INORGANIC PHOSPHORS

COMPOSITIONS, PREPARATION AND OPTICAL PROPERTIES

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INORGANIC PHOSPHORS
COMPOSITIONS, PREPARATION AND OPTICAL PROPERTIES

Wi l l i a m M . Ye n a n d M a r v i n J . We b e r

CRC PR E S S
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Inorganic phosphors : compositions, preparation, and optical properties / editors, William M. Yen, Marvin J. Weber. p. cm. Includes bibliographical references and index. ISBN 0-8493-1949-8 (alk. paper) 1. Phosphors. 2. Phosphors—Optical properties. I. Yen, W. M. (William M.) II. Weber, Marvin J., 1932QC476.7.I55 2004 620.1'1295—dc22

2004047813

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Willi and Renate Lehmann (circa 1970).

TABLE OF CONTENTS
FOREWORD PREFACE PART 1: LEHMANN’S PHOSPHOR COOKBOOK AND PHOSPHOR TABLES SECTION 1: INTRODUCTION SECTION 2: PHOSPHOR PREPARATION 2.1 Starting Materials 2.2 Amounts 2.3 Mixing 2.4 Containers 2.5 Furnace 2.6 Firing Atmospheres 2.7 Treatments after Firing SECTION 3: PURIFICATION OF SOME STARTING MATERIALS 3.1 Carbonates 3.2 Sulfates 3.3 Oxalates 3.4 Sulfur SECTION 4: PHOSPHOR DATA 4.1 Description of Data 4.2 Simple Oxides 4.3 Silicates 4.4 Halosilicates 4.5 Phosphates 4.6 Halophosphates 4.7 Borates 4.8 Aluminates and Gallates 4.9 Molybdates and Tungstates 4.10 Miscellaneous Oxides 4.11 Halides and Oxyhalides 4.12 Sulfates 4.13 ZnS-Type Sulfides 4.14 CaS-Type Sulfides 4.15 Double Sulfides 4.16 Miscellaneous Sulfides and Oxysulfides SECTION 5: PREPARATION OF PHOSPHOR SCREENS 5.1 Phosphor Screens by Brushing 5.2 Phosphor Screens by Settling in a Kasil Solution

5.3 Phosphor Screens by Cathaphoretic Deposition 5.4 Filming of Phosphor Screens

PART 2: ADDITIONAL DEVELOPMENTS SECTION 6: PHOSPHOR SYNTHESIS 6.1 Alternative Preparation Methods 6.2 Combustion Synthesis of Phosphors 6.3 Preparation of Phosphors by Sol–Gel Techniques SECTION 7: OTHER PHOSPHOR DATA 7.1 Oxides 7.2 Silicates 7.3 Phosphates, Halophosphates, and Borates 7.4 Aluminates 7.5 Halides and Oxyhalides 7.6 CaS and ZnS-Type Sulfides 7.7 Other Compounds SECTION 8: COMMERCIAL PHOSPHORS AND SCINTILLATORS APPENDICES Appendix I Appendix II Appendix III

Historical Note on Phosphor Recipes Phosphor Materials Arranged in Order of Emission Wavelength Willi Lehmann: A Brief Biography

MATERIALS INDEX

Foreword
Willi Lehmann
It is a truism that all individuals are unique. However, in the case of the late Willi Lehmann this is true in the strongest sense possible. One often hears of a person with a “one-track” mind. That concept describes Willi perfectly. He was indeed one of a kind. As far as I know, he lived for and only thought about phosphors. He was a very oriented, strong willed and, yes, stubborn individual. It is my pleasure to have known him and have been his manager (in truth, no one “managed” Willi) for several interesting and productive years. I knew very little about Willi’s life in Germany. Fortunately, I was able to obtain a copy of an autobiography Willi wrote for his family and was able to learn something about his history. Bill Yen and I present a brief summary of Willi’s life and times in Appendix III. I knew that he served in the German army during World War II, first on the Russian front and then on the Western front. It is difficult for me to conceive of him as a member of a military unit. He always had a very un-Germanic disregard for authority. This undoubtedly explains why, after working his way up to grade sergeant, he was “busted” back to private. I believe he objected to officers riding in comfortable first-class carriages while enlisted men rode in overcrowded second-class carriages. Another un-Germanic trait was that he disliked beer; he called it “seifewasser” (soapy water). Willi was always resourceful (surely a good trait for a scientist). At the end of the war, after being captured by the French, he managed to escape and be recaptured by the Americans because he knew they treated their German captives better. While he was in POW camp a request came asking whether any prisoner could repair typewriters. Willi, who actually had no prior experience in this line, promptly volunteered and became a successful “typewriter mechanic” overnight. Also during his time as a prisoner he spent his spare time recalling and writing down the essentials of his previously studied elementary physics textbook. I suppose he “borrowed” the necessary paper and pencils from the offices where he repaired typewriters. After the war Willi studied physics (I am not sure at what university) under Prof. Erich Krautz, who had an interest in luminescence. Later, Krautz became Director of Research at a branch of the Osram Lamp Co., located in Augsburg, near Munich. At that time, the Lamp Division of the Westinghouse Electric Corp., located in Bloomfield, New Jersey, had a patent and technical interchange agreement with Osram. On a visit to Augsburg, E.G.F. Arnott, Director of Research in Bloomfield, asked Prof. Krautz to recommend two of his former students who were interested in luminescence and would like to immigrate to the United States. Krautz recommended Willi Lehmann and Claus Haake, and both accepted the offer. This was probably in 1955, as Willi published his first American papers (Phys. Rev., 101, 489; J. Electrochem. Soc., 103, 667 and Illum. Eng., 51, 684) in 1956. Willi remained with Westinghouse, first in Bloomfield and then in Pittsburg for many years, while Claus left after about 2 years to move to Arizona for reasons of his wife’s health. In 1956 I was Manager of the Phosphor Research Section of the Westinghouse Lamp Division and thus suddenly found myself responsible for two foreigners about whom I knew nothing. The situation was conceivably complicated by the fact that I was Jewish; I didn’t know how they would react to me and vice versa. Fortunately, this never presented a

problem. Both Willi and Claus turned out to be very diligent and skilled workers (Prof. Krautz would not have recommended dummies). Their knowledge of the English language was good, although Willi always spoke with a pronounced Germanic accent, probably because he spoke only German at home. (I must admit that while Willi worked for me I always edited his scientific papers before publication, but endeavored to leave them sounding like Willi.) During those years in Bloomfield the attention of the Phosphor Section was directed primarily to electroluminescence, then in its infancy. I can truthfully say the best (brightest and longest lived) electroluminescent phosphors made anywhere in that era were made by Willi Lehmann. This activity, and that elsewhere, is summarized in my book, Electroluminescence and Related Effects (Academic Press, 1963). I was later made a fellow of the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) and an Honorary Member of the Electrochemical Society for “leadership in the advancement of the science of luminescence.” However, the work which resulted in these honors was primarily due to three outstanding members of the section: Willi Lehmann, William A. Thornton, and Anselm Wachtel. My effort was mainly that of support, coordination, and interpretation. My approach to “management” of scientific activity was essentially minimalist, consisting of four steps: (1) hire the most capable and self-motivated people, (2) provide them with the necessary equipment and facilities, (3) point them in the directions of interest to the company, and (4) don’t bother them, except for occasional encouragement and suggestions as to questions for which no one had an answer at the moment. This minimalist approach certainly worked well with Willi, who was never a “team player.” I also learned that minor infractions of company rules could be overlooked unless they were officially brought to my attention: sometimes ignorance of events can be good. Although trained as a physicist, Willi actually performed best as a self-taught chemist; he was more interested in making better phosphors than in explaining how or why they worked. He was always an enthusiastic worker. I remember one day Claus Haake stuck his head in my door and said, “Willi just made a three-gott-damn phosphor!” I said, “What does that mean?” Claus replied, “Well, when Willi has made a new sample and finds that it tests good, he says ‘Gott damn!’ Today he tested his latest sample and said, ‘Gott damn! Gott damn! GOTT DAMN!’” About 1963 both Willi and I transferred to the central Westinghouse Research Laboratories in Pittsburgh, but to different departments. I joined the Optical Physics Department, which was primarily concerned with lasers, and in 1969 became manager of the department. Willi went to the Solid State Physics Department, where he continued to work on phosphors, mainly for applications to fluorescent lamps and cathode-ray tubes. Nevertheless, we kept in frequent contact and he always put me on the distribution list for his research reports. It was during this period of his career that he organized the material for his Phosphor Cookbook. Willi always maintained his independence and disregard for rules which seemed pointless to him. There were four types of scientific documents at Westinghouse: patent disclosures, papers to be published, summary research reports for internal use, and short research “memos.” For some strange (probably historical) reason, memos had to be addressed to a particular individual, although they could have an extended distribution list. Once Willi (in Pittsburgh) apparently had trouble deciding to whom a certain memo should be addressed so in the proper place he wrote, “The Queen of England.” Some unwitting secretary typed it up that way and sent it to his department manager for signature. Considerable consternation ensued, but Willi survived unscathed and hardly ruffled. For Willi, rules were usually meant for lesser beings; he had more important things (phosphors) to think about.

He enclosed a copy of his contribution. George. North Carolina. In 1988 he wrote to inform me that he had been invited to contribute to a book entitled Phosphors. He said then. I am sorry to say that I lost contact with him after 1988. Henry Ivey Coconut Creek. It was his obsession and sole occupation. with reference to the original publications. and Mary. this book was never published. “My Phosphor Tables are completed and I don’t like the idea of them going to waste. All appear to be prospering and the family has given its approval to the belated publication of Willi’s Phosphor Cookbook and Phosphor Tables he so carefully compiled nearly two decades ago.Willi retired from Westinghouse in about 1985 (the reason for my vagueness about dates is that Westinghouse is now defunct and I have no way of accessing company files). Florida April 1. an extended collection of the main properties of about 300 of the best-known inorganic phosphors. 2003 . He left many important published papers. When Willi Lehmann was alive and active he was one hell of a great phosphor maker.” The present volume by Bill Yen and Marv Weber. Hans. finally solves that waste problem. It will serve as a fitting and belated recognition of the valuable work this unusual individual contributed to the science of luminescence. in Connecticut. which combines his Phosphor Cookbook and his Phosphor Tables. Caren. However. I have learned since that Willi passed away in January 1993 and that he is survived by his wife Renate and four children. He went to live in Hendersonville. and apparently did consultation on electroluminescence for the Rogers Corp.

Preface About a decade ago. This volume is divided into two parts. Though it might be argued that the art of phosphors synthesis and characterization has advanced considerably since Lehmann’s time. This resulted. several members of the phosphor/luminescence community called my attention to an existing backlog of published and unpublished literature addressed to this subject. The scholarship contained in the Phosphor Cookbook and the Phosphor Tables is quite remarkable and comprises a great deal of meticulous and careful work characterizing Willi Lehmann’s career as a phosphor synthesizer. Most of the contents of Lehmann’s Phosphor Cookbook and Phosphor Tables are preserved in the first part with either no or only slight changes in style and format. In connection with efforts to establish a phosphor database. A copy of these tables. Dr. Lehmann. in our becoming aware of the existence of the Phosphor Handbook published in Japanese under the auspices of the Japan Phosphor Society and led to its eventual translation and publication as the Phosphor Handbook. However. in response to a federal broad agency announcement. Almost all modern phosphors are synthesized by solid-state reactions at high temperatures. Henry had a close working relationship with Willi at Westinghouse as the Foreword to this volume attests. for example. the two unpublished manuscripts represent a reasonably complete summary of the state of knowledge on phosphors up to the late 1980’s. it appeared to us that the content of these two unpublished manuscripts fully deserved publication as a record. In the absence of any systematic database on phosphors. Updated versions of these techniques are presented in this volume along with other techniques such as sol–gel and combustion that have been developed in the past few decades. Henry Ivey. if nothing else. was a principal in the development of many of the phosphors included in his cookbook. one of us (WMY). In the second part of the volume we have attempted to supplement Lehmann’s work with additional . at the time) first presented us with a copy of Willi Lehmann’s opus (Phosphor Cookbook) on methods for synthesis and properties of over 200 phosphors. The list of materials presented in the compilations is large and the manuscripts preserve and summarize synthesis and optical data on most of the commonly used phosphors (as well as some less common ones). of course. these methodologies are often abandoned and forgotten but often need to be rediscovered and revived when circumstances warrant it. Though for various reasons this effort ultimately turned futile. was preserved and given to us by Dr. we believe that these contributions need to be preserved as part of the phosphor art. initiated an effort to establish a baseline for the state of knowledge concerning the methodology for synthesis and the optical properties of a variety of phosphors used for display and other technical applications. of past methodologies. no composition or preparation information was included in the Phosphor Tables. Ronald Petersen (of Motorola. Thus. He later updated and extended this work in 1988 in his Phosphor Tables in which the phosphor properties of over 300 luminescent materials were summarized in tabular form. thus such information is absent for many compounds. The phosphor data presented in Section 4 combine the results of both manuscripts. a volume in the CRC Lasers and Optical Sciences and Technology Series. This report dates from the late 1970’s and covered the majority of phosphors then in use. which was prepared for a publication that never appeared.

however. We are very appreciative of their help and that of Ron Petersen and Henry Ivey for having preserved the original manuscripts. Much additional information on the synthesis and characterization of a phosphor or luminescent material information can be found in the aforementioned Phosphor Handbook. We have restricted consideration to materials that are accessible in the open literature and have not included any recipes or description of phosphors that are proprietary. Sarah Dunning for typing the manuscript. We are also very thankful to the Lehmann family for giving their permission to use this material. three appendices have been added.developments including recent synthesis methods and new phosphors. in the second a table of phosphors is arranged in order of emission wavelength as a guide in selecting phosphors for particular applications. Section 8 presents a list of many commercial phosphor and scintillator materials and the peak wavelength of their emission. The preparation methods described in this volume generally entail the use of laboratory procedures which are normally encountered in solid-state chemistry and which expose the experimenter to the usual perils. etc. we emphasize that all normal safety precautions (fume hoods. and the valuable interactions with CRC Project Editor James McGovern and Development Manager Helena Redshaw. We are aware that. We note with special appreciation the excellent work of Sergei Basun in preparing the many figures and the final manuscript. Other considerations (such as ion sizes) will enter. William M. In this effort we have benefitted from numerous comments. As such. Weber Berkeley. Only a relatively few phosphors have achieved commercial success. suggestions.) should be observed in the preparation and synthesis of the phosphors described in the volume. would be with the procedures that are presented here. Because of the plethora of phosphor compositions reported in recent decades. I–VI) and the sequel Phase Equilibrium Diagrams (Vols. California April 2004 . We hope that the publication of Inorganic Phosphors serves to fulfill his wish. The first presents an historical perspective on phosphors. and contributions from our Editorial Board. eye protection. a good beginning point. Willi Lehmann was anxious to have the material that he had prepared with such care published in some form. Indeed. as noted in the Foreword. this volume should be considered a tribute to this unusual individual and his contributions to the phosphor art. the listing is not exhaustive but rather representative of some of the more significant phosphors developed in recent years. VII–XII). Mike Caplinger and Jeff Deroshia for their computing assistance. The American Ceramic Society in collaboration with the National Institutes of Standards and Technology (NIST) has continued to publish and revise Phase Diagrams for Ceramists (Vols. Georgia Marvin J. Yen Athens. Finally. It follows that recipes for compounds doped with a certain ion of a series very likely will also be effective for other members of that series. It may be noted that the elements belonging to series such as the lanthanides (4f) have chemical behaviors that are nearly identical to each other. these volumes contain a great deal of material which is extremely useful in developing an understanding as to what can and cannot be synthesized. so that the synthesis of any new compounds remains an area of experimentation. The third gives a brief summary of Willi Lehmann’s life.

Bellingham.. Oxford. Springer. University Park. Luminescent Materials..J. 1966. R. Weber. Pennsylvania University Press. and Radioluminescence.C. R. Vol.H. Ropp. Goldberg. Clarendon Press..H. Kitai. Electroluminescence. 1991. S. 1980. Academic Press. Amsterdam. Solid State Luminescence: Theory. A. Yen. Materials and Devices. Optical Spectroscopy of Inorganic Solids. Shionoya and W. Selected papers on Phosphors. Ed. 1997. CRC Press. Shur. M. M. and Scintillators: Applications of Photoluminescence. New York. P. . Berlin. Phosphor Handbook. Ed. 1998. Luminescence and the Solid State.Further Readings Introduction to Solid-State Lighting. Cathodoluminescence. Grabmaier. Blasse and B. SPIE Milestone Series. P. 2002. FL.F. 1989. SPIE Press. Luminescence of Inorganic Solids. Amsterdam. Light Emitting Diodes. 1993.C. Elsevier. Boca Raton. London. 1993. Boca Raton. Imbusch.. New York. Rodnyi. Gaska. Eds. John Wiley & Sons. K. and R. 1994. The Chemistry of Artificial Lighting Devices.C. Ed. A.A.M. CRC Press. Elsevier. WA. Henderson and G. Chapman & Hall. 151. 1998. Zukauskas. Butler. Ropp. Physical Processes in Inorganic Scintillators. B. FL. Fluorescent Lamp Phosphors: Technology and Theory. G.

Dr. Weber returned to the Chemistry and Materials Science Department at LLNL in 1986 and served as Associate Division Leader for condensed matter research and as spokesperson for the University of California/National Laboratories research facilities at the Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory. degrees in physics at the University of California. and the University of California—Santa Barbara (1982. as Head of Basic Materials Research and Assistant Program Leader. He has been appointed to Visiting Professorships at the University of Tokyo (1972).A. Among several honors. Louis) as the first Edwin T. the Federal University of Pernambuco—Recife (1980). In 1966 to 1967 Dr. He was also named by Washington University (St.D. From 1983 to 1985 he accepted a transfer assignment with the Office of Basic Energy Sciences of the U. Weber joined the Research Division of the Raytheon Co. Weber joined the Laser Program at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory where. Dr. Yen has been the recipient of a J. Yen obtained his B. After graduation.L. Dr. Guggenheim Foundation Fellowship (1979–1980). Berkeley. Dr. and the American Ceramics Society. DC.S. (Physics) degree from the University of Redlands. the University of Paris—South (1976). Dr. Redlands. Weber received the A. where he was a Principal Scientist working in the areas of spectroscopy and quantum electronics. and Ph. Louis) in 1962. Morey Award of the American Ceramics Society. He was granted tenure at Wisconsin in 1968 and promoted to a full professorship in 1972. of a A. Stanford University. von Humboldt Senior U. the Australian National University (1980. in Physics from Washington University (St.B. Marvin J. California in 1956 and his Ph. Yen is the co-editor of the Phosphor Handbook published by CRC Press. he is the recipient of the International Conference on Luminescence Prize. Schawlow and accepted a faculty position at the University of Wisconsin—Madison in 1965. the Optical Society of America. 1985).S. the American Association for the Advancement of Science. He served a term of 3 years (1962–1965) as a Research Associate at Stanford University under the tutelage of Professor A. Department of Energy in Washington. and an Industrial Research IR-100 Award for research and development of fluorophosphate laser glass. 1995). Dr. Weber was a Visiting Research Associate in the Department of Physics. George W.D. he retired from the Wisconsin system in 1990. he was responsible for the physics and characterization of optical materials for high-power laser used in inertial confinement fusion research. Scientist Award (1985). and the Electrochemical Society. Weber is Editor-in-Chief of the multi-volume CRC Handbook Series of Laser Science and Technology and a Fellow of the American Physical Society.The Editors William M. Jaynes Visiting Professor for the Fall of 2004. He is presently a scientist in the Department of Nuclear Medicine and Functional Imaging of the Life Sciences Division at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. In 1973 Dr. In 1987 he was appointed to the Graham Perdue Professorship at the University of Georgia—Athens where he has established a research program in the properties of phosphors and other light-emitting materials. M.S. He has been a member of the technical staff at the AT&T Bell Telephone Laboratories (1966) and of the Laser Fusion Project at Lawrence Livermore Labs (1974–1975).. . and of a Senior Fulbright to Australia (1995).S.. Yen has been elected to fellowship in the American Physical Society. the Optical Society of America.

Guy A. Ioffe Physico-Technical Institute Russian Academy of Sciences St. Weiyi Jia Department of Physics University of Puerto Rico—Mayaguez Mayaguez. Russia Dr. Puerto Rico Dr. Srivastava GE Corporate R&D Center Schenectady. Richard. Massachusetts Dr. Japan . Alok M. Ropp 138 Mountain Avenue Warren. Florida Dr. New York Dr. Sergei Basun A. Germany Dr. Petersburg. New Mexico Dr. Hajime Yamamoto Department of Electrical Engineering Tokyo University of Technology Tokyo 192-0982. F. Lauren Shea Sandia National Labs Albuquerque. New Jersey Dr. Henry Ivey 3392 NW 47th Avenue Coconut Creek. C.Editorial Board Dr. Madis Raukas Osram Sylvania Beverly. Hill 31 Abbey Street Faversham United Kingdom Dr. Cees Ronda Philips Research Laboratory Aachen D-52085 Aachen. C.

Part 1: Lehmann’s Phosphor Cookbook and Phosphor Tables .

Section 1: Introduction .

3) are predominantly taken verbatim from Lehmann's report. This report describes some 200 phosphors which are commercially in use already.Section 1 INTRODUCTION The following is Willi Lehmann's introduction to his Phosphor Cookbook: The writer of this report has. 3. Each one of the recipes is only a suggestion. Most of them are well known (more or less). at least). of the same materials. To fill out this gap is the purpose of this report. there has been no phosphor cookbook before. or which are otherwise somehow “interesting” (to the writer. The professional phosphor chemist has often. 2. a start for the experienced phosphor chemist in the improvement of known materials or in the development of new ones. It may remain to the individual phosphor chemist to work out such improvements. It may anyway serve as a convenient guide for all occasional or professional users of phosphorus showing essentially what is available. What remains are relatively few. It will never be. but some are new and have never been mentioned anywhere else. are added to help anyone wishing to know more about a particular material than these tables can give. etc. Most of the following two sections (with the exceptions of Sections 2. where available. In fact. a brief description of how to prepare it and an equally brief description of its main properties. been referred to as “phosphor cook. It is unavoidable in such work that many samples perform too poorly to be worth mentioning.” Peculiarly. a survey of materials for which properties are available to the occasional user of phosphors. It has been tried in this laboratory and it works. for each phosphor. a guide to help anyone new in the field in the successful preparation of phosphors. of course. but it does not mean that a variation of the recipe does not work. only half jokingly. the writer believes that most of the recipes still permit substantial improvements. . and despite of the fact that so many different phosphors are now available. during about 25 years of practical experience. In the abstract to the report Lehmann expected that the cookbook would be useful as: 1. The following tables give. Many others were just repetitions during optimizations. References to open publications or internal reports. The phosphor collection covered by this “cookbook” is not complete. prepared and tested roughly 2 104 individual samples of inorganic phosphors of various kinds.2 and 2. which appear to have some potential to become commercially useful.

5 2.1 2.4 2.6 2.2 2.3 2.7 Starting Materials Amounts Mixing Containers Furnace Firing Atmospheres Treatments After Firing .Section 2: Phosphor Preparation 2.

Many points probably are trivial to the professional phosphor chemist but they are certainly not so to the novice or to anyone preparing phosphors only once in a while.g. Section 3 of this report describes some techniques that can be used to purify commercial compounds to prepare CaS-type phosphors. . or only to a very minor degree. Other impurities. Ca(NO3)2. MnO. MnCO3 can be replaced by MnO2. analytical reagent grade.” are necessary in some (not in all) cases to dissolve the activator impurities into the host crystal. They can frequently be exchanged with others. CaCO3 can frequently be replaced by CaO. the chemicals needed to prepare CaS-type phosphors are not normally available in the required purity. 2. If that is impractical because of excessively high-melting temperatures of the host material. Sufficiently pure ZnS and CdS are available not to require additional purification for the preparation of ZnS-type phosphors. sometimes down to the parts per million range. MnS. Lehmann's Phosphor Cookbook. MnSO4. The firing temperature often is little below the melting temperature of the host material. the crystallization is facilitated at lower temperatures by addition of a “flux” (frequently a halide) to the raw mix before firing. or Ca(OH)2. Both activators and (if necessary) co-activators are diffused into the host crystal at elevated temperatures. Almost all good inorganic phosphors consist of a crystalline “host material” in which small amounts of certain impurities. Similarly. Lehmann) to make the phosphors described in this report. and so on.. participate in the luminescence process. The activators are primarily responsible for the luminescence. The chemicals mentioned in the individual recipes are those that usually are the most readily available. What counts are only the necessary amounts of the particular chemical elements measured in moles. the “activators” are dissolved. * This section is from W. luminescent grade) are adequate to prepare most of the phosphors. and that the used compounds decompose readily during the firing of the phosphor to provide the necessary building blocks to the final material. Mn(C2H3O2)2. Co-activators do not. the “co-activators. However.1 Starting Materials Commercially available high-purity grade chemicals (e. Only sulfide-type phosphors are exceptions because they are sensitive to undesired impurities. CaO2.” Even the final host material frequently is formed only during the firing by solid-state reactions between several starting materials. For instance. the “firing.Section 2 PHOSPHOR PREPARATION* The following methods are essentially the preparation procedures used by the writer (W.

The slurry is then dried in air and the dry material is mechanically powderized. otherwise it is the most ideal. etc. a breakup of all possible lumps in the slurry. Some of the best methods are: Slurrying The finely powdered starting materials are mixed into water. The materials become poorly reproducible with such very small amounts. Mortaring The dry powders are simply mixed by mortaring together to make the mix as uniform as possible. Only some materials (the alkali elements. in particular. This method is least time-consuming and most practical for small samples but the mixes are less uniform down to the microscopic scale than any one prepared by the other methods. the amounts of the chemicals involved in the formation of the host materials need to be weighed only within ±1% of the mentioned proportions.. which stay free flowing all the time. 2. Whenever such large amounts of phosphors are not needed or wanted. is powderized in a mortar as well as possible. sometimes even within still wider tolerances. can be added dissolved in water. ZnO) are not free flowing and cannot be mixed this way. which sometimes is a more or less hard crust. Roughly. However. Phosphor properties vary relatively little only with a variation of the starting material ratios. alcohol. Water-soluble activator chemicals.3 Mixing Very thorough mixing of the starting materials before firing is extremely important for the successful preparation of a good phosphor. Some materials (e. 2. in particular) react too badly with quartz . Several firing steps are appropriate in many cases for other chemical reasons. it is impractical to reduce the amounts to less than about 1 or 2 g of the final phosphor. Wet Ball-Milling The slurry prepared above is ball-milled with porcelain pebbles for a time (about 1–2 hours) to ensure a moist thorough mix and. Variations of ±10% of the mentioned activator concentrations normally have little effect on the performance of the final phosphor. The slurry is dried and the dried material. This method avoids the time-consuming drying of the slurry but it works only for powders.4 Containers The best container material for the preparation of most phosphors is clear quartz glass (silica). The weightings of the starting materials are not very critical. Corresponding non-uniformities of the final phosphor may be the result. Whenever such non-uniformities occur.2. The smaller amounts of the activating chemicals involved are even less critical.2 Amounts The recipes in this report are given in whole molar units to make them as clear as possible. firing not only once but also several times and mortaring every time in between can usually eliminate them. This method has been used for most of the recipes of this report. or any other inert and volatile liquid to a uniform slurry.g. all amounts can be reduced by constant factors as long as the molar ratios between the individual components in the recipe are maintained. This method is a bit cumbersome and it is impractical for small samples (a few grams). Dry Ball-Milling The dry powder mix is ball-milled with porcelain pebbles for 1–2 hours.

Only these ends of the firing tubes are in the furnaces during firing. 2. Ar). Pure alumina serves fairly well in these cases. The only way to eliminate this problem is frequent recalibration of furnace and controller by means of a good thermocouple and a millivolt comparator. It makes no difference. All these containers are placed near the closed ends of bigger firing tubes made of silica. NH3). Sulfurization of sulfide phosphors may be achieved by firing either in H2S or in an inert gas loaded with CS2. for instance.6 Firing Atmospheres The various phosphors are fired in different atmospheres depending on the materials and the desired reactions. The writer has yet to see a furnace whose temperature does not occasionally deviate from that indicated by the controller. Some arrangements used to handle the various gases in the firing tubes are shown in Figure 2 assuming the phosphor containers are both open boats. Loosely covered crucibles are appropriate wherever alumina is the container material.glass at firing temperatures and are better fired in other container materials. Many of these gases are interchangeable..5 Furnace Phosphor firing requires an electric furnace permitting temperatures between about 500ºC and at least 1200ºC. they consist of two tubes each closed at one end and both loosely fitting into each other. Any desired temperature should be maintained during firing by means of an automatic temperature controller to within ±20ºC or better. 2. phosphates.) may be fired in oxidizing (air. Capped silica tubes are widely used in our laboratory. Some typical arrangements are shown in Figure 1. Phosphor raw mixes not containing volatile (at firing conditions) constituents are best fired in open boats so that the charge is fully exposed to the desired atmosphere surrounding the material. forming gas. Oxygen-dominated phosphors (oxides. halides) are better fired in loosely covered containers permitting some contact with the surrounding atmosphere but still keeping at least some of the volatile part in the container. A reliable temperature control clearly is one of the weak points of phosphor preparation. whether a phosphor is fired in N2 or in Ar. better up to about 1400ºC. etc. H2. . Raw mixes which do contain volatile constituents (e. Figure 1 Schemata of different containers during phosphor firing. O2).g. A simple on–off control is acceptable. inert (N2. silicates. or reducing atmospheres (CO.

The stopper is protected against radiant heat by a bit of loose glass wool in front of it. If the phosphor is fired in H2 or in H2S. Gases from tanks (or other supplies) These can be piped into the firing tubes via long and thin gas inlet tubes (silica) reaching as far into the firing tubes as possible. N2) bubbles though a flask containing some liquid CS2 in front of the firing tube. the vapor pressure of the CS2 is high enough at room temperature. The vapor pressure of the water is too low at room temperature to have much effect. Air Firing a phosphor in air requires nothing but the container in the firing tube whose open end is left open or. Steam This arrangement resembles that used for CS2. As in cases of H2 and H2S. Be extremely cautious! CO This gas is about the most convenient for firing an oxygen-dominated phosphor in a reducing atmosphere. N2. Do not heat the flask. at most. N2) before admitting the final gas. it is extremely important first to flush all air out the firing tube with an inert gas (e. otherwise condensing liquid water might block the gas flow. . A carrier gas (air. Escaping unused CS2 gas can be burned at the end of an outlet tube. some of the carbon black burns to CO in situ. The open ends of the latter are closed by ordinary rubber stoppers with two holes for gas inlet and outlet. When the charge enters the furnace.Figure 2 Schemata of different containers during phosphor firing. CS2 An inert carrier gas (e.g. The tube connection between flask and firing tube should be as short and straight as possible.g..) bubbles through a flask containing some water in front of the firing tube.. be very careful to flush all the air out the firing tube before admitting the CS2-loaded gas. so it is necessary to heat the flask to gentle boiling. The air is flushed out by plain O2 and the gas inlet tube is then closed (but leave the inlet open). etc. closed by a bit of loose glass wool to prevent dust particles from drifting in during firing. otherwise the effect (explosion) will be spectacular when the firing tube enters the furnace. Some carbon black is placed in a separate open container next to the phosphor container in the firing tube.

Closed containers obviously are necessary for any phosphor that is not completely stable in room air (e. This powderizing usually is possible by gentle grinding or milling. Al2O3. However. All phosphors should finally be screened to remove undesired big particles. etc. halides). Such cases are noted in the recipes of this report. Phosphors that stubbornly refuse to become free flowing with any additive can still be wet screened in a suspension in water. of course. CaO) but they are a good practice also for all others.. Phosphors coming out the furnace as badly sintered lumps indicate that something is wrong.. Such materials can easily be made free flowing by addition of small amounts (roughly 1/10% by weight) of some additives like very fine SiO2. methanol.g. Phosphors of recipes that do not mention a washing do not need it. Remember that good phosphors are precious materials. etc.7 Treatments after Firing Fired phosphors often (not always) are slightly sintered cakes that have to be powderized to obtain the desired fine powder. this still requires subsequent drying. Unfortunately there is no general rule to pick the best additive. All phosphors that are not immediately used up for some application should be stored in closed and labeled containers.g. Some phosphors require special washings after firing. Some phosphors are free flowing and easily screened.2. Others tend to lump and are not screenable with any reasonable effort. to find one remains up to the ingenuity of the experimenter. A 200-mesh stainless steel sieve is adequate for most general purposes but some special applications may require finer screens. Avoid all hard milling because it is likely to damage the phosphor. usually to remove one or the other undesired residues (e. . most likely the firing temperature was too high. Sb2O3.

Section 3: Purification of Some Starting Materials 3.1 3.4 Carbonates Sulfates Oxalates Sulfur .3 3.2 3.

3. White CaCO3 precipitates and some CO2 develops.45 µm pore size). * This section is from W. Mn) show up in the CaS-type phosphors in concentrations as low as 1 ppm. It helps to crush the chunks but do not try to speed up the dissolution by heating. Fe.) of commercially available starting materials are good enough to prepare almost every phosphor mentioned in this cookbook. ~1000–1200ºC. Dry with methanol in filter funnel and then completely in open air. luminescent grade. harmful impurities (mainly metals like Mn. . It is best converted to MgO by heating in an open boat. air. Solution B: Dissolve about 1. Let settle.1 g-mole of the (NH4)2CO3 (= 105 g) in 1 liter water at room temperature.Section 3 PURIFICATION OF SOME STARTING MATERIALS* The normal purities (analytical reagent grade. etc.) in the starting materials are better kept below this level. The carbonate usually comes in big chunks which take considerable time to dissolve. decant). Only some CaS-type phosphors are exceptions. air ~500–1000ºC. Then filter through a milli-pore filter (0. Consequently. for ~½ hour. Decant the excess liquid. Solution A: Dissolve 1 g-mole of Ca(NO3)·4H2O (= 236 g) in about 1 liter water at room temperature. etc. It can be converted to CaO by firing in an open quartz boat. Slowly add solution A to B (or vice versa) while stirring. for ~½ hour. Both are better prepared via the oxalates.1 Carbonates (described using the example of CaCO3) Prepare two separate solutions. CaCO3 precipitates and settles readily. Let stand overnight. Properties Mg carbonate prepared in this way is of somewhat uncertain composition.g. SrCO3 and BaCO3 both precipitate in too fine particles which almost behave like a gel in the water and do not readily settle. Lehmann's Phosphor Cookbook. Add a few cubic centimeters of freshly prepared NH4-sulfide solution. Do not filter this solution. let settle. Some impurities (e. Wash the carbonate in de-ionized water several times (stir.. stir.

Let stand overnight. SrSO4 is still manageable but BaSO4 tends to be of too fine particles which behave almost like a gel in the water and do not readily settle. It can be converted to the more stable anhydrite by heating in open boats. stir. . Slowly pour solution A into B (or vice versa) while stirring. Add a few cubic centimeters of freshly prepared NH4 sulfide solution. Solution A: Dissolve 1 g-mole (= 212 g) of Sr(NO3)2 in about 1 liter water. CaSO4·2H2O. Then filter through a milli-pore filter (0. stir. Solution B: Dissolve about 1. Wash in de-ionized water several times (stir. Dry with methanol in filter funnel over filter paper and then completely in open air. Dry with methanol in a filter funnel over filter paper and then completely in open air.1 g-mole (= 138 g) of oxalic acid. 3. White sulfate will precipitate. Wash in de-ionized water several times (stir. decant). stir. Ba(C2H3O2)·H2O in about 1 liter water at room temperature. White BaC2O4 will precipitate out and readily settles down. Slowly pour solution A into B (or vice versa) while stirring.45 µm pore size). Decant the excess liquid. H2C2O4·2H2O.45 µm pore size). let settle. in 1 liter water at room temperature.2 Sulfates (described using the example of SrSO4) Prepare two separate solutions. for about ½ hour. Solution A: Dissolve 1 g-mole (= 273 g) of Ba-acetate. Sr and Ba sulfates precipitate immediately as anhydrous sulfates. Add NH4OH to make the solution slightly alkalinic. Let stand overnight. let settle. Filter through a milli-pore filter (0.45 µm pore size). Decant the excess liquid. Properties Mg sulfate cannot be prepared in this way (MgSO4 = epsom salt). air ~500–1000ºC.45 µm pore size). Add a few cubic centimeters of freshly prepared NH4 sulfide solution. Add a few cubic centimeters of NH4OH. decant).1 g-mole of the (NH4)2SO4 in 1 liter water. Then filter through a milli-pore filter (0. CaSO4 precipitates as gypsum. Solution B: Dissolve about 1.3 Oxalates (described using the example of BaC2O4) Prepare two separate solutions. Let settle.3. Then filter through a milli-pore filter (0. Let settle.

H2. ~500–1000°C. Properties This is a coarse yellow powder. air. Yellow sulfur will precipitate. stir or shake vigorously. ~500–1000°C. Further conversion to SrO is not practically possible by firing in an open boat. ~1100°C. 3. Ca oxalate precipitates as CaC2O4·H2O. Wash the sulfur several times in acetone (stir. In contrast to SrCO3. ~ ½ hour.) will remain on the paper. let settle. etc. Black impurities (metal sulfides. ~½ hour. add the same amount (by volume) of pure acetone. Dry in filter funnel over filter paper and then completely in open air.4 Sulfur Dissolve ordinary precipitated (not sublimed) sulfur in as little CS2 as possible. Filter the solution though a dense paper filter. ~1 hour. It converts completely to MgO by heating in an open boat. air. Sr oxalate precipitates as SrC2O4·H2O. It converts to CaCO3 by heating in an open boat. ~1100ºC.Properties Mg oxalate precipitates as MgC2O4·2H2O. H2. Ba-oxalate precipitates as BaC2O4 which can be converted to BaCO3 by firing in an open boat. ~500ºC. . sufficiently pure for all preparation work of sulfidetype phosphors. ~½ hour. BaCO3 is not as easily converted into the oxide by firing in H2. ~1 hour. It converts to SrCO3 by firing in an open boat. Pour the filtered solution into a clean flask. decant). air.

5 4.8 4.14 4.1 4.4 4.2 4.12 4.9 4.6 4.10 4.13 4.11 4.3 4.15 4.Section 4: Phosphor Data 4.7 4.16 Description of Data Simple Oxides Silicates Halosilicates Phosphates Halophosphates Borates Aluminates and Gallates Molybdates and Tungstates Miscellaneous Oxides Halides and Oxyhalides Sulfates ZnS-Type Sulfides CaS-Type Sulfides Double Sulfides Miscellaneous Sulfides and Oxysulfides .

.e. etc. perhaps by using modified preparation conditions. *This subsection is adapted from W. to the spectral range of the main part of a complex emission. The activation includes only the activator and its ionic state as far as it is known.e. only observed efficiencies of the best samples known to Lehmann are shown. others are complex in shape or consist of discrete (although sometimes somewhat diffuse) lines. . Almost all inorganic phosphors consist of a host material into which small amounts of an activator impurity have been dissolved. the ratio of emitted light quanta over irradiated UV quanta).1 Description of Data* This section presents information about inorganic phosphors. the ratio of emitted light energy over irradiated electron beam energy).. + = efficiencies in the 10–50% range. Many emission spectra consist of diffuse bands extending over a certain range. by either 365. Lehmann’s Phosphor Cookbook. is always a possibility that cannot be ruled out. Optical properties summarize the emissions of the phosphors. The symbols mean: ++ = efficiencies in the 50–100% range. Additional impurities (co-activators. either from Lehmann's Phosphor Cookbook or from Lehmann's Phosphor Tables.or 254-nm ultraviolet (UV) — both the main emissions of a Hg discharge lamp — are given in Lehmann's Phosphor Tables in terms of quanta (i. (Lehmann notes that one should keep in mind that an efficiency improvement of a phosphor.) Efficiencies under optical excitation. The efficiencies by electron beam excitation in vacuum are described by the energy ratio (i.) are specified only in some cases where they have a strong effect on the final luminescence of the phosphor. or to one or two strongest lines in case of line emission.2 eV. – = efficiencies below 10%. The emission color is that as it appears to the human eye. In this instance the symbols mean: ++ = efficiencies of 10% or more. The emission peak corresponds to the spectral position where the diffuse band has a maximum. + = efficiencies in the 1–10% range. – = efficiencies below 1%.1 to 0. The chemical formula corresponding to the host crystal generally is well established but the crystal structure may not be available. Both the peak and bandwidth frequently depend on preparation conditions and are reproducible only within about ±0. The phosphor composition and a brief description of the preparation conditions used by Lehmann are given in his Phosphor Cookbook but not in the Phosphor Tables. Because efficiencies obtained on poor phosphor samples are of limited usefulness.Section 4 PHOSPHOR DATA 4. The width corresponds only to band emission and indicates the width of the band at half of its peak intensity (full width at half maximum—FWHM).

These concentrations are close to. The absorption spectra indicate where the materials may be excited (no absorption—no emission). Absence of a reference means that none is known. . It is also easier to compare the widths of approximately Gaussian-shaped emission bands plotted in eV than it is to compare the widths of very nonGaussian-shaped bands plotted in wavelength units.40 eV 254 nm — 4. The emission and absorption spectra measured by Lehmann are all for room temperature and for the activator concentrations shown. that is.The luminescence decay time is the time for the emission either to decay to 1/10 or to 1/e of its initial value. the abscissa is calibrated in electron volts (eV) rather than wavelength units because luminescence processes are quantum processes. The simple conversion between wavelength (in nanometers. Too few excitation spectra were available to be included. nm) and quantum energy (in eV) is (nm) = 1240/(eV) Using this conversion. the two optical wavelengths used for excitation correspond to: 365 nm — 3. All spectra are plotted on a quantum basis.88 eV Only the main references to original publications are given. but not necessarily at the optimum in every case.

Powderize. Na+ CaO:Mn2+ CaO:Pb2+ CaO:Sb3+ CaO:Sm3+ CaO:Tb3+ CaO:Tl+ CaO:Zn2+ ZnO:Al3+. Powderize when dry. 1200ºC.4.023 Preparation Mix by slurrying in water or methanol.Ga3+ ZnO:Ga3+ ZnO:S ZnO:Se ThO2:Eu3+ ThO2:Pr3+ ThO2:Tb3+ Y2O3:Bi3+ Y2O3:Er3+ Y2O3:Eu3+ (YOE) Y2O3:Ho3+ Y2O3:Tb3+ La2O3:Bi3+ La2O3:Eu3+ La2O3:Pb2+ CaO:Bi3+ Structure: Cubic (NaCl) Composition Ingredient CaCO3 CaF2 Bi2O3 Mole % 100 0.390 0. . Fire in capped quartz tubes.5 0.01 (of Bi) By weight (g) 100 0. 1 hour. Dry in air. Keep dry.2 Simple Oxides The following host compounds and activators are included in this subsection: CaO:Bi3+ CaO:Cd2+ CaO:Cu+ CaO:Eu3+ CaO:Eu3+. stagnant air. Store in well-closed container.

17 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0. N. 455 (1973).385 Preparation Mix by slurrying in water or methanol. 1 hour. A.40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: 5% Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 50 2 3 Remark This phosphor is very sensitive to traces of Mn.3 By weight (g) 100 0. W.00 eV Absorption (%) 100 Emission . may vary between about 3. 71. Lehmann.. Optical Properties Emission color: UV Emission peak: Somewhat uncertain. 2. Lumin.90 and 4.4 eV). A.. J. stagnant air. 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 CaO:Cd2+ Structure: Cubic (NaCl) Composition Ingredient CaCO3 CdO Mole % 100 0. Phys. Yamashita. Use only purest CaCO3.Optical Properties Emission color: Violet + UV Emission peak: 3. ++ (3. Jpn. Phys. Status Solidi B. G. 40.Se):Bi3+ and CaO:Bi3+ phosphors. Soc. Fire in capped quartz tubes. References 1. 3. Luminescence spectra of Bi3+ ions in MgO and CaO. Hughes.P.. and Asano. 707 (1975). Keep dry.E... 144 (1976). Powderize when dry.29 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (3. 1200ºC. Powderize. and Pells.. J. 6. Store in well-closed container. Dry in air. Luminescence-centers of Ca(S. Calcium oxide phosphors..

Dry in air. 87 (1969). 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 CaO:Cu+ Structure: Cubic (NaCl)l Composition Ingredient CaCO3 CaF2 CuSO4·5H2O Mole % 100 0. 1 hour.. 6. Keep dry.Emission width (FWHM): 0.18 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0. OSRAM Ges. Fire in capped quartz tubes.5 0..01 By weight (g) 100 0. ~2. Powderize. Abh.025 Preparation Dissolve the copper sulfate in a little water.77 and ~3. Store in well-closed container. about 230 µsec Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 50 2 3 References 1. Tech. W.88 eV). – (3. CO.75 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: + (4.380 0. Lehmann. Calcium oxide phosphors. Powderize when dry. Slurry in water.63 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: – (4. Lange. 2. add solution to the CaCO3 + CaF2 mix. 10. – (3.88 eV). J. 455 (1973). Lumin. 1200ºC. H... Wise.40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: 6–7% Decay to 10% : Exponential.40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: 2% Absorption (%) 100 Emission . Optical Properties Emission color: Bluish + UV Emission peak: Two overlapping bands.

Powderize when dry. Powderize. N2 loaded with H2O. 1200ºC. J. Lumin. 1 hour. 455 (1973)...015 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4.1 Preparation Mix by slurrying in water or methanol. slightly deeper red than that of YOE Emission peak: Main line at 2. Fire in capped quartz tubes.Spectra 800 700 600 500 400 Wavelength (nm) 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Reference 1.2 (of Eu) By weight (g) 100 1. ~20 min. Calcium oxide phosphors. After this firing. W. Fire in open quartz boats. 1200ºC. – (3. Optical Properties Emission color: Red. 1. 3.88 eV). can be sensitized for excitation at 3. 1200ºC.2 2. quench again to room temperature as quickly as possible.40 eV by addition of Bi (see CaO:Bi3+) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: Poor Absorption (%) 100 Emission . CaO:Eu3+ Structure: Cubic (NaCl) Composition Ingredient CaCO3 CaF2 Eu2O3 Mole % 100 1. After this firing. quench again to room temperature as quickly as possible.5 1. 2 hours. N2. Powderize. Keep dry. 6. Powderize. Store in well-closed container.40 eV). Dry in air. Lehmann. stagnant air. Fire in open quartz boats. 2.

. 6. Top efficiency requires that the phosphor passes through this range as rapidly as possible after second and third firings. 6. Z. Pt. It performs very poorly. 2. Naturforsch. 233 (1957). Pt. References 1. A. Na. 3. Li+ + Eu3+ = 2Ca2+) causes the red line at 2. 2.40 eV) Spectra 800 700 600 500 400 Wavelength (nm) 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Absorption (%) 100 Emission Absorption (%) 100 Emission . P. 455 (1973). This CaO:Eu3+ phosphor has been tested in fluorescent lamps. Z.Spectra 800 700 600 500 400 Wavelength (nm) 300 50 2 3 Remarks 1. The phosphor reacts to a “bad” temperature range (~800–1100ºC) by greatly reduced efficiency.. 561 (1951). W. Lumin. 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 CaO:Eu3+. A. and Uber eu-ionen in erdalkalioxyden und erdalkali-sulfiden. J. Calcium oxide phosphors.88 eV). Naturforsch. Addition of Li.015 eV to appear. The fluorine in the above recipe can be replaced by chlorine or bromine but a phosphor so prepared is badly hygroscopic probably because of leftover CaCl2 or CaBr2.10 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4. Lehmann.. 4. 12. The red Eu3+ emission shown in the preceding figure appears only if no alkali is present. Brauer. Na+ Structure: Cubic (NaCl) Optical Properties Emission color: Orange-yellow Emission peak: 2. or K (perhaps for charge compensation. – (3.

1200ºC. and Lee. Soc. 2.115 Preparation Mix by slurrying in water. J. Optical Properties Emission color: Orange-yellow Emission peak: 2. – (3. 1.40 eV by addition of Bi (see CaO:Bi3+) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: 5% Decay to 10%: Exponential. References 1.88 eV). 1 hour.07 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0. otherwise the Mn stays separate as MnO2. Ewles.. Dependence of luminescent efficiency on concentration of activator size of luminescent centers.390 0. Fire in capped quartz tubes. Dry in air. 392 (1953). Electrochem. N.CaO:Mn2+ Structure: Cubic (NaCl) Composition Ingredient CaCO3 CaF2 MnCO3 Mole % 100 0.5 0. 100. can be sensitized to respond to 3. Strong Mn2+ emission appears from about 1 ppm to 10% of Mn or Ca.. Powderize when dry.. CO. Store in well-closed container. Keep dry. The phosphor must be fired in a reducing atmosphere. The Mn concentration is not critical. Studies on the concept of large activator centers in crystal phosphors. about 22 msec Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 50 2 3 Remarks 1.88 eV by addition of Pb (see CaO:Pb2+).40 eV). 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Absorption (%) 100 Emission . J. Powderize.20 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: – (4. can be sensitized to respond to 4.1 By weight (g) 100 0.

. 455 (1973). Abh. W. 6. 4.2.. W. Excitation efficiency by e-beam: 10% Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) (3. Lehmann. 1200ºC. 455 (1973).5 0. 1.M. OSRAM Ges.21 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4.. 1 hour. 854 (1962). M. Dry in air.. J. J. Calcium oxide phosphors. Lehmann. A. Wise. K. 41 (1963). Fire in capped quartz tubes.40 eV) 400 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Reference 1. Wise. Chem. Sancier. Powderize.. Powderize when dry.. H. 6. stagnant air.022 Preparation Mix by slurrying in water or methanol. W.390 0.88 eV). Optical Properties Emission color: UV Emission peak: 3.. 37. 3.42 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0. Luminescence of solids excited by surface recombination of atoms. and Fredericks.. 37. CaO:Pb2+ Structure: Cubic (NaCl) Composition Ingredient CaCO3 CaF2 PbO Mole % 100 0. Store in well-closed container.01 By weight (g) 100 0.. Absorption (%) 100 Emission . Lumin. Techn. Calcium oxide phosphors. Lumin. Phys. J.. Hühninger.. Luminescence spectra.J. Keep dry. and Ruffler.

and Kunstler.CaO:Sb3+ Structure: Cubic (NaCl) Composition Ingredient CaCO3 Sb2O3 NaHCO3 Mole % 100 0.. K. Herzog... Chem. Calcium oxide phosphors.88 eV).40 eV). 455 (1973). Phys. Absorption (%) 100 Emission . Optical Properties Emission color: Yellow-green Emission peak: 2. 1200ºC. 56 (1964). Lumin. Dry in air. Keep dry.88 and 3. Z. Fire in capped quartz tubes.40 eV UV by addition Bi (see CaO:Bi3+) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: Poor Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 References 1. Lehmann.. H. Zur lumineszenz antimonaktivierter erdalkalioxide insonderheit des systems CaO-Sb. (3.840 Preparation Mix by slurrying in water. J.30 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0. G. 227. (Leipzig). Powderize when dry. CO.145 0.1 (of Sb) 1 By weight (g) 100 0. can be sensitized for excitation by 4.. Store in well-closed container. Powderize. 1 hour.51 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: (4. Witzmann. W. 6. 2.

125 (1953). Beitrag zur thermolumineszenz des samariumaktivierten calciumoxids. Appl. 13 (1965). 14. . Herzog. A. Suppl. and Janin.... J. Powderize when dry. Chem.. Chem. Z. Z.. – (3. Lumin. Rad. can be sensitized to respond to 4.. 6.. and Abel.. Z. H. Absorption (%) 100 Emission . G. Fiquet.A. 4.19 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: – (4.520 Preparation Mix by slurrying in water or methanol. and Raths. K. S78. Lehmann. 33 (1970). 1200ºC. R. Br. Runciman. stagnant air..40 eV). Atomic configurations in luminescent centres. (Leipzig). 455 (1973). W. 225..Thermoluminescence of phosphors CaO-Sm and CaO-Bi (calcium oxide-samarium and-bismuth). 332 (1964). Store in well-closed container. Dry in air. J. (Leipzig).40 eV excitation by addition of Bi (see CaO:Bi3+) Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 References 1.16.CaO:Sm3+ Structure: Cubic (NaCl) Composition Ingredient CaCO3 CaF2 Sm2O3 Mole % 100 0. Herzog. Phys. Crozet.. 3. G. can be sensitized for 4. 5. 228. Phys. Calcium oxide phosphors. Powderize. J. 4 (1955). Phys.88 and 3.88 eV). Optical Properties Emission color: Orange-yellow Emission peak: 2. W.3 (of Sm) By weight (g) 100 0. W. Herzog. Keep dry.00. 1 hour... Phys. Fire in capped quartz tubes. 243. Witzmann. J. and 2.. and Wuntke. (Leipzig). J.5 0. 6. G. Phys. 2.380 0. 2.88 eV by addition of Pb (see CaO:Pb2+). Chem.

. J.5 1.28 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: + (4. 455 (1973). strongest near 2.26–2. Store in well-closed container.. low because of dark body color Excitation efficiency by e-beam: Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Reference 1. Dry in air.5 (of Tb) By weight (g) 100 0. Powderize when dry. Fire in capped quartz tubes. CO. Calcium oxide phosphors. Keep dry. W. Lumin. 6.380 2. Lehmann.CaO:Tb3+ Structure: Cubic (NaCl) Composition Ingredient CaCO3 CaF2 Tb4O7 Mole % 100 0.88 eV).8 Preparation Mix by slurrying in water or methanol.540 Absorption (%) 100 Emission .066 0. Optical Properties Emission color: Pale green Emission peak: Many lines. Powderize.40 eV). CaO:Tl+ Structure: Cubic (NaCl) Composition Ingredient CaO TlOH NH4Cl Mole % 100 0. 1 hour. 1200ºC. – (3.03 1 By weight (g) 56 0.

Fire in capped quartz tubes. N2. stagnant air. 2. 2.240 Preparation Mix by slurrying in water or methanol. 1 hour. Dry in air. 1 hour. – (3. Fire in capped quartz tubes.390 0. (Leipzig). H.5 0. 455 (1973). Lumin. Powderize Store in well-closed container.3 By weight (g) 100 0.88 eV). Z.Preparation First mix only the CaO and NH4Cl by dry grinding. 130 (1964). CaO:Zn2+ Structure: Cubic (NaCl) Composition Ingredient CaCO3 CaF2 ZnO Mole % 100 0..11 and 1. Powderize when dry. Chem. Absorption (%) 100 Emission .5 eV (IR) Emission width (FWHM): 0. 227. Lehmann. 1 hour. Calcium oxide phosphors. 1200ºC. J. Phys. Powderize. Keep dry. 1200ºC. Anderson. Fire in capped quartz tubes.40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: 3% (Including both bands) Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 References 1. 1200ºC. 6. Optical Properties Emission color: Pale yellow + IR Emission peaks: 2. Zur photoelektrischen messung geringer lumineszenzintensitaten. Now admit the TlOH by dry grinding. stagnant air... 1. W.48 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: + (4.

. varying between about 3. 358 (1968). Absorption (%) 100 Emission . 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 ZnO:Al3+. about 300 sec Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 50 2 3 Reference 1. (3. Methods.20 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0.65 and 3. 6. 119 (1968).40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: 10% Decay to 10%: Exponential. Luckey. J... + (3.13 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: + (4. Optical Properties Emission color: UV Emission peak: Somewhat uncertain. 2..Powderize.80 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: (4. Instrum. Calcium oxide phosphors. Instrum. 63. Luckey. W.40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: + References 1.88 eV). 62. 455 (1973).. Nucl. Nucl. Methods.88 eV). D. 1107 (1966). Correction. D. A fast inorganic scintillator. Keep dry. Lehmann. Solid State Electron.Ga3+ Structure: Hexagonal (wurtzite) Optical Properties Emission color: UV Emission peak: 3. Lumin. Lehmann.. Store in well-closed container. W. 9. Edge emission of n-type conducting ZnO and CdS.

inspect again under UV lamp. When cool. 3. Remove all portions which look different. + (3. Correction.. 9.. Methods. Edge emission of n-type conducting ZnO and CdS. Optical Properties Emission color: Deep violet + UV Emission peak: 3. Material should be almost or completely dead. except in H2. 1 hour. D. Luckey. Nucl. Luckey. Instrum. Fire in open quartz boats. 63.40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: 1–1.88 eV). Dry in air. 119 (1968). Phosphor has gray (not white) body color.ZnO:Ga3+ Structure: Hexagonal (wurtzite) Composition Ingredient ZnO Ga2O3 ZnCl2 Mole % 100 0. 1107 (1966). Fire when dry. Fire in capped quartz tubes. Avoid all sulfur like the plague.3 1 By weight (g) 81 0. 358 (1968). 1. A fast inorganic scintillator. W.. References 1.2% Decay to 10%: Less than 1 nsec Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 50 2 3 Remarks 1. slowly flowing H2. 2. Material should show deep violet luminescence. Methods. 1100ºC. inspect under UV lamp. 2. This material is sensitive to traces of sulfur during preparation. nothing else.. stagnant air. It is thermally in a semi-stable state. Nucl. Lehmann. 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Absorption (%) 100 Emission . Solid State Electron.280 1. Screen through 200 mesh (stainless steel sieve OK).4 Preparation Mix by slurrying in water or methanol. 2. 62. Do not heat to greater than 300ºC. When cool. Remove any suspicious parts. 800ºC. Powderize. Instrum.195 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: + (4. 1 hour. D.

This common bluish-green emission of ZnO is greatly enhanced by the addition of sulfur during firing. + (3..M. 115. S. Excitation efficiency by e-beam: + Decay to 10%: In the 1–10 sec range Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 60% 400 300 100 Emission 50 2 3 Remarks 1.ZnO:S Structure: Hexagonal (wurtzite) Composition Ingredient ZnO S Mole % 100 ~0. 18. 1 hour. Lehmann. CO. 2.064 Preparation Fire in capped tubes.40 eV). Soc.. Chem. 155 (1952). Soc. W. Thomsen. Zinc oxide and zinc-cadmium oxide phosphors. Electrochem. Electrochem. 99. and towards yellow by replacing 10% of the Zn by Cd. J. 2. 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 .45 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0. 3.. Optical Properties Emission color: Blue-green Emission peak: 2.. The emission can be shifted towards blue by replacing 20% of the Zn by Mg. 770 (1950).88 eV).. References 1. 538 (1968). A.. J. Phys. Sulfide in zinc-oxide luminophors. J. 900ºC.L.2 By weight (g) 81 ~0.41 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: + (4. Zinc-magnesium oxide and zinc-magnesium sulfide phosphors. Smith.

Markovski. 2. Lehmann...98 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0. Soc. 1 hour.51 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: + (4. oxidizing) of ZnSe in air but the efficiency of this ZnO:Se is lower. CO.. 40 (1960). 9. 50–60% Excitation efficiency by e-beam: Afterglow tail observed into the millisecond range Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 100 Emission 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Remark This material can be obtained also by “burning” (i.160 Preparation Fire in capped quartz tubes. L.88 eV). J.Y. 538 (1968).40 eV). 115. Electrochem. W. . N.e.S. Zinc oxide and zinc-cadmium oxide phosphors.. References 1. and Oshanskaya.ZnO:Se Structure: Hexagonal (wurtzite) Composition Ingredient ZnO Se Mole % 100 ~0. 900ºC. Optical Properties Emission color: Orange Emission peak: 1...2 By weight (g) 81 0. Optics and Spectr. + (3.

References 1. 2.04. Fok.095 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4. 1300ºC. Absorption (%) 100 Emission . and 2.. Borchard. Dry. – (3.V. 127 (1957). Powderize when dry. 2.ThO2:Eu3+ Structure: Rutile Composition Ingredient ThO2 Eu2O3 NH4F Mole % 100 1. 2. Pat. U.97..7 Preparation Mix by slurrying in water.40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: 4% Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Remark This phosphor has been proposed for X-ray excitation because of the high stopping power of ThO2 for x-rays. Optical Properties Emission color: Pinkish orange-red Emission peak: Three strongest lines. Dry in air. 1 hour. Wash in concentrated nitric acid and then in water until neutral. 1. Fire in capped quartz tubes. N2.J.S. H..88 eV).. Optika I Spektrosk. M.5 (of Eu) 10 By weight (g) 232 2. Powderize.3 3. 3 408 303 (1968).

89. Fire in capped quartz tubes.40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: 3% Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 ThO2:Tb3+ Structure: Rutile Composition Ingredient ThO2 Tb4O7 NH4F Mole % 100 0.88 eV).330 3. Powderize when dry.2 (of Tb) 10 By weight (g) 232 0.375 3.2 (of Pr) 10 By weight (g) 232 0. 1300ºC. Powderize. Dry in air. Optical Properties Emission color: Blue-greenish white Emission peak: Strongest lines: at 1. – (3.7 Preparation Mix by slurrying in water or methanol. Wash in concentrated nitric acid and then in water until neutral. Dry. 2.7 Absorption (%) 100 Emission . N2.52 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: + (4. and 2.48. 1 hour.ThO2:Pr3+ Structure: Rutile Composition Ingredient ThO2 Pr2O3 NH4F Mole % 100 0.

1 (of Bi) 2. Absorption (%) 100 Emission .Preparation Mix by slurrying in water. Dry. H. 1300ºC.285 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: + (4. Powderize.S... Powderize when dry.230 1. Dry in air. Y2O3:Bi3+ Structure: Cubic Composition Ingredient Y 2O 3 Bi2O3 CaF2 Mole % 100 (of Y) 0. U.J. – (3. Borchard. 1 hour. Powderize when dry. Fire in capped quartz tubes. Fire in capped quartz tubes. Reference 1. Optical Properties Emission color: Bluish-greenish Emission peak: Strongest at 2.5 By weight (g) 108 0. stagnant air.88 eV).40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: 3% Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Remark This phosphor has been proposed for X-ray excitation (high stopping power of ThO2 for Xrays). Pat. Wash in concentrated nitric acid and then in water until neutral. CO. Dry in air. 1300ºC.95 Preparation Mix by slurrying in water or methanol. 3 408 303 (1968). 1 hour.

Toma. Chem.T. + (3.. J. 3. Luminescence of some bismuth-activated oxides. 530 (1972).Optical Properties Emission color: Pale blue-greenish white Emission peak: 2. Luminescent behavior of bismuth in rare-earth oxides. Sometimes it is difficult to recognize the bands in the very diffuse emission spectrum.35 eV band showing up Emission width (FWHM): 0.. Y2O3:Er3+ Structure: Cubic Composition Ingredient Y 2O 3 Bi2O3 CaF2 Mole % 100 (of Y) 0. .83 eV (for 2. 217 (1968). and Bril. D... J. Intern.K.1 (of Bi) 2. and Palumbo. 1137 (1967). Boulon. Datta. p. References 1. Phys. 274 (1969). Conf. G. S. A. Soc.00 eV. Lumin.35 eV peak) Excitation efficiency by UV: + (4. R. frequently only the 2.. Leningrad. 116. Electrochem.95 Preparation Mix by slurrying in water or methanol.. stagnant air. 1300ºC.. Proc.35 and 3.. G. Fire in capped quartz tubes. et al..230 1. 4. Blasse.88 eV). Dry in air.40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: Low in either case Decay to 10%: 1 sec Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 100 Absorption (%) Emission 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Remark The Bi3+ emission in Y2O3 is very poorly expressed. Soc. 1. 1 hour. 48.. 2. J. Electrochem. Powderize when dry. 114.Z.5 By weight (g) 108 0. Investigations on BI3+-activated phosphors.

1 hour. – (3. (3. 1 hour. 1 hour. air.230 1. Fire in capped quartz tubes. stagnant air.2.1 (of Bi) 2. Powderize. see below) Absorption (%) 100 Emission . Powderize when dry.88 eV). Optical Properties Emission color: Pale green Emission peak: Strongest line at 2. 80% Excitation efficiency by e-beam: 7–8% (if Eu conc: = 3%. Fire in open quartz boats. 1300ºC. stagnant air.40 eV).03 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4. 1300ºC.206 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: – (4. Powderize.5 By weight (g) 108 0. 1300ºC. is low for the visible part because of strong competition by IR emission Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Y2O3:Eu3+ (YOE) Structure: Cubic Composition Ingredient Y 2O 3 Bi2O3 CaF2 Mole % 100 (of Y) 0. Optical Properties Emission color: Red Emission peak: Strongest line at 2.40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: Efficiency not tested.88 eV). Fire in capped quartz tubes. Dry in air.95 Preparation Mix by slurrying in water or methanol.

Electrochem. and Lefever. J. Y2O3:Ho3+ Structure: Cubic Composition Ingredient Y 2O 3 Bi2O3 CaF2 Mole % 100 (of Y) 0. Soc. Sensitization by Bi causes excitability by 3. Soc.C. K.. N. To obtain a phosphor optimized for e-beam excitation use only ½ of the above Eu concentration. 114. 5.40 eV UV but reduces the efficiency for excitation by 4. Electrochem. Wickersheim. Appl. R.Spectra 800 700 600 500 400 Wavelength (nm) 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Remarks 1. 3. Spectral properties of rare earth oxide phosphors. Soc.C.95 Preparation Mix by slurrying in water or methanol. 47 (1964). The above recipe gives a phosphor optimized for excitation by 4. 1300ºC. 111.. 2.K. Powderize when dry. Ropp.. Chang.5 By weight (g) 108 0. J. Ropp. Soc. 1 hour. 1137 (1967). stagnant air. Fire in capped quartz tubes. Electrochem. J. 34.. R. 4. Fire in capped quartz tubes. References 1. J.230 1. 1300ºC..A.88 eV UV.1 (of Bi) 2.88 eV. 1. 1 hour. 111.. J. Electrochem.A. Powderize. 112.. stagnant air. 3500 (1963).C. Absorption (%) 100 Emission .. Fluorescence and stimulated emission from trivalent europium in yttrium oxide. R. Luminescent behavior of bismuth in rare-earth oxides. Dry in air. Datta.. 2. 311 (1964). Phys. 2. Luminescence of europium in ternary system — A2O3-Gd2O3-Y2O3. 181 (1965).. R.. Luminescent behavior of the rare earths in yttrium oxide and related hosts.

1.40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: Efficiency not tested. Fire in capped quartz tubes.5 By weight (g) 108 0. 2. see below) Absorption (%) 100 Emission . – (3. plus many lines in the IR Excitation efficiency by UV: – (4.95 Preparation Mix by slurrying in water or methanol. Optical Properties Emission color: Pale green Emission peak: Strongest lines at 2.30 eV. 1 hour.Optical Properties Emission color: Yellow-green Emission peak: Two lines in the visible at 2. is low for the visible part because of the strong competition by IR emission Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Y2O3:Tb3+ Structure: Cubic Composition Ingredient Y 2O 3 Bi2O3 CaF2 Mole % 100 (of Y) 0.230 1. CO.266 and 2. = 1%.286 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: + (4. 1 hour. 1300ºC.253 and 2. (3.40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: 2–3% (if Tb conc. Fire in capped quartz tubes. Powderize when dry.1 (of Bi) 2. Dry in air. CO.88 eV). Powderize. 1300ºC.88 eV).

67 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0. Spectral properties of rare earth oxide phosphors. same conditions as above. Fire in capped quartz tubes.88 eV. Re-fire. Powderize. 311 (1964). 1200 C. Ropp.230 1.Spectra 800 700 600 500 400 Wavelength (nm) 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Remarks 1. Powderize when dry. 2.5%) of Tb. stagnant air.40 eV) Decay to 1/e: 0. Powderize. Reference 1.95 Preparation Mix by slurrying in water or methanol. R. To obtain a phosphor optimized for e-beam excitation use only 1% (instead of 2. – (3. Electrochem. 111. Dry in air. Optical Properties Color: Bluish Emission peak: 2.C. Store in well-closed container.88 eV).49 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4..27 µsec Absorption (%) 100 Emission .. Soc. La2O3:Bi3+ Structure: Cubic Composition Ingredient La2O3 Bi2O3 CaF2 Mole % 100 (of Y) 0.5 By weight (g) 163 0. otherwise Tb3+ oxidizes to Tb4+. 1 hour. This phosphor must be fired in reducing atmosphere. J.1 (of Bi) 2. The above recipe gives a phosphor optimized for excitation by 4.

.. Optical Properties Emission color: Red Emission peak: Strongest line at 1. R. Dry in air. Powderize. stagnant air. 1 hour. 1137 (1967). Fire in capped quartz tubes. stagnant air. La2O3:Eu3+ Structure: Cubic Composition Ingredient La2O3 Bi2O3 CaF2 Mole % 100 (of Y) 0. Bril. Powderize. R.985 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: – (4.230 1.. 112.40 eV) . Soc. W.. 1 hour. Soc. 111 (1965). Datta. J. Electrochem. 1300ºC. Luminescent behavior of bismuth in rare-earth oxides. 124 (1965). 114. Electrochem. 1300ºC..K. Powderize when dry. and deLaat. Fire in capped quartz tubes. Wanmaker. Fluorescent properties of red-emitting europium-activated phosphors with cathode ray excitation.. Soc. A. – (3. Ropp. Electrochem.5 By weight (g) 163 0. 112. 2.88 eV).1 (of Bi) 2. 2..C. 3. J. J.L. 1. C. Luminescence of europium in ternary system — A2O3-Gd2O3-Y2O3.95 Preparation Mix by slurrying in water or methanol. Store in well-closed container..Spectra 800 700 600 500 400 Wavelength (nm) 300 100 Absorption (%) Emission 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 References 1.

Phys. Electrochem. J.95 Optical Properties Emission color: Yellow-green Emission peak: 2. 34. Fluorescence and stimulated emission from trivalent europium in yttrium oxide..E. W. 1137 (1967).. A. R. J. 6.A.1 (of Bi) 2. and deLaat.L. N. Ropp. J.K. Electrochem. 111 (1965). Luminescent behavior of bismuth in rare-earth oxides.88 eV). Chem. and Dieke. 114. Electrochem. C. J. 3500 (1963). Chang. 988 (1965). R. 112. Wanmaker. R. 311 (1964).. 181 (1965). 112... 47 (1964). Datta.27 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0. Phys. Spectral properties of rare earth oxide phosphors. 5. Soc... Bril. and Lefever... 4. Luminescence of europium in ternary system — A2O3-Gd2O3-Y2O3. Soc. G. R.. Ropp. K.. Barasch.. Soc. 3.5 By weight (g) 163 0. J.C. 111. Wickersheim. Fluorescent properties of red-emitting europium-activated phosphors with cathode ray excitation... Luminescent behavior of the rare earths in yttrium oxide and related hosts.40 eV) Absorption (%) 100 Emission . Appl.C.A.. 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 La2O3:Pb2+ Structure: Cubic Composition Ingredient La2O3 Bi2O3 CaF2 Mole % 100 (of Y) 0. + (3. Soc. J.51 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4. J.. Electrochem. Soc.H. G. Fluorescence decay of rare-earth ions in crystals.C.. 2.. 43.Spectra 800 700 600 500 400 Wavelength (nm) 300 50 2 3 References 1.230 1. Electrochem. 111.. 7.

Spectra 800 700 600 500 400 Wavelength (nm) 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Absorption (%) 100 Emission .

Mn2+ Sr2MgSi2O7:Eu2+ Ba2MgSi2O7:Eu2+ BaMg2Si2O7:Eu2+ BaSrMgSi2O7:Eu2+ Ba2Li2Si2O7:Eu2+ Ba2Li2Si2O7:Sn2+ Ba2Li2Si2O7:Sn2+.3 Silicates The following host compounds and activators are included in this subsection: CaSiO3:Ce3+ CaSiO 3:Eu2+ CaSiO 3:Pb2+ CaSiO3:Ti4+ CaSiO3:Pb2+.Mn2+ Sr3MgSi2O8:Eu2+ Ca5B2SiO10:Eu3+ Ca3Al2Si3O12:Eu2+ LiCeBa4Si4O14:Mn2+ LiCeSrBa3Si4O14:Mn2+ .Mn2+ Ca2MgSi2O7:Eu2+ Ca2MgSi2O7 Ca2MgSi2O7:Eu2+.Mn2+ MgSrBa2Si2O7:Eu2+ MgBa3Si2O8:Eu2+ MgSr3Si2O8:Eu2+.Li+.Mn2+ Be2SiO4:Mn2+ Mg2SiO4:Mn2+ Zn2SiO4:Mn2+ Zn2SiO4:Mn2+.P Zn2SiO4:Mn2+.4.As5+ Zn2SiO4:Ti4+ (Zn+Be)2SiO4:Mn2+ Sr2SiO4:Eu2+ SrBaSiO4:Eu2+ Ba2SiO4:Eu2+ Ba2SiO4:Ce3+.Mn2+ BaSi2O5:Eu2+ BaSi2O5:Pb2+ Y2SiO5:Ce3+ CaMgSi2O6:Eu2+ CaMgSi2O6:Eu2+.

Dry in air.00 eV. Optical Properties Emission color: Violet + UV Emission peak: 3.56 Absorption (%) 100 Emission . Elsevier. F. Kröger.56 Preparation Mix by slurrying in water. Amsterdam (1948). CO. 3.. 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 CaSiO3:Eu2+ Structure: Triclinic (pseudowollastonite) Composition Ingredient CaCO3 SiO2 Eu2O3 CaF2 Mole % 98 100 0.1 (of Eu) 2 By weight (g) 98 60 0.80 1.A. 1 hour.CaSiO3:Ce3+ Structure: Triclinic (pseudowollastonite) Composition Ingredient CaCO3 SiO2 TiO2 CaF2 Mole % 97 100 1 2 By weight (g) 97 100 0. Powderize when dry.176 1. Some Aspects of the Luminescence of Solids.88 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: + Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 50 2 3 Reference 1. Fire in capped quartz tubes. 1100ºC.42 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: + (4.

Dry in air.25 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: + (4.87 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4.40 eV) Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 CaSiO3:Pb2+ Structure: Triclinic (pseudowollastonite) Composition Ingredient CaCO3 SiO2 PbO CaF2 Mole % 97 100 1 2 By weight (g) 97 60 2.56 Preparation Mix by slurrying in water or methanol.40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: + Absorption (%) 100 Emission . Fire in capped quartz tubes. Powderize when dry.88 eV). N2. 1100ºC. 1 hour.88 eV). 1100º C. Optical Properties Emission color: Violet Emission peak: 2. – (3. + (3. Dry in air. 1 hour.Preparation Mix by slurrying in water. Powderize when dry.93 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0.70 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0.23 1. Optical Properties Emission color: UV Emission peak: 3. CO. Fire in capped quartz tubes.

R. Bril..V.Pb). H. M.. R. Philips Res. Wiss.. Abh. 356 (1961).W. and Klick. University Park (1980). 8. J. 43.80 1.. 41 (1963).Spectra 800 700 600 500 400 Wavelength (nm) 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 References 1.. Z... Mooney... and Hoekstra. J. air. Rep. Ginther.H. J. Soc. 6. W. 1 hour. Powderize when dry..H. 800 (1959). H. W. Fire in capped quartz tubes. Dry in air.56 Preparation Mix by slurrying in water or methanol. and Wollentin. 123 (1950).. C. J.. 7. and Ruffler. Opt. 2. R. 106. Absorption (%) 100 Emission .. Schulman. 269 (1964). K.L. and Hoffman.C. A.W. 4.. R.J. 106.H. Butler.W. J. 8. 5. Electrochem. and Hoekstra. Schulman. Note on the properties of calcium silicate phosphors.. Soc. 137 (1952). Wei. 139. Ginther.. A.. Phys. Rep. Fluorescent Lamp Phosphors. Am. E... 97. Bril. Die manganbanden und ihre trennung im lumineszenzspektrum von calciumsilikat (Mn. Philips Res.. 346 (1954). 318 (1953). D. Soc. C. 19. Tech. OSRAM Ges. Soc. 16. M. Lange. Harrison.. 3.. 99. Pennsylvania University Press..J.. 10. R.K. Calcium zinc silicate phosphor. 9. J. Nagy. A study of the mechanism of sensitized luminescence of solids. Electrochem. 955 (1959). CaSiO3:Ti4+ Structure: Triclinic (pseudowollastonite) Composition Ingredient CaCO3 SiO2 TiO2 CaF2 Mole % 97 100 1 2 By weight (g) 97 100 0. Electrochem.. Soc.. The calcium silicate Mn + Pb phosphor phase relationships and preparation. Electrochem. Optical properties of tin-activated and lead-activated calcium metasilicate phosphors.. Hüniger. J.. 1100ºC.E.. and Claffy.

5 60 1. 1000ºC.93 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0.5 2 2 By weight (g) 97. Fire in capped quartz tubes. CO.92 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: + (4. Powderize. 1150ºC.56 Preparation Mix by slurrying in methanol plus a few cubic centimeters water.3 1. Dry in air.40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: 60% (estimated) Decay to 10% : Slightly non exponential ( 35 msec) followed by a long but weaker afterglow tail extending into seconds Absorption (%) 100 Emission . N2.88 eV) Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 CaSiO3:Pb2+.5 100 0. 2.Mn2+ Structure: Triclinic (pseudowollastonite) Composition Ingredient CaCO3 SiO2 PbO MnCO3 CaF2 Mole % 97. Fire in capped quartz tubes. 1. Wash in water several times. 1 hour. – (3. Powderize when dry. Dry. Powderize.42 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4. Optical Properties Emission color: Orange Emission peak: 2. 1 hour.Optical Properties Emission color: Bluish Emission peak: 2.12 2.88 eV).17 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0.

Spectra 800 700 600 500 400 Wavelength (nm) 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Reference 1.88 eV Emission width (FWHM): eV Excitation efficiency by UV: – (4. – (3.. – (3. and beryllium.40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: + Zn2SiO4:Mn2+ Structure: Trigonal (willemite) Composition Ingredient ZnO SiO2 MnCO3 Mole % 194 110 6 By weight (g) 158 66 6. Be2SiO4:Mn2+ Structure: Trigonal (phenakite) Optical Properties Emission color: Orange-red Emission peak: 1.9 Absorption (%) 100 Emission . J.L. Soc.97 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: – (4. 287 (1949). Electrochem.88 eV)..40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: + Mg2SiO4:Mn2+ Structure: Orthorhombic (forsterite) Optical Properties Emission color: Red Emission peak: 1.88 eV). Smith. 96. A. Some new complex silicate phosphors containing calcium. magnesium.

G. Efficiency enhancement in manganese-doped zinc silicate phosphor with AIPO4 substitution. 4.35 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0. 5.F. and Holland. Powderize by dry milling. Ceram. and Vink. A. and Garlick. References 1. Optical Properties Emission color: Green Emission peak: 2. J. 80–90% Excitation efficiency by e-beam: 7%/+ Decay: Near exponential with time constant ~10 msec (22–25 msec to 1/10) Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 50 2 3 Remarks 1.. Leverenz. 443. A. 3. Green-emitting phosphors. D.T. Emission peak moves slightly to longer wavelength with increasing Mn concentration. Lumin. London (1950)..40 eV).. J. 3. Palumbo. Kinetics of X-ray irradiation-caused degradation of photoluminescence of some phosphors.. 1 hour.18 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4. 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Absorption (%) 100 Emission . New York. 229 (1979).N. E. Bauer.J. I. 2. John Wiley & Sons. 1 hour. 371 (1951). Very thorough mixing of the ingredients is essential. and decay after excitation by e-beam pulse. C... Electrochem. A. air. H. Soc.. The thermoluminescence characteristics of silicate phosphors activated by manganese and arsenic. Chang. J. An Introduction to Luminescence of Solids. 7. Appl. 4. 1200ºC. J. 409 (1965). 79 (1976). 5.T. 1200ºC.88 eV). and Chapman & Hall. Stevels. M. Fire in open quartz containers. Electrochem. (1974). Electronic states of Mn2+-activated phosphors. Efficiency for excitation by UV and by e-beam. J. 2.F. forming gas. J. and Brown. Parts or all of the Si can be replaced by Ge (but not by Sn).. – (3. Lett. G. 1184 (1970). Bull. Soc. Phys. Electrochem.W. Fire in open quartz containers. depend on the Mn concentration used. 35. Powderize when dry.. 8. 48. 123... Soc. System MgO-ZnO-SiO2. 1...Preparation Mix by ball-milling in water about 2 hours. 2.R. Am. Soc. Dry in air. Up to ~20% of the Zn can be replaced by Mg without visible effect of the Mg on the emission.L. 117. 6.. 1..W.E.. 98. Segnit. and Shafer.T...

As5+ Structure: Trigonal (willemite) Composition Ingredient ZnO MnCO3 SiO2* As2O3 Mole % 200 0. J. 1200ºC.P Structure: Trigonal (willemite) Optical Properties Emission color: Green.40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: + Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 100 Emission 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Zn2SiO4:Mn2+. Am.88 eV). – (3.230 62. Fire in capped quartz tubes. 1 hour. orange Emission peak: 2. 42.H.02 (of As) By weight (g) 163 0. Soc. On the luminescence of divalent manganese in solids. 910 (1952). air. C.1 0..” etc.35 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4. Opt.35 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0. Klick.. Optical Properties Emission color: Green Emission peak: 2.” “Cab-O-Sil.8. Powderize when dry.18 eV . commercially available as “Silanox. J.02 (* This requires extremely fine SiO2. Zn2SiO4:Mn2+.C. Dry in air.) Preparation Mix by ball-milling in water about 2 hours.04 and 2. and Schulman.2 102 0..

Chem.40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: + Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 100 Emission 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 . 878 (1942). Bull. – (3. 371 (1951). 3. Very thorough mixing of the ingredients is important. first branch near-exponential with time constant (to 1/e) 12 msec.88 eV). 2.C. later part non-exponential and extending to several seconds or longer Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 100 Emission 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Remarks 1. The afterglow due to As5+ appears only when the phosphor has been fired in oxidizing atmosphere. 2.. Electrochem. Zn2SiO4:Ti4+ Structure: Trigonal (willemite) Optical Properties Emission color: Violet Emission peak: 3. Froelich..F. H. Soc.. J. G. 98. and Fonda.R. J. and Garlick.. C. References 1. 46.. Phys.Excitation efficiency by e-beam: 3–4% Decay: Decay consisting of two subsequent branches. The thermoluminescence characteristics of silicate phosphors activated by manganese and arsenic. Ordinary silicic acid cannot be used for this phosphor (too coarse). G..02 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4.

23 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0. 2. (Zn+Be)2SiO4:Mn2+ Structure: Trigonal (willemite) Optical Properties Emission color: Green.168.35 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4. Amsterdam (1948). – (3.A.04 eV. 244. K. Kröger. Some Aspects of the Luminescence of Solids. Elsevier.40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: + Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 100 Emission 50 2 3 Reference 1. Fluorescent Lamp Phosphors.Reference 1. F. Pennsylvania University Press. University Park (1980).60 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4.88 eV). Sr2SiO4:Eu2+ Structure: Orthorhombic Optical Properties Emission color: Green-yellow Emission peak: 2. p.40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: + . – (3. p.88 eV)..H. orange Emission peak: 2. 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Butler..

31. 1100ºC.5 5. CO. G. 23.40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: + .. 1 hour. 2. The absorption and emission spectra of some important activators.. mix by dry milling. 304 (1970). Blasse. Philips Tech. Electrochem. Powderize by dry milling.L. Rep. and Bril. Soc. 1100ºC. Fluorescence of Eu2+ activated silicates.4 Preparation Mix by slurrying in water. Rev.Spectra 800 700 600 500 400 Wavelength (nm) 300 100 Emission 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 References 1. 189 (1968). + (3. 2. Wash in water several times (pH goes to ~10–12).32 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4.88 eV) . 3 Blasse. CO. Barry.. G. Fire in capped quartz tubes. A. Powderize. J. Add another 5.. 115.36 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0. SrBaSiO4:Eu2+ Composition Ingredient SrCO3 BaCO3 SiO2 Eu2O3 NH4Cl Mole % 98 100 105 2 (of Eu) 10 By weight (g) 145 197 63 3. 733 (1968). 1. Then ball-mill in water. T. Equilibria and Eu2+ luminescence of subsolidus phases bounded by Ba3MgSi2O8. Characteristic luminescence. Fire in capped quartz tubes. Sr3MgSi2O8. Dry in air. 1. and Ca3MgSi2O8.. Dry. Powderize when dry. 1 hour.. et al.. Optical Properties Emission color: Yellow-green Emission peak: 2. Philips Res.4 g NH4Cl.

Electrochem. Store in a well-closed container. Add another ~5. Wash in water (to remove leftover halide).5 63 5. Soc.Spectra 800 700 600 500 400 Wavelength (nm) 300 50 2 3 Remark This phosphor is an intermediate between Sr2SiO4:Eu2+ (yellow. CO. Dry in air.L.44 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0. Fire in capped quartz tubes.. unstable) which are miscible in any ratio.. 2. Barry. Powderize. 115.88 eV). 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Ba2SiO4:Eu2+ Structure: Orthorhombic Composition Ingredient BaCO3 Eu2O3 SiO2 NH4Cl Mole % 198 2 (of Eu) 105 10 By weight (g) 390 3. 733 (1968). Fluorescence of Eu2+-activated phases in binary alkaline earth orthosilicate systems.4 g NH4Cl. 1181 (1968). Electrochem. T. 1. The stability of SrBaSiO4:Eu2+ may not be good enough for use in lamps. T. 1 hour.L. Soc. Equilibria and Eu2+ luminescence of subsolidus phases bounded by Ba3MgSi2O8. References 1. CO. Powderize by hard milling or grinding.28 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4. Optical Properties Emission color: Blue-green Emission peak: 2. 1100ºC. 2. J. Fire in capped quartz tubes. 1000ºC. 1 hour. mix well. J.4 Preparation Mix by milling or grinding. + (3. 115. and Ca3MgSi2O8.. stable in water) and Ba2SiO4:Eu2+ (green.40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: + Absorption (%) 100 Emission . Barry. Sr3MgSi2O8..

Dry in air. G. J. Sr3MgSi2O8. Barry. Now admit MnCO3 and NH4Br by slurrying in methanol.. N2. 1 hour. 115. T. Equilibria and Eu2+ luminescence of subsolidus phases bounded by Ba3MgSi2O8. 1181 (1968). CO.8 10 Preparation First mix by dry ball-milling or grinding only in the BaCO3. and Li2CO3. Powderize. Powderize when dry. CeO2. 23. 1 hour.Mn2+ Structure: Orthorhombic Composition Ingredient BaCO3 SiO2 CeO2 Li2CO3 MnCO3 NH4Br Mole % 75 50 10 20 (of Li) 5 10 By weight (g) 148 30 17 7. 900ºC. 2. Soc.Li+.. SiO2. Fire in open quartz boats. 1 hour.Spectra 800 700 600 500 400 Wavelength (nm) 300 50 2 3 Remarks 1. Absorption (%) 100 Emission . 3. H2. 1. Part or all of the Ba can be replaced by Sr causing increasing stability against water and shift of the emission towards yellow. Fire in open quartz boats.. Fire in capped quartz tubes.4 5. 189 (1968).. 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Ba2SiO4:Ce3+. 115. 900ºC. Rep. Electrochem.L. and Ca3MgSi2O8. Fluorescence of Eu2+ activated silicates. Electrochem. Material is unstable in water. Philips Res. 900ºC. References 1. 2. Powderize. et al. Blasse. and Fluorescence of Eu2+-activated phases in binary alkaline earth orthosilicate systems. Soc. J. 2. 733 (1968).

2.40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: Very poor Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 50 2 3 Remarks 1.88 eV). A. Phys. and 5% Mn. Phosphor is believed to be a modification of Ba2SiO4 (in which Mn2+ is nonluminescent) with 25% of Ba replaced by 10% Ce. Soc. Br. Partial replacement of Ba by Sr shifts the emission into somewhat deeper red.H. ++ (3. McKeag. 26 (1955). improves temperature stability of the emission. 2. and Steward..46 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0. Electrochem.Optical Properties Emission color: Orange-red Emission peak: 2. J. E. Temperature characteristics of barium strontium lithium silicate phosphors. J.88 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: + BaSi2O5:Pb2+ Structure: Orthorhombic Absorption (%) 100 Emission .. Emission changes color from orange-red at room temperature to yellow at 150ºC and whitish at 300ºC.50 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4. 105. 3.. 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 BaSi2O5:Eu2+ Structure: Orthorhombic Optical Properties Emission color: Blue-green Emission peak: 2.C.. 78 (1958). 4. References 1. A. Such phosphor has been known as “triple silicate” in England. McKeag.H. and improves chemical stability of the material.015 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0. The luminescent properties and crystal structure of some new phosphor systems.24 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4. 10% Li.. Appl.

40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: + CaMgSi2O6:Eu2+ Structure: Monoclinic (diopside) Composition Ingredient CaO MgO SiO2 Eu2O3 NH4Cl Mole % 118 100 210 2 (of Eu) 40 By weight (g) 66 40 126 3. Phosphors based on rare earth phosphates fast decay phosphors.. R. Y2SiO5:Ce3+ Optical Properties Emission color: Violet Emission peak: 2.H.99 eV Emission width (FWHM): eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4. – (3.. 1 hour. Butler. Dry in air. Electrochem.39 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4. + (3. University Park (1980). 169.4 Preparation Mix by slurrying in methanol plus a few cubic centimeters water. J.88 eV).88 eV).5 21.Optical Properties Emission color: UV Emission peak: 3..40 eV) Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 100 Emission 50 2 3 References 1. 2. 1000ºC. 531 (1968). Powderize when dry.C. Fluorescent Lamp Phosphors. . K. 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Ropp. N2. Soc. 1. Fire in capped quartz tubes.. 115.54 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0. Pennsylvania University Press. p.

Powderize.L. 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 CaMgSi2O6:Eu2+.. Wash in water several times. Soc. magnesium. Powderize when dry.Mn2+ Structure: Monoclinic (diopside) Composition Ingredient CaO MgO SiO2 Eu2O3 MnCO3 NH4Cl Mole % 114 100 210 2 (of Eu) 4 40 By weight (g) 64 40 126 3. CO. J. Powderize. Dry. 1. Powderize. Dry. Electrochem. 2. 1 hour. 1000ºC.25 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4.5 4. Fire in capped quartz tubes. Powderize. Absorption (%) 100 Emission . 1 hour. CO.88 eV). 287 (1949).40 eV).77 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0. 96. A. Smith. 1 hour. Some new complex silicate phosphors containing calcium. Fire in capped quartz tubes. 60% (estimated) Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 50 2 3 Reference 1. 1150ºC. 1150ºC. Dry in air. N2. and beryllium. ++ (3.4 Preparation First mix by slurrying in methanol plus a few cubic centimeters water.6 21. Wash in water several times.2.. Optical Properties Emission color: Blue Emission peak: 2. Fire in capped quartz tubes.

40 eV). 2.88 eV). 1150ºC. ++ (3. 25% Absorption (%) 100 Emission . Powderize.40 eV).37 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4. 1 hour.88 eV). Optical Properties Emission color: Yellow-green Emission peak: 2.4 Preparation First mix by slurrying in methanol plus a few cubic centimeters water. Spectra 800 700 600 500 400 Wavelength (nm) 60% (estimated) 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Ca2MgSi2O7:Eu2+ Structure: Tetragonal (ackermanite) Composition Ingredient CaO MgO SiO2 Eu2O3 NH4Cl Mole % 200 100 210 2 (of Eu) 40 By weight (g) 112 40 126 3. Fire in capped quartz tubes. Emission peak: 1. Dry in air.Optical Properties Emission color: Reddish-purple. Powderize when dry. Fire in capped quartz tubes. 1. N2.80 eV. 2.29 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0. 1000ºC. ++ (3. 2. CO.77 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4.12 eV.5 21. 1 hour.

Spectra 800 700 600 500 400 Wavelength (nm) 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Ca2MgSi2O7 Structure: Tetragonal (ackermanite) Optical Properties Emission color: UV Emission peak: 3. 1000ºC.4 Preparation First mix by slurrying in methanol plus a few cubic centimeters water.Mn2+ Structure: Tetragonal (ackermanite) Composition Ingredient CaO MgO SiO2 Eu2O3 MnCO3 NH4Cl Mole % 205 100 210 2 (of Eu) 8 10 By weight (g) 115 40 126 3.21 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: Excited by all UV plus visible blue Absorption (%) 100 Emission .5 9. Fire in capped quartz tubes. 2. 1 hour. 1150ºC.17 eV Excitation efficiency by e-beam: + Ca2MgSi2O7:Eu2+. 2. Optical Properties Emission color: Deep red plus weaker yellow-green Emission peak: 1. Fire in capped quartz tubes. 1.29 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0. Powderize when dry. Powderize. N2. CO. 1 hour.80 eV.2 5. Dry in air.

J.W. Philips Res. 189 (1968). Blasse. 673 (1968).. Fire in capped quartz tubes. Rep. J. 23. CO. Soc. N2. Wanmaker. et al.68 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0. Fire in capped quartz tubes. and terVrugt. W.. 115. Powderize. Powderize when dry.6 40. Electrochem.3 126 5.. Dry in air. 2. 2. Blasse.3 Preparation Mix by ball-milling in methanol. 1 hour..L. 1 hour. Optical Properties Emission color: Blue Emission peak: 2. Some new classes of efficient Eu2+ activated phosphors.88 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: + Absorption (%) 100 Emission . 1150ºC.Spectra 800 700 600 500 400 Wavelength (nm) 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 References 1.. 1. Sr2MgSi2O7:Eu2+ Structure: Tetragonal (ackermanite) Composition Ingredient SrCO2 SrF2 MgO SiO2 Eu2O3 Mole % 187 10 100 210 3 (of Eu) By weight (g) 276 12.27 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: + (4. 1000ºC. Fluorescence of Eu2+-activated silicates. G. G..

Philips Res.3 Preparation Mix by ball-milling in methanol. + (3. G. N2.40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: + . et al. Powderize. 1. Fluorescence of Eu2+-activated silicates. 1 hour. Dry in air. 1100ºC.Spectra 800 700 600 500 400 Wavelength (nm) 300 100 Emission 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Reference 1.42 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0..5 40. Powderize when dry..88 eV).3 126 5. (1968). 2. Optical Properties Emission color: Blue-green Emission peak: 2. Fire in capped quartz tubes. 1000ºC. 189. 1 hour. Fire in capped quartz tubes. Ba2MgSi2O7:Eu2+ Structure: Tetragonal (melinite) Composition Ingredient BaCO3 BaF2 MgO SiO2 Eu2O3 Mole % 187 10 100 210 3 (of Eu) By weight (g) 369 17. Blasse. 23. CO.41 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: + (4. Rep.

W. J. G. 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 BaMg2Si2O7:Eu2+ Structure: Tetragonal (melinite) Composition Ingredient BaCO3 BaF2 MgO SiO2 Eu2O3 Mole % 187 10 100 210 3 (of Eu) By weight (g) 369 17. J. Some new classes of efficient Eu2+ activated phosphors. and terVrugt. 2. Wanmaker.. A.L..Spectra 800 700 600 500 400 Wavelength (nm) 300 100 Emission 50 2 3 References 1. Characteristic luminescence. Blasse.. 115.10 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0. 31. 1. 304 (1970). G.40 eV) Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 100 Emission 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 .. and Bril. Rev.3 Optical Properties Emission color: Violet + UV Emission peak: 3. Electrochem. Soc.19 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4. The absorption and emission spectra of some important activators.5 40. Philips Tech. 673 (1968). W.88 eV)..3 126 5... + (3. Blasse.

Blasse. T. J..W. Pennsylvania University Press. G. CO.. (1980).6 143.J. 673 (1968). 115. Philips Res. Rep. Fluorescence of Eu2+-activated silicates. 1 hour. 1.H.40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: + Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 100 Emission 50 2 3 References 1.. BaSrMgSi2O7:Eu2+ Structure: Ackermanite Composition Ingredient BaCO3 SrCO3 BaF2 MgO SiO2 Eu2O3 Mole % 90 97 10 100 210 3 (of Eu) By weight (g) 177. Optical Properties Emission color: Blue Emission peak: 2.. Fire in capped quartz tubes. Barry. 117.88 eV). Blasse. Wanmaker.3 Preparation Mix by ball-milling in methanol. 381 (1970). Fluorescent Lamp Phosphors. Soc. G.5 40. Electrochem. K. Powderize. Fire in capped quartz tubes. Electrochem.. N2..27 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4. ++ (3. et al. Dry in air. W.3 126 5. 2. Powderize when dry. and terVrugt. Some new classes of efficient Eu2+ activated phosphors.. University Park. J. 23. J.Reference 1. 1 hour. Butler. 189 (1968). 1000ºC. Luminescent properties of Eu2+ and Eu2+ + Mn2+ activated BaMg2Si2O7. 1100ºC. 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 ..82 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0. Soc.L.2 17. 3.. 2.

1 hour. H2. 1. 3. + (3. CO. 16 hours (overnight). Fire in open quartz boats.40 eV). excited by all UV Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Remarks 1. 850ºC. Store in a well-closed container.3 49 Preparation First mix all ingredients but the NH4Br by dry grinding or milling . 850ºC. Absorption (%) 100 Emission . Fire in capped quartz tubes. Dry in air. Optical Properties Emission color: Blue-green Emission peak: 2. Powderize when dry. 1 hour.88 eV). 850ºC. Fire in open quartz boats. N2. Powderize.Ba2Li2Si2O7:Eu2+ Composition Ingredient BaCO3 Li2CO3 SiO2 Eu2O3 NH4Br Mole % 97 110 (of Li) 110 3 (of Eu) 50 By weight (g) 191 41 66 5. Phosphor is chemically unstable in water and deteriorates in moist air. Gradual replacement of Ba by Sr causes rapid decrease of efficiency without visible change of color. Powderize.44 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0. 2. 2. Now admit the NH4Br by slurrying in methanol plus a few cubic centimeters water.30 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4.

Powderize. 3.88 eV). Powderize. causing a shift of the emission towards bluegreen.8 49 Preparation First mix by dry grinding or milling the BaCO3 + Li2CO3 + SiO2 . Fire in capped quartz tubes. CO. Fire in open boats. 1 hour. QE fairly high Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Remarks 1. The Sn2+ emission sensitizes Mn2+ (see: Ba2Li2Si2O7:Sn2+. 850ºC. Store in a well-closed container. Absorption (%) 100 Emission . N2. H2.40 eV). Make slurry in methanol and stir to uniformity. ~16 hours (overnight). 850ºC. 1. Now admit the SnO + NH4Br.Mn2+).Ba2Li2Si2O7:Sn2+ Composition Ingredient BaCO3 Li2CO3 SiO2 SnO NH4Br Mole % 95 110 (of Li) 110 5 50 By weight (g) 187 41 66 6. Phosphor is chemically unstable in water and deteriorates even in moist air. Part or all of the Ba can be replaced by Sr. 850ºC. Powderize when dry. 2. Dry in air. Optical Properties Emission color: Violet Emission peak: 2. ++ (3.22 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4.89 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0. 1 hour. 3. 2. Fire in open quartz boats.

1 hour. and decreasing efficiency. QE (estimated) Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 60–70% 400 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Remarks 1. 3. Powderize. Fire in open boats.40 eV). Store in a well-closed container. Now admit the SnO + MnCO3 + NH4Br. 2.32 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0.Mn2+ Composition Ingredient BaCO3 Li2CO3 SiO2 SnO MnCO3 NH4Br Mole % 93. Fire in open quartz boats. 1 hour.Ba2Li2Si2O7:Sn2+. CO. 850ºC.5 110 (of Li) 110 5 1. 850ºC. Increasing replacement of Ba by Sr causes gradual shift of the emission towards red. ++ (3.8 1. N2. Dry in air. Optical Properties Emission color: Green Emission peak: 2.5 50 By weight (g) 185 41 66 6. 1.16 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4. ~16 hours (overnight).88 eV). Make a slurry in methanol and stir to uniformity. Absorption (%) 100 Emission . Phosphor is chemically unstable in water and deteriorates even in moist air.7 49 Preparation First mix by dry grinding or milling the BaCO3 + Li2CO3 + SiO2. 850ºC. 2. Powderize. Fire in capped quartz tubes. Powderize. H2. broadening and slight deformation of the emission band.

Electrochem. Barry. Soc. G. 115. Sr3MgSi2O8..40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: + Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 100 Emission 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 MgBa3Si2O8:Eu2+ Optical Properties Emission color: Blue Emission peak: 2.88 eV) Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 100 Emission 50 2 3 References 1.88 eV).27 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4. Rep.MgSrBaSi2O7:Eu2+ Structure: Ackermanite Optical Properties Emission color: Blue Emission peak: 2.L. . Philips Res.82 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0.82 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0. Blasse. 1181 (1968). and Ca3MgSi2O8. Electrochem.22 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4. 189 (1968). Equilibria and Eu2+ luminescence of subsolidus phases bounded by Ba3MgSi2O8.. 733 (1968) and Fluorescence of Eu2+-activated phases in binary alkaline earth orthosilicate systems. Fluorescence of Eu2+ activated silicates. J. 115. et al. 23.... Soc. T. 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 2. J. ++ (3.

88 eV) Sr3MgSi2O8:Eu2+ Structure: Ackermanite Composition Ingredient SrCO3 MgO SiO2 Eu2O3 NH4Cl Mole % 295 100 206 5 (of Eu) 30 By weight (g) 435 40 124 8..MgSr3Si2O8:Eu2+. Blasse..40 eV). N2. 1100ºC. Fire in capped quartz tubes. Fire in capped quartz tubes.70 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0. 31.2 sec to 1/e Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 45% 400 300 100 Emission 50 2 3 References 1. Blasse. CO. The absorption and emission spectra of some important activators.Mn2+ Optical Properties Emission color: Deep red Emission peak: 1. ++ (3. Characteristic luminescence.. 23. 1. Powderize 2. Dry in air. 1000ºC. 1 hour. and Bril.. Powderize when dry. 1 hour. 189 (1968).88 eV). 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 . QE Excitation efficiency by e-beam: 3% Decay: 0. Philips Tech.23 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4. Rep. A.82 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4. Philips Res. et al. Fluorescence of Eu2+-activated silicates. G. 1. Rev. G.. 2. Optical Properties Emission color: Blue Emission peak: 2.8 16 Preparation Mix by ball-milling in methanol about 1 hour. 304 (1970).

Powderize. 1300ºC. 1 hour. QE Excitation efficiency by e-beam: Poor Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 50–60% 400 300 50 2 3 Remark The chemical stability of this material is somewhat better than that of CaO:Eu3+. – (3. 1. 1 hour.47 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: Excited by all UV but low QE ( 20%) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: Very poor.2 8. 1100ºC. 1 hour. 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Ca3Al2Si3O12:Eu2+ Optical Properties Emission color: Pale bluish-green Emission peak: 2. air.Ca5B2SiO10:Eu3+ Composition Ingredient CaCO3 H3BO3 SiO2 Eu2O3 Mole % 100 50 22 5 (of Eu) By weight (g) 100 31 13. air. 2. Optical Properties Emission color: Red Emission peak: 2.5% Absorption (%) 100 Emission . 3.8 Preparation Mix by dry milling or grinding.88 eV). Fire in open quartz boats.03 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4. 0. Powderize by milling. 1200ºC.41 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0. Fire in open quartz boats.40 eV). Fire in open quartz boats. air.

99 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0. ++ (3.02 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0.88 eV).24 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4.40 eV) Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 LiCeSrBa3Si4O14:Mn2+ Optical Properties Emission color: Red Emission peak: 1. ++ (3.40 eV) Absorption (%) 100 Emission .88 eV).Spectra 800 700 600 500 400 Wavelength (nm) 300 100 Emission 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 LiCeBa4Si4O14:Mn2+ Optical Properties Emission color: orange–red Emission peak: ~2.23 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4.

Spectra 800 700 600 500 400 Wavelength (nm) 300 100 Emission 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 .

2. Powderize. N2. Fire in capped quartz tubes.4. CO. QE Excitation efficiency by e-beam: 5% Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 90% 400 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Absorption (%) 100 Emission . Powderize when dry.Tb3+ Ca3SiO4Cl2:Pb2+ Ca3SiO4Cl2:Eu2+ Ba5SiO4Cl6:Eu2+ Sr5Si4O10Cl6:Eu2+ LaSiO3Cl:Ce3+ Composition Ingredient La2O3 SiO2 CeO2 NH4Cl Mole % 100 (of La) 160 20 120 By weight (g) 163 96 34 64 Preparation Mix by slurrying in water (NH3 develops). 1200 C.4 Halosilicates The following host compounds and activators are included in this subsection: LaSiO3Cl:Ce3+ LaSiO3Cl:Ce3+. Fire in capped quartz tubes.56 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4. Optical Properties Emission color: UV Emission peak: 3. 1 hour. N2. Dry in air.35 and 3. 1200 C. 500 C. 3. 1 hour. Dry in air. Powderize. 1. Powderize. Wash in water several times. Fire in open quartz boats.88 eV). 1 hour.

Tb3+ Composition Ingredient La2O3 SiO2 CeO2 Tb4O7 NH4Cl Mole % 100 (of La) 180 20 14 (of Tb) 130 By weight (g) 163 108 34 26 60 Preparation Mix by slurrying in water (NH3 develops). QE Excitation efficiency by e-beam: +/4% Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 80–90% 400 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Absorption (%) 100 Emission . Powderize. ~500 C. 1200 C. Powderize when dry.88 eV). Dry in air. Fire in open quartz boats. 1 hour. Fire in capped quartz tubes. Wash in water several times. CO. 3. Soc. Dry in air.. Fire in capped quartz tubes. 1. N2. 1200 C. Lehmann. F or Br can replace the Cl in the above recipe. 125. N2. Replacement of La by Y is possible but gives somewhat poorer phosphors. Powderize. 445 (1978). W. 2. + (3.Remarks 1.J. 2. and Isaaks. but Cl seems to perform best.40 eV). T. Electrochem.. Optical Properties Emission color: Pale yellow-green Emission peak: 2. Reference 1. J. Lanthanum and yttrium halo-silicate phosphors. Powderize..H. LaSiO3Cl:Ce3+.29 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4. 1 hour. ~1 hour.

. 2. Rep. J. W. Electrochem... 445 (1978). Ca3SiO4Cl2:Eu2+ Optical Properties Emission color: Blue-green Emission peak: 2.40 eV) Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 100 Emission 50 2 3 Reference 1.40 eV) .H. 125. The Cl in the above recipe can be replaced by F or Br but Cl seems to perform best. 28. Luminescence of phosphors with Ca3SiO4Cl. 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Wanmaker.88 eV).44 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0. W.88 eV). and Verriet. Replacement of La by Y is possible but gives somewhat poorer phosphors.G.31 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: + (4. T.Remarks 1. Ca3SiO4Cl2:Pb2+ Optical Properties Emission color: UV Emission peak: 3.L. and Isaaks. ++ (3... – (3. Lanthanum and yttrium halo-silicate phosphors. Reference 1.41 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0. Lehmann. Philips Res. 80 (1973)..J. Soc. J.39 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4.

82 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0. 126. 28. Philips Res.88 eV). and Fouassier. Latourette. Soc. a new blue-emitting photoluminescent material with high quenching temperature. J. Ba5SiO4Cl6:Eu. Luminescence of phosphors with Ca3SiO4Cl.Spectra 800 700 600 500 400 Wavelength (nm) 300 100 Emission 50 2 3 Reference 1. Ba5SiO4Cl6:Eu2+ Optical Properties Emission color: blue Emission peak: 2.19 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4.L. W. and Verriet... ++ (3. C. 80 (1973). J.52 eV .40 eV) Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 100 Emission 50 2 3 Reference 1.. B. 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Wanmaker. Rep.G. Sr5Si4O10Cl6:Eu2+ Optical Properties Emission color: Blue-green Emission peak: 2. 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Garcia.. Electrochem. 1734 (1979). A..

467 (1971).88 eV). Nicholson. 3. 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Burrus. ++ (3...P. H. and Rooksby.40 eV) Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 100 Emission 50 2 3 References 1.Emission width (FWHM): 0.38 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4. Lumin.. Fluorescence of Eu2+-activated alkaline earth halosilicates. J. H.P. K.. .L.

Mn2+(Al) -Sr3(PO4)2:Sn2+ -Sr3(PO4)2:Eu2+ Ba3(PO4)2:Eu2+ Na3Ce(PO4)2:Tb3+ -(Ca.Mn2+ ZnMg2(PO4)2:Mn2+ Zn3(PO4)2:Mn2 (Zn.Tb3+ YPO4:Eu3+ YPO4:Mn2+.Mg)3(PO4)2:Mn2+ Mg3Ca3(PO4)4:Eu2+ MgSr5(PO4)4:Sn2+ MgBa2(PO4)2:Sn2+ CaSr2(PO4)2:Bi3+ MgBa2(PO4)2:U Sr2P2O7:Eu2+ .Th4+ YPO4:V5+ LaPO4:Ce3+ LaPO4:Eu3+ CaP2O6:Mn2+ Sr2P2O7:Sn2+ Ca2P2O7:Ce3+ Ca2P2O7:Eu2+.Mn2+ Ca2P2O7:Eu2+ Li2CaP2O7:Ce3+.4.Mn2+ -Sr3(PO4)2:Sn2+.Mn2+ MgCaP2O7:Mn2+ BaTiP2O7 MgSrP2O7:Eu2+ MgBaP2O7:Eu2+ MgBaP2O7:Eu2+.Sr)3(PO4)2:Sn2+.5 Phosphates The following host compounds and activators are included in this subsection: YPO4:Ce3+ YPO4:Ce3+.Mn2+ -Ca3(PO4)2:Ce3+ CaB2P2O9:Eu2+ -Ca3(PO4)2:Sn2+ -Ca3(PO4)2:Sn2+ -Ca3(PO4)2:Pb2+ -Ca3(PO4)2:Tl+ -Ca3(PO4)2:Ce3+ -Ca3(PO4)2:Eu2+ -Ca3(PO4)2:Eu2+ -Ca3(PO4)2:Eu2+.

. Dry in air.. D. and Jeser. G. Electronic transitions of rare earth ions in the infrared region. J. D. CeP5O14. E. Philips Tech. 4. Slowly add the H3PO4 solution while stirring. N2. Phys. Hoffman. Wright.71 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4. N2. Powderize.R. 52 (1972). ~80 nsec to 1/10 Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 References 1.. CO. Fire in open quartz boats. Rev. Effect of thorium on Ce+3 phosphors. Chem.YPO4:Ce3+ Structure: Tetragonal Composition Ingredient Y 2O 3 Eu2O2 H3PO4 solution. 1508 (1971). and Banks. Lett. J. 3..88 eV). 85% Mole % 97 (of Y) 3 (of Eu) 105 (of P) By weight (g) 110 5. G. 1300ºC. 1. and Bril. Electrochem. J.V. ~1300ºC. 4. Ultraviolet-absorption bands of Bi3+ and Eu3+ in oxides. Bimburg. 2.P. 2. ~1 hour. D.40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: 2–3% Decay: Near exponential decay. – (3.. Blasse.. A. 67 (1975).2 64 ccm Preparation Make a thin slurry of Y2O3 and Eu2O3 in methanol.. R. 27.R. Fire in open quartz boats. ~1 hour... Robbins.. Soc.. 33. Powderize when dry. ~500–600ºC. Phys. Optical Properties Emission color: UV Emission peak: 3. 5. G. Solid State Chem. mix by dry grinding.. 192 (1960). 304 (1970). Powderize. Mandel... The absorption and emission spectra of some important activators. ~2 hours. 31.P. Absorption (%) 100 Emission .49 and 3. 118.. Add ~5 g of NH4Cl. Bauman. Fire in capped quartz tubes. Appl. a new ultrafast scintillator.. 3. Blasse. J. M.

28 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4. 115. – (3.YPO4:Ce3+.88 eV). 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Ropp. Soc. Phosphors based on rare earth phosphates. R. J.40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: + Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 YPO4:Eu3+ Structure: Tetragonal Optical Properties Emission color: Orange-red Excitation efficiency by UV: – (4.. Electrochem. – (3. 841 (1968).Tb3+ Structure: Tetragonal Optical Properties Emission color: Green Emission peak: 2. Absorption (%) 100 Emission . Spectral properties of some rare earth phosphates.40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: + Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 100 Emission 50 2 3 Reference 1.88 eV). 1.C..

44 5. Powderize when dry.Th4+ Structure: Tetragonal Optical Properties Emission color: Blue-green Emission peak: 2. CeO2 .4 64 ccm Preparation Make a slurry of La2O3.59 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0.40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: + Spectra 800 700 600 500 400 Wavelength (nm) 300 100 Emission 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 YPO4:V5+ Structure: Tetragonal Optical Properties Emission color: Blue Emission peak: 2. 85% LaPO4:Ce3+ Mole % 98 (of La) 2 10 105 (of P) By weight (g) 160 3. Dry in air.88 eV). – (3. . and NH4Cl in methanol.56 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: + (4. Slowly add the H3PO4 solution while stirring.YPO4:Mn2+.99 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0.23 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: – (4.88 eV) Structure: Monoclinic (monazite) Composition Ingredient La2O3 CeO2 NH4Cl H3PO4 solution.

air. G. 2 hours.117 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: + (4. and Banks. 1250ºC. Powderize when dry. 1. R. Powderize. 2. 1 hour.40 eV) Absorption (%) 100 Emission . and 2. CO.94 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4.88eV). Fire in open quartz boats. Optical Properties Emission color: UV Emission peak: 3. 85% LaPO4:Eu3+ Mole % 95 (of La) 5 (of Eu) 10 105 (of P) By weight (g) 155 8. 1. – (3. N2.40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: + Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Reference 1.P. 33. 1250ºC. N2. 2.4 64 ccm Preparation Make a slurry of La2O3. Powderize.. Structure: Monoclinic (monazite) Composition Ingredient La2O3 Eu2O3 NH4Cl H3PO4 solution. Phys.1 2 Fire in open quartz boats. Fire in open quartz boats. Chem. Mandel.097. J. 2 hours.815. Dry in air. Optical Properties Emission color: Orange-red Emission peak: Strongest lines are at 1. 1250ºC. Electronic transitions of rare earth ions in the infrared region. Slowly add the H3PO4 solution while stirring. 192 (1970).. – (3. Fire in open quartz boats.8 5. Eu2O3. 1 hour.. and NH4Cl in methanol.67 and 3..88 eV). Bauman. 1250ºC.784. E.

Spectra 800 700 600 500 400 Wavelength (nm) 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Reference 1. et al.30 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0. 21.L. 270 (1966). – (3. Luminescent properties of Eu-activated phosphors of type A3BVO4. Rev. W.. CaP2O6:Mn2+ Optical Properties Emission color: Green Emission peak: 2.40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: + Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 100 Emission 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Absorption (%) 100 Emission .29 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: – (4. Philips Tech.. Wanmaker.88 eV).

Sr2P2O7:Sn2+
Spectra
800 700 600 500
2+

400

Wavelength (nm)

300
2+

100

Emission

-Sr2P2O7:Sn

-Sr2P2O7:Sn

50

2

3

Reference 1.

4 Photon Energy (eV)

5

0

Ropp., R.C., and Mooney, R.W., Tin-activated alkaline-earth pyrophosphate phosphors, J. Electrochem. Soc., 107, 15 (1960).

Ca2P2O7:Ce3+
Structure: Tetragonal Composition Ingredient CaHPO4 CeO2 NaHCO3 H3PO4-solution, 85% Mole % 96 2 2 6 (of P) By weight (g) 130 3.4 1.7 4.1 ccm

Preparation Make a slurry of CaHPO4, CeO2 , and NaHCO3 in water or methanol. Add the H3PO4 solution while stirring; stir to uniformity. Dry in air. Powderize when dry. 1. Fire in open quartz boats, N2, ~500–600ºC, ~1/2 hour. Powderize. 2. Fire in open quartz boats, CO, 1200ºC, 1 hour. Optical Properties Emission color: Pale bluish (most of the emission in the UV) Emission peaks: 3.60 and 3.83 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4.88 eV), – (3.40 eV)

Spectra
800 700 600 500

400

Wavelength (nm)

300

50

2

3

4 Photon Energy (eV)

5

0

Reference 1. Ranby, P.W., Mash, D.H., and Henderson, S.T., The investigation of new phosphors, with particular reference to the pyrophosphates, Br. J. Appl. Phys., Suppl. 4, 18 (1955).

Ca2P2O7:Eu2+,Mn2+
Structure: Tetragonal Composition Ingredient CaHPO4 Eu2O3 MnCO3 H3PO4 solution, 85% Mole % 93 2 (of Eu) 5 9 (of P) By weight (g) 126 3.5 5.75 6.1 ccm

Preparation Make a slurry of CaHPO4, Eu2O3 , and MnCO3 in water or methanol. Add the H3PO4 solution while stirring; stir to uniformity. Dry in air. Powderize when dry. 1. Fire in open quartz boats, N2, ~500–600ºC, ~1 hour. Powderize. 2. Fire in open quartz boats, CO, 1200ºC, 1 hour. Optical Properties Emission color: Pink-orange Emission peak: Orange Mn2+ band at ~2.06 eV; Violet Eu2+ band at ~2.98 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0.28 eV (Mn2+ band) Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4.88 eV), ++ (3.40 eV)

Absorption (%)

100

Emission

Spectra
800 700 600 500

400

Wavelength (nm)

300

100

Emission

50

2

3

4 Photon Energy (eV)

5

0

References 1. Kröger, F.A. et al., J. Electrochem. Soc., 96, 132 (1949). 2. Kinney, D.E., Modified calcium pyrophosphate phosphors, J. Electrochem. Soc., 102, 676 (1955). 3. Ranby, P.W., Mash, D.H., and Henderson, S.T., The investigation of new phosphors, with particular reference to the pyrophosphates, Br. J. Appl. Phys., S18, Suppl. 4 (1955). 4. Ropp, R.C., Manganese-activated cadmium pyrophosphate phosphors, J. Electrochem. Soc., 109, 569 (1962).

Ca2P2O7:Eu2+
Structure: Tetragonal Composition Ingredient CaHPO4 Eu2O3 H3PO4 solution, 85% Mole % 98 2 (of Eu) 4 (of P) By weight (g) 133 3.5 2.7 ccm

Preparation Make a slurry of CaHPO4 + Eu2O3 in water or methanol. Add the H3PO4 solution while stirring; stir to uniformity. Dry in air. Powderize when dry. 1. Fire in open quartz boats, N2, ~500–600ºC, ~1 hour. Powderize. 2. Fire in open quartz boats, CO, 1200ºC, 1 hour. Optical Properties Emission color: Violet Emission peak: 2.96 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0.19 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4.88 eV), ++ (3.40 eV)

Spectra
800 700 600 500

400

Wavelength (nm)

300

100

Emission

50

2

3

4 Photon Energy (eV)

5

0

References 1. Kröger, F.A. et al., J. Electrochem. Soc., 96, 132 (1949). 2. Kinney, D.E., Modified calcium pyrophosphate phosphors, J. Electrochem. Soc., 102, 676 (1955). 3. Ranby, P.W., Mash, D.H., and Henderson, S.T., The investigation of new phosphors, with particular reference to the pyrophosphates, Br. J. Appl. Phys., S18, Suppl. 4 (1955). 4. Ropp, R.C., Manganese-activated cadmium pyrophosphate phosphors, J. Electrochem. Soc., 109, 569 (1962).

Li2CaP2O7:Ce3+,Mn2+
Composition Ingredient Li2CO3 CaHPO4 CeO2 MnCO3 H3PO4 solution, 85% Mole % 205 (of Li) 89 3 5 115 (of P) By weight (g) 75.7 121 5.2 5.75 70 ccm

Preparation Make a slurry of Li2CO3 + CaHPO4 + CeO2 + MnCO3 in methanol. Add the H3PO4 solution while stirring (CO2 develops). Dry in air. Powderize when dry. 1. Fire in open quartz boats, N2, ~500–600ºC. Powderize. 2. Fire in open quartz boats, N2, 700ºC, 16 hours (overnight). Optical Properties Emission color: Greenish-yellow Emission peak: 2.16 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0.28 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4.88 eV), – (3.40 eV)

Spectra
800 700 600 500

400

Wavelength (nm)

300

100

Emission

50

2

3

4 Photon Energy (eV)

5

0

MgCaP2O7:Mn2+
Structure: Monoclinic Optical Properties Emission color: Yellow Emission peak: 2.12 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0.20 eV Spectra
800 700 600 500 400
Wavelength (nm)

300

100

Emission

50

2

3

4 Photon Energy (eV)

5

0

BaTiP2O7
Spectra
800 700 600 500 400
Wavelength (nm)

300

100

Emission

50

2

3

4 Photon Energy (eV)

5

0

Reference 1. Henderson, S.T., and Ranby, P.W., Barium titanium phosphate – a new phosphor, J. Electrochem. Soc., 98, 479 (1951).

MgSrP2O7:Eu2+
Structure: Monoclinic Optical Properties Emission color: Violet-UV Emission peak: 3.16 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0.20 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4.88 eV), + (3.40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: + Spectra
800 700 600 500
Wavelength (nm)

400

300

100

Emission

50

2

3

References 1. 2.

4 Photon Energy (eV)

5

0

Hoffman, M.V., Eu+2 activation in some alkaline earth strontium phosphate compounds, J. Electrochem. Soc., 115, 560 (1968). Blasse, G., and Bril, A., The absorption and emission spectra of some important activators, Philips Tech. Rev., 31, 304 (1970).

MgBaP2O7:Eu2+
Structure: Monoclinic Optical Properties Emission color: Violet-UV Emission peak: 3.04 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0.35 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4.88 eV), ++ (3.40 eV)

Spectra
800 700 600 500

400

Wavelength (nm)

300

100

Emission

50

2

3

Reference 1.

4 Photon Energy (eV)

5

0

Lagos, C.C., Luminescence of divalent europium in BaO-MgO-P2O5 system, J. Electrochem. Soc., 115, 1271 (1968).

MgBaP2O7:Eu2+,Mn2+
Structure: Monoclinic Composition Ingredient Mg2P2O7 Ba2P2O7 Eu2O3 MnCO3 H3PO4-solution, 85% Mole % 90 (of Mg) 96 (of Ba) 4 (of Eu) 10 19 (of P) By weight (g) 100 215 7 11.5 12.9 ccm

Preparation Make a slurry of Mg2P2O7 + Ba2P2O7 + Eu2O3 + MnCO3 in water. Add the H3PO4 solution while stirring. Dry in air. Powderize when dry. 1. Fire in open quartz boats, N2, 500–600ºC, 1 hour. Powderize. 2. Fire in open quartz boats, N2, 950ºC, 2 hours. Optical Properties Emission color: Pinkish orange-red Emission peak: Orange-red Mn2+ band at 2.07 eV, violet Eu2+ band at 3.06 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0.18 eV (Mn2+ band) Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4.88 eV), ++ (3.40 eV)

Spectra
800 700 600 500

400

Wavelength (nm)

300

50

2

3

4 Photon Energy (eV)

5

0

-Ca3(PO4)2:Ce3+
Structure: Trigonal Optical Properties Emission color: UV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4.88 eV) Spectra
800 700 600 500 400
Wavelength (nm)

300
16/9 % Ce 2/3 1/9 1/36

100

Emission

50

2

3

Reference 1.

4 Photon Energy (eV)

5

0

Botden, T.P.J., Transfer and transport of energy by resonance processes in luminescent solids, Philips Res. Rep., 7, 197 (1952).
600 500 400
Wavelength (nm)

800 700

300
3+ 2+

100

-Ca3(PO4)2:Ce ,Mn
Emission

50

2

3

4 Photon Energy (eV)

5

0

Absorption (%)

100

Emission

Reference 1. Froelich, H.C., and Margolis, J.M., Calcium phosphate phosphor activated with cerium and manganese, J. Electrochem. Soc., 98, 400 (1951).

CaB2P2O9:Eu2+
Composition Ingredient CaHPO4 H3BO3 Eu2O3 (NH4)2HPO4 Mole % 98 200 2 (of Eu) 106 By weight (g) 134 124 3.5 140

Preparation Make a slurry of the CaHPO4 + Eu2O3 in methanol. Dissolve the H3BO3 + (NH4)2HPO4 together in a little water. Add the solution to the slurry. Stir. Dry in air. Powderize when dry. 1. Fire in open quartz boats, air, ~500–600ºC, 1 hour. Powderize. 2. Fire in open quartz boats, N2, 800ºC, 1 hour. Powderize. 3. Fire in open quartz boats, CO, 1000ºC, 1 hour. Optical Properties Emission color: Deep violet Emission peak: 3.08 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0.21 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4.88 eV), ++ (3.40 eV) Spectra
800 700 600 500
Wavelength (nm)

400

300

50

2

3

4 Photon Energy (eV)

5

0

Absorption (%)

100

Emission

Optical Properties Emission color: Pale blue-green Emission peak: 2. F. Powderize when dry.88 eV). Now add the crushed (NH4)2CO4 by dry mixing. 1 hour. Dry in air. Kreidler.. E.R. A proof of the associated-pair theory for sensitized luminophors. N2. J. 118. – (3.75 Absorption (%) 100 Emission . 801 (1949).35 2 Preparation Mix the CaCO3 + CaHPO4 + SnO by slurrying in methanol.61 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4. 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 -Ca3(PO4)2:Sn2+ Structure: Trigonal Composition Ingredient CaCO3 CaHPO4 SnO Mole % 5 75 5 By weight (g) 5 90 6. Phase equilibria and tin-activated luminescence in system Ca3(PO4)2Ba3(PO4)2.. 15. 2. Fire in capped quartz tubes.44 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0. Electrochem. Kröger. 1250ºC.-Ca3(PO4)2:Sn2+ Structure: Monoclinic Composition Ingredient CaCO3 CaHPO4 SnO (NH4)2CO4 Mole % 10 75 1 12 By weight (g) 10 90 1. Soc.. Physica.40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: + Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 50 2 3 References 1.A. 923 (1971).

R.3 Preparation Mix by slurrying in water or methanol. 1.40 eV) Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 References 1.A. 118. Powderize when dry.. Fire in capped quartz tubes. E. CO. Fire in capped quartz tubes. 1100ºC. – (3.92 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0. 2. ~500ºC. 2. N2. J. 1. Dry in air. Absorption (%) 100 Emission . Powderize by dry milling. 801 (1949). Phase equilibria and tin-activated luminescence in system Ca3(PO4)2Ba3(PO4)2. -Ca3(PO4)2:Pb2+ Structure: Monoclinic Composition Ingredient CaCO3 CaHPO4 PbO Mole % 24 75 1 By weight (g) 24 90 2. 1 hour. 2.. Fire in capped quartz tubes. Physica. 923 (1971). Kröger. 2 hours. A proof of the associated-pair theory for sensitized luminophors. Fire in capped quartz tubes.. Powderize. 1250ºC. 1100ºC. CO. 1 hour. Powderize when dry.55 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4. N2. Electrochem.Preparation Mix by slurrying in water or methanol. F. Dry in air. 2 hours.88 eV). 15. Optical Properties Emission color: Pale orange Emission peak: 1. Kreidler. Soc.

Fire in capped quartz tubes. R.68 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0.H. 1 hour. Am.. Dry in air.64 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4.40 eV) Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Reference 1. Optical Properties Emission color: UV Emission peak: 3.66 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4.Optical Properties Emission color: UV Emission peak: 3. Soc.J. 37. J. Ultraviolet phosphors and fluorescent sun tan lamps. 355 (1947).88 eV). stagnant air. R.40 eV) Absorption (%) 100 Emission . Powderize when dry.. – (3. -Ca3(PO4)2:Tl+ Structure: Monoclinic Composition Ingredient CaCO3 CaHPO4 TlOH Al2O3 Mole % 22 75 1 2 (of Al) By weight (g) 22 90 2.88 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0.88 eV). Opt.. – (3. 1250 C. and Ginther. Clapp.2 1 Preparation Mix by slurrying in water or methanol.

Spectra
800 700 600 500

400

Wavelength (nm)

300

50

2

3

4 Photon Energy (eV)

5

0

References 1. Froelich, H.C., New ultraviolet phosphors, J. Electrochem. Soc., 91, 241 (1947). 2. Witzmann, H., and Buhrow, J., Ein neuer schwarzlichtphosphor, Naturwissenschaften, 49, 180 (1962). 3. Clapp, R.H., and Ginther, R.J., Ultraviolet phosphors and fluorescent sun tan lamps, J. Opt. Soc. Am., 37, 355 (1947). 4. Bril, A., and Hoekstra, W., Philips Res. Rep., 16, 356, (1961), and Philips Res. Rep., 19, 296 (1964).

-Ca3(PO4)2:Ce3+
Structure: Monoclinic Composition Ingredient CaCO3 CaHPO4 CeO3 NaHCO3 Mole % 15 75 5 5 By weight (g) 15 90 17 8.4

Preparation Mix by slurrying in water. Dry in air. Powderize when dry. Fire in open quartz boats, CO, 1250ºC, 1 hour. Optical Properties Emission color: UV Emission peak: 3.33 eV, 3.57 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4.88 eV), – (3.40 eV)

Absorption (%)

100

Emission

Spectra
800 700 600 500

400

Wavelength (nm)

300

50

2

3

4 Photon Energy (eV)

5

0

References 1. Froelich, H.C., and Margolis, J.M., Calcium phosphate phosphor activated with cerium and manganese, J. Electrochem. Soc., 98, 400 (1951). 2. Botden, T.P.J., Transfer and transport of energy by resonance processes in luminescent solids, Philips Res. Rep., 7, 197 (1952).

-Ca3(PO4)2:Eu2+
Structure: Monoclinic Composition Ingredient CaCO3 CaHPO4 Eu2O3 Mole % 24 75 1 (of Eu) By weight (g) 24 90 1.76

Preparation Mix by slurrying in water. Dry in air. Powderize when dry. Fire in open quartz boats, CO, 1250ºC, 1 hour. Optical Properties Emission color: Whitish blue-green Emission peak: ~2.52 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0.53 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4.88 eV), ++ (3.40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: +

Absorption (%)

100

Emission

Spectra
800 700 600 500

400

Wavelength (nm)

300

50

2

3

4 Photon Energy (eV)

5

0

References 1. Lagos, C.C., Luminescence of divalent europium in Ba-Ca, Ba-Sr, and Ca-Sr orthophosphate and pyrophosphate compositions, J. Electrochem. Soc., 117, 1189 (1970). 2. McCauley, R.A., Hummel, F.A., and Hoffman, M.V., Phase equilibria and Eu2+activated, Tb3+-activated, and Mn2+-activated luminescent phases in CaO-MgO-P2O5 system, J. Electrochem. Soc., 118, 755 (1971).

-Ca3(PO4)2:Eu2+
Structure: Trigonal Composition Ingredient CaCO3 CaHPO4 Eu2O3 Mole % 24 75 1 (of Eu) By weight (g) 24 90 1.76

Preparation Mix by slurrying in water. Dry in air. Powderize when dry. Fire in open quartz boats, CO, 1100ºC, 2 hours. Optical Properties Emission color: Violet Emission peak: 3.02 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0.33 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4.88 eV), ++ (3.40 eV)

Absorption (%)

100

Emission

Spectra
800 700 600 500

400

Wavelength (nm)

300

50

2

3

4 Photon Energy (eV)

5

0

Remark This phosphor easily shows a weak green emission band due to the -phosphate (see Ca3(PO4)2:Eu2+).

-Ca3(PO4)2:Eu2+,Mn2+
Structure: Trigonal Composition Ingredient CaCO3 CaHPO4 Eu2O3 MnCO3 Mole % 19 75 1 (of Eu) 5 By weight (g) 19 90 1.76 5.75

Preparation Mix by slurrying in water. Dry in air. Powderize when dry. Fire in open quartz boats, CO, 1100ºC, 2 hours. Optical Properties Emission color: Pinkish-red Emission peak: ~1.91 eV (Mn2+ band), ~3.01 eV (Eu2+ band) Emission width (FWHM): 0.24 eV (Mn2+ band) Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4.88 eV), ++ (3.40 eV)

Absorption (%)

100

Emission

Spectra
800 700 600 500

400

Wavelength (nm)

300

50

2

3

4 Photon Energy (eV)

5

0

-Sr3(PO4)2:Sn2+,Mn2+(Al)
Structure: Trigonal Composition Ingredient SrCO3 SrHPO4 Al2O3 SnO MnCO3 Mole % 8 45 4 (of Al) 1.5 1 By weight (g) 11.8 75.4 2 2 1.15

Preparation Mix by ball-milling in water. Dry in air. Powderize when dry. Fire in capped quartz tubes, CO, 1100ºC, 2 hours. Optical Properties Emission color: Orange-red Emission peak: 2.02 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0.25 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4.88 eV), – (3.40 eV) Spectra
800 700 600 500
Wavelength (nm)

400

300

50

2

3

4 Photon Energy (eV)

5

0

Absorption (%)

100

Emission

Absorption (%)

100

Emission

Remarks 1. This is a “tricky” phosphor, by no means yet understood or optimized. 2. Partial or complete replacement of Sr by Ca shifts the emission into deeper red. References 1. Kröger, F.A., A proof of the associated-pair theory for sensitized luminophors, Physica, 15, 801 (1949). 2. Botden, T.P.J., Transfer and transport of energy by resonance processes in luminescent solids, Philips Res. Rep., 7, 197 (1952). 3. Sarver, J.F., Hoffman, M.V., and Hummel, F.A., Phase equilibria and tin-activated luminescence in strontium orthophosphate systems, J. Electrochem. Soc., 108, 1103 (1961).

-Sr3(PO4)2:Sn2+
Structure: Trigonal Composition Ingredient SrCO3 SrHPO4 SnO Mole % 20 75 5 By weight (g) 29.5 138 6.75

Preparation Mix by slurrying in water. Dry in air. Powderize when dry. Fire in capped quartz tubes, CO, 1100ºC, 2 hours. Optical Properties Emission color: Violet + UV Emission peak: 3.28 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0.66 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4.88 eV), – (3.40 eV) Spectra
800 700 600 500
Wavelength (nm)

400

300

50

2

3

4 Photon Energy (eV)

5

0

Reference 1. Botden, T.P.J., Transfer and transport of energy by resonance processes in luminescent solids, Philips Res. Rep., 7, 197 (1952).

Absorption (%)

100

Emission

-Sr3(PO4)2:Eu2+
Structure: Trigonal Optical Properties Emission color: Violet Emission peak: 2.94 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0.22 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4.88 eV), + (3.40 eV) Spectra
800 700 600 500
Wavelength (nm)

400

300

50

2

3

4 Photon Energy (eV)

5

0

References 1. Lagos, C.C., Luminescence of divalent europium in Ba-Ca, Ba-Sr, and Ca-Sr orthophosphate and pyrophosphate compositions, J. Electrochem. Soc., 117, 1189 (1970). 2. Hoffman, M.V., Eu+2 activation in some alkaline earth strontium phosphate compounds, J. Electrochem. Soc., 115, 560 (1968).

Ba3(PO4)2:Eu2+
Optical Properties Emission color: Violet Emission peak: 2.99 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0.25 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4.88 eV), + (3.40 eV) Spectra
800 700 600 500
Wavelength (nm)

400

300

100

Emission

50

2

3

4 Photon Energy (eV)

5

0

Absorption (%)

100

Emission

Reference 1. Lagos, C.C., Luminescence of divalent europium in Ba-Ca, Ba-Sr, and Ca-Sr orthophosphate and pyrophosphate compositions, J. Electrochem. Soc., 117, 1189 (1970).

Na3Ce(PO4)2:Tb3+
Optical Properties Emission color: Green Emission peak: 2.27 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4.88 eV), – (3.40 eV) Spectra
800 700 600 500
Wavelength (nm)

400

300

100

Emission

50

2

3

4 Photon Energy (eV)

5

0

Reference 1. Fava, J. et al., Some new efficient luminophors with low-concentration quenching effects, J. Lumin., 18/19, 389 (1979).

-(Ca,Sr)3(PO4)2:Sn2+,Mn2+
Composition Ingredient CaCO3 SrCO3 SrHPO4 SnO MnCO3 Mole % 50 32 205 10 3 By weight (g) 50 47 376 13.5 3.45

Preparation Mix by slurrying in water or methanol. Dry in air. Powderize when dry. 1. Fire in open quartz boats, N2, 500–600ºC. Powderize. 2. Fire in capped quartz tubes, CO, 1150ºC, 2 hours. Optical Properties Emission color: Orange-red Emission peak: 1.97 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0.38 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4.88 eV), – (3.40 eV)

Spectra
800 700 600 500

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Wavelength (nm)

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3

Remarks 1. Increasing Mn concentration causes narrowing of the emission band but decreasing efficiency. 2. The -phosphate structure is maintained from about Ca/Sr of 10/90 to 100/0. Increasing Ca/Sr causes a shift of the Mn2+ band into deeper red. References 1. Butler, K.H., Alkaline earth orthophosphate phosphors, J. Electrochem. Soc., 100, 250 (1953). 2. Koelmans, H., and Cox, A.P.M., Luminescence of modified tin-activated strontium orthophosphate, J. Electrochem. Soc., 104, 442 (1957). 3. Mooney, R.W., Temperature dependence of fluorescence of tin-activated orthophosphates, J. Electrochem. Soc., 105, 456 (1958). 4. Uehara, Y., Kobuke, Y., and Masuda, I., Copper-activated calcium orthophosphate and related phosphors, J. Electrochem. Soc., 106, 200 (1959). 5. Wanmaker, W.L., and Bakker, C., Luminescence of copper-activated calcium and strontium orthophosphates, J. Electrochem. Soc., 106, 1027 (1959). 6. Sarver, J.F., Hoffman, M.V., and Hummel, F.A., Phase equilibria and tin-activated luminescence in strontium orthophosphate systems, J. Electrochem. Soc., 108, 1103 (1961).

4 Photon Energy (eV)

5

0

ZnMg2(PO4)2:Mn2+
Spectra
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Emission

900ºC. 2. Soc. ~500ºC. 1 hour.Zn3(PO4)2:Mn2 Structure: Monoclinic Composition Ingredient ZnO MnCO3 H3PO4 solution Mole % 99 1 62 (of P) By weight (g) 81 1. 950ºC. 30 msec to 1/10 Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 100 Emission 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Remarks 1. air.40 eV UV. It cannot be sensitized to respond to 4. Phase equilibria and manganeseactivated fluorescence in the system Zn3(PO4)2-Mg3(PO4)2.. Optical Properties Emission color: Light red Emission peak: 1. air. . and Hummel. J. 2. This is strictly a catholuminescent phosphor. Powderize when dry. 1.88 eV).L. Reference 1. This phosphor has been used as the red component in early color TV picture tubes.. Powderize. 960 (1959). Electrochem.6 ccm Preparation Make a thin slurry of ZnO + MnCO3 in water or methanol. Fire in open quartz boats. air.40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: ~7–8% Decay: Near-exponential decay. Stir to uniformity as well as possible.A. – (3. F.. 1 hour. F.94 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0. Ball-mill the slurry for about 1 hour.25 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: – (4. 3. Powderize. Dry in air. Slowly add the H3PO4 solution while stirring (slurry heats up). 106. 2 hours. Sarver. Katnack.15 47.. Fire in open quartz boats. J.S.88 or 3. Fire in open quartz boats.

1 1. Optical Properties Emission color: Light red Emission peak: 1.40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: ~6–8% Decay: near-exponential decay. The decay of this phosphor is significantly longer than that of Zn3(PO4)2:Mn2+ (~30 msec to 1/10). This is strictly a catholuminescent phosphor.7 ccm Preparation Make a thin slurry of ZnO + MgO + MnCO3 in water or methanol. Fire in open quartz boats. Slowly add the H3PO4 solution while stirring.Mg)3(PO4)2:Mn2+ Structure: Monoclinic Composition Ingredient ZnO MnO MnCO3 H3PO4 solution Mole % 79 20 1 62 (of P) By weight (g) 65 8.S. 100–1200 msec to 1/10 Spectra 800 700 600 500 400 Wavelength (nm) 300 100 Emission 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Remarks 1. 1. 3. ~500–600ºC. air. Dry in air. air. Powderize when dry. Soc. F. ...27 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: – (4. 1 hour. 2.(Zn. Katnack. J. Sarver. Stir to uniformity. Powderize. F. and Hummel. It cannot be sensitized for UV excitation..A. Reference 1.15 46.L. 2. Fire in open quartz boats.. 900ºC is too low. 106. 960 (1959). 2 hours. Electrochem. J. The 950ºC firing temperature is critical. 1000ºC is too high.96 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0. Crush forming phosphate by wet mortaring or milling. – (3. 950ºC.88 eV). Phase equilibria and manganeseactivated fluorescence in the system Zn3(PO4)2-Mg3(PO4)2.

MgSr5(PO4)4:Sn2+ Optical Properties Emission color: Orange.49 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4. 755 (1971).Mg3Ca3(PO4)4:Eu2+ Structure: Monoclinic Optical Properties Emission color: Blue Emission peak: 2.A. M. R.V.80 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0. Soc.48 eV Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 100 Emission 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Reference 1. McCauley...88 eV). Hummel.40 eV) Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Absorption (%) 100 Emission . J.red Emission peak: 1. F..A. and Mn2+-activated luminescent phases in CaO-MgO-P2O5 system. Tb3+-activated. Electrochem. Phase equilibria and Eu2+activated. 118. – (3. and Hoffman..93 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0.

89 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0.27 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4.88 eV) Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 50 2 3 CaSr2(PO4)2:Bi3+ Optical Properties Emission color: UV Emission peak: 3.88 eV).88 eV).MgBa2(PO4)2:Sn2+ Optical Properties Emission color: Greenish Emission peak: 2.40 eV) Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 400 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 MgBa2(PO4)2:U Optical Properties Emission color: Green Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4. – (3.40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: – Absorption (%) 100 Emission Absorption (%) 100 Emission .36 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0.67 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4. ++ (3.

29 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4.97 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0. p. University Park (1980). ++ (3.Spectra 800 700 600 500 400 Wavelength (nm) 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Sr2P2O7:Eu2+ Optical Properties Emission color: Violet Emission peak: 2.40 eV) Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 100 Emission 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Reference 1.H. Absorption (%) 100 Emission . Pennsylvania University Press. 274. K.. Fluorescent Lamp Phosphors.88 eV). Butler.

40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: + .6 Halophosphates The following host compounds and activators are included in this subsection: Ca5(PO4)3F:Mn2+ Ca5(PO4)3F:Sb3+ Ca5(PO4)3F:Sn2+ Ca5(PO4)3Cl:Eu2+ Ca5(PO4)3Cl:Mn2+ Ca5(PO4)3Cl:Sb3+ Ca5(PO4)3Cl:Sn2+ Sr5(PO4)3Cl:Eu2+ Sr5(PO4)3Cl:Mn2+ Sr5(PO4)3Cl:Sb3+ Sr5(PO4)3F:Mn2+ Sr5(PO4)3F:Sb3+ Sr5(PO4)3F:Sb3+. Optical Properties Emission color: Yellow Emission peak: 2.5 Preparation Mix by ball-milling in water or methanol. 1 hour.28 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: – (4.4.Pr3+ Sr5(PO4)3F:Sn2+ Ba5(PO4)3Cl:Eu2+ Ba5(PO4)3Cl:U Ca2Ba3(PO4)3Cl:Eu2+ Ca5(PO4)3F:Mn2+ Structure: Hexagonal (apatite) Composition Ingredient CaCO3 CaHPO4 CaF2 MnCO3 Mole % 140 400 50 10 By weight (g) 140 360 39 11. Fire in capped quartz tubes.Mn2+ Sr5(PO4)3Cl:Eu2+. Dry in air. N2.88 eV). – (3.17 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0. 1100ºC. Powderize when dry.

. J. Fire in capped quartz tubes.. Dry in air. N2.J.40 eV) . R..W. Soc. Alkaline earth halophosphates and related phosphors. or Ce3+. Sb3+. 96. References 1.50 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0. P. P.. Ca5(PO4)3F:Sb3+ Structure: Hexagonal (apatite) Composition Ingredient CaCO3 CaHPO4 CaF2 Sb2O3 Mole % 140 300 50 10 (of Sb) By weight (g) 140 360 39 14. 321 (1981). Powderize when dry.. – (3..88 eV). 1 (1949). McKeag. and Ranby.H.6 Preparation Mix by ball-milling in water or methanol.Spectra 800 700 600 500 400 Wavelength (nm) 300 100 Emission 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Remark Can be sensitized for UV excitation by addition of Sn2+. H. Jenkins. Electrochem. A.J. Excitation-spectra and fluorescent lifetime measurements of Mn2+ in CaF2 and Ca5(PO4)3F2. and Alcala. 1 hour. 2.70 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4. J. 1100ºC. 22. Optical Properties Emission color: Pale blue-green Emission peak: 2. Lumin. Alonso.

9 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4. 1056 (1971). N2.. Optical Properties Emission color: Pale bluish Emission peak: 3. Fire in capped quartz tubes. McKeag.. T.. Chem.. Soules.H. H. J. E. A.F. Powderize when dry. Electrochem. Ca5(PO4)3F:Sn2+ Structure: Hexagonal (apatite) Composition Ingredient CaCO3 CaHPO4 CaF2 SnO Mole % 200 300 50 10 By weight (g) 200 360 39 13. Molecular orbital model for antimony luminescent centers in fluorophosphate.F. and Kreidler. Soules.. 1 (1949). T. Davis..88 eV). Energy-transfer between antimony and manganese in fluorophosphate phosphors.00 eV Emission width (FWHM): ~0. 1 hour. Alkaline earth halophosphates and related phosphors. 3.5 Preparation Mix by ball-milling methanol plus a little water. 1100ºC. T. Jenkins. et al. P.W. 96. Phys. 1657 (1973).J.. Soc.S.40 eV) Absorption (%) 100 Emission .. 7. Rev. – (3. Dry in air. and Ranby. J.Spectra 800 700 600 500 400 Wavelength (nm) 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 References 1.. 55. 2.R. Phys. B.

Powderize.8 Preparation Mix by ball-milling methanol plus a little water. 1 hour. A. Fire in capped quartz tubes. Dry in air.40 eV) Absorption (%) 100 Emission . 1 (1949). Soc. Powderize when dry. 96.23 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4. J. McKeag.W. Ca5(PO4)3Cl:Eu2+ Structure: Hexagonal (apatite) Composition Ingredient CaCO3 CaHPO4 NH4Cl Eu2O3 Mole % 200 300 120 5 (of Eu) By weight (g) 200 360 64 8. Electrochem. N2. P. 1100ºC.H. H.Spectra 800 700 600 500 400 Wavelength (nm) 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Reference 1.J. 1100º C. 1. Wash in water several times. Add 32 g NH4Cl. 1 hour. 2.. Dry.72 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0. Fire in capped quartz tubes. mix by dry grinding or milling. Alkaline earth halophosphates and related phosphors. and Ranby.. ++ (3.. Powderize.88 eV). Optical Properties Emission color: Blue Emission peak: 2. N2. Jenkins..

Optical Properties Emission color: Orange-yellow Emission peak: ~2. A. 1 hour. Powderize.. 1. Add 32 g NH4Cl. Wachtel. Dry in air. N2. 1100ºC. – (3. BL-R-6-90102-29 (1968). Fire in capped quartz tubes. 1 hour. Dry.29 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: – (4.Spectra 800 700 600 500 400 Wavelength (nm) 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Reference 1. Bloomfield Report. Powderize.5 Preparation Mix by ball-milling methanol plus a little water. 1100ºC. Ca5(PO4)3Cl:Mn2+ Structure: Hexagonal (apatite) Composition Ingredient CaCO3 CaHPO4 NH4Cl MnCO3 Mole % 200 300 120 10 By weight (g) 200 360 64 11. Powderize when dry. 2. N2.10 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0.88 eV). Fire in capped quartz tubes.40 eV) Absorption (%) 100 Emission . Wash in water several times. mix by dry grinding or milling.

P. J. and Ranby. N2. 1 (1949). Reference 1. Optical Properties Emission color: Pale whitish-green Emission peak: 2. 1 hour. McKeag.88 eV). Dry in air. Add 32 g NH4Cl.J. – (3. Fire in capped quartz tubes. Sb3+. 2.. Ce3+. Powderize. Electrochem. N2. Dry. Jenkins.. 1100ºC. H.W. Ca5(PO4)3Cl:Sb3+ Structure: Hexagonal (apatite) Composition Ingredient CaCO3 CaHPO4 NH4Cl MnCO3 Mole % 200 300 120 10 By weight (g) 200 360 64 11. Powderize when dry.38 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0.Spectra 800 700 600 500 400 Wavelength (nm) 300 100 Emission 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Remark Can be sensitized for UV excitation by addition of Sn2+... Powderize.70 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4. A. 96. mix by dry grinding or milling. 1100ºC.5 Preparation Mix by ball-milling methanol plus a little water. or Eu2+. 1 hour. Alkaline earth halophosphates and related phosphors.H. Soc. 1. Fire in capped quartz tubes.40 eV) . Wash in water several times.

.. Jenkins.H.45 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4..5 Preparation Mix by ball-milling methanol plus a little water. 1 hour.. Dry.W. Powderize. Fire in capped quartz tubes. Wash in water several times. Optical Properties Emission color: Pale pinkish-white Emission peaks: Continuous distribution from the UV into the IR. Electrochem. P. N2.88 eV). – (3.Spectra 800 700 600 500 400 Wavelength (nm) 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Reference 1. J.40 eV) Absorption (%) 100 Emission . Powderize when dry. 2. Soc. and Ranby. 1100ºC. mix by dry grinding or milling. Alkaline earth halophosphates and related phosphors. 96. Add 32 g NH4Cl.95 and 3. 1. Powderize.J. H. Ca5(PO4)3Cl:Sn2+ Structure: Hexagonal (apatite) Composition Ingredient CaCO3 CaHPO4 NH4Cl SnO Mole % 200 300 120 10 By weight (g) 200 360 64 13. 1100ºC. Dry in air. Fire in capped quartz tubes. A. 1 (1949). McKeag. 1 hour. N2. the two peaks near 1.

40 eV) Absorption (%) 100 Emission . 1 hour.75 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0. Dry in air. Dry. Wash in water several times.Spectra 800 700 600 500 400 Wavelength (nm) 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Sr5(PO4)3Cl:Eu2+ Structure: Hexagonal (apatite) Composition Ingredient SrCO3 SrHPO4 NH4Cl Eu2O3 Mole % 200 300 120 5 (of Eu) By weight (g) 295 550 64 8. N2. 1100ºC. 1100ºC. Fire in capped quartz tubes. 1. mix by dry grinding or milling. 1 hour.8 Preparation Mix by ball-milling methanol plus a little water. Powderize. ++ (3. 2.88 eV). N2. Powderize. Fire in capped quartz tubes. Powderize when dry.19 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4. Optical Properties Emission color: Blue Emission peak: 2. Add 32 g NH4Cl.

Dry. Add 32 g NH4Cl. 1 hour. A. – (3. 1100ºC. Optical Properties Emission color: Yellow Emission peak: 2. Powderize when dry.88 eV).40 eV) Absorption (%) 100 Emission . N2. Dry in air. Powderize. mix by dry grinding or milling. 2. BL-R-6-90102-29 (1968). Wachtel.32 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: – (4.Spectra 800 700 600 500 400 Wavelength (nm) 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Reference 1.5 Preparation Mix by ball-milling methanol plus a little water. Fire in capped quartz tubes. 1 hour. Wash in water several times. Bloomfield Report. Powderize. 1100ºC.16 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0. N2. 1. Fire in capped quartz tubes. Sr5(PO4)3Cl:Mn2+ Structure: Hexagonal (apatite) Composition Ingredient SrCO3 SrHPO4 NH4Cl MnCO3 Mole % 200 300 120 10 By weight (g) 295 550 64 11..

N2..40 eV) . Sr5(PO4)3Cl:Sb3+ Structure: Hexagonal (apatite) Composition Ingredient SrCO3 SrHPO4 NH4Cl Sb2O3 Mole % 200 300 120 10 (of Sb) By weight (g) 295 550 64 14. Fire in capped quartz tubes.. P.88 eV).6 Preparation Mix by ball-milling methanol plus a little water. Wash in water several times.J. 1.31 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0. J.. 1 hour. 1 (1949). Sb3+. 1100ºC.68 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4. Reference 1. Electrochem. Powderize when dry. Add 32 g NH4Cl. A. 1 hour. or Eu2+. 2. Optical Properties Emission color: Whitish-green Emission peak: ~2. Soc. McKeag. – (3.H. H..Spectra 800 700 600 500 400 Wavelength (nm) 300 100 Emission 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Remark Can be sensitized for UV excitation by addition of Sn2+. 96.W. Ce3+. 1100ºC. Powderize. mix by dry grinding or milling. Powderize. Fire in capped quartz tubes. Jenkins. Alkaline earth halophosphates and related phosphors. N2. and Ranby. Dry in air. Dry.

. Alkaline earth halophosphates and related phosphors.17 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0.40 eV) Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 100 Emission 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Absorption (%) 100 Emission . Electrochem. Dry in air. 1 hour.W. H. 1100ºC.88 eV). Powderize when dry. Soc.Spectra 800 700 600 500 400 Wavelength (nm) 300 50 2 3 Reference 1.28 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: – (4.J..H. 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Sr5(PO4)3F:Mn2+ Structure: Hexagonal (apatite) Composition Ingredient SrCO3 SrHPO4 SrF2 MnCO3 Mole % 200 300 50 10 By weight (g) 295 550 63 11. Jenkins. 1 (1949). Optical Properties Emission color: Yellow Emission peak: ~2. and Ranby. A.5 Preparation Mix by ball-milling methanol plus a little water. – (3. N2.. J. 96. Fire in capped quartz tubes. P.. McKeag.

and Ranby. Alkaline earth halophosphates and related phosphors. Dry in air. – (3. Soc. 1 (1949). J. 1 (1949). P. A. 96.H. McKeag.Remark Can be sensitized for UV excitation by addition of Sn2+.. Powderize when dry.W.. Sr5(PO4)3F:Sb3+ Structure: Hexagonal (apatite) Composition Ingredient SrCO3 SrHPO4 SrF2 Sb2O3 Mole % 140 300 50 10 (of Sb) By weight (g) 206 550 63 14.6 Preparation Mix by ball-milling methanol plus a little water... McKeag. Electrochem.H. H. Jenkins. Sb3+. A. and Ranby.40 eV) Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Reference 1. Optical Properties Emission color: Pale whitish blue-green Emission peak: ~2.W. J. 1 hour. Jenkins... Absorption (%) 100 Emission . 96. or Ce3+. Soc.75 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4.. Fire in capped quartz tubes. N2. 1100ºC. H.88 eV). P.. Reference 1.J. Electrochem.43 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0.J. Alkaline earth halophosphates and related phosphors.

5 Absorption (%) 100 Emission Absorption (%) 100 Emission .Mn2+ Structure: Hexagonal (apatite) Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Sr5(PO4)3Cl:Eu2+.Pr3+ Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Sr5(PO4)3F:Sn2+ Structure: Hexagonal (apatite) Composition Ingredient SrCO3 SrHPO4 SrF2 SnO Mole % 140 300 50 10 By weight (g) 206 550 63 13.Sr5(PO4)3F:Sb3+.

2.84 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0.40 eV) Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Ba5(PO4)3Cl:Eu2+ Structure: Hexagonal (apatite) Composition Ingredient BaCO3 BaHPO4 NH4Cl Eu2O3 Mole % 200 300 120 5 (of Eu) By weight (g) 395 700 64 8. 1000ºC. 1000ºC. Dry in air.88 eV). 1 hour.75 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0. Fire in capped quartz tubes. Powderize when dry. Optical Properties Emission color: Violet-blue Emission peak: ~2. Add 32 g NH4Cl. Dry in air.75 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4. Fire in capped quartz tubes. 1. Powderize. 1100ºC. N2. Powderize.Preparation Mix by ball-milling methanol plus a little water. Dry. N2.8 Preparation Mix by ball-milling methanol plus a little water. mix by dry grinding.88 eV). – (3. Powderize when dry. 1 hour. 1 hour. Wash in water several times.40 eV) Absorption (%) 100 Emission . N2. Optical Properties Emission color: Bluish-white Emission peak: ~2. ++ (3.28 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4. Fire in capped quartz tubes.

Optical Properties Emission color: Green Emission peaks: 2.Spectra 800 700 600 500 400 Wavelength (nm) 300 100 Emission 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Reference 1. stir to uniformity. Ba5(PO4)3Cl:U Structure: Hexagonal (apatite) Composition Ingredient BaHPO4 BaCO3 NH4Cl UO2(C2H3O2)2. Wash in water several times (stir. 2 hours. Powderize. 2. A. Fire in capped quartz tubes. and add the solution to the slurry.39 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4. and NH4Cl. Dissolve the uranyl acetate in a little methanol. Powderize when dry. 1. Fire in capped quartz tubes.12–2. N2.40 eV). 850ºC. Wachtel. + (3. BL-R-6-90102-29 (1968). mix by dry grinding or milling.. N2. Bloomfield Report. Powderize. Dry. 2H2O Mole % 190 150 120 10 By weight (g) 443 295 64 42 Preparation Make a slurry in methanol of BaHPO4. 900ºC. Add 32 g NH4Cl. decant). 1 hour. let settle. Dry in air.88 eV). BaCO3. QE Excitation efficiency by e-beam: Poor 50% .

8 Preparation Mix by ball-milling in methanol plus a little water. Optical Properties Emission color: Pale blue-green Emission peak: 2. Fire in capped quartz tubes. 98.46 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0. Luminescent barium and magnesium halophosphates.. 2.2 g NH4Cl. N2. J. N2. Dry. Add 3. Wash in water several times. 1100ºC. 1. Fire in capped quartz tubes. Powderize. R. mix by dry grinding. Soc. ++ (3. J.T. Dry in air.S. 1 hour..Spectra 800 700 600 500 400 Wavelength (nm) 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Reference 1.49 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4. Anderson. and Wells. 1 hour..88 eV). 1100ºC. 414 (1951). Powderize when dry. Ca2Ba3(PO4)3Cl:Eu2+ Structure: Hexagonal (apatite) Composition Ingredient CaCO3 BaHPO4 NH4Cl Eu2O3 Mole % 200 300 120 5 (of Eu) By weight (g) 200 700 64 8.40 eV) Absorption (%) 100 Emission . Powderize. Electrochem.

BL-R-6-90102-29 (1968).. A. Bloomfield Report. Absorption (%) 100 Emission .Spectra 800 700 600 500 400 Wavelength (nm) 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Reference 1. Wachtel.

4.Mn2+ YAl3B4O12:Ce3+.Mn2+ Cd2B6O11:Mn2+ YAl3B4O12:Ce3+ YAl3B4O12:Bi3+ YAl3B4O12:Eu3+ YAl3B4O12:Eu3+.Cl -SrO·3B2O3:Sm2+ MgB2O4:Mn2+ MgYBO4:Eu3+ CaB2O4:Mn2+ CaB2O4:Pb2+ CaYBO4:Bi3+ CaYBO4:Eu3+ CaLaBO4:Eu3+ ZnB2O4:Mn2+ Ca2B2O5:Mn2+ LaAlB2O6:Eu3+ CaLaB3O7:Ce3+.5:Pb2+ YAl3B4O12:Ce3+.Tb3+ LaAl3B4O12:Eu3+ BaB8O13:Eu2+ SrB8O13:Sm2+ Ca2B5O9Cl:Eu2+ Ca2B5O9Cl:Pb2+ Ca2B5O9Br:Eu2+ Sr2B5O9Cl:Eu2+ CaYB0.7 Borates The following host compounds and activators are included in this subsection: YBO3:Ce3+ YBO3:Eu3+ LaBO3:Eu3+ -SrO·3B2O3:Pb2+ -SrO·3B2O3:Pb2+.Mn2+ SrB4O7:Eu2+(F.Ce3+.7:Eu3+ Ca2La2BO6.8O3.Cl.Mn2+ SrO·3B2O3:Eu2+.Br) SrB4O7:Pb2+ SrB4O7:Pb2+.Cr3+ YAl3B4O12:Th4+.Mn2+ .

.. 1 hour. Fluorescence of Eu3+-activated sodium lanthanide titanates.. G... 304 (1970).22 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4. Avella. 6. – (3. Rev. and Wiggins. 346 (1970). Soc. A.. Solid State Chem. 3. ~500ºC..J.. Blasse.. Bril. 48. air. 1. 4. 4450 (1970). F. 53. 117. The absorption and emission spectra of some important activators.. G. 2. Fire in open quartz boats.. Blasse. Sovers..YBO3:Ce3+ Structure: Vaterite Optical Properties Emission color: Violet-UV Emission peak: 3. A.J.. Electrochem. 5. J. O.. Chem..D. 114. J. and Bril.A. 31.. Electrochem. J. C. Soc. Philips Tech..S. 4. J.. Fast-decay phosphors. J.. Bril. G. 3652 (1968). Phys. Ultraviolet-absorption bands of Bi3+ and Eu3+ in oxides. J. A. A. J. Blasse.00 and 3.A. Blasse. Chem. 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 YBO3:Eu3+ Structure: Vaterite Composition Ingredient Y 2O 3 Eu2O3 H3BO3 Mole % 92 (of Y) 8 (of Eu) 105 By weight (g) 104 14 65 Preparation Mix by dry grinding or milling..40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: + Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 100 Emission 50 2 3 References 1.88 eV). 613 (1967). and Bril. and Poorter. G. and de Poorter. Radiationless transitions in Eu3+ center in LaAlO3. G. Blasse. Phys. 52 (1972). Rare earth cathodoluminescence in InBO3 and related orthoborates..

Powderize. Fire in open quartz boats. air. 2. – (3. LaBO3:Eu3+ Structure: Orthorhombic (aragonite) Composition Ingredient La2O3 Eu2O3 H3BO3 Mole % 92 (of La) 8 (of Eu) 105 By weight (g) 150 14 65 Preparation Mix by dry grinding or milling. Veenis. 1 hour. A. 2. Sovers. 124 (1978). 1000ºC. . 3.W. Electrochem. Fire in open quartz boats. F..J. 1 hour. Powderize. 3. Fire in open quartz boats. Optical Properties Emission color: Red-orange Emission peaks: 1.2. Powderize. 1 hour. Powderize. Soc. J. Rare earth cathodoluminescence in InBO3 and related orthoborates.40 eV) Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 100 Emission 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 References 1. 1150ºC.S. 613 (1967). air. 1000ºC. Philips J. A. air. C.88 eV). Res. Fire in open quartz boats. ~500ºC. 1. and Bril. Fire in open quartz boats. 2 hours. O. 33. air. and Wiggins. Avella.10 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: + (4. air.. 1 hour. Fine structure in the low temperature luminescence of Zn2SiO4:Mn and Mg4Ta2O9:Mn..... 1250ºC.J.98–2. 114..

. 613 (1967). Soc.L.40 eV) Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 References 1.10 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: + (4. go slowly up with temperature to 600 C. Sovers. Optical Properties Emission color: UV Emission peak: 4.3 370 2. and 2. A.. and Wanmaker. Rare earth cathodoluminescence in InBO3 and related orthoborates. Soc. and then take out. 1363 (1964).. W.J. -SrO·3B2O3:Pb2+ Composition Ingredient SrCO3 PbO H3BO3 NH4Cl Mole % 99 1 600 5 By weight (g) 146 2. 2. Fire in capped quartz tubes.. N2 . 114. 2 hours. N2 . O. 2. C. J.7 Preparation Mix by dry grinding or milling.88 eV).. Avella..995. Fluorescent properties of some europium-activated phosphors.J. Powderize. – (3. Bril. Electrochem.33 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: + (4.88 eV) Absorption (%) 100 Emission . and Wiggins. air. 16 hours (overnight). Place into cold furnace. 700ºC.09 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0.Optical Properties Emission color: Light red Emission peaks: 1. Fire in capped quartz tubes.S. 2. 700ºC. Fire in capped quartz tubes. J. 111. 3.. Electrochem. 1. F.02. Powderize.

N2 . Witzmann. go slowly up with temperature to 600 C. 103 (1964).. -SrO·3B2O3:Pb2+.. Powderize. Place into cold furnace. 211.40 eV). H... Optical Properties Emission color: Bluish-green Emission peak: 2.. H.. 580 (1956). G. Zum emissionsvermogen blei-manganaktivierter kalziumboratphosphore (CaO. Müller. J. 307 (1959). 51. Fire in capped quartz tubes. Phys. (Leipzig).Mn2+ Composition Ingredient SrCO3 PbO MnCO3 H3BO3 NH4Cl Mole % 98 1 1 600 5 By weight (g) 180 2. H. H. and Müller.7 Preparation Mix by dry grinding or milling. 2 hours. Chem.. Fire in capped quartz tubes. 700ºC. Zur lumineszenz kupfer. and Treichler. Witzmann. 43. K. and Treichler. Z. Powderize. Naturwissenschaften. H.41 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0.. air. Z. R. W. Chem.Mn). 205 (1959). 5. QE 45–50% Absorption (%) 100 Emission .15 372 2. and Semisch. 1. and Müller. – (3. Witzmann. Naturwissenschaften. 700ºC. 49. H. Zur uv-emission bleiaktivierter strontiumboratluminophore. Phys. 6.XB2O3-Pb.. 3.Spectra 800 700 600 500 400 Wavelength (nm) 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 References 1. 2. 212.. Naturwissenschaften. 181 (1962).und kupferbleiaktivierter strontiumboratphosphore. Witzmann.. N2 . 16 hours (overnight). (Leipzig). Buhrow. R.. and Schreiber. 4..28 1. H. 45. W. 542 (1958). Boratluminophore MIT UV-emission. Fire in capped quartz tubes. and then take out. Witzmann.22 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: + (4.88 eV). 2.. Naturwissenschaften. Witzmann. 3.

Spectra 800 700 600 500 400 Wavelength (nm) 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Reference 1. Zur lumineszenz kupfer. 850ºC. Powderize. 4 hours. SrO·3B2O3:Eu2+.88 eV) Absorption (%) 100 Emission . 1.16 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4. ½ hour. 3.37 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0. 700ºC. Fire in capped quartz tubes. CO . Wash in water several times. H. ~500ºC.. mix by dry grinding. 181 (1962). Add the above NH4Cl.Cl Composition Ingredient SrCO3 Eu2O3 H3BO3 NH4Cl Mole % 98 2 (of Eu) 620 50 By weight (g) 180 3. Powderize. Witzmann.und kupferbleiaktivierter strontiumboratphosphore. and Schreiber. 1 hour. Dry. Fire in open quartz boats. air. 49. Optical Properties Emission color: UV Emission peak: 3. Fire in open quartz boats. Powderize. H. Naturwissenschaften.. 2. N2 .5 384 27 Preparation Mix all ingredients but the NH4Cl by dry grinding or milling.

-SrO·3B2O3:Sm Composition Ingredient SrCO3 Sm2O3 H3BO3 Mole % 99 1 (of Sm) 600 By weight (g) 146 1.74 370 Preparation Mix by dry grinding or milling.Spectra 800 700 600 500 400 Wavelength (nm) 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Remarks 1. 900ºC. N2. 1 hour.40 eV). 1. Fire in open quartz boats. 4 hours. Optical Properties Emission color: Deep red Emission peak: 1. 3. QE 60% (estimated) Absorption (%) 100 Emission . Powderize. and then take out. 2. 2. Fire in open quartz boats. CO. Fire in open quartz boats. The Cl in this recipe can be replaced by F or Br. Powderize. go slowly up with temperature to 600ºC. Place into cold furnace. air. The exact chemical formula of this material is still unknown.812 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (3. 800ºC.

N2. Optical Properties Emission color: Red Emission peak: 1. fire 4 hours at 850ºC. For -structure.3 127 Preparation Mix by dry grinding or milling.40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: + Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 100 Emission 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Absorption (%) 100 Emission . – (3. 2. Powderize. 1 hour. ~500ºC. Fire in open quartz boats. N2.32 eV. 0. 1. Fire in open quartz boats.Spectra 800 700 600 500 400 Wavelength (nm) 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 MgB2O4:Mn2+ Composition Ingredient MgO MnCO3 H3BO3 Mole % 98 2 205 By weight (g) 40 2. For -structure.39 eV (see remark) Excitation efficiency by UV: – (4. 2. 700ºC.11 eV (see remark) Emission width (FWHM): 0.88 eV.88 eV). N2. fire 2 hours at 1000ºC. 3. Fire in open quartz boats. Powderize.

the high-temperature -phase. and the low-temperature -phase. 1200ºC. 3. This material comes in two different modifications. ~500ºC. U. Powderize. Fire in open quartz boats.2 Preparation Mix by dry grinding or milling. Ranby. QE Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 25–30% 400 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Absorption (%) 100 Emission .Remarks 1. Optical Properties Emission color: Orange-red Emission peaks: 1.8 63. MgYBO4:Eu3+ Composition Ingredient MgO Y 2O 3 Eu2O3 H3BO3 Mole % 100 95 (of Y) 5 (of Eu) 205 By weight (g) 40. Peak position depends on modification. Pat. Fire in open quartz boats.88 eV).W. air.. 1000ºC. Reference 1.985.S.3 107 8. Powderize. air. air. P. 2. and 2.035. Fire in open quartz boats. 2. 2. 1 hour. 1. 3 014 817 (1961)..098 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: + (4. It can be sensitized for UV excitation by addition of Ce3+ + Li+. 1 hour.

– (3. H. 1 hour. Powderize. 51.99 eV (for UV 4.. J.40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: + Reference 1. Optical Properties Emission color: Blue Emission peak: 2.40 eV) Excitation efficiency by UV: + (4. J.. Add 2 g of NH4Cl. – (3.. Naturwissenschaften.Mn).40 eV) Reference 1.02 eV (for UV 3.34 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0. N2.3 65 Preparation Mix by dry grinding or milling. Zum emissionsvermogen blei-manganaktivierter kalziumboratphosphore(CaO·B2O3-Pb. N2. Fire in capped quartz tubes. Powderize. and Müller.88 eV).82 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: + (4.88 eV).. mix by dry grinding. H.Mn). ½ hour. Witzmann. Buhrow. K. 1 hour.88 eV). 2. – (3. 103 (1964). Fire in capped quartz tubes..CaB2O4:Mn2+ Structure: Orthorhombic Optical Properties Emission color: Green Emission peak: 2. 3. and Müller. Buhrow.40 eV) . CaYBO4:Bi3+ Composition Ingredient CaCO Y 2O 3 Bi2O3 H3BO3 Mole % 100 99 (of Y) 1 (of Bi) 105 By weight (g) 100 112 2. 1000ºC. 1. ~500ºC. Fire in open quartz boats. Naturwissenschaften. CaB2O4:Pb2+ Optical Properties Emission color: UV Emission peak: 3.. Zum emissionsvermogen blei-manganaktivierter kalziumboratphosphore (CaO·B2O3-Pb. 1200 C. 3.88 eV). K. air. 103 (1964).23 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: – (4. Witzmann. 51.

~500ºC. 1200ºC. 1 hour. 1 hour. Fire in open quartz boats. Optical Properties Emission color: Light red Emission peak: 2. 1. air. 254 nm 50 exc.40 eV) Spectra 800 700 600 500 400 Wavelength (nm) 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Absorption (%) 100 Emission . 365 nm 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Remark 1.04 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4. 2. Peak position seems to depend on the excitation. ½ hour. Fire in open quartz boats. air.Spectra 800 700 600 500 400 Wavelength (nm) 300 100 Absorption (%) Emission exc. air. Powderize.3 65 Preparation Mix by dry grinding or milling. 3. Powderize. CaYBO4:Eu3+ Composition Ingredient CaCO Y 2O 3 Eu2O3 H3BO3 Mole % 100 97 (of Y) 3 (of Eu) 105 By weight (g) 100 110 5. Fire in open quartz boats. 1000ºC.88 eV). – (3.

4. N2. Dry.88 eV). Wash in water several times. Blasse. Add 5 g of NH4Cl. 52 (1972). 1 hour.. This phosphor is somewhat discolored and less efficient if fired in air or oxygen. Fire in open quartz boats. N2. Ultraviolet-absorption bands of Bi3+ and Eu3+ in oxides. Ultraviolet-absorption bands of Bi3+ and Eu3+ in oxides. G.7 17. J.. Powderize.6 63. J.. 1000ºC. Solid State Chem. 1200ºC. 4.. Reference 1.03 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4. CaLaBO4:Eu3+ Composition Ingredient CaCO La2O3 Eu2O3 H3BO3 Mole % 100 90 (of La) 10 (of Eu) 102 By weight (g) 100 146. Powderize. 4. 3. air. 52 (1972). . G. 1. mix by dry grinding. Fire in open quartz boats. ~500ºC.2 Preparation Mix by dry grinding or milling. Powderize. Optical Properties Emission color: Light red Emission peak: 2. 2. – (3. N2.40 eV) Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 100 Emission 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Remarks 1. Spectrum resembles that of YOE. 2. Solid State Chem. 16 hours (overnight). 1 hour. Blasse. 1200ºC. Fire in open quartz boats. Powderize.148 Inorganic Phosphors Reference 1. Fire in capped quartz tubes.

D. Electrochem. Anhydrous zinc borate as a host crystal in luminescence. Pt. and Henderson.T.. 2. J.A. 2. Powderize..W.40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: +/4–5% Decay: Exponential decay. Some Aspects of Luminescence of Solids. Soc.J.Section 4: Phosphor Data 149 ZnB2O4:Mn2+ Composition Ingredient ZnO MnCO3 H3BO3 Mole % 97 3 205 By weight (g) 79 3. 920 (1961). F.88 eV).. A170. Harrison. R. J. 3. M. Proc. ~500ºC. 491 (1956). 5. 1. and Hummel.T.. Strange. Elsevier. Soc. . 103. 700ºC. Fire in open quartz boats. 4. Soc. 1 hour. F. Phase equilibria and fluorescence in the system zinc oxide-boric oxide.29 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0. S. – (3. Kröger. Optical Properties Emission color: Yellow-green Emission peak: 2.21 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: (4. air. Fire in open quartz boats. Z. Fire in open quartz boats. 58. about 26 msec to 1/10 Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 100 Emission 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 References 1. air.A. 900ºC. air. J. 2 hours. P. Terol. Powderize. Naturforsch.5 127 Preparation Mix by dry grinding or milling. Phys.. 1. 3.E. Cathodo-luminescence.. A. 369 (1946). S.. London. Amsterdam (1948)... Growth and decay processes. 16. and Otero. 272 (1939). Randall..

40 eV) Spectra 800 700 600 500 400 Wavelength (nm) 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Absorption (%) 100 Emission . Powderize. ~500ºC. 1 hour. additionally a weaker line at 2. Fire in open quartz boats. air. 1000ºC. 1. Fire in open quartz boats.150 Inorganic Phosphors Spectra 800 700 600 500 Ca2B2O5:Mn2+ 400 Wavelength (nm) 300 100 Emission 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 LaAlB2O6:Eu3+ Composition Ingredient La2O3 Eu2O3 Al2O3 H3BO3 Mole % 92 (of La) 8 (of Eu) 100 (of Al) 205 By weight (g) 150 14 51 127 Preparation Mix by dry grinding or milling.205 eV.10 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4. 2. Fire in open quartz boats.015 and 2. Optical Properties Emission color: Light red Emission peaks: Two overlapping lines at 2. 1 hour. 1200ºC. air. 3. – (3. air. Powderize.88 eV).

CO.40 eV) Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 100 Emission 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 SrB4O7:Eu2+(F. Fire in open quartz boats.29 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: + (4.40 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0. air. 900ºC. 3. 700ºC. – (3. Powderize.Mn2+ Composition Ingredient CaCO3 La2O3 MnCO3 CeO2 H3BO3 Mole % 95 98 (of La) 5 2 310 By weight (g) 95 160 5.8 3.88 eV). 1 hour. Powderize.37 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0. 2 hours. – (3.Cl.88 eV). 1.4 192 Preparation Mix by dry grinding or milling. Fire in open quartz boats. Optical Properties Emission color: Green Emission peak: 2.Section 4: Phosphor Data 151 CaLaB3O7:Ce3+.16 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4. ~500ºC. N2. Fire in open quartz boats.40 eV) . 2.Br) Optical Properties Emission color: UV Emission peak: 3.

88 eV)... Müller. J... Zur lumineszenz kupfer.und kupferbleiaktivierter strontiumboratphosphore.. and Schreiber.40 eV) Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 References 1. 49. J.. Lumin. R. – (3. Absorption (%) 100 Emission Absorption (%) 100 Emission . and Semisch. H. 580 (1956). Luminescence properties of Eu(II)-borates and Eu2+-activated Sr-borates. 21. 2. Adachi.Spectra 800 700 600 500 400 Wavelength (nm) 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Reference 1. Witzmann. 101 (1979). G. SrB4O7:Pb2+ Optical Properties Emission color: UV Emission peak: 4. G.. H.. Naturwissenschaften. Machida. H. Naturwissenschaften.09 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0. 181 (1962). and Shiokawa. K. Boratluminophore MIT UV-emission.34 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4. 43. Witzmann..

Naturwissenschaften.88 eV).03 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0. 49.und kupferbleiaktivierter strontiumboratphosphore. 4.Mn2+ Optical Properties Emission color: Blue-green Emission peak: 2.SrB4O7:Pb2+.40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: + Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 100 Emission 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Absorption (%) 100 Emission . 2. 43. Zur lumineszenz kupfer. 181 (1962). H.42. 580 (1956). Witzmann... – (3.. and Semisch.40 eV) Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 References 1. R. Boratluminophore MIT UV-emission. – (3. G.88 eV). Cd2B6O11:Mn2+ Optical Properties Emission color: Yellow-green Emission peak: eV Excitation efficiency by UV: – (4.. Naturwissenschaften. H. Müller. Witzmann. and Schreiber.22 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4. H..

Rev.. 104. 1 hour. The system cadmium oxide-boric oxide.. 2. 1 hour. 1. 4450 (1970).40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: + Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 50 2 3 References 1. D. Phase equilibria and fluorescence in the system zinc oxide-boric oxide. Optical Properties Emission color: Blue-violet + UV Emission peaks: 3. N2. Fire in open alumina crucibles. Wash in hot water several times..A.C.. Phys. and Poorter.A. Powderize.E. 1100ºC. E. Powderize. 900ºC. 491 (1956). Fire in open quartz boats..A. CO. F.D. 2. A. Harrison. Soc. Electrochem. Chem. 31.2 153 254 Preparation Mix by dry grinding or milling.20 and 3. Electrochem. and Subbarao. 2. G. J. G. Bril. Characteristic luminescence. Soc. 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Absorption (%) 100 Emission .. and Bril. YAl3B4O12:Ce3+ Structure: Trigonal (huntite) Composition Ingredient Y 2O 3 CeO2 Al2O3 H3BO3 Mole % 90 (of Y) 10 300 (of Al) 410 By weight (g) 102 17. 1 hour. F. and Hummel. Fire in open alumina crucibles. Dry. 1. ~500ºC. 4. Hummel.. 2.References 1.. air. The absorption and emission spectra of some important activators. J. Fire in open alumina crucibles. J. + (3. Blasse. 3... A. 53.. Powderize.57 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4. J. Blasse. 1200ºC. 616 (1957). CO. 304 (1970).. 103. Philips Tech. Radiationless transitions in Eu3+ center in LaAlO3. Powderize.88 eV).. Fluorescence.

5. Powderize.G. A. 3652 (1968).20 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0. Blasse.. G. Powderize. 52 (1972). The absorption and emission spectra of some important activators.. Fire in open alumina crucibles. Fire in open quartz boats.3. Lumin.. Powderize. H. G. J. 304 (1970). Powderize. 12. A. 1 hour. Optical Properties Emission color: UV Emission peak: 4.3 (of Bi) 300 (of Al) 410 By weight (g) 113 0. O. air. Philips Tech. Phys. and Bril. Fluorescence of Eu3+-activated sodium lanthanide titanates. 1 hour. J. 2.. Blasse. and Bril. Efficiency and fluorescence quenching of stoichiometric rare-earth laser materials. T. 1. 4. 1 hour. J. air. 900ºC. Takahashi. Rev. Ultraviolet-absorption bands of Bi3+ and Eu3+ in oxides. Chem..7 (of Y) 0. Blasse. air. Fire in open alumina crucibles.. 1200ºC. 31... 4. – (3.40 eV) Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 50 2 3 References 1. 124. Wash in hot water several times. 4. 48. Electrochem. Characteristic luminescence.. Dry. 3. J.88 eV). 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Absorption (%) 100 Emission . ~500ºC.. air. and Yamada.700 153 254 Preparation Mix by dry grinding or milling.. 2. Solid State Chem. 955 (1977). Danielmeyer. 1 hour..33 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: + (4. 179 (1976). 1. YAl3B4O12:Bi3+ Structure: Trigonal (huntite) Composition Ingredient Y 2O 3 Bi2O3 Al2O3 H3BO3 Mole % 99. G.. Soc. Cathodoluminescent properties of yttrium terbium aluminum borate Y1-xTb x Al3B4O12 phosphors. Fire in open alumina crucibles. 1100ºC.

. 1 hour. Characteristic luminescence. J.. 1100ºC. YAl3B4O12:Eu3+ Structure: Trigonal (huntite) Composition Ingredient Y 2O 3 Eu2O3 Al2O3 H3BO3 Mole % 90 (of Y) 10 (of Eu) 300 (of Al) 410 By weight (g) 102 17. 52 (1972). A. Electrochem. Powderize. 4. Fire in open alumina crucibles. G.. 2. – (3.. F. G. 1. Fire in open alumina crucibles. 239 (1979). J. Blasse. Takahashi. J. Dry. van Os.035 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4. Absorption (%) 100 Emission . Rev. Solid State Chem.. Wash in hot water several times. 1 hour.88 eV). and Yamada.6 153 248 Preparation Mix by dry grinding or milling. Solid State Chem. 1 hour. Blasse. air. 5. G. Powderize. Fire in open alumina crucibles. air. air. Powderize. 4. ~500ºC... Soc.. J.. Kellendonk. O.. Powderize. 900ºC.A. Ultraviolet-absorption bands of Bi3+ and Eu3+ in oxides. 3. The absorption and emission spectra of some important activators. and Bril. Soc.01 and 2. Blasse.3. 3. 1. Luminescence of bismuth in yttrium aluminum borate. 304 (1970). G. Photoluminescent efficiency of phosphors with electronic transitions in localized centers. 61. M. Optical Properties Emission color: Red Emission peaks: 2. 1 hour. T. 124.. Lett. Chem. Blasse. Electrochem.. Fire in open quartz boats. air.. 2. and Bril...40 eV) Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 References 1. G.. Phys. 31. 1200ºC. 4.. Philips Tech. 955 (1977). Ultraviolet-absorption bands of Bi3+ and Eu3+ in oxides. 52 (1972). and Blasse. 4. 1067 (1968). 115. Cathodoluminescent properties of yttrium terbium aluminum borate Y1-X TbXAl3B4O12 phosphors. A.

1200ºC.77 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4.Cr3+ Structure: Trigonal (huntite) Optical Properties Emission color: Deep red Emission peak: 1.88 eV). – (3. N2. Fire in open alumina crucibles.YAl3B4O12:Eu3+. Powderize.Ce3+. Status Solidi. – (3.. 3.2 18. and Bril. Some observations on Cr3+ fluorescence in huntite structure. Powderize. Powderize. YAl3B4O12:Th4+. 1 hour.40 eV) Reference 1. 1 hour.40 eV) YAl3B4O12:Ce3+.40 eV) . A..Tb3+ Structure: Trigonal (huntite) Composition Ingredient Y 2O 3 CeO2 Tb4O7 Al2O3 H3BO3 Mole % 80 (of Y) 10 10 (of Tb) 300 (of Al) 410 By weight (g) 90. Dry.88 eV). ~500ºC. Blasse. 1 hour. Fire in open alumina crucibles. 1 hour.23 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: + (4. 900ºC. 551 (1967).4 17. air. 20.7 153 254 Preparation Mix by dry grinding or milling. G. Powderize. 4.88 eV). CO. Fire in open quartz boats.29 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4. 2. CO. Phys. 1. 1100ºC.31 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0. Wash in hot water several times. – (3. Optical Properties Emission color: Green Emission peak: 2.Mn2+ Structure: Trigonal (huntite) Emission color: green Emission peak: 2. Fire in open alumina crucibles.

2. Philips Tech. – (3.020 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: + (4. Electrochem. and Yamada. 46. J. Eu3+. Dy3+. Soc. 900ºC. air. Blasse.. 3. Optical Properties Emission color: Red Emission peak: 2. Ce3+ to Sm3+. 1.. J..6 153 254 Preparation Mix by dry grinding or milling. air.. Cathodoluminescent properties of yttrium terbium aluminum borate Y1 xTbxAl3B4O12 phosphors. T. 47. air. Fire in open quartz boats. A.Spectra 800 700 600 500 400 Wavelength (nm) 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 References 1. 31. Chem... Fire in open quartz boats. G.40 eV) Absorption (%) 100 Emission . Bi3+. 1 hour. and Bril. Powderize. Fire in open quartz boats. 1200ºC. 124. 1920 (1967). Phys. Powderize. 2579 (1967). LaAl3B4O12:Eu3+ Composition Ingredient La2O3 Eu2O3 Al2O3 H3BO3 Mole % 90 (of La) 10 (of Eu) 300 (of Al) 410 By weight (g) 147 17. Tb3+. Phys. J. and Bril. O.. The absorption and emission spectra of some important activators. A. Characteristic luminescence. Takahashi.. 1... G. Chem.005 and 2. ~500ºC. Blasse. Rev. 2. 955 (1977). 3. 304 (1970).88 eV). 2 hours. and Study of energy transfer from Sb3+. Fluorescence of Eu3+-activated lanthanide oxyhalides LnOX.

A.Spectra 800 700 600 500 400 Wavelength (nm) 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 BaB8O13:Eu2+ Optical Properties Emission color: Violet–UV Emission peak: 3. 115.28 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4. Soc.10 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0. Blasse.40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: – Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 100 Emission 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Reference 1. J. Bril... and deVries. Absorption (%) 100 Emission . 977 (1968). Electrochem. G. – (3. Fluorescence of Eu2+-activated barium octaborate..88 eV).. J.

74 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0.31 eV Absorption (%) 100 Emission Absorption (%) 100 Emission . Chenot. ++ (3.24 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4. ++ (3. 3 657 141 (1972). Pat.S. Ca2B5O9Cl:Eu2+ Optical Properties Emission color: Blue Emission peak: 2.F.81 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: + (4..88 eV).40 eV) Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Reference 1. C. U.40 eV) Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Ca2B5O9Cl:Pb2+ Optical Properties Emission color: UV Emission peak: 4.88 eV).SrB8O13:Sm Optical Properties Emission color: Deep red Emission peak: 1..

++ (3.40 eV) Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Ca2B5O9Br:Eu2+ Optical Properties Emission color: Blue Emission peak: 2.24 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4.88 eV).34 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4.40 eV) Absorption (%) 100 Emission Absorption (%) 100 Emission .20 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4.74 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0.Emission width (FWHM): 0.40 eV) Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Sr2B5O9Cl:Eu2+ Optical Properties Emission color: Blue-violet Emission peak: 2. ++ (3.92 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0.88 eV). – (3.88 eV).

U. Lehmann.7:Eu3+ Optical Properties Emission color: Red Emission peak: 2... – (3.S.88 eV).5:Pb2+ Composition Ingredient CaCO3 La2O3 PbO H3BO3 Mole % 198 200 (of La) 2 105 By weight (g) 198 326 4.6 65 Absorption (%) 100 Emission Absorption (%) 100 Emission . 4 202 794 (1980).40 eV) Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 50 2 3 Reference 1.Spectra 800 700 600 500 400 Wavelength (nm) 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 CaYB0.8O3.03 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4. 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Ca2La2BO6. W. Pat.

Preparation Mix by dry grinding or milling. 2.48 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: + (4. 1. ++ (3. Powderize. Powderize. Fire in capped quartz tubes.Mn2+ Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Absorption (%) 100 Emission Absorption (%) 100 Emission . Fire in open quartz boats. 3.88 eV). 1 hour. ~500ºC. air. N2. 1200ºC.40 eV) Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Remark The formula of this peculiar material is still uncertain but the mole ratio Ca-La-B in the formula is close to 2:2:1 YAl3B4O12:Ce3+. Fire in capped quartz tubes.28 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0. Optical Properties Emission color: Pale yellow-green Emission peak: 2. 1 hour. N2. 1000ºC.

Mn2+ SrGa12O19:Mn2+ SrAl12O19:Ce3+.5Ba0.4 0.Mn2+ LiAl5O8:Fe3+ LiAl5O8:Mn2+ Y4Al2O9:Eu3+ Y3Al5O12:Ce3+ KAl11O17:Tl+ KGa11O17:Mn2+ BaMgAl10O17:Ce3+ Y3Al5O12:Eu3+ BaMgAl10O17:Eu2+ BaMgAl10O17:Eu2+.8 Aluminates and Gallates The following host compounds and activators are included in this subsection: LiAlO2:Fe3+ LiAlO2:Mn2+ YAlO3:Ce3+ YAlO3:Eu3+ YAlO3:Sm3+ YAlO3:Tb3+ LaAlO3:Eu3+ LaAlO3:Sm3+ MgAl2O4:Mn2+ MgGa2O4:Mn2+ CaAl2O4:Mn2+ CaAl2O4:Eu2+ ZnAl2O4:Mn2+ ZnGa2O4:Mn2+ CaGa2O4:Mn2+ CaGa4O7:Mn2+ SrAl2O4:Eu2+ BaAl2O4:Eu2+ CaAl4O7:Pb2+.6 2 By weight (g) 37.Mn2+ SrAl12O19:Eu2+.4.Mn2+ LiAlO2:Fe3+ Structure: NaCl Composition Ingredient Li2CO3 Al2O3 Fe(NO3)3· 9H2O LiF Mole % 101 (of Li) 100 (of Al) 0.5Al12O19:Ce3+.520 .4 51 2.Mn2+ Ca0.

7. 78. Electrochem.20 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4. go slowly up with temperature to 900ºC. Powderize when dry.T.. The cathodoluminescence of Mn2+ activated and Fe3+ activated magnesium aluminate spinel. 3..T. 3. Dry in air. 125.. J. Kamiya. Optical Properties Emission color: Very deep red + IR Emission peak: 1. H. 252 (1964). Electronic states of Fe3+ in LiAl5O2 and LiAl5O8 phosphors. 46. and Pott. A. Soc. and Sarver. 4. p. W. Illum. J. J. J.. 2. Stir to uniformity. W. Place crucibles into a cold furnace.. Pat. J. F.J. 3 857 054 (1974). Powderize. add solution to the mixture of other ingredients.F. J. air. 2496 (1974). – (3. Add a solution of about 3 g Al(NO3)3·9H2O in little water. S.40 eV) Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 References 1. 234 (1974). Fire in open quartz boats. Stork. CRC Press. and then take out. Soc. Electrochem. Wash in diluted acetic acid (~10%). 920 (1978). Boca Raton. J.. FL. Chem. Powderize when dry.. iron. D. Fire in covered alumina crucibles. Lumin. and then in water until neutral.. Absorption (%) 100 Emission . Phys.. air. Lehmann. G.Preparation Dissolve iron nitrate in a little water. Studies of compound formation on alkali-gammaaluminum oxide catalyst systems using chromium. 111. air.S. Phosphor Handbook.. Soc. Dry in air.. 5. U. 2.67 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0. Powderize. and Mizuno..88 eV). 1.A.. J. 3. Eng. Hummel. Palumbo. 6. Infrared emitting fluorescent lamp and applications... Rabatin. 1 hour. 1250ºC. Fig. and manganese luminescence. Luminescence of iron-activated lithium meta-gallate. 19 (1971). 2 hours.H. Fire in covered alumina crucibles. 1250ºC.. 4. Van Broekhoven. 422 (1998). and Watchtel. stir to uniformity..

LiAlO2:Mn2+ Structure: NaCl Composition Ingredient Li2CO3 Al2O3 MnCO3 Mole % 99 (of Li) 499 (of Al) 2 By weight (g) 36. Chem. 1. 1/10-time in the 10 msec range. G. 1 hour. and Cr3+ in BeTaLiAl5O8. Powderize when dry. P. 2. Fe3+.5 eV Absorption (%) 100 Emission . 2. Phys. N2.H. Electrochem.40 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0.3 Preparation Mix by slurrying in methanol. long and strong phosphorescence Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 50 2 3 References 1.. Fire in covered alumina crucibles.T. CO. Jaffe..15 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: no sensitizer known to obtain response to this UV Excitation efficiency by e-beam: ~6–8% Decay to 10% (or 1/e. 1250 C. 115. Powderize. Stork. Optical Properties Emission color: Green Emission peak: 2. J. Dry in air.6 254 2. 2 hours.J. Studies of compound formation on alkali-gammaaluminum oxide catalyst systems using chromium. 1200 C. 2496 (1974). as given): Non-exponential decay..M.. and manganese luminescence. 1203 (1968). J. 78.. and Pott. Cathodoluminescence spectra and coordination of Mn2+.375 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0. Soc. Fire in open quartz boats. 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 YAlO3:Ce3+ Structure: Orthorhombic Optical Properties Emission color: UV Emission peak: 3. W. iron.

air. 3205 (1973).015 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4.Excitation efficiency by UV: + (4. 2. 4 hours. Electrochem.785 – 2. – (3.40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: + Absorption (%) 100 Emission . J.88 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: + Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 50 2 3 References 1. 1 hour.. Optical-spectra of Ce3+ and Ce3+-sensitized fluorescence in YAlO3. 438 (1980). et al. Weber. J. air. 2. 44. Phys. 1000ºC. Soc. Fire in covered alumina crucibles. Appl.88 eV). Fast decay UV phosphor YAlO3-Ce.J.. 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 YAlO3:Eu3+ Structure: Orthorhombic Composition Ingredient Y 2O 3 Al2O3 Eu2O3 H3BO3 Mole % 94 (of Y) 100 (of Al) 6 (of Eu) 10 By weight (g) 83. Optical Properties Emission color: Light red Emission peaks: 1. 1..6 51 10.6 6. Fire in covered alumina crucibles. Takeda. 1300ºC.2 Preparation Mix by dry grinding or milling. 127. M. T. Powderize..

1. strongest line at ~2.6 51 7.40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: + Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Absorption (%) 100 Emission Absorption (%) 100 Emission . 1 hour.Spectra 800 700 600 500 400 Wavelength (nm) 300 50 2 3 Remark Q yield (UV excitation) is about the same as that of YOE.88 eV). Powderize. Fire in covered alumina crucibles. Optical Properties Emission color: Orange-yellow Emission peaks: 2. 1300ºC. Fire in covered alumina crucibles.06. (3.008–3. 2. air. 1300ºC.197 eV. air. 2. 4 hours.06 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: (4.8 Preparation Mix by dry grinding or milling. 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 YAlO3:Sm3+ Structure: Orthorhombic Composition Ingredient Y 2O 3 Sm2O3 Al2O3 CaF2 Mole % 98 (of Y) 2 (of Sm) 100 (of Al) 10 By weight (g) 110 3.

Optical Properties Emission color: Pale green Emission peaks: Typical Tb3+ lines.4 Absorption (%) 100 Emission . 1.283 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: + (4.40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: + (better than Y2O3:Tb3+) Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 LaAlO3:Eu3+ Structure: Orthorhombic Composition Ingredient La2O3 Al2O3 Eu2O3 H3BO3 Mole % 94 (of La) 105 (of Al) 6 (of Eu) 20 By weight (g) 130.6 53. 2. – (3.8 Preparation Mix by dry grinding or milling. CO.6 12. CO.6 10. Fire in covered alumina crucibles. Powderize.7 51 7. strongest line at ~2. 1300ºC. Fire in covered alumina crucibles.88 eV).YAlO3:Tb3+ Structure: Orthorhombic Composition Ingredient Y 2O 3 Tb4O7 Al2O3 CaF2 Mole % 90 (of Y) 10 (of Tb) 100 (of Al) 10 By weight (g) 102 18. 4 hours. 1300ºC. 1 hour.

Optical Properties Emission color: Orange-red Emission peaks: 2.40 eV) 400 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Remark Q yield (UV excitation) is about ~75% of YOE. 1. 2.10 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4.01–2.Preparation Mix by dry grinding or milling.88 eV). air. The absorption and emission spectra of some important activators.20 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: + (4. 1300ºC. 2.. Optical Properties Emission color: Yellow Emission peaks: 1.. Blasse. Powderize. Reference 1. 31. Fire in covered alumina crucibles. G. Characteristic luminescence. – (3. A.40 eV) Absorption (%) 100 Emission . Philips Tech. Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) (3. air. air.6 0. air. 1 hour. 1000ºC.300 12. and Bril. 1000ºC. Fire in covered alumina crucibles. 4 hours.2 (of Sm) 20 By weight (g) 139 53. 1. 1. 1300ºC.88 eV).. 1 hour.925–2. Powderize. LaAlO3:Sm3+ Structure: Trigonal Composition Ingredient La2O3 Al2O3 Sm2O3 H3BO3 Mole % 100 (of La) 105 (of Al) 0. Rev. 304 (1970).4 Preparation Mix by dry grinding or milling. 4 hours. Fire in covered alumina crucibles. Fire in covered alumina crucibles.

20 msec to 1/10 Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 100 Emission 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Absorption (%) 100 Emission .16 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: no sensitizer known to obtain response to this UV Excitation efficiency by e-beam: +/~7–8% Decay: Slightly non-exponential decay.620 Preparation Mix by dry ball-milling.15 107 0. Optical Properties Emission color: Green Emission peak: 2. Fire in covered alumina crucibles. 2 hours. 1250ºC. CO.36 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0.Spectra 800 700 600 500 400 Wavelength (nm) 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 MgAl2O4:Mn2+ Structure: Tetragonal (spinel) Composition Ingredient MgO MnCO3 Al2O3 MgF2 Mole % 98 1 210 (of Al) 1 By weight (g) 39 1.

120. and Sarver. 304 (1967). Soc. 78-5F4-ZSIBM-R1 (1978). and Verlijsdonk. Hummel.15 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: + (4. Luminescence of manganeseactivated aluminiu-substituted magnesium gallate. 117. F. D. Wanmaker. 114. Luminescence of Mn2+activated spinels in MgO-Li2O-ZnO-Ga2O3-Al2O3 system. J. J. The cathodoluminescence of Mn2+ activated and Fe3+ activated magnesium aluminate spinel. J.. J.46 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0. Choice and evaluation of phosphors for application to lamps with improved color rendition.W. 3. Brown. W.. References 1. J.G. 4. Rep.F. 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Absorption (%) 100 Emission . J. Radielovic. Soc.. F.40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: + Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 50 2 3 References 1. W.J. 22.. Manganese-activated luminescence in MgO-Al2O3-Ga2O3 system. Greenemitting phosphors. 245 (1967). Philips Res. Res. 25.G. – (3.L. Lehmann.T. 111.Remark Reducing the Mn concentration from 1 to 0.... and Wanmaker.L. 5.. terVrugt.M... 3.W. 1. W. J. 108 (1970).88 eV).. J. Electrochem. Opstelten. Electrochem. and deBres. J. 2. J. Some Aspects of Luminescence of Solids. terVrugt. D. 252 (1964).. Elsevier.A.... W..L. Electronic states of Mn2+-activated phosphors. MgGa2O4:Mn2+ Structure: Tetragonal (spinel) Optical Properties Emission color: Blue-green Emission peak: 2. Wanmaker..2% reduces the efficiency of cathodoluminescence to ~4% and increases the 1/10 decay time to ~40 msec. and Brown. J. 1400 (1973).. Electrochem. Electrochem.A. 2. Palumbo. Amsterdam (1948). Rep. Kröger.. Rep.. J. Soc... Soc. 1184 (1970). Philips Res..

1 hour. CO. Fire in covered alumina crucibles.5 5.3 3. 2. 1.27 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: no sensitizer known to obtain response to this UV Excitation efficiency by e-beam: ~ a few percent Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 100 Emission 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 CaAl2O4:Eu2+ Structure: Monoclinic Composition Ingredient CaCO3 Al2O3 Eu2O3 NH4Cl Mole % 98 210 (of Al) 2 (of Eu) 10 By weight (g) 98 107 3. 1 hour. 1300ºC.4 . Optical Properties Emission color: Yellow-green Emission peak: 2. Powderize.28 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0. 1200ºC. Wash in a solution of 20 g NH4Cl in 1 liter of water and then several times in plain water. Powderize when dry.CaAl2O4:Mn2+ Structure: Monoclinic Composition Ingredient CaCO3 Al2O3 MnCO3 CaF2 Mole % 93 200 (of Al) 2 5 By weight (g) 93 102 2. CO. Dry in air. Fire in open quartz boats.9 Preparation Mix by slurrying in water.

Fire in capped quartz tubes.34 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: + (4.40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: + Absorption (%) 100 Emission .88 eV).88 eV). CO. Dry in air. Powderize. 2. 1.Preparation Mix by ball-milling in water. – (3.13 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: – (4. Optical Properties Emission color: Deep blue Emission peak: Single Eu2+ band. 1200ºC. + (3.41 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0. Wash in a solution of ~20 g NH4Cl in 1 liter of water and then several times in plain water.40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: 1% Decay: ~1 µsec to 1/10 Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 ZnAl2O4:Mn2+ Structure: Tetragonal (spinel) Optical Properties Emission color: Blue-green Emission peak: 2. 1 hour.80 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0. Powderize when dry. 1 hour. CO. 1200ºC. Fire in open quartz boats. 2.

L. John Wiley & Sons.. Soc.. Rep.W.L.... An Introduction to Luminescence of Solids. J. Leverenz. Wanmaker.W. P. An Introduction to Luminescence of Solids. John Wiley & Sons.Spectra 800 700 600 500 400 Wavelength (nm) 300 100 Emission 50 2 3 References 1. – (3.W.W. W. J. S.. J.. Philips Res.. W. Leverenz. 369 (1946).. H. New York (1949). Strange. 108 (1970). 116.T. Phys.40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: + Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 100 Emission 50 2 3 References 1.88 eV). Electrochem. Cathodo-luminescence. London. 25. 871 (1969). Growth and decay processes.W. J.G. H.. 1. 3. 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 . 2. New York (1949). terVrugt. 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 ZnGa2O4:Mn2+ Structure: Cubic (gahnite) Optical Properties Emission color: Blue-green Emission peak: 2.13 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: + (4. Luminescence of gallates. and Verlijsdonk. Luminescence of Mn2+activated spinels in MgO-Li2O-ZnO-Ga2O3-Al2O3 system.47 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0. 58. Wanmaker. 2.. and terVrugt. J. Soc. and Henderson.

CaGa2O4:Mn2+
Structure: Monoclinic Optical Properties Emission color: Yellow-green Emission peak: 2.19 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0.21 eV Spectra
800 700 600 500
Wavelength (nm)

400

300

50

2

3

Reference 1. Brown, J.J., Can. Pat., 821 468 (1970).

4 Photon Energy (eV)

5

0

CaGa4O7:Mn2+
Optical Properties Emission color: Yellow Emission peak: 2.10 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0.21 eV Reference 1. Brown, J.J., Can. Pat., 821 468 (1970).

SrAl2O4:Eu2+
Structure: Monoclinic Composition Ingredient SrCO3 Al2O3 Eu2O3 NH4Cl Mole % 98 210 (of Al) 2 (of Eu) 10 By weight (g) 145 107 3.5 5.4

Absorption (%)

100

Emission

Preparation Mix by ball-milling in water. Dry in air. Powderize when dry. 1. Fire in capped quartz tubes, CO, 1200ºC, 1 hour. Powderize. 2. Fire in open quartz boats, CO, 1200ºC, 1 hour. Wash in a solution of ~20 g NH4Cl in 1 liter of water and then several times in plain water. Dry. Optical Properties Emission color: Green Emission peak: 2.37 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0.34 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4.88 eV), ++ (3.40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: +/~1.5% Decay: ~2 µsec to 1/10 Spectra
800 700 600 500
Wavelength (nm)

400

300

50

2

3

References 1. Blasse, G., and Bril, A., Fluorescence of Eu2+ activated alkaline-earth aluminates, Philips Res. Rep., 23, 201 (1968). 2. Palilla, F.C., Levine, A.K., and Tomkus, M.R., Fluorescent properties of alkaline earth aluminates activated by divalent europium, J. Electrochem. Soc., 115, 642 (1968). 3. Blasse, G., Wanmaker, W.L., and terVrugt, J.W., Some new classes of efficient Eu2+ activated phosphors, J. Electrochem. Soc., 115, 673 (1968). 4. Abbruscato, V., Optical and electrical properties of SrAl2O4-Eu2+, J. Electrochem. Soc., 118, 930 (1971).

4 Photon Energy (eV)

5

0

BaAl2O4:Eu2+
Structure: Hexagonal Composition Ingredient BaCO3 Al2O3 Eu2O3 NH4Cl Mole % 98 210 (of Al) 2 (of Eu) 10 By weight (g) 193 107 3.5 5.4

Absorption (%)

100

Emission

Preparation Mix by ball-milling in water. Dry in air. Powderize when dry. 1. Fire in capped quartz tubes, CO, 1200ºC, 1 hour. Powderize. 2. Fire in open quartz boats, CO, 1200ºC, 1 hour. Wash in a solution of ~20 g NH4Cl + 20 ccm NH4OH in 1 liter of water and then several times in diluted ammonium hydroxide. Dry. Optical Properties Emission color: Blue-green Emission peak: 2.47 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0.35 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4.88 eV), ++ (3.40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: + Spectra
800 700 600 500
Wavelength (nm)

400

300

50

2

3

References 1. Palilla, F.C., Levine, A.K., and Tomkus, M.R., Fluorescent properties of alkaline earth aluminates activated by divalent europium, J. Electrochem. Soc., 115, 642 (1968). 2. Blasse, G., Wanmaker, W.L., and terVrugt, J.W., Some new classes of efficient Eu2+ activated phosphors, J. Electrochem. Soc., 115, 673 (1968). 3. Blasse, G., and Bril, A., Phosphors based on lanthanide oxysulphates (Ln2SO6), Philips Res. Rep., 23, 461 (1968).

4 Photon Energy (eV)

5

0

CaAl4O7:Pb2+,Mn2+
Structure: Monoclinic Optical Properties Emission color: Yellow Emission peak: 2.20 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0.24 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: + (4.88 eV), – (3.40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: +

Absorption (%)

100

Emission

Spectra
800 700 600 500

400

Wavelength (nm)

300

50

2

3

4 Photon Energy (eV)

5

0

LiAl5O8:Fe3+
Structure: Cubic (spinel) Optical Properties Emission color: Very deep red Emission peak: 1.82 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4.88 eV), – (3.40 eV) Spectra
800 700 600 500
Wavelength (nm)

400

300

100

Emission

50

2

3

References 1. Jaffe, P.M., Cathodoluminescence spectra and coordination of Mn2+ Fe3+ and Cr3+ in BeTaLiAl5O8, J. Electrochem. Soc., 115, 1203 (1968). 2. Melamed, N.T., Viccaro, P.J., Barros, F.D.S. et al., Optical properties of Fe3+ in ordered and disordered LiAl5O8, Phys. Rev. B5, 3377 (1972). 3. Neto, J.M., Abritta, T., Barros, F.D. et al., A comparative-study of the optical-properties of Fe3+ in ordered LiGa5O8 and LiAl5O8, J. Lumin., 22, 109 (1981).

4 Photon Energy (eV)

5

0

Absorption (%)

100

Emission

LiAl5O8:Mn2+
Structure: Cubic (spinel) Composition Ingredient Li2CO3 Al2O3 MnCO3 Mole % 99 (of Li) 499 (of Al) 2 By weight (g) 36.6 254 2.3

Preparation Mix by slurrying in methanol. Dry in air. Powderize when dry. 1. Fire in open alumina crucibles, N2, 1200ºC, 1 hour. Powderize. 2. Fire in open quartz boats, CO, 1250ºC, 2 hours. Optical Properties Emission color: Green Emission peak: 2.38 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0.15eV Excitation efficiency by UV: – (4.88 eV), – (3.40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: +/~6–8% Decay: Non-exponential decay, 1/10 time in the 10 msec range; long and strong phosphorescence Spectra
800 700 600 500
Wavelength (nm)

400

300

100

Emission

50

2

3

Reference 1. Jaffe, P.M., Cathodoluminescence spectra and coordination of Mn2+ Fe3+ and Cr3+ in BeTaLiAl5O8, J. Electrochem. Soc., 115, 1203 (1968).

4 Photon Energy (eV)

5

0

Y4Al2O9:Eu3+
Structure: Monoclinic Composition Ingredient Y 2O 3 Al2O3 Eu2O3 H3BO3 Mole % 95 (of Y) 50 (of Al) 5 (of Eu) 10 By weight (g) 84.5 25.5 8.8 6.2

Preparation Mix by dry grinding or milling. 1. Fire in covered alumina crucibles, air, 1000ºC, 1 hour. Powderize. 2. Fire in covered alumina crucibles, air, 1300ºC, 4 hours. Optical Properties Emission color: Light red Emission peaks: Mainly three lines about 1.975, 2.03 eV, and 2.10 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4.88 eV), – (3.40 eV) Spectra
800 700 600 500
Wavelength (nm)

400

300

50

2

3

4 Photon Energy (eV)

5

0

Y3Al5O12:Ce3+
Structure: Cubic (garnet) Composition Ingredient Y 2O 3 Al2O3 CeO2 NH4Cl Mole % 35.5 (of Y) 62.5 (of Al) 2 5 By weight (g) 40 32 3.44 2.7

Absorption (%)

100

Emission

Preparation Mix by slurrying in water. 1. Fire in capped quartz tubes, CO, 1300ºC, 1 hour. Powderize. Add another 2.7 g NH4Cl; mix by dry grinding. 2. Fire in capped quartz tubes, 1300ºC, 2 hours. Powderize. 3. Fire in open quartz boats, CO, 1300ºC, 1 hour. Optical Properties Emission color: Yellow-green Emission peak: 2.37 eV Emission width (FWHM): ~0.45 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: + (4.88 eV), + (3.40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: +/~2% Spectra
800 700 600 500
Wavelength (nm)

400

300

50

2

3

References 1. Blasse, G., and Bril, A., Characteristic luminescence, 1. The absorption and emission spectra of some important activators, Philips Tech. Rev., 31, 304 (1970); and A new phosphor for flying-spot cathode-ray tubes for color television—yellow-emitting Y3Al5O12-Ce3+, Appl. Phys. Lett., 11, 53 (1967). 2. Blasse, G., Bril, A., and Poorter, J.A.D., Radiationless transitions in Eu3+ center in LaAlO3, J. Chem. Phys., 53, 4450 (1970). 3. Blasse, G., and Bril, A., Gibbons, E.F. et al., Ce3+ activated Y3Al5O12 and some of its solid-solutions, J. Electrochem. Soc., 120, 278 (1973); and Gibbons, E.F. et al., Some factors influencing luminous decay characteristics of Y3Al5O12 - Ce3+ , J. Electrochem. Soc., 120, 835 (1973). 4. Tien, T.Y. et al., Ce3+ activated Y3Al5O12 and some of its solid-solutions, J. Electrochem. Soc., 102, 278 (1973). 5. Sang, E., The signal generation mechanism in bistable storage-scan converters, SID Digest, 104 (1973).

4 Photon Energy (eV)

5

0

KAl11O17:Tl+
Structure: Aluminate Optical Properties Emission color: Violet + UV Emission peak: 3.14 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0.49 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4.88 eV)

Absorption (%)

100

Emission

Spectra
800 700 600 500

400

Wavelength (nm)

300

100

Emission

50

2

3

References (see below) Structure: Aluminate

4 Photon Energy (eV)

5

0

KGa11O17:Mn2+

Optical Properties Emission color: Blue-green Emission peak: 2.49 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0.14 eV Spectra
800 700 600 500
Wavelength (nm)

400

300

100

Emission

50

2

3

References 1. Verstegen, J.M., Survey of a group of phosphors, based on hexagonal aluminate and gallate host lattices, J. Electrochem. Soc., 121, 1623 (1974). 2. Verstegen, J.M.P.J., Somerdijk, J.L., and Bril, A., Luminescence of LiBaF3:Eu2+, J. Lumin., 10, 411 (1975).

4 Photon Energy (eV)

5

0

BaMgAl10O17:Ce3+
Structure: Aluminate Optical Properties Emission color: UV Emission peak: 3.40 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0.65 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4.88 eV), – (3.40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: +

Spectra
800 700 600 500

400

Wavelength (nm)

300

50

2

3

Reference 1. Stevels, A.L.N., Ce3+ luminescence in hexagonal aluminates containing large divalent or trivalent cations, J. Electrochem. Soc., 125, 588 (1978).

4 Photon Energy (eV)

5

0

Y3Al5O12:Eu3+
Structure: Cubic (garnet) Optical Properties Emission color: Orange-yellow Emission peak: 2.10 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: + (4.88 eV), – (3.40 eV) Spectra
800 700 600 500
Wavelength (nm)

400

300

50

2

3

4 Photon Energy (eV)

5

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Absorption (%)

100

Emission

Absorption (%)

100

Emission

. 2.N. 340 (1974). Stevels.. and Verlijsdonk. Res.34 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4. 1 hour.. 1250ºC. N2. Vapor-deposited CSi-Na layers. forming gas. 1. Powderize. 1. 2. Morphologic and crystallographic properties.77 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0..J. Absorption (%) 100 Emission . 1 hour.6 17. 29.5 Preparation Mix by ball-milling in methanol. 1250ºC. 1305.M. B. The luminescence properties of Eu2+-doped and Mn2+-doped barium hexaaluminates. A. Philips Res. 21. Optical Properties Emission color: Blue Emission peak: 2. A.G. Dry in air. Bull.BaMgAl10O17:Eu2+ Structure: Aluminate Composition Ingredient BaCO3 MgO Al2O3 Eu2O3 BaF2 Mole % 80 100 1050 (of Al) 10 (of Eu) 10 By weight (g) 158 40 536 17. Powderize when dry. Mater. and Schrama.88 eV).40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: + Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 References 1. Fire in covered alumina crucibles. Rep. J. Smets.L. ++ (3.. Fire in open quartz boats. (1986). Nov.D.

forming gas. Electrochem.D.N.6 17..L. A.13 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4. 691 (1974). Dry in air.BaMgAl10O17:Eu2+.Mn2+ Structure: Aluminate Composition Ingredient BaCO3 MgO Al2O3 Eu2O3 MnCO3 BaF2 Mole % 80 70 1050 (of Al) 10 24 10 By weight (g) 158 28. Powderize.L. 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Absorption (%) 100 Emission . Stevels. A. J. 2. References 1. Fire in open quartz boats. ++ (3. 1250ºC. 1. 1250ºC.88 eV). 1 hour. Soc. 500–600ºC.40 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0. Vapor-deposited CSi-Na layers.... A. 1 hour.40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: + Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 50 2 3 Remark This phosphor retains its high efficiency to several 100 C. and Schrama. 1.M.. Fire in open quartz boats. CO. It may be useful for color correction in arc lamps. A. Optical Properties Emission color: Bluish-green Emission peak: 2. 340 (1974).M. and Schrama. Rep. 2. 123.6 27. Powderize when dry. Philips Res.N.2 536 17. 29.5 Preparation Mix by ball-milling in methanol. Fire in covered alumina crucibles. 3.D.. Morphologic and crystallographic properties. Stevels. ½ hour.

Reference 1. ~½ hour.J. 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Absorption (%) 100 Emission .5Ba0.125 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4. 1250ºC. Fire in open quartz boats. Lumin.L. This phosphor retains its high efficiency up to several 100ºC. 1 hour. A.M.41 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0. Powderize.6 27.6 Preparation Mix by ball-milling in methanol.5Al12O19:Ce3+. 3.. Dry in air.5% Decay: Near-exponential decay. N2. 1. This phosphor is sensitive to lamp-lehring conditions but very stable once it is in the lamp. ~15 msec to 1/10 Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 50 2 3 Remarks 1. Stevels.88 eV).P..N. J. Powderize when dry. 2.. 2. Optical Properties Emission color: Bluish-green Emission peak: 2. – (3. J. Fire in open quartz boats.Ca0. 207 (1976). CO.Mn2+ Composition Ingredient CaCO3 CaF2 BaCO3 Al2O3 CeO2 MnCO3 Mole % 25 10 35 1210 (of Al) 30 24 By weight (g) 25 7. 1 hour.40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: ~2–2. Eu2+-Mn2+ energy-transfer in hexagonal aluminates. and Verstegen. 14. Fire in covered alumina crucibles. 1250ºC.8 69 617 51. forming gas. ~500–600ºC.

J.L.Mn2+ Structure: Aluminate Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 SrGa12O19:Mn2+ Structure: Aluminate Optical Properties Emission color: Blue-green Emission peak: 2... based on hexagonal aluminate and gallate host lattices. A. Somerdijk... Survey of a group of phosphors. 411 (1975). 2. J. Lumin.P.SrAl12O19:Eu2+. Soc.47 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0.M. 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Absorption (%) 100 Emission . Verstegen. J.. 10. Verstegen.12 eV Excitation efficiency by e-beam: + Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 100 Emission 50 2 3 References 1. Luminescence of LiBaF3:Eu2+. 121.. Electrochem. and Bril. 1623 (1974).M.J. J. J.

Mn2+ Structure: Aluminate Optical Properties Emission color: Green Emission peak: 2. Eu2+-Mn2+ energy-transfer in hexagonal aluminates. Stevels.N. 14. J.39 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0.. A.14 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4.P..88 eV). Lumin. and Verstegen. – (3.L.J. 207 (1976).40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: + Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Reference 1.SrAl12O19:Ce3+. Absorption (%) 100 Emission . J.M.

– (3. 2.88 eV). air.40 eV) Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Absorption (%) 100 Emission .82 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: + (4. 1000ºC. 1.4. 1100ºC. Optical Properties Emission color: Pale yellow-green Emission peak: ~2.9 Molybdates and Tungstates The following host compounds and activators are included in this subsection: CaMoO4 CaMoO4:Eu3+ SrMoO4:U MgWO4 CaWO4 Ca3WO6:U Sr3WO6:U Ba3WO6:U La2W3O12:Eu3+ CaMoO4 Structure: Tetragonal Composition Ingredient CaCO3 MoO3 Mole % 100 98 By weight (g) 100 141 Preparation Mix by dry grinding or milling.34 eV Emission width (FWHM): ~0. Fire in open quartz boats. 1 hour. Fire in open quartz boats. Powderize. 1 hour. air.

8 4. 2. Dry. 1000ºC.740 Absorption (%) 100 Emission .88 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: ~0. Fire in open quartz boats. Optical Properties Emission color: Red Emission peaks: ~2.CaMoO4:Eu3+ Structure: Tetragonal Composition Ingredient CaCO3 Eu2O3 NaHCO3 MoO3 Mole % 90 5 (of Eu) 5 105 By weight (g) 90 8. Fire in open quartz boats. O2.5–1% Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 SrMoO4:U Structure: Tetragonal Composition Ingredient SrCO3 MoO3 UO2(NO3)2· 6H2O Li2CO3 Mole % 100 105 0.2 151 Preparation Mix by dry grinding or milling.02 and ~2. 1 hour.2 2 (of Li) By weight (g) 148 151 1 0. air. Powderize. Wash in a strong solution of NaOH (or KOH) in water and then several times in plain water until neutral. 1100ºC.03 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4. 1. Powderize. 1 hour.

2 hours. Fire in open quartz boats. Powderize. Powderize when dry.875 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: – (4. Wash in a strong solution of NaOH (or KOH) in water and then several times in plain water until neutral. Powderize when dry.40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 MgWO4 Structure: Monoclinic Composition Ingredient MgO WO3 Mole % 120 100 By weight (g) 48 232 Preparation Mix by slurrying in water. 1 hour. Fire in open quartz boats. 1000ºC. add this solution to the other ingredients.50 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0.5% Decay: Near-exponential decay. 1. + (3.Preparation Dissolve the U-nitrate in a little methanol. 2. O2. 1200ºC. O2. Dry. Optical Properties Emission color: Blue-greenish white Emission peak: 2.88 eV). Dry in air. Fire in open quartz boats. ~20 µsec to 1/10 Absorption (%) 100 Emission . – (3. 800ºC. Add methanol to make a uniform slurry. air. Dry in air.88 eV). Powderize.40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: ~2. 16 hours (overnight). Optical Properties Emission color: Deep red Emission peak: ~1.75 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4.

1200ºC.5% Decay: Near-exponential decay. 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Absorption (%) 100 Emission Absorption (%) 100 Emission .Spectra 800 700 600 500 400 Wavelength (nm) 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 CaWO4 Structure: Tetragonal (scheelite) Composition Ingredient CaCO3 WO3 Mole % 105 100 By weight (g) 105 232 Preparation Mix by slurrying in water. ~10 µsec to 1/10 Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 50 2 3 Remark This material is completely intersoluble with CaMoO4 in any proportion. ~16 hours (overnight). – (3.87 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0.77 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4. Fire in open quartz boats. Optical Properties Emission color: Pale blue Emission peak: 2.88 eV). O2. Dry in air.40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: ~2–2. Powderize when dry.

J. J. 2 hours. Soc.. 68. Amsterdam (1948).41 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0. 1.740 Preparation Dissolve the U-nitrate in a little methanol. 139 (1955). R.. Luminescent sites in CaWO4 and CaWO4:Pb crystals. Dry in air. London. 2. and Scharmann. Phys... and Weiss. Ca3WO6:U Composition Ingredient CaCO3 WO3 UO2(NO3)2·6H2O Li2CO3 Mole % 300 100 0. F. 140. W. Phys. 3. Optical Properties Emission color: Green Emission peak: 2. Photoconductivity in calcium tungstate.23 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: – (4. Fire in open quartz boats. Lumineszenzuntersuchungen an uran-aktivierten erdalkaliwolframaten und erdalkalimolybdaten. Powderize by grinding or milling. 2.R.. H. 1200ºC. 4. Kröger..A.2 2 (of Li) By weight (g) 300 232 1 0.References 1. air. 473 (1976). 1 hour.. 148 (1955). A. 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Absorption (%) 100 Emission . ++ (3.. Lumin. Grasser. Elsevier. Powderize when dry. Cook. 12. Some Aspects of Luminescence of Solids. P. O2.40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: – Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 50 2 3 Remark U is non-luminescent in CaWO4. Add methanol to make a uniform slurry. B. Fire in open quartz boats. Gobrecht. Z. add this solution to the other ingredients. 900ºC.88 eV).

Z.19 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: + (4. The luminescence of photo-conducting phosphors. Absorption (%) 100 Emission .88 eV). 139 (1955). 39.25 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0.40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: Poor Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Remark U is non-luminescent in SrWO4.. G. W. Some Aspects of Luminescence of Solids. Powderize when dry. Gobrecht..740 Preparation Dissolve the U-nitrate in a little methanol. Am. H. add this solution to the other ingredients. 140. Fire in open quartz boats. Opt. 935 (1949).. 2. Reference 1. and Weiss.References 1. O2.6H2O Li2CO3 Mole % 300 100 0. Optical Properties Emission color: Yellow-green Emission peak: 2.J. Dry in air. A. Lumineszenzuntersuchungen an uran-aktivierten erdalkaliwolframaten und erdalkalimolybdaten. 2. Sr3WO6:U Composition Ingredient SrCO3 WO3 UO2(NO3)2.. Elsevier. Fire in open quartz boats.. 1 hour. 2 hours.F.. H.. Lumineszenzuntersuchungen an uran-aktivierten erdalkaliwolframaten und erdalkalimolybdaten. Kröger..2 2 (of Li) By weight (g) 443 232 1 0.. Add methanol to make a uniform slurry. Garlick.F. 1. J. Soc. Amsterdam (1948). and Weiss. Phys.A. air. 3. W. 139 (1955). + (3. F. 140. and Gibson.. Z. 900ºC. Powderize by grinding or milling. Gobrecht. Phys. 1000ºC.

12–13. Optical Properties Emission color: Green-yellow Emission peak: 2.. Z. Powderize when dry. 139 (1955). Powderize by grinding or milling. Fire in open quartz boats.. References 1. Luminescence in a new garnet phase with hexavalent metal-ions. Phys. 900ºC. add this solution to the other ingredients.Ba3WO6:U Composition Ingredient BaCO3 WO3 UO2(NO3)2·6H2O Li2CO3 Mole % 300 100 0. Alberda. Absorption (%) 100 Emission . W. H. Fire in open quartz boats. 687 (1976).88 eV)...H..20 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0. air. Lumin. 1. 1000ºC.740 Preparation Dissolve the U-nitrate in a little methanol. Dry in air. R. G. 2. 2.40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: Poor Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Remark U is non-luminescent in BaWO4. Gobrecht.. and Weiss. Lumineszenzuntersuchungen an uran-aktivierten erdalkaliwolframaten und erdalkalimolybdaten. O2. + (3. 2 hours. 1 hour. and Blasse. 140. Add methanol to make a uniform slurry. J.17 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: + (4.2 2 (of Li) By weight (g) 592 232 1 0.

2. 1100ºC. Fire in open quartz boats. Optical Properties Emission color: Red Emission peak: Strongest line at 2.40 eV) Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Absorption (%) 100 Emission .La2W3O12:Eu3+ Composition Ingredient La2O3 Eu2O3 WO3 Mole % 190 (of La) 10 (of Eu) 300 By weight (g) 310 17. air.6 696 Preparation Mix by dry grinding or milling. 1.018 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: + (4. 1000ºC. Fire in open quartz boats.88 eV). – (3. air. 1 hour. 1 hour. Powderize.

Fire in open alumina crucibles. 1 hour. 1 hour. Optical Properties Emission color: Red Emission peaks: 2.5 37. weakly excited at 4. Powderize. 700ºC. 950ºC.0 eV Excitation efficiency by e-beam: ~5% . Fire in open alumina crucibles. – (3.4. air.03 eV and 2. 1.08 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: – (4.40 eV).10 Miscellaneous Oxides The following host compounds and activators are included in this subsection: LiInO2:Eu3+ LiInO2:Sm3+ LiLaO2:Eu3+ NaYO2:Eu3+ CaTiO3:Pr3+ CaGeO3:Mn2+ Mg2TiO4:Mn4+ Zn2GeO4:Mn2+ YVO4:Eu3+ LaVO4:Eu3+ YAsO4:Eu3+ LaAsO4:Eu3+ Ca5(VO4)3Cl Mg8Ge2O11F2:Mn4+ CaY2ZrO6:Eu3+ Mg3SiO3F4:Ti4+ LiInO2:Eu3+ Structure: tetragonal Composition Ingredient In2O3 Eu2O3 Li2CO3 Mole % 98 (of In) 2 (of Eu) 101 (of Li) By weight (g) 136 3. air. 2.4 Preparation Mix by slurrying in methanol.88 eV).

air. Eu3+ fluorescence in rocksalt lattice..4 Preparation Mix by slurrying in methanol. LiInO2:Sm3+ Structure: tetragonal Composition Ingredient In2O3 Sm2O3 Li2CO3 Mole % 99.3 (of Sm) 101 (of Li) By weight (g) 138 0. Excitation efficiency by e-beam: ~5% (3. 3327 (1966). Phys.. On Eu3+ fluorescence in mixed metal oxides. 45. Blasse. 950ºC.7 (of In) 0. 2.Spectra 800 700 600 500 400 Wavelength (nm) 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Reference 1. and Bril.520 37.85–2. 1 hour. 5. 700ºC. Powderize. Powderize when dry..88 eV). Fire in open alumina crucibles. Fire in open alumina crucibles. 1 hour. A. Chem. Dry in air. air. Optical Properties Emission color: Orange Emission peaks: 1.15 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: + (4. G. J. 1.40 eV) Absorption (%) 100 Emission .

8 37. air. ~600ºC. Dry in air. Store in a well-closed container. Optical Properties Emission color: Red Emission peaks: 1.88 eV). Powderize. Powderize. 1 hour. Powderize when dry.40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: ~1% Spectra 800 700 600 500 400 Wavelength (nm) 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Absorption (%) 100 Emission Absorption (%) 100 Emission . Fire in open alumina crucibles. air. 2. – (3.Spectra 800 700 600 500 400 Wavelength (nm) 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 LiLaO2:Eu3+ Structure: tetragonal Composition Ingredient La2O3 Eu2O3 Li2CO3 Mole % 95 (of La) 5 (of Eu) 101 (of Li) By weight (g) 155 8. 1. Fire in open alumina crucibles.4 Preparation Mix by slurrying in methanol.775–2. 1000ºC.02 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: + (4.

2. the reaction between Li2CO3 and La2O3 apparently does not go to completion.025 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: + (4. air.88 eV).. Fire in open alumina crucibles. ½ hour. Chem. Fire in open alumina crucibles. Powderize when dry. Phys. NaYO2:Eu3+ Structure: Monoclinic Composition Ingredient Y 2O 3 Eu2O3 NaHCO3 Mole % 95 (of Y) 5 (of Eu) 101 By weight (g) 108 8. ~600ºC. A. and Bril. This material is difficult to prepare. Store in a well-closed container. 2.8 85 Preparation Mix by slurrying in methanol. This phosphor is slightly hygroscopic.. J. Blasse. Powderize. air. Reference 1.40 eV) Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 100 Emission 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 . Powderize. 5. 900ºC. Eu3+ fluorescence in rocksalt lattice. 45.Remarks 1. 1 hour. 3327 (1966). Dry in air.. 1. Optical Properties Emission color: Red Emission peak: 2. G. – (3. On Eu3+ fluorescence in mixed metal oxides.

Phys. Eu3+ fluorescence in rocksalt lattice.05 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: + (4. This phosphor is slightly hygroscopic. J. air. Dry in air. and Bril.40 eV) Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Remark The efficiency of this phosphor is not likely improvable because of: (a) much “dead” absorption of the Ti4+-ion in the UV. Powderize by grinding or milling. 1300ºC. (b) most likely an appreciable amount of emission in the IR. This material is difficult to prepare. G. 45. 1300ºC. 5.. Powderize when dry. + (3. 1 hour. CaTiO3:Pr3+ Structure: Cubic (perovskite) Composition Ingredient CaCO3 Pr3O4 TiO2 Mole % 100 1 100 By weight (g) 100 1. 2.88 eV). 3327 (1966). Fire in open quartz boats.. 1 hour. air. Reference 1. Fire in open quartz boats. Absorption (%) 100 Emission . On Eu3+ fluorescence in mixed metal oxides.64 80 Preparation Mix by slurrying in methanol. 1. Blasse. Chem. Optical Properties Emission color: Red Emission peak: 2.025 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0. A.Remarks 1.. the reaction between Na2O and Y2O3 apparently does not go to completion. 2.

M. C. CO.C. The fluorescence of binary and ternary germanates of group-II elements. Optical Properties Emission color: Orange Emission peak: 2. 106. and Verhagen.88 eV was observed without addition of a sensitizer to the phosphor.01 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0. J.. Koelmans.40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: + Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Remark The excitation efficiency of QE ~50–60% under 4. Absorption (%) 100 Emission . Electrochem. Fire in capped quartz tubes. Reference 1.. Soc.3 110 2 Preparation Mix by slurrying in water or methanol.88 eV). 1150ºC. Attempts to improve this efficiency by addition of various other impurities failed.30 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4. 677 (1959). H.CaGeO3:Mn2+ Structure: Orthorhombic (wollastonite) Composition Ingredient CaCO3 MnCO3 GeO2 NH4Br Mole % 98 2 105 2 By weight (g) 98 2. – (3. 2 hours.. Powderize when dry. Dry in air.

Zn2GeO4:Mn2+ Structure: Tetragonal (willemite) Composition Ingredient ZnO MgF2 MnCO3 GeO2 Mole % 90 5 5 55 By weight (g) 73.2 3. Elsevier. + (3. Optical Properties Emission color: Deep red Emission peak: 1. Kröger. Powderize by grinding or milling. ~16 hours (overnight). Amsterdam (1948). 1 hour. O2.Mg2TiO4:Mn4+ Structure: Cubic (spinel) Composition Ingredient MgO TiO2 MnCO3 Mole % 300 99 1 By weight (g) 121 79 1. Powderize when dry. 2.8 57. 570ºC. Fire in open quartz boats. air.1 5.A.885 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: – (4. Fire in open quartz boats.40 eV) Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Reference 1. Some Aspects of Luminescence of Solids.5 Absorption (%) 100 Emission . 1300ºC. 1.88 eV). F..15 Preparation Mix by slurrying in water or methanol. Dry in air.

Soc. Fire in capped quartz tubes. 1. J.. 3..31 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0. and Claffy. Luminescence and trapping in phosphors containing gallium.J. Optical Properties Emission color: Green Emission peak: 2. J. E.. Powderize when dry. and Brown..J. and Larach. 2. This material forms solid solutions with Zn2SiO4:Mn2+ in all proportions. J.T. Electrochem. Dry in air. 117.H. Ginther.. YVO4:Eu3+ Structure: Tetragonal (xenotime) Composition Ingredient Y 2O 3 Eu2O3 NH4VO3 Mole % 95 (of Y) 5 (of Eu) 110 By weight (g) 107 8. 1 hour. 1000ºC. J. Soc. 1814 (1971).20 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4. 5 (1953). Schulman. Powderize by grinding or milling. R. S.W. Bube. Manganese-activated zinc beryllium germanate phosphors.8 129 Absorption (%) 100 Emission . 57 (1949).. 1. 1 hour.. CO.. water steam.H.88 eV). Green-emitting phosphors.. Fire in open quartz boats. 21. D. 2. 96. The emission of this phosphor is thermally quenched a little above room temperature. Phys.40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: + Comparable to that of Zn2SiO4:Mn2+ Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Remarks 1. + (3..Preparation Mix by slurrying in water. 1100ºC. Palumbo. Electronic states of Mn2+-activated phosphors. R. Electrochem. 2. References 1. J. Chem.

New highly efficient red-emitting cathodoluminescent phosphor (YVO4 . 5. J. et al. 36.Preparation Mix by dry grinding or milling..Eu) for color television electron beam excitation.C. 3. J.40 eV excitation improving considerably with increasing temperature Excitation efficiency by e-beam: +/7% Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Remarks 1. air. 776 (1965). + (3. A.R. Soc. Powderize.E. 1200ºC. 4. Ropp. 118 (1964). F. References 1.. Chem. 1 hour.88 eV).. J. F. 6. 953 (1967). F. 1000ºC. Dry.. Appl. A. 1200ºC..C. O’Connor.F. Absorption (%) 100 Emission . 940 (1968). Unusual crystal-field energy levels and efficient laser properties of YVO4 .Z. Soc. L.Nd. Fire in open quartz boats. Part of the V can be replaced by P. Soc. 702 (1962).G. 1 hour. Electrochem. Appl... efficiency of 3. J. J.00 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4. for 3. 2. Levine. Optical absorption. 112. and Mathers. 1. R.. 2. van Uitert. Optical Properties Emission color: Red Emission peak: 2.. Lett. Phys. Levine. 3.. Fire in open quartz boats.C. Fire in open quartz boats. Rare earth activated phosphors based on yttriuum orthovanadate and related compounds. Palilla.40 eV). Electrochem. Wash in a strong solution of NaOH (or KOH) in water and then several times in plain water. 5. M.. air. and Palilla...40 eV excitation can be somewhat improved by addition of Bi. J. 407 (1966). and Rinkevics.K.K. Role of F-orbital electron wave function mixing in concentration quenching of Eu3+. Spectra of some rare earth vanadates. 114. S. Electrochem. air. Energy transfer and fluorescence processes in Bi3+ and Eu3+ activated YVO4.. Phys. 2. 9. Mikus. Toma... Powderize. 1 hour. Lett. 3. This phosphor has been used for color correction of Hg arc lamps. and efficiency of luminescence. Phys. 115.

. 1. 70.H. and Abramson. 5. Optical Properties Emission color: Red Emission peaks: 1. 1 hour.C.. On luminescent properties of rare earth vanadates. Rev. Electrochem. 7. Bismuth in yttrium vanadate and yttrium europium vanadate phosphors. Blasse. 16 (1966). 112.40 eV) Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Absorption (%) 100 Emission .. R. A... + (3. Optics. 2. Electrochem. Powderize.773–2.K.. YVO4-Eu a new highly efficient phosphor for color television. 1 hour.K.88 eV). 9. 31. Dry. Technol. 900ºC. Fire in open quartz boats.. Fire in open quartz boats. Datta. 3. Brixner. 1100ºC. E. and Levine. 1467 (1966). and Palilla. A.. Soc. 114. The absorption and emission spectra of some important activators. F. Characteristic luminescence. air. L.Palilla. F. 10. 1..8 129 Preparation Mix by dry grinding or milling. 1100ºC. 1057 (1967). 304 (1970). Appl. A. Fire in open quartz boats.a highly efficient red-emitting phosphor for high pressure mercury lamps. 1 hour. Wash in a strong solution of NaOH (or KOH) in water and then several times in plain water. Electrochem... air. Soc. YVO4-Eu. 8. Levine. J.115 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4. and Bril. (1965). LaVO4:Eu3+ Structure: Monoclinic Composition Ingredient La2O3 Eu2O3 NH4VO3 Mole % 95 (of La) 5 (of Eu) 110 By weight (g) 155 8. G. Powderize.. 4. 11. J. Philips Tech. air.K..C.

. . J.40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: + Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 100 Emission 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Remarks 1. 2. This phosphor becomes excitable by 4.88 and by 3. – (3. air. 114. Gently heat up while stirring until reaction (boiling) indicates formations of H3AsO4.L. Optical Properties Emission color: Red Emission peaks: 1. Electrochem. Luminescent properties of Eu-activated phosphors of type A3BVO4. Soc. Structure and luminescence of phosphate-vanadates of yttrium gadolinium lutetium and lanthanum. 1 hour. 2.. 21.. Powderize when dry. 367 (1967). The material forms solid solutions with YVO4:Eu3+ in all proportions. Powderize. Philips Res. W. ~500ºC.References 1.09 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: – (4. 270 (1966).. Fire in open quartz boats. Dry in air. Wanmaker. YAsO4:Eu3+ Structure: Tetragonal (xenotime) Composition Ingredient Y 2O 3 Eu2O3 As2O3 Mole % 95 (of Y) 5 (of Eu) 100 (of As) By weight (g) 107 8. 1. 2. Rep.8 75 Preparation Mix by slurrying in 30% H2O2. 1200ºC.A. M.76–2.40 eV UV upon replacement of some As by V.88 eV). air. et al. Fire in open quartz boats. Aia.

Optical Properties Emission color: Red Emission peaks: 1. Absorption (%) 100 Emission . Wanmaker. 1. 21.. air. Philips Res. air.8 75 Preparation Mix by slurrying in 30% H2O2.785–2. Dry in air.88 eV). 1000ºC. The material forms solid solutions with LaVO4 in all proportions. Gently heat up while stirring until reaction (boiling) indicates formations of H3AsO4. This material becomes excitable by 3. 2. LaAsO4:Eu3+ Composition Ingredient La2O3 Eu2O3 As2O3 Mole % 95 (of La) 5 (of Eu) 100 (of As) By weight (g) 155 8. 1 hour. 2. Powderize. ~500ºC. W.Reference 1.L... – (3. Fire in open quartz boats.40 eV UV upon replacement of a few percent of the As by V. Powderize when dry. 270 (1966). Rep.40 eV) Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Remarks 1. Luminescent properties of Eu-activated phosphors of type A3BVO4.149 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: + (4. et al. Fire in open quartz boats.

16 hours (overnight). Reference 1.. P. Fire in capped quartz tubes. Ho) or very poorly luminescent (Eu3+). 1331 (1966).88 eV). – (3. Blue luminescence in calcium chlorovanadates.. Fire in capped quartz tubes. 1 hour.Ca5(VO4)3Cl Structure: Apatite Composition Ingredient CaO NH4VO3 NH4Cl Mole % 500 200 200 By weight (g) 280 234 107 Preparation Mix by dry grinding or milling (some NH3 develops). Aia. Soc. The luminescence of this phosphor is due to the vanadate. 1000ºC. Tb. and Lublin. Other impurities were tested as prospective activators but are either dead (Mn.73 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: + (4. J.A.40 eV) Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Remarks 1. 1. 2. Optical Properties Emission color: Bluish Emission peak: 2. 113. Electrochem. M. Powderize.. ~500ºC.85 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0. This phosphor requires a deficiency of V and an excess of Cl in the preparation. air. air. Absorption (%) 100 Emission . 2.

References 1.2 201 Preparation Mix by dry ball-milling. 2 hours.. Thorington. G.H. 579 (1950).. air. 40.. Optical Properties Emission color: Deep red Emission peak: 1.88 eV). + (3. 1. Activator center in magnesium fluorogermanate phosphors. 1200ºC. some parts (mainly Ge fluoride) sublimes out during firing. air. Fire in capped quartz tubes. 2. 33. Am. Kemeny. J. Soc. Fire in open quartz boats. This phosphor has been used for color correction of Hg arc lamps. 783 (1960). Phys. Absorption (%) 100 Emission .Mg8Ge2O11F2:Mn4+ Composition Ingredient MgO MgF2 MgCO3 GeO2 Mole % 700 100 8 192 By weight (g) 282 62 9. 2.40 eV) Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Remarks 1.88 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4.. Opt.. Chem. Temperature dependence of the emission of an improved manganeseactivated magnesium germanate phosphor. J. 1200ºC. C. and Haake. The exact formula of this material is still uncertain. The above formula is only that of the raw mix. L. Powderize by dry ball-milling. ~16 hours (overnight). 2.

– (3.40 eV) Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Mg3SiO3F4:Ti4+ Optical Properties Emission color: whitish-yellow Emission peak: 2.01 eV Excitation efficiency by UV:++ (4.88 eV). – (3.88 eV).CaY2ZrO6:Eu3+ Structure: Perovskite Optical Properties Emission color: Red Emission peak: 2.40 eV) Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Absorption (%) 100 Emission Absorption (%) 100 Emission .15 eV Excitation efficiency by UV:++ (4.

Powderize.15 Preparation Mix by slurrying in methanol.Tb3+ CaF2:U CaCl2:Eu2+ in SiO2 CaCl2:Eu2+.Mn2+ in SiO2 CaBr2:Eu2+ in SiO2 CaI2:Eu2+ in SiO2 CaI2:Eu2+. 1 hour. Dry. Fire in capped quartz tubes.11 Halides and Oxyhalides The following host compounds and activators are included in this subsection: MgF2:Mn2+ CaF2:Ce3+ CaF2:Eu2+ CaF2:Mn2+ CaF2:Ce3+.Th4+ KMgF3:Eu2+ KMgF3:Mn2+ LiAlF4:Mn2+ K2SiF6:Mn4+ YOBr:Eu3+ YOCl:Ce3+ YOCl:Eu3+ YOF:Eu3+ YOF:Tb3+ LaOF:Eu3+ LaOCl:Bi3+ LaOCl:Eu3+ MgF2:Mn2+ Structure: Tetragonal (sellaite) Composition Ingredient MgF2 MnCO3 Mole % 99 1 By weight (g) 62 1.4. N2.Mn2+ in SiO2 SrF2:Eu2+ SrCl2:Eu2+ in SiO2 Sr(Cl. Add ~2 g of NH4F (dissolved in a little water) and ~2–3 ccm of HF acid.I)2:Eu2+ in SiO2 ZnF2:Mn2+ BaxSr1–xF2:Eu2+ YF3:Mn2+ YF3:Mn2+. stir to uniformity. . 900ºC.Br.Mn2+ CaF2:Ce3+.

air. Pt.85 4.Optical Properties Emission color: Orange-yellow Emission peak: 2.. 4. mix by dry grinding. Philips Res. Powderize. and Huysman. Excitation efficiency by e-beam: +/~25% Decay: Exponential. 1 hour. and Scharmann... H. 1000ºC.....E. 1 hour. 289 (1947). Electrochem. 2. N2. Dry. 101.88 eV). A. J. The mechanism of the luminescence of solids.A. Add ~1–2 ccm HF acid. New manganese-activated fluoride phosphors. 441 (1953). Phys. Smith. A.. P. CaF2:Ce3+ Structure: Cubic (fluorite) Composition Ingredient CaF2 CeF3 AlF3 Mole % 90 5 5 By weight (g) 70 9. Zur thermolumineszenz von MgF2-Mn.. Make a slurry of the CaF2 + CeF3 + AlF3 in methanol. .. W. stir to uniformity.2 Preparation Start with plain CaF2 and pre-fire it in open quartz boats.40 eV).O. H.. Add ~2–3 g of iodine. Z. Williams. 189 (1954).25 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: (4. 1000ºC. P. Rep. Hanle. The manganese emission in AbF3 compounds. 16. about 200 msec to 1/10 Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 100 Emission 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Remark No sensitizer is known to permit excitation by these UV wavelengths. F.. Fire in capped quartz tubes. Klasens. and Eyring. J. Chem. powderize. F. A. Bräunlich. Soc.L. 15. 3. 869 (1961). 8. Naturforsch. (3.10 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0. References 1. Zalm.

Physica.. Phys.J. 3. Add ~2 ccm HF acid.A. Ultraviolet absorption spectra of Ce3+ in alkaline-earth fluorides. Leach. and Bakker. mix by dry grinding. 5. Energy transfer and sensitization in single crystal phosphors. 27 (1958). 98. Dry. 800ºC. 4. Add ~2–3 g of iodine. N2. Phys. Excitation efficiency by e-beam: + Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) (3.. 3. Kröger. Schlesinger. Soc. Soc. 105. Electrochem..2 (of Eu) By weight (g) 70 0. P. E.. stir to uniformity..88 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4.68 eV.W. J... CaF2:Eu2+ Structure: Cubic (fluorite) Composition Ingredient CaF2 Eu2O3 Mole % 100 0. R.. 1 hour. 270 (1967). Fire in capped quartz tubes..40 eV) 400 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 References 1. J.350 Preparation Mix by slurrying in methanol (in a plastic container). 2. Loh. 8. Investigations of 4f–5d transitions of Ce+3 in CaF2. F. M. R. Rev. 171. 628 (1941).88 eV). Electrochem..Optical Properties Emission color: UV Emission peak: 3. Ginther. 361 (1968). Absorption (%) 100 Emission . and Whippey. Powderize. powderize. Rev. 154.. Luminescence of K4MnCl6 and KCl (Pb + Mn). J. 74 (1951).

Fire in capped quartz tubes. powderize.L. 116. 68 (1969). Spectroscopic identification of europium-oxygen complexes in calcium fluoride.22 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4. R. J.. Electrochem. 800ºC. Photosensitization of terbium fluorescence by europium in CaF2. 1 hour. Add ~2–3 g of iodine.S. Amster.L.15 Preparation Mix by slurrying in methanol (in a plastic container). Add ~2 ccm HF acid. N2. ++ (3.88 eV by addition of Ce (see CaF2:Ce3+). and Wiggins. R..Optical Properties Emission color: Violet Emission peak: 2. Soc. Electrochem. 791 (1970). References 1..93 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0. stir to uniformity.. CaF2:Mn2+ Structure: Cubic (fluorite) Composition Ingredient CaF2 MnCO3 Mole % 99 1 By weight (g) 77 1. Powderize. mix by dry grinding. Dry.. Soc. 117.88 eV). C.40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: + Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Remark This material can be sensitized for better UV excitation with 4. Amster. 2. Absorption (%) 100 Emission . J.

678 (1962).40 eV with addition of Eu (see CaF2:Eu2+).D. Mn concentrations below 1% give somewhat longer decay times.Optical Properties Emission color: Blue-green Emission peak: 2. 4. New manganese-activated fluoride phosphors. Smith.. Electrochem. 45 msec to 1/10 Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 100 Emission 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Remarks 1.40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: +/1.A..O. R. W. and Mooney. J.50 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0. Electrochem. P. J. 2.L. and Kirk. J. .5% Decay: Near-exponential decay.. References 1. 3. 110.. Rep. Ginther. 3. and Huysman. Soc.. Electrochem. 101. Soc. The material can be sensitized for better UV excitation by 4.. The thermoluminescence of CaF2-Mn. H. Klasens. 189 (1954). 8. A. and Sayer.29 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: (4.88 eV). Philips Res.. 4. 5. M.. 109. 340 (1963). Soc. G. (3. Garlick. Decay of cathodoluminescence and nonradiative processes in manganese activated phosphors. Schmid.. up to ~60 msec to 1/10. 2.F. 104. 365 (1967). R..J.. Electrochem..F... F. The manganese emission in AbF3 compounds. The emission shifts to lower energy (= longer wavelength) with increasing Mn concentration. Soc. This material can be sensitized for better UV excitation by 3.W. R. J. Zalm.88 eV with addition of Ce (see CaF2:Ce3+). 441 (1953).J.

Fire in capped quartz tubes. and Bakker. 1 hour. Electrochem. 2. Add ~2–3 g of iodine. J.50 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0.CaF2:Ce3+.2 Preparation Start with plain CaF2 and pre-fire it in open quartz boats. Dry. 74 (1951).88 eV)..Mn2+ Structure: Cubic (fluorite) Optical Properties Emission color: Blue-green Emission peak: 2. 8. F. Excitation efficiency by e-beam: + Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) (3.. 1 hour. 98.J. Absorption (%) 100 Emission .35 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4. stir to uniformity. Soc. Powderize.. mix by dry grinding.Tb3+ Structure: Cubic (fluorite) Composition Ingredient CaF2 CeF3 TbF3 AlF3 Mole % 80 5 10 5 By weight (g) 62 9.. R.A.40 eV) 400 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 References 1. 1000ºC. Luminescence of K4MnCl6 and KCl (Pb + Mn). powderize. N2. 628 (1941). Add ~2 ccm HF acid. air. Ginther. 1000ºC. CaF2:Ce3+. Make a slurry of all the above ingredients in methanol.85 21. Physica. J.6 4. Kröger.

CaF2:U Structure: Cubic (fluorite) Composition Ingredient CaF2 UO2(NH3)2.Optical Properties Emission color: Pale green Emission peaks: 2. Reference 1.260 Preparation Dissolve the uranyl nitrate in a little methanol. Amster. 117. J.345 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0. Photosensitization of terbium fluorescence by europium in CaF2. powderize.11 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: + (4.88 eV).88 eV).26–2.6H2O LiF Mole % 100 0. 1000ºC.40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: Very poor Absorption (%) 100 Emission . Dry. Make a slurry of in methanol.. add solution to the CaF2 + LiF mix.1 1 By weight (g) 78 0. Powderize. 791 (1970). Excitation efficiency by e-beam: + Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) (3. Soc.500 0. + (3. 1 hour.28 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4.L. R. Fire in open alumina crucibles. Electrochem. Optical Properties Emission color: Green Emission peak: 2. stir to uniformity. air.40 eV) 400 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Remark UV excitation is almost exclusively determined by the Ce3+ absorption (see CaF2:Ce3+).

Fire in capped quartz tubes. mix by dry grinding.. Fire in capped quartz tubes.V.. Luminescence of hexavalent uranium in CaF2 and SrF2 powders. Status Solidi. 1000ºC. Karras. N2.Spectra 800 700 600 500 400 Wavelength (nm) 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 References 1. 1000ºC.. and Lehmann. 151 (1967). Add the above amount of NH4Cl once again. Uber die optischen eigenschaften der erdalkalihalogenide vom flussspat-typ(I). Phys. ++ (3.3 1. R. J. 551 (1961). 1. R. 2. Optical Properties Emission color: Blue-violet Emission peak: 2. 155. 3. Powderize when dry.97 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0. CO.88 eV). Powderize. Status Solidi. Dry in air. Phys. Nicholas. Wash in water several times. H. Karras. Gorlich. P. P. 387 (1961).. 2. plus a little water. 1 hour. Uber die optischen eigenschaften der erdalkalihalogenide vom flussspat-typ(II)..195 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4. 1. H.76 9. and Lehmann.. 1 hour.. Powderize. Phys.6 1 (of Eu) 17..4 60 Preparation Mix by slurrying in methanol.. Gorlich. Rev.. Dry.40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: Absorption (%) 100 Emission . 1. CaCl2:Eu2+ in SiO2 Structure: Orthorhombic Composition Ingredient CaO Eu2O3 NH4Cl SiO2 Mole % 7.5 100 By weight (g) 4.

Mn2+ in SiO2 Structure: Orthorhombic Composition Ingredient CaO NH4Cl Eu2O3 MnCO3 SiO2 Mole % 7. W.7 1.5 20 1 (of Eu) 1 100 By weight (g) 4. Soc. 1 hour.15 60 Preparation Mix by slurrying in methanol. Wash in water several times.30 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4. Heterogeneous halide-silica phosphors. mix by dry grinding. 900ºC. 1 hour. plus a little water. Optical Properties Emission color: Yellow Emission peak: 2. Dry in air. ++ (3. CaCl2:Eu2+.. CO.Spectra 800 700 600 500 400 Wavelength (nm) 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Reference 1.76 1.88 eV). Lehmann.40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: Absorption (%) 100 Emission .09 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0. N2. Dry. Powderize. J. Add the above amount of NH4Cl once again. 748 (1975).2 10.. 1000ºC. Powderize when dry. 2. Powderize. 1. Fire in capped quartz tubes. 122. Electrochem. Fire in capped quartz tubes.

Wash in water several times. Powderize. Reference 1. plus a little water. 1000ºC.5 100 By weight (g) 4. 1.2 60 Preparation Mix by slurrying in methanol.88 eV). Optical Properties Emission color: Blue Emission peak: ~2. Lehmann. Mn2+ are identical.40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: Absorption (%) 100 Emission . J.6 1. Soc.1 17.Spectra 800 700 600 500 400 Wavelength (nm) 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Remarks 1. Dry. Fire in capped quartz tubes. N2. 900ºC.. The emissions of CaCl2:Eu2+.. 1 hour. 122. CaBr2:Eu2+ in SiO2 Structure: Orthorhombic Composition Ingredient CaO Eu2O3 NH4Br SiO2 Mole % 7. Electrochem.2 (of Eu) 17. CO. Powderize. ++ (3. Heterogeneous halide-silica phosphors. Fire in capped quartz tubes. Dry in air. 2. mix by dry grinding. Powderize when dry. Mn2+ and CaBr2:Eu2+. 1 hour. Add the above amount of NH4Br once again.865 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0. 2.18 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4. 748 (1975).3 2. The Cl in this recipe can be replaced by Br. W.

Lehmann. J.40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: Absorption (%) 100 Emission . ++ (3. 748 (1975).5 29 60 Preparation Mix by slurrying in methanol. 2. 1.. W.4 2. 122. Soc. Dry.67 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0.21 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4. 1 hour. Powderize. Fire in capped quartz tubes. Fire in capped quartz tubes. plus a little water. CO.. N2. Powderize.Spectra 800 700 600 500 400 Wavelength (nm) 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Reference 1. 900ºC. Dry in air. Electrochem. 1 hour.88 eV). mix by dry grinding. Optical Properties Emission color: Light blue Emission peak: 2. Powderize when dry.34 3. 1000ºC. Heterogeneous halide-silica phosphors. CaI2:Eu2+ in SiO2 Composition Ingredient CaO CaF2 Eu2O3 NH4I SiO2 Mole % 6 3 2 (of Eu) 20 100 By weight (g) 3. Add the above amount of NH4I once again. Wash in water several times.

W. N2. J.. Add the above amount of NH4I once again.29 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4. Wash in water several times. Fire in capped quartz tubes. 1.65 (of Eu) 0. CO. Fire in capped quartz tubes. Electrochem. slightly pinkish hue Emission peak: 1.Mn2+ in SiO2 Composition Ingredient CaO CaF2 Eu2O3 MnCO3 NH4I SiO2 Mole % 7 1 0.9 0. Heterogeneous halide-silica phosphors. ++ (3.Spectra 800 700 600 500 400 Wavelength (nm) 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Remark This phosphor is sensitive to even very small traces of Mn which causes a red emission band (see CaI2:Eu2+. CaI2:Eu2+. Optical Properties Emission color: Light red. 1000ºC..14 0. Powderize when dry.40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: – Absorption (%) 100 Emission .78 1. Reference 1. Dry. 900ºC. 122.88 eV). Dry in air.70 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0. 1 hour. 1 hour. Powderize.115 21 60 Preparation Mix by slurrying in methanol.1 15 100 By weight (g) 3. additionally a weak Eu2+-emission band at 2.Mn2+). Lehmann. mix by dry grinding. 748 (1975). Powderize. plus a little water.95 eV. 2. Soc.

Spectra 800 700 600 500 400 Wavelength (nm) 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Reference 1.30 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4.88 eV).40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: Absorption (%) 100 Emission .95 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0.06 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0. Chenot.F. Lehmann. 748 (1975). 122. J. ++ (3. Heterogeneous halide-silica phosphors... 896 453 (1972)...12 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4. Pat. SrCl2:Eu2+ in SiO2 Optical Properties Emission color: Violet Emission peak: 3. W.. Can.88 eV).40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: + Reference 1. C. Soc. Electrochem. ++ (3. SrF2:Eu2+ Structure: Cubic (fluorite) Optical Properties Emission color: Violet Emission peak: 2.

2. Heterogeneous halide-silica phosphors. Sr(Cl. Powderize.015 eV. Powderize..3 2.12 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4.88 eV). mix by dry grinding. Wash in water several times. and SrI2 at ~2. N2. Fire in capped quartz tubes. Dry in air. Soc. 1 hour. W. for SrBr2 at ~3.. 1 hour. Electrochem. 122. for SrCl2 is 0. and for SrI2 is 0. Optical Properties Emission color: Violet Emission peaks: Peak position depending on the used halide. Powderize when dry.5 100 By weight (g) 8. Fire in capped quartz tubes.Br. ++ (3. Lehmann.I)2:Eu2+ in SiO2 Structure: Cubic Composition Ingredient SrO Eu2O3 NH4Cl SiO2 Mole % 8 1.5 (of Eu) 17.175 eV. for SrBr2 is 0. J. Dry. 748 (1975). 900ºC. CO.4 60 Preparation Mix by slurrying in methanol.40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: Absorption (%) 100 Emission . 1. for SrCl2 is at ~3.06 eV. 1000ºC.16 eV.865 eV.6 9. Emission width (FWHM): Width also depending on used halide. plus a little water.Spectra 800 700 600 500 400 Wavelength (nm) 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Reference 1. Add the above amount of NH4I once again.

ZnF2:Mn2+ Structure: Tetragonal Optical Properties Emission color: Orange-yellow Emission peak: 2. Lehmann. Leverenz.A. 122. John Wiley & Sons.W. Soc.40 eV) 400 Wavelength (nm) 300 100 Emission 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 References 1.. W. Electrochem. H.88 eV).. Reference 1... . Klasens.Spectra 800 700 600 500 400 Wavelength (nm) 300 Emission SrI2 SrBr2 SrCl2 100 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Remark The Cl in this recipe can be replaced by Br or I. J. P. and Huysman. New York (1949). 441 (1953). 8.O. Philips Res. An Introduction to Luminescence of Solids. Zalm. 748 (1975). The manganese emission in ABF3 compounds.. 2.. Rep. Heterogeneous halide-silica phosphors.. F. H.24 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: (4.12 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0. Excitation efficiency by e-beam: + Spectra 800 700 600 500 (3.

38. 7. Chem. Mou. Photoionization and trapping of electrons in the system BaF2:Eu:Sm.S..F. ++ (3. 11031–11038 (1993).E. Am. 709 (1949). C.D.8Sr0.. 38. J. 20. Soc.. W. 5. 6. Phys...04 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4. Soc. D. Rev.. New manganese-activated fluoride phosphors. Optical properties of zinc fluoride phosphors.3Sr0. Opt.17. Johnson.8F2:Eu 2+ Ba0.. 2. 101. J. B. F... The phosphorescence decay of halophosphates and other doubly activated phosphors.2Sr0.. G.E. Can. and Williams. P. Thermoluminescence of manganese-activated zinc fluoride phosphors. Am. 39. F. 189 (1954). F. Fonda. Studer. J. J. Am.L.9F2:Eu 2+ Ba0.S. Smith. Pat. and Williams. and Rosenbaum..J. Electrochem. 47 no. 896 453 (1972). and McClure.88 eV).. Opt.6F2:Eu Ba0. J. J. J. Opt.R.F. 1007 (1948). and Studer F..4Sr0.2F2:Eu 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) Wavelength (nm) 5 0 800 700 600 500 2+ 400 300 Excitation BaF2:Eu 50 2 3 References 1. A. 124 (1952)..3.. Energy levels and rate processes in the thallium activated potassium chloride phosphor. Phys. Soc. 4. 1007 (1948).7F2:Eu 2+ 2+ 2+ 100 Emission 50 Ba0.J.. Johnson. Chenot. BaxSr1–xF2:Eu2+ Structure: Cubic (fluorite) Optical Properties Emission color: varies with composition from yellow to blue Emission peak: varies with composition from 2. Soc.04 to 3.40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: + Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 SrF2:Eu 2+ Ba0.1Sr0... 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Absorption (%) 100 .

40 eV) . Kaplyansky. Opt. Opt. Nature of luminescence of bivalent Eu and Yb ions in fluorite-type crystals.G. Spektr..3. Spektr.40 eV) 400 Wavelength (nm) 300 100 Emission 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 YF3:Mn2+. 13. 45. Reut.. 518 (1978) [Opt.A. Reut. (USSR) 45. Excitation efficiency by e-beam: + (3. Excitation efficiency by e-beam: + Spectra 800 700 600 500 (3. A. YF3:Mn2+ Structure: Orthorhombic Optical Properties Emission color: Greenish Emission peaks: 2.29 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: (4. P.38 and 2. 4. Spectrosc. 129 (1962)].60 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: (4. 2.. Spektr. 99 (1976) [Opt. 55 (1976)]. Spectra of divalent rare earth ions in crystals of alkali-earth fluorides. Europium and Ytterbium. Spectrosc. and Feofilov. (USSR) 13... 235 (1962) [Opt. Study on characteristics of wideband luminescence of Eu and Yb ions in crystals with fluorite structure. 40. 290 (1978)]. 5.P. E. Spectrosc.88 eV).. Opt.Th4+ Structure: Orthorhombic Optical Properties Emission color: Light blue Emission peak: 2. (USSR) 40.G. E.60 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0..88 eV).

no. Lumin.K. H. Divalent europium luminescence in perovskite-like alkaline-earth alkaline fluorides.40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: + . 12688–12695 (2000). A.. 2. and Bril. 11. 293 (1994). A.88 eV). 62... B. 19.40 eV) References 1. J.Spectra 800 700 600 500 400 Wavelength (nm) 300 100 Emission 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 KMgF3:Eu2+ Structure: Cubic (perovskite) Optical Properties Emission color: UV Emission peak: 3. Ellens.. Meijerink. and Blasse. Sommerdijk... B. 6I emission and vibronic transitions of Eu2+ in KMgF3 .J.. Seo. 363 (1976). Excitation efficiency by e-beam: (3.. Two-photon excitation spectroscopy of 4f7 4f7 transitions of Eu2+ ions doped in a KMgF3 crystal..08 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0. Rev. J. – (3. Moon.42 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: + (4.88 eV). Lumin. G. 59.. Phys. J.L. KMgF3:Mn2+ Structure: Cubic (perovskite) Optical Properties Emission color: Orange Emission peak: 2. A. and Tsuboi. T.18 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: – (4. 3.

109.40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: + Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 100 Emission 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 K2SiF6:Mn4+ Structure: Cubic Optical Properties Emission color: Red Emission peak: 1. LiAlF4:Mn2+ Optical Properties Emission color: Red Emission peak: 1. 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 characteristics of Mn-activated KMgF3 . ++ (3. – (3.88 eV). Electrochem..J. Soc. 18 (1962). Kurtz.Spectra 800 700 600 500 400 Wavelength (nm) 300 100 Emission 50 2 3 Reference 1. Cathodoluminescent J.99 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0.40 eV) ..88 eV).97 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4. R.26 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: – (4.

942 (1973).4 8.Spectra 800 700 600 500 400 Wavelength (nm) 300 100 Emission 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Reference 1. 1 hour. 120. 1100ºC. ½ hour. main line at 1. Paulusz. N2. Powderize. N2. to let the conversion of Y2O3 to YOBr take place)..88 eV). ~500ºC. Efficient Mn(IV) emission in fluorine coordination.967–2. YOBr:Eu3+ Structure: Rhombohedral Composition Ingredient Y 2O 3 Eu2O3 NH4Br Mole % 95 (of Y) 5 (of Eu) 110 By weight (g) 107. Boil down to dry (slowly. Wash in water several times.40 eV) . Fire in capped quartz tubes..996 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: – (4. Electrochem. 1. Powderize.150 eV.8 108 Preparation Make a suspension of all ingredients in water. J. Soc. Fire in capped quartz tubes.G. A. 2. Dry. Powderize. Optical Properties Emission color: Red Emission peaks: 1. – (3.

Soc. 1067 (1968). 1. Rev.D. A. and Poorter. G. A. Characteristic luminescence. Fast-decay phosphors. Philips Tech. Electrochem. and Bril. The absorption and emission spectra of some important activators. and Bril. – (3. 304 (1970). 117..24 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0. and Bril. Blasse. 2. YOCl:Ce3+ Structure: Rhombohedral (matlockite) Optical Properties Emission color: Violet UV Emission peak: 3. Absorption (%) 100 Emission .. It tends either to be partly reduced (forming Eu2+. J. Soc.. Blasse. Keep dry. Electrochem..47 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4.. J. 3. A. 2..40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: + Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 100 Emission 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 References 1.. Blasse. G. 115.A. G. This phosphor is difficult to prepare. This phosphor is hygroscopic.88 eV). J.. 31. Photoluminescent efficiency of phosphors with electronic transitions in localized centers..Spectra 800 700 600 500 400 Wavelength (nm) 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Remarks 1. blue emission) or to be partly oxidized (liberating brown bromine). 346 (1970)..

. – (3. to let the conversion of Y2O3 to YOCl take place). Powderize.4 8.97–2. Powderize. Phys. 1. Reference 1. Blasse.00 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4. A. 440 (1966). and Bril. ½ hour. Absorption (%) 100 Emission . main peak at 2. 2. N2.88 eV).40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Remark This phosphor is hygroscopic. Dry. Optical Properties Emission color: Red Emission peaks: 1. 1100ºC. 23..YOCl:Eu3+ Structure: Rhombohedral (matlockite) Composition Ingredient Y 2O 3 Eu2O3 NH4Cl Mole % 95 (of Y) 5 (of Eu) 110 By weight (g) 107.8 59 Preparation Make a suspension of all ingredients in water. ~500ºC. 1 hour.14 eV. Keep dry.. N2. Fire in capped quartz tubes. Boil down to dry (slowly. Broad band UV excitation of Sm3+-activated phosphors. Wash in water several times. Lett. Powderize. G. Fire in capped quartz tubes.

6 Absorption (%) 100 Emission . G. 1.YOF:Eu3+ Composition Ingredient Y 2O 3 Eu2O3 YF3 Mole % 64 (of Y) 2 (of Eu) 34 By weight (g) 72.. 440 (1966).4 49. N2. Fire in capped quartz tubes. Optical Properties Emission color: Light red Emission peaks: 1..105 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: + (4.038. Powderize when dry.3 3. 23.977.88 eV). and 2. 2. 1200ºC. Blasse.6 Preparation Mix by slurrying in water or methanol. YOF:Tb3+ Composition Ingredient Y 2O 3 Tb4O7 YF3 Mole % 61 (of Y) 5 (of Tb) 34 By weight (g) 69 9. 2.. – (3. Powderize. 1 hour. Broad band UV excitation of Sm3+-activated phosphors. N2. Lett. Phys. Dry in air. 1000ºC. 1 hour. Fire in capped quartz tubes. and Bril. A.5 49.40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Reference 1.

1 hour.88 eV). N2. Fire in capped quartz tubes. 1. N2. 2. 1000ºC. 1000ºC.40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: +/4–5% Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 100 Emission 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Remark UV excitation is very poor (too little absorption) and can probably be improved by addition of Ce3+. Powderize. Dry in air. – (3.Preparation Mix by slurrying in water or methanol.993 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: – (4. 1 hour. Fire in capped quartz tubes. Optical Properties Emission color: Pale green Emission peaks: 1.981 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: + (4.4 8.982–2. 1200ºC. Dry in air. LaOF:Eu3+ Composition Ingredient La2O3 Eu2O3 LaF3 Mole % 61 (of La) 5 (of Eu) 34 By weight (g) 99. 1 hour.145 eV. N2. Optical Properties Emission color: Red Emission peak: 1. N2.40 eV) . Powderize. Powderize when dry.981–2. 1. main line at 1.6 Preparation Mix by slurrying in water or methanol. – (3. Fire in capped quartz tubes. Powderize when dry.8 66. 1200ºC.88 eV). 2. 1 hour. Fire in capped quartz tubes.

et al.40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: + Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 50 2 3 References 1.... A.. 95 (1975).Spectra 800 700 600 500 400 Wavelength (nm) 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 LaOCl:Bi3+ Structure: Rhombohedral (matlockite) Optical Properties Emission color: UV Emission peak: 3.. 48. Photoluminescence processes in LaOCl-Bi and YOCl-Bi. 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Absorption (%) 100 Emission Absorption (%) 100 Emission . Phys. 10. – (3. G.88 eV). J. Proc. Blasse.. and Bril. Chem. 2. Boulon. B.58 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: + (4. 48. Investigations on BI3+-activated phosphors. Int. Conf. 217 (1968). G. Lumin. Phys. J. 217 (1968)..56 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0. Jaquier. 3.

Characteristic luminescence. Blasse.88 eV). 31. Philips Tech. 304 (1970). 1.. and Bril. Rev.LaOCl:Eu3+ Structure: Rhombohedral (matlockite) Optical Properties Emission color: Light red Emission peak: 2.40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: – Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Reference 1. The absorption and emission spectra of some important activators.. Absorption (%) 100 Emission . G. A. – (3.02 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: + (4..

Mn2+ Mg2Sr(SO4)3:Eu2+ MgSO4:Eu2+ Structure: Orthorhombic Composition Ingredient MgSO4 Eu2O3 (NH4)2SO4 NH4Cl Mole % 97 3 ~10 1 By weight (g) 117 5. 1 hour.2 0.3 13.4. Optical Properties Emission color: UV Emission peak: 3. Store in well-closed containers.12 Sulfates The following host compounds and activators are included in this subsection: MgSO4:Eu2+ MgSO4:Pb2+ CaSO4:Eu2+.540 Preparation Mix by dry grinding or milling. N2.88 eV).40 eV) .24 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: + (4.Mn2+ SrSO4:Eu2+ BaSO4:Ce3+ BaSO4:Eu2+ MgBa(SO4)2:Eu2+ Mg2Ca(SO4)3:Eu2+ Mg2Ca(SO4)3:Eu2+. Powderize. Fire in capped quartz tubes.Mn2+ CaSO4:Pb2+ CaSO4:Bi CaSO4:Ce3+ CaSO4:Ce3+. + (3.31 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0. 1000ºC.Mn2+ CaSO4:Eu2+ SrSO4:Bi SrSO4:Ce3+ SrSO4:Eu2+.

65 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0. 1000ºC. Store in well-closed containers. MgSO4:Pb2+ Structure: Orthorhombic Composition Ingredient MgSO4 PbO (NH4)2SO4 NH4Cl Mole % 97 3 ~10 1 By weight (g) 117 56. Fire in capped quartz tubes. Optical Properties Emission color: UV Emission peak: 4.2 0. N2.46 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: – (4.7 13.88 eV). 1 hour.540 Preparation Mix by dry grinding or milling.Spectra 800 700 600 500 400 Wavelength (nm) 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Remark MgSO4 (epsom salt) is water soluble. Keep dry. Powderize. – (3.40 eV) Absorption (%) 100 Emission .

½ hour. 900ºC. 1. N2. 1 hour.Mn2+ Structure: Orthorhombic (anhydrite) Composition Ingredient CaSO4 Eu2O3 MnCO3 (NH4)2SO4 Mole % 90 5 (of Eu) 5 ~10 By weight (g) 123 8. ++ (3. Dry.88 eV).20 eV (Eu2+) Emission width (FWHM): 0. Keep dry.40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: +/1% Absorption (%) 100 Emission . 800ºC.75 13.2 Preparation Mix by dry grinding or milling. 2. 3. Add ~5 g of NH4Br and ~10 g of (NH4)2SO4. Powderize. N2. 2. This material is excited only by UV of ~240 nm or shorter and apparently is fairly efficient. Fire in capped quartz tubes. mix by dry grinding.8 5. Powderize. Fire in capped quartz tubes.42 eV (Mn2+). CaSO4:Eu2+.Spectra 800 700 600 500 400 Wavelength (nm) 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Remarks 1.30 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4. Wash in water several times. MgSO4 (epsom salt) is water soluble. Optical Properties Emission color: Bluish-green Emission peak: 2.

Fire in capped quartz tubes. shifting to blue-green for 1% Mn and to yellow-green for 10% Mn.33 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0. 1 hour.6 Preparation Mix by dry grinding or milling. Dry. Fire in capped quartz tubes.Spectra 800 700 600 500 400 Wavelength (nm) 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Remark The spectral positions of the Mn2+-emission band depends on the Mn concentration used.88 eV). 2.33 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: – (4. 950ºC. 1000ºC. – (3. N2.780 2. Fire in capped quartz tubes. 1 hour. CaSO4:Pb2+ Structure: Orthorhombic (anhydrite) Composition Ingredient CaSO4 CaF2 PbO (NH4)2SO4 Mole % 98 1 1 ~5 By weight (g) 133 0. 3. Powderize. N2.6 g of (NH4)2SO4. 1050ºC. 1. Add another 6. 1 hour. Mix by dry grinding. Powderize. Add 5 g of NH4Cl.40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: + Absorption (%) 100 Emission . Wash in water several times.23 6. N2. Mix by dry grinding. Optical Properties Emission color: UV Emission peak: 5.

Fire in covered alumina crucibles. 1 hour. – (3.6 Preparation Mix by dry grinding or milling. 950ºC. N2.16 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: – (4. It discolors in fluorescent lamps because of (probably) undissolved PbSO4 dissociation to PbO.Spectra 800 700 600 500 400 Wavelength (nm) 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 6 0 Remarks 1. 1. Wash in water several times. Powderize. 2. CaSO4:Bi Structure: Orthorhombic (anhydrite) Composition Ingredient CaSO4 Bi2O3 Na2SO4 (NH4)2SO4 Mole % 98 1 (of Bi) 5 (of Na) ~5 By weight (g) 118 2.3 3. 2. Fire in covered alumina crucibles. mix by dry grinding. N2. This phosphor is excited only by UV of ~220 nm or shorter and is fairly efficient.02 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0. Dry. 1 hour.40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: +/0.88 eV). Add another 5–6 g of (NH4)2SO4.7% Absorption (%) 100 Emission .5 6. Optical Properties Emission color: Light red Emission peak: 2. 900ºC.

Powderize.6 13. 900ºC. N2. Powderize. 2. N2. 1 hour. Electrochem. Optical Properties Emission color: UV Emission peak: 3. J..88 eV). F. et al. 132 (1949). 4. 1 hour. Add above amounts of Na2SO4 and (NH4)2SO4 once again. 900ºC. 1.A. Dry. 96. Wash in water several times. Fire in covered alumina crucibles. Fire in covered alumina crucibles.79 eV..Spectra 800 700 600 500 400 Wavelength (nm) 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Remark The nature of this red emission is still unknown: It is not likely to be due to Bi3+ but it may possibly be due to Bi5+ substituting for S6+. mix by dry grinding.2 3. Soc. – (3.01 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4. CaSO4:Ce3+ Structure: Orthorhombic (anhydrite) Composition Ingredient CaSO4 CeO2 Na2SO4 (NH4)2SO4 Mole % 94 3 5 (of Na) ~10 By weight (g) 128 5. Bismuth as activator in fluorescent solids.. Reference 1.2 Preparation Mix by dry grinding or milling. Kröger.40 eV) Absorption (%) 100 Emission .

5 6 ~10 By weight (g) 121 4. N2. Powderize. Dry.5 2.2 Preparation Mix by dry grinding or milling.3 6. mix by dry grinding. Fire in capped quartz tubes. N2. 1 hour.40 eV) Absorption (%) 100 Emission . Add ~2 g of Li2SO4 and ~6 g of (NH4)2SO4. Optical Properties Emission color: Yellow-green Emission peak: 2. Wash in water several times. mix by dry grinding. 1000ºC. 800ºC.Mn2+ Structure: Orthorhombic (anhydrite) Composition Ingredient CaSO4 CeO2 MnCO4 (NH4)2SO4 Mole % 88. mix by dry grinding. Fire in capped quartz tubes. Powderize. 1. 700ºC.9 13.35 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0. Powderize. Add ~6 g of (NH4)2SO4. Powderize. Fire in capped quartz tubes.88 eV). N2. 3.36 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4. N2. 4. Add ~10 g of (NH4)2SO4. 2. 700ºC. Fire in capped quartz tubes. ++ (3.Spectra 800 700 600 500 400 Wavelength (nm) 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 CaSO4:Ce3+.

2. 1. Add another 6. Tech. Fire in capped quartz tubes.12 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4. mix by dry grinding.. DC. 3.Spectra 800 700 600 500 400 Wavelength (nm) 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 References 1. 7. J. Dry.76 6. Powderize. and Ruffler. Fire in capped quartz tubes. Optical Properties Emission color: Very deep violet Emission peak: 3. Powderize. 232 (1958). N2. 1 hour..1 µsec to 1/10 Absorption (%) 100 Emission .. OSRAM Ges. 1 hour.. Rabatin.40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: +/4% Decay: Near-exponential decay. Meeting. Fire in capped quartz tubes. J. Powderize. 1 hour.88 eV). Wiss.6 g of (NH4)2SO4.6 Preparation Mix by dry grinding or milling. Wash in water several times. 950ºC. Soc. 2. 157 (May 1976). about 1. CaSO4:Eu2+ Structure: Orthorhombic (anhydrite) Composition Ingredient CaSO4 Eu2O3 (NH4)2SO4 Mole % 99 1 (of Eu) ~5 By weight (g) 135 1.20 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0. H. 1000ºC. Abh. Rudolf. ++ (3. N2. mix by dry grinding. 950ºC. Washington. Abstr. N2. Add 5 g of NH4Cl. Electrochem.

3 3. K.Spectra 800 700 600 500 400 Wavelength (nm) 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Remark This CaSO4 phosphor is stable in water.L. SrSO4 and BaSO4. N2.04 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0. Thermoluminescence of rare earth activated CdSO4. Dixon. U.6 Preparation Mix by dry grinding or milling. 3 669 897 (1971).15 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: – (4... D. Add another 5–6 g of (NH4)2SO4. mix by dry grinding. Dry. J. References 1. and Ekstrand. SrSO4:Bi Structure: Orthorhombic Composition Ingredient SrSO4 Bi2O3 Na2SO4 (NH4)2SO4 Mole % 98 1 (of Bi) 5 (of Na) ~5 By weight (g) 180 2.. R.88 eV). 1 hour. Optical Properties Emission color: Orange-red Emission peak: 2. Fire in covered alumina crucibles. Wash in water several times..5% Absorption (%) 100 Emission .40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: +/1–1. Powderize. 3. Pat. Wachtel. Luckey. – (3. 1 hour. N2. 950ºC. Powderize. A. Fire in covered alumina crucibles. Pat.. 900ºC. 2 051 240 (1971). 383 (1974).E. 1. 8. 2.S. Lumin. 2. Germ...5 6.

. Dry.. 1 hour. 96. 900ºC. N2. Bismuth as activator in fluorescent solids. Powderize.40 eV) Absorption (%) 100 Emission . 1. Wash in water several times. F.89 and 4. Powderize. Add the above amounts of Na2SO4 and (NH4)2SO4 once again.88 eV). Optical Properties Emission color: UV Emission peak: 3.6 13. – (3. 132 (1949). Reference 1. Soc. 900ºC. Kröger. N2. SrSO4:Ce3+ Structure: Orthorhombic Composition Ingredient SrSO4 CeO2 Na2SO4 (NH4)2SO4 Mole % 94 3 5 (of Na) ~10 By weight (g) 173 5.Spectra 800 700 600 500 400 Wavelength (nm) 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Remark The nature of this emission is still unknown: It is not likely to be due to Bi3+ but it may possibly be due to Bi5+ substituting for S6+.2 3.2 Preparation Mix by dry grinding or milling. mix by dry grinding.A. J. 2. Fire in covered alumina crucibles. Fire in covered alumina crucibles. et al. 1 hour. Electrochem.11 eV (Two overlapping bands) Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4.

5 1. Optical Properties Emission color: UV Emission peak: 3. Fire in capped quartz tubes. 3. Powderize. Wash in water several times. 1 hour. 800ºC. Dry. N2.88 eV).88 eV). 1 hour.26 6. ++ (3.6 Preparation Mix by dry grinding or milling. ++ (3. 900ºC.Spectra 800 700 600 500 400 Wavelength (nm) 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 SrSO4:Eu2+. Powderize. Fire in capped quartz tubes. 1 hour.19 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0. Add another 6.24 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4. N2. about 5 µsec to 1/10 Absorption (%) 100 Emission . Fire in capped quartz tubes. 1.29 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4. 900ºC. mix by dry grinding. 2. Powderize.30 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0.Mn2+ Structure: Orthorhombic Optical Properties Emission color: Orange Emission peak: 2.40 eV) SrSO4:Eu2+ Structure: Orthorhombic Composition Ingredient SrSO4 Eu2O3 SrF2 (NH4)2SO4 Mole % 98 2 (of Eu) 1 ~5 By weight (g) 180 3.40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: +/5% Decay: Near-exponential decay. Add 5 g of NH4Cl.6 g of (NH4)2SO4. mix by dry grinding.

Wachtel. Powderize.88 eV). SrSO4 and BaSO4. Optical Properties Emission color: UV Emission peak: 3. 1. Powderize.S.89 eV. U. 1 hour. Fire in covered alumina crucibles. N2. 4..2 3.. 2. J. mix by dry grinding.. 2 051 240 (1971). Pat.. 8. Pat. Luckey. Wash in water several times.6 13. Lumin.2 Preparation Mix by dry grinding or milling. R.. – (3. Germ. 900ºC. D. Fire in covered alumina crucibles. and Ekstrand..L. 3 669 897 (1971).Spectra 800 700 600 500 400 Wavelength (nm) 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 References 1.E. BaSO4:Ce3+ Structure: Orthorhombic Composition Ingredient BaSO4 CeO2 Na2SO4 (NH4)2SO4 Mole % 94 3 5 (of Na) ~10 By weight (g) 173 5.. Dry. 2. 3. A. Dixon.11 eV (Two overlapping bands) Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4. N2. 1 hour. Add the above amounts of Na2SO4 and (NH4)2SO4 once again.40 eV) Absorption (%) 100 Emission . Thermoluminescence of rare earth activated CdSO4. K. 900ºC. 383 (1974).

mix by dry grinding. 900ºC.6 g of (NH4)2SO4. 1 hour.40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: +/5% Decay: Near-exponential decay. Wash in water several times.30 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0. mix by dry grinding. Add 5 g of NH4Cl. Powderize. 1 hour. Dry. Fire in capped quartz tubes. + (3. 1 hour.21 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4. 3. 1. Fire in capped quartz tubes. Optical Properties Emission color: UV Emission peak: 3. Powderize. 900ºC. N2. N2.88 eV).6 Preparation Mix by dry grinding or milling. Fire in capped quartz tubes. Add another 6. 800ºC.5 1.26 6. about 5 µsec to 1/10 Absorption (%) 100 Emission . 2. Powderize.Spectra 800 700 600 500 400 Wavelength (nm) 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 BaSO4:Eu2+ Structure: Orthorhombic Composition Ingredient BaSO4 Eu2O3 SrF2 (NH4)2SO4 Mole % 98 2 (of Eu) 1 ~5 By weight (g) 180 3.

Pat.455 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4.6 13.Spectra 800 700 600 500 400 Wavelength (nm) 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Reference 1.. Fire in capped quartz tubes. 1100ºC. 900ºC. N2. – (3. Powderize.. Fire in capped quartz tubes. 1. Optical Properties Emission color: UV Emission peak: Main peak at 3. Germ. N2. MgBa(SO4)2:Eu2+ Structure: KAl (SO4)2 Composition Ingredient MgSO4 BaSO4 Eu2O3 (NH4)2SO4 Mole % 100 94 6 (of Eu) ~10 By weight (g) 120 219 10. Powderize. 2 051 240 (1971). 2. Store in a well-closed container.2 Preparation Mix by dry grinding or milling. Luckey. D.40 eV) Absorption (%) 100 Emission . Add ~10 g of (NH4)2SO4.88 eV). mix by dry grinding. 1 hour. 1 hour.

1272 (1977).. 2. Blasse. G. J. G. F. 900ºC. Blasse.06 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0.M... 3. Electrochem. 1475 (1974).6 13. Optical Properties Emission color: Violet Emission peak: 3... 121... and Stegenga. VanDenHeuvel. 950ºC.. Solid State Chem. 1. J. Mg2Ca(SO4)3:Eu2+ Composition Ingredient MgSO4 CaSO4 Eu2O3 (NH4)2SO4 Mole % 200 94 6 (of Eu) ~10 By weight (g) 240 128 10. 876 (1976). Fine-structure in optical-spectra of divalent europium in alkalineearth sulfates. 1 hour. 4. N2. References 1. Luminescence of barium magnesium-sulfate. 439 (1976).. ++ (3.2 Preparation Mix by dry grinding or milling. Sakaguchi. 2.Spectra 800 700 600 500 400 Wavelength (nm) 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Remark This material decomposes in contact with water or in moist air.40 eV) Absorption (%) 100 Emission .28 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4.. Crystal-structure of barium magnesiumsulfate. M.P. 17. Ryan.88 eV). Nucl..M. Chem. 38. Soc. and VanDenHeuvel. et al. mix by dry grinding. Soc. et al. G. Thermoluminescence characteristics of binary sulfate phosphors. J. Inorg. J. Fire in capped quartz tubes. Add ~5 g of NH4Br. Fire in capped quartz tubes. N2. G. 124. Electrochem. Powderize. and ~10 g of (NH4)2SO4.M.P. J.

N2. Mg2Ca(SO4)3:Eu2+. 2. and ~10 g of (NH4)2SO4. 3. Add ~5 g of NH4Br. Fire in capped quartz tubes. 1 hour. Powderize. Fire in capped quartz tubes. N2.40 eV) Spectra 800 700 600 500 400 Wavelength (nm) 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Absorption (%) 100 Emission Absorption (%) 100 Emission .2 Preparation Mix by dry grinding or milling. Keep dry.2 13.01 eV (Mn2+). 1.8 9.06 eV (Eu2+) Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4. Optical Properties Emission color: Orange-red Emission peak: 2.Spectra 800 700 600 500 400 Wavelength (nm) 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Remark This material decomposes in contact with water or in moist air. ++ (3. 900ºC. 950ºC.88 eV). mix by dry grinding.Mn2+ Composition Ingredient MgSO4 CaSO4 Eu2O3 MnCO3 (NH4)2SO4 Mole % 200 87 5 (of Eu) 8 ~10 By weight (g) 240 119 8.

1.6 13.40 eV) Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Remark This material decomposes in contact with water or in moist air.Remark This material decomposes in contact with water or in moist air.21 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0. Absorption (%) 100 Emission . Mg2Sr(SO4)3:Eu2+ Composition Ingredient MgO SrSO4 Eu2O3 (NH4)2SO4 Mole % 200 94 6 (of Eu) ~10 By weight (g) 240 173 10. Powderize.23 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4.2 Preparation Mix by dry grinding or milling. 900ºC. 1 hour. Powderize. mix by dry grinding. Optical Properties Emission color: Barely visible deep violet Emission peak: 3. N2. 2. 1100ºC.88 eV). Store in a well-closed container. + (3. 1 hour. Keep dry. N2. Fire in capped quartz tubes. Fire in capped quartz tubes. Add 10 g of (NH4)2SO4.

Al3+ ZnS:Cu+. then add the NH4Cl solution.Cl Structure: Hexagonal (wurtzite) Composition Ingredient ZnS AgNO3 NH4Cl Mole % 100 0.Br.050 2.Cl ZnS:Pb.Cl ZnS-CdS:Cu.In ZnS:Cl ZnS:Cu. .13 ZnS-Type Sulfides The following host compounds and activators are included in this subsection: ZnS:Ag+. First add the silver solution. Powderize when dry.5 Preparation Dissolve the AgNO3 and the NH4Cl separately.Li+ ZnSe:Cu+.4.3 5 By weight (g) 98 0. stir.Cl ZnS:Pb2+ ZnS:Pb2+.Cl CdS:In ZnS-CdS:Cu.Cl ZnS:Eu2+ ZnS:Mn2+ ZnS:Mn2+.Cl CdS:Ag+. and stir again. Make a slurry of the ZnS in water or methanol. each in a little water. Dry in air.Te2+ ZnS:P ZnS:P3 .Sn ZnS:Cu+.Ag ZnS:Sn2+.Cl ZnS:Au.Ni ZnS-CdS:Ag+.Br long life ZnS-CdS:Cu.I ZnS-CdS (25-75) ZnS-CdS (50-50) ZnS-CdS (75-25) ZnS-CdS:Ag.Br high brightness ZnS-ZnTe:Mn2+ 98-2 ZnS:Ag+.Cu ZnS:Sn2+ ZnS:Sn.

2.. Powderize. Goldberg.005 0. 1100ºC.. Fire in capped quartz tubes.80 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0. Shionoya. Dry..5 Preparation Dissolve the gold in a very little amount of aqua regia.010 0. 1 hour. P. Add this solution to the ZnS.W.0023 2. H. Absorption (%) 100 Emission . Leverenz.Add ~2–3 g of sulfur. Academic Press. New York (1966). New York (1949).In Structure: Hexagonal (wurtzite) Composition Ingredient ZnS Au metal In2O3 NH4Cl Mole % 100 0.40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: ++ Decay: Non-exponential decay in the microsecond range Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Remarks 1. Wash in water several times (to remove leftover halide). ++ (3. The chlorine in the above recipe may be replaced by bromine.. Make a slurry in methanol. Powderize. N2. An Introduction to Luminescence of Solids.88 eV). John Wiley & Sons. ZnS:Au.002 (of In) 5 By weight (g) 98 0. References 1. Dry. This phosphor corresponds to the commercial P-22B. in Luminescence of Inorganic Solids. 2.34 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4. S. Optical Properties Emission color: Blue Emission peak: 2. Ed.

and powderize. 1 hour. Fire in capped quartz tubes. H2S. ++ (3. Powderize. long afterglow Emission peaks: 2. 900ºC.40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: ++ Absorption (%) 100 Emission . 2.88 eV). N2. Fire in open quartz boats.67 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0.50 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4. 900ºC. Optical Properties Emission color: Blue-green. Make a slurry of the phosphor in methanol. Add about 2–3 g of sulfur. N2. mix by dry grinding. H2S. ZnS:Cl Structure: Cubic. stir. 1 hour. hexagonal (wurtzite) Optical Properties Emission color: Blue Emission peak: 2.70 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0. 3.34 eV.40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: + Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Remark The green phosphorescence of this phosphor after excitation by UV or by e-beam is visible for several hours in the dark.1. add the solution to the slurry. Add the dry NH4Cl and about 2–3 g of sulfur.88 eV). Fire in open quartz boats. Dissolve the In2O3 in a little nitric acid. 4.34 eV (First peak) Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4. 1200ºC. 2. dry. Fire in capped quartz tubes. ++ (3. Powderize. 1 hour. 900ºC.

An Introduction to Luminescence of Solids... Powderize.001 By weight (g) 98 0. in Luminescence of Inorganic Solids. New York (1949). Dry. New York (1966).150 0. Fire in capped quartz tubes. 1150ºC.Sn Structure: Hexagonal (wurtzite) Composition Ingredient ZnS SnS Cu(C2H3O2)2. John Wiley & Sons. Academic Press.. add solution to the ZnS + SnS mix. Shionoya. Leverenz.W. P.1 0. . Make a slurry in water or methanol. 1 hour. Add ~2–3 g of sulfur.. H. H2O Mole % 100 0. Goldberg.Spectra (cubic) 800 700 600 500 400 Wavelength (nm) 300 100 Emission 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) Wavelength (nm) 5 0 Spectra (hexagonal) 800 700 600 500 400 300 100 Emission 50 2 3 References 1. 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 ZnS:Cu.002 Preparation Dissolve the copper acetate in a little water. S. N2. Ed. 2.

Dry. Fire in capped quartz tubes.32 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4. 1 hour. 2. 1100ºC.40 eV) Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Remarks 1.88 eV). Dry. Wash in water several times (stir.88 eV).400 Preparation Dissolve the copper acetate and the aluminum chloride together in a little water. Powderize.40 eV UV causes strong quenching of the green emission.40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: ++ Decay: Non-exponential decay in the microsecond range Absorption (%) 100 Emission .Optical Properties Emission color: Green Emission peak: 2. Add ~2–3 g of sulfur.38 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0. ++ (3. ZnS:Cu+. let settle) to remove left over chloride.Co phosphor. H2O AlCl3 Mole % 100 0. ++ (3. Emission peak: 2. Add solution to the ZnS mix.32 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4. Optical Properties Emission color: Green.Al3+ Structure: Hexagonal (wurtzite) Composition Ingredient ZnS Cu(C2H3O2)2. Add enough water or methanol to make a uniform slurry.41 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0.3 By weight (g) 98 0. long afterglow tail. H2S.001 0. Irradiation of near-IR during excitation by 3.002 0. This phosphor is much more sensitive to IR than the fairly well-known ZnS:Cu.

2. W.34 eV. Elsevier. This phosphor corresponds to the P-31 cathodoluminescent phosphor. 238 (1960). References 1.. The chlorine in the above recipe may be replaced by bromine. 2. Philips Res.79 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0.Cl Optical Properties Emission color: Blue + green Emission peak: 2. Absorption (%) 100 Emission .40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: ++ Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 100 Emission 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Reference 1. and Cleiren.. New York (1949). Gool. John Wiley & Sons. 2. An Introduction to Luminescence of Solids. ++ (3. Kröger.. Amsterdam (1948).P.Spectra 800 700 600 500 400 Wavelength (nm) 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Remarks 1. A. Rep.A.88 eV). H..33 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4. 15. Some Aspects of Luminescence of Solids. Structure: Cubic (zinc blende) ZnS:Cu+. F.W. Leverenz..

Add ~2–3 g of sulfur. Powderize. 1 hour.24 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: + (4. 1100ºC.ZnS:Eu2+ Composition Ingredient ZnS Eu2O3 Mole % 100 0. Fire in open quartz boats. Fire in open quartz boats. Optical Properties Emission color: Yellow-green Emission peak: 2. Dry. Weaker band at 1.15 0. Absorption (%) 100 Emission . 1100ºC.25 eV. 1. H2S. 1 hour.40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: Poor Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 ZnS:Mn2+ Structure: Hexagonal (wurtzite) Composition Ingredient ZnS MnCO3 NH4Cl Mole % 99 1 1 By weight (g) 97 1.540 Preparation Mix by slurrying in water or methanol. 2. Dry.03 (of Eu) By weight (g) 98 0. H2S.053 Preparation Mix by slurrying in water or methanol. Powderize. Powderize.95 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0.88 eV). + (3.

Add ~2–3 g of sulfur. Fire in capped quartz tubes. Leverenz. Academic Press. in Luminescence of Inorganic Solids. 2.88 eV). S.8 2 Preparation First mix only ZnS + MnCO3 + NH4Br (not yet the ZnTe)..Te2+ Structure: Hexagonal (wurtzite) Composition Ingredient ZnS MnCO3 ZnTe NH4Br Mole % 94 3 3 2 By weight (g) 92 3. Ed. New York (1966). 2.W. ~1 msec to 1/10 Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Remarks 1. Absorption (%) 100 Emission . References 1. 1100ºC. Shionoya. Make a slurry in water. H. ZnS:Mn2+. ++ (3. Goldberg.21 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4. P.13 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0. John Wiley & Sons.. 1 hour. This material is remarkable for its strong triboluminescence.5 5.. The emission shifts slightly to lower energy (= longer wavelength) with increasing Mn concentration. N2 or H2S.. Optical Properties Emission color: Orange-yellow Emission peak: 2. An Introduction to Luminescence of Solids.40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: +/5% Decay: Exponential. New York (1949).

24 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4. N2. Wachtel. 2.1. This phosphor has been developed by A.4 (of P) 0. 2. N2. Opt. Now admit the ZnTe.270 Preparation Mix by dry grinding. Fire in capped quartz tubes. 23. 1 hour. Fire in capped quartz tubes.5 By weight (g) 98 0. and Pron. H2.I. Fire in capped quartz tubes. Absorption (%) 100 Emission . mix by milling or grinding.92 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0. Reference 1. Wash in a solution of a few percentage of Br in methanol and then several times in plain methanol. Dry in air.40 eV) Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Remarks 1.385 0.-USSR. 67 (1967). 1100ºC. R.. Add ~2–3 g of sulfur. Powderize. Smirnova. 900ºC.88 eV). 1 hour.F. Effect of tellurium on luminescence properties of zinc sulfide luminors. 1 hour.. Optical Properties Emission color: Red Emission peak: 1. Powderize when dry. ZnS:P Composition Ingredient ZnS Zn3P2 NH4Cl Mole % 100 0. 1200ºC. ++ (3. Spectrosc. This material is remarkable for its strong triboluminescence (red). G.

A. Phosphor is poorly reproducible because of high volatility of Zn3P2 at firing temperature. 2.W. Soc.66 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0. 85 (1949). New zinc sulfide phosphors activated by phosphorus. The amount of P retained in the phosphor after firing certainly is much lower than the amount added.24. Long afterglow tail Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Remarks 1.50 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4.Optical Properties Emission color: Pale yellow Emission peak: 2.14 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0.40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: +/5%. McKeag. and Ranby.40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: + Absorption (%) 100 Emission . Reference 1. J. ZnS:P3–.88 eV). ++ (3. P. 2. 96. Spectral positions of the emission band depends on the P concentration.50 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: + (4. Electrochem.88 eV).Cl Structure: Hexagonal (wurtzite) Optical Properties Emission color: Yellowish Emission peak: 2. + (3...H. It shifts to a lower energy (= longer wavelengths) with increasing P..

Spectra 800 700 600 500 400 Wavelength (nm) 300 100 Emission 50 2 3 Reference 1.Cl Structure: Hexagonal (wurtzite) Optical Properties Emission color: Greenish Emission peak: 2.. Opt. Fonda. Preparation and characteristics of zinc sulfide phosphors sensitive to infrared.W. G. 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 ZnS:Pb2+ Structure: Hexagonal (wurtzite) Optical Properties Emission color: Orange Emission peak: 1. Soc.. J. H. An Introduction to Luminescence of Solids. Soc. Preparation and characteristics of zinc sulfide phosphors sensitive to infrared. ++ (3. and Ranby. Opt. P.88 eV). New zinc sulfide phosphors activated by phosphorus. Leverenz. New York (1949).54 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0... Fonda.40 eV) Reference 1. 36.40 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: – (4.W. Am.R. 382 (1946).88 eV). A. Am. J. 382 (1946).40 eV) References 1.. Electrochem.. J. 96. 85 (1949).98 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0. . John Wiley & Sons. + (3. Soc.. McKeag. G.R.. 36. ZnS:Pb2+.40 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: (4.H. 2.

001 By weight (g) 98 0. 36.ZnS:Pb.88 eV).Cu Structure: Hexagonal (wurtzite) Composition Ingredient ZnS Pb(NO3)2 Cu(C2H3O2)2 Mole % 100 0. 2. J.002 Preparation Dissolve the lead nitrate and copper acetate together in a little water.R. Fonda. 352 (1946). Am. 1100ºC.330 0.40 eV) Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Remarks 1.40 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4. Fire in capped quartz tubes. Dry. 1 hour. irridation of near-IR causes a strong orange emission (stimulation). orange afterglow Emission peak: 1. Absorption (%) 100 Emission . Add ~2–3 g of sulfur. Optical Properties Emission color: Whitish orange during excitation. Make a uniform slurry with water or methanol.99 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0. G.. Soc. Preparation and characteristics of zinc sulfide phosphors sensitive to infrared. N2.. Opt. Reference 1.1 0. ++ (3. Powderize. When the afterglow has decreased to a low level. add the solution to the ZnS. This phosphor is readily excited by UV and shows a long afterglow after excitation.

40 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: + (4.80 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0. ZnS:Sn.017 Absorption (%) 100 Emission . 1150ºC. 45.150 0. 499 (1974). Kulaszewcz. N2. Optical Properties Emission color: Red Emission peak: 1.5 ~2–3 Preparation Mix by dry grinding..88 eV). Fire in capped quartz tubes.01 By weight (g) 98 0. S.1 0.ZnS:Sn2+ Structure: Hexagonal (wurtzite) Composition Ingredient ZnS SnS Sulfur Mole % 99 1 By weight (g) 97 1.40 eV) Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Reference 1. Polonica A.Ag Structure: Hexagonal (wurtzite) Composition Ingredient ZnS SnS AgNO3 Mole % 100 0. Acta Phys. ++ (3. 1 hour.

Preparation Dissolve the AgNO3 in a little water. 2. N2.50 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4.40 eV) Absorption (%) 100 Emission . Add the solutions to the ZnS + SnS.Li phosphor.Li+ Structure: Hexagonal (wurtzite) Optical Properties Emission color: Orange Emission peak: 1. Dry in air. J. Wachtel. 105. ZnS-Sn.. The Ag in the above recipe can be replaced by Li. + (3.99 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0. Optical Properties Emission color: Pale yellow Emission peak: 1.Sn. Admit ~2–3 g of sulfur. Powderize when dry.40 eV) Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Remarks 1. Reference 1. ++ (3.88 eV). In contrast to ZnS:Cu.50 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: + (4. 2. Electrochem. this phosphor shows only little response (stimulation) to irradiated IR. 432 (1958). Make a slurry in water or methanol. Fire in capped quartz tubes.. ZnS:Sn2+. 1150ºC. A. 1 hour.12 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0. Soc.99.88 eV).

ZnSe:Cu+. Soc.Cl Structure: Cubic (zinc blende) Optical Properties Emission color: Red Emission peak: 1. H. 105. 2. F. An Introduction to Luminescence of Solids.30 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: (4.Li phosphor. Chem.. J. + (3.40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: ++ Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 100 Emission 50 2 3 References 1. Solids.Spectra 800 700 600 500 400 Wavelength (nm) 300 100 Emission 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Reference 1. 24. New York (1949) p.F.. Electrochem. Luminescence in ZnS. ZnS-Sn.88 eV). Morehead. Cl. Leverenz. Wachtel. Se Cu. 37 (1963). A. J.92 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0.. Phys.W. 202. 432 (1958).. 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 . John Wiley & Sons.

2. CdS:In Structure: Hexagonal (wurtzite) Composition Ingredient CdS In2O3 Mole % 100 0.08 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: + (4. 1. New York (1949). Remove all parts which look different. H. Powderize.139 Preparation Dissolve the In2O3 in a little nitric acid.34 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4. Add the solutions to the CdS. Fire in capped quartz tubes.CdS:Ag+. Material should be uniformly red luminescent. Inspect again under UV lamp. Optical Properties Emission color: Green Emission peak: 2.88 eV).88 eV). An Introduction to Luminescence of Solids.Cl– Structure: Hexagonal (wurtzite) Optical Properties Emission color: IR Emission peak: 1.40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: + Decay to 10%: Less than 1 nsec . Material should now be uniformly green. + (3.W. John Wiley & Sons. 500ºC. H2S. Leverenz. 1 hour. Powderize.55 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0.40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: ++ Reference 1. Add ~2–3 g of sulfur.39 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0. When cool. Dry. 900ºC. H2.1 (of In) By weight (g) 145 0. Make a slurry in methanol.. inspect under UV lamp. Fire in open quartz boats. ++ (3.

Absorption (%) 100 Emission .9 Preparation Dissolve the Cu acetate and the NH4I separately. Powderize. 1 hour. Dry. Powderize. Add ~3 4 g of sulfur. 1107 (1966). then add the NH4I-solution. Phosphor has limited use in CR tubes for extremely fast display. N2. and stir. Screen through a medium-fine cloth sieve. Edge emission of n-type conducting ZnO and CdS. Add the Cu solution.Spectra 800 700 600 500 400 Wavelength (nm) 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Remarks 1. Wash in plain water several times until neutral. Boil briefly in a solution of about 10 g NaOH (or KOH) + 10 g NaCN (or KCN) in 1 liter of water. This phosphor is thermodynamically in an unstable state. After this firing. Make a slurry of the ZnS + CdS in methanol. pull the hot boat with the phosphor out of the furnace into open air and quench rapidly down to room temperature by blowing cold air against it. stir. Reference 1. Solid State Electron.I Structure: Hexagonal (wurtzite) Composition Ingredient ZnS CdS Cu(C2H3O2)2. Fire in open quartz boats. 1. Mix well.4 2. 2. 1 hour.. 800ºC. 650ºC. Lehmann. Powderize. Screen through 200 mesh or finer. 2. Do not heat up (except only in H2) to more than about 250ºC.9 2. ZnS-CdS:Cu. 9..5 2 By weight (g) 95. H2O NH4I Mole % 98 2 0. W. Fire in capped quartz tubes.9 2. N2. each in a little water. Dry with methanol in a filter funnel and then in open air.

Optical Properties Emission color: Blue Emission peak: 2. ZnS-CdS (25-75) Structure: Wurtzite Optical Properties Emission color: Deep red Emission peak: 1.40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: ++ .38 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0.35 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4.33 eV Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 100 Emission 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Reference 1.88 eV).40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: ++ ZnS-CdS (75-25) Optical Properties Emission color: Green Emission peak: 2.40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: ++ ZnS-CdS (50-50) Optical Properties Emission color: Orange Emission peak: 2.06 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0.88 eV). H.35 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4. Leverenz.. ++ (3. An Introduction to Luminescence of Solids. ++ (3.35 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4. ++ (3.72 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0.78 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0.W.88 eV). John Wiley & Sons. New York (1949).

H. An Introduction to Luminescence of Solids.8 1. ZnS-CdS:Ag.686 Preparation Make a slurry of the ZnS + CdS in methanol. Add ~3–4 g of sulfur. N2.40 eV) . 800ºC.88 eV). Fire in open quartz boats. Mix well.Spectra 800 700 600 500 400 Wavelength (nm) 300 ZnS-CdS 40-60 ZnS-CdS 50-50 Emission ZnS-CdS 60-40 ZnS-CdS 70-30 ZnS-CdS 80-20 ZnS-CdS 90-10 ZnS 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 100 50 0 Reference 1.37 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4.8 0. 45 minutes.W.13 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0.5 5. ++ (3. Powderize.Ni Structure: Hexagonal (wurtzite) Composition Ingredient ZnS CdS Cu(C2H3O2)2.Br. Fire in capped quartz tubes. New York (1949). Powderize. H2O NH4Br Mole % 96 4 0. stir.. Screen through a medium-fine cloth sieve.7 By weight (g) 93. Optical Properties Emission color: Orange-yellow Emission peak: 2. 2. H2S. Leverenz. 1.6 0. 700ºC. Add the solution to the slurry. John Wiley & Sons. 1 hour. Dry. Dissolve the Cu acetate and the NH4Br together in a little water.

Cl Structure: Hexagonal (wurtzite) Composition Ingredient ZnS + CdS AgNO3 NH4Cl Mole % 100 0. D. This phosphor is good for thermal imaging.R. Nail. New observations on superlinear luminescence. and Pearlman. Soc. Wash in water several times (to remove leftover halide). 1100ºC. each in a little water. 690 (1949). F. Urbach.88 eV)..40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: 20% Decay to 10%: Non-exponential afterglow in the microsecond range Absorption (%) 100 Emission . N. N2.03 5 By weight (g) 0. 1 hour. ZnS-CdS:Ag+.35 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4. Then add the NH4Cl solution. First add the silver solution. Dry..5 Preparation Dissolve the AgNO3 and the NH4Cl separately. The emission intensity increases sharply super-linearly with increasing excitation intensity and decreases with increasing temperature: The best obtained temperature response is about 20% per degree Centigrade near room temperature.050 2. J. Am. Reference 1. stir. Add ~2–3 g of sulfur. Optical Properties Emission peak: Peak position depending on the ZnS/CdS ratio Emission width (FWHM): ~0. 2. Opt. 39.Spectra 800 700 600 500 400 Wavelength (nm) 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Remarks 1. Make a slurry of the ZnS + CdS of the desired ratio in water or methanol. Dry. Fire in capped quartz tubes. Powderize... stir again. ++ (3. Mix well.

Dissolve the Cu acetate and the NH4Br together in a little water.Br long life Structure: Hexagonal (wurtzite) Composition Ingredient ZnS CdS Cu(C2H3O2)2. H2O NH4Br Mole % 96 4 0.Spectra 800 700 600 500 400 Wavelength (nm) 300 Emission CdS ZnS-CdS 25-75 ZnS-CdS 50-50 ZnS-CdS 75-25 ZnS 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 100 50 0 Remarks 1. .8 0. Mix well. Boil again in cyanide solution as above. pull the hot boat with the phosphor out of the furnace into open air and quench rapidly down to room temperature by blowing cold air against it. 1 hour. An Introduction to Luminescence of Solids. 3. Add ~3–4 g of sulfur. add the solution to the slurry. 1.6 0. Wash in plain water several times until neutral.8 1. New York. H2S.5 5. Reference 1. Screen through 200 mesh or finer.. Dry. Leverenz. ZnS-CdS:Cu. Boil briefly in a solution of about 10 g NaOH (or KOH) + 10 g NaCN (or KCN) in 1 liter water. Fire the same as 2. Screen through a medium-fine cloth sieve. H. N2. Fire in capped quartz tubes. 2. After this firing. 1949. 2. Powderize. Powderize. Powderize.7 By weight (g) 93. Firing includes rapid quenching. Fire in open quartz boats. 700ºC. and stir. The phosphor of ZnS/CdS 72/28 is commercial P-22G. Chlorine in the above recipe may be replaced by bromine.686 Preparation Make a slurry of the ZnS + CdS in methanol. 45 minutes. Wash in plain water several times until neutral. Dry with methanol in a filter funnel and then in open air.W. Dry with methanol in a filter funnel and then in open air. 800ºC. John Wiley & Sons.

35 eV Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 100 Emission 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Remark The zero-hour brightness of this phosphor is ~½ of that of the one on the previous page. and stir. 1 hour. Screen through a medium-fine cloth sieve. Wash in about 2 liters of 10% H2O2 solution at room temperature for about 2 hours while stirring. Fire in open quartz boats. H2S.Optical Properties Emission color: Green Emission peak: 2.38 eV .8 0.5 5. Mix well. pull the hot boat with the phosphor out of the furnace into open air and quench rapidly down to room temperature by blowing cold air against it. Powderize. Dry with methanol in a filter funnel and then in open air. 800ºC. Dry. 650ºC.35 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0. Add ~3–4 g of sulfur. After this firing. H2O NH4Br Mole % 96 4 0. 1. add the solution to the slurry.3 0.Br high brightness Structure: Hexagonal (wurtzite) Composition Ingredient ZnS CdS Cu(C2H3O2)2.600 0. 45 minutes. Boil briefly in a solution of about 10 g NaOH (or KOH) + 10 g NaCN (or KCN) in 1 liter of water. ZnS-CdS:Cu. Screen through 200 mesh or finer. Optical Properties Emission color: Green Emission peak: 2. Dissolve the Cu acetate and the NH4Br together in a little water. Powderize. Fire in capped quartz tubes. N2. 2. Wash in plain water. Powderize. Wash in plain water several times until neutral.7 By weight (g) 93.686 Preparation Make a slurry of the ZnS + CdS in methanol.35 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0.

Smirnova. Spectrosc. 2.88 eV). 67 (1967).S.-USSR. ZnS-ZnTe:Mn2+ 98-2 Structure: Hexagonal (wurtzite) Optical Properties Emission color: Red Emission peak: 1. 23.Spectra 800 700 600 500 400 Wavelength (nm) 300 100 Emission 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Remarks 1. U.. ++ (3..40 eV) Reference 1. A. The H2O2 wash is an idea by Wachtel.. 3 165 476 (1965).F.92 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0. This phosphor has been developed for high zero-hour brightness.24 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4.I. Effect of tellurium on luminescence properties of zinc sulfide luminors. its half-life under steady 5 kHz excitation is much shorter than that of the phosphor on the next page. Pat. Opt. G. and Pron.. . R.

1 (of Eu) 2 By weight (g) 0. mix by dry grinding.Cl CaS:Pb2+ CaS:Pb2+. 2.4. Fire in open quartz boats. .Cl SrS:Ce3+ SrS:Cu+. Powderize. Powderize.176 1 Preparation First mix only the MgO and Eu2O3.F CaS:Tb3+ CaS:Tb3+.Na SrS:Eu2+ SrS:Mn2+ BaS:Au. Keep dry. 800ºC.Na CaS:Ce3+ CaS:Cu+. 1200ºC.Cl CaS:Y3+ CaS:Yb2+ CaS:Yb2+.K MgS:Eu2+ Structure: Cubic (NaCl) Composition Ingredient MgO Eu2O3 NH4Cl Mole % 100 0. Store in a well-closed container.Na CaS:Sm3+ CaS:Sn2+ CaS:Sn2+.Mn2+ CaS:Pr3+. N2. 1. 1 hour.040 0.Pb2+. N2 loaded with CS2. Admit above amount of NH4Cl and also 2–3 g of sulfur. 1 hour.Na+ CaS:Eu2+ CaS:Mn2+ CaS:La3+ CaS:Pb2+.14 CaS-Type Sulfides The following host compounds and activators are included in this subsection: MgS:Eu2+ CaS:Bi3+ CaS:Bi3+.Cl CaS:Sb3+ CaS:Sb3+. Fire in capped quartz tubes.

K.27eV Emission width (FWHM):0. 131 (1953). H. Soc.88 eV). J. H..15 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4. + (3. CaS:Bi3+ Structure: Cubic (NaCl) Optical Properties Emission color: Near UV Emission peak: 3.40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: + Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Absorption (%) 100 Emission . Megumi. Ca1-xMgxS-Ce. Kasano. Cathodoluminescence of Ca1-xMgxS-Eu. – (3.40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: +/8% Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 100 Emission 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Reference 1. Electrochem... and Yamamoto.88 eV).Optical Properties Emission color: Orange-yellow Emission peak: 2.11 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0..21 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4.

F. 1 hour. and also ~ 2–3 g of sulfur.. Soc. + (3.18 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: + (4.. 40. 1 hour.40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: 4–5% Decay: Non-exponential decay in the microsecond range.Na Structure: Cubic (NaCl) Composition Ingredient CaCO3 Bi2O3 NaHCO3 Mole % 100 0. Electrochem. 144 (1976). Fire in open quartz boats.. J.70 0. 91 (1977). Powderize. 96.. J. Electrochem. Powderize. Status Solidi B.03 (of Bi) 0. Ellervee.5 By weight (g) 100 0. CaS:Bi3+.M. Lehmann. Garlick. Optical Properties Emission color: Blue Emission peak: 2. Lehmann. Activators and co-activators in calcium sulfide phosphors..F. long afterglow tail extending into seconds . mix by dry grinding. 1200ºC.77 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0. D. Phys. A. stagnant air. 1200ºC. 87 (1972). and Asano. J. 1 hour.Se):Bi3+ and CaO:Bi3+ phosphors.. S.. Convert it to CaS by one of the following methods: 1. 3. Phys.E. 5. W. Jpn. 82. Soc. J.420 Preparation Start from purest CaCO3. 1100ºC. and Ryan. 2.. F. Fire in capped quartz tubes. Luminescence of Pb2+ and Bi3+ centers in alkali-earth sulfides and oxides. 5. W. Fire in capped quartz tubes.. Electron traps and infrared stimulation of phosphors.. 2. 90 (1949). and Mason. G. 4. Lumin. Store in a well-closed container. Yamashita. H2S.. 3. N2. N. Fast cathodoluminescent calcium sulfide phosphors. Soc. 275 (1972)..88 eV).References 1. 119.J. Luminescence-centers of Ca(S. Add the above amounts of Bi and Na.

CaS:Ce3+ Structure: Cubic (NaCl) Composition Ingredient CaCO3 CeO2 Mole % 100 0.J. Admit about 1–2 g of NH4Cl by dry grinding or milling. Luminescence of Pb2+ and Bi3+ centers in alkali-earth sulfides and oxides. Activators and co-activators in calcium sulfide phosphors.. Status Solidi B. J. Garlick. 96. Soc. Jpn. first 1 hour in N2 and then 1 hour in H2S. Ellervee.E.. Electrochem.. 1 hour.. Fast cathodoluminescent calcium sulfide phosphors. J. D.. 5. 90 (1949).F. Powderize. Fire in open quartz boats. Soc.. Lumin.F. Absorption (%) 100 Emission . References 1. A. Soc. Luminescent-grade CaCO3 is not pure enough.M.. J. Electrochem. Lehmann.. Contamination by Mn as low as 1 ppm will cause appearance of the yellow Mn2+ emission.Spectra 800 700 600 500 400 Wavelength (nm) 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Remarks 1. N.086 Preparation Mix well. S. 3. 2. N2... 91 (1977). W.. 1100ºC. Phys. Phys. 2. 4. Luminescence-centers of Ca(S+Se):Bi3+ and CaO:Bi3+ phosphors.. 40. 5. J. and Mason. Powderize. Na in above recipe can be replaced by Li but Na seems to have a slight edge over it. Preparation required purest starting materials. and Ryan. and Asano. 144 (1976). Store in a well-closed container. W. F. 1200ºC. 275 (1972). G. Lehmann. Fire in capped quartz tubes. 82. 87 (1972). Electron traps and infrared stimulation of phosphors. Add about 2–3 g of sulfur. Yamashita. 2.05 By weight (g) 100 0. 1. 119.

Cl in the above recipe can be replaced by F. Electrochem. W. and Kato. Optimum efficiency of cathodoluminescence of inorganic phosphors.. – (3.38 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4.. Fast cathodoluminescent calcium sulfide phosphors. This phosphor is efficiently luminescent up to ~300ºC. Electrochem. K.Optical Properties Emission color: Green Emission peak: 2. and Ryan. or I. Br.88 eV).. 4. W. The distance between the two emission bands (in eV) cannot be changed but the exact positions of the bands depend slightly on the used Ce concentration. Cathodoluminescence of CaS-Ce3+ and CaS-Eu2+ phosphors J. Decay time after excitation by an e-beam pulse can be reduced to ~200 nsec (1/10 of original) by addition of Co. 3.. 275 (1972).. Lehmann. 5.. 2. J. 2. Soc... J. 4. References 1. W.M.. F. This phosphor or modifications of it have found applications in CR tubes and for correction in arc lamps. 477 (1971). 1164 (1971). Electrochem. 119. 6. 2. Lehmann. Phosphor can be sensitized for efficient excitation by 3. 3. Soc. Okamoto. 7. phosphor showing no color change and little saturation up to the highest current densities Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Remarks 1. 118.M. F.40 eV by addition of Pb (see CaS:Pb2+). Absorption (%) 100 Emission .40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: ++/20% Decay to 10%: Non-exponential decay in the microsecond range.. Electrochem. Preparation and cathodoluminescence of CaS-Ce and Ca1-xSrxS-Ce phosphors. 118. 130.13 eV.. Soc. Soc. and Ryan. Phosphor has a slightly greenish body color due to the combined action of the blue absorption band and the green emission. F. J. Lehmann. 432 (1983).

2. ++ (3. Lehmann. The relative heights of the two emission bands depend on the preparation conditions. W. 3. Optical Properties Emission color: Light blue Emission peak: 2.88 eV). Fire in open quartz boats. Make a uniform slurry in water or methanol. J.. Absorption (%) 100 Emission ...40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: ++/16% Decay: Non-exponential decay. J.5 By weight (g) 100 0. 1389 (1970). 1 hour. Halides are not co-activators in CaS:Cu (in contrast to ZnS:Cu). The peak positions of the two emission bands depend on the alkali used (if any). 117. 2.25 Preparation Dissolve the copper acetate in a little water. 100 sec to 1/10. 107. Wachtel.55 eV. Add 800 mg of NaHCO3 plus ~ 2–3 g of sulfur. Mix by dry grinding. CaS-Cu. H2S. Powderize. Fire in covered alumina crucibles. References 1. Dry.. phosphor showing much less saturation at the high beam current than P-11 Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Remarks 1. 1. Soc. silver. 1 hour.Na+ Structure: Cubic (NaCl) Composition Ingredient CaCO3 Cu(C2H3O2)2·H2O NaHCO3 Mole % 100 0. 1000ºC. Soc. Alkaline earth sulfide phosphors activated by copper.15 1.83 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4. Na in the above recipe can be omitted or be replaced by Li or K. 1100ºC. and gold. add solution to the CaCO3. 2. Powderize. 199 (1960). Electrochem.300 1. H2.CaS:Cu+. A. Store in a well-closed container.Eu electroluminescent phosphors. 2. Electrochem. Powderize.

1200ºC. This phosphor has a very characteristic pink body color due to the combined actions of the broad blue to yellow absorption band and the red fluorescence. 3. Powderize. 1100ºC.40 eV by addition of Sn (see CaS:Sn. Add the above amount of NH4Cl. see CaS:Ce3+. also ~ 2–3 g of sulfur. 2.20 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4. Phosphor can be sensitized for excitation by 3. Absorption (%) 100 Emission . or I. Br. Decay: Non-exponential decay in the microsecond range Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Remarks 1. 4. Optical Properties Emission color: Red Emission peak: 1. Cl in the above recipe can be replaced by F.CaS:Eu2+ Structure: Cubic (NaCl) Composition Ingredient CaCO3 Eu2O3 NH4Cl Mole % 100 0. Store in a well-closed container. 2. Powderize.05 (of Eu) ~2 By weight (g) 100 0.F) or by pB (see CaS:Pb). H2. Decay time after excitation by an e-beam pulse can be reduced to ~300 nsec by addition of Co.40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: ++/10% (can be improved to ~16% by the addition of Ce.91 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0.088 ~1 Preparation Mix the CaCO3 and the Eu2O3. Mix by dry grinding. 1. – (3. Fire in capped quartz tubes. 1 hour. Cl).88 eV). first 1 hour in N2 and then 1 hour in H2S. Fire in open quartz boats.

1100ºC.M. 1 hour. Optimum efficiency of cathodoluminescence of inorganic phosphors. Wachtel. 118. Partial or complete replacement of the Ca by Sr causes the emission to sift to higher energy (= shorter wavelength). E. J. Brauer. Naturforsch Pt A. and Ryan. Electrochem. – (3. 3. Soc. Mix by dry grinding.1 ~2 By weight (g) 100 0. Soc.. A.88 eV). Soc. 102.. F. N2. and Uber eu-ionen in erdalkalioxyden und erdalkali-sulfiden.. Lehmann.M. W. P. Store in a well-closed container.11 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0.. 12. 107.. 6. 5. 1 hour. 3. Electrochem.. and Ryan. 275 (1972). Fast cathodoluminescent calcium sulfide phosphors. 1. Oxidation states of europium in the alkaline earth oxide and sulfide phosphors.40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: ++/16% Decay: Near-exponential decay with ~8 msec to 1/10 . J. H2S. Fire in open quartz boats. Optical Properties Emission color: Yellow Emission peak: 2. CaS-Cu. Add the above amount of NH4Cl. Powderize.M. W.. CaS:Mn2+ Structure: Cubic (NaCl) Composition Ingredient CaCO3 MnCO3 NH4Cl Mole % 100 0. J. 1100ºC. 6. Electrochem.. and Banks. 8. References 1.. 233 (1957). Soc.. Electrochem.. 118. This phosphor is efficiently luminescent up to ~300ºC. This phosphor or modifications of it have found applications in CR tubes and for correction in arc lamps. A. Electrochem. 477 (1971). 6. P. 1 hour. 4. and ~ 2–3 g of sulfur. 7.24 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4. 518 (1955). Fire in open quartz boats. Lehmann. Fire in capped quartz tubes.115 ~1 Preparation Mix the CaCO3 and the MnCO3. J.5. F. 2. 561 (1951). Powderize. 2. Jaffe. Lehmann. The emission peak position depends slightly upon the used Eu concentration. Cathodoluminescence of CaS-Ce3+ and CaS-Eu2+ phosphors J.Eu electroluminescent phosphors. 199 (1960). Powderize.. Naturforsch. 1200ºC.. Soc. Pt. Z. 1164 (1971). H2S. 119. Z. W.

Optimum efficiency of cathodoluminescence of inorganic phosphors. Chem.42 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4. J. or I. Intern Conf. 518 (1957). 4. It serves only as a flux and can be replaced by F. References 1.55 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0. Lumin. Soc.. 2. 3.L. W. V. W. The Cl in the above recipe is not a co-activator. K.V. Paper 111.. V. Shionoya. and Mikhaylin. Lumin.. CaS:La3+ Structure: Cubic (NaCl) Optical Properties Emission color: Blue-greenish Emission peak: 2. 3. and Era.. S. Electrochem. J.. Lehmann. – (3. Partial (up to 10%) replacement of the Ca by Mg shifts the emission from yellow to orange-red.. 5. Br... Levshin. the Mn2+ emission is fairly strong between about 1 ppm and 5% of Mn/Ca. Activators and co-activators in calcium sulfide phosphors.. 1164 (1971). 87 (1972). The emission peak position depends slightly on the Mn concentration used. 4. Soc. Partial or complete replacement of Ca by Sr shifts it towards green (see SrS:Mn2+). Jpn.. Sensitization by bismuth of the luminescence of manganese and samarium in calcium sulfide phosphors.88 eV).Spectra 800 700 600 500 400 Wavelength (nm) 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Remarks 1. 2. 118. 30. B. Budapest (1966).40 eV) Absorption (%) 100 Emission . Lehmann. The Mn concentration is not critical.

Powderize. N2.40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: 15–17% Decay: Non-exponential decay in the microsecond range. H2S. 1200ºC. Lumin.. Mix by dry grinding. 5. 3. 2. N2. Lehmann. Store in a well-closed container. Powderize. Convert to CaS by one of the following methods 1. W. Powderize. Mix by dry grinding. and ~ 2–3 g of sulfur.. Fire in capped quartz tubes. and ~ 2–3 g of sulfur. another 2 g of NH4Cl. 1 hour.02 3 By weight (g) 100 0. CaS:Pb2+. + (3. 1200ºC. 1 hour.39 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0. J. Activators and co-activators in calcium sulfide phosphors. 87 (1972).Spectra 800 700 600 500 400 Wavelength (nm) 300 100 Emission 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Reference 1.5 Preparation Start from purest CaCO3.Cl Structure: Cubic (NaCl) Composition Ingredient CaCO3 PbO NH4Cl Mole % 100 0. Optical Properties Emission color: Near-UV Emission peak: 3.88 eV). Fire in capped quartz tubes. Add ~1g of NH4Cl. Fire in open quartz boats. Add the above amount of PbO.045 1. 1100ºC. decay to be shortened to about 250 nsec (to 1/10) by addition of a trace of cobalt .22 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4.

Electrochem. J.39 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0. 91 (1977). and Ryan. Fast cathodoluminescent calcium sulfide phosphors. 1164 (1971). J. Soc. CaS:Pb2+ Structure: Cubic (NaCl) Optical Properties Emission color: UV Emission peak: 3.. Phys.. and Activators and co-activators in calcium sulfide phosphors.. F. Soc.. 5. 2. A. W. Normal luminescent-grade CaCO3 is not pure enough. Contamination by Mn as low as 1 ppm will cause appearance of the yellow Mn2+ emission. Preparation requires purest starting materials. 3. Lehmann. Optimum efficiency of cathodoluminescence of inorganic phosphors.. The NH4Cl in the above recipe can be replaced by NH4Br.Spectra 800 700 600 500 400 Wavelength (nm) 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Remarks 1. Fluoride is much less effective. 3. 82.40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: ++ Absorption (%) 100 Emission .88 eV). Lehmann.. 275 (1972).. + (3.22 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4. J. 87 (1972). This phosphor has limited application as UV emitter in CR tubes. Luminescence of Pb2+ and Bi3+ centers in alkali-earth sulfides and oxides. 119. 118.F. W. Lumin. References 1. Ellervee. Status Solidi B. Electrochem.M. 2.

CaS:Pb2+. 4. 1 hour. J. (1977). 2. Electrochem. H2S.. J. J. 3. Add the above amounts of PbO and NH4Cl.28 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4.M. 2. Powderize. Activators and co-activators in calcium sulfide phosphors. Fast cathodoluminescent calcium sulfide phosphors. Lumin.40 eV) Absorption (%) 100 Emission . W. 275 (1972). 87 (1972). Fire in open quartz boats. Ellervee. Lehmann. Store in a well-closed container. 1100ºC.670 ~1 Preparation First mix only the CaCO3 and MnCO3. Phys.5 0. Optimum efficiency of cathodoluminescence of inorganic phosphors. 1 hour.575 0. Mix by dry grinding.3 2 By weight (g) 100 0. Soc. and Ryan. 1. 91. 119. 1200ºC. + (3. and also ~ 2–3 g of sulfur. F.. Luminescence of Pb2+ and Bi3+ centers in alkali-earth sulfides and oxides. Lehmann..F.. Electrochem. 1164 (1971). Lehmann. Optical Properties Emission color: Red-orange (not the yellow of CaS:Mn2+ without Pb) Emission peak: 2. W. W. Fire in capped quartz tubes. 82. Powderize....04 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0.Spectra 800 700 600 500 400 Wavelength (nm) 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 References 1.88 eV). 118. Status Solidi B.Mn2+ Structure: Cubic (NaCl) Composition Ingredient CaCO3 MnCO3 PbO NH4Cl Mole % 100 0. Soc. A. N2. 5..

1 0. Add the above amount of NH4Cl and also ~ 2–3 g of sulfur. 1100ºC.5 msec to 1/10 Absorption (%) 100 Emission . 3. CaS:Pr3+.045 ~1 Preparation First mix only the CaCO3 and MnCO3. Store in a well-closed container.85 eV. 1200ºC. Fire in capped quartz tubes.40 eV) Decay: Exponential decay. 2.88 eV). Mix by dry grinding.05 eV in the IR Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4. H2S. 1 hour. ++ (3.Pb2+. 1 hour. N2. respectively. 1 hour. 1100ºC. H2.Cl Structure: Cubic (NaCl) Composition Ingredient CaCO3 Pr2O3 PbO NH4Cl Mole % 100 0.02 ~2 By weight (g) 100 0. about 0. Fire in capped quartz tubes. Powderize.Spectra 800 700 600 500 400 Wavelength (nm) 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Remark The Mn2+ emission shifts to lower energy (+ longer wave lengths) with increasing Pb concentration. Add the above amount of PbO and also ~ 2–3 g of sulfur. Mix by dry grinding.165 0. Optical Properties Emission color: Pale greenish-pink Emission peak: 1.50 eV. also present (not shown in figure below) a strong line at 1. mainly two line groups in the blue-green and in the red. Powderize. 2. 1. Fire in open quartz boats.

Lumin. Lehmann. CaS:Sb3+ Structure: Cubic (NaCl) Optical Properties Emission color: Yellow-green Emission peak: 2. Lumin. J.. 5. 87 (1972).Spectra 800 700 600 500 400 Wavelength (nm) 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Remark The intensity ratio of the two visible line groups is very sensitive to the details of the preparation and excitation.44 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4. Lehmann. Activators and co-activators in calcium sulfide phosphors. – (3. W.. 5.. Reference 1. Activators and co-activators in calcium sulfide phosphors. Absorption (%) 100 Emission Absorption (%) 100 Emission . J. 87 (1972).88 eV).. W.27 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0.40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: ++ Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 References 1.

44 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4.1 (of Sb) 1 By weight (g) 100 0..88 eV). Jpn.. Phys. and also ~ 2–3 g of sulfur. 1. 118. N. W. Yamashita. CaS:Sb3+. – (3. Optical Properties Emission color: Yellow-green Emission peak: 2. Soc.40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: 18% Decay: Exponential decay (~1. 1164 (1971). Soc.2. N2. J. Add the above amount of Sb2O3 + NaHCO3. 1100ºC. 1089 (1973). Powderize. Powderize. 35. Lehmann. 1 hour. Ca(S-Se)-Sb3+ phosphors. 2. J. Electrochem.840 Preparation 1. Fire in covered alumina crucibles.. 1 hour. 3.27 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0. 1300ºC. H2S. Store in a well-closed container..5 sec to 1/10) followed by a long but weak phosphorescence tail Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Absorption (%) 100 Emission .145 0. Mix by dry grinding. Optimum efficiency of cathodoluminescence of inorganic phosphors. Luminescence centers of Ca(S-Se) phosphors activated with impurity ions having s-2 configuration. Fire (purest CaCO3 only) in open quartz boats.Na Structure: Cubic (NaCl) Composition Ingredient CaCO3 Sb2O3 NaHCO3 Mole % 100 0.

~ 1 hour and then in H2S for 1 hour.23 eV.References 1. 1. Fire in open quartz boats. Powderize. Mix by dry grinding. J. 1164 (1971).07. Soc. ~10 msec to 1/10 Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Absorption (%) 100 Emission . Fire in open quartz boats. N2. Activators and co-activators in calcium sulfide phosphors. J. 2. Jpn. 1100ºC. H2S... CaS:Sm3+ Structure: Cubic (NaCl) Composition Ingredient CaCO3 Sm2O3 Na4Cl Mole % 100 0. Powderize. Optimum efficiency of cathodoluminescence of inorganic phosphors. Fire in capped quartz tubes. Lehmann. – (3. 1 hour. 2. 118. Lehmann. W. 87 (1972).04. Store in a well-closed container. 5.34 and 1. and 2.88 eV). 1200ºC. 1089 (1973). 1 hour.01 (of Sm) ~2 By weight (g) 100 0. 2. Optical Properties Emission color: Orange-yellow Emission peak: Strongest lines at 2.. Electrochem. Ca(S-Se)-Sb3+ phosphors. Powderize. Phys. Soc. 3. 2. 1.. Lumin. Luminescence centers of Ca (S-Se) phosphors activated with impurity ions having s-2 configuration.38 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4. first in N2. 35. 1100ºC.0175 ~1 Preparation First mix only the CaCO3 and Sm2O3. also present (not shown in figure below) two strong lines at 1. W. Add the above amount of Na4Cl and also ~ 2–3 g of sulfur. 3..40 eV) Decay: Exponential decay. Yamashita. J. N..20.

. Jpn.. N. ESR of 2s ½-state centers in CaS:Sn3+. CaSe:Sn3+ and CaSe:Pb3+. J. J. ++ (3.40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: + Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 References 1. J. CaS:Sn2+ Structure: Cubic (NaCl) Optical Properties Emission color: Yellow-greenish Emission peak: 2.30 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0. S.. Luminescence-centers of Ca(S:Se):Sn2+ phosphors. and Asano.1 0. Activators and co-activators in calcium sulfide phosphors. 5. L65 (1976). and Asano. Yamashita.. 87 (1972).. Reference 1. CaS:Sn2+. 2.. W. Lumin.88 eV).40 eV UV by addition of Sn (see CaS:Sn2+). Phys. W. Activators and co-activators in calcium sulfide phosphors. N.. 9.F Structure: Cubic (NaCl) Composition Ingredient CaCO3 SnS CaF2 Mole % 100 0. Phys. 41.. 87 (1972). J. C Solid State. Lehmann.Remark Phosphor can be sensitized for excitation by 3. Yamashita. Soc. S. Lumin.. 3. Lehmann. 5.390 Absorption (%) 100 Emission .135 0.50 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4.5 By weight (g) 100 0. 536 (1976).

J. 9. 2. Phys. N.40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: + Absorption (%) 100 Emission . 1 hour. S. 41. N2. Powderize. 536 (1976). Lehmann.Preparation 1. CaS:Tb3+ Structure: Cubic (NaCl) Optical Properties Emission color: Green Emission peak: 2.Se):Sn2+ phosphors. – (3. 1 hour. Optical Properties Emission color: Pale yellow-green Emission peak: 2. S. Lumin. N. Fire in plain CaCO3 in open quartz boats. Activators and co-activators in calcium sulfide phosphors. ++ (3. C Solid State. W. Powderize..29 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4.. 1100ºC.26–2. Soc.. 3.40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: ~4% Decay: Non-exponential decay of about 1 msec to 1/10 Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 References 1. 2. H2S. Store in a well-closed container. Luminescence-centers of Ca(S. 1200ºC. 87 (1972). and Asano. Add the above amount of SnS and CaF2 and about 2–3 g of sulfur. Fire in capped quartz tubes... L65 (1976). Phys. J..50 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4. CaSe:Sn3+ and CaSe:Pb3+. Esr of 2s ½-state centers in CaS:Sn3+. Yamashita. Jpn. and Asano.. J.88 eV). 5.30 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0. Yamashita. Mix by dry grinding.88 eV).

W.88 eV). 1 hour. Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4. 1200ºC.Spectra 800 700 600 500 400 Wavelength (nm) 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Reference 1. Powderize. 1 hour.29 eV. CaS:Tb3+..187 ~1 Preparation Mix the CaCO3 and the Tb4O7.26 and 2. Mix by dry grinding. ~ 3. 5. 87 (1972). 1 hour. also ~ 2–3 g of sulfur. 2. 3. Optical Properties Emission color: Pale green Emission peak: Strongest lines a doublet at 2. Store in a well-closed container. H2S. Lehmann. N2. Fire in capped quartz tubes. – (3. Lumin. 1. Powderize. 1100ºC. N2. Powderize. Activators and co-activators in calcium sulfide phosphors.Cl Structure: Cubic (NaCl) Composition Ingredient CaCO3 Tb4O7 NH4Cl Mole % 100 0.1 (of Tb) ~2 By weight (g) 100 0. J.6 msec to 1/10 Absorption (%) 100 Emission .40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: Relatively poor Decay: Exponential decay.. Fire in plain CaCO3 in open quartz boats. 1200ºC. Add the above amount of NH4Cl. Fire in capped quartz tubes.

Activators and co-activators in calcium sulfide phosphors... 87 (1972). CaS:Y3+ Structure: Cubic (NaCl) Optical Properties Emission color: Bluish Emission peak: 2. – (3.. Lumin. 5. 5. W. Lehmann. Activators and co-activators in calcium sulfide phosphors. Absorption (%) 100 Emission . Lumin.78 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4..80 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0. J.88 eV). J. W.Spectra 800 700 600 500 400 Wavelength (nm) 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Reference 1.40 eV) Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 100 Emission 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Reference 1. 87 (1972). Lehmann.

Powderize. Fire in plain CaCO3 in open quartz boats... 1200ºC. Powderize. W. ++ (3. 5.88 eV). Mix by dry grinding. 1100ºC. Fire in capped quartz tubes. Store in a well-closed container. Absorption (%) 100 Emission .30 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4. 87 (1972).1 (of Yb) ~2 By weight (g) 100 0. H2S. Lehmann. 2.40 eV) Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Reference 1. N2. J. 1. 1 hour.66 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0.197 ~1 Preparation Mix the CaCO3 and the Tb4O7.Cl Structure: Cubic (NaCl) Composition Ingredient CaCO3 Yb2O3 NH4Cl Mole % 100 0. CaS:Yb2+. 1200ºC. 1 hour. Fire in capped quartz tubes. Lumin.CaS:Yb2+ Structure: Cubic (NaCl) Optical Properties Emission color: IR Emission peak: 1. 3. N2. Add the above amount of NH4Cl and also ~ 2–3 g of sulfur. Activators and co-activators in calcium sulfide phosphors. Powderize. 1 hour.

87 (1972). Lumin. and Kato. J. ++ (3. Activators and co-activators in calcium sulfide phosphors.. Soc.30 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4. Absorption (%) 100 Emission . Lehmann. 2.Optical Properties Emission color: Very deep red Emission peak: 1.. SrS:Ce3+ Structure: Cubic (NaCl) Optical Properties Emission color: Blue-green Emission peak: 2.47 eV – or 2. 130..88 eV).40 eV) Decay: Non-exponential decay in the 20–50 sec range Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Reference 1. 2.3 eV. Preparation and cathodoluminescence of CaS-Ce and Ca1-xSrxS-Ce phosphors. W.56 eV in cathodoluminescence Excitation efficiency by UV: + (4.66 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0. Electrochem.. Okamoto.. J. K. 432 (1983). F.20 eV.88 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: + Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 100 Emission 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Reference 1. 5.

250 1. Store in a well-closed container.31 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4. J.33 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0. 117. Lehmann. This phosphor shows exceptionally long and strong phosphorescence after excitation by UV.SrS:Cu+.1 2 By weight (g) 148 0. Absorption (%) 100 Emission . Powderize. powderize. Dry. Na in the above recipe cannot be replaced by other alkalies.40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: ++/ Very efficient Decay: Non-exponential decay in the 10 sec range followed by long phosphorescence Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Remarks 1.88 eV). silver.. 1389 (1970). H2S.68 Preparation Dissolve the copper sulfate and the NaHCO3 together in a little water. Fire in open alumina boats. Optical Properties Emission color: Green Emission peak: 2. 1 hour. ++ (3. and gold. 1200ºC. 2. Soc. Reference 1. W. Electrochem. add this solution to the SrCO3. Make a uniform slurry in water or methanol. Alkaline earth sulfide phosphors activated by copper.Na Structure Cubic (NaCl) Composition Ingredient SrCO3 CuSO4·5 H2O NaHCO3 Mole % 100 0..

1100ºC. Fire in open quartz boats. 1100ºC. or I. The Cl in the above recipe may be replaced by F. H2S. Powderize. Optical Properties Emission color: Orange-red Emission peak: 2.88 eV). + (3. also ~ 2–3 g of sulfur. Powderize.03 mol% of Pb. Store in a well-closed container. 1 hour.SrS:Eu2+ Structure: Cubic (NaCl) Composition Ingredient SrCO3 Eu2O3 NH4Cl Mole % 100 0. Br. 1.40 eV excitation by addition of ~0. 2.1 (of Eu) 2 By weight (g) 148 0. 1 hour. Add the above amount of NH4Cl. The characteristic orange body color of this phosphor is caused by the blue to green absorption band and by the orange-red emission excited by ambient light. Absorption (%) 100 Emission . This phosphor can be sensitized for efficient 3.26 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4.00 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0. N2. 3. Mix by dry grinding.40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: + Decay: Decay in the microsecond range Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Remarks 1. Fire in capped quartz tubes.176 1 Preparation First mix only the SrCO3 + Eu2O3. 2.

N2.245 eV.03 mol% of Pb.88 eV). Powderize. + (3.40 eV excitation by addition of ~0.115 0. Add the above amount of NH4Cl and also ~ 2–3 g of sulfur. Mix by dry grinding.SrS:Mn2+ Structure: Cubic (NaCl) Composition Ingredient SrCO3 MnCO3 NH4Cl Mole % 100 0. 1100ºC. Fire in open quartz boats. 1 hour.40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: +/Fairly efficient Decay: Exponential decay requiring ~4 msec to 1/10 Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Remark Phosphor can be sensitized for efficient 3. 1100ºC. 1 hour. 1000ºC. O. Sorge. Fire in open quartz boats.1 1 By weight (g) 148 0. This also shifts the emission band peak to ~2. Thesis. 3. Store in a well-closed container. Optical Properties Emission color: Yellow-green Emission peak: 2. 2. Fire in capped quartz tubes. H2S. H2S. 1. 1 hour. Powderize. Absorption (%) 100 Emission . Technical University of Berlin (1959)..28 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0.540 Preparation First mix only the SrCO3 + MnCO3. Powderize.23 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4. Reference 1.

K Structure: Cubic (NaCl) Composition Ingredient BaSO4 Au-metal K2CO3 Mole % 100 0. 700ºC. J. Soc. dry and powderize. Add both solutions. Cs. or P gives slightly different emission spectra.197 0. H2S. This material is very hygroscopic. F. and gold. Electrochem. H2. Do not.BaS:Au.88 eV).1 1 (of K) By weight (g) 233 0.93 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0.38 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: + (4. 117. Make a slurry of the BaSO4 in water or methanol. let it come into contact with water. 2. Alkaline earth sulfide phosphors activated by copper. 2. Rb. stir to uniformity.. W. 1389 (1970). + (3. 1 hour. under any circumstances. Lehmann. Fire in open alumina boats. 900ºC. Optical Properties Emission color: Orange-red Emission peak: 1. Replacement of K in the above recipe by Li..40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: + Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 100 Emission 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Remarks 1. Powderize. Replacement of K by Na gives near-dead material. 1. Store in a well-closed container. silver. . 1 hour. Fire in open alumina boats.690 Preparation Dissolve the Au in a little (as little as possible) aqua regia and the K2CO3 in a little water. Powderize. Reference 1.

Powderize. Store in a well-closed container. Mix by dry grinding. 800ºC. H2S.88 eV). Fire in covered alumina crucibles. 2. 1 hour.4. N2. + (3.5% . 800ºC.7 0. 1.840 Preparation First mix only CaCO3 + Ga2O3 + CeO2.40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: 4. Fire in open quartz boats.68 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4. Powderize. Optical Properties Emission color: Bluish Emission peaks: Two overlapping bands ~2. 800ºC.42 and 2. N2. Powderize. 1 hour. 3. 1 hour.15 Double Sulfides The following host compounds and activators are included in this subsection: CaGa2S4:Ce3+ CaGa2S4:Eu2+ CaGa2S4:Mn2+ CaGa2S4:Pb2+ ZnGa2S4:Mn2+ ZnBa2S3:Mn2+ CaGa2S4:Ce3+ Structure: Orthorhombic Composition Ingredient CaCO3 Ga2O3 CeO2 NaHCO3 Mole % 98 200 (of Ga) 1 1 By weight (g) 98 187 1. Fire in open quartz boats. Add the above amount of NaHCO3 and also ~2–3 g of sulfur.

800ºC.24 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4. and powderize.Spectra 800 700 600 500 400 Wavelength (nm) 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Remark This phosphor is slightly unstable in water. dry. Luminescence and structural properties of thiogallate phosphors Ce+3 and Eu+2-activated phosphors. Powderize. 1 hour. and Baglio.. J.88 eV).76 Preparation Mix by slurrying in water. Fire in open quartz boats. N2 bubbling through CS2.22 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0.40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: 7% Absorption (%) 100 Emission . Soc. Fire in open quartz boats. Peters. 1 hour. Optical Properties Emission color: Yellow-green Emission peak: 2.. 2.E. 119.A. H2S. Store in a well-closed container. Electrochem. + (3. Powderize. CaGa2S4:Eu2+ Structure: Orthorhombic Composition Ingredient CaCO3 Ga2O3 Eu2O3 Mole % 99 200 (of Ga) 1 (of Eu) By weight (g) 99 187 1. 230 (1972). 800ºC. J. Reference 1. 1.. T.

CaGa2S4:Mn2+ Structure: Orthorhombic Composition Ingredient CaCO3 Ga2O3 MnCO3 Mole % 98 200 (of Ga) 2 By weight (g) 98 187 2. Donohue. 2.. Powderize. + (3. 2 hours. Powderize. 800ºC. and Baglio.3 Preparation Mix by slurrying in water.40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: + Absorption (%) 100 Emission . J. Soc. Powderize when dry. J.C..74 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4. 1. H2S. J..E.Se)4. Store in a well-closed container.A. Electrochem. Peters. Fire in open quartz boats. Luminescence and structural properties of thiogallate phosphors Ce+3 and Eu+2-activated phosphors. 137 (1974). Fire in open quartz boats.Spectra 800 700 600 500 400 Wavelength (nm) 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Remark This phosphor is slightly unstable in water. Soc. 230 (1972). J. P.E. References 1. Optical Properties Emission color: Deep red Emission peak: 1. Electrochem.88 eV). and Hanlon. 1 hour. Dry in air. Synthesis and photoluminescence of MIIM2III(S.. 119. N2 loaded with CS2. T... 121. 900ºC. 2.

Fire in open quartz boats.03 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4. Optical Properties Emission color: Pale whitish-yellow Emission peak: 2. Fire in capped quartz tubes. ++ (3.Spectra 800 700 600 500 400 Wavelength (nm) 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Remark This phosphor is slightly unstable in water. 1.88 eV). 1 hour.2 Preparation First mix only CaCO3 + Ga2O3.5% Absorption (%) 100 Emission . Powderize. 1 hour. 800ºC. 800ºC. Fire in open quartz boats. 2. Add the above amount of PbO and also ~2–3 g of sulfur. CaGa2S4:Pb2+ Composition Ingredient CaCO3 Ga2O3 PbO Mole % 99 200 (of Ga) 1 By weight (g) 99 187 2. Powderize. N2. 3. Mix by dry grinding. H2S. 1 hour. 800ºC. Store in a well-closed container. N2 bubbling through CS2.40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: 3.

ZnGa2S4:Mn2+ Structure: Tetragonal Composition Ingredient ZnS Ga2O3 MnCO3 Mole % 98 200 (of Ga) 2 By weight (g) 96 187 2. Powderize. Powderize. Powderize. 800ºC. Fire in open quartz boats. H2S. 1 hour.30 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4.92 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0. Fire in open quartz boats. 1 hour. dry. 1000ºC. about 18–20 msec to 1/10 Absorption (%) 100 Emission . 2. Fire in open quartz boats. and powderize.88 eV).Spectra 800 700 600 500 400 Wavelength (nm) 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Remark This phosphor is slightly unstable in water. 1100ºC. 1. N2 bubbling through CS2. Optical Properties Emission color: Red Emission peak: 1. ++ (3. H2S. 3.40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: 4% Decay: Exponential decay.3 Preparation Mix by slurrying in water. 1 hour.

F. Powderize. Abstr. 1. Powderize. 1 hour. Bird. Vecht. dry. 92 (May 1974). H2S.J. G. and powderize.. ZnBa2S3:Mn2+ Structure: Orthorhombic Composition Ingredient ZnS BaCO3 MnCO3 Mole % 98 200 2 By weight (g) 96 275 2. Fire in open quartz boats. Optical Properties Emission color: Red Emission peak: 1. P.. Soc. 800ºC. Meeting.24 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (3. and Smith. A.Spectra 800 700 600 500 400 Wavelength (nm) 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Reference 1. Fire in open quartz boats. H2. 2. Electrochem.40 eV) Excitation efficiency be e-beam: + Absorption (%) 100 Emission .935 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0. 1 hour.. San Francisco.3 Preparation Mix by slurrying in water. 700ºC.

. Sci. Meeting. San Francisco. Abstr. Vecht. J. Electroluminescent displays. Soc.. Electrochem.. 10. et al. Technol. 2. A. Vecht. References 1. Vecht. Absorption (%) 100 Emission . 789 (1973). 93 (May 1974). A. Vac.Spectra 800 700 600 500 400 Wavelength (nm) 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Remark This phosphor has been used for DC-EL by A.

Soc.C. and Hanlon.51 eV Excitation efficiency by e-beam: + Reference 1. 121. J.. J. SrGa2S4:Pb2+ Optical Properties Emission color: Orange Emission peak: 2. 98 (1975). Luminescence properties of thiogallate phosphors. T.88 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: + Reference 1.E. Donohue. Red and white emitting phosphors for flying spot scanner applications.50 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0..31 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: + (3. Soc. Electrochem. Synthesis and photoluminescence of MIIM2III(S.61 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0.4. BaAl2S4:Eu2+ Optical Properties Emission color: Light blue Emission peak: 2. 137 (1974). 122...Se)4.40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: + . P. Electrochem. 3.E.16 Miscellaneous Sulfides and Oxysulfides The following host compounds and activators are included in this subsection: SrAl2S4:Eu2+ SrGa2S4:Pb2+ BaAl2S4:Eu2+ SrGa2S4:Ce2+ SrGa2S4:Eu2+ BaGa2S4:Ce3+ BaGa2S4:Eu2+ Y2O2S:Eu3+ Y2O2S:Tb3+ Gd2O2S:Tb3+ SrAl2S4:Eu2+ Optical Properties Emission color: Blue-green Emission peak: 2. Peters. J..04 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0.21 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: + (4.

. Soc.. Electrochem... Soc. 230 (1972). Electrochem. T.Reference 1.40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: + Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 100 Excitation (%) Emission 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 References 1.40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: + . P. Electrochem. SrGa2S4:Eu2+ Optical Properties Emission color: Green Emission peak: 2. J. 121.A.73 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: + (3.E.Se)4. J.20 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (3. 2. Peters... J. Peters. Red and white emitting phosphors for flying spot scanner applications. 119.E. Donohue.C. J. Soc.53 eV. 122.E. and Baglio. T. J. 3.. Synthesis and photoluminescence of MIIM2III(S. and Hanlon. 98 (1975).31 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0. 2. 137 (1974). Luminescence and structural properties of thiogallate phosphors Ce+3 and Eu+2-activated phosphors. Luminescence properties of thiogallate phosphors.. SrGa2S4:Ce3+ Optical Properties Emission color: Blue-green Emission peak: 2.

.. 119.A.C.E...A... J. Donohue. and Hanlon. 2. and Hanlon.Se)4. J. Synthesis and photoluminescence of MIIM2III(S. T. Donohue. 119.. and Baglio. P.E. J. J. J. J.. BaGa2S4:Ce3+ Optical Properties Emission color: Blue-green Emission peak: 2.. 137 (1974). Electrochem. Electrochem.Spectra 800 700 600 500 400 Wavelength (nm) 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Reference 1.Se)4. 2. Synthesis and photoluminescence of MIIM2III(S. Soc.. Peters.. J. Luminescence and structural properties of thiogallate phosphors Ce+3 and Eu+2-activated phosphors. Soc.40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: + Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 100 Excitation (%) Emission 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 References 1. 230 (1972).73 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: + (3. and Baglio.C. Absorption (%) 100 Emission .. Soc. Soc. Electrochem. T. 121.E. Electrochem. 137 (1974). 2. 230 (1972). J. Luminescence and structural properties of thiogallate phosphors Ce+3 and Eu+2-activated phosphors. Peters. P. 121.53 eV.E.

. 2.E.88 eV). Soc. J. 119. Y2O2S:Eu3+ Structure: Trigonal Optical Properties Emission color: Orange to red (lines) Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4. and Baglio. J. J.40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: + Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 References 1. T.40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: ++ Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Absorption (%) 100 Emission Absorption (%) 100 Emission .Se)4. + (3..E.. J..BaGa2S4:Eu2+ Optical Properties Emission color: Blue-green Emission peak: 2.A.C. Luminescence and structural properties of thiogallate phosphors Ce+3 and Eu+2-activated phosphors. 137 (1974). Electrochem.. Donohue. Electrochem. and Hanlon. Synthesis and photoluminescence of MIIM2III(S. Soc. 121..52 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (3. P. Peters. 230 (1972).

J.29 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: + (4. 2. Ozawa. Royce. 118 (1970)... Preparation of Y2O2S:Eu phosphor particles of different sizes by a flux method. Excitation efficiency by e-beam: ++ (3. 3 418 246 (1968). Fonger. Pat. Y2O2S:Tb3+ Optical Properties Emission color: Blue-green Excitation efficiency by UV: + (4. and Struck.R. J.. Electrochem. C. 3. 117.. + (3.References 1. 413 (1977). W. 124. L.40 eV) .88 eV).40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: ++ Gd2O2S:Tb3+ Optical Properties Emission color: Green Emission peak: 2. Energy loss and energy storage from the Eu3+ chargetransfer states in Y and La oxysulfides. Soc.26–2. U..S. Soc.H.88 eV). Electrochem. M...W.

1 5.Section 5: Preparation of Phosphor Screens 5.4 Phosphor Screens by Brushing Phosphor Screens by Settling in a Kasil Solution Phosphor Screens by Cathaphoretic Deposition Filming of Phosphor Screens .3 5.2 5.

thin but dense. Simultaneously. Lehmann's Phosphor Cookbook. These methods have been tested and used in this laboratory. * This section is from W. Try to keep the laquer as uniform in thickness as possible. onto a piece of white paper and some of the phosphor to be coated onto the dry lacquer layer. It is especially good for small screens. Let dry in air. the lacquer up. Now place all onto an electric hot plate with a flat metal top. etc. Heat up the hot plate to a temperature where the paper under the substrate just about turns brown. 5. phosphor layers. They are useful but certainly not the only ways of preparing phosphor screens. Spray a layer of Krylon-Clear (out of a spray can) onto the substrate.1 Phosphor Screens by Brushing This method gives excellent. move the phosphor over the lacquer with a soft hair brush. Procedure Place the clean substrate (glass.Section 5 PREPARATION OF PHOSPHOR SCREENS* The following are examples of how to deposit inorganic phosphor powders in thin and uniform layers onto flat surfaces (usually glass). Place the substrate. The method is quick and easy and has been extensively used in the laboratory. The lacquer becomes tacky when hot and coats quickly with a very dense yet thin phosphor layer. Keep nozzle of the spray can about 5–10 cm over the substrate and spray enough to have the liquid laquer uniformly flowing over the area. .) on a horizontal surface.

Swank. Pour solution B. 3% solids Solution B: 1 g Sr acetate. Sr(C2H3O2)2 .S. W. 2 798 821 (1954).. over the area of the beaker opening. Screen the phosphor through a fine sieve immediately before use (this is an important point). 5. Procedure Clean the glass to be coated.. face up. Dry in air. Then pour the suspension quickly to the solution A in the beaker. the phosphor will still stick to the substrate but the layer is much softer and easier damaged by accidental touching. add the weighed amount of phosphor. Zn2SiO4 phosphors give well-adhering screens after 1–2 hours. Cover the beaker and let stand for about 1–24 hours. Electr. Reference 1. a volume equal to that of A. In some cases.G. will bind the phosphor to the substrate. Wipe excess loose phosphor particles off with a soft paper tissue. 400ºC. U.. Phys.Take the screen off the hot plate. for a few minutes. The phosphor adheres very tightly to the substrate and is not easily damaged. It is widely in use to prepare phosphor screens for cathode-ray tubes. or of Sr silicate from the reaction between parts A and B.* The phosphor settles down during this time and the phosphor layer reacts with the silicate of the solution. About 5–10 mg/cm2 usually is sufficient for most phosphors and purposes... however. and Houston. K. Small amounts of this reaction product.2 Phosphor Screens by Settling in a Kasil Solution This method gives somewhat less dense (macroscopically) layer than brushing but permits tight thickness control and is easily used for large screens. R. Place it in a sufficiently large beaker. Adv. . Pat. Lehmann. Electron. * Best reaction times depend on the material. in 1 liter water Pour solution A into the beaker to 20–40% of the volume. It can easily be burned out by heating in the open air. J. Reference 1.. 205 (1977). into a glass cylinder. grams per square centimeter. Decant the excess liquid. ZnS-type phosphors react slower and have to stand overnight or longer.M. Weigh the amount of phosphor to give the desired layer of thickness. Lacquer becomes solid. 43.K. Vosburgh. close the upper end of the cylinder with one hand and shake vigorously. Prepare two stock solutions. the organic layer underneath of the phosphor layer cannot be tolerated. Cautiously (as not to damage the still soft phosphor layer) rinse the screen several times in water. let cool down. The screen is now ready for most applications. Solution A: K-silicate solution in water. Afterwards.

. 117. R. .. 1456 (1970). Rinse briefly in water. 5.F. J. let the excess phosphor settle. Provide a solution of 200 mg MG(NO3)2·H2O in 1 liter methanol. P. Procedure Coat the glass surface to be coated with a very thin. Keep the solution in suspension by stirring (magnetic stirrer). Apply about 100–150 V DC (subtrate = negative).3 Phosphor Screens by Cathaphoretic Deposition This method is used to prepare dense layers of fine-particled phosphors for high-resolution cathode ray screens.) into the upper part of the beaker. Soc.E. Rutherford.4 Filming of Phosphor Screens Phosphor layers in commercial CR tubes are backed by a thin metallic Al film which the exciting electrons penetrate to reach the phosphor particles. Pour this solution into a beaker and add a few grams of the phosphor. Turn off voltage and stirrer. Longer times give thicker but less uniform layers.. Electrochem. etc. Distance anode–cathode a few centimeters. A very uniform and compact phosphor layer will stick to the substrate within about 10–30 sec. Reference 1. Electrophoretic deposition of luminescent materials. carbon. Wash briefly in a solution of about 10 g NaOH (or KOH) + 10 g NaCN (or KCN) in 1 liter water to dissolve the Au film which is no longer needed. optically transparent gold layer by evaporation in a vacuum.5. The Al film provides an optically reflecting rear layer (thus enhancing the output brightness of the tube) and protects the phosphor against damage by ion bombardment from unavoidable gas residues in the tube.. Rinse again in water and then in methanol. D. and Sargent.E. Dry. Grosso. Current should be about 5–10 mg/cm2. Then take the screen cautiously out of the solution (the phosphor adheres to the substrate even in the absence of any additional binder). Insert the Au-coated substrate and an inert anode (Pt.

leaving behind a solid. face up. The solvent evaporates within about 20–30 sec. It prevents the Al during the subsequent vacuum deposition to penetrate in between the particles. The cellulose now forms a very thin solid film touching only the tops of the phosphor particles. Deposit the Al film by evaporation in vacuum. 30 ccm isopropyl alcohol. drop 1–5 drops (depending on the surface area) of the above filming solution onto the water in the beaker. Let dry in air. into a beaker on a metal carrier to permit easy lifting out again. The solution will quickly spread over the whole water surface. Carefully lift screen out. very thin film of ethyl cellulose floating on the water. With an eye dropper. Provide a solution of: 50 ccm ethyl cellulose in amyl acetate (commercial cellulose binder). Heat the screen in open air to about 300–400ºC for a few minutes. . Add water to cover the screen. 65 ccm propyl acetate. 2 ccm octyl acetate.Procedure Place the phosphor screen. The cellulose film will burn out leaving behind a shiny Al film.

Part 2: Additional Developments .

Section 6: Phosphor Synthesis 6.1 6.2 6.3 Alternative Preparation Methods Combustion Synthesis of Phosphors Preparation of Phosphors by Sol–Gel Techniques .

these fluxes are always in the form of a melt. Alternatively. A wet co-precipitation method is also being used. In this method. Large amounts of the salts are used (up to 30% by weight of the phosphor material). through either decomposition or evaporation. This results in a more reactive mixture. Examples of salts used for this purpose are Na2MoO4. Na2B4O7. the reactants are mixed thoroughly either in dryness or in suspension. The volatile flux often reacts with the starting material and leaves the reaction mixture spontaneously. come into contact with each other on an atomic or ionic level. flux agents or molten salts are often added to provide a more interactive medium for the reaction. Commonly used fluxes include NH4Cl. the mixture is then heated or fired under an appropriate atmosphere. preferably water. the reactants are generally granular with radii in the micrometer range. There are two types of fluxes which are used. Na2SiO3. Y(NO3)3 and Tb(NO3)3 dissolved in water can be precipitated by the addition of a 2-to-1 solution of oxalic acid dissolved in hot water. the starting materials are dissolved in a solvent. A suitable flux increases the reactivity of the constituents by dissolving at least one of the reactants and provides a medium to incubate the crystallization of the phosphor.Section 6 PHOSPHOR SYNTHESIS 6. The oxalates obtained in the precipitate can be converted to oxides by heating at a relatively low temperature of 800ºC. Such reactants include the carbonates and the hydroxides which decompose with the emission of CO2 or H2O upon heating the mixture. the reactants are first dissolved in a solvent. In these processes. In this method. AlF3. the oxides can also be dissolved directly in hot diluted nitric acid to obtain a treatable precipitate. To ensure the proper reactivity between the constituents of the phosphor. This method is used in cases in which an insoluble salt can be identified for each of the reaction constituents. As the name denotes. As a result. as the interactive specific surface of the remaining elements increases in these processes. The steam heating results in a very fast evaporation of the solvent or water. The method of spray drying can also be used to synthesize luminescent materials. on the order of few mole percent. volatile and non-volatile. and then co-precipitate forming an intimately commingled starting mixture. To further facilitate the reaction and to improve the crystallinity of the luminescent materials. an intimate reaction mixture is formed and deposited downstream from the flow. Molten salts are used as non-volatile fluxes and generally do not react with the starting materials. Other routes for co-precipitation can involve sulfates or hydroxides.1 Alternative Preparation Methods* The traditional way of preparing phosphors has been by the mix and fire techniques detailed in the earlier sections. As an example. and Na4P2O7. The use of an interaction medium often results in lower reaction temperatures and allows for the optimization of the grain size of the luminophores being synthesized. NH4Br. and boric acid. Reactivity can also be improved by choosing starting materials which are unstable in controlled circumstances. The amounts used are typically small. they generally do not leave the reaction mixture and must be removed by washing with water or other appropriate solvents. . Droplets of this solution are then injected into a gas stream and are heated as they are transported downstream.

is known as a stoichiometric ratio or composition. CH6N4O. N2. The stoichiometry of metal nitrate-fuel mixtures is expressed in terms of the elemental stoichiometric coefficient.. Al2O3. as an alternative to time-consuming solid-state reaction and sol–gel processing techniques. Al(NO3)3. the only gaseous products. having a negative enthalpy of reaction ( Hrxn = –3800 kJ/mol). grinding and milling) steps. is an example of a highly exothermic reaction.1–3 The method produces rapid. several research groups began to investigate the use of combustion synthesis for oxide phosphor preparation4–6 and found it to be a technique of interest for phosphor synthesis in general. ammonium nitrate.g. crystalline. CO2. and carbohydrazide. e. Grinding has often been implicated in the degradation of luminescent emission intensity through the creation of surface defects that quench the luminescence. that is the ratio of the oxidizing to reducing components of the metal nitrate-fuel precursor mixture and is defined as: e (coefficie nt of oxidizing elements in specific formula) valency ( 1) (coefficie nt of reducing elements in specific formula) valency (2) *This section was kindly provided by L. A composition of metal nitrates and fuel in which the fuel reacts completely with all of the metal nitrates in the mixture.. 3YN3O9 + 5AlN3O9 + 15CH6N4O YAG(s) + 42N2(g) + 15CO2(g) + 45H2O(g) (1) When complete combustion occurs. and H2O.g. are released and no residuals are left in the synthesized YAG material. aluminum nitrate.2 Combustion Synthesis of Phosphors* Beginning in the late 1980’s. 6. Y3Al5O12 (YAG). or ammonium perchlorate) and an organic fuel (e. carbohydrazide. so that no residues remain in the product material. For combustion to occur. self-sustaining reactions resulting from the appropriate combination of oxidizers (e. Rohwer. it is necessary that a large amount of heat be released during the formation of the products. and carbohydrazide to form yttrium aluminum garnet. combustion synthesis has been investigated as a method to produce homogeneous. urea. exothermic. The reaction of aluminum nitrate.. For oxide phosphors. to form aluminum oxide.g. . Equation 1 is an example of a stoichiometric combustion reaction of yttrium nitrate. Later in the mid-1990’s. fine oxide powders.S. or glycine). * The above section was kindly provided by Cees Ronda. fine particle size powders rapidly without extensive high temperature (>1500oC) annealing and mechanical separation (e.The various methods described above pose the advantage of assuring a better and more homogeneous admixture of the reactants to be used in the synthesis and of generally requiring a lower temperature to achieve this synthesis. the advantages of combustion synthesis are in its ability to produce well-crystallized. metal nitrates.

Y(NO3)3 and Al(NO3)3 are oxidizers and the reducing agent is CH6N4O. the metal nitrate to carbohydrazide molar ratio is given by: 5 3 {[1 Al (-3)] [3 N 0] [9 O 2]} [1 Y (-3)] [3 N 0] [9 O 2]} 15 8 8 1. respectively. oxygen is considered to be the only oxidizing element and has a positive valence while carbon. For Y3Al5O12 synthesized using carbohydrazide fuel. The fuel alters the energetics and exothermicity of the reaction. or by adjusting the fuel to oxidizer molar ratio so e = 1. and ruptures into a flame after about 3–5 minutes. decomposes. urea. the metal nitrate to carbohydrazide molar ratio = 1. it is fuel lean when e > 1. and metal cations are considered to be reducing elements and have a negative valence. and fuel rich when e < 1. as noted below. metal nitrates.875 8 (-1) {[1 C (-4)] [6 H (-1)] [4 N 0] [1 O 2]} (3) = 1 and Thus. The maximum . dehydrates. Hess’ law can be used to approximate the adiabatic flame temperature for a combustion reaction: Tf To Hr Cp Hp (4) where Hr and Hp are the enthalpies of formation of the reactants and products. In these calculations. The oxidizer/fuel molar ratio required for a stoichiometric mixture ( e = 1) is determined by summing the total oxidizing and reducing valencies in the oxidizer compounds and dividing by the sum of the total oxidizing and reducing valencies in the fuel compounds. Powders obtained from combustion reactions with urea or carbohydrazide fuels are luminescent in the as-synthesized state. and fuel boils. hydrogen.The coefficients of the oxidizing and reducing elements are obtained from the balanced chemical equation for the combustion reaction of metal nitrates and a fuel. and provides a method to increase or decrease the adiabatic flame temperature. The chemical energy released during the exothermic reaction between the metal nitrates and fuel can rapidly heat the system to a high temperature (>1800oC) and sustain that high temperature in the absence of an external heat source. The type of fuel and the fuel to oxidizer ratio affect the adiabatic flame temperature. e Combustion reactions are initiated in a muffle furnace or on a hot plate at temperatures of 500oC or less. Combustion reactions using glycine fuel yield amorphous powders or ash which must be annealed to produce crystalline luminescent powders. Nitrogen is considered to be neutral. In a typical reaction. and Cp is the heat capacity of products at constant pressure. the target phase(s) can be achieved with significantly reduced external energy input. the precursor mixture of de-ionized water. The mixture is stoichiometric when e = 1. The resultant product appears as a porous foam. For example. these temperatures are clearly much lower than the temperature at which crystallization of the desired phase takes place during conventional processing. in Equation 1. The flame temperature can also be increased by adding excess oxidizer such as ammonium nitrate. Thus. Stoichiometric mixtures are reported to produce maximum energy. Tf. The photoluminescence emission spectra of YAG:Cr phosphors produced with carbohydrazide.875 is needed to obtain complete combustion of all components. and glycine fuels followed by a heat treatment in air at 1300oC for 1 hour show the effect of flame temperature on the luminescent properties.

5.. in the wet method. in these cases... 427 (1988). al.C. K.. L. wet methods of preparation are often used. J. Kingsley.flame temperatures during reactions with carbohydrazide.J.. et.A. Combustion synthesis of yttria. J. x-ray analysis and spectroscopic investigation of nanostructured Lu2O3:Tb. 6. Lopez...E.. A novel combustion process for the synthesis of fine particle alpha-alumina and related oxide materials. O.. Shea. K.. 10. . and glycine were 1825. fine and uniform powders with good crystallinity are generally preferred. Mater. S..C.3. Chick. respectively. Combustion synthesis of fine-particle metal aluminates. and Patil. Synthesis of red-emitting. This is especially true in low-voltage applications such as in the field emission displays of current interest. The flame temperature is also controlled by the fuel to oxidizer ratio of the particular fuel used. such as crystallite size or and degree of disorder of the local environment at the activator ions.. Mater. McKittrick. 6 (1990).. urea. aqueous solutions of specific constituent metallic salts are employed. 6. but both the crystallinity and grain uniformity are poor if the treatment parameters are such as not to allow the chemical reaction to be completed. K. The photoluminescence intensity increases for powders obtained from reactions that reached higher flame temperatures. Glycine nitrate combustion synthesis of oxide ceramic powders.. 5. The addition of a NH4(OH) or oxalic acid causes the metallic hydroxides or oxalates to precipitate from the mixture. Suresh.. Mater. 3. Ceram. References 1. J. Chem. Alloys Cmpds. Kingsley. In these devices. L.C. Lower temperature and shorter sintering periods give rise to smaller grain size particles. and 1210oC. 4.. the ingredients of the precipitate are in contact with each other at a molecular level and an efficient chemical reaction normally occurs. 79. E.. Lett. The grain size of phosphors prepared via solid-state chemical reactions depends on the temperature and the length of the sintering process.J. 8 (2001). 1780. Soc. The integrated photoluminescence intensity is a maximum for reactions at or near stoichiometry. To resolve this problem.3 Preparation of Phosphors by Sol–Gel Techniques* 6. Zych. are affected by the flame temperature of the reaction. J. The quality of the displays depends on the nature of the powders used. Lett. 3257 (1996).1 Introduction Phosphors used for most emissive display devices are in the form of powders. and Patil. 323-324. et al.. lower energy electrons do not penetrate into phosphor grains very deeply. Jia. E. Sci. and Sluzky. Ekambaram. 6. 25. and in order to maintain efficiency the size of phosphor grains has to be reduced to reflect this fact. Preparation.A.. 2. and Patil. 905 (1995). Am. small particle size luminescent oxides used an optimized combustion process. *This section was kindly provided by W. J. J. This is an indication that certain properties of the resulting powders. J. 1305 (1990). Mater. K.

To obtain powder or ceramic samples. Molecule-level-homogeneous multi-component materials can be obtained. (d) The microstructure (porosity and size of pores) of the materials can be controlled. Fluxes. otherwise cracks and striations will appear in the samples. is used as precursors. These metalorganic alkoxides either are in liquid form or are soluble in certain organic solvents. No milling and grinding are needed. Through the use of the appropriate reagents. the geletion process then proceeds as before. the gels can be baked.The sol–gel method of phosphor preparation is regarded as a wet method. powderizing may be used and trace of foreign particles can be mix in. such as SiO2:CaX2-Eu2+/Mn2+ (where X = Cl. (b) Nanophases can be obtained by phase aggregation from doped SiO2 or other matrices during thermal treatments. A kind of metalorganic compounds. (b) High uniformity of doping ions distribution exists. Different . (e) Thin films and multi-layers coatings of sol–gel materials can be readily prepared by spinning or dipping methods during the gelation period. processes are known to contaminate samples. The sol–gel method is advantageous inasmuch as thin films or coatings of the phosphor can be formed on substrates directly and/or the sol–gel can be molded into designated forms. (f) The sol–gel procedures produce little unintentional contamination. and NH4Cl. 2. heterogeneous materials. known as alkoxides of metals. the processes hydrolysis and gelation can be induced to produce homogeneous gels from the mixture of alkoxides. Br. (c) Processing temperature can be very low. Willi Lehmann reported in 1975 that very efficient luminescence was observed in. what he called. For example. To get rid of these organic groups. Because of the better homogeneity.14-17 There are two ways to prepare such nanophosphor composites: (a) Alkoxide solutions of the phosphor are prepared from the appropriate precursors and then blended into the sol of SiO2 (or other matrixes). and higher doping concentration becomes possible. The sol–gel technique presents the following advantages: (a) High homogeneity of the chemical composition of the materials produced occurs. which are commonly used in ceramic technology and contaminate the end products. are no longer needed. This "contamination" does not enter into the lattice and will not affect the intrinsic optical properties of the phosphor. This allows the doping of fragile organic and biological molecules into porous inorganic materials and the fabrication of organic– inorganic hybrid materials. No "local" concentration quenching will occur because of impurity clustering. In cases where phosphor powders are prepared by the sol–gel method. H3BO3. samples have to be annealed above 1000°C and this may produce undesirable side effects. The sol–gel method has been widely used to prepare a number of phosphors10-12 for displays and other materials that are of technical importance. and powderized as in other traditional methods. such as B2O3. contributions to the optical spectra of these materials from inhomogeneous sources are generally expected to be smaller than those encountered in unordered systems. The technique has the following disadvantages: 1. The drying and annealing processes have to be slow and deliberate. or I). for example. prepared by a solid-state reaction. It is difficult to completely remove the residual hydroxyls from the sol–gel materials.13 These materials are similar to those found in the nanoclusters in SiO2 which have been developed recently via the sol–gel method described in the first section. Nano-scale uniform pores can be obtained at intermediate processing temperature while high-density materials can be produced with higher annealing temperature. sintered.

18. on the other hand. if used. in which a hydrogen atom belonging to the hydroxyl (OH) group on an alcohol is replaced by a metal atom. HCl acts as a catalyst in this process. including hydrolysis. in hydrolysis. Some alkoxide solutions are commercially available (see Table 1). These liquid mixtures of the metal alkoxides are stirred for an extended period. This solute can be driven from the gel through thermal treatment. and thermal treatment. Si(OCH3)4. a solvent such as MeOH (methanol) or EtOH (ethanol) is normally used to produce the precursor solution. Because the chemical–physical processes involved are similar for all metal alkoxides. an alkoxide is a metalorganic compound. a proper solvent is needed to convert solid alkoxides. the particles consist of dense oxide or polymetric clusters formed by the precursors and reagents. we use silicon alkoxides as an illustrative example for the preparation of sol–gel materials. on the order of several hours. Doping or activator ions are introduced through either using another alkoxide solution or an aqueous solution of the doping ions. and a solid glass or ceramic is produced in this way. Graham1 prepared gels of silica from aqueous salts. A gel. and hydrochloric acid (HCl) is prepared so that it has a pH in the range of 2–5. Since then the method has received considerable attention and has been investigated extensively. liquid) or TEOS (tetraethoxysilane. into liquid form. A typical reaction goes as: (OR)3-Si-OR + H2O (OR)3-Si-OH + ROH .2 Sol–gel techniques The sol–gel method is a chemical technique that uses metal alkoxides for the synthesis and production of glasses or ceramics through a series of chemical processes. The reaction of alkoxides with water is called hydrolysis. They react readily but are not soluble in water. alcohol. This acidic solution is added slowly (dropwise) into the precursor alkoxide mixture.3. a mixture of water to alcohol to HCl with pH ~2–5 is added. drying.4 A mixture of water. TMOS (tetramethoxysilane. Ebelmen2 obtained silica gels from metal alkoxides. similar procedures are applicable to other oxide compounds.19 6. silicate-related materials in this case. 1. the procedure for the preparation of doped SiO2 sol–gel glasses is described. Si(OC2H5)4. As an example. a hydroxyl (OH) group attaches itself to the metal atom by replacing the alkoxide group (OR) in the TMOS or TEOS. The sol–gel technique was developed as early as 1864. a sol is defined as a colloid of solid particles suspended in a liquid.3 In general. the gel forms cells which encapsulate colloidal liquids. Preparation of precursor solutions The initial raw materials for sol–gel preparations consist of metal alkoxides either in solid or in liquid form (Table 1). gelation. These materials are transparent and can be used for displays and laser devices. liquid) are commonly used. The potential of the sol–gel process was not appreciated until 1980. For these matrices. such as optical glasses and solidstate laser materials.nanophosphor embedded glasses have been fabricated with this method. To stimulate hydrolysis. 2. Hydrolysis 3. Since the sol–gel method is a wet chemical method. is a composite substance consisting of a continuous solid skeletal structure which results from the gelation of the sol. while M. T. when it was "rediscovered" and found to be very useful in synthesizing various materials of practical importance.

CnH2n+1. Commonly used metal alkoxides and recommended solvents for solids Name aluminum isopropoxide aluminum n-butoxide aluminum sec-butoxide barium ethoxide barium isopropoxide bismuth isopropoxide calcium ethoxide calcium methoxide cerium isopropoxide copper ethoxide dysprosium isopropoxide erbium isopropoxide gadolinium isopropoxide gallium isopropoxide germanium methoxide germanium ethoxide germanium isopropoxide lanthanum isopropoxide lead isopropoxide magnesium methoxide magnesium ethoxide manganese isopropoxide praseodymium isopropoxide tetraethoxysilane (TEOS) tetramethoxysilane (TMOS) strontium isopropoxide titanium(iv) ethoxide titanium(iv) methoxide titanium(iv) isopropoxide tungsten(vi) ethoxide tungsten(vi) isopropoxide yttrium isopropoxide zinc isopropoxide zirconium n-propoxide zirconium n-butoxide Chemical Formula Al(OC3H7i)3 Al(OC4H9n)3 Al(OC4H9s)3 Ba(OC2H5)2 Ba(OC3H7i)3 Bi(OC3H7i)3 Ca(OC2H5)2 Ca(OCH3)2 Ce(OC3H7i)3 Cu(OC2H5)2 Dy(OC3H7i)3 Er(OC3H7i)3 Gd(OC3H7i)3 Ga(OC3H7i)3 Ge(OCH3)4 Ge(OC2H5)4 Ge(OC3H7i)4 La(OC3H7i)3 Pb(OC3H7i)2 Mg(OCH3)2 Mg(OC2H5)2 Mn(OC3H7i)2 Pr(OC3H7i)3 Si(OC2H5)4 Si(OCH3)4 Sr(OC3H7i)2 Ti(OC2H5)4 Ti(OCH3)4 Ti(OC3H7i)4 W(OC2H5)6 W(OC3H7i)6 Y(OC3H7i)3 Zn(OC3H7i)2 Zr(OC3H7n)4 Zr(OC4H9n)4 Solvents isopropanol n-butanol liquid ethanol isopropanol isopropanol ethanol methanol isopropanol ethanol toluene-isopropanol toluene-isopropanol toluene-isopropanol liquid liquid liquid liquid isopropanol isopropanol methanol ethanol isopropanol toluene-isopropanol liquid liquid isopropanol liquid methanol liquid ethanol isopropanol isopropanol isopropanol n-propanol n-butanol . an aqueous solution containing the doping ion/ions is also blended in during the hydrolysis step. Table 1. If the sol– gels are to be doped. Hydrolysis can occur with any one of the (OR) groups of the molecule. and R=C2H5 for TEOS.Here R stands for the alkyl (alkylic radical). R=CH3 for TMOS.

Additional cross-links form during gelation and the polymer chains become increasingly entangled. Because water and alkoxysilanes are immiscible. is released when an alcohol solution is employed: (OR)3-Si-OR + HO-Si-(OR)3 (OR)3-Si-O-Si-(OR)3 + ROH ROH is an alcohol: ROH=C2H5OH for TEOS and CH3OH for TMOS. and the pH of the total admixture. Different metal alkoxides can also coalesce to form "compound" clusters. 4. In most cases. chains of polymers can cross-link to form three-dimensional clusters. dissolution. In our example. gelation occurs. though both the sol and gel formation rates are known to increase with increasing temperature. Gelation is a continuous process in which two partially hydrolyzed molecules begin to connect and intertwine with each other with the release (condensation) of water when in a water solution: (OR)3-Si-OH + HO-Si-(OR)3 (OR)3-Si-O-Si-(OR)3 + H2O Alcohol. Drying by evaporation under normal conditions gives rise to pressure within the pores that causes shrinkage of the gel network. larger structures are produced by polymerization. these clusters begin to grow by combining with monomers or other clusters while releasing or condensing water or alcohols. the viscosity and the elastic modulus of the solution increase rapidly. At still higher pH and excess water content.4 With the proper thermodynamic conditions. so that the networks are compressed more at the surfaces than in the bulk. The final spanning cluster forms a skeletal framework which encloses cells containing the liquid phase (water or alcohol) and defines the gel phase. sol–gel synthesis is carried out at room temperature. ROH.3. Gelation 3. That is through further condensation. colloidal silica is formed. With continuing gelation. and re-precipitation of monomers or oligomers. If the gradients are too large. Through the gelation process. silica gels prepared at low pH (<3) and low water content (less than 4 mol% water per mole of alkoxide) produce primarily linear polymers with low cross-link density. a common solvent such as alcohol is also normally used as a homogenizing agent. this may cause cracking of the sample. the relative concentration of the alkoxide precursors. Syneresis or spontaneous shrinkage of the network of the gel takes place as bond formation or attraction between clusters induces a contraction of the network and expulsion of liquid from the pores. Small clusters suspended in the liquid constitute the sol. The solid network retards the escape of the liquid and prevents structural collapse. Links between clusters keep on multiplying until a giant cluster forms that spans the vessel. water. Several factors affect the rate of sol and gel formation including the temperature. and solvent. Pressure gradients develop through the volume of the gels. . these clusters link together during gelation. during gelation. Silica gels prepared under more normal condition (pH 5–7) and/or higher water contents produce highly branched clusters which behave as discrete species. Aging and drying Aging leads to changes in the structure and other properties of the gel.

3. J. Chockalingam. 54.. et al. 17. to make Al2O3. B. by 900°C. 2288. 7. et al. catalytic substrates. Ceram. Serna. these materials are useful as phosphors.J. Am. Annealing and porosity control Additional treatment of the sol–gel is required to produce pore-free ceramic materials. and Oton. Sol-gel synthesis of cadmium tin oxide powder.. the exothermic process is suppressed if the gels are heated under inert conditions. 8. SPIE Sol-Gel Optics II. followed by exothermic oxidation at temperatures between 300 and 400°C. Serrano. 9.. C. and vapor sensors. 139 (2000). For the silicate system of our example. Yoldas. Livage. then wet gels. The resulting dried gel is called a xerogel. and Lakshmanan. Alumina sols.. Chem.. and then dried gels can be obtained through the procedures of hydrolysis. 100 mol of H2O. 3943.. J.. Techniques for other materials Techniques to prepare other oxide and nitride compounds are similar to those used for SiO2. New transparent polycrystalline silicate scintillators. Bull. A. W. where oxidation is prevented. B. 129 (1864). Bescher. E. C.6 5..07 mol of HCl. Rev. 16. 318 (1864). Brundage.M.W. Vidal. and Yen. Sol-gel science: The Physics and Chemistry of SolGel Processing. and 0. and Scherer.7 Monolithic transparent -alumina results when an annealing temperature of 500ºC is used. Gel glass-dispersed liquidcrystal optical shutters. .2H2O. A. Brinker. is the predominant shrinkage mechanism in this temperature interval. Chim. J. Because of low permeability of the small pores in the network. C..After shrinkage stops. Henry.6 As an example.P. Jia. SPIE Sol–gel Optics III. a process by which free excess volume is removed by diffusive motion of the network. D.M. the gel constituents move by viscous flow or diffusion in such a way as to reduce the solid–vapor interfacial areas and hence reduce porosity. this may cause cracking when the samples are heated between room temperature and 400°C. San Diego (1990). The condensation (water or alcohol) and pyrolysis reactions that occur during heating liberate a large volume of gas that can generate high pressures. Removal of organics takes place by endothermic carbonization near 200°C. M. Phys. At 800°C. 10. Jayachandran. Xerogels are useful in the preparation of dense ceramics and are also interesting because of their high porosity and large surface area. MacCraith. sintering at high temperatures results in densification driven by interfacial energy considerations.T...5. 183 (1988). T. Academic Press. Sol-gel coating for optical chemical sensors and biosensors... 18. 745 (1994). G. 2. Prog. 2288. the alumina becomes phase when annealed at 1200°C.. Soc. 476 (1992).. Isotope effects in the multiphonon relaxation of hydrated and deuterated cesium chloro-manganate (CsMnCl3. Levy.J. SPIE Sol–Gel Optics III. R.2D2O). M. 5.L. the gel is completely densified leaving only a trace of silanols (Si-OH). as described above... Hydrolysis can be conducted at 80°C with 1 mol of aluminum sec-butoxide.E. Graham. 518 (1994). 286 (1975). M. gellation. Soc.. SPIE Sol-Gel Optics V. 1758.7 References 1. 4. Al(OC4H9)3 (see Table 1) can be used. there is partial densification of the sol–gel.S. 27. J. M. and Sanchez. 6.. W.. Ebelmen.. 41 (1983).. B. Ann.D. The temperature interval 400–525°C represents a region where considerable skeletal densification occurs with little associated weight loss.. 6. further evaporation drives the meniscus of the liquids into the bulk and the rate of evaporation decreases.. Structural relaxation. Phys. By heating. filters. Solid State Chem. and drying.

P.T. 2288. 748 (1975). 1758. Chem. W. 17. Gel-glass dispersed liquid crystal projection display.J. 11 (2000). Soc. 271 (1998).. M. W. Electrochem. J. E. Fluorescence line-narrowing study of Eu3+-doped Sol-gel Silica: Effect of modifying cations on the clustering of Eu3+. and Bray. et al.R. W. Feofilov. 15. D. 536 (1994).. Quintana. Lochhead.J.. 16. 519. Liu.. Bommersbach. 292 (1992). R.. 122..M. Mater. R. Costa... J. 2288. 14.J. 13. Teowee. M. Mater. J.. Levy. and Jiao. Rodrigo. S. 783 (1996). V.11. 8. 18. Lehmann. 572 (1995).. Proc.A. 12. and Uhlmann. Optically active sol-gel microspheres for flat-panel color displays. Prospects of sol–gel technology towards luminescent materials.L. Meltzer. and Bray. SPIE Sol–gel Optics III.Y3+ codoped SiO2 sol-gel glasses.C.. D. Boulton. SPIE Sol–gel Optics II. Lochhead. 311.... Spectroscopic study of Eu3+doped and Eu3+. 7. SPIE Sol–gel Optica III.M. K.. 1 (2001).. J. K. Mater. Soc.... Jia. H. Alloys Compds. Jia. Res.M. . J... Photoluminescence of Eu3+:Y2O3 nanoclusters embedded in SiO2 Glass.. Mater. W.. C.. 16. and Otón. Chem..L.. X. Opt. G. Symp. 19. Second-harmonic generation from sol–gel derived ferroelectric and piezoelectric thin films. Reisfeld. 529 (1994). Pope. Rare-earth clustering and aluminum codoping in solgel silica: Investigation using europium(III) fluorescence spectroscopy.

6 7. and Borates Aluminates Halides and Oxyhalides CaS and ZnS-Type Sulfides Other Compounds .1 7.5 7.Section 7: Other Phosphor Data 7.2 7.7 Oxides Silicates Phosphates.4 7. Halophosphates.3 7.

Takashi Hase. Willi Lehmann (posthumously). Madis Raukas. Yoshitaka Sato. Masaaki Tamatani. Ultrafast ZnO-CdO:Ga.Al3+ SrTiO3:Pr3+ Y(P. Cees Ronda.1 Oxides The following host compounds and activators are included in this subsection: Bi4Ge3O12 CaTiO3:Eu3+ CaTiO3:Pr3+ Gd3Ga5O12:Cr3+ GdNbO4:Bi3+ K2La2Ti3O10:Eu LuTaO4:Nb5+ SrIn2O4:Pr3+.Gd)2O3:Eu3+ YTaO4 YTaO4:Nb5+ YVO4:Dy3+ ZnGa2O4 ZnGa2O4:Mn2+ ZnO:Bi3+ ZnO:Zn ZnO:Ga. Lauren E. Weiyi Jia.Tb3+ Y2O2S:Eu (Y. Shozo Oshio. Dongdong Jia. Shinji Okamoto. 7. and Hajime Yamamoto. Shea-Rowhler.Al3+ SrY2O4:Eu3+ SrTiO3:Pr3+. Ultrafast Zn2SiO4:Mn . Luis Carlos.V)O4:Eu Y2O3:Ce Y2O3:Eu (YOE) Y2O3:Eu3+ Y2O3:Tb3+ Y2O3:Ce3+.Section 7 OTHER PHOSPHOR DATA Information about the following additional phosphors and their properties has been kindly provided (in Lehmann’s format) by Edith Bourret-Courchesne. Yoh Mita.

3. Phosphors for X-ray detectors in computed tomography. Phys...C. Rossner.48. Optical Properties Emission peak: 485 nm Excitation efficiency by UV: – (3.88 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: + Decay to 1/e: 0. 5495 (1973). The crystals will only be really colorless when the raw materials Bi2O3 and GeO2 have a high purity. and Grabmaier. and Grabmaier. ++ (4.C. The growth atmosphere has to be oxygen. R. 44. atmospheric environment. Use a platinum crucible. The other growth technique of the horizontal Bridgman–Stockbarger method is now popular to prevent growths forming a core. Appl. J. (1994). Heidelberg.J. Blasse.. B..Bi4Ge3O12 Structure: Cubic Preparation Grow the crystals of Bi4Ge3O12 from stoichiometric melts. Luminescent Materials. Lumin.. References 1. 179. 4. 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 . and Monchamp. W. B.40 eV).. M. R. using Czochralski method. Luminescence of Bi4Ge3O12: Spectral and decay properties. otherwise the Pt crucible will be attacked.. 3. Weber. The melting point of the single crystal is 1044°C. p. G. Springer-Verlag. and radio frequency induction heating. J.3 × 10-6 s Spectra 800 700 600 500 400 Wavelength (nm) 300 100 Excitation (%) Emission 50 2 3 Remarks 1. 2. 29 (1991).. This contribution is from Hajime Yamamoto. 2.

Fire in air.352 0.98 0. University of Puerto Rico—Mayaguez (2001). air.CaTiO3:Eu3+ Structure: Orthorhombic Composition Ingredient CaCO3 TiO2 Eu2O3 B2O3 Mole % 100 100 1 3 By weight (g) 10. 3 hours. 1 hour. Optical Properties Emission color: Red Emission peak: 612 nm Excitation efficiency by UV: + (3. Fire in open quartz boats.01 7. 1300 C. Grind and press into pellets again. This compound is known as calcium titanate. I. 2. 2. – (4.88 eV) Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 100 Excitation (%) Emission 50 2 3 Remarks 1. . 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Reference 1.209 Preparation Mix by dry grinding or milling.40 eV). 1. 1000 C.. Rivera. Powderize. Press into pellets. Master Degree Thesis. This contribution is from Weiyi Jia.

.98 0.H4 3 500 400 Wavelength (nm) 300 100 Excitation (%) Emission 1 I6. 1 hour. W.. Optical Properties Emission color: Red Emission peak: 612 nm Excitation efficiency by UV: + (3. et al. Grind and press into pellets again. 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 References 1. Press into pellets. W. This contribution is from Weiyi Jia. + (4. I. 2. 153 (2003). Composition Ingredient CaCO3 TiO2 Pr(NO3)3. Rivera. This compound is also known as calcium titanate. 126..5 3 By weight (g) 10.CaTiO3:Pr3+ Structure: Orthorhombic. 2. Fire in air. 180 (2000). Jia. Rivera.40 eV). Xu.313 0.H5 3 600 D2. 1000 C. P1 1 3 x50 1 x10 50 P0 3 3 P0 2 3 Remarks 1. 1300 C. I. Nashville..209 Preparation Mix by dry grinding or milling.6H2O B2O3 Mole % 100 100 0.. 1. Effects of compositional phase transitions on luminescence of Sr1-xCaxTiO3:Pr3+.88 eV) Spectra 800 700 D2. Fire in open quartz boats. et al.. air. Powderize.01 7. Proceedings of the Second National Student Conference of NASA URCSC 2000. 3 hours. 2. Solid State Commun.

40. Stir well and add the NH4OH solution. H. Fire in flowing O2. Rev...5 62. Leppert. J. Lumin.. Rossner. Alloys Ingredients. Mater. W. 17 (1993). Bodinger. 1. and Grabmaier. 69 (1997). Wash with water to remove the NH4Cl by-product and excess NH4OH.. such as water or methanol. and Huber. Sci.6 Preparation Combine the proper amounts of the oxides with some nitric acid to form a precipitate. B. The afterglow mechanism of chromiumdoped gadolinium gallium garnet.C. Ceramic scintillators.40 eV)..88 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: + Decay to 1/e: 0. and Ostertag.C. J.. Petermann. Reflectivity (%) 100 Emission . 4. Greskovich. 376 (1993). 2. 2. 200. The conversion of high energy radiation to visible light by luminescent ceramics.2 0.. Optical Properties Emission color: Red Emission peak: 730 nm Excitation efficiency by UV: – (3.5 0. 2 hours. 31/32. Annu. Fire in air. Dry in air. 71 (1984).5 By weight (g) 100 86.17 × 10-3 sec Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 50 2 3 Remark This contribution is from Hajime Yamamoto.. and Duclos. Co-doping with a small amount of Ce reduces the afterglow. Blasse. Grabmaier. M. G. 3. C.. Sci. K. S. 900°C for an hour or more. 1500–1550°C. J. 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 References 1.. Broad band fluorescence of transition metal doped garnets and tungstates.. + (4. 27.. IEEE Trans.. G. B.. Ball-mill the powder with a grinding media and a liquid vehicle. Nucl.Structure: Cubic (garnet) Composition Ingredient Gd2O3 Ga2O3 Cr2O3 Gd3Ga5O12:Cr3+ Mole % 37.

GdNbO4:Bi3+ Structure: Tetragonal (scheelite) Composition Ingredient Gd2(C2O4)3·10H2O Nb2O5 Bi2O3 Mole % 41.646 0. Optical Properties Emission color: Blue Emission peak: 430 nm Excitation efficiency by UV: Broad range. Dry in air. Fire in covered crucible. 600–800 C. and Fritsch. 1350–1650 C. This phosphor has a general formula of Gd1-xBixNbO4 and per above ingredients yields a stoichiometry with x = 0. Powderize when dry.51 By weight (g) 15. D..350 Preparation Mix by slurrying in acetone or by dry blende. Grisafe. Reference 1. Fire in covered crucible. C. 2.701 6. U. Store in a well-sealed container.A. Pat. 3 767 589 (1973). 2.51 56.S. suitable for 2537 Å Excitation efficiency by e-beam: Good Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 100 Emission 50 2 3 Remarks 1. 3 hours.98 1.03.. 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 . This contribution is from Madis Raukas. 1 hour. air. 1. air.W..

Y. V. U.72 19. air. .06 57. R.40 eV). Qi. 24 hours. and Karam. U. Filter. and 702 nm. U. Washed in de-ionized water. 5 531 928 (1996).. U.R. R. Fire in covered alumina crucibles. Cool to room temperature. Qi. Powderize..B. 2 hours. Reddy. R.19 By weight (g) 6. dry at 130 C. Pat.K2La2Ti3O10:Eu Structure: Layered perovskite Composition Ingredient K2CO3 TiO2 La2O3 Eu2O3 Mole % 23.. 5 489 398 (1996). This contribution is from Madis Raukas.S. Pat.B.1 fL level under focused 15 kV/ 8 A excitation Remarks 1. 700 C.B. 3.Y. U... 617. 4. Reddy. Karam. 4. increasing from 700 C to 1100 C.. Reddy.E.E.K.. Pat. Fire in covered alumina crucibles.E. The described composition yields a concentration of 0. Good electroluminescent properties result when this phosphor is intercalated with conductive polymers or metals.59 12. V. 2. and Cox. 2. 24 hours. Karam.63 9.. J.S. over 3 hours. and Northrop. Pat.S. and screen through a 325-mesh stainless steel sieve.E.Y. Y. 5 658 495 (1997). S. V. + (4.90 0. and Zhang...E. This phosphor in general formulation of K2La2Ti3O10:Eu is another example of materials belonging to intercalation ingredients.. References 1... 1100 C.S. Fire in covered alumina crucibles. 3.. Qi. 5 567 351 (1996).S. Excitation efficiency by UV: + (3. R. and Karam. R. and Karam. Fire in covered alumina crucibles. R.K..02 mol Eu per mole of phosphor.03 0..88 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: Characteristic emission at about 1. air. air. R. 1100 C...141 Preparation Mix stoichiometric amounts in a paint shaker for 30 minutes with about 20 mol% of excess potassium carbonate to compensate for losses due to volatilization. R. Northrop. air.. Optical Properties Emission peaks: Lines at 594. Pat. 5. 5 531 926 (1996).. S.

. Wash in methanol. Ball-mill. 2. 1.LuTaO4:Nb5+ Structure: Monoclinic Composition Ingredient Lu2O3 Ta2O5 Mole % — — By weight (g) — — Preparation Mix stoichiometric quantities of the Lu2O3 and Ta2O5.88 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: + Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 100 Excitation (%) Emission 50 2 3 Remark This contribution is from Masaaki Tamatani. . + (4. air. 130. Fire in alumina containers. 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Reference 1. leach with water. H.. 1200°C. Brixner.. 2435 (1983). Fire in alumina containers.Y. and Chen. Soc. In the cases where flux is used.H. L. Optical Properties Emission color: Violet Emission peak: 394 nm Excitation efficiency by UV: (3. using a Freon solvent as grinding medium. air. 10–14 hours. J. 8–10 hours. 1250°C. either by itself or in the presence of 50% Li2SO4. On the structural and luminescent properties of the M’ LnTaO4 rare earth tantalates. Dry at 130°C. Electrochem.40 eV).

stagnant air.88 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: ++ (10eV–1 keV) Decay to 1/e: ~10 µsec Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Remark This contribution is from Shinji Okamoto.64 0.007 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: – (3.340 3.517 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0.33 277. ++ (4. Optical Properties Emission peak: 2.SrIn2O4:Pr3+.900 Preparation Mix by slurrying in ethanol. Absorption (%) 100 Emission . 1250 C.Al3+ Structure: Orthorhombic Composition Ingredient SrCO3 In2O3 Pr6O11 Al(OH)3 Mole % 99. Dry in air.8 200 (of In) 0.40 eV). Powderize. Store in air. 3 hours.2 (of Pr) 5 By weight (g) 147. Fire in aluminum crucibles.

++ (3. Powderize by dry ball-milling.238 0. Fire in air. Fire in air. Optical Properties Emission color: Red Emission peak: 611 nm Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (2. 1000 C. = 270 nm Em. = 250 nm Em. 3 hours. Press into pellets again. 2.251 Preparation Mix by grinding in a mortar for 30 minutes. 1350 C. = 616 nm 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 . Press into pellets with a hydraulic press machine at 40.3 0. 1.000 psi.40 eV) Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 100 Excitation (%) Excitation (%) Emission Exc. 2 hours.88 eV).SrY2O4:Eu3+ Structure: Orthorhombic Composition Ingredient SrCO3 Y 2O 3 Eu2O3 H3BO3 Mole % 100 100 1 6 By weight (g) 10 15. = 611 nm 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) Wavelength (nm) 5 0 800 700 600 500 400 300 100 Emission Exc.

.Y. High Li+ self-diffusivity and transport number in novel electrolyte solutions. Xu.2 (of Pr) 5–30 By weight (g) 147.900–23. 2 hours. Electrochem. J. Powderize. Videa. Soc.Remark This contribution is from Weiyi Jia. Fire in aluminum crucibles. Structure and luminescence of SrY2O4:Eu. S.. 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Absorption (%) 100 Emission . Dry in air. References 1. J.401 Preparation Mix by slurrying in ethanol.H.. et al.33 79. Soc.. Electrochem. 148. A1352 (2001). ++ (4.009 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0. C.40 eV).J.. stagnant air. W. M...88 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: ++ (10 eV–1 keV) Decay to 1/e: ~100 µsec Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 50 2 3 Remark This contribution is from Shinji Okamoto. Park.8 100 0. Yu. SrTiO3:Pr3+.879 0.. Geil. 3903 (1999). Park.340 3. Optical Properties Emission peak: 2. 1300 C.064 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: – (3.Al3+ Structure: Cubic Composition Ingredient SrCO3 TiO2 Pr6O11 Al(OH)3 Mole % 99. 146. et al. 2. B. B.

. Toki. H.88 eV) Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 100 Excitation (%) Emission 50 2 3 Remarks 1..142 Preparation Mix by dry grinding or milling. Effects of compositional phase transitions on luminescence of Sr1-xCaxTiO3:Pr3+. Fire in air. Fire in open quartz boats. Appl. 6387 (1999). I. F. Phys. Grind and press into pellets again. K. A new red-emitting phosphor. 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Reference 1. Tamura.41 0. et al. ++ (4. 38. and Yamamoto. 2. . 1. 153 (2003). J. Xu. 78. S. 3 hours. H. (2001). 1 hour.. S. Lett.40 eV). and Kataoka.212 0. This contribution is from Weiyi Jia.. W. 126. Okamoto. Solid State Commun.6H2O B2O3 Mole % 100 100 0....00 5. Press into pellets. 1000 C. Characteristic enhancement of emission from SrTiO3:Pr3+ by addition of group. SrTiO3:Pr3+. Optical Properties Emission color: Red Emission peak: 615 nm Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (3.b ions. 2. 2. This compound is also known as strontium titanate. SrTiO3:Pr3+ Structure: Cubic Composition Ingredient SrCO3 TiO2 Pr(NO3)3.. Phys.. for low-voltage electron excitation.. Itoh. Powderize.. 655. Jpn.5 3 By weight (g) 10. 1300 C. Jia. Appl. W.References 1. Rivera. air..

.. Cool and slurry the powder in 2 wt% (NH4)2CO3 solution. ++ (8.. G. 9–16 (1966).40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: + Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 50 2 3 Remark This contribution is from Takashi Hase.S. Luminescence. Absorption (%) 100 Emission . Japanese Patent Disclosure (Kokai).L. Conf.40 eV). Decant with water until neutral..W. + (4.G. A. J.0 40. Optical Properties Emission color: Red Emission peak: 619 nm Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (3. Wanmaker. Wanmaker.. and Verlijsdok.Y(P. J.V)O4:Eu Structure: Xenotime Composition Ingredient Y 2O 3 Eu2O3 NH4VO3 (NH4)2HPO4 Mole % 48 2 35 65 By weight (g) 104.8 Preparation Dry-blend all ingredients and place in a capped quartz or alumina crucible..8 7. 4. 3.T. for an additional 2 hours. Pat. and Bres. Fire in 1150 C. for 2 hours... 3 417 027 (1968).88 eV). U..L.M. Vrugt. 3.. W.G.S. U. 2. 51 114388 (1976). W. 200 C. 2. Cool and lightly mortar to break aggregates. Int. Verlijsdok. J. Budapest. 1. Dry in air. 50 67782 (1975). Fire in 1150 C. Fire in 700 C. for 2 hours.C. 3 647 708 (1972). Proc..9 85.L. Wanmaker. Bril. Pat. W. J. 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 References 1. and Broos. Cool and break up aggregates..

Tb3+ nanoclusters embedded in SiO2 sol-gel glasses. C.40 eV).88 eV) Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 100 Excitation (%) Emission 50 2 3 Remark This contribution is from Weiyi Jia. Optical Properties Emission color: Violet (Ce3+) Emission peak: 375 nm Emission width (FWHM): 30 nm Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (3. Sci. Annealing in N2 + 5% H2 gas flow at 500–900°C to remove residual water. 572. ++ (4.. Eng. 55 (2001). Place the wet gel in an oven at 40°C for one or two weeks to obtain transparent dry gels.) ethanol. or other organic groups created and entrapped in the gels during gellation process. . Photoluminescence of Y2O3:Ce3+. ethanol. into a small container such as cuvettes. Cover the cuvette with paraffin film with a pin hole in the center as a outlet of vapor. add the CeCl3 solution dropwise.Y2O3:Ce Structure: Cubic Composition Ingredient Mole % Si(OEt)4 100 Y(OC3H7i)3 7 1 CeCl3 (aq. et al. Jia. W. Mater. water and HCl (pH = 7) 1:2:3 By weight (g) — — — certain amount Preparation Stir ingredients. Nanoclusters embedded in SiO2 glasses 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Reference 1. After 20 minutes.

Powderize. Firing should occur in air. It can be sensitized for excitation at 365 nm using Bi. with reduced efficiency at 254 nm. water.Y2O3:Eu (YOE) Structure: Cubic Composition Ingredient Y 2O 3 Eu2O3 CaF2 Mole % 94 (Y) 6 (Eu) 2.5) 1:2:3 By weight (g) 100 8.6 6.95 Preparation Mix by slurrying in water or methanol and dry in air.9 ethanol. It can also be used in plasma display panels.5 1. and HCl (pH = 2.58 Absorption (%) 100 Emission . however. Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Remark This contribution is from Cees Ronda.95 1.5 Y(OC3H7i)3 EuCl3·6H2O 0. This phosphor is used in fluorescent lamps and also in projection television tubes.5 By weight (g) 108 10. at a temperature of about 1300°C for at least 1 hour. Y2O3:Eu3+ Structure: Cubic Composition Ingredient Mole % Si(OEt)4 92.

2. Jia. Optical Properties Emission color: Red Emission peak: 612 nm Emission width (FWHM): 30 nm Excitation efficiency by UV: Weakly excited at 3.. or other organic radicals. Spectroscopic study of Eu3+doped and Eu3+. Mater. ethanol. Put the EuCl3/water/ethanol/HCl solution into the Si/Y mixture dropwise while stirring. Meltzer... and HCl (pH = 7) 1:2:3 By weight (g) 100 8. 11. Y2O3:Tb3+ Composition Ingredient Mole % Si(OEt)4 92.. Proc. S.5 0. H. 311 (2000).6H2O ethanol. et al. Blend it into the ethanol/water/HCl mix. W.. allowing slow evaporating of the excess or resulted water and ethanol. J. Alloys Ingredients. Pour the resulting mixture into a small container with a cover. Mix the Si and Y solutions and stir for 20 minutes with a magnetic stirring device.P. 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 References 1.9 TbCl3. Soc.87 eV Excitation efficiency by e-beam: Weakly excited by cathode rays Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 100 Excitation (%) Emission 50 2 3 Remark This contribution is from Weiyi Jia... and Jiao.Y3+ codoped SiO2 sol-gel glasses. Jia. W. Photoluminescence of Eu3+:Y2O3 nanoclusters embedded in SiO2 glass. 519 (1998).95 1.6 Y(OC3H7i)3 6. Symp. A wet gel will result. R. to obtain transparent dry gels. 271. Liu. Res. Feofilov.8 certain amount . water. The wet gel is dried at low temperatures (45°C) for one or two weeks in an oven.Preparation Dissolve europium chloride in 2–3 g of distilled water. J. Y2O3 nanoclusters embedded in SiO2 glasses. Anneal the dry gel in air at 500–1000°C to remove residual water.

8 Y(OC3H7i)3 6. Sci. Photoluminescence of Y2O3:Ce3+. to obtain transparent dry gels. Y2O3:Ce3+. Blend it into the ethanol/water/HCl mix. allowing slow evaporating of the excess or resulted water and ethanol. 572. Anneal the dry gel in air at 500–1000°C to remove residual water.40 eV). W. A wet gel will result. et al. 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Reference 1. or other organic radicals.. Optical Properties Emission color: Green Emission peak: 543 nm. and 621 nm Emission width (FWHM): 30 nm Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (3.9 CeCl3·6H2O ethanol. Jia.9 0.4 TbCl3·6H2O 0.53 . Put the TbCl3/water/ethanol/HCl solution into the Si/Y mixture dropwise while stirring. ethanol. 585.61 1. Eng. 55 (2001).88 eV) Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 100 Excitation (%) Emission x10 50 2 3 Remark This contribution is from Weiyi Jia. Mix the Si and Y solutions and stir for 20 minutes with a magnetic stirring device. Mater. The wet gel is dried at low temperatures (45°C) for one or two weeks in an oven. and HCl (pH = 7) 1:2:3 By weight (g) 100 8. water. Pour the resulting mixture into a small container with a cover. C.Preparation Dissolve terbium chloride in 2–3 g of distilled water. ++ (4.Tb3+ nanoclusters embedded in SiO2 solgel glasses.95 1.Tb3+ Structure: Cubic Composition Ingredient Mole % Si(OEt)4 91. Nanoclusters embedded in SiO2 glasses. Minor peaks at 495.

Mater. Optical Properties Emission color: Violet (Ce3+) Emission peak: 543 nm Emission width (FWHM): 30 nm Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (3. et al. Anneal the dry gel in air at 500–1000°C to remove residual water. C. Mix the Si and Y solutions and stir for 20 minutes with a magnetic stirring device.. ethanol. A wet gel will result. or other organic radicals. The wet gel is dried at low temperatures (45°C) for one or two weeks in an oven.Preparation Dissolve cerium and terbium chlorides in 2–3 g of distilled water.87 eV). 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Reference 1. allowing slow evaporating of the excess or resulting water and ethanol. Pour the resulting mixture into a small container with a cover. Y2O2S:Eu Composition Ingredient Y 2O 3 Eu2O3 Na2CO3 S Mole % 94 (Y) 3 (Eu) 100 300 By weight (g) 110 5. Nanoclusters embedded in SiO2 glasses. W. Photoluminescence of Y2O3:Ce3+.3 53 96 .Tb3+ nanoclusters embedded in SiO2 sol-gel glasses. Eng. Sci. Jia. 572. ++ (5.39 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: Weakly excited by cathode rays Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 100 Excitation (%) Emission 50 2 3 Remark This contribution is from Weiyi Jia. 55 (2001). Blend it into the ethanol/water/HCl mix. to obtain transparent dry gels. Put the Ce-TbCl3/water/ethanol/HCl solution into the Si/Y mixture dropwise while stirring.

Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 100 Emission 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Spectrum from the Phosphor Handbook. Die or isostatically press the powder into powder compacts. CRC Press. Fig. Subsequently. After cooling down. mix the rare earth mixture with Na2CO3 and S by dry mixing. Remark This contribution is from Cees Ronda. the mixture should be powdered in mortar. (Y.06O3 compacts can be densified into transparent ceramics by either vacuum sintering at 1800°C or hydrogen-gas sintering at 1800–1900°C. Preferably.60Eu0. the reaction product has to be washed a few times with water to remove residual flux. 478 (1998). using pressures up to about 300 MPa. The Y1. Optical Properties Emission color: Red Emission peak: 610 nm Excitation efficiency by UV: (3. After drying.34Gd0. ++ (4. if either the sintering or hot-pressing processes are subsequently used to produce the ceramic scintillator. 38. FL.Gd)2O3:Eu3+ Structure: Cubic Preparation Oxidize the co-precipitated oxalate at about 800°C. Firing should occur in air in a vessel with a well-closing lid.40 eV). at a temperature of about 1100°C for a few hours. the powder should be de-agglomerated.88 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: + Decay to 1/e: 1 × 10-3 sec .Preparation Mix the rare-earth oxides by slurrying in water or methanol and dry in air. p. Boca Raton.

Ta2O5. 1250°C. C. Fire in capped alumina tubes.. air. and Duclos.Spectra 800 700 600 500 400 Wavelength (nm) 300 50 2 3 Remarks 1... – (4. Greskovich. The sintered samples can be annealed in an oxygen-rich atmosphere to reduce the concentration of point defect/impurity-charge states in the host lattice. 8–10 hours. 27. Co-doping of a small amount of Pr reduces the afterglow. Fire in capped alumina tubes. Reference 1.40 eV). Rev. Ceramic scintillators. Mater. In the cases where a flux is used.88 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: + Absorption (%) 100 Emission . Annu. This contribution is from Hajime Yamamoto. 10–14 hours. Powderize with a Freon solvent as the grinding medium. 1200°C. either by itself or in the presence of 50% Li2SO4. Sci. 130°C. 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 YTaO4 Structure: Monoclinic Preparation Stoichiometric quantities are mixed Y2O3. leach with water and follow by methanol rinsing. Optical Properties Emission color: UV Emission peak: 330 nm Excitation efficiency by UV: – (3. 3. S. 2. 69 (1997). Dry in air.

and Torardi. In the cases where a flux is used. References 1. Optical Properties Emission color: Blue Emission peak: 410 nm (x-ray excitation 2% Nb) Excitation efficiency by UV: – (3. Fire in capped alumina tubes. Nb2O5. H.L. J.. 229.. 130°C. 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 YTaO4:Nb5+ Structure: Monoclinic Preparation Stoichiometric quantities are mixed Y2O3. and Chen. On the structural and luminescent properties of the M’ LnTaO4 rare earth tantalates. 1200°C.40 eV).C.Spectra 800 700 600 500 400 Wavelength (nm) 300 100 Emission 50 2 3 Remarks 1. 10–14 hours.88 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: + .H. 1250°C. 54 (1995).. This contribution is from Masaaki Tamatani. Solid state chemistry and luminescence of X-ray phosphors. either by itself or in the presence of 50% Li2SO4. 130. 2). The use of a flux in the synthesis of M’-YTaO4 not only allows the growth of 4–12 µm single crystals but also assists greatly in the formation of the compound (see Ref. Soc. L.Y. air. Electrochem. Issler. 2. Powderize with a Freon solvent as the grinding medium. 2435 (1983). leach with water and follow by methanol rinsing. C.. Brixner. Dry in air. Ta2O5. J. Alloys Ingredients. S. Fire in capped alumina tubes. 8–10 hours. 2. ++ (4.

2435 (1983). H. Soc. Cool slightly and wash with a hot solution of 15 % NaOH.. L. Electrochem.321 Preparation Blend the materials thoroughly and fire in an open quartz crucible for 2 hours at 1700°C.Y. Optical Properties Emission color: Yellowish-green Emission peak: Two strong dysprosium peaks at 480 and 570 nm Excitation efficiency by UV: Suitable for 2537 and 3650 Å Spectra 800 700 600 500 400 Wavelength (nm) 300 100 Emission 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 .15 82. J. Brixner.05 By weight (g) 70. 130.H. Dry in air and powderize.. and Chen.0 0..Spectra 800 700 600 500 400 Wavelength (nm) 300 100 Excitation (%) Emission 50 2 3 Remarks This contribution is from Masaaki Tamatani. Rinse with deionized water until neutral.80 0. 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Reference 1. Structure: Tetragonal (zircon) Composition Ingredient Y 2O 3 NH4VO3 Dy2O3 YVO4:Dy3+ Mole % 17. On the structural and luminescent properties of the M’ LnTaO4 rare earth tantalates.0 175.

Pat. 3 555 337 (1968). This contribution is from Madis Raukas. Fire in capped quartz crucibles. Dry in air.S. 2. Powderize..L.... and Palumbo. Powderize. Tm. Pat. 3 152 085 (1964). 1100 C. S. and alike) can be added up to a half of the activator content.. A. R. Re-fire in H2 + N2 atmosphere.4 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: 0. Linares. 3 322 682 (1967). Sm. References 1. the emission characteristics can be adjusted.G. 3.G.S. Pat.. U. Wash with diluted nitric acid to remove excess flux.. L. and van Uitert. U. Ballman. D.T.C. Faria. 1 hour. which is optimum for excitation with mercury discharge lamps. Optical Properties Emission color: Blue Emission peak: 460 nm Emission width (FWHM): 137 nm Absorption edge: 270 nm (4.14 18. By including such elements or combinations thereof. stagnant air.A.7 lm/W or higher at 30 V DC Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 100 Excitation (%) Emission 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 . Eu. Thompson. 2. 3 hours.S.. 1200°C. G.28 mol% of Dy3+.7 — Preparation Mix by slurrying in water or ethanol. Structure: Cubic (spinel) Composition Ingredient ZnO Ga2O3 Li3PO4 (Flux) ZnGa2O4 Mole % 50 50 — By weight (g) 8.. Powderize when dry. 3. U. Er.Remarks 1. This recipe yields a phosphor containing 0. Other rare-earth elements (Pr.

stagnant air.0 lm/W or higher at 30 V DC Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 100 Excitation (%) Emission 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 . 3 hours. Wash with de-ionized water.. J. 1509 (1991). Powderize when dry. Powderize.Remark This contribution is from Sato Yoshitaka. mix.14 18.4 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: 1. Electrochem. Re-fire in H2 + N2 atmosphere. 1 hour. Add solution of Mn2+ ion. Soc. S. ZnGa2O4:Mn2+ Structure: Cubic (spinel) Composition Ingredient ZnO Ga2O3 MnSO4 Li3PO4 (Flux) Mole % 48 50 2 By weight (g) 8. and vaporize moisture by warming. Itoh. Optical Properties Emission color: Green Emission peak: 505 nm Emission width (FWHM): 25 nm Absorption edge: 270 nm (4.15 Preparation Mix by slurrying in water or ethanol Dry in air. Reference 1. et al. The ZnGa2O4 phosphor for low-voltage blue cathodoluminescence. 1100 C. 1200 C.. Fire in capped quartz crucibles. 138. Powderize.7 0.

. ZnGa2O4:Mn green cathodoluminescent phosphors for VFDs. Toki. (1992). Store in well-sealed container.4 By weight (g) 10 1. K. Toki. Master Degree Thesis. 1120ºC. Tech. ++ (4. Kataoka. Display. Y. 2 hours.Remark This contribution is from Yoshitaka Sato. Proceedings of Japan Display'92. 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Reference 1.. 2. H. et al. References 1. 1. stagnant air. S. 800ºC. Fire in air. Optical Properties Emission color: Red Emission peak: 645 nm Emission width (FWHM): 3540 cm-1 Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (3. H.. .. Digest Jpn.26 eV). University of Puerto Rico—Mayaguez (2003). 421 (1992). Mosquera Vargas.. 1 hour. 2.6 2.. and Itoh. Morimoto. Fire in capped quartz tubes. ZnO:Bi3+ Structure: Hexagonal (wurtzite) Composition Ingredient ZnO Bi2O3 Mole % 97.43 Preparation Mix by dry grinding. E.88 eV) Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 100 Excitation (%) Emission 50 2 3 Remark This contribution is from Weiyi Jia.

Dissolve the ZnCl2 in a little water. Then add a little water to make the raw mix slightly moist. and dry at room temperature or at moderate heat (e. over night). .. 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 ZnO:Ga. add solution to above mix.ZnO:Zn Structure: Hexagonal (wurtzite) Composition Ingredient ZnO Mole % 100 By weight (g) 158 Preparation Fire in capped quartz crucibles in reduced atmosphere at 1000 C. Optical Properties Emission color: Green Emission peak: 505 nm Emission width (FWHM): 0. Powderize.4 eV Absorption edge: 388 nm (300 K) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: 16 lm/W or higher Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 100 Excitation (%) Emission 50 2 3 Remark This contribution is from Yoshitaka Sato. add alcohol to make a uniform slurry. . 1 hour. stir to uniformity.3 (of Ga) about 1 (not critical) By weight 81 g 0. Ultrafast Composition Ingredient ZnO Ga2O3 ZnCl2 (Type WL-1201) Mole % 100 0.7 g Preparation Mix ZnO and Ga2O3 porcelain dish.g.280 g 1.

Do not heat higher than about 300ºC except in pure hydrogen..7 g Preparation Mix ZnO + CdO + Ga2O3 in a porcelain dish. 1107 (1966) and U. Material should be completely dead. When cool. Lehmann. 2. Patent 3583929 (issued June 1971). Meth. . Remove suspicious parts and powderize the rest. inspect under UV lamp. 115. The above recipe was provided by W.K. Derenzo. 800ºC.3 (of Ga) about 1 (not critical) By weight 73 g 11. Edge emission of n-type conducting ZnO and CdS. In case the material does not show the violet luminescence at all. not more). M. Fire in open quartz boats. 4. Instr. M. Cool while in H2 (Important!). Ultrafast Composition Ingredient ZnO CdO Ga2O3 ZnCl2 Mole % 90 10 0.E.. 1 hour. 2. stir to uniformity. Solid State Electron. Nucl. Weber. Avoid all sulfur like the plague. 2. decay < 1 nsec Remarks 1. add solution to above mix. This phosphor is sensitive to traces of sulfur. or by about 1 ccm of concentrated HCl acid. The ZnCl2 in the above recipe can be replaced by about 1. Properties Body color: Gray Particles: About in the 5–10 m size range Emission: Narrow band in the near-UV with a tail extending into the visible violet Peak about 3. Electrochem. stagnant air. HgI2. Dissolve the ZnCl2 in a little water. Lehmann. W.. 3. 62. 119 (1968). A fast inorganic scintillator. slowly flowing H2. ZnO:Ga and CdS:In.. The bulk of the material should show deep violet luminescence (just at the limit of visibility). 3. W.2 g 0. Klintenberg. A 486.J.S.195 eV (=388 nm) Excitation by UV: By all UV shorter than about 380 nm Excitation by e-beam: Energy— 1–1. one-half hour.2%. J.. References 1. Soc. 214 (2002). Zinc oxide and zinc-cadmium oxide phosphors. near-band-edge scintillation from CuI. add alcohol to make a uniform slurry. repeat the last firing step at about 100ºC higher temperature.1 g of NH4Cl. Temperature dependence of the fast.280 g 1.. Meth. 9. Luckey. PbI2.1. Nucl.. S.. Instr. D. Lehmann during a visit to the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory in 1987. 538 (1968). Inspect again under UV lamp.. Remove all parts that look different. ZnO-CdO:Ga. 1100ºC. This phosphor is in a frozen-in semistable state. Fire in loosely capped quartz glass tubes ( about half full.

119 (1968). 800ºC.and dry at room temperature or at moderate heat (e. Lehmann. Electrochem. Meth. Properties Body color: Yellowish-gray Particles: About in the 5–10 µm size range Emission: Narrow band. 115. 62. The ZnCl2 in the above recipe can be replaced by about 1. 1100ºC. When cool. inspect under UV lamp. Fire in loosely capped quartz glass tubes ( about half full. J. Lehmann.g. D. not more). The above recipe was provided by W. 7. stagnant air. Zn2SiO4:Mn Composition Ingredient ZnO SiO2 MnCO3 Mole % 194 110 6 By weight (g) 158 66 6. repeat the last firing step at about 100ºC higher temperature). Zinc oxide and zinc-cadmium oxide phosphors..S.1 g of NH4Cl. Luckey. The bulk of the material should be violet luminescent (if it does not. . 7. Solid State Electron. 8.. Instr. Nucl. decay < 1 nsec Remarks 4. 6.2 g CdCO3. 6. peak about 413 nm. 1107 (1966) and U. A fast inorganic scintillator.2%. 1. Remove any parts (if preaent) that look different. Do not add more. Powderize. Patent 3583929 (issued June 1971). Remove suspicious parts and powderize the rest.. Inspect again under UV lamp. Fire in open quartz boats. Edge emission of n-type conducting ZnO and CdS.. 1 hour. Material should be completely dead. Lehmann during a visit to the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory in 1987. The CdO in the above recipe can be replaced by 17.. W. 2.. W. Color: violet Excitation by UV: By all UV shorter than about 400 nm Excitation by e-beam: Energy— 1–1. or by about 1 ccm of concentrated HCl acid.. slowly flowing H2. over night). 5. 538 (1968). Firing should occur in reducing atmosphere at a temperature of about 1150–1250°C for at least an hour. one-half hour. Do not heat higher than about 300ºC except in pure hydrogen. (just at the limit of visibility). Avoid all sulfur like the plague.9 Preparation Mix by ball-milling or magnetic stirring in water or an alcohol and dry in air. Soc. Then add a little water to make the raw mix slightly moist. Cool while in H2 (Important!). This phosphor is in a frozen-in semistable state. 10% CdO is the limit of solid solubility. This phosphor is sensitive to traces of sulfur. 9. References 5.

Lumin. T. This phosphor is used in plasma display panels and fluorescent lamps. J. Evidence for exchange induced luminescence in Zn2SiO4:Mn. 69. The emission band shifts to lower energy with increasing Mn2+ concentration. due to magnetic interactions lifting the spin selection rule. and Amrein. The quantum efficiency drops less fast than the emission decay time.The efficiency of this material (e-beam and (V)UV excitation) depends on the Mn2+ concentration. Ronda. 245 (1996).. It has been used in monochromic computer monitor tubes and projection television tubes (mixed with other green phosphors). Reference 1. . Higher Mn2+ concentrations adjust to a shorter decay time. C.. Remark This contribution is from Cees Ronda.

84 0. Sinter at 1300°C in N2 + 5% H2 gas flow for 3 hours. H3BO3 serves as flux.92 39. Optical Properties Emission color: Light blue.7.16 Preparation Mix and grind.120 0.40 1.367 4. Powderize and grind. 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 .2 Silicates The following host compounds and activators are included in this subsection: Ba2MgSi2O7:Eu2+ CaMgSi2O6:Eu2+ Ca2MgSi2O7:Eu2+. Emission peak: 515 nm Excitation efficiency by UV: Excited by UV from 240 to 440 nm.00 0. Pre-sinter at 900°C in N2 for 2 hours. Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 100 Excitation (%) Emission 50 2 3 Remark This contribution comes from Weiyi Jia.Mn2+ Ca3MgSi2O8:Eu2+ Ca3Al2Si3O12:Ce3+ Ca3Al2Si3O12:2%Ce3+ SrMgSi2O6:Eu2+ Sr2MgSi2O7:Eu2+ Sr3MgSi2O8:Eu2+ Ba2MgSi2O7:Eu2+ Composition Ingredient BaCO3 MgO SiO2 Eu2O3 H3BO3 Mole % 39.00 1.6 By weight (g) 10.84 19.

.. W. 1.00 0. Fluorescence of Eu2+activated silicates. and Bril.00 4. 23. and Bril. Jia. 287 (1949). Wanmaker.L. A.. Unpublished data. G.04 12.. Rep. . Powderize and grind. 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 References 1.51 2 By weight (g) 10. 2. terVrugt. J..W. 96. Philips Tech.Reference 1. The absorption and emission spectra of some important activators. Optical properties Emission color: Blue Emission peak: 448 nm Excitation efficiency by UV: Excited by UV from 250 to 460 nm Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 100 Excitation (%) Emission 50 2 3 Remark This contribution comes from Weiyi Jia. Soc.75 0. CaMgSi2O6:Eu2+ Composition Ingredient CaCO3 MgO SiO2 Eu2O3 H3BO3 Mole % 24.87 49. Pre-sinter at 800°C in N2 for 2 hours. W. Rev. A.L.87 24. Smith. H3BO3 serves as flux. 31..48 Preparation Mix and grind.. Blasse. 189 (1968).. J.. Characteristic luminescence. Sinter at 1250°C in N2 + 5% H2 gas flow for 3 hours. Electrochem. Philips Res.. 304 (1970). Blasse. G. A.36 0. 2.

H3BO3 serves as flux.61 33. W.367 4.68 0.22 0. Reference 1.68 19.120 0. 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Composition Ingredient CaCO3 MgO SiO2 Eu2O3 H3BO3 Ca3MgSi2O8:Eu2+ Mole % 49.33 By weight (g) 10.83 16. Pre-sinter at 900°C in N2 for 2 hours.00 0.00 1.Mn2+ Composition Ingredient CaCO3 MgO SiO2 Eu2O3 MnO H3BO3 Mole % 39. Unpublished data. Sinter at 1300°C in N2 + 5% H2 gas flow for 3 hours.00 0.34 1.071 0.58 By weight (g) 10.00 1. Jia.16 Preparation Mix and grind.120 0.367 4.40 0. Optical properties Emission color: Whitish blue-green Emission peak: Two peaks at 490 and 680 nm.40 1.16 .Ca2MgSi2O7:Eu2+. Powderize and grind.84 39. respectively Excitation efficiency by UV: Excited by UV from 260 to 420 nm Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 100 Excitation (%) Emission 50 2 3 Remark This contribution comes from Weiyi Jia..

1. Powderize and grind.Preparation Mix and grind.103 Preparation Mix by grinding in a mortar for 30 minutes. H3BO3 serves as flux. Press into pellets with a hydraulic press machine at 40. 3 hours . 900 C. Unpublished data. 2. Optical properties Emission color: Light blue Emission peak: 480 nm Excitation efficiency by UV: Excited by UV from 250 to 440nm Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 100 Excitation (%) Emission 50 2 3 Remark This contribution comes from Weiyi Jia. 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Ca3Al2Si3O12:Ce3+ Structure: Cubic Composition Ingredient CaCO3 Al2O3 SiO2 Ce2O3 H3BO3 Mole % 300 100 300 1 5 By weight (g) 10 3. Sinter at 1350°C in N2 + 5% H2 gas flow for 3 hours. Press into pellets again. Reference 1.000 psi.40 6 0. Powderize by dry ball-milling. 1200 C.11 0. 2 hours. Fire in 95%N2 + 5% H2. Jia.. Pre-sinter at 900°C in N2 for 2 hours. W. Fire in air.

Fire in air. ++ (3. Reference 1. Grind and press into pellets again. Jia. Press into pellets with a hydraulic press machine at 40.Optical Properties Emission color: Violet Emission peak: 410 nm Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (2. 2. ++ (4.00 0. Fire in 95%N2 + 5% H2.103 Preparation Mix by dry grinding in a mortar for 30 minutes. 1.110 0.88 eV) .40eV) Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 100 Excitation (%) Emission 50 2 3 Remark This contribution is from Weiyi Jia. 900°C.40 eV).00 3. 1200°C. W. 2 hours. Powderize. 3 hours Optical Properties Emission color: Violet Emission peaks: 280 and 355 nm Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (3.000 psi.40 6. 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Ca3Al2Si3O12:2%Ce3+ Structure: Cubic Composition Ingredient CaCO3 Al2O3 SiO2 Ce2O3 H3BO3 Mole % 300 100 300 1 5 By weight (g) 10. Unpublished data..88 eV).

75 0. Unpublished data. Reference 1. Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 100 Excitation (%) Emission 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 .. 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Composition Ingredient SrCO3 MgO SiO2 Eu2O3 H3BO3 SrMgSi2O6:Eu2+ Mole % 24.Spectra 800 700 600 500 400 Wavelength (nm) 300 100 Excitation (%) Emission 50 2 3 Remarks 1.87 49.74 8.00 2.14 0. Strong afterglow Excitation by UV: Excited by UV from 240 to 450 nm. This compound is also known as calcium aluminum silicate. Optical properties Emission color: Deep blue Emission peak: 470 nm.87 24. Jia. H3BO3 serves as flux.325 Preparation Mix and grind. 2. Sinter at 1050°C in N2 + 5% H2 gas flow for 3 hours. This contribution is from Weiyi Jia.238 0. W.51 2 By weight (g) 10. Pre-sinter at 700°C in air for 2 hours. Powderize and grind.

Fluorescence of Eu2+activated silicates. H3BO3 (B2O3) serves as flux. J. A. Wanmaker.072 0. Optical properties Emission color: Blue Emission peak: 470 nm Excitation by UV: Excited by UV from 250 to 450 nm Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 100 Excitation (%) Emission 50 2 3 Remark This contribution comes from Weiyi Jia. G. Unpublished data.369 4.. W.00 1. Sinter at 1200°C in N2 + 5% H2 gas flow for 3 hours.W. 189 (1968). and Bril.92 39. Philips Res. Jia.Remark This contribution comes from Weiyi Jia.W....6 By weight (g) 10. 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 References 1.163 Preparation Mix and grind.L.119 0.84 19. terVrugt. Reference 1. Sr2MgSi2O7:Eu2+ Composition Ingredient SrCO3 MgO SiO2 Eu2O3 H3BO3 Mole % 39. Pre-sinter at 800°C in air for 2 hours.W.. ..84 0. Rep.4 1. Unpublished data. Powderize and grind. Blasse. 23. 2. Jia.

H3BO3 (B2O3) serves as flux. Powderize and grind.... Characteristic luminescence. and Bril.912 2. terVrugt. 23. 2.W.Sr3MgSi2O8:Eu2+ Composition Ingredient SrCO3 MgO SiO2 Eu2O3 H3BO3 Mole % 49.33 By weight (g) 10. W.34 1. 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Reference 1.L.108 Preparation Mix and grind. Rev. Rep.. and Bril. Optical properties Emission color: Light blue Emission peak: 470 nm Excitation by UV: Excited by UV from 250 to 450 nm Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 100 Excitation (%) Emission 50 2 3 Remark This contribution comes from Weiyi Jia. J.. Blasse.. A. Pre-sinter at 800°C in air for 2 hours.22 0. G.61 33. G.. Philips Tech.079 0. Wanmaker.00 0. A. 1. 31. . 189 (1968). Philips Res.. Blasse. The absorption and emission spectra of some important activators.83 16. 304 (1970).715 0. Fluorescence of Eu2+activated silicates. Sinter at 1200°C in N2 + 5% H2 gas flow for 3 hours.

Fire in capped quartz tubes. ++ (4.Mn Sr2B5O9Cl:Eu SrwFxB4O6. Slurry powder in boiling 10% HCl for 30 minutes.4 15. Lightly mortar.9 Preparation Dry blend ingredients.40 eV) 400 Wavelength (nm) 300 100 Excitation (%) Emission 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 .7.9 83. 400–500°C. air.5:Eu2+ SrwFxByOz:Eu2+.Sm2+ (Y. Decant with boiling water until neutral. Dry at 110°C.40 eV).Gd)BO3:Tb (Y.3 Phosphates. 2. ++ (8. and Bo rates The following host compounds and activators are included in this subsection: (Y. 1100°C.88 eV). reducing atmosphere.Gd)BO3:Eu -Ca2P2O7:Sn. 1. Halophosphates. 2 hours. Optical Properties Emission color: Green Emission peak: 544 nm Excitation efficiency by UV: Spectra 800 700 600 500 (3.Gd)BO3:Tb Structure: Pseudovaterite Composition Ingredient Y 2O 3 Gd2O3 Tb4O7 H3BO3 Mole % 23 23 2 139 By weight (g) 51. Fire in capped quartz tubes. 2 hours.0 85.

4 10. Wyckoff. References 1. R. F. air. Sony Research Center Reports. Electrochem. Crystal Structure.W. Soc. Rare earth cathodoluminescence in InBO3 and related orthoborates.6 80. 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 .G. and Wiggins. 613 (1967). New York: (1964). ++ (8. air. 400–500°C. Fire in capped quartz tubes or alumina crucibles. Avella. Optical Properties Emission color: Red Emission peak: 619 nm Excitation efficiency by UV: Spectra 800 700 600 500 (3.Remark This contribution is from Takashi Hase.40 eV) 400 Wavelength (nm) 300 100 Excitation (%) Emission 50 2 3 Remark This contribution is from Takashi Hase. Hoshina.J. Wash by decanting in boiling water until neutral. 2. C. Interscience. Japanese Patent Disclosure (Kokai).. 2 hours. (Y.J. ++ (4.40 eV). Dry in air. T. O... 2. 4. 3. Slurry in boiling 10% HCl for 30 minutes. 2nd ed. 2 hours.2 54.. Fire in capped quartz tubes or alumina crucibles.Gd)BO3:Eu Structure: Pseudovaterite Composition Ingredient Y 2O 3 Gd2O3 Eu2O3 H3BO3 Mole % 32 15 3 130 By weight (g) 72... 1. Sovers. Supplement.88 eV). 110°C.4 Preparation Mix by dry blend. J. 114. S. 92 (1983).. 52 133 091 (1977). 1100°C. Powderize.

Fire in alumina trays. 52 54690 (1977). Powderize when dry. Bril. Fluorescent properties of some europium-activated phosphors. 1363 (1964). 4. Rare earth cathodoluminescence in InBO3 and related orthoborates.. A.28 7.40 eV). Okada.T. II. Cool in N2.. Avella.J. Composition Ingredient CaHPO4 SrHPO4 Sn2P2O7 MnCO3 (NH4)2HPO4 -Ca2P2O7:Sn. Influence of the synthesis method on the luminescent properties of the vaterite-type YBO3-Eu3+. J. 22. Eliminate the H2 2. Pat. M. Koike. F.. 176 (1979).31 By weight (g) 18... Optical Properties Emission color: Orange-red Emission peaks: 350 and 575 nm Emission width (FWHM): 72 nm (For the latter peak) Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (3.5% N2/0.S. and Yokozawa. 1. New York (1964). ~½ hour. and Cousseins. 613 (1967). 114.G.. R.20 1.05 9. 7. 1200 C. F. 5. Acad. U. C.J. Chadeyron.73 0. Fournier.References 1.. A. NHK Giken Geppo. 3. Electrochem. Crystal Structure. J.J. O. Sovers.92 0. Soc. Cr...39 2. Electrochem..32 0. Japanese Patent Disclosure (Kokai). Dry in air. K. G. 2nd ed.11 Preparation Mix by shaking with six ½ in.Z. + (4.. 1 hour.. Arbus. and Wiggins. N2. Soc. 2. Interscience. 111.04 8. 3 394 084 (1968). Avella. 6.L.. 625 C. 320.. J.. 99.. W. M.. Fire in alumina trays. Wyckoff.. and Wanmaker.W.S. 199 (1995). nylon balls in a plastic jar on a paint mixer for ½ hour.88 eV) Excitation by e-beam: Weakly excited Spectra 800 700 600 500 400 Wavelength (nm) 300 100 Emission 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 . Sci.Mn Mole % 81. D.5%H2.

S. with particular reference to the pyrophosphates.. 18 (1955).G. 1025°C. 2. References 1. J.44 7. Ranby.71 By weight (g) 8.42 0. D.33 27.E. S. ++ (4. The investigation of new phosphors. Dry. Firing temperature should not exceed 1250 C to prevent formation of -pyrophosphate. 323 (1939).T. Phys. 4 772 417 (1988). 2. Pappalardo.5 N2:0.. This contribution is from Madis Raukas. 173..Remarks 1. Brit.88 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: Weakly excited by cathode rays Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Absorption (%) 100 Emission . and Peters. Soc... Cool.40 eV). P. R.85 9. Fire in molybdenum trays.5 H2). 2 hours. (99. Appl. R.H.91 0.W. U. and Henderson.25 Preparation Dry blend ingredients.55 45. 3. T. Pat. Sr2B5O9Cl:Eu Structure: Tetragonal Composition Ingredient SrCO3 SrCl2 Eu2O3 B2O3 Mole % 26. Exhibits very strong triboluminescence or mechanoluminescence. Wash in hot water.T. 3.. Optical Properties Emission color: Bluish-white body Emission peak: 425 nm Emission width (FWHM): 30 nm Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (3. Proc.. A. Henderson. Mash.. S18.S.

00 9. Nucl.30 247. and dry the precipitate in air. 1089 (1970). Luminescence and structural properties of alkaline earth chloroborates activated with divalent europium. Cool..49 61. and Baglio. Combine these two solutions.E.11 0. SrwFxB4O6.36 2. J. Cool the slurry to below 20°C. and grind with the remainder of the SrF2 into a fine powder. blend. Cool and regrind.. A fine white precipitate will result and form a slurry. Fire for 2 hours at 890°C in a flow of H2 in N2 gas in the same open crucible. J. Inorg..11 Preparation Dissolve Eu2O3 powder in dilute nitric acid solution and Sr(NO3)2 and boric acid in warm water (80°C).12 By weight (g) 63. Form a 1:1 solution of acetone and ammonium hydroxide and add to the above solution slowly while stirring vigorously.77 80. Optical Properties Emission color: UV Emission peak: 370 nm Emission width (FWHM): About 20 nm Excitation by UV: In a broad range up to about 360 nm Excitation by e-beam and x-rays: Good excitation by cathode rays Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Absorption (%) 100 Emission . Reference 1. Chem. Blend the precipitate with half the SrF2 and grind. 32.Remark This contribution is from Madis Raukas. Place in an open quartz crucible and fire in air at 800°C for 1 hour. T.5:Eu2+ Composition Ingredient Sr(NO3)2 SrF2 H3BO3 Eu2O3 Mole % 10. Peters. filter.

3 448 056 (1969).5:Eu0.F. 723.and low-pressure discharge lamps as well as in CRTs.. The resultant is filtered and dried in air.62B4O6. Place in an open quartz crucible and fire in air at 900°C for 1–2 hours. which is used in high. IR-emitting phosphor. Blend the precipitate with SrF2 and grind. Fire for 2 hours at 900 C in a flow of H2 in N2 gas in the same open crucible. 2. 703.09 Preparation Dissolve Eu2O3 and Sm2O3 powders in dilute nitric acid solution and Sr(NO3)2 and boric acid in warm water (90°C).20 5. This contribution is from Madis Raukas. 3 649 550 (1972).43 84. Chenot.12 0. 300–390 nm with additional peaks at 395.58 g 309. 693. and 502 nm due to Sm2+ Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Absorption (%) 100 Emission . C.. 420. Pat. The most efficient version has been determined to be Sr0.98 40. Optical Properties Emission color: Narrow red and IR Emission peaks: 684.. 697.96F0.Sm2+ Composition Ingredient Sr(NO3)2 SrF2 H3BO3 Eu2O3 Sm2O3 Mole % 10. blend. U. Chenot. A fine white precipitate will result and form a slurry. SrwFxByOz:Eu2+. Cool and re-grind. Pat.09 5. Cool..Remarks 1.11 By weight (g) 126. U. This is a Eu-sensitized.S. Form a 1:1 solution of acetone and ammonium hydroxide and rapidly add to the above solution while stirring vigorously. References 1. 725 and 732 nm Excitation by UV: in broad ranges 250–280. Combine these two solutions.25 0.28 2. and grind into a fine powder. 2. C.029. The slurry is kept at 80 C for about 2 hours and is cooled to ambient temperature.S.F.

This contribution is from Madis Raukas.Sm0. C. 3 693 006 (1972).S.. Pat. IR-emitting phosphor. C. Chenot.F. U.96F0. . 2.and low-pressure discharge lamps as well as CRTs.F.S. C. 3 649 550 (1972). References 1.Remarks 1.. This is a Eu-sensitized.. 2..62B4O6.011. U. Pat. 3.F.029. 3 448 056 (1969).. Pat.S. Chenot. U.5:Eu0. which is used in high. Chenot. The most efficient is Sr0..

Mn (BAM:Mn) Composition Ingredient BaCO3 MgO Al2O3 Eu2O3 MnCO3 BaF2 Mole % 80 70 1050 (Al) 10 (Eu) 30 10 By weight (g) 158 28.6 34. Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 100 Emission 25 C 300 C O O 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 .Ce3+ Y3Al5O12:Ce Y3Al5O12:Ce3+ Y3Al5O12:Mn4+ Y3Al5O12:Cr3+ BaMgAl10O17:Eu. Powderize.7.1O3:Bi3+ CaYAlO4:Eu3+ MgCeAl11O19:Tb3+ SrAl4O7:Eu3+ SrxBayClzAl2O4-z/2:Mn2+.5 17. This phosphor can be used in plasma display panels and is in use in fluorescent lamps.4 Aluminates The following host compounds and activators are included in this subsection: BaMgAl10O17:Eu. Fire in a reducing atmosphere at a temperature of about 1200–1500°C for at least 1 hour.2 536 17.Mn (BAM:Mn) BaMgAl10O17:Eu (BAM) CaAl2O4:Tb3+ CaAl4O7:Ce3+ CaTi0.9Al0. The phosphor remains efficient to high temperatures. Powderize.5 Preparation Mix by ball-milling or magnetic stirring in an alcohol and dry in air.

6 17. with smaller peaks at 590 and 620 nm Emission width (FWHM): 0.88 eV) . + (4.2 0. Press into pellets with a hydraulic press machine at 40. The phosphor remains efficient to high temperatures. 1. Fire in N2. Remark This contribution is from Cees Ronda.48 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (3. Remark This contribution is from Cees Ronda. Powderize Fire in reducing atmosphere at a temperature of about 1200–1500°C for at least 1 hour.366 0.40 eV). Grind and press into pellets again. 2 hours. 900°C. 2. Fire in N2.000 psi. Powderize. BaMgAl10O17:Eu (BAM) Composition Ingredient BaCO3 MgO Al2O3 Eu2O3 BaF2 Mole % 80 100 1050 (Al) 10 (Eu) 10 By weight (g) 158 40 536 17.Spectra were provided by Madis Raukas. Optical Properties Emission color: Green Emission peak: 543 nm. CaAl2O4:Tb3+ Structure: Hexagonal Composition Ingredient CaCO3 Al2O3 Tb2O3 B2O3 Mole % 100 100 1 2 By weight (g) 10 10. 3 hours.5 Preparation Mix by ball-milling or magnetic stirring in an alcohol and dry in air. 1400°C. This phosphor is used in plasma display panels and in fluorescent lamps.139 Preparation Mix by dry grinding in a mortar for 30 minutes.

D. 93. R. Phys..139 Preparation Mix by dry grinding in a mortar for 30 minutes. 1535 (2002)..J. Persistent energy transfer in CaAl2O4:Tb3+. 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 References 1. 2. Press into pellets with a hydraulic press machine at 40.S. Jia. Optical Properties Emission color: Violet Emission peak: 407 nm Emission width (FWHM): 4580 cm-1 Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (3.40 eV). Wang.M. 3 hours.. 2. 2 hours. Grind and press into pellets again. Green phosphorescence of CaAl2O4:Tb3+. 2.Ce3+...366 0. ++ (4. Fire in 95% N2 + 5% H2. 80. et al. CaAl4O7:Ce3+ Structure: Monoclinic Composition Ingredient CaCO3 Al2O3 Ce(NO3)3·4H2O B2O3 Mole % 100 200 2 2 By weight (g) 10 20. Phys.. This compound is known as calcium aluminate. Fire in N2. Appl..4 0.88 eV) . W. Jia. D. 148 (2003). J.. 1400°C. Appl. Lett. 900°C. Meltzer. et al. X. Yen. W.Ce3+ through persistence energy transfer. This contribution is from Weiyi Jia..000 psi 1. Powderize. Jia.Spectra 800 700 600 500 400 Wavelength (nm) 300 100 Excitation (%) Emission 50 2 3 Remarks 1.

Fire in open quartz boats.40 eV). air. Jia. 1.Spectra 800 700 600 500 400 Wavelength (nm) 300 100 Excitation (%) Emission 50 2 3 Remarks 1. + (4.02 Preparation Mix by dry grinding or milling. 1 hour.01 7..1O3:Bi3+ Structure: Orthorhombic Composition Ingredient CaCO3 TiO2 Bi2O3 Al2O3 Mole % 90 90 10 10 By weight (g) 9. 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 CaTi0. Powderize. Optical Properties Emission color: Deep red Emission peak: 760 nm Emission width (FWHM): 440 cm-1 Excitation efficiency by UV: + (3. W. This contribution is from Weiyi Jia. Fire in air. Unpublished data. Grind and press into pellets again.18 4.88 eV) . 1300 C. This compound is known as calcium tetra-aluminate. 2. 1000 C.9Al0. Reference 1. Press into pellets. 2.66 1. 3 hours.

Press into pellets with a hydraulic press machine at 40... Energy transfer between Bi3+ and Pr3+ in doped CaTiO3. with weaker peaks at 588 and 702 nm Excitation efficiency by UV: + (3. 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Reference 1. and Rivera. Fire in air. W.19 0.209 Preparation Mix by dry grinding in a mortar for 30 minutes. 3 hours.Spectra 800 700 600 500 400 Wavelength (nm) 300 100 Excitation (%) Emission 50 2 3 Remarks 1. Jia.56 10.352 0. Grind and press into pellets again. 1. J. 2. I.40 eV).000 psi. Soc.. 150. 161 (2003).88 eV) . Perez-Andujar. Powderize. 2 hours. 1400°C. Fire in air. Electrochem. 2. CaYAlO4:Eu3+ Structure: Tetrahedral Composition Ingredient CaCO3 Y 2O 3 Al2O3 Eu2O3 B2O3 Mole % 100 100 100 1 3 By weight (g) 10.. + (4.01 22. Optical Properties Emission color: Red Emission peak: 621 nm. 1000°C. This contribution is from Weiyi Jia. A. This compound is known as calcium titanate.

2 hours.76 nm) Excitation efficiency by UV: (3.0 CeO2 6 10. 2. Powderize by automatic mill. Fire in alumina crucibles. Reference 1.1 Al2O3 1 7. 1650°C. Unpublished data. Store in a well-sealed container. Preparation Mix by automatic mill. Optical Properties Emission peak: 2.40eV). W.Tb)Ox (Oxide of coprecipitate as a Ce-Tb ingredient).88eV) .. 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 MgCeAl11O19:Tb3+ Structure: Hexagonal Composition Ingredient Mole % By weight (g) (MgCO3)4·Mg(OH)2·3H2O·2 9. in alumina boats.Spectra 800 700 600 500 400 Wavelength (nm) 300 100 Excitation (%) Emission 50 2 3 Remarks 1. This compound is also known as calcium-yttrium aluminate.28 eV (543 nm) Emission width (FWHM): 0. This contribution is from Weiyi Jia. Jia. reducing atmosphere (95% N2/5% H2). +++(4.3 55 56.048 eV (9. 2 hours. stagnant air. 1600°C. Re-fire.5 Tb4O7 * Desirable ingredient: (Ce. Powderize.

Grind and press into pellets again. 2 hours.Spectra 800 700 600 500 400 Wavelength (nm) 300 100 Emission 50 2 3 Remark This contribution is from Shozo Oshio. 1. Optical Properties Emission color: Red Emission peak: 612 nm Excitation efficiency by UV: + (3. Oshio. and Matsuoka. 1350°C. Fire in air.01 7. Shigeta. Powderize. 2.. Fire in air.352 0.88 eV) .000 psi. T. Pat.S.98 0. 1000°C. Press into pellets with a hydraulic press machine at 40. T..40 eV). 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Reference 1.. + (4. U. 3 hours. 6 290 875 (2001). S. SrAl4O7:Eu3+ Structure: Monoclinic Composition Ingredient SrCO3 Al2O3 Eu2O3 B2O3 Mole % 100 200 1 3 By weight (g) 10..209 Preparation Mix by dry grinding in a mortar for 30 minutes.

86 39.17 68.26 19.5% solution) Mole % 7.43 117. This contribution is from Weiyi Jia.80 4.64 Preparation Wet blend all components.79 2.10 0.34 0. powders.Ce3+ Composition Ingredient Sr(OH)2·8H2O Ba(OH)2·8H2O BaCl2 Al(OH)3 Mn(NO3)2 (52% solution) Ce(NO3)3 (47. This compound is also known as strontium tetra-aluminate.. 2. W. and standard solutions in acetone for 15 minutes.Spectra 800 700 600 500 400 Wavelength (nm) 300 100 Excitation (%) Emission 50 2 3 Remarks 1. Unpublished data.24 156. in a nitrogen atmosphere containing 4% H2. Fire at a temperature below 400 C for an additional 5 hours. Cool to ambient temperature and sieve admixture through 100-mesh stainless screen. Dry the admixture in air at 160 C for 5 hours.4% H2 in N2 gas. Increase the temperature to 1100–1200°C and fire for 4 hours in a flow of 0. 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 SrxBayClzAl2O4-z/2:Mn2+.02 1. Re-blend and place in an open container. Optical Properties Emission color: Green Emission peak: 512 nm Emission width (FWHM): 32 nm Excitation by UV: In a broad range suitable for mercury discharge Excitation by e-beam and x-rays: Specified as a phosphor for x-ray intensifiers . Reference 1. Re-fire at 1100–1200°C for about 4 hrs.34 By weight (g) 60. Jia.

at a temperature of about 1300–1500°C for at least 1 hour).. 3 448 056 (1969).. 2. The spectral position of the emission band of Ce3+ can be varied by replacing part of the Al by (e.g. Chenot.7 Preparation Mix by ball-milling or magnetic stirring in water and dry in air.Spectra 800 700 600 500 400 Wavelength (nm) 300 100 Emission 50 2 3 Remarks 1.F. U.005. forming gas or CO. .3. Pat.S.5 (Al) 2 5 By weight (g) 40 32 3.. 3 649 550 (1972). This is a cerium-sensitized xerographic lamp phosphor. Chenot. (e.F. due to the spin-orbit split ground state of Ce3+. Ga). The material has a pronounced daylight color. References 1. In LEDs it partially converts blue light into yellow light. This phosphor is used in white LED lamps and also in high-pressure Hg lamps. In highpressure Hg lamps it reduces the color temperature of the light. Pat.S.437:Mn0. resulting in white light.S. The emission spectrum consists of two bands. This contribution is from Madis Raukas.44 2.. Remark This contribution is from Cees Ronda. as Ce3+ absorbs in the blue part of the spectral region and emits yellow light. C.126Al2O0. 2.g.. U. Powderize.005.Ce0. 3 693 006 (1972).F.5 (Y) 62.229Ba0. 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Y3Al5O12:Ce Structure: Cubic (garnet) Composition Ingredient Y 2O 3 Al2O3 CeO2 NH4Cl Mole % 35.688Cl1.. 3. The approximate formula is Sr0. C. Chenot. 3. Firing should occur in reducing atmosphere. C. U.. Pat.

Optical Properties Emission color: Violet Emission peak: 528 nm Emission width (FWHM): 4580 cm-1 Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (3. 1000ºC. 1. . E.40 eV). 3 hours..555 0. 2 hours. Press into pellets with a hydraulic press machine at 40. 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Reference 1. Jia. Unpublished data. Press into pellets again.03 0.88 eV) Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 100 Excitation (%) Emission 50 2 3 Remark This contribution is from Weiyi Jia. W.000 psi Dry in air.062 Preparation Mix by dry grinding in a mortar for 30 minutes. ++ (4. Powderize.. 2. Fire in 95% N2 + 5% H2. 1400°C. Powderize when dry. Fire in N2.Y3Al5O12:Ce3+ Structure: Cubic (garnet) Composition Ingredient Y 2O 3 Al2O3 Ce(NO3)3·4H2O B2O3 Mole % 100 200 2 2 By weight (g) 10 9. and Rivera.

Optical Properties Emission color: Deep red Emission peak: 640 and 667 nm Emission width (FWHM): 4580 cm-1 Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (3. 2.03 0. Jia.04 6. 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Y3Al5O12:Cr3+ Structure: Cubic (garnet) Composition Ingredient For precursor: Y(NO3)3·6H2O Al(NO3)3 Cr(NO3)3·9H2O Mole % 4.. Unpublished data. Grind. E.. Fire in N2. 2 hours. 900ºC. W.40 eV).062 Preparation Mix by dry grinding in a mortar for 30 minutes. Fire in 95% N2 + 5% H2. and Rivera.Y3Al5O12:Mn4+ Structure: Cubic (garnet) Composition Ingredient Y 2O 3 Al2O3 MnCO3 B2O3 Mole % 33 66 19 2 By weight (g) 10 9. ++ (4.88 eV) Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 100 Excitation (%) Emission 50 2 3 Remark This contribution is from Weiyi Jia.051 0.72 0. 3 hours.0067 By weight (g) — — — . Reference 1. 1. 1400ºC.

Synthesis and crystallization of yttrium-aluminum-garnet and relatedcompounds.Fuels: CH6N4O (carbohydrazide) 1. 3172 (1994). 1. Lemoine.75. Shea Rohwer. E. (2003). (688. 707. J. 3257 (1996). Powders should be placed in well-sealed containers. the flame lasts for about 15 sec. L. The combustion flame temperature is dependent on the fuel used.71 eV.85 eV (435 nm) Spectra 800 O O 750 700 Wavelength (nm) 650 600 550 Carbohydrazide Urea Glucine 1825 C Emission 100 1780 C 1210 C O 50 1... 2. Nalwa and L.2 0 .05 eV at 707 nm Excitation efficiency by UV: 2. Place the mixture in an appropriate flameproof dish and dissolve using de-ionized water (~50 ml). Hess.7 CH4N2O (urea) 2. Display Materials.S. Shea. the result is a foamy powder which can be powderized.8.J. K. For carbohydrazide and urea fuels. 141. Handbook of Luminescence. Eds. 79. J.J.0 Photon Energy (eV) 2.8 Remark 1. Phosphor development for alpha-silicon liquidcrystal light valve projection display. H.5 (fuel/oxidizer ratio) C2H5NO2 (glycine) 1.S. American Scientific Publishers. Ceram. L. dehydrates.. 2. M..E. and 725 nm) Emission width: 0. 1873 (1994). J. The spectra obtained have the same structure but the materials produced by higher temperatures show higher intensities. 3. Sci. CA. Synthesis and Characterization of Phosphors for Flat Panel Displays. Mater.5 Preparation Mix the precursor and the fuel thoroughly in a glass mortar. The solution boils. Optical Properties Emission color: Deep red Emission peaks: 1. Stevenson Ranch. Sluzky. Rohwer. and Devices.. et al. an amorphous ash is produced that needs to be annealed in air at 1000°C for 1 hour. et al. References 1. This contribution is from Lauren E. and 1. preheated to 500°C. Soc. and ruptures into a flame in 5–10 minutes..6 1. 29. Shea-Rohwer. 2. and Walko. and Hesse. Soc..E. Place the dish into a muffle furnace.. Am. When glycine is used. N. carbohydrazide produces the highest temperature (1825°C) while glycine produces the lowest (1210°C). Electrochem.. R..

1000.75 Composition Ingredient ErCl3 BaCl2 Mole % 25 75 By weight (g) — — Preparation Mix thoroughly in dry. Optical Properties Emission color: Mostly green Emission peak: 550 nm Excitation efficiency by IR: Can be excited with 800.Yb3+ YF3:Tm3+.Pb2+ BaFCl:Eu2+ BaMg3F8:Eu2+.Mn2+ BaY2F8:Er3+.5 Halides and Oxyhalides The following host compounds and activators are included in this subsection: (ErCl3)0.25(BaCl2)0.25(BaCl2)0. Heat at 1000°C after eliminating water and O2 in stream of N2.Yb3+ (ErCl3)0. Ar.Yb3+ CsI:Tl LaOBr:Tb3+ LaOBr:Tm3+ NaYF4:Er3+. Crush after cooling and seal in glass capsule.7.Yb3+ YF3:Er3+. inert box. and 1500 nm light Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 100 Emission 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 . and Cl2.75 Ba2Mg3F10:Eu2+ BaFBr:Eu2+ BaFCl:Eu2+.

U. Pat. This contribution is from Hajime Yamamoto.W... and Messier. 1272 (1993).. Reference 1. R. Ba2Mg3F10:Eu2+ Composition Ingredient BaF2 MgF2 EuF2 Mole % 38. R. Phys... 2 hours.00 1.39 2. higher temperature is required for activator diffusion. 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 .20 By weight (g) 68. Appl.Remarks 1. 830°C. J. Fire in 5% volume of H2 in N2. 2.. Wolfe. Reference 1. 2. The firing temperature can be lower (down to 700–750°C) for undoped barium magnesium fluoride. Powderize. 74.S. and Ohwaki. Wang. This contribution is from Madis Raukas. High-efficiency infrared-to-visible up-conversion of Er3+ in BaCl2. J. an inert or even air atmosphere can be used for the reaction.04 37.28 Preparation Dry mix. peaking at around 330 nm Excitation efficiency by e-beam: Good for x-ray intensifier screens Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 100 Excitation (%) Emission 50 2 3 Remarks 1. Y. Optical Properties Emission color: Deep blue Emission peak: 415 nm Excitation efficiency by UV: In a broad range. The phosphor is hygroscopic.F. 4 112 328 (1978). Although not producing as efficiently luminescent material.80 60.

13. 439 458 1. EuF3) are fired in a H2/N2 atmosphere at 600–1000°C (desirably at 700°C). 3.M..36 0.0096 By weight (g) 14..Structure: Tetragonal BaFBr:Eu2+ Preparation Intimate mixtures of raw materials (BaF2. K. the materials are dried at 200–300°C. 55 12144. Radzhabov.88 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: + Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 100 Excitation (%) Emission 50 2 3 Remarks 1. and Kurobori. and sieved.52 49. + (4.. E.13 0. Phys. CRC Press. Kotera et al.040 . The fired material is ground.. New York (1998). 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 BaFCl:Eu2+. 2. 4. Pat. Shionoya. Kotera et al. washed with cold water or organic liquids.. Optical Properties Emission color: UV/blue Excitation efficiency by UV: – (3.40 eV).428 0. useful for radiography. 2. The phosphors are ground and re-fired.70 17. Japanese Patent Kokai. BaBr2. The Phosphor Handbook. This contribution is from Masaaki Tamatani. Eds.Pb2+ Composition Ingredient BaF2 BaCl2 EuCl2 PbF2 Mole % 49. Before firing. Care is taken to avoid oxygen during firing. Matter. Phosphors for X-ray and ionizing radiation.. and Yen. U. dried. References 1. Takahashi. S. 55 12143. Condens. Photoionization processes in barium fluorohalide crystals doped with Eu2+.S.. W. T. 55 12145.25 1.. and to protect from dissolving in water during washing.. J. Excess ammonium halide may be used as flux. This compound is photostimulable and. therefore. 1159 (2001).

. 2 303 963 (1942). Uhle. This x-ray phosphor is represented by the formula Ba0... 2 303 917 (1942). 3.F. lead can be replaced by aluminum or thallium in slightly different proportions (10–50 ppm Tl. Dietz. 4. Sieve to –200 +355-mesh size. U. Structure: Tetragonal BaFCl:Eu2+ Preparation Stir the following overnight: (1-2x)BaF2(s) + BaCl2(aq) + 2x EuF2(s) 2 Ba1-xEuxFCl(s) A stoichiometric excess of aqueous BaCl2 solution is used. R. and Messier.W..0001FCl. 2.S. 3.W. References 1. R. Separate the precipitate. U. the optimum being at around 100 ppm.. Wolfe.Preparation Dry blend together.000–15. . As a further improvement. 2. Pat. U. For the same purpose. 3 951 848 (1976).. U. O. This contribution is from Madis Raukas.F. 4.S. Pat. Lead is an important additive for brightness enhancement and its amount can be varied from about 10 to 1000 molar ppm parts of host. Wolfe. R. Fire in N2. 2 hours. Pat. Fire in a 5% H2-N2 mixture at 600–1000°C for 1 hour. H.000 ppm Al).9989Eu0. yttrium or lithium can be used for reducing the persistence (see the second reference).S.01Pb0.. 8. and Messier...S. Pat. 4 057 508 (1977). R. Blend with with BaCl2 to serve as a flux. Spray dry the slurry of BaFCl:Eu and aqueous BaCl2. ~ 830°C.J.. Optical Properties Emission peak: Around 385 nm Emission width (FWHM): About 35 nm Excitation by e-beam: Specified as a phosphor for x-ray intensifiers Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 100 Emission 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Remarks 1.

7 × 10–6 sec (UV exc. J. Photoionization processes in barium fluorohalide crystals doped with Eu2+.. Solid state chemistry and luminescence of X-ray phosphors. 2. Condens. Optical Properties Emission color: UV/blue Emission peak: 380 nm Excitation efficiency by UV: – (3.26 43. 3.88 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: + Decay to 1/e: 5. Store in a well-sealed container. U.. 13. 2. Phys. Alloys Ingredients.99 2. Optical Properties Emission color: Deep blue (Eu2+) . T. and Torardi. Ferretti. Matter.40 eV).70 By weight (g) 41. Pat.53 70. C. A. Radzhabov. 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 References 1. Fire in a flow of 5% H2 in N2 at 830°C for 2 hours..S.Mn2+ Composition Ingredient BaF2 MgF2 EuF2 MnF2 Mole % 23.. Wash.23 6. BaMg3F8:Eu2+.Heat the resultant phosphor/flux intermediate at 1000°C.) Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 100 Excitation (%) Emission 50 2 3 Remarks 1. and Kurobori.L.07 Preparation Dry blend together. This compound is photostimulable. S.59 1. Issler. This contribution is from Masaaki Tamatani.C. 1159 (2001).18 4. + (4.. E. 229. J. 54 (1995). 4 524 016 (1985)..

Wash with water after cooling to remove flux.F. peaking at around 330 nm Excitation by e-beam: Good Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 100 Emission 50 2 3 Remarks 1.05Mg2..95Eu0.20F10.W.Emission peaks: Two bands. This contribution is from Madis Raukas. and Messier. The ingredients in the ratio shown above yields the composition of Ba1. Optical Properties Emission color: Green Emission peak: 550 nm .S. U. 4 112 328 (1978). 2. Pat. Forming undoped barium magnesium fluoride requires lower firing temperature (700– 750°C). Wolfe.80Mn0.. 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 BaY2F8:Er3+.Yb3+ Structure: Monoclinic Composition Ingredient YF3 YbF3 Er F3 BaF2 ZnF2 Mole % 78 20 2 100 10 By weight (g) Preparation Mix thoroughly in ethanol. R.. 3. Reference 1. Fire in a capped alumina crucible in inert or fluorizing atmosphere above 1100°C. higher temperature is required for activator diffusion. R. 410 nm (Eu2+) and 610 nm (Mn2+) Emission width (FWHM): 80 nm (Mn2+) Excitation efficiency by UV: In a broad range.

zone melting in a closed vertical crucible after Bridgman–Stockbarger 2. Spectroscopic and laser properties of Er3+-doped monoclinic BaY2F8 single-crystals. A.. Opt. Quant. 5. 2. Mita. Luminescence characteristics are similar to those of YF3. 22. 587 (1981). Optical Properties Emission color: Green Emission peak: 550 nm Absorption edge: 4.88 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: ++ Decay to 1/e: 0. Thallium iodide is mixed with CsI before heating. Appl. Electron. Phys. Y.. 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Structure: Cubic CsI:Tl Preparation Single crystals can be grown by several conventional methods: 1. References 1.. 4. Detection of 1.13 eV (299 nm). 2. grown from the melt after Czochralski.14 eV (241 nm) Excitation efficiency by UV: + (4.5-µm wavelength laser-light emission by infrared-excitable phosphors. et al.A. S95 (1990).. Lett. 39. This contribution is from Hajime Yamamoto.98 × 10-6 .61 eV (269 nm). Kaminskii.Excitation efficiency by UV: Weak red emission Excitation efficiency by e-beam: Weak red emission Excitation efficiency by infrared light: Efficient under 970 nm Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 100 Emission 50 2 3 Remarks 1. and dissolved in the melt (melting point 623°C).

Fire in air. 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Remarks 1. 3.B.1 By weight (g) 100 2. Powderize.C.2 39.0 39. Optical Properties Emission color: Whitish blue Excitation efficiency by UV: – (3. 1 hour. References 1. Blasse. ++ (4. some of the thallium may be lost by evaporation... 1 hour. and Grabmaier. Blend with the Na2CO3.1 2.06 and 0. During crystal growth.40 eV).C. 3. Tb4O7. 372 (1984). Fire in air. Nucl.. 800–1100°C. 400–500°C. Ball-mill the powder with a grinding media and a liquid vehicle.. Grabmaier. wash. and HNO3. filter. G. The luminescence intensity is nearly constant for Tl+ concentrations between 0. Heidelberg (1994). London (1964). Pergamon Press. Luminescent Materials. Structure: Tetragonal Composition Ingredient La2O3 Tb4O7 HNO3 Na2CO3 NH4Br LaOBr:Tb3+ Mole % 19. 2. This contribution is from Masaaki Tamatani. J. Sci.3 60. Springer-Verlag. NS-31.7 3.6 0.3 38.Spectra 800 700 600 500 400 Wavelength (nm) 300 100 Emission 50 2 3 Spectrum of the emission under x-ray excitation. B. The theory and practice of scintillation counting. Birks. IEEE Trans. B. 2. such as water. Crystal scintillators.88 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: + . 1. and NH4Br. and dry.1 Preparation Combine the La2O3. Powderize and reblend powder. 2.3 mol%.

3 617 743 (1971). G.. Concentration quenching of Tb3+ luminescence in LaOBr and Gd2O2S phosphors. 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 LaOBr:Tm3+ Structure: Tetragonal Composition Ingredient NH4Br Tm2O3 La2O3 Mole % — — — By weight (g) — — — Preparation (1-x)La2O3 + xTm2O3 + 2NH4Br. 481 (1967). Pat. 1403 (1979). Soc. References 1. 800°C. This contribution is from Masaaki Tamatani... Ammonium bromide serves as the brominating agent. 4. Mater.Spectra 800 700 600 500 400 Wavelength (nm) 300 100 Excitation (%) Emission 50 2 3 Remarks 1. Holsa. Abstr. J. J. U.S. A.. Rabatin. Rabatin. 3. et al. 2. and Bril.G. – (4. Electrochem. Blasse.40 eV). Bull.G.88 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: + . 22. J. Investigations of Tb3+-activated phosphors. Rep. Spring Meeting. 2. Alkali bromide formed by the interaction of alkali carbonate and ammonium bromide serves as a re-crystallizing agent. 102 (1974). while potassium bromide acts as the flux.. Fire in air. Optical Properties Emission color: UV/blue Excitation efficiency by UV: – (3. Tb activated rare earth oxyhalides for x-ray intensifying screen. 14.. Res. Philips Res..

3 591 516 (1971). Rabatin. References 1. 2.L. which has been precipitated from aqueous nitrate solution with HF solution.G.. Solid state chemistry and luminescence of X-ray phosphors. C. This contribution is from Masaaki Tamatani.G. Alloys Ingredients. in Ar atmosphere. Rabatin..C. If water vapor sensitivity is a problem.Er)F3. J. 2. 229. U. Dry. 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Structure: Trigonal Composition Ingredient YF3 YbF3 Er F3 Na2SiF6 NaYF4:Er3+. NaF produced during decomposition of Na2SiF6 acts as flux and forms NaYF4 lattice. Optical Properties Emission color: Green Emission peak: 550 nm Excitation efficiency by IR: Efficient at 970-nm wavelength Excitation efficiency by UV: Weak red emission Excitation efficiency by e-beam: Weak red emission Excitation by infrared light: Efficient under 970nm . Pat. J.Spectra 800 700 600 500 400 Wavelength (nm) 300 100 Excitation (%) Emission 50 2 3 Remarks 1. and Torardi.9 10. U. Fire in capped Pt crucibles.S. S. for 2 hours.8 226. 630°C. Pat. add some potassium antimony tartrate to the final product. 3. Issler..S..Yb..2 Preparation Mix Na2SiF6 with the proper amount of (Y..Yb3+ Mole % 57 39 4 100 By weight (g) 100 107. 4 208 470 (1978). 54 (1995). J.

This contribution is from Yoh Mita. 1561 (1972).Yb3+ Structure: Orthorhombic Composition Ingredient YF3 YbF3 ErF3 ZnF2 Mole % 78 20 2 10 By weight (g) — — — — Preparation Mix thoroughly in ethanol. Y.. 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 YF3:Er3+.La) — efficient green-emitting infrared-excited phosphors. J. Kano.Spectra 800 700 x5 Emission 600 500 x1 400 Wavelength (nm) 300 100 50 2 3 Remarks 1. H. Electrochem.Er3+ (Ln-Y. NaLnF4-Yb3+.. Fire in a capped alumina crucible in inert or fluorizing atmosphere above 1100°C. Soc. Wash with water after cooling to remove flux. Luminescence characteristics are similar to those of YF3 but more intense emission is reported. Optical Properties Emission color: Green Emission peak: 550 nm Excitation efficiency by UV: Weak Excitation efficiency by e-beam: Weak Excitation efficiency by infrared light: Efficient under 970-nm excitation . 119.. Yamamoto. 2. and Otomo. T.Gd.. Reference 1.

. Comments on materials for efficient infrared conversion. Johnson. Lett. The green emission is accompanied with red emission. Appl. Fire in a capped alumina crucible in inert or fluorizing atmosphere above 1100oC. Wash with water after cooling to remove flux. Reference 1.Yb3+ Structure: Orthorombic Composition Ingredient YF3 YbF3 TmF3 ZnF2 Mole % 74 35 0. 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 YF3:Tm3+.Spectra 800 700 600 500 400 Wavelength (nm) 300 100 Emission 50 2 3 Remarks 1. 48 (1969).F. et al.. This contribution is from Hajime Yamamoto. The green emission is observed also under 800 or 1500 nm wavelength light. 15. which may be predominant upon higher incorporation of Er3+ and Yb3+ or partial oxidization. but higher content of Er dopant is required for obtaining efficient emission. Optical Properties Emission color: Pinkish-blue Excitation efficiency by IR: Excitable with 970-nm light . L. 2. Phys.2 10 By weight (g) — — — — Preparation Mix thoroughly in ethanol.

4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Reference 1.Spectra 800 700 600 500 400 Wavelength (nm) 300 100 Emission 50 2 3 Remarks 1. et al. 15. Comments on materials for efficient infrared conversion. Lett. 48 (1969)... Phys. . Johnson. L. This contribution is from Yoh Mita.F. Appl. Blue emission is accompanied by red emission. 2.

Ultrafast CdS:Te CdS:In. Optical Properties Emission color: Deep blue. ++ (4. 1 hour.Cl ZnS:Cu.2 Preparation Mix by dry grinding or milling.Mn CaS:Bi3+ Structure: Cubic Composition Ingredient CaS Bi2O3 S Mole % 100 0.7.88 eV) Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 100 Excitation (%) Emission 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 .6 CaS and ZnS-Type Sulfides The following host compounds and activators are included in this subsection: CaS:Bi3+ CaS:Eu2+ CdS:In CdS:In.40 eV). Powderize.5 By weight (g) 10 0.Al ZnS:Te. Fire in N2.Te ZnS:Ag. 1200ºC. Store in a well-sealed container.323 0. long blue afterglow Emission peak: 450 nm Emission width (FWHM): 1950 cm-1 Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (3.

Trapping processes in CaS:Eu2+. Lehmann.. long red afterglow Emission peak: 655 nm Emission width (FWHM): 1660 cm-1 Spectra.. Optical Properties Emission color: Red. W.D. Phys.Tm3+.. 2. References 1. et al. Powderize. F.Remark This contribution is from Weiyi Jia. 1 hour. W. 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 100 Excitation (%) Emission 50 2 3 Remark This contribution is from Weiyi Jia. 5. 87 (1972)... 2. Jia. Soc. Activators and co-activators in calcium sulfide phosphors. W.M. Appl.Y. Evans. 1200ºC. Fire in 95% N2 + 5% H2. W. 118. D. 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 References 1.2 Preparation Mix by dry grinding or milling. 88. CaS:Eu2+ Structure: Cubic Composition Ingredient CaS Eu2O3 S Mole % 100 1 By weight (g) 10 0. D. Cathodoluminescence of CaS:Ce3+ and Cas:Eu2+ Phosphors. J.. . Jia. J. Store in a well-sealed container. 3402 (2000). Lumin. Unpublished data.488 0... Lehmann. Electrochem. Jia.. J.R.. 477 (1971). Ryan.

Ultrafast Composition Ingredient CdS In2O3 NH4Cl pure sulfur Mole % 100 % 0. Derenzo.. E. Temperature dependence of the fast. The quest for the ideal scintillator. Meth. This contribution is from Edith Bourret-Courchesne. S. M. Instr.. References 1. A 486. The compound should be a uniform light green color. Optical Properties Body color: Greenish-yellow Emission: Peak about 519 nm. M. If it is not uniform it can be treated a third time at 900ºC for 10 hours in a vacuum-sealed ampoule. Anneal in the sealed quartz ampoule at 900ºC for 10 hours. Mix vigorously using a Vortex mixer. about 1 10 torr. Instr. CdS:In. S. near-band-edge scintillation from CuI..1 % about 2 (not critical) By weight 145 g 0. Color: green Excitation by UV: By all UV and by visible blue light Decay time: <1 nsec.E.K. 2. and Klintenberg.. Nucl. Weber. ZnO:Ga and CdS:In. Break the ampoule open and grind the compound.. M. PbI2. Weber. Seal the quartz ampoule under vacuum. about 1 10 torr. A 505. Derenzo.. Nucl. M. 111 (2003).CdS:In Structure: hexagonal (wurtzite) Composition Ingredient CdS In2O3 Mole % 99 % 1% By weight 1g 7. Anneal in the sealed quartz ampoule at 900ºC for 10 hours. Seal the quartz ampoule under vacuum. exponential Remarks 1. Meth.K.J. and Klintenberg. HgI2.J. Place the compound in a quartz ampoule. Break the ampoule open and grind the compound mixture to a fine powder using a mortar and pestle. 214 (2002). Bourret-Courchesne..139 g 1g about 2 g .95 mg Preparation Place the dry CdS and In powders in a quartz ampoule.E.

J. Derenzo.. M. near-band-edge scintillation from CuI. Weber. 214 (2002).K. The NH4Cl in the above recipe can be replaced by about 3.E. 1107 (1966).. Patent 3 583 929 (issued June 1971). 5. Fire in open quartz boats. Dissolve the In2O3 in a little HNO3. 6. Lehmann. 3. The quest for the ideal scintillator.g. M. 900ºC. W. slowly flowing H2... and Klintenberg. inspect under UV lamp. one-quarter hour. Solid State Electron. 4. W. Instr. HgI2. Nucl.E. U. Remove any parts (if present) that look different. Peak about 510 nm. Klintenberg.6 g CdCl2.K. Weber. The material should now be uniformly green luminescent (if it does not. over night). 75% N2). Edge emission of n-type conducting ZnO and CdS. S. M. 2.J. Instr. E. Bourret-Courchesne. Optical Properties Body color: Grayish-yellow Particles: About in the 5–10 µm size range Emission: Narrow band. Remove any suspicious parts and powderize the rest. The above recipe was provided by W.. 1. not more) slowly flowing H2S. 600ºC. Temperature dependence of the fast. 1 hour. PbI2. ZnO:Ga and CdS:In. Add both solutions to the CdS slurry..2%. A 505. 111 (2003).Preparation Make a slurry of the CdS in alcohol. and dry at room temperature or at moderate heat (e. Lehmann. repeat the last firing step at about 100ºC higher temperature). decay < 1 nsec Remarks 1. S. 9.. The H2S in the above recipe can be diluted with N2 (about to 25% H2S. Color: green Excitation by UV: By all UV and by visible blue light Excitation by e-beam: Energy— 1–1.. A 486.. Nucl. Then add the sulfur to the dry raw mix. When cool. 2. Boil till development of brown N2O3 vapor ceases (but not to dry). stir to uniformity. Cool while still in H2 (Important!) Inspect again under a UV lamp. Fire in loosely capped quartz tubes (about half full. References 3. Lehmann during a visit to the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory in 1987.. Meth. Do not heat higher than about 250ºC except in pure hydrogen. Meth.. . Dissolve the NH4Cl in a little water.S. Derenzo. M. This phosphor is in a frozen-in semistable state. Material should be uniformly deep red luminescent.

Sci.66mg Preparation Place the dry CdS and CdTe powders in a quartz ampoule.. Break the ampoule open and grind the compound mixture to a fine powder using a mortar and pestle.CdS:Te Structure: hexagonal (wurtzite) Composition Ingredient CdS CdTe Mole % 99. Anneal in the sealed quartz ampoule at 900ºC for 10 hours. Instr. 214 (2002). 39. Phys. J. 546 (1992).01 % By weight 10 g 1. 2. and Ryzhikov. S.G.K. A 486. Weber. 4..K. 3..99 % 0. Dorenbos. P.E. M.J.. D. M. about 5 10-5 torr. Seal the quartz ampoule under vacuum. Mix vigorously using a Vortex mixer. Place the compound in a quartz ampoule. Color: red Excitation by UV: By all UV and by visible blue light Decay time: 270 nsec. and Klintenberg. S. Optical properties of tellurium as an isoelectronic trap in cadmium sulfide. Appl.E. E. Nucl. The compound should be a uniform yellow color. 39. Derenzo. IEEE Trans. V. This contribution is from Edith Bourret-Courchesne. HgI2. A 505.. Instr. Meth. 111 (2003). Cuthbert..J. Nucl. PbI2.D.99%(CdS) By weight 1g 1g .D. M..Te Mole % 1% (In) 99%(CdS) 0. Schotanus. Seal the quartz ampoule under vacuum.01% (CdTe) 99. The quest for the ideal scintillator. References 1. Optical Properties Body color: yellow Emission: Peak about ~640 nm. Anneal in the sealed quartz ampoule at 900ºC for 10 hours. J. near-band-edge scintillation from CuI. Nucl.. Break the ampoule open and grind the compound. ZnO:Ga and CdS:In. Bourret-Courchesne.. P. Detection of CdS(Te) and ZnSe(Te) scintillation light with silicon photodiodes.. about 5 10-5 torr. and Klintenberg. Temperature dependence of the fast. Derenzo. 1573 (1968). Weber. and Thomas. M. Meth.. nonexponential Remarks 1. Structure: hexagonal (wurtzite) Composition Ingredient CdS:In* CdS:CdTe* *see previous pages CdS:In.

5 nsec. Derenzo. S. M. It can also be co-doped with Al. A 486. Wurtzite is obtained by heating above about 1020°C and fast cooling. Temperature dependence of the fast. The mixture is dried in air and powdered. Mix vigorously using a Vortex mixer. ZnO:Ga and CdS:In. A 505. Anneal in the sealed quartz ampoule at 900ºC for 10 hours.Cl Composition Ingredient ZnS AgNO3 NH4Cl S Mole % 100 0.Preparation Place the dry CdS:In and CdS:CdTe powders in a quartz ampoule.J.03 5 — By weight (g) 98 0. Bourret-Courchesne. Weber. Nucl.050 2. Meth. Decay time:3. Color: red. M. The material can be washed with water to remove any flux residue.. This contribution is from Edith Bourret-Courchesne. E..K. two modifications can be made (cubic sphalerite and hexagonal wurtzite) with slightly difference spectra. In addition. This material is used as blue primary in cathode-ray tubes. first the AgNO3 solution is added. Seal the quartz ampoule under vacuum. exponential. Then sulfur is added. Nucl. HgI2.E. Instr. near-band-edge scintillation from CuI. PbI2. about 5 10-5 torr.5 2–3 g Preparation AgNO3 and NH4Cl are dissolved separately in water. M.K. During stirring.. Meth.J. References 7. Break the ampoule open and grind the compound mixture to a fine powder using a mortar and pestle. 111 (2003). and Klintenberg. Remark This contribution is from Cees Ronda. The compound should be a uniform dark yellow color. instead of Cl.. 8. followed by adding the NH4Cl solution. . A ZnS slurry is made with water or an alcohol. M.. Instr.. S. 214 (2002). ZnS:Ag. Remarks 2. Derenzo.. Optical Properties Body color: dark yellow Emission: Peak about 618 nm. and Klintenberg.E. Excitation by UV: By all UV and by visible blue light. Heating takes place at bout 1100°C in a CO atmosphere. Weber. The quest for the ideal scintillator.

Optical Properties Emission color: Red Emission peak: 650 nm Excitation efficiency by UV: Excited by 280–380 nm and blue green 450–540 nm .Mn Structure: Hexagonal (wurtzite) Composition Ingredient ZnS ZnTe MnO S Mole % 94 3 3 10 By weight (g) 10.632 0. The mixture is dried in air and powdered. Powderize and grind. to obtain more green emission. Pre-sinter at 800°C in N2 for 2 hours. The material can be washed with water to remove any flux residue.06 0.08 Preparation Mix and grind. It can also be co-doped with Au and Cu. ZnS:Te.ZnS:Cu.232 1.00 0.Al Composition Ingredient ZnS Cu(C2H3O2)2H2O AlCl3 S Mole % 100 0. Heating takes place at about 1100°C in a CO atmosphere. Remark This contribution is from Cees Ronda. This material is used as green primary in cathode-ray tubes. Sinter at 1200°C in N2 gas flow for 3 hours.4 2–3 g Preparation Copper acetate and aluminum chloride are dissolved in water and added to ZnS. Then sulfur is added.3 — By weight (g) 98 0.03 0. Afterwards methanol or water is added to make a uniform slurry which is stirred.

Opt.F.Spectra 800 700 600 500 400 Wavelength (nm) 300 100 Excitation (%) Emission 50 2 3 Remarks 1. This contribution comes from Dongdong Jia. G. 67 (1967).. Smirnova. 2. .I. 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Reference 1. Spectrosc. and Pron.. R. Effect of tellurium on luminescence properties of zinc sulfide luminors.—USSR. 23. This compound exhibits strong tribo-luminescence.

7. Fire in air.23K0.7 100 4.5 Preparation Mix ingredients. 1100°C.08TiSi4O11:Eu3+ Na2Mg3Al2Si2O10F2:Tb Structure: Tetragonal Composition Ingredient CaCO3 WO3 PbO CaWO4:Pb2+ Mole % 48.5 49.42Eu0.42Eu0.5 1 By weight (g) 231.23K0. Powderize. Optical Properties Emission color: Blue Emission peak: 435 nm Excitation efficiency by UV: (3.7 Other Compounds The following host compounds and activators are included in this subsection: CaWO4:Pb2+ GaN:Zn Gd2O2S:Pr3+ Gd2O2S:Tb Na(Mg2-xMnx)LiSi4O10F2:Mn Na1. and then wash with 3% HCl (to remove the excess CaO).12TiSi5O13·xH2O:Eu3+ Na1.40 eV).12TiSi4O11:Eu3+ Na1.46Er0. several hours.88 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: + Decay to 1/e: 10-5sec Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 100 Excitation (%) Emission 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 . ++ (4.29K0.

CRTs. 19. T. GaN:Zn Structure: Hexagonal (wurtzite) Composition Ingredient ZnS Ga2S3 Mole % — — By weight (g) — — Preparation Mix by slurrying in water or methanol. Kojima. Re-fire in H2+N2 atmosphere. Rep. Add solution of Mn2+ and vaporize water by warming. Optical Properties Emission color: Blue Emission peak: 460 nm Emission width (FWHM): 100 nm Absorption edge: 354 nm (3. and Mizuno.. 16.. S.M. Ed. NBS1026 is used for lamps. References 1. Shionoya. Powderize. S. W. pp. Dry in air. Powderize. S. Excess Ca in the material blend gives favorable results. H. Wash with de-ionized water. A. Properties of the fluorescence of some N.5 eV) Luminance by cr: 650 cd/m2 at 50 V DC . 3.S. 2 hours. and Yen. 1100 C.B. W.. NH3. and Yen. in Phosphor Handbook. This contribution is from Masaaki Tamatani. pp. CRC Press. New York. 1100 C.. Phosphors for plasma display. W. New York. Ed.. Bril. 4. Efficiencies of phosphors for short-wave ultra-violet excitation. 356–370 (1961). 629–630 (1998).. Kamiya. Shionoya. standard phosphors. and Hoekstra. 422–423 (1998).. Philips Res. 296–306 (1964).. 1 hour. 2. 2. and Hoekstra. CRC Press. Philips Res. Rep. M. Fire in quartz tubes. in Phosphor Handbook. A. Powderize when dry. 3. Bril. Phosphors for lamps.Remarks 1.... W.

Y.. 2.40 eV). 4–6 (2002). Structure: Hexagonal Composition Ingredient Gd2O3 Pr6O11 HNO3 S2 Na2CO3 Gd2O2S:Pr3+ Mole % 100 0. Rinse well in water. 1100°C. Luminescence Properties of a Blue Phosphor. Proceedings of the 9th International Display Workshops. Tamaki.92 Preparation Combine Gd2O3 and Pr6O11 powders with some nitric acid to form a precipitate.88 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: + Decay to 1/e: 3 × 10-6s .Spectra 800 700 600 500 400 Wavelength (nm) 300 100 Excitation (%) Emission 50 2 3 Remark This contribution is from Yoshitaka Sato. et al. M. Takahashi..56 some 3 2. 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 References 1.2 some some 10 By weight (g) 100 0. 2. 1. Sato. Dec. H. Sato.. Take the oxide. Fire in air. Proceeding of IDW'02 (2002). Optical Properties Emission color: Green Emission peak: 510 nm Excitation efficiency by UV: (3. H. 1000°C. ++ (4. Fire in air.. Co-doping with a small amount of Ce reduces the afterglow. GaN:Zn for VFDs. and Kameshima. and combine with sulfur and NaCO3.. Y.

879 (1998). mixture should be powdered in mortar. Matsuda. 1870RNP (1987). 2..4 11. Subsequently. at a temperature of about 1100°C for a few hours. Abstr. M. Praseodimium-doped gadolinium oxysulfide ceramics prepared by the hot isostatic pressing process. K. Fall Meeting.. Yoshida. . 136. 2.Remarks 1. using powders with very small particle size. Suzuki. mix the rare-earth mixture with Na2CO3 and S by dry mixing. Three groups have proposed different processes for fabricating the oxysulfide ceramics.. Honolulu. Electrochem. 2713 (1989). Toshiba proposed a high-temperature... Firing should occur in air in a vessel with a well-closing lid. Yamada. Yokota. Soc. Boston. N.3 53 96 Preparation Mix the rare-earth oxides by slurrying in water or methanol and dry in air. M. H. Fall Meeting. 3. Hitachi is able to lower the sintering temperature during HIP by adding a sintering aid using a powder having large particle size. A scintillator Gd2O2S:Pr. After cooling. Uchida. Electrochem. Rossner. and Tamatani. M. A. the reaction product has to be washed a few times with water to remove residual flux. Electrochem.. J. Properties and application of gadolinium oxysulfide based ceramic scintillators. W.. Y. hot-isostatic-pressing process using a phosphor powder prepared by the conventional method for CRT phosphors.. and Ostertag. and Yamamoto. Soc. Siemens proposed to apply a uni-axial hot pressing process instead of HIP.. This contribution is from Masaaki Tamatani. No. Soc.. References 1. No. H.Ce. After drying.. Gd2O2S:Tb Composition Ingredient Gd2O3 Tb4O7 Na2CO3 S Mole % 94 (Y) 6 (Tb) 100 300 By weight (g) 170. Abstr.F for X-ray computed tomography.

Spectra
800 700 600 500

400

Wavelength (nm)

300

100

Emission

50

2

3

Remarks 1. This contribution is from Cees Ronda. 2. This material is used in X-ray intensifying screens and in oscilloscope CRTs.

4 Photon Energy (eV)

5

0

Na(Mg2-xMnx)LiSi4O10F2:Mn
Structure: Lamellar intercalation Composition Ingredient Mole % By weight (g) Na2CO3 2.50 1.82 MgO 28.80 7.96 Li2CO3 7.50 3.80 5.00 6.45 Na2SiF6 SiO2 55.00 22.66 1.20 0.946 MnCO3 Preparation Mix stoichiometric amounts in a paint shaker for 30 minutes with about 20 mol% of excess potassium carbonate to compensate for losses due to volatilization. Fire in covered alumina crucibles, air, 915 C, 36 hours. Grind. Fire in covered alumina crucibles, 4% H2 /N2, 850 C. Cool to room temperature. Powderize. Screen through a 325-mesh stainless steel sieve. Optical Properties Emission color: Redish-pink Emission peak: 695 nm Excitation efficiency by UV: + (3.40 eV), + (4.88 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: Characteristic emission at about 1.4 fL level under focused 15 kV/8 A excitation

Spectra
800 700 600 500

400

Wavelength (nm)

300

100

Emission

50

2

3

Remarks 1. This contribution is from Madis Raukas. 2. This phosphor in formulation of Na(Mg2-xMnx)LiSi4O10F2 is an example of a broad family of intercalation ingredient that, besides micas and fluoromicas, includes vermiculites and zeolites. 3. Described composition yields a concentration of 0.08 mol Mn per mole of phosphor. 4. Good electroluminescent properties when intercalated with conductive polymers or metals. References 1. Qi, R.Y., Karam, R.E., Reddy, V.B., and Cox, J.R., U.S. Pat., 5 567 351 (1996). 2. Qi, R.Y., and Karam, R.E., U.S. Pat., 5 658 495 (1997). 3. Reddy, V.B., Karam, R.E., and Northrop, S.K., U.S. Pat., 5 489 398 (1996). 4. Qi, R.Y., and Karam, R.E., U.S. Pat., 5 531 926 (1996). 5. Reddy, V.B., and Karam, R.E., Northrop, S.K., and Zhang, Y., U.S. Pat., 5 531 928 (1996).

4 Photon Energy (eV)

5

0

Na1.23K0.42Eu0.12TiSi5O13·xH2O:Eu3+
Structure: Tetragonal Composition Ingredient Mole % Sodium silicate solution 30.7 (of Si) (8% Na2O; 27% SiO2; 65% H2O) 5.6 (of Ti) TiO2 (anatase) NaCl 58.1 (of Na) KCl 5.6 (of K) Eu(NO3)3·5H2O 0.12 (of Eu) By weight (g) 20.0 1.30 6.90 1.30 0.15

Preparation 1. To prepare ETS-10: Mix 20 g of water to the sodium silicate solution and add the NaCl and KCl. Stir and add anatase. Autoclave the gel under autogeneous pressure for 24 hours at 230°C. The resulting powder is filtered and washed with distilled water at room temperature and then allowed to dry at 110°C.

2.

To prepare Eu3+-doped ETS-10: Dissolve 0.07 g of Eu(NO3)3·5H2O in 250 ml of water and add 3.94 g of the already prepared ETS-10. The solution is stirred for 24 hours at 60°C. The precipitate is filtered and dried in air at 110°C. *The next two materials also use this as their basic recipe.

Optical Properties Emission color: Red Emission peak: 2.00 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0.044 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: The maximum excitation efficiency at 394 nm (7F0 5L6) and 465 nm (7F0 5D2) Decay to 10% (or 1/e, as given): To 1/e 3.63 ± 0.04 and 1.11 ± 0.02 msec Spectra
800 700 600 500 400
Wavelength (nm)

300

100
Excitation (%)

Emission

50

2

3

4 Photon Energy (eV)

5

0

Remarks 1. This contribution is from Luis Carlos. 2. ETS-10 is also known as microporous sodium potassium titanosilicate. 3. ETS-10 is doped through an ion exchange between Na+ and K+ with Eu3+. Reference 1. Rainho, J.P., Carlos, L.D., and Rocha, J., New phosphors based on Eu3+-doped microporous titanosilicates, J. Lumin., 87, 1083 (2000).

Na1.23K0.42Eu0.12TiSi4O11:Eu3+
Structure: Tetragonal Composition Ingredient Sodium silicate solution (8% Na2O; 27% SiO2; 65% H2O) TiO2 (anatase) NaCl KCl Eu(NO3)3·5H2O Mole % 30.7 (of Si) 5.6 (of Ti) 58.1 (of Na) 5.6 (of K) 0.12 (of Eu) By weight (g) 20.0 1.30 6.90 1.30 0.15

Preparation 1. ETS-10 and ETS-10 doped with Eu3+ are prepared as in the case of the microporous titanosilicate compound described on the previous page. 2. To obtain Eu3+ doped narsarsukite: Eu3+-doped ETS-10 is calcined in air from room temperature to 800°C at a heating rate of 5°C per minute. The material is maintained at 800°C for 3 hours. Cool in air.

Optical Properties Emission color: Red Emission peak: 2.03 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0.003 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: The maximum excitation efficiency at 394 nm (7F0 5L6) and 465 nm (7F0 5D2) Decay to 10%: To 1/e 3.63 ± 0.04 and 1.11 ± 0.02 msec Spectra
800 700 600 500
Wavelength (nm)

400

300

100
Excitation (%)

Emission

50

2

3

Remarks 1. This contribution is from Luis Carlos. 2. This material is known as synthetic narsarsukite doped with Eu3+. 3. The end product is contaminated with quartz and cristobalite impurities. References 1. Rainho, J.P., Carlos, L.D., and Rocha, J., New phosphors based on Eu3+-doped microporous titanosilicates, J. Lumin., 87, 1083 (2000). 2. Rainho, J.P. et al., Synthesis and luminescence of Eu3+-doped narsarsukite prepared by the sol-gel process, J. Sol-Gel Sci. Tecnol., 26, 1005 (2003).

4 Photon Energy (eV)

5

0

Na1.29K0.46Er0.08TiSi4O11:Eu3+
Structure: Tetragonal Composition Ingredient Mole % sodium silicate solution 30.7 (of Si) (8% Na2O; 27% SiO2; 65% H2O) TiO2 (anatase) 5.6 (of Ti) By weight (g) 20.0 1.30

NaCl KCl Eu(NO3)3·5H2O

58.1 (of Na) 5.6 (of K) 0.12 (of Eu)

6.90 1.30 0.15

Preparation 1. ETS-10 is prepared as in the case of the microporous titanosilicate compound described in the previous pages. 2. To prepare Eu3+-doped ETS-10: Dissolve 0.07 g of Eu(NO3)3·5H2O in 250 ml of water and add 3.94 g of the already prepared ETS-10. The suspension is stirred for 24 hours at 60°C. The precipitate is filtered and dried in air at 110°C. 3. To obtain Er3+ doped narsarsukite: Eu3+ doped ETS-10 is calcined in air from room temperature to 800°C at a heating rate of 5°C per minute. The material is maintained at 800°C for 3 hours. Optical Properties Emission color: IR Emission peak: 0.80 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0.014 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: Maximum excitation efficiency at 520 nm (4I15/2 2H11/2) and 488 nm (4I15/2 4F7/2) Decay to 10%: To 1/e 7.8 ± 0.2 msec Spectra
1700 1650 1600 1550 1500
Wavelength (nm)

1450

700

600

500

400

100
Excitation (%)

Emission

50

0.75

0.80

Remarks 1. 2. 3. 4.

0.85 2.0 Photon Energy (eV)

2.5

3.0

3.5

0

This contribution is from Luis Carlos. ETS-10 is doped through an ion exchange between Na+ and K+ with Eu3+. This material is known as synthetic narsarsukite. The end product is contaminated with quartz and cristobalite impurities.

References 1. Rocha, J. et al., New phosphors based on Eu3+-doped microporous titanosilicates, J. Mater. Chem., 10, 1371 (2000). 2. Rainho, J.P. et al., Er(III) environment in luminescent titanosilicates prepared from microporous precursors, J. Mater. Chem., 12, 1162 (2002).

Na2Mg3Al2Si2O10F2:Tb
Structure: Lamellar intercalation Composition Ingredient Na2CO3 MgO Al2O3 (NH4)2SiF6 SiO2 TbF3 Mole % 14.23 42.66 13.94 4.74 23.74 0.69 By weight (g) 12.26 13.98 11.56 6.87 11.60 1.21

Preparation Mix all the ingredients thoroughly for 20–30 minutes, preferably in a paint shaker or similar device. Fire in a covered alumina crucible, with graphite pellets added, 1100 C, 12–24 hours. Cool to ambient temperature, powderize, and wash in de-ionized water. Optical Properties Emission Color: Bluish-green Emission peaks: 380, 415, 440, and 540 nm Excitation efficiency by UV: + (3.40 eV), + (4.88 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: About 1 fL level under focused 15 kV/8 A excitation Spectra
800 700 600 500
Wavelength (nm)

400

300

100

Emission

50

2

3

Remarks 1. This contribution is from Madis Raukas. 2. The described procedure yields a concentration of 0.04 mol% Tb. The formula of the compound is Na2(Mg3-xTbx)Al2Si2O10F2. 3. This phosphor is an example of a broad family of intercalation compounds that includes mica, fluoromica, vermiculite, and zeolite. 4. Phosphor has good electroluminescent properties if intercalated with polymers or metals.

4 Photon Energy (eV)

5

0

References 1. Cox, J.R., and Karam, R.E., U.S. Pat., 5 656 199 (1997). 2. Reddy, V.B., Karam, R.E., and Northrup, S.K., U.S. Pat., 5 489 398 (1996). 3. Oi, R.Y., and Karam, R.E., U.S. Pat., 5 531 926 (1996). 4. Karam, R.E., Reddy, V.B., Northrup, S.K., and Zhang, Y., U.S. Pat., 5 531 928 (1996). 5. Oi, R.Y., and Karam, R.E., and Cox, J.R., U.S. Pat., 5 567 351 (1996).

Section 8: Commercial Phosphors and Scintillators

Section 8 COMMERCIAL PHOSPHORS AND SCINTILLATORS
Commercial phosphors and scintillators are arranged in order of increasing wavelength in Table 1. The data were compiled for recent producers’ data sheets and literature. Note that these may not be the only phosphors and scintillators available commercially or the materials still may not be manufactured. Many phosphors are specified by P numbers assigned by the Electronics Industries Association of the United States; these have been used since 1945 and are included in Table 1. The World Phosphor Type Designation System (WPTDS), established in 1982, is a more detailed, unified phosphor system designation system. It usually consisting of two letters: the first letter indicating the criterion for the phosphor screen emission color, the second letter indicating differences from the criterion. These symbols, together with other numbers and symbols used in Japan and Europe, are included in an extensive tabulation by Inaho and Hase in chapter 6—Section 6 of the Phosphor Handbook. Table 1 Commercial phosphors and scintillators Wavelength of maximum Chemical emission (nm) formula 220, 310(1) 305 307 315 330–352 338 342–347 350 351 358–385 365 371 380 385 390 390 400 400 400, 525 410 BaF2(1,2) CeF3(2) MgSrAl10O17:Ce CsI(2) LaCl3:Ce3+(2) (CeMg)SrAl11O18:Ce (CeMg)BaAl11O18:Ce YAlO3:Ce3+(2) BaSi2O5:Pb LaBr3:Ce3+(2) LuAlO3:Ce3+(2) SrB4O7:Eu Lu2Si2O7:Ce3+(2) Ca2MgSi2O7:Ce3+ CsF(1,2) ZnO:Ga Y2SiO5:Ce3+ Zn2SiO4:Ti P46 (70%) + P47 (30%) Y2SiO5:Ce3+(2)

Designation or acronym

YAP, YALO

LuAP LPS P16

P47 P52 P48 YSO:Ce

Table 1 Commerical phosphors and scintillators—continued Wavelength of maximum Chemical Designation emission (nm) formula or acronym 410 415 415 418–420 420 420 420 420 420 425–430 433 435 440 447 450 455–504 456.Mn Gd2O2S:Pr(3) Gd2O2S:Pr.Cl ZnS:Ag.Gd)2SiO5:Ce3+ CaWO4:Pb CaF2:Eu2+(2) Gd2SiO5: Ce3+(2) Sr5Cl(PO4)3:Eu BaMgAl10O17:Eu ZnS:Cu BaMgAl10O17:Eu:Mn Sr2P2O7:Sn ZnS:Ag.Cl CdS:In Zn2SiO4:Mn.F(3) ZnO:Zn Y2O2S:Pr3+ ZnS:Cu.Ni CdWO4(2) MgWO4 ZnWO4(2) Bi4Ge3O12(2) Sr6P5BO20:Eu Ca5(PO4)3F:Sb (Ba.As LuYAP MSL CWO P5 LSO LGSO GSO BAM BAM:Eu.Ti)2P2O7:Ti ZnO:Zn Sr5(PO4)3F:Sb.Mn P11* P37 CWO BGO P15 UFC P24 P31 P39 . 514 460 460 465 470/540 473 480 480 480 482 494 504 509 510 510 510 513 520 525 525 YTaO4:Nb Lu1-xYxAlO3:Ce3+(2) NaI:Tl(2) — CsI:Na+(2) CaWO4(2) CaWO4:W Lu2SiO5:Ce3+ Sr2P2O7:Eu (Lu.Ce.

Mg)F2:Mn2+ KMgF3:Mn2+ (Y.06 Y2O3:Eu3+ YVO4:Eu3+ (Sr.Mg)3(PO4)2:Sn Y2O2S:Eu3+ (Sr.Pb Y1.34Gd0.Pr)0.Tb)MgAl11O19:Ce:Tb (La. YOE P49*.6Cd0.Cu.Cd)S:Cu Y3Al5O12:Ce3+(2) MgF2:Mn2+ (Zn.06(3) Y1.Gd)BO3:Eu3+ Y(P.4S:Ag ZnS:Mn.Tb)PO4:Ce:Tb (Zn.34Gd0.Sb2O3 Y3Al5O12:Ce3+(2) ZnS:Pb.Cl Gd2O2S:Tb3+ La2O2S:Tb3+ Y2O2S:Tb3+ Y3Al5O12:Tb3+ (Ce.Gd)2O3:Eu3+(2.3) CaSiO3:Mn2+.Mg)3(PO4)2:Sn (Y.60O3(Eu.Pr)0.Cd)S:Ag.Cl CsI:Tl(2) Zn0.Zn.Mg)F2:Mn2+ MgF2:Mn2+ (Ca. GOS P44 P45 P53 P28 YAG:Ce P33 P20 P26 P12 P19 P38 P21 P25 Hilight YGO P56.Cu ZnS:Ag.Ce.Table 1 Commercial phosphors and scintillators—continued Wavelength of maximum Chemical Designation emission (nm) formula or acronym 525 526 528 530 540 543 544 544 544 544 546 546 550 550 559 560 560 560 584 585 590 590 593. 696 600 605 610 610 610 610 610 611 619 626 626 627 Zn2SiO4:Mn2+ Zn2SiO4:Mn2+ Zn2SiO4:Mn. 619. 611 593.Cu KMgF3:Mn2+ (Zn.Mg)3(PO4)2:Sn P1 ZSM P46 P34 P2 P43.60O3(Eu. YVE P54* .V)O4:Eu3+ (Zn.

6S:Ag Zn3(PO4)2:Mn2+ MgSiO3:Mn2+ Mg4(F)(Ge. (1) Core-valence luminescence (2) Single crystal scintillator (3) Transparent ceramic .Sn)O6:Mn2+ Mg4(F)GeO6:Mn2+ Gd3Ga5O12:Cr.4Cd0. P22 can be any of several compounds.Ce(2) P27 P13 GGG:Cr * These compositions are also sometimes designated as P22.Table 1 Commercial phosphors and scintillators—continued Wavelength of maximum Chemical Designation emission (nm) formula or acronym 627 630 635 640 658 658 730 Gd2O2S:Eu3+ Zn0.

Appendices Historical Note on Phosphor Recipes Phosphor Materials Arranged in Order of Emission Wavelength Appendix III Willi Lehmann: A Brief Biography Appendix I Appendix II .

distillation resulted in a white substance that gave out enough light to allow Brand to read in the dark. this word was used more specifically to describe substances which became luminous following exposure to light excitation. This phosphorescence property lent its name to the element (Figure 1).APPENDIX I Historical Note on Phosphor Recipes The word phosphorus derives from the Greek [fosforos].1 Figure 1 Depiction of the discovery of phosphorus by Brand as perceived by Joseph Wright of Derby some years later (Copyright by Derby City Council Art Galleries. the assignation of this word was given to any substance that evinced the property of phosphorescence. combining (light) and (to carry). Initially. and meaning light carrying or luminous. These developments and observations had their origin in alchemical attempts to manufacture noble metals through use of the evasive Philosopher’s Stone. The element phosphorus (P) was discovered in such a search by Henning Brand (1669) while experimenting with concentrated urine. for a time. . used to describe the emission of diffuse light from causes other than combustion. The term phosphorescence was. permission pending).

born South of the Yangtze River. was the yongest son of the governor of Xu Wen. it was five inches wide and the back of the head was flat. who consulted some imperial collections. The head possessed a red crest and a golden beak which vividly resembled those of a real rooster. Zhao.) by Wen Ying. from which this passage is taken. The Chinese written text reads as follows (right to left): Xu Zhi-e. none of them could explain the secret of the phenomena except for an officer in charge of religious matters named Zhan Nin. In the text. reference is made to a book published in the reign of Han Wu Di (140–88 B. there is documented evidence that phosphors have been produced and put to use as early as 2000 years ago as is recorded in a Chinese text (Figure 2). He acquired at the same time a painting of a cow. Xu presented the painting to his sovereign. Hai Wai Yi Ji written by Zhang Qian.D. courtesy of Dr. however. M.). All the court officials thought the Ning’s explanation was nonsense. The methods for preparing the phosphors or the phosphors used in these paintings apparently were obtained from Japan where raw materials. Xiang-shan Ye Lu. The phosphors described were of the persistent type and were used in a painting which glowed in the dark and was considered to some to have inexplicable magic. southern people (Japanese) frequented the beaches to harvest nacre. He added that in the sea shores of the land of southern people (Japan) sometimes strong winds would grind these rocks with water to form a similar paint. the last emperor of the Southern Tang Dynasty. when viewed in the dark.D. regardless.) which would indicate that manmade phosphors have been available for more than 2000 years.C. Writings or paintings using this ink had the properties of vanishing in daylight and becoming visible in the dark. such as calcium from seashells and sulfur from volcanic activity. Following the fall of the Tang Dynasty. Li Yu.2 (A translation of the Chinese text. it is apparent that phosphorescent materials have been around for some time. kindly provided by Professor Y. On one occasion. the famous envoy sent to the Western regions by Han Wu Di. Some questions have been raised as to the accuracy of the compilations. used for the synthesis of sulfide phosphors occur naturally.Historically. He explained that at low tide in the China Sea. like a pillar. He was fond of collecting rare antiques and other curios. is given in the caption. Often they found that these shells contained a special liquid which when collected and mixed with paint formed a special type of ink. The page describing the phosphorescent painting is shown in Figure 2. Later. Tai Zong showed this painting to all his Ministers. . the painting eventually passed to Tai Zong.) Figure 2 Copy of the Chinese text describing the acquisition of a luminescent painting by Xu Zhi-e written for a compilation of historical and folk tales published in the Song dynasty (960–1279 A. Tamatani. a scholar named Du Gao. found the reference in a work dating back to the Six Dynasties (220–586 A. of Run Zhou. the painting when viewed in daylight showed the cow grazing outside an open pen. the picture showed the cow resting inside the barn. the second emperor of the Song Dynasty. he spent five hundred thousand in cash to acquire the head of a phoenix complete with a shining and colorful skeleton. he claimed that he had obtained his information from a book.

on the other hand. when properly treated it gave rise to a reddish glow which led to the scientific study of luminescent objects. work it into cake either with water or the white of an egg. Calcination was thought to produce pores in the stone. The experiments leading to this conclusion are detailed in Ars Magna Lucis Et Umbra. shining. for example. One popular belief advanced by Athanasius Kircher of Fulda (Hesse) was that the phosphorus attracted light much as a magnet attracted iron filings. both authors were professors at the famed University of Bologna. After they have dried out they are put in layers with coal in a blast furnace and. Cesare La Galla described the properties of the stone in De Phenomenis in Orbe Lunae published in 1612. There was considerable interest throughout Italy in these materials and attempts were made to use it as the Philosopher’s Stone (i. News regarding the unusual properties of the lapide Bononiensi was carried to the British Isles by John Evelyn (1620– 1706) following a visit to Bologna in 1645. When the oven has cooled off the cakes are taken out. The first is to reduce the stone to very fine meal.4 it reads: According to the light-bearing quality sought for. then to calcinate it in a crucible with very strong fire. In his book. Potier’s recipe is likely the first phosphor recipe on record. pure and diaphanous are used. Galileo was right and the diffuse light observed in that lunar phase is due to sunlight reflected from Earth. they are calcinated for four or five hours. From this powder various animals are formed in little boxes (pyxidiculum) which shine wonderfully in the dark. As quoted by E. that the faint light of a new moon was produced by lunar material similar to the Bolognian Stone.e. he was the first to point out that phosphorescence only occurred after calcinations and he tried to explain the phenomena as due to the slow release of fire and/or light trapped in the material during exposure.6 he reported that the recipe for the preparation of the stone had been lost by then and he apparently had not been aware of Potier’s pharmacological work. Sometimes this is done three times. after a very hot fire has been made. related in some detail the history of the stone and various attempts by the learned community in Bologna to explain the origin of the emitted light. . respectively.5 The properties of the phosphorescent stone attracted attention throughout the Italian peninsula and the European continent and led to much speculation as to the origin of the emission. barite) is found near Monte Paderno as scattered stones. though published in Latin. The best calcinations results when stones.N.. it (BaSO4) is calcinated in two ways. Harvey. Licetus postulated. the stone was of interest to pharmacologists because it reputedly also possessed depilatory properties. in the place of thalerum (?). these pores then held air suffused with light whose gradual release led to the observed phosphorescence.3 The base material (BaSO4. Preliminary scientific investigations of the properties of this stone were discussed in De Illuminabili Lapide Bononiensi Epistola by Ovido Montalbani and in Litheosphorus Sive De Lapide Boboniensi by Fortinius Licetus in 1634 and 1640. Licetus. If not cooked sufficiently the procedure is repeated as before. Montalbani described the various colors of light that could be obtained from the stone as a function of preparation and first suggested an analogy between the phosphorescence and burning. as the catalyst for the conversion of ignoble to noble metals).The denomination of phosphor (phosphori) first appeared in the seventeenth century in connection with the discovery of the Bolognian Stone (BaS) by Vincenzo Casciarolo in 1602. The second is to reduce it to a meal and. The method for preparation of the Bolognian Stone was described in detail by Pierre Potier in Pharmacopea Spagirica in 1625. Of course. this suggestion lead to controversy on the source of this radiation with no lesser a luminary than Galileo Galilei. published in 1646.

These drawings appeared in Il Fosforo o vero la Pietra Bolognese. In the course of his . Balduin called his material phosphorus hermeticus and disclosed his results in Aurum Superius et Inferius Aurae Superioris et Inferioris Hermeticum which appeared simultaneous in Amsterdam and in Frankfurt in 1675. Drawing of the furnace used by Casciarolo for calcinations of BaSO4 (barite) to produce his magical stone. (right). The first one was due to Christian Adolph Balduin (1632–1682) who in 1675 prepared a phosphorescent form of calcium nitrate by mixing chalk and nitric acid and distilling the solution to dryness. When calcium nitrate is overheated it develops a yellowish tint and emits a reddish phosphorescence in the dark following exposure to sunlight. Note that the structure of this furnace is not much different than modern ovens used for similar purposes. he believed that the solution formed in this way represented a spiritus mundi and it is likely that the paint used in the Chinese paintings mentioned above was a solution of this type. An illustration by Marc’Antonio Cellio allegorizing the magical phosphorescent qualities of the Bolognia Stone produced in the course of calcinations. this volume is in the University Library of Bologna.Figure 3 (left). Because the material needed to be kept in a sealed vessel. This compound is hygroscopic and turns to a liquid when exposed to atmosphere. The second material is known as Homberg’s phosphorus named after Wilhelm Homberg (1652–1715) who made notable contributions to the foundation of modern chemistry and who had an interest in the photochromic properties of silver nitrate. 3. published in 1680 by Cellio and are reproduced from Ref. His phosphor was henceforth named Balduin’s phophorus. Balduin communicated his results to the Royal Society of London in 1676 and as a consequence was elected to Fellowship of the Society. The interest in light-emitting materials led to the invention and synthesis of three other phosphori of interest to the scientific and/or the alchemical communities of that period.

and speculation. emanated the radiation on its own. which. for one hour at least. or breaking to pieces. the brightest pieces. The idea of the Bolognian Stone attracting light and causing the phosphorescence either by reemitting the light or by reflecting it. upon trial. and has the advantage of being easily and cheaply prepared. Theodore Sidot. by keeping them in a good coal fire for half an hour. of course. Priestly writes (pages 370–372):9 In the next place I shall present my reader with an account of this composition of Mr. published in London in 1772. Light and Colours. that clouds were electrified both positively and negatively and designed experimental methods that are (even now) used to determine the sign of charges via induction. Beginning with the discovery of the Bolognian Stone. Nicola Zucchi (1586–1670). the phenomena of and the origin of the observed phosphorescence were sources of much interest. and optics. if good phosphorus. by which means it is now in every person’s power to amuse himself and his friends with these curious experiments. and then be set by to cool. who in 1866 was able to grow small ZnS crystals using sublimation. His receipt for making it is as follows: “Calcinate some common oyster shells. though the language in the recipe is a bit arcane.8 His report is the earliest recipe of any phosphor written in English. others such as Giullio Cesare La Galla (1576–1624) of Rome speculated that the emissions were due to the slow release of fire and light trapped in the stone in the process of calcinations. he reported in Philosophical Transactions the discovery of a strong phosphorescent material which was promptly named Canton’s phosphorus (CaS). In addition to Kircher’s conjecture as to the source of the light noted above. Mix with three parts of this powder one part of flowers of sulphur. fascination. and may be preserved by keeping it in a dry phial with a ground stopple. In 1768. persisted well into the nineteenth century. rather than being attracted like a sponge or magnet to the stone. for example. he found that his crystals phosphoresced in the dark. When it is cold. He attributed this explanation to Galileo Galilei (1564–1642) himself. reported that the intensity of the phosphorescence emitted from the stone was proportional to the intensity of the excitation light and that the color of the light emitted was independent of the coloration of the excitation light. and let it be placed in the middle of the fire. much as a sponge would absorb water and then release it as it is squeezed. in 1751 for making artificial magnets and in 1765 for measuring the compressibility of water. the synthesis methods and experimental results were reported to the French Academy by Edmond Becquerel in a note in 1866 and the material . turn it out of the crucible. He was awarded the Copley Medal of the Royal Society twice.experimentations. and cutting. let this mixture be rammed in a crucible. Canton’s which makes an artificial phosphorus greatly superior to any single natural substance. till it be almost full. a man born under modest circumstances. will be a white powder. Homberg synthesized calcium chloride sometime in the 1690’s and showed it had phosphorescence properties. had a wide ranging set of scientific interests including electricity.” We note.3 The beginning of modern studies of phosphor synthesis can be attributed to a French chemist. and let the purest part of the calx be pulverized and sifted. of about an inch and a half depth. These conclusions were reaffirmed in 1728 by Francesco Zanotti who also asserted that the light. Joseph Priestly cites Canton in The History and Present State of Discoveries Relating to Vision.7 John Canton (1718–1772). where it must be kept red hot. In 1652. Although Sidot’s original purpose was to study crystal growth. scrape off. another Professor from Rome. the method described is not much different than some of those presented in Section 2 of this work. however. He showed. magnetism.

Educ. the word phosphor is used to describe principally solid luminescent inorganic materials.. The Phosphor Handbook contains an updated discussion of modern synthesis methods as well as the description of phosphors suitable for a variety of technical purposes. hence they were named activator ions.html>). Weeks. we have now a much better understanding as to the mechanisms which produce luminescence in solids and we are almost to the point where we can begin thinking in terms of designing and tailoring materials to our specific technical needs. only to those materials which become self-luminous after exposure to light).13 In the late 1800’s.vanderkrogt.E.15 Because of the necessity for better phosphors for the display industries in the late 1940’s and early 1950’s. He believed that in the latter case the luminescence observed in this gem was an intrinsic property of alumina and that Cr simply played a role as an activator. (<http://www. The latter ions form diverse centers in the material and are said to activate the luminescence. pp.10 About this time.A. . This led to a long-lasting controversy with Lecoq de Boisbaudran who proved to be correct in proposing that the R-line fluorescence arose due to the presence of chromium.14 the word luminescence is used to describe most light emission processes following some form of excitation. Klatt and Philip Leonard also showed that the phosphorescence properties of CaS and other phosphori depended on the presence of metal contaminants. Becquerel published his opus on light. Philip E. J. as of late..e. alkaline chalcogenide phosphors are called Lenard phosphors. he published An Introduction to Luminescence in Solids in which he summarized much of his life’s work. The word phosphor began to be applied in a more limited sense (i.16 Because of the advent of atomic and quantum physics and chemistry and the work of many researchers in this area of inquiry which preceded us. 110–130 (1968). still in use to categorize longand short-lived luminescent emissions. Chem.12 Results of studies by V. M.was named Sidot’s blende.net/elements/chronology_index. He was able to synthesize not only Sidot’s blende but also a series of alkaline earth chalcogenides (sulfides and selenides) and demonstrated that the light emission of the compounds could be altered by introducing metallic ions into the materials. La Lumiere-Ses Causes et Ses Effects (1867). Becquerel discusses at length the phosphorescence of various compounds including ruby (Al2O3:Cr3+). for many years this work was accepted as the standard text in the phosphor art and material in the book remains useful even today. Lenard and his co-workers helped to establish phosphor research on a firm scientific footing at the turn of the nineteenth and the beginning of the twentieth century. Discovery of the elements. It is our hope that the present volume serves to complement the information found in that handbook. for example.11 perhaps due to his involvement in the discovery of Sidot’s blende. Phosphorescence and fluorescence are. The technical differences between fluorescence and phosphorescence were resolved following the introduction in 1888 of the word luminescence by Eilhardt Wiedemann in chemical processes. van der Krogt. One of the principals there was Humboldt Leverenz who developed synthesized and investigated the properties of many the luminescent materials that are even now in use.. however. is due to trace amounts of copper. the terminology describing phosphorescent phenomena was revised. In 1950. P. Elementymology & Elements Multidict: Phosphors (2003). References 1.. respectively. considerable work took place at the Radio Corporation of America (RCA). Because of his extensive work on phosphors detailed in a Handbuch article. the emission from Sidot’s blende.

Italy. Acad. Akademie Verlagsgesellschaft. 7. Evelyn. E. American Philosophical Society.A. Dairy of John Evelyn.. W. 8. A History of Luminescence.. F. Bull. 34. John. 14. and Stanley. 10. 9. 4. CRC Press. An Introduction to Luminescence of Solids. Becquerel. Eds.. (1867) de Boisbaudran. 63. P. 16. Wied. John Wiley & Sons..B. New York (1950). Rend.E... 6.. Librairie de Firmin Didot Frerers. Eds. Canton.M. 1107 (1886). FL.. P. Accounts of his visit to Bologna in 1644–1645 appear in the inaugural volumes of the transactions and are also found in editions of his dairies: for example.. Compt. and Tamitani. and subsequently the Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society in 1665. A. M. E. 13. Paris. J.. Rend. Sci. 12. (1998).. H. Chapter 4. and Tomaschek. Ann. S.. p. 15. History of phosphors technology. A. Fils et Cie. J. and Yen. Guy Hill for contributing this citation. Wiedemann. Complete Works. Compt. Philadelphia (1957). Ph.. Chem. Boca Raton. Acad. John (1718–1772). Roda. Chem. Klatt. Hist. Becquerel. 188 (1866). Pazzagli. 38. Phosphoreszenz und Fluoreszenz. He was one of the principals in establishing the Royal Society. (2003) (<http://www. 3. 46 (1888). 11.W.. Jensen. Phys.aim25. Vol. 898.. Harvey.. William M. Kricka. V.M. Lenard. John Evelyn is a famed seventeenth century chronicler and diarist who traveled extensively in Europe in the early 1600’s. M. Yen . Roda.. Sci... Leverenz.2. I am grateful to Dr. Schmidt.J.. John Wiley & Sons. AIM25: Royal Society: Canton. Dent & Sons.. L. The discovery of luminescence: the Bolognian Stone. in Phosphor Handbook.. W. London (1973). in Bioluminescence and Chemiluminescence: Perspectives for the 21stCentury. 3. Leipzig (1928). New York (1998).N.uk/>).ac. 5... Shionoya.. 103. 23. Lecoq. Whatever happened to Wilhem Homberg?. he is also known for his books on flora and gardening. E. Ann. The various antique volumes cited are in depository at the University Library of Bologna. 21–24 (1989)..E. Nakajima. in Handbuch der Experimentalphysik. E. R. 90 (1889). La Luminiere-Ses Causes et ses Effets. S. and Lenard.

319 303 305 307 309. 370 350 350 350. 413 365 366 366 368 370 370 370 371 375 375 376 376 Chemical formula -Ca3(PO4)2:Pb2+ (CeMg)SrAl11O18:Ce (CeMg)BaAl11O18:Ce YAl3B4O12:Ce3+ LaOCl:Bi3+ LaSiO3Cl:Ce3+ BaSi2O5:Pb2+ YAlO3:Ce3+ -Ca2P2O7:Sn. 636 360 360. 371 358–385 359 359. 355 335 Chemical formula BaF2 CaSO4:Pb2+ BaMgAl10O17:Ce3+ YAlO3:Ce3+ MgSO4:Pb2+ Ca3Al2Si3O12:2%Ce3+ Ca2B5O9Cl:Pb2+ YAl3B4O12:Bi3+ LaOBr:Tm3+ BaSO4:Ce3+ SrSO4:Ce3+ -SrO·3B2O3:Pb2+ CeF3 MgSrAl10O17:Ce CaSO4:Ce3+ SrB4O7:Pb2+ CaO:Cd2+ CsI LuTaO4:Nb5+ CaSr2(PO4)2:Bi3+ -Ca3(PO4)2:Tl+ CaF2:Ce3+ Ca2P2O7:Ce3+ LaPO4:Ce3+ CaB2O4:Pb2+ YTaO4 LaCl3:Ce3+ CaO:Zn2+ YPO4:Ce3+ CaSiO3:Pb2+ Wavelength (nm) 337 338 342–347 347. 388 348 348. 660 362 363 363. Wavelength (nm) 220. 355 288 295 300. 310 233 254 254 267 280.Cl.Cl SrO·3B2O3:Eu2+. and 8 are listed in order of increasing wavelength of the maximum emission. 370. 337 320. 344 320.Cr3+ SrB4O7:Eu MgSO4:Eu2+ Y2O3:Ce3+ in SiO2 BaSO4:Eu2+ SrSO4:Eu2+ 453 .Cl SrwFxB4O6. 327 310 314 315 315 319 320 320.Mn BaSi2O5:Pb -Ca3(PO4)2:Ce3+ LaBr3:Ce3+ MgBa(SO4)2:Eu2+ Ca5(PO4)3Cl:Sn2+ Ca3SiO4Cl2:Pb2+ -Ca3(PO4)2:Ce3+ CaO:Pb2+ KMgF3:Eu2+ CaSiO3:Ce3+ LuAlO3:Ce3+ CaS:Pb2+ CaS:Pb2+.Br) YAl3B4O12:Eu3+.APPENDIX II Phosphor Materials Arranged in Order of Emission Wavelength The phosphors and scintillators in Sections 4. 460 302. 575 351 352.5:Eu2+ SrB4O7:Eu2+(F. 319 302. 7. 345 325 330 330–352 333 334. 400.

Pb2+ Ca2MgSi2O7:Ce3+ LaOBr:Tb3+ YBO3:Ce3+ Mg2Sr(SO4)3:Eu2+ CaSO4:Eu2+ ZnO:Al3+. 440. 540 385 385 385 385.Mn2+ CsF MgSrP2O7:Eu2+ ZnO:Ga Ca2MgSi2O7 CaO:Bi3+ BaF2:Eu2+ KAl11O17:Tl+ BaB8O13:Eu2+ BaMg2Si2O7:Eu2+ Zn2SiO4:Ti P46 (70%) + P47 (30%) CaB2P2O9:Eu2+ Mg2Ca(SO4)3:Eu2+ SrCl2:Eu2+ in SiO2 Mg2Ca(SO4)3:Eu2+. 620 405–432 407 407 410 410 Chemical formula -Sr3(PO4)2:Sn2+ BaFCl:Eu2+ Lu2Si2O7:Ce3+ Na2Mg3Al2Si2O10:Tb3+ BaFBr:Eu2+ BaFCl:Eu2+.Mn2+ Ca5(PO4)3F:Sn2+ CaYBO4:Bi3+ Y2O3:Bi3+ YOF:Tb3+ Ba2Mg3F10:Eu2+ Ca3Al2Si3O12:Eu2+ Lu1–xYxAlO3:Ce3+ NaI:Tl Y2SiO5:Ce3+ YPO4:V5+ Ca2P2O7:Eu2+ Ca2P2O7:Eu2+. 610 411 411 412 412. 528 414–626 415 415 415 415 415 415 416 416.Br. 512 390 390 390 391 391 394 395 400 400 400 400.I)2:Eu2+ CaAl4O7:Ce3+ CaAl2O4:Ce3+ Ba3(PO4)2:Eu2+ Ca3Al2Si3O12:Ce3+ Wavelength (nm) 410 410 410.Wavelength (nm) 378 380 380 380. 415.Ga3+ ZnO:Ga3+ CaSO4:Eu2+. 413 386 388 388 388 388. 617 405. 643 418 418–420 420 420 420 420 420 420 422 423 423 423 425 425 425–430 429 430 432 continued Chemical formula MgBaP2O7:Eu2+ YTaO4:Nb5+ BaMg3F8:Eu2+.Mn2+ YOCl:Ce3+ Zn2SiO4:Ti4+ –Ca3(PO4)2:Eu2+ –Ca3(PO4)2:Eu2+. 440 385. 410. 525 403 405 405 405.Gd)2SiO5:Ce3+ Ba2Li2Si2O7:Sn2+ GdNbO4:Bi3+ CaWO4 .Mn2+ MgBaP2O7:Eu2+.Mn2+ Sr(Cl. 660 413 413 413.Mn2+ CaCl2:Eu2+ in SiO2 MSL CaWO4 CaWO4:W CsI:Na+ Lu2SiO5:Ce3+ Sr2P2O7:Eu2+ SrF2:Eu2+ –Sr3(PO4)2:Eu2+ CaF2:Eu2+ CaSiO3:Eu2+ CaSiO3:Ti4+ -Sr3(PO4)2:Eu2+ Sr2B5O9Cl:Eu2+ (Lu.

570 485 485 486 488 490.25(BaCl2)0.Na CaO:Cu+ BaMgAl10O17:Eu2+ CaS:Bi3+ Mg3Ca3(PO4)4:Eu2+ Sr5(PO4)3F:Sn2+ Ca2B5O9Br:Eu2+ Ca2B5O9Cl:Eu2+ BaGa2S4:Ce3+ SrGa2S4:Ce3+ ZnS-CdS:Ag+.Th4+ YF3:Mn2+ YPO4:Mn2+.Cl– ZnS:Cu+.Mn2+ Sr3MgSi2O8:Eu2+ ZnS:Cl– ZnGa2O4 Wavelength (nm) 460 460 463.Na+ BaSrMgSi2O7:Eu2+ Gd2SiO5: Ce3+ MgBa3Si2O8:Eu2+ MgSrBa2Si2O7:Eu2+ CaAl2O4:Eu2+ CaS:Y3+ ZnS:Ag+. 390 450 450 450 451 453 453 454.Cl CaGa2S4:Ce3+ La2O3:Bi3+ SrB4O7:Pb2+.Cl– Ba5SiO4Cl6:Eu2+ Sr5(PO4)3Cl:Eu2+ Sr5(PO4)3Cl:Eu CaMgSi2O6:Eu2+ CaS:Bi3+. 490 454.Ti)2P2O7:Ti BaTiP2O7 Ca5(PO4)3F:Sb3+ . 532 465 465 467 467 470 470/540 473 475 477 477.In Sr2P2O7:Sn2+ ZnS:Ag.Al3+ (Ba.Cl ZnS:Cu Ca5(PO4)3Cl:Eu2+ ZnS–CdS:Cu.I BaMgAl10O17:Eu2+. 514 459 459 460 Chemical formula CaBr2:Eu2+ in SiO2 CaWO4:Pb CaF2:Eu2+ Ca5(VO4)3Cl CaWO4:Pb2+ Ba5(PO4)3Cl:Eu2+ CaS:Cu+. 530 445 446 447 448 448 448.Cl– (ErCl3)0. 656 493 494 495 496 continued Chemical formula Sr2P2O7:Sn2+ ZnS:Ag. 512 464 464 464. 680 490–630 492 492 492 492.Ni CaI2:Eu2+ in SiO2 Sr2MgSi2O7:Eu2+ SrMgSi2O6:Eu CdWO4 MgWO4 BaAl2S4:Eu2+ YF3:Mn2+.Mn2+ ZnS:Au.Yb3+ CaS:La3+ ZnS:Pb2+.Th4+ Ca3MgSi2O8:Eu2+ Bi4Ge3O12 Sr6P5BO20:Eu ZnWO4 YVO4:Dy3+ Bi4Ge3O12 YF3:Tm3+. 500. 486 440 440 440 440 443 443 443 444. 521 479 480 480 480 480 480. 490 454—800 455–504 456 456 456.75 Y2O2S:Eu3+ -Ca3(PO4)2:Eu2+ BaGa2S4:Eu2+ Sr5Si4O10Cl6:Eu2+ ThO2:Pr3+ SrIn2O4:Pr3+.Wavelength (nm) 433 433 435 435 435 437 438.

Br Zn2SiO4:Mn2+.Mn2+ CdS:In SrAl12O19:Ce3+.As5+ Zn2SiO4:Mn2+ ZnS–CdS:Cu.Ce3+ Y2O2S:Pr3+ -SrO·3B2O3:Pb2+.Wavelength (nm) 496 496 496 496 496. 649 529 530 530 530 532 534 535 537 537 537 537 539 539 539 539 540 540 540 542 542 continued Chemical formula Ca5(PO4)3Cl:Sb3+ ZnS:Cu+.Al3+ CaS:Ce3+ LiAl5O8:Mn2+ LiAlO2:Mn2+ SrAl2O4:Eu2+ CdS:In MgAl2O4:Mn2+ SrBaSiO4:Eu2+ Zn2SiO4:Mn2+.Ce3+.Na Ba2Li2Si2O7:Sn2+.5Ba0.Mn2+ Wavelength (nm) 521 521 521.F MgBa2(PO4)2:U ZnS:Pb.Mn2+ Zn2GeO4:Mn2+ CaO:Sb3+ CaP2O6:Mn2+ CaS:Sn2+ CaS:Sn2+.Mn2+ MgBa2(PO4)2:Sn2+ SrAl12O19:Eu2+.Mn2+ Zn2SiO4:Mn2+.Sn CaLaB3O7:Ce3+.Tb3+ .Mn2+ Ca2B2O5:Mn2+ Sr5(PO4)3Cl:Sb3+ SrGa2S4:Eu2+ YAl3B4O12:Th4+.Ce.Pb2+.5Al12O19:Ce3+. 670 498 502 502 502.P (Zn+Be)2SiO4:Mn2+ CaF2:U CaB2O4:Mn2+ CaMoO4 Y3Al5O12:Ce3+ SrS:Cu+.Br CaSO4:Ce3+.As5+ ZnS–CdS:Cu. 564 504 504 504 504 505 506 508 508 508 509. 528 522 522 523 525 525 525 525 525 527 528 528 528 528.Mn2+ Ca3SiO4Cl2:Eu2+ Ca3WO6:U ZnAl2O4:Mn2+ ZnS:Cu. 575 510 510 510 510 512 512 513 514 514 514 514 514 514 517 519 519 520 520 Chemical formula CaF2:Ce3+.Mn2+ Ca0. 608 528.Cu ZnS-CdS(75–25) Ca2MgSi2O7:Eu2+ LaSiO3Cl:Ce3+.Mn2+ Sr5(PO4)3F:Sb3+ Gd2O2S:Pr3+ Gd2O2S:Pr.Cl KGa11O17:Mn2+ BaAl2O4:Eu2+ ZnGa2O4:Mn2+ SrS:Ce3+ BaSi2O5:Eu2+ Ca2Ba3(PO4)3Cl:Eu2+ MgGa2O4:Mn2+ ZnO:Zn SrGa12O19:Mn2+ ZnO:S -Ca3(PO4)2:Sn2+ Ba2Li2Si2O7:Eu2+ Ba2SiO4:Eu2+ Sr5(PO4)3F:Sb3+.Mn2+ CaF2:Mn2+ MgWO4 SrAl2S4:Eu2+ CaS:Pr3+.F Sr5(PO4)3F:Sb3+ Ba2MgSi2O7:Eu2+ SrxBayClzAl2O4–z/2:Mn2+.

Ni ZnS:Mn. 689 continued Chemical formula YF3:Er3+. 665 550.6Cd0.Cl (Y.Tb)MgAl11O19:Ce:Tb (La.Yb3+ BaY2F8:Er3+.Yb3+ ZnS:Eu2+ Ba5(PO4)3Cl:U Sr3WO6:U ZnS:Eu2+ Sr2SiO4:Eu2+ CaS:Sm3+ CaGa2S4:Eu2+ MgF2:Mn2+ CsI:Tl Zn0.5:Pb2+ CaAl2O4:Mn2+ La2O2S:Tb3+ SrS:Mn2+ Y2O2S:Tb3+ Y2O3:Ho3+ Y3Al5O12:Tb3+ CaO:Tb3+ YAl3B4O12:Ce3+.Mn2+ .Br.Gd)BO3:Tb3+ Ca2La2BO6.Na CaS:Tb3+.4S:Ag Y2O3:Er3+ Ba3WO6:U CaAl4O7:Pb2+. 670 551.Tb3+ Y2O3:Tb3+ in SiO2 YAlO3:Tb3+ ZnS:Ag.Wavelength (nm) 542 542 542.Mn2+ CaO:Sm3+ CaSiO3:Pb2+.Cu.Yb3+ Y3Al5O12:Ce3+ Wavelength (nm) 550.Tb3+ CaS:Sb3+ CaS:Sb3+.Tb)PO4:Ce:Tb CaF2:Ce3+.Mn2+ Sr5(PO4)3Cl:Mn2+ Mg3SiO3F4:Ti4+ YOBr:Eu3+ LiInO2:Sm3+ LaAsO4:Eu3+ ZnS:P ZnS:P3–.Ce.Cl La2O3:Pb2+ (Zn.Mn2+ LaAlO3:Sm3+ SrSO4:Eu2+. 550 542.Cu KMgF3:Mn2+ MgCaP2O7:Mn2+ ZnF2:Mn2+ CaMgSi2O6:Eu2+.Cd)S:Cu CsI:Tl+ Na3Ce(PO4)2:Tb3+ NaYF4:Er3+.Mn2+ YPO4:Ce3+. 636 551 551 551 556 556–608 559 559 560 560 562 563 564 564–644 566 566–620 571 571 573 574 574 575 577–630 577–670 577–695 579 579 580 582 582 584 585 585 585 585.Tb3+ (Ce.Mn2+ Sr5(PO4)3F:Mn2+ Ca5(PO4)3F:Mn2+ Li2CaP2O7:Ce3+.Tb3+ ZnB2O4:Mn2+ Y2O3:Tb3+ Ca2MgSi2O7:Eu2+.Cl– Y3Al5O12:Eu3+ ZnS:Mn2+ ZnS-CdS:Ag. 689 542–549 542–549 542–549 543 543 543 543 543 543 543 544 544 544 544 544 544 544 544 544–549 545 545 546 546 546 546 546 546 546 550 550 550 550 550 Chemical formula YAl3B4O12:Ce3+.Mn2+ CaS:Tb3+ Gd2O2S:Tb3+ Y2O2S:Tb3+ CaAl2O4:Tb3+ MgCeAl11O19:Tb3+ ThO2:Tb3+ Y2O3:Ce3+.

695 586–699 588 588 588.06 Ca5B2SiO10:Eu3+ CaGa2S4:Pb2+ CaLaBO4:Eu3+ CaYB0. 702 595.V)O4:Eu3+ K2La2Ti3O10:Eu3+ YPO4:Eu3+ KMgF3:Mn2+ CaO:Mn2+ ZnS–CdS (50–50) YAlO3:Sm3+ LaAlO3:Eu3+ LiInO2:Eu3+ Wavelength (nm) 608 608 608 608 609 610 610 610 610 611 611 611 611 611 611 611 612 612 612 612 612 614 614 614 614 614 614 614–699 615 615 615 615 615 615 615–695 617 617 continued Chemical formula CaS:Pb2+. 620. 608.34Gd0.Pr)0. 617.7:Eu3+ Na1. 696 594.Li+.Na+ KMgF3:Mn2+ MgF2:Mn2+ Sr5(PO4)3Cl:Eu2+.8O3.12TiSi4O11:Eu3+ SrY2O3:Eu3+ Y2O3:Eu3+ CaTiO3:Eu3+ CaTiO3:Pr3+ NaYO2:Eu3+ SrAl4O7:Eu3+ Y2O3:Eu3+ in SiO2 CaMoO4:Eu3+ CaSO4:Bi LaBO3:Eu3+ LaOCl:Eu3+ YAl3B4O12:Eu3+ -Sr3(PO4)2:Sn2+.Mg)3(PO4)2:Sn CaSiO3:Mn2+.Gd)BO3:Eu3+ Y(P.42Eu0.Mn2+ in SiO2 YVO4:Eu3+ (Y.60O3(Eu. 629 593. 683.Mn2+ SrGa2S4:Pb2+ SrSO4:Bi YBO3:Eu3+ CaYBO4:Eu3+ (Y. 710 596 599 600 602 605 605 Chemical formula LaAlB2O6:Eu3+ LaPO4:Eu3+ LaVO4:Eu3+ CaS:Mn2+ MgS:Eu2+ MgB2O4:Mn2+ CaO:Tl+ YOF:Eu3+ (Zn.23K0. 629 593 593.Pb Y1.Mg)F2:Mn2+ Ca5(PO4)3Cl:Mn2+ CaGa2O4:Mn2+ CaGa4O7:Mn2+ CaO:Eu3+. 619. 660 588. 611.Mn2+ CaO:Eu3+ SrTiO3:Pr3+ YAsO4:Eu3+ LiCeBa4Si4O14:Mn2+ LiCeSrBa3Si4O14:Mn2+ YAlO3:Eu3+ CaGeO3:Mn2+ CaY2ZrO6:Eu3+ . 591.Zn.Wavelength (nm) 586 586.Gd)2O3:Eu3+ (Ca. 619 696 593. 827 589–627 590 590 590 590 590 590 590 590 590 592.Pr3+ Y4Al2O9:Eu3+ ThO2:Eu3+ CaCl2:Eu2+.Mn2+(Al) LiLaO2:Eu3+ Ba2SiO4:Ce3+.

Ce 633 (Zn.Te La2W3O12:Eu3+ 646 -Ca3(PO4)2:Sn2+ LaAl3B4O12:Eu3+ 646 ZnGa2S4:Mn2+ MgYBO4:Eu3+ 646 ZnS:Mn2+.42Eu0.Sn)O6:Mn2+ 623 LiAlF4:Mn2+ 658 Mg4(F)GeO6:Mn2+ 623 ZnS:Sn.9Al0.Cu 660 Mg8Ge2O11F2:Mn4+ 623 ZnS:Sn2+. 2+ 2+ 629 -(Ca.1O3:Bi3+ 640 MgSr5(PO4)4:Sn2+ 800 CdS:Ag+.4Cd0.Mg)3(PO4)2:Sn 681 LiAl5O8:Fe3+ 681 MgSr3Si2O8:Eu2+.12TiSi5O13 646 ZnSe:Cu+.Sm2+ 685 SrB8O13:Sm2+ 626 ZnS:Pb2+ 627 Gd2O2S:Eu3+ 688.Mn2+ in SiO2 742 LiAlO2:Fe3+ 639 Zn3(PO4)2:Mn2+ 747 CaS:Yb2+ 640 CdS:Te 747 CaS:Yb2+.Cl 640 MgSiO3:Mn2+ 760 CaTi0.29K0.Te2+ Na1.Al3+ 642 BaS:Au.Mg)3(PO4)2:Mn2+ 2+ 635 Zn3(PO4)2:Mn 730 Gd3Ga5O12:Cr3+ 636 CaI2:Eu2+.6S:Ag 730 Gd3Ga5O12:Cr.23K0.K 645 ZnO:Bi3+ CdS:In.08TiSi4O11:Eu3+ 641 ZnBa2S3:Mn2+ __________________________________________________________________________ .Cl– 640.Ag 660 Mg2SiO4:Mn2+ 623 ZnS:Pb.46Er0.Mn2+ 626 LaOF:Eu3+ 626 ZnO:Se 684–732 SrwFxByOz:Eu2+.Mn 620 YOCl:Eu3+ 2+ 658 Mg2TiO4:Mn4+ 620 ZnMg2(PO4)2:Mn 621 CaYAlO4:Eu3+ 658 Mg4(F)(Ge.Cl 649 CaS:Eu2+ ·xH2O:Eu3+ 620 SrS:Eu2+ 646 ZnS-ZnTe:Mn2+ 98-2 650 ZnS:Te.Wavelength (nm) 617 618 620 620 620 620 Chemical formula Wavelength (nm) continued Chemical formula SrTiO3:Pr3+. 707.Mn 725 Y3Al5O12:Cr3+ 629 Be2SiO4:Mn2+ 689 ZnS:Sn 4+ 630 K2SiF6:Mn 695 Na(Mg2–xMnX)LiSi4O10F2:Mn 713 CaGa2S4:Mn2+ 630 Zn0.Sr)3(PO4)2:Sn .Li+ 660 ZnS–CdS (25–75) 2+ 661 SrMoO4:U 625 Cd2B6O11:Mn 3+ 625 La2O3:Eu 680 -SrO·3B2O3:Sm2+ 626 (Sr. 667 Y3Al5O12:Mn4+ 1540 Na1.

He finished elementary school in 1928 and attended a trade school for gardeners until 1931 as preparation for taking responsibilities in the family’s plant nursery business. In September of 1947. while engaged in the glider Verband. He submitted a report on his work to the Air Ministry (Reichluftfahrtministerium). his circumstances in the camp improved so much so that in the summer of 1946 he made his first of five escape attempts. dirty and plain stupid. His boot camp was in East Prussia and he did not take well to the training which was according to him “. After a short interlude as an engineering student. On his third attempt. He completed a photography course in Tutow and in 1939–1940 was promoted to corporal (Unteroffizier) as the head of a small photo group at the Luftkreigsschule in Werden. in 1934 he joined the Deutscher Luftsport Verband. one of the glider club precursors to the Luftwaffe.” He consequently volunteered to become a photographer for the air force when an opportunity arose. near Berlin. he was able to cross into Belgium but was captured and interned by the Belgians. though the report went no further.” With the encouragement of a library clerk. Participation in the club activities naturally led to his gravitating to the air force when his time came for military service in 1936. which would eventually bring him into the international phosphor community. Unavoidably. Willi demonstrated some of his intrinsic versatility for in short order he become the camp’s typewriter repairman. He attempted again to get home in June of 1947 was caught again and confined to solitary for a period. Willi was offered a post as photographer at the rocket facilities in Peenemunde which he declined. With each change of position. Willi had a brief flirtation with the SA but did not become a member. he began reading mathematics books and establishing a technical background which he drew on for the rest of his life. and I started to dream about one day becoming an engineer or scientist. a camp librarian and as a farmer’s aid during his captivity in Belgium. France. “Work in father’s nursery was pretty dull. Smolensk. From his teens and in his own words. Willi managed to construct a workable bicycle out of parts from discarded bikes and was able to ride all the way to Germany and a joyful family reunion in Dinslaken. instead. Breslau (Wroclaw). Hitler assumed power in Germany in 1933 and of course affected the course of history dramatically and disastrously. he became interested and did some calculations and some nascent experiments in rocket propulsion. 1945 and interned in Le Mans. he was promoted to sergeant (Feldwebel) in December 1944 and immediately assigned to an active combat unit defending the home front. Later he moved on to become a truck mechanic in the motor pool which moved to Le Havre in December 1945.APPENDIX III Willi Lehmann: A Brief Biography Information about Willi’s early life in Germany has been kindly supplied by one of his sons. He was captured by American forces on February 28. While a U. In the Fall of 1941. world events intruded into his pastoral life and set him on a long odyssey. With the war situation in flux through 1943. 461 . On his first two escape attempts.hot. Willi possessed a keen intellectual sense and a deep natural curiosity. Kiev. he found himself moving from place to place with his unit…in Cherkov (Ukraine).S. Willi was assigned to a long range reconnaissance unit on the Eastern front at Luga near Leningrad. Willi was born born in 1914 in Dinslaken am Niederrhein. Hans. For example.. and Minsk. prisoner. He worked variously as a miner. he was recaptured in France by the French and interned first in Sedan and then near the Belgian border. in the form of brief autobiography Willi wrote for his family in 1990..

As their initiation as students. Both were offered positions. Willi’s work on electroluminescence had attracted sufficient interest that he was approached by the University at Braunschweig to explore the possibilities of submitting his work in partial fulfillment of requirements for a doctorate degree. and arrived in the States on October 1953 following an extended wait for immigration documents. accepted. he was allowed to attend the Techschule in Duisberg. Mrs. of course. Willi passed away on January 12. He thought briefly about starting his own phosphor business but rejected the idea on grounds of his lack of acumen in business matters. degree) in 1952. It is interesting to note that by 1956.rer. In the early 1980’s. Lehmann.Nat) shortly thereafter. Willlie was granted an extended leave so that he could attend an engineering school in Germany. Also as noted in the Foreword. Willi met. applied for admission to the Technical University of Braunschweig in October 1947. and with Lawrence Livermore Laboratories in the late 1980’s. Physiker’s (equivalent to American M. Following his return to Germany. Willi recalled that his first instructor was Erich Krautz who not only taught the Applied Physics course but also nurtured him through to his candidacy in physics (Cand. just in time to return to the war. Phys. and Mary) were all born in the United States.In the middle of his posting to the Eastern Front. In view of the dearth of jobs for physicists in postwar Germany. 1993 from brain cancer. Willi retired in 1982 at the age of 68 and took up residence in North Carolina. Willi and Claus Haake obtained their Diplom. Paul.S.) in 1950. The children and several grandchildren appear to be prospering. In order to bypass the arbitur requirements. Through a special dispensation. Claus Haake. he developed an interest in diffraction and the limits that it imposed on resolution and was also attracted by the furor surrounding the announcement of cold fusion. Hans. On arrival at Westinghouse. He chose to study electroluminescence and electroluminescent phosphors. It was here that he was first encountered physics as a discipline and it immediately piqued his interest. his thesis entitled “The Electroluminescence of Zinc Sulfide Phosphors as an Equilibrium Process” was submitted in late 1957 and accepted. This proved to be a problem since he did not possess the proper credentials (arbitur) to matriculate in a university level program having attended a trade rather than a traditional Gymnasium. George. He acted as a consultant with Rogers Corp. they had to help in the reconstruction of university buildings and other facilities destroyed during the hostilities. During the waiting period. Willi attempted and passed a Begrabtemprufung (examination for the gifted) in the summer of 1944. His contributions in this field and his other activities at Bloomfield and later at Westinghouse R&D in Pittsburgh are detailed in the Foreword. Florida . Professor Krautz directed them to apply for positions in the lamp division of Westinghouse Electric then located in Bloomfield. Indeed. Lehmann returned to Pittsburgh and currently resides there. Ivey Coconut Grove. Willi was given the choice of areas to investigate. Willi’s father having passed on in 1942. He was granted the degree of Doctor of Natural Sciences (Dr. Willi along with a wartime friend. Professor Krautz also succeeded in getting Willi a scholarship which covered all his school expenses and relieved the financial burden on the Lehmann family now headed by an older brother. William M. Yen Athens. wooed and wed Renate Bauer. New Jersey. accompanied Willi to the States and their four children (Caren. Instruction commenced at the University in march 1948. Georgia Henry F. The new Mrs.

Materials Index .

CaF2:Ce3+. CaF2:Ce3+. CaAl2O4:Eu2+. Be2SiO4:Mn2+. Ba2Li2Si2O7:Sn2+. Ba2SiO4:Ce3+.Mn2+.Mn2+.K. CaBr2:Eu2+ in SiO2. BaxSr1-xF2:Eu2+. (Ba. BaFCl:Eu2+. CaF2:Eu2+. Ba5SiO4Cl6:Eu2+. BaAl2S4:Eu2+. CaGa2O4:Mn2+.MATERIALS INDEX BaAl2O4:Eu2+. CaB2O4:Mn2+. Ca2MgSi2O7:Eu2+. CaB2P2O9:Eu2+. Ba3(PO4)2:Eu2+. Ca0.Ti)2P2O7:Ti. BaSi2O5:Pb2+.Mn2+ in SiO2. Ca2MgSi2O7:Ce3+. Ca2Ba3(PO4)3Cl:Eu2+. CaAl2O4:Tb3+. BaS:Au. CaI2:Eu2+. BaMg2Si2O7:Eu2+. CaMoO4. Ba2Li2Si2O7:Sn2+. Ca3MgSi2O8:Eu2+. CaMgSi2O6:Eu2+.5Ba0. CaGa2S4:Eu2+.Pb2+. Ba2MgSi2O7:Eu2+. BaY2F8:Er3+. CaF2:Mn2+.Mn2+. BaMgAl10O17:Eu2+. BaB8O13:Eu2+. BaSO4:Ce3+. CaLaBO4:Eu3+. BaFCl:Eu2+. CaCl2:Eu2+. CaCl2:Eu2+ in SiO2. CaLaB3O7:Ce3+. Ba2Li2Si2O7:Eu2+. Ba2SiO4:Eu2+. Ba5(PO4)3Cl:U.Mn2+.Mn2+ in SiO2. Ca2MgSi2O7. BaFBr:Eu2+. . Ca2B5O9Br:Eu2+. Ca3Al2Si3O12:Ce3+. Ca3Al2Si3O12:Eu2+.Mn2+.Yb3+. CaMgSi2O6:Eu2+. Ca5B2SiO10:Eu3+. CaGa2S4:Mn2+. BaMgAl10O17:Ce3+. BaMg3F8:Eu2+. CaGeO3:Mn2+.Tb3+. Ca2B5O9Cl:Eu2+. B CaAl2O4:Ce3+.Mn2+. Bi4Ge3O12. Ca2B5O9Cl:Pb2+. CaAl4O7:Ce3+.Mn2+. BaGa2S4:Eu2+.Mn2+. Ca2MgSi2O7:Eu2+. Ba3WO6:U. Ca3Al2Si3O12:2%Ce3+.5Al12O19:Ce3+. Ba2Mg3F10:Eu2+. CaGa2S4:Ce3+. CaF2:U. BaSO4:Eu2+. CaB2O4:Pb2+. CaI2:Eu2+ in SiO2. C CaAl2O4:Mn2+. Ca2La2BO6. CaAl4O7:Pb2+. BaTiP2O7.5:Pb2+. CaGa4O7:Mn2+.Mn2+. BaF2. CaGa2S4:Pb2+. BaGa2S4:Ce3+. BaMgAl10O17:Eu2+. Ba5(PO4)3Cl:Eu2+. BaSi2O5:Eu2+. CaF2:Ce3+. BaSrMgSi2O7:Eu2+. Ca2B2O5:Mn2+.

CaS:Sm3+. CaSO4:Pb2+. Ca5(PO4)3Cl:Sb3+. CaS:Tb3+.Na+. CaO:Tl+.Mn2+. CaSO4:Ce3+. CaSO4:Eu2+.Zn. Ca5(PO4)3Cl:Eu2+. CaS:Pb2+. CaS:Sb3+. CdS:In. CaO:Cu+.Mn2+.Na. CaS:Pb2+. CaS:Yb2+.Cl. -Ca3(PO4)2:Eu2+.7:Eu3+.Sr)3(PO4)2:Sn2+. CaYAlO4:Eu3+. CaS:Yb2+.1O3:Bi3+. CdS:Ag+. CaS:Eu2+. Ca5(PO4)3F:Sn2+. Ca3SiO4Cl2:Pb2+. -Ca3(PO4)2:Eu2+. -Ca3(PO4)2:Eu2+. -(Ca. CdS:In. CaTi0. CaO:Eu3+. (Ca. CaS:La3+. Ca5(PO4)3Cl:Sn2+. CaS:Bi3+.Mn2+. Ca2P2O7:Eu2+. CaS:Sn2+. (CeMg)SrAl11O18:Ce. CaSO4:Eu2+. CaY2ZrO6:Eu3+.8O3. CeF3. CaS:Sb3+. CdS:In. CaO:Bi3+. CaSO4:Bi. (Ce.Cl. CaSiO3:Pb2+.Cl. CaYBO4:Eu3+. Ca5(VO4)3Cl. Ca5(PO4)3Cl:Mn2+. CaYB0. CaTiO3:Pr3+.Mn. CaSiO3:Eu2+. CaS:Pb2+.Na. CaS:Ce3+. CaS:Tb3+. Ca3WO6:U. CaO:Eu3+.Mn2+.9Al0. CaSiO3:Pb2+. CaO:Mn2+. -Ca3(PO4)2:Sn2+. CaWO4:W. CaYBO4:Bi3+. CaS:Cu+. CaSiO3:Ti4+. CaO:Sb3+.Te.Pb2+.Na+. (CeMg)BaAl11O18:Ce. CaS:Mn2+. Ca3SiO4Cl2:Eu2+. CaO:Sm3+. -Ca3(PO4)2:Ce3+. CaO:Pb2+. -Ca2P2O7:Sn. Ca2P2O7:Eu2+.Cl.Mg)3(PO4)2:Sn. CaSr2(PO4)2:Bi3+. -Ca3(PO4)2:Pb2+. Ca5(PO4)3F:Mn2+. CaO:Cd2+. CaSiO3:Mn2+. -Ca3(PO4)2:Tl+.Pb.Cl–. Ca2P2O7:Ce3+. -Ca3(PO4)2:Sn2+. CaS:Pr3+.Mn2+. Ca5(PO4)3F:Sb3+. -Ca3(PO4)2:Ce3+. CaSO4:Ce3+.F. CaS:Bi3+. CaO:Tb3+. CaWO4:Pb2+. Ultrafast. CaWO4. CaSiO3:Ce3+. . CaP2O6:Mn2+.Mn2+. CaS:Sn2+.CaMoO4:Eu3+. CaTiO3:Eu3+. CaO:Zn2+. CaS:Y3+.Tb)MgAl11O19:Ce:Tb.Mn2+. Cd2B6O11:Mn2+.

GdNbO4:Bi3+. LaOCl:Bi3+. E GaN:Zn. LaPO4:Ce3+.Ce. LaPO4:Eu3+.Mn2+. LiAl5O8:Mn2+. G KAl11O17:Tl+. MgBa(SO4)2:Eu2+. Li2CaP2O7:Ce3+. LaAl3B4O12:Eu3+. Gd2O2S:Pr. KGa11O17:Mn2+. Mg4(F)GeO6:Mn2+. LiCeSrBa3Si4O14:Mn2+.Ce. CsF. Mg8Ge2O11F2:Mn4+. (Lu. LaAlO3:Eu3+. LaBO3:Eu3+. Gd2O2S:Tb3+. LiInO2:Sm3+. MgGa2O4:Mn2+. LaOF:Eu3+. MgBaP2O7:Eu2+. Gd2O2S:Eu3+. M . MgBa2(PO4)2:U. Gd2SiO5:Ce3+. MgS:Eu2+. MgCeAl11O19:Tb3+. La2W3O12:Eu3+. KMgF3:Mn2+. Gd2O2S:Pr3+.Gd)2SiO5:Ce3+. LaAsO4:Eu3+. LiLaO2:Eu3+. Mg4(F)(Ge. MgB2O4:Mn2+.Ce. LaAlB2O6:Eu3+. LiInO2:Eu3+. CsI:Tl. La2O2S:Tb3+. K2SiF6:Mn4+.75. LaCl3:Ce3+. (ErCl3)0. Mg3Ca3(PO4)4:Eu2+. LiAl5O8:Fe3+. LaSiO3Cl:Ce3+. K La2O3:Pb2+. Mg2Ca(SO4)3:Eu2+. MgCaP2O7:Mn2+. LaOCl:Eu3+. CdWO4. Lu2Si2O7:Ce3+. LaVO4:Eu3+. MgSrAl10O17:Ce. LaOBr:Tb3+. Gd3Ga5O12:Cr3+. Lu1-xYxAlO3:Ce3+. Lu2SiO5:Ce3+. MgBa3Si2O8:Eu2+. LiAlF4:Mn2+. LaSiO3Cl:Ce3+. LiAlO2:Fe3+.Mn2+.Mn2+. LaAlO3:Sm3+. LaBr3:Ce3+. LiAlO2:Mn2+. MgBaP2O7:Eu2+.25(BaCl2)0. La2O3:Eu3+.Tb)PO4:Ce:Tb. LuAlO3:Ce3+.Sn)O6:Mn2+. Gd3Ga5O12:Cr. L MgAl2O4:Mn2+. LaOBr:Tm3+. Mg2Ca(SO4)3:Eu2+. MgF2:Mn2+. CsI CsI:Na+. La2O3:Bi3+. KMgF3:Eu2+. LiCeBa4Si4O14:Mn2+. (La.Tb3+. K2La2Ti3O10:Eu.CdS:Te. LuTaO4:Nb5+.F. MgBa2(PO4)2:Sn2+.

Sr3WO6:U.23K0.Mn2+.Sm2+.Mn2+. SrwFxB4O6. MgYBO4:Eu3+. SrO·3B2O3:Eu2+.Mg)3(PO4)2:Sn. MgSr3Si2O8:Eu2+. MgSr5(PO4)4:Sn2+.Yb3+.46Er0. Sr5(PO4)3F:Sn2+.Mn2+.Mn2+(Al). SrMgSi2O6:Eu2+. –SrO·3B2O3:Pb2+. SrAl2S4:Eu2+. SrSO4:Ce3+.Cl. ThO2:Pr3+. Sr5(PO4)3Cl:Eu2+. NaYF4:Er3+. ThO2:Eu3+. Sr2SiO4:Eu2+. –Sr3(PO4)2:Sn2+. SrIn2O4:Pr3+. MgSO4:Pb2+. SrY2O3:Eu3+.MgSiO3:Mn2+.12TiSi4O11:Eu3+. Mg2Sr(SO4)3:Eu2+. SrB4O7:Eu2+(F. SrS:Mn2+.Pr3+.Na. Mg2SiO4:Mn2+. Sr5(PO4)3Cl:Mn2+.Mn2+.08TiSi4O11:Eu3+. –SrO·3B2O3:Sm2+. Sr2MgSi2O7:Eu2+. Mg3SiO3F4:Ti4+.5:Eu2+.Al3+. MgSO4:Eu2+. Sr2P2O7:Sn2+.Cl. Sr6P5BO20:Eu. SrGa2S4:Ce3+. Sr5Cl(PO4)3:Eu. MgSrP2O7:Eu2+. SrGa12O19:Mn2+. T . SrGa2S4:Eu2+. SrGa2S4:Pb2+. Sr5(PO4)3Cl:Sb3+. Sr5(PO4)3F:Mn2+. SrS:Cu+. Na1. SrAl4O7:Eu3+. Sr3MgSi2O8:Eu2+.12TiSi5O13·xH2O:Eu3+. NaYO2:Eu3+.Br. Na1. MSL. SrTiO3:Pr3+. -Sr3(PO4)2:Sn2+.Mn2+. Na(Mg2–xMnx)LiSi4O10F2:Mn. (Sr. Sr5(PO4)3Cl:Eu2+. SrB4O7:Pb2+. SrB8O13:Sm2+. SrBaSiO4:Eu2+. SrCl2:Eu2+ in SiO2. –Sr3(PO4)2:Eu2+.29K0. SrB4O7:Pb2+. SrSO4:Eu2+. SrSO4:Eu2+. Na2Mg3Al2Si2O10:Tb. SrxBayClzAl2O4–z/2:Mn2+. Sr5(PO4)3F:Sb3+. S SrF2:Eu2+. SrwFxByOz:Eu2+. NaI:Tl. SrAl12O19:Ce3+. Na1. –SrO·3B2O3:Pb2+. Na3Ce(PO4)2:Tb3+.Br). ThO2:Tb3+.Mn2+. SrTiO3:Pr3+. N P P46 (70%) + P47 (30%). Sr5(PO4)3F:Sb3+.42Eu0. Sr2B5O9Cl:Eu2+. MgSrBa2Si2O7:Eu2+. Sr(Cl. SrS:Ce3+. Mg2TiO4:Mn4+. SrMoO4:U.Mn2+.Al3+. MgWO4. SrS:Eu2+.Ce3+. Sr5Si4O10Cl6:Eu2+. SrAl2O4:Eu2+.I)2:Eu2+ in SiO2.23K0. SrAl12O19:Eu2+. SrSO4:Bi. Sr2P2O7:Eu2+.42Eu0.

Gd)BO3:Eu. YAsO4:Eu3+. Zn0. ZnS:Ag.Pr)0. Y YPO4:Eu3+. YAlO3:Eu3+. ZnS-CdS:Ag+. YOF:Tb3+. ZnS-CdS:Cu.Mg)3(PO4)2:Mn2+. YAl3B4O12:Eu3+. Y(P.34Gd0.Tb3+.60O3(Eu.Yb3+. YTaO4. YAl3B4O12:Ce3+. ZnO:S.Cu.Gd)2O3:Eu3+. Ultrafast. YOF:Eu3+.6S:Ag.Cd)S:Ag. YVO4:Eu3+. YF3:Tm3+. YOCl:Ce3+.Mn2+. (Y.Br. ZnF2:Mn2+. (Zn. ZnS:Ag+.Cl. ZnS-CdS (50-50). YBO3:Eu3+. ZnO:Ga. ZnS-CdS:Ag. YF3:Mn2+. ZnO:Bi3+.Tb3+.Ce3+. ZnS:Ag.Ni. YVO4:Dy3+. Y2O2S:Eu3+.Cl. Ultrafast. ZnGa2O4. Y2SiO5:Ce3+.Th4+. YPO4:Mn2+.Ni. Y2O3:Ce. Y2O3:Bi3+. YAl3B4O12:Ce3+. YAl3B4O12:Ce3+. YBO3:Ce3+. (Zn+Be)2SiO4:Mn2+. Y2O2S:Pr3+. (Zn. YF3:Er3+. Zn0.Yb3+.Br high brightness.V)O4:Eu. Zn2GeO4:Mn2+. ZnS-CdS (75-25). Y3Al5O12:Ce3+.Cr3+. Y4Al2O9:Eu3+. YAlO3:Sm3+.Cl. YOCl:Eu3+.Th4+. ZnGa2O4:Mn2+.4Cd0.YAl3B4O12:Bi3+. Y2O3:Eu3+ (YOE). ZnB2O4:Mn2+. Y3Al5O12:Mn4+. Y2O3:Ce3+.Br long life. Y3Al5O12:Eu3+. YPO4:Ce3+. Y2O3:Tb3+. YPO4:Ce3+. Y3Al5O12:Tb3+. ZnS-CdS (25-75). ZnO:Se.Ga3+.In. ZnBa2S3:Mn2+. YPO4:V5+. ZnGa2S4:Mn2+.Mn2+.Gd)BO3:Tb. Z . (Zn. Y2O3:Er3+. Y1. YAl3B4O12:Th4+.Cd)S:Cu.Mg)F2:Mn2+. ZnS:Au. YTaO4:Nb5+. ZnS-CdS:Cu. ZnO:Ga3+. YOBr:Eu3+. ZnS-CdS:Cu.Tb3+. ZnO:Zn.4S:Ag. Y3Al5O12:Cr3+. (Y.I. (Y. ZnMg2(PO4)2:Mn2+. ZnO-CdO:Ga. ZnO:Al3+.Cl–. YF3:Mn2+. YAl3B4O12:Eu3+.6Cd0. Y2O3:Ho3+. YAlO3:Ce3+. ZnAl2O4:Mn2+. (Zn. YAlO3:Tb3+.06. Y2O2S:Tb3+.

ZnS:Eu2+.As5+.P. ZnS:Pb. ZnS:Cu. ZnS:Mn2+. Zn2SiO4:Mn2+.Mn. Zn2SiO4:Mn2+. ZnS:Mn. Zn2SiO4:Mn. ZnS:Cu+. .ZnS:Cl–. ZnS:Pb2+.Cl–. ZnWO4.Sb2O3. Zn2SiO4:Mn2+. ZnS:Sn. ZnS:Te.Al3+.Te2+.Sn. Zn3(PO4)2:Mn2+.Cu. ZnS:Cu+. ZnS:Sn2+. ZnS:Cu. ZnS:Eu2+.Li+.Cl–.Cl–.Cu. ZnS:P.Cl. ZnS-ZnTe:Mn2+ ZnSe:Cu+. ZnS:Sn2+.Ag. ZnS:Pb2+. Zn2SiO4:Ti4+. ZnS:P3–. ZnS:Mn2+.

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