. For the same purpose. Lead is an important additive for brightness enhancement and its amount can be varied from about 10 to 1000 molar ppm parts of host. Pat. H. 4.. 2 303 917 (1942).F.. 3.. U.9989Eu0. and Messier. 4.0001FCl. Pat. Sieve to –200 +355-mesh size. Uhle. U.000 ppm Al).J. . Optical Properties Emission peak: Around 385 nm Emission width (FWHM): About 35 nm Excitation by e-beam: Specified as a phosphor for x-ray intensifiers Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 100 Emission 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Remarks 1..F. U... 2 303 963 (1942). Fire in N2.S.S. Blend with with BaCl2 to serve as a flux. the optimum being at around 100 ppm. Wolfe. lead can be replaced by aluminum or thallium in slightly different proportions (10–50 ppm Tl. Separate the precipitate. R.S. and Messier. 8.Preparation Dry blend together.W. 2. U. R. Wolfe.01Pb0. As a further improvement..

26 43. J. C. J.88 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: + Decay to 1/e: 5. 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 References 1. Ferretti. 1159 (2001). Optical Properties Emission color: UV/blue Emission peak: 380 nm Excitation efficiency by UV: – (3.. Solid state chemistry and luminescence of X-ray phosphors. A. 3. Condens.Heat the resultant phosphor/flux intermediate at 1000°C.23 6.40 eV). Alloys Ingredients. Pat. 13.S.07 Preparation Dry blend together. Photoionization processes in barium fluorohalide crystals doped with Eu2+.. This contribution is from Masaaki Tamatani. Radzhabov.7 × 10–6 sec (UV exc. 2... Store in a well-sealed container..L.59 1.53 70. This compound is photostimulable.. BaMg3F8:Eu2+.C. Phys. U.99 2. Matter. 229. Issler.Mn2+ Composition Ingredient BaF2 MgF2 EuF2 MnF2 Mole % 23. 2. Fire in a flow of 5% H2 in N2 at 830°C for 2 hours.) Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 100 Excitation (%) Emission 50 2 3 Remarks 1. T. Wash. 4 524 016 (1985). and Torardi. S. and Kurobori. Optical Properties Emission color: Deep blue (Eu2+) . + (4.70 By weight (g) 41. E.18 4. 54 (1995).

and Messier. 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 BaY2F8:Er3+.05Mg2. Pat. 2. R. Wash with water after cooling to remove flux. R.95Eu0. 4 112 328 (1978).. 3.S. peaking at around 330 nm Excitation by e-beam: Good Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 100 Emission 50 2 3 Remarks 1.Emission peaks: Two bands. Optical Properties Emission color: Green Emission peak: 550 nm .. 410 nm (Eu2+) and 610 nm (Mn2+) Emission width (FWHM): 80 nm (Mn2+) Excitation efficiency by UV: In a broad range. Wolfe. U. Fire in a capped alumina crucible in inert or fluorizing atmosphere above 1100°C. The ingredients in the ratio shown above yields the composition of Ba1.20F10. This contribution is from Madis Raukas. higher temperature is required for activator diffusion..80Mn0. Reference 1.Yb3+ Structure: Monoclinic Composition Ingredient YF3 YbF3 Er F3 BaF2 ZnF2 Mole % 78 20 2 100 10 By weight (g) Preparation Mix thoroughly in ethanol. Forming undoped barium magnesium fluoride requires lower firing temperature (700– 750°C).W.F.

88 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: ++ Decay to 1/e: 0. Y.. Quant. 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Structure: Cubic CsI:Tl Preparation Single crystals can be grown by several conventional methods: 1. Lett. and dissolved in the melt (melting point 623°C). Spectroscopic and laser properties of Er3+-doped monoclinic BaY2F8 single-crystals. Mita.A.14 eV (241 nm) Excitation efficiency by UV: + (4. grown from the melt after Czochralski. S95 (1990). This contribution is from Hajime Yamamoto. 4. 22. Kaminskii. 2. 39.. Appl. A. References 1. Detection of 1.61 eV (269 nm). Luminescence characteristics are similar to those of YF3..5-µm wavelength laser-light emission by infrared-excitable phosphors. Electron. Phys. 2.. et al. Optical Properties Emission color: Green Emission peak: 550 nm Absorption edge: 4. Thallium iodide is mixed with CsI before heating. Opt. 587 (1981). 5.13 eV (299 nm).98 × 10-6 . zone melting in a closed vertical crucible after Bridgman–Stockbarger 2.Excitation efficiency by UV: Weak red emission Excitation efficiency by e-beam: Weak red emission Excitation efficiency by infrared light: Efficient under 970 nm Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 100 Emission 50 2 3 Remarks 1.

During crystal growth.40 eV). 400–500°C. ++ (4. The luminescence intensity is nearly constant for Tl+ concentrations between 0. Birks.C. Blasse.. Grabmaier. Heidelberg (1994). Structure: Tetragonal Composition Ingredient La2O3 Tb4O7 HNO3 Na2CO3 NH4Br LaOBr:Tb3+ Mole % 19. Luminescent Materials. wash. Sci. such as water. London (1964). Ball-mill the powder with a grinding media and a liquid vehicle.1 By weight (g) 100 2. 800–1100°C. and Grabmaier. Powderize and reblend powder.3 60.C. The theory and practice of scintillation counting. Nucl.. 1 hour. This contribution is from Masaaki Tamatani. Springer-Verlag. Powderize.3 mol%. 2. Fire in air.Spectra 800 700 600 500 400 Wavelength (nm) 300 100 Emission 50 2 3 Spectrum of the emission under x-ray excitation. filter. and dry. 3. B. IEEE Trans.. 1. B.2 39.6 0. References 1. and NH4Br. 2.06 and 0.B. Fire in air. Blend with the Na2CO3. Tb4O7.7 3. Crystal scintillators. and HNO3. 3. some of the thallium may be lost by evaporation.1 2. NS-31. G. Optical Properties Emission color: Whitish blue Excitation efficiency by UV: – (3. J.0 39.88 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: + . 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Remarks 1..3 38. 372 (1984). Pergamon Press. 2.1 Preparation Combine the La2O3. 1 hour.

G. Optical Properties Emission color: UV/blue Excitation efficiency by UV: – (3. 481 (1967). Concentration quenching of Tb3+ luminescence in LaOBr and Gd2O2S phosphors. 800°C. Pat. This contribution is from Masaaki Tamatani. – (4. Philips Res.. et al. U. Holsa.G. 3. and Bril. while potassium bromide acts as the flux. Alkali bromide formed by the interaction of alkali carbonate and ammonium bromide serves as a re-crystallizing agent. 4. Soc. Electrochem. Fire in air. J. G. Rep.. 102 (1974).S. Mater. 2. 2.88 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: + .. Bull.Spectra 800 700 600 500 400 Wavelength (nm) 300 100 Excitation (%) Emission 50 2 3 Remarks 1. 3 617 743 (1971). References 1.40 eV). J. Spring Meeting. Ammonium bromide serves as the brominating agent.. 22. Res.. J. Abstr.. 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 LaOBr:Tm3+ Structure: Tetragonal Composition Ingredient NH4Br Tm2O3 La2O3 Mole % — — — By weight (g) — — — Preparation (1-x)La2O3 + xTm2O3 + 2NH4Br. Rabatin. Blasse. Rabatin. Tb activated rare earth oxyhalides for x-ray intensifying screen. A. Investigations of Tb3+-activated phosphors. 14.. 1403 (1979).

. 2.G. in Ar atmosphere. 3 591 516 (1971).. 630°C.G.. Issler.C.. J.Spectra 800 700 600 500 400 Wavelength (nm) 300 100 Excitation (%) Emission 50 2 3 Remarks 1. Rabatin.2 Preparation Mix Na2SiF6 with the proper amount of (Y. J. NaF produced during decomposition of Na2SiF6 acts as flux and forms NaYF4 lattice.Er)F3. and Torardi. Fire in capped Pt crucibles. Pat. Rabatin.8 226. If water vapor sensitivity is a problem. Solid state chemistry and luminescence of X-ray phosphors. 4 208 470 (1978). Dry. J. 2. U. References 1. add some potassium antimony tartrate to the final product. U. which has been precipitated from aqueous nitrate solution with HF solution. 229. 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Structure: Trigonal Composition Ingredient YF3 YbF3 Er F3 Na2SiF6 NaYF4:Er3+.Yb.L. This contribution is from Masaaki Tamatani. Optical Properties Emission color: Green Emission peak: 550 nm Excitation efficiency by IR: Efficient at 970-nm wavelength Excitation efficiency by UV: Weak red emission Excitation efficiency by e-beam: Weak red emission Excitation by infrared light: Efficient under 970nm .9 10. C.S. S. Pat. 3. for 2 hours. Alloys Ingredients.S... 54 (1995).Yb3+ Mole % 57 39 4 100 By weight (g) 100 107.

4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 YF3:Er3+..Spectra 800 700 x5 Emission 600 500 x1 400 Wavelength (nm) 300 100 50 2 3 Remarks 1. Luminescence characteristics are similar to those of YF3 but more intense emission is reported. Electrochem.Gd. Fire in a capped alumina crucible in inert or fluorizing atmosphere above 1100°C.. Wash with water after cooling to remove flux.. 119.. J. H.La) — efficient green-emitting infrared-excited phosphors. T.Er3+ (Ln-Y. Yamamoto. Reference 1. Optical Properties Emission color: Green Emission peak: 550 nm Excitation efficiency by UV: Weak Excitation efficiency by e-beam: Weak Excitation efficiency by infrared light: Efficient under 970-nm excitation . 2. 1561 (1972). This contribution is from Yoh Mita.Yb3+ Structure: Orthorhombic Composition Ingredient YF3 YbF3 ErF3 ZnF2 Mole % 78 20 2 10 By weight (g) — — — — Preparation Mix thoroughly in ethanol. and Otomo. Kano. Soc. NaLnF4-Yb3+. Y.

Fire in a capped alumina crucible in inert or fluorizing atmosphere above 1100oC... Comments on materials for efficient infrared conversion. Johnson. L.Spectra 800 700 600 500 400 Wavelength (nm) 300 100 Emission 50 2 3 Remarks 1. 15. This contribution is from Hajime Yamamoto.2 10 By weight (g) — — — — Preparation Mix thoroughly in ethanol. but higher content of Er dopant is required for obtaining efficient emission. The green emission is observed also under 800 or 1500 nm wavelength light. 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 YF3:Tm3+.Yb3+ Structure: Orthorombic Composition Ingredient YF3 YbF3 TmF3 ZnF2 Mole % 74 35 0. Appl. Optical Properties Emission color: Pinkish-blue Excitation efficiency by IR: Excitable with 970-nm light . 2. which may be predominant upon higher incorporation of Er3+ and Yb3+ or partial oxidization. Phys. The green emission is accompanied with red emission. Reference 1.F. Lett. 48 (1969). Wash with water after cooling to remove flux. et al.

Johnson. Comments on materials for efficient infrared conversion. This contribution is from Yoh Mita.Spectra 800 700 600 500 400 Wavelength (nm) 300 100 Emission 50 2 3 Remarks 1. L. 2. . Lett.. 15.. Blue emission is accompanied by red emission. 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Reference 1. 48 (1969). et al. Phys. Appl.F.

40 eV).Al ZnS:Te.2 Preparation Mix by dry grinding or milling.Mn CaS:Bi3+ Structure: Cubic Composition Ingredient CaS Bi2O3 S Mole % 100 0. Ultrafast CdS:Te CdS:In.7.88 eV) Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 100 Excitation (%) Emission 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 .Cl ZnS:Cu. 1 hour.6 CaS and ZnS-Type Sulfides The following host compounds and activators are included in this subsection: CaS:Bi3+ CaS:Eu2+ CdS:In CdS:In. Optical Properties Emission color: Deep blue.5 By weight (g) 10 0. Fire in N2.323 0.Te ZnS:Ag. ++ (4. long blue afterglow Emission peak: 450 nm Emission width (FWHM): 1950 cm-1 Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (3. 1200ºC. Store in a well-sealed container. Powderize.

R. 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 References 1. Phys. Soc.. Jia.. Jia. 5. Activators and co-activators in calcium sulfide phosphors. . W. Trapping processes in CaS:Eu2+. 118. Lehmann. Lehmann. CaS:Eu2+ Structure: Cubic Composition Ingredient CaS Eu2O3 S Mole % 100 1 By weight (g) 10 0. J. D. D. 3402 (2000). 2... 1200ºC..Remark This contribution is from Weiyi Jia.M. Lumin. long red afterglow Emission peak: 655 nm Emission width (FWHM): 1660 cm-1 Spectra. Fire in 95% N2 + 5% H2. Optical Properties Emission color: Red. 2. References 1. W. Ryan. Unpublished data... 477 (1971).. 87 (1972). J.D.2 Preparation Mix by dry grinding or milling. Evans. Appl.Y. 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 100 Excitation (%) Emission 50 2 3 Remark This contribution is from Weiyi Jia. W..488 0. 1 hour. F. Powderize. 88.Tm3+. Store in a well-sealed container. W. et al. Electrochem.. J. Jia. Cathodoluminescence of CaS:Ce3+ and Cas:Eu2+ Phosphors.

Anneal in the sealed quartz ampoule at 900ºC for 10 hours. Ultrafast Composition Ingredient CdS In2O3 NH4Cl pure sulfur Mole % 100 % 0. 214 (2002). If it is not uniform it can be treated a third time at 900ºC for 10 hours in a vacuum-sealed ampoule. and Klintenberg. ZnO:Ga and CdS:In. Instr.95 mg Preparation Place the dry CdS and In powders in a quartz ampoule.E. Derenzo.. Derenzo... HgI2. The quest for the ideal scintillator. M. Color: green Excitation by UV: By all UV and by visible blue light Decay time: <1 nsec. Seal the quartz ampoule under vacuum. Mix vigorously using a Vortex mixer.1 % about 2 (not critical) By weight 145 g 0. Place the compound in a quartz ampoule.J. near-band-edge scintillation from CuI. Meth. 2. E. CdS:In. Weber. Temperature dependence of the fast.139 g 1g about 2 g .. This contribution is from Edith Bourret-Courchesne. Break the ampoule open and grind the compound mixture to a fine powder using a mortar and pestle. Optical Properties Body color: Greenish-yellow Emission: Peak about 519 nm. S. Break the ampoule open and grind the compound. References 1.K. M.J. M. Weber. Bourret-Courchesne. PbI2. exponential Remarks 1. The compound should be a uniform light green color. 111 (2003). S. A 486.. Anneal in the sealed quartz ampoule at 900ºC for 10 hours. Nucl. Instr. M. about 1 10 torr..E. Nucl. and Klintenberg. about 1 10 torr. Seal the quartz ampoule under vacuum. Meth.K. A 505..CdS:In Structure: hexagonal (wurtzite) Composition Ingredient CdS In2O3 Mole % 99 % 1% By weight 1g 7.

Dissolve the NH4Cl in a little water. Bourret-Courchesne. M. This phosphor is in a frozen-in semistable state. Remove any parts (if present) that look different. The quest for the ideal scintillator. W. Color: green Excitation by UV: By all UV and by visible blue light Excitation by e-beam: Energy— 1–1. Then add the sulfur to the dry raw mix. W.. A 486. 900ºC. When cool. U..J. 9. 111 (2003). HgI2. 1. Derenzo.K. M. Optical Properties Body color: Grayish-yellow Particles: About in the 5–10 µm size range Emission: Narrow band. S. E. The NH4Cl in the above recipe can be replaced by about 3. M. Dissolve the In2O3 in a little HNO3. stir to uniformity. Meth. and dry at room temperature or at moderate heat (e. Patent 3 583 929 (issued June 1971). ZnO:Ga and CdS:In.. S. 214 (2002). Lehmann.E. inspect under UV lamp. Do not heat higher than about 250ºC except in pure hydrogen. decay < 1 nsec Remarks 1. slowly flowing H2.. one-quarter hour.. and Klintenberg. 2. Fire in loosely capped quartz tubes (about half full. Nucl. 6.. Derenzo.g. Remove any suspicious parts and powderize the rest. not more) slowly flowing H2S. 600ºC. Cool while still in H2 (Important!) Inspect again under a UV lamp. Lehmann.Preparation Make a slurry of the CdS in alcohol. Instr. repeat the last firing step at about 100ºC higher temperature). Boil till development of brown N2O3 vapor ceases (but not to dry).6 g CdCl2.E. Weber.. Material should be uniformly deep red luminescent. 1 hour. Weber. Solid State Electron.. Meth. 1107 (1966). near-band-edge scintillation from CuI. The material should now be uniformly green luminescent (if it does not. M. .J.. A 505.2%. over night). 3. 75% N2).S.K. 4. Fire in open quartz boats. The H2S in the above recipe can be diluted with N2 (about to 25% H2S. References 3. Lehmann during a visit to the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory in 1987. Peak about 510 nm. Edge emission of n-type conducting ZnO and CdS.. Instr. Nucl. The above recipe was provided by W.. 5. 2. Klintenberg. Add both solutions to the CdS slurry. Temperature dependence of the fast. PbI2.

A 505. Anneal in the sealed quartz ampoule at 900ºC for 10 hours. and Klintenberg. Seal the quartz ampoule under vacuum.. PbI2. Appl. 546 (1992).K. nonexponential Remarks 1. Temperature dependence of the fast. References 1. P.CdS:Te Structure: hexagonal (wurtzite) Composition Ingredient CdS CdTe Mole % 99.J. Optical properties of tellurium as an isoelectronic trap in cadmium sulfide. Phys. about 5 10-5 torr. Mix vigorously using a Vortex mixer.. and Thomas. Color: red Excitation by UV: By all UV and by visible blue light Decay time: 270 nsec.Te Mole % 1% (In) 99%(CdS) 0. Nucl. about 5 10-5 torr. Break the ampoule open and grind the compound mixture to a fine powder using a mortar and pestle.. Break the ampoule open and grind the compound. Instr. ZnO:Ga and CdS:In.. A 486. and Ryzhikov.K. Meth. near-band-edge scintillation from CuI. Bourret-Courchesne.D. 214 (2002). 4. Optical Properties Body color: yellow Emission: Peak about ~640 nm.01 % By weight 10 g 1. Weber. Meth. Derenzo. S.. J. M. M. 2. Sci. D. Dorenbos. Schotanus. This contribution is from Edith Bourret-Courchesne.E.D. 111 (2003). Cuthbert. E. The quest for the ideal scintillator.. Detection of CdS(Te) and ZnSe(Te) scintillation light with silicon photodiodes. HgI2. M.. Derenzo. The compound should be a uniform yellow color. 39. Weber.G. Nucl. Seal the quartz ampoule under vacuum.J. M..99%(CdS) By weight 1g 1g .99 % 0.. V. Anneal in the sealed quartz ampoule at 900ºC for 10 hours. 3. 39.66mg Preparation Place the dry CdS and CdTe powders in a quartz ampoule. 1573 (1968). Instr. IEEE Trans. Structure: hexagonal (wurtzite) Composition Ingredient CdS:In* CdS:CdTe* *see previous pages CdS:In. Place the compound in a quartz ampoule. S. and Klintenberg.. Nucl.E. J.. P.01% (CdTe) 99.

Instr. In addition. S. and Klintenberg. A 505. The material can be washed with water to remove any flux residue.Cl Composition Ingredient ZnS AgNO3 NH4Cl S Mole % 100 0. Nucl.. Then sulfur is added. Remark This contribution is from Cees Ronda. about 5 10-5 torr. Optical Properties Body color: dark yellow Emission: Peak about 618 nm. E...J. and Klintenberg. M.. 214 (2002). M. S. followed by adding the NH4Cl solution. Heating takes place at bout 1100°C in a CO atmosphere. Seal the quartz ampoule under vacuum. Meth. Instr. Excitation by UV: By all UV and by visible blue light. Derenzo.03 5 — By weight (g) 98 0. Color: red. This material is used as blue primary in cathode-ray tubes. Nucl.. A ZnS slurry is made with water or an alcohol. Anneal in the sealed quartz ampoule at 900ºC for 10 hours. This contribution is from Edith Bourret-Courchesne.K. PbI2. Derenzo.E. two modifications can be made (cubic sphalerite and hexagonal wurtzite) with slightly difference spectra.. Remarks 2. Decay time:3. It can also be co-doped with Al. During stirring. Mix vigorously using a Vortex mixer. The quest for the ideal scintillator.K. Weber. Meth. instead of Cl. Bourret-Courchesne. . The mixture is dried in air and powdered.050 2. Break the ampoule open and grind the compound mixture to a fine powder using a mortar and pestle.J. Weber. M. References 7. near-band-edge scintillation from CuI. 111 (2003).Preparation Place the dry CdS:In and CdS:CdTe powders in a quartz ampoule. first the AgNO3 solution is added.. 8. Wurtzite is obtained by heating above about 1020°C and fast cooling. A 486. exponential.E. Temperature dependence of the fast. M. ZnO:Ga and CdS:In.5 nsec. ZnS:Ag. The compound should be a uniform dark yellow color.5 2–3 g Preparation AgNO3 and NH4Cl are dissolved separately in water. HgI2.

Remark This contribution is from Cees Ronda.ZnS:Cu.3 — By weight (g) 98 0. Pre-sinter at 800°C in N2 for 2 hours. The material can be washed with water to remove any flux residue.03 0. Sinter at 1200°C in N2 gas flow for 3 hours. Powderize and grind.06 0.632 0.232 1. ZnS:Te.08 Preparation Mix and grind. Optical Properties Emission color: Red Emission peak: 650 nm Excitation efficiency by UV: Excited by 280–380 nm and blue green 450–540 nm .00 0. to obtain more green emission. Heating takes place at about 1100°C in a CO atmosphere. Then sulfur is added.4 2–3 g Preparation Copper acetate and aluminum chloride are dissolved in water and added to ZnS.Mn Structure: Hexagonal (wurtzite) Composition Ingredient ZnS ZnTe MnO S Mole % 94 3 3 10 By weight (g) 10. It can also be co-doped with Au and Cu. The mixture is dried in air and powdered.Al Composition Ingredient ZnS Cu(C2H3O2)2H2O AlCl3 S Mole % 100 0. This material is used as green primary in cathode-ray tubes. Afterwards methanol or water is added to make a uniform slurry which is stirred.

This contribution comes from Dongdong Jia. 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Reference 1. 2.. Effect of tellurium on luminescence properties of zinc sulfide luminors. Spectrosc. This compound exhibits strong tribo-luminescence. 23. R.. Opt.F.Spectra 800 700 600 500 400 Wavelength (nm) 300 100 Excitation (%) Emission 50 2 3 Remarks 1. and Pron. 67 (1967).I. .—USSR. Smirnova. G.

23K0. Optical Properties Emission color: Blue Emission peak: 435 nm Excitation efficiency by UV: (3. Fire in air.23K0. Powderize. 1100°C.7.29K0.40 eV).08TiSi4O11:Eu3+ Na2Mg3Al2Si2O10F2:Tb Structure: Tetragonal Composition Ingredient CaCO3 WO3 PbO CaWO4:Pb2+ Mole % 48.12TiSi4O11:Eu3+ Na1.88 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: + Decay to 1/e: 10-5sec Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 100 Excitation (%) Emission 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 .7 100 4.5 49.7 Other Compounds The following host compounds and activators are included in this subsection: CaWO4:Pb2+ GaN:Zn Gd2O2S:Pr3+ Gd2O2S:Tb Na(Mg2-xMnx)LiSi4O10F2:Mn Na1.5 1 By weight (g) 231. ++ (4.46Er0. and then wash with 3% HCl (to remove the excess CaO). several hours.12TiSi5O13·xH2O:Eu3+ Na1.42Eu0.42Eu0.5 Preparation Mix ingredients.

Re-fire in H2+N2 atmosphere. S. pp. Optical Properties Emission color: Blue Emission peak: 460 nm Emission width (FWHM): 100 nm Absorption edge: 354 nm (3. Rep. and Hoekstra.. standard phosphors. Dry in air.. Bril. Efficiencies of phosphors for short-wave ultra-violet excitation. CRC Press. and Yen. Add solution of Mn2+ and vaporize water by warming. Bril. W... 1100 C.. and Mizuno. References 1. 296–306 (1964). in Phosphor Handbook. 1100 C. W. 356–370 (1961). NBS1026 is used for lamps..S.Remarks 1. 422–423 (1998). 4. Ed. A. 19. M.. This contribution is from Masaaki Tamatani.5 eV) Luminance by cr: 650 cd/m2 at 50 V DC . Rep. Phosphors for lamps.. Shionoya. 3. S. W.. New York. 2 hours. Kojima. in Phosphor Handbook. W. and Hoekstra. 16. T. Powderize. Properties of the fluorescence of some N. Powderize.M. 629–630 (1998). Philips Res. Powderize when dry. GaN:Zn Structure: Hexagonal (wurtzite) Composition Ingredient ZnS Ga2S3 Mole % — — By weight (g) — — Preparation Mix by slurrying in water or methanol. Excess Ca in the material blend gives favorable results. Wash with de-ionized water.. and Yen. 2. 1 hour. Shionoya. Fire in quartz tubes.. Phosphors for plasma display. Ed. H. CRTs. S. CRC Press. 2. NH3. A.B. 3. Kamiya. Philips Res. New York. pp.

Proceedings of the 9th International Display Workshops.Spectra 800 700 600 500 400 Wavelength (nm) 300 100 Excitation (%) Emission 50 2 3 Remark This contribution is from Yoshitaka Sato. Optical Properties Emission color: Green Emission peak: 510 nm Excitation efficiency by UV: (3. GaN:Zn for VFDs. Fire in air. Y. Structure: Hexagonal Composition Ingredient Gd2O3 Pr6O11 HNO3 S2 Na2CO3 Gd2O2S:Pr3+ Mole % 100 0.56 some 3 2. 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 References 1.. Tamaki. Dec. 2. 1000°C. et al.2 some some 10 By weight (g) 100 0. H. Co-doping with a small amount of Ce reduces the afterglow.. Luminescence Properties of a Blue Phosphor. 1100°C. Sato.. 2.40 eV).. Rinse well in water. Takahashi. H. Y. ++ (4. Sato.88 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: + Decay to 1/e: 3 × 10-6s . M.. 4–6 (2002). and Kameshima. and combine with sulfur and NaCO3. Proceeding of IDW'02 (2002). Take the oxide.92 Preparation Combine Gd2O3 and Pr6O11 powders with some nitric acid to form a precipitate. 1. Fire in air.

Boston. hot-isostatic-pressing process using a phosphor powder prepared by the conventional method for CRT phosphors.. Properties and application of gadolinium oxysulfide based ceramic scintillators. No.. Abstr. Gd2O2S:Tb Composition Ingredient Gd2O3 Tb4O7 Na2CO3 S Mole % 94 (Y) 6 (Tb) 100 300 By weight (g) 170.3 53 96 Preparation Mix the rare-earth oxides by slurrying in water or methanol and dry in air. Fall Meeting.F for X-ray computed tomography..Remarks 1.. References 1. A scintillator Gd2O2S:Pr. Siemens proposed to apply a uni-axial hot pressing process instead of HIP. Fall Meeting.4 11. Electrochem. 2. M. Hitachi is able to lower the sintering temperature during HIP by adding a sintering aid using a powder having large particle size. M. 3. . After cooling. H. 2. Yokota. Soc. H. using powders with very small particle size. Praseodimium-doped gadolinium oxysulfide ceramics prepared by the hot isostatic pressing process. and Yamamoto. Abstr. 136. mixture should be powdered in mortar. mix the rare-earth mixture with Na2CO3 and S by dry mixing. Y. Three groups have proposed different processes for fabricating the oxysulfide ceramics. K.. and Tamatani. Uchida. N... After drying.. 2713 (1989). Honolulu. Soc. Electrochem. Suzuki. No. Soc. Firing should occur in air in a vessel with a well-closing lid. Subsequently. at a temperature of about 1100°C for a few hours. 879 (1998).. Toshiba proposed a high-temperature. W. Rossner. Yoshida. Yamada. 1870RNP (1987). and Ostertag. Electrochem. This contribution is from Masaaki Tamatani.. the reaction product has to be washed a few times with water to remove residual flux. A. Matsuda.. M. J.Ce.

Spectra
800 700 600 500

400

Wavelength (nm)

300

100

Emission

50

2

3

Remarks 1. This contribution is from Cees Ronda. 2. This material is used in X-ray intensifying screens and in oscilloscope CRTs.

4 Photon Energy (eV)

5

0

Na(Mg2-xMnx)LiSi4O10F2:Mn
Structure: Lamellar intercalation Composition Ingredient Mole % By weight (g) Na2CO3 2.50 1.82 MgO 28.80 7.96 Li2CO3 7.50 3.80 5.00 6.45 Na2SiF6 SiO2 55.00 22.66 1.20 0.946 MnCO3 Preparation Mix stoichiometric amounts in a paint shaker for 30 minutes with about 20 mol% of excess potassium carbonate to compensate for losses due to volatilization. Fire in covered alumina crucibles, air, 915 C, 36 hours. Grind. Fire in covered alumina crucibles, 4% H2 /N2, 850 C. Cool to room temperature. Powderize. Screen through a 325-mesh stainless steel sieve. Optical Properties Emission color: Redish-pink Emission peak: 695 nm Excitation efficiency by UV: + (3.40 eV), + (4.88 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: Characteristic emission at about 1.4 fL level under focused 15 kV/8 A excitation

Spectra
800 700 600 500

400

Wavelength (nm)

300

100

Emission

50

2

3

Remarks 1. This contribution is from Madis Raukas. 2. This phosphor in formulation of Na(Mg2-xMnx)LiSi4O10F2 is an example of a broad family of intercalation ingredient that, besides micas and fluoromicas, includes vermiculites and zeolites. 3. Described composition yields a concentration of 0.08 mol Mn per mole of phosphor. 4. Good electroluminescent properties when intercalated with conductive polymers or metals. References 1. Qi, R.Y., Karam, R.E., Reddy, V.B., and Cox, J.R., U.S. Pat., 5 567 351 (1996). 2. Qi, R.Y., and Karam, R.E., U.S. Pat., 5 658 495 (1997). 3. Reddy, V.B., Karam, R.E., and Northrop, S.K., U.S. Pat., 5 489 398 (1996). 4. Qi, R.Y., and Karam, R.E., U.S. Pat., 5 531 926 (1996). 5. Reddy, V.B., and Karam, R.E., Northrop, S.K., and Zhang, Y., U.S. Pat., 5 531 928 (1996).

4 Photon Energy (eV)

5

0

Na1.23K0.42Eu0.12TiSi5O13·xH2O:Eu3+
Structure: Tetragonal Composition Ingredient Mole % Sodium silicate solution 30.7 (of Si) (8% Na2O; 27% SiO2; 65% H2O) 5.6 (of Ti) TiO2 (anatase) NaCl 58.1 (of Na) KCl 5.6 (of K) Eu(NO3)3·5H2O 0.12 (of Eu) By weight (g) 20.0 1.30 6.90 1.30 0.15

Preparation 1. To prepare ETS-10: Mix 20 g of water to the sodium silicate solution and add the NaCl and KCl. Stir and add anatase. Autoclave the gel under autogeneous pressure for 24 hours at 230°C. The resulting powder is filtered and washed with distilled water at room temperature and then allowed to dry at 110°C.

2.

To prepare Eu3+-doped ETS-10: Dissolve 0.07 g of Eu(NO3)3·5H2O in 250 ml of water and add 3.94 g of the already prepared ETS-10. The solution is stirred for 24 hours at 60°C. The precipitate is filtered and dried in air at 110°C. *The next two materials also use this as their basic recipe.

Optical Properties Emission color: Red Emission peak: 2.00 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0.044 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: The maximum excitation efficiency at 394 nm (7F0 5L6) and 465 nm (7F0 5D2) Decay to 10% (or 1/e, as given): To 1/e 3.63 ± 0.04 and 1.11 ± 0.02 msec Spectra
800 700 600 500 400
Wavelength (nm)

300

100
Excitation (%)

Emission

50

2

3

4 Photon Energy (eV)

5

0

Remarks 1. This contribution is from Luis Carlos. 2. ETS-10 is also known as microporous sodium potassium titanosilicate. 3. ETS-10 is doped through an ion exchange between Na+ and K+ with Eu3+. Reference 1. Rainho, J.P., Carlos, L.D., and Rocha, J., New phosphors based on Eu3+-doped microporous titanosilicates, J. Lumin., 87, 1083 (2000).

Na1.23K0.42Eu0.12TiSi4O11:Eu3+
Structure: Tetragonal Composition Ingredient Sodium silicate solution (8% Na2O; 27% SiO2; 65% H2O) TiO2 (anatase) NaCl KCl Eu(NO3)3·5H2O Mole % 30.7 (of Si) 5.6 (of Ti) 58.1 (of Na) 5.6 (of K) 0.12 (of Eu) By weight (g) 20.0 1.30 6.90 1.30 0.15

Preparation 1. ETS-10 and ETS-10 doped with Eu3+ are prepared as in the case of the microporous titanosilicate compound described on the previous page. 2. To obtain Eu3+ doped narsarsukite: Eu3+-doped ETS-10 is calcined in air from room temperature to 800°C at a heating rate of 5°C per minute. The material is maintained at 800°C for 3 hours. Cool in air.

Optical Properties Emission color: Red Emission peak: 2.03 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0.003 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: The maximum excitation efficiency at 394 nm (7F0 5L6) and 465 nm (7F0 5D2) Decay to 10%: To 1/e 3.63 ± 0.04 and 1.11 ± 0.02 msec Spectra
800 700 600 500
Wavelength (nm)

400

300

100
Excitation (%)

Emission

50

2

3

Remarks 1. This contribution is from Luis Carlos. 2. This material is known as synthetic narsarsukite doped with Eu3+. 3. The end product is contaminated with quartz and cristobalite impurities. References 1. Rainho, J.P., Carlos, L.D., and Rocha, J., New phosphors based on Eu3+-doped microporous titanosilicates, J. Lumin., 87, 1083 (2000). 2. Rainho, J.P. et al., Synthesis and luminescence of Eu3+-doped narsarsukite prepared by the sol-gel process, J. Sol-Gel Sci. Tecnol., 26, 1005 (2003).

4 Photon Energy (eV)

5

0

Na1.29K0.46Er0.08TiSi4O11:Eu3+
Structure: Tetragonal Composition Ingredient Mole % sodium silicate solution 30.7 (of Si) (8% Na2O; 27% SiO2; 65% H2O) TiO2 (anatase) 5.6 (of Ti) By weight (g) 20.0 1.30

NaCl KCl Eu(NO3)3·5H2O

58.1 (of Na) 5.6 (of K) 0.12 (of Eu)

6.90 1.30 0.15

Preparation 1. ETS-10 is prepared as in the case of the microporous titanosilicate compound described in the previous pages. 2. To prepare Eu3+-doped ETS-10: Dissolve 0.07 g of Eu(NO3)3·5H2O in 250 ml of water and add 3.94 g of the already prepared ETS-10. The suspension is stirred for 24 hours at 60°C. The precipitate is filtered and dried in air at 110°C. 3. To obtain Er3+ doped narsarsukite: Eu3+ doped ETS-10 is calcined in air from room temperature to 800°C at a heating rate of 5°C per minute. The material is maintained at 800°C for 3 hours. Optical Properties Emission color: IR Emission peak: 0.80 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0.014 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: Maximum excitation efficiency at 520 nm (4I15/2 2H11/2) and 488 nm (4I15/2 4F7/2) Decay to 10%: To 1/e 7.8 ± 0.2 msec Spectra
1700 1650 1600 1550 1500
Wavelength (nm)

1450

700

600

500

400

100
Excitation (%)

Emission

50

0.75

0.80

Remarks 1. 2. 3. 4.

0.85 2.0 Photon Energy (eV)

2.5

3.0

3.5

0

This contribution is from Luis Carlos. ETS-10 is doped through an ion exchange between Na+ and K+ with Eu3+. This material is known as synthetic narsarsukite. The end product is contaminated with quartz and cristobalite impurities.

References 1. Rocha, J. et al., New phosphors based on Eu3+-doped microporous titanosilicates, J. Mater. Chem., 10, 1371 (2000). 2. Rainho, J.P. et al., Er(III) environment in luminescent titanosilicates prepared from microporous precursors, J. Mater. Chem., 12, 1162 (2002).

Na2Mg3Al2Si2O10F2:Tb
Structure: Lamellar intercalation Composition Ingredient Na2CO3 MgO Al2O3 (NH4)2SiF6 SiO2 TbF3 Mole % 14.23 42.66 13.94 4.74 23.74 0.69 By weight (g) 12.26 13.98 11.56 6.87 11.60 1.21

Preparation Mix all the ingredients thoroughly for 20–30 minutes, preferably in a paint shaker or similar device. Fire in a covered alumina crucible, with graphite pellets added, 1100 C, 12–24 hours. Cool to ambient temperature, powderize, and wash in de-ionized water. Optical Properties Emission Color: Bluish-green Emission peaks: 380, 415, 440, and 540 nm Excitation efficiency by UV: + (3.40 eV), + (4.88 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: About 1 fL level under focused 15 kV/8 A excitation Spectra
800 700 600 500
Wavelength (nm)

400

300

100

Emission

50

2

3

Remarks 1. This contribution is from Madis Raukas. 2. The described procedure yields a concentration of 0.04 mol% Tb. The formula of the compound is Na2(Mg3-xTbx)Al2Si2O10F2. 3. This phosphor is an example of a broad family of intercalation compounds that includes mica, fluoromica, vermiculite, and zeolite. 4. Phosphor has good electroluminescent properties if intercalated with polymers or metals.

4 Photon Energy (eV)

5

0

References 1. Cox, J.R., and Karam, R.E., U.S. Pat., 5 656 199 (1997). 2. Reddy, V.B., Karam, R.E., and Northrup, S.K., U.S. Pat., 5 489 398 (1996). 3. Oi, R.Y., and Karam, R.E., U.S. Pat., 5 531 926 (1996). 4. Karam, R.E., Reddy, V.B., Northrup, S.K., and Zhang, Y., U.S. Pat., 5 531 928 (1996). 5. Oi, R.Y., and Karam, R.E., and Cox, J.R., U.S. Pat., 5 567 351 (1996).

Section 8: Commercial Phosphors and Scintillators

Section 8 COMMERCIAL PHOSPHORS AND SCINTILLATORS
Commercial phosphors and scintillators are arranged in order of increasing wavelength in Table 1. The data were compiled for recent producers’ data sheets and literature. Note that these may not be the only phosphors and scintillators available commercially or the materials still may not be manufactured. Many phosphors are specified by P numbers assigned by the Electronics Industries Association of the United States; these have been used since 1945 and are included in Table 1. The World Phosphor Type Designation System (WPTDS), established in 1982, is a more detailed, unified phosphor system designation system. It usually consisting of two letters: the first letter indicating the criterion for the phosphor screen emission color, the second letter indicating differences from the criterion. These symbols, together with other numbers and symbols used in Japan and Europe, are included in an extensive tabulation by Inaho and Hase in chapter 6—Section 6 of the Phosphor Handbook. Table 1 Commercial phosphors and scintillators Wavelength of maximum Chemical emission (nm) formula 220, 310(1) 305 307 315 330–352 338 342–347 350 351 358–385 365 371 380 385 390 390 400 400 400, 525 410 BaF2(1,2) CeF3(2) MgSrAl10O17:Ce CsI(2) LaCl3:Ce3+(2) (CeMg)SrAl11O18:Ce (CeMg)BaAl11O18:Ce YAlO3:Ce3+(2) BaSi2O5:Pb LaBr3:Ce3+(2) LuAlO3:Ce3+(2) SrB4O7:Eu Lu2Si2O7:Ce3+(2) Ca2MgSi2O7:Ce3+ CsF(1,2) ZnO:Ga Y2SiO5:Ce3+ Zn2SiO4:Ti P46 (70%) + P47 (30%) Y2SiO5:Ce3+(2)

Designation or acronym

YAP, YALO

LuAP LPS P16

P47 P52 P48 YSO:Ce

As LuYAP MSL CWO P5 LSO LGSO GSO BAM BAM:Eu.Cl ZnS:Ag. 514 460 460 465 470/540 473 480 480 480 482 494 504 509 510 510 510 513 520 525 525 YTaO4:Nb Lu1-xYxAlO3:Ce3+(2) NaI:Tl(2) — CsI:Na+(2) CaWO4(2) CaWO4:W Lu2SiO5:Ce3+ Sr2P2O7:Eu (Lu.Ni CdWO4(2) MgWO4 ZnWO4(2) Bi4Ge3O12(2) Sr6P5BO20:Eu Ca5(PO4)3F:Sb (Ba.Gd)2SiO5:Ce3+ CaWO4:Pb CaF2:Eu2+(2) Gd2SiO5: Ce3+(2) Sr5Cl(PO4)3:Eu BaMgAl10O17:Eu ZnS:Cu BaMgAl10O17:Eu:Mn Sr2P2O7:Sn ZnS:Ag.Table 1 Commerical phosphors and scintillators—continued Wavelength of maximum Chemical Designation emission (nm) formula or acronym 410 415 415 418–420 420 420 420 420 420 425–430 433 435 440 447 450 455–504 456.Ti)2P2O7:Ti ZnO:Zn Sr5(PO4)3F:Sb.Cl CdS:In Zn2SiO4:Mn.Mn P11* P37 CWO BGO P15 UFC P24 P31 P39 .Ce.F(3) ZnO:Zn Y2O2S:Pr3+ ZnS:Cu.Mn Gd2O2S:Pr(3) Gd2O2S:Pr.

Zn.06(3) Y1.Cd)S:Cu Y3Al5O12:Ce3+(2) MgF2:Mn2+ (Zn.Cu.3) CaSiO3:Mn2+.Cl Gd2O2S:Tb3+ La2O2S:Tb3+ Y2O2S:Tb3+ Y3Al5O12:Tb3+ (Ce. 611 593.60O3(Eu.Ce.Cu KMgF3:Mn2+ (Zn.V)O4:Eu3+ (Zn.Cl CsI:Tl(2) Zn0.Tb)PO4:Ce:Tb (Zn.Gd)2O3:Eu3+(2. YOE P49*.06 Y2O3:Eu3+ YVO4:Eu3+ (Sr. 619.Gd)BO3:Eu3+ Y(P.34Gd0. YVE P54* .Pb Y1.Sb2O3 Y3Al5O12:Ce3+(2) ZnS:Pb.60O3(Eu.Mg)3(PO4)2:Sn (Y.Pr)0.4S:Ag ZnS:Mn.Mg)3(PO4)2:Sn Y2O2S:Eu3+ (Sr.Mg)F2:Mn2+ KMgF3:Mn2+ (Y.Tb)MgAl11O19:Ce:Tb (La.Cd)S:Ag.Mg)F2:Mn2+ MgF2:Mn2+ (Ca.6Cd0.Pr)0. 696 600 605 610 610 610 610 610 611 619 626 626 627 Zn2SiO4:Mn2+ Zn2SiO4:Mn2+ Zn2SiO4:Mn.Mg)3(PO4)2:Sn P1 ZSM P46 P34 P2 P43.Table 1 Commercial phosphors and scintillators—continued Wavelength of maximum Chemical Designation emission (nm) formula or acronym 525 526 528 530 540 543 544 544 544 544 546 546 550 550 559 560 560 560 584 585 590 590 593.34Gd0.Cu ZnS:Ag. GOS P44 P45 P53 P28 YAG:Ce P33 P20 P26 P12 P19 P38 P21 P25 Hilight YGO P56.

P22 can be any of several compounds.Ce(2) P27 P13 GGG:Cr * These compositions are also sometimes designated as P22.6S:Ag Zn3(PO4)2:Mn2+ MgSiO3:Mn2+ Mg4(F)(Ge.Table 1 Commercial phosphors and scintillators—continued Wavelength of maximum Chemical Designation emission (nm) formula or acronym 627 630 635 640 658 658 730 Gd2O2S:Eu3+ Zn0. (1) Core-valence luminescence (2) Single crystal scintillator (3) Transparent ceramic .4Cd0.Sn)O6:Mn2+ Mg4(F)GeO6:Mn2+ Gd3Ga5O12:Cr.

Appendices Historical Note on Phosphor Recipes Phosphor Materials Arranged in Order of Emission Wavelength Appendix III Willi Lehmann: A Brief Biography Appendix I Appendix II .

This phosphorescence property lent its name to the element (Figure 1). The term phosphorescence was.1 Figure 1 Depiction of the discovery of phosphorus by Brand as perceived by Joseph Wright of Derby some years later (Copyright by Derby City Council Art Galleries. Initially. .APPENDIX I Historical Note on Phosphor Recipes The word phosphorus derives from the Greek [fosforos]. this word was used more specifically to describe substances which became luminous following exposure to light excitation. permission pending). combining (light) and (to carry). These developments and observations had their origin in alchemical attempts to manufacture noble metals through use of the evasive Philosopher’s Stone. the assignation of this word was given to any substance that evinced the property of phosphorescence. used to describe the emission of diffuse light from causes other than combustion. distillation resulted in a white substance that gave out enough light to allow Brand to read in the dark. The element phosphorus (P) was discovered in such a search by Henning Brand (1669) while experimenting with concentrated urine. and meaning light carrying or luminous. for a time.

there is documented evidence that phosphors have been produced and put to use as early as 2000 years ago as is recorded in a Chinese text (Figure 2). M. Some questions have been raised as to the accuracy of the compilations. Writings or paintings using this ink had the properties of vanishing in daylight and becoming visible in the dark. Li Yu.C.2 (A translation of the Chinese text.) Figure 2 Copy of the Chinese text describing the acquisition of a luminescent painting by Xu Zhi-e written for a compilation of historical and folk tales published in the Song dynasty (960–1279 A. . used for the synthesis of sulfide phosphors occur naturally. kindly provided by Professor Y. was the yongest son of the governor of Xu Wen. it is apparent that phosphorescent materials have been around for some time. reference is made to a book published in the reign of Han Wu Di (140–88 B. born South of the Yangtze River. is given in the caption.) by Wen Ying.Historically. of Run Zhou. All the court officials thought the Ning’s explanation was nonsense. The methods for preparing the phosphors or the phosphors used in these paintings apparently were obtained from Japan where raw materials. Often they found that these shells contained a special liquid which when collected and mixed with paint formed a special type of ink. He was fond of collecting rare antiques and other curios.D. from which this passage is taken.). the second emperor of the Song Dynasty. The head possessed a red crest and a golden beak which vividly resembled those of a real rooster. He explained that at low tide in the China Sea. regardless. he spent five hundred thousand in cash to acquire the head of a phoenix complete with a shining and colorful skeleton. The phosphors described were of the persistent type and were used in a painting which glowed in the dark and was considered to some to have inexplicable magic. Xu presented the painting to his sovereign. the picture showed the cow resting inside the barn. the painting eventually passed to Tai Zong. when viewed in the dark. the famous envoy sent to the Western regions by Han Wu Di. Tai Zong showed this painting to all his Ministers. such as calcium from seashells and sulfur from volcanic activity. who consulted some imperial collections. Hai Wai Yi Ji written by Zhang Qian. courtesy of Dr. the painting when viewed in daylight showed the cow grazing outside an open pen. Xiang-shan Ye Lu. Tamatani. He added that in the sea shores of the land of southern people (Japan) sometimes strong winds would grind these rocks with water to form a similar paint. a scholar named Du Gao. The page describing the phosphorescent painting is shown in Figure 2. Following the fall of the Tang Dynasty. like a pillar.) which would indicate that manmade phosphors have been available for more than 2000 years. Later. he claimed that he had obtained his information from a book. The Chinese written text reads as follows (right to left): Xu Zhi-e. On one occasion. the last emperor of the Southern Tang Dynasty. it was five inches wide and the back of the head was flat. He acquired at the same time a painting of a cow. southern people (Japanese) frequented the beaches to harvest nacre.D. however. found the reference in a work dating back to the Six Dynasties (220–586 A. Zhao. none of them could explain the secret of the phenomena except for an officer in charge of religious matters named Zhan Nin. In the text.

N. both authors were professors at the famed University of Bologna. Potier’s recipe is likely the first phosphor recipe on record. Licetus postulated. Cesare La Galla described the properties of the stone in De Phenomenis in Orbe Lunae published in 1612. Montalbani described the various colors of light that could be obtained from the stone as a function of preparation and first suggested an analogy between the phosphorescence and burning. work it into cake either with water or the white of an egg.The denomination of phosphor (phosphori) first appeared in the seventeenth century in connection with the discovery of the Bolognian Stone (BaS) by Vincenzo Casciarolo in 1602. related in some detail the history of the stone and various attempts by the learned community in Bologna to explain the origin of the emitted light. on the other hand. . If not cooked sufficiently the procedure is repeated as before. that the faint light of a new moon was produced by lunar material similar to the Bolognian Stone.e. published in 1646. when properly treated it gave rise to a reddish glow which led to the scientific study of luminescent objects. Galileo was right and the diffuse light observed in that lunar phase is due to sunlight reflected from Earth.3 The base material (BaSO4. barite) is found near Monte Paderno as scattered stones. The method for preparation of the Bolognian Stone was described in detail by Pierre Potier in Pharmacopea Spagirica in 1625. News regarding the unusual properties of the lapide Bononiensi was carried to the British Isles by John Evelyn (1620– 1706) following a visit to Bologna in 1645. The second is to reduce it to a meal and. in the place of thalerum (?). Harvey. After they have dried out they are put in layers with coal in a blast furnace and. Of course. Calcination was thought to produce pores in the stone. When the oven has cooled off the cakes are taken out. though published in Latin. the stone was of interest to pharmacologists because it reputedly also possessed depilatory properties.. There was considerable interest throughout Italy in these materials and attempts were made to use it as the Philosopher’s Stone (i. One popular belief advanced by Athanasius Kircher of Fulda (Hesse) was that the phosphorus attracted light much as a magnet attracted iron filings. The experiments leading to this conclusion are detailed in Ars Magna Lucis Et Umbra. Licetus. after a very hot fire has been made.5 The properties of the phosphorescent stone attracted attention throughout the Italian peninsula and the European continent and led to much speculation as to the origin of the emission. this suggestion lead to controversy on the source of this radiation with no lesser a luminary than Galileo Galilei. these pores then held air suffused with light whose gradual release led to the observed phosphorescence. Sometimes this is done three times. The best calcinations results when stones. as the catalyst for the conversion of ignoble to noble metals). shining. The first is to reduce the stone to very fine meal. respectively. As quoted by E. Preliminary scientific investigations of the properties of this stone were discussed in De Illuminabili Lapide Bononiensi Epistola by Ovido Montalbani and in Litheosphorus Sive De Lapide Boboniensi by Fortinius Licetus in 1634 and 1640. for example. In his book.4 it reads: According to the light-bearing quality sought for. pure and diaphanous are used. From this powder various animals are formed in little boxes (pyxidiculum) which shine wonderfully in the dark.6 he reported that the recipe for the preparation of the stone had been lost by then and he apparently had not been aware of Potier’s pharmacological work. then to calcinate it in a crucible with very strong fire. it (BaSO4) is calcinated in two ways. they are calcinated for four or five hours. he was the first to point out that phosphorescence only occurred after calcinations and he tried to explain the phenomena as due to the slow release of fire and/or light trapped in the material during exposure.

Balduin communicated his results to the Royal Society of London in 1676 and as a consequence was elected to Fellowship of the Society. His phosphor was henceforth named Balduin’s phophorus.Figure 3 (left). This compound is hygroscopic and turns to a liquid when exposed to atmosphere. An illustration by Marc’Antonio Cellio allegorizing the magical phosphorescent qualities of the Bolognia Stone produced in the course of calcinations. The first one was due to Christian Adolph Balduin (1632–1682) who in 1675 prepared a phosphorescent form of calcium nitrate by mixing chalk and nitric acid and distilling the solution to dryness. These drawings appeared in Il Fosforo o vero la Pietra Bolognese. 3. The second material is known as Homberg’s phosphorus named after Wilhelm Homberg (1652–1715) who made notable contributions to the foundation of modern chemistry and who had an interest in the photochromic properties of silver nitrate. this volume is in the University Library of Bologna. Because the material needed to be kept in a sealed vessel. Balduin called his material phosphorus hermeticus and disclosed his results in Aurum Superius et Inferius Aurae Superioris et Inferioris Hermeticum which appeared simultaneous in Amsterdam and in Frankfurt in 1675. In the course of his . Note that the structure of this furnace is not much different than modern ovens used for similar purposes. The interest in light-emitting materials led to the invention and synthesis of three other phosphori of interest to the scientific and/or the alchemical communities of that period. (right). published in 1680 by Cellio and are reproduced from Ref. Drawing of the furnace used by Casciarolo for calcinations of BaSO4 (barite) to produce his magical stone. he believed that the solution formed in this way represented a spiritus mundi and it is likely that the paint used in the Chinese paintings mentioned above was a solution of this type. When calcium nitrate is overheated it develops a yellowish tint and emits a reddish phosphorescence in the dark following exposure to sunlight.

In 1652. upon trial.8 His report is the earliest recipe of any phosphor written in English. Although Sidot’s original purpose was to study crystal growth. rather than being attracted like a sponge or magnet to the stone. will be a white powder. In 1768. by keeping them in a good coal fire for half an hour. which. His receipt for making it is as follows: “Calcinate some common oyster shells. reported that the intensity of the phosphorescence emitted from the stone was proportional to the intensity of the excitation light and that the color of the light emitted was independent of the coloration of the excitation light. Mix with three parts of this powder one part of flowers of sulphur. the method described is not much different than some of those presented in Section 2 of this work. fascination.3 The beginning of modern studies of phosphor synthesis can be attributed to a French chemist. though the language in the recipe is a bit arcane. the phenomena of and the origin of the observed phosphorescence were sources of much interest. of course. Homberg synthesized calcium chloride sometime in the 1690’s and showed it had phosphorescence properties. for one hour at least. Theodore Sidot. published in London in 1772. till it be almost full. magnetism. and let it be placed in the middle of the fire. and cutting. of about an inch and a half depth. that clouds were electrified both positively and negatively and designed experimental methods that are (even now) used to determine the sign of charges via induction. and let the purest part of the calx be pulverized and sifted. turn it out of the crucible.experimentations. Canton’s which makes an artificial phosphorus greatly superior to any single natural substance. much as a sponge would absorb water and then release it as it is squeezed. and speculation. Light and Colours. let this mixture be rammed in a crucible. persisted well into the nineteenth century. In addition to Kircher’s conjecture as to the source of the light noted above. had a wide ranging set of scientific interests including electricity. who in 1866 was able to grow small ZnS crystals using sublimation.7 John Canton (1718–1772). where it must be kept red hot. Nicola Zucchi (1586–1670). and then be set by to cool.” We note. in 1751 for making artificial magnets and in 1765 for measuring the compressibility of water. and has the advantage of being easily and cheaply prepared. Priestly writes (pages 370–372):9 In the next place I shall present my reader with an account of this composition of Mr. He was awarded the Copley Medal of the Royal Society twice. and optics. or breaking to pieces. emanated the radiation on its own. he reported in Philosophical Transactions the discovery of a strong phosphorescent material which was promptly named Canton’s phosphorus (CaS). a man born under modest circumstances. if good phosphorus. another Professor from Rome. Joseph Priestly cites Canton in The History and Present State of Discoveries Relating to Vision. however. and may be preserved by keeping it in a dry phial with a ground stopple. others such as Giullio Cesare La Galla (1576–1624) of Rome speculated that the emissions were due to the slow release of fire and light trapped in the stone in the process of calcinations. for example. These conclusions were reaffirmed in 1728 by Francesco Zanotti who also asserted that the light. He attributed this explanation to Galileo Galilei (1564–1642) himself. scrape off. he found that his crystals phosphoresced in the dark. by which means it is now in every person’s power to amuse himself and his friends with these curious experiments. the synthesis methods and experimental results were reported to the French Academy by Edmond Becquerel in a note in 1866 and the material . When it is cold. the brightest pieces. Beginning with the discovery of the Bolognian Stone. The idea of the Bolognian Stone attracting light and causing the phosphorescence either by reemitting the light or by reflecting it. He showed.

Discovery of the elements.html>). however. He believed that in the latter case the luminescence observed in this gem was an intrinsic property of alumina and that Cr simply played a role as an activator. The latter ions form diverse centers in the material and are said to activate the luminescence. the emission from Sidot’s blende.10 About this time. pp. hence they were named activator ions. The Phosphor Handbook contains an updated discussion of modern synthesis methods as well as the description of phosphors suitable for a variety of technical purposes. only to those materials which become self-luminous after exposure to light). considerable work took place at the Radio Corporation of America (RCA). we have now a much better understanding as to the mechanisms which produce luminescence in solids and we are almost to the point where we can begin thinking in terms of designing and tailoring materials to our specific technical needs. He was able to synthesize not only Sidot’s blende but also a series of alkaline earth chalcogenides (sulfides and selenides) and demonstrated that the light emission of the compounds could be altered by introducing metallic ions into the materials.A. for many years this work was accepted as the standard text in the phosphor art and material in the book remains useful even today. Educ. Becquerel discusses at length the phosphorescence of various compounds including ruby (Al2O3:Cr3+)..E. is due to trace amounts of copper. the terminology describing phosphorescent phenomena was revised. van der Krogt.. respectively. Becquerel published his opus on light. La Lumiere-Ses Causes et Ses Effects (1867)..16 Because of the advent of atomic and quantum physics and chemistry and the work of many researchers in this area of inquiry which preceded us. Because of his extensive work on phosphors detailed in a Handbuch article.e. still in use to categorize longand short-lived luminescent emissions.14 the word luminescence is used to describe most light emission processes following some form of excitation. alkaline chalcogenide phosphors are called Lenard phosphors. It is our hope that the present volume serves to complement the information found in that handbook. References 1. Philip E. In 1950. for example. Klatt and Philip Leonard also showed that the phosphorescence properties of CaS and other phosphori depended on the presence of metal contaminants. he published An Introduction to Luminescence in Solids in which he summarized much of his life’s work. P. Elementymology & Elements Multidict: Phosphors (2003). Lenard and his co-workers helped to establish phosphor research on a firm scientific footing at the turn of the nineteenth and the beginning of the twentieth century. Chem..net/elements/chronology_index. One of the principals there was Humboldt Leverenz who developed synthesized and investigated the properties of many the luminescent materials that are even now in use. (<http://www.was named Sidot’s blende. The word phosphor began to be applied in a more limited sense (i. as of late. This led to a long-lasting controversy with Lecoq de Boisbaudran who proved to be correct in proposing that the R-line fluorescence arose due to the presence of chromium. Phosphorescence and fluorescence are. J. .11 perhaps due to his involvement in the discovery of Sidot’s blende. Weeks. The technical differences between fluorescence and phosphorescence were resolved following the introduction in 1888 of the word luminescence by Eilhardt Wiedemann in chemical processes.12 Results of studies by V. the word phosphor is used to describe principally solid luminescent inorganic materials. M.vanderkrogt.15 Because of the necessity for better phosphors for the display industries in the late 1940’s and early 1950’s. 110–130 (1968).13 In the late 1800’s.

Phys. 12. Chapter 4. La Luminiere-Ses Causes et ses Effets. 21–24 (1989). 38.. Evelyn. The various antique volumes cited are in depository at the University Library of Bologna. Fils et Cie. 34.. Acad. 90 (1889). Librairie de Firmin Didot Frerers. William M.. W. John Evelyn is a famed seventeenth century chronicler and diarist who traveled extensively in Europe in the early 1600’s. W. Dent & Sons. Roda. and Stanley.uk/>). 4. and Tamitani.2.aim25. (2003) (<http://www. 1107 (1886). 7. S..ac. New York (1998). 8. E. M. John. Becquerel. 46 (1888).M. Complete Works. in Bioluminescence and Chemiluminescence: Perspectives for the 21stCentury. V. Wiedemann... Rend.M. Lecoq. Guy Hill for contributing this citation. Italy. Chem. Leverenz. Vol. Sci. R. Ann.E..W. Kricka. History of phosphors technology. Whatever happened to Wilhem Homberg?. AIM25: Royal Society: Canton.. Harvey. Sci. 103. London (1973). Canton. I am grateful to Dr. John Wiley & Sons. American Philosophical Society.. and subsequently the Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society in 1665. An Introduction to Luminescence of Solids..N. Acad. Paris. E.. 3. 13. E.. and Lenard. (1998). Chem.. E.. Compt. Klatt. FL... Phosphoreszenz und Fluoreszenz..B. Bull. J. Roda. S. 188 (1866). H. M. Rend.. Hist. John (1718–1772). A. Eds. Wied. Jensen. Lenard. CRC Press. A History of Luminescence. 6. Compt. Shionoya. 23. Becquerel. L. 5. Leipzig (1928).. 10. 898. in Phosphor Handbook. The discovery of luminescence: the Bolognian Stone. (1867) de Boisbaudran. Pazzagli. Schmidt. A. Eds. J. Dairy of John Evelyn.J. Ph. and Yen. P. Akademie Verlagsgesellschaft. New York (1950). F..E. Ann. he is also known for his books on flora and gardening. John Wiley & Sons. 63.. p. Yen . 11.. Philadelphia (1957). Boca Raton. 14. Accounts of his visit to Bologna in 1644–1645 appear in the inaugural volumes of the transactions and are also found in editions of his dairies: for example. 9. 15. and Tomaschek. 16.. in Handbuch der Experimentalphysik.A. 3.. He was one of the principals in establishing the Royal Society. Nakajima.. P..

345 325 330 330–352 333 334. 7.Cl SrO·3B2O3:Eu2+. 327 310 314 315 315 319 320 320. 636 360 360. 319 302. 344 320.Cl SrwFxB4O6. 460 302. 337 320. 310 233 254 254 267 280.Br) YAl3B4O12:Eu3+. 660 362 363 363.Cl.Cr3+ SrB4O7:Eu MgSO4:Eu2+ Y2O3:Ce3+ in SiO2 BaSO4:Eu2+ SrSO4:Eu2+ 453 . 355 288 295 300.APPENDIX II Phosphor Materials Arranged in Order of Emission Wavelength The phosphors and scintillators in Sections 4. 370. 319 303 305 307 309. 400. Wavelength (nm) 220. 413 365 366 366 368 370 370 370 371 375 375 376 376 Chemical formula -Ca3(PO4)2:Pb2+ (CeMg)SrAl11O18:Ce (CeMg)BaAl11O18:Ce YAl3B4O12:Ce3+ LaOCl:Bi3+ LaSiO3Cl:Ce3+ BaSi2O5:Pb2+ YAlO3:Ce3+ -Ca2P2O7:Sn.Mn BaSi2O5:Pb -Ca3(PO4)2:Ce3+ LaBr3:Ce3+ MgBa(SO4)2:Eu2+ Ca5(PO4)3Cl:Sn2+ Ca3SiO4Cl2:Pb2+ -Ca3(PO4)2:Ce3+ CaO:Pb2+ KMgF3:Eu2+ CaSiO3:Ce3+ LuAlO3:Ce3+ CaS:Pb2+ CaS:Pb2+. 388 348 348.5:Eu2+ SrB4O7:Eu2+(F. 371 358–385 359 359. 575 351 352. 355 335 Chemical formula BaF2 CaSO4:Pb2+ BaMgAl10O17:Ce3+ YAlO3:Ce3+ MgSO4:Pb2+ Ca3Al2Si3O12:2%Ce3+ Ca2B5O9Cl:Pb2+ YAl3B4O12:Bi3+ LaOBr:Tm3+ BaSO4:Ce3+ SrSO4:Ce3+ -SrO·3B2O3:Pb2+ CeF3 MgSrAl10O17:Ce CaSO4:Ce3+ SrB4O7:Pb2+ CaO:Cd2+ CsI LuTaO4:Nb5+ CaSr2(PO4)2:Bi3+ -Ca3(PO4)2:Tl+ CaF2:Ce3+ Ca2P2O7:Ce3+ LaPO4:Ce3+ CaB2O4:Pb2+ YTaO4 LaCl3:Ce3+ CaO:Zn2+ YPO4:Ce3+ CaSiO3:Pb2+ Wavelength (nm) 337 338 342–347 347. 370 350 350 350. and 8 are listed in order of increasing wavelength of the maximum emission.

Pb2+ Ca2MgSi2O7:Ce3+ LaOBr:Tb3+ YBO3:Ce3+ Mg2Sr(SO4)3:Eu2+ CaSO4:Eu2+ ZnO:Al3+.Mn2+ Sr(Cl.Wavelength (nm) 378 380 380 380. 620 405–432 407 407 410 410 Chemical formula -Sr3(PO4)2:Sn2+ BaFCl:Eu2+ Lu2Si2O7:Ce3+ Na2Mg3Al2Si2O10:Tb3+ BaFBr:Eu2+ BaFCl:Eu2+.Mn2+ YOCl:Ce3+ Zn2SiO4:Ti4+ –Ca3(PO4)2:Eu2+ –Ca3(PO4)2:Eu2+.Mn2+ CaCl2:Eu2+ in SiO2 MSL CaWO4 CaWO4:W CsI:Na+ Lu2SiO5:Ce3+ Sr2P2O7:Eu2+ SrF2:Eu2+ –Sr3(PO4)2:Eu2+ CaF2:Eu2+ CaSiO3:Eu2+ CaSiO3:Ti4+ -Sr3(PO4)2:Eu2+ Sr2B5O9Cl:Eu2+ (Lu. 525 403 405 405 405. 413 386 388 388 388 388.Mn2+ Ca5(PO4)3F:Sn2+ CaYBO4:Bi3+ Y2O3:Bi3+ YOF:Tb3+ Ba2Mg3F10:Eu2+ Ca3Al2Si3O12:Eu2+ Lu1–xYxAlO3:Ce3+ NaI:Tl Y2SiO5:Ce3+ YPO4:V5+ Ca2P2O7:Eu2+ Ca2P2O7:Eu2+. 440.I)2:Eu2+ CaAl4O7:Ce3+ CaAl2O4:Ce3+ Ba3(PO4)2:Eu2+ Ca3Al2Si3O12:Ce3+ Wavelength (nm) 410 410 410.Mn2+ CsF MgSrP2O7:Eu2+ ZnO:Ga Ca2MgSi2O7 CaO:Bi3+ BaF2:Eu2+ KAl11O17:Tl+ BaB8O13:Eu2+ BaMg2Si2O7:Eu2+ Zn2SiO4:Ti P46 (70%) + P47 (30%) CaB2P2O9:Eu2+ Mg2Ca(SO4)3:Eu2+ SrCl2:Eu2+ in SiO2 Mg2Ca(SO4)3:Eu2+.Mn2+ MgBaP2O7:Eu2+. 410. 540 385 385 385 385.Br. 643 418 418–420 420 420 420 420 420 420 422 423 423 423 425 425 425–430 429 430 432 continued Chemical formula MgBaP2O7:Eu2+ YTaO4:Nb5+ BaMg3F8:Eu2+.Ga3+ ZnO:Ga3+ CaSO4:Eu2+. 617 405. 415. 528 414–626 415 415 415 415 415 415 416 416. 512 390 390 390 391 391 394 395 400 400 400 400. 660 413 413 413.Gd)2SiO5:Ce3+ Ba2Li2Si2O7:Sn2+ GdNbO4:Bi3+ CaWO4 . 440 385. 610 411 411 412 412.

In Sr2P2O7:Sn2+ ZnS:Ag.Mn2+ Sr3MgSi2O8:Eu2+ ZnS:Cl– ZnGa2O4 Wavelength (nm) 460 460 463.25(BaCl2)0. 490 454—800 455–504 456 456 456. 532 465 465 467 467 470 470/540 473 475 477 477.Cl ZnS:Cu Ca5(PO4)3Cl:Eu2+ ZnS–CdS:Cu.Cl– (ErCl3)0. 530 445 446 447 448 448 448.Al3+ (Ba.I BaMgAl10O17:Eu2+.Th4+ YF3:Mn2+ YPO4:Mn2+.Th4+ Ca3MgSi2O8:Eu2+ Bi4Ge3O12 Sr6P5BO20:Eu ZnWO4 YVO4:Dy3+ Bi4Ge3O12 YF3:Tm3+.Mn2+ ZnS:Au. 521 479 480 480 480 480 480. 514 459 459 460 Chemical formula CaBr2:Eu2+ in SiO2 CaWO4:Pb CaF2:Eu2+ Ca5(VO4)3Cl CaWO4:Pb2+ Ba5(PO4)3Cl:Eu2+ CaS:Cu+.Yb3+ CaS:La3+ ZnS:Pb2+. 500. 680 490–630 492 492 492 492. 490 454.Cl– Ba5SiO4Cl6:Eu2+ Sr5(PO4)3Cl:Eu2+ Sr5(PO4)3Cl:Eu CaMgSi2O6:Eu2+ CaS:Bi3+.Na+ BaSrMgSi2O7:Eu2+ Gd2SiO5: Ce3+ MgBa3Si2O8:Eu2+ MgSrBa2Si2O7:Eu2+ CaAl2O4:Eu2+ CaS:Y3+ ZnS:Ag+.Cl CaGa2S4:Ce3+ La2O3:Bi3+ SrB4O7:Pb2+. 656 493 494 495 496 continued Chemical formula Sr2P2O7:Sn2+ ZnS:Ag. 486 440 440 440 440 443 443 443 444.Ti)2P2O7:Ti BaTiP2O7 Ca5(PO4)3F:Sb3+ .Wavelength (nm) 433 433 435 435 435 437 438.75 Y2O2S:Eu3+ -Ca3(PO4)2:Eu2+ BaGa2S4:Eu2+ Sr5Si4O10Cl6:Eu2+ ThO2:Pr3+ SrIn2O4:Pr3+. 570 485 485 486 488 490. 512 464 464 464.Ni CaI2:Eu2+ in SiO2 Sr2MgSi2O7:Eu2+ SrMgSi2O6:Eu CdWO4 MgWO4 BaAl2S4:Eu2+ YF3:Mn2+.Cl– ZnS:Cu+.Na CaO:Cu+ BaMgAl10O17:Eu2+ CaS:Bi3+ Mg3Ca3(PO4)4:Eu2+ Sr5(PO4)3F:Sn2+ Ca2B5O9Br:Eu2+ Ca2B5O9Cl:Eu2+ BaGa2S4:Ce3+ SrGa2S4:Ce3+ ZnS-CdS:Ag+. 390 450 450 450 451 453 453 454.

P (Zn+Be)2SiO4:Mn2+ CaF2:U CaB2O4:Mn2+ CaMoO4 Y3Al5O12:Ce3+ SrS:Cu+. 608 528.F Sr5(PO4)3F:Sb3+ Ba2MgSi2O7:Eu2+ SrxBayClzAl2O4–z/2:Mn2+.Al3+ CaS:Ce3+ LiAl5O8:Mn2+ LiAlO2:Mn2+ SrAl2O4:Eu2+ CdS:In MgAl2O4:Mn2+ SrBaSiO4:Eu2+ Zn2SiO4:Mn2+.Mn2+ MgBa2(PO4)2:Sn2+ SrAl12O19:Eu2+. 670 498 502 502 502.As5+ ZnS–CdS:Cu. 575 510 510 510 510 512 512 513 514 514 514 514 514 514 517 519 519 520 520 Chemical formula CaF2:Ce3+.Mn2+ Sr5(PO4)3F:Sb3+ Gd2O2S:Pr3+ Gd2O2S:Pr.Mn2+ Zn2GeO4:Mn2+ CaO:Sb3+ CaP2O6:Mn2+ CaS:Sn2+ CaS:Sn2+. 564 504 504 504 504 505 506 508 508 508 509.Mn2+ CaF2:Mn2+ MgWO4 SrAl2S4:Eu2+ CaS:Pr3+.Mn2+ CdS:In SrAl12O19:Ce3+.Pb2+.Cu ZnS-CdS(75–25) Ca2MgSi2O7:Eu2+ LaSiO3Cl:Ce3+.Br CaSO4:Ce3+.As5+ Zn2SiO4:Mn2+ ZnS–CdS:Cu. 528 522 522 523 525 525 525 525 525 527 528 528 528 528.Wavelength (nm) 496 496 496 496 496.Ce.Mn2+ Ca0.Mn2+ Ca3SiO4Cl2:Eu2+ Ca3WO6:U ZnAl2O4:Mn2+ ZnS:Cu.5Ba0.Sn CaLaB3O7:Ce3+.Ce3+ Y2O2S:Pr3+ -SrO·3B2O3:Pb2+.Mn2+ Wavelength (nm) 521 521 521.Mn2+ Ca2B2O5:Mn2+ Sr5(PO4)3Cl:Sb3+ SrGa2S4:Eu2+ YAl3B4O12:Th4+.Na Ba2Li2Si2O7:Sn2+.5Al12O19:Ce3+.Ce3+. 649 529 530 530 530 532 534 535 537 537 537 537 539 539 539 539 540 540 540 542 542 continued Chemical formula Ca5(PO4)3Cl:Sb3+ ZnS:Cu+.Tb3+ .Cl KGa11O17:Mn2+ BaAl2O4:Eu2+ ZnGa2O4:Mn2+ SrS:Ce3+ BaSi2O5:Eu2+ Ca2Ba3(PO4)3Cl:Eu2+ MgGa2O4:Mn2+ ZnO:Zn SrGa12O19:Mn2+ ZnO:S -Ca3(PO4)2:Sn2+ Ba2Li2Si2O7:Eu2+ Ba2SiO4:Eu2+ Sr5(PO4)3F:Sb3+.Mn2+ Zn2SiO4:Mn2+.Br Zn2SiO4:Mn2+.F MgBa2(PO4)2:U ZnS:Pb.

Br.Yb3+ ZnS:Eu2+ Ba5(PO4)3Cl:U Sr3WO6:U ZnS:Eu2+ Sr2SiO4:Eu2+ CaS:Sm3+ CaGa2S4:Eu2+ MgF2:Mn2+ CsI:Tl Zn0.Cl (Y.Mn2+ Sr5(PO4)3F:Mn2+ Ca5(PO4)3F:Mn2+ Li2CaP2O7:Ce3+.Cu KMgF3:Mn2+ MgCaP2O7:Mn2+ ZnF2:Mn2+ CaMgSi2O6:Eu2+. 550 542.Cl La2O3:Pb2+ (Zn.Yb3+ BaY2F8:Er3+.Cl– Y3Al5O12:Eu3+ ZnS:Mn2+ ZnS-CdS:Ag.Tb3+ CaS:Sb3+ CaS:Sb3+. 689 continued Chemical formula YF3:Er3+.Na CaS:Tb3+.Yb3+ Y3Al5O12:Ce3+ Wavelength (nm) 550.5:Pb2+ CaAl2O4:Mn2+ La2O2S:Tb3+ SrS:Mn2+ Y2O2S:Tb3+ Y2O3:Ho3+ Y3Al5O12:Tb3+ CaO:Tb3+ YAl3B4O12:Ce3+.Mn2+ Sr5(PO4)3Cl:Mn2+ Mg3SiO3F4:Ti4+ YOBr:Eu3+ LiInO2:Sm3+ LaAsO4:Eu3+ ZnS:P ZnS:P3–.Tb)PO4:Ce:Tb CaF2:Ce3+.Tb3+ ZnB2O4:Mn2+ Y2O3:Tb3+ Ca2MgSi2O7:Eu2+. 670 551. 636 551 551 551 556 556–608 559 559 560 560 562 563 564 564–644 566 566–620 571 571 573 574 574 575 577–630 577–670 577–695 579 579 580 582 582 584 585 585 585 585.4S:Ag Y2O3:Er3+ Ba3WO6:U CaAl4O7:Pb2+.Ce. 665 550.Gd)BO3:Tb3+ Ca2La2BO6.Cd)S:Cu CsI:Tl+ Na3Ce(PO4)2:Tb3+ NaYF4:Er3+.Cu.Tb3+ Y2O3:Tb3+ in SiO2 YAlO3:Tb3+ ZnS:Ag.Wavelength (nm) 542 542 542. 689 542–549 542–549 542–549 543 543 543 543 543 543 543 544 544 544 544 544 544 544 544 544–549 545 545 546 546 546 546 546 546 546 550 550 550 550 550 Chemical formula YAl3B4O12:Ce3+.Tb)MgAl11O19:Ce:Tb (La.Tb3+ (Ce.Mn2+ .Mn2+ CaO:Sm3+ CaSiO3:Pb2+.6Cd0.Ni ZnS:Mn.Mn2+ LaAlO3:Sm3+ SrSO4:Eu2+.Mn2+ CaS:Tb3+ Gd2O2S:Tb3+ Y2O2S:Tb3+ CaAl2O4:Tb3+ MgCeAl11O19:Tb3+ ThO2:Tb3+ Y2O3:Ce3+.Mn2+ YPO4:Ce3+.

Na+ KMgF3:Mn2+ MgF2:Mn2+ Sr5(PO4)3Cl:Eu2+.60O3(Eu.Mn2+(Al) LiLaO2:Eu3+ Ba2SiO4:Ce3+.Mn2+ SrGa2S4:Pb2+ SrSO4:Bi YBO3:Eu3+ CaYBO4:Eu3+ (Y.Mg)3(PO4)2:Sn CaSiO3:Mn2+. 608.Mn2+ CaO:Eu3+ SrTiO3:Pr3+ YAsO4:Eu3+ LiCeBa4Si4O14:Mn2+ LiCeSrBa3Si4O14:Mn2+ YAlO3:Eu3+ CaGeO3:Mn2+ CaY2ZrO6:Eu3+ . 611. 695 586–699 588 588 588.Mn2+ in SiO2 YVO4:Eu3+ (Y. 710 596 599 600 602 605 605 Chemical formula LaAlB2O6:Eu3+ LaPO4:Eu3+ LaVO4:Eu3+ CaS:Mn2+ MgS:Eu2+ MgB2O4:Mn2+ CaO:Tl+ YOF:Eu3+ (Zn. 683. 827 589–627 590 590 590 590 590 590 590 590 590 592.42Eu0.8O3. 619. 696 594.12TiSi4O11:Eu3+ SrY2O3:Eu3+ Y2O3:Eu3+ CaTiO3:Eu3+ CaTiO3:Pr3+ NaYO2:Eu3+ SrAl4O7:Eu3+ Y2O3:Eu3+ in SiO2 CaMoO4:Eu3+ CaSO4:Bi LaBO3:Eu3+ LaOCl:Eu3+ YAl3B4O12:Eu3+ -Sr3(PO4)2:Sn2+.Wavelength (nm) 586 586.Zn.V)O4:Eu3+ K2La2Ti3O10:Eu3+ YPO4:Eu3+ KMgF3:Mn2+ CaO:Mn2+ ZnS–CdS (50–50) YAlO3:Sm3+ LaAlO3:Eu3+ LiInO2:Eu3+ Wavelength (nm) 608 608 608 608 609 610 610 610 610 611 611 611 611 611 611 611 612 612 612 612 612 614 614 614 614 614 614 614–699 615 615 615 615 615 615 615–695 617 617 continued Chemical formula CaS:Pb2+.Gd)2O3:Eu3+ (Ca.Pb Y1. 591. 629 593. 619 696 593. 629 593 593.Gd)BO3:Eu3+ Y(P.Pr)0. 617.06 Ca5B2SiO10:Eu3+ CaGa2S4:Pb2+ CaLaBO4:Eu3+ CaYB0.34Gd0.Li+.23K0.Pr3+ Y4Al2O9:Eu3+ ThO2:Eu3+ CaCl2:Eu2+.7:Eu3+ Na1.Mg)F2:Mn2+ Ca5(PO4)3Cl:Mn2+ CaGa2O4:Mn2+ CaGa4O7:Mn2+ CaO:Eu3+. 620. 702 595. 660 588.

Sr)3(PO4)2:Sn .1O3:Bi3+ 640 MgSr5(PO4)4:Sn2+ 800 CdS:Ag+.29K0.Wavelength (nm) 617 618 620 620 620 620 Chemical formula Wavelength (nm) continued Chemical formula SrTiO3:Pr3+.Li+ 660 ZnS–CdS (25–75) 2+ 661 SrMoO4:U 625 Cd2B6O11:Mn 3+ 625 La2O3:Eu 680 -SrO·3B2O3:Sm2+ 626 (Sr.Te2+ Na1. 2+ 2+ 629 -(Ca.08TiSi4O11:Eu3+ 641 ZnBa2S3:Mn2+ __________________________________________________________________________ .Al3+ 642 BaS:Au.23K0. 707.Mn2+ in SiO2 742 LiAlO2:Fe3+ 639 Zn3(PO4)2:Mn2+ 747 CaS:Yb2+ 640 CdS:Te 747 CaS:Yb2+.Te La2W3O12:Eu3+ 646 -Ca3(PO4)2:Sn2+ LaAl3B4O12:Eu3+ 646 ZnGa2S4:Mn2+ MgYBO4:Eu3+ 646 ZnS:Mn2+.Cl– 640.42Eu0.Mg)3(PO4)2:Mn2+ 2+ 635 Zn3(PO4)2:Mn 730 Gd3Ga5O12:Cr3+ 636 CaI2:Eu2+.Ag 660 Mg2SiO4:Mn2+ 623 ZnS:Pb.Sn)O6:Mn2+ 623 LiAlF4:Mn2+ 658 Mg4(F)GeO6:Mn2+ 623 ZnS:Sn.6S:Ag 730 Gd3Ga5O12:Cr.Mn 620 YOCl:Eu3+ 2+ 658 Mg2TiO4:Mn4+ 620 ZnMg2(PO4)2:Mn 621 CaYAlO4:Eu3+ 658 Mg4(F)(Ge.9Al0.Ce 633 (Zn.K 645 ZnO:Bi3+ CdS:In.Cl 649 CaS:Eu2+ ·xH2O:Eu3+ 620 SrS:Eu2+ 646 ZnS-ZnTe:Mn2+ 98-2 650 ZnS:Te.Cl 640 MgSiO3:Mn2+ 760 CaTi0.Mg)3(PO4)2:Sn 681 LiAl5O8:Fe3+ 681 MgSr3Si2O8:Eu2+.4Cd0.Cu 660 Mg8Ge2O11F2:Mn4+ 623 ZnS:Sn2+.46Er0. 667 Y3Al5O12:Mn4+ 1540 Na1.12TiSi5O13 646 ZnSe:Cu+.Sm2+ 685 SrB8O13:Sm2+ 626 ZnS:Pb2+ 627 Gd2O2S:Eu3+ 688.Mn 725 Y3Al5O12:Cr3+ 629 Be2SiO4:Mn2+ 689 ZnS:Sn 4+ 630 K2SiF6:Mn 695 Na(Mg2–xMnX)LiSi4O10F2:Mn 713 CaGa2S4:Mn2+ 630 Zn0.Mn2+ 626 LaOF:Eu3+ 626 ZnO:Se 684–732 SrwFxByOz:Eu2+.

one of the glider club precursors to the Luftwaffe. he became interested and did some calculations and some nascent experiments in rocket propulsion. he found himself moving from place to place with his unit…in Cherkov (Ukraine). prisoner. and Minsk. 1945 and interned in Le Mans. Kiev. He submitted a report on his work to the Air Ministry (Reichluftfahrtministerium). On his third attempt. he was recaptured in France by the French and interned first in Sedan and then near the Belgian border. “Work in father’s nursery was pretty dull. dirty and plain stupid. For example. Hans. Willi possessed a keen intellectual sense and a deep natural curiosity. a camp librarian and as a farmer’s aid during his captivity in Belgium. He attempted again to get home in June of 1947 was caught again and confined to solitary for a period. Willi had a brief flirtation with the SA but did not become a member. His boot camp was in East Prussia and he did not take well to the training which was according to him “. In September of 1947.hot. Participation in the club activities naturally led to his gravitating to the air force when his time came for military service in 1936. he was promoted to sergeant (Feldwebel) in December 1944 and immediately assigned to an active combat unit defending the home front. he began reading mathematics books and establishing a technical background which he drew on for the rest of his life. near Berlin. After a short interlude as an engineering student. Breslau (Wroclaw). while engaged in the glider Verband. On his first two escape attempts. With the war situation in flux through 1943.. and I started to dream about one day becoming an engineer or scientist. With each change of position. Willi was offered a post as photographer at the rocket facilities in Peenemunde which he declined. Unavoidably. France. Smolensk. in 1934 he joined the Deutscher Luftsport Verband. though the report went no further. He worked variously as a miner. In the Fall of 1941. From his teens and in his own words. 461 . While a U. He completed a photography course in Tutow and in 1939–1940 was promoted to corporal (Unteroffizier) as the head of a small photo group at the Luftkreigsschule in Werden. which would eventually bring him into the international phosphor community. He finished elementary school in 1928 and attended a trade school for gardeners until 1931 as preparation for taking responsibilities in the family’s plant nursery business.APPENDIX III Willi Lehmann: A Brief Biography Information about Willi’s early life in Germany has been kindly supplied by one of his sons.S.” He consequently volunteered to become a photographer for the air force when an opportunity arose. Later he moved on to become a truck mechanic in the motor pool which moved to Le Havre in December 1945. Willi demonstrated some of his intrinsic versatility for in short order he become the camp’s typewriter repairman.. he was able to cross into Belgium but was captured and interned by the Belgians.” With the encouragement of a library clerk. He was captured by American forces on February 28. Willi was assigned to a long range reconnaissance unit on the Eastern front at Luga near Leningrad. world events intruded into his pastoral life and set him on a long odyssey. instead. Willi was born born in 1914 in Dinslaken am Niederrhein. in the form of brief autobiography Willi wrote for his family in 1990. Willi managed to construct a workable bicycle out of parts from discarded bikes and was able to ride all the way to Germany and a joyful family reunion in Dinslaken. Hitler assumed power in Germany in 1933 and of course affected the course of history dramatically and disastrously. his circumstances in the camp improved so much so that in the summer of 1946 he made his first of five escape attempts.

Willi recalled that his first instructor was Erich Krautz who not only taught the Applied Physics course but also nurtured him through to his candidacy in physics (Cand. Professor Krautz directed them to apply for positions in the lamp division of Westinghouse Electric then located in Bloomfield. and Mary) were all born in the United States. degree) in 1952. Instruction commenced at the University in march 1948. In order to bypass the arbitur requirements. He chose to study electroluminescence and electroluminescent phosphors. his thesis entitled “The Electroluminescence of Zinc Sulfide Phosphors as an Equilibrium Process” was submitted in late 1957 and accepted. William M. they had to help in the reconstruction of university buildings and other facilities destroyed during the hostilities. The children and several grandchildren appear to be prospering. Yen Athens. George. Willi along with a wartime friend. Florida . Claus Haake. of course. Willi and Claus Haake obtained their Diplom. He acted as a consultant with Rogers Corp. Indeed. His contributions in this field and his other activities at Bloomfield and later at Westinghouse R&D in Pittsburgh are detailed in the Foreword. In the early 1980’s. just in time to return to the war. Georgia Henry F. and arrived in the States on October 1953 following an extended wait for immigration documents. Through a special dispensation. applied for admission to the Technical University of Braunschweig in October 1947. Ivey Coconut Grove.) in 1950. Willi’s work on electroluminescence had attracted sufficient interest that he was approached by the University at Braunschweig to explore the possibilities of submitting his work in partial fulfillment of requirements for a doctorate degree. Phys. Paul. wooed and wed Renate Bauer. Willi was given the choice of areas to investigate. Also as noted in the Foreword.Nat) shortly thereafter. Willi retired in 1982 at the age of 68 and took up residence in North Carolina. This proved to be a problem since he did not possess the proper credentials (arbitur) to matriculate in a university level program having attended a trade rather than a traditional Gymnasium. Lehmann returned to Pittsburgh and currently resides there. The new Mrs. Willlie was granted an extended leave so that he could attend an engineering school in Germany. He thought briefly about starting his own phosphor business but rejected the idea on grounds of his lack of acumen in business matters. accompanied Willi to the States and their four children (Caren.S. He was granted the degree of Doctor of Natural Sciences (Dr. In view of the dearth of jobs for physicists in postwar Germany. Physiker’s (equivalent to American M. 1993 from brain cancer. Lehmann. Hans. Willi’s father having passed on in 1942. Mrs. Professor Krautz also succeeded in getting Willi a scholarship which covered all his school expenses and relieved the financial burden on the Lehmann family now headed by an older brother. New Jersey. Willi met. accepted.In the middle of his posting to the Eastern Front. Willi passed away on January 12. he was allowed to attend the Techschule in Duisberg. Both were offered positions. On arrival at Westinghouse. During the waiting period. Willi attempted and passed a Begrabtemprufung (examination for the gifted) in the summer of 1944.rer. It is interesting to note that by 1956. and with Lawrence Livermore Laboratories in the late 1980’s. It was here that he was first encountered physics as a discipline and it immediately piqued his interest. Following his return to Germany. As their initiation as students. he developed an interest in diffraction and the limits that it imposed on resolution and was also attracted by the furor surrounding the announcement of cold fusion.

Materials Index .

Mn2+. CaI2:Eu2+ in SiO2. Ca2Ba3(PO4)3Cl:Eu2+. Ca0. BaMgAl10O17:Eu2+. BaGa2S4:Ce3+. Ca2MgSi2O7:Eu2+. Ca2B5O9Cl:Pb2+. Ca2MgSi2O7:Eu2+. CaCl2:Eu2+ in SiO2. Ba3(PO4)2:Eu2+. BaMg3F8:Eu2+. Ba2Mg3F10:Eu2+. Ba2SiO4:Eu2+. Ba2SiO4:Ce3+.5Al12O19:Ce3+.MATERIALS INDEX BaAl2O4:Eu2+. BaSrMgSi2O7:Eu2+. BaSi2O5:Pb2+.Tb3+. CaMgSi2O6:Eu2+. Ca3Al2Si3O12:Eu2+. B CaAl2O4:Ce3+. CaLaBO4:Eu3+. BaMg2Si2O7:Eu2+. CaB2P2O9:Eu2+. CaGa2S4:Eu2+. CaAl2O4:Tb3+.Pb2+. Ca2B2O5:Mn2+. CaF2:Ce3+. (Ba. CaGa2S4:Pb2+. Be2SiO4:Mn2+. Ba2Li2Si2O7:Sn2+. Ca2B5O9Cl:Eu2+. Ba5SiO4Cl6:Eu2+. Ba2Li2Si2O7:Eu2+. CaGa2O4:Mn2+. BaSO4:Ce3+. CaI2:Eu2+. Ca2MgSi2O7. BaAl2S4:Eu2+.Mn2+.Mn2+. CaAl2O4:Eu2+. BaFCl:Eu2+. CaF2:Ce3+. CaB2O4:Mn2+. BaMgAl10O17:Ce3+.Yb3+. Ca3Al2Si3O12:Ce3+. CaMgSi2O6:Eu2+. CaAl4O7:Ce3+. CaF2:U. CaCl2:Eu2+.Mn2+. CaAl4O7:Pb2+. CaF2:Eu2+. Ca3MgSi2O8:Eu2+. BaSO4:Eu2+. BaY2F8:Er3+. Ca2MgSi2O7:Ce3+. Ca3Al2Si3O12:2%Ce3+. . Ba2MgSi2O7:Eu2+. BaTiP2O7.Mn2+ in SiO2. C CaAl2O4:Mn2+. BaFBr:Eu2+.Mn2+.Mn2+. CaGa4O7:Mn2+. CaLaB3O7:Ce3+. CaMoO4. Ba5(PO4)3Cl:U.5:Pb2+. CaF2:Ce3+. BaGa2S4:Eu2+. Ca2B5O9Br:Eu2+. BaB8O13:Eu2+. CaGeO3:Mn2+. CaF2:Mn2+. BaS:Au.Mn2+.Mn2+. BaSi2O5:Eu2+. BaF2. Ba3WO6:U.5Ba0.Ti)2P2O7:Ti.K. Ca2La2BO6.Mn2+. BaMgAl10O17:Eu2+. CaGa2S4:Ce3+. BaFCl:Eu2+. Ca5B2SiO10:Eu3+.Mn2+ in SiO2. Ba5(PO4)3Cl:Eu2+. CaBr2:Eu2+ in SiO2. BaxSr1-xF2:Eu2+. CaB2O4:Pb2+. CaGa2S4:Mn2+. Ba2Li2Si2O7:Sn2+. Bi4Ge3O12.

CaTiO3:Eu3+. CaSO4:Eu2+. (Ce. CaO:Mn2+. CaO:Pb2+. CaS:Sn2+.Mn2+.Na+. CaS:Mn2+.Mn2+.Mn2+.Cl–.Zn. CaS:Yb2+. CaSiO3:Pb2+. Ca2P2O7:Eu2+. -Ca3(PO4)2:Eu2+. Ca5(PO4)3Cl:Eu2+. -Ca3(PO4)2:Eu2+. CaS:Bi3+. Ca5(PO4)3F:Mn2+. CaSO4:Pb2+. Cd2B6O11:Mn2+.Mn2+. CaO:Cu+.Cl.Na.8O3. -(Ca. CaS:Sb3+. CdS:Ag+. Ca3SiO4Cl2:Pb2+.CaMoO4:Eu3+. Ca2P2O7:Ce3+. CaYBO4:Eu3+. Ca5(VO4)3Cl.Na.F.1O3:Bi3+. CaS:Sb3+. -Ca3(PO4)2:Sn2+. CaO:Sm3+.Cl. CaS:Sn2+.Te. CaS:Tb3+. CaS:Pb2+. Ca3SiO4Cl2:Eu2+. . CaS:Tb3+. CaTi0. CaSO4:Bi. CaS:Bi3+. -Ca3(PO4)2:Tl+.9Al0. CaSiO3:Mn2+. CaS:Yb2+.Mg)3(PO4)2:Sn. CaS:Sm3+. CaO:Tl+. -Ca3(PO4)2:Eu2+. CaSiO3:Ti4+.Mn2+. -Ca3(PO4)2:Sn2+. CaSiO3:Eu2+. CaSiO3:Ce3+. Ca5(PO4)3Cl:Sb3+. (Ca. CaS:Pr3+.Pb. CaS:Y3+. CeF3. CaSr2(PO4)2:Bi3+. (CeMg)SrAl11O18:Ce. CaWO4:W. CaO:Tb3+. CaO:Zn2+. CaO:Eu3+.Mn2+. CaS:Cu+. CaWO4. CaY2ZrO6:Eu3+. CaS:Eu2+.Pb2+.Mn2+. CdS:In. Ca5(PO4)3Cl:Sn2+. CaYBO4:Bi3+. CaS:Ce3+. Ca2P2O7:Eu2+. CaSiO3:Pb2+. Ca5(PO4)3F:Sb3+. CaP2O6:Mn2+. CdS:In.Sr)3(PO4)2:Sn2+. Ca3WO6:U. CaS:La3+.Tb)MgAl11O19:Ce:Tb. CdS:In.Cl. Ca5(PO4)3F:Sn2+. CaSO4:Ce3+. (CeMg)BaAl11O18:Ce. -Ca2P2O7:Sn.Mn.7:Eu3+.Cl. -Ca3(PO4)2:Pb2+. CaSO4:Eu2+. CaWO4:Pb2+. CaYB0. CaO:Bi3+. CaO:Eu3+. CaO:Sb3+. CaS:Pb2+. CaO:Cd2+. CaTiO3:Pr3+. CaSO4:Ce3+. CaYAlO4:Eu3+. Ultrafast.Na+. -Ca3(PO4)2:Ce3+. -Ca3(PO4)2:Ce3+. Ca5(PO4)3Cl:Mn2+. CaS:Pb2+.

LiAlO2:Mn2+. Mg2Ca(SO4)3:Eu2+. MgB2O4:Mn2+.Ce. LaCl3:Ce3+. La2O3:Eu3+. GdNbO4:Bi3+. CsF. LaOF:Eu3+. Gd3Ga5O12:Cr3+.Mn2+.Mn2+. LiInO2:Sm3+. G KAl11O17:Tl+. Gd2O2S:Pr.Ce. LiInO2:Eu3+. KMgF3:Eu2+. CsI:Tl. LaOBr:Tb3+. LaPO4:Ce3+. K La2O3:Pb2+.Sn)O6:Mn2+. MgS:Eu2+. KMgF3:Mn2+. MgGa2O4:Mn2+. La2W3O12:Eu3+. LaBO3:Eu3+. MgBa(SO4)2:Eu2+. Mg2Ca(SO4)3:Eu2+. MgBaP2O7:Eu2+. Mg8Ge2O11F2:Mn4+. L MgAl2O4:Mn2+. Lu2SiO5:Ce3+. MgBa3Si2O8:Eu2+. Mg3Ca3(PO4)4:Eu2+. K2SiF6:Mn4+. La2O3:Bi3+. LaOCl:Bi3+. LuAlO3:Ce3+. Li2CaP2O7:Ce3+. MgSrAl10O17:Ce. Lu1-xYxAlO3:Ce3+. LiCeBa4Si4O14:Mn2+. CsI CsI:Na+. MgF2:Mn2+.Mn2+. LiCeSrBa3Si4O14:Mn2+. M . MgBaP2O7:Eu2+. LaSiO3Cl:Ce3+. (ErCl3)0. MgCeAl11O19:Tb3+. Lu2Si2O7:Ce3+. LaAl3B4O12:Eu3+. Gd2O2S:Pr3+. (Lu. LiAl5O8:Mn2+. LaOCl:Eu3+. LaAlO3:Sm3+. (La. LiLaO2:Eu3+. CdWO4.CdS:Te. KGa11O17:Mn2+. Gd2O2S:Eu3+. LaVO4:Eu3+. Mg4(F)(Ge.Gd)2SiO5:Ce3+.Tb)PO4:Ce:Tb. Gd3Ga5O12:Cr.25(BaCl2)0. Gd2SiO5:Ce3+.Tb3+.Ce. LaOBr:Tm3+. LiAlO2:Fe3+. LuTaO4:Nb5+.F. MgCaP2O7:Mn2+. Gd2O2S:Tb3+. La2O2S:Tb3+. LaAsO4:Eu3+. MgBa2(PO4)2:Sn2+. Mg4(F)GeO6:Mn2+. LaAlO3:Eu3+. LiAl5O8:Fe3+. MgBa2(PO4)2:U. LaAlB2O6:Eu3+. E GaN:Zn. LaSiO3Cl:Ce3+. LiAlF4:Mn2+. LaPO4:Eu3+.75. LaBr3:Ce3+. K2La2Ti3O10:Eu.

Sr5(PO4)3F:Mn2+.Br. –SrO·3B2O3:Pb2+.Cl. Sr3WO6:U. Mg3SiO3F4:Ti4+. Na1.Al3+.Mn2+. SrSO4:Ce3+. SrAl12O19:Ce3+. SrS:Ce3+. SrS:Mn2+.Cl. NaYF4:Er3+. SrGa2S4:Pb2+. Mg2SiO4:Mn2+. ThO2:Eu3+. SrwFxB4O6. SrB4O7:Eu2+(F. SrBaSiO4:Eu2+. Sr6P5BO20:Eu. Sr5(PO4)3Cl:Mn2+. (Sr. Na2Mg3Al2Si2O10:Tb. MSL. SrS:Cu+. MgSO4:Eu2+. Na3Ce(PO4)2:Tb3+. SrGa2S4:Eu2+. SrAl4O7:Eu3+. SrAl2O4:Eu2+. Sr5(PO4)3Cl:Eu2+. SrAl12O19:Eu2+.MgSiO3:Mn2+.Sm2+. SrAl2S4:Eu2+. SrIn2O4:Pr3+. Sr5(PO4)3Cl:Eu2+. -Sr3(PO4)2:Sn2+. SrO·3B2O3:Eu2+.Mn2+. Sr2P2O7:Eu2+.29K0. MgSr3Si2O8:Eu2+. Sr3MgSi2O8:Eu2+. SrB8O13:Sm2+.Na. Na(Mg2–xMnx)LiSi4O10F2:Mn.Al3+. Sr2SiO4:Eu2+. Sr5Cl(PO4)3:Eu. SrMoO4:U.12TiSi5O13·xH2O:Eu3+.08TiSi4O11:Eu3+. SrGa2S4:Ce3+. SrSO4:Bi. SrTiO3:Pr3+. SrMgSi2O6:Eu2+.23K0. –Sr3(PO4)2:Eu2+.Mn2+(Al). SrSO4:Eu2+. Sr5(PO4)3F:Sb3+. MgSr5(PO4)4:Sn2+. Sr2B5O9Cl:Eu2+. SrY2O3:Eu3+. SrS:Eu2+. Sr5(PO4)3F:Sb3+. Sr5Si4O10Cl6:Eu2+.42Eu0. MgSO4:Pb2+. SrCl2:Eu2+ in SiO2. MgWO4. –SrO·3B2O3:Pb2+. S SrF2:Eu2+. –Sr3(PO4)2:Sn2+.Br).12TiSi4O11:Eu3+.Pr3+. Sr2MgSi2O7:Eu2+. MgSrP2O7:Eu2+.I)2:Eu2+ in SiO2.5:Eu2+.Mg)3(PO4)2:Sn.Mn2+. SrB4O7:Pb2+.Mn2+. SrwFxByOz:Eu2+. Sr2P2O7:Sn2+. Mg2TiO4:Mn4+.Mn2+. SrSO4:Eu2+. Mg2Sr(SO4)3:Eu2+. N P P46 (70%) + P47 (30%). Sr5(PO4)3F:Sn2+. Na1. T . MgYBO4:Eu3+.46Er0.Ce3+.Yb3+.42Eu0. Sr(Cl. Sr5(PO4)3Cl:Sb3+.23K0. SrTiO3:Pr3+. ThO2:Tb3+.Mn2+. –SrO·3B2O3:Sm2+. SrGa12O19:Mn2+. Na1. NaI:Tl. MgSrBa2Si2O7:Eu2+. SrxBayClzAl2O4–z/2:Mn2+. NaYO2:Eu3+. ThO2:Pr3+. SrB4O7:Pb2+.Mn2+.

YVO4:Eu3+.Ni. Y2SiO5:Ce3+. (Zn+Be)2SiO4:Mn2+. ZnS:Ag+. ZnS-CdS (50-50). ZnS:Ag. ZnO:Ga.Mg)F2:Mn2+. Y2O3:Ce. ZnO:Zn.Gd)2O3:Eu3+.I.Pr)0. Y3Al5O12:Eu3+.Yb3+. Zn2GeO4:Mn2+.6S:Ag. ZnS-CdS:Ag+. YTaO4. YOBr:Eu3+. ZnO:Bi3+. YPO4:Mn2+.YAl3B4O12:Bi3+. YOF:Eu3+. ZnGa2O4:Mn2+. ZnS:Au. Ultrafast.Cd)S:Ag. YAl3B4O12:Eu3+. ZnGa2S4:Mn2+. Z . YAl3B4O12:Ce3+. ZnGa2O4. Y2O2S:Eu3+.Mn2+. YAl3B4O12:Ce3+.Mn2+. ZnMg2(PO4)2:Mn2+. ZnO-CdO:Ga.Mg)3(PO4)2:Mn2+. YPO4:Ce3+. (Zn.Ni. ZnS-CdS:Cu. ZnO:Al3+. Y3Al5O12:Cr3+. YAlO3:Ce3+. YF3:Tm3+.34Gd0. Y2O3:Ho3+. ZnAl2O4:Mn2+. ZnS-CdS (25-75).Yb3+. ZnB2O4:Mn2+.Cu. YAsO4:Eu3+. Y2O3:Tb3+. ZnO:Ga3+. Y YPO4:Eu3+. Y3Al5O12:Mn4+. Y2O2S:Tb3+.Tb3+.4Cd0.Ga3+.Ce3+. ZnBa2S3:Mn2+. (Zn. Ultrafast. YBO3:Ce3+. YAl3B4O12:Th4+. YPO4:Ce3+. Y4Al2O9:Eu3+.Tb3+.06. YBO3:Eu3+. (Y. YOCl:Ce3+.Gd)BO3:Tb. Zn0. Y2O3:Ce3+. ZnS-CdS (75-25). YAl3B4O12:Ce3+.Th4+. (Y. Zn0. Y(P. Y2O3:Bi3+. Y1.4S:Ag. YF3:Mn2+.Br long life. Y2O3:Er3+. YOCl:Eu3+. Y3Al5O12:Tb3+. (Zn. ZnS-CdS:Cu. ZnS-CdS:Ag. ZnS:Ag. YAlO3:Sm3+.Cr3+.V)O4:Eu. YAl3B4O12:Eu3+. YTaO4:Nb5+.Cl–.Cl.Gd)BO3:Eu. ZnO:S.Tb3+. YF3:Er3+. Y3Al5O12:Ce3+. YAlO3:Eu3+.In. ZnS-CdS:Cu. YAlO3:Tb3+.Br high brightness.6Cd0.60O3(Eu. YOF:Tb3+. YVO4:Dy3+.Th4+.Cl.Cl. (Y.Br. ZnF2:Mn2+. YPO4:V5+. Y2O2S:Pr3+. ZnO:Se. (Zn.Cd)S:Cu. Y2O3:Eu3+ (YOE). YF3:Mn2+.

ZnS:Sn2+. Zn2SiO4:Ti4+. ZnS:Eu2+.Te2+. ZnS:Eu2+. Zn2SiO4:Mn2+. ZnS:Sn2+. ZnS:P. ZnS:Pb.Al3+.Cl–.P.Cl–.Cu. ZnS:Mn2+.ZnS:Cl–. Zn2SiO4:Mn2+.Cu.Ag. . Zn2SiO4:Mn2+. ZnS:Pb2+. ZnS:Mn. Zn3(PO4)2:Mn2+. ZnS:Mn2+.Sn.Cl–. ZnS:Te. ZnS-ZnTe:Mn2+ ZnSe:Cu+. ZnS:Cu+. Zn2SiO4:Mn.Sb2O3. ZnS:Pb2+. ZnS:Cu.Li+. ZnS:P3–.Mn.As5+. ZnS:Sn. ZnS:Cu. ZnWO4. ZnS:Cu+.Cl.

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