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Inorganic Phosphors

Inorganic Phosphors

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INORGANIC PHOSPHORS

COMPOSITIONS, PREPARATION AND OPTICAL PROPERTIES

The CRC Press Laser and Optical Science and Technology Series
Editor-in-Chief: Marvin J. Weber
A.V. Dotsenko, L.B. Glebov, and V.A. Tsekhomsky

Physics and Chemistry of Photochromic Glasses
Andrei M. Efimov

Optical Constants of Inorganic Glasses
Alexander A. Kaminskii

Crystalline Lasers: Physical Processes and Operating Schemes
Valentina F. Kokorina

Glasses for Infrared Optics
Sergei V. Nemilov

Thermodynamic and Kinetic Aspects of the Vitreous State
Piotr A. Rodnyi

Physical Processes in Inorganic Scintillators
Michael C. Roggemann and Byron M. Welsh

Imaging Through Turbulence
Shigeo Shionoya and William M. Yen

Phosphor Handbook
Hiroyuki Yokoyama and Kikuo Ujihara

Spontaneous Emission and Laser Oscillation in Microcavities
Marvin J. Weber, Editor

Handbook of Laser Science and Technology
Volume I: Lasers and Masers Volume II: Gas Lasers Volume III: Optical Materials, Part 1 Volume IV: Optical Materials, Part 2 Volume V: Optical Materials, Part 3 Supplement I: Lasers Supplement II: Optical Materials Marvin J. Weber

Handbook of Laser Wavelengths Handbook of Lasers
Marvin J. Weber

Handbook of Optical Materials

The CRC Press Laser and Optical Science and Technology Series

INORGANIC PHOSPHORS
COMPOSITIONS, PREPARATION AND OPTICAL PROPERTIES

Wi l l i a m M . Ye n a n d M a r v i n J . We b e r

CRC PR E S S
Boca Raton London New York Washington, D.C.

Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data
Inorganic phosphors : compositions, preparation, and optical properties / editors, William M. Yen, Marvin J. Weber. p. cm. Includes bibliographical references and index. ISBN 0-8493-1949-8 (alk. paper) 1. Phosphors. 2. Phosphors—Optical properties. I. Yen, W. M. (William M.) II. Weber, Marvin J., 1932QC476.7.I55 2004 620.1'1295—dc22

2004047813

This book contains information obtained from authentic and highly regarded sources. Reprinted material is quoted with permission, and sources are indicated. A wide variety of references are listed. Reasonable efforts have been made to publish reliable data and information, but the author and the publisher cannot assume responsibility for the validity of all materials or for the consequences of their use. Neither this book nor any part may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, microfilming, and recording, or by any information storage or retrieval system, without prior permission in writing from the publisher. The consent of CRC Press LLC does not extend to copying for general distribution, for promotion, for creating new works, or for resale. Specific permission must be obtained in writing from CRC Press LLC for such copying. Direct all inquiries to CRC Press LLC, 2000 N.W. Corporate Blvd., Boca Raton, Florida 33431. Trademark Notice: Product or corporate names may be trademarks or registered trademarks, and are used only for identification and explanation, without intent to infringe.

Visit the CRC Press Web site at www.crcpress.com
© 2004 by CRC Press LLC No claim to original U.S. Government works International Standard Book Number 0-8493-1949-8 Library of Congress Card Number 2004047813 Printed in the United States of America 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 Printed on acid-free paper

Willi and Renate Lehmann (circa 1970).

TABLE OF CONTENTS
FOREWORD PREFACE PART 1: LEHMANN’S PHOSPHOR COOKBOOK AND PHOSPHOR TABLES SECTION 1: INTRODUCTION SECTION 2: PHOSPHOR PREPARATION 2.1 Starting Materials 2.2 Amounts 2.3 Mixing 2.4 Containers 2.5 Furnace 2.6 Firing Atmospheres 2.7 Treatments after Firing SECTION 3: PURIFICATION OF SOME STARTING MATERIALS 3.1 Carbonates 3.2 Sulfates 3.3 Oxalates 3.4 Sulfur SECTION 4: PHOSPHOR DATA 4.1 Description of Data 4.2 Simple Oxides 4.3 Silicates 4.4 Halosilicates 4.5 Phosphates 4.6 Halophosphates 4.7 Borates 4.8 Aluminates and Gallates 4.9 Molybdates and Tungstates 4.10 Miscellaneous Oxides 4.11 Halides and Oxyhalides 4.12 Sulfates 4.13 ZnS-Type Sulfides 4.14 CaS-Type Sulfides 4.15 Double Sulfides 4.16 Miscellaneous Sulfides and Oxysulfides SECTION 5: PREPARATION OF PHOSPHOR SCREENS 5.1 Phosphor Screens by Brushing 5.2 Phosphor Screens by Settling in a Kasil Solution

5.3 Phosphor Screens by Cathaphoretic Deposition 5.4 Filming of Phosphor Screens

PART 2: ADDITIONAL DEVELOPMENTS SECTION 6: PHOSPHOR SYNTHESIS 6.1 Alternative Preparation Methods 6.2 Combustion Synthesis of Phosphors 6.3 Preparation of Phosphors by Sol–Gel Techniques SECTION 7: OTHER PHOSPHOR DATA 7.1 Oxides 7.2 Silicates 7.3 Phosphates, Halophosphates, and Borates 7.4 Aluminates 7.5 Halides and Oxyhalides 7.6 CaS and ZnS-Type Sulfides 7.7 Other Compounds SECTION 8: COMMERCIAL PHOSPHORS AND SCINTILLATORS APPENDICES Appendix I Appendix II Appendix III

Historical Note on Phosphor Recipes Phosphor Materials Arranged in Order of Emission Wavelength Willi Lehmann: A Brief Biography

MATERIALS INDEX

Foreword
Willi Lehmann
It is a truism that all individuals are unique. However, in the case of the late Willi Lehmann this is true in the strongest sense possible. One often hears of a person with a “one-track” mind. That concept describes Willi perfectly. He was indeed one of a kind. As far as I know, he lived for and only thought about phosphors. He was a very oriented, strong willed and, yes, stubborn individual. It is my pleasure to have known him and have been his manager (in truth, no one “managed” Willi) for several interesting and productive years. I knew very little about Willi’s life in Germany. Fortunately, I was able to obtain a copy of an autobiography Willi wrote for his family and was able to learn something about his history. Bill Yen and I present a brief summary of Willi’s life and times in Appendix III. I knew that he served in the German army during World War II, first on the Russian front and then on the Western front. It is difficult for me to conceive of him as a member of a military unit. He always had a very un-Germanic disregard for authority. This undoubtedly explains why, after working his way up to grade sergeant, he was “busted” back to private. I believe he objected to officers riding in comfortable first-class carriages while enlisted men rode in overcrowded second-class carriages. Another un-Germanic trait was that he disliked beer; he called it “seifewasser” (soapy water). Willi was always resourceful (surely a good trait for a scientist). At the end of the war, after being captured by the French, he managed to escape and be recaptured by the Americans because he knew they treated their German captives better. While he was in POW camp a request came asking whether any prisoner could repair typewriters. Willi, who actually had no prior experience in this line, promptly volunteered and became a successful “typewriter mechanic” overnight. Also during his time as a prisoner he spent his spare time recalling and writing down the essentials of his previously studied elementary physics textbook. I suppose he “borrowed” the necessary paper and pencils from the offices where he repaired typewriters. After the war Willi studied physics (I am not sure at what university) under Prof. Erich Krautz, who had an interest in luminescence. Later, Krautz became Director of Research at a branch of the Osram Lamp Co., located in Augsburg, near Munich. At that time, the Lamp Division of the Westinghouse Electric Corp., located in Bloomfield, New Jersey, had a patent and technical interchange agreement with Osram. On a visit to Augsburg, E.G.F. Arnott, Director of Research in Bloomfield, asked Prof. Krautz to recommend two of his former students who were interested in luminescence and would like to immigrate to the United States. Krautz recommended Willi Lehmann and Claus Haake, and both accepted the offer. This was probably in 1955, as Willi published his first American papers (Phys. Rev., 101, 489; J. Electrochem. Soc., 103, 667 and Illum. Eng., 51, 684) in 1956. Willi remained with Westinghouse, first in Bloomfield and then in Pittsburg for many years, while Claus left after about 2 years to move to Arizona for reasons of his wife’s health. In 1956 I was Manager of the Phosphor Research Section of the Westinghouse Lamp Division and thus suddenly found myself responsible for two foreigners about whom I knew nothing. The situation was conceivably complicated by the fact that I was Jewish; I didn’t know how they would react to me and vice versa. Fortunately, this never presented a

problem. Both Willi and Claus turned out to be very diligent and skilled workers (Prof. Krautz would not have recommended dummies). Their knowledge of the English language was good, although Willi always spoke with a pronounced Germanic accent, probably because he spoke only German at home. (I must admit that while Willi worked for me I always edited his scientific papers before publication, but endeavored to leave them sounding like Willi.) During those years in Bloomfield the attention of the Phosphor Section was directed primarily to electroluminescence, then in its infancy. I can truthfully say the best (brightest and longest lived) electroluminescent phosphors made anywhere in that era were made by Willi Lehmann. This activity, and that elsewhere, is summarized in my book, Electroluminescence and Related Effects (Academic Press, 1963). I was later made a fellow of the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) and an Honorary Member of the Electrochemical Society for “leadership in the advancement of the science of luminescence.” However, the work which resulted in these honors was primarily due to three outstanding members of the section: Willi Lehmann, William A. Thornton, and Anselm Wachtel. My effort was mainly that of support, coordination, and interpretation. My approach to “management” of scientific activity was essentially minimalist, consisting of four steps: (1) hire the most capable and self-motivated people, (2) provide them with the necessary equipment and facilities, (3) point them in the directions of interest to the company, and (4) don’t bother them, except for occasional encouragement and suggestions as to questions for which no one had an answer at the moment. This minimalist approach certainly worked well with Willi, who was never a “team player.” I also learned that minor infractions of company rules could be overlooked unless they were officially brought to my attention: sometimes ignorance of events can be good. Although trained as a physicist, Willi actually performed best as a self-taught chemist; he was more interested in making better phosphors than in explaining how or why they worked. He was always an enthusiastic worker. I remember one day Claus Haake stuck his head in my door and said, “Willi just made a three-gott-damn phosphor!” I said, “What does that mean?” Claus replied, “Well, when Willi has made a new sample and finds that it tests good, he says ‘Gott damn!’ Today he tested his latest sample and said, ‘Gott damn! Gott damn! GOTT DAMN!’” About 1963 both Willi and I transferred to the central Westinghouse Research Laboratories in Pittsburgh, but to different departments. I joined the Optical Physics Department, which was primarily concerned with lasers, and in 1969 became manager of the department. Willi went to the Solid State Physics Department, where he continued to work on phosphors, mainly for applications to fluorescent lamps and cathode-ray tubes. Nevertheless, we kept in frequent contact and he always put me on the distribution list for his research reports. It was during this period of his career that he organized the material for his Phosphor Cookbook. Willi always maintained his independence and disregard for rules which seemed pointless to him. There were four types of scientific documents at Westinghouse: patent disclosures, papers to be published, summary research reports for internal use, and short research “memos.” For some strange (probably historical) reason, memos had to be addressed to a particular individual, although they could have an extended distribution list. Once Willi (in Pittsburgh) apparently had trouble deciding to whom a certain memo should be addressed so in the proper place he wrote, “The Queen of England.” Some unwitting secretary typed it up that way and sent it to his department manager for signature. Considerable consternation ensued, but Willi survived unscathed and hardly ruffled. For Willi, rules were usually meant for lesser beings; he had more important things (phosphors) to think about.

an extended collection of the main properties of about 300 of the best-known inorganic phosphors. I am sorry to say that I lost contact with him after 1988. Henry Ivey Coconut Creek. It will serve as a fitting and belated recognition of the valuable work this unusual individual contributed to the science of luminescence. George. this book was never published. North Carolina. in Connecticut.Willi retired from Westinghouse in about 1985 (the reason for my vagueness about dates is that Westinghouse is now defunct and I have no way of accessing company files). 2003 .” The present volume by Bill Yen and Marv Weber. He enclosed a copy of his contribution. and apparently did consultation on electroluminescence for the Rogers Corp. He went to live in Hendersonville. All appear to be prospering and the family has given its approval to the belated publication of Willi’s Phosphor Cookbook and Phosphor Tables he so carefully compiled nearly two decades ago. and Mary. finally solves that waste problem. Hans. with reference to the original publications. Caren. which combines his Phosphor Cookbook and his Phosphor Tables. In 1988 he wrote to inform me that he had been invited to contribute to a book entitled Phosphors. I have learned since that Willi passed away in January 1993 and that he is survived by his wife Renate and four children. It was his obsession and sole occupation. However. He left many important published papers. “My Phosphor Tables are completed and I don’t like the idea of them going to waste. He said then. When Willi Lehmann was alive and active he was one hell of a great phosphor maker. Florida April 1.

Though it might be argued that the art of phosphors synthesis and characterization has advanced considerably since Lehmann’s time. The list of materials presented in the compilations is large and the manuscripts preserve and summarize synthesis and optical data on most of the commonly used phosphors (as well as some less common ones). Most of the contents of Lehmann’s Phosphor Cookbook and Phosphor Tables are preserved in the first part with either no or only slight changes in style and format. of past methodologies. Thus. at the time) first presented us with a copy of Willi Lehmann’s opus (Phosphor Cookbook) on methods for synthesis and properties of over 200 phosphors. of course. we believe that these contributions need to be preserved as part of the phosphor art. for example. In the second part of the volume we have attempted to supplement Lehmann’s work with additional . thus such information is absent for many compounds. In the absence of any systematic database on phosphors. it appeared to us that the content of these two unpublished manuscripts fully deserved publication as a record. Henry Ivey. Almost all modern phosphors are synthesized by solid-state reactions at high temperatures. these methodologies are often abandoned and forgotten but often need to be rediscovered and revived when circumstances warrant it. Though for various reasons this effort ultimately turned futile. one of us (WMY). This volume is divided into two parts. This resulted. He later updated and extended this work in 1988 in his Phosphor Tables in which the phosphor properties of over 300 luminescent materials were summarized in tabular form. was a principal in the development of many of the phosphors included in his cookbook. This report dates from the late 1970’s and covered the majority of phosphors then in use. in response to a federal broad agency announcement. A copy of these tables.Preface About a decade ago. no composition or preparation information was included in the Phosphor Tables. if nothing else. which was prepared for a publication that never appeared. Henry had a close working relationship with Willi at Westinghouse as the Foreword to this volume attests. Updated versions of these techniques are presented in this volume along with other techniques such as sol–gel and combustion that have been developed in the past few decades. Dr. the two unpublished manuscripts represent a reasonably complete summary of the state of knowledge on phosphors up to the late 1980’s. in our becoming aware of the existence of the Phosphor Handbook published in Japanese under the auspices of the Japan Phosphor Society and led to its eventual translation and publication as the Phosphor Handbook. However. initiated an effort to establish a baseline for the state of knowledge concerning the methodology for synthesis and the optical properties of a variety of phosphors used for display and other technical applications. The scholarship contained in the Phosphor Cookbook and the Phosphor Tables is quite remarkable and comprises a great deal of meticulous and careful work characterizing Willi Lehmann’s career as a phosphor synthesizer. several members of the phosphor/luminescence community called my attention to an existing backlog of published and unpublished literature addressed to this subject. The phosphor data presented in Section 4 combine the results of both manuscripts. In connection with efforts to establish a phosphor database. was preserved and given to us by Dr. Ronald Petersen (of Motorola. a volume in the CRC Lasers and Optical Sciences and Technology Series. Lehmann.

a good beginning point. suggestions. It may be noted that the elements belonging to series such as the lanthanides (4f) have chemical behaviors that are nearly identical to each other. eye protection. as noted in the Foreword. We hope that the publication of Inorganic Phosphors serves to fulfill his wish. The American Ceramic Society in collaboration with the National Institutes of Standards and Technology (NIST) has continued to publish and revise Phase Diagrams for Ceramists (Vols. Because of the plethora of phosphor compositions reported in recent decades. these volumes contain a great deal of material which is extremely useful in developing an understanding as to what can and cannot be synthesized.) should be observed in the preparation and synthesis of the phosphors described in the volume. would be with the procedures that are presented here. Mike Caplinger and Jeff Deroshia for their computing assistance. and the valuable interactions with CRC Project Editor James McGovern and Development Manager Helena Redshaw. this volume should be considered a tribute to this unusual individual and his contributions to the phosphor art. The third gives a brief summary of Willi Lehmann’s life. Finally. VII–XII). Willi Lehmann was anxious to have the material that he had prepared with such care published in some form. so that the synthesis of any new compounds remains an area of experimentation. Indeed. Sarah Dunning for typing the manuscript. We are also very thankful to the Lehmann family for giving their permission to use this material. Other considerations (such as ion sizes) will enter. Yen Athens. we emphasize that all normal safety precautions (fume hoods. The preparation methods described in this volume generally entail the use of laboratory procedures which are normally encountered in solid-state chemistry and which expose the experimenter to the usual perils. We note with special appreciation the excellent work of Sergei Basun in preparing the many figures and the final manuscript. Only a relatively few phosphors have achieved commercial success. California April 2004 . Weber Berkeley. The first presents an historical perspective on phosphors. William M. etc. In this effort we have benefitted from numerous comments. Georgia Marvin J. however. I–VI) and the sequel Phase Equilibrium Diagrams (Vols. three appendices have been added. the listing is not exhaustive but rather representative of some of the more significant phosphors developed in recent years. Section 8 presents a list of many commercial phosphor and scintillator materials and the peak wavelength of their emission. As such. Much additional information on the synthesis and characterization of a phosphor or luminescent material information can be found in the aforementioned Phosphor Handbook. in the second a table of phosphors is arranged in order of emission wavelength as a guide in selecting phosphors for particular applications. We are very appreciative of their help and that of Ron Petersen and Henry Ivey for having preserved the original manuscripts. and contributions from our Editorial Board.developments including recent synthesis methods and new phosphors. We are aware that. We have restricted consideration to materials that are accessible in the open literature and have not included any recipes or description of phosphors that are proprietary. It follows that recipes for compounds doped with a certain ion of a series very likely will also be effective for other members of that series.

Amsterdam.C. Elsevier. Luminescence and the Solid State. P. Fluorescent Lamp Phosphors: Technology and Theory. Cathodoluminescence. 1980. Oxford.. 1993. P. 151. Grabmaier. Phosphor Handbook. CRC Press. Electroluminescence. WA.A. Imbusch. New York. G. A.H. Goldberg. Luminescence of Inorganic Solids.C. R. Henderson and G. SPIE Milestone Series. 1994. Light Emitting Diodes. Elsevier. SPIE Press. Luminescent Materials. Vol. Amsterdam. Kitai. Pennsylvania University Press. University Park.C.F. Weber. 1997. and Scintillators: Applications of Photoluminescence. Shionoya and W. K. . Rodnyi. Clarendon Press. Academic Press. Ropp. Springer. 1989. 1966. A.M.H. John Wiley & Sons. Optical Spectroscopy of Inorganic Solids. Eds. Ropp. Ed. Berlin. Blasse and B. Gaska. and R. Solid State Luminescence: Theory. CRC Press. Zukauskas. M. FL. S. Selected papers on Phosphors. Chapman & Hall. Boca Raton. Ed.J.Further Readings Introduction to Solid-State Lighting. New York.. M. Materials and Devices. 1993. Shur. 1991. Butler. Boca Raton. FL. 2002.. B. Physical Processes in Inorganic Scintillators. The Chemistry of Artificial Lighting Devices. and Radioluminescence. R. Ed. Bellingham.. London. 1998. Yen. 1998.

he retired from the Wisconsin system in 1990. He is presently a scientist in the Department of Nuclear Medicine and Functional Imaging of the Life Sciences Division at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. and Ph.A. the Australian National University (1980. Jaynes Visiting Professor for the Fall of 2004. the Federal University of Pernambuco—Recife (1980). DC. he was responsible for the physics and characterization of optical materials for high-power laser used in inertial confinement fusion research.S. Dr.. He was also named by Washington University (St.D. (Physics) degree from the University of Redlands. Yen obtained his B. Scientist Award (1985). He served a term of 3 years (1962–1965) as a Research Associate at Stanford University under the tutelage of Professor A.. Guggenheim Foundation Fellowship (1979–1980). Dr. Among several honors. Weber is Editor-in-Chief of the multi-volume CRC Handbook Series of Laser Science and Technology and a Fellow of the American Physical Society. 1995). In 1987 he was appointed to the Graham Perdue Professorship at the University of Georgia—Athens where he has established a research program in the properties of phosphors and other light-emitting materials. Marvin J. Yen has been the recipient of a J. he is the recipient of the International Conference on Luminescence Prize. Dr. Redlands. and of a Senior Fulbright to Australia (1995).L. Dr.The Editors William M. M. . He has been a member of the technical staff at the AT&T Bell Telephone Laboratories (1966) and of the Laser Fusion Project at Lawrence Livermore Labs (1974–1975). the Optical Society of America. Dr. and the University of California—Santa Barbara (1982. Weber received the A. von Humboldt Senior U. degrees in physics at the University of California. of a A. Stanford University. Berkeley. Louis) as the first Edwin T. where he was a Principal Scientist working in the areas of spectroscopy and quantum electronics. From 1983 to 1985 he accepted a transfer assignment with the Office of Basic Energy Sciences of the U. the American Association for the Advancement of Science. Schawlow and accepted a faculty position at the University of Wisconsin—Madison in 1965. Louis) in 1962. George W. In 1973 Dr. and the Electrochemical Society. as Head of Basic Materials Research and Assistant Program Leader. the Optical Society of America. Yen is the co-editor of the Phosphor Handbook published by CRC Press. Morey Award of the American Ceramics Society. Weber was a Visiting Research Associate in the Department of Physics. California in 1956 and his Ph.S. and the American Ceramics Society. Weber joined the Research Division of the Raytheon Co. In 1966 to 1967 Dr. and an Industrial Research IR-100 Award for research and development of fluorophosphate laser glass. the University of Paris—South (1976).B. After graduation. He was granted tenure at Wisconsin in 1968 and promoted to a full professorship in 1972. Department of Energy in Washington. 1985).S. in Physics from Washington University (St. Yen has been elected to fellowship in the American Physical Society.D. Weber joined the Laser Program at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory where. Dr. Weber returned to the Chemistry and Materials Science Department at LLNL in 1986 and served as Associate Division Leader for condensed matter research and as spokesperson for the University of California/National Laboratories research facilities at the Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory. He has been appointed to Visiting Professorships at the University of Tokyo (1972).S.

Germany Dr. Guy A. New Mexico Dr. C. Ioffe Physico-Technical Institute Russian Academy of Sciences St. New York Dr. Massachusetts Dr. Russia Dr. Alok M. Florida Dr. Puerto Rico Dr. Richard. Hajime Yamamoto Department of Electrical Engineering Tokyo University of Technology Tokyo 192-0982. F. Hill 31 Abbey Street Faversham United Kingdom Dr. Ropp 138 Mountain Avenue Warren. Petersburg. Lauren Shea Sandia National Labs Albuquerque. Sergei Basun A. Japan . Cees Ronda Philips Research Laboratory Aachen D-52085 Aachen. Weiyi Jia Department of Physics University of Puerto Rico—Mayaguez Mayaguez. New Jersey Dr. Madis Raukas Osram Sylvania Beverly.Editorial Board Dr. Henry Ivey 3392 NW 47th Avenue Coconut Creek. Srivastava GE Corporate R&D Center Schenectady. C.

Part 1: Lehmann’s Phosphor Cookbook and Phosphor Tables .

Section 1: Introduction .

etc.2 and 2. It has been tried in this laboratory and it works. The following tables give. a start for the experienced phosphor chemist in the improvement of known materials or in the development of new ones. Most of them are well known (more or less). It is unavoidable in such work that many samples perform too poorly to be worth mentioning. References to open publications or internal reports. Most of the following two sections (with the exceptions of Sections 2.3) are predominantly taken verbatim from Lehmann's report. are added to help anyone wishing to know more about a particular material than these tables can give. for each phosphor. a survey of materials for which properties are available to the occasional user of phosphors. there has been no phosphor cookbook before. Many others were just repetitions during optimizations. a brief description of how to prepare it and an equally brief description of its main properties. which appear to have some potential to become commercially useful. Each one of the recipes is only a suggestion. 3. In the abstract to the report Lehmann expected that the cookbook would be useful as: 1. It will never be. of course. at least). What remains are relatively few. The professional phosphor chemist has often. This report describes some 200 phosphors which are commercially in use already. during about 25 years of practical experience. In fact. but some are new and have never been mentioned anywhere else. . To fill out this gap is the purpose of this report. The phosphor collection covered by this “cookbook” is not complete.” Peculiarly. and despite of the fact that so many different phosphors are now available. where available. It may remain to the individual phosphor chemist to work out such improvements.Section 1 INTRODUCTION The following is Willi Lehmann's introduction to his Phosphor Cookbook: The writer of this report has. a guide to help anyone new in the field in the successful preparation of phosphors. prepared and tested roughly 2 104 individual samples of inorganic phosphors of various kinds. 2. been referred to as “phosphor cook. or which are otherwise somehow “interesting” (to the writer. of the same materials. the writer believes that most of the recipes still permit substantial improvements. only half jokingly. It may anyway serve as a convenient guide for all occasional or professional users of phosphorus showing essentially what is available. but it does not mean that a variation of the recipe does not work.

6 2.3 2.Section 2: Phosphor Preparation 2.7 Starting Materials Amounts Mixing Containers Furnace Firing Atmospheres Treatments After Firing .5 2.2 2.1 2.4 2.

the “co-activators. the “activators” are dissolved. The activators are primarily responsible for the luminescence. Sufficiently pure ZnS and CdS are available not to require additional purification for the preparation of ZnS-type phosphors. Lehmann) to make the phosphors described in this report.1 Starting Materials Commercially available high-purity grade chemicals (e. MnS. Lehmann's Phosphor Cookbook. What counts are only the necessary amounts of the particular chemical elements measured in moles. CaCO3 can frequently be replaced by CaO.g. The firing temperature often is little below the melting temperature of the host material. If that is impractical because of excessively high-melting temperatures of the host material. and that the used compounds decompose readily during the firing of the phosphor to provide the necessary building blocks to the final material. analytical reagent grade. or Ca(OH)2. Many points probably are trivial to the professional phosphor chemist but they are certainly not so to the novice or to anyone preparing phosphors only once in a while. Both activators and (if necessary) co-activators are diffused into the host crystal at elevated temperatures. * This section is from W. and so on. Only sulfide-type phosphors are exceptions because they are sensitive to undesired impurities. The chemicals mentioned in the individual recipes are those that usually are the most readily available. Mn(C2H3O2)2. MnO. For instance. However. participate in the luminescence process. Almost all good inorganic phosphors consist of a crystalline “host material” in which small amounts of certain impurities. MnCO3 can be replaced by MnO2.Section 2 PHOSPHOR PREPARATION* The following methods are essentially the preparation procedures used by the writer (W. Other impurities. Co-activators do not. MnSO4. the chemicals needed to prepare CaS-type phosphors are not normally available in the required purity. . They can frequently be exchanged with others. 2. CaO2. the “firing.” are necessary in some (not in all) cases to dissolve the activator impurities into the host crystal. Section 3 of this report describes some techniques that can be used to purify commercial compounds to prepare CaS-type phosphors. luminescent grade) are adequate to prepare most of the phosphors. or only to a very minor degree. sometimes down to the parts per million range. Ca(NO3)2. the crystallization is facilitated at lower temperatures by addition of a “flux” (frequently a halide) to the raw mix before firing.. Similarly.” Even the final host material frequently is formed only during the firing by solid-state reactions between several starting materials.

sometimes even within still wider tolerances. Corresponding non-uniformities of the final phosphor may be the result. the amounts of the chemicals involved in the formation of the host materials need to be weighed only within ±1% of the mentioned proportions. it is impractical to reduce the amounts to less than about 1 or 2 g of the final phosphor. The slurry is dried and the dried material. The weightings of the starting materials are not very critical. alcohol. which sometimes is a more or less hard crust. The smaller amounts of the activating chemicals involved are even less critical. ZnO) are not free flowing and cannot be mixed this way. Some materials (e. Phosphor properties vary relatively little only with a variation of the starting material ratios.4 Containers The best container material for the preparation of most phosphors is clear quartz glass (silica). otherwise it is the most ideal.3 Mixing Very thorough mixing of the starting materials before firing is extremely important for the successful preparation of a good phosphor. 2. a breakup of all possible lumps in the slurry. This method is a bit cumbersome and it is impractical for small samples (a few grams).. Roughly. is powderized in a mortar as well as possible. Whenever such large amounts of phosphors are not needed or wanted. in particular. or any other inert and volatile liquid to a uniform slurry. Whenever such non-uniformities occur. The materials become poorly reproducible with such very small amounts. Some of the best methods are: Slurrying The finely powdered starting materials are mixed into water. in particular) react too badly with quartz . Several firing steps are appropriate in many cases for other chemical reasons. The slurry is then dried in air and the dry material is mechanically powderized. which stay free flowing all the time. Only some materials (the alkali elements.2 Amounts The recipes in this report are given in whole molar units to make them as clear as possible. However.2. This method has been used for most of the recipes of this report. 2. all amounts can be reduced by constant factors as long as the molar ratios between the individual components in the recipe are maintained. Dry Ball-Milling The dry powder mix is ball-milled with porcelain pebbles for 1–2 hours.g. Variations of ±10% of the mentioned activator concentrations normally have little effect on the performance of the final phosphor. can be added dissolved in water. This method is least time-consuming and most practical for small samples but the mixes are less uniform down to the microscopic scale than any one prepared by the other methods. etc. Water-soluble activator chemicals. This method avoids the time-consuming drying of the slurry but it works only for powders. firing not only once but also several times and mortaring every time in between can usually eliminate them. Wet Ball-Milling The slurry prepared above is ball-milled with porcelain pebbles for a time (about 1–2 hours) to ensure a moist thorough mix and. Mortaring The dry powders are simply mixed by mortaring together to make the mix as uniform as possible.

halides) are better fired in loosely covered containers permitting some contact with the surrounding atmosphere but still keeping at least some of the volatile part in the container. The writer has yet to see a furnace whose temperature does not occasionally deviate from that indicated by the controller. Ar). Some arrangements used to handle the various gases in the firing tubes are shown in Figure 2 assuming the phosphor containers are both open boats. NH3).) may be fired in oxidizing (air. inert (N2. they consist of two tubes each closed at one end and both loosely fitting into each other. Many of these gases are interchangeable.. 2.g. Sulfurization of sulfide phosphors may be achieved by firing either in H2S or in an inert gas loaded with CS2. A simple on–off control is acceptable.6 Firing Atmospheres The various phosphors are fired in different atmospheres depending on the materials and the desired reactions. A reliable temperature control clearly is one of the weak points of phosphor preparation. Raw mixes which do contain volatile constituents (e. Phosphor raw mixes not containing volatile (at firing conditions) constituents are best fired in open boats so that the charge is fully exposed to the desired atmosphere surrounding the material. Figure 1 Schemata of different containers during phosphor firing. . O2). Only these ends of the firing tubes are in the furnaces during firing. etc.glass at firing temperatures and are better fired in other container materials. better up to about 1400ºC. 2. for instance. H2. It makes no difference. or reducing atmospheres (CO. whether a phosphor is fired in N2 or in Ar. forming gas. Loosely covered crucibles are appropriate wherever alumina is the container material. phosphates. Oxygen-dominated phosphors (oxides. Capped silica tubes are widely used in our laboratory. Some typical arrangements are shown in Figure 1.5 Furnace Phosphor firing requires an electric furnace permitting temperatures between about 500ºC and at least 1200ºC. silicates. Pure alumina serves fairly well in these cases. All these containers are placed near the closed ends of bigger firing tubes made of silica. Any desired temperature should be maintained during firing by means of an automatic temperature controller to within ±20ºC or better. The only way to eliminate this problem is frequent recalibration of furnace and controller by means of a good thermocouple and a millivolt comparator.

Escaping unused CS2 gas can be burned at the end of an outlet tube. If the phosphor is fired in H2 or in H2S. otherwise the effect (explosion) will be spectacular when the firing tube enters the furnace. otherwise condensing liquid water might block the gas flow. so it is necessary to heat the flask to gentle boiling. Some carbon black is placed in a separate open container next to the phosphor container in the firing tube. some of the carbon black burns to CO in situ. closed by a bit of loose glass wool to prevent dust particles from drifting in during firing. be very careful to flush all the air out the firing tube before admitting the CS2-loaded gas.g. As in cases of H2 and H2S. A carrier gas (air. N2) before admitting the final gas.. etc. The vapor pressure of the water is too low at room temperature to have much effect. Do not heat the flask. The tube connection between flask and firing tube should be as short and straight as possible. When the charge enters the furnace. Be extremely cautious! CO This gas is about the most convenient for firing an oxygen-dominated phosphor in a reducing atmosphere. . Steam This arrangement resembles that used for CS2. The stopper is protected against radiant heat by a bit of loose glass wool in front of it. the vapor pressure of the CS2 is high enough at room temperature.. The air is flushed out by plain O2 and the gas inlet tube is then closed (but leave the inlet open). it is extremely important first to flush all air out the firing tube with an inert gas (e.) bubbles through a flask containing some water in front of the firing tube. N2. N2) bubbles though a flask containing some liquid CS2 in front of the firing tube. at most. CS2 An inert carrier gas (e.g. Gases from tanks (or other supplies) These can be piped into the firing tubes via long and thin gas inlet tubes (silica) reaching as far into the firing tubes as possible. The open ends of the latter are closed by ordinary rubber stoppers with two holes for gas inlet and outlet. Air Firing a phosphor in air requires nothing but the container in the firing tube whose open end is left open or.Figure 2 Schemata of different containers during phosphor firing.

All phosphors that are not immediately used up for some application should be stored in closed and labeled containers.. etc. Phosphors coming out the furnace as badly sintered lumps indicate that something is wrong. Others tend to lump and are not screenable with any reasonable effort.g.2. usually to remove one or the other undesired residues (e. this still requires subsequent drying. All phosphors should finally be screened to remove undesired big particles. halides). Such cases are noted in the recipes of this report. CaO) but they are a good practice also for all others. Some phosphors require special washings after firing. Such materials can easily be made free flowing by addition of small amounts (roughly 1/10% by weight) of some additives like very fine SiO2. of course. . Al2O3. A 200-mesh stainless steel sieve is adequate for most general purposes but some special applications may require finer screens. Some phosphors are free flowing and easily screened. Sb2O3.7 Treatments after Firing Fired phosphors often (not always) are slightly sintered cakes that have to be powderized to obtain the desired fine powder. methanol. Remember that good phosphors are precious materials.. Phosphors that stubbornly refuse to become free flowing with any additive can still be wet screened in a suspension in water. This powderizing usually is possible by gentle grinding or milling. Avoid all hard milling because it is likely to damage the phosphor. to find one remains up to the ingenuity of the experimenter. etc. However. Phosphors of recipes that do not mention a washing do not need it. most likely the firing temperature was too high.g. Closed containers obviously are necessary for any phosphor that is not completely stable in room air (e. Unfortunately there is no general rule to pick the best additive.

Section 3: Purification of Some Starting Materials 3.4 Carbonates Sulfates Oxalates Sulfur .1 3.3 3.2 3.

It is best converted to MgO by heating in an open boat. ~1000–1200ºC. Decant the excess liquid. Solution B: Dissolve about 1.45 µm pore size). air ~500–1000ºC. Then filter through a milli-pore filter (0.) of commercially available starting materials are good enough to prepare almost every phosphor mentioned in this cookbook. for ~½ hour. Both are better prepared via the oxalates. It helps to crush the chunks but do not try to speed up the dissolution by heating. Wash the carbonate in de-ionized water several times (stir. Slowly add solution A to B (or vice versa) while stirring.. . SrCO3 and BaCO3 both precipitate in too fine particles which almost behave like a gel in the water and do not readily settle. Dry with methanol in filter funnel and then completely in open air. Do not filter this solution. The carbonate usually comes in big chunks which take considerable time to dissolve. CaCO3 precipitates and settles readily. Add a few cubic centimeters of freshly prepared NH4-sulfide solution.) in the starting materials are better kept below this level. Let stand overnight. luminescent grade. Fe. Lehmann's Phosphor Cookbook.g. let settle.1 g-mole of the (NH4)2CO3 (= 105 g) in 1 liter water at room temperature. decant). Some impurities (e. Only some CaS-type phosphors are exceptions. Consequently.1 Carbonates (described using the example of CaCO3) Prepare two separate solutions. 3.Section 3 PURIFICATION OF SOME STARTING MATERIALS* The normal purities (analytical reagent grade. harmful impurities (mainly metals like Mn. Let settle. for ~½ hour. air. etc. etc. Properties Mg carbonate prepared in this way is of somewhat uncertain composition. Solution A: Dissolve 1 g-mole of Ca(NO3)·4H2O (= 236 g) in about 1 liter water at room temperature. * This section is from W. It can be converted to CaO by firing in an open quartz boat. White CaCO3 precipitates and some CO2 develops. Mn) show up in the CaS-type phosphors in concentrations as low as 1 ppm. stir.

Then filter through a milli-pore filter (0.3. Ba(C2H3O2)·H2O in about 1 liter water at room temperature. Add a few cubic centimeters of NH4OH. CaSO4 precipitates as gypsum. decant). White sulfate will precipitate. Slowly pour solution A into B (or vice versa) while stirring.2 Sulfates (described using the example of SrSO4) Prepare two separate solutions. Then filter through a milli-pore filter (0. Solution A: Dissolve 1 g-mole (= 273 g) of Ba-acetate.45 µm pore size). Add a few cubic centimeters of freshly prepared NH4 sulfide solution. SrSO4 is still manageable but BaSO4 tends to be of too fine particles which behave almost like a gel in the water and do not readily settle. Dry with methanol in filter funnel over filter paper and then completely in open air. Let stand overnight. Slowly pour solution A into B (or vice versa) while stirring. stir. air ~500–1000ºC. decant). for about ½ hour. It can be converted to the more stable anhydrite by heating in open boats.45 µm pore size). Filter through a milli-pore filter (0. Sr and Ba sulfates precipitate immediately as anhydrous sulfates. Properties Mg sulfate cannot be prepared in this way (MgSO4 = epsom salt).45 µm pore size).3 Oxalates (described using the example of BaC2O4) Prepare two separate solutions. . Solution B: Dissolve about 1. Dry with methanol in a filter funnel over filter paper and then completely in open air. Solution A: Dissolve 1 g-mole (= 212 g) of Sr(NO3)2 in about 1 liter water. Then filter through a milli-pore filter (0. CaSO4·2H2O. Wash in de-ionized water several times (stir. stir. in 1 liter water at room temperature. 3. Let settle. Wash in de-ionized water several times (stir.45 µm pore size). let settle. Decant the excess liquid. stir. Decant the excess liquid. Solution B: Dissolve about 1. H2C2O4·2H2O.1 g-mole of the (NH4)2SO4 in 1 liter water. let settle. Add NH4OH to make the solution slightly alkalinic. Let stand overnight.1 g-mole (= 138 g) of oxalic acid. White BaC2O4 will precipitate out and readily settles down. Add a few cubic centimeters of freshly prepared NH4 sulfide solution. Let settle.

~½ hour. It converts completely to MgO by heating in an open boat. Sr oxalate precipitates as SrC2O4·H2O. ~500–1000°C. H2. decant). Wash the sulfur several times in acetone (stir. ~½ hour. ~ ½ hour.4 Sulfur Dissolve ordinary precipitated (not sublimed) sulfur in as little CS2 as possible. H2. stir or shake vigorously. Filter the solution though a dense paper filter. Properties This is a coarse yellow powder. let settle. sufficiently pure for all preparation work of sulfidetype phosphors. In contrast to SrCO3. It converts to SrCO3 by firing in an open boat. ~1100°C. etc. Further conversion to SrO is not practically possible by firing in an open boat. It converts to CaCO3 by heating in an open boat. ~500ºC. Black impurities (metal sulfides. Yellow sulfur will precipitate. ~1 hour. air. Ba-oxalate precipitates as BaC2O4 which can be converted to BaCO3 by firing in an open boat. Ca oxalate precipitates as CaC2O4·H2O. air. Dry in filter funnel over filter paper and then completely in open air. ~500–1000°C. ~1100ºC. Pour the filtered solution into a clean flask.Properties Mg oxalate precipitates as MgC2O4·2H2O. add the same amount (by volume) of pure acetone. air. BaCO3 is not as easily converted into the oxide by firing in H2. ~1 hour.) will remain on the paper. . 3.

9 4.11 4.1 4.10 4.16 Description of Data Simple Oxides Silicates Halosilicates Phosphates Halophosphates Borates Aluminates and Gallates Molybdates and Tungstates Miscellaneous Oxides Halides and Oxyhalides Sulfates ZnS-Type Sulfides CaS-Type Sulfides Double Sulfides Miscellaneous Sulfides and Oxysulfides .Section 4: Phosphor Data 4.13 4.8 4.4 4.12 4.5 4.14 4.7 4.15 4.3 4.2 4.6 4.

. The efficiencies by electron beam excitation in vacuum are described by the energy ratio (i.or 254-nm ultraviolet (UV) — both the main emissions of a Hg discharge lamp — are given in Lehmann's Phosphor Tables in terms of quanta (i. Additional impurities (co-activators.e. is always a possibility that cannot be ruled out.2 eV. The chemical formula corresponding to the host crystal generally is well established but the crystal structure may not be available. the ratio of emitted light quanta over irradiated UV quanta).) Efficiencies under optical excitation.1 Description of Data* This section presents information about inorganic phosphors. either from Lehmann's Phosphor Cookbook or from Lehmann's Phosphor Tables. perhaps by using modified preparation conditions. The phosphor composition and a brief description of the preparation conditions used by Lehmann are given in his Phosphor Cookbook but not in the Phosphor Tables. + = efficiencies in the 1–10% range. the ratio of emitted light energy over irradiated electron beam energy).. The emission peak corresponds to the spectral position where the diffuse band has a maximum. or to one or two strongest lines in case of line emission. (Lehmann notes that one should keep in mind that an efficiency improvement of a phosphor. Many emission spectra consist of diffuse bands extending over a certain range. only observed efficiencies of the best samples known to Lehmann are shown.. The symbols mean: ++ = efficiencies in the 50–100% range.e.Section 4 PHOSPHOR DATA 4. – = efficiencies below 10%. Both the peak and bandwidth frequently depend on preparation conditions and are reproducible only within about ±0. + = efficiencies in the 10–50% range. etc.1 to 0. Almost all inorganic phosphors consist of a host material into which small amounts of an activator impurity have been dissolved. by either 365. The width corresponds only to band emission and indicates the width of the band at half of its peak intensity (full width at half maximum—FWHM). The activation includes only the activator and its ionic state as far as it is known. others are complex in shape or consist of discrete (although sometimes somewhat diffuse) lines. In this instance the symbols mean: ++ = efficiencies of 10% or more. Optical properties summarize the emissions of the phosphors. The emission color is that as it appears to the human eye. – = efficiencies below 1%.) are specified only in some cases where they have a strong effect on the final luminescence of the phosphor. *This subsection is adapted from W. Because efficiencies obtained on poor phosphor samples are of limited usefulness. Lehmann’s Phosphor Cookbook. to the spectral range of the main part of a complex emission.

The emission and absorption spectra measured by Lehmann are all for room temperature and for the activator concentrations shown. The absorption spectra indicate where the materials may be excited (no absorption—no emission).The luminescence decay time is the time for the emission either to decay to 1/10 or to 1/e of its initial value. All spectra are plotted on a quantum basis.88 eV Only the main references to original publications are given. Absence of a reference means that none is known. the two optical wavelengths used for excitation correspond to: 365 nm — 3. that is. The simple conversion between wavelength (in nanometers. the abscissa is calibrated in electron volts (eV) rather than wavelength units because luminescence processes are quantum processes. Too few excitation spectra were available to be included. but not necessarily at the optimum in every case. It is also easier to compare the widths of approximately Gaussian-shaped emission bands plotted in eV than it is to compare the widths of very nonGaussian-shaped bands plotted in wavelength units. . nm) and quantum energy (in eV) is (nm) = 1240/(eV) Using this conversion.40 eV 254 nm — 4. These concentrations are close to.

01 (of Bi) By weight (g) 100 0. Dry in air. Powderize.2 Simple Oxides The following host compounds and activators are included in this subsection: CaO:Bi3+ CaO:Cd2+ CaO:Cu+ CaO:Eu3+ CaO:Eu3+. Store in well-closed container. Na+ CaO:Mn2+ CaO:Pb2+ CaO:Sb3+ CaO:Sm3+ CaO:Tb3+ CaO:Tl+ CaO:Zn2+ ZnO:Al3+.023 Preparation Mix by slurrying in water or methanol.5 0. 1 hour. Keep dry. stagnant air. .390 0. Powderize when dry. 1200ºC.Ga3+ ZnO:Ga3+ ZnO:S ZnO:Se ThO2:Eu3+ ThO2:Pr3+ ThO2:Tb3+ Y2O3:Bi3+ Y2O3:Er3+ Y2O3:Eu3+ (YOE) Y2O3:Ho3+ Y2O3:Tb3+ La2O3:Bi3+ La2O3:Eu3+ La2O3:Pb2+ CaO:Bi3+ Structure: Cubic (NaCl) Composition Ingredient CaCO3 CaF2 Bi2O3 Mole % 100 0. Fire in capped quartz tubes.4.

A. Luminescence spectra of Bi3+ ions in MgO and CaO. J.. G.. 40.385 Preparation Mix by slurrying in water or methanol. References 1.40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: 5% Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 50 2 3 Remark This phosphor is very sensitive to traces of Mn. Store in well-closed container. 455 (1973). Hughes. may vary between about 3. 144 (1976). N. 707 (1975). 1200ºC. J. Keep dry. Lehmann. Phys...3 By weight (g) 100 0. 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 CaO:Cd2+ Structure: Cubic (NaCl) Composition Ingredient CaCO3 CdO Mole % 100 0. Lumin.90 and 4. A. and Pells.17 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0. Powderize. 71. ++ (3.00 eV Absorption (%) 100 Emission . Calcium oxide phosphors. Dry in air. and Asano. 1 hour.4 eV). W.. 2. Yamashita.. Powderize when dry.Optical Properties Emission color: Violet + UV Emission peak: 3.29 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (3.Se):Bi3+ and CaO:Bi3+ phosphors. Optical Properties Emission color: UV Emission peak: Somewhat uncertain. Luminescence-centers of Ca(S. Phys. 3. stagnant air. Status Solidi B. 6.. Jpn.P. Use only purest CaCO3. Soc. Fire in capped quartz tubes.E.

2. Wise.88 eV).5 0.Emission width (FWHM): 0..77 and ~3. Slurry in water. Store in well-closed container. 6.18 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0..025 Preparation Dissolve the copper sulfate in a little water.88 eV). H. – (3. 1200ºC. 455 (1973). OSRAM Ges. Abh. Tech.. about 230 µsec Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 50 2 3 References 1. 10.. Optical Properties Emission color: Bluish + UV Emission peak: Two overlapping bands. J. Calcium oxide phosphors. 87 (1969). Lange.63 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: – (4.40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: 6–7% Decay to 10% : Exponential. CO. W. Dry in air. – (3. add solution to the CaCO3 + CaF2 mix. Fire in capped quartz tubes.75 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: + (4. Keep dry. 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 CaO:Cu+ Structure: Cubic (NaCl)l Composition Ingredient CaCO3 CaF2 CuSO4·5H2O Mole % 100 0. Lehmann. ~2. Lumin.380 0.01 By weight (g) 100 0. Powderize.40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: 2% Absorption (%) 100 Emission . 1 hour. Powderize when dry.

Fire in capped quartz tubes. Store in well-closed container. stagnant air. slightly deeper red than that of YOE Emission peak: Main line at 2. 2 hours.. Lehmann. 1200ºC.. 1200ºC. J. N2 loaded with H2O. 2. 3. quench again to room temperature as quickly as possible. – (3. Powderize. can be sensitized for excitation at 3. After this firing. 6. After this firing. Fire in open quartz boats.015 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4.40 eV by addition of Bi (see CaO:Bi3+) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: Poor Absorption (%) 100 Emission . Powderize.Spectra 800 700 600 500 400 Wavelength (nm) 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Reference 1. 1. Optical Properties Emission color: Red. W. Powderize. N2. Keep dry. Calcium oxide phosphors. quench again to room temperature as quickly as possible.5 1. Dry in air. 1 hour. Powderize when dry. 455 (1973). ~20 min. Lumin.1 Preparation Mix by slurrying in water or methanol.40 eV). Fire in open quartz boats.88 eV). 1200ºC. CaO:Eu3+ Structure: Cubic (NaCl) Composition Ingredient CaCO3 CaF2 Eu2O3 Mole % 100 1.2 2.2 (of Eu) By weight (g) 100 1.

A. 6.40 eV) Spectra 800 700 600 500 400 Wavelength (nm) 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Absorption (%) 100 Emission Absorption (%) 100 Emission . Calcium oxide phosphors. J. Naturforsch. 233 (1957). Lehmann. Lumin.Spectra 800 700 600 500 400 Wavelength (nm) 300 50 2 3 Remarks 1. P. Naturforsch. 2.88 eV). Na+ Structure: Cubic (NaCl) Optical Properties Emission color: Orange-yellow Emission peak: 2. This CaO:Eu3+ phosphor has been tested in fluorescent lamps. 561 (1951).. Pt. Z. or K (perhaps for charge compensation. and Uber eu-ionen in erdalkalioxyden und erdalkali-sulfiden. 6. The red Eu3+ emission shown in the preceding figure appears only if no alkali is present. It performs very poorly.10 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4. W. A. Z.. References 1. Brauer. Top efficiency requires that the phosphor passes through this range as rapidly as possible after second and third firings. Pt. – (3. The fluorine in the above recipe can be replaced by chlorine or bromine but a phosphor so prepared is badly hygroscopic probably because of leftover CaCl2 or CaBr2. 455 (1973). Addition of Li. 3. 4.. 12. 2. Li+ + Eu3+ = 2Ca2+) causes the red line at 2. Na. The phosphor reacts to a “bad” temperature range (~800–1100ºC) by greatly reduced efficiency. 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 CaO:Eu3+.015 eV to appear.

Keep dry.40 eV by addition of Bi (see CaO:Bi3+) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: 5% Decay to 10%: Exponential.40 eV).115 Preparation Mix by slurrying in water. Studies on the concept of large activator centers in crystal phosphors.1 By weight (g) 100 0. 1.. The phosphor must be fired in a reducing atmosphere. can be sensitized to respond to 4. about 22 msec Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 50 2 3 Remarks 1. Powderize when dry. J. 1200ºC. Electrochem. J. Dry in air. CO.390 0.07 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0. 2.. 100. can be sensitized to respond to 3..88 eV by addition of Pb (see CaO:Pb2+). 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Absorption (%) 100 Emission . Strong Mn2+ emission appears from about 1 ppm to 10% of Mn or Ca. Fire in capped quartz tubes. References 1. Store in well-closed container.CaO:Mn2+ Structure: Cubic (NaCl) Composition Ingredient CaCO3 CaF2 MnCO3 Mole % 100 0. N.5 0. Ewles. Optical Properties Emission color: Orange-yellow Emission peak: 2. Dependence of luminescent efficiency on concentration of activator size of luminescent centers. 1 hour. otherwise the Mn stays separate as MnO2.88 eV).20 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: – (4. 392 (1953). The Mn concentration is not critical. and Lee. – (3. Soc. Powderize.

Luminescence spectra. M.88 eV).. 1. H. J. Calcium oxide phosphors.. Calcium oxide phosphors. Excitation efficiency by e-beam: 10% Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) (3.390 0. stagnant air.5 0. 1200ºC. and Fredericks.M. Powderize.. Optical Properties Emission color: UV Emission peak: 3. Fire in capped quartz tubes. 6.022 Preparation Mix by slurrying in water or methanol. W.01 By weight (g) 100 0. Lehmann.. 1 hour. Wise. 455 (1973). K. W. 41 (1963). 854 (1962).42 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0. Luminescence of solids excited by surface recombination of atoms.. Techn. OSRAM Ges.J. CaO:Pb2+ Structure: Cubic (NaCl) Composition Ingredient CaCO3 CaF2 PbO Mole % 100 0. J. Lumin.. Hühninger. Absorption (%) 100 Emission . 4..40 eV) 400 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Reference 1. 6. 37.21 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4. 3. Keep dry. Powderize when dry.2. W. Abh. Lehmann.. Store in well-closed container. 37. 455 (1973)... J. Sancier. Wise. A. Lumin. Chem. Phys.. Dry in air. and Ruffler.

Calcium oxide phosphors. Lehmann.145 0. G. and Kunstler.1 (of Sb) 1 By weight (g) 100 0. 2. Herzog. 6.88 eV). Zur lumineszenz antimonaktivierter erdalkalioxide insonderheit des systems CaO-Sb. Powderize.... Optical Properties Emission color: Yellow-green Emission peak: 2. Powderize when dry. (Leipzig). J. (3. Absorption (%) 100 Emission . 1200ºC.51 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: (4. can be sensitized for excitation by 4. 227. Lumin.40 eV UV by addition Bi (see CaO:Bi3+) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: Poor Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 References 1. CO. Dry in air.40 eV). K. Keep dry. 56 (1964). Phys. Store in well-closed container.840 Preparation Mix by slurrying in water. W.88 and 3. 455 (1973)..CaO:Sb3+ Structure: Cubic (NaCl) Composition Ingredient CaCO3 Sb2O3 NaHCO3 Mole % 100 0. Witzmann.30 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0. H. 1 hour. Fire in capped quartz tubes. Z. Chem..

Thermoluminescence of phosphors CaO-Sm and CaO-Bi (calcium oxide-samarium and-bismuth).. Phys. (Leipzig). Phys. Fire in capped quartz tubes.40 eV). G.88 eV).5 0. Powderize. W. Rad.A. J. can be sensitized to respond to 4. Phys. K. 125 (1953). 228.. Beitrag zur thermolumineszenz des samariumaktivierten calciumoxids. and Raths. 6. 332 (1964).40 eV excitation by addition of Bi (see CaO:Bi3+) Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 References 1. 2. 2. R. Chem. Phys. and Wuntke. Dry in air. Z. 13 (1965). 243.CaO:Sm3+ Structure: Cubic (NaCl) Composition Ingredient CaCO3 CaF2 Sm2O3 Mole % 100 0. S78.. and Abel. Phys. Br. Chem. Herzog. Calcium oxide phosphors. Crozet. Keep dry.. A.19 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: – (4. W..16. Appl. Z.. Runciman. Atomic configurations in luminescent centres. W. 4 (1955). H. J. Suppl. Herzog. 5.00. 33 (1970). Lehmann. Absorption (%) 100 Emission . 14.. can be sensitized for 4. 6. 225..88 eV by addition of Pb (see CaO:Pb2+).. stagnant air. Herzog. Lumin. J. and Janin. Fiquet. 4. Optical Properties Emission color: Orange-yellow Emission peak: 2.3 (of Sm) By weight (g) 100 0. Powderize when dry. (Leipzig).380 0. – (3. and 2. G... 455 (1973). .88 and 3. G. (Leipzig).520 Preparation Mix by slurrying in water or methanol.. 3. Store in well-closed container. Witzmann. Chem. 1 hour.. 1200ºC. J. J.. Z.

Calcium oxide phosphors. Lumin. J. W. 6..88 eV). Dry in air. – (3.28 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: + (4. Powderize when dry.5 (of Tb) By weight (g) 100 0.26–2.5 1.03 1 By weight (g) 56 0. Store in well-closed container. Keep dry..540 Absorption (%) 100 Emission . CO.380 2. Powderize.8 Preparation Mix by slurrying in water or methanol. low because of dark body color Excitation efficiency by e-beam: Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Reference 1. Fire in capped quartz tubes. CaO:Tl+ Structure: Cubic (NaCl) Composition Ingredient CaO TlOH NH4Cl Mole % 100 0. Lehmann. Optical Properties Emission color: Pale green Emission peak: Many lines.40 eV).066 0. 455 (1973). 1 hour.CaO:Tb3+ Structure: Cubic (NaCl) Composition Ingredient CaCO3 CaF2 Tb4O7 Mole % 100 0. strongest near 2. 1200ºC.

Fire in capped quartz tubes. 6. 1200ºC. J. Absorption (%) 100 Emission . Keep dry. 1. Phys.5 0.3 By weight (g) 100 0.5 eV (IR) Emission width (FWHM): 0..Preparation First mix only the CaO and NH4Cl by dry grinding. 2. Powderize Store in well-closed container.240 Preparation Mix by slurrying in water or methanol. – (3. Calcium oxide phosphors. 1 hour. 1200ºC. 130 (1964)...88 eV). stagnant air. Z. Now admit the TlOH by dry grinding. Optical Properties Emission color: Pale yellow + IR Emission peaks: 2. Dry in air. 2. Chem. (Leipzig).40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: 3% (Including both bands) Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 References 1.11 and 1. W. CaO:Zn2+ Structure: Cubic (NaCl) Composition Ingredient CaCO3 CaF2 ZnO Mole % 100 0. Powderize when dry. Lehmann.390 0.48 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: + (4. 227. Powderize. stagnant air. Anderson. Zur photoelektrischen messung geringer lumineszenzintensitaten. N2. 1200ºC. H. Lumin. 1 hour. 1 hour. Fire in capped quartz tubes. Fire in capped quartz tubes. 455 (1973).

W. 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 ZnO:Al3+..65 and 3. Lehmann. Lumin..Powderize. Instrum. 358 (1968).. 63. D. 2. Methods. Solid State Electron. Nucl.40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: 10% Decay to 10%: Exponential.88 eV). 1107 (1966).80 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: (4. D. about 300 sec Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 50 2 3 Reference 1. J. Absorption (%) 100 Emission .40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: + References 1. Luckey. 9. Methods. + (3. (3.Ga3+ Structure: Hexagonal (wurtzite) Optical Properties Emission color: UV Emission peak: 3.20 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0. varying between about 3. Edge emission of n-type conducting ZnO and CdS. Correction. 62.13 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: + (4. Keep dry. Optical Properties Emission color: UV Emission peak: Somewhat uncertain. A fast inorganic scintillator. Nucl. 455 (1973). 6.. 119 (1968). W. Instrum.88 eV). Lehmann.. Luckey. Store in well-closed container.. Calcium oxide phosphors.

40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: 1–1. 1 hour. A fast inorganic scintillator. Dry in air. When cool. except in H2. 119 (1968).195 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: + (4. 2. Fire in open quartz boats.4 Preparation Mix by slurrying in water or methanol. 800ºC. inspect again under UV lamp. Correction. inspect under UV lamp. Phosphor has gray (not white) body color.. 9.3 1 By weight (g) 81 0. stagnant air. 1. + (3. 3. Remove all portions which look different. Luckey. Methods. Do not heat to greater than 300ºC. Powderize. Fire in capped quartz tubes. Screen through 200 mesh (stainless steel sieve OK). When cool. slowly flowing H2.. Optical Properties Emission color: Deep violet + UV Emission peak: 3. 2. Remove any suspicious parts. Instrum.. Methods. Fire when dry. Lehmann. Material should show deep violet luminescence. This material is sensitive to traces of sulfur during preparation. W. 1 hour. Edge emission of n-type conducting ZnO and CdS. Solid State Electron. References 1. Avoid all sulfur like the plague. Luckey.2% Decay to 10%: Less than 1 nsec Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 50 2 3 Remarks 1.ZnO:Ga3+ Structure: Hexagonal (wurtzite) Composition Ingredient ZnO Ga2O3 ZnCl2 Mole % 100 0. 62. 2. 358 (1968). nothing else. Nucl. 1100ºC.88 eV). Instrum.280 1. D.. 1107 (1966). Nucl. 63. Material should be almost or completely dead. 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Absorption (%) 100 Emission . D. It is thermally in a semi-stable state.

Excitation efficiency by e-beam: + Decay to 10%: In the 1–10 sec range Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 60% 400 300 100 Emission 50 2 3 Remarks 1. Zinc-magnesium oxide and zinc-magnesium sulfide phosphors. J. This common bluish-green emission of ZnO is greatly enhanced by the addition of sulfur during firing.40 eV). 18. 99. 538 (1968). J. Lehmann.L. Smith..2 By weight (g) 81 ~0... A. 1 hour. Zinc oxide and zinc-cadmium oxide phosphors. Optical Properties Emission color: Blue-green Emission peak: 2. 2. The emission can be shifted towards blue by replacing 20% of the Zn by Mg. 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 . J. CO. 3. Thomsen. Soc. 2. 900ºC.. Chem.064 Preparation Fire in capped tubes. + (3.88 eV)..M.45 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0. Electrochem. and towards yellow by replacing 10% of the Zn by Cd. Electrochem. 770 (1950). 155 (1952). S. W. Sulfide in zinc-oxide luminophors. Soc. References 1.ZnO:S Structure: Hexagonal (wurtzite) Composition Ingredient ZnO S Mole % 100 ~0. Phys.41 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: + (4.. 115.

50–60% Excitation efficiency by e-beam: Afterglow tail observed into the millisecond range Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 100 Emission 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Remark This material can be obtained also by “burning” (i.98 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0. + (3.160 Preparation Fire in capped quartz tubes. Markovski..88 eV). Optical Properties Emission color: Orange Emission peak: 1. 900ºC. Soc. CO. Lehmann. J. 538 (1968). Zinc oxide and zinc-cadmium oxide phosphors.. 9. L.2 By weight (g) 81 0.40 eV). Optics and Spectr.e. Electrochem. 2.51 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: + (4.Y.. 40 (1960). N. 115.ZnO:Se Structure: Hexagonal (wurtzite) Composition Ingredient ZnO Se Mole % 100 ~0. oxidizing) of ZnSe in air but the efficiency of this ZnO:Se is lower.. 1 hour.. . W..S. References 1. and Oshanskaya.

H.ThO2:Eu3+ Structure: Rutile Composition Ingredient ThO2 Eu2O3 NH4F Mole % 100 1.88 eV). 2.3 3. Optika I Spektrosk. 2. Powderize. Dry in air. Borchard.5 (of Eu) 10 By weight (g) 232 2.S. Fok. and 2. M.7 Preparation Mix by slurrying in water.. Optical Properties Emission color: Pinkish orange-red Emission peak: Three strongest lines. Powderize when dry. 1. Dry. 2.V..04. 3 408 303 (1968). U. Wash in concentrated nitric acid and then in water until neutral.40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: 4% Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Remark This phosphor has been proposed for X-ray excitation because of the high stopping power of ThO2 for x-rays.095 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4. References 1.. 1 hour. 1300ºC. Pat. – (3. N2. Absorption (%) 100 Emission ..J.97. Fire in capped quartz tubes. 127 (1957).

2. Fire in capped quartz tubes.52 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: + (4. Powderize when dry.7 Absorption (%) 100 Emission .40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: 3% Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 ThO2:Tb3+ Structure: Rutile Composition Ingredient ThO2 Tb4O7 NH4F Mole % 100 0. Dry. Optical Properties Emission color: Blue-greenish white Emission peak: Strongest lines: at 1.88 eV).330 3.ThO2:Pr3+ Structure: Rutile Composition Ingredient ThO2 Pr2O3 NH4F Mole % 100 0.2 (of Pr) 10 By weight (g) 232 0. Powderize. N2.89. – (3. Dry in air. 1 hour.2 (of Tb) 10 By weight (g) 232 0.48.375 3. and 2. 1300ºC. Wash in concentrated nitric acid and then in water until neutral.7 Preparation Mix by slurrying in water or methanol.

Powderize.95 Preparation Mix by slurrying in water or methanol.J. U. Wash in concentrated nitric acid and then in water until neutral. 1300ºC. Fire in capped quartz tubes. CO. Optical Properties Emission color: Bluish-greenish Emission peak: Strongest at 2. – (3. Fire in capped quartz tubes. Y2O3:Bi3+ Structure: Cubic Composition Ingredient Y 2O 3 Bi2O3 CaF2 Mole % 100 (of Y) 0.1 (of Bi) 2. Dry. Borchard. Dry in air..5 By weight (g) 108 0. 1 hour. Dry in air.88 eV). Pat.Preparation Mix by slurrying in water. Powderize when dry.S. Absorption (%) 100 Emission . 1300ºC.40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: 3% Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Remark This phosphor has been proposed for X-ray excitation (high stopping power of ThO2 for Xrays). Reference 1. H. 3 408 303 (1968).230 1. 1 hour. Powderize when dry.285 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: + (4.. stagnant air.

. 1 hour.35 and 3. Sometimes it is difficult to recognize the bands in the very diffuse emission spectrum. . 2.95 Preparation Mix by slurrying in water or methanol. Proc. 3. et al.. 114. Dry in air. Fire in capped quartz tubes. Intern.35 eV peak) Excitation efficiency by UV: + (4. Investigations on BI3+-activated phosphors. Blasse. Luminescent behavior of bismuth in rare-earth oxides. J. 1137 (1967). Boulon. 1300ºC..35 eV band showing up Emission width (FWHM): 0. J. R. Datta..00 eV. G. J. Electrochem.Optical Properties Emission color: Pale blue-greenish white Emission peak: 2.T. Electrochem.83 eV (for 2. Lumin. p. A. and Palumbo. Conf. 48. 4.88 eV). G. S. 274 (1969).. Leningrad.5 By weight (g) 108 0. and Bril.40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: Low in either case Decay to 10%: 1 sec Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 100 Absorption (%) Emission 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Remark The Bi3+ emission in Y2O3 is very poorly expressed. + (3. Toma.1 (of Bi) 2. D.Z... frequently only the 2. References 1. Soc. 1. 530 (1972). stagnant air. Chem. Luminescence of some bismuth-activated oxides.K. Y2O3:Er3+ Structure: Cubic Composition Ingredient Y 2O 3 Bi2O3 CaF2 Mole % 100 (of Y) 0. 217 (1968)..230 1.. Powderize when dry. Soc. Phys. 116..

Powderize. 1 hour. Fire in open quartz boats. 1300ºC.03 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4. Dry in air.1 (of Bi) 2. Fire in capped quartz tubes.40 eV).5 By weight (g) 108 0. Powderize. 1 hour. see below) Absorption (%) 100 Emission .95 Preparation Mix by slurrying in water or methanol. Powderize when dry.88 eV).230 1. 1300ºC. Optical Properties Emission color: Red Emission peak: Strongest line at 2. 1300ºC. air. 80% Excitation efficiency by e-beam: 7–8% (if Eu conc: = 3%. – (3. (3. is low for the visible part because of strong competition by IR emission Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Y2O3:Eu3+ (YOE) Structure: Cubic Composition Ingredient Y 2O 3 Bi2O3 CaF2 Mole % 100 (of Y) 0. 1 hour.88 eV).2. stagnant air. Optical Properties Emission color: Pale green Emission peak: Strongest line at 2.40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: Efficiency not tested.206 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: – (4. stagnant air. Fire in capped quartz tubes.

Soc. Sensitization by Bi causes excitability by 3. Ropp.88 eV. K. 111. 1300ºC. stagnant air. Wickersheim. Fire in capped quartz tubes. Electrochem.A. The above recipe gives a phosphor optimized for excitation by 4. Luminescence of europium in ternary system — A2O3-Gd2O3-Y2O3. J. Soc. Powderize. Electrochem. 311 (1964)..88 eV UV.95 Preparation Mix by slurrying in water or methanol. Luminescent behavior of the rare earths in yttrium oxide and related hosts. R. N. Ropp. 1300ºC. Phys.. 2. Fire in capped quartz tubes. 1 hour. To obtain a phosphor optimized for e-beam excitation use only ½ of the above Eu concentration. Soc.Spectra 800 700 600 500 400 Wavelength (nm) 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Remarks 1. 47 (1964). 3. Appl.... and Lefever. 112. Chang.1 (of Bi) 2. J. stagnant air. References 1.. 181 (1965). R. 5. Fluorescence and stimulated emission from trivalent europium in yttrium oxide. Powderize when dry. 2.. 2.C. J. Spectral properties of rare earth oxide phosphors. Absorption (%) 100 Emission . J. Dry in air.. 4..230 1. 1. R. Soc. Y2O3:Ho3+ Structure: Cubic Composition Ingredient Y 2O 3 Bi2O3 CaF2 Mole % 100 (of Y) 0.C. 111. Electrochem. Datta. 114.A.K. R. 3500 (1963).5 By weight (g) 108 0.C. 34... J.40 eV UV but reduces the efficiency for excitation by 4. 1137 (1967). Electrochem. Luminescent behavior of bismuth in rare-earth oxides. 1 hour.

1 (of Bi) 2. Powderize. is low for the visible part because of the strong competition by IR emission Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Y2O3:Tb3+ Structure: Cubic Composition Ingredient Y 2O 3 Bi2O3 CaF2 Mole % 100 (of Y) 0. 1. Optical Properties Emission color: Pale green Emission peak: Strongest lines at 2.5 By weight (g) 108 0.30 eV. Fire in capped quartz tubes. 1300ºC. 2.40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: 2–3% (if Tb conc.266 and 2. see below) Absorption (%) 100 Emission .95 Preparation Mix by slurrying in water or methanol. plus many lines in the IR Excitation efficiency by UV: – (4. 1 hour. CO. Dry in air. = 1%. Fire in capped quartz tubes. 1 hour.88 eV).Optical Properties Emission color: Yellow-green Emission peak: Two lines in the visible at 2.253 and 2. CO. 1300ºC.230 1. Powderize when dry.88 eV).40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: Efficiency not tested. – (3.286 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: + (4. (3.

. Reference 1. 111. 1200 C.27 µsec Absorption (%) 100 Emission . – (3. stagnant air. Re-fire. Fire in capped quartz tubes.49 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4.67 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0.40 eV) Decay to 1/e: 0.. Soc.5%) of Tb.95 Preparation Mix by slurrying in water or methanol. Powderize. 2. Electrochem. Powderize when dry. 311 (1964).88 eV). Spectral properties of rare earth oxide phosphors. Optical Properties Color: Bluish Emission peak: 2.1 (of Bi) 2. Store in well-closed container. R.Spectra 800 700 600 500 400 Wavelength (nm) 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Remarks 1. otherwise Tb3+ oxidizes to Tb4+. The above recipe gives a phosphor optimized for excitation by 4.88 eV.C. Powderize. La2O3:Bi3+ Structure: Cubic Composition Ingredient La2O3 Bi2O3 CaF2 Mole % 100 (of Y) 0. Ropp. Dry in air.5 By weight (g) 163 0. J. same conditions as above. 1 hour.230 1. To obtain a phosphor optimized for e-beam excitation use only 1% (instead of 2. This phosphor must be fired in reducing atmosphere.

Store in well-closed container. Fire in capped quartz tubes. J. 112.88 eV). La2O3:Eu3+ Structure: Cubic Composition Ingredient La2O3 Bi2O3 CaF2 Mole % 100 (of Y) 0. Fluorescent properties of red-emitting europium-activated phosphors with cathode ray excitation. Powderize when dry.. J.. Soc.230 1. Ropp. Optical Properties Emission color: Red Emission peak: Strongest line at 1. 2.1 (of Bi) 2. C.L. 1 hour. Datta. Electrochem...K.. R. 2.Spectra 800 700 600 500 400 Wavelength (nm) 300 100 Absorption (%) Emission 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 References 1. stagnant air.. R. Luminescent behavior of bismuth in rare-earth oxides. Electrochem. 111 (1965). Wanmaker. and deLaat. 1 hour. Powderize. Soc. J.. Electrochem. 1. 124 (1965).95 Preparation Mix by slurrying in water or methanol. – (3. A. W. Soc. 3.C. Powderize.5 By weight (g) 163 0. 114. stagnant air. 1300ºC. Fire in capped quartz tubes. 112. Dry in air. 1137 (1967). Luminescence of europium in ternary system — A2O3-Gd2O3-Y2O3.. Bril.985 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: – (4.40 eV) . 1300ºC.

Electrochem. Soc... 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 La2O3:Pb2+ Structure: Cubic Composition Ingredient La2O3 Bi2O3 CaF2 Mole % 100 (of Y) 0. A.. 5. Phys. Barasch. Soc. J... Ropp. Luminescent behavior of bismuth in rare-earth oxides. N. Appl. 112. 4...K. Luminescent behavior of the rare earths in yttrium oxide and related hosts...C. 112. and Dieke.. Fluorescence and stimulated emission from trivalent europium in yttrium oxide. Wickersheim. 43. + (3. 988 (1965). R. Electrochem. Luminescence of europium in ternary system — A2O3-Gd2O3-Y2O3. Bril.. R.51 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4.A.95 Optical Properties Emission color: Yellow-green Emission peak: 2.Spectra 800 700 600 500 400 Wavelength (nm) 300 50 2 3 References 1.C. J..27 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0..A.1 (of Bi) 2.. J.. Fluorescent properties of red-emitting europium-activated phosphors with cathode ray excitation.. Soc. R.40 eV) Absorption (%) 100 Emission . G. Electrochem. and Lefever. Electrochem. Spectral properties of rare earth oxide phosphors. 47 (1964). and deLaat. Soc. J. Electrochem. 6.. Datta. 3500 (1963). Phys. G. R. 114. C. 311 (1964). J. Fluorescence decay of rare-earth ions in crystals..L. K. Chang.88 eV). J. 111. Wanmaker. 34.230 1. Chem. 1137 (1967).5 By weight (g) 163 0.E. 2. 181 (1965). 111. 111 (1965). Soc. 7. 3. W.. Ropp. J.C.H.

Spectra 800 700 600 500 400 Wavelength (nm) 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Absorption (%) 100 Emission .

P Zn2SiO4:Mn2+.4.Mn2+ BaSi2O5:Eu2+ BaSi2O5:Pb2+ Y2SiO5:Ce3+ CaMgSi2O6:Eu2+ CaMgSi2O6:Eu2+.Mn2+ MgSrBa2Si2O7:Eu2+ MgBa3Si2O8:Eu2+ MgSr3Si2O8:Eu2+.3 Silicates The following host compounds and activators are included in this subsection: CaSiO3:Ce3+ CaSiO 3:Eu2+ CaSiO 3:Pb2+ CaSiO3:Ti4+ CaSiO3:Pb2+.Mn2+ Sr3MgSi2O8:Eu2+ Ca5B2SiO10:Eu3+ Ca3Al2Si3O12:Eu2+ LiCeBa4Si4O14:Mn2+ LiCeSrBa3Si4O14:Mn2+ .Li+.Mn2+ Ca2MgSi2O7:Eu2+ Ca2MgSi2O7 Ca2MgSi2O7:Eu2+.As5+ Zn2SiO4:Ti4+ (Zn+Be)2SiO4:Mn2+ Sr2SiO4:Eu2+ SrBaSiO4:Eu2+ Ba2SiO4:Eu2+ Ba2SiO4:Ce3+.Mn2+ Sr2MgSi2O7:Eu2+ Ba2MgSi2O7:Eu2+ BaMg2Si2O7:Eu2+ BaSrMgSi2O7:Eu2+ Ba2Li2Si2O7:Eu2+ Ba2Li2Si2O7:Sn2+ Ba2Li2Si2O7:Sn2+.Mn2+ Be2SiO4:Mn2+ Mg2SiO4:Mn2+ Zn2SiO4:Mn2+ Zn2SiO4:Mn2+.

. Kröger.56 Absorption (%) 100 Emission . 1 hour. Some Aspects of the Luminescence of Solids.00 eV. Elsevier.1 (of Eu) 2 By weight (g) 98 60 0.42 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: + (4.80 1.56 Preparation Mix by slurrying in water.176 1.A. 1100ºC.CaSiO3:Ce3+ Structure: Triclinic (pseudowollastonite) Composition Ingredient CaCO3 SiO2 TiO2 CaF2 Mole % 97 100 1 2 By weight (g) 97 100 0. Fire in capped quartz tubes. 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 CaSiO3:Eu2+ Structure: Triclinic (pseudowollastonite) Composition Ingredient CaCO3 SiO2 Eu2O3 CaF2 Mole % 98 100 0. Dry in air. Powderize when dry. Optical Properties Emission color: Violet + UV Emission peak: 3. Amsterdam (1948). CO.88 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: + Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 50 2 3 Reference 1. F. 3.

70 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0. 1100ºC. – (3. 1 hour. Powderize when dry.25 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: + (4.88 eV).40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: + Absorption (%) 100 Emission .40 eV) Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 CaSiO3:Pb2+ Structure: Triclinic (pseudowollastonite) Composition Ingredient CaCO3 SiO2 PbO CaF2 Mole % 97 100 1 2 By weight (g) 97 60 2. Optical Properties Emission color: Violet Emission peak: 2. Optical Properties Emission color: UV Emission peak: 3. Dry in air.88 eV).Preparation Mix by slurrying in water.23 1. N2. Dry in air. 1100º C. Fire in capped quartz tubes. + (3. Fire in capped quartz tubes.93 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0. Powderize when dry. 1 hour. CO.87 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4.56 Preparation Mix by slurrying in water or methanol.

Bril. E. CaSiO3:Ti4+ Structure: Triclinic (pseudowollastonite) Composition Ingredient CaCO3 SiO2 TiO2 CaF2 Mole % 97 100 1 2 By weight (g) 97 100 0.. Soc. 10. Rep. Soc. Hüniger... 346 (1954).. 8. 43. and Claffy. Dry in air. 269 (1964). R. Butler.. 19.W.. M. and Hoffman. 7. 99.. H. and Wollentin.V. The calcium silicate Mn + Pb phosphor phase relationships and preparation. J.. Pennsylvania University Press.. 1 hour. 356 (1961). Absorption (%) 100 Emission . J. Powderize when dry.. Optical properties of tin-activated and lead-activated calcium metasilicate phosphors.. H. and Klick.. Phys. Wiss. Philips Res. Bril. 97. Schulman. 4. J. 41 (1963).. C. 123 (1950). Mooney.56 Preparation Mix by slurrying in water or methanol.. 800 (1959).. J. Electrochem.W. W.L. Electrochem. Wei.H. Z. A. Schulman. J. K. Die manganbanden und ihre trennung im lumineszenzspektrum von calciumsilikat (Mn. Fluorescent Lamp Phosphors. M. Note on the properties of calcium silicate phosphors... Philips Res. Rep. 5. R. and Ruffler. 3. Ginther. and Hoekstra.E. Nagy.. University Park (1980).H. J.. Calcium zinc silicate phosphor. 139. OSRAM Ges. Fire in capped quartz tubes. Abh. A. 8.. and Hoekstra. J. 106.K. W. Am.Pb).80 1. Opt..J. Lange. 6. Electrochem. Harrison.. Tech. Soc. air.. Ginther. R. 318 (1953). 2.W.. Soc...H. R. 9. Soc..Spectra 800 700 600 500 400 Wavelength (nm) 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 References 1. C. 106. D.C. 955 (1959).. Electrochem. R. A study of the mechanism of sensitized luminescence of solids. 137 (1952).J.. 16. 1100ºC.

12 2. CO.56 Preparation Mix by slurrying in methanol plus a few cubic centimeters water. Optical Properties Emission color: Orange Emission peak: 2.5 60 1. 2.3 1.5 100 0. N2.Optical Properties Emission color: Bluish Emission peak: 2. Powderize when dry. Dry.88 eV). 1150ºC. 1. Powderize.88 eV) Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 CaSiO3:Pb2+. 1 hour.93 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0.17 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0. Wash in water several times.5 2 2 By weight (g) 97. Dry in air. 1 hour. Fire in capped quartz tubes. Fire in capped quartz tubes.40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: 60% (estimated) Decay to 10% : Slightly non exponential ( 35 msec) followed by a long but weaker afterglow tail extending into seconds Absorption (%) 100 Emission . – (3. 1000ºC.42 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4.Mn2+ Structure: Triclinic (pseudowollastonite) Composition Ingredient CaCO3 SiO2 PbO MnCO3 CaF2 Mole % 97.92 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: + (4. Powderize.

Some new complex silicate phosphors containing calcium.88 eV Emission width (FWHM): eV Excitation efficiency by UV: – (4. Electrochem.88 eV). Be2SiO4:Mn2+ Structure: Trigonal (phenakite) Optical Properties Emission color: Orange-red Emission peak: 1.L. 96.. and beryllium.. magnesium. J.97 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: – (4. Smith. – (3.40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: + Zn2SiO4:Mn2+ Structure: Trigonal (willemite) Composition Ingredient ZnO SiO2 MnCO3 Mole % 194 110 6 By weight (g) 158 66 6.40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: + Mg2SiO4:Mn2+ Structure: Orthorhombic (forsterite) Optical Properties Emission color: Red Emission peak: 1.9 Absorption (%) 100 Emission . 287 (1949). Soc. A.88 eV).Spectra 800 700 600 500 400 Wavelength (nm) 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Reference 1. – (3.

L. and Chapman & Hall. 3. 4.T. and Vink. 5... J. Lumin.F. J.T.88 eV). 4. Very thorough mixing of the ingredients is essential.. Fire in open quartz containers. Soc. Electrochem.35 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0. Leverenz.N.. John Wiley & Sons. Segnit. and Brown.W. and Shafer. 79 (1976). 1. C. Chang. 229 (1979).F. 98. 2. and decay after excitation by e-beam pulse. J.. and Holland.. 117. Up to ~20% of the Zn can be replaced by Mg without visible effect of the Mg on the emission. 371 (1951).. Soc. Kinetics of X-ray irradiation-caused degradation of photoluminescence of some phosphors. A. Bull.40 eV). Electronic states of Mn2+-activated phosphors. forming gas. Efficiency for excitation by UV and by e-beam. Green-emitting phosphors.. 8. E. Am. Fire in open quartz containers. 80–90% Excitation efficiency by e-beam: 7%/+ Decay: Near exponential with time constant ~10 msec (22–25 msec to 1/10) Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 50 2 3 Remarks 1. J.R. Electrochem. Soc. Parts or all of the Si can be replaced by Ge (but not by Sn). 123. 3.. A. Optical Properties Emission color: Green Emission peak: 2.. Ceram... 1200ºC. References 1.T. New York.. G. 1 hour. Appl. depend on the Mn concentration used. Palumbo. Bauer.J. G. Dry in air.. Lett. and Garlick. J. 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Absorption (%) 100 Emission . Phys.W. air. (1974).E. Powderize when dry. 2. – (3. D. Powderize by dry milling. 7. London (1950).18 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4. J. 5. 35. An Introduction to Luminescence of Solids. 6. System MgO-ZnO-SiO2. Electrochem. Efficiency enhancement in manganese-doped zinc silicate phosphor with AIPO4 substitution.. M. 443.Preparation Mix by ball-milling in water about 2 hours. A. The thermoluminescence characteristics of silicate phosphors activated by manganese and arsenic. H. 1. I... 409 (1965). 2. Soc. 1184 (1970). 1 hour. 1200ºC.. Stevels. 48. Emission peak moves slightly to longer wavelength with increasing Mn concentration.

Optical Properties Emission color: Green Emission peak: 2. Opt.88 eV). and Schulman. Zn2SiO4:Mn2+.230 62.H. air.” etc. orange Emission peak: 2.40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: + Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 100 Emission 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Zn2SiO4:Mn2+.. 1 hour. J.C. Klick.2 102 0.02 (* This requires extremely fine SiO2.02 (of As) By weight (g) 163 0.As5+ Structure: Trigonal (willemite) Composition Ingredient ZnO MnCO3 SiO2* As2O3 Mole % 200 0. Dry in air. J. Soc.) Preparation Mix by ball-milling in water about 2 hours. – (3.P Structure: Trigonal (willemite) Optical Properties Emission color: Green..18 eV . Fire in capped quartz tubes. 1200ºC. commercially available as “Silanox. 910 (1952). 42. On the luminescence of divalent manganese in solids.8.35 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0.1 0.04 and 2. C. Am.35 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4.. Powderize when dry.” “Cab-O-Sil.

Phys.. Ordinary silicic acid cannot be used for this phosphor (too coarse).Excitation efficiency by e-beam: 3–4% Decay: Decay consisting of two subsequent branches. first branch near-exponential with time constant (to 1/e) 12 msec.. Bull.. G. 98. 2. 46. Very thorough mixing of the ingredients is important. H. – (3.40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: + Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 100 Emission 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 . Zn2SiO4:Ti4+ Structure: Trigonal (willemite) Optical Properties Emission color: Violet Emission peak: 3.. 3. later part non-exponential and extending to several seconds or longer Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 100 Emission 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Remarks 1.. Soc. The afterglow due to As5+ appears only when the phosphor has been fired in oxidizing atmosphere. 371 (1951). J.F. Chem.88 eV). 2.. Electrochem.02 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4. J. G. C.R. 878 (1942). Froelich.C. References 1. and Garlick. and Fonda. The thermoluminescence characteristics of silicate phosphors activated by manganese and arsenic.

40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: + Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 100 Emission 50 2 3 Reference 1..04 eV. 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Butler.60 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4. 2. Pennsylvania University Press. 244.Reference 1.H. p. Kröger.. Some Aspects of the Luminescence of Solids.A. Amsterdam (1948).35 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4.23 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0. – (3. F. University Park (1980). (Zn+Be)2SiO4:Mn2+ Structure: Trigonal (willemite) Optical Properties Emission color: Green.88 eV). – (3.88 eV).40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: + . Sr2SiO4:Eu2+ Structure: Orthorhombic Optical Properties Emission color: Green-yellow Emission peak: 2. Elsevier. p. K. Fluorescent Lamp Phosphors. orange Emission peak: 2.168.

J.4 g NH4Cl. et al.L. Rev. Fire in capped quartz tubes. Dry. G. Philips Tech. 1. Fire in capped quartz tubes. mix by dry milling. Powderize when dry. 2. + (3. CO. Philips Res. 733 (1968). Soc. The absorption and emission spectra of some important activators. 1. 23. 304 (1970).4 Preparation Mix by slurrying in water. Fluorescence of Eu2+ activated silicates. G. Then ball-mill in water. 1 hour. Rep.. CO. 189 (1968). T. Add another 5. and Bril. 3 Blasse. Wash in water several times (pH goes to ~10–12). 115. A. Optical Properties Emission color: Yellow-green Emission peak: 2. Powderize. Sr3MgSi2O8... 1 hour.5 5.40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: + . 1100ºC. 31. Powderize by dry milling. SrBaSiO4:Eu2+ Composition Ingredient SrCO3 BaCO3 SiO2 Eu2O3 NH4Cl Mole % 98 100 105 2 (of Eu) 10 By weight (g) 145 197 63 3. Equilibria and Eu2+ luminescence of subsolidus phases bounded by Ba3MgSi2O8. Dry in air. 1100ºC. Blasse.36 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0. Characteristic luminescence.... Electrochem. and Ca3MgSi2O8.32 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4..88 eV) . Barry. 2.Spectra 800 700 600 500 400 Wavelength (nm) 300 100 Emission 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 References 1.

115.. Add another ~5. 1. mix well. References 1.Spectra 800 700 600 500 400 Wavelength (nm) 300 50 2 3 Remark This phosphor is an intermediate between Sr2SiO4:Eu2+ (yellow. Fire in capped quartz tubes.. 1000ºC. 2.4 Preparation Mix by milling or grinding. 1100ºC. Optical Properties Emission color: Blue-green Emission peak: 2. Electrochem. + (3. unstable) which are miscible in any ratio.L.L. J.. CO. stable in water) and Ba2SiO4:Eu2+ (green. Fluorescence of Eu2+-activated phases in binary alkaline earth orthosilicate systems. Wash in water (to remove leftover halide). J. Fire in capped quartz tubes. 1 hour. Barry. T.5 63 5. The stability of SrBaSiO4:Eu2+ may not be good enough for use in lamps.. 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Ba2SiO4:Eu2+ Structure: Orthorhombic Composition Ingredient BaCO3 Eu2O3 SiO2 NH4Cl Mole % 198 2 (of Eu) 105 10 By weight (g) 390 3. and Ca3MgSi2O8. 115. Soc. CO.88 eV). Store in a well-closed container. Equilibria and Eu2+ luminescence of subsolidus phases bounded by Ba3MgSi2O8. Powderize. Barry. 733 (1968). Electrochem. Powderize by hard milling or grinding. Soc. T.28 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4. 1181 (1968).4 g NH4Cl. Dry in air. Sr3MgSi2O8. 2.40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: + Absorption (%) 100 Emission . 1 hour.44 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0.

733 (1968). Rep. J. T. 2. 3. Fire in open quartz boats. J.. 1 hour. References 1. 900ºC.L..Mn2+ Structure: Orthorhombic Composition Ingredient BaCO3 SiO2 CeO2 Li2CO3 MnCO3 NH4Br Mole % 75 50 10 20 (of Li) 5 10 By weight (g) 148 30 17 7.4 5. Blasse. 1 hour. 115. CeO2. Powderize. and Ca3MgSi2O8.. 1. Fluorescence of Eu2+ activated silicates. N2. 23. Equilibria and Eu2+ luminescence of subsolidus phases bounded by Ba3MgSi2O8. 2. G. Powderize when dry. Part or all of the Ba can be replaced by Sr causing increasing stability against water and shift of the emission towards yellow. Barry. Soc. Electrochem. SiO2. Powderize. H2. Dry in air. and Li2CO3. Material is unstable in water. Soc. 189 (1968).Li+. 1 hour. 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Ba2SiO4:Ce3+. Fire in open quartz boats. et al.. 900ºC. 900ºC. and Fluorescence of Eu2+-activated phases in binary alkaline earth orthosilicate systems. 1181 (1968). Now admit MnCO3 and NH4Br by slurrying in methanol.Spectra 800 700 600 500 400 Wavelength (nm) 300 50 2 3 Remarks 1. Absorption (%) 100 Emission .8 10 Preparation First mix by dry ball-milling or grinding only in the BaCO3. Fire in capped quartz tubes. Sr3MgSi2O8. Electrochem. CO. 115. 2. Philips Res.

H. improves temperature stability of the emission. Emission changes color from orange-red at room temperature to yellow at 150ºC and whitish at 300ºC.88 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: + BaSi2O5:Pb2+ Structure: Orthorhombic Absorption (%) 100 Emission .. Br.46 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0. 2. Such phosphor has been known as “triple silicate” in England. Partial replacement of Ba by Sr shifts the emission into somewhat deeper red. 3. 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 BaSi2O5:Eu2+ Structure: Orthorhombic Optical Properties Emission color: Blue-green Emission peak: 2.C.. and Steward. and improves chemical stability of the material. The luminescent properties and crystal structure of some new phosphor systems.40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: Very poor Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 50 2 3 Remarks 1.88 eV).015 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0. McKeag.50 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4.24 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4. J. 4.Optical Properties Emission color: Orange-red Emission peak: 2. A.. and 5% Mn. 10% Li. 78 (1958). ++ (3. E. References 1. Phys. Appl.. Temperature characteristics of barium strontium lithium silicate phosphors. 105. Electrochem. McKeag. 2.. Soc. Phosphor is believed to be a modification of Ba2SiO4 (in which Mn2+ is nonluminescent) with 25% of Ba replaced by 10% Ce. 26 (1955). J. A.H.

4 Preparation Mix by slurrying in methanol plus a few cubic centimeters water.39 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4.40 eV) Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 100 Emission 50 2 3 References 1. University Park (1980). Fire in capped quartz tubes. Electrochem. J.H.Optical Properties Emission color: UV Emission peak: 3. + (3. 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Ropp. Pennsylvania University Press. 115. K.99 eV Emission width (FWHM): eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4.C. Y2SiO5:Ce3+ Optical Properties Emission color: Violet Emission peak: 2. Powderize when dry.88 eV). 2. N2. Fluorescent Lamp Phosphors.54 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0. Dry in air. p... 1. 1000ºC. – (3.40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: + CaMgSi2O6:Eu2+ Structure: Monoclinic (diopside) Composition Ingredient CaO MgO SiO2 Eu2O3 NH4Cl Mole % 118 100 210 2 (of Eu) 40 By weight (g) 66 40 126 3. Soc. R.. 531 (1968).5 21.88 eV). . Butler. 1 hour.. 169. Phosphors based on rare earth phosphates fast decay phosphors.

Powderize when dry. 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 CaMgSi2O6:Eu2+. Soc.4 Preparation First mix by slurrying in methanol plus a few cubic centimeters water.77 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0. A. Fire in capped quartz tubes. 2. Powderize. Some new complex silicate phosphors containing calcium. ++ (3. and beryllium. 287 (1949). Powderize. Powderize. Dry.25 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4.5 4.2. Electrochem. Smith. 1 hour. CO. Dry in air.88 eV). 96. Powderize.40 eV). 1150ºC. 1150ºC. 1 hour. Absorption (%) 100 Emission . CO. Fire in capped quartz tubes. 1 hour. Wash in water several times.Mn2+ Structure: Monoclinic (diopside) Composition Ingredient CaO MgO SiO2 Eu2O3 MnCO3 NH4Cl Mole % 114 100 210 2 (of Eu) 4 40 By weight (g) 64 40 126 3. 60% (estimated) Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 50 2 3 Reference 1. 1000ºC. magnesium.L. 1. Optical Properties Emission color: Blue Emission peak: 2.. N2. Wash in water several times. Dry. J.. Fire in capped quartz tubes.6 21.

++ (3. Dry in air.88 eV). 1000ºC.80 eV.37 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4. 25% Absorption (%) 100 Emission . 2. 1150ºC. Optical Properties Emission color: Yellow-green Emission peak: 2. Powderize when dry. 2.88 eV).Optical Properties Emission color: Reddish-purple. 1.40 eV).29 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0. Emission peak: 1.12 eV. ++ (3.4 Preparation First mix by slurrying in methanol plus a few cubic centimeters water.40 eV). 2. CO. N2. Fire in capped quartz tubes. 1 hour. Powderize. Fire in capped quartz tubes.77 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4. 1 hour.5 21. Spectra 800 700 600 500 400 Wavelength (nm) 60% (estimated) 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Ca2MgSi2O7:Eu2+ Structure: Tetragonal (ackermanite) Composition Ingredient CaO MgO SiO2 Eu2O3 NH4Cl Mole % 200 100 210 2 (of Eu) 40 By weight (g) 112 40 126 3.

Dry in air.Spectra 800 700 600 500 400 Wavelength (nm) 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Ca2MgSi2O7 Structure: Tetragonal (ackermanite) Optical Properties Emission color: UV Emission peak: 3.Mn2+ Structure: Tetragonal (ackermanite) Composition Ingredient CaO MgO SiO2 Eu2O3 MnCO3 NH4Cl Mole % 205 100 210 2 (of Eu) 8 10 By weight (g) 115 40 126 3.17 eV Excitation efficiency by e-beam: + Ca2MgSi2O7:Eu2+. CO. Powderize when dry. 1 hour.80 eV. Optical Properties Emission color: Deep red plus weaker yellow-green Emission peak: 1.4 Preparation First mix by slurrying in methanol plus a few cubic centimeters water. 1. Fire in capped quartz tubes. 1150ºC.2 5. Powderize. 1000ºC. Fire in capped quartz tubes. N2.21 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: Excited by all UV plus visible blue Absorption (%) 100 Emission . 1 hour.29 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0. 2. 2.5 9.

673 (1968). Philips Res. Some new classes of efficient Eu2+ activated phosphors. Fluorescence of Eu2+-activated silicates.88 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: + Absorption (%) 100 Emission . J. Blasse..L.3 126 5. 23. G. 2.. Optical Properties Emission color: Blue Emission peak: 2.Spectra 800 700 600 500 400 Wavelength (nm) 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 References 1. J. and terVrugt.68 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0. Sr2MgSi2O7:Eu2+ Structure: Tetragonal (ackermanite) Composition Ingredient SrCO2 SrF2 MgO SiO2 Eu2O3 Mole % 187 10 100 210 3 (of Eu) By weight (g) 276 12. et al. Soc. G. Dry in air.27 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: + (4. 1 hour..6 40. Blasse.. N2. 2. Rep. 115. 1 hour... 189 (1968). 1150ºC. CO. 1000ºC. Powderize.3 Preparation Mix by ball-milling in methanol. Fire in capped quartz tubes. Powderize when dry. Electrochem.W. Wanmaker. Fire in capped quartz tubes. 1. W.

189. 23.5 40. Blasse. Fire in capped quartz tubes. et al. 1. Fire in capped quartz tubes.41 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: + (4.40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: + .3 Preparation Mix by ball-milling in methanol. + (3. Rep. Optical Properties Emission color: Blue-green Emission peak: 2. G. Ba2MgSi2O7:Eu2+ Structure: Tetragonal (melinite) Composition Ingredient BaCO3 BaF2 MgO SiO2 Eu2O3 Mole % 187 10 100 210 3 (of Eu) By weight (g) 369 17.88 eV). 2. Powderize. N2. 1000ºC. 1 hour. Philips Res. Powderize when dry.Spectra 800 700 600 500 400 Wavelength (nm) 300 100 Emission 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Reference 1. (1968). Fluorescence of Eu2+-activated silicates..3 126 5. CO. 1 hour.. Dry in air.42 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0. 1100ºC.

..5 40. G. 673 (1968).40 eV) Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 100 Emission 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 .3 126 5. The absorption and emission spectra of some important activators. 1. W. 31. G. Blasse. 2. Electrochem. Rev. J.10 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0. Some new classes of efficient Eu2+ activated phosphors....88 eV). and terVrugt.. 115.19 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4. J. Philips Tech. 304 (1970). and Bril. Wanmaker.W. Blasse.Spectra 800 700 600 500 400 Wavelength (nm) 300 100 Emission 50 2 3 References 1.3 Optical Properties Emission color: Violet + UV Emission peak: 3. 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 BaMg2Si2O7:Eu2+ Structure: Tetragonal (melinite) Composition Ingredient BaCO3 BaF2 MgO SiO2 Eu2O3 Mole % 187 10 100 210 3 (of Eu) By weight (g) 369 17. Soc. + (3. Characteristic luminescence.L. A..

G...2 17. 2.5 40. T..Reference 1. J..88 eV).3 Preparation Mix by ball-milling in methanol. Electrochem.27 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4. G. Optical Properties Emission color: Blue Emission peak: 2. Philips Res.. 2...82 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0. 1 hour.L. Pennsylvania University Press.6 143. Fire in capped quartz tubes. 189 (1968). and terVrugt. (1980). 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 . Soc. Soc.. Luminescent properties of Eu2+ and Eu2+ + Mn2+ activated BaMg2Si2O7. 115.3 126 5. 1100ºC. Wanmaker. CO. 3. BaSrMgSi2O7:Eu2+ Structure: Ackermanite Composition Ingredient BaCO3 SrCO3 BaF2 MgO SiO2 Eu2O3 Mole % 90 97 10 100 210 3 (of Eu) By weight (g) 177.J. Dry in air. ++ (3. N2. Powderize when dry. et al. Rep. 1. K. J.H.W. Powderize. J. Barry. Blasse.40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: + Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 100 Emission 50 2 3 References 1. Blasse.. W. Butler. Some new classes of efficient Eu2+ activated phosphors. 23. 1 hour. 381 (1970). Fluorescence of Eu2+-activated silicates. Fire in capped quartz tubes. 117. 1000ºC. Electrochem. 673 (1968). University Park. Fluorescent Lamp Phosphors.

excited by all UV Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Remarks 1. 1. 3. Optical Properties Emission color: Blue-green Emission peak: 2.44 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0. 16 hours (overnight). 1 hour. N2.3 49 Preparation First mix all ingredients but the NH4Br by dry grinding or milling . Fire in capped quartz tubes. Powderize when dry. 850ºC. Absorption (%) 100 Emission . 2.Ba2Li2Si2O7:Eu2+ Composition Ingredient BaCO3 Li2CO3 SiO2 Eu2O3 NH4Br Mole % 97 110 (of Li) 110 3 (of Eu) 50 By weight (g) 191 41 66 5. Dry in air. 2. 850ºC. Now admit the NH4Br by slurrying in methanol plus a few cubic centimeters water.30 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4. Powderize. + (3.88 eV). Powderize. Gradual replacement of Ba by Sr causes rapid decrease of efficiency without visible change of color. Fire in open quartz boats. Phosphor is chemically unstable in water and deteriorates in moist air. CO. Fire in open quartz boats. Store in a well-closed container. 1 hour.40 eV). H2. 850ºC.

Absorption (%) 100 Emission . causing a shift of the emission towards bluegreen.8 49 Preparation First mix by dry grinding or milling the BaCO3 + Li2CO3 + SiO2 . 2.Mn2+).88 eV). 850ºC. 1 hour. 850ºC. 3. Powderize. Optical Properties Emission color: Violet Emission peak: 2. ++ (3. Make slurry in methanol and stir to uniformity. 1. N2. Powderize. 2. Store in a well-closed container. Fire in capped quartz tubes. Fire in open boats. 3. 850ºC. QE fairly high Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Remarks 1. H2. Part or all of the Ba can be replaced by Sr. Powderize when dry. The Sn2+ emission sensitizes Mn2+ (see: Ba2Li2Si2O7:Sn2+.Ba2Li2Si2O7:Sn2+ Composition Ingredient BaCO3 Li2CO3 SiO2 SnO NH4Br Mole % 95 110 (of Li) 110 5 50 By weight (g) 187 41 66 6.89 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0. Now admit the SnO + NH4Br. CO.22 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4. Phosphor is chemically unstable in water and deteriorates even in moist air. 1 hour. Dry in air. ~16 hours (overnight).40 eV). Fire in open quartz boats.

8 1.Mn2+ Composition Ingredient BaCO3 Li2CO3 SiO2 SnO MnCO3 NH4Br Mole % 93.Ba2Li2Si2O7:Sn2+. Dry in air. Optical Properties Emission color: Green Emission peak: 2. N2.40 eV). ++ (3. 850ºC. Now admit the SnO + MnCO3 + NH4Br. H2. 1 hour. 1. Make a slurry in methanol and stir to uniformity. ~16 hours (overnight). Absorption (%) 100 Emission .5 110 (of Li) 110 5 1.5 50 By weight (g) 185 41 66 6.7 49 Preparation First mix by dry grinding or milling the BaCO3 + Li2CO3 + SiO2. Fire in open quartz boats. Increasing replacement of Ba by Sr causes gradual shift of the emission towards red. 1 hour. Phosphor is chemically unstable in water and deteriorates even in moist air. 2. 3. 850ºC. 850ºC.32 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0. Fire in open boats. broadening and slight deformation of the emission band. and decreasing efficiency. Powderize. Powderize. CO.88 eV). Fire in capped quartz tubes. 2. Store in a well-closed container. Powderize. QE (estimated) Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 60–70% 400 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Remarks 1.16 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4.

82 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0.22 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4. T.88 eV) Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 100 Emission 50 2 3 References 1. Soc. Blasse. Fluorescence of Eu2+ activated silicates.82 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0.MgSrBaSi2O7:Eu2+ Structure: Ackermanite Optical Properties Emission color: Blue Emission peak: 2. 189 (1968). 733 (1968) and Fluorescence of Eu2+-activated phases in binary alkaline earth orthosilicate systems. G.. et al. ++ (3.40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: + Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 100 Emission 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 MgBa3Si2O8:Eu2+ Optical Properties Emission color: Blue Emission peak: 2. Electrochem.. 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 2.. J. 1181 (1968).. Electrochem.27 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4.88 eV).. . Barry. Equilibria and Eu2+ luminescence of subsolidus phases bounded by Ba3MgSi2O8. Sr3MgSi2O8. 115. 115. Soc. Philips Res. J. 23. Rep.L. and Ca3MgSi2O8.

. A.70 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0. Philips Res.. et al. 1.. 1 hour. 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 . Powderize 2. Powderize when dry.88 eV). G.. Dry in air. 2. CO. The absorption and emission spectra of some important activators. Fluorescence of Eu2+-activated silicates. 304 (1970). 1000ºC.82 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4.. Rev. Rep.MgSr3Si2O8:Eu2+. 1. Fire in capped quartz tubes. 189 (1968).23 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4. Optical Properties Emission color: Blue Emission peak: 2. 31.40 eV). 1100ºC. N2.88 eV) Sr3MgSi2O8:Eu2+ Structure: Ackermanite Composition Ingredient SrCO3 MgO SiO2 Eu2O3 NH4Cl Mole % 295 100 206 5 (of Eu) 30 By weight (g) 435 40 124 8. 23.Mn2+ Optical Properties Emission color: Deep red Emission peak: 1. QE Excitation efficiency by e-beam: 3% Decay: 0. Philips Tech. ++ (3.2 sec to 1/e Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 45% 400 300 100 Emission 50 2 3 References 1. 1 hour. Fire in capped quartz tubes. Blasse. and Bril. G.8 16 Preparation Mix by ball-milling in methanol about 1 hour. Blasse. Characteristic luminescence.

4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Ca3Al2Si3O12:Eu2+ Optical Properties Emission color: Pale bluish-green Emission peak: 2.47 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: Excited by all UV but low QE ( 20%) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: Very poor.Ca5B2SiO10:Eu3+ Composition Ingredient CaCO3 H3BO3 SiO2 Eu2O3 Mole % 100 50 22 5 (of Eu) By weight (g) 100 31 13.5% Absorption (%) 100 Emission . 3. 1 hour.88 eV). Optical Properties Emission color: Red Emission peak: 2. Powderize by milling. air. 1300ºC. air.41 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0. 1100ºC. Fire in open quartz boats. Fire in open quartz boats.2 8. 1 hour. 0.40 eV). – (3. air. 1200ºC. Powderize.8 Preparation Mix by dry milling or grinding.03 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4. 2. 1 hour. 1. Fire in open quartz boats. QE Excitation efficiency by e-beam: Poor Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 50–60% 400 300 50 2 3 Remark The chemical stability of this material is somewhat better than that of CaO:Eu3+.

88 eV). ++ (3.02 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0.40 eV) Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 LiCeSrBa3Si4O14:Mn2+ Optical Properties Emission color: Red Emission peak: 1.99 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0.23 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4.40 eV) Absorption (%) 100 Emission .24 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4. ++ (3.Spectra 800 700 600 500 400 Wavelength (nm) 300 100 Emission 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 LiCeBa4Si4O14:Mn2+ Optical Properties Emission color: orange–red Emission peak: ~2.88 eV).

Spectra 800 700 600 500 400 Wavelength (nm) 300 100 Emission 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 .

Powderize. 1 hour. 1. Optical Properties Emission color: UV Emission peak: 3.56 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4. 1 hour.88 eV). 500 C. Fire in open quartz boats.4. Powderize.Tb3+ Ca3SiO4Cl2:Pb2+ Ca3SiO4Cl2:Eu2+ Ba5SiO4Cl6:Eu2+ Sr5Si4O10Cl6:Eu2+ LaSiO3Cl:Ce3+ Composition Ingredient La2O3 SiO2 CeO2 NH4Cl Mole % 100 (of La) 160 20 120 By weight (g) 163 96 34 64 Preparation Mix by slurrying in water (NH3 develops). N2. Dry in air. Wash in water several times. 1200 C. 2. Powderize when dry. CO. 3.35 and 3. Powderize.4 Halosilicates The following host compounds and activators are included in this subsection: LaSiO3Cl:Ce3+ LaSiO3Cl:Ce3+. QE Excitation efficiency by e-beam: 5% Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 90% 400 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Absorption (%) 100 Emission . 1200 C. 1 hour. N2. Dry in air. Fire in capped quartz tubes. Fire in capped quartz tubes.

88 eV). Fire in capped quartz tubes. N2. Powderize when dry. Dry in air. LaSiO3Cl:Ce3+. Electrochem. Reference 1. 1 hour. ~500 C. 1200 C.Tb3+ Composition Ingredient La2O3 SiO2 CeO2 Tb4O7 NH4Cl Mole % 100 (of La) 180 20 14 (of Tb) 130 By weight (g) 163 108 34 26 60 Preparation Mix by slurrying in water (NH3 develops). Powderize. Lanthanum and yttrium halo-silicate phosphors. and Isaaks.40 eV). 2. Fire in capped quartz tubes. Optical Properties Emission color: Pale yellow-green Emission peak: 2.29 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4. F or Br can replace the Cl in the above recipe. N2. Powderize.J. Fire in open quartz boats.Remarks 1. 2. ~1 hour. 1 hour. + (3. 1200 C. Soc. 1. Dry in air. CO. Powderize. 3. Wash in water several times. QE Excitation efficiency by e-beam: +/4% Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 80–90% 400 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Absorption (%) 100 Emission .. but Cl seems to perform best. J. 445 (1978).. T.H.. W. Lehmann. 125. Replacement of La by Y is possible but gives somewhat poorer phosphors.

Ca3SiO4Cl2:Pb2+ Optical Properties Emission color: UV Emission peak: 3.Remarks 1. 80 (1973).G. T. J. 2. 28. 445 (1978). 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Wanmaker. and Isaaks.41 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0. Ca3SiO4Cl2:Eu2+ Optical Properties Emission color: Blue-green Emission peak: 2.H.44 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0. ++ (3. Lehmann.. The Cl in the above recipe can be replaced by F or Br but Cl seems to perform best. W. Lanthanum and yttrium halo-silicate phosphors. 125. and Verriet. Rep.L. – (3.40 eV) Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 100 Emission 50 2 3 Reference 1.31 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: + (4.88 eV).. Reference 1. Philips Res.40 eV) ..39 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4. Replacement of La by Y is possible but gives somewhat poorer phosphors.J.88 eV). Soc. Luminescence of phosphors with Ca3SiO4Cl. Electrochem... J. W..

4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Wanmaker.L..Spectra 800 700 600 500 400 Wavelength (nm) 300 100 Emission 50 2 3 Reference 1. J. Latourette. 1734 (1979). A.19 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4. 28. Philips Res.82 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0.G. C. Rep.88 eV). W. Luminescence of phosphors with Ca3SiO4Cl..52 eV . a new blue-emitting photoluminescent material with high quenching temperature. 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Garcia. J. Ba5SiO4Cl6:Eu2+ Optical Properties Emission color: blue Emission peak: 2. B. Ba5SiO4Cl6:Eu. and Fouassier.. and Verriet. Sr5Si4O10Cl6:Eu2+ Optical Properties Emission color: Blue-green Emission peak: 2. ++ (3. 126..40 eV) Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 100 Emission 50 2 3 Reference 1. Soc. 80 (1973). Electrochem..

.. . Lumin. 467 (1971). Nicholson.40 eV) Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 100 Emission 50 2 3 References 1. H. 3. J.Emission width (FWHM): 0.L. K.P. 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Burrus. ++ (3.P.. H. Fluorescence of Eu2+-activated alkaline earth halosilicates.38 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4. and Rooksby.88 eV)..

Mn2+ MgCaP2O7:Mn2+ BaTiP2O7 MgSrP2O7:Eu2+ MgBaP2O7:Eu2+ MgBaP2O7:Eu2+.Mn2+(Al) -Sr3(PO4)2:Sn2+ -Sr3(PO4)2:Eu2+ Ba3(PO4)2:Eu2+ Na3Ce(PO4)2:Tb3+ -(Ca.5 Phosphates The following host compounds and activators are included in this subsection: YPO4:Ce3+ YPO4:Ce3+.Th4+ YPO4:V5+ LaPO4:Ce3+ LaPO4:Eu3+ CaP2O6:Mn2+ Sr2P2O7:Sn2+ Ca2P2O7:Ce3+ Ca2P2O7:Eu2+.Mg)3(PO4)2:Mn2+ Mg3Ca3(PO4)4:Eu2+ MgSr5(PO4)4:Sn2+ MgBa2(PO4)2:Sn2+ CaSr2(PO4)2:Bi3+ MgBa2(PO4)2:U Sr2P2O7:Eu2+ .Mn2+ -Sr3(PO4)2:Sn2+.Tb3+ YPO4:Eu3+ YPO4:Mn2+.Sr)3(PO4)2:Sn2+.4.Mn2+ Ca2P2O7:Eu2+ Li2CaP2O7:Ce3+.Mn2+ -Ca3(PO4)2:Ce3+ CaB2P2O9:Eu2+ -Ca3(PO4)2:Sn2+ -Ca3(PO4)2:Sn2+ -Ca3(PO4)2:Pb2+ -Ca3(PO4)2:Tl+ -Ca3(PO4)2:Ce3+ -Ca3(PO4)2:Eu2+ -Ca3(PO4)2:Eu2+ -Ca3(PO4)2:Eu2+.Mn2+ ZnMg2(PO4)2:Mn2+ Zn3(PO4)2:Mn2 (Zn.

3. mix by dry grinding. 4.. Robbins. R. 5. Solid State Chem. – (3. a new ultrafast scintillator. 1. 67 (1975).. Ultraviolet-absorption bands of Bi3+ and Eu3+ in oxides. D. E. G. Powderize. 33..49 and 3. 4. Blasse. Blasse. A. G. Wright. Fire in open quartz boats. 1508 (1971). ~1 hour. 27. ~1300ºC. Powderize when dry.R. CO. 118. and Banks. Fire in capped quartz tubes.. Chem. G.. Slowly add the H3PO4 solution while stirring. Bauman.YPO4:Ce3+ Structure: Tetragonal Composition Ingredient Y 2O 3 Eu2O2 H3PO4 solution.R.V.40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: 2–3% Decay: Near exponential decay. 2. and Jeser. Fire in open quartz boats. Phys. ~2 hours.. Powderize. N2. N2. Bimburg. Electrochem. D. 31. CeP5O14.71 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4.2 64 ccm Preparation Make a thin slurry of Y2O3 and Eu2O3 in methanol. Soc. D.. Add ~5 g of NH4Cl. J..88 eV).. 2. Electronic transitions of rare earth ions in the infrared region. 85% Mole % 97 (of Y) 3 (of Eu) 105 (of P) By weight (g) 110 5. 3. Absorption (%) 100 Emission .. Appl. Effect of thorium on Ce+3 phosphors. ~1 hour.P.. M... 1300ºC. ~500–600ºC. Hoffman.P. ~80 nsec to 1/10 Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 References 1. Rev. Optical Properties Emission color: UV Emission peak: 3. J. Phys. 52 (1972). Dry in air.. Philips Tech. The absorption and emission spectra of some important activators. 192 (1960)... Mandel. J. and Bril. J. Lett. 304 (1970).

841 (1968). Soc.YPO4:Ce3+. Absorption (%) 100 Emission .40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: + Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 YPO4:Eu3+ Structure: Tetragonal Optical Properties Emission color: Orange-red Excitation efficiency by UV: – (4. J.. Spectral properties of some rare earth phosphates. Phosphors based on rare earth phosphates. 115. 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Ropp.C.Tb3+ Structure: Tetragonal Optical Properties Emission color: Green Emission peak: 2.28 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4.88 eV). – (3.40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: + Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 100 Emission 50 2 3 Reference 1.88 eV). R.. 1. – (3. Electrochem.

Powderize when dry. – (3. Dry in air.56 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: + (4.40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: + Spectra 800 700 600 500 400 Wavelength (nm) 300 100 Emission 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 YPO4:V5+ Structure: Tetragonal Optical Properties Emission color: Blue Emission peak: 2.44 5. and NH4Cl in methanol.Th4+ Structure: Tetragonal Optical Properties Emission color: Blue-green Emission peak: 2.88 eV) Structure: Monoclinic (monazite) Composition Ingredient La2O3 CeO2 NH4Cl H3PO4 solution.23 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: – (4.88 eV). CeO2 . .4 64 ccm Preparation Make a slurry of La2O3.59 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0.99 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0. Slowly add the H3PO4 solution while stirring.YPO4:Mn2+. 85% LaPO4:Ce3+ Mole % 98 (of La) 2 10 105 (of P) By weight (g) 160 3.

1. CO. – (3. 1250ºC.67 and 3. N2. Powderize.88eV). Structure: Monoclinic (monazite) Composition Ingredient La2O3 Eu2O3 NH4Cl H3PO4 solution.. 85% LaPO4:Eu3+ Mole % 95 (of La) 5 (of Eu) 10 105 (of P) By weight (g) 155 8. 1. Slowly add the H3PO4 solution while stirring. E. air. Powderize when dry. 1250ºC.. Fire in open quartz boats. and NH4Cl in methanol. 1250ºC.. 33.8 5. and 2.40 eV) Absorption (%) 100 Emission . Dry in air. Bauman. Chem. 1 hour.40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: + Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Reference 1. G.097. J. Electronic transitions of rare earth ions in the infrared region. Mandel. 1 hour.4 64 ccm Preparation Make a slurry of La2O3. Fire in open quartz boats. 2 hours. 1250ºC. 2 hours. Fire in open quartz boats.117 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: + (4. 2.P. and Banks. N2. Optical Properties Emission color: UV Emission peak: 3.88 eV). – (3.784. Phys.. Eu2O3.815.94 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4. 2. R.1 2 Fire in open quartz boats. Optical Properties Emission color: Orange-red Emission peak: Strongest lines are at 1. Powderize. 192 (1970).

Rev. W.30 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0. Luminescent properties of Eu-activated phosphors of type A3BVO4.. CaP2O6:Mn2+ Optical Properties Emission color: Green Emission peak: 2. Wanmaker.. Philips Tech. et al.Spectra 800 700 600 500 400 Wavelength (nm) 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Reference 1. 21.29 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: – (4. – (3.L.40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: + Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 100 Emission 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Absorption (%) 100 Emission .88 eV). 270 (1966).

Sr2P2O7:Sn2+
Spectra
800 700 600 500
2+

400

Wavelength (nm)

300
2+

100

Emission

-Sr2P2O7:Sn

-Sr2P2O7:Sn

50

2

3

Reference 1.

4 Photon Energy (eV)

5

0

Ropp., R.C., and Mooney, R.W., Tin-activated alkaline-earth pyrophosphate phosphors, J. Electrochem. Soc., 107, 15 (1960).

Ca2P2O7:Ce3+
Structure: Tetragonal Composition Ingredient CaHPO4 CeO2 NaHCO3 H3PO4-solution, 85% Mole % 96 2 2 6 (of P) By weight (g) 130 3.4 1.7 4.1 ccm

Preparation Make a slurry of CaHPO4, CeO2 , and NaHCO3 in water or methanol. Add the H3PO4 solution while stirring; stir to uniformity. Dry in air. Powderize when dry. 1. Fire in open quartz boats, N2, ~500–600ºC, ~1/2 hour. Powderize. 2. Fire in open quartz boats, CO, 1200ºC, 1 hour. Optical Properties Emission color: Pale bluish (most of the emission in the UV) Emission peaks: 3.60 and 3.83 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4.88 eV), – (3.40 eV)

Spectra
800 700 600 500

400

Wavelength (nm)

300

50

2

3

4 Photon Energy (eV)

5

0

Reference 1. Ranby, P.W., Mash, D.H., and Henderson, S.T., The investigation of new phosphors, with particular reference to the pyrophosphates, Br. J. Appl. Phys., Suppl. 4, 18 (1955).

Ca2P2O7:Eu2+,Mn2+
Structure: Tetragonal Composition Ingredient CaHPO4 Eu2O3 MnCO3 H3PO4 solution, 85% Mole % 93 2 (of Eu) 5 9 (of P) By weight (g) 126 3.5 5.75 6.1 ccm

Preparation Make a slurry of CaHPO4, Eu2O3 , and MnCO3 in water or methanol. Add the H3PO4 solution while stirring; stir to uniformity. Dry in air. Powderize when dry. 1. Fire in open quartz boats, N2, ~500–600ºC, ~1 hour. Powderize. 2. Fire in open quartz boats, CO, 1200ºC, 1 hour. Optical Properties Emission color: Pink-orange Emission peak: Orange Mn2+ band at ~2.06 eV; Violet Eu2+ band at ~2.98 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0.28 eV (Mn2+ band) Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4.88 eV), ++ (3.40 eV)

Absorption (%)

100

Emission

Spectra
800 700 600 500

400

Wavelength (nm)

300

100

Emission

50

2

3

4 Photon Energy (eV)

5

0

References 1. Kröger, F.A. et al., J. Electrochem. Soc., 96, 132 (1949). 2. Kinney, D.E., Modified calcium pyrophosphate phosphors, J. Electrochem. Soc., 102, 676 (1955). 3. Ranby, P.W., Mash, D.H., and Henderson, S.T., The investigation of new phosphors, with particular reference to the pyrophosphates, Br. J. Appl. Phys., S18, Suppl. 4 (1955). 4. Ropp, R.C., Manganese-activated cadmium pyrophosphate phosphors, J. Electrochem. Soc., 109, 569 (1962).

Ca2P2O7:Eu2+
Structure: Tetragonal Composition Ingredient CaHPO4 Eu2O3 H3PO4 solution, 85% Mole % 98 2 (of Eu) 4 (of P) By weight (g) 133 3.5 2.7 ccm

Preparation Make a slurry of CaHPO4 + Eu2O3 in water or methanol. Add the H3PO4 solution while stirring; stir to uniformity. Dry in air. Powderize when dry. 1. Fire in open quartz boats, N2, ~500–600ºC, ~1 hour. Powderize. 2. Fire in open quartz boats, CO, 1200ºC, 1 hour. Optical Properties Emission color: Violet Emission peak: 2.96 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0.19 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4.88 eV), ++ (3.40 eV)

Spectra
800 700 600 500

400

Wavelength (nm)

300

100

Emission

50

2

3

4 Photon Energy (eV)

5

0

References 1. Kröger, F.A. et al., J. Electrochem. Soc., 96, 132 (1949). 2. Kinney, D.E., Modified calcium pyrophosphate phosphors, J. Electrochem. Soc., 102, 676 (1955). 3. Ranby, P.W., Mash, D.H., and Henderson, S.T., The investigation of new phosphors, with particular reference to the pyrophosphates, Br. J. Appl. Phys., S18, Suppl. 4 (1955). 4. Ropp, R.C., Manganese-activated cadmium pyrophosphate phosphors, J. Electrochem. Soc., 109, 569 (1962).

Li2CaP2O7:Ce3+,Mn2+
Composition Ingredient Li2CO3 CaHPO4 CeO2 MnCO3 H3PO4 solution, 85% Mole % 205 (of Li) 89 3 5 115 (of P) By weight (g) 75.7 121 5.2 5.75 70 ccm

Preparation Make a slurry of Li2CO3 + CaHPO4 + CeO2 + MnCO3 in methanol. Add the H3PO4 solution while stirring (CO2 develops). Dry in air. Powderize when dry. 1. Fire in open quartz boats, N2, ~500–600ºC. Powderize. 2. Fire in open quartz boats, N2, 700ºC, 16 hours (overnight). Optical Properties Emission color: Greenish-yellow Emission peak: 2.16 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0.28 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4.88 eV), – (3.40 eV)

Spectra
800 700 600 500

400

Wavelength (nm)

300

100

Emission

50

2

3

4 Photon Energy (eV)

5

0

MgCaP2O7:Mn2+
Structure: Monoclinic Optical Properties Emission color: Yellow Emission peak: 2.12 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0.20 eV Spectra
800 700 600 500 400
Wavelength (nm)

300

100

Emission

50

2

3

4 Photon Energy (eV)

5

0

BaTiP2O7
Spectra
800 700 600 500 400
Wavelength (nm)

300

100

Emission

50

2

3

4 Photon Energy (eV)

5

0

Reference 1. Henderson, S.T., and Ranby, P.W., Barium titanium phosphate – a new phosphor, J. Electrochem. Soc., 98, 479 (1951).

MgSrP2O7:Eu2+
Structure: Monoclinic Optical Properties Emission color: Violet-UV Emission peak: 3.16 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0.20 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4.88 eV), + (3.40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: + Spectra
800 700 600 500
Wavelength (nm)

400

300

100

Emission

50

2

3

References 1. 2.

4 Photon Energy (eV)

5

0

Hoffman, M.V., Eu+2 activation in some alkaline earth strontium phosphate compounds, J. Electrochem. Soc., 115, 560 (1968). Blasse, G., and Bril, A., The absorption and emission spectra of some important activators, Philips Tech. Rev., 31, 304 (1970).

MgBaP2O7:Eu2+
Structure: Monoclinic Optical Properties Emission color: Violet-UV Emission peak: 3.04 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0.35 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4.88 eV), ++ (3.40 eV)

Spectra
800 700 600 500

400

Wavelength (nm)

300

100

Emission

50

2

3

Reference 1.

4 Photon Energy (eV)

5

0

Lagos, C.C., Luminescence of divalent europium in BaO-MgO-P2O5 system, J. Electrochem. Soc., 115, 1271 (1968).

MgBaP2O7:Eu2+,Mn2+
Structure: Monoclinic Composition Ingredient Mg2P2O7 Ba2P2O7 Eu2O3 MnCO3 H3PO4-solution, 85% Mole % 90 (of Mg) 96 (of Ba) 4 (of Eu) 10 19 (of P) By weight (g) 100 215 7 11.5 12.9 ccm

Preparation Make a slurry of Mg2P2O7 + Ba2P2O7 + Eu2O3 + MnCO3 in water. Add the H3PO4 solution while stirring. Dry in air. Powderize when dry. 1. Fire in open quartz boats, N2, 500–600ºC, 1 hour. Powderize. 2. Fire in open quartz boats, N2, 950ºC, 2 hours. Optical Properties Emission color: Pinkish orange-red Emission peak: Orange-red Mn2+ band at 2.07 eV, violet Eu2+ band at 3.06 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0.18 eV (Mn2+ band) Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4.88 eV), ++ (3.40 eV)

Spectra
800 700 600 500

400

Wavelength (nm)

300

50

2

3

4 Photon Energy (eV)

5

0

-Ca3(PO4)2:Ce3+
Structure: Trigonal Optical Properties Emission color: UV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4.88 eV) Spectra
800 700 600 500 400
Wavelength (nm)

300
16/9 % Ce 2/3 1/9 1/36

100

Emission

50

2

3

Reference 1.

4 Photon Energy (eV)

5

0

Botden, T.P.J., Transfer and transport of energy by resonance processes in luminescent solids, Philips Res. Rep., 7, 197 (1952).
600 500 400
Wavelength (nm)

800 700

300
3+ 2+

100

-Ca3(PO4)2:Ce ,Mn
Emission

50

2

3

4 Photon Energy (eV)

5

0

Absorption (%)

100

Emission

Reference 1. Froelich, H.C., and Margolis, J.M., Calcium phosphate phosphor activated with cerium and manganese, J. Electrochem. Soc., 98, 400 (1951).

CaB2P2O9:Eu2+
Composition Ingredient CaHPO4 H3BO3 Eu2O3 (NH4)2HPO4 Mole % 98 200 2 (of Eu) 106 By weight (g) 134 124 3.5 140

Preparation Make a slurry of the CaHPO4 + Eu2O3 in methanol. Dissolve the H3BO3 + (NH4)2HPO4 together in a little water. Add the solution to the slurry. Stir. Dry in air. Powderize when dry. 1. Fire in open quartz boats, air, ~500–600ºC, 1 hour. Powderize. 2. Fire in open quartz boats, N2, 800ºC, 1 hour. Powderize. 3. Fire in open quartz boats, CO, 1000ºC, 1 hour. Optical Properties Emission color: Deep violet Emission peak: 3.08 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0.21 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4.88 eV), ++ (3.40 eV) Spectra
800 700 600 500
Wavelength (nm)

400

300

50

2

3

4 Photon Energy (eV)

5

0

Absorption (%)

100

Emission

Electrochem.. F.. 118. 801 (1949). Soc. A proof of the associated-pair theory for sensitized luminophors.A. Powderize when dry. Now add the crushed (NH4)2CO4 by dry mixing. 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 -Ca3(PO4)2:Sn2+ Structure: Trigonal Composition Ingredient CaCO3 CaHPO4 SnO Mole % 5 75 5 By weight (g) 5 90 6. Dry in air. Optical Properties Emission color: Pale blue-green Emission peak: 2. Physica.-Ca3(PO4)2:Sn2+ Structure: Monoclinic Composition Ingredient CaCO3 CaHPO4 SnO (NH4)2CO4 Mole % 10 75 1 12 By weight (g) 10 90 1. 1 hour. N2. – (3. E.R.88 eV). Kreidler. 923 (1971).75 Absorption (%) 100 Emission . 1250ºC. Fire in capped quartz tubes. 15.61 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4. Kröger. Phase equilibria and tin-activated luminescence in system Ca3(PO4)2Ba3(PO4)2. J. 2.44 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0.35 2 Preparation Mix the CaCO3 + CaHPO4 + SnO by slurrying in methanol..40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: + Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 50 2 3 References 1.

15.3 Preparation Mix by slurrying in water or methanol.. Powderize. Powderize by dry milling. – (3.55 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4.A.. 801 (1949). 923 (1971). Dry in air. 1100ºC. Soc. 118. 2 hours. ~500ºC. Dry in air.R. Kreidler. Fire in capped quartz tubes. 1100ºC.92 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0. Powderize when dry. -Ca3(PO4)2:Pb2+ Structure: Monoclinic Composition Ingredient CaCO3 CaHPO4 PbO Mole % 24 75 1 By weight (g) 24 90 2. Electrochem. Physica. 2. CO. F. A proof of the associated-pair theory for sensitized luminophors. 1 hour.. 1. Phase equilibria and tin-activated luminescence in system Ca3(PO4)2Ba3(PO4)2. 1250ºC. N2. Absorption (%) 100 Emission . 2. 2 hours. 1. Fire in capped quartz tubes.88 eV). 1 hour.40 eV) Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 References 1. J. Optical Properties Emission color: Pale orange Emission peak: 1.Preparation Mix by slurrying in water or methanol. Kröger. Fire in capped quartz tubes. Fire in capped quartz tubes. Powderize when dry. CO. E. 2. N2.

. 1250 C.88 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0. – (3.. 1 hour. Optical Properties Emission color: UV Emission peak: 3. R.H. 355 (1947).88 eV). Soc.68 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0. Am.40 eV) Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Reference 1.88 eV). J.64 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4. Clapp. 37. – (3. Powderize when dry. and Ginther. -Ca3(PO4)2:Tl+ Structure: Monoclinic Composition Ingredient CaCO3 CaHPO4 TlOH Al2O3 Mole % 22 75 1 2 (of Al) By weight (g) 22 90 2.40 eV) Absorption (%) 100 Emission . R. Ultraviolet phosphors and fluorescent sun tan lamps.Optical Properties Emission color: UV Emission peak: 3.2 1 Preparation Mix by slurrying in water or methanol.. Dry in air.66 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4. Fire in capped quartz tubes. stagnant air. Opt.J.

Spectra
800 700 600 500

400

Wavelength (nm)

300

50

2

3

4 Photon Energy (eV)

5

0

References 1. Froelich, H.C., New ultraviolet phosphors, J. Electrochem. Soc., 91, 241 (1947). 2. Witzmann, H., and Buhrow, J., Ein neuer schwarzlichtphosphor, Naturwissenschaften, 49, 180 (1962). 3. Clapp, R.H., and Ginther, R.J., Ultraviolet phosphors and fluorescent sun tan lamps, J. Opt. Soc. Am., 37, 355 (1947). 4. Bril, A., and Hoekstra, W., Philips Res. Rep., 16, 356, (1961), and Philips Res. Rep., 19, 296 (1964).

-Ca3(PO4)2:Ce3+
Structure: Monoclinic Composition Ingredient CaCO3 CaHPO4 CeO3 NaHCO3 Mole % 15 75 5 5 By weight (g) 15 90 17 8.4

Preparation Mix by slurrying in water. Dry in air. Powderize when dry. Fire in open quartz boats, CO, 1250ºC, 1 hour. Optical Properties Emission color: UV Emission peak: 3.33 eV, 3.57 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4.88 eV), – (3.40 eV)

Absorption (%)

100

Emission

Spectra
800 700 600 500

400

Wavelength (nm)

300

50

2

3

4 Photon Energy (eV)

5

0

References 1. Froelich, H.C., and Margolis, J.M., Calcium phosphate phosphor activated with cerium and manganese, J. Electrochem. Soc., 98, 400 (1951). 2. Botden, T.P.J., Transfer and transport of energy by resonance processes in luminescent solids, Philips Res. Rep., 7, 197 (1952).

-Ca3(PO4)2:Eu2+
Structure: Monoclinic Composition Ingredient CaCO3 CaHPO4 Eu2O3 Mole % 24 75 1 (of Eu) By weight (g) 24 90 1.76

Preparation Mix by slurrying in water. Dry in air. Powderize when dry. Fire in open quartz boats, CO, 1250ºC, 1 hour. Optical Properties Emission color: Whitish blue-green Emission peak: ~2.52 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0.53 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4.88 eV), ++ (3.40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: +

Absorption (%)

100

Emission

Spectra
800 700 600 500

400

Wavelength (nm)

300

50

2

3

4 Photon Energy (eV)

5

0

References 1. Lagos, C.C., Luminescence of divalent europium in Ba-Ca, Ba-Sr, and Ca-Sr orthophosphate and pyrophosphate compositions, J. Electrochem. Soc., 117, 1189 (1970). 2. McCauley, R.A., Hummel, F.A., and Hoffman, M.V., Phase equilibria and Eu2+activated, Tb3+-activated, and Mn2+-activated luminescent phases in CaO-MgO-P2O5 system, J. Electrochem. Soc., 118, 755 (1971).

-Ca3(PO4)2:Eu2+
Structure: Trigonal Composition Ingredient CaCO3 CaHPO4 Eu2O3 Mole % 24 75 1 (of Eu) By weight (g) 24 90 1.76

Preparation Mix by slurrying in water. Dry in air. Powderize when dry. Fire in open quartz boats, CO, 1100ºC, 2 hours. Optical Properties Emission color: Violet Emission peak: 3.02 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0.33 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4.88 eV), ++ (3.40 eV)

Absorption (%)

100

Emission

Spectra
800 700 600 500

400

Wavelength (nm)

300

50

2

3

4 Photon Energy (eV)

5

0

Remark This phosphor easily shows a weak green emission band due to the -phosphate (see Ca3(PO4)2:Eu2+).

-Ca3(PO4)2:Eu2+,Mn2+
Structure: Trigonal Composition Ingredient CaCO3 CaHPO4 Eu2O3 MnCO3 Mole % 19 75 1 (of Eu) 5 By weight (g) 19 90 1.76 5.75

Preparation Mix by slurrying in water. Dry in air. Powderize when dry. Fire in open quartz boats, CO, 1100ºC, 2 hours. Optical Properties Emission color: Pinkish-red Emission peak: ~1.91 eV (Mn2+ band), ~3.01 eV (Eu2+ band) Emission width (FWHM): 0.24 eV (Mn2+ band) Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4.88 eV), ++ (3.40 eV)

Absorption (%)

100

Emission

Spectra
800 700 600 500

400

Wavelength (nm)

300

50

2

3

4 Photon Energy (eV)

5

0

-Sr3(PO4)2:Sn2+,Mn2+(Al)
Structure: Trigonal Composition Ingredient SrCO3 SrHPO4 Al2O3 SnO MnCO3 Mole % 8 45 4 (of Al) 1.5 1 By weight (g) 11.8 75.4 2 2 1.15

Preparation Mix by ball-milling in water. Dry in air. Powderize when dry. Fire in capped quartz tubes, CO, 1100ºC, 2 hours. Optical Properties Emission color: Orange-red Emission peak: 2.02 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0.25 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4.88 eV), – (3.40 eV) Spectra
800 700 600 500
Wavelength (nm)

400

300

50

2

3

4 Photon Energy (eV)

5

0

Absorption (%)

100

Emission

Absorption (%)

100

Emission

Remarks 1. This is a “tricky” phosphor, by no means yet understood or optimized. 2. Partial or complete replacement of Sr by Ca shifts the emission into deeper red. References 1. Kröger, F.A., A proof of the associated-pair theory for sensitized luminophors, Physica, 15, 801 (1949). 2. Botden, T.P.J., Transfer and transport of energy by resonance processes in luminescent solids, Philips Res. Rep., 7, 197 (1952). 3. Sarver, J.F., Hoffman, M.V., and Hummel, F.A., Phase equilibria and tin-activated luminescence in strontium orthophosphate systems, J. Electrochem. Soc., 108, 1103 (1961).

-Sr3(PO4)2:Sn2+
Structure: Trigonal Composition Ingredient SrCO3 SrHPO4 SnO Mole % 20 75 5 By weight (g) 29.5 138 6.75

Preparation Mix by slurrying in water. Dry in air. Powderize when dry. Fire in capped quartz tubes, CO, 1100ºC, 2 hours. Optical Properties Emission color: Violet + UV Emission peak: 3.28 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0.66 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4.88 eV), – (3.40 eV) Spectra
800 700 600 500
Wavelength (nm)

400

300

50

2

3

4 Photon Energy (eV)

5

0

Reference 1. Botden, T.P.J., Transfer and transport of energy by resonance processes in luminescent solids, Philips Res. Rep., 7, 197 (1952).

Absorption (%)

100

Emission

-Sr3(PO4)2:Eu2+
Structure: Trigonal Optical Properties Emission color: Violet Emission peak: 2.94 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0.22 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4.88 eV), + (3.40 eV) Spectra
800 700 600 500
Wavelength (nm)

400

300

50

2

3

4 Photon Energy (eV)

5

0

References 1. Lagos, C.C., Luminescence of divalent europium in Ba-Ca, Ba-Sr, and Ca-Sr orthophosphate and pyrophosphate compositions, J. Electrochem. Soc., 117, 1189 (1970). 2. Hoffman, M.V., Eu+2 activation in some alkaline earth strontium phosphate compounds, J. Electrochem. Soc., 115, 560 (1968).

Ba3(PO4)2:Eu2+
Optical Properties Emission color: Violet Emission peak: 2.99 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0.25 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4.88 eV), + (3.40 eV) Spectra
800 700 600 500
Wavelength (nm)

400

300

100

Emission

50

2

3

4 Photon Energy (eV)

5

0

Absorption (%)

100

Emission

Reference 1. Lagos, C.C., Luminescence of divalent europium in Ba-Ca, Ba-Sr, and Ca-Sr orthophosphate and pyrophosphate compositions, J. Electrochem. Soc., 117, 1189 (1970).

Na3Ce(PO4)2:Tb3+
Optical Properties Emission color: Green Emission peak: 2.27 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4.88 eV), – (3.40 eV) Spectra
800 700 600 500
Wavelength (nm)

400

300

100

Emission

50

2

3

4 Photon Energy (eV)

5

0

Reference 1. Fava, J. et al., Some new efficient luminophors with low-concentration quenching effects, J. Lumin., 18/19, 389 (1979).

-(Ca,Sr)3(PO4)2:Sn2+,Mn2+
Composition Ingredient CaCO3 SrCO3 SrHPO4 SnO MnCO3 Mole % 50 32 205 10 3 By weight (g) 50 47 376 13.5 3.45

Preparation Mix by slurrying in water or methanol. Dry in air. Powderize when dry. 1. Fire in open quartz boats, N2, 500–600ºC. Powderize. 2. Fire in capped quartz tubes, CO, 1150ºC, 2 hours. Optical Properties Emission color: Orange-red Emission peak: 1.97 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0.38 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4.88 eV), – (3.40 eV)

Spectra
800 700 600 500

400

Wavelength (nm)

300

50

2

3

Remarks 1. Increasing Mn concentration causes narrowing of the emission band but decreasing efficiency. 2. The -phosphate structure is maintained from about Ca/Sr of 10/90 to 100/0. Increasing Ca/Sr causes a shift of the Mn2+ band into deeper red. References 1. Butler, K.H., Alkaline earth orthophosphate phosphors, J. Electrochem. Soc., 100, 250 (1953). 2. Koelmans, H., and Cox, A.P.M., Luminescence of modified tin-activated strontium orthophosphate, J. Electrochem. Soc., 104, 442 (1957). 3. Mooney, R.W., Temperature dependence of fluorescence of tin-activated orthophosphates, J. Electrochem. Soc., 105, 456 (1958). 4. Uehara, Y., Kobuke, Y., and Masuda, I., Copper-activated calcium orthophosphate and related phosphors, J. Electrochem. Soc., 106, 200 (1959). 5. Wanmaker, W.L., and Bakker, C., Luminescence of copper-activated calcium and strontium orthophosphates, J. Electrochem. Soc., 106, 1027 (1959). 6. Sarver, J.F., Hoffman, M.V., and Hummel, F.A., Phase equilibria and tin-activated luminescence in strontium orthophosphate systems, J. Electrochem. Soc., 108, 1103 (1961).

4 Photon Energy (eV)

5

0

ZnMg2(PO4)2:Mn2+
Spectra
800 700 600 500 400
Wavelength (nm)

300

100

Emission

50

2

3

4 Photon Energy (eV)

5

0

Absorption (%)

100

Emission

Stir to uniformity as well as possible. 950ºC. – (3.. J. Phase equilibria and manganeseactivated fluorescence in the system Zn3(PO4)2-Mg3(PO4)2. Ball-mill the slurry for about 1 hour.40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: ~7–8% Decay: Near-exponential decay. Optical Properties Emission color: Light red Emission peak: 1. Soc. F. 3.A.. air. 2. Dry in air. Fire in open quartz boats.94 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0. 900ºC.40 eV UV. Reference 1. Slowly add the H3PO4 solution while stirring (slurry heats up). It cannot be sensitized to respond to 4. 2. 960 (1959). air.25 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: – (4. Electrochem. . Fire in open quartz boats. F. 30 msec to 1/10 Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 100 Emission 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Remarks 1.. 106. J.15 47.88 or 3. 1.S. 2 hours. ~500ºC. air.. Powderize. Fire in open quartz boats. Sarver.Zn3(PO4)2:Mn2 Structure: Monoclinic Composition Ingredient ZnO MnCO3 H3PO4 solution Mole % 99 1 62 (of P) By weight (g) 81 1. Powderize.88 eV).L. Powderize when dry. 1 hour.6 ccm Preparation Make a thin slurry of ZnO + MnCO3 in water or methanol. This is strictly a catholuminescent phosphor. This phosphor has been used as the red component in early color TV picture tubes. Katnack. 1 hour. and Hummel.

S. and Hummel. 950ºC. ~500–600ºC. air. It cannot be sensitized for UV excitation. 2. This is strictly a catholuminescent phosphor. Fire in open quartz boats. Electrochem. 900ºC is too low. – (3.96 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0.(Zn. Powderize when dry. Stir to uniformity. 2.40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: ~6–8% Decay: near-exponential decay.. Dry in air. 106.. Katnack. Sarver.L. Crush forming phosphate by wet mortaring or milling. Reference 1. 3. F.. The decay of this phosphor is significantly longer than that of Zn3(PO4)2:Mn2+ (~30 msec to 1/10). 1000ºC is too high. . 960 (1959).27 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: – (4.15 46. F.88 eV).Mg)3(PO4)2:Mn2+ Structure: Monoclinic Composition Ingredient ZnO MnO MnCO3 H3PO4 solution Mole % 79 20 1 62 (of P) By weight (g) 65 8. 1. The 950ºC firing temperature is critical. Slowly add the H3PO4 solution while stirring. air.1 1.A. Fire in open quartz boats. 100–1200 msec to 1/10 Spectra 800 700 600 500 400 Wavelength (nm) 300 100 Emission 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Remarks 1.. Phase equilibria and manganeseactivated fluorescence in the system Zn3(PO4)2-Mg3(PO4)2.7 ccm Preparation Make a thin slurry of ZnO + MgO + MnCO3 in water or methanol. J. Powderize. 1 hour. Optical Properties Emission color: Light red Emission peak: 1. Soc. 2 hours. J.

and Mn2+-activated luminescent phases in CaO-MgO-P2O5 system. R. McCauley. MgSr5(PO4)4:Sn2+ Optical Properties Emission color: Orange. Hummel.49 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4. – (3. F.40 eV) Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Absorption (%) 100 Emission . 118.red Emission peak: 1..A..93 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0.V.A. M.Mg3Ca3(PO4)4:Eu2+ Structure: Monoclinic Optical Properties Emission color: Blue Emission peak: 2. Tb3+-activated. and Hoffman.88 eV).48 eV Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 100 Emission 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Reference 1..80 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0.. 755 (1971). Electrochem. Phase equilibria and Eu2+activated. Soc. J.

89 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0.67 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4.36 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0.88 eV) Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 50 2 3 CaSr2(PO4)2:Bi3+ Optical Properties Emission color: UV Emission peak: 3. – (3. ++ (3.40 eV) Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 400 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 MgBa2(PO4)2:U Optical Properties Emission color: Green Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4.MgBa2(PO4)2:Sn2+ Optical Properties Emission color: Greenish Emission peak: 2.40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: – Absorption (%) 100 Emission Absorption (%) 100 Emission .88 eV).27 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4.88 eV).

Spectra 800 700 600 500 400 Wavelength (nm) 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Sr2P2O7:Eu2+ Optical Properties Emission color: Violet Emission peak: 2. ++ (3. University Park (1980). 274. Pennsylvania University Press. Absorption (%) 100 Emission ..97 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0. Butler. p.H.29 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4. Fluorescent Lamp Phosphors.88 eV). K.40 eV) Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 100 Emission 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Reference 1.

Fire in capped quartz tubes. – (3.17 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0. N2.88 eV).6 Halophosphates The following host compounds and activators are included in this subsection: Ca5(PO4)3F:Mn2+ Ca5(PO4)3F:Sb3+ Ca5(PO4)3F:Sn2+ Ca5(PO4)3Cl:Eu2+ Ca5(PO4)3Cl:Mn2+ Ca5(PO4)3Cl:Sb3+ Ca5(PO4)3Cl:Sn2+ Sr5(PO4)3Cl:Eu2+ Sr5(PO4)3Cl:Mn2+ Sr5(PO4)3Cl:Sb3+ Sr5(PO4)3F:Mn2+ Sr5(PO4)3F:Sb3+ Sr5(PO4)3F:Sb3+.5 Preparation Mix by ball-milling in water or methanol. Powderize when dry. 1 hour. Optical Properties Emission color: Yellow Emission peak: 2.Pr3+ Sr5(PO4)3F:Sn2+ Ba5(PO4)3Cl:Eu2+ Ba5(PO4)3Cl:U Ca2Ba3(PO4)3Cl:Eu2+ Ca5(PO4)3F:Mn2+ Structure: Hexagonal (apatite) Composition Ingredient CaCO3 CaHPO4 CaF2 MnCO3 Mole % 140 400 50 10 By weight (g) 140 360 39 11.Mn2+ Sr5(PO4)3Cl:Eu2+.40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: + .28 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: – (4. Dry in air. 1100ºC.4.

Dry in air.6 Preparation Mix by ball-milling in water or methanol. 1 hour.Spectra 800 700 600 500 400 Wavelength (nm) 300 100 Emission 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Remark Can be sensitized for UV excitation by addition of Sn2+. 321 (1981).J.H.. Ca5(PO4)3F:Sb3+ Structure: Hexagonal (apatite) Composition Ingredient CaCO3 CaHPO4 CaF2 Sb2O3 Mole % 140 300 50 10 (of Sb) By weight (g) 140 360 39 14. Optical Properties Emission color: Pale blue-green Emission peak: 2. 2. 22. A. Electrochem.88 eV)..W. P.. 1 (1949).50 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0. Alkaline earth halophosphates and related phosphors. 96. Fire in capped quartz tubes.70 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4.. Powderize when dry. McKeag. R. or Ce3+. Excitation-spectra and fluorescent lifetime measurements of Mn2+ in CaF2 and Ca5(PO4)3F2. Sb3+.. References 1. and Alcala.40 eV) . Jenkins. N2. P. Lumin. and Ranby. Soc.J. J. H. Alonso. 1100ºC. J. – (3..

Optical Properties Emission color: Pale bluish Emission peak: 3. Chem. 3.. 1 (1949). 96. T. E. J. N2.40 eV) Absorption (%) 100 Emission . T. 1657 (1973). 2. Powderize when dry. B. 1100ºC. Soc. Soules.... Fire in capped quartz tubes.5 Preparation Mix by ball-milling methanol plus a little water. Phys. et al. Rev. Ca5(PO4)3F:Sn2+ Structure: Hexagonal (apatite) Composition Ingredient CaCO3 CaHPO4 CaF2 SnO Mole % 200 300 50 10 By weight (g) 200 360 39 13.W.F.. Molecular orbital model for antimony luminescent centers in fluorophosphate..88 eV). 1 hour.F. Alkaline earth halophosphates and related phosphors. Dry in air. and Kreidler.00 eV Emission width (FWHM): ~0. and Ranby.J. Soules.9 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4.. T.S. H. A. Electrochem.H. 55. 7. Energy-transfer between antimony and manganese in fluorophosphate phosphors.R. P.. – (3. Davis. 1056 (1971). McKeag..Spectra 800 700 600 500 400 Wavelength (nm) 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 References 1. J. Phys. Jenkins.

Fire in capped quartz tubes. McKeag.23 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4. Fire in capped quartz tubes. Powderize when dry. Add 32 g NH4Cl. 1. A.. Optical Properties Emission color: Blue Emission peak: 2. Dry in air. Electrochem. mix by dry grinding or milling.40 eV) Absorption (%) 100 Emission .72 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0. 1 hour. P.8 Preparation Mix by ball-milling methanol plus a little water. Ca5(PO4)3Cl:Eu2+ Structure: Hexagonal (apatite) Composition Ingredient CaCO3 CaHPO4 NH4Cl Eu2O3 Mole % 200 300 120 5 (of Eu) By weight (g) 200 360 64 8.W.H. N2. 96.. 2. H. 1100ºC. N2. Powderize. ++ (3.88 eV). Powderize. Alkaline earth halophosphates and related phosphors. Dry.Spectra 800 700 600 500 400 Wavelength (nm) 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Reference 1.. J. Wash in water several times. Jenkins. 1 (1949). 1 hour. Soc. and Ranby.J. 1100º C..

mix by dry grinding or milling. N2.10 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0. BL-R-6-90102-29 (1968). – (3. 1. Optical Properties Emission color: Orange-yellow Emission peak: ~2.. N2. 1 hour. 1 hour. Dry in air. Fire in capped quartz tubes.88 eV). Add 32 g NH4Cl. Powderize. Powderize.Spectra 800 700 600 500 400 Wavelength (nm) 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Reference 1. Powderize when dry. Fire in capped quartz tubes.5 Preparation Mix by ball-milling methanol plus a little water. A. Wash in water several times. Ca5(PO4)3Cl:Mn2+ Structure: Hexagonal (apatite) Composition Ingredient CaCO3 CaHPO4 NH4Cl MnCO3 Mole % 200 300 120 10 By weight (g) 200 360 64 11. Wachtel. Bloomfield Report. 1100ºC.29 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: – (4. Dry. 2.40 eV) Absorption (%) 100 Emission . 1100ºC.

H. Soc. 1. 1100ºC.Spectra 800 700 600 500 400 Wavelength (nm) 300 100 Emission 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Remark Can be sensitized for UV excitation by addition of Sn2+. 1 hour. Fire in capped quartz tubes.38 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0. and Ranby. 96.70 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4.40 eV) ... Ca5(PO4)3Cl:Sb3+ Structure: Hexagonal (apatite) Composition Ingredient CaCO3 CaHPO4 NH4Cl MnCO3 Mole % 200 300 120 10 By weight (g) 200 360 64 11. 1 hour. Jenkins. A. 2. H. Alkaline earth halophosphates and related phosphors. Reference 1.. McKeag. J. 1 (1949). Electrochem..J. N2. P. – (3.88 eV). Ce3+. mix by dry grinding or milling. 1100ºC. Dry in air. Wash in water several times.W. Optical Properties Emission color: Pale whitish-green Emission peak: 2. Powderize. Add 32 g NH4Cl. Powderize.5 Preparation Mix by ball-milling methanol plus a little water. Fire in capped quartz tubes. or Eu2+. N2. Sb3+. Dry. Powderize when dry.

. J. 1100ºC. McKeag. 1 hour.J. 1 hour. N2. Add 32 g NH4Cl. Powderize when dry. Electrochem. Wash in water several times. – (3. 2.5 Preparation Mix by ball-milling methanol plus a little water. the two peaks near 1. Ca5(PO4)3Cl:Sn2+ Structure: Hexagonal (apatite) Composition Ingredient CaCO3 CaHPO4 NH4Cl SnO Mole % 200 300 120 10 By weight (g) 200 360 64 13. Optical Properties Emission color: Pale pinkish-white Emission peaks: Continuous distribution from the UV into the IR.Spectra 800 700 600 500 400 Wavelength (nm) 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Reference 1.W.45 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4.H. Powderize. Alkaline earth halophosphates and related phosphors. Jenkins. Fire in capped quartz tubes. 1 (1949). Powderize. 1. H. Fire in capped quartz tubes. Dry in air. Dry. Soc. and Ranby. A..40 eV) Absorption (%) 100 Emission . 1100ºC. P. N2..88 eV). mix by dry grinding or milling. 96..95 and 3.

1100ºC. Fire in capped quartz tubes. Dry. mix by dry grinding or milling.40 eV) Absorption (%) 100 Emission .Spectra 800 700 600 500 400 Wavelength (nm) 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Sr5(PO4)3Cl:Eu2+ Structure: Hexagonal (apatite) Composition Ingredient SrCO3 SrHPO4 NH4Cl Eu2O3 Mole % 200 300 120 5 (of Eu) By weight (g) 295 550 64 8. 1100ºC.75 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0. 1 hour. Add 32 g NH4Cl. Dry in air. Powderize. Powderize when dry. N2. Powderize. Optical Properties Emission color: Blue Emission peak: 2. Fire in capped quartz tubes. 2. 1 hour. 1.8 Preparation Mix by ball-milling methanol plus a little water. ++ (3.19 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4.88 eV). Wash in water several times. N2.

40 eV) Absorption (%) 100 Emission . Bloomfield Report. Add 32 g NH4Cl. 1100ºC. N2. Dry in air. Fire in capped quartz tubes.Spectra 800 700 600 500 400 Wavelength (nm) 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Reference 1. Fire in capped quartz tubes. Optical Properties Emission color: Yellow Emission peak: 2.32 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: – (4. Wash in water several times.16 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0. 2. Powderize when dry. N2.5 Preparation Mix by ball-milling methanol plus a little water. Powderize. 1. BL-R-6-90102-29 (1968).88 eV). mix by dry grinding or milling. A. Wachtel. 1100ºC. – (3. Dry. 1 hour.. Sr5(PO4)3Cl:Mn2+ Structure: Hexagonal (apatite) Composition Ingredient SrCO3 SrHPO4 NH4Cl MnCO3 Mole % 200 300 120 10 By weight (g) 295 550 64 11. 1 hour. Powderize.

Electrochem.Spectra 800 700 600 500 400 Wavelength (nm) 300 100 Emission 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Remark Can be sensitized for UV excitation by addition of Sn2+. Soc. Fire in capped quartz tubes. Optical Properties Emission color: Whitish-green Emission peak: ~2...J. Powderize. Alkaline earth halophosphates and related phosphors. mix by dry grinding or milling. Powderize. Add 32 g NH4Cl. 2. McKeag. Sr5(PO4)3Cl:Sb3+ Structure: Hexagonal (apatite) Composition Ingredient SrCO3 SrHPO4 NH4Cl Sb2O3 Mole % 200 300 120 10 (of Sb) By weight (g) 295 550 64 14. 1 (1949). Fire in capped quartz tubes. Sb3+. N2. Powderize when dry. A. and Ranby.31 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0.88 eV). 1100ºC. Ce3+. P.. N2. Wash in water several times. 1. 1 hour. 96. Dry in air. – (3. Reference 1.40 eV) .68 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4.. Jenkins. or Eu2+.W. 1 hour. H.6 Preparation Mix by ball-milling methanol plus a little water. J. Dry. 1100ºC.H.

. 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Sr5(PO4)3F:Mn2+ Structure: Hexagonal (apatite) Composition Ingredient SrCO3 SrHPO4 SrF2 MnCO3 Mole % 200 300 50 10 By weight (g) 295 550 63 11.88 eV). 96. 1 hour. Optical Properties Emission color: Yellow Emission peak: ~2.28 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: – (4. N2. and Ranby. Fire in capped quartz tubes. H. McKeag.J. A. Powderize when dry. Alkaline earth halophosphates and related phosphors..40 eV) Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 100 Emission 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Absorption (%) 100 Emission .5 Preparation Mix by ball-milling methanol plus a little water.Spectra 800 700 600 500 400 Wavelength (nm) 300 50 2 3 Reference 1.. Jenkins. P. 1100ºC.. 1 (1949). – (3. Soc. J. Dry in air.W.H. Electrochem.17 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0.

Sr5(PO4)3F:Sb3+ Structure: Hexagonal (apatite) Composition Ingredient SrCO3 SrHPO4 SrF2 Sb2O3 Mole % 140 300 50 10 (of Sb) By weight (g) 206 550 63 14.. Jenkins. N2. Powderize when dry.. Dry in air. Alkaline earth halophosphates and related phosphors. H. McKeag.Remark Can be sensitized for UV excitation by addition of Sn2+. H. 1 hour. 1 (1949).6 Preparation Mix by ball-milling methanol plus a little water.43 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0. Electrochem.J.W.H.40 eV) Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Reference 1. 1 (1949). A. Alkaline earth halophosphates and related phosphors.. 96. or Ce3+. Soc.J. 1100ºC.. and Ranby.H.W. J.75 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4.88 eV). and Ranby. Reference 1. – (3. Optical Properties Emission color: Pale whitish blue-green Emission peak: ~2. Fire in capped quartz tubes. A.. P. Soc. Absorption (%) 100 Emission .... Jenkins. J. P. Sb3+. 96. Electrochem. McKeag.

5 Absorption (%) 100 Emission Absorption (%) 100 Emission .Mn2+ Structure: Hexagonal (apatite) Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Sr5(PO4)3Cl:Eu2+.Pr3+ Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Sr5(PO4)3F:Sn2+ Structure: Hexagonal (apatite) Composition Ingredient SrCO3 SrHPO4 SrF2 SnO Mole % 140 300 50 10 By weight (g) 206 550 63 13.Sr5(PO4)3F:Sb3+.

88 eV). 1000ºC. N2.40 eV) Absorption (%) 100 Emission . Optical Properties Emission color: Bluish-white Emission peak: ~2. Add 32 g NH4Cl. Powderize when dry. Dry. Fire in capped quartz tubes. Fire in capped quartz tubes.40 eV) Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Ba5(PO4)3Cl:Eu2+ Structure: Hexagonal (apatite) Composition Ingredient BaCO3 BaHPO4 NH4Cl Eu2O3 Mole % 200 300 120 5 (of Eu) By weight (g) 395 700 64 8. Powderize when dry. 1100ºC. N2.75 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4.8 Preparation Mix by ball-milling methanol plus a little water. Powderize. Wash in water several times. N2.84 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0. – (3.75 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0. mix by dry grinding. 1. 1000ºC.28 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4. 1 hour. 1 hour. Dry in air. Powderize. Optical Properties Emission color: Violet-blue Emission peak: ~2. 1 hour. Dry in air. Fire in capped quartz tubes.88 eV).Preparation Mix by ball-milling methanol plus a little water. 2. ++ (3.

+ (3. Add 32 g NH4Cl. 1. N2. Powderize. N2. 1 hour. A. Optical Properties Emission color: Green Emission peaks: 2. and add the solution to the slurry. let settle. BaCO3.40 eV). Fire in capped quartz tubes. 850ºC. decant). BL-R-6-90102-29 (1968).12–2. Dry in air. 900ºC. 2 hours.Spectra 800 700 600 500 400 Wavelength (nm) 300 100 Emission 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Reference 1. Wash in water several times (stir. mix by dry grinding or milling.88 eV). Powderize when dry. and NH4Cl. stir to uniformity. Wachtel. 2. Bloomfield Report. Ba5(PO4)3Cl:U Structure: Hexagonal (apatite) Composition Ingredient BaHPO4 BaCO3 NH4Cl UO2(C2H3O2)2. 2H2O Mole % 190 150 120 10 By weight (g) 443 295 64 42 Preparation Make a slurry in methanol of BaHPO4. Dry. QE Excitation efficiency by e-beam: Poor 50% .. Powderize.39 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4. Fire in capped quartz tubes. Dissolve the uranyl acetate in a little methanol.

2 g NH4Cl. Fire in capped quartz tubes.46 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0. N2. 1. 1100ºC.. and Wells. N2. J. Ca2Ba3(PO4)3Cl:Eu2+ Structure: Hexagonal (apatite) Composition Ingredient CaCO3 BaHPO4 NH4Cl Eu2O3 Mole % 200 300 120 5 (of Eu) By weight (g) 200 700 64 8. 98. Dry.Spectra 800 700 600 500 400 Wavelength (nm) 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Reference 1.. Dry in air. Optical Properties Emission color: Pale blue-green Emission peak: 2. ++ (3.T. mix by dry grinding.49 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4.40 eV) Absorption (%) 100 Emission . Powderize.8 Preparation Mix by ball-milling in methanol plus a little water.88 eV). Powderize. R. Soc. Fire in capped quartz tubes. 1 hour. Anderson. 414 (1951).S. 2. Powderize when dry. 1100ºC. Luminescent barium and magnesium halophosphates. Wash in water several times. J.. Electrochem. 1 hour. Add 3.

Wachtel. Bloomfield Report..Spectra 800 700 600 500 400 Wavelength (nm) 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Reference 1. BL-R-6-90102-29 (1968). Absorption (%) 100 Emission . A.

Mn2+ SrB4O7:Eu2+(F.7 Borates The following host compounds and activators are included in this subsection: YBO3:Ce3+ YBO3:Eu3+ LaBO3:Eu3+ -SrO·3B2O3:Pb2+ -SrO·3B2O3:Pb2+.Cl.Mn2+ YAl3B4O12:Ce3+.Br) SrB4O7:Pb2+ SrB4O7:Pb2+.Tb3+ LaAl3B4O12:Eu3+ BaB8O13:Eu2+ SrB8O13:Sm2+ Ca2B5O9Cl:Eu2+ Ca2B5O9Cl:Pb2+ Ca2B5O9Br:Eu2+ Sr2B5O9Cl:Eu2+ CaYB0.Mn2+ Cd2B6O11:Mn2+ YAl3B4O12:Ce3+ YAl3B4O12:Bi3+ YAl3B4O12:Eu3+ YAl3B4O12:Eu3+.4.Mn2+ .Mn2+ SrO·3B2O3:Eu2+.7:Eu3+ Ca2La2BO6.Cl -SrO·3B2O3:Sm2+ MgB2O4:Mn2+ MgYBO4:Eu3+ CaB2O4:Mn2+ CaB2O4:Pb2+ CaYBO4:Bi3+ CaYBO4:Eu3+ CaLaBO4:Eu3+ ZnB2O4:Mn2+ Ca2B2O5:Mn2+ LaAlB2O6:Eu3+ CaLaB3O7:Ce3+.Cr3+ YAl3B4O12:Th4+.Ce3+.8O3.5:Pb2+ YAl3B4O12:Ce3+.

Rev... Blasse. The absorption and emission spectra of some important activators. J. Soc. Phys.A. . A. Blasse. Sovers. J. A. Bril. J. A. 5. Rare earth cathodoluminescence in InBO3 and related orthoborates..00 and 3. Chem.. C.D. Radiationless transitions in Eu3+ center in LaAlO3.. and Bril. 6.A. O. 4. 31. 53. and Poorter. Electrochem..22 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4. 4450 (1970). F.40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: + Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 100 Emission 50 2 3 References 1.. and Bril. G.. 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 YBO3:Eu3+ Structure: Vaterite Composition Ingredient Y 2O 3 Eu2O3 H3BO3 Mole % 92 (of Y) 8 (of Eu) 105 By weight (g) 104 14 65 Preparation Mix by dry grinding or milling... Philips Tech. Solid State Chem. Blasse.J.. 52 (1972). J. A. G. 4. 114. Bril. 304 (1970). 1. 613 (1967). Chem. G.S.. 48. 2. 117. Ultraviolet-absorption bands of Bi3+ and Eu3+ in oxides. Fast-decay phosphors. Fire in open quartz boats. G. 3. J..88 eV).. and de Poorter. Avella. G... Electrochem... Fluorescence of Eu3+-activated sodium lanthanide titanates. 1 hour. J. Blasse. J.YBO3:Ce3+ Structure: Vaterite Optical Properties Emission color: Violet-UV Emission peak: 3. ~500ºC. air. Phys. – (3.J. 3652 (1968).. Blasse. Soc. 346 (1970).. and Wiggins.

and Wiggins. LaBO3:Eu3+ Structure: Orthorhombic (aragonite) Composition Ingredient La2O3 Eu2O3 H3BO3 Mole % 92 (of La) 8 (of Eu) 105 By weight (g) 150 14 65 Preparation Mix by dry grinding or milling. Avella.10 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: + (4. ~500ºC. 1000ºC. Powderize. Powderize. Res. Fire in open quartz boats. Fine structure in the low temperature luminescence of Zn2SiO4:Mn and Mg4Ta2O9:Mn. Veenis. Philips J. Fire in open quartz boats. air... Fire in open quartz boats. 1000ºC. 1250ºC. A. Fire in open quartz boats. 1. 2 hours. 2. 33.2. Rare earth cathodoluminescence in InBO3 and related orthoborates.. 1 hour.. air.98–2. air. 3. 124 (1978). F. J. C. O. 613 (1967).J. A. 1150ºC. Electrochem. Powderize. Soc. Sovers. 1 hour.S.. 1 hour. air.W. and Bril. Optical Properties Emission color: Red-orange Emission peaks: 1. 1 hour. Fire in open quartz boats.40 eV) Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 100 Emission 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 References 1. 3. 114. – (3.88 eV)... Powderize. air. .J. 2.

and then take out.L. O. Fluorescent properties of some europium-activated phosphors. -SrO·3B2O3:Pb2+ Composition Ingredient SrCO3 PbO H3BO3 NH4Cl Mole % 99 1 600 5 By weight (g) 146 2.S.7 Preparation Mix by dry grinding or milling... Avella.Optical Properties Emission color: Light red Emission peaks: 1.J.. Fire in capped quartz tubes. J. Place into cold furnace. – (3. 700ºC.J. 114. air.. Optical Properties Emission color: UV Emission peak: 4. Sovers. and Wiggins. Powderize. C.88 eV) Absorption (%) 100 Emission ..33 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: + (4. N2 .. 2. Rare earth cathodoluminescence in InBO3 and related orthoborates. Soc.10 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: + (4. F. Fire in capped quartz tubes. 700ºC.995. 2. and Wanmaker. and 2. Fire in capped quartz tubes.40 eV) Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 References 1. Electrochem. Bril. go slowly up with temperature to 600 C.09 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0. 2 hours.02. 2. 613 (1967). Soc. Powderize.3 370 2. J. 1. 3. 16 hours (overnight).. A. W.88 eV). N2 . 1363 (1964). 111. Electrochem.

H. and Treichler. 580 (1956)... Naturwissenschaften. Witzmann... and Müller. R. Phys. Fire in capped quartz tubes. Powderize. K. Naturwissenschaften. 103 (1964)..88 eV). 700ºC. Zur lumineszenz kupfer. Witzmann. 307 (1959). Zur uv-emission bleiaktivierter strontiumboratluminophore. Buhrow. 16 hours (overnight).40 eV). Witzmann. 49. 181 (1962). 5. 1. air. 6. and Semisch. Naturwissenschaften. 45.. Witzmann. Z.und kupferbleiaktivierter strontiumboratphosphore. Optical Properties Emission color: Bluish-green Emission peak: 2. H.Mn).. Chem. Zum emissionsvermogen blei-manganaktivierter kalziumboratphosphore (CaO.Spectra 800 700 600 500 400 Wavelength (nm) 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 References 1.XB2O3-Pb. H. go slowly up with temperature to 600 C.7 Preparation Mix by dry grinding or milling. and Müller. W.. and Treichler.22 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: + (4. Boratluminophore MIT UV-emission. QE 45–50% Absorption (%) 100 Emission . W. Müller. 3. and Schreiber. Fire in capped quartz tubes. and then take out. 43.15 372 2. (Leipzig). H. 3.Mn2+ Composition Ingredient SrCO3 PbO MnCO3 H3BO3 NH4Cl Mole % 98 1 1 600 5 By weight (g) 180 2.. H.. R.41 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0. Phys.. 212. Witzmann. (Leipzig). 2. H. 542 (1958). G. 4. N2 . 2 hours. J. 2.. Powderize. Z.. 211. -SrO·3B2O3:Pb2+. Chem. H. 700ºC.28 1. 205 (1959). Fire in capped quartz tubes.. Place into cold furnace. N2 . – (3. Naturwissenschaften. 51. Witzmann.

Dry. Add the above NH4Cl. 700ºC. 2. Naturwissenschaften. Powderize. Optical Properties Emission color: UV Emission peak: 3.. Fire in open quartz boats.und kupferbleiaktivierter strontiumboratphosphore.16 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4.37 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0. 49.. 3. CO . air. H. 1 hour.88 eV) Absorption (%) 100 Emission . mix by dry grinding. 850ºC. 4 hours. N2 . 181 (1962).Spectra 800 700 600 500 400 Wavelength (nm) 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Reference 1. H. Zur lumineszenz kupfer. Wash in water several times. 1. Witzmann.5 384 27 Preparation Mix all ingredients but the NH4Cl by dry grinding or milling. SrO·3B2O3:Eu2+. and Schreiber. ½ hour. Powderize.Cl Composition Ingredient SrCO3 Eu2O3 H3BO3 NH4Cl Mole % 98 2 (of Eu) 620 50 By weight (g) 180 3. ~500ºC. Fire in open quartz boats. Powderize. Fire in capped quartz tubes.

CO.812 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (3. go slowly up with temperature to 600ºC.74 370 Preparation Mix by dry grinding or milling. Powderize. 900ºC.Spectra 800 700 600 500 400 Wavelength (nm) 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Remarks 1. 1 hour. The exact chemical formula of this material is still unknown. QE 60% (estimated) Absorption (%) 100 Emission . Place into cold furnace. Fire in open quartz boats. Optical Properties Emission color: Deep red Emission peak: 1. air. 3. 4 hours. Fire in open quartz boats. The Cl in this recipe can be replaced by F or Br. 2. 800ºC. Powderize. -SrO·3B2O3:Sm Composition Ingredient SrCO3 Sm2O3 H3BO3 Mole % 99 1 (of Sm) 600 By weight (g) 146 1. and then take out. 1.40 eV). Fire in open quartz boats. 2. N2.

11 eV (see remark) Emission width (FWHM): 0. Fire in open quartz boats. Powderize. 1 hour. 3. fire 2 hours at 1000ºC. N2. Fire in open quartz boats. fire 4 hours at 850ºC.Spectra 800 700 600 500 400 Wavelength (nm) 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 MgB2O4:Mn2+ Composition Ingredient MgO MnCO3 H3BO3 Mole % 98 2 205 By weight (g) 40 2.88 eV). 0. ~500ºC.3 127 Preparation Mix by dry grinding or milling.39 eV (see remark) Excitation efficiency by UV: – (4. 700ºC.88 eV. Powderize. N2.40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: + Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 100 Emission 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Absorption (%) 100 Emission . Fire in open quartz boats. 1. – (3. N2. Optical Properties Emission color: Red Emission peak: 1. 2.32 eV. For -structure. 2. For -structure.

1. Ranby.W. Optical Properties Emission color: Orange-red Emission peaks: 1.. U.88 eV).. QE Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 25–30% 400 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Absorption (%) 100 Emission . ~500ºC.035. Fire in open quartz boats.3 107 8. air. 2. Powderize. Peak position depends on modification. 1200ºC. Fire in open quartz boats.2 Preparation Mix by dry grinding or milling. 1 hour. 3. Fire in open quartz boats. Reference 1.8 63. air. 1 hour.S.985. It can be sensitized for UV excitation by addition of Ce3+ + Li+. 2. the high-temperature -phase. Pat. This material comes in two different modifications. and the low-temperature -phase.Remarks 1. MgYBO4:Eu3+ Composition Ingredient MgO Y 2O 3 Eu2O3 H3BO3 Mole % 100 95 (of Y) 5 (of Eu) 205 By weight (g) 40. P. Powderize. and 2.098 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: + (4. air. 2. 1000ºC. 3 014 817 (1961).

40 eV) Reference 1.02 eV (for UV 3. Fire in open quartz boats. Powderize. air. 103 (1964). J. Powderize. H.40 eV) .Mn)..82 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: + (4.3 65 Preparation Mix by dry grinding or milling.. 103 (1964). Add 2 g of NH4Cl. mix by dry grinding. – (3. N2.34 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0. H. Zum emissionsvermogen blei-manganaktivierter kalziumboratphosphore (CaO·B2O3-Pb. 51. Buhrow. – (3. 2.. 3. Fire in capped quartz tubes.88 eV). J. ½ hour.. and Müller. Witzmann.99 eV (for UV 4.88 eV). – (3. 1. Buhrow. 51.CaB2O4:Mn2+ Structure: Orthorhombic Optical Properties Emission color: Green Emission peak: 2. 1 hour. Witzmann.. CaB2O4:Pb2+ Optical Properties Emission color: UV Emission peak: 3. Fire in capped quartz tubes. 1 hour. Naturwissenschaften.88 eV). ~500ºC. 1200 C. K. 3.40 eV) Excitation efficiency by UV: + (4.Mn). Zum emissionsvermogen blei-manganaktivierter kalziumboratphosphore(CaO·B2O3-Pb. 1000ºC. Optical Properties Emission color: Blue Emission peak: 2.23 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: – (4. N2.. K.88 eV). CaYBO4:Bi3+ Composition Ingredient CaCO Y 2O 3 Bi2O3 H3BO3 Mole % 100 99 (of Y) 1 (of Bi) 105 By weight (g) 100 112 2. Naturwissenschaften. and Müller.40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: + Reference 1.

Spectra 800 700 600 500 400 Wavelength (nm) 300 100 Absorption (%) Emission exc. 1 hour. Powderize. ½ hour. 1. air. – (3. Fire in open quartz boats.40 eV) Spectra 800 700 600 500 400 Wavelength (nm) 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Absorption (%) 100 Emission . Fire in open quartz boats. 254 nm 50 exc. 2. 1 hour. 3. CaYBO4:Eu3+ Composition Ingredient CaCO Y 2O 3 Eu2O3 H3BO3 Mole % 100 97 (of Y) 3 (of Eu) 105 By weight (g) 100 110 5. ~500ºC. Fire in open quartz boats. 1200ºC.04 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4.3 65 Preparation Mix by dry grinding or milling. 1000ºC. Peak position seems to depend on the excitation. air. Optical Properties Emission color: Light red Emission peak: 2. Powderize. 365 nm 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Remark 1. air.88 eV).

1200ºC. Powderize. CaLaBO4:Eu3+ Composition Ingredient CaCO La2O3 Eu2O3 H3BO3 Mole % 100 90 (of La) 10 (of Eu) 102 By weight (g) 100 146. 1000ºC.6 63. ~500ºC. 1. . 4. N2. N2. Add 5 g of NH4Cl. 1200ºC. Reference 1.88 eV). 2.. 52 (1972). 3. G. Ultraviolet-absorption bands of Bi3+ and Eu3+ in oxides. Powderize. air.2 Preparation Mix by dry grinding or milling. 16 hours (overnight). Blasse. Dry. N2.40 eV) Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 100 Emission 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Remarks 1. J. Ultraviolet-absorption bands of Bi3+ and Eu3+ in oxides. – (3. Spectrum resembles that of YOE. 4. Blasse. Fire in open quartz boats. 4.148 Inorganic Phosphors Reference 1.. Optical Properties Emission color: Light red Emission peak: 2.03 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4. mix by dry grinding. Fire in open quartz boats. 1 hour. Powderize. 1 hour. 2. Powderize. Solid State Chem. Fire in open quartz boats. This phosphor is somewhat discolored and less efficient if fired in air or oxygen. Fire in capped quartz tubes. J.7 17. 52 (1972). Wash in water several times.. Solid State Chem. G..

and Henderson. Randall.T. 491 (1956).J. A170. 369 (1946). J. 3. Anhydrous zinc borate as a host crystal in luminescence. Cathodo-luminescence. 700ºC. Electrochem. Proc. S. D..88 eV). 4. Fire in open quartz boats. Phys. 1.40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: +/4–5% Decay: Exponential decay. – (3.T. air..Section 4: Phosphor Data 149 ZnB2O4:Mn2+ Composition Ingredient ZnO MnCO3 H3BO3 Mole % 97 3 205 By weight (g) 79 3. 2 hours. J. M. London.A. Soc. 2. Powderize. 1. ~500ºC. A. Some Aspects of Luminescence of Solids. Harrison. 16. 1 hour. about 26 msec to 1/10 Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 100 Emission 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 References 1. F.21 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: (4. P. R. Pt.5 127 Preparation Mix by dry grinding or milling. air... 272 (1939). Terol. 2. Strange. and Hummel. Phase equilibria and fluorescence in the system zinc oxide-boric oxide.. 5. Soc. Optical Properties Emission color: Yellow-green Emission peak: 2. and Otero.W. Elsevier. Soc. Growth and decay processes. 3.. Powderize. 920 (1961). Naturforsch.... air. Amsterdam (1948). 103.. J. Kröger. .29 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0. 58. Fire in open quartz boats.A. 900ºC. S. F.E. Fire in open quartz boats. Z.

additionally a weaker line at 2. air. Optical Properties Emission color: Light red Emission peaks: Two overlapping lines at 2. Powderize.40 eV) Spectra 800 700 600 500 400 Wavelength (nm) 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Absorption (%) 100 Emission . 1200ºC. Fire in open quartz boats.88 eV).150 Inorganic Phosphors Spectra 800 700 600 500 Ca2B2O5:Mn2+ 400 Wavelength (nm) 300 100 Emission 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 LaAlB2O6:Eu3+ Composition Ingredient La2O3 Eu2O3 Al2O3 H3BO3 Mole % 92 (of La) 8 (of Eu) 100 (of Al) 205 By weight (g) 150 14 51 127 Preparation Mix by dry grinding or milling. 2.10 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4.015 and 2. – (3. 3. Fire in open quartz boats. 1 hour. 1000ºC. air. air. Powderize. 1. Fire in open quartz boats. 1 hour. ~500ºC.205 eV.

8 3. 1 hour. Powderize. ~500ºC. 2 hours. 900ºC. Fire in open quartz boats.29 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: + (4.Cl. – (3.88 eV). Optical Properties Emission color: Green Emission peak: 2. 700ºC. Fire in open quartz boats.Mn2+ Composition Ingredient CaCO3 La2O3 MnCO3 CeO2 H3BO3 Mole % 95 98 (of La) 5 2 310 By weight (g) 95 160 5.16 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4.40 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0.37 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0. 2.4 192 Preparation Mix by dry grinding or milling. air.40 eV) Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 100 Emission 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 SrB4O7:Eu2+(F.40 eV) .Br) Optical Properties Emission color: UV Emission peak: 3. Fire in open quartz boats. N2.88 eV).Section 4: Phosphor Data 151 CaLaB3O7:Ce3+. – (3. 3. Powderize. 1. CO.

H.und kupferbleiaktivierter strontiumboratphosphore.. Luminescence properties of Eu(II)-borates and Eu2+-activated Sr-borates. K. Zur lumineszenz kupfer.09 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0. SrB4O7:Pb2+ Optical Properties Emission color: UV Emission peak: 4. 43. Witzmann. Adachi.40 eV) Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 References 1. Naturwissenschaften. 101 (1979). G. J. Lumin. Naturwissenschaften..Spectra 800 700 600 500 400 Wavelength (nm) 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Reference 1. Boratluminophore MIT UV-emission.. Machida. – (3. H. 580 (1956).. 21. G. 181 (1962).. 49.88 eV). 2. and Semisch. Absorption (%) 100 Emission Absorption (%) 100 Emission . and Shiokawa.34 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4. Witzmann. Müller.. R. H.. and Schreiber. J...

580 (1956).40 eV) Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 References 1. 2. Cd2B6O11:Mn2+ Optical Properties Emission color: Yellow-green Emission peak: eV Excitation efficiency by UV: – (4.SrB4O7:Pb2+. Zur lumineszenz kupfer. H.22 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4. Witzmann. – (3.03 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0.. 181 (1962)..88 eV).. 49..Mn2+ Optical Properties Emission color: Blue-green Emission peak: 2.42. G. Witzmann. R. Müller. 4.40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: + Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 100 Emission 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Absorption (%) 100 Emission . and Semisch.88 eV).. Naturwissenschaften.und kupferbleiaktivierter strontiumboratphosphore. Boratluminophore MIT UV-emission. H. Naturwissenschaften. – (3. and Schreiber. 43. H.

Powderize. Electrochem. Bril. Wash in hot water several times. 2.C..A. Dry. 1100ºC. J. D. + (3..A. 900ºC. 616 (1957). air. Powderize.D. J. Radiationless transitions in Eu3+ center in LaAlO3. and Poorter. CO. CO. E. and Hummel. 2. 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Absorption (%) 100 Emission . Powderize. Phase equilibria and fluorescence in the system zinc oxide-boric oxide. Chem. F. ~500ºC. A. Optical Properties Emission color: Blue-violet + UV Emission peaks: 3. 1200ºC.. 1 hour.57 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4.40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: + Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 50 2 3 References 1. 4450 (1970). F. 2. 3. Soc.A.. A. Blasse. 103.. N2. Soc. Fluorescence.E. J. Philips Tech. Powderize. 4.2 153 254 Preparation Mix by dry grinding or milling. 104. 304 (1970).. 491 (1956). Rev. The system cadmium oxide-boric oxide. Hummel. G. 1. 1 hour. Characteristic luminescence.. Fire in open quartz boats. and Bril... Fire in open alumina crucibles. 1 hour. Harrison. Fire in open alumina crucibles. Electrochem. 1.88 eV). Fire in open alumina crucibles. Phys. G.. 31. 2. The absorption and emission spectra of some important activators..20 and 3. Blasse. YAl3B4O12:Ce3+ Structure: Trigonal (huntite) Composition Ingredient Y 2O 3 CeO2 Al2O3 H3BO3 Mole % 90 (of Y) 10 300 (of Al) 410 By weight (g) 102 17. 53.. J. and Subbarao.References 1..

..7 (of Y) 0. The absorption and emission spectra of some important activators. J. 3. Fire in open alumina crucibles.20 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0.33 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: + (4. Powderize. Optical Properties Emission color: UV Emission peak: 4. ~500ºC.40 eV) Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 50 2 3 References 1. Soc. A. Phys. 4. Danielmeyer. 52 (1972). Blasse.3 (of Bi) 300 (of Al) 410 By weight (g) 113 0. 1 hour. 4.. air. 900ºC.. Takahashi. Lumin. 304 (1970). and Bril. Philips Tech. Powderize. Powderize.3.. Chem. 1 hour.. 1. Efficiency and fluorescence quenching of stoichiometric rare-earth laser materials. H. Fire in open alumina crucibles. 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Absorption (%) 100 Emission . O. and Bril. Blasse. Electrochem. Rev. 4. Ultraviolet-absorption bands of Bi3+ and Eu3+ in oxides.. Blasse. 1200ºC. T. 179 (1976). Dry. Solid State Chem. Cathodoluminescent properties of yttrium terbium aluminum borate Y1-xTb x Al3B4O12 phosphors. 31. Fire in open quartz boats. – (3. 12.. J. Wash in hot water several times. J. A. 2. Fire in open alumina crucibles. air. G. 1 hour. Characteristic luminescence. J. 124. Powderize. YAl3B4O12:Bi3+ Structure: Trigonal (huntite) Composition Ingredient Y 2O 3 Bi2O3 Al2O3 H3BO3 Mole % 99.88 eV). Fluorescence of Eu3+-activated sodium lanthanide titanates. air..G. 48. and Yamada. 5... G. 1. 1 hour. 955 (1977). 2. air.. 3652 (1968). 1100ºC.700 153 254 Preparation Mix by dry grinding or milling.. G.

. 5. Photoluminescent efficiency of phosphors with electronic transitions in localized centers. Fire in open alumina crucibles. Powderize. – (3. Solid State Chem. 61.. G. and Blasse.. 1 hour. O. 1 hour. and Bril. 4. Blasse. Luminescence of bismuth in yttrium aluminum borate. Wash in hot water several times. and Bril. Electrochem. air. 1. Fire in open alumina crucibles. Electrochem. 115. 900ºC. Philips Tech.. Soc. J. 2. Absorption (%) 100 Emission . air. Blasse. 52 (1972). The absorption and emission spectra of some important activators. 3. J.6 153 248 Preparation Mix by dry grinding or milling.01 and 2. 1 hour. air.. Characteristic luminescence..3. Fire in open quartz boats. Optical Properties Emission color: Red Emission peaks: 2. Soc... 4. Powderize. G. Phys.. YAl3B4O12:Eu3+ Structure: Trigonal (huntite) Composition Ingredient Y 2O 3 Eu2O3 Al2O3 H3BO3 Mole % 90 (of Y) 10 (of Eu) 300 (of Al) 410 By weight (g) 102 17. J. M. 3. 1200ºC. A. F. Blasse. 955 (1977). Lett. 52 (1972). air. Solid State Chem. Blasse.A. 1 hour. 31. G. van Os. Kellendonk. G. Ultraviolet-absorption bands of Bi3+ and Eu3+ in oxides. Chem. Ultraviolet-absorption bands of Bi3+ and Eu3+ in oxides.035 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4.88 eV). Fire in open alumina crucibles. 124.. 2... G. Cathodoluminescent properties of yttrium terbium aluminum borate Y1-X TbXAl3B4O12 phosphors. T.. 239 (1979).. 1. ~500ºC. Takahashi. 1100ºC.. Rev. 4...40 eV) Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 References 1. 4. Dry. 1067 (1968). J. and Yamada. A. Powderize. 304 (1970). Powderize.

2. 1 hour.88 eV). – (3.23 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: + (4.Ce3+. 1 hour. – (3.88 eV). N2.40 eV) Reference 1. A.. YAl3B4O12:Th4+.4 17. Optical Properties Emission color: Green Emission peak: 2.YAl3B4O12:Eu3+. Powderize. Dry. ~500ºC.88 eV).7 153 254 Preparation Mix by dry grinding or milling. Blasse. Some observations on Cr3+ fluorescence in huntite structure. 4. Wash in hot water several times. and Bril. Fire in open alumina crucibles.Tb3+ Structure: Trigonal (huntite) Composition Ingredient Y 2O 3 CeO2 Tb4O7 Al2O3 H3BO3 Mole % 80 (of Y) 10 10 (of Tb) 300 (of Al) 410 By weight (g) 90. Powderize.31 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0. G. 1.Cr3+ Structure: Trigonal (huntite) Optical Properties Emission color: Deep red Emission peak: 1.29 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4. Powderize. Fire in open alumina crucibles. 1 hour. 20. 900ºC. air. Phys. CO. 1 hour. 3. – (3. Fire in open alumina crucibles.77 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4.40 eV) . 1200ºC.Mn2+ Structure: Trigonal (huntite) Emission color: green Emission peak: 2. Fire in open quartz boats.. Powderize. 1100ºC. Status Solidi.2 18. CO.40 eV) YAl3B4O12:Ce3+. 551 (1967).

Soc.. Optical Properties Emission color: Red Emission peak: 2.. J. Rev. T. A. Eu3+.. Phys. Fluorescence of Eu3+-activated lanthanide oxyhalides LnOX. Fire in open quartz boats.. Cathodoluminescent properties of yttrium terbium aluminum borate Y1 xTbxAl3B4O12 phosphors. 124. O. air.40 eV) Absorption (%) 100 Emission .. Chem. 955 (1977).. Chem. 3. 2. 2579 (1967).. A. Characteristic luminescence. G. 900ºC..005 and 2. and Yamada. Fire in open quartz boats. Philips Tech.020 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: + (4. 304 (1970). 1920 (1967). Fire in open quartz boats. and Bril. Dy3+. 47. and Bril. and Study of energy transfer from Sb3+. 2. 3. 31.6 153 254 Preparation Mix by dry grinding or milling. J. Tb3+. Blasse. 1. Ce3+ to Sm3+.. – (3. Powderize. 1200ºC. Electrochem. Blasse.. G.88 eV). ~500ºC. Powderize. air. Phys. 1. J.Spectra 800 700 600 500 400 Wavelength (nm) 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 References 1. air. 46. Bi3+. 2 hours. 1 hour. The absorption and emission spectra of some important activators. LaAl3B4O12:Eu3+ Composition Ingredient La2O3 Eu2O3 Al2O3 H3BO3 Mole % 90 (of La) 10 (of Eu) 300 (of Al) 410 By weight (g) 147 17. Takahashi.

115.88 eV). 977 (1968).28 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4.. G. J. Blasse. Electrochem.10 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0.. Bril. Absorption (%) 100 Emission .. Soc.Spectra 800 700 600 500 400 Wavelength (nm) 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 BaB8O13:Eu2+ Optical Properties Emission color: Violet–UV Emission peak: 3.. – (3. and deVries. J. Fluorescence of Eu2+-activated barium octaborate.40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: – Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 100 Emission 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Reference 1. A.

F.31 eV Absorption (%) 100 Emission Absorption (%) 100 Emission .40 eV) Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Ca2B5O9Cl:Pb2+ Optical Properties Emission color: UV Emission peak: 4. Ca2B5O9Cl:Eu2+ Optical Properties Emission color: Blue Emission peak: 2. C.24 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4.88 eV). 3 657 141 (1972).88 eV). ++ (3.40 eV) Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Reference 1.. Chenot.SrB8O13:Sm Optical Properties Emission color: Deep red Emission peak: 1.74 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0.. ++ (3. Pat.81 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: + (4.S. U.

92 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0. ++ (3.40 eV) Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Ca2B5O9Br:Eu2+ Optical Properties Emission color: Blue Emission peak: 2.74 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0.24 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4. ++ (3.88 eV).Emission width (FWHM): 0.40 eV) Absorption (%) 100 Emission Absorption (%) 100 Emission . – (3.88 eV).40 eV) Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Sr2B5O9Cl:Eu2+ Optical Properties Emission color: Blue-violet Emission peak: 2.20 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4.88 eV).34 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4.

8O3.40 eV) Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 50 2 3 Reference 1.88 eV).7:Eu3+ Optical Properties Emission color: Red Emission peak: 2. – (3.. Pat..6 65 Absorption (%) 100 Emission Absorption (%) 100 Emission . W.S. 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Ca2La2BO6.5:Pb2+ Composition Ingredient CaCO3 La2O3 PbO H3BO3 Mole % 198 200 (of La) 2 105 By weight (g) 198 326 4. Lehmann. U. 4 202 794 (1980).Spectra 800 700 600 500 400 Wavelength (nm) 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 CaYB0.03 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4.

Fire in open quartz boats. 1 hour. 1 hour. Optical Properties Emission color: Pale yellow-green Emission peak: 2. N2. 1.28 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0. Fire in capped quartz tubes. 1200ºC.40 eV) Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Remark The formula of this peculiar material is still uncertain but the mole ratio Ca-La-B in the formula is close to 2:2:1 YAl3B4O12:Ce3+. 3. Fire in capped quartz tubes. Powderize.Mn2+ Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Absorption (%) 100 Emission Absorption (%) 100 Emission . air.48 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: + (4. ~500ºC. Powderize. 1000ºC. ++ (3.Preparation Mix by dry grinding or milling. 2. N2.88 eV).

6 2 By weight (g) 37.520 .Mn2+ Ca0.Mn2+ LiAl5O8:Fe3+ LiAl5O8:Mn2+ Y4Al2O9:Eu3+ Y3Al5O12:Ce3+ KAl11O17:Tl+ KGa11O17:Mn2+ BaMgAl10O17:Ce3+ Y3Al5O12:Eu3+ BaMgAl10O17:Eu2+ BaMgAl10O17:Eu2+.4.4 51 2.Mn2+ SrAl12O19:Eu2+.Mn2+ LiAlO2:Fe3+ Structure: NaCl Composition Ingredient Li2CO3 Al2O3 Fe(NO3)3· 9H2O LiF Mole % 101 (of Li) 100 (of Al) 0.8 Aluminates and Gallates The following host compounds and activators are included in this subsection: LiAlO2:Fe3+ LiAlO2:Mn2+ YAlO3:Ce3+ YAlO3:Eu3+ YAlO3:Sm3+ YAlO3:Tb3+ LaAlO3:Eu3+ LaAlO3:Sm3+ MgAl2O4:Mn2+ MgGa2O4:Mn2+ CaAl2O4:Mn2+ CaAl2O4:Eu2+ ZnAl2O4:Mn2+ ZnGa2O4:Mn2+ CaGa2O4:Mn2+ CaGa4O7:Mn2+ SrAl2O4:Eu2+ BaAl2O4:Eu2+ CaAl4O7:Pb2+.5Al12O19:Ce3+.4 0.Mn2+ SrGa12O19:Mn2+ SrAl12O19:Ce3+.5Ba0.

.. W.T.. 2. Infrared emitting fluorescent lamp and applications. Electronic states of Fe3+ in LiAl5O2 and LiAl5O8 phosphors. Eng. Place crucibles into a cold furnace. Boca Raton. 125.. J. 3 857 054 (1974).. J. FL. J. H.. U.S. Absorption (%) 100 Emission . Powderize when dry. Soc. Luminescence of iron-activated lithium meta-gallate.. Dry in air.. and Pott. Phys. 920 (1978). and Sarver. 1250ºC. CRC Press.. 2 hours. 7. D..T. Fig. Powderize. Pat. and then take out. J. Powderize when dry. J. Dry in air. 1250ºC. and Watchtel.J. – (3. 5.A. G.67 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0. 1. Add a solution of about 3 g Al(NO3)3·9H2O in little water. 4. Wash in diluted acetic acid (~10%). air. Electrochem.20 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4. 111. Fire in open quartz boats. 2496 (1974).40 eV) Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 References 1.. W. Electrochem. 2. Palumbo. 3.. Lumin. 234 (1974). 252 (1964). J. 1 hour. add solution to the mixture of other ingredients. Studies of compound formation on alkali-gammaaluminum oxide catalyst systems using chromium..F. Stir to uniformity. Rabatin. S. Soc. Soc.H. go slowly up with temperature to 900ºC. Stork. and then in water until neutral. 46.. air. p. Van Broekhoven. F. Fire in covered alumina crucibles. Hummel. 19 (1971). 422 (1998). Kamiya.. 3. Illum. Lehmann.. 3.Preparation Dissolve iron nitrate in a little water. Chem. and Mizuno. 6.88 eV). J.. Optical Properties Emission color: Very deep red + IR Emission peak: 1. 4. stir to uniformity. The cathodoluminescence of Mn2+ activated and Fe3+ activated magnesium aluminate spinel. A. 78. Powderize. J. and manganese luminescence. Phosphor Handbook. air. iron. Fire in covered alumina crucibles.

. Powderize when dry. 2 hours. Studies of compound formation on alkali-gammaaluminum oxide catalyst systems using chromium.5 eV Absorption (%) 100 Emission . Powderize.375 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0. J. 2496 (1974). P. 1203 (1968). iron. Stork. Phys.40 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0.15 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: no sensitizer known to obtain response to this UV Excitation efficiency by e-beam: ~6–8% Decay to 10% (or 1/e. Soc. Electrochem.. 1200 C. long and strong phosphorescence Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 50 2 3 References 1. Cathodoluminescence spectra and coordination of Mn2+. 78. W. as given): Non-exponential decay.. Dry in air.LiAlO2:Mn2+ Structure: NaCl Composition Ingredient Li2CO3 Al2O3 MnCO3 Mole % 99 (of Li) 499 (of Al) 2 By weight (g) 36. and manganese luminescence. Chem.M. J.. Fe3+. 2. Optical Properties Emission color: Green Emission peak: 2. 1 hour. CO. 1/10-time in the 10 msec range. and Pott. N2.6 254 2. Jaffe.J. 1250 C. G. 2. and Cr3+ in BeTaLiAl5O8. 1.H.. Fire in open quartz boats.T. 115. Fire in covered alumina crucibles.3 Preparation Mix by slurrying in methanol. 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 YAlO3:Ce3+ Structure: Orthorhombic Optical Properties Emission color: UV Emission peak: 3.

Optical-spectra of Ce3+ and Ce3+-sensitized fluorescence in YAlO3. Fast decay UV phosphor YAlO3-Ce. 2. Electrochem. Takeda. Fire in covered alumina crucibles. air. 1 hour. 2. – (3.6 6. T. J. 1. 44.2 Preparation Mix by dry grinding or milling. 3205 (1973).. Phys. Weber. Powderize. 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 YAlO3:Eu3+ Structure: Orthorhombic Composition Ingredient Y 2O 3 Al2O3 Eu2O3 H3BO3 Mole % 94 (of Y) 100 (of Al) 6 (of Eu) 10 By weight (g) 83.6 51 10. Fire in covered alumina crucibles.88 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: + Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 50 2 3 References 1. air. Optical Properties Emission color: Light red Emission peaks: 1.015 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4.. 1000ºC.40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: + Absorption (%) 100 Emission .88 eV).J. 1300ºC..Excitation efficiency by UV: + (4. et al. 438 (1980). Soc. 4 hours.. 127.785 – 2. M. Appl. J.

88 eV).6 51 7. 2.008–3. Fire in covered alumina crucibles. 1 hour. Powderize.Spectra 800 700 600 500 400 Wavelength (nm) 300 50 2 3 Remark Q yield (UV excitation) is about the same as that of YOE. 2.06 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: (4.197 eV. Fire in covered alumina crucibles. air. air. 1300ºC. 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 YAlO3:Sm3+ Structure: Orthorhombic Composition Ingredient Y 2O 3 Sm2O3 Al2O3 CaF2 Mole % 98 (of Y) 2 (of Sm) 100 (of Al) 10 By weight (g) 110 3.06. (3.40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: + Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Absorption (%) 100 Emission Absorption (%) 100 Emission .8 Preparation Mix by dry grinding or milling. strongest line at ~2. 1300ºC. 1. 4 hours. Optical Properties Emission color: Orange-yellow Emission peaks: 2.

2.40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: + (better than Y2O3:Tb3+) Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 LaAlO3:Eu3+ Structure: Orthorhombic Composition Ingredient La2O3 Al2O3 Eu2O3 H3BO3 Mole % 94 (of La) 105 (of Al) 6 (of Eu) 20 By weight (g) 130. CO. Optical Properties Emission color: Pale green Emission peaks: Typical Tb3+ lines. CO. 4 hours. 1 hour. 1300ºC. 1300ºC.6 53.6 12. strongest line at ~2.8 Preparation Mix by dry grinding or milling. Fire in covered alumina crucibles. Fire in covered alumina crucibles. – (3.88 eV).YAlO3:Tb3+ Structure: Orthorhombic Composition Ingredient Y 2O 3 Tb4O7 Al2O3 CaF2 Mole % 90 (of Y) 10 (of Tb) 100 (of Al) 10 By weight (g) 102 18.283 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: + (4.4 Absorption (%) 100 Emission . Powderize.7 51 7. 1.6 10.

1 hour.40 eV) 400 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Remark Q yield (UV excitation) is about ~75% of YOE. Reference 1. Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) (3. The absorption and emission spectra of some important activators. LaAlO3:Sm3+ Structure: Trigonal Composition Ingredient La2O3 Al2O3 Sm2O3 H3BO3 Mole % 100 (of La) 105 (of Al) 0.01–2.Preparation Mix by dry grinding or milling. 2. Fire in covered alumina crucibles. 2..20 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: + (4.40 eV) Absorption (%) 100 Emission . Optical Properties Emission color: Yellow Emission peaks: 1. air. 4 hours.88 eV). Blasse. Fire in covered alumina crucibles.300 12.925–2. 304 (1970). Fire in covered alumina crucibles. Optical Properties Emission color: Orange-red Emission peaks: 2.4 Preparation Mix by dry grinding or milling. 1.. Powderize.. 1. G. Powderize. A. Fire in covered alumina crucibles. Characteristic luminescence.6 0. Rev.10 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4. 1. 31. 1000ºC. 1000ºC. air. 4 hours. 1300ºC. air.2 (of Sm) 20 By weight (g) 139 53. – (3. Philips Tech.88 eV). air. 1300ºC. 1 hour. and Bril.

36 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0.620 Preparation Mix by dry ball-milling. Fire in covered alumina crucibles.16 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: no sensitizer known to obtain response to this UV Excitation efficiency by e-beam: +/~7–8% Decay: Slightly non-exponential decay. CO.Spectra 800 700 600 500 400 Wavelength (nm) 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 MgAl2O4:Mn2+ Structure: Tetragonal (spinel) Composition Ingredient MgO MnCO3 Al2O3 MgF2 Mole % 98 1 210 (of Al) 1 By weight (g) 39 1.15 107 0. Optical Properties Emission color: Green Emission peak: 2. 20 msec to 1/10 Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 100 Emission 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Absorption (%) 100 Emission . 1250ºC. 2 hours.

Electrochem. F. 3.F. Electrochem.. Manganese-activated luminescence in MgO-Al2O3-Ga2O3 system. 5. 117..... Lehmann. Some Aspects of Luminescence of Solids. 1400 (1973). and deBres. Soc.. 252 (1964). References 1. Electronic states of Mn2+-activated phosphors. Soc.. 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Absorption (%) 100 Emission .A. J. Electrochem. Soc.W. J. 25.L. D. Philips Res.46 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0. 245 (1967). terVrugt. Rep. 3. J. The cathodoluminescence of Mn2+ activated and Fe3+ activated magnesium aluminate spinel. Palumbo. 1184 (1970).A.88 eV). 108 (1970). 111.. J. J. D. and Brown..M..G. Res. 22.W. Luminescence of Mn2+activated spinels in MgO-Li2O-ZnO-Ga2O3-Al2O3 system. F. W. 114. Choice and evaluation of phosphors for application to lamps with improved color rendition. J. Luminescence of manganeseactivated aluminiu-substituted magnesium gallate..L. 304 (1967). 120.. Philips Res.. J. Hummel..L..G. Electrochem. terVrugt.15 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: + (4. and Wanmaker.2% reduces the efficiency of cathodoluminescence to ~4% and increases the 1/10 decay time to ~40 msec. Amsterdam (1948). Brown. Elsevier. Wanmaker. and Verlijsdonk. Rep. 78-5F4-ZSIBM-R1 (1978). 2. Opstelten.T. J. Wanmaker. and Sarver.. J. Soc.. Kröger.. MgGa2O4:Mn2+ Structure: Tetragonal (spinel) Optical Properties Emission color: Blue-green Emission peak: 2. 2.. J. Rep. W.. W.. 1.J.. J. – (3. J. Greenemitting phosphors.Remark Reducing the Mn concentration from 1 to 0.40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: + Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 50 2 3 References 1. 4. Radielovic.. W.

CaAl2O4:Mn2+ Structure: Monoclinic Composition Ingredient CaCO3 Al2O3 MnCO3 CaF2 Mole % 93 200 (of Al) 2 5 By weight (g) 93 102 2. CO.5 5. Fire in covered alumina crucibles. Optical Properties Emission color: Yellow-green Emission peak: 2. Fire in open quartz boats.28 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0. 1 hour.4 . Dry in air. Powderize when dry. 2. 1200ºC. 1300ºC. 1 hour. Wash in a solution of 20 g NH4Cl in 1 liter of water and then several times in plain water. CO.27 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: no sensitizer known to obtain response to this UV Excitation efficiency by e-beam: ~ a few percent Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 100 Emission 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 CaAl2O4:Eu2+ Structure: Monoclinic Composition Ingredient CaCO3 Al2O3 Eu2O3 NH4Cl Mole % 98 210 (of Al) 2 (of Eu) 10 By weight (g) 98 107 3.9 Preparation Mix by slurrying in water. 1.3 3. Powderize.

Fire in capped quartz tubes.34 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: + (4. 1200ºC. Powderize. Dry in air.80 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0. Fire in open quartz boats. Wash in a solution of ~20 g NH4Cl in 1 liter of water and then several times in plain water.13 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: – (4.40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: + Absorption (%) 100 Emission . 1. 2. Optical Properties Emission color: Deep blue Emission peak: Single Eu2+ band.88 eV). – (3.Preparation Mix by ball-milling in water. Powderize when dry. 1200ºC. 1 hour.88 eV).41 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0. + (3.40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: 1% Decay: ~1 µsec to 1/10 Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 ZnAl2O4:Mn2+ Structure: Tetragonal (spinel) Optical Properties Emission color: Blue-green Emission peak: 2. 1 hour. 2. CO. CO.

W. S. Soc.W. London. 369 (1946). 25...W. H. J. W. New York (1949). 3.. and Verlijsdonk. Cathodo-luminescence. Strange. 871 (1969).T. H. An Introduction to Luminescence of Solids..G.88 eV).40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: + Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 100 Emission 50 2 3 References 1. P.. Growth and decay processes. An Introduction to Luminescence of Solids. J. Wanmaker. – (3.L. 58. 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 ZnGa2O4:Mn2+ Structure: Cubic (gahnite) Optical Properties Emission color: Blue-green Emission peak: 2. New York (1949). 108 (1970)... Wanmaker.. J. W. terVrugt.W. Philips Res. and Henderson. 116. Rep. Phys.L.13 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: + (4.. Leverenz.. J.W. Soc.Spectra 800 700 600 500 400 Wavelength (nm) 300 100 Emission 50 2 3 References 1. 1. Luminescence of Mn2+activated spinels in MgO-Li2O-ZnO-Ga2O3-Al2O3 system..47 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0. 2. John Wiley & Sons. Luminescence of gallates. and terVrugt. J. Leverenz. Electrochem. 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 . 2. John Wiley & Sons.

CaGa2O4:Mn2+
Structure: Monoclinic Optical Properties Emission color: Yellow-green Emission peak: 2.19 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0.21 eV Spectra
800 700 600 500
Wavelength (nm)

400

300

50

2

3

Reference 1. Brown, J.J., Can. Pat., 821 468 (1970).

4 Photon Energy (eV)

5

0

CaGa4O7:Mn2+
Optical Properties Emission color: Yellow Emission peak: 2.10 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0.21 eV Reference 1. Brown, J.J., Can. Pat., 821 468 (1970).

SrAl2O4:Eu2+
Structure: Monoclinic Composition Ingredient SrCO3 Al2O3 Eu2O3 NH4Cl Mole % 98 210 (of Al) 2 (of Eu) 10 By weight (g) 145 107 3.5 5.4

Absorption (%)

100

Emission

Preparation Mix by ball-milling in water. Dry in air. Powderize when dry. 1. Fire in capped quartz tubes, CO, 1200ºC, 1 hour. Powderize. 2. Fire in open quartz boats, CO, 1200ºC, 1 hour. Wash in a solution of ~20 g NH4Cl in 1 liter of water and then several times in plain water. Dry. Optical Properties Emission color: Green Emission peak: 2.37 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0.34 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4.88 eV), ++ (3.40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: +/~1.5% Decay: ~2 µsec to 1/10 Spectra
800 700 600 500
Wavelength (nm)

400

300

50

2

3

References 1. Blasse, G., and Bril, A., Fluorescence of Eu2+ activated alkaline-earth aluminates, Philips Res. Rep., 23, 201 (1968). 2. Palilla, F.C., Levine, A.K., and Tomkus, M.R., Fluorescent properties of alkaline earth aluminates activated by divalent europium, J. Electrochem. Soc., 115, 642 (1968). 3. Blasse, G., Wanmaker, W.L., and terVrugt, J.W., Some new classes of efficient Eu2+ activated phosphors, J. Electrochem. Soc., 115, 673 (1968). 4. Abbruscato, V., Optical and electrical properties of SrAl2O4-Eu2+, J. Electrochem. Soc., 118, 930 (1971).

4 Photon Energy (eV)

5

0

BaAl2O4:Eu2+
Structure: Hexagonal Composition Ingredient BaCO3 Al2O3 Eu2O3 NH4Cl Mole % 98 210 (of Al) 2 (of Eu) 10 By weight (g) 193 107 3.5 5.4

Absorption (%)

100

Emission

Preparation Mix by ball-milling in water. Dry in air. Powderize when dry. 1. Fire in capped quartz tubes, CO, 1200ºC, 1 hour. Powderize. 2. Fire in open quartz boats, CO, 1200ºC, 1 hour. Wash in a solution of ~20 g NH4Cl + 20 ccm NH4OH in 1 liter of water and then several times in diluted ammonium hydroxide. Dry. Optical Properties Emission color: Blue-green Emission peak: 2.47 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0.35 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4.88 eV), ++ (3.40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: + Spectra
800 700 600 500
Wavelength (nm)

400

300

50

2

3

References 1. Palilla, F.C., Levine, A.K., and Tomkus, M.R., Fluorescent properties of alkaline earth aluminates activated by divalent europium, J. Electrochem. Soc., 115, 642 (1968). 2. Blasse, G., Wanmaker, W.L., and terVrugt, J.W., Some new classes of efficient Eu2+ activated phosphors, J. Electrochem. Soc., 115, 673 (1968). 3. Blasse, G., and Bril, A., Phosphors based on lanthanide oxysulphates (Ln2SO6), Philips Res. Rep., 23, 461 (1968).

4 Photon Energy (eV)

5

0

CaAl4O7:Pb2+,Mn2+
Structure: Monoclinic Optical Properties Emission color: Yellow Emission peak: 2.20 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0.24 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: + (4.88 eV), – (3.40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: +

Absorption (%)

100

Emission

Spectra
800 700 600 500

400

Wavelength (nm)

300

50

2

3

4 Photon Energy (eV)

5

0

LiAl5O8:Fe3+
Structure: Cubic (spinel) Optical Properties Emission color: Very deep red Emission peak: 1.82 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4.88 eV), – (3.40 eV) Spectra
800 700 600 500
Wavelength (nm)

400

300

100

Emission

50

2

3

References 1. Jaffe, P.M., Cathodoluminescence spectra and coordination of Mn2+ Fe3+ and Cr3+ in BeTaLiAl5O8, J. Electrochem. Soc., 115, 1203 (1968). 2. Melamed, N.T., Viccaro, P.J., Barros, F.D.S. et al., Optical properties of Fe3+ in ordered and disordered LiAl5O8, Phys. Rev. B5, 3377 (1972). 3. Neto, J.M., Abritta, T., Barros, F.D. et al., A comparative-study of the optical-properties of Fe3+ in ordered LiGa5O8 and LiAl5O8, J. Lumin., 22, 109 (1981).

4 Photon Energy (eV)

5

0

Absorption (%)

100

Emission

LiAl5O8:Mn2+
Structure: Cubic (spinel) Composition Ingredient Li2CO3 Al2O3 MnCO3 Mole % 99 (of Li) 499 (of Al) 2 By weight (g) 36.6 254 2.3

Preparation Mix by slurrying in methanol. Dry in air. Powderize when dry. 1. Fire in open alumina crucibles, N2, 1200ºC, 1 hour. Powderize. 2. Fire in open quartz boats, CO, 1250ºC, 2 hours. Optical Properties Emission color: Green Emission peak: 2.38 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0.15eV Excitation efficiency by UV: – (4.88 eV), – (3.40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: +/~6–8% Decay: Non-exponential decay, 1/10 time in the 10 msec range; long and strong phosphorescence Spectra
800 700 600 500
Wavelength (nm)

400

300

100

Emission

50

2

3

Reference 1. Jaffe, P.M., Cathodoluminescence spectra and coordination of Mn2+ Fe3+ and Cr3+ in BeTaLiAl5O8, J. Electrochem. Soc., 115, 1203 (1968).

4 Photon Energy (eV)

5

0

Y4Al2O9:Eu3+
Structure: Monoclinic Composition Ingredient Y 2O 3 Al2O3 Eu2O3 H3BO3 Mole % 95 (of Y) 50 (of Al) 5 (of Eu) 10 By weight (g) 84.5 25.5 8.8 6.2

Preparation Mix by dry grinding or milling. 1. Fire in covered alumina crucibles, air, 1000ºC, 1 hour. Powderize. 2. Fire in covered alumina crucibles, air, 1300ºC, 4 hours. Optical Properties Emission color: Light red Emission peaks: Mainly three lines about 1.975, 2.03 eV, and 2.10 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4.88 eV), – (3.40 eV) Spectra
800 700 600 500
Wavelength (nm)

400

300

50

2

3

4 Photon Energy (eV)

5

0

Y3Al5O12:Ce3+
Structure: Cubic (garnet) Composition Ingredient Y 2O 3 Al2O3 CeO2 NH4Cl Mole % 35.5 (of Y) 62.5 (of Al) 2 5 By weight (g) 40 32 3.44 2.7

Absorption (%)

100

Emission

Preparation Mix by slurrying in water. 1. Fire in capped quartz tubes, CO, 1300ºC, 1 hour. Powderize. Add another 2.7 g NH4Cl; mix by dry grinding. 2. Fire in capped quartz tubes, 1300ºC, 2 hours. Powderize. 3. Fire in open quartz boats, CO, 1300ºC, 1 hour. Optical Properties Emission color: Yellow-green Emission peak: 2.37 eV Emission width (FWHM): ~0.45 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: + (4.88 eV), + (3.40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: +/~2% Spectra
800 700 600 500
Wavelength (nm)

400

300

50

2

3

References 1. Blasse, G., and Bril, A., Characteristic luminescence, 1. The absorption and emission spectra of some important activators, Philips Tech. Rev., 31, 304 (1970); and A new phosphor for flying-spot cathode-ray tubes for color television—yellow-emitting Y3Al5O12-Ce3+, Appl. Phys. Lett., 11, 53 (1967). 2. Blasse, G., Bril, A., and Poorter, J.A.D., Radiationless transitions in Eu3+ center in LaAlO3, J. Chem. Phys., 53, 4450 (1970). 3. Blasse, G., and Bril, A., Gibbons, E.F. et al., Ce3+ activated Y3Al5O12 and some of its solid-solutions, J. Electrochem. Soc., 120, 278 (1973); and Gibbons, E.F. et al., Some factors influencing luminous decay characteristics of Y3Al5O12 - Ce3+ , J. Electrochem. Soc., 120, 835 (1973). 4. Tien, T.Y. et al., Ce3+ activated Y3Al5O12 and some of its solid-solutions, J. Electrochem. Soc., 102, 278 (1973). 5. Sang, E., The signal generation mechanism in bistable storage-scan converters, SID Digest, 104 (1973).

4 Photon Energy (eV)

5

0

KAl11O17:Tl+
Structure: Aluminate Optical Properties Emission color: Violet + UV Emission peak: 3.14 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0.49 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4.88 eV)

Absorption (%)

100

Emission

Spectra
800 700 600 500

400

Wavelength (nm)

300

100

Emission

50

2

3

References (see below) Structure: Aluminate

4 Photon Energy (eV)

5

0

KGa11O17:Mn2+

Optical Properties Emission color: Blue-green Emission peak: 2.49 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0.14 eV Spectra
800 700 600 500
Wavelength (nm)

400

300

100

Emission

50

2

3

References 1. Verstegen, J.M., Survey of a group of phosphors, based on hexagonal aluminate and gallate host lattices, J. Electrochem. Soc., 121, 1623 (1974). 2. Verstegen, J.M.P.J., Somerdijk, J.L., and Bril, A., Luminescence of LiBaF3:Eu2+, J. Lumin., 10, 411 (1975).

4 Photon Energy (eV)

5

0

BaMgAl10O17:Ce3+
Structure: Aluminate Optical Properties Emission color: UV Emission peak: 3.40 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0.65 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4.88 eV), – (3.40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: +

Spectra
800 700 600 500

400

Wavelength (nm)

300

50

2

3

Reference 1. Stevels, A.L.N., Ce3+ luminescence in hexagonal aluminates containing large divalent or trivalent cations, J. Electrochem. Soc., 125, 588 (1978).

4 Photon Energy (eV)

5

0

Y3Al5O12:Eu3+
Structure: Cubic (garnet) Optical Properties Emission color: Orange-yellow Emission peak: 2.10 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: + (4.88 eV), – (3.40 eV) Spectra
800 700 600 500
Wavelength (nm)

400

300

50

2

3

4 Photon Energy (eV)

5

0

Absorption (%)

100

Emission

Absorption (%)

100

Emission

Stevels. Morphologic and crystallographic properties. forming gas. The luminescence properties of Eu2+-doped and Mn2+-doped barium hexaaluminates.D. Smets. Bull. Dry in air. Rep.BaMgAl10O17:Eu2+ Structure: Aluminate Composition Ingredient BaCO3 MgO Al2O3 Eu2O3 BaF2 Mole % 80 100 1050 (of Al) 10 (of Eu) 10 By weight (g) 158 40 536 17. 29. 1 hour. Nov. Philips Res. Absorption (%) 100 Emission . A. 1305. Fire in covered alumina crucibles.M. 1 hour.5 Preparation Mix by ball-milling in methanol. (1986). 21.N. 2. Optical Properties Emission color: Blue Emission peak: 2.34 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4.. 1250ºC..6 17.. Res. 340 (1974). Powderize. and Schrama.G. J.J. Vapor-deposited CSi-Na layers. A. N2.40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: + Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 References 1.L. B. ++ (3. 1.. 1250ºC.88 eV). Mater. Powderize when dry. 2. Fire in open quartz boats..77 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0. 1. and Verlijsdonk.

40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: + Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 50 2 3 Remark This phosphor retains its high efficiency to several 100 C. and Schrama.BaMgAl10O17:Eu2+. 123.D. 29. Stevels.88 eV). 1.. 1250ºC. Philips Res.6 27. 3. It may be useful for color correction in arc lamps. 1 hour.. 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Absorption (%) 100 Emission . 500–600ºC. Powderize.N. 2. Fire in covered alumina crucibles. ++ (3. Soc. Powderize when dry. and Schrama. Vapor-deposited CSi-Na layers.. A. Electrochem. 2. 691 (1974).M.. A.Mn2+ Structure: Aluminate Composition Ingredient BaCO3 MgO Al2O3 Eu2O3 MnCO3 BaF2 Mole % 80 70 1050 (of Al) 10 24 10 By weight (g) 158 28. J. References 1.40 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0.5 Preparation Mix by ball-milling in methanol.D.. ½ hour.N. Stevels.L. A. forming gas. Dry in air. Optical Properties Emission color: Bluish-green Emission peak: 2.6 17. Rep.2 536 17. Morphologic and crystallographic properties. A.. 340 (1974).L.M. 1 hour. 1250ºC. Fire in open quartz boats. 1. CO. Fire in open quartz boats.13 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4.

. Powderize when dry.M. 3.88 eV). N2. forming gas.. Optical Properties Emission color: Bluish-green Emission peak: 2.Mn2+ Composition Ingredient CaCO3 CaF2 BaCO3 Al2O3 CeO2 MnCO3 Mole % 25 10 35 1210 (of Al) 30 24 By weight (g) 25 7. Powderize. 207 (1976). This phosphor retains its high efficiency up to several 100ºC. 2. 2.125 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4. 1250ºC..6 27. ~500–600ºC. – (3. Stevels.Ca0.5% Decay: Near-exponential decay.J. ~15 msec to 1/10 Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 50 2 3 Remarks 1. 1250ºC. 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Absorption (%) 100 Emission . Dry in air.L. Fire in open quartz boats.6 Preparation Mix by ball-milling in methanol. and Verstegen. 1. J. This phosphor is sensitive to lamp-lehring conditions but very stable once it is in the lamp.41 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0. Eu2+-Mn2+ energy-transfer in hexagonal aluminates. 1 hour. Lumin. CO.40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: ~2–2. Fire in covered alumina crucibles.8 69 617 51. 14. 1 hour.5Ba0.P. Fire in open quartz boats. J.5Al12O19:Ce3+.N. Reference 1. A. ~½ hour.

. based on hexagonal aluminate and gallate host lattices. 2. Verstegen. Luminescence of LiBaF3:Eu2+. J. J.J. A. J...L. Somerdijk.P.. 1623 (1974). 411 (1975). Verstegen. J. 10.SrAl12O19:Eu2+.. Electrochem.M.12 eV Excitation efficiency by e-beam: + Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 100 Emission 50 2 3 References 1.Mn2+ Structure: Aluminate Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 SrGa12O19:Mn2+ Structure: Aluminate Optical Properties Emission color: Blue-green Emission peak: 2. Lumin. and Bril.47 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0. Survey of a group of phosphors. 121.. 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Absorption (%) 100 Emission . Soc.M. J.

Eu2+-Mn2+ energy-transfer in hexagonal aluminates.P.M..SrAl12O19:Ce3+.39 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0.. A.88 eV).Mn2+ Structure: Aluminate Optical Properties Emission color: Green Emission peak: 2. 14.J. J. Stevels. Absorption (%) 100 Emission .40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: + Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Reference 1. J. – (3.14 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4. and Verstegen. Lumin.N.L. 207 (1976).

air. 1.40 eV) Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Absorption (%) 100 Emission . Optical Properties Emission color: Pale yellow-green Emission peak: ~2. air.34 eV Emission width (FWHM): ~0. Powderize. – (3. Fire in open quartz boats.4.9 Molybdates and Tungstates The following host compounds and activators are included in this subsection: CaMoO4 CaMoO4:Eu3+ SrMoO4:U MgWO4 CaWO4 Ca3WO6:U Sr3WO6:U Ba3WO6:U La2W3O12:Eu3+ CaMoO4 Structure: Tetragonal Composition Ingredient CaCO3 MoO3 Mole % 100 98 By weight (g) 100 141 Preparation Mix by dry grinding or milling.88 eV). 1000ºC. 2. 1 hour.82 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: + (4. 1 hour. Fire in open quartz boats. 1100ºC.

Wash in a strong solution of NaOH (or KOH) in water and then several times in plain water until neutral.2 151 Preparation Mix by dry grinding or milling. air. 1 hour. O2.8 4.CaMoO4:Eu3+ Structure: Tetragonal Composition Ingredient CaCO3 Eu2O3 NaHCO3 MoO3 Mole % 90 5 (of Eu) 5 105 By weight (g) 90 8. 1 hour. 1000ºC. Powderize. 1100ºC.03 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4. 1. Fire in open quartz boats.740 Absorption (%) 100 Emission .88 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: ~0.02 and ~2.5–1% Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 SrMoO4:U Structure: Tetragonal Composition Ingredient SrCO3 MoO3 UO2(NO3)2· 6H2O Li2CO3 Mole % 100 105 0. 2.2 2 (of Li) By weight (g) 148 151 1 0. Powderize. Dry. Fire in open quartz boats. Optical Properties Emission color: Red Emission peaks: ~2.

50 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0. 16 hours (overnight).5% Decay: Near-exponential decay. Fire in open quartz boats. Fire in open quartz boats. Optical Properties Emission color: Deep red Emission peak: ~1. Powderize. Wash in a strong solution of NaOH (or KOH) in water and then several times in plain water until neutral. O2. Powderize. 1.40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: ~2. O2. 800ºC. – (3. 1 hour. Add methanol to make a uniform slurry. Dry in air.875 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: – (4. Optical Properties Emission color: Blue-greenish white Emission peak: 2. Powderize when dry. 2 hours. Powderize when dry. air. 2.88 eV). Fire in open quartz boats. ~20 µsec to 1/10 Absorption (%) 100 Emission . Dry. + (3.40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 MgWO4 Structure: Monoclinic Composition Ingredient MgO WO3 Mole % 120 100 By weight (g) 48 232 Preparation Mix by slurrying in water.88 eV).75 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4. 1000ºC. 1200ºC.Preparation Dissolve the U-nitrate in a little methanol. Dry in air. add this solution to the other ingredients.

~10 µsec to 1/10 Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 50 2 3 Remark This material is completely intersoluble with CaMoO4 in any proportion. O2.40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: ~2–2. Optical Properties Emission color: Pale blue Emission peak: 2.5% Decay: Near-exponential decay.88 eV). 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Absorption (%) 100 Emission Absorption (%) 100 Emission .Spectra 800 700 600 500 400 Wavelength (nm) 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 CaWO4 Structure: Tetragonal (scheelite) Composition Ingredient CaCO3 WO3 Mole % 105 100 By weight (g) 105 232 Preparation Mix by slurrying in water.87 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0.77 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4. 1200ºC. Fire in open quartz boats. ~16 hours (overnight). Dry in air. – (3. Powderize when dry.

139 (1955). Gobrecht. Photoconductivity in calcium tungstate. Powderize when dry. Soc. Luminescent sites in CaWO4 and CaWO4:Pb crystals. 1 hour.R. Cook. Some Aspects of Luminescence of Solids.. Fire in open quartz boats. Optical Properties Emission color: Green Emission peak: 2. London. Powderize by grinding or milling. 12. Elsevier. Fire in open quartz boats. 473 (1976). Lumin.. and Scharmann. J. W. 68. 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Absorption (%) 100 Emission .. 900ºC. 4. 1. Add methanol to make a uniform slurry. H.2 2 (of Li) By weight (g) 300 232 1 0. 2 hours. Grasser.A.. 148 (1955). Z. 1200ºC. add this solution to the other ingredients. Dry in air. ++ (3.23 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: – (4. Ca3WO6:U Composition Ingredient CaCO3 WO3 UO2(NO3)2·6H2O Li2CO3 Mole % 300 100 0. 2.740 Preparation Dissolve the U-nitrate in a little methanol. air.References 1. Amsterdam (1948). R. and Weiss.40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: – Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 50 2 3 Remark U is non-luminescent in CaWO4.. A.. Phys. O2. 3. P.. Kröger. Lumineszenzuntersuchungen an uran-aktivierten erdalkaliwolframaten und erdalkalimolybdaten. J. 2.88 eV).41 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0. 140.. Phys. B. F.

.. 2. 3. G. and Weiss. + (3. 2 hours..A. air.F. and Weiss. 1000ºC.. Powderize when dry.. 140.2 2 (of Li) By weight (g) 443 232 1 0. F..6H2O Li2CO3 Mole % 300 100 0.J. H. The luminescence of photo-conducting phosphors. Add methanol to make a uniform slurry.40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: Poor Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Remark U is non-luminescent in SrWO4. 1. J. Powderize by grinding or milling.740 Preparation Dissolve the U-nitrate in a little methanol. Z.25 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0. and Gibson. Gobrecht. 139 (1955). Optical Properties Emission color: Yellow-green Emission peak: 2. Kröger. W.88 eV). Sr3WO6:U Composition Ingredient SrCO3 WO3 UO2(NO3)2. Z.References 1. Lumineszenzuntersuchungen an uran-aktivierten erdalkaliwolframaten und erdalkalimolybdaten. Elsevier. O2..19 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: + (4.. Soc. Some Aspects of Luminescence of Solids. 140. Reference 1. Amsterdam (1948). H. Fire in open quartz boats. Opt. add this solution to the other ingredients. Lumineszenzuntersuchungen an uran-aktivierten erdalkaliwolframaten und erdalkalimolybdaten.. Garlick. 139 (1955). Fire in open quartz boats. Am. Dry in air. 1 hour.. W. A. Phys. Phys. 2. 900ºC. Absorption (%) 100 Emission . 39. Gobrecht.F. 935 (1949).

. References 1.740 Preparation Dissolve the U-nitrate in a little methanol. Luminescence in a new garnet phase with hexavalent metal-ions.17 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: + (4. + (3. Absorption (%) 100 Emission . Phys. Powderize by grinding or milling. Add methanol to make a uniform slurry. R.88 eV). 139 (1955). Z. Alberda. Fire in open quartz boats... Fire in open quartz boats. H. and Weiss. G. 1000ºC.40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: Poor Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Remark U is non-luminescent in BaWO4.. 2 hours. Gobrecht.2 2 (of Li) By weight (g) 592 232 1 0. Lumineszenzuntersuchungen an uran-aktivierten erdalkaliwolframaten und erdalkalimolybdaten. add this solution to the other ingredients. air.. and Blasse. 1.20 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0. 1 hour. 140. 900ºC. Optical Properties Emission color: Green-yellow Emission peak: 2. O2. 2. Lumin.Ba3WO6:U Composition Ingredient BaCO3 WO3 UO2(NO3)2·6H2O Li2CO3 Mole % 300 100 0.. 2. 687 (1976).H. W. J. Dry in air. 12–13. Powderize when dry.

Optical Properties Emission color: Red Emission peak: Strongest line at 2. 1100ºC.La2W3O12:Eu3+ Composition Ingredient La2O3 Eu2O3 WO3 Mole % 190 (of La) 10 (of Eu) 300 By weight (g) 310 17. 1000ºC. 2. 1.40 eV) Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Absorption (%) 100 Emission .6 696 Preparation Mix by dry grinding or milling. 1 hour. Fire in open quartz boats. air. – (3.018 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: + (4. air. Powderize. 1 hour. Fire in open quartz boats.88 eV).

Fire in open alumina crucibles. air.10 Miscellaneous Oxides The following host compounds and activators are included in this subsection: LiInO2:Eu3+ LiInO2:Sm3+ LiLaO2:Eu3+ NaYO2:Eu3+ CaTiO3:Pr3+ CaGeO3:Mn2+ Mg2TiO4:Mn4+ Zn2GeO4:Mn2+ YVO4:Eu3+ LaVO4:Eu3+ YAsO4:Eu3+ LaAsO4:Eu3+ Ca5(VO4)3Cl Mg8Ge2O11F2:Mn4+ CaY2ZrO6:Eu3+ Mg3SiO3F4:Ti4+ LiInO2:Eu3+ Structure: tetragonal Composition Ingredient In2O3 Eu2O3 Li2CO3 Mole % 98 (of In) 2 (of Eu) 101 (of Li) By weight (g) 136 3.88 eV). 950ºC.03 eV and 2. Fire in open alumina crucibles.08 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: – (4. 700ºC. 1 hour.4 Preparation Mix by slurrying in methanol. weakly excited at 4.4. air. Optical Properties Emission color: Red Emission peaks: 2. 1.40 eV). Powderize. 1 hour.5 37. 2. – (3.0 eV Excitation efficiency by e-beam: ~5% .

Powderize. 1 hour.3 (of Sm) 101 (of Li) By weight (g) 138 0.. Fire in open alumina crucibles.40 eV) Absorption (%) 100 Emission .Spectra 800 700 600 500 400 Wavelength (nm) 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Reference 1. Dry in air. Fire in open alumina crucibles.4 Preparation Mix by slurrying in methanol. air. 950ºC. 700ºC. Chem.7 (of In) 0. 45. Optical Properties Emission color: Orange Emission peaks: 1. Phys..88 eV).85–2. air.. 5. and Bril. 1.15 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: + (4. 3327 (1966).520 37. 2. Eu3+ fluorescence in rocksalt lattice. Powderize when dry. On Eu3+ fluorescence in mixed metal oxides. J. 1 hour. A. Excitation efficiency by e-beam: ~5% (3. Blasse. G. LiInO2:Sm3+ Structure: tetragonal Composition Ingredient In2O3 Sm2O3 Li2CO3 Mole % 99.

Dry in air.88 eV).Spectra 800 700 600 500 400 Wavelength (nm) 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 LiLaO2:Eu3+ Structure: tetragonal Composition Ingredient La2O3 Eu2O3 Li2CO3 Mole % 95 (of La) 5 (of Eu) 101 (of Li) By weight (g) 155 8. Store in a well-closed container. Powderize. Fire in open alumina crucibles. Optical Properties Emission color: Red Emission peaks: 1. 1000ºC. 2. 1. Fire in open alumina crucibles.40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: ~1% Spectra 800 700 600 500 400 Wavelength (nm) 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Absorption (%) 100 Emission Absorption (%) 100 Emission .8 37. ~600ºC. Powderize when dry.775–2.4 Preparation Mix by slurrying in methanol. Powderize. 1 hour.02 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: + (4. – (3. air. air.

NaYO2:Eu3+ Structure: Monoclinic Composition Ingredient Y 2O 3 Eu2O3 NaHCO3 Mole % 95 (of Y) 5 (of Eu) 101 By weight (g) 108 8. Powderize when dry. Blasse. 1. 1 hour. Optical Properties Emission color: Red Emission peak: 2. On Eu3+ fluorescence in mixed metal oxides.025 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: + (4. air. Dry in air.Remarks 1. the reaction between Li2CO3 and La2O3 apparently does not go to completion. Reference 1. Fire in open alumina crucibles. A. – (3. Powderize. 3327 (1966). This material is difficult to prepare.88 eV). Phys. Powderize. Store in a well-closed container. Chem.8 85 Preparation Mix by slurrying in methanol. ~600ºC. 5.. G. air. ½ hour. Eu3+ fluorescence in rocksalt lattice. and Bril. 45. 2. Fire in open alumina crucibles. J. 2.40 eV) Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 100 Emission 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 .. This phosphor is slightly hygroscopic.. 900ºC.

Powderize when dry. 1 hour. 1300ºC. On Eu3+ fluorescence in mixed metal oxides. G. 2.88 eV). the reaction between Na2O and Y2O3 apparently does not go to completion. 45. J. Dry in air. Phys. 2.64 80 Preparation Mix by slurrying in methanol. This material is difficult to prepare. Absorption (%) 100 Emission .05 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: + (4.025 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0. Eu3+ fluorescence in rocksalt lattice. and Bril. + (3. Chem. 1 hour. air. Blasse.. 1300ºC. CaTiO3:Pr3+ Structure: Cubic (perovskite) Composition Ingredient CaCO3 Pr3O4 TiO2 Mole % 100 1 100 By weight (g) 100 1. (b) most likely an appreciable amount of emission in the IR. Fire in open quartz boats. Fire in open quartz boats.. Optical Properties Emission color: Red Emission peak: 2.Remarks 1.. A. 1. Reference 1. 5. air. Powderize by grinding or milling. 3327 (1966).40 eV) Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Remark The efficiency of this phosphor is not likely improvable because of: (a) much “dead” absorption of the Ti4+-ion in the UV. This phosphor is slightly hygroscopic.

H.88 eV). Koelmans. Absorption (%) 100 Emission . – (3.30 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4.01 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0. Electrochem. Optical Properties Emission color: Orange Emission peak: 2. Soc.CaGeO3:Mn2+ Structure: Orthorhombic (wollastonite) Composition Ingredient CaCO3 MnCO3 GeO2 NH4Br Mole % 98 2 105 2 By weight (g) 98 2.. 677 (1959). 1150ºC. CO. Powderize when dry. 106. J.88 eV was observed without addition of a sensitizer to the phosphor. C.. Dry in air.C.40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: + Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Remark The excitation efficiency of QE ~50–60% under 4.M.3 110 2 Preparation Mix by slurrying in water or methanol. The fluorescence of binary and ternary germanates of group-II elements. Attempts to improve this efficiency by addition of various other impurities failed. 2 hours. Reference 1. Fire in capped quartz tubes.. and Verhagen.

Amsterdam (1948). O2. ~16 hours (overnight). Fire in open quartz boats. Powderize when dry.5 Absorption (%) 100 Emission . Dry in air. 1300ºC. 2. air.2 3. Elsevier. Optical Properties Emission color: Deep red Emission peak: 1. 1 hour. 570ºC.885 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: – (4. 1.Mg2TiO4:Mn4+ Structure: Cubic (spinel) Composition Ingredient MgO TiO2 MnCO3 Mole % 300 99 1 By weight (g) 121 79 1.88 eV). F. Kröger. Powderize by grinding or milling.. Zn2GeO4:Mn2+ Structure: Tetragonal (willemite) Composition Ingredient ZnO MgF2 MnCO3 GeO2 Mole % 90 5 5 55 By weight (g) 73.A. + (3.40 eV) Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Reference 1.15 Preparation Mix by slurrying in water or methanol. Fire in open quartz boats. Some Aspects of Luminescence of Solids.1 5.8 57.

+ (3. Phys.31 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0.. D.. Fire in open quartz boats. The emission of this phosphor is thermally quenched a little above room temperature. 3.T. This material forms solid solutions with Zn2SiO4:Mn2+ in all proportions. 1 hour. Optical Properties Emission color: Green Emission peak: 2.8 129 Absorption (%) 100 Emission . Electrochem..88 eV). J. and Larach.. 2. 57 (1949). 1 hour. Powderize by grinding or milling. Fire in capped quartz tubes.H.. References 1. 1100ºC. 1000ºC. and Claffy. Luminescence and trapping in phosphors containing gallium..H. Soc. 5 (1953). Manganese-activated zinc beryllium germanate phosphors. Bube. J. Electrochem. Chem. Schulman. YVO4:Eu3+ Structure: Tetragonal (xenotime) Composition Ingredient Y 2O 3 Eu2O3 NH4VO3 Mole % 95 (of Y) 5 (of Eu) 110 By weight (g) 107 8. Green-emitting phosphors. Powderize when dry..W. J. S. 117. E. 96.J. Soc.20 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4. 2.Preparation Mix by slurrying in water. J. and Brown. Palumbo. water steam. 21. R. Electronic states of Mn2+-activated phosphors. J.J. 1814 (1971). Dry in air.40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: + Comparable to that of Zn2SiO4:Mn2+ Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Remarks 1. 2. 1. Ginther.. R.. CO. 1..

Electrochem. 1200ºC.. Optical Properties Emission color: Red Emission peak: 2. A.Nd. Powderize. J. Absorption (%) 100 Emission . 1. Wash in a strong solution of NaOH (or KOH) in water and then several times in plain water. 776 (1965). Unusual crystal-field energy levels and efficient laser properties of YVO4 . J. References 1. Soc. 953 (1967).. Phys. Powderize..C. 114. F. Appl.F. New highly efficient red-emitting cathodoluminescent phosphor (YVO4 . Part of the V can be replaced by P. 702 (1962).C. 115.. Phys. Chem. Fire in open quartz boats. 5. 1000ºC. for 3. J. 9. Lett. Levine.Preparation Mix by dry grinding or milling. 112.. 2. + (3. L.C. and Mathers. M. 3.G. O’Connor. and efficiency of luminescence. Optical absorption.00 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4. 2.. 2. R. Electrochem. Energy transfer and fluorescence processes in Bi3+ and Eu3+ activated YVO4..K. S. Ropp. A... J. Fire in open quartz boats.K. 407 (1966). 1 hour. Soc.40 eV). J. Rare earth activated phosphors based on yttriuum orthovanadate and related compounds. 5. This phosphor has been used for color correction of Hg arc lamps. 1200ºC. J. air. 1 hour.88 eV).. Palilla. Mikus. Lett.E. air. 1 hour.Eu) for color television electron beam excitation. van Uitert.40 eV excitation improving considerably with increasing temperature Excitation efficiency by e-beam: +/7% Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Remarks 1.. Fire in open quartz boats. and Palilla. Appl. and Rinkevics. 118 (1964). 6. Spectra of some rare earth vanadates. 4. efficiency of 3..Z. 3. Levine. 36. Dry. F.40 eV excitation can be somewhat improved by addition of Bi. 940 (1968). Soc. air.. et al. F.. Electrochem. Phys.. Role of F-orbital electron wave function mixing in concentration quenching of Eu3+..R. 3. Toma.

5. Appl.8 129 Preparation Mix by dry grinding or milling.. A. Electrochem. Brixner. YVO4-Eu a new highly efficient phosphor for color television. A. 1 hour. 9. 112. 7. air. Fire in open quartz boats.H. 1 hour. and Palilla.773–2. 304 (1970). Optical Properties Emission color: Red Emission peaks: 1.. Levine.. Wash in a strong solution of NaOH (or KOH) in water and then several times in plain water.88 eV).Palilla. 70. Optics. 4. 8. Bismuth in yttrium vanadate and yttrium europium vanadate phosphors. Rev. Philips Tech. + (3. 10. LaVO4:Eu3+ Structure: Monoclinic Composition Ingredient La2O3 Eu2O3 NH4VO3 Mole % 95 (of La) 5 (of Eu) 110 By weight (g) 155 8. 1100ºC. 1100ºC. Electrochem.C. and Levine. Characteristic luminescence. Dry.. R. 11.115 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4. Technol. On luminescent properties of rare earth vanadates. 1.K. G. 16 (1966).40 eV) Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Absorption (%) 100 Emission . YVO4-Eu. 3. L. Datta.. Fire in open quartz boats. and Abramson. Soc. F. Blasse.K. and Bril.. 2. J. Powderize. 1 hour.. air.C.. 114. A.K. Fire in open quartz boats. The absorption and emission spectra of some important activators. F. 1467 (1966). (1965). Powderize... Soc. 1057 (1967). J. 31.a highly efficient red-emitting phosphor for high pressure mercury lamps. 900ºC. 1. Electrochem.... E. air.

8 75 Preparation Mix by slurrying in 30% H2O2. Gently heat up while stirring until reaction (boiling) indicates formations of H3AsO4. 1 hour.. This phosphor becomes excitable by 4. Structure and luminescence of phosphate-vanadates of yttrium gadolinium lutetium and lanthanum. 1..76–2. Wanmaker. Fire in open quartz boats. Rep. Soc. – (3.A. Aia.L. 1200ºC. et al. Electrochem. 2.References 1.40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: + Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 100 Emission 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Remarks 1. Philips Res. J. . 270 (1966). W.09 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: – (4. Powderize when dry. ~500ºC..88 and by 3. 367 (1967). M. Fire in open quartz boats. Powderize.. air. The material forms solid solutions with YVO4:Eu3+ in all proportions.88 eV). air. 21. 2.40 eV UV upon replacement of some As by V. Dry in air. YAsO4:Eu3+ Structure: Tetragonal (xenotime) Composition Ingredient Y 2O 3 Eu2O3 As2O3 Mole % 95 (of Y) 5 (of Eu) 100 (of As) By weight (g) 107 8. 114. 2. Luminescent properties of Eu-activated phosphors of type A3BVO4. Optical Properties Emission color: Red Emission peaks: 1.

Absorption (%) 100 Emission .149 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: + (4. 2. 1.. Philips Res.8 75 Preparation Mix by slurrying in 30% H2O2. air. Powderize. ~500ºC. LaAsO4:Eu3+ Composition Ingredient La2O3 Eu2O3 As2O3 Mole % 95 (of La) 5 (of Eu) 100 (of As) By weight (g) 155 8. Luminescent properties of Eu-activated phosphors of type A3BVO4. Dry in air. 2. Gently heat up while stirring until reaction (boiling) indicates formations of H3AsO4. – (3. Fire in open quartz boats.L. Fire in open quartz boats. The material forms solid solutions with LaVO4 in all proportions. Wanmaker. Rep. 21. 270 (1966). air. Powderize when dry. 1 hour. 1000ºC..785–2. Optical Properties Emission color: Red Emission peaks: 1.88 eV). This material becomes excitable by 3..Reference 1.40 eV) Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Remarks 1. et al.40 eV UV upon replacement of a few percent of the As by V. W.

40 eV) Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Remarks 1. This phosphor requires a deficiency of V and an excess of Cl in the preparation. air. 2.. Blue luminescence in calcium chlorovanadates. P. 1. 2.A. Absorption (%) 100 Emission . 1331 (1966). 1 hour.Ca5(VO4)3Cl Structure: Apatite Composition Ingredient CaO NH4VO3 NH4Cl Mole % 500 200 200 By weight (g) 280 234 107 Preparation Mix by dry grinding or milling (some NH3 develops). Other impurities were tested as prospective activators but are either dead (Mn. Electrochem. – (3. J. Aia. 16 hours (overnight).88 eV). 1000ºC. ~500ºC. Optical Properties Emission color: Bluish Emission peak: 2. Fire in capped quartz tubes. Fire in capped quartz tubes.. Powderize.85 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0. and Lublin. Reference 1. The luminescence of this phosphor is due to the vanadate. Ho) or very poorly luminescent (Eu3+). Soc. 113.. M. Tb. air.73 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: + (4.

some parts (mainly Ge fluoride) sublimes out during firing. ~16 hours (overnight). 2. 2. This phosphor has been used for color correction of Hg arc lamps. Fire in capped quartz tubes. Phys. Optical Properties Emission color: Deep red Emission peak: 1. J. Chem. References 1.40 eV) Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Remarks 1. Kemeny. Am. 1200ºC.88 eV). 2. Thorington.H. G. Opt. 783 (1960). L. The above formula is only that of the raw mix.. + (3.2 201 Preparation Mix by dry ball-milling. air. J. 1200ºC. 33.Mg8Ge2O11F2:Mn4+ Composition Ingredient MgO MgF2 MgCO3 GeO2 Mole % 700 100 8 192 By weight (g) 282 62 9. 579 (1950).. 2 hours. C. 40. The exact formula of this material is still uncertain. air. Powderize by dry ball-milling. Temperature dependence of the emission of an improved manganeseactivated magnesium germanate phosphor. Fire in open quartz boats.88 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4. Soc... and Haake. 1. Activator center in magnesium fluorogermanate phosphors.. Absorption (%) 100 Emission .

88 eV).CaY2ZrO6:Eu3+ Structure: Perovskite Optical Properties Emission color: Red Emission peak: 2.40 eV) Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Mg3SiO3F4:Ti4+ Optical Properties Emission color: whitish-yellow Emission peak: 2. – (3.01 eV Excitation efficiency by UV:++ (4.15 eV Excitation efficiency by UV:++ (4.88 eV). – (3.40 eV) Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Absorption (%) 100 Emission Absorption (%) 100 Emission .

Fire in capped quartz tubes. 1 hour. Powderize. 900ºC.15 Preparation Mix by slurrying in methanol. Add ~2 g of NH4F (dissolved in a little water) and ~2–3 ccm of HF acid.4. Dry.11 Halides and Oxyhalides The following host compounds and activators are included in this subsection: MgF2:Mn2+ CaF2:Ce3+ CaF2:Eu2+ CaF2:Mn2+ CaF2:Ce3+. stir to uniformity. N2.Tb3+ CaF2:U CaCl2:Eu2+ in SiO2 CaCl2:Eu2+.Mn2+ in SiO2 SrF2:Eu2+ SrCl2:Eu2+ in SiO2 Sr(Cl.I)2:Eu2+ in SiO2 ZnF2:Mn2+ BaxSr1–xF2:Eu2+ YF3:Mn2+ YF3:Mn2+. .Mn2+ in SiO2 CaBr2:Eu2+ in SiO2 CaI2:Eu2+ in SiO2 CaI2:Eu2+.Th4+ KMgF3:Eu2+ KMgF3:Mn2+ LiAlF4:Mn2+ K2SiF6:Mn4+ YOBr:Eu3+ YOCl:Ce3+ YOCl:Eu3+ YOF:Eu3+ YOF:Tb3+ LaOF:Eu3+ LaOCl:Bi3+ LaOCl:Eu3+ MgF2:Mn2+ Structure: Tetragonal (sellaite) Composition Ingredient MgF2 MnCO3 Mole % 99 1 By weight (g) 62 1.Mn2+ CaF2:Ce3+.Br.

289 (1947).. A. The manganese emission in AbF3 compounds. stir to uniformity. Add ~1–2 ccm HF acid. New manganese-activated fluoride phosphors.. and Scharmann. Phys. Add ~2–3 g of iodine. powderize. Dry. CaF2:Ce3+ Structure: Cubic (fluorite) Composition Ingredient CaF2 CeF3 AlF3 Mole % 90 5 5 By weight (g) 70 9. Electrochem.. P. 1000ºC.2 Preparation Start with plain CaF2 and pre-fire it in open quartz boats.L.O.85 4. 441 (1953). about 200 msec to 1/10 Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 100 Emission 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Remark No sensitizer is known to permit excitation by these UV wavelengths. 189 (1954).E. W. 2. Soc. Zur thermolumineszenz von MgF2-Mn.. Naturforsch. F. air. and Eyring. and Huysman.Optical Properties Emission color: Orange-yellow Emission peak: 2.. 15. P. H. References 1... Chem. 3. Klasens..25 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: (4. .. Rep. Bräunlich. Z. 1 hour. 101.88 eV). 8. A. F.A.. A. Pt. Smith. Powderize.40 eV). Zalm. Philips Res. Fire in capped quartz tubes. Hanle.10 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0. 869 (1961).. J. The mechanism of the luminescence of solids. N2. Excitation efficiency by e-beam: +/~25% Decay: Exponential. Make a slurry of the CaF2 + CeF3 + AlF3 in methanol. 1 hour. Williams.. J. 16. mix by dry grinding. 4. H. (3. 1000ºC.

. and Whippey. CaF2:Eu2+ Structure: Cubic (fluorite) Composition Ingredient CaF2 Eu2O3 Mole % 100 0. 628 (1941).. 3. Excitation efficiency by e-beam: + Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) (3.. 8. Investigations of 4f–5d transitions of Ce+3 in CaF2. Loh. Energy transfer and sensitization in single crystal phosphors. E. M. Phys. 5.. Dry.68 eV.. Ultraviolet absorption spectra of Ce3+ in alkaline-earth fluorides.. Powderize. 105. 171. J.40 eV) 400 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 References 1. mix by dry grinding.. F. Rev. Ginther. R. Electrochem. Add ~2–3 g of iodine..A. 4.W. 1 hour. 800ºC. P. Phys.Optical Properties Emission color: UV Emission peak: 3. Kröger.. Schlesinger. stir to uniformity. J. powderize. Leach. Absorption (%) 100 Emission .350 Preparation Mix by slurrying in methanol (in a plastic container). and Bakker.J. Rev.88 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4. Luminescence of K4MnCl6 and KCl (Pb + Mn). 3. 27 (1958). Soc.2 (of Eu) By weight (g) 70 0. R. 2. Soc. 361 (1968). Physica.88 eV). J. N2. 270 (1967). 74 (1951).. 98. Electrochem.. Add ~2 ccm HF acid. Fire in capped quartz tubes. 154.

Fire in capped quartz tubes.L. 1 hour. N2. R. 68 (1969). ++ (3. Spectroscopic identification of europium-oxygen complexes in calcium fluoride. Dry. CaF2:Mn2+ Structure: Cubic (fluorite) Composition Ingredient CaF2 MnCO3 Mole % 99 1 By weight (g) 77 1. powderize. 2.22 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4. mix by dry grinding. Powderize. J. Amster. Soc.88 eV)..Optical Properties Emission color: Violet Emission peak: 2. Absorption (%) 100 Emission . and Wiggins.93 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0. 800ºC... R.L. References 1. Soc. 116. Add ~2 ccm HF acid.S. Electrochem.. Electrochem. J. C.88 eV by addition of Ce (see CaF2:Ce3+). Amster. stir to uniformity. Photosensitization of terbium fluorescence by europium in CaF2..40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: + Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Remark This material can be sensitized for better UV excitation with 4. 791 (1970).15 Preparation Mix by slurrying in methanol (in a plastic container). Add ~2–3 g of iodine. 117.

. Ginther.Optical Properties Emission color: Blue-green Emission peak: 2. R. H. Garlick..L.5% Decay: Near-exponential decay.. Soc. Soc. Electrochem. 110. and Huysman.40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: +/1.50 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0. 441 (1953). Rep. Smith. Schmid. F. 8. The material can be sensitized for better UV excitation by 4. R. 104.40 eV with addition of Eu (see CaF2:Eu2+). 4.. 365 (1967). The emission shifts to lower energy (= longer wavelength) with increasing Mn concentration. R. 189 (1954). Soc.. New manganese-activated fluoride phosphors. 678 (1962). References 1.. Decay of cathodoluminescence and nonradiative processes in manganese activated phosphors. 2.J. (3.J. The manganese emission in AbF3 compounds.. and Sayer. Mn concentrations below 1% give somewhat longer decay times. 5. Klasens. Philips Res. W. up to ~60 msec to 1/10. J.. Electrochem.88 eV).A.29 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: (4. and Mooney.W.O.. M. 45 msec to 1/10 Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 100 Emission 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Remarks 1. Electrochem. and Kirk. J.D.. J. The thermoluminescence of CaF2-Mn. 2..F. A. 340 (1963). P. Electrochem.. 3.88 eV with addition of Ce (see CaF2:Ce3+). This material can be sensitized for better UV excitation by 3. 109. 4. Soc.. J. .. 101. 3. G.F. Zalm.

88 eV). F.. 1 hour. 74 (1951). Luminescence of K4MnCl6 and KCl (Pb + Mn). Add ~2–3 g of iodine. 8. 1000ºC. Electrochem.CaF2:Ce3+. Soc.A. air. stir to uniformity. Make a slurry of all the above ingredients in methanol.85 21. Powderize.Mn2+ Structure: Cubic (fluorite) Optical Properties Emission color: Blue-green Emission peak: 2. J.2 Preparation Start with plain CaF2 and pre-fire it in open quartz boats. 1 hour.. 628 (1941).. Physica. CaF2:Ce3+. and Bakker. J. Add ~2 ccm HF acid. 2.J. Ginther. mix by dry grinding. powderize. N2.Tb3+ Structure: Cubic (fluorite) Composition Ingredient CaF2 CeF3 TbF3 AlF3 Mole % 80 5 10 5 By weight (g) 62 9. Dry.. 98.50 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0. Fire in capped quartz tubes. Excitation efficiency by e-beam: + Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) (3. R.35 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4.40 eV) 400 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 References 1. Absorption (%) 100 Emission . Kröger. 1000ºC.6 4.

L. air.260 Preparation Dissolve the uranyl nitrate in a little methanol. Dry.40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: Very poor Absorption (%) 100 Emission . Photosensitization of terbium fluorescence by europium in CaF2.26–2.345 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0.88 eV). R.500 0.. CaF2:U Structure: Cubic (fluorite) Composition Ingredient CaF2 UO2(NH3)2. Electrochem.88 eV). stir to uniformity.28 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4.Optical Properties Emission color: Pale green Emission peaks: 2. Amster. Make a slurry of in methanol. 117. + (3.40 eV) 400 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Remark UV excitation is almost exclusively determined by the Ce3+ absorption (see CaF2:Ce3+). Reference 1. 791 (1970).1 1 By weight (g) 78 0. Powderize. Excitation efficiency by e-beam: + Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) (3.11 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: + (4. Optical Properties Emission color: Green Emission peak: 2. Soc. 1000ºC. J.6H2O LiF Mole % 100 0. add solution to the CaF2 + LiF mix. Fire in open alumina crucibles. powderize. 1 hour.

++ (3. 2.195 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4. 1 hour.V. P. Uber die optischen eigenschaften der erdalkalihalogenide vom flussspat-typ(II). 2. 3. 151 (1967). and Lehmann. Rev.3 1. CaCl2:Eu2+ in SiO2 Structure: Orthorhombic Composition Ingredient CaO Eu2O3 NH4Cl SiO2 Mole % 7. Phys... H. Fire in capped quartz tubes. Karras.40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: Absorption (%) 100 Emission .. Gorlich. 387 (1961). 1.88 eV). R. Uber die optischen eigenschaften der erdalkalihalogenide vom flussspat-typ(I).. 1 hour.76 9. Gorlich. 155.. mix by dry grinding. Karras. J. Dry. plus a little water..Spectra 800 700 600 500 400 Wavelength (nm) 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 References 1.5 100 By weight (g) 4. Nicholas. Optical Properties Emission color: Blue-violet Emission peak: 2. Add the above amount of NH4Cl once again. 1. Powderize. 1000ºC. CO. Powderize when dry.97 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0. and Lehmann. Status Solidi. H. Phys.. 551 (1961).6 1 (of Eu) 17. Fire in capped quartz tubes.. 1000ºC. Status Solidi.. Luminescence of hexavalent uranium in CaF2 and SrF2 powders. Phys. P. 1.. N2. R.4 60 Preparation Mix by slurrying in methanol. Wash in water several times. Powderize. Dry in air.

mix by dry grinding. Wash in water several times.15 60 Preparation Mix by slurrying in methanol. Dry. Lehmann. 1 hour.5 20 1 (of Eu) 1 100 By weight (g) 4.88 eV).40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: Absorption (%) 100 Emission . Powderize when dry. Powderize. Powderize.Mn2+ in SiO2 Structure: Orthorhombic Composition Ingredient CaO NH4Cl Eu2O3 MnCO3 SiO2 Mole % 7. Add the above amount of NH4Cl once again. Soc. 748 (1975). Fire in capped quartz tubes. CaCl2:Eu2+. W.7 1. CO. Dry in air. Fire in capped quartz tubes. plus a little water. 122. 2.. J. ++ (3.2 10.. 1 hour.Spectra 800 700 600 500 400 Wavelength (nm) 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Reference 1. Heterogeneous halide-silica phosphors. N2. Electrochem.09 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0. Optical Properties Emission color: Yellow Emission peak: 2. 1. 900ºC.30 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4.76 1. 1000ºC.

6 1.2 (of Eu) 17. 1 hour. Lehmann. CO. Dry in air.88 eV). 2. Optical Properties Emission color: Blue Emission peak: ~2. The Cl in this recipe can be replaced by Br. Mn2+ and CaBr2:Eu2+.2 60 Preparation Mix by slurrying in methanol. N2. ++ (3. Soc. Reference 1. mix by dry grinding. Add the above amount of NH4Br once again.18 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4. Fire in capped quartz tubes. J. 1 hour. 900ºC. Fire in capped quartz tubes. Powderize. 122.. 2. 1000ºC.Spectra 800 700 600 500 400 Wavelength (nm) 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Remarks 1. Dry. The emissions of CaCl2:Eu2+.40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: Absorption (%) 100 Emission . Electrochem. 748 (1975). 1.865 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0.. Mn2+ are identical.1 17. Powderize when dry. Heterogeneous halide-silica phosphors.3 2. Wash in water several times. W. CaBr2:Eu2+ in SiO2 Structure: Orthorhombic Composition Ingredient CaO Eu2O3 NH4Br SiO2 Mole % 7.5 100 By weight (g) 4. Powderize. plus a little water.

Optical Properties Emission color: Light blue Emission peak: 2.34 3. 1 hour.5 29 60 Preparation Mix by slurrying in methanol.67 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0.21 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4. Electrochem. 122. mix by dry grinding. J. plus a little water. Powderize. W. 1000ºC. 748 (1975).4 2. Heterogeneous halide-silica phosphors. Add the above amount of NH4I once again.Spectra 800 700 600 500 400 Wavelength (nm) 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Reference 1. 1 hour. N2. Powderize when dry. Dry. Powderize. Fire in capped quartz tubes.88 eV). 900ºC. Fire in capped quartz tubes. Dry in air. 1. Soc..40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: Absorption (%) 100 Emission . Wash in water several times.. Lehmann. CaI2:Eu2+ in SiO2 Composition Ingredient CaO CaF2 Eu2O3 NH4I SiO2 Mole % 6 3 2 (of Eu) 20 100 By weight (g) 3. CO. 2. ++ (3.

Soc. Wash in water several times. 1 hour.95 eV. plus a little water. slightly pinkish hue Emission peak: 1.88 eV).29 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4. 1000ºC. J.14 0. Optical Properties Emission color: Light red. 2.9 0. Powderize. Electrochem. Add the above amount of NH4I once again.78 1.Spectra 800 700 600 500 400 Wavelength (nm) 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Remark This phosphor is sensitive to even very small traces of Mn which causes a red emission band (see CaI2:Eu2+.40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: – Absorption (%) 100 Emission . Fire in capped quartz tubes.1 15 100 By weight (g) 3. CaI2:Eu2+.65 (of Eu) 0.Mn2+ in SiO2 Composition Ingredient CaO CaF2 Eu2O3 MnCO3 NH4I SiO2 Mole % 7 1 0. Dry. Powderize when dry. Fire in capped quartz tubes. Heterogeneous halide-silica phosphors. 900ºC.. Reference 1. 1 hour.115 21 60 Preparation Mix by slurrying in methanol.70 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0. 748 (1975). Lehmann. ++ (3. CO. additionally a weak Eu2+-emission band at 2. Powderize. mix by dry grinding. 1. W. Dry in air. 122. N2..Mn2+).

40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: Absorption (%) 100 Emission .06 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0. Soc. ++ (3. Electrochem.F. W. Lehmann. C...88 eV). 896 453 (1972). ++ (3. Can. Chenot..12 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4.40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: + Reference 1.95 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0. Pat.Spectra 800 700 600 500 400 Wavelength (nm) 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Reference 1. SrF2:Eu2+ Structure: Cubic (fluorite) Optical Properties Emission color: Violet Emission peak: 2.. J.30 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4. Heterogeneous halide-silica phosphors. 748 (1975). 122.. SrCl2:Eu2+ in SiO2 Optical Properties Emission color: Violet Emission peak: 3.88 eV).

6 9. W. Sr(Cl. CO.06 eV.5 (of Eu) 17. 1 hour. Dry.12 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4. 748 (1975). for SrBr2 at ~3. J.88 eV). Lehmann. Emission width (FWHM): Width also depending on used halide. for SrBr2 is 0.I)2:Eu2+ in SiO2 Structure: Cubic Composition Ingredient SrO Eu2O3 NH4Cl SiO2 Mole % 8 1.4 60 Preparation Mix by slurrying in methanol. Soc. ++ (3.40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: Absorption (%) 100 Emission .Br. Heterogeneous halide-silica phosphors. N2. Wash in water several times. Optical Properties Emission color: Violet Emission peaks: Peak position depending on the used halide.. mix by dry grinding. for SrCl2 is at ~3. 2. Powderize when dry. for SrCl2 is 0. plus a little water.Spectra 800 700 600 500 400 Wavelength (nm) 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Reference 1. Fire in capped quartz tubes. Add the above amount of NH4I once again. 900ºC. and for SrI2 is 0. Powderize.865 eV. Fire in capped quartz tubes.3 2. Powderize. 1.175 eV. and SrI2 at ~2.16 eV. 122.5 100 By weight (g) 8.015 eV. 1000ºC. Dry in air.. Electrochem. 1 hour.

. 8. Excitation efficiency by e-beam: + Spectra 800 700 600 500 (3. W. Klasens..12 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0.O. Lehmann. and Huysman. . Zalm..88 eV). 2.. F.. The manganese emission in ABF3 compounds. Rep. Leverenz.W.40 eV) 400 Wavelength (nm) 300 100 Emission 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 References 1. H. 748 (1975)... H.Spectra 800 700 600 500 400 Wavelength (nm) 300 Emission SrI2 SrBr2 SrCl2 100 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Remark The Cl in this recipe can be replaced by Br or I. New York (1949). 441 (1953). Soc. Heterogeneous halide-silica phosphors.24 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: (4. Philips Res. John Wiley & Sons. Electrochem. An Introduction to Luminescence of Solids. J. ZnF2:Mn2+ Structure: Tetragonal Optical Properties Emission color: Orange-yellow Emission peak: 2. P. 122.A. Reference 1.

W.. 7... J. Opt. Thermoluminescence of manganese-activated zinc fluoride phosphors. 4.1Sr0. Phys.. and Rosenbaum. and Williams. J.2Sr0. J. Photoionization and trapping of electrons in the system BaF2:Eu:Sm.. Rev. 38.3. 124 (1952). Johnson. Am.S. 1007 (1948). Am...2F2:Eu 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) Wavelength (nm) 5 0 800 700 600 500 2+ 400 300 Excitation BaF2:Eu 50 2 3 References 1. Optical properties of zinc fluoride phosphors. 2. 5. A.. Electrochem. and Studer F. 101. F.. J.. Phys. Chenot.. The phosphorescence decay of halophosphates and other doubly activated phosphors.L. P. 11031–11038 (1993). 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Absorption (%) 100 .8F2:Eu 2+ Ba0.D. Fonda. C.9F2:Eu 2+ Ba0.. Opt. Opt.7F2:Eu 2+ 2+ 2+ 100 Emission 50 Ba0. Pat.. ++ (3.... G.17.F. New manganese-activated fluoride phosphors. 189 (1954). Soc.88 eV). J. BaxSr1–xF2:Eu2+ Structure: Cubic (fluorite) Optical Properties Emission color: varies with composition from yellow to blue Emission peak: varies with composition from 2. and McClure.04 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4. 6. Chem.F. 38.6F2:Eu Ba0. Soc. and Williams.S. 896 453 (1972).R.. 20.40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: + Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 SrF2:Eu 2+ Ba0.4Sr0. Can. F. Am. B. 47 no. Soc. J.3Sr0. F..E.J. J.J.E. 709 (1949).8Sr0. Studer. Soc. Smith. Mou. 1007 (1948). D. Energy levels and rate processes in the thallium activated potassium chloride phosphor. 39. Johnson.04 to 3.

A. 2.40 eV) 400 Wavelength (nm) 300 100 Emission 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 YF3:Mn2+. 13. Opt. Spectra of divalent rare earth ions in crystals of alkali-earth fluorides. 235 (1962) [Opt.A. 55 (1976)]. E... 5. Opt.29 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: (4. Spectrosc.88 eV). Kaplyansky. 45. Spektr. Opt.40 eV) .Th4+ Structure: Orthorhombic Optical Properties Emission color: Light blue Emission peak: 2.. (USSR) 13.. E. Reut. Study on characteristics of wideband luminescence of Eu and Yb ions in crystals with fluorite structure. 99 (1976) [Opt.88 eV).60 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: (4..P. Spektr. (USSR) 40. 129 (1962)]. 4. 518 (1978) [Opt. (USSR) 45.G. Nature of luminescence of bivalent Eu and Yb ions in fluorite-type crystals.38 and 2.. 290 (1978)]. Spectrosc. Reut.3.. Spectrosc. and Feofilov. Excitation efficiency by e-beam: + Spectra 800 700 600 500 (3. Europium and Ytterbium. YF3:Mn2+ Structure: Orthorhombic Optical Properties Emission color: Greenish Emission peaks: 2. P. Spektr. 40. Excitation efficiency by e-beam: + (3.60 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0.G.

62. 3. A.88 eV).18 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: – (4.40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: + . J. J. Seo. T.. KMgF3:Mn2+ Structure: Cubic (perovskite) Optical Properties Emission color: Orange Emission peak: 2... 293 (1994). 12688–12695 (2000).42 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: + (4.. J. and Blasse.J.. 19.40 eV) References 1.88 eV). Phys. Ellens. Rev..K.L. H. 6I emission and vibronic transitions of Eu2+ in KMgF3 . Excitation efficiency by e-beam: (3. 11. B.Spectra 800 700 600 500 400 Wavelength (nm) 300 100 Emission 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 KMgF3:Eu2+ Structure: Cubic (perovskite) Optical Properties Emission color: UV Emission peak: 3. – (3. Lumin. no. Lumin.. Meijerink. Sommerdijk. Divalent europium luminescence in perovskite-like alkaline-earth alkaline fluorides.. Moon.08 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0. B. and Tsuboi. and Bril.. 363 (1976).. A. G. Two-photon excitation spectroscopy of 4f7 4f7 transitions of Eu2+ ions doped in a KMgF3 crystal. A. 2. 59.

Cathodoluminescent J. LiAlF4:Mn2+ Optical Properties Emission color: Red Emission peak: 1. Kurtz.40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: + Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 100 Emission 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 K2SiF6:Mn4+ Structure: Cubic Optical Properties Emission color: Red Emission peak: 1.99 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0. 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 characteristics of Mn-activated KMgF3 .Spectra 800 700 600 500 400 Wavelength (nm) 300 100 Emission 50 2 3 Reference 1. R.88 eV).88 eV). 109. ++ (3. – (3. 18 (1962). Soc..26 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: – (4. Electrochem.J.97 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4.40 eV) ..

942 (1973).8 108 Preparation Make a suspension of all ingredients in water. 1... main line at 1. Powderize.G. Boil down to dry (slowly. Soc.150 eV.Spectra 800 700 600 500 400 Wavelength (nm) 300 100 Emission 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Reference 1. ½ hour.967–2.4 8. J.88 eV). Electrochem. 120. Fire in capped quartz tubes. Efficient Mn(IV) emission in fluorine coordination. Powderize.40 eV) . 1100ºC. ~500ºC. 2. – (3. N2. Paulusz. Wash in water several times. 1 hour. Optical Properties Emission color: Red Emission peaks: 1.996 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: – (4. Dry. Powderize. to let the conversion of Y2O3 to YOBr take place). Fire in capped quartz tubes. YOBr:Eu3+ Structure: Rhombohedral Composition Ingredient Y 2O 3 Eu2O3 NH4Br Mole % 95 (of Y) 5 (of Eu) 110 By weight (g) 107. N2. A.

Absorption (%) 100 Emission . Blasse.24 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0. Electrochem. A. Soc. 304 (1970).. Photoluminescent efficiency of phosphors with electronic transitions in localized centers. 2. Rev. A.. Philips Tech. 117. 1067 (1968). This phosphor is hygroscopic.A.. This phosphor is difficult to prepare.. and Bril. Blasse. Blasse. G. 115. 3. Electrochem. YOCl:Ce3+ Structure: Rhombohedral (matlockite) Optical Properties Emission color: Violet UV Emission peak: 3. J. The absorption and emission spectra of some important activators. and Poorter. 31. Fast-decay phosphors...47 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4.. J. Soc. Keep dry. G..Spectra 800 700 600 500 400 Wavelength (nm) 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Remarks 1. J. – (3. Characteristic luminescence.40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: + Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 100 Emission 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 References 1.. and Bril. It tends either to be partly reduced (forming Eu2+. 346 (1970). G. blue emission) or to be partly oxidized (liberating brown bromine).88 eV). A..D. 2. and Bril. 1.

Fire in capped quartz tubes. Phys.. Broad band UV excitation of Sm3+-activated phosphors. Wash in water several times.4 8. and Bril. N2.YOCl:Eu3+ Structure: Rhombohedral (matlockite) Composition Ingredient Y 2O 3 Eu2O3 NH4Cl Mole % 95 (of Y) 5 (of Eu) 110 By weight (g) 107. 1. A. 23. Boil down to dry (slowly. 1100ºC. Reference 1. Fire in capped quartz tubes. ~500ºC.88 eV). 2.40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Remark This phosphor is hygroscopic. N2. Blasse. Powderize. Absorption (%) 100 Emission .. to let the conversion of Y2O3 to YOCl take place). Keep dry. Dry.8 59 Preparation Make a suspension of all ingredients in water.97–2. Powderize. Powderize. G.14 eV. main peak at 2. – (3.00 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4. ½ hour. 440 (1966). Optical Properties Emission color: Red Emission peaks: 1. 1 hour. Lett..

2.6 Absorption (%) 100 Emission ..88 eV). A. 1. N2. YOF:Tb3+ Composition Ingredient Y 2O 3 Tb4O7 YF3 Mole % 61 (of Y) 5 (of Tb) 34 By weight (g) 69 9. 23. 1 hour.40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Reference 1.038.4 49. G. and 2.. Dry in air. Powderize. Fire in capped quartz tubes..5 49. Broad band UV excitation of Sm3+-activated phosphors.6 Preparation Mix by slurrying in water or methanol. Powderize when dry.105 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: + (4. Optical Properties Emission color: Light red Emission peaks: 1. – (3. and Bril. Lett. N2. Phys. 1 hour. 1000ºC. 2. 1200ºC. Fire in capped quartz tubes.YOF:Eu3+ Composition Ingredient Y 2O 3 Eu2O3 YF3 Mole % 64 (of Y) 2 (of Eu) 34 By weight (g) 72. Blasse.3 3.977. 440 (1966).

1200ºC. 1200ºC. LaOF:Eu3+ Composition Ingredient La2O3 Eu2O3 LaF3 Mole % 61 (of La) 5 (of Eu) 34 By weight (g) 99.981 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: + (4.6 Preparation Mix by slurrying in water or methanol. 2.40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: +/4–5% Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 100 Emission 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Remark UV excitation is very poor (too little absorption) and can probably be improved by addition of Ce3+. 1000ºC. 1. 1 hour. Powderize when dry.982–2. Fire in capped quartz tubes. – (3.40 eV) . – (3.88 eV). N2. N2.8 66. Fire in capped quartz tubes. 1000ºC. Fire in capped quartz tubes. 1 hour. Fire in capped quartz tubes. 1.88 eV). Powderize when dry. Powderize.Preparation Mix by slurrying in water or methanol. Dry in air. 2. N2.145 eV. N2. Powderize. Optical Properties Emission color: Pale green Emission peaks: 1.993 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: – (4.4 8. main line at 1. 1 hour. 1 hour. Dry in air.981–2. Optical Properties Emission color: Red Emission peak: 1.

Phys.58 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: + (4. Jaquier... B... 2. Proc. Int.88 eV).Spectra 800 700 600 500 400 Wavelength (nm) 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 LaOCl:Bi3+ Structure: Rhombohedral (matlockite) Optical Properties Emission color: UV Emission peak: 3. – (3. 3. Conf. J. 95 (1975). Chem. 217 (1968). 48.. A. J. 10. Lumin. Blasse.. G. Investigations on BI3+-activated phosphors. Photoluminescence processes in LaOCl-Bi and YOCl-Bi.56 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0. and Bril. G. 48. et al.. 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Absorption (%) 100 Emission Absorption (%) 100 Emission .40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: + Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 50 2 3 References 1. Phys. 217 (1968). Boulon.

Characteristic luminescence. Philips Tech.40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: – Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Reference 1.. 304 (1970). Blasse. G. The absorption and emission spectra of some important activators.02 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: + (4.LaOCl:Eu3+ Structure: Rhombohedral (matlockite) Optical Properties Emission color: Light red Emission peak: 2. 1. – (3..88 eV). and Bril. A. 31.. Absorption (%) 100 Emission . Rev.

24 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: + (4. + (3.Mn2+ CaSO4:Pb2+ CaSO4:Bi CaSO4:Ce3+ CaSO4:Ce3+.Mn2+ Mg2Sr(SO4)3:Eu2+ MgSO4:Eu2+ Structure: Orthorhombic Composition Ingredient MgSO4 Eu2O3 (NH4)2SO4 NH4Cl Mole % 97 3 ~10 1 By weight (g) 117 5. N2. Optical Properties Emission color: UV Emission peak: 3.31 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0.40 eV) .540 Preparation Mix by dry grinding or milling.4.3 13.2 0.Mn2+ CaSO4:Eu2+ SrSO4:Bi SrSO4:Ce3+ SrSO4:Eu2+. 1 hour. 1000ºC. Powderize. Store in well-closed containers.12 Sulfates The following host compounds and activators are included in this subsection: MgSO4:Eu2+ MgSO4:Pb2+ CaSO4:Eu2+.88 eV).Mn2+ SrSO4:Eu2+ BaSO4:Ce3+ BaSO4:Eu2+ MgBa(SO4)2:Eu2+ Mg2Ca(SO4)3:Eu2+ Mg2Ca(SO4)3:Eu2+. Fire in capped quartz tubes.

Powderize. N2. 1000ºC.540 Preparation Mix by dry grinding or milling.40 eV) Absorption (%) 100 Emission .2 0. 1 hour. MgSO4:Pb2+ Structure: Orthorhombic Composition Ingredient MgSO4 PbO (NH4)2SO4 NH4Cl Mole % 97 3 ~10 1 By weight (g) 117 56. Fire in capped quartz tubes.65 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0.46 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: – (4.Spectra 800 700 600 500 400 Wavelength (nm) 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Remark MgSO4 (epsom salt) is water soluble. – (3. Optical Properties Emission color: UV Emission peak: 4.7 13.88 eV). Store in well-closed containers. Keep dry.

Spectra 800 700 600 500 400 Wavelength (nm) 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Remarks 1. Fire in capped quartz tubes. CaSO4:Eu2+.Mn2+ Structure: Orthorhombic (anhydrite) Composition Ingredient CaSO4 Eu2O3 MnCO3 (NH4)2SO4 Mole % 90 5 (of Eu) 5 ~10 By weight (g) 123 8.88 eV). Fire in capped quartz tubes. This material is excited only by UV of ~240 nm or shorter and apparently is fairly efficient.40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: +/1% Absorption (%) 100 Emission . 1 hour. MgSO4 (epsom salt) is water soluble. 3.20 eV (Eu2+) Emission width (FWHM): 0.8 5. 800ºC. N2. Powderize. 2.75 13.2 Preparation Mix by dry grinding or milling. Add ~5 g of NH4Br and ~10 g of (NH4)2SO4. N2. ½ hour. Optical Properties Emission color: Bluish-green Emission peak: 2. Powderize. 1. ++ (3. Wash in water several times. 900ºC. Dry. 2. Keep dry.42 eV (Mn2+). mix by dry grinding.30 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4.

Fire in capped quartz tubes. Fire in capped quartz tubes. Powderize. 2. 1.780 2. Wash in water several times. – (3.6 g of (NH4)2SO4.33 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0. Add 5 g of NH4Cl. 950ºC. 3. Mix by dry grinding. 1050ºC.33 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: – (4. shifting to blue-green for 1% Mn and to yellow-green for 10% Mn.88 eV).6 Preparation Mix by dry grinding or milling.Spectra 800 700 600 500 400 Wavelength (nm) 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Remark The spectral positions of the Mn2+-emission band depends on the Mn concentration used. N2.40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: + Absorption (%) 100 Emission . Dry. CaSO4:Pb2+ Structure: Orthorhombic (anhydrite) Composition Ingredient CaSO4 CaF2 PbO (NH4)2SO4 Mole % 98 1 1 ~5 By weight (g) 133 0. 1 hour. Optical Properties Emission color: UV Emission peak: 5. 1 hour. N2. Mix by dry grinding. 1000ºC. N2. Add another 6. Powderize. Fire in capped quartz tubes.23 6. 1 hour.

1.3 3. 1 hour. Powderize. mix by dry grinding.Spectra 800 700 600 500 400 Wavelength (nm) 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 6 0 Remarks 1. Add another 5–6 g of (NH4)2SO4. 950ºC. Fire in covered alumina crucibles. It discolors in fluorescent lamps because of (probably) undissolved PbSO4 dissociation to PbO. 2. Optical Properties Emission color: Light red Emission peak: 2. 900ºC.40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: +/0.7% Absorption (%) 100 Emission .88 eV).6 Preparation Mix by dry grinding or milling. Wash in water several times. N2. Dry. 1 hour. N2. CaSO4:Bi Structure: Orthorhombic (anhydrite) Composition Ingredient CaSO4 Bi2O3 Na2SO4 (NH4)2SO4 Mole % 98 1 (of Bi) 5 (of Na) ~5 By weight (g) 118 2. – (3.5 6. 2. This phosphor is excited only by UV of ~220 nm or shorter and is fairly efficient. Fire in covered alumina crucibles.16 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: – (4.02 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0.

Fire in covered alumina crucibles. et al.. Soc. 1 hour.79 eV.2 3. 132 (1949). mix by dry grinding.Spectra 800 700 600 500 400 Wavelength (nm) 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Remark The nature of this red emission is still unknown: It is not likely to be due to Bi3+ but it may possibly be due to Bi5+ substituting for S6+. 900ºC. – (3.40 eV) Absorption (%) 100 Emission . 4. J. N2. 1. Dry. 2. Kröger. 96. Bismuth as activator in fluorescent solids.88 eV). CaSO4:Ce3+ Structure: Orthorhombic (anhydrite) Composition Ingredient CaSO4 CeO2 Na2SO4 (NH4)2SO4 Mole % 94 3 5 (of Na) ~10 By weight (g) 128 5. Wash in water several times. Optical Properties Emission color: UV Emission peak: 3. Reference 1.01 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4. F. N2.. Fire in covered alumina crucibles. 1 hour. Powderize. Add above amounts of Na2SO4 and (NH4)2SO4 once again.A.6 13. Electrochem.2 Preparation Mix by dry grinding or milling.. 900ºC. Powderize.

mix by dry grinding.5 6 ~10 By weight (g) 121 4. Optical Properties Emission color: Yellow-green Emission peak: 2. mix by dry grinding. Fire in capped quartz tubes. Fire in capped quartz tubes. N2. 3.3 6. 1000ºC.9 13. Add ~2 g of Li2SO4 and ~6 g of (NH4)2SO4. 700ºC.2 Preparation Mix by dry grinding or milling. 1.40 eV) Absorption (%) 100 Emission . Add ~6 g of (NH4)2SO4. Fire in capped quartz tubes. Powderize. 4. N2. Fire in capped quartz tubes. 800ºC.Spectra 800 700 600 500 400 Wavelength (nm) 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 CaSO4:Ce3+. ++ (3. Powderize. Powderize. 700ºC. 2. Add ~10 g of (NH4)2SO4. Powderize. N2.88 eV). Dry. N2. Wash in water several times.Mn2+ Structure: Orthorhombic (anhydrite) Composition Ingredient CaSO4 CeO2 MnCO4 (NH4)2SO4 Mole % 88.5 2. mix by dry grinding.35 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0.36 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4. 1 hour.

and Ruffler.20 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0.1 µsec to 1/10 Absorption (%) 100 Emission . Optical Properties Emission color: Very deep violet Emission peak: 3. Wash in water several times.. mix by dry grinding. Powderize. about 1.76 6. 950ºC. Abstr. N2. Rudolf. 7.. Add another 6.6 Preparation Mix by dry grinding or milling. 1 hour. H. Add 5 g of NH4Cl. Rabatin. CaSO4:Eu2+ Structure: Orthorhombic (anhydrite) Composition Ingredient CaSO4 Eu2O3 (NH4)2SO4 Mole % 99 1 (of Eu) ~5 By weight (g) 135 1. Fire in capped quartz tubes.88 eV). Washington. J. Electrochem. 1 hour. 3. Tech. J. 1. 1 hour. 950ºC.6 g of (NH4)2SO4. 157 (May 1976). OSRAM Ges. ++ (3.Spectra 800 700 600 500 400 Wavelength (nm) 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 References 1. DC. Powderize. Powderize. Soc.. Dry. N2. Fire in capped quartz tubes. Abh. 2. Fire in capped quartz tubes. Wiss. 1000ºC. N2. 232 (1958)..12 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4. mix by dry grinding. 2.40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: +/4% Decay: Near-exponential decay. Meeting.

1 hour. Powderize.04 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0.40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: +/1–1... Thermoluminescence of rare earth activated CdSO4. 3 669 897 (1971).. Wachtel. J.. 383 (1974). Wash in water several times. and Ekstrand.E. 2. 3.. Add another 5–6 g of (NH4)2SO4. 900ºC.L. 8. – (3. Pat. D. Germ. References 1. N2. 2. 1 hour. Dry. Lumin.. Optical Properties Emission color: Orange-red Emission peak: 2. 1. K. SrSO4 and BaSO4. Powderize. Fire in covered alumina crucibles. R.15 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: – (4.6 Preparation Mix by dry grinding or milling. Dixon.88 eV).3 3..5 6. SrSO4:Bi Structure: Orthorhombic Composition Ingredient SrSO4 Bi2O3 Na2SO4 (NH4)2SO4 Mole % 98 1 (of Bi) 5 (of Na) ~5 By weight (g) 180 2. Fire in covered alumina crucibles.5% Absorption (%) 100 Emission . U. Luckey. 2 051 240 (1971). N2. 950ºC. A. mix by dry grinding.Spectra 800 700 600 500 400 Wavelength (nm) 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Remark This CaSO4 phosphor is stable in water. Pat.S.

Electrochem.2 Preparation Mix by dry grinding or milling.. Dry. 1. Soc. mix by dry grinding. 96.88 eV). 900ºC.2 3. F. Powderize. N2. N2.A. Optical Properties Emission color: UV Emission peak: 3.6 13. Wash in water several times. Powderize. et al. Fire in covered alumina crucibles.89 and 4. 2. Bismuth as activator in fluorescent solids. 900ºC.11 eV (Two overlapping bands) Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4. SrSO4:Ce3+ Structure: Orthorhombic Composition Ingredient SrSO4 CeO2 Na2SO4 (NH4)2SO4 Mole % 94 3 5 (of Na) ~10 By weight (g) 173 5. Fire in covered alumina crucibles. Add the above amounts of Na2SO4 and (NH4)2SO4 once again. J. – (3. 1 hour.. 1 hour.Spectra 800 700 600 500 400 Wavelength (nm) 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Remark The nature of this emission is still unknown: It is not likely to be due to Bi3+ but it may possibly be due to Bi5+ substituting for S6+. 132 (1949).40 eV) Absorption (%) 100 Emission . Kröger. Reference 1.

Fire in capped quartz tubes.88 eV). 2.6 g of (NH4)2SO4. Powderize. Wash in water several times. 1. 3. 900ºC. about 5 µsec to 1/10 Absorption (%) 100 Emission .Spectra 800 700 600 500 400 Wavelength (nm) 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 SrSO4:Eu2+. Add 5 g of NH4Cl. Fire in capped quartz tubes.19 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0. Dry. Optical Properties Emission color: UV Emission peak: 3.88 eV). Powderize. 900ºC. 1 hour. 1 hour.5 1.40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: +/5% Decay: Near-exponential decay. 1 hour. mix by dry grinding. Powderize. Fire in capped quartz tubes.29 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4.40 eV) SrSO4:Eu2+ Structure: Orthorhombic Composition Ingredient SrSO4 Eu2O3 SrF2 (NH4)2SO4 Mole % 98 2 (of Eu) 1 ~5 By weight (g) 180 3.30 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0.26 6. N2. ++ (3. mix by dry grinding. Add another 6. N2.Mn2+ Structure: Orthorhombic Optical Properties Emission color: Orange Emission peak: 2. ++ (3. 800ºC.24 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4.6 Preparation Mix by dry grinding or milling.

K. Dixon. BaSO4:Ce3+ Structure: Orthorhombic Composition Ingredient BaSO4 CeO2 Na2SO4 (NH4)2SO4 Mole % 94 3 5 (of Na) ~10 By weight (g) 173 5. 2 051 240 (1971). Add the above amounts of Na2SO4 and (NH4)2SO4 once again.L. SrSO4 and BaSO4.S. Lumin. 900ºC. Powderize. 2. Thermoluminescence of rare earth activated CdSO4. Fire in covered alumina crucibles. Luckey. 2.6 13. U. Germ. Wash in water several times. mix by dry grinding. and Ekstrand.E.. N2. D.40 eV) Absorption (%) 100 Emission ..2 Preparation Mix by dry grinding or milling. 1 hour. R.. 8.. Powderize. A.88 eV). 383 (1974). J. – (3.. 3. 1 hour. Optical Properties Emission color: UV Emission peak: 3. Fire in covered alumina crucibles. 900ºC. Pat.11 eV (Two overlapping bands) Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4..2 3. Wachtel. Pat. 3 669 897 (1971).Spectra 800 700 600 500 400 Wavelength (nm) 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 References 1. N2.89 eV.. Dry. 4. 1.

88 eV). Add another 6. Powderize. Fire in capped quartz tubes. N2. 800ºC. N2. Fire in capped quartz tubes.21 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4. 900ºC. Optical Properties Emission color: UV Emission peak: 3. 1 hour. Dry.40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: +/5% Decay: Near-exponential decay. Add 5 g of NH4Cl.6 g of (NH4)2SO4. mix by dry grinding. about 5 µsec to 1/10 Absorption (%) 100 Emission .Spectra 800 700 600 500 400 Wavelength (nm) 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 BaSO4:Eu2+ Structure: Orthorhombic Composition Ingredient BaSO4 Eu2O3 SrF2 (NH4)2SO4 Mole % 98 2 (of Eu) 1 ~5 By weight (g) 180 3. + (3. 900ºC. Powderize.5 1.6 Preparation Mix by dry grinding or milling. 1 hour. Fire in capped quartz tubes. 1.30 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0. Powderize. mix by dry grinding.26 6. Wash in water several times. 1 hour. 3. 2.

Germ. Add ~10 g of (NH4)2SO4.. Store in a well-closed container. D. N2. – (3. 900ºC. Fire in capped quartz tubes. Optical Properties Emission color: UV Emission peak: Main peak at 3. 1 hour.88 eV). Powderize.455 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4. 2 051 240 (1971). MgBa(SO4)2:Eu2+ Structure: KAl (SO4)2 Composition Ingredient MgSO4 BaSO4 Eu2O3 (NH4)2SO4 Mole % 100 94 6 (of Eu) ~10 By weight (g) 120 219 10. 1 hour. Fire in capped quartz tubes. 1. 1100ºC.2 Preparation Mix by dry grinding or milling.6 13. N2. Pat.Spectra 800 700 600 500 400 Wavelength (nm) 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Reference 1. 2. Powderize.40 eV) Absorption (%) 100 Emission . mix by dry grinding.. Luckey.

N2.06 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0. and Stegenga.M.P. J. and VanDenHeuvel. Electrochem.. G. mix by dry grinding. Blasse. Soc. 121. 4. M.28 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4.Spectra 800 700 600 500 400 Wavelength (nm) 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Remark This material decomposes in contact with water or in moist air.. 2. Soc. 1272 (1977). F. G.P. Inorg. Sakaguchi.. N2. Mg2Ca(SO4)3:Eu2+ Composition Ingredient MgSO4 CaSO4 Eu2O3 (NH4)2SO4 Mole % 200 94 6 (of Eu) ~10 By weight (g) 240 128 10. Electrochem. 900ºC. Crystal-structure of barium magnesiumsulfate. Fire in capped quartz tubes.M. et al. Optical Properties Emission color: Violet Emission peak: 3. Fine-structure in optical-spectra of divalent europium in alkalineearth sulfates.6 13. et al. 3. 950ºC. and ~10 g of (NH4)2SO4. Solid State Chem. G. 876 (1976).. 124. 38. Powderize.. Ryan.. 1475 (1974). Luminescence of barium magnesium-sulfate. 2.. 439 (1976). 1.88 eV). J. VanDenHeuvel. Thermoluminescence characteristics of binary sulfate phosphors. Add ~5 g of NH4Br. J.2 Preparation Mix by dry grinding or milling. 1 hour. References 1. Chem. Nucl.40 eV) Absorption (%) 100 Emission .M. J. 17... J. G.. Fire in capped quartz tubes. ++ (3. Blasse..

++ (3.01 eV (Mn2+). 1. Optical Properties Emission color: Orange-red Emission peak: 2. Fire in capped quartz tubes. Add ~5 g of NH4Br. Powderize. 950ºC. Fire in capped quartz tubes.06 eV (Eu2+) Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4.Mn2+ Composition Ingredient MgSO4 CaSO4 Eu2O3 MnCO3 (NH4)2SO4 Mole % 200 87 5 (of Eu) 8 ~10 By weight (g) 240 119 8. mix by dry grinding.2 13. 3. and ~10 g of (NH4)2SO4. Mg2Ca(SO4)3:Eu2+. 2. 900ºC.2 Preparation Mix by dry grinding or milling. 1 hour. Keep dry.Spectra 800 700 600 500 400 Wavelength (nm) 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Remark This material decomposes in contact with water or in moist air. N2.8 9. N2.88 eV).40 eV) Spectra 800 700 600 500 400 Wavelength (nm) 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Absorption (%) 100 Emission Absorption (%) 100 Emission .

1 hour.2 Preparation Mix by dry grinding or milling. 1100ºC. N2. mix by dry grinding. Mg2Sr(SO4)3:Eu2+ Composition Ingredient MgO SrSO4 Eu2O3 (NH4)2SO4 Mole % 200 94 6 (of Eu) ~10 By weight (g) 240 173 10.21 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0.6 13. Absorption (%) 100 Emission . 1. Store in a well-closed container.23 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4. Fire in capped quartz tubes. Fire in capped quartz tubes. 2. Add 10 g of (NH4)2SO4. Powderize. 1 hour.40 eV) Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Remark This material decomposes in contact with water or in moist air. Powderize. Keep dry.88 eV). Optical Properties Emission color: Barely visible deep violet Emission peak: 3.Remark This material decomposes in contact with water or in moist air. 900ºC. + (3. N2.

Cu ZnS:Sn2+ ZnS:Sn.Cl ZnS:Pb. and stir again. Make a slurry of the ZnS in water or methanol.Br long life ZnS-CdS:Cu.I ZnS-CdS (25-75) ZnS-CdS (50-50) ZnS-CdS (75-25) ZnS-CdS:Ag.5 Preparation Dissolve the AgNO3 and the NH4Cl separately.Al3+ ZnS:Cu+.13 ZnS-Type Sulfides The following host compounds and activators are included in this subsection: ZnS:Ag+.Te2+ ZnS:P ZnS:P3 .Cl ZnS:Eu2+ ZnS:Mn2+ ZnS:Mn2+.Br high brightness ZnS-ZnTe:Mn2+ 98-2 ZnS:Ag+.Ag ZnS:Sn2+. Powderize when dry.Cl Structure: Hexagonal (wurtzite) Composition Ingredient ZnS AgNO3 NH4Cl Mole % 100 0.Li+ ZnSe:Cu+. each in a little water.050 2. stir.Br. then add the NH4Cl solution.Ni ZnS-CdS:Ag+.In ZnS:Cl ZnS:Cu.Sn ZnS:Cu+. . Dry in air.Cl CdS:Ag+.3 5 By weight (g) 98 0.4.Cl ZnS-CdS:Cu.Cl ZnS:Au.Cl CdS:In ZnS-CdS:Cu. First add the silver solution.Cl ZnS:Pb2+ ZnS:Pb2+.

1100ºC. An Introduction to Luminescence of Solids. Dry. Make a slurry in methanol.. This phosphor corresponds to the commercial P-22B. Powderize. S. New York (1966).80 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0. Academic Press. Dry. ZnS:Au. References 1. Goldberg. P.005 0. 2. Shionoya. ++ (3.40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: ++ Decay: Non-exponential decay in the microsecond range Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Remarks 1.0023 2. N2. 2. Powderize. Leverenz. Fire in capped quartz tubes. New York (1949).In Structure: Hexagonal (wurtzite) Composition Ingredient ZnS Au metal In2O3 NH4Cl Mole % 100 0. 1 hour. in Luminescence of Inorganic Solids. Wash in water several times (to remove leftover halide). H..Add ~2–3 g of sulfur.W. Add this solution to the ZnS. The chlorine in the above recipe may be replaced by bromine.34 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4. Optical Properties Emission color: Blue Emission peak: 2.5 Preparation Dissolve the gold in a very little amount of aqua regia. Ed..88 eV).010 0. John Wiley & Sons. Absorption (%) 100 Emission ..002 (of In) 5 By weight (g) 98 0.

50 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4. ++ (3.40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: + Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Remark The green phosphorescence of this phosphor after excitation by UV or by e-beam is visible for several hours in the dark. ++ (3.1. H2S. Dissolve the In2O3 in a little nitric acid.70 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0. 2. Add the dry NH4Cl and about 2–3 g of sulfur. dry. add the solution to the slurry. mix by dry grinding. N2. 900ºC. 2.67 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0. H2S. Make a slurry of the phosphor in methanol. Optical Properties Emission color: Blue-green. 1 hour.40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: ++ Absorption (%) 100 Emission . N2. Powderize. hexagonal (wurtzite) Optical Properties Emission color: Blue Emission peak: 2.34 eV. Powderize. 1 hour. stir. 900ºC.34 eV (First peak) Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4. ZnS:Cl Structure: Cubic. long afterglow Emission peaks: 2. Fire in capped quartz tubes. Fire in open quartz boats.88 eV). 900ºC. 1 hour. 4. Fire in capped quartz tubes. Add about 2–3 g of sulfur. 1200ºC.88 eV). 3. Fire in open quartz boats. and powderize.

N2. Goldberg. Add ~2–3 g of sulfur. Powderize. 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 ZnS:Cu. New York (1966). Make a slurry in water or methanol. Leverenz.W. An Introduction to Luminescence of Solids.1 0.001 By weight (g) 98 0. Fire in capped quartz tubes. . H2O Mole % 100 0. Shionoya. Academic Press. 2. Dry. in Luminescence of Inorganic Solids.Spectra (cubic) 800 700 600 500 400 Wavelength (nm) 300 100 Emission 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) Wavelength (nm) 5 0 Spectra (hexagonal) 800 700 600 500 400 300 100 Emission 50 2 3 References 1.. Ed. 1150ºC.. add solution to the ZnS + SnS mix.Sn Structure: Hexagonal (wurtzite) Composition Ingredient ZnS SnS Cu(C2H3O2)2. John Wiley & Sons.150 0.. S. 1 hour. H.. New York (1949). P.002 Preparation Dissolve the copper acetate in a little water.

Co phosphor. Wash in water several times (stir. Fire in capped quartz tubes. Emission peak: 2.400 Preparation Dissolve the copper acetate and the aluminum chloride together in a little water. ++ (3.Optical Properties Emission color: Green Emission peak: 2. ZnS:Cu+. Add ~2–3 g of sulfur.002 0. let settle) to remove left over chloride. Add enough water or methanol to make a uniform slurry. 2. Optical Properties Emission color: Green.41 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0. H2S.3 By weight (g) 98 0.88 eV).001 0. Dry.32 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4. 1 hour. Powderize. Dry.88 eV). long afterglow tail.40 eV UV causes strong quenching of the green emission.40 eV) Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Remarks 1.40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: ++ Decay: Non-exponential decay in the microsecond range Absorption (%) 100 Emission . ++ (3.32 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4. 1100ºC.38 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0. This phosphor is much more sensitive to IR than the fairly well-known ZnS:Cu. Add solution to the ZnS mix. H2O AlCl3 Mole % 100 0. Irradiation of near-IR during excitation by 3.Al3+ Structure: Hexagonal (wurtzite) Composition Ingredient ZnS Cu(C2H3O2)2.

Cl Optical Properties Emission color: Blue + green Emission peak: 2.88 eV). and Cleiren.P. W. 238 (1960). H. 2. Gool. ++ (3. Kröger.. The chlorine in the above recipe may be replaced by bromine.79 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0..40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: ++ Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 100 Emission 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Reference 1. Amsterdam (1948). New York (1949).34 eV. 2.W. References 1. An Introduction to Luminescence of Solids. F. John Wiley & Sons.. Structure: Cubic (zinc blende) ZnS:Cu+.. This phosphor corresponds to the P-31 cathodoluminescent phosphor. Leverenz. Elsevier. 15. Some Aspects of Luminescence of Solids. Rep. A.Spectra 800 700 600 500 400 Wavelength (nm) 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Remarks 1..A. Absorption (%) 100 Emission .33 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4. Philips Res. 2.

1 hour. Weaker band at 1. Fire in open quartz boats. 1. Optical Properties Emission color: Yellow-green Emission peak: 2. Dry.15 0.540 Preparation Mix by slurrying in water or methanol. 1100ºC. H2S.95 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0.88 eV).24 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: + (4. Powderize. 1100ºC. Absorption (%) 100 Emission .03 (of Eu) By weight (g) 98 0. Fire in open quartz boats. H2S. 1 hour. Powderize. Powderize. 2. + (3.40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: Poor Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 ZnS:Mn2+ Structure: Hexagonal (wurtzite) Composition Ingredient ZnS MnCO3 NH4Cl Mole % 99 1 1 By weight (g) 97 1. Dry.ZnS:Eu2+ Composition Ingredient ZnS Eu2O3 Mole % 100 0.25 eV.053 Preparation Mix by slurrying in water or methanol. Add ~2–3 g of sulfur.

1 hour. Fire in capped quartz tubes.Te2+ Structure: Hexagonal (wurtzite) Composition Ingredient ZnS MnCO3 ZnTe NH4Br Mole % 94 3 3 2 By weight (g) 92 3. Shionoya.. N2 or H2S. This material is remarkable for its strong triboluminescence. 1100ºC.W.13 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0. Ed. ZnS:Mn2+.40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: +/5% Decay: Exponential.. ++ (3. Absorption (%) 100 Emission ..Add ~2–3 g of sulfur. An Introduction to Luminescence of Solids.21 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4. 2. P. Make a slurry in water. ~1 msec to 1/10 Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Remarks 1. Optical Properties Emission color: Orange-yellow Emission peak: 2. Leverenz.8 2 Preparation First mix only ZnS + MnCO3 + NH4Br (not yet the ZnTe). References 1.5 5. Goldberg. New York (1966). H.88 eV). The emission shifts slightly to lower energy (= longer wavelength) with increasing Mn concentration. New York (1949). John Wiley & Sons. Academic Press. in Luminescence of Inorganic Solids.. S. 2.

Absorption (%) 100 Emission .40 eV) Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Remarks 1. 1 hour. 67 (1967). H2. Now admit the ZnTe. 900ºC. This material is remarkable for its strong triboluminescence (red). Spectrosc. 1100ºC. R.F. Powderize when dry. Dry in air. G. 1 hour. 2. Optical Properties Emission color: Red Emission peak: 1. Fire in capped quartz tubes. Fire in capped quartz tubes. and Pron. Add ~2–3 g of sulfur. 23. Fire in capped quartz tubes.5 By weight (g) 98 0. Smirnova. Reference 1. This phosphor has been developed by A. 2. ZnS:P Composition Ingredient ZnS Zn3P2 NH4Cl Mole % 100 0.1..385 0. 1 hour. mix by milling or grinding. Wash in a solution of a few percentage of Br in methanol and then several times in plain methanol. 1200ºC.. Wachtel.4 (of P) 0. Opt.I. N2.270 Preparation Mix by dry grinding. Effect of tellurium on luminescence properties of zinc sulfide luminors.92 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0. ++ (3. Powderize. N2.-USSR.24 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4.88 eV).

++ (3. Long afterglow tail Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Remarks 1. The amount of P retained in the phosphor after firing certainly is much lower than the amount added. 2. 85 (1949). New zinc sulfide phosphors activated by phosphorus.40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: +/5%. Spectral positions of the emission band depends on the P concentration.40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: + Absorption (%) 100 Emission .50 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4..14 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0. Soc. 2. A.66 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0. P..Cl Structure: Hexagonal (wurtzite) Optical Properties Emission color: Yellowish Emission peak: 2. and Ranby.24.50 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: + (4.88 eV). ZnS:P3–. 96. Phosphor is poorly reproducible because of high volatility of Zn3P2 at firing temperature.88 eV). + (3. J. Electrochem.W. It shifts to a lower energy (= longer wavelengths) with increasing P.Optical Properties Emission color: Pale yellow Emission peak: 2..H. Reference 1. McKeag.

36.Cl Structure: Hexagonal (wurtzite) Optical Properties Emission color: Greenish Emission peak: 2. Electrochem. G.88 eV).40 eV) References 1.W. . Preparation and characteristics of zinc sulfide phosphors sensitive to infrared.. J.. J. Fonda. Soc. H. and Ranby.54 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0. 85 (1949)..98 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0.40 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: (4. New zinc sulfide phosphors activated by phosphorus.88 eV). G. + (3. An Introduction to Luminescence of Solids.40 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: – (4.R. John Wiley & Sons.. 2. Opt. ++ (3. Preparation and characteristics of zinc sulfide phosphors sensitive to infrared... ZnS:Pb2+.R.W.. Am. 382 (1946). Soc. New York (1949). P. 382 (1946).H. Fonda. J.Spectra 800 700 600 500 400 Wavelength (nm) 300 100 Emission 50 2 3 Reference 1. Am. Leverenz. McKeag. Soc.. 36. 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 ZnS:Pb2+ Structure: Hexagonal (wurtzite) Optical Properties Emission color: Orange Emission peak: 1. 96. A.40 eV) Reference 1. Opt.

1 0. add the solution to the ZnS. G. When the afterglow has decreased to a low level. Opt. J. This phosphor is readily excited by UV and shows a long afterglow after excitation.Cu Structure: Hexagonal (wurtzite) Composition Ingredient ZnS Pb(NO3)2 Cu(C2H3O2)2 Mole % 100 0. Add ~2–3 g of sulfur.. Dry.. irridation of near-IR causes a strong orange emission (stimulation). Preparation and characteristics of zinc sulfide phosphors sensitive to infrared. 1 hour.99 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0. orange afterglow Emission peak: 1. ++ (3.R. N2. Absorption (%) 100 Emission . Optical Properties Emission color: Whitish orange during excitation.88 eV). 352 (1946). Powderize.002 Preparation Dissolve the lead nitrate and copper acetate together in a little water.330 0. Fire in capped quartz tubes. Am. Soc. Make a uniform slurry with water or methanol.001 By weight (g) 98 0. Reference 1. 2. Fonda.ZnS:Pb. 36.40 eV) Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Remarks 1. 1100ºC.40 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4.

Optical Properties Emission color: Red Emission peak: 1. Fire in capped quartz tubes.40 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: + (4. 499 (1974). Polonica A.88 eV). S. N2. 1 hour. 1150ºC.1 0.017 Absorption (%) 100 Emission .. Acta Phys. ZnS:Sn.ZnS:Sn2+ Structure: Hexagonal (wurtzite) Composition Ingredient ZnS SnS Sulfur Mole % 99 1 By weight (g) 97 1. Kulaszewcz.150 0.01 By weight (g) 98 0.Ag Structure: Hexagonal (wurtzite) Composition Ingredient ZnS SnS AgNO3 Mole % 100 0. 45.40 eV) Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Reference 1. ++ (3.80 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0.5 ~2–3 Preparation Mix by dry grinding.

2. Add the solutions to the ZnS + SnS.99. ZnS-Sn. A. Electrochem. The Ag in the above recipe can be replaced by Li.Preparation Dissolve the AgNO3 in a little water.Sn.. Soc. Admit ~2–3 g of sulfur. 1150ºC. Make a slurry in water or methanol.12 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0.50 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: + (4. In contrast to ZnS:Cu. Powderize when dry. Fire in capped quartz tubes.Li phosphor.88 eV). Optical Properties Emission color: Pale yellow Emission peak: 1.99 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0. ZnS:Sn2+. 1 hour.40 eV) Absorption (%) 100 Emission .50 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4.40 eV) Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Remarks 1. Dry in air. N2.Li+ Structure: Hexagonal (wurtzite) Optical Properties Emission color: Orange Emission peak: 1. 432 (1958). 2. 105.. this phosphor shows only little response (stimulation) to irradiated IR. ++ (3.88 eV). J. Reference 1. + (3. Wachtel.

Se Cu. Cl. 2. Morehead. John Wiley & Sons..Li phosphor. Chem.Spectra 800 700 600 500 400 Wavelength (nm) 300 100 Emission 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Reference 1. A. 24. New York (1949) p..W.30 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: (4.F.. 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 . + (3.92 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0. Soc. F. J.40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: ++ Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 100 Emission 50 2 3 References 1. Luminescence in ZnS. Phys. 432 (1958).Cl Structure: Cubic (zinc blende) Optical Properties Emission color: Red Emission peak: 1. Electrochem. Leverenz. 37 (1963). ZnSe:Cu+. An Introduction to Luminescence of Solids.88 eV). ZnS-Sn. Solids. H. 105. 202. J.. Wachtel.

500ºC. 2.08 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: + (4. + (3. John Wiley & Sons. Dry. Inspect again under UV lamp.88 eV). Material should now be uniformly green. Optical Properties Emission color: Green Emission peak: 2. H2S.1 (of In) By weight (g) 145 0. 1. Add ~2–3 g of sulfur. H2.Cl– Structure: Hexagonal (wurtzite) Optical Properties Emission color: IR Emission peak: 1. Fire in capped quartz tubes.34 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4. H. Leverenz. Powderize. Powderize. 900ºC. Fire in open quartz boats. 1 hour. When cool.40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: + Decay to 10%: Less than 1 nsec . inspect under UV lamp. Add the solutions to the CdS.88 eV). CdS:In Structure: Hexagonal (wurtzite) Composition Ingredient CdS In2O3 Mole % 100 0.W. Remove all parts which look different. New York (1949).139 Preparation Dissolve the In2O3 in a little nitric acid.. ++ (3. Material should be uniformly red luminescent.40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: ++ Reference 1. An Introduction to Luminescence of Solids.39 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0.55 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0.CdS:Ag+. Make a slurry in methanol.

5 2 By weight (g) 95. N2. ZnS-CdS:Cu. Screen through 200 mesh or finer. pull the hot boat with the phosphor out of the furnace into open air and quench rapidly down to room temperature by blowing cold air against it. 800ºC. Do not heat up (except only in H2) to more than about 250ºC. Make a slurry of the ZnS + CdS in methanol. Powderize.Spectra 800 700 600 500 400 Wavelength (nm) 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Remarks 1. 1 hour. Phosphor has limited use in CR tubes for extremely fast display. Dry. 1 hour. Mix well. 2. Edge emission of n-type conducting ZnO and CdS. W. After this firing. Powderize. Boil briefly in a solution of about 10 g NaOH (or KOH) + 10 g NaCN (or KCN) in 1 liter of water. stir.. H2O NH4I Mole % 98 2 0.4 2. This phosphor is thermodynamically in an unstable state. 1. Powderize. 1107 (1966). Dry with methanol in a filter funnel and then in open air. Fire in open quartz boats. each in a little water. Absorption (%) 100 Emission . Add the Cu solution.I Structure: Hexagonal (wurtzite) Composition Ingredient ZnS CdS Cu(C2H3O2)2. Fire in capped quartz tubes.9 Preparation Dissolve the Cu acetate and the NH4I separately. Solid State Electron. Reference 1. 9. Lehmann. then add the NH4I-solution.9 2. Screen through a medium-fine cloth sieve. N2. 2. Wash in plain water several times until neutral. Add ~3 4 g of sulfur.9 2. and stir.. 650ºC.

++ (3.06 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0. An Introduction to Luminescence of Solids.78 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0. H.33 eV Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 100 Emission 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Reference 1.35 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4. Leverenz. ++ (3.88 eV). ZnS-CdS (25-75) Structure: Wurtzite Optical Properties Emission color: Deep red Emission peak: 1.Optical Properties Emission color: Blue Emission peak: 2.88 eV). ++ (3.38 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0.40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: ++ ZnS-CdS (50-50) Optical Properties Emission color: Orange Emission peak: 2.72 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0.40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: ++ ZnS-CdS (75-25) Optical Properties Emission color: Green Emission peak: 2. New York (1949).35 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4.35 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4.40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: ++ . John Wiley & Sons..88 eV).W.

Br. 1. 1 hour.37 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4. H2O NH4Br Mole % 96 4 0. John Wiley & Sons. Fire in capped quartz tubes. Powderize.13 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0. H2S.88 eV)..686 Preparation Make a slurry of the ZnS + CdS in methanol. H.7 By weight (g) 93. N2. Add the solution to the slurry. 800ºC. Add ~3–4 g of sulfur.6 0.5 5. Leverenz. Fire in open quartz boats.8 1. 45 minutes. 2. stir.Spectra 800 700 600 500 400 Wavelength (nm) 300 ZnS-CdS 40-60 ZnS-CdS 50-50 Emission ZnS-CdS 60-40 ZnS-CdS 70-30 ZnS-CdS 80-20 ZnS-CdS 90-10 ZnS 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 100 50 0 Reference 1.W.40 eV) . New York (1949). An Introduction to Luminescence of Solids. ZnS-CdS:Ag. Mix well.Ni Structure: Hexagonal (wurtzite) Composition Ingredient ZnS CdS Cu(C2H3O2)2. Powderize. ++ (3. 700ºC. Optical Properties Emission color: Orange-yellow Emission peak: 2. Dry. Dissolve the Cu acetate and the NH4Br together in a little water. Screen through a medium-fine cloth sieve.8 0.

690 (1949). 1 hour. and Pearlman. Powderize. F. 1100ºC.40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: 20% Decay to 10%: Non-exponential afterglow in the microsecond range Absorption (%) 100 Emission .. Then add the NH4Cl solution.R. This phosphor is good for thermal imaging. Urbach. Dry. J. Opt.35 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4.88 eV). Wash in water several times (to remove leftover halide). The emission intensity increases sharply super-linearly with increasing excitation intensity and decreases with increasing temperature: The best obtained temperature response is about 20% per degree Centigrade near room temperature.Cl Structure: Hexagonal (wurtzite) Composition Ingredient ZnS + CdS AgNO3 NH4Cl Mole % 100 0. Optical Properties Emission peak: Peak position depending on the ZnS/CdS ratio Emission width (FWHM): ~0. Make a slurry of the ZnS + CdS of the desired ratio in water or methanol. Mix well. Am. stir. Add ~2–3 g of sulfur. 39.Spectra 800 700 600 500 400 Wavelength (nm) 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Remarks 1.5 Preparation Dissolve the AgNO3 and the NH4Cl separately. 2. stir again. Nail. Fire in capped quartz tubes. First add the silver solution. N2. Dry. Soc.. D. N.03 5 By weight (g) 0.050 2. ++ (3. each in a little water. ZnS-CdS:Ag+.. Reference 1. New observations on superlinear luminescence..

Spectra 800 700 600 500 400 Wavelength (nm) 300 Emission CdS ZnS-CdS 25-75 ZnS-CdS 50-50 ZnS-CdS 75-25 ZnS 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 100 50 0 Remarks 1. 700ºC. 3.6 0. Reference 1. pull the hot boat with the phosphor out of the furnace into open air and quench rapidly down to room temperature by blowing cold air against it. An Introduction to Luminescence of Solids.7 By weight (g) 93.W.8 1. Powderize. Powderize. Dissolve the Cu acetate and the NH4Br together in a little water. New York.8 0. 1 hour. . Dry. Dry with methanol in a filter funnel and then in open air. 2. 1949. 1. Add ~3–4 g of sulfur. 45 minutes. Screen through 200 mesh or finer. Chlorine in the above recipe may be replaced by bromine. Screen through a medium-fine cloth sieve. H2S.686 Preparation Make a slurry of the ZnS + CdS in methanol. Wash in plain water several times until neutral. Boil briefly in a solution of about 10 g NaOH (or KOH) + 10 g NaCN (or KCN) in 1 liter water. and stir. add the solution to the slurry. Dry with methanol in a filter funnel and then in open air. Fire in open quartz boats. ZnS-CdS:Cu.. Firing includes rapid quenching. N2. H2O NH4Br Mole % 96 4 0. Fire the same as 2.Br long life Structure: Hexagonal (wurtzite) Composition Ingredient ZnS CdS Cu(C2H3O2)2. 800ºC. 2. John Wiley & Sons. Wash in plain water several times until neutral. After this firing. Fire in capped quartz tubes. The phosphor of ZnS/CdS 72/28 is commercial P-22G.5 5. H. Leverenz. Powderize. Mix well. Boil again in cyanide solution as above.

800ºC. Boil briefly in a solution of about 10 g NaOH (or KOH) + 10 g NaCN (or KCN) in 1 liter of water. Mix well.38 eV . 45 minutes.5 5. H2S. N2. Dry. After this firing. Dry with methanol in a filter funnel and then in open air.8 0. ZnS-CdS:Cu. Wash in plain water several times until neutral. Powderize. 1. and stir. Screen through 200 mesh or finer. Fire in open quartz boats. Add ~3–4 g of sulfur.686 Preparation Make a slurry of the ZnS + CdS in methanol. 1 hour. add the solution to the slurry. pull the hot boat with the phosphor out of the furnace into open air and quench rapidly down to room temperature by blowing cold air against it. Wash in plain water.7 By weight (g) 93.35 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0. 2. Screen through a medium-fine cloth sieve. Powderize.600 0. H2O NH4Br Mole % 96 4 0.3 0. Powderize.35 eV Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 100 Emission 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Remark The zero-hour brightness of this phosphor is ~½ of that of the one on the previous page. Optical Properties Emission color: Green Emission peak: 2.Optical Properties Emission color: Green Emission peak: 2. Dissolve the Cu acetate and the NH4Br together in a little water.35 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0. Wash in about 2 liters of 10% H2O2 solution at room temperature for about 2 hours while stirring. 650ºC. Fire in capped quartz tubes.Br high brightness Structure: Hexagonal (wurtzite) Composition Ingredient ZnS CdS Cu(C2H3O2)2.

92 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0. U.. Opt.88 eV). Spectrosc.. its half-life under steady 5 kHz excitation is much shorter than that of the phosphor on the next page. 3 165 476 (1965).F. 67 (1967). ++ (3. Effect of tellurium on luminescence properties of zinc sulfide luminors. R. Pat.-USSR... 2.S.Spectra 800 700 600 500 400 Wavelength (nm) 300 100 Emission 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Remarks 1. Smirnova.40 eV) Reference 1. A. . ZnS-ZnTe:Mn2+ 98-2 Structure: Hexagonal (wurtzite) Optical Properties Emission color: Red Emission peak: 1. G. This phosphor has been developed for high zero-hour brightness. The H2O2 wash is an idea by Wachtel.I. 23.24 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4. and Pron.

176 1 Preparation First mix only the MgO and Eu2O3.Cl SrS:Ce3+ SrS:Cu+. 2. 1 hour. Fire in open quartz boats. 1200ºC. Fire in capped quartz tubes. 1 hour. Powderize.F CaS:Tb3+ CaS:Tb3+.Na CaS:Sm3+ CaS:Sn2+ CaS:Sn2+.Cl CaS:Sb3+ CaS:Sb3+.Na SrS:Eu2+ SrS:Mn2+ BaS:Au. Keep dry.Na+ CaS:Eu2+ CaS:Mn2+ CaS:La3+ CaS:Pb2+.Pb2+. Powderize.4. Store in a well-closed container. 800ºC.040 0. mix by dry grinding.Mn2+ CaS:Pr3+. N2 loaded with CS2.Na CaS:Ce3+ CaS:Cu+. N2. . Admit above amount of NH4Cl and also 2–3 g of sulfur.Cl CaS:Pb2+ CaS:Pb2+.K MgS:Eu2+ Structure: Cubic (NaCl) Composition Ingredient MgO Eu2O3 NH4Cl Mole % 100 0.1 (of Eu) 2 By weight (g) 0.Cl CaS:Y3+ CaS:Yb2+ CaS:Yb2+. 1.14 CaS-Type Sulfides The following host compounds and activators are included in this subsection: MgS:Eu2+ CaS:Bi3+ CaS:Bi3+.

H.88 eV).11 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0. H. Megumi... and Yamamoto. Electrochem.. Ca1-xMgxS-Ce.27eV Emission width (FWHM):0.15 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4. Soc. Cathodoluminescence of Ca1-xMgxS-Eu. J.40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: + Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Absorption (%) 100 Emission . 131 (1953).88 eV). + (3..Optical Properties Emission color: Orange-yellow Emission peak: 2.40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: +/8% Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 100 Emission 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Reference 1. K.21 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4. CaS:Bi3+ Structure: Cubic (NaCl) Optical Properties Emission color: Near UV Emission peak: 3. – (3. Kasano.

Activators and co-activators in calcium sulfide phosphors. Electron traps and infrared stimulation of phosphors. Soc. mix by dry grinding. long afterglow tail extending into seconds .Na Structure: Cubic (NaCl) Composition Ingredient CaCO3 Bi2O3 NaHCO3 Mole % 100 0. 87 (1972).M.03 (of Bi) 0. 144 (1976). 1 hour.. Fire in capped quartz tubes. 1100ºC. stagnant air. Powderize.5 By weight (g) 100 0. Convert it to CaS by one of the following methods: 1. J.. 1200ºC.. 96.E.. 3. Status Solidi B. S. Lumin... and also ~ 2–3 g of sulfur. J. and Asano. 119. Store in a well-closed container. A.18 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: + (4. 90 (1949). W. Jpn.F. Powderize.70 0.J. Soc. Fast cathodoluminescent calcium sulfide phosphors. + (3. Fire in open quartz boats. CaS:Bi3+. Phys. 40. N. 1 hour. Luminescence-centers of Ca(S.. and Mason.. J. Add the above amounts of Bi and Na. 5.. 2. D. and Ryan. Soc. 4. 91 (1977). Optical Properties Emission color: Blue Emission peak: 2. Garlick. W.88 eV). H2S. 2.. G.Se):Bi3+ and CaO:Bi3+ phosphors. Phys. 5. 1 hour.References 1.77 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0. Yamashita..40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: 4–5% Decay: Non-exponential decay in the microsecond range. Lehmann. 3. F. Luminescence of Pb2+ and Bi3+ centers in alkali-earth sulfides and oxides. Electrochem.. 1200ºC. J. 82.F.420 Preparation Start from purest CaCO3. Lehmann. N2. 275 (1972). Electrochem. Fire in capped quartz tubes. Ellervee.

2. and Asano. Jpn. Phys. Powderize. Luminescence-centers of Ca(S+Se):Bi3+ and CaO:Bi3+ phosphors. G. S. References 1. J. Activators and co-activators in calcium sulfide phosphors. 4.. J. 90 (1949). Soc. Na in above recipe can be replaced by Li but Na seems to have a slight edge over it. Contamination by Mn as low as 1 ppm will cause appearance of the yellow Mn2+ emission..F. Add about 2–3 g of sulfur. Soc.. 5. 275 (1972). Ellervee. 2. Garlick. Electrochem. Soc. 87 (1972). Lehmann. Fire in open quartz boats.05 By weight (g) 100 0. Preparation required purest starting materials. Electron traps and infrared stimulation of phosphors. and Ryan. and Mason. Fire in capped quartz tubes. Lumin. D.E.Spectra 800 700 600 500 400 Wavelength (nm) 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Remarks 1. Store in a well-closed container. 3.. W. 82. 1. 119. A. Luminescence of Pb2+ and Bi3+ centers in alkali-earth sulfides and oxides. Powderize. F. N2. 144 (1976). Absorption (%) 100 Emission . W. Electrochem. Admit about 1–2 g of NH4Cl by dry grinding or milling... 2. 96. J.M. CaS:Ce3+ Structure: Cubic (NaCl) Composition Ingredient CaCO3 CeO2 Mole % 100 0. Phys.086 Preparation Mix well... first 1 hour in N2 and then 1 hour in H2S.. Luminescent-grade CaCO3 is not pure enough. Yamashita.. 5.J.. J. Fast cathodoluminescent calcium sulfide phosphors. 1200ºC.. Status Solidi B.F. 40. 1100ºC. 91 (1977). Lehmann. N. 1 hour.

W. 477 (1971). – (3. 130. Phosphor has a slightly greenish body color due to the combined action of the blue absorption band and the green emission. J.M. 118. This phosphor is efficiently luminescent up to ~300ºC. Soc. Soc.38 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4. Phosphor can be sensitized for efficient excitation by 3. and Ryan. Soc. Br. Optimum efficiency of cathodoluminescence of inorganic phosphors. 4. Electrochem.40 eV by addition of Pb (see CaS:Pb2+). 1164 (1971). 4. Electrochem. Okamoto. 3. 6. 5. 3. 2. W. F.. 432 (1983).. Preparation and cathodoluminescence of CaS-Ce and Ca1-xSrxS-Ce phosphors. The distance between the two emission bands (in eV) cannot be changed but the exact positions of the bands depend slightly on the used Ce concentration.. This phosphor or modifications of it have found applications in CR tubes and for correction in arc lamps.M. and Ryan. J. F. References 1. 118. Fast cathodoluminescent calcium sulfide phosphors. or I. Lehmann.13 eV. J.40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: ++/20% Decay to 10%: Non-exponential decay in the microsecond range. Decay time after excitation by an e-beam pulse can be reduced to ~200 nsec (1/10 of original) by addition of Co.. 2. 2. Lehmann.. 119. Lehmann. Cl in the above recipe can be replaced by F.. Cathodoluminescence of CaS-Ce3+ and CaS-Eu2+ phosphors J. Electrochem... W. Electrochem. F. phosphor showing no color change and little saturation up to the highest current densities Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Remarks 1.. 7..88 eV). and Kato.. Absorption (%) 100 Emission . 275 (1972).Optical Properties Emission color: Green Emission peak: 2. Soc. K.

5 By weight (g) 100 0. Lehmann. Electrochem. The peak positions of the two emission bands depend on the alkali used (if any). Store in a well-closed container.CaS:Cu+. 2.83 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4. add solution to the CaCO3. J. Make a uniform slurry in water or methanol. 1 hour. H2S.Eu electroluminescent phosphors. Add 800 mg of NaHCO3 plus ~ 2–3 g of sulfur.. Dry. W. and gold. 1 hour. Fire in open quartz boats.55 eV.. 100 sec to 1/10. Absorption (%) 100 Emission .88 eV). Powderize.25 Preparation Dissolve the copper acetate in a little water. 1. 1100ºC. 3. 117. Halides are not co-activators in CaS:Cu (in contrast to ZnS:Cu). Powderize. 107. silver. References 1. Na in the above recipe can be omitted or be replaced by Li or K. A. 2.Na+ Structure: Cubic (NaCl) Composition Ingredient CaCO3 Cu(C2H3O2)2·H2O NaHCO3 Mole % 100 0. phosphor showing much less saturation at the high beam current than P-11 Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Remarks 1.. H2. Soc. 1389 (1970).15 1. Electrochem. 199 (1960). CaS-Cu. Wachtel. Fire in covered alumina crucibles. Alkaline earth sulfide phosphors activated by copper. 1000ºC. Soc.300 1.. J. Powderize. The relative heights of the two emission bands depend on the preparation conditions. 2. ++ (3.40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: ++/16% Decay: Non-exponential decay. 2. Optical Properties Emission color: Light blue Emission peak: 2. Mix by dry grinding.

Decay: Non-exponential decay in the microsecond range Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Remarks 1. Store in a well-closed container. 4. 2. Fire in capped quartz tubes. first 1 hour in N2 and then 1 hour in H2S.088 ~1 Preparation Mix the CaCO3 and the Eu2O3.20 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4.40 eV by addition of Sn (see CaS:Sn. H2. Add the above amount of NH4Cl.F) or by pB (see CaS:Pb). Optical Properties Emission color: Red Emission peak: 1.91 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0. or I. This phosphor has a very characteristic pink body color due to the combined actions of the broad blue to yellow absorption band and the red fluorescence. see CaS:Ce3+. Decay time after excitation by an e-beam pulse can be reduced to ~300 nsec by addition of Co. 2. – (3. Phosphor can be sensitized for excitation by 3. Absorption (%) 100 Emission . Cl in the above recipe can be replaced by F. 1200ºC. Mix by dry grinding. Br. Powderize. 1.88 eV). also ~ 2–3 g of sulfur. 1 hour. Fire in open quartz boats. Powderize. Cl). 3. 1100ºC.05 (of Eu) ~2 By weight (g) 100 0.40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: ++/10% (can be improved to ~16% by the addition of Ce.CaS:Eu2+ Structure: Cubic (NaCl) Composition Ingredient CaCO3 Eu2O3 NH4Cl Mole % 100 0.

References 1. Lehmann. F. Soc.40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: ++/16% Decay: Near-exponential decay with ~8 msec to 1/10 . W. Store in a well-closed container. J. and Ryan.M. 477 (1971). 1200ºC. Add the above amount of NH4Cl. and Uber eu-ionen in erdalkalioxyden und erdalkali-sulfiden. Partial or complete replacement of the Ca by Sr causes the emission to sift to higher energy (= shorter wavelength). W. Z. N2. 1100ºC.. – (3.115 ~1 Preparation Mix the CaCO3 and the MnCO3. A. Electrochem. 8. Oxidation states of europium in the alkaline earth oxide and sulfide phosphors. 2. Powderize. 1100ºC. Optimum efficiency of cathodoluminescence of inorganic phosphors. H2S. Fire in open quartz boats. 118. 518 (1955). Fire in capped quartz tubes. J. J.. Electrochem.. 233 (1957). 275 (1972). 1 hour. Cathodoluminescence of CaS-Ce3+ and CaS-Eu2+ phosphors J. Pt. This phosphor is efficiently luminescent up to ~300ºC. The emission peak position depends slightly upon the used Eu concentration.M. Electrochem. Z. Electrochem. and Banks.M. and Ryan. 6. This phosphor or modifications of it have found applications in CR tubes and for correction in arc lamps. Soc. A.. 1164 (1971). 12. Wachtel. Fire in open quartz boats. J. H2S... 3. Powderize.. 1 hour. W. 107. 6.. F.. Soc. Optical Properties Emission color: Yellow Emission peak: 2. E. Lehmann. Naturforsch. 118. 1 hour. 6. 1. 7. 199 (1960). Soc. 102.1 ~2 By weight (g) 100 0.. 119.88 eV).. 2. CaS-Cu. Brauer. Jaffe. Naturforsch Pt A. 4.. Lehmann.Eu electroluminescent phosphors.24 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4. Fast cathodoluminescent calcium sulfide phosphors.11 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0. Mix by dry grinding. P. 3.. Soc. and ~ 2–3 g of sulfur. 561 (1951). Electrochem. CaS:Mn2+ Structure: Cubic (NaCl) Composition Ingredient CaCO3 MnCO3 NH4Cl Mole % 100 0. P. 5. Powderize.5.

88 eV). The emission peak position depends slightly on the Mn concentration used. Paper 111.V. and Mikhaylin. or I. 4. Intern Conf. – (3. Soc. J.. 3. Levshin. It serves only as a flux and can be replaced by F.42 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4..L. Lehmann.. 87 (1972). Br.. 518 (1957). Sensitization by bismuth of the luminescence of manganese and samarium in calcium sulfide phosphors. Lumin..40 eV) Absorption (%) 100 Emission . J.. Jpn. Lehmann.. 118. 4. V. K. W. 2. 2. Chem. 3. S. Optimum efficiency of cathodoluminescence of inorganic phosphors. The Mn concentration is not critical.. Electrochem. The Cl in the above recipe is not a co-activator. CaS:La3+ Structure: Cubic (NaCl) Optical Properties Emission color: Blue-greenish Emission peak: 2. V. Partial (up to 10%) replacement of the Ca by Mg shifts the emission from yellow to orange-red. the Mn2+ emission is fairly strong between about 1 ppm and 5% of Mn/Ca.55 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0. W.Spectra 800 700 600 500 400 Wavelength (nm) 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Remarks 1. Budapest (1966).. and Era. Shionoya. 1164 (1971). B. References 1. Lumin. Soc. 5.. Activators and co-activators in calcium sulfide phosphors. 30. Partial or complete replacement of Ca by Sr shifts it towards green (see SrS:Mn2+).

40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: 15–17% Decay: Non-exponential decay in the microsecond range. Powderize. Lumin. Activators and co-activators in calcium sulfide phosphors. Powderize. 1200ºC. 1 hour.. 87 (1972).Cl Structure: Cubic (NaCl) Composition Ingredient CaCO3 PbO NH4Cl Mole % 100 0. Lehmann.39 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0. and ~ 2–3 g of sulfur. N2. Add the above amount of PbO. CaS:Pb2+. Convert to CaS by one of the following methods 1. Fire in capped quartz tubes. W. 1100ºC.Spectra 800 700 600 500 400 Wavelength (nm) 300 100 Emission 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Reference 1. Powderize.. Optical Properties Emission color: Near-UV Emission peak: 3.045 1. 2.5 Preparation Start from purest CaCO3. 1200ºC. Mix by dry grinding. decay to be shortened to about 250 nsec (to 1/10) by addition of a trace of cobalt . another 2 g of NH4Cl. Add ~1g of NH4Cl. and ~ 2–3 g of sulfur. Fire in open quartz boats. Mix by dry grinding. Fire in capped quartz tubes.88 eV).02 3 By weight (g) 100 0. + (3. 1 hour. Store in a well-closed container. J. N2.22 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4. H2S. 5. 3.

Soc. 82.. 1164 (1971). Electrochem. F. 119. 5.. 87 (1972). Fast cathodoluminescent calcium sulfide phosphors. Luminescence of Pb2+ and Bi3+ centers in alkali-earth sulfides and oxides. Normal luminescent-grade CaCO3 is not pure enough. Lumin. Phys. 118.Spectra 800 700 600 500 400 Wavelength (nm) 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Remarks 1. J. and Activators and co-activators in calcium sulfide phosphors. Ellervee. References 1. Optimum efficiency of cathodoluminescence of inorganic phosphors.88 eV). Status Solidi B. CaS:Pb2+ Structure: Cubic (NaCl) Optical Properties Emission color: UV Emission peak: 3. J.F. 275 (1972)..40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: ++ Absorption (%) 100 Emission . 3. W. Contamination by Mn as low as 1 ppm will cause appearance of the yellow Mn2+ emission. This phosphor has limited application as UV emitter in CR tubes. The NH4Cl in the above recipe can be replaced by NH4Br.M. 2. Soc. Preparation requires purest starting materials.. 3. and Ryan. A. Lehmann. + (3. Electrochem... 91 (1977). Lehmann.39 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0. J..22 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4. W. Fluoride is much less effective. 2.

Fire in capped quartz tubes.575 0. Mix by dry grinding. and Ryan..Mn2+ Structure: Cubic (NaCl) Composition Ingredient CaCO3 MnCO3 PbO NH4Cl Mole % 100 0. 119. Status Solidi B. 1100ºC. 2. J.28 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4. W. 118.M. Lumin. Lehmann. A. 1200ºC. Electrochem. 4. 275 (1972)..88 eV).5 0. Fast cathodoluminescent calcium sulfide phosphors. Phys. W. W. Powderize. Lehmann.. Optical Properties Emission color: Red-orange (not the yellow of CaS:Mn2+ without Pb) Emission peak: 2. J. CaS:Pb2+. Electrochem. 1 hour..40 eV) Absorption (%) 100 Emission .3 2 By weight (g) 100 0. Lehmann. 5. 3. Luminescence of Pb2+ and Bi3+ centers in alkali-earth sulfides and oxides. Soc.. + (3. (1977). Add the above amounts of PbO and NH4Cl. 87 (1972). J. F. 82. N2. 1 hour. 91. Optimum efficiency of cathodoluminescence of inorganic phosphors.Spectra 800 700 600 500 400 Wavelength (nm) 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 References 1. Store in a well-closed container. Activators and co-activators in calcium sulfide phosphors.F.. Ellervee. 1164 (1971). 2. Fire in open quartz boats.670 ~1 Preparation First mix only the CaCO3 and MnCO3. Powderize. 1. and also ~ 2–3 g of sulfur. Soc. H2S..04 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0..

1100ºC. Fire in open quartz boats. 2. 1. 1 hour. CaS:Pr3+. respectively.05 eV in the IR Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4. 1 hour. H2S. Optical Properties Emission color: Pale greenish-pink Emission peak: 1. Add the above amount of NH4Cl and also ~ 2–3 g of sulfur.Pb2+. Fire in capped quartz tubes.1 0. 1100ºC. Fire in capped quartz tubes.045 ~1 Preparation First mix only the CaCO3 and MnCO3.85 eV.Cl Structure: Cubic (NaCl) Composition Ingredient CaCO3 Pr2O3 PbO NH4Cl Mole % 100 0. Powderize. about 0. Add the above amount of PbO and also ~ 2–3 g of sulfur. 1 hour.165 0. Mix by dry grinding. 2. Store in a well-closed container.88 eV).5 msec to 1/10 Absorption (%) 100 Emission .50 eV. H2. also present (not shown in figure below) a strong line at 1. mainly two line groups in the blue-green and in the red.40 eV) Decay: Exponential decay.02 ~2 By weight (g) 100 0.Spectra 800 700 600 500 400 Wavelength (nm) 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Remark The Mn2+ emission shifts to lower energy (+ longer wave lengths) with increasing Pb concentration. 1200ºC. N2. Mix by dry grinding. 3. ++ (3. Powderize.

Lehmann. Absorption (%) 100 Emission Absorption (%) 100 Emission .. 5. J. Reference 1.Spectra 800 700 600 500 400 Wavelength (nm) 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Remark The intensity ratio of the two visible line groups is very sensitive to the details of the preparation and excitation.27 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0.. W.88 eV). W. Activators and co-activators in calcium sulfide phosphors. J. CaS:Sb3+ Structure: Cubic (NaCl) Optical Properties Emission color: Yellow-green Emission peak: 2. Lumin. 87 (1972). – (3. Lumin.40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: ++ Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 References 1. 5. Lehmann. 87 (1972)...44 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4. Activators and co-activators in calcium sulfide phosphors.

2. 1300ºC.840 Preparation 1. 1. Mix by dry grinding. Optical Properties Emission color: Yellow-green Emission peak: 2. Jpn..27 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0. Powderize. Soc.1 (of Sb) 1 By weight (g) 100 0.44 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4. Lehmann. 1100ºC. Luminescence centers of Ca(S-Se) phosphors activated with impurity ions having s-2 configuration. 3.Na Structure: Cubic (NaCl) Composition Ingredient CaCO3 Sb2O3 NaHCO3 Mole % 100 0. Fire (purest CaCO3 only) in open quartz boats. N. 35. J. and also ~ 2–3 g of sulfur. H2S.40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: 18% Decay: Exponential decay (~1. Phys. – (3. Optimum efficiency of cathodoluminescence of inorganic phosphors.. Powderize. W. Store in a well-closed container. CaS:Sb3+. 118. J. 1 hour. Fire in covered alumina crucibles. Electrochem. 1089 (1973). 2. Yamashita. 1164 (1971). Ca(S-Se)-Sb3+ phosphors..88 eV). Add the above amount of Sb2O3 + NaHCO3. Soc.5 sec to 1/10) followed by a long but weak phosphorescence tail Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Absorption (%) 100 Emission .145 0. 1 hour. N2..

Lehmann. 1. 2.34 and 1.0175 ~1 Preparation First mix only the CaCO3 and Sm2O3. Ca(S-Se)-Sb3+ phosphors.01 (of Sm) ~2 By weight (g) 100 0. Lumin. J. Optical Properties Emission color: Orange-yellow Emission peak: Strongest lines at 2. also present (not shown in figure below) two strong lines at 1. H2S. 1089 (1973).References 1.07. W.88 eV).38 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4. – (3. 1 hour... 1. Powderize. N2. Phys. ~10 msec to 1/10 Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Absorption (%) 100 Emission . Yamashita. 1200ºC. 3. and 2. Powderize. Optimum efficiency of cathodoluminescence of inorganic phosphors. 2. 118. 1 hour. Electrochem. Activators and co-activators in calcium sulfide phosphors. Mix by dry grinding. Fire in open quartz boats. Add the above amount of Na4Cl and also ~ 2–3 g of sulfur. 2. Luminescence centers of Ca (S-Se) phosphors activated with impurity ions having s-2 configuration. first in N2.23 eV. 35. Fire in capped quartz tubes. 1100ºC. J. Fire in open quartz boats.. Jpn.. Lehmann. J.40 eV) Decay: Exponential decay... Powderize. ~ 1 hour and then in H2S for 1 hour. 87 (1972). 3.04. 1100ºC. Soc. 5. 2.20. 1164 (1971). N. Soc. W. CaS:Sm3+ Structure: Cubic (NaCl) Composition Ingredient CaCO3 Sm2O3 Na4Cl Mole % 100 0. Store in a well-closed container.

5.5 By weight (g) 100 0.. Phys. W. Jpn.. and Asano.30 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0. 9. L65 (1976). S. ESR of 2s ½-state centers in CaS:Sn3+..F Structure: Cubic (NaCl) Composition Ingredient CaCO3 SnS CaF2 Mole % 100 0. Activators and co-activators in calcium sulfide phosphors...390 Absorption (%) 100 Emission . S. 536 (1976). 87 (1972)..88 eV). N. J. Lehmann. 5.1 0.135 0. CaS:Sn2+ Structure: Cubic (NaCl) Optical Properties Emission color: Yellow-greenish Emission peak: 2. Lumin. W.. and Asano. C Solid State. 87 (1972). Yamashita. N. Activators and co-activators in calcium sulfide phosphors. Yamashita. J.40 eV UV by addition of Sn (see CaS:Sn2+). 3. Lehmann. ++ (3.50 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4. J. Phys. Lumin. 2. Reference 1..40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: + Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 References 1. J. Soc. Luminescence-centers of Ca(S:Se):Sn2+ phosphors.Remark Phosphor can be sensitized for excitation by 3.. CaSe:Sn3+ and CaSe:Pb3+. 41. CaS:Sn2+.

Fire in plain CaCO3 in open quartz boats. Add the above amount of SnS and CaF2 and about 2–3 g of sulfur.88 eV). and Asano..40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: ~4% Decay: Non-exponential decay of about 1 msec to 1/10 Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 References 1. Jpn. 1100ºC.88 eV). CaS:Tb3+ Structure: Cubic (NaCl) Optical Properties Emission color: Green Emission peak: 2. Yamashita. N. – (3. Luminescence-centers of Ca(S. S. C Solid State. J. and Asano.. 3. 2. Phys. 1 hour.. CaSe:Sn3+ and CaSe:Pb3+.. Activators and co-activators in calcium sulfide phosphors. J. ++ (3. 9. 87 (1972).30 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0. N2. J.40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: + Absorption (%) 100 Emission . Esr of 2s ½-state centers in CaS:Sn3+. Powderize. Phys. W.50 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4. 41.Se):Sn2+ phosphors. 2.. 1 hour. 1200ºC. H2S. Optical Properties Emission color: Pale yellow-green Emission peak: 2.26–2. Soc. Lumin. 536 (1976). Store in a well-closed container. 5.. L65 (1976). S.Preparation 1. Powderize.. N. Lehmann. Mix by dry grinding.29 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4. Yamashita. Fire in capped quartz tubes.

N2. Fire in capped quartz tubes. Add the above amount of NH4Cl.187 ~1 Preparation Mix the CaCO3 and the Tb4O7. Lumin.40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: Relatively poor Decay: Exponential decay. 87 (1972). J. Mix by dry grinding.29 eV.Spectra 800 700 600 500 400 Wavelength (nm) 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Reference 1. Powderize. Optical Properties Emission color: Pale green Emission peak: Strongest lines a doublet at 2. Activators and co-activators in calcium sulfide phosphors.Cl Structure: Cubic (NaCl) Composition Ingredient CaCO3 Tb4O7 NH4Cl Mole % 100 0. 5. 2. Fire in plain CaCO3 in open quartz boats. Powderize. ~ 3. 1 hour. also ~ 2–3 g of sulfur.. 1200ºC. – (3. H2S.. N2.1 (of Tb) ~2 By weight (g) 100 0. 1 hour. Powderize. 3. 1200ºC. Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4. CaS:Tb3+. W. Lehmann.26 and 2. Fire in capped quartz tubes. 1. Store in a well-closed container. 1 hour. 1100ºC.88 eV).6 msec to 1/10 Absorption (%) 100 Emission .

Spectra 800 700 600 500 400 Wavelength (nm) 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Reference 1. Activators and co-activators in calcium sulfide phosphors.40 eV) Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 100 Emission 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Reference 1.88 eV). J. Absorption (%) 100 Emission .. W.. Activators and co-activators in calcium sulfide phosphors.78 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4. 87 (1972).80 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0. W. J. 5. CaS:Y3+ Structure: Cubic (NaCl) Optical Properties Emission color: Bluish Emission peak: 2. Lehmann. Lumin. – (3... 87 (1972). Lumin. 5. Lehmann.

87 (1972). 1 hour.66 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0. Add the above amount of NH4Cl and also ~ 2–3 g of sulfur. ++ (3..30 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4. W.Cl Structure: Cubic (NaCl) Composition Ingredient CaCO3 Yb2O3 NH4Cl Mole % 100 0.88 eV). Powderize. H2S. Absorption (%) 100 Emission .CaS:Yb2+ Structure: Cubic (NaCl) Optical Properties Emission color: IR Emission peak: 1. 3.. 1200ºC. J. N2. 1200ºC. Store in a well-closed container. 2. 5. 1 hour. CaS:Yb2+. Fire in capped quartz tubes. 1.197 ~1 Preparation Mix the CaCO3 and the Tb4O7. Powderize. Mix by dry grinding. Lumin.40 eV) Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Reference 1. Lehmann.1 (of Yb) ~2 By weight (g) 100 0. N2. Fire in capped quartz tubes. 1100ºC. Fire in plain CaCO3 in open quartz boats. Activators and co-activators in calcium sulfide phosphors. Powderize. 1 hour.

Absorption (%) 100 Emission . 130.3 eV. 5.Optical Properties Emission color: Very deep red Emission peak: 1. Lehmann.20 eV.88 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: + Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 100 Emission 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Reference 1. K.. F. W.30 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4.47 eV – or 2.. Preparation and cathodoluminescence of CaS-Ce and Ca1-xSrxS-Ce phosphors. ++ (3. 87 (1972). Activators and co-activators in calcium sulfide phosphors. 2. J. 432 (1983). J. and Kato. Electrochem...66 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0. SrS:Ce3+ Structure: Cubic (NaCl) Optical Properties Emission color: Blue-green Emission peak: 2. Soc.. Lumin. 2.40 eV) Decay: Non-exponential decay in the 20–50 sec range Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Reference 1.56 eV in cathodoluminescence Excitation efficiency by UV: + (4. Okamoto.88 eV).

1200ºC. Make a uniform slurry in water or methanol. silver. Lehmann. 2. Absorption (%) 100 Emission . 1 hour.1 2 By weight (g) 148 0. Electrochem. W.Na Structure Cubic (NaCl) Composition Ingredient SrCO3 CuSO4·5 H2O NaHCO3 Mole % 100 0. Alkaline earth sulfide phosphors activated by copper.. H2S.68 Preparation Dissolve the copper sulfate and the NaHCO3 together in a little water. Store in a well-closed container. Fire in open alumina boats. add this solution to the SrCO3. powderize. Na in the above recipe cannot be replaced by other alkalies. Reference 1. Dry.SrS:Cu+.250 1.40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: ++/ Very efficient Decay: Non-exponential decay in the 10 sec range followed by long phosphorescence Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Remarks 1. 117. Optical Properties Emission color: Green Emission peak: 2. This phosphor shows exceptionally long and strong phosphorescence after excitation by UV.. Soc. J.31 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4. 1389 (1970). Powderize.33 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0. and gold.88 eV). ++ (3.

or I.88 eV).03 mol% of Pb. 1100ºC. + (3. Br. Fire in capped quartz tubes.40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: + Decay: Decay in the microsecond range Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Remarks 1. 3. 2. The Cl in the above recipe may be replaced by F. 2. also ~ 2–3 g of sulfur.26 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4. 1 hour. Add the above amount of NH4Cl. Powderize. 1100ºC. N2. H2S. 1 hour. Fire in open quartz boats. This phosphor can be sensitized for efficient 3. Powderize.176 1 Preparation First mix only the SrCO3 + Eu2O3.SrS:Eu2+ Structure: Cubic (NaCl) Composition Ingredient SrCO3 Eu2O3 NH4Cl Mole % 100 0. Store in a well-closed container.40 eV excitation by addition of ~0. Absorption (%) 100 Emission . Optical Properties Emission color: Orange-red Emission peak: 2. 1. Mix by dry grinding. The characteristic orange body color of this phosphor is caused by the blue to green absorption band and by the orange-red emission excited by ambient light.00 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0.1 (of Eu) 2 By weight (g) 148 0.

Mix by dry grinding. Add the above amount of NH4Cl and also ~ 2–3 g of sulfur. Thesis. 1. Technical University of Berlin (1959).245 eV.03 mol% of Pb. Sorge. Fire in open quartz boats.28 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0. Powderize. Optical Properties Emission color: Yellow-green Emission peak: 2. Fire in open quartz boats.40 eV excitation by addition of ~0.88 eV). 1100ºC. 1 hour.40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: +/Fairly efficient Decay: Exponential decay requiring ~4 msec to 1/10 Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Remark Phosphor can be sensitized for efficient 3. 2. 1000ºC. H2S. + (3.. Powderize. 1100ºC. H2S. 1 hour. Absorption (%) 100 Emission .115 0. 3.540 Preparation First mix only the SrCO3 + MnCO3. Store in a well-closed container. 1 hour. Fire in capped quartz tubes. N2. O. Powderize.1 1 By weight (g) 148 0.23 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4. Reference 1. This also shifts the emission band peak to ~2.SrS:Mn2+ Structure: Cubic (NaCl) Composition Ingredient SrCO3 MnCO3 NH4Cl Mole % 100 0.

700ºC. Powderize. 1. Fire in open alumina boats. or P gives slightly different emission spectra. H2. Add both solutions. 900ºC. Electrochem. Replacement of K by Na gives near-dead material. .K Structure: Cubic (NaCl) Composition Ingredient BaSO4 Au-metal K2CO3 Mole % 100 0. Do not.. Store in a well-closed container. dry and powderize. Powderize. Reference 1. Soc.1 1 (of K) By weight (g) 233 0. and gold. Optical Properties Emission color: Orange-red Emission peak: 1.40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: + Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 100 Emission 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Remarks 1. Rb. J. Replacement of K in the above recipe by Li.38 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: + (4. 2. F.88 eV). 1 hour. 117. Make a slurry of the BaSO4 in water or methanol. silver. This material is very hygroscopic. 1 hour.197 0. let it come into contact with water.BaS:Au. H2S.690 Preparation Dissolve the Au in a little (as little as possible) aqua regia and the K2CO3 in a little water. W.93 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0. Cs. Lehmann. 1389 (1970). 2. + (3. Fire in open alumina boats. Alkaline earth sulfide phosphors activated by copper. under any circumstances. stir to uniformity..

2. 800ºC. Powderize. Optical Properties Emission color: Bluish Emission peaks: Two overlapping bands ~2. 3. Fire in covered alumina crucibles. 1 hour. 1 hour.88 eV). N2. H2S. Fire in open quartz boats.4. Powderize.42 and 2. Add the above amount of NaHCO3 and also ~2–3 g of sulfur.40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: 4. Mix by dry grinding. 800ºC.7 0. Fire in open quartz boats.15 Double Sulfides The following host compounds and activators are included in this subsection: CaGa2S4:Ce3+ CaGa2S4:Eu2+ CaGa2S4:Mn2+ CaGa2S4:Pb2+ ZnGa2S4:Mn2+ ZnBa2S3:Mn2+ CaGa2S4:Ce3+ Structure: Orthorhombic Composition Ingredient CaCO3 Ga2O3 CeO2 NaHCO3 Mole % 98 200 (of Ga) 1 1 By weight (g) 98 187 1.68 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4. + (3. Store in a well-closed container. 1 hour.840 Preparation First mix only CaCO3 + Ga2O3 + CeO2. Powderize. 1. 800ºC. N2.5% .

24 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4. 119.76 Preparation Mix by slurrying in water. and powderize.88 eV). and Baglio. Soc. T. 1 hour. Luminescence and structural properties of thiogallate phosphors Ce+3 and Eu+2-activated phosphors... Electrochem.Spectra 800 700 600 500 400 Wavelength (nm) 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Remark This phosphor is slightly unstable in water.. 800ºC. 2. CaGa2S4:Eu2+ Structure: Orthorhombic Composition Ingredient CaCO3 Ga2O3 Eu2O3 Mole % 99 200 (of Ga) 1 (of Eu) By weight (g) 99 187 1. 800ºC. Store in a well-closed container. dry. 230 (1972). 1 hour. Powderize. H2S.A. + (3. N2 bubbling through CS2. 1. Fire in open quartz boats. Optical Properties Emission color: Yellow-green Emission peak: 2.40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: 7% Absorption (%) 100 Emission .E. Fire in open quartz boats. Reference 1. Peters. J. J.22 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0. Powderize.

Powderize. Donohue.. Synthesis and photoluminescence of MIIM2III(S. 119. + (3.A.E. Powderize. and Hanlon. 900ºC.. 2 hours. J. P. H2S. References 1. Optical Properties Emission color: Deep red Emission peak: 1. CaGa2S4:Mn2+ Structure: Orthorhombic Composition Ingredient CaCO3 Ga2O3 MnCO3 Mole % 98 200 (of Ga) 2 By weight (g) 98 187 2.Se)4.. 2. 1 hour. N2 loaded with CS2.. Luminescence and structural properties of thiogallate phosphors Ce+3 and Eu+2-activated phosphors.3 Preparation Mix by slurrying in water. 121.C. Electrochem. Powderize when dry.40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: + Absorption (%) 100 Emission . J. Store in a well-closed container. Fire in open quartz boats. Soc. 137 (1974). Electrochem. Fire in open quartz boats. Soc. J.74 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4. 800ºC. Peters. 2. T..88 eV). J. 1. Dry in air.. and Baglio.Spectra 800 700 600 500 400 Wavelength (nm) 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Remark This phosphor is slightly unstable in water. 230 (1972).E.

1. 800ºC. 2. ++ (3.03 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4.2 Preparation First mix only CaCO3 + Ga2O3. 1 hour. 1 hour. Powderize. CaGa2S4:Pb2+ Composition Ingredient CaCO3 Ga2O3 PbO Mole % 99 200 (of Ga) 1 By weight (g) 99 187 2. N2. N2 bubbling through CS2. 800ºC.88 eV). 800ºC.40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: 3. Optical Properties Emission color: Pale whitish-yellow Emission peak: 2. 1 hour.Spectra 800 700 600 500 400 Wavelength (nm) 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Remark This phosphor is slightly unstable in water.5% Absorption (%) 100 Emission . H2S. Fire in open quartz boats. 3. Fire in open quartz boats. Powderize. Fire in capped quartz tubes. Mix by dry grinding. Add the above amount of PbO and also ~2–3 g of sulfur. Store in a well-closed container.

++ (3. 1100ºC. N2 bubbling through CS2. H2S. Fire in open quartz boats. 3. 1 hour. and powderize.30 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4. 1 hour.88 eV). Optical Properties Emission color: Red Emission peak: 1.3 Preparation Mix by slurrying in water.92 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0. Fire in open quartz boats.40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: 4% Decay: Exponential decay. Powderize. 800ºC. 1000ºC. Powderize. H2S. dry. Powderize. Fire in open quartz boats. 1 hour. about 18–20 msec to 1/10 Absorption (%) 100 Emission . 1.Spectra 800 700 600 500 400 Wavelength (nm) 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Remark This phosphor is slightly unstable in water. ZnGa2S4:Mn2+ Structure: Tetragonal Composition Ingredient ZnS Ga2O3 MnCO3 Mole % 98 200 (of Ga) 2 By weight (g) 96 187 2. 2.

700ºC. 1 hour. Powderize..24 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (3. Fire in open quartz boats. Powderize. 800ºC.935 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0. H2S. H2.Spectra 800 700 600 500 400 Wavelength (nm) 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Reference 1. G. dry. A. Bird. Abstr. Electrochem. P. Optical Properties Emission color: Red Emission peak: 1. ZnBa2S3:Mn2+ Structure: Orthorhombic Composition Ingredient ZnS BaCO3 MnCO3 Mole % 98 200 2 By weight (g) 96 275 2. Vecht.. 1. 1 hour. 2. and Smith. and powderize.F. Meeting.40 eV) Excitation efficiency be e-beam: + Absorption (%) 100 Emission .3 Preparation Mix by slurrying in water.. Soc. San Francisco. 92 (May 1974). Fire in open quartz boats.J.

10. J. Soc. Electroluminescent displays. et al.. References 1. 789 (1973). A. A. San Francisco. Vecht. Absorption (%) 100 Emission . Vecht. Abstr..Spectra 800 700 600 500 400 Wavelength (nm) 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Remark This phosphor has been used for DC-EL by A. 2. Electrochem.. Technol. Vac. Meeting. Sci. Vecht. 93 (May 1974).

J. 121.Se)4.31 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: + (3. 3.21 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: + (4.61 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0. Electrochem.C. J.E. Soc. J.40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: + . 122. Luminescence properties of thiogallate phosphors.04 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0. Electrochem. and Hanlon.88 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: + Reference 1.. 137 (1974). Soc...51 eV Excitation efficiency by e-beam: + Reference 1. SrGa2S4:Pb2+ Optical Properties Emission color: Orange Emission peak: 2.50 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0. Donohue.. 98 (1975).16 Miscellaneous Sulfides and Oxysulfides The following host compounds and activators are included in this subsection: SrAl2S4:Eu2+ SrGa2S4:Pb2+ BaAl2S4:Eu2+ SrGa2S4:Ce2+ SrGa2S4:Eu2+ BaGa2S4:Ce3+ BaGa2S4:Eu2+ Y2O2S:Eu3+ Y2O2S:Tb3+ Gd2O2S:Tb3+ SrAl2S4:Eu2+ Optical Properties Emission color: Blue-green Emission peak: 2. P. Red and white emitting phosphors for flying spot scanner applications. Synthesis and photoluminescence of MIIM2III(S. BaAl2S4:Eu2+ Optical Properties Emission color: Light blue Emission peak: 2.E.4.. Peters. T.

122. 3. J. Luminescence and structural properties of thiogallate phosphors Ce+3 and Eu+2-activated phosphors. Luminescence properties of thiogallate phosphors.. Donohue.E.E.Reference 1. Peters. 121. and Hanlon.20 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (3.. 230 (1972). J.73 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: + (3.Se)4. 98 (1975). T.A. Soc. P. Electrochem.40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: + . Soc.C. J. J. 137 (1974).E.40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: + Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 100 Excitation (%) Emission 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 References 1.31 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0. SrGa2S4:Eu2+ Optical Properties Emission color: Green Emission peak: 2. Electrochem.. SrGa2S4:Ce3+ Optical Properties Emission color: Blue-green Emission peak: 2. Red and white emitting phosphors for flying spot scanner applications. T... J.. Soc. Peters. and Baglio.53 eV. 2. Synthesis and photoluminescence of MIIM2III(S. 119. 2. Electrochem...

2.40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: + Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 100 Excitation (%) Emission 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 References 1. and Baglio. Soc... J.73 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: + (3... J. and Hanlon. Peters. Synthesis and photoluminescence of MIIM2III(S. J. Electrochem. Peters. J. Donohue.A.C.A. Synthesis and photoluminescence of MIIM2III(S. J. 119.E. Electrochem. P. Electrochem. Soc.E. 121.Se)4. 119. Luminescence and structural properties of thiogallate phosphors Ce+3 and Eu+2-activated phosphors. Absorption (%) 100 Emission . BaGa2S4:Ce3+ Optical Properties Emission color: Blue-green Emission peak: 2. P..E.C.. T. Soc.. 121. 137 (1974). 2. Luminescence and structural properties of thiogallate phosphors Ce+3 and Eu+2-activated phosphors. Electrochem.53 eV. Donohue. 137 (1974).. 2... J. T. and Hanlon. J.Spectra 800 700 600 500 400 Wavelength (nm) 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Reference 1.. J.Se)4. and Baglio. 230 (1972). 230 (1972). Soc..E.

2.C. J. J. Soc.88 eV).E. 230 (1972).A.52 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (3.. P. 121.40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: ++ Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Absorption (%) 100 Emission Absorption (%) 100 Emission . and Baglio. J. Y2O2S:Eu3+ Structure: Trigonal Optical Properties Emission color: Orange to red (lines) Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4. 119. and Hanlon. Luminescence and structural properties of thiogallate phosphors Ce+3 and Eu+2-activated phosphors. T.E. 137 (1974). Donohue. J...40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: + Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 References 1.BaGa2S4:Eu2+ Optical Properties Emission color: Blue-green Emission peak: 2... Electrochem. Peters. Soc. Synthesis and photoluminescence of MIIM2III(S. + (3.Se)4. Electrochem..

124.40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: ++ Gd2O2S:Tb3+ Optical Properties Emission color: Green Emission peak: 2.26–2. + (3..W. 118 (1970). L.. M. and Struck. Soc.88 eV). Electrochem. 2. Excitation efficiency by e-beam: ++ (3.S. W.29 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: + (4. Preparation of Y2O2S:Eu phosphor particles of different sizes by a flux method.. Soc. J. Pat. Electrochem.. J. Fonger..R. U. 117.88 eV). Y2O2S:Tb3+ Optical Properties Emission color: Blue-green Excitation efficiency by UV: + (4.H.References 1. Royce.. Ozawa. 3 418 246 (1968). 413 (1977)..40 eV) . Energy loss and energy storage from the Eu3+ chargetransfer states in Y and La oxysulfides. 3. C.

1 5.Section 5: Preparation of Phosphor Screens 5.4 Phosphor Screens by Brushing Phosphor Screens by Settling in a Kasil Solution Phosphor Screens by Cathaphoretic Deposition Filming of Phosphor Screens .3 5.2 5.

move the phosphor over the lacquer with a soft hair brush. They are useful but certainly not the only ways of preparing phosphor screens. These methods have been tested and used in this laboratory. . Heat up the hot plate to a temperature where the paper under the substrate just about turns brown. 5. Let dry in air.Section 5 PREPARATION OF PHOSPHOR SCREENS* The following are examples of how to deposit inorganic phosphor powders in thin and uniform layers onto flat surfaces (usually glass). Spray a layer of Krylon-Clear (out of a spray can) onto the substrate. The lacquer becomes tacky when hot and coats quickly with a very dense yet thin phosphor layer. phosphor layers. Try to keep the laquer as uniform in thickness as possible. Place the substrate. Procedure Place the clean substrate (glass. Lehmann's Phosphor Cookbook. Simultaneously. the lacquer up. * This section is from W.) on a horizontal surface. Keep nozzle of the spray can about 5–10 cm over the substrate and spray enough to have the liquid laquer uniformly flowing over the area. Now place all onto an electric hot plate with a flat metal top. etc. It is especially good for small screens.1 Phosphor Screens by Brushing This method gives excellent. onto a piece of white paper and some of the phosphor to be coated onto the dry lacquer layer. thin but dense. The method is quick and easy and has been extensively used in the laboratory.

K.2 Phosphor Screens by Settling in a Kasil Solution This method gives somewhat less dense (macroscopically) layer than brushing but permits tight thickness control and is easily used for large screens. Pat. ZnS-type phosphors react slower and have to stand overnight or longer. In some cases. Cautiously (as not to damage the still soft phosphor layer) rinse the screen several times in water.G. Prepare two stock solutions.. Cover the beaker and let stand for about 1–24 hours. W. Electr. add the weighed amount of phosphor. Place it in a sufficiently large beaker. . Then pour the suspension quickly to the solution A in the beaker. Solution A: K-silicate solution in water.. Weigh the amount of phosphor to give the desired layer of thickness.* The phosphor settles down during this time and the phosphor layer reacts with the silicate of the solution.S. let cool down. Small amounts of this reaction product. Procedure Clean the glass to be coated. Screen the phosphor through a fine sieve immediately before use (this is an important point). grams per square centimeter. Decant the excess liquid. and Houston. 205 (1977). K.. The screen is now ready for most applications. Electron. R... It is widely in use to prepare phosphor screens for cathode-ray tubes. 5. 2 798 821 (1954). Reference 1. Dry in air. Phys. Sr(C2H3O2)2 . over the area of the beaker opening. It can easily be burned out by heating in the open air. a volume equal to that of A. Swank. * Best reaction times depend on the material. Wipe excess loose phosphor particles off with a soft paper tissue.Take the screen off the hot plate. however. 400ºC. the phosphor will still stick to the substrate but the layer is much softer and easier damaged by accidental touching. 3% solids Solution B: 1 g Sr acetate. in 1 liter water Pour solution A into the beaker to 20–40% of the volume. Zn2SiO4 phosphors give well-adhering screens after 1–2 hours. Lacquer becomes solid. into a glass cylinder. U. or of Sr silicate from the reaction between parts A and B. J. the organic layer underneath of the phosphor layer cannot be tolerated. Afterwards. The phosphor adheres very tightly to the substrate and is not easily damaged. Vosburgh. for a few minutes. Pour solution B. About 5–10 mg/cm2 usually is sufficient for most phosphors and purposes.M. will bind the phosphor to the substrate. Adv.. 43. Lehmann. close the upper end of the cylinder with one hand and shake vigorously. face up. Reference 1.

5. D. Wash briefly in a solution of about 10 g NaOH (or KOH) + 10 g NaCN (or KCN) in 1 liter water to dissolve the Au film which is no longer needed.E. The Al film provides an optically reflecting rear layer (thus enhancing the output brightness of the tube) and protects the phosphor against damage by ion bombardment from unavoidable gas residues in the tube. Procedure Coat the glass surface to be coated with a very thin. carbon.) into the upper part of the beaker. R. Soc. A very uniform and compact phosphor layer will stick to the substrate within about 10–30 sec. let the excess phosphor settle. Apply about 100–150 V DC (subtrate = negative). etc.. . Rinse briefly in water. 1456 (1970). Longer times give thicker but less uniform layers. Provide a solution of 200 mg MG(NO3)2·H2O in 1 liter methanol.4 Filming of Phosphor Screens Phosphor layers in commercial CR tubes are backed by a thin metallic Al film which the exciting electrons penetrate to reach the phosphor particles. 117. Then take the screen cautiously out of the solution (the phosphor adheres to the substrate even in the absence of any additional binder).. optically transparent gold layer by evaporation in a vacuum.5.. Rutherford.3 Phosphor Screens by Cathaphoretic Deposition This method is used to prepare dense layers of fine-particled phosphors for high-resolution cathode ray screens. Pour this solution into a beaker and add a few grams of the phosphor.F. J.E. Grosso. Distance anode–cathode a few centimeters. Keep the solution in suspension by stirring (magnetic stirrer). Dry. Turn off voltage and stirrer. P.. Current should be about 5–10 mg/cm2. Insert the Au-coated substrate and an inert anode (Pt. Reference 1. Rinse again in water and then in methanol. Electrochem. Electrophoretic deposition of luminescent materials. and Sargent.

into a beaker on a metal carrier to permit easy lifting out again.Procedure Place the phosphor screen. face up. The solvent evaporates within about 20–30 sec. . 2 ccm octyl acetate. 30 ccm isopropyl alcohol. Let dry in air. very thin film of ethyl cellulose floating on the water. 65 ccm propyl acetate. The cellulose now forms a very thin solid film touching only the tops of the phosphor particles. drop 1–5 drops (depending on the surface area) of the above filming solution onto the water in the beaker. The solution will quickly spread over the whole water surface. Heat the screen in open air to about 300–400ºC for a few minutes. It prevents the Al during the subsequent vacuum deposition to penetrate in between the particles. Carefully lift screen out. Add water to cover the screen. The cellulose film will burn out leaving behind a shiny Al film. Provide a solution of: 50 ccm ethyl cellulose in amyl acetate (commercial cellulose binder). With an eye dropper. leaving behind a solid. Deposit the Al film by evaporation in vacuum.

Part 2: Additional Developments .

Section 6: Phosphor Synthesis 6.3 Alternative Preparation Methods Combustion Synthesis of Phosphors Preparation of Phosphors by Sol–Gel Techniques .1 6.2 6.

To further facilitate the reaction and to improve the crystallinity of the luminescent materials. This method is used in cases in which an insoluble salt can be identified for each of the reaction constituents. Alternatively. To ensure the proper reactivity between the constituents of the phosphor. The amounts used are typically small. The oxalates obtained in the precipitate can be converted to oxides by heating at a relatively low temperature of 800ºC. through either decomposition or evaporation. Large amounts of the salts are used (up to 30% by weight of the phosphor material). The use of an interaction medium often results in lower reaction temperatures and allows for the optimization of the grain size of the luminophores being synthesized. Examples of salts used for this purpose are Na2MoO4. As the name denotes. Na2SiO3. NH4Br. Commonly used fluxes include NH4Cl. volatile and non-volatile. and boric acid. preferably water. and then co-precipitate forming an intimately commingled starting mixture. The steam heating results in a very fast evaporation of the solvent or water. the mixture is then heated or fired under an appropriate atmosphere. Reactivity can also be improved by choosing starting materials which are unstable in controlled circumstances.Section 6 PHOSPHOR SYNTHESIS 6. these fluxes are always in the form of a melt. In these processes. The method of spray drying can also be used to synthesize luminescent materials. the oxides can also be dissolved directly in hot diluted nitric acid to obtain a treatable precipitate. on the order of few mole percent.1 Alternative Preparation Methods* The traditional way of preparing phosphors has been by the mix and fire techniques detailed in the earlier sections. A suitable flux increases the reactivity of the constituents by dissolving at least one of the reactants and provides a medium to incubate the crystallization of the phosphor. the starting materials are dissolved in a solvent. There are two types of fluxes which are used. AlF3. In this method. an intimate reaction mixture is formed and deposited downstream from the flow. In this method. they generally do not leave the reaction mixture and must be removed by washing with water or other appropriate solvents. the reactants are generally granular with radii in the micrometer range. Such reactants include the carbonates and the hydroxides which decompose with the emission of CO2 or H2O upon heating the mixture. Na2B4O7. come into contact with each other on an atomic or ionic level. Other routes for co-precipitation can involve sulfates or hydroxides. and Na4P2O7. Droplets of this solution are then injected into a gas stream and are heated as they are transported downstream. as the interactive specific surface of the remaining elements increases in these processes. This results in a more reactive mixture. Molten salts are used as non-volatile fluxes and generally do not react with the starting materials. A wet co-precipitation method is also being used. The volatile flux often reacts with the starting material and leaves the reaction mixture spontaneously. As a result. the reactants are mixed thoroughly either in dryness or in suspension. flux agents or molten salts are often added to provide a more interactive medium for the reaction. As an example. Y(NO3)3 and Tb(NO3)3 dissolved in water can be precipitated by the addition of a 2-to-1 solution of oxalic acid dissolved in hot water. . the reactants are first dissolved in a solvent.

e.S.g.. 3YN3O9 + 5AlN3O9 + 15CH6N4O YAG(s) + 42N2(g) + 15CO2(g) + 45H2O(g) (1) When complete combustion occurs. * The above section was kindly provided by Cees Ronda. is an example of a highly exothermic reaction.The various methods described above pose the advantage of assuring a better and more homogeneous admixture of the reactants to be used in the synthesis and of generally requiring a lower temperature to achieve this synthesis. are released and no residuals are left in the synthesized YAG material. metal nitrates. The stoichiometry of metal nitrate-fuel mixtures is expressed in terms of the elemental stoichiometric coefficient. is known as a stoichiometric ratio or composition. crystalline.1–3 The method produces rapid. CO2.2 Combustion Synthesis of Phosphors* Beginning in the late 1980’s. urea. Equation 1 is an example of a stoichiometric combustion reaction of yttrium nitrate. to form aluminum oxide. carbohydrazide. For combustion to occur. as an alternative to time-consuming solid-state reaction and sol–gel processing techniques. and carbohydrazide. grinding and milling) steps. The reaction of aluminum nitrate. . Al(NO3)3. fine particle size powders rapidly without extensive high temperature (>1500oC) annealing and mechanical separation (e. the advantages of combustion synthesis are in its ability to produce well-crystallized. ammonium nitrate. so that no residues remain in the product material. A composition of metal nitrates and fuel in which the fuel reacts completely with all of the metal nitrates in the mixture.g. Y3Al5O12 (YAG). For oxide phosphors. Al2O3.g. aluminum nitrate. the only gaseous products. Later in the mid-1990’s. it is necessary that a large amount of heat be released during the formation of the products.. having a negative enthalpy of reaction ( Hrxn = –3800 kJ/mol). exothermic. N2. 6. self-sustaining reactions resulting from the appropriate combination of oxidizers (e. and carbohydrazide to form yttrium aluminum garnet.. that is the ratio of the oxidizing to reducing components of the metal nitrate-fuel precursor mixture and is defined as: e (coefficie nt of oxidizing elements in specific formula) valency ( 1) (coefficie nt of reducing elements in specific formula) valency (2) *This section was kindly provided by L. Grinding has often been implicated in the degradation of luminescent emission intensity through the creation of surface defects that quench the luminescence. several research groups began to investigate the use of combustion synthesis for oxide phosphor preparation4–6 and found it to be a technique of interest for phosphor synthesis in general. combustion synthesis has been investigated as a method to produce homogeneous. CH6N4O. fine oxide powders. and H2O. or glycine). or ammonium perchlorate) and an organic fuel (e. Rohwer.

Tf. The maximum . The oxidizer/fuel molar ratio required for a stoichiometric mixture ( e = 1) is determined by summing the total oxidizing and reducing valencies in the oxidizer compounds and dividing by the sum of the total oxidizing and reducing valencies in the fuel compounds.875 8 (-1) {[1 C (-4)] [6 H (-1)] [4 N 0] [1 O 2]} (3) = 1 and Thus. respectively. oxygen is considered to be the only oxidizing element and has a positive valence while carbon. the precursor mixture of de-ionized water. dehydrates. For Y3Al5O12 synthesized using carbohydrazide fuel. The flame temperature can also be increased by adding excess oxidizer such as ammonium nitrate.The coefficients of the oxidizing and reducing elements are obtained from the balanced chemical equation for the combustion reaction of metal nitrates and a fuel. e Combustion reactions are initiated in a muffle furnace or on a hot plate at temperatures of 500oC or less. Powders obtained from combustion reactions with urea or carbohydrazide fuels are luminescent in the as-synthesized state. and provides a method to increase or decrease the adiabatic flame temperature. or by adjusting the fuel to oxidizer molar ratio so e = 1. it is fuel lean when e > 1. The mixture is stoichiometric when e = 1. The chemical energy released during the exothermic reaction between the metal nitrates and fuel can rapidly heat the system to a high temperature (>1800oC) and sustain that high temperature in the absence of an external heat source. decomposes. and fuel boils. Combustion reactions using glycine fuel yield amorphous powders or ash which must be annealed to produce crystalline luminescent powders. metal nitrates. In a typical reaction. Stoichiometric mixtures are reported to produce maximum energy. In these calculations. Y(NO3)3 and Al(NO3)3 are oxidizers and the reducing agent is CH6N4O. and fuel rich when e < 1. and glycine fuels followed by a heat treatment in air at 1300oC for 1 hour show the effect of flame temperature on the luminescent properties. The fuel alters the energetics and exothermicity of the reaction. and Cp is the heat capacity of products at constant pressure. in Equation 1. and metal cations are considered to be reducing elements and have a negative valence.875 is needed to obtain complete combustion of all components. Hess’ law can be used to approximate the adiabatic flame temperature for a combustion reaction: Tf To Hr Cp Hp (4) where Hr and Hp are the enthalpies of formation of the reactants and products. For example. The resultant product appears as a porous foam. as noted below. The photoluminescence emission spectra of YAG:Cr phosphors produced with carbohydrazide. Nitrogen is considered to be neutral. the target phase(s) can be achieved with significantly reduced external energy input. hydrogen. and ruptures into a flame after about 3–5 minutes. urea. these temperatures are clearly much lower than the temperature at which crystallization of the desired phase takes place during conventional processing. the metal nitrate to carbohydrazide molar ratio = 1. the metal nitrate to carbohydrazide molar ratio is given by: 5 3 {[1 Al (-3)] [3 N 0] [9 O 2]} [1 Y (-3)] [3 N 0] [9 O 2]} 15 8 8 1. The type of fuel and the fuel to oxidizer ratio affect the adiabatic flame temperature. Thus.

79..C.C. urea. L. S.. Ceram. J. and Patil. O.. in the wet method. the ingredients of the precipitate are in contact with each other at a molecular level and an efficient chemical reaction normally occurs. 323-324.A.A.. Am. 4. Kingsley.. Suresh.. References 1. Lopez.J. in these cases. 6 (1990). fine and uniform powders with good crystallinity are generally preferred.flame temperatures during reactions with carbohydrazide.. The grain size of phosphors prepared via solid-state chemical reactions depends on the temperature and the length of the sintering process. Mater. are affected by the flame temperature of the reaction. K. The photoluminescence intensity increases for powders obtained from reactions that reached higher flame temperatures. K. 2. McKittrick.. In these devices. 5. et al. J. This is an indication that certain properties of the resulting powders. 1780. Preparation. Combustion synthesis of fine-particle metal aluminates. The integrated photoluminescence intensity is a maximum for reactions at or near stoichiometry. Glycine nitrate combustion synthesis of oxide ceramic powders... Mater. 6. 905 (1995). Chick. 3257 (1996).. J. Chem. Lower temperature and shorter sintering periods give rise to smaller grain size particles.. 10. such as crystallite size or and degree of disorder of the local environment at the activator ions. respectively. 5. The addition of a NH4(OH) or oxalic acid causes the metallic hydroxides or oxalates to precipitate from the mixture. al. J. small particle size luminescent oxides used an optimized combustion process. Lett.C. Combustion synthesis of yttria. J. and Sluzky.. J. .. This is especially true in low-voltage applications such as in the field emission displays of current interest. The flame temperature is also controlled by the fuel to oxidizer ratio of the particular fuel used. Jia.1 Introduction Phosphors used for most emissive display devices are in the form of powders. 25. and in order to maintain efficiency the size of phosphor grains has to be reduced to reflect this fact. *This section was kindly provided by W. L. Sci. Alloys Cmpds. K. et. and glycine were 1825. but both the crystallinity and grain uniformity are poor if the treatment parameters are such as not to allow the chemical reaction to be completed.J. 6. x-ray analysis and spectroscopic investigation of nanostructured Lu2O3:Tb. wet methods of preparation are often used. aqueous solutions of specific constituent metallic salts are employed. Mater. Kingsley. The quality of the displays depends on the nature of the powders used. 1305 (1990). 3... and 1210oC. Soc. Ekambaram. 6. lower energy electrons do not penetrate into phosphor grains very deeply.. and Patil. 8 (2001).. E..E. J.3. Synthesis of red-emitting. Mater. To resolve this problem. Shea. and Patil. A novel combustion process for the synthesis of fine particle alpha-alumina and related oxide materials. K.3 Preparation of Phosphors by Sol–Gel Techniques* 6. E. Lett. 427 (1988). Zych.

such as B2O3. The sol–gel technique presents the following advantages: (a) High homogeneity of the chemical composition of the materials produced occurs. otherwise cracks and striations will appear in the samples. prepared by a solid-state reaction. Molecule-level-homogeneous multi-component materials can be obtained. 2. Because of the better homogeneity. No "local" concentration quenching will occur because of impurity clustering. heterogeneous materials. the geletion process then proceeds as before. powderizing may be used and trace of foreign particles can be mix in. No milling and grinding are needed. processes are known to contaminate samples. Nano-scale uniform pores can be obtained at intermediate processing temperature while high-density materials can be produced with higher annealing temperature. and NH4Cl. the gels can be baked. A kind of metalorganic compounds. For example. To get rid of these organic groups. In cases where phosphor powders are prepared by the sol–gel method. (d) The microstructure (porosity and size of pores) of the materials can be controlled. The technique has the following disadvantages: 1. Fluxes. Willi Lehmann reported in 1975 that very efficient luminescence was observed in. samples have to be annealed above 1000°C and this may produce undesirable side effects. (e) Thin films and multi-layers coatings of sol–gel materials can be readily prepared by spinning or dipping methods during the gelation period. Br. contributions to the optical spectra of these materials from inhomogeneous sources are generally expected to be smaller than those encountered in unordered systems. the processes hydrolysis and gelation can be induced to produce homogeneous gels from the mixture of alkoxides. The sol–gel method has been widely used to prepare a number of phosphors10-12 for displays and other materials that are of technical importance.13 These materials are similar to those found in the nanoclusters in SiO2 which have been developed recently via the sol–gel method described in the first section. what he called. H3BO3. (f) The sol–gel procedures produce little unintentional contamination. This allows the doping of fragile organic and biological molecules into porous inorganic materials and the fabrication of organic– inorganic hybrid materials. which are commonly used in ceramic technology and contaminate the end products.14-17 There are two ways to prepare such nanophosphor composites: (a) Alkoxide solutions of the phosphor are prepared from the appropriate precursors and then blended into the sol of SiO2 (or other matrixes). (c) Processing temperature can be very low. These metalorganic alkoxides either are in liquid form or are soluble in certain organic solvents. The drying and annealing processes have to be slow and deliberate. (b) Nanophases can be obtained by phase aggregation from doped SiO2 or other matrices during thermal treatments. known as alkoxides of metals. and powderized as in other traditional methods. or I). for example. is used as precursors. The sol–gel method is advantageous inasmuch as thin films or coatings of the phosphor can be formed on substrates directly and/or the sol–gel can be molded into designated forms. Different . such as SiO2:CaX2-Eu2+/Mn2+ (where X = Cl.The sol–gel method of phosphor preparation is regarded as a wet method. are no longer needed. This "contamination" does not enter into the lattice and will not affect the intrinsic optical properties of the phosphor. (b) High uniformity of doping ions distribution exists. sintered. It is difficult to completely remove the residual hydroxyls from the sol–gel materials. and higher doping concentration becomes possible. To obtain powder or ceramic samples. Through the use of the appropriate reagents.

4 A mixture of water. if used.19 6. an alkoxide is a metalorganic compound. drying. Since the sol–gel method is a wet chemical method. This solute can be driven from the gel through thermal treatment.3. alcohol. They react readily but are not soluble in water. T. a solvent such as MeOH (methanol) or EtOH (ethanol) is normally used to produce the precursor solution. the particles consist of dense oxide or polymetric clusters formed by the precursors and reagents. TMOS (tetramethoxysilane. a mixture of water to alcohol to HCl with pH ~2–5 is added. Graham1 prepared gels of silica from aqueous salts. into liquid form. the procedure for the preparation of doped SiO2 sol–gel glasses is described. A gel. and hydrochloric acid (HCl) is prepared so that it has a pH in the range of 2–5. Since then the method has received considerable attention and has been investigated extensively. Some alkoxide solutions are commercially available (see Table 1). To stimulate hydrolysis. Ebelmen2 obtained silica gels from metal alkoxides. These liquid mixtures of the metal alkoxides are stirred for an extended period. 1. when it was "rediscovered" and found to be very useful in synthesizing various materials of practical importance. These materials are transparent and can be used for displays and laser devices. The sol–gel technique was developed as early as 1864. Si(OCH3)4. liquid) or TEOS (tetraethoxysilane. and a solid glass or ceramic is produced in this way. including hydrolysis. liquid) are commonly used. a proper solvent is needed to convert solid alkoxides. and thermal treatment. is a composite substance consisting of a continuous solid skeletal structure which results from the gelation of the sol. Hydrolysis 3. in which a hydrogen atom belonging to the hydroxyl (OH) group on an alcohol is replaced by a metal atom. Doping or activator ions are introduced through either using another alkoxide solution or an aqueous solution of the doping ions. Si(OC2H5)4. The reaction of alkoxides with water is called hydrolysis. Because the chemical–physical processes involved are similar for all metal alkoxides. A typical reaction goes as: (OR)3-Si-OR + H2O (OR)3-Si-OH + ROH . HCl acts as a catalyst in this process. The potential of the sol–gel process was not appreciated until 1980. we use silicon alkoxides as an illustrative example for the preparation of sol–gel materials. on the order of several hours. gelation. such as optical glasses and solidstate laser materials. For these matrices. in hydrolysis. a sol is defined as a colloid of solid particles suspended in a liquid. similar procedures are applicable to other oxide compounds. the gel forms cells which encapsulate colloidal liquids. 2. while M.18. As an example. This acidic solution is added slowly (dropwise) into the precursor alkoxide mixture.nanophosphor embedded glasses have been fabricated with this method. on the other hand. a hydroxyl (OH) group attaches itself to the metal atom by replacing the alkoxide group (OR) in the TMOS or TEOS. Preparation of precursor solutions The initial raw materials for sol–gel preparations consist of metal alkoxides either in solid or in liquid form (Table 1).2 Sol–gel techniques The sol–gel method is a chemical technique that uses metal alkoxides for the synthesis and production of glasses or ceramics through a series of chemical processes. silicate-related materials in this case.3 In general.

Commonly used metal alkoxides and recommended solvents for solids Name aluminum isopropoxide aluminum n-butoxide aluminum sec-butoxide barium ethoxide barium isopropoxide bismuth isopropoxide calcium ethoxide calcium methoxide cerium isopropoxide copper ethoxide dysprosium isopropoxide erbium isopropoxide gadolinium isopropoxide gallium isopropoxide germanium methoxide germanium ethoxide germanium isopropoxide lanthanum isopropoxide lead isopropoxide magnesium methoxide magnesium ethoxide manganese isopropoxide praseodymium isopropoxide tetraethoxysilane (TEOS) tetramethoxysilane (TMOS) strontium isopropoxide titanium(iv) ethoxide titanium(iv) methoxide titanium(iv) isopropoxide tungsten(vi) ethoxide tungsten(vi) isopropoxide yttrium isopropoxide zinc isopropoxide zirconium n-propoxide zirconium n-butoxide Chemical Formula Al(OC3H7i)3 Al(OC4H9n)3 Al(OC4H9s)3 Ba(OC2H5)2 Ba(OC3H7i)3 Bi(OC3H7i)3 Ca(OC2H5)2 Ca(OCH3)2 Ce(OC3H7i)3 Cu(OC2H5)2 Dy(OC3H7i)3 Er(OC3H7i)3 Gd(OC3H7i)3 Ga(OC3H7i)3 Ge(OCH3)4 Ge(OC2H5)4 Ge(OC3H7i)4 La(OC3H7i)3 Pb(OC3H7i)2 Mg(OCH3)2 Mg(OC2H5)2 Mn(OC3H7i)2 Pr(OC3H7i)3 Si(OC2H5)4 Si(OCH3)4 Sr(OC3H7i)2 Ti(OC2H5)4 Ti(OCH3)4 Ti(OC3H7i)4 W(OC2H5)6 W(OC3H7i)6 Y(OC3H7i)3 Zn(OC3H7i)2 Zr(OC3H7n)4 Zr(OC4H9n)4 Solvents isopropanol n-butanol liquid ethanol isopropanol isopropanol ethanol methanol isopropanol ethanol toluene-isopropanol toluene-isopropanol toluene-isopropanol liquid liquid liquid liquid isopropanol isopropanol methanol ethanol isopropanol toluene-isopropanol liquid liquid isopropanol liquid methanol liquid ethanol isopropanol isopropanol isopropanol n-propanol n-butanol .Here R stands for the alkyl (alkylic radical). CnH2n+1. and R=C2H5 for TEOS. Table 1. If the sol– gels are to be doped. Hydrolysis can occur with any one of the (OR) groups of the molecule. an aqueous solution containing the doping ion/ions is also blended in during the hydrolysis step. R=CH3 for TMOS.

is released when an alcohol solution is employed: (OR)3-Si-OR + HO-Si-(OR)3 (OR)3-Si-O-Si-(OR)3 + ROH ROH is an alcohol: ROH=C2H5OH for TEOS and CH3OH for TMOS. and re-precipitation of monomers or oligomers. That is through further condensation. If the gradients are too large. Links between clusters keep on multiplying until a giant cluster forms that spans the vessel. Because water and alkoxysilanes are immiscible. so that the networks are compressed more at the surfaces than in the bulk. gelation occurs. Additional cross-links form during gelation and the polymer chains become increasingly entangled. At still higher pH and excess water content. Several factors affect the rate of sol and gel formation including the temperature. The final spanning cluster forms a skeletal framework which encloses cells containing the liquid phase (water or alcohol) and defines the gel phase. . Through the gelation process.3. this may cause cracking of the sample.4 With the proper thermodynamic conditions. sol–gel synthesis is carried out at room temperature. larger structures are produced by polymerization. The solid network retards the escape of the liquid and prevents structural collapse. silica gels prepared at low pH (<3) and low water content (less than 4 mol% water per mole of alkoxide) produce primarily linear polymers with low cross-link density. In our example. Gelation 3. and solvent. water. Pressure gradients develop through the volume of the gels. Small clusters suspended in the liquid constitute the sol. Aging and drying Aging leads to changes in the structure and other properties of the gel. ROH. colloidal silica is formed. and the pH of the total admixture. Gelation is a continuous process in which two partially hydrolyzed molecules begin to connect and intertwine with each other with the release (condensation) of water when in a water solution: (OR)3-Si-OH + HO-Si-(OR)3 (OR)3-Si-O-Si-(OR)3 + H2O Alcohol. Silica gels prepared under more normal condition (pH 5–7) and/or higher water contents produce highly branched clusters which behave as discrete species. 4. during gelation. a common solvent such as alcohol is also normally used as a homogenizing agent. Syneresis or spontaneous shrinkage of the network of the gel takes place as bond formation or attraction between clusters induces a contraction of the network and expulsion of liquid from the pores. these clusters link together during gelation. Drying by evaporation under normal conditions gives rise to pressure within the pores that causes shrinkage of the gel network. chains of polymers can cross-link to form three-dimensional clusters. dissolution. In most cases. these clusters begin to grow by combining with monomers or other clusters while releasing or condensing water or alcohols. With continuing gelation. the viscosity and the elastic modulus of the solution increase rapidly. though both the sol and gel formation rates are known to increase with increasing temperature. Different metal alkoxides can also coalesce to form "compound" clusters. the relative concentration of the alkoxide precursors.

Brundage. followed by exothermic oxidation at temperatures between 300 and 400°C. Chockalingam. 41 (1983). 10.. 476 (1992). B. 139 (2000). SPIE Sol-Gel Optics II. Phys. Gel glass-dispersed liquidcrystal optical shutters. where oxidation is prevented.. Graham. A. Isotope effects in the multiphonon relaxation of hydrated and deuterated cesium chloro-manganate (CsMnCl3. 6..7 References 1. filters.. Chem. Serna.07 mol of HCl. 18. 2. San Diego (1990). Soc. Ann. Solid State Chem. C.. 183 (1988). D. Brinker. Ebelmen.. Jia.M. J. Sol-gel coating for optical chemical sensors and biosensors. 6. 9. W. For the silicate system of our example. Annealing and porosity control Additional treatment of the sol–gel is required to produce pore-free ceramic materials. 129 (1864).J. M. By heating. this may cause cracking when the samples are heated between room temperature and 400°C. 54. 318 (1864). Because of low permeability of the small pores in the network.. sintering at high temperatures results in densification driven by interfacial energy considerations.. C. Am. Levy.. J. Henry. these materials are useful as phosphors.After shrinkage stops. Bull. Bescher.T.. 2288. 4.7 Monolithic transparent -alumina results when an annealing temperature of 500ºC is used.5.2D2O). and Scherer.. 3. and 0. 17. the alumina becomes phase when annealed at 1200°C.6 5. Sol-gel science: The Physics and Chemistry of SolGel Processing. Yoldas. Serrano. and then dried gels can be obtained through the procedures of hydrolysis.. B. catalytic substrates. The resulting dried gel is called a xerogel. Vidal. B. Structural relaxation. and Yen. 100 mol of H2O. Jayachandran. then wet gels.E. J. C.6 As an example. 2288. 286 (1975).. and vapor sensors.. The temperature interval 400–525°C represents a region where considerable skeletal densification occurs with little associated weight loss. the gel is completely densified leaving only a trace of silanols (Si-OH). as described above. G. 3943.D. 27. et al..P. SPIE Sol-Gel Optics V. Chim. 1758... SPIE Sol–gel Optics III. and Lakshmanan.. At 800°C. Rev. Phys. the exothermic process is suppressed if the gels are heated under inert conditions. further evaporation drives the meniscus of the liquids into the bulk and the rate of evaporation decreases. 518 (1994). Hydrolysis can be conducted at 80°C with 1 mol of aluminum sec-butoxide... and Sanchez. SPIE Sol–Gel Optics III. and drying.W. Prog.. M. 5. Livage. a process by which free excess volume is removed by diffusive motion of the network. Soc. Techniques for other materials Techniques to prepare other oxide and nitride compounds are similar to those used for SiO2.. MacCraith. 16. W. 8. Alumina sols. New transparent polycrystalline silicate scintillators... is the predominant shrinkage mechanism in this temperature interval. the gel constituents move by viscous flow or diffusion in such a way as to reduce the solid–vapor interfacial areas and hence reduce porosity. Removal of organics takes place by endothermic carbonization near 200°C.L.2H2O.M. 745 (1994). J. R.J. by 900°C. M. 7. Ceram. M.S. The condensation (water or alcohol) and pyrolysis reactions that occur during heating liberate a large volume of gas that can generate high pressures. T. et al. E. . Sol-gel synthesis of cadmium tin oxide powder. Academic Press. A. there is partial densification of the sol–gel. Xerogels are useful in the preparation of dense ceramics and are also interesting because of their high porosity and large surface area. to make Al2O3. Al(OC4H9)3 (see Table 1) can be used. and Oton. gellation.

. 12. 2288.... Liu. D. 529 (1994). 292 (1992).L.J. 13. 271 (1998). and Uhlmann.. 15. X. K.M. 7. Jia... 572 (1995).. V. Bommersbach.M.. J.. M. Soc.J. Teowee.L.C.. Mater. E.. Mater. 11 (2000).. W.Y3+ codoped SiO2 sol-gel glasses. 122. J. 17. 519. Costa. SPIE Sol–gel Optica III. Gel-glass dispersed liquid crystal projection display. Mater. Res. Electrochem. W. Rodrigo. Quintana. Levy. J. Opt..R. G. 1758. Proc.A. 2288..11. Mater. Photoluminescence of Eu3+:Y2O3 nanoclusters embedded in SiO2 Glass. Chem.. Soc. Jia. C. 16.P. Lehmann. S. W. H. Rare-earth clustering and aluminum codoping in solgel silica: Investigation using europium(III) fluorescence spectroscopy. J. 1 (2001). Boulton.M.... K.. Symp. Alloys Compds. 536 (1994). 8. M.J.. Fluorescence line-narrowing study of Eu3+-doped Sol-gel Silica: Effect of modifying cations on the clustering of Eu3+.. et al. 16. D. Chem... 783 (1996). Optically active sol-gel microspheres for flat-panel color displays.T. . 19. Lochhead. Meltzer. 14. J. Spectroscopic study of Eu3+doped and Eu3+.. R. SPIE Sol–gel Optics III. Feofilov. Prospects of sol–gel technology towards luminescent materials. Second-harmonic generation from sol–gel derived ferroelectric and piezoelectric thin films. and Otón. and Jiao. R. and Bray. SPIE Sol–gel Optics II. 18. 748 (1975). 311.. and Bray. Lochhead. W. Reisfeld. Pope.

7 Oxides Silicates Phosphates.2 7.Section 7: Other Phosphor Data 7. and Borates Aluminates Halides and Oxyhalides CaS and ZnS-Type Sulfides Other Compounds .3 7.5 7.4 7.1 7.6 7. Halophosphates.

Shea-Rowhler. Takashi Hase. 7. Masaaki Tamatani. Shozo Oshio. and Hajime Yamamoto. Yoshitaka Sato.Gd)2O3:Eu3+ YTaO4 YTaO4:Nb5+ YVO4:Dy3+ ZnGa2O4 ZnGa2O4:Mn2+ ZnO:Bi3+ ZnO:Zn ZnO:Ga.1 Oxides The following host compounds and activators are included in this subsection: Bi4Ge3O12 CaTiO3:Eu3+ CaTiO3:Pr3+ Gd3Ga5O12:Cr3+ GdNbO4:Bi3+ K2La2Ti3O10:Eu LuTaO4:Nb5+ SrIn2O4:Pr3+.Tb3+ Y2O2S:Eu (Y. Ultrafast Zn2SiO4:Mn . Willi Lehmann (posthumously). Madis Raukas.Al3+ SrTiO3:Pr3+ Y(P. Yoh Mita.Al3+ SrY2O4:Eu3+ SrTiO3:Pr3+.V)O4:Eu Y2O3:Ce Y2O3:Eu (YOE) Y2O3:Eu3+ Y2O3:Tb3+ Y2O3:Ce3+.Section 7 OTHER PHOSPHOR DATA Information about the following additional phosphors and their properties has been kindly provided (in Lehmann’s format) by Edith Bourret-Courchesne. Luis Carlos. Cees Ronda. Weiyi Jia. Ultrafast ZnO-CdO:Ga. Lauren E. Dongdong Jia. Shinji Okamoto.

and Grabmaier.J... R. Phosphors for X-ray detectors in computed tomography. J. Luminescent Materials.48. 29 (1991). Heidelberg. 2. 4. otherwise the Pt crucible will be attacked. and Monchamp.. References 1.40 eV). 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 .C. The other growth technique of the horizontal Bridgman–Stockbarger method is now popular to prevent growths forming a core..C. W.. Luminescence of Bi4Ge3O12: Spectral and decay properties. 2. M. Weber. Appl. Use a platinum crucible. The growth atmosphere has to be oxygen. Springer-Verlag. and Grabmaier. R. This contribution is from Hajime Yamamoto. 3..88 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: + Decay to 1/e: 0. Blasse.Bi4Ge3O12 Structure: Cubic Preparation Grow the crystals of Bi4Ge3O12 from stoichiometric melts.. (1994). 5495 (1973). p. using Czochralski method.. 3. Optical Properties Emission peak: 485 nm Excitation efficiency by UV: – (3. B. J. Rossner. atmospheric environment. B. Phys. G. ++ (4. The melting point of the single crystal is 1044°C. Lumin.3 × 10-6 s Spectra 800 700 600 500 400 Wavelength (nm) 300 100 Excitation (%) Emission 50 2 3 Remarks 1. 44. The crystals will only be really colorless when the raw materials Bi2O3 and GeO2 have a high purity. 179. and radio frequency induction heating.

40 eV). 1000 C. 3 hours. Press into pellets. Fire in air. Grind and press into pellets again. Master Degree Thesis. University of Puerto Rico—Mayaguez (2001).209 Preparation Mix by dry grinding or milling. air.. 2.352 0.88 eV) Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 100 Excitation (%) Emission 50 2 3 Remarks 1. Optical Properties Emission color: Red Emission peak: 612 nm Excitation efficiency by UV: + (3. 2. 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Reference 1. Fire in open quartz boats. . This contribution is from Weiyi Jia. Rivera. – (4. This compound is known as calcium titanate.01 7. 1. 1300 C.CaTiO3:Eu3+ Structure: Orthorhombic Composition Ingredient CaCO3 TiO2 Eu2O3 B2O3 Mole % 100 100 1 3 By weight (g) 10. Powderize. I. 1 hour.98 0.

. air.88 eV) Spectra 800 700 D2.CaTiO3:Pr3+ Structure: Orthorhombic. 3 hours.01 7.98 0. 1000 C. Effects of compositional phase transitions on luminescence of Sr1-xCaxTiO3:Pr3+. W. Fire in air.. . 1 hour.40 eV).313 0. Proceedings of the Second National Student Conference of NASA URCSC 2000. 2. Solid State Commun.6H2O B2O3 Mole % 100 100 0. Rivera. et al. Grind and press into pellets again. This contribution is from Weiyi Jia. I. 180 (2000). et al... Powderize. Optical Properties Emission color: Red Emission peak: 612 nm Excitation efficiency by UV: + (3. + (4. P1 1 3 x50 1 x10 50 P0 3 3 P0 2 3 Remarks 1. Rivera. Composition Ingredient CaCO3 TiO2 Pr(NO3)3. Fire in open quartz boats..H5 3 600 D2.H4 3 500 400 Wavelength (nm) 300 100 Excitation (%) Emission 1 I6. 1. 126. This compound is also known as calcium titanate. Nashville. W. Jia. Xu. 2.5 3 By weight (g) 10. I. Press into pellets. 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 References 1.209 Preparation Mix by dry grinding or milling. 153 (2003). 2. 1300 C.

. Reflectivity (%) 100 Emission .2 0. K. The afterglow mechanism of chromiumdoped gadolinium gallium garnet. M. Greskovich.C. The conversion of high energy radiation to visible light by luminescent ceramics.. G. 3.5 0. 4. Mater. 900°C for an hour or more. Fire in flowing O2. Rossner.. Stir well and add the NH4OH solution.. such as water or methanol. Lumin. S. W. Bodinger.. 31/32. Sci. and Huber. B.Structure: Cubic (garnet) Composition Ingredient Gd2O3 Ga2O3 Cr2O3 Gd3Ga5O12:Cr3+ Mole % 37. 1500–1550°C. and Ostertag. + (4.. 376 (1993). 200..40 eV).88 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: + Decay to 1/e: 0.6 Preparation Combine the proper amounts of the oxides with some nitric acid to form a precipitate. C. 71 (1984).. G. 27. H.. J. J. Petermann. 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 References 1. 17 (1993). Leppert. Wash with water to remove the NH4Cl by-product and excess NH4OH. and Duclos.. Blasse. Broad band fluorescence of transition metal doped garnets and tungstates.5 62.5 By weight (g) 100 86. 1. Sci.. Optical Properties Emission color: Red Emission peak: 730 nm Excitation efficiency by UV: – (3. IEEE Trans..C.17 × 10-3 sec Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 50 2 3 Remark This contribution is from Hajime Yamamoto. J. 69 (1997). 2 hours. and Grabmaier. Ball-mill the powder with a grinding media and a liquid vehicle. Fire in air. Co-doping with a small amount of Ce reduces the afterglow. Nucl. Ceramic scintillators. 2. Alloys Ingredients.. Rev. 2. Dry in air. Grabmaier.. Annu. B. 40.

air. U. 2. 3 hours.646 0.GdNbO4:Bi3+ Structure: Tetragonal (scheelite) Composition Ingredient Gd2(C2O4)3·10H2O Nb2O5 Bi2O3 Mole % 41. Reference 1. This contribution is from Madis Raukas.S. D. Optical Properties Emission color: Blue Emission peak: 430 nm Excitation efficiency by UV: Broad range... Fire in covered crucible. Powderize when dry. 2. C.98 1. 1 hour.701 6. suitable for 2537 Å Excitation efficiency by e-beam: Good Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 100 Emission 50 2 3 Remarks 1. 1350–1650 C.51 By weight (g) 15. Store in a well-sealed container. 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 . Fire in covered crucible.W. and Fritsch.. Grisafe.A. air. Pat. 600–800 C.03. 3 767 589 (1973).350 Preparation Mix by slurrying in acetone or by dry blende. 1.51 56. Dry in air. This phosphor has a general formula of Gd1-xBixNbO4 and per above ingredients yields a stoichiometry with x = 0.

air. The described composition yields a concentration of 0. 5. This phosphor in general formulation of K2La2Ti3O10:Eu is another example of materials belonging to intercalation ingredients.88 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: Characteristic emission at about 1.S. U. and Zhang. U. V.E..06 57. Pat.K2La2Ti3O10:Eu Structure: Layered perovskite Composition Ingredient K2CO3 TiO2 La2O3 Eu2O3 Mole % 23. and Northrop.. and 702 nm. and Karam.B. 1100 C. Northrop.. and screen through a 325-mesh stainless steel sieve. R. air. 1100 C.R.40 eV).. References 1.. 3.. J.K. Reddy. S.E. + (4..B. Optical Properties Emission peaks: Lines at 594. Pat. Fire in covered alumina crucibles.. and Karam... R. V. Fire in covered alumina crucibles. Fire in covered alumina crucibles... 2. R. air. R. Pat. Good electroluminescent properties result when this phosphor is intercalated with conductive polymers or metals. dry at 130 C. air.S.19 By weight (g) 6. U. Qi.141 Preparation Mix stoichiometric amounts in a paint shaker for 30 minutes with about 20 mol% of excess potassium carbonate to compensate for losses due to volatilization. and Karam. Qi. U. Reddy.Y. 5 567 351 (1996). 24 hours. 3. 4.E. 5 658 495 (1997).. R. This contribution is from Madis Raukas. Pat. Reddy. Filter.K.B. 24 hours. Karam. 617.. over 3 hours. S. 5 531 926 (1996). V.02 mol Eu per mole of phosphor. R. 5 531 928 (1996). Washed in de-ionized water.S. Karam. R. Powderize. R.90 0. U.E..1 fL level under focused 15 kV/ 8 A excitation Remarks 1. 5 489 398 (1996).03 0. Cool to room temperature. increasing from 700 C to 1100 C.. Fire in covered alumina crucibles.63 9... Pat.Y.59 12. 4. 2.. Y.S.. Excitation efficiency by UV: + (3. 2 hours. Qi.E. and Cox.S.Y. . 700 C.72 19.

H. Optical Properties Emission color: Violet Emission peak: 394 nm Excitation efficiency by UV: (3.Y.LuTaO4:Nb5+ Structure: Monoclinic Composition Ingredient Lu2O3 Ta2O5 Mole % — — By weight (g) — — Preparation Mix stoichiometric quantities of the Lu2O3 and Ta2O5. Soc.. either by itself or in the presence of 50% Li2SO4. Electrochem. Dry at 130°C. 1200°C. using a Freon solvent as grinding medium.40 eV). 1250°C. Fire in alumina containers.88 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: + Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 100 Excitation (%) Emission 50 2 3 Remark This contribution is from Masaaki Tamatani. Ball-mill.. J. 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Reference 1. 2435 (1983). air.. 2. 1. 10–14 hours. Brixner. leach with water. and Chen.H. In the cases where flux is used. 8–10 hours. air. Wash in methanol. L. On the structural and luminescent properties of the M’ LnTaO4 rare earth tantalates. . + (4. 130. Fire in alumina containers.

Dry in air.900 Preparation Mix by slurrying in ethanol. 1250 C.SrIn2O4:Pr3+. Fire in aluminum crucibles. Absorption (%) 100 Emission .88 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: ++ (10eV–1 keV) Decay to 1/e: ~10 µsec Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Remark This contribution is from Shinji Okamoto.340 3. Store in air. Powderize.517 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0.33 277.8 200 (of In) 0. stagnant air.40 eV).Al3+ Structure: Orthorhombic Composition Ingredient SrCO3 In2O3 Pr6O11 Al(OH)3 Mole % 99. Optical Properties Emission peak: 2.2 (of Pr) 5 By weight (g) 147. 3 hours.64 0. ++ (4.007 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: – (3.

Press into pellets with a hydraulic press machine at 40. ++ (3.88 eV). = 270 nm Em. = 250 nm Em. Fire in air.SrY2O4:Eu3+ Structure: Orthorhombic Composition Ingredient SrCO3 Y 2O 3 Eu2O3 H3BO3 Mole % 100 100 1 6 By weight (g) 10 15. Powderize by dry ball-milling. = 611 nm 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) Wavelength (nm) 5 0 800 700 600 500 400 300 100 Emission Exc. 3 hours.000 psi.3 0. 2 hours. Press into pellets again. = 616 nm 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 .40 eV) Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 100 Excitation (%) Excitation (%) Emission Exc. 1000 C.251 Preparation Mix by grinding in a mortar for 30 minutes. Optical Properties Emission color: Red Emission peak: 611 nm Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (2.238 0. 1. 2. 1350 C. Fire in air.

W. Yu.88 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: ++ (10 eV–1 keV) Decay to 1/e: ~100 µsec Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 50 2 3 Remark This contribution is from Shinji Okamoto. Geil. Dry in air.Y.064 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: – (3.009 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0. ++ (4.. S. A1352 (2001). Soc. et al.340 3.900–23. stagnant air. High Li+ self-diffusivity and transport number in novel electrolyte solutions.879 0. Powderize.H.. J. C. Electrochem. Park.J. J.8 100 0. B. B. 148. 1300 C. Fire in aluminum crucibles. 146.. Park. et al. SrTiO3:Pr3+..401 Preparation Mix by slurrying in ethanol. 2 hours.2 (of Pr) 5–30 By weight (g) 147.. 2. Optical Properties Emission peak: 2. 3903 (1999). Structure and luminescence of SrY2O4:Eu.Al3+ Structure: Cubic Composition Ingredient SrCO3 TiO2 Pr6O11 Al(OH)3 Mole % 99..Remark This contribution is from Weiyi Jia.. Soc. 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Absorption (%) 100 Emission . Videa.40 eV). Electrochem. M.33 79. References 1.. Xu.

6H2O B2O3 Mole % 100 100 0. and Yamamoto. 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Reference 1. 1. Rivera..41 0. W. Xu. Grind and press into pellets again. Jia. S.142 Preparation Mix by dry grinding or milling. Toki.212 0. 78. Optical Properties Emission color: Red Emission peak: 615 nm Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (3. Appl. K. air.. ++ (4. SrTiO3:Pr3+ Structure: Cubic Composition Ingredient SrCO3 TiO2 Pr(NO3)3. Lett. This contribution is from Weiyi Jia. Press into pellets.5 3 By weight (g) 10. Phys. Characteristic enhancement of emission from SrTiO3:Pr3+ by addition of group.. and Kataoka... 655. Fire in air. 1300 C. 3 hours. 6387 (1999).b ions. . Phys... 126. Appl. W. 153 (2003).88 eV) Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 100 Excitation (%) Emission 50 2 3 Remarks 1. Itoh. A new red-emitting phosphor. Fire in open quartz boats. This compound is also known as strontium titanate. et al. (2001). 2. SrTiO3:Pr3+.. for low-voltage electron excitation. 38..00 5. Solid State Commun. Effects of compositional phase transitions on luminescence of Sr1-xCaxTiO3:Pr3+.. H. F. Powderize. 1 hour. 1000 C.. S. 2. H.40 eV).References 1.. Tamura. Jpn. J. I. Okamoto. 2.

Decant with water until neutral. J. W. ++ (8. Luminescence. and Broos.40 eV). + (4.M.V)O4:Eu Structure: Xenotime Composition Ingredient Y 2O 3 Eu2O3 NH4VO3 (NH4)2HPO4 Mole % 48 2 35 65 By weight (g) 104.T. 3. Cool and slurry the powder in 2 wt% (NH4)2CO3 solution. Fire in 700 C.L.C. Japanese Patent Disclosure (Kokai). J...40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: + Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 50 2 3 Remark This contribution is from Takashi Hase. Dry in air. for an additional 2 hours.. Cool and break up aggregates. Proc.. Wanmaker. 2.Y(P.. Fire in 1150 C. 1.. and Verlijsdok. Wanmaker.. G.. 2. Fire in 1150 C. Budapest. 50 67782 (1975).0 40.S. Pat. and Bres. Vrugt. 3. Pat.G. 3 647 708 (1972).. Verlijsdok.L.W. W.S. 51 114388 (1976)..9 85. Cool and lightly mortar to break aggregates. Absorption (%) 100 Emission . 3 417 027 (1968). Optical Properties Emission color: Red Emission peak: 619 nm Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (3.88 eV).. for 2 hours.L. for 2 hours. Bril. W. Int. Wanmaker. A. 200 C..8 Preparation Dry-blend all ingredients and place in a capped quartz or alumina crucible. U. Conf. 9–16 (1966). 4.8 7. U. 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 References 1.G. J. J.

40 eV). ++ (4. et al. Eng. water and HCl (pH = 7) 1:2:3 By weight (g) — — — certain amount Preparation Stir ingredients. Nanoclusters embedded in SiO2 glasses 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Reference 1. Annealing in N2 + 5% H2 gas flow at 500–900°C to remove residual water. Jia. ethanol. Sci.. into a small container such as cuvettes. 55 (2001). Cover the cuvette with paraffin film with a pin hole in the center as a outlet of vapor. Photoluminescence of Y2O3:Ce3+. Mater.88 eV) Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 100 Excitation (%) Emission 50 2 3 Remark This contribution is from Weiyi Jia. or other organic groups created and entrapped in the gels during gellation process. add the CeCl3 solution dropwise.Tb3+ nanoclusters embedded in SiO2 sol-gel glasses.) ethanol. After 20 minutes. Optical Properties Emission color: Violet (Ce3+) Emission peak: 375 nm Emission width (FWHM): 30 nm Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (3. C. 572. Place the wet gel in an oven at 40°C for one or two weeks to obtain transparent dry gels. . W.Y2O3:Ce Structure: Cubic Composition Ingredient Mole % Si(OEt)4 100 Y(OC3H7i)3 7 1 CeCl3 (aq.

with reduced efficiency at 254 nm. however. This phosphor is used in fluorescent lamps and also in projection television tubes. and HCl (pH = 2. Firing should occur in air.5) 1:2:3 By weight (g) 100 8.95 1. Y2O3:Eu3+ Structure: Cubic Composition Ingredient Mole % Si(OEt)4 92.9 ethanol.5 By weight (g) 108 10.Y2O3:Eu (YOE) Structure: Cubic Composition Ingredient Y 2O 3 Eu2O3 CaF2 Mole % 94 (Y) 6 (Eu) 2.58 Absorption (%) 100 Emission .95 Preparation Mix by slurrying in water or methanol and dry in air.5 Y(OC3H7i)3 EuCl3·6H2O 0.6 6. It can also be used in plasma display panels. water. Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Remark This contribution is from Cees Ronda. at a temperature of about 1300°C for at least 1 hour.5 1. Powderize. It can be sensitized for excitation at 365 nm using Bi.

W. 11. Y2O3:Tb3+ Composition Ingredient Mole % Si(OEt)4 92. Jia. or other organic radicals.6 Y(OC3H7i)3 6. The wet gel is dried at low temperatures (45°C) for one or two weeks in an oven. J.. W.. water. 311 (2000). Soc.5 0. H. to obtain transparent dry gels. A wet gel will result.. Feofilov. Pour the resulting mixture into a small container with a cover.P. 271. Blend it into the ethanol/water/HCl mix. Photoluminescence of Eu3+:Y2O3 nanoclusters embedded in SiO2 glass.87 eV Excitation efficiency by e-beam: Weakly excited by cathode rays Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 100 Excitation (%) Emission 50 2 3 Remark This contribution is from Weiyi Jia. allowing slow evaporating of the excess or resulted water and ethanol. 519 (1998). Optical Properties Emission color: Red Emission peak: 612 nm Emission width (FWHM): 30 nm Excitation efficiency by UV: Weakly excited at 3. and Jiao.. Put the EuCl3/water/ethanol/HCl solution into the Si/Y mixture dropwise while stirring. Meltzer.Y3+ codoped SiO2 sol-gel glasses. et al. Symp. Mater. Liu. Spectroscopic study of Eu3+doped and Eu3+. Y2O3 nanoclusters embedded in SiO2 glasses.Preparation Dissolve europium chloride in 2–3 g of distilled water.8 certain amount .. Res.9 TbCl3. R.6H2O ethanol. Anneal the dry gel in air at 500–1000°C to remove residual water. Alloys Ingredients. S.. Mix the Si and Y solutions and stir for 20 minutes with a magnetic stirring device.95 1. 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 References 1.. Jia. Proc. J. ethanol. and HCl (pH = 7) 1:2:3 By weight (g) 100 8. 2.

4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Reference 1.88 eV) Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 100 Excitation (%) Emission x10 50 2 3 Remark This contribution is from Weiyi Jia. Jia. ethanol.. 55 (2001). Optical Properties Emission color: Green Emission peak: 543 nm. allowing slow evaporating of the excess or resulted water and ethanol.53 . Nanoclusters embedded in SiO2 glasses.Preparation Dissolve terbium chloride in 2–3 g of distilled water. Put the TbCl3/water/ethanol/HCl solution into the Si/Y mixture dropwise while stirring. to obtain transparent dry gels. et al.8 Y(OC3H7i)3 6. C. and 621 nm Emission width (FWHM): 30 nm Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (3.61 1. 585. Eng. Mater. Mix the Si and Y solutions and stir for 20 minutes with a magnetic stirring device.Tb3+ Structure: Cubic Composition Ingredient Mole % Si(OEt)4 91.40 eV). 572. A wet gel will result.95 1. water. or other organic radicals. The wet gel is dried at low temperatures (45°C) for one or two weeks in an oven. ++ (4. Anneal the dry gel in air at 500–1000°C to remove residual water. Sci.9 CeCl3·6H2O ethanol. Blend it into the ethanol/water/HCl mix. W. and HCl (pH = 7) 1:2:3 By weight (g) 100 8. Y2O3:Ce3+. Pour the resulting mixture into a small container with a cover. Photoluminescence of Y2O3:Ce3+.9 0. Minor peaks at 495.4 TbCl3·6H2O 0.Tb3+ nanoclusters embedded in SiO2 solgel glasses.

Mater.87 eV). Blend it into the ethanol/water/HCl mix.39 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: Weakly excited by cathode rays Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 100 Excitation (%) Emission 50 2 3 Remark This contribution is from Weiyi Jia. Jia. or other organic radicals. 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Reference 1.Preparation Dissolve cerium and terbium chlorides in 2–3 g of distilled water. Photoluminescence of Y2O3:Ce3+.. to obtain transparent dry gels. 572. Sci. Pour the resulting mixture into a small container with a cover. Optical Properties Emission color: Violet (Ce3+) Emission peak: 543 nm Emission width (FWHM): 30 nm Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (3. Eng. C. Nanoclusters embedded in SiO2 glasses. The wet gel is dried at low temperatures (45°C) for one or two weeks in an oven. Put the Ce-TbCl3/water/ethanol/HCl solution into the Si/Y mixture dropwise while stirring. allowing slow evaporating of the excess or resulting water and ethanol. et al. Y2O2S:Eu Composition Ingredient Y 2O 3 Eu2O3 Na2CO3 S Mole % 94 (Y) 3 (Eu) 100 300 By weight (g) 110 5. Mix the Si and Y solutions and stir for 20 minutes with a magnetic stirring device. W. 55 (2001). ethanol. ++ (5. Anneal the dry gel in air at 500–1000°C to remove residual water.Tb3+ nanoclusters embedded in SiO2 sol-gel glasses. A wet gel will result.3 53 96 .

if either the sintering or hot-pressing processes are subsequently used to produce the ceramic scintillator. Optical Properties Emission color: Red Emission peak: 610 nm Excitation efficiency by UV: (3. The Y1. 38. ++ (4. at a temperature of about 1100°C for a few hours. Die or isostatically press the powder into powder compacts.Preparation Mix the rare-earth oxides by slurrying in water or methanol and dry in air.Gd)2O3:Eu3+ Structure: Cubic Preparation Oxidize the co-precipitated oxalate at about 800°C. Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 100 Emission 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Spectrum from the Phosphor Handbook.40 eV).34Gd0. Fig. mix the rare earth mixture with Na2CO3 and S by dry mixing. After cooling down.60Eu0. using pressures up to about 300 MPa. p. the reaction product has to be washed a few times with water to remove residual flux. (Y. 478 (1998). Boca Raton. Remark This contribution is from Cees Ronda. FL.06O3 compacts can be densified into transparent ceramics by either vacuum sintering at 1800°C or hydrogen-gas sintering at 1800–1900°C.88 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: + Decay to 1/e: 1 × 10-3 sec . the powder should be de-agglomerated. the mixture should be powdered in mortar. Preferably. After drying. Subsequently. Firing should occur in air in a vessel with a well-closing lid. CRC Press.

Dry in air. Ta2O5. 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 YTaO4 Structure: Monoclinic Preparation Stoichiometric quantities are mixed Y2O3. 1200°C.. 1250°C. Annu.. 69 (1997). 130°C. 27. air. The sintered samples can be annealed in an oxygen-rich atmosphere to reduce the concentration of point defect/impurity-charge states in the host lattice. C. Reference 1. In the cases where a flux is used. S. Rev. Optical Properties Emission color: UV Emission peak: 330 nm Excitation efficiency by UV: – (3. This contribution is from Hajime Yamamoto. Powderize with a Freon solvent as the grinding medium. 8–10 hours. Co-doping of a small amount of Pr reduces the afterglow. Fire in capped alumina tubes. and Duclos. 3. leach with water and follow by methanol rinsing. 10–14 hours.. Greskovich. either by itself or in the presence of 50% Li2SO4.40 eV). Fire in capped alumina tubes.Spectra 800 700 600 500 400 Wavelength (nm) 300 50 2 3 Remarks 1. Ceramic scintillators. Mater. 2.88 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: + Absorption (%) 100 Emission . Sci. – (4.

Dry in air. 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 YTaO4:Nb5+ Structure: Monoclinic Preparation Stoichiometric quantities are mixed Y2O3. Nb2O5..H. and Chen. On the structural and luminescent properties of the M’ LnTaO4 rare earth tantalates. 1250°C. 10–14 hours.40 eV). Fire in capped alumina tubes.. Ta2O5. This contribution is from Masaaki Tamatani. L. 130.. 1200°C. References 1. Optical Properties Emission color: Blue Emission peak: 410 nm (x-ray excitation 2% Nb) Excitation efficiency by UV: – (3. J. H. Powderize with a Freon solvent as the grinding medium. The use of a flux in the synthesis of M’-YTaO4 not only allows the growth of 4–12 µm single crystals but also assists greatly in the formation of the compound (see Ref. air. 8–10 hours. In the cases where a flux is used. either by itself or in the presence of 50% Li2SO4. 2. Fire in capped alumina tubes. leach with water and follow by methanol rinsing. Brixner. Solid state chemistry and luminescence of X-ray phosphors. 130°C.Spectra 800 700 600 500 400 Wavelength (nm) 300 100 Emission 50 2 3 Remarks 1.L. Electrochem. S.C.. 2435 (1983). C. ++ (4. Soc. J. 229. 54 (1995). and Torardi.88 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: + . 2. Issler.Y. 2). Alloys Ingredients.

0 175.H. L. Electrochem.0 0..80 0. 130. Brixner. H. J.Y.Spectra 800 700 600 500 400 Wavelength (nm) 300 100 Excitation (%) Emission 50 2 3 Remarks This contribution is from Masaaki Tamatani. 2435 (1983). Structure: Tetragonal (zircon) Composition Ingredient Y 2O 3 NH4VO3 Dy2O3 YVO4:Dy3+ Mole % 17. Rinse with deionized water until neutral... Dry in air and powderize.05 By weight (g) 70.15 82. and Chen. Optical Properties Emission color: Yellowish-green Emission peak: Two strong dysprosium peaks at 480 and 570 nm Excitation efficiency by UV: Suitable for 2537 and 3650 Å Spectra 800 700 600 500 400 Wavelength (nm) 300 100 Emission 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 . 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Reference 1.321 Preparation Blend the materials thoroughly and fire in an open quartz crucible for 2 hours at 1700°C. Soc. Cool slightly and wash with a hot solution of 15 % NaOH. On the structural and luminescent properties of the M’ LnTaO4 rare earth tantalates.

Faria.7 lm/W or higher at 30 V DC Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 100 Excitation (%) Emission 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 ...G. Linares. which is optimum for excitation with mercury discharge lamps. Ballman. 3. By including such elements or combinations thereof.C. Other rare-earth elements (Pr. stagnant air. 3 555 337 (1968).28 mol% of Dy3+. L. 3. Eu. 1100 C. 1200°C. Optical Properties Emission color: Blue Emission peak: 460 nm Emission width (FWHM): 137 nm Absorption edge: 270 nm (4. Re-fire in H2 + N2 atmosphere.. 3 152 085 (1964).4 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: 0. and Palumbo.14 18. Pat. Wash with diluted nitric acid to remove excess flux. the emission characteristics can be adjusted. Sm. G. Fire in capped quartz crucibles. U.. Powderize.S. and alike) can be added up to a half of the activator content. This contribution is from Madis Raukas. D. Powderize.G.. U.L. References 1. This recipe yields a phosphor containing 0.. Dry in air. Powderize when dry. Pat. 2. U.A.S.. R. Thompson.. A. 1 hour. Structure: Cubic (spinel) Composition Ingredient ZnO Ga2O3 Li3PO4 (Flux) ZnGa2O4 Mole % 50 50 — By weight (g) 8. Tm.7 — Preparation Mix by slurrying in water or ethanol..Remarks 1.T. Pat. S. and van Uitert. 3 322 682 (1967). 2. 3 hours. Er.S.

Powderize. Optical Properties Emission color: Green Emission peak: 505 nm Emission width (FWHM): 25 nm Absorption edge: 270 nm (4.Remark This contribution is from Sato Yoshitaka.0 lm/W or higher at 30 V DC Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 100 Excitation (%) Emission 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 . 1200 C.7 0. 3 hours. 1100 C. Electrochem. Itoh. and vaporize moisture by warming. 138. et al. S. Powderize when dry. stagnant air. Soc. Reference 1... mix.14 18. 1509 (1991). Fire in capped quartz crucibles. Add solution of Mn2+ ion. Re-fire in H2 + N2 atmosphere. J. ZnGa2O4:Mn2+ Structure: Cubic (spinel) Composition Ingredient ZnO Ga2O3 MnSO4 Li3PO4 (Flux) Mole % 48 50 2 By weight (g) 8.15 Preparation Mix by slurrying in water or ethanol Dry in air. Wash with de-ionized water. Powderize. 1 hour. The ZnGa2O4 phosphor for low-voltage blue cathodoluminescence.4 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: 1.

Tech. H. 1120ºC. 800ºC. Mosquera Vargas. References 1.6 2.. 421 (1992).... K. ++ (4.26 eV). Display. Y.4 By weight (g) 10 1. ZnO:Bi3+ Structure: Hexagonal (wurtzite) Composition Ingredient ZnO Bi2O3 Mole % 97. Fire in capped quartz tubes. ZnGa2O4:Mn green cathodoluminescent phosphors for VFDs. E. S. Toki. . 2 hours. et al. 1. Kataoka. University of Puerto Rico—Mayaguez (2003).Remark This contribution is from Yoshitaka Sato. Morimoto.. Store in well-sealed container. Toki. and Itoh. (1992). 2.. stagnant air. H. Master Degree Thesis. 1 hour. Digest Jpn. Optical Properties Emission color: Red Emission peak: 645 nm Emission width (FWHM): 3540 cm-1 Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (3. 2. Fire in air.43 Preparation Mix by dry grinding. Proceedings of Japan Display'92. 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Reference 1.88 eV) Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 100 Excitation (%) Emission 50 2 3 Remark This contribution is from Weiyi Jia.

Dissolve the ZnCl2 in a little water. 1 hour.ZnO:Zn Structure: Hexagonal (wurtzite) Composition Ingredient ZnO Mole % 100 By weight (g) 158 Preparation Fire in capped quartz crucibles in reduced atmosphere at 1000 C.g. Then add a little water to make the raw mix slightly moist.. add solution to above mix. over night).3 (of Ga) about 1 (not critical) By weight 81 g 0. stir to uniformity. .280 g 1. 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 ZnO:Ga. add alcohol to make a uniform slurry.7 g Preparation Mix ZnO and Ga2O3 porcelain dish. Optical Properties Emission color: Green Emission peak: 505 nm Emission width (FWHM): 0. .4 eV Absorption edge: 388 nm (300 K) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: 16 lm/W or higher Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 100 Excitation (%) Emission 50 2 3 Remark This contribution is from Yoshitaka Sato. Powderize. and dry at room temperature or at moderate heat (e. Ultrafast Composition Ingredient ZnO Ga2O3 ZnCl2 (Type WL-1201) Mole % 100 0.

This phosphor is in a frozen-in semistable state. Lehmann during a visit to the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory in 1987. Nucl. Properties Body color: Gray Particles: About in the 5–10 m size range Emission: Narrow band in the near-UV with a tail extending into the visible violet Peak about 3. ZnO-CdO:Ga. Patent 3583929 (issued June 1971). Do not heat higher than about 300ºC except in pure hydrogen.. Temperature dependence of the fast. Solid State Electron. Derenzo. W. 2. 1107 (1966) and U. Avoid all sulfur like the plague. 538 (1968).K.3 (of Ga) about 1 (not critical) By weight 73 g 11. Instr. References 1. 62. The ZnCl2 in the above recipe can be replaced by about 1.195 eV (=388 nm) Excitation by UV: By all UV shorter than about 380 nm Excitation by e-beam: Energy— 1–1.. 2.7 g Preparation Mix ZnO + CdO + Ga2O3 in a porcelain dish. Meth. Zinc oxide and zinc-cadmium oxide phosphors. ZnO:Ga and CdS:In. near-band-edge scintillation from CuI. The above recipe was provided by W.. 9. or by about 1 ccm of concentrated HCl acid.1 g of NH4Cl.. 1100ºC. 3.. M. Lehmann. one-half hour.280 g 1. W.2%.2 g 0. Remove all parts that look different.. 119 (1968). This phosphor is sensitive to traces of sulfur.J. M.. A 486.1.S. When cool. add alcohol to make a uniform slurry. Klintenberg. 2. repeat the last firing step at about 100ºC higher temperature. 4.. A fast inorganic scintillator. Dissolve the ZnCl2 in a little water. Fire in loosely capped quartz glass tubes ( about half full. inspect under UV lamp. stagnant air. Instr. D. J. Soc. 214 (2002). slowly flowing H2. Remove suspicious parts and powderize the rest.E. Weber. Ultrafast Composition Ingredient ZnO CdO Ga2O3 ZnCl2 Mole % 90 10 0. not more).. Meth. stir to uniformity. 3. Lehmann. PbI2. Luckey. S. 1 hour. Edge emission of n-type conducting ZnO and CdS. Cool while in H2 (Important!). 800ºC. Nucl. Inspect again under UV lamp. In case the material does not show the violet luminescence at all. Fire in open quartz boats. Electrochem. decay < 1 nsec Remarks 1. . add solution to above mix. The bulk of the material should show deep violet luminescence (just at the limit of visibility). 115. HgI2. Material should be completely dead.

over night). The CdO in the above recipe can be replaced by 17. D. 6. Firing should occur in reducing atmosphere at a temperature of about 1150–1250°C for at least an hour. Lehmann during a visit to the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory in 1987.. stagnant air.. 800ºC.S. When cool.2 g CdCO3. Zinc oxide and zinc-cadmium oxide phosphors. J. peak about 413 nm. slowly flowing H2. 1 hour. Do not add more. 9. repeat the last firing step at about 100ºC higher temperature). Fire in open quartz boats. A fast inorganic scintillator. Do not heat higher than about 300ºC except in pure hydrogen. Powderize. References 5. This phosphor is in a frozen-in semistable state. W.and dry at room temperature or at moderate heat (e. Fire in loosely capped quartz glass tubes ( about half full. 7. 1107 (1966) and U. The ZnCl2 in the above recipe can be replaced by about 1. Electrochem... Material should be completely dead. 119 (1968). Soc. 62. Color: violet Excitation by UV: By all UV shorter than about 400 nm Excitation by e-beam: Energy— 1–1. 115. not more). 1100ºC. Solid State Electron. decay < 1 nsec Remarks 4.9 Preparation Mix by ball-milling or magnetic stirring in water or an alcohol and dry in air. Remove any parts (if preaent) that look different.. Inspect again under UV lamp. 10% CdO is the limit of solid solubility. 1. or by about 1 ccm of concentrated HCl acid. Properties Body color: Yellowish-gray Particles: About in the 5–10 µm size range Emission: Narrow band. The above recipe was provided by W. Avoid all sulfur like the plague. Luckey. Lehmann.2%. Nucl. inspect under UV lamp. W. Remove suspicious parts and powderize the rest. 6..g. 538 (1968). 8. Then add a little water to make the raw mix slightly moist. (just at the limit of visibility).. Patent 3583929 (issued June 1971). Instr. Zn2SiO4:Mn Composition Ingredient ZnO SiO2 MnCO3 Mole % 194 110 6 By weight (g) 158 66 6.1 g of NH4Cl. Cool while in H2 (Important!). 7. . The bulk of the material should be violet luminescent (if it does not. one-half hour. Meth. Edge emission of n-type conducting ZnO and CdS. Lehmann. This phosphor is sensitive to traces of sulfur. 2. 5.

Lumin. The emission band shifts to lower energy with increasing Mn2+ concentration. 245 (1996).. Reference 1. This phosphor is used in plasma display panels and fluorescent lamps. 69. Evidence for exchange induced luminescence in Zn2SiO4:Mn. due to magnetic interactions lifting the spin selection rule. The quantum efficiency drops less fast than the emission decay time. and Amrein. J.The efficiency of this material (e-beam and (V)UV excitation) depends on the Mn2+ concentration. T. Higher Mn2+ concentrations adjust to a shorter decay time. Ronda. . C. It has been used in monochromic computer monitor tubes and projection television tubes (mixed with other green phosphors). Remark This contribution is from Cees Ronda..

367 4.00 1. 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 . H3BO3 serves as flux. Powderize and grind.6 By weight (g) 10.84 0.Mn2+ Ca3MgSi2O8:Eu2+ Ca3Al2Si3O12:Ce3+ Ca3Al2Si3O12:2%Ce3+ SrMgSi2O6:Eu2+ Sr2MgSi2O7:Eu2+ Sr3MgSi2O8:Eu2+ Ba2MgSi2O7:Eu2+ Composition Ingredient BaCO3 MgO SiO2 Eu2O3 H3BO3 Mole % 39.00 0.120 0.2 Silicates The following host compounds and activators are included in this subsection: Ba2MgSi2O7:Eu2+ CaMgSi2O6:Eu2+ Ca2MgSi2O7:Eu2+. Optical Properties Emission color: Light blue.92 39. Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 100 Excitation (%) Emission 50 2 3 Remark This contribution comes from Weiyi Jia.84 19. Sinter at 1300°C in N2 + 5% H2 gas flow for 3 hours.7.40 1.16 Preparation Mix and grind. Pre-sinter at 900°C in N2 for 2 hours. Emission peak: 515 nm Excitation efficiency by UV: Excited by UV from 240 to 440 nm.

00 4. 189 (1968).. A. A. Blasse. Unpublished data. . Optical properties Emission color: Blue Emission peak: 448 nm Excitation efficiency by UV: Excited by UV from 250 to 460 nm Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 100 Excitation (%) Emission 50 2 3 Remark This contribution comes from Weiyi Jia...75 0.. Wanmaker. CaMgSi2O6:Eu2+ Composition Ingredient CaCO3 MgO SiO2 Eu2O3 H3BO3 Mole % 24.51 2 By weight (g) 10.. H3BO3 serves as flux.. W. Rev.. Philips Res. G. The absorption and emission spectra of some important activators. J.L. 304 (1970). G. Soc. Characteristic luminescence.87 49. Electrochem. 1. Sinter at 1250°C in N2 + 5% H2 gas flow for 3 hours.48 Preparation Mix and grind. Philips Tech.36 0. 23. A. 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 References 1.00 0. 31. Smith. Pre-sinter at 800°C in N2 for 2 hours.W. and Bril.87 24. 287 (1949).. W. 96. and Bril. J.L. 2. terVrugt.. 2. Jia. Rep. Fluorescence of Eu2+activated silicates. Blasse.04 12.. Powderize and grind.Reference 1.

16 Preparation Mix and grind. Sinter at 1300°C in N2 + 5% H2 gas flow for 3 hours.Mn2+ Composition Ingredient CaCO3 MgO SiO2 Eu2O3 MnO H3BO3 Mole % 39. Jia.68 0..071 0.83 16. W. 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Composition Ingredient CaCO3 MgO SiO2 Eu2O3 H3BO3 Ca3MgSi2O8:Eu2+ Mole % 49.68 19.40 0. Optical properties Emission color: Whitish blue-green Emission peak: Two peaks at 490 and 680 nm. Reference 1.61 33.00 0. Pre-sinter at 900°C in N2 for 2 hours.84 39.58 By weight (g) 10.40 1.33 By weight (g) 10.34 1.120 0.367 4. Powderize and grind.120 0. H3BO3 serves as flux.00 1.367 4. Unpublished data.Ca2MgSi2O7:Eu2+.00 1.00 0. respectively Excitation efficiency by UV: Excited by UV from 260 to 420 nm Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 100 Excitation (%) Emission 50 2 3 Remark This contribution comes from Weiyi Jia.22 0.16 .

Powderize and grind. 900 C. Reference 1. Fire in 95%N2 + 5% H2. 3 hours . 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Ca3Al2Si3O12:Ce3+ Structure: Cubic Composition Ingredient CaCO3 Al2O3 SiO2 Ce2O3 H3BO3 Mole % 300 100 300 1 5 By weight (g) 10 3. Sinter at 1350°C in N2 + 5% H2 gas flow for 3 hours. W. 1. 2 hours. 2. Fire in air. Pre-sinter at 900°C in N2 for 2 hours. Unpublished data.11 0. Jia.103 Preparation Mix by grinding in a mortar for 30 minutes. Optical properties Emission color: Light blue Emission peak: 480 nm Excitation efficiency by UV: Excited by UV from 250 to 440nm Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 100 Excitation (%) Emission 50 2 3 Remark This contribution comes from Weiyi Jia..000 psi. Powderize by dry ball-milling.Preparation Mix and grind. 1200 C. Press into pellets again.40 6 0. H3BO3 serves as flux. Press into pellets with a hydraulic press machine at 40.

. 1200°C. Powderize.00 3.Optical Properties Emission color: Violet Emission peak: 410 nm Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (2. Jia.88 eV). Fire in 95%N2 + 5% H2. ++ (4. W. ++ (3. Press into pellets with a hydraulic press machine at 40. 2. Reference 1. 3 hours Optical Properties Emission color: Violet Emission peaks: 280 and 355 nm Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (3.88 eV) .40 6. Unpublished data. 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Ca3Al2Si3O12:2%Ce3+ Structure: Cubic Composition Ingredient CaCO3 Al2O3 SiO2 Ce2O3 H3BO3 Mole % 300 100 300 1 5 By weight (g) 10.40eV) Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 100 Excitation (%) Emission 50 2 3 Remark This contribution is from Weiyi Jia.00 0.000 psi.40 eV).110 0.103 Preparation Mix by dry grinding in a mortar for 30 minutes. 2 hours. 1. Fire in air. Grind and press into pellets again. 900°C.

00 2. 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Composition Ingredient SrCO3 MgO SiO2 Eu2O3 H3BO3 SrMgSi2O6:Eu2+ Mole % 24. W. Strong afterglow Excitation by UV: Excited by UV from 240 to 450 nm. Pre-sinter at 700°C in air for 2 hours. Sinter at 1050°C in N2 + 5% H2 gas flow for 3 hours. This compound is also known as calcium aluminum silicate.238 0. Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 100 Excitation (%) Emission 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 . Optical properties Emission color: Deep blue Emission peak: 470 nm. 2. Unpublished data. This contribution is from Weiyi Jia. Powderize and grind.51 2 By weight (g) 10.74 8. Reference 1. Jia. H3BO3 serves as flux.Spectra 800 700 600 500 400 Wavelength (nm) 300 100 Excitation (%) Emission 50 2 3 Remarks 1.75 0.87 24.14 0.87 49.325 Preparation Mix and grind..

189 (1968). H3BO3 (B2O3) serves as flux.119 0. 2. and Bril. Sr2MgSi2O7:Eu2+ Composition Ingredient SrCO3 MgO SiO2 Eu2O3 H3BO3 Mole % 39. terVrugt. Jia.4 1.92 39.. Blasse.00 1..84 0. Jia.6 By weight (g) 10.. 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 References 1. Powderize and grind.072 0. Fluorescence of Eu2+activated silicates.L.. Optical properties Emission color: Blue Emission peak: 470 nm Excitation by UV: Excited by UV from 250 to 450 nm Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 100 Excitation (%) Emission 50 2 3 Remark This contribution comes from Weiyi Jia. G. Pre-sinter at 800°C in air for 2 hours. Reference 1. Unpublished data.W.163 Preparation Mix and grind. Philips Res. Rep. Wanmaker. Unpublished data. W.W. 23.Remark This contribution comes from Weiyi Jia..369 4. A. Sinter at 1200°C in N2 + 5% H2 gas flow for 3 hours.W. .. J.84 19.

G. 2.22 0. Optical properties Emission color: Light blue Emission peak: 470 nm Excitation by UV: Excited by UV from 250 to 450 nm Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 100 Excitation (%) Emission 50 2 3 Remark This contribution comes from Weiyi Jia.. 23.83 16. Rep.00 0.. 189 (1968).. 1.912 2. J.. The absorption and emission spectra of some important activators..W. A. 304 (1970). terVrugt.. A. Rev. Pre-sinter at 800°C in air for 2 hours.34 1.715 0.. Philips Tech. and Bril.108 Preparation Mix and grind. 31. Philips Res. H3BO3 (B2O3) serves as flux. .Sr3MgSi2O8:Eu2+ Composition Ingredient SrCO3 MgO SiO2 Eu2O3 H3BO3 Mole % 49. Sinter at 1200°C in N2 + 5% H2 gas flow for 3 hours. G. Fluorescence of Eu2+activated silicates. Characteristic luminescence. Powderize and grind. 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Reference 1.079 0. Blasse.. W.L. and Bril. Blasse.33 By weight (g) 10.61 33. Wanmaker.

Decant with boiling water until neutral. Halophosphates. Fire in capped quartz tubes.Mn Sr2B5O9Cl:Eu SrwFxB4O6. Lightly mortar. air.0 85.4 15. 1100°C.Gd)BO3:Tb Structure: Pseudovaterite Composition Ingredient Y 2O 3 Gd2O3 Tb4O7 H3BO3 Mole % 23 23 2 139 By weight (g) 51.Sm2+ (Y. and Bo rates The following host compounds and activators are included in this subsection: (Y. Dry at 110°C.40 eV) 400 Wavelength (nm) 300 100 Excitation (%) Emission 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 . Optical Properties Emission color: Green Emission peak: 544 nm Excitation efficiency by UV: Spectra 800 700 600 500 (3. 1.9 83. 400–500°C.9 Preparation Dry blend ingredients.7. Fire in capped quartz tubes.5:Eu2+ SrwFxByOz:Eu2+.Gd)BO3:Tb (Y. 2.88 eV). ++ (8. Slurry powder in boiling 10% HCl for 30 minutes. 2 hours. reducing atmosphere.3 Phosphates. 2 hours. ++ (4.Gd)BO3:Eu -Ca2P2O7:Sn.40 eV).

Fire in capped quartz tubes or alumina crucibles. C. Sovers. 400–500°C.. 4.6 80.Gd)BO3:Eu Structure: Pseudovaterite Composition Ingredient Y 2O 3 Gd2O3 Eu2O3 H3BO3 Mole % 32 15 3 130 By weight (g) 72. S.W. 2.4 10.4 Preparation Mix by dry blend. J.88 eV). F. Rare earth cathodoluminescence in InBO3 and related orthoborates. 613 (1967). 110°C.G. New York: (1964).. Optical Properties Emission color: Red Emission peak: 619 nm Excitation efficiency by UV: Spectra 800 700 600 500 (3. Powderize. (Y. 114. 52 133 091 (1977). References 1. Slurry in boiling 10% HCl for 30 minutes. 2 hours. T. air. ++ (4.40 eV) 400 Wavelength (nm) 300 100 Excitation (%) Emission 50 2 3 Remark This contribution is from Takashi Hase. Wash by decanting in boiling water until neutral. Soc. 92 (1983). Crystal Structure.. 2 hours. 2nd ed. Avella. O. 1. 2.. Wyckoff.Remark This contribution is from Takashi Hase. Electrochem.. 3. Supplement. Interscience. R. and Wiggins. air..40 eV). Dry in air..2 54. Hoshina. Japanese Patent Disclosure (Kokai). Fire in capped quartz tubes or alumina crucibles.J. ++ (8. Sony Research Center Reports.J. 1100°C. 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 .

Fluorescent properties of some europium-activated phosphors..11 Preparation Mix by shaking with six ½ in.... 1 hour.5%H2.. Acad.5% N2/0.40 eV). Bril. and Wiggins. Koike. O. 4. J. 1200 C. 6.W.S. Wyckoff... W...J. and Cousseins. 1. Sovers.73 0. II. 176 (1979). Electrochem..S. Cool in N2. 625 C. G. Powderize when dry. Soc. N2. Composition Ingredient CaHPO4 SrHPO4 Sn2P2O7 MnCO3 (NH4)2HPO4 -Ca2P2O7:Sn. A. 7.32 0. Avella.. C.05 9. J.92 0. Interscience.20 1. NHK Giken Geppo. M. Influence of the synthesis method on the luminescent properties of the vaterite-type YBO3-Eu3+.. U. J. D.Mn Mole % 81. Fire in alumina trays.39 2. 2. Optical Properties Emission color: Orange-red Emission peaks: 350 and 575 nm Emission width (FWHM): 72 nm (For the latter peak) Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (3. Rare earth cathodoluminescence in InBO3 and related orthoborates. and Yokozawa. 3. Fire in alumina trays.88 eV) Excitation by e-beam: Weakly excited Spectra 800 700 600 500 400 Wavelength (nm) 300 100 Emission 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 . Okada. Japanese Patent Disclosure (Kokai). Electrochem. Dry in air. Soc. 3 394 084 (1968). nylon balls in a plastic jar on a paint mixer for ½ hour. K. Arbus..28 7. M. 1363 (1964).J.04 8. ~½ hour. Fournier. F. 320. 613 (1967). Crystal Structure.. Cr. Pat.. Chadeyron.31 By weight (g) 18. A. Eliminate the H2 2. 99.References 1.L. 2nd ed. 111.T. Sci. and Wanmaker. New York (1964).Z. + (4. R. F.. 52 54690 (1977). 22..J. 199 (1995). 5. Avella. 114..G.

References 1.H. Henderson. S18. S. and Henderson. R. Dry..71 By weight (g) 8. R. Pappalardo.S.40 eV). Soc. Sr2B5O9Cl:Eu Structure: Tetragonal Composition Ingredient SrCO3 SrCl2 Eu2O3 B2O3 Mole % 26.44 7. Exhibits very strong triboluminescence or mechanoluminescence.. ++ (4.T. Cool. 1025°C.42 0. 3. 4 772 417 (1988).Remarks 1. P. This contribution is from Madis Raukas. 2. Fire in molybdenum trays.5 H2).T. Mash. Optical Properties Emission color: Bluish-white body Emission peak: 425 nm Emission width (FWHM): 30 nm Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (3.. D. A.. Appl. 2.91 0. U. (99..25 Preparation Dry blend ingredients. J.. Firing temperature should not exceed 1250 C to prevent formation of -pyrophosphate. with particular reference to the pyrophosphates.E. 173. Phys.55 45.85 9.W.33 27... 2 hours. 18 (1955). 323 (1939). T. Brit.G. 3. S. and Peters. Proc.5 N2:0.88 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: Weakly excited by cathode rays Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Absorption (%) 100 Emission . The investigation of new phosphors. Wash in hot water. Pat. Ranby.

Place in an open quartz crucible and fire in air at 800°C for 1 hour.12 By weight (g) 63. filter.36 2. 1089 (1970). Blend the precipitate with half the SrF2 and grind..49 61. Fire for 2 hours at 890°C in a flow of H2 in N2 gas in the same open crucible.. J. Reference 1.77 80. Inorg.30 247.. T. Chem. A fine white precipitate will result and form a slurry.E. Form a 1:1 solution of acetone and ammonium hydroxide and add to the above solution slowly while stirring vigorously. Nucl. and Baglio. 32.Remark This contribution is from Madis Raukas. Luminescence and structural properties of alkaline earth chloroborates activated with divalent europium.5:Eu2+ Composition Ingredient Sr(NO3)2 SrF2 H3BO3 Eu2O3 Mole % 10. Cool. Optical Properties Emission color: UV Emission peak: 370 nm Emission width (FWHM): About 20 nm Excitation by UV: In a broad range up to about 360 nm Excitation by e-beam and x-rays: Good excitation by cathode rays Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Absorption (%) 100 Emission . Combine these two solutions.11 Preparation Dissolve Eu2O3 powder in dilute nitric acid solution and Sr(NO3)2 and boric acid in warm water (80°C). blend.11 0. J. Peters. Cool the slurry to below 20°C. and grind with the remainder of the SrF2 into a fine powder. SrwFxB4O6. and dry the precipitate in air.00 9. Cool and regrind.

96F0.28 2.S.09 Preparation Dissolve Eu2O3 and Sm2O3 powders in dilute nitric acid solution and Sr(NO3)2 and boric acid in warm water (90°C).. and 502 nm due to Sm2+ Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Absorption (%) 100 Emission .S.09 5. 300–390 nm with additional peaks at 395. References 1. The resultant is filtered and dried in air. Place in an open quartz crucible and fire in air at 900°C for 1–2 hours. 725 and 732 nm Excitation by UV: in broad ranges 250–280.and low-pressure discharge lamps as well as in CRTs.F. Pat. Chenot. C.F. 3 448 056 (1969). and grind into a fine powder. Form a 1:1 solution of acetone and ammonium hydroxide and rapidly add to the above solution while stirring vigorously. Cool and re-grind. 3 649 550 (1972).98 40. 703. U. Fire for 2 hours at 900 C in a flow of H2 in N2 gas in the same open crucible.62B4O6. C. Pat. U.. 2..5:Eu0.58 g 309.11 By weight (g) 126. Blend the precipitate with SrF2 and grind. The most efficient version has been determined to be Sr0. This contribution is from Madis Raukas.43 84. The slurry is kept at 80 C for about 2 hours and is cooled to ambient temperature. IR-emitting phosphor. Cool. 693.. 420.029.Sm2+ Composition Ingredient Sr(NO3)2 SrF2 H3BO3 Eu2O3 Sm2O3 Mole % 10.20 5.Remarks 1. SrwFxByOz:Eu2+. Chenot. blend. 723. which is used in high. Combine these two solutions. 697. 2. A fine white precipitate will result and form a slurry.12 0. Optical Properties Emission color: Narrow red and IR Emission peaks: 684. This is a Eu-sensitized.25 0.

F.and low-pressure discharge lamps as well as CRTs.Sm0.Remarks 1.S. This contribution is from Madis Raukas. Chenot. .. 3 448 056 (1969). Pat. Chenot. which is used in high.F.011. IR-emitting phosphor.. Pat. 3 693 006 (1972). 3 649 550 (1972). 2. Pat.. U. U.F.96F0. C.029. Chenot..S. 3.62B4O6.5:Eu0. References 1.S.. 2. C.. The most efficient is Sr0. C. U. This is a Eu-sensitized.

5 Preparation Mix by ball-milling or magnetic stirring in an alcohol and dry in air. Powderize.1O3:Bi3+ CaYAlO4:Eu3+ MgCeAl11O19:Tb3+ SrAl4O7:Eu3+ SrxBayClzAl2O4-z/2:Mn2+.Ce3+ Y3Al5O12:Ce Y3Al5O12:Ce3+ Y3Al5O12:Mn4+ Y3Al5O12:Cr3+ BaMgAl10O17:Eu.7. The phosphor remains efficient to high temperatures.9Al0.5 17.2 536 17.6 34.4 Aluminates The following host compounds and activators are included in this subsection: BaMgAl10O17:Eu. Powderize. Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 100 Emission 25 C 300 C O O 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 .Mn (BAM:Mn) BaMgAl10O17:Eu (BAM) CaAl2O4:Tb3+ CaAl4O7:Ce3+ CaTi0. Fire in a reducing atmosphere at a temperature of about 1200–1500°C for at least 1 hour. This phosphor can be used in plasma display panels and is in use in fluorescent lamps.Mn (BAM:Mn) Composition Ingredient BaCO3 MgO Al2O3 Eu2O3 MnCO3 BaF2 Mole % 80 70 1050 (Al) 10 (Eu) 30 10 By weight (g) 158 28.

Remark This contribution is from Cees Ronda.000 psi. 2 hours.6 17.366 0. Fire in N2. This phosphor is used in plasma display panels and in fluorescent lamps. Powderize. Powderize Fire in reducing atmosphere at a temperature of about 1200–1500°C for at least 1 hour. CaAl2O4:Tb3+ Structure: Hexagonal Composition Ingredient CaCO3 Al2O3 Tb2O3 B2O3 Mole % 100 100 1 2 By weight (g) 10 10. The phosphor remains efficient to high temperatures. Optical Properties Emission color: Green Emission peak: 543 nm.5 Preparation Mix by ball-milling or magnetic stirring in an alcohol and dry in air. 1.Spectra were provided by Madis Raukas. + (4. Remark This contribution is from Cees Ronda. 1400°C. Grind and press into pellets again.88 eV) . BaMgAl10O17:Eu (BAM) Composition Ingredient BaCO3 MgO Al2O3 Eu2O3 BaF2 Mole % 80 100 1050 (Al) 10 (Eu) 10 By weight (g) 158 40 536 17. 900°C. 2.48 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (3. with smaller peaks at 590 and 620 nm Emission width (FWHM): 0.139 Preparation Mix by dry grinding in a mortar for 30 minutes. Press into pellets with a hydraulic press machine at 40. 3 hours. Fire in N2.2 0.40 eV).

Appl. Optical Properties Emission color: Violet Emission peak: 407 nm Emission width (FWHM): 4580 cm-1 Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (3. Fire in 95% N2 + 5% H2. et al. 900°C. 2. 93. This contribution is from Weiyi Jia. Phys.. 2 hours. Persistent energy transfer in CaAl2O4:Tb3+. D. 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 References 1.S. 2.Ce3+ through persistence energy transfer. 80. Powderize.... 2. Jia. X. Wang.4 0.M. Jia. D. Meltzer. ++ (4. J. 3 hours. Appl. Press into pellets with a hydraulic press machine at 40.88 eV) . Yen.. W... Lett.139 Preparation Mix by dry grinding in a mortar for 30 minutes. R. CaAl4O7:Ce3+ Structure: Monoclinic Composition Ingredient CaCO3 Al2O3 Ce(NO3)3·4H2O B2O3 Mole % 100 200 2 2 By weight (g) 10 20.J. 1400°C.000 psi 1. et al.366 0.40 eV). Fire in N2. Jia..Spectra 800 700 600 500 400 Wavelength (nm) 300 100 Excitation (%) Emission 50 2 3 Remarks 1. Grind and press into pellets again. Phys. 148 (2003). Green phosphorescence of CaAl2O4:Tb3+.. This compound is known as calcium aluminate. 1535 (2002). W.Ce3+.

Press into pellets. + (4.1O3:Bi3+ Structure: Orthorhombic Composition Ingredient CaCO3 TiO2 Bi2O3 Al2O3 Mole % 90 90 10 10 By weight (g) 9. 1300 C. 2. Fire in air. Unpublished data.66 1. Powderize. This contribution is from Weiyi Jia.01 7. Optical Properties Emission color: Deep red Emission peak: 760 nm Emission width (FWHM): 440 cm-1 Excitation efficiency by UV: + (3. W. 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 CaTi0. 1000 C. 3 hours. air..18 4.40 eV).88 eV) .9Al0. Reference 1. Jia. 1.Spectra 800 700 600 500 400 Wavelength (nm) 300 100 Excitation (%) Emission 50 2 3 Remarks 1. 1 hour. Grind and press into pellets again. Fire in open quartz boats. This compound is known as calcium tetra-aluminate. 2.02 Preparation Mix by dry grinding or milling.

Fire in air. with weaker peaks at 588 and 702 nm Excitation efficiency by UV: + (3.000 psi. Grind and press into pellets again. 1000°C.19 0. Powderize.Spectra 800 700 600 500 400 Wavelength (nm) 300 100 Excitation (%) Emission 50 2 3 Remarks 1.01 22. 1400°C. 161 (2003).88 eV) . Perez-Andujar. Fire in air.40 eV)..209 Preparation Mix by dry grinding in a mortar for 30 minutes. + (4. This compound is known as calcium titanate.352 0. and Rivera. J. W.. 3 hours. Energy transfer between Bi3+ and Pr3+ in doped CaTiO3. Soc. A. 2. 2. CaYAlO4:Eu3+ Structure: Tetrahedral Composition Ingredient CaCO3 Y 2O 3 Al2O3 Eu2O3 B2O3 Mole % 100 100 100 1 3 By weight (g) 10. 1. Optical Properties Emission color: Red Emission peak: 621 nm. Press into pellets with a hydraulic press machine at 40. 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Reference 1. Jia. 150. This contribution is from Weiyi Jia. Electrochem. 2 hours... I.56 10.

4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 MgCeAl11O19:Tb3+ Structure: Hexagonal Composition Ingredient Mole % By weight (g) (MgCO3)4·Mg(OH)2·3H2O·2 9. This contribution is from Weiyi Jia. 1600°C. in alumina boats. Store in a well-sealed container. Re-fire.76 nm) Excitation efficiency by UV: (3.1 Al2O3 1 7.0 CeO2 6 10. Jia. 2. stagnant air. 1650°C.Tb)Ox (Oxide of coprecipitate as a Ce-Tb ingredient). This compound is also known as calcium-yttrium aluminate. Preparation Mix by automatic mill.. Optical Properties Emission peak: 2. reducing atmosphere (95% N2/5% H2).3 55 56. W.28 eV (543 nm) Emission width (FWHM): 0. Powderize by automatic mill.40eV). +++(4.Spectra 800 700 600 500 400 Wavelength (nm) 300 100 Excitation (%) Emission 50 2 3 Remarks 1. 2 hours. Unpublished data. Fire in alumina crucibles.048 eV (9. Powderize.88eV) . 2 hours. Reference 1.5 Tb4O7 * Desirable ingredient: (Ce.

Oshio. 2 hours.88 eV) . S. Press into pellets with a hydraulic press machine at 40.209 Preparation Mix by dry grinding in a mortar for 30 minutes.000 psi. U...Spectra 800 700 600 500 400 Wavelength (nm) 300 100 Emission 50 2 3 Remark This contribution is from Shozo Oshio.01 7. T. Shigeta..98 0.S. T. Grind and press into pellets again.352 0. Fire in air. 6 290 875 (2001). 3 hours. 2. + (4. 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Reference 1.40 eV). Pat. Powderize. SrAl4O7:Eu3+ Structure: Monoclinic Composition Ingredient SrCO3 Al2O3 Eu2O3 B2O3 Mole % 100 200 1 3 By weight (g) 10. and Matsuoka. 1.. Optical Properties Emission color: Red Emission peak: 612 nm Excitation efficiency by UV: + (3. 1000°C. 1350°C. Fire in air.

17 68. Optical Properties Emission color: Green Emission peak: 512 nm Emission width (FWHM): 32 nm Excitation by UV: In a broad range suitable for mercury discharge Excitation by e-beam and x-rays: Specified as a phosphor for x-ray intensifiers . Unpublished data.4% H2 in N2 gas.64 Preparation Wet blend all components.Ce3+ Composition Ingredient Sr(OH)2·8H2O Ba(OH)2·8H2O BaCl2 Al(OH)3 Mn(NO3)2 (52% solution) Ce(NO3)3 (47.Spectra 800 700 600 500 400 Wavelength (nm) 300 100 Excitation (%) Emission 50 2 3 Remarks 1.10 0. Fire at a temperature below 400 C for an additional 5 hours. Reference 1. Re-blend and place in an open container. 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 SrxBayClzAl2O4-z/2:Mn2+.43 117. Jia.26 19.79 2. Cool to ambient temperature and sieve admixture through 100-mesh stainless screen.34 0. and standard solutions in acetone for 15 minutes. in a nitrogen atmosphere containing 4% H2. Dry the admixture in air at 160 C for 5 hours. 2.5% solution) Mole % 7.86 39.24 156..34 By weight (g) 60.02 1. Increase the temperature to 1100–1200°C and fire for 4 hours in a flow of 0. powders.80 4. This contribution is from Weiyi Jia. Re-fire at 1100–1200°C for about 4 hrs. W. This compound is also known as strontium tetra-aluminate.

Pat. Remark This contribution is from Cees Ronda. Ga). Powderize. Chenot. The approximate formula is Sr0.229Ba0. 3.005. This contribution is from Madis Raukas. 3. 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Y3Al5O12:Ce Structure: Cubic (garnet) Composition Ingredient Y 2O 3 Al2O3 CeO2 NH4Cl Mole % 35. resulting in white light.g.437:Mn0.. U. Pat.44 2.Spectra 800 700 600 500 400 Wavelength (nm) 300 100 Emission 50 2 3 Remarks 1.7 Preparation Mix by ball-milling or magnetic stirring in water and dry in air..126Al2O0.688Cl1. forming gas or CO. 3 649 550 (1972). Chenot. C.. This phosphor is used in white LED lamps and also in high-pressure Hg lamps. 2. C. In LEDs it partially converts blue light into yellow light.. (e.F. The material has a pronounced daylight color.005. Chenot. .5 (Al) 2 5 By weight (g) 40 32 3. Pat. 3 693 006 (1972).g.F.S.3.S. Firing should occur in reducing atmosphere. due to the spin-orbit split ground state of Ce3+.Ce0.F..S. U.5 (Y) 62. C. at a temperature of about 1300–1500°C for at least 1 hour). In highpressure Hg lamps it reduces the color temperature of the light. 2. as Ce3+ absorbs in the blue part of the spectral region and emits yellow light. References 1. The emission spectrum consists of two bands. 3 448 056 (1969)... This is a cerium-sensitized xerographic lamp phosphor. The spectral position of the emission band of Ce3+ can be varied by replacing part of the Al by (e. U.

and Rivera.062 Preparation Mix by dry grinding in a mortar for 30 minutes. .. 1000ºC. 1400°C. Optical Properties Emission color: Violet Emission peak: 528 nm Emission width (FWHM): 4580 cm-1 Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (3.40 eV). W. 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Reference 1. Unpublished data.555 0. ++ (4. 3 hours. 2. E.88 eV) Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 100 Excitation (%) Emission 50 2 3 Remark This contribution is from Weiyi Jia. Fire in N2. 2 hours.. Powderize when dry. Press into pellets again. Jia.03 0. 1. Press into pellets with a hydraulic press machine at 40. Fire in 95% N2 + 5% H2.000 psi Dry in air.Y3Al5O12:Ce3+ Structure: Cubic (garnet) Composition Ingredient Y 2O 3 Al2O3 Ce(NO3)3·4H2O B2O3 Mole % 100 200 2 2 By weight (g) 10 9. Powderize.

3 hours. Fire in N2.051 0. W. 900ºC. Jia. Fire in 95% N2 + 5% H2. ++ (4.0067 By weight (g) — — — ...04 6.03 0. 1400ºC.40 eV).88 eV) Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 100 Excitation (%) Emission 50 2 3 Remark This contribution is from Weiyi Jia.72 0. 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Y3Al5O12:Cr3+ Structure: Cubic (garnet) Composition Ingredient For precursor: Y(NO3)3·6H2O Al(NO3)3 Cr(NO3)3·9H2O Mole % 4. Unpublished data. Optical Properties Emission color: Deep red Emission peak: 640 and 667 nm Emission width (FWHM): 4580 cm-1 Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (3. and Rivera. E.062 Preparation Mix by dry grinding in a mortar for 30 minutes. Grind. 2 hours. 1. 2.Y3Al5O12:Mn4+ Structure: Cubic (garnet) Composition Ingredient Y 2O 3 Al2O3 MnCO3 B2O3 Mole % 33 66 19 2 By weight (g) 10 9. Reference 1.

2. (2003). Phosphor development for alpha-silicon liquidcrystal light valve projection display.. Shea-Rohwer. J. Shea. American Scientific Publishers. and 725 nm) Emission width: 0. The combustion flame temperature is dependent on the fuel used.. Ceram. R..85 eV (435 nm) Spectra 800 O O 750 700 Wavelength (nm) 650 600 550 Carbohydrazide Urea Glucine 1825 C Emission 100 1780 C 1210 C O 50 1. the result is a foamy powder which can be powderized. et al. and 1. CA. the flame lasts for about 15 sec. 2.2 0 . N. 1873 (1994). an amorphous ash is produced that needs to be annealed in air at 1000°C for 1 hour. et al.Fuels: CH6N4O (carbohydrazide) 1. J.8 Remark 1. Place the dish into a muffle furnace.. and Hesse. Display Materials.7 CH4N2O (urea) 2. (688. Lemoine.J. Eds. dehydrates. 141. For carbohydrazide and urea fuels. This contribution is from Lauren E.. M. 2. Rohwer.0 Photon Energy (eV) 2. E.S. 707. Hess. Soc.71 eV. 3. Stevenson Ranch.8. Soc. Shea Rohwer... 29.J.05 eV at 707 nm Excitation efficiency by UV: 2. Synthesis and crystallization of yttrium-aluminum-garnet and relatedcompounds. Nalwa and L. carbohydrazide produces the highest temperature (1825°C) while glycine produces the lowest (1210°C). The spectra obtained have the same structure but the materials produced by higher temperatures show higher intensities. The solution boils.. H. and Walko.75. K.5 (fuel/oxidizer ratio) C2H5NO2 (glycine) 1. 3257 (1996)...E. 3172 (1994). preheated to 500°C. Powders should be placed in well-sealed containers. Am. References 1.6 1. Synthesis and Characterization of Phosphors for Flat Panel Displays. and ruptures into a flame in 5–10 minutes. Sci. Electrochem. 1. and Devices. L. J. When glycine is used.E.5 Preparation Mix the precursor and the fuel thoroughly in a glass mortar. Place the mixture in an appropriate flameproof dish and dissolve using de-ionized water (~50 ml). Mater.S. L. 79. Optical Properties Emission color: Deep red Emission peaks: 1. Sluzky. Handbook of Luminescence.

Yb3+ CsI:Tl LaOBr:Tb3+ LaOBr:Tm3+ NaYF4:Er3+.25(BaCl2)0.Mn2+ BaY2F8:Er3+. inert box. 1000.75 Composition Ingredient ErCl3 BaCl2 Mole % 25 75 By weight (g) — — Preparation Mix thoroughly in dry. and Cl2.7.Pb2+ BaFCl:Eu2+ BaMg3F8:Eu2+.Yb3+ (ErCl3)0. and 1500 nm light Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 100 Emission 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 . Heat at 1000°C after eliminating water and O2 in stream of N2.5 Halides and Oxyhalides The following host compounds and activators are included in this subsection: (ErCl3)0.Yb3+ YF3:Er3+. Ar. Optical Properties Emission color: Mostly green Emission peak: 550 nm Excitation efficiency by IR: Can be excited with 800.Yb3+ YF3:Tm3+.25(BaCl2)0. Crush after cooling and seal in glass capsule.75 Ba2Mg3F10:Eu2+ BaFBr:Eu2+ BaFCl:Eu2+.

R. Fire in 5% volume of H2 in N2. R. J. peaking at around 330 nm Excitation efficiency by e-beam: Good for x-ray intensifier screens Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 100 Excitation (%) Emission 50 2 3 Remarks 1. Reference 1. 4 112 328 (1978). This contribution is from Hajime Yamamoto. Pat. U. and Messier. Appl. J.28 Preparation Dry mix. 2. Y.04 37.W. 2 hours. and Ohwaki.... Reference 1. higher temperature is required for activator diffusion.80 60. Although not producing as efficiently luminescent material.F. Optical Properties Emission color: Deep blue Emission peak: 415 nm Excitation efficiency by UV: In a broad range. 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 . This contribution is from Madis Raukas. 2. Wolfe..39 2.20 By weight (g) 68.. Ba2Mg3F10:Eu2+ Composition Ingredient BaF2 MgF2 EuF2 Mole % 38.Remarks 1. 74. an inert or even air atmosphere can be used for the reaction.00 1. The phosphor is hygroscopic.. 1272 (1993).S. 830°C. High-efficiency infrared-to-visible up-conversion of Er3+ in BaCl2. Phys. Powderize. Wang. The firing temperature can be lower (down to 700–750°C) for undoped barium magnesium fluoride.

References 1. Matter. and sieved. T. K.. 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 BaFCl:Eu2+..0096 By weight (g) 14.13 0.. 2.Structure: Tetragonal BaFBr:Eu2+ Preparation Intimate mixtures of raw materials (BaF2. 55 12145. Kotera et al.M. 13. 439 458 1.. Pat. Phys. therefore. Condens.. 1159 (2001).428 0.Pb2+ Composition Ingredient BaF2 BaCl2 EuCl2 PbF2 Mole % 49. Kotera et al. Optical Properties Emission color: UV/blue Excitation efficiency by UV: – (3. Photoionization processes in barium fluorohalide crystals doped with Eu2+.S. Excess ammonium halide may be used as flux.. 3. Before firing. U. dried.25 1. useful for radiography. the materials are dried at 200–300°C. New York (1998). S. Japanese Patent Kokai. This compound is photostimulable and.88 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: + Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 100 Excitation (%) Emission 50 2 3 Remarks 1. Eds. Care is taken to avoid oxygen during firing. and Yen.. EuF3) are fired in a H2/N2 atmosphere at 600–1000°C (desirably at 700°C). 55 12144. Phosphors for X-ray and ionizing radiation. and Kurobori. The Phosphor Handbook.36 0. 2. Radzhabov. and to protect from dissolving in water during washing. 55 12143. 4.40 eV).. The fired material is ground.70 17. J. This contribution is from Masaaki Tamatani.52 49. Shionoya. washed with cold water or organic liquids.040 . W. BaBr2. + (4.. CRC Press. Takahashi. E. The phosphors are ground and re-fired.

2. 2 hours.S. Uhle. As a further improvement. R.9989Eu0.. References 1. U. 4 057 508 (1977). Sieve to –200 +355-mesh size.J. Spray dry the slurry of BaFCl:Eu and aqueous BaCl2. and Messier. 4. Blend with with BaCl2 to serve as a flux.. 3 951 848 (1976). 2.F.. This contribution is from Madis Raukas. Pat. U. Separate the precipitate. Pat. H. Wolfe. yttrium or lithium can be used for reducing the persistence (see the second reference)... Pat..S. 8. Lead is an important additive for brightness enhancement and its amount can be varied from about 10 to 1000 molar ppm parts of host. the optimum being at around 100 ppm. Optical Properties Emission peak: Around 385 nm Emission width (FWHM): About 35 nm Excitation by e-beam: Specified as a phosphor for x-ray intensifiers Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 100 Emission 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Remarks 1. For the same purpose. ~ 830°C.. R. U.S. 3. 4.W..F.Preparation Dry blend together.W..S.000–15. Wolfe.000 ppm Al). Fire in N2. Fire in a 5% H2-N2 mixture at 600–1000°C for 1 hour. Dietz. This x-ray phosphor is represented by the formula Ba0. Structure: Tetragonal BaFCl:Eu2+ Preparation Stir the following overnight: (1-2x)BaF2(s) + BaCl2(aq) + 2x EuF2(s) 2 Ba1-xEuxFCl(s) A stoichiometric excess of aqueous BaCl2 solution is used.01Pb0. R. Pat.0001FCl. lead can be replaced by aluminum or thallium in slightly different proportions (10–50 ppm Tl.. R. 2 303 963 (1942). and Messier. . U. 2 303 917 (1942). O. 3.

26 43. Pat.C.7 × 10–6 sec (UV exc.Mn2+ Composition Ingredient BaF2 MgF2 EuF2 MnF2 Mole % 23. Ferretti. J.) Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 100 Excitation (%) Emission 50 2 3 Remarks 1.88 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: + Decay to 1/e: 5. and Torardi. 4 524 016 (1985). Photoionization processes in barium fluorohalide crystals doped with Eu2+.70 By weight (g) 41. Matter. 2. C.23 6.. This contribution is from Masaaki Tamatani. E.07 Preparation Dry blend together. 54 (1995). Radzhabov. This compound is photostimulable.40 eV). + (4.L. Optical Properties Emission color: Deep blue (Eu2+) .Heat the resultant phosphor/flux intermediate at 1000°C.59 1.. A.99 2. Phys.18 4.S. BaMg3F8:Eu2+. 13. and Kurobori. Solid state chemistry and luminescence of X-ray phosphors. 3. 2. T. Wash. 229.. Alloys Ingredients. J. Optical Properties Emission color: UV/blue Emission peak: 380 nm Excitation efficiency by UV: – (3... Store in a well-sealed container. Issler. 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 References 1. 1159 (2001). U. Condens.53 70. Fire in a flow of 5% H2 in N2 at 830°C for 2 hours. S..

. This contribution is from Madis Raukas. R. Pat. 410 nm (Eu2+) and 610 nm (Mn2+) Emission width (FWHM): 80 nm (Mn2+) Excitation efficiency by UV: In a broad range.Emission peaks: Two bands. 3. U. The ingredients in the ratio shown above yields the composition of Ba1.95Eu0.20F10.. Forming undoped barium magnesium fluoride requires lower firing temperature (700– 750°C). and Messier. higher temperature is required for activator diffusion.S. R. Wolfe.. 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 BaY2F8:Er3+.F.W. Wash with water after cooling to remove flux. Optical Properties Emission color: Green Emission peak: 550 nm .Yb3+ Structure: Monoclinic Composition Ingredient YF3 YbF3 Er F3 BaF2 ZnF2 Mole % 78 20 2 100 10 By weight (g) Preparation Mix thoroughly in ethanol. Reference 1. peaking at around 330 nm Excitation by e-beam: Good Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 100 Emission 50 2 3 Remarks 1.80Mn0. 2.05Mg2. Fire in a capped alumina crucible in inert or fluorizing atmosphere above 1100°C. 4 112 328 (1978).

61 eV (269 nm). 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Structure: Cubic CsI:Tl Preparation Single crystals can be grown by several conventional methods: 1. Kaminskii. This contribution is from Hajime Yamamoto. 5. Appl. Spectroscopic and laser properties of Er3+-doped monoclinic BaY2F8 single-crystals. Lett. Phys. 22.. Mita.A. Quant. S95 (1990).13 eV (299 nm)..5-µm wavelength laser-light emission by infrared-excitable phosphors.. 587 (1981).Excitation efficiency by UV: Weak red emission Excitation efficiency by e-beam: Weak red emission Excitation efficiency by infrared light: Efficient under 970 nm Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 100 Emission 50 2 3 Remarks 1.98 × 10-6 .88 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: ++ Decay to 1/e: 0. Electron. zone melting in a closed vertical crucible after Bridgman–Stockbarger 2. Thallium iodide is mixed with CsI before heating. and dissolved in the melt (melting point 623°C). Optical Properties Emission color: Green Emission peak: 550 nm Absorption edge: 4. et al. 2. 2. 4. Luminescence characteristics are similar to those of YF3. Detection of 1. A. grown from the melt after Czochralski. 39. Opt. References 1. Y..14 eV (241 nm) Excitation efficiency by UV: + (4.

Blend with the Na2CO3. The luminescence intensity is nearly constant for Tl+ concentrations between 0. Heidelberg (1994). Fire in air. The theory and practice of scintillation counting. B. 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Remarks 1. Powderize and reblend powder. Powderize. 3.40 eV).88 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: + . London (1964).Spectra 800 700 600 500 400 Wavelength (nm) 300 100 Emission 50 2 3 Spectrum of the emission under x-ray excitation. J. 1. B. 2. IEEE Trans.C.C.B.1 2. Pergamon Press. Crystal scintillators. filter. and NH4Br.06 and 0. wash. Grabmaier..6 0.0 39. and Grabmaier. Optical Properties Emission color: Whitish blue Excitation efficiency by UV: – (3. Birks. Structure: Tetragonal Composition Ingredient La2O3 Tb4O7 HNO3 Na2CO3 NH4Br LaOBr:Tb3+ Mole % 19. G. 400–500°C. 3. Nucl.1 Preparation Combine the La2O3. Blasse. References 1. 800–1100°C. Fire in air.3 60. such as water.7 3. NS-31... 1 hour.1 By weight (g) 100 2. 372 (1984). Sci. 2..2 39. and dry. ++ (4. 1 hour. Springer-Verlag. During crystal growth. Ball-mill the powder with a grinding media and a liquid vehicle. This contribution is from Masaaki Tamatani.3 38. and HNO3. 2. Tb4O7. Luminescent Materials.3 mol%. some of the thallium may be lost by evaporation.

3 617 743 (1971). 102 (1974).. Alkali bromide formed by the interaction of alkali carbonate and ammonium bromide serves as a re-crystallizing agent. This contribution is from Masaaki Tamatani. Electrochem. 14. Soc. References 1. J. J. U. J. Bull. Ammonium bromide serves as the brominating agent. – (4.S. Pat.Spectra 800 700 600 500 400 Wavelength (nm) 300 100 Excitation (%) Emission 50 2 3 Remarks 1..88 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: + .. Optical Properties Emission color: UV/blue Excitation efficiency by UV: – (3. 1403 (1979). Blasse. Investigations of Tb3+-activated phosphors. Rabatin. G. 481 (1967).. Rep. Rabatin. Philips Res. 22... et al. Abstr. Res. 4. 800°C.. Fire in air.G. 3.40 eV). A. 2. and Bril. 2. 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 LaOBr:Tm3+ Structure: Tetragonal Composition Ingredient NH4Br Tm2O3 La2O3 Mole % — — — By weight (g) — — — Preparation (1-x)La2O3 + xTm2O3 + 2NH4Br. Holsa. Mater. Concentration quenching of Tb3+ luminescence in LaOBr and Gd2O2S phosphors. Tb activated rare earth oxyhalides for x-ray intensifying screen. Spring Meeting. while potassium bromide acts as the flux.G.

2 Preparation Mix Na2SiF6 with the proper amount of (Y. add some potassium antimony tartrate to the final product.Yb. J. J..Spectra 800 700 600 500 400 Wavelength (nm) 300 100 Excitation (%) Emission 50 2 3 Remarks 1.Er)F3. 3 591 516 (1971).L. Alloys Ingredients. NaF produced during decomposition of Na2SiF6 acts as flux and forms NaYF4 lattice.. Fire in capped Pt crucibles. 2. Rabatin. 4 208 470 (1978). Dry.G.8 226. Issler. References 1. 229.. Optical Properties Emission color: Green Emission peak: 550 nm Excitation efficiency by IR: Efficient at 970-nm wavelength Excitation efficiency by UV: Weak red emission Excitation efficiency by e-beam: Weak red emission Excitation by infrared light: Efficient under 970nm .9 10. 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Structure: Trigonal Composition Ingredient YF3 YbF3 Er F3 Na2SiF6 NaYF4:Er3+. C. 3.S.. U.S. This contribution is from Masaaki Tamatani. which has been precipitated from aqueous nitrate solution with HF solution. U. and Torardi. for 2 hours.C. Pat. Solid state chemistry and luminescence of X-ray phosphors.. Pat. in Ar atmosphere. 54 (1995).G. If water vapor sensitivity is a problem. 630°C. 2. Rabatin. S..Yb3+ Mole % 57 39 4 100 By weight (g) 100 107. J.

La) — efficient green-emitting infrared-excited phosphors. 119.. This contribution is from Yoh Mita. Optical Properties Emission color: Green Emission peak: 550 nm Excitation efficiency by UV: Weak Excitation efficiency by e-beam: Weak Excitation efficiency by infrared light: Efficient under 970-nm excitation .. 2. J.Er3+ (Ln-Y.Yb3+ Structure: Orthorhombic Composition Ingredient YF3 YbF3 ErF3 ZnF2 Mole % 78 20 2 10 By weight (g) — — — — Preparation Mix thoroughly in ethanol. 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 YF3:Er3+. Electrochem..Gd. Soc. Y. and Otomo.Spectra 800 700 x5 Emission 600 500 x1 400 Wavelength (nm) 300 100 50 2 3 Remarks 1. Wash with water after cooling to remove flux. Fire in a capped alumina crucible in inert or fluorizing atmosphere above 1100°C.. H. NaLnF4-Yb3+. 1561 (1972). Reference 1. Kano. Luminescence characteristics are similar to those of YF3 but more intense emission is reported. Yamamoto. T.

The green emission is observed also under 800 or 1500 nm wavelength light. which may be predominant upon higher incorporation of Er3+ and Yb3+ or partial oxidization.Spectra 800 700 600 500 400 Wavelength (nm) 300 100 Emission 50 2 3 Remarks 1. Wash with water after cooling to remove flux. 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 YF3:Tm3+. This contribution is from Hajime Yamamoto. Optical Properties Emission color: Pinkish-blue Excitation efficiency by IR: Excitable with 970-nm light . Lett. Reference 1.2 10 By weight (g) — — — — Preparation Mix thoroughly in ethanol.Yb3+ Structure: Orthorombic Composition Ingredient YF3 YbF3 TmF3 ZnF2 Mole % 74 35 0. 2..F. Appl. Fire in a capped alumina crucible in inert or fluorizing atmosphere above 1100oC. L. The green emission is accompanied with red emission. 48 (1969). Phys. but higher content of Er dopant is required for obtaining efficient emission. et al.. 15. Comments on materials for efficient infrared conversion. Johnson.

Lett. Appl. Blue emission is accompanied by red emission. et al. 2.. 15. 48 (1969). Johnson. . Phys. Comments on materials for efficient infrared conversion. This contribution is from Yoh Mita.F.. L.Spectra 800 700 600 500 400 Wavelength (nm) 300 100 Emission 50 2 3 Remarks 1. 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Reference 1.

Fire in N2.7.6 CaS and ZnS-Type Sulfides The following host compounds and activators are included in this subsection: CaS:Bi3+ CaS:Eu2+ CdS:In CdS:In. 1 hour. long blue afterglow Emission peak: 450 nm Emission width (FWHM): 1950 cm-1 Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (3.Cl ZnS:Cu.88 eV) Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 100 Excitation (%) Emission 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 .323 0.5 By weight (g) 10 0. Store in a well-sealed container.Te ZnS:Ag.Al ZnS:Te.2 Preparation Mix by dry grinding or milling. Ultrafast CdS:Te CdS:In. ++ (4. Powderize.Mn CaS:Bi3+ Structure: Cubic Composition Ingredient CaS Bi2O3 S Mole % 100 0. 1200ºC. Optical Properties Emission color: Deep blue.40 eV).

. Cathodoluminescence of CaS:Ce3+ and Cas:Eu2+ Phosphors. 1200ºC. W. Lehmann. W.. Optical Properties Emission color: Red. J. W. Soc. 477 (1971). Lumin.Tm3+. D. Lehmann.D. Phys. 87 (1972). CaS:Eu2+ Structure: Cubic Composition Ingredient CaS Eu2O3 S Mole % 100 1 By weight (g) 10 0. Jia.. 88. Ryan. J. 118. Appl. 5. 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 100 Excitation (%) Emission 50 2 3 Remark This contribution is from Weiyi Jia. Trapping processes in CaS:Eu2+... Evans. et al. J. Electrochem.. . 1 hour. Powderize. D.. Fire in 95% N2 + 5% H2.. long red afterglow Emission peak: 655 nm Emission width (FWHM): 1660 cm-1 Spectra. W..R. 2..2 Preparation Mix by dry grinding or milling. Jia. Activators and co-activators in calcium sulfide phosphors. Store in a well-sealed container.Remark This contribution is from Weiyi Jia. References 1.488 0.M. 2. 3402 (2000). Unpublished data. Jia. 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 References 1. F.Y.

HgI2.. M. Seal the quartz ampoule under vacuum. 2. and Klintenberg. Derenzo. Weber. A 486. The compound should be a uniform light green color. M. Instr. Break the ampoule open and grind the compound..139 g 1g about 2 g . E.1 % about 2 (not critical) By weight 145 g 0. PbI2. Place the compound in a quartz ampoule. CdS:In. ZnO:Ga and CdS:In. 111 (2003).95 mg Preparation Place the dry CdS and In powders in a quartz ampoule. near-band-edge scintillation from CuI.CdS:In Structure: hexagonal (wurtzite) Composition Ingredient CdS In2O3 Mole % 99 % 1% By weight 1g 7. References 1. A 505. Nucl.K. M.J. about 1 10 torr. about 1 10 torr. and Klintenberg. This contribution is from Edith Bourret-Courchesne. Instr.. Ultrafast Composition Ingredient CdS In2O3 NH4Cl pure sulfur Mole % 100 % 0. Weber. M.. If it is not uniform it can be treated a third time at 900ºC for 10 hours in a vacuum-sealed ampoule. S. Color: green Excitation by UV: By all UV and by visible blue light Decay time: <1 nsec. S. Seal the quartz ampoule under vacuum.E. 214 (2002).. exponential Remarks 1. Break the ampoule open and grind the compound mixture to a fine powder using a mortar and pestle. Optical Properties Body color: Greenish-yellow Emission: Peak about 519 nm.E. Meth.. Anneal in the sealed quartz ampoule at 900ºC for 10 hours. Meth. Anneal in the sealed quartz ampoule at 900ºC for 10 hours.J. The quest for the ideal scintillator. Derenzo.. Temperature dependence of the fast. Bourret-Courchesne. Mix vigorously using a Vortex mixer. Nucl.K.

Color: green Excitation by UV: By all UV and by visible blue light Excitation by e-beam: Energy— 1–1. over night). Optical Properties Body color: Grayish-yellow Particles: About in the 5–10 µm size range Emission: Narrow band. Material should be uniformly deep red luminescent. Temperature dependence of the fast. 6. Weber. Remove any suspicious parts and powderize the rest. Nucl.E. M. and Klintenberg. not more) slowly flowing H2S.2%. 9.J. When cool. Edge emission of n-type conducting ZnO and CdS. Add both solutions to the CdS slurry. The H2S in the above recipe can be diluted with N2 (about to 25% H2S. repeat the last firing step at about 100ºC higher temperature). near-band-edge scintillation from CuI. This phosphor is in a frozen-in semistable state. decay < 1 nsec Remarks 1. Lehmann. .Preparation Make a slurry of the CdS in alcohol. 2. 214 (2002).K. stir to uniformity. W.. Lehmann during a visit to the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory in 1987. 600ºC. 3. 1. S.. A 505. Boil till development of brown N2O3 vapor ceases (but not to dry).. Instr.. Cool while still in H2 (Important!) Inspect again under a UV lamp. 4. M. Dissolve the In2O3 in a little HNO3. one-quarter hour. W.6 g CdCl2. The quest for the ideal scintillator.. M.J. 5. Dissolve the NH4Cl in a little water. and dry at room temperature or at moderate heat (e.. 2. The material should now be uniformly green luminescent (if it does not. ZnO:Ga and CdS:In. Weber.E. PbI2. 75% N2). Lehmann. inspect under UV lamp. Peak about 510 nm... The NH4Cl in the above recipe can be replaced by about 3. Remove any parts (if present) that look different.S. Bourret-Courchesne. Nucl. Meth. M.K. Do not heat higher than about 250ºC except in pure hydrogen. Instr. The above recipe was provided by W. 1 hour. E. Meth. Fire in open quartz boats. Solid State Electron..g. 111 (2003). Derenzo. Patent 3 583 929 (issued June 1971). A 486. References 3. Klintenberg. Fire in loosely capped quartz tubes (about half full. S. 1107 (1966). HgI2. 900ºC. Derenzo.. U.. Then add the sulfur to the dry raw mix. slowly flowing H2.

Seal the quartz ampoule under vacuum. PbI2. M. Derenzo.66mg Preparation Place the dry CdS and CdTe powders in a quartz ampoule. 546 (1992). 4. Optical Properties Body color: yellow Emission: Peak about ~640 nm. Nucl. A 486. Nucl.01 % By weight 10 g 1. M.D. and Klintenberg. M.K. 3.. J. and Klintenberg.Te Mole % 1% (In) 99%(CdS) 0. 214 (2002). Weber.J. 2.D. 1573 (1968). Place the compound in a quartz ampoule.CdS:Te Structure: hexagonal (wurtzite) Composition Ingredient CdS CdTe Mole % 99. Derenzo. E. near-band-edge scintillation from CuI. This contribution is from Edith Bourret-Courchesne. P. about 5 10-5 torr. about 5 10-5 torr. S. Instr. Structure: hexagonal (wurtzite) Composition Ingredient CdS:In* CdS:CdTe* *see previous pages CdS:In. Weber. Meth. IEEE Trans.J. P. Temperature dependence of the fast. 39. Dorenbos. Bourret-Courchesne.. Detection of CdS(Te) and ZnSe(Te) scintillation light with silicon photodiodes. Optical properties of tellurium as an isoelectronic trap in cadmium sulfide. The quest for the ideal scintillator. Mix vigorously using a Vortex mixer.. Break the ampoule open and grind the compound.. Color: red Excitation by UV: By all UV and by visible blue light Decay time: 270 nsec. HgI2. Meth.01% (CdTe) 99.. Break the ampoule open and grind the compound mixture to a fine powder using a mortar and pestle.. A 505..E. Schotanus. References 1. The compound should be a uniform yellow color.K. S. M.99 % 0. nonexponential Remarks 1. Appl. J. Anneal in the sealed quartz ampoule at 900ºC for 10 hours. Instr. Cuthbert.. and Thomas. V... Nucl..E.G. Seal the quartz ampoule under vacuum. Sci. 39. 111 (2003). and Ryzhikov. Phys.99%(CdS) By weight 1g 1g . D. Anneal in the sealed quartz ampoule at 900ºC for 10 hours. ZnO:Ga and CdS:In.

Optical Properties Body color: dark yellow Emission: Peak about 618 nm. S. This contribution is from Edith Bourret-Courchesne. 8. During stirring..J. ZnO:Ga and CdS:In. and Klintenberg. Instr. E. . A 486. followed by adding the NH4Cl solution. Instr.. A 505. PbI2. first the AgNO3 solution is added.5 2–3 g Preparation AgNO3 and NH4Cl are dissolved separately in water. M. about 5 10-5 torr. Derenzo. The mixture is dried in air and powdered.050 2. M. near-band-edge scintillation from CuI. A ZnS slurry is made with water or an alcohol. M. Meth. Weber.K.E. ZnS:Ag. Heating takes place at bout 1100°C in a CO atmosphere. The quest for the ideal scintillator. S.. References 7.J... Nucl. Nucl.. Remarks 2. This material is used as blue primary in cathode-ray tubes.K. two modifications can be made (cubic sphalerite and hexagonal wurtzite) with slightly difference spectra. instead of Cl. and Klintenberg.Cl Composition Ingredient ZnS AgNO3 NH4Cl S Mole % 100 0. Then sulfur is added.. HgI2. In addition. Wurtzite is obtained by heating above about 1020°C and fast cooling.E. Decay time:3. M. Derenzo. exponential. Break the ampoule open and grind the compound mixture to a fine powder using a mortar and pestle. Temperature dependence of the fast.5 nsec. 111 (2003). Remark This contribution is from Cees Ronda.Preparation Place the dry CdS:In and CdS:CdTe powders in a quartz ampoule. Bourret-Courchesne. Weber. Anneal in the sealed quartz ampoule at 900ºC for 10 hours. Seal the quartz ampoule under vacuum. Meth. 214 (2002). The compound should be a uniform dark yellow color. Mix vigorously using a Vortex mixer. Color: red.03 5 — By weight (g) 98 0. Excitation by UV: By all UV and by visible blue light. The material can be washed with water to remove any flux residue. It can also be co-doped with Al.

This material is used as green primary in cathode-ray tubes. The material can be washed with water to remove any flux residue. Remark This contribution is from Cees Ronda.06 0.4 2–3 g Preparation Copper acetate and aluminum chloride are dissolved in water and added to ZnS. The mixture is dried in air and powdered.00 0. Optical Properties Emission color: Red Emission peak: 650 nm Excitation efficiency by UV: Excited by 280–380 nm and blue green 450–540 nm .632 0.03 0. Powderize and grind.Al Composition Ingredient ZnS Cu(C2H3O2)2H2O AlCl3 S Mole % 100 0. Afterwards methanol or water is added to make a uniform slurry which is stirred. ZnS:Te. It can also be co-doped with Au and Cu. to obtain more green emission.3 — By weight (g) 98 0. Heating takes place at about 1100°C in a CO atmosphere.08 Preparation Mix and grind. Sinter at 1200°C in N2 gas flow for 3 hours.232 1.Mn Structure: Hexagonal (wurtzite) Composition Ingredient ZnS ZnTe MnO S Mole % 94 3 3 10 By weight (g) 10.ZnS:Cu. Then sulfur is added. Pre-sinter at 800°C in N2 for 2 hours.

This contribution comes from Dongdong Jia.Spectra 800 700 600 500 400 Wavelength (nm) 300 100 Excitation (%) Emission 50 2 3 Remarks 1. G.I. Smirnova. 2.. Effect of tellurium on luminescence properties of zinc sulfide luminors. R. Spectrosc. and Pron. Opt.—USSR. 23. 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Reference 1. 67 (1967).F.. . This compound exhibits strong tribo-luminescence.

29K0.88 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: + Decay to 1/e: 10-5sec Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 100 Excitation (%) Emission 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 . several hours.7 Other Compounds The following host compounds and activators are included in this subsection: CaWO4:Pb2+ GaN:Zn Gd2O2S:Pr3+ Gd2O2S:Tb Na(Mg2-xMnx)LiSi4O10F2:Mn Na1.12TiSi4O11:Eu3+ Na1. Optical Properties Emission color: Blue Emission peak: 435 nm Excitation efficiency by UV: (3.40 eV).42Eu0. Powderize.46Er0.23K0.7 100 4. ++ (4.12TiSi5O13·xH2O:Eu3+ Na1. and then wash with 3% HCl (to remove the excess CaO).7. Fire in air.5 49.5 1 By weight (g) 231.5 Preparation Mix ingredients. 1100°C.23K0.42Eu0.08TiSi4O11:Eu3+ Na2Mg3Al2Si2O10F2:Tb Structure: Tetragonal Composition Ingredient CaCO3 WO3 PbO CaWO4:Pb2+ Mole % 48.

. Rep. Re-fire in H2+N2 atmosphere. Efficiencies of phosphors for short-wave ultra-violet excitation. Kojima. W. Phosphors for lamps. 2 hours. Rep. New York. 356–370 (1961). S.. CRTs. Properties of the fluorescence of some N. Optical Properties Emission color: Blue Emission peak: 460 nm Emission width (FWHM): 100 nm Absorption edge: 354 nm (3. 2. Ed...5 eV) Luminance by cr: 650 cd/m2 at 50 V DC . 3. New York. Kamiya. and Hoekstra. 4. This contribution is from Masaaki Tamatani. A.M.. Wash with de-ionized water.. 1100 C. 629–630 (1998). 422–423 (1998). Powderize. A. 296–306 (1964). S. W. 3. and Mizuno. W. and Yen. Philips Res. Bril. Phosphors for plasma display..S. NBS1026 is used for lamps. Powderize when dry. Bril. 16.. pp.. Fire in quartz tubes. GaN:Zn Structure: Hexagonal (wurtzite) Composition Ingredient ZnS Ga2S3 Mole % — — By weight (g) — — Preparation Mix by slurrying in water or methanol. Philips Res. Shionoya. Add solution of Mn2+ and vaporize water by warming. 1 hour. NH3. W. and Hoekstra. CRC Press.. in Phosphor Handbook. 19. Excess Ca in the material blend gives favorable results. CRC Press.B. Ed. in Phosphor Handbook. standard phosphors. M. Dry in air. 2. S. pp. Powderize. and Yen. Shionoya. T.. 1100 C. References 1.Remarks 1. H.

Fire in air. Y..2 some some 10 By weight (g) 100 0. 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 References 1. H.88 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: + Decay to 1/e: 3 × 10-6s . Take the oxide. Dec.Spectra 800 700 600 500 400 Wavelength (nm) 300 100 Excitation (%) Emission 50 2 3 Remark This contribution is from Yoshitaka Sato. Co-doping with a small amount of Ce reduces the afterglow. Sato.. M. GaN:Zn for VFDs. Sato. Proceedings of the 9th International Display Workshops.. Y.. H. Luminescence Properties of a Blue Phosphor. 2. 1000°C. 1100°C. Proceeding of IDW'02 (2002).40 eV). Fire in air.. et al. and Kameshima. Optical Properties Emission color: Green Emission peak: 510 nm Excitation efficiency by UV: (3. and combine with sulfur and NaCO3. Structure: Hexagonal Composition Ingredient Gd2O3 Pr6O11 HNO3 S2 Na2CO3 Gd2O2S:Pr3+ Mole % 100 0.56 some 3 2. Rinse well in water.92 Preparation Combine Gd2O3 and Pr6O11 powders with some nitric acid to form a precipitate. 1. 4–6 (2002). 2. ++ (4. Takahashi. Tamaki.

mixture should be powdered in mortar. K.. N. Electrochem. Fall Meeting. A. Soc. After cooling. Uchida. Soc. Firing should occur in air in a vessel with a well-closing lid. M.. Abstr. hot-isostatic-pressing process using a phosphor powder prepared by the conventional method for CRT phosphors. 2. 3. Fall Meeting. Soc. W.Remarks 1... Properties and application of gadolinium oxysulfide based ceramic scintillators. Yokota. This contribution is from Masaaki Tamatani.. Yamada.. . Praseodimium-doped gadolinium oxysulfide ceramics prepared by the hot isostatic pressing process. M. Honolulu. 136.4 11. Electrochem. No. H. M. H. J. using powders with very small particle size..3 53 96 Preparation Mix the rare-earth oxides by slurrying in water or methanol and dry in air. Suzuki.... Subsequently. Electrochem. Three groups have proposed different processes for fabricating the oxysulfide ceramics.F for X-ray computed tomography. A scintillator Gd2O2S:Pr. No. Boston.. Abstr. 879 (1998). After drying. Matsuda. Toshiba proposed a high-temperature. Y.Ce. 2713 (1989). 2. 1870RNP (1987). and Ostertag. the reaction product has to be washed a few times with water to remove residual flux. mix the rare-earth mixture with Na2CO3 and S by dry mixing. and Yamamoto. Rossner. References 1. Siemens proposed to apply a uni-axial hot pressing process instead of HIP. Hitachi is able to lower the sintering temperature during HIP by adding a sintering aid using a powder having large particle size. and Tamatani. at a temperature of about 1100°C for a few hours. Yoshida. Gd2O2S:Tb Composition Ingredient Gd2O3 Tb4O7 Na2CO3 S Mole % 94 (Y) 6 (Tb) 100 300 By weight (g) 170.

Spectra
800 700 600 500

400

Wavelength (nm)

300

100

Emission

50

2

3

Remarks 1. This contribution is from Cees Ronda. 2. This material is used in X-ray intensifying screens and in oscilloscope CRTs.

4 Photon Energy (eV)

5

0

Na(Mg2-xMnx)LiSi4O10F2:Mn
Structure: Lamellar intercalation Composition Ingredient Mole % By weight (g) Na2CO3 2.50 1.82 MgO 28.80 7.96 Li2CO3 7.50 3.80 5.00 6.45 Na2SiF6 SiO2 55.00 22.66 1.20 0.946 MnCO3 Preparation Mix stoichiometric amounts in a paint shaker for 30 minutes with about 20 mol% of excess potassium carbonate to compensate for losses due to volatilization. Fire in covered alumina crucibles, air, 915 C, 36 hours. Grind. Fire in covered alumina crucibles, 4% H2 /N2, 850 C. Cool to room temperature. Powderize. Screen through a 325-mesh stainless steel sieve. Optical Properties Emission color: Redish-pink Emission peak: 695 nm Excitation efficiency by UV: + (3.40 eV), + (4.88 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: Characteristic emission at about 1.4 fL level under focused 15 kV/8 A excitation

Spectra
800 700 600 500

400

Wavelength (nm)

300

100

Emission

50

2

3

Remarks 1. This contribution is from Madis Raukas. 2. This phosphor in formulation of Na(Mg2-xMnx)LiSi4O10F2 is an example of a broad family of intercalation ingredient that, besides micas and fluoromicas, includes vermiculites and zeolites. 3. Described composition yields a concentration of 0.08 mol Mn per mole of phosphor. 4. Good electroluminescent properties when intercalated with conductive polymers or metals. References 1. Qi, R.Y., Karam, R.E., Reddy, V.B., and Cox, J.R., U.S. Pat., 5 567 351 (1996). 2. Qi, R.Y., and Karam, R.E., U.S. Pat., 5 658 495 (1997). 3. Reddy, V.B., Karam, R.E., and Northrop, S.K., U.S. Pat., 5 489 398 (1996). 4. Qi, R.Y., and Karam, R.E., U.S. Pat., 5 531 926 (1996). 5. Reddy, V.B., and Karam, R.E., Northrop, S.K., and Zhang, Y., U.S. Pat., 5 531 928 (1996).

4 Photon Energy (eV)

5

0

Na1.23K0.42Eu0.12TiSi5O13·xH2O:Eu3+
Structure: Tetragonal Composition Ingredient Mole % Sodium silicate solution 30.7 (of Si) (8% Na2O; 27% SiO2; 65% H2O) 5.6 (of Ti) TiO2 (anatase) NaCl 58.1 (of Na) KCl 5.6 (of K) Eu(NO3)3·5H2O 0.12 (of Eu) By weight (g) 20.0 1.30 6.90 1.30 0.15

Preparation 1. To prepare ETS-10: Mix 20 g of water to the sodium silicate solution and add the NaCl and KCl. Stir and add anatase. Autoclave the gel under autogeneous pressure for 24 hours at 230°C. The resulting powder is filtered and washed with distilled water at room temperature and then allowed to dry at 110°C.

2.

To prepare Eu3+-doped ETS-10: Dissolve 0.07 g of Eu(NO3)3·5H2O in 250 ml of water and add 3.94 g of the already prepared ETS-10. The solution is stirred for 24 hours at 60°C. The precipitate is filtered and dried in air at 110°C. *The next two materials also use this as their basic recipe.

Optical Properties Emission color: Red Emission peak: 2.00 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0.044 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: The maximum excitation efficiency at 394 nm (7F0 5L6) and 465 nm (7F0 5D2) Decay to 10% (or 1/e, as given): To 1/e 3.63 ± 0.04 and 1.11 ± 0.02 msec Spectra
800 700 600 500 400
Wavelength (nm)

300

100
Excitation (%)

Emission

50

2

3

4 Photon Energy (eV)

5

0

Remarks 1. This contribution is from Luis Carlos. 2. ETS-10 is also known as microporous sodium potassium titanosilicate. 3. ETS-10 is doped through an ion exchange between Na+ and K+ with Eu3+. Reference 1. Rainho, J.P., Carlos, L.D., and Rocha, J., New phosphors based on Eu3+-doped microporous titanosilicates, J. Lumin., 87, 1083 (2000).

Na1.23K0.42Eu0.12TiSi4O11:Eu3+
Structure: Tetragonal Composition Ingredient Sodium silicate solution (8% Na2O; 27% SiO2; 65% H2O) TiO2 (anatase) NaCl KCl Eu(NO3)3·5H2O Mole % 30.7 (of Si) 5.6 (of Ti) 58.1 (of Na) 5.6 (of K) 0.12 (of Eu) By weight (g) 20.0 1.30 6.90 1.30 0.15

Preparation 1. ETS-10 and ETS-10 doped with Eu3+ are prepared as in the case of the microporous titanosilicate compound described on the previous page. 2. To obtain Eu3+ doped narsarsukite: Eu3+-doped ETS-10 is calcined in air from room temperature to 800°C at a heating rate of 5°C per minute. The material is maintained at 800°C for 3 hours. Cool in air.

Optical Properties Emission color: Red Emission peak: 2.03 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0.003 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: The maximum excitation efficiency at 394 nm (7F0 5L6) and 465 nm (7F0 5D2) Decay to 10%: To 1/e 3.63 ± 0.04 and 1.11 ± 0.02 msec Spectra
800 700 600 500
Wavelength (nm)

400

300

100
Excitation (%)

Emission

50

2

3

Remarks 1. This contribution is from Luis Carlos. 2. This material is known as synthetic narsarsukite doped with Eu3+. 3. The end product is contaminated with quartz and cristobalite impurities. References 1. Rainho, J.P., Carlos, L.D., and Rocha, J., New phosphors based on Eu3+-doped microporous titanosilicates, J. Lumin., 87, 1083 (2000). 2. Rainho, J.P. et al., Synthesis and luminescence of Eu3+-doped narsarsukite prepared by the sol-gel process, J. Sol-Gel Sci. Tecnol., 26, 1005 (2003).

4 Photon Energy (eV)

5

0

Na1.29K0.46Er0.08TiSi4O11:Eu3+
Structure: Tetragonal Composition Ingredient Mole % sodium silicate solution 30.7 (of Si) (8% Na2O; 27% SiO2; 65% H2O) TiO2 (anatase) 5.6 (of Ti) By weight (g) 20.0 1.30

NaCl KCl Eu(NO3)3·5H2O

58.1 (of Na) 5.6 (of K) 0.12 (of Eu)

6.90 1.30 0.15

Preparation 1. ETS-10 is prepared as in the case of the microporous titanosilicate compound described in the previous pages. 2. To prepare Eu3+-doped ETS-10: Dissolve 0.07 g of Eu(NO3)3·5H2O in 250 ml of water and add 3.94 g of the already prepared ETS-10. The suspension is stirred for 24 hours at 60°C. The precipitate is filtered and dried in air at 110°C. 3. To obtain Er3+ doped narsarsukite: Eu3+ doped ETS-10 is calcined in air from room temperature to 800°C at a heating rate of 5°C per minute. The material is maintained at 800°C for 3 hours. Optical Properties Emission color: IR Emission peak: 0.80 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0.014 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: Maximum excitation efficiency at 520 nm (4I15/2 2H11/2) and 488 nm (4I15/2 4F7/2) Decay to 10%: To 1/e 7.8 ± 0.2 msec Spectra
1700 1650 1600 1550 1500
Wavelength (nm)

1450

700

600

500

400

100
Excitation (%)

Emission

50

0.75

0.80

Remarks 1. 2. 3. 4.

0.85 2.0 Photon Energy (eV)

2.5

3.0

3.5

0

This contribution is from Luis Carlos. ETS-10 is doped through an ion exchange between Na+ and K+ with Eu3+. This material is known as synthetic narsarsukite. The end product is contaminated with quartz and cristobalite impurities.

References 1. Rocha, J. et al., New phosphors based on Eu3+-doped microporous titanosilicates, J. Mater. Chem., 10, 1371 (2000). 2. Rainho, J.P. et al., Er(III) environment in luminescent titanosilicates prepared from microporous precursors, J. Mater. Chem., 12, 1162 (2002).

Na2Mg3Al2Si2O10F2:Tb
Structure: Lamellar intercalation Composition Ingredient Na2CO3 MgO Al2O3 (NH4)2SiF6 SiO2 TbF3 Mole % 14.23 42.66 13.94 4.74 23.74 0.69 By weight (g) 12.26 13.98 11.56 6.87 11.60 1.21

Preparation Mix all the ingredients thoroughly for 20–30 minutes, preferably in a paint shaker or similar device. Fire in a covered alumina crucible, with graphite pellets added, 1100 C, 12–24 hours. Cool to ambient temperature, powderize, and wash in de-ionized water. Optical Properties Emission Color: Bluish-green Emission peaks: 380, 415, 440, and 540 nm Excitation efficiency by UV: + (3.40 eV), + (4.88 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: About 1 fL level under focused 15 kV/8 A excitation Spectra
800 700 600 500
Wavelength (nm)

400

300

100

Emission

50

2

3

Remarks 1. This contribution is from Madis Raukas. 2. The described procedure yields a concentration of 0.04 mol% Tb. The formula of the compound is Na2(Mg3-xTbx)Al2Si2O10F2. 3. This phosphor is an example of a broad family of intercalation compounds that includes mica, fluoromica, vermiculite, and zeolite. 4. Phosphor has good electroluminescent properties if intercalated with polymers or metals.

4 Photon Energy (eV)

5

0

References 1. Cox, J.R., and Karam, R.E., U.S. Pat., 5 656 199 (1997). 2. Reddy, V.B., Karam, R.E., and Northrup, S.K., U.S. Pat., 5 489 398 (1996). 3. Oi, R.Y., and Karam, R.E., U.S. Pat., 5 531 926 (1996). 4. Karam, R.E., Reddy, V.B., Northrup, S.K., and Zhang, Y., U.S. Pat., 5 531 928 (1996). 5. Oi, R.Y., and Karam, R.E., and Cox, J.R., U.S. Pat., 5 567 351 (1996).

Section 8: Commercial Phosphors and Scintillators

Section 8 COMMERCIAL PHOSPHORS AND SCINTILLATORS
Commercial phosphors and scintillators are arranged in order of increasing wavelength in Table 1. The data were compiled for recent producers’ data sheets and literature. Note that these may not be the only phosphors and scintillators available commercially or the materials still may not be manufactured. Many phosphors are specified by P numbers assigned by the Electronics Industries Association of the United States; these have been used since 1945 and are included in Table 1. The World Phosphor Type Designation System (WPTDS), established in 1982, is a more detailed, unified phosphor system designation system. It usually consisting of two letters: the first letter indicating the criterion for the phosphor screen emission color, the second letter indicating differences from the criterion. These symbols, together with other numbers and symbols used in Japan and Europe, are included in an extensive tabulation by Inaho and Hase in chapter 6—Section 6 of the Phosphor Handbook. Table 1 Commercial phosphors and scintillators Wavelength of maximum Chemical emission (nm) formula 220, 310(1) 305 307 315 330–352 338 342–347 350 351 358–385 365 371 380 385 390 390 400 400 400, 525 410 BaF2(1,2) CeF3(2) MgSrAl10O17:Ce CsI(2) LaCl3:Ce3+(2) (CeMg)SrAl11O18:Ce (CeMg)BaAl11O18:Ce YAlO3:Ce3+(2) BaSi2O5:Pb LaBr3:Ce3+(2) LuAlO3:Ce3+(2) SrB4O7:Eu Lu2Si2O7:Ce3+(2) Ca2MgSi2O7:Ce3+ CsF(1,2) ZnO:Ga Y2SiO5:Ce3+ Zn2SiO4:Ti P46 (70%) + P47 (30%) Y2SiO5:Ce3+(2)

Designation or acronym

YAP, YALO

LuAP LPS P16

P47 P52 P48 YSO:Ce

Ni CdWO4(2) MgWO4 ZnWO4(2) Bi4Ge3O12(2) Sr6P5BO20:Eu Ca5(PO4)3F:Sb (Ba.Cl ZnS:Ag.Ti)2P2O7:Ti ZnO:Zn Sr5(PO4)3F:Sb.Gd)2SiO5:Ce3+ CaWO4:Pb CaF2:Eu2+(2) Gd2SiO5: Ce3+(2) Sr5Cl(PO4)3:Eu BaMgAl10O17:Eu ZnS:Cu BaMgAl10O17:Eu:Mn Sr2P2O7:Sn ZnS:Ag.Ce.Cl CdS:In Zn2SiO4:Mn.Table 1 Commerical phosphors and scintillators—continued Wavelength of maximum Chemical Designation emission (nm) formula or acronym 410 415 415 418–420 420 420 420 420 420 425–430 433 435 440 447 450 455–504 456.As LuYAP MSL CWO P5 LSO LGSO GSO BAM BAM:Eu.Mn Gd2O2S:Pr(3) Gd2O2S:Pr. 514 460 460 465 470/540 473 480 480 480 482 494 504 509 510 510 510 513 520 525 525 YTaO4:Nb Lu1-xYxAlO3:Ce3+(2) NaI:Tl(2) — CsI:Na+(2) CaWO4(2) CaWO4:W Lu2SiO5:Ce3+ Sr2P2O7:Eu (Lu.F(3) ZnO:Zn Y2O2S:Pr3+ ZnS:Cu.Mn P11* P37 CWO BGO P15 UFC P24 P31 P39 .

Cd)S:Ag.Gd)BO3:Eu3+ Y(P. 619.3) CaSiO3:Mn2+.Tb)PO4:Ce:Tb (Zn.60O3(Eu.Table 1 Commercial phosphors and scintillators—continued Wavelength of maximum Chemical Designation emission (nm) formula or acronym 525 526 528 530 540 543 544 544 544 544 546 546 550 550 559 560 560 560 584 585 590 590 593.Cu ZnS:Ag. YVE P54* .34Gd0.V)O4:Eu3+ (Zn.60O3(Eu.Cd)S:Cu Y3Al5O12:Ce3+(2) MgF2:Mn2+ (Zn.Mg)3(PO4)2:Sn Y2O2S:Eu3+ (Sr. GOS P44 P45 P53 P28 YAG:Ce P33 P20 P26 P12 P19 P38 P21 P25 Hilight YGO P56.Cl Gd2O2S:Tb3+ La2O2S:Tb3+ Y2O2S:Tb3+ Y3Al5O12:Tb3+ (Ce.Pb Y1.Mg)F2:Mn2+ KMgF3:Mn2+ (Y.Pr)0.06(3) Y1.Ce.Gd)2O3:Eu3+(2.Mg)3(PO4)2:Sn P1 ZSM P46 P34 P2 P43. 611 593.6Cd0.Sb2O3 Y3Al5O12:Ce3+(2) ZnS:Pb.Cu KMgF3:Mn2+ (Zn. YOE P49*.4S:Ag ZnS:Mn.Pr)0.Zn.Mg)3(PO4)2:Sn (Y.Mg)F2:Mn2+ MgF2:Mn2+ (Ca.Cl CsI:Tl(2) Zn0.Cu. 696 600 605 610 610 610 610 610 611 619 626 626 627 Zn2SiO4:Mn2+ Zn2SiO4:Mn2+ Zn2SiO4:Mn.34Gd0.06 Y2O3:Eu3+ YVO4:Eu3+ (Sr.Tb)MgAl11O19:Ce:Tb (La.

4Cd0.Table 1 Commercial phosphors and scintillators—continued Wavelength of maximum Chemical Designation emission (nm) formula or acronym 627 630 635 640 658 658 730 Gd2O2S:Eu3+ Zn0. P22 can be any of several compounds.Sn)O6:Mn2+ Mg4(F)GeO6:Mn2+ Gd3Ga5O12:Cr.6S:Ag Zn3(PO4)2:Mn2+ MgSiO3:Mn2+ Mg4(F)(Ge.Ce(2) P27 P13 GGG:Cr * These compositions are also sometimes designated as P22. (1) Core-valence luminescence (2) Single crystal scintillator (3) Transparent ceramic .

Appendices Historical Note on Phosphor Recipes Phosphor Materials Arranged in Order of Emission Wavelength Appendix III Willi Lehmann: A Brief Biography Appendix I Appendix II .

The term phosphorescence was. used to describe the emission of diffuse light from causes other than combustion. This phosphorescence property lent its name to the element (Figure 1). and meaning light carrying or luminous. for a time.1 Figure 1 Depiction of the discovery of phosphorus by Brand as perceived by Joseph Wright of Derby some years later (Copyright by Derby City Council Art Galleries. . combining (light) and (to carry). The element phosphorus (P) was discovered in such a search by Henning Brand (1669) while experimenting with concentrated urine.APPENDIX I Historical Note on Phosphor Recipes The word phosphorus derives from the Greek [fosforos]. this word was used more specifically to describe substances which became luminous following exposure to light excitation. distillation resulted in a white substance that gave out enough light to allow Brand to read in the dark. permission pending). the assignation of this word was given to any substance that evinced the property of phosphorescence. These developments and observations had their origin in alchemical attempts to manufacture noble metals through use of the evasive Philosopher’s Stone. Initially.

He explained that at low tide in the China Sea. there is documented evidence that phosphors have been produced and put to use as early as 2000 years ago as is recorded in a Chinese text (Figure 2). southern people (Japanese) frequented the beaches to harvest nacre. Following the fall of the Tang Dynasty. Li Yu. he spent five hundred thousand in cash to acquire the head of a phoenix complete with a shining and colorful skeleton. In the text. is given in the caption. none of them could explain the secret of the phenomena except for an officer in charge of religious matters named Zhan Nin. found the reference in a work dating back to the Six Dynasties (220–586 A. Writings or paintings using this ink had the properties of vanishing in daylight and becoming visible in the dark.C. used for the synthesis of sulfide phosphors occur naturally. a scholar named Du Gao. of Run Zhou. reference is made to a book published in the reign of Han Wu Di (140–88 B.) which would indicate that manmade phosphors have been available for more than 2000 years. the painting eventually passed to Tai Zong. Tamatani.).D.2 (A translation of the Chinese text. Xu presented the painting to his sovereign. born South of the Yangtze River. He acquired at the same time a painting of a cow. when viewed in the dark. Xiang-shan Ye Lu. All the court officials thought the Ning’s explanation was nonsense. Zhao. like a pillar. Tai Zong showed this painting to all his Ministers. from which this passage is taken. he claimed that he had obtained his information from a book. was the yongest son of the governor of Xu Wen. Often they found that these shells contained a special liquid which when collected and mixed with paint formed a special type of ink. . The Chinese written text reads as follows (right to left): Xu Zhi-e.Historically. it is apparent that phosphorescent materials have been around for some time. however. the picture showed the cow resting inside the barn. the last emperor of the Southern Tang Dynasty. such as calcium from seashells and sulfur from volcanic activity. The phosphors described were of the persistent type and were used in a painting which glowed in the dark and was considered to some to have inexplicable magic. it was five inches wide and the back of the head was flat.D. kindly provided by Professor Y. On one occasion. The page describing the phosphorescent painting is shown in Figure 2. He was fond of collecting rare antiques and other curios. courtesy of Dr. Some questions have been raised as to the accuracy of the compilations. the painting when viewed in daylight showed the cow grazing outside an open pen. the famous envoy sent to the Western regions by Han Wu Di.) Figure 2 Copy of the Chinese text describing the acquisition of a luminescent painting by Xu Zhi-e written for a compilation of historical and folk tales published in the Song dynasty (960–1279 A.) by Wen Ying. Later. The methods for preparing the phosphors or the phosphors used in these paintings apparently were obtained from Japan where raw materials. M. He added that in the sea shores of the land of southern people (Japan) sometimes strong winds would grind these rocks with water to form a similar paint. regardless. the second emperor of the Song Dynasty. Hai Wai Yi Ji written by Zhang Qian. The head possessed a red crest and a golden beak which vividly resembled those of a real rooster. who consulted some imperial collections.

In his book.e. Calcination was thought to produce pores in the stone. after a very hot fire has been made. When the oven has cooled off the cakes are taken out. Sometimes this is done three times. Montalbani described the various colors of light that could be obtained from the stone as a function of preparation and first suggested an analogy between the phosphorescence and burning.6 he reported that the recipe for the preparation of the stone had been lost by then and he apparently had not been aware of Potier’s pharmacological work. both authors were professors at the famed University of Bologna. barite) is found near Monte Paderno as scattered stones. There was considerable interest throughout Italy in these materials and attempts were made to use it as the Philosopher’s Stone (i. One popular belief advanced by Athanasius Kircher of Fulda (Hesse) was that the phosphorus attracted light much as a magnet attracted iron filings. that the faint light of a new moon was produced by lunar material similar to the Bolognian Stone. related in some detail the history of the stone and various attempts by the learned community in Bologna to explain the origin of the emitted light. they are calcinated for four or five hours. The method for preparation of the Bolognian Stone was described in detail by Pierre Potier in Pharmacopea Spagirica in 1625.4 it reads: According to the light-bearing quality sought for. As quoted by E. on the other hand. The experiments leading to this conclusion are detailed in Ars Magna Lucis Et Umbra. News regarding the unusual properties of the lapide Bononiensi was carried to the British Isles by John Evelyn (1620– 1706) following a visit to Bologna in 1645. though published in Latin. The first is to reduce the stone to very fine meal. Of course. he was the first to point out that phosphorescence only occurred after calcinations and he tried to explain the phenomena as due to the slow release of fire and/or light trapped in the material during exposure. when properly treated it gave rise to a reddish glow which led to the scientific study of luminescent objects.N. . The second is to reduce it to a meal and. Galileo was right and the diffuse light observed in that lunar phase is due to sunlight reflected from Earth. Potier’s recipe is likely the first phosphor recipe on record. Harvey. work it into cake either with water or the white of an egg.5 The properties of the phosphorescent stone attracted attention throughout the Italian peninsula and the European continent and led to much speculation as to the origin of the emission. published in 1646. Cesare La Galla described the properties of the stone in De Phenomenis in Orbe Lunae published in 1612. it (BaSO4) is calcinated in two ways. this suggestion lead to controversy on the source of this radiation with no lesser a luminary than Galileo Galilei. shining. From this powder various animals are formed in little boxes (pyxidiculum) which shine wonderfully in the dark. in the place of thalerum (?). The best calcinations results when stones.. then to calcinate it in a crucible with very strong fire. for example. Preliminary scientific investigations of the properties of this stone were discussed in De Illuminabili Lapide Bononiensi Epistola by Ovido Montalbani and in Litheosphorus Sive De Lapide Boboniensi by Fortinius Licetus in 1634 and 1640.3 The base material (BaSO4. Licetus. the stone was of interest to pharmacologists because it reputedly also possessed depilatory properties. as the catalyst for the conversion of ignoble to noble metals). pure and diaphanous are used. these pores then held air suffused with light whose gradual release led to the observed phosphorescence. respectively. If not cooked sufficiently the procedure is repeated as before.The denomination of phosphor (phosphori) first appeared in the seventeenth century in connection with the discovery of the Bolognian Stone (BaS) by Vincenzo Casciarolo in 1602. Licetus postulated. After they have dried out they are put in layers with coal in a blast furnace and.

Figure 3 (left). Drawing of the furnace used by Casciarolo for calcinations of BaSO4 (barite) to produce his magical stone. Balduin called his material phosphorus hermeticus and disclosed his results in Aurum Superius et Inferius Aurae Superioris et Inferioris Hermeticum which appeared simultaneous in Amsterdam and in Frankfurt in 1675. The second material is known as Homberg’s phosphorus named after Wilhelm Homberg (1652–1715) who made notable contributions to the foundation of modern chemistry and who had an interest in the photochromic properties of silver nitrate. The interest in light-emitting materials led to the invention and synthesis of three other phosphori of interest to the scientific and/or the alchemical communities of that period. When calcium nitrate is overheated it develops a yellowish tint and emits a reddish phosphorescence in the dark following exposure to sunlight. These drawings appeared in Il Fosforo o vero la Pietra Bolognese. he believed that the solution formed in this way represented a spiritus mundi and it is likely that the paint used in the Chinese paintings mentioned above was a solution of this type. This compound is hygroscopic and turns to a liquid when exposed to atmosphere. In the course of his . Because the material needed to be kept in a sealed vessel. The first one was due to Christian Adolph Balduin (1632–1682) who in 1675 prepared a phosphorescent form of calcium nitrate by mixing chalk and nitric acid and distilling the solution to dryness. published in 1680 by Cellio and are reproduced from Ref. His phosphor was henceforth named Balduin’s phophorus. 3. Note that the structure of this furnace is not much different than modern ovens used for similar purposes. this volume is in the University Library of Bologna. An illustration by Marc’Antonio Cellio allegorizing the magical phosphorescent qualities of the Bolognia Stone produced in the course of calcinations. (right). Balduin communicated his results to the Royal Society of London in 1676 and as a consequence was elected to Fellowship of the Society.

and optics. fascination. He showed. for one hour at least. and cutting. who in 1866 was able to grow small ZnS crystals using sublimation. by which means it is now in every person’s power to amuse himself and his friends with these curious experiments. Homberg synthesized calcium chloride sometime in the 1690’s and showed it had phosphorescence properties. the phenomena of and the origin of the observed phosphorescence were sources of much interest. Theodore Sidot. In 1768. much as a sponge would absorb water and then release it as it is squeezed. though the language in the recipe is a bit arcane. rather than being attracted like a sponge or magnet to the stone. Joseph Priestly cites Canton in The History and Present State of Discoveries Relating to Vision. In 1652. The idea of the Bolognian Stone attracting light and causing the phosphorescence either by reemitting the light or by reflecting it. which. a man born under modest circumstances. Beginning with the discovery of the Bolognian Stone. turn it out of the crucible. magnetism. His receipt for making it is as follows: “Calcinate some common oyster shells. and speculation. of about an inch and a half depth. upon trial. and may be preserved by keeping it in a dry phial with a ground stopple. When it is cold. he found that his crystals phosphoresced in the dark.” We note.7 John Canton (1718–1772). and has the advantage of being easily and cheaply prepared. in 1751 for making artificial magnets and in 1765 for measuring the compressibility of water. however. persisted well into the nineteenth century. by keeping them in a good coal fire for half an hour. He attributed this explanation to Galileo Galilei (1564–1642) himself. he reported in Philosophical Transactions the discovery of a strong phosphorescent material which was promptly named Canton’s phosphorus (CaS). published in London in 1772.experimentations. of course. the method described is not much different than some of those presented in Section 2 of this work. Light and Colours. the synthesis methods and experimental results were reported to the French Academy by Edmond Becquerel in a note in 1866 and the material . had a wide ranging set of scientific interests including electricity. Mix with three parts of this powder one part of flowers of sulphur. In addition to Kircher’s conjecture as to the source of the light noted above. let this mixture be rammed in a crucible. till it be almost full. will be a white powder.3 The beginning of modern studies of phosphor synthesis can be attributed to a French chemist.8 His report is the earliest recipe of any phosphor written in English. the brightest pieces. where it must be kept red hot. reported that the intensity of the phosphorescence emitted from the stone was proportional to the intensity of the excitation light and that the color of the light emitted was independent of the coloration of the excitation light. or breaking to pieces. and then be set by to cool. Priestly writes (pages 370–372):9 In the next place I shall present my reader with an account of this composition of Mr. Canton’s which makes an artificial phosphorus greatly superior to any single natural substance. These conclusions were reaffirmed in 1728 by Francesco Zanotti who also asserted that the light. scrape off. Nicola Zucchi (1586–1670). emanated the radiation on its own. Although Sidot’s original purpose was to study crystal growth. others such as Giullio Cesare La Galla (1576–1624) of Rome speculated that the emissions were due to the slow release of fire and light trapped in the stone in the process of calcinations. and let it be placed in the middle of the fire. for example. and let the purest part of the calx be pulverized and sifted. that clouds were electrified both positively and negatively and designed experimental methods that are (even now) used to determine the sign of charges via induction. another Professor from Rome. He was awarded the Copley Medal of the Royal Society twice. if good phosphorus.

html>).14 the word luminescence is used to describe most light emission processes following some form of excitation.16 Because of the advent of atomic and quantum physics and chemistry and the work of many researchers in this area of inquiry which preceded us.e. (<http://www. Klatt and Philip Leonard also showed that the phosphorescence properties of CaS and other phosphori depended on the presence of metal contaminants. hence they were named activator ions. Elementymology & Elements Multidict: Phosphors (2003).10 About this time. Because of his extensive work on phosphors detailed in a Handbuch article. for example.vanderkrogt. The latter ions form diverse centers in the material and are said to activate the luminescence. only to those materials which become self-luminous after exposure to light). The word phosphor began to be applied in a more limited sense (i. He was able to synthesize not only Sidot’s blende but also a series of alkaline earth chalcogenides (sulfides and selenides) and demonstrated that the light emission of the compounds could be altered by introducing metallic ions into the materials. as of late. One of the principals there was Humboldt Leverenz who developed synthesized and investigated the properties of many the luminescent materials that are even now in use. 110–130 (1968). alkaline chalcogenide phosphors are called Lenard phosphors. pp. Becquerel discusses at length the phosphorescence of various compounds including ruby (Al2O3:Cr3+). The Phosphor Handbook contains an updated discussion of modern synthesis methods as well as the description of phosphors suitable for a variety of technical purposes. References 1. however. J.E. Educ.15 Because of the necessity for better phosphors for the display industries in the late 1940’s and early 1950’s. Weeks. P.. M. In 1950.A.was named Sidot’s blende. considerable work took place at the Radio Corporation of America (RCA)..12 Results of studies by V. still in use to categorize longand short-lived luminescent emissions. we have now a much better understanding as to the mechanisms which produce luminescence in solids and we are almost to the point where we can begin thinking in terms of designing and tailoring materials to our specific technical needs.net/elements/chronology_index. for many years this work was accepted as the standard text in the phosphor art and material in the book remains useful even today. respectively. he published An Introduction to Luminescence in Solids in which he summarized much of his life’s work. La Lumiere-Ses Causes et Ses Effects (1867). the word phosphor is used to describe principally solid luminescent inorganic materials. the terminology describing phosphorescent phenomena was revised. Philip E. It is our hope that the present volume serves to complement the information found in that handbook. Lenard and his co-workers helped to establish phosphor research on a firm scientific footing at the turn of the nineteenth and the beginning of the twentieth century.11 perhaps due to his involvement in the discovery of Sidot’s blende. .. This led to a long-lasting controversy with Lecoq de Boisbaudran who proved to be correct in proposing that the R-line fluorescence arose due to the presence of chromium. is due to trace amounts of copper. the emission from Sidot’s blende. van der Krogt.13 In the late 1800’s. Phosphorescence and fluorescence are.. Chem. Becquerel published his opus on light. Discovery of the elements. The technical differences between fluorescence and phosphorescence were resolved following the introduction in 1888 of the word luminescence by Eilhardt Wiedemann in chemical processes. He believed that in the latter case the luminescence observed in this gem was an intrinsic property of alumina and that Cr simply played a role as an activator.

Canton. 13. E.. 6.B. Bull. 38. London (1973). L. Boca Raton. 12. FL. V.. 7.. Kricka. Pazzagli. John (1718–1772). Guy Hill for contributing this citation. Phosphoreszenz und Fluoreszenz.. Yen . Paris. 11. (1998)..M. He was one of the principals in establishing the Royal Society. P. 16. Becquerel. M. 4.. Schmidt. 1107 (1886). J. E.. 3. P... and Stanley.uk/>). 23. Hist.E.. An Introduction to Luminescence of Solids. Roda. Lecoq. and Tomaschek. Rend.. Wiedemann.J.. (2003) (<http://www. Librairie de Firmin Didot Frerers. Chem. 9... Roda. 21–24 (1989). William M. Shionoya. Leverenz.N. Whatever happened to Wilhem Homberg?.E. Klatt. and subsequently the Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society in 1665.. New York (1950). Ph. and Lenard. E. F. La Luminiere-Ses Causes et ses Effets. Compt. R. Becquerel. I am grateful to Dr.. Harvey. Acad. Sci. The various antique volumes cited are in depository at the University Library of Bologna. A. 3. Chapter 4. in Bioluminescence and Chemiluminescence: Perspectives for the 21stCentury. Acad. Evelyn. M. in Handbuch der Experimentalphysik. John Evelyn is a famed seventeenth century chronicler and diarist who traveled extensively in Europe in the early 1600’s. E. and Tamitani. and Yen. John Wiley & Sons. Akademie Verlagsgesellschaft.A. J. 90 (1889). 103. 34.. John. S.. History of phosphors technology. A. Vol. 10. Dent & Sons.aim25. 63. he is also known for his books on flora and gardening. Phys. H. The discovery of luminescence: the Bolognian Stone. Jensen.W. CRC Press. 15. Ann. 898. Fils et Cie...M. p. W. American Philosophical Society. 5.. Nakajima. Rend.2. Lenard. 188 (1866). Accounts of his visit to Bologna in 1644–1645 appear in the inaugural volumes of the transactions and are also found in editions of his dairies: for example. John Wiley & Sons. W. Italy. Sci. AIM25: Royal Society: Canton.. Philadelphia (1957). Wied. A History of Luminescence. in Phosphor Handbook. Compt. Ann. New York (1998). 14. Eds.. Dairy of John Evelyn. Chem.ac. Complete Works. 8. 46 (1888). S.. (1867) de Boisbaudran. Leipzig (1928)... Eds.

388 348 348. 319 302. 370. 355 288 295 300. 413 365 366 366 368 370 370 370 371 375 375 376 376 Chemical formula -Ca3(PO4)2:Pb2+ (CeMg)SrAl11O18:Ce (CeMg)BaAl11O18:Ce YAl3B4O12:Ce3+ LaOCl:Bi3+ LaSiO3Cl:Ce3+ BaSi2O5:Pb2+ YAlO3:Ce3+ -Ca2P2O7:Sn.Br) YAl3B4O12:Eu3+. 319 303 305 307 309.Cl SrO·3B2O3:Eu2+.APPENDIX II Phosphor Materials Arranged in Order of Emission Wavelength The phosphors and scintillators in Sections 4.5:Eu2+ SrB4O7:Eu2+(F. 310 233 254 254 267 280.Cl SrwFxB4O6. 400. 460 302. 337 320. 371 358–385 359 359. 355 335 Chemical formula BaF2 CaSO4:Pb2+ BaMgAl10O17:Ce3+ YAlO3:Ce3+ MgSO4:Pb2+ Ca3Al2Si3O12:2%Ce3+ Ca2B5O9Cl:Pb2+ YAl3B4O12:Bi3+ LaOBr:Tm3+ BaSO4:Ce3+ SrSO4:Ce3+ -SrO·3B2O3:Pb2+ CeF3 MgSrAl10O17:Ce CaSO4:Ce3+ SrB4O7:Pb2+ CaO:Cd2+ CsI LuTaO4:Nb5+ CaSr2(PO4)2:Bi3+ -Ca3(PO4)2:Tl+ CaF2:Ce3+ Ca2P2O7:Ce3+ LaPO4:Ce3+ CaB2O4:Pb2+ YTaO4 LaCl3:Ce3+ CaO:Zn2+ YPO4:Ce3+ CaSiO3:Pb2+ Wavelength (nm) 337 338 342–347 347. and 8 are listed in order of increasing wavelength of the maximum emission. Wavelength (nm) 220.Mn BaSi2O5:Pb -Ca3(PO4)2:Ce3+ LaBr3:Ce3+ MgBa(SO4)2:Eu2+ Ca5(PO4)3Cl:Sn2+ Ca3SiO4Cl2:Pb2+ -Ca3(PO4)2:Ce3+ CaO:Pb2+ KMgF3:Eu2+ CaSiO3:Ce3+ LuAlO3:Ce3+ CaS:Pb2+ CaS:Pb2+. 660 362 363 363. 7. 575 351 352. 327 310 314 315 315 319 320 320.Cr3+ SrB4O7:Eu MgSO4:Eu2+ Y2O3:Ce3+ in SiO2 BaSO4:Eu2+ SrSO4:Eu2+ 453 . 370 350 350 350. 344 320.Cl. 636 360 360. 345 325 330 330–352 333 334.

Ga3+ ZnO:Ga3+ CaSO4:Eu2+. Pb2+ Ca2MgSi2O7:Ce3+ LaOBr:Tb3+ YBO3:Ce3+ Mg2Sr(SO4)3:Eu2+ CaSO4:Eu2+ ZnO:Al3+. 660 413 413 413.Br.Mn2+ CaCl2:Eu2+ in SiO2 MSL CaWO4 CaWO4:W CsI:Na+ Lu2SiO5:Ce3+ Sr2P2O7:Eu2+ SrF2:Eu2+ –Sr3(PO4)2:Eu2+ CaF2:Eu2+ CaSiO3:Eu2+ CaSiO3:Ti4+ -Sr3(PO4)2:Eu2+ Sr2B5O9Cl:Eu2+ (Lu.I)2:Eu2+ CaAl4O7:Ce3+ CaAl2O4:Ce3+ Ba3(PO4)2:Eu2+ Ca3Al2Si3O12:Ce3+ Wavelength (nm) 410 410 410. 440 385.Wavelength (nm) 378 380 380 380.Mn2+ Ca5(PO4)3F:Sn2+ CaYBO4:Bi3+ Y2O3:Bi3+ YOF:Tb3+ Ba2Mg3F10:Eu2+ Ca3Al2Si3O12:Eu2+ Lu1–xYxAlO3:Ce3+ NaI:Tl Y2SiO5:Ce3+ YPO4:V5+ Ca2P2O7:Eu2+ Ca2P2O7:Eu2+. 617 405. 620 405–432 407 407 410 410 Chemical formula -Sr3(PO4)2:Sn2+ BaFCl:Eu2+ Lu2Si2O7:Ce3+ Na2Mg3Al2Si2O10:Tb3+ BaFBr:Eu2+ BaFCl:Eu2+. 528 414–626 415 415 415 415 415 415 416 416. 410. 440. 413 386 388 388 388 388. 415.Gd)2SiO5:Ce3+ Ba2Li2Si2O7:Sn2+ GdNbO4:Bi3+ CaWO4 . 525 403 405 405 405. 610 411 411 412 412. 643 418 418–420 420 420 420 420 420 420 422 423 423 423 425 425 425–430 429 430 432 continued Chemical formula MgBaP2O7:Eu2+ YTaO4:Nb5+ BaMg3F8:Eu2+.Mn2+ Sr(Cl.Mn2+ MgBaP2O7:Eu2+.Mn2+ YOCl:Ce3+ Zn2SiO4:Ti4+ –Ca3(PO4)2:Eu2+ –Ca3(PO4)2:Eu2+. 540 385 385 385 385. 512 390 390 390 391 391 394 395 400 400 400 400.Mn2+ CsF MgSrP2O7:Eu2+ ZnO:Ga Ca2MgSi2O7 CaO:Bi3+ BaF2:Eu2+ KAl11O17:Tl+ BaB8O13:Eu2+ BaMg2Si2O7:Eu2+ Zn2SiO4:Ti P46 (70%) + P47 (30%) CaB2P2O9:Eu2+ Mg2Ca(SO4)3:Eu2+ SrCl2:Eu2+ in SiO2 Mg2Ca(SO4)3:Eu2+.

Wavelength (nm) 433 433 435 435 435 437 438.Mn2+ Sr3MgSi2O8:Eu2+ ZnS:Cl– ZnGa2O4 Wavelength (nm) 460 460 463.Yb3+ CaS:La3+ ZnS:Pb2+.Ni CaI2:Eu2+ in SiO2 Sr2MgSi2O7:Eu2+ SrMgSi2O6:Eu CdWO4 MgWO4 BaAl2S4:Eu2+ YF3:Mn2+.75 Y2O2S:Eu3+ -Ca3(PO4)2:Eu2+ BaGa2S4:Eu2+ Sr5Si4O10Cl6:Eu2+ ThO2:Pr3+ SrIn2O4:Pr3+. 530 445 446 447 448 448 448. 390 450 450 450 451 453 453 454. 486 440 440 440 440 443 443 443 444.Na CaO:Cu+ BaMgAl10O17:Eu2+ CaS:Bi3+ Mg3Ca3(PO4)4:Eu2+ Sr5(PO4)3F:Sn2+ Ca2B5O9Br:Eu2+ Ca2B5O9Cl:Eu2+ BaGa2S4:Ce3+ SrGa2S4:Ce3+ ZnS-CdS:Ag+.25(BaCl2)0.Cl ZnS:Cu Ca5(PO4)3Cl:Eu2+ ZnS–CdS:Cu. 570 485 485 486 488 490. 514 459 459 460 Chemical formula CaBr2:Eu2+ in SiO2 CaWO4:Pb CaF2:Eu2+ Ca5(VO4)3Cl CaWO4:Pb2+ Ba5(PO4)3Cl:Eu2+ CaS:Cu+.Cl– ZnS:Cu+.Mn2+ ZnS:Au.Th4+ Ca3MgSi2O8:Eu2+ Bi4Ge3O12 Sr6P5BO20:Eu ZnWO4 YVO4:Dy3+ Bi4Ge3O12 YF3:Tm3+.Ti)2P2O7:Ti BaTiP2O7 Ca5(PO4)3F:Sb3+ . 532 465 465 467 467 470 470/540 473 475 477 477.In Sr2P2O7:Sn2+ ZnS:Ag.Cl– (ErCl3)0. 490 454—800 455–504 456 456 456.Na+ BaSrMgSi2O7:Eu2+ Gd2SiO5: Ce3+ MgBa3Si2O8:Eu2+ MgSrBa2Si2O7:Eu2+ CaAl2O4:Eu2+ CaS:Y3+ ZnS:Ag+. 500. 680 490–630 492 492 492 492. 512 464 464 464. 490 454.Cl– Ba5SiO4Cl6:Eu2+ Sr5(PO4)3Cl:Eu2+ Sr5(PO4)3Cl:Eu CaMgSi2O6:Eu2+ CaS:Bi3+.Al3+ (Ba.Cl CaGa2S4:Ce3+ La2O3:Bi3+ SrB4O7:Pb2+. 656 493 494 495 496 continued Chemical formula Sr2P2O7:Sn2+ ZnS:Ag. 521 479 480 480 480 480 480.I BaMgAl10O17:Eu2+.Th4+ YF3:Mn2+ YPO4:Mn2+.

Na Ba2Li2Si2O7:Sn2+.Mn2+ MgBa2(PO4)2:Sn2+ SrAl12O19:Eu2+.F Sr5(PO4)3F:Sb3+ Ba2MgSi2O7:Eu2+ SrxBayClzAl2O4–z/2:Mn2+.Cl KGa11O17:Mn2+ BaAl2O4:Eu2+ ZnGa2O4:Mn2+ SrS:Ce3+ BaSi2O5:Eu2+ Ca2Ba3(PO4)3Cl:Eu2+ MgGa2O4:Mn2+ ZnO:Zn SrGa12O19:Mn2+ ZnO:S -Ca3(PO4)2:Sn2+ Ba2Li2Si2O7:Eu2+ Ba2SiO4:Eu2+ Sr5(PO4)3F:Sb3+.As5+ Zn2SiO4:Mn2+ ZnS–CdS:Cu.Wavelength (nm) 496 496 496 496 496.As5+ ZnS–CdS:Cu.Ce. 575 510 510 510 510 512 512 513 514 514 514 514 514 514 517 519 519 520 520 Chemical formula CaF2:Ce3+.5Ba0.Cu ZnS-CdS(75–25) Ca2MgSi2O7:Eu2+ LaSiO3Cl:Ce3+.Mn2+ Zn2GeO4:Mn2+ CaO:Sb3+ CaP2O6:Mn2+ CaS:Sn2+ CaS:Sn2+. 528 522 522 523 525 525 525 525 525 527 528 528 528 528.Br Zn2SiO4:Mn2+.Ce3+ Y2O2S:Pr3+ -SrO·3B2O3:Pb2+.Br CaSO4:Ce3+.Mn2+ Sr5(PO4)3F:Sb3+ Gd2O2S:Pr3+ Gd2O2S:Pr. 564 504 504 504 504 505 506 508 508 508 509.Tb3+ .Al3+ CaS:Ce3+ LiAl5O8:Mn2+ LiAlO2:Mn2+ SrAl2O4:Eu2+ CdS:In MgAl2O4:Mn2+ SrBaSiO4:Eu2+ Zn2SiO4:Mn2+.Pb2+.Mn2+ Ca2B2O5:Mn2+ Sr5(PO4)3Cl:Sb3+ SrGa2S4:Eu2+ YAl3B4O12:Th4+.Mn2+ Ca3SiO4Cl2:Eu2+ Ca3WO6:U ZnAl2O4:Mn2+ ZnS:Cu.Mn2+ Ca0.Sn CaLaB3O7:Ce3+.5Al12O19:Ce3+.Mn2+ CaF2:Mn2+ MgWO4 SrAl2S4:Eu2+ CaS:Pr3+.F MgBa2(PO4)2:U ZnS:Pb.Mn2+ Zn2SiO4:Mn2+. 608 528. 649 529 530 530 530 532 534 535 537 537 537 537 539 539 539 539 540 540 540 542 542 continued Chemical formula Ca5(PO4)3Cl:Sb3+ ZnS:Cu+. 670 498 502 502 502.P (Zn+Be)2SiO4:Mn2+ CaF2:U CaB2O4:Mn2+ CaMoO4 Y3Al5O12:Ce3+ SrS:Cu+.Mn2+ Wavelength (nm) 521 521 521.Ce3+.Mn2+ CdS:In SrAl12O19:Ce3+.

Yb3+ BaY2F8:Er3+.Tb)PO4:Ce:Tb CaF2:Ce3+.Na CaS:Tb3+.Yb3+ ZnS:Eu2+ Ba5(PO4)3Cl:U Sr3WO6:U ZnS:Eu2+ Sr2SiO4:Eu2+ CaS:Sm3+ CaGa2S4:Eu2+ MgF2:Mn2+ CsI:Tl Zn0.Cd)S:Cu CsI:Tl+ Na3Ce(PO4)2:Tb3+ NaYF4:Er3+.4S:Ag Y2O3:Er3+ Ba3WO6:U CaAl4O7:Pb2+.Ce.6Cd0.Cl (Y.Mn2+ LaAlO3:Sm3+ SrSO4:Eu2+.Mn2+ .Tb3+ CaS:Sb3+ CaS:Sb3+.Mn2+ Sr5(PO4)3Cl:Mn2+ Mg3SiO3F4:Ti4+ YOBr:Eu3+ LiInO2:Sm3+ LaAsO4:Eu3+ ZnS:P ZnS:P3–.Cl La2O3:Pb2+ (Zn.Tb3+ ZnB2O4:Mn2+ Y2O3:Tb3+ Ca2MgSi2O7:Eu2+. 689 continued Chemical formula YF3:Er3+.Tb3+ (Ce.Cu.Tb3+ Y2O3:Tb3+ in SiO2 YAlO3:Tb3+ ZnS:Ag.Wavelength (nm) 542 542 542.5:Pb2+ CaAl2O4:Mn2+ La2O2S:Tb3+ SrS:Mn2+ Y2O2S:Tb3+ Y2O3:Ho3+ Y3Al5O12:Tb3+ CaO:Tb3+ YAl3B4O12:Ce3+.Mn2+ YPO4:Ce3+.Cl– Y3Al5O12:Eu3+ ZnS:Mn2+ ZnS-CdS:Ag. 670 551.Gd)BO3:Tb3+ Ca2La2BO6. 665 550.Mn2+ CaS:Tb3+ Gd2O2S:Tb3+ Y2O2S:Tb3+ CaAl2O4:Tb3+ MgCeAl11O19:Tb3+ ThO2:Tb3+ Y2O3:Ce3+.Yb3+ Y3Al5O12:Ce3+ Wavelength (nm) 550.Tb)MgAl11O19:Ce:Tb (La.Ni ZnS:Mn.Mn2+ Sr5(PO4)3F:Mn2+ Ca5(PO4)3F:Mn2+ Li2CaP2O7:Ce3+. 689 542–549 542–549 542–549 543 543 543 543 543 543 543 544 544 544 544 544 544 544 544 544–549 545 545 546 546 546 546 546 546 546 550 550 550 550 550 Chemical formula YAl3B4O12:Ce3+.Br.Mn2+ CaO:Sm3+ CaSiO3:Pb2+.Cu KMgF3:Mn2+ MgCaP2O7:Mn2+ ZnF2:Mn2+ CaMgSi2O6:Eu2+. 636 551 551 551 556 556–608 559 559 560 560 562 563 564 564–644 566 566–620 571 571 573 574 574 575 577–630 577–670 577–695 579 579 580 582 582 584 585 585 585 585. 550 542.

Mg)F2:Mn2+ Ca5(PO4)3Cl:Mn2+ CaGa2O4:Mn2+ CaGa4O7:Mn2+ CaO:Eu3+.Zn.8O3.34Gd0. 695 586–699 588 588 588.Na+ KMgF3:Mn2+ MgF2:Mn2+ Sr5(PO4)3Cl:Eu2+. 629 593.Pr3+ Y4Al2O9:Eu3+ ThO2:Eu3+ CaCl2:Eu2+.Mn2+ CaO:Eu3+ SrTiO3:Pr3+ YAsO4:Eu3+ LiCeBa4Si4O14:Mn2+ LiCeSrBa3Si4O14:Mn2+ YAlO3:Eu3+ CaGeO3:Mn2+ CaY2ZrO6:Eu3+ .Wavelength (nm) 586 586.V)O4:Eu3+ K2La2Ti3O10:Eu3+ YPO4:Eu3+ KMgF3:Mn2+ CaO:Mn2+ ZnS–CdS (50–50) YAlO3:Sm3+ LaAlO3:Eu3+ LiInO2:Eu3+ Wavelength (nm) 608 608 608 608 609 610 610 610 610 611 611 611 611 611 611 611 612 612 612 612 612 614 614 614 614 614 614 614–699 615 615 615 615 615 615 615–695 617 617 continued Chemical formula CaS:Pb2+. 827 589–627 590 590 590 590 590 590 590 590 590 592. 696 594. 629 593 593.Gd)2O3:Eu3+ (Ca.Gd)BO3:Eu3+ Y(P. 702 595.Mg)3(PO4)2:Sn CaSiO3:Mn2+.Mn2+ SrGa2S4:Pb2+ SrSO4:Bi YBO3:Eu3+ CaYBO4:Eu3+ (Y. 660 588.Pr)0.Pb Y1. 619 696 593.60O3(Eu. 683. 611. 620.42Eu0.7:Eu3+ Na1. 619. 591.06 Ca5B2SiO10:Eu3+ CaGa2S4:Pb2+ CaLaBO4:Eu3+ CaYB0.23K0. 608.Mn2+(Al) LiLaO2:Eu3+ Ba2SiO4:Ce3+.Mn2+ in SiO2 YVO4:Eu3+ (Y. 617.Li+.12TiSi4O11:Eu3+ SrY2O3:Eu3+ Y2O3:Eu3+ CaTiO3:Eu3+ CaTiO3:Pr3+ NaYO2:Eu3+ SrAl4O7:Eu3+ Y2O3:Eu3+ in SiO2 CaMoO4:Eu3+ CaSO4:Bi LaBO3:Eu3+ LaOCl:Eu3+ YAl3B4O12:Eu3+ -Sr3(PO4)2:Sn2+. 710 596 599 600 602 605 605 Chemical formula LaAlB2O6:Eu3+ LaPO4:Eu3+ LaVO4:Eu3+ CaS:Mn2+ MgS:Eu2+ MgB2O4:Mn2+ CaO:Tl+ YOF:Eu3+ (Zn.

Mn2+ in SiO2 742 LiAlO2:Fe3+ 639 Zn3(PO4)2:Mn2+ 747 CaS:Yb2+ 640 CdS:Te 747 CaS:Yb2+.29K0.9Al0.6S:Ag 730 Gd3Ga5O12:Cr.42Eu0.K 645 ZnO:Bi3+ CdS:In.Cl– 640.Te La2W3O12:Eu3+ 646 -Ca3(PO4)2:Sn2+ LaAl3B4O12:Eu3+ 646 ZnGa2S4:Mn2+ MgYBO4:Eu3+ 646 ZnS:Mn2+.Sn)O6:Mn2+ 623 LiAlF4:Mn2+ 658 Mg4(F)GeO6:Mn2+ 623 ZnS:Sn.Te2+ Na1.Mn2+ 626 LaOF:Eu3+ 626 ZnO:Se 684–732 SrwFxByOz:Eu2+.Mg)3(PO4)2:Sn 681 LiAl5O8:Fe3+ 681 MgSr3Si2O8:Eu2+.1O3:Bi3+ 640 MgSr5(PO4)4:Sn2+ 800 CdS:Ag+.23K0.08TiSi4O11:Eu3+ 641 ZnBa2S3:Mn2+ __________________________________________________________________________ .4Cd0. 2+ 2+ 629 -(Ca.Al3+ 642 BaS:Au.Mg)3(PO4)2:Mn2+ 2+ 635 Zn3(PO4)2:Mn 730 Gd3Ga5O12:Cr3+ 636 CaI2:Eu2+.Sr)3(PO4)2:Sn .Cl 649 CaS:Eu2+ ·xH2O:Eu3+ 620 SrS:Eu2+ 646 ZnS-ZnTe:Mn2+ 98-2 650 ZnS:Te.Ce 633 (Zn.Li+ 660 ZnS–CdS (25–75) 2+ 661 SrMoO4:U 625 Cd2B6O11:Mn 3+ 625 La2O3:Eu 680 -SrO·3B2O3:Sm2+ 626 (Sr.Wavelength (nm) 617 618 620 620 620 620 Chemical formula Wavelength (nm) continued Chemical formula SrTiO3:Pr3+.Ag 660 Mg2SiO4:Mn2+ 623 ZnS:Pb.12TiSi5O13 646 ZnSe:Cu+.Mn 620 YOCl:Eu3+ 2+ 658 Mg2TiO4:Mn4+ 620 ZnMg2(PO4)2:Mn 621 CaYAlO4:Eu3+ 658 Mg4(F)(Ge.46Er0.Cu 660 Mg8Ge2O11F2:Mn4+ 623 ZnS:Sn2+. 667 Y3Al5O12:Mn4+ 1540 Na1. 707.Mn 725 Y3Al5O12:Cr3+ 629 Be2SiO4:Mn2+ 689 ZnS:Sn 4+ 630 K2SiF6:Mn 695 Na(Mg2–xMnX)LiSi4O10F2:Mn 713 CaGa2S4:Mn2+ 630 Zn0.Sm2+ 685 SrB8O13:Sm2+ 626 ZnS:Pb2+ 627 Gd2O2S:Eu3+ 688.Cl 640 MgSiO3:Mn2+ 760 CaTi0.

he was promoted to sergeant (Feldwebel) in December 1944 and immediately assigned to an active combat unit defending the home front. Willi was assigned to a long range reconnaissance unit on the Eastern front at Luga near Leningrad. On his third attempt. His boot camp was in East Prussia and he did not take well to the training which was according to him “. He attempted again to get home in June of 1947 was caught again and confined to solitary for a period. he began reading mathematics books and establishing a technical background which he drew on for the rest of his life. He was captured by American forces on February 28. Hans. Hitler assumed power in Germany in 1933 and of course affected the course of history dramatically and disastrously. France. a camp librarian and as a farmer’s aid during his captivity in Belgium. 1945 and interned in Le Mans. Willi possessed a keen intellectual sense and a deep natural curiosity.APPENDIX III Willi Lehmann: A Brief Biography Information about Willi’s early life in Germany has been kindly supplied by one of his sons. He finished elementary school in 1928 and attended a trade school for gardeners until 1931 as preparation for taking responsibilities in the family’s plant nursery business. From his teens and in his own words. dirty and plain stupid. Later he moved on to become a truck mechanic in the motor pool which moved to Le Havre in December 1945. he found himself moving from place to place with his unit…in Cherkov (Ukraine). Unavoidably. While a U. Willi had a brief flirtation with the SA but did not become a member. He worked variously as a miner. 461 . He completed a photography course in Tutow and in 1939–1940 was promoted to corporal (Unteroffizier) as the head of a small photo group at the Luftkreigsschule in Werden. Willi demonstrated some of his intrinsic versatility for in short order he become the camp’s typewriter repairman. his circumstances in the camp improved so much so that in the summer of 1946 he made his first of five escape attempts. which would eventually bring him into the international phosphor community.” With the encouragement of a library clerk. in 1934 he joined the Deutscher Luftsport Verband. Participation in the club activities naturally led to his gravitating to the air force when his time came for military service in 1936. For example. Kiev. In September of 1947. Willi was born born in 1914 in Dinslaken am Niederrhein..” He consequently volunteered to become a photographer for the air force when an opportunity arose. and I started to dream about one day becoming an engineer or scientist. one of the glider club precursors to the Luftwaffe. he was able to cross into Belgium but was captured and interned by the Belgians. instead. he became interested and did some calculations and some nascent experiments in rocket propulsion. in the form of brief autobiography Willi wrote for his family in 1990. With each change of position. With the war situation in flux through 1943. world events intruded into his pastoral life and set him on a long odyssey. though the report went no further.. On his first two escape attempts. near Berlin. Willi managed to construct a workable bicycle out of parts from discarded bikes and was able to ride all the way to Germany and a joyful family reunion in Dinslaken. and Minsk. Smolensk.S. In the Fall of 1941. After a short interlude as an engineering student. Willi was offered a post as photographer at the rocket facilities in Peenemunde which he declined. Breslau (Wroclaw). while engaged in the glider Verband. He submitted a report on his work to the Air Ministry (Reichluftfahrtministerium). he was recaptured in France by the French and interned first in Sedan and then near the Belgian border. “Work in father’s nursery was pretty dull. prisoner.hot.

He thought briefly about starting his own phosphor business but rejected the idea on grounds of his lack of acumen in business matters. Professor Krautz directed them to apply for positions in the lamp division of Westinghouse Electric then located in Bloomfield. Willi passed away on January 12. Mrs. Willi and Claus Haake obtained their Diplom. Claus Haake.Nat) shortly thereafter. George. accepted. and arrived in the States on October 1953 following an extended wait for immigration documents. Also as noted in the Foreword. Ivey Coconut Grove. New Jersey. Lehmann returned to Pittsburgh and currently resides there. Instruction commenced at the University in march 1948. The new Mrs. William M. On arrival at Westinghouse. just in time to return to the war. he was allowed to attend the Techschule in Duisberg. of course. In view of the dearth of jobs for physicists in postwar Germany. 1993 from brain cancer. Willi retired in 1982 at the age of 68 and took up residence in North Carolina. Lehmann. and with Lawrence Livermore Laboratories in the late 1980’s.) in 1950. In the early 1980’s. As their initiation as students. Willi’s work on electroluminescence had attracted sufficient interest that he was approached by the University at Braunschweig to explore the possibilities of submitting his work in partial fulfillment of requirements for a doctorate degree. Willi recalled that his first instructor was Erich Krautz who not only taught the Applied Physics course but also nurtured him through to his candidacy in physics (Cand. Professor Krautz also succeeded in getting Willi a scholarship which covered all his school expenses and relieved the financial burden on the Lehmann family now headed by an older brother.S. Both were offered positions. Willi along with a wartime friend. Following his return to Germany. wooed and wed Renate Bauer. Willi met. Yen Athens. He acted as a consultant with Rogers Corp. Paul. Indeed. Phys.In the middle of his posting to the Eastern Front. Georgia Henry F. It is interesting to note that by 1956. Willi attempted and passed a Begrabtemprufung (examination for the gifted) in the summer of 1944.rer. Willi’s father having passed on in 1942. It was here that he was first encountered physics as a discipline and it immediately piqued his interest. Physiker’s (equivalent to American M. Willlie was granted an extended leave so that he could attend an engineering school in Germany. During the waiting period. He was granted the degree of Doctor of Natural Sciences (Dr. Hans. his thesis entitled “The Electroluminescence of Zinc Sulfide Phosphors as an Equilibrium Process” was submitted in late 1957 and accepted. applied for admission to the Technical University of Braunschweig in October 1947. This proved to be a problem since he did not possess the proper credentials (arbitur) to matriculate in a university level program having attended a trade rather than a traditional Gymnasium. Florida . and Mary) were all born in the United States. Through a special dispensation. they had to help in the reconstruction of university buildings and other facilities destroyed during the hostilities. His contributions in this field and his other activities at Bloomfield and later at Westinghouse R&D in Pittsburgh are detailed in the Foreword. In order to bypass the arbitur requirements. accompanied Willi to the States and their four children (Caren. degree) in 1952. Willi was given the choice of areas to investigate. he developed an interest in diffraction and the limits that it imposed on resolution and was also attracted by the furor surrounding the announcement of cold fusion. The children and several grandchildren appear to be prospering. He chose to study electroluminescence and electroluminescent phosphors.

Materials Index .

Yb3+. CaAl2O4:Eu2+.Tb3+. CaF2:Eu2+. C CaAl2O4:Mn2+. BaMg3F8:Eu2+. Ca2Ba3(PO4)3Cl:Eu2+. CaB2P2O9:Eu2+. BaSi2O5:Pb2+.5:Pb2+.Mn2+.Mn2+. Ba2Mg3F10:Eu2+. CaMgSi2O6:Eu2+. CaAl4O7:Ce3+. Ca2B5O9Cl:Pb2+. BaxSr1-xF2:Eu2+. Ca2MgSi2O7:Eu2+. BaF2. BaFCl:Eu2+. BaMgAl10O17:Ce3+.Mn2+.Mn2+. BaMgAl10O17:Eu2+. BaGa2S4:Eu2+. Ba2SiO4:Ce3+. BaMgAl10O17:Eu2+. CaGeO3:Mn2+. Ca2MgSi2O7. Ca3MgSi2O8:Eu2+.Mn2+. Ca2B5O9Cl:Eu2+. Ca3Al2Si3O12:Eu2+. CaGa2S4:Pb2+. CaF2:Ce3+. B CaAl2O4:Ce3+.MATERIALS INDEX BaAl2O4:Eu2+.Mn2+ in SiO2. Ca0. CaGa2S4:Eu2+.5Ba0. Ba3(PO4)2:Eu2+. CaCl2:Eu2+ in SiO2. Ba5(PO4)3Cl:Eu2+. CaLaB3O7:Ce3+. Ca2MgSi2O7:Ce3+. BaSO4:Ce3+. Bi4Ge3O12. Ca2La2BO6. Ba5SiO4Cl6:Eu2+. BaFBr:Eu2+. CaGa2S4:Ce3+. Ba2SiO4:Eu2+. BaMg2Si2O7:Eu2+. CaB2O4:Mn2+. CaGa2O4:Mn2+. BaTiP2O7. BaSO4:Eu2+. CaBr2:Eu2+ in SiO2. CaAl2O4:Tb3+. BaSi2O5:Eu2+. CaF2:U.Mn2+. Be2SiO4:Mn2+. BaSrMgSi2O7:Eu2+. BaFCl:Eu2+. Ba2Li2Si2O7:Sn2+. CaB2O4:Pb2+. CaI2:Eu2+ in SiO2. CaF2:Ce3+. Ca2B2O5:Mn2+. CaMoO4.5Al12O19:Ce3+. CaF2:Mn2+. Ca5B2SiO10:Eu3+. CaLaBO4:Eu3+. BaB8O13:Eu2+. Ba2Li2Si2O7:Eu2+. Ca2MgSi2O7:Eu2+.Mn2+. Ca3Al2Si3O12:2%Ce3+. CaF2:Ce3+. CaI2:Eu2+.K. BaGa2S4:Ce3+. CaAl4O7:Pb2+. CaCl2:Eu2+. BaY2F8:Er3+. CaGa4O7:Mn2+. Ca2B5O9Br:Eu2+. . Ba3WO6:U.Pb2+. BaS:Au. Ca3Al2Si3O12:Ce3+.Mn2+ in SiO2.Mn2+. Ba5(PO4)3Cl:U.Mn2+. BaAl2S4:Eu2+. CaGa2S4:Mn2+.Ti)2P2O7:Ti. Ba2Li2Si2O7:Sn2+. (Ba. Ba2MgSi2O7:Eu2+. CaMgSi2O6:Eu2+.

CaO:Sb3+. CaSO4:Bi. CaO:Pb2+. CaO:Tb3+.Pb2+. CaTi0.8O3. -(Ca.Cl. Ca5(PO4)3F:Sn2+.Pb. CaS:Bi3+.CaMoO4:Eu3+. CaWO4:W. CaSO4:Ce3+. CaS:Eu2+. CaS:Pr3+. CaTiO3:Pr3+. -Ca2P2O7:Sn. CaS:Pb2+. Ca2P2O7:Eu2+. CaS:Sb3+. -Ca3(PO4)2:Ce3+. CaSiO3:Pb2+.Cl–. CaYAlO4:Eu3+. CdS:In. Ca2P2O7:Eu2+. CaS:La3+.Na. Ca5(PO4)3Cl:Sb3+. CdS:Ag+. CaYBO4:Eu3+. Ca2P2O7:Ce3+. CaSiO3:Pb2+. CaO:Cd2+. CaS:Pb2+. -Ca3(PO4)2:Pb2+. CaS:Yb2+.Na+.Cl. CaY2ZrO6:Eu3+. CaSO4:Ce3+. CaSO4:Eu2+.Zn. Ultrafast.Sr)3(PO4)2:Sn2+. Ca5(PO4)3Cl:Mn2+. Ca5(PO4)3F:Sb3+. Cd2B6O11:Mn2+. CaSiO3:Ti4+. CaSiO3:Mn2+. CaYBO4:Bi3+. (Ca.F.Cl.Mn2+.1O3:Bi3+. Ca5(VO4)3Cl. -Ca3(PO4)2:Eu2+. CaS:Tb3+.Mn.Mn2+. CaS:Sn2+.7:Eu3+. CaS:Cu+. -Ca3(PO4)2:Sn2+. CaP2O6:Mn2+. CaO:Tl+. Ca5(PO4)3F:Mn2+. CaO:Mn2+. (CeMg)SrAl11O18:Ce. Ca5(PO4)3Cl:Sn2+.Mn2+.Mn2+. CeF3. CaS:Pb2+. CaO:Zn2+. Ca3SiO4Cl2:Eu2+. CaO:Sm3+. CaS:Sb3+. CaS:Bi3+. -Ca3(PO4)2:Eu2+. CdS:In. CaS:Yb2+.Na. -Ca3(PO4)2:Sn2+.Te. CaYB0. CaS:Mn2+. CaTiO3:Eu3+. CdS:In.Tb)MgAl11O19:Ce:Tb. CaS:Tb3+. CaSO4:Pb2+. CaSO4:Eu2+. CaO:Bi3+. CaSiO3:Ce3+.Mn2+. (Ce. Ca3SiO4Cl2:Pb2+. (CeMg)BaAl11O18:Ce. . CaSiO3:Eu2+.Na+. Ca5(PO4)3Cl:Eu2+. CaO:Eu3+. CaWO4. CaWO4:Pb2+.Mn2+. -Ca3(PO4)2:Tl+. CaS:Ce3+.Mn2+.9Al0. CaS:Sm3+.Mg)3(PO4)2:Sn. CaS:Sn2+. -Ca3(PO4)2:Eu2+. CaO:Eu3+. CaSr2(PO4)2:Bi3+.Cl. -Ca3(PO4)2:Ce3+. CaS:Y3+. Ca3WO6:U. CaO:Cu+.

Lu2SiO5:Ce3+. MgSrAl10O17:Ce. LaOF:Eu3+. LaAsO4:Eu3+. K La2O3:Pb2+. KMgF3:Eu2+. Mg3Ca3(PO4)4:Eu2+. LaAlB2O6:Eu3+. LaAlO3:Sm3+. LiInO2:Eu3+. LiLaO2:Eu3+. La2O3:Eu3+.Mn2+. LaBO3:Eu3+. La2W3O12:Eu3+. Gd2SiO5:Ce3+. LaPO4:Eu3+. K2La2Ti3O10:Eu. (ErCl3)0. (La. LuTaO4:Nb5+. E GaN:Zn.Tb)PO4:Ce:Tb.CdS:Te. LaOCl:Eu3+.75. KGa11O17:Mn2+. Mg8Ge2O11F2:Mn4+. CsI CsI:Na+. MgBa3Si2O8:Eu2+. LaBr3:Ce3+. LiAlO2:Mn2+. LaVO4:Eu3+. L MgAl2O4:Mn2+. Mg4(F)(Ge. (Lu. LaAlO3:Eu3+. LaSiO3Cl:Ce3+. LuAlO3:Ce3+. MgGa2O4:Mn2+. CsF. Li2CaP2O7:Ce3+. LiCeSrBa3Si4O14:Mn2+. La2O3:Bi3+.Ce.Gd)2SiO5:Ce3+. LiAlO2:Fe3+. Lu1-xYxAlO3:Ce3+. CdWO4. MgBaP2O7:Eu2+. LaAl3B4O12:Eu3+. LaCl3:Ce3+. KMgF3:Mn2+. MgBaP2O7:Eu2+. LaPO4:Ce3+. Gd2O2S:Eu3+.Tb3+. MgB2O4:Mn2+. MgS:Eu2+.Mn2+.Mn2+. Mg4(F)GeO6:Mn2+. LiAlF4:Mn2+. GdNbO4:Bi3+. LaSiO3Cl:Ce3+. MgCeAl11O19:Tb3+. G KAl11O17:Tl+. Gd2O2S:Pr3+. Mg2Ca(SO4)3:Eu2+. MgBa2(PO4)2:Sn2+. Gd2O2S:Tb3+. Gd2O2S:Pr. LaOBr:Tb3+.Sn)O6:Mn2+.F. Mg2Ca(SO4)3:Eu2+. MgBa(SO4)2:Eu2+. Gd3Ga5O12:Cr. LiAl5O8:Fe3+. Gd3Ga5O12:Cr3+. CsI:Tl. MgF2:Mn2+. LiInO2:Sm3+. La2O2S:Tb3+. Lu2Si2O7:Ce3+.25(BaCl2)0. LiAl5O8:Mn2+.Ce. LiCeBa4Si4O14:Mn2+. M . MgCaP2O7:Mn2+.Ce. LaOCl:Bi3+. K2SiF6:Mn4+. MgBa2(PO4)2:U. LaOBr:Tm3+.

Sr5(PO4)3Cl:Eu2+. SrAl2S4:Eu2+.Cl. Mg3SiO3F4:Ti4+.12TiSi5O13·xH2O:Eu3+. SrBaSiO4:Eu2+. SrwFxByOz:Eu2+. –SrO·3B2O3:Sm2+. NaI:Tl. Sr6P5BO20:Eu. SrwFxB4O6. ThO2:Eu3+.MgSiO3:Mn2+. Sr5(PO4)3F:Sb3+. SrTiO3:Pr3+.08TiSi4O11:Eu3+. SrTiO3:Pr3+. SrMoO4:U. SrAl12O19:Ce3+. SrB8O13:Sm2+.Mn2+(Al). Mg2SiO4:Mn2+.Mn2+. Sr2SiO4:Eu2+. –Sr3(PO4)2:Eu2+. MgYBO4:Eu3+.Yb3+.Na. SrxBayClzAl2O4–z/2:Mn2+. T .Pr3+. SrSO4:Eu2+. SrSO4:Bi. SrAl4O7:Eu3+. MgWO4. NaYO2:Eu3+.Br).23K0. SrGa2S4:Ce3+. –SrO·3B2O3:Pb2+. –SrO·3B2O3:Pb2+. Mg2Sr(SO4)3:Eu2+. ThO2:Pr3+. SrY2O3:Eu3+.Mn2+. SrB4O7:Eu2+(F. SrCl2:Eu2+ in SiO2. Sr5(PO4)3F:Sn2+. Na1.Mn2+. SrAl12O19:Eu2+.12TiSi4O11:Eu3+.Mn2+. SrO·3B2O3:Eu2+. MgSO4:Pb2+. Sr5(PO4)3Cl:Sb3+. SrIn2O4:Pr3+.Ce3+. MgSr5(PO4)4:Sn2+. Na2Mg3Al2Si2O10:Tb.I)2:Eu2+ in SiO2.46Er0. MgSrBa2Si2O7:Eu2+. MgSrP2O7:Eu2+. SrSO4:Eu2+. Sr5(PO4)3Cl:Eu2+.29K0.Al3+. N P P46 (70%) + P47 (30%). Sr5Cl(PO4)3:Eu.23K0. SrGa2S4:Pb2+. SrMgSi2O6:Eu2+. ThO2:Tb3+.Br. SrAl2O4:Eu2+. Sr5(PO4)3F:Mn2+. Sr5Si4O10Cl6:Eu2+.5:Eu2+. Sr(Cl. –Sr3(PO4)2:Sn2+. SrS:Cu+. SrGa2S4:Eu2+.Al3+. Sr2P2O7:Sn2+. Na1. Sr5(PO4)3F:Sb3+. MSL. SrB4O7:Pb2+.Mg)3(PO4)2:Sn. Na(Mg2–xMnx)LiSi4O10F2:Mn. Sr3WO6:U. Sr2MgSi2O7:Eu2+. SrGa12O19:Mn2+. SrB4O7:Pb2+.42Eu0. Sr2B5O9Cl:Eu2+.Sm2+. Mg2TiO4:Mn4+.Mn2+. SrS:Mn2+.Mn2+.42Eu0.Mn2+.Cl. Sr5(PO4)3Cl:Mn2+. S SrF2:Eu2+. Na1. SrS:Ce3+. NaYF4:Er3+. Sr2P2O7:Eu2+. (Sr. SrSO4:Ce3+. Sr3MgSi2O8:Eu2+. Na3Ce(PO4)2:Tb3+. MgSr3Si2O8:Eu2+. -Sr3(PO4)2:Sn2+. MgSO4:Eu2+. SrS:Eu2+.

Mg)F2:Mn2+. YPO4:Ce3+. YVO4:Dy3+. (Zn+Be)2SiO4:Mn2+.Tb3+.Th4+. ZnS-CdS (75-25). ZnS-CdS:Cu.Gd)2O3:Eu3+. ZnO:Se. Y YPO4:Eu3+. Y2SiO5:Ce3+. YAl3B4O12:Ce3+. Y2O3:Ce. YOBr:Eu3+. Ultrafast. (Zn. ZnS-CdS:Ag. ZnO:Ga3+. (Zn. Y3Al5O12:Ce3+. Zn0. Y4Al2O9:Eu3+. YF3:Tm3+. ZnBa2S3:Mn2+. Y(P. ZnS-CdS (50-50). YOF:Eu3+. Y2O3:Eu3+ (YOE).Cl.Cl. Z .Gd)BO3:Eu. (Zn. Y1.6Cd0.Ce3+.Br. YPO4:Mn2+. ZnO:Bi3+. ZnGa2O4. ZnO:Zn.Mn2+. YPO4:Ce3+. YVO4:Eu3+. ZnS-CdS (25-75). Y2O2S:Tb3+.Cl. ZnMg2(PO4)2:Mn2+.34Gd0. Y2O2S:Eu3+. Zn0. ZnS:Au. ZnS-CdS:Ag+. YAl3B4O12:Th4+. Y2O3:Bi3+.I.Ga3+.Yb3+. Zn2GeO4:Mn2+.Mn2+. ZnGa2O4:Mn2+. YAlO3:Tb3+.06. YPO4:V5+. Ultrafast. YAl3B4O12:Eu3+.4Cd0.Mg)3(PO4)2:Mn2+.YAl3B4O12:Bi3+.Pr)0. (Zn. Y3Al5O12:Tb3+.Ni.Cl–. YTaO4:Nb5+. Y2O3:Tb3+.6S:Ag. ZnS:Ag.Br long life. YOCl:Eu3+. YF3:Mn2+.Cu. ZnO:S. ZnS:Ag+. ZnAl2O4:Mn2+. ZnGa2S4:Mn2+. YOCl:Ce3+.60O3(Eu.Cd)S:Cu. (Y. (Y. YOF:Tb3+.Yb3+. ZnF2:Mn2+.Br high brightness. ZnS:Ag. YF3:Mn2+. YBO3:Eu3+. ZnO-CdO:Ga. Y2O3:Er3+.Tb3+. YAl3B4O12:Ce3+. Y3Al5O12:Eu3+.Ni. Y2O3:Ce3+.V)O4:Eu.4S:Ag. YAsO4:Eu3+. YAl3B4O12:Eu3+.Tb3+. ZnS-CdS:Cu. YAl3B4O12:Ce3+. ZnB2O4:Mn2+.Gd)BO3:Tb. YTaO4.Cr3+. ZnO:Al3+. Y3Al5O12:Mn4+.Cd)S:Ag. YBO3:Ce3+. YF3:Er3+. (Y. ZnO:Ga. YAlO3:Eu3+. ZnS-CdS:Cu. Y2O3:Ho3+. Y2O2S:Pr3+.In. YAlO3:Ce3+. Y3Al5O12:Cr3+.Th4+. YAlO3:Sm3+.

Cu. ZnWO4. . Zn2SiO4:Mn.Cl. ZnS-ZnTe:Mn2+ ZnSe:Cu+.Te2+.Cl–. ZnS:Cu. ZnS:Te. ZnS:Mn. ZnS:Sn2+.Ag. ZnS:Pb2+.Cu. Zn2SiO4:Mn2+. ZnS:Cu+. ZnS:Pb2+.ZnS:Cl–. Zn3(PO4)2:Mn2+. ZnS:Eu2+.As5+.Al3+. ZnS:Cu+.Li+. ZnS:Pb. Zn2SiO4:Ti4+. ZnS:Mn2+.P. Zn2SiO4:Mn2+.Sn.Mn.Cl–.Cl–. ZnS:Sn. ZnS:Mn2+. ZnS:Eu2+.Sb2O3. ZnS:P. Zn2SiO4:Mn2+. ZnS:Cu. ZnS:P3–. ZnS:Sn2+.

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