INORGANIC PHOSPHORS

COMPOSITIONS, PREPARATION AND OPTICAL PROPERTIES

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The CRC Press Laser and Optical Science and Technology Series

INORGANIC PHOSPHORS
COMPOSITIONS, PREPARATION AND OPTICAL PROPERTIES

Wi l l i a m M . Ye n a n d M a r v i n J . We b e r

CRC PR E S S
Boca Raton London New York Washington, D.C.

Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data
Inorganic phosphors : compositions, preparation, and optical properties / editors, William M. Yen, Marvin J. Weber. p. cm. Includes bibliographical references and index. ISBN 0-8493-1949-8 (alk. paper) 1. Phosphors. 2. Phosphors—Optical properties. I. Yen, W. M. (William M.) II. Weber, Marvin J., 1932QC476.7.I55 2004 620.1'1295—dc22

2004047813

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Willi and Renate Lehmann (circa 1970).

TABLE OF CONTENTS
FOREWORD PREFACE PART 1: LEHMANN’S PHOSPHOR COOKBOOK AND PHOSPHOR TABLES SECTION 1: INTRODUCTION SECTION 2: PHOSPHOR PREPARATION 2.1 Starting Materials 2.2 Amounts 2.3 Mixing 2.4 Containers 2.5 Furnace 2.6 Firing Atmospheres 2.7 Treatments after Firing SECTION 3: PURIFICATION OF SOME STARTING MATERIALS 3.1 Carbonates 3.2 Sulfates 3.3 Oxalates 3.4 Sulfur SECTION 4: PHOSPHOR DATA 4.1 Description of Data 4.2 Simple Oxides 4.3 Silicates 4.4 Halosilicates 4.5 Phosphates 4.6 Halophosphates 4.7 Borates 4.8 Aluminates and Gallates 4.9 Molybdates and Tungstates 4.10 Miscellaneous Oxides 4.11 Halides and Oxyhalides 4.12 Sulfates 4.13 ZnS-Type Sulfides 4.14 CaS-Type Sulfides 4.15 Double Sulfides 4.16 Miscellaneous Sulfides and Oxysulfides SECTION 5: PREPARATION OF PHOSPHOR SCREENS 5.1 Phosphor Screens by Brushing 5.2 Phosphor Screens by Settling in a Kasil Solution

5.3 Phosphor Screens by Cathaphoretic Deposition 5.4 Filming of Phosphor Screens

PART 2: ADDITIONAL DEVELOPMENTS SECTION 6: PHOSPHOR SYNTHESIS 6.1 Alternative Preparation Methods 6.2 Combustion Synthesis of Phosphors 6.3 Preparation of Phosphors by Sol–Gel Techniques SECTION 7: OTHER PHOSPHOR DATA 7.1 Oxides 7.2 Silicates 7.3 Phosphates, Halophosphates, and Borates 7.4 Aluminates 7.5 Halides and Oxyhalides 7.6 CaS and ZnS-Type Sulfides 7.7 Other Compounds SECTION 8: COMMERCIAL PHOSPHORS AND SCINTILLATORS APPENDICES Appendix I Appendix II Appendix III

Historical Note on Phosphor Recipes Phosphor Materials Arranged in Order of Emission Wavelength Willi Lehmann: A Brief Biography

MATERIALS INDEX

Foreword
Willi Lehmann
It is a truism that all individuals are unique. However, in the case of the late Willi Lehmann this is true in the strongest sense possible. One often hears of a person with a “one-track” mind. That concept describes Willi perfectly. He was indeed one of a kind. As far as I know, he lived for and only thought about phosphors. He was a very oriented, strong willed and, yes, stubborn individual. It is my pleasure to have known him and have been his manager (in truth, no one “managed” Willi) for several interesting and productive years. I knew very little about Willi’s life in Germany. Fortunately, I was able to obtain a copy of an autobiography Willi wrote for his family and was able to learn something about his history. Bill Yen and I present a brief summary of Willi’s life and times in Appendix III. I knew that he served in the German army during World War II, first on the Russian front and then on the Western front. It is difficult for me to conceive of him as a member of a military unit. He always had a very un-Germanic disregard for authority. This undoubtedly explains why, after working his way up to grade sergeant, he was “busted” back to private. I believe he objected to officers riding in comfortable first-class carriages while enlisted men rode in overcrowded second-class carriages. Another un-Germanic trait was that he disliked beer; he called it “seifewasser” (soapy water). Willi was always resourceful (surely a good trait for a scientist). At the end of the war, after being captured by the French, he managed to escape and be recaptured by the Americans because he knew they treated their German captives better. While he was in POW camp a request came asking whether any prisoner could repair typewriters. Willi, who actually had no prior experience in this line, promptly volunteered and became a successful “typewriter mechanic” overnight. Also during his time as a prisoner he spent his spare time recalling and writing down the essentials of his previously studied elementary physics textbook. I suppose he “borrowed” the necessary paper and pencils from the offices where he repaired typewriters. After the war Willi studied physics (I am not sure at what university) under Prof. Erich Krautz, who had an interest in luminescence. Later, Krautz became Director of Research at a branch of the Osram Lamp Co., located in Augsburg, near Munich. At that time, the Lamp Division of the Westinghouse Electric Corp., located in Bloomfield, New Jersey, had a patent and technical interchange agreement with Osram. On a visit to Augsburg, E.G.F. Arnott, Director of Research in Bloomfield, asked Prof. Krautz to recommend two of his former students who were interested in luminescence and would like to immigrate to the United States. Krautz recommended Willi Lehmann and Claus Haake, and both accepted the offer. This was probably in 1955, as Willi published his first American papers (Phys. Rev., 101, 489; J. Electrochem. Soc., 103, 667 and Illum. Eng., 51, 684) in 1956. Willi remained with Westinghouse, first in Bloomfield and then in Pittsburg for many years, while Claus left after about 2 years to move to Arizona for reasons of his wife’s health. In 1956 I was Manager of the Phosphor Research Section of the Westinghouse Lamp Division and thus suddenly found myself responsible for two foreigners about whom I knew nothing. The situation was conceivably complicated by the fact that I was Jewish; I didn’t know how they would react to me and vice versa. Fortunately, this never presented a

problem. Both Willi and Claus turned out to be very diligent and skilled workers (Prof. Krautz would not have recommended dummies). Their knowledge of the English language was good, although Willi always spoke with a pronounced Germanic accent, probably because he spoke only German at home. (I must admit that while Willi worked for me I always edited his scientific papers before publication, but endeavored to leave them sounding like Willi.) During those years in Bloomfield the attention of the Phosphor Section was directed primarily to electroluminescence, then in its infancy. I can truthfully say the best (brightest and longest lived) electroluminescent phosphors made anywhere in that era were made by Willi Lehmann. This activity, and that elsewhere, is summarized in my book, Electroluminescence and Related Effects (Academic Press, 1963). I was later made a fellow of the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) and an Honorary Member of the Electrochemical Society for “leadership in the advancement of the science of luminescence.” However, the work which resulted in these honors was primarily due to three outstanding members of the section: Willi Lehmann, William A. Thornton, and Anselm Wachtel. My effort was mainly that of support, coordination, and interpretation. My approach to “management” of scientific activity was essentially minimalist, consisting of four steps: (1) hire the most capable and self-motivated people, (2) provide them with the necessary equipment and facilities, (3) point them in the directions of interest to the company, and (4) don’t bother them, except for occasional encouragement and suggestions as to questions for which no one had an answer at the moment. This minimalist approach certainly worked well with Willi, who was never a “team player.” I also learned that minor infractions of company rules could be overlooked unless they were officially brought to my attention: sometimes ignorance of events can be good. Although trained as a physicist, Willi actually performed best as a self-taught chemist; he was more interested in making better phosphors than in explaining how or why they worked. He was always an enthusiastic worker. I remember one day Claus Haake stuck his head in my door and said, “Willi just made a three-gott-damn phosphor!” I said, “What does that mean?” Claus replied, “Well, when Willi has made a new sample and finds that it tests good, he says ‘Gott damn!’ Today he tested his latest sample and said, ‘Gott damn! Gott damn! GOTT DAMN!’” About 1963 both Willi and I transferred to the central Westinghouse Research Laboratories in Pittsburgh, but to different departments. I joined the Optical Physics Department, which was primarily concerned with lasers, and in 1969 became manager of the department. Willi went to the Solid State Physics Department, where he continued to work on phosphors, mainly for applications to fluorescent lamps and cathode-ray tubes. Nevertheless, we kept in frequent contact and he always put me on the distribution list for his research reports. It was during this period of his career that he organized the material for his Phosphor Cookbook. Willi always maintained his independence and disregard for rules which seemed pointless to him. There were four types of scientific documents at Westinghouse: patent disclosures, papers to be published, summary research reports for internal use, and short research “memos.” For some strange (probably historical) reason, memos had to be addressed to a particular individual, although they could have an extended distribution list. Once Willi (in Pittsburgh) apparently had trouble deciding to whom a certain memo should be addressed so in the proper place he wrote, “The Queen of England.” Some unwitting secretary typed it up that way and sent it to his department manager for signature. Considerable consternation ensued, but Willi survived unscathed and hardly ruffled. For Willi, rules were usually meant for lesser beings; he had more important things (phosphors) to think about.

I am sorry to say that I lost contact with him after 1988. George. 2003 . Hans. with reference to the original publications. an extended collection of the main properties of about 300 of the best-known inorganic phosphors. He enclosed a copy of his contribution. finally solves that waste problem. Henry Ivey Coconut Creek.” The present volume by Bill Yen and Marv Weber. It will serve as a fitting and belated recognition of the valuable work this unusual individual contributed to the science of luminescence. and Mary. in Connecticut. He went to live in Hendersonville. North Carolina. this book was never published.Willi retired from Westinghouse in about 1985 (the reason for my vagueness about dates is that Westinghouse is now defunct and I have no way of accessing company files). It was his obsession and sole occupation. However. Florida April 1. I have learned since that Willi passed away in January 1993 and that he is survived by his wife Renate and four children. Caren. When Willi Lehmann was alive and active he was one hell of a great phosphor maker. “My Phosphor Tables are completed and I don’t like the idea of them going to waste. and apparently did consultation on electroluminescence for the Rogers Corp. He left many important published papers. which combines his Phosphor Cookbook and his Phosphor Tables. He said then. In 1988 he wrote to inform me that he had been invited to contribute to a book entitled Phosphors. All appear to be prospering and the family has given its approval to the belated publication of Willi’s Phosphor Cookbook and Phosphor Tables he so carefully compiled nearly two decades ago.

of course. thus such information is absent for many compounds. In the absence of any systematic database on phosphors. it appeared to us that the content of these two unpublished manuscripts fully deserved publication as a record. The list of materials presented in the compilations is large and the manuscripts preserve and summarize synthesis and optical data on most of the commonly used phosphors (as well as some less common ones). Henry Ivey. Dr. This volume is divided into two parts. Lehmann. Henry had a close working relationship with Willi at Westinghouse as the Foreword to this volume attests. He later updated and extended this work in 1988 in his Phosphor Tables in which the phosphor properties of over 300 luminescent materials were summarized in tabular form. the two unpublished manuscripts represent a reasonably complete summary of the state of knowledge on phosphors up to the late 1980’s. one of us (WMY). a volume in the CRC Lasers and Optical Sciences and Technology Series. In connection with efforts to establish a phosphor database. Almost all modern phosphors are synthesized by solid-state reactions at high temperatures. was a principal in the development of many of the phosphors included in his cookbook. which was prepared for a publication that never appeared. Though it might be argued that the art of phosphors synthesis and characterization has advanced considerably since Lehmann’s time. Ronald Petersen (of Motorola. Updated versions of these techniques are presented in this volume along with other techniques such as sol–gel and combustion that have been developed in the past few decades. for example. in response to a federal broad agency announcement. The scholarship contained in the Phosphor Cookbook and the Phosphor Tables is quite remarkable and comprises a great deal of meticulous and careful work characterizing Willi Lehmann’s career as a phosphor synthesizer.Preface About a decade ago. these methodologies are often abandoned and forgotten but often need to be rediscovered and revived when circumstances warrant it. initiated an effort to establish a baseline for the state of knowledge concerning the methodology for synthesis and the optical properties of a variety of phosphors used for display and other technical applications. if nothing else. The phosphor data presented in Section 4 combine the results of both manuscripts. Thus. of past methodologies. A copy of these tables. was preserved and given to us by Dr. Though for various reasons this effort ultimately turned futile. no composition or preparation information was included in the Phosphor Tables. several members of the phosphor/luminescence community called my attention to an existing backlog of published and unpublished literature addressed to this subject. in our becoming aware of the existence of the Phosphor Handbook published in Japanese under the auspices of the Japan Phosphor Society and led to its eventual translation and publication as the Phosphor Handbook. we believe that these contributions need to be preserved as part of the phosphor art. However. Most of the contents of Lehmann’s Phosphor Cookbook and Phosphor Tables are preserved in the first part with either no or only slight changes in style and format. In the second part of the volume we have attempted to supplement Lehmann’s work with additional . at the time) first presented us with a copy of Willi Lehmann’s opus (Phosphor Cookbook) on methods for synthesis and properties of over 200 phosphors. This resulted. This report dates from the late 1970’s and covered the majority of phosphors then in use.

The third gives a brief summary of Willi Lehmann’s life. a good beginning point. Sarah Dunning for typing the manuscript. these volumes contain a great deal of material which is extremely useful in developing an understanding as to what can and cannot be synthesized. It may be noted that the elements belonging to series such as the lanthanides (4f) have chemical behaviors that are nearly identical to each other. We are aware that. We are also very thankful to the Lehmann family for giving their permission to use this material. Much additional information on the synthesis and characterization of a phosphor or luminescent material information can be found in the aforementioned Phosphor Handbook. and contributions from our Editorial Board. As such. Mike Caplinger and Jeff Deroshia for their computing assistance. William M. We are very appreciative of their help and that of Ron Petersen and Henry Ivey for having preserved the original manuscripts. however. The American Ceramic Society in collaboration with the National Institutes of Standards and Technology (NIST) has continued to publish and revise Phase Diagrams for Ceramists (Vols. The preparation methods described in this volume generally entail the use of laboratory procedures which are normally encountered in solid-state chemistry and which expose the experimenter to the usual perils. Georgia Marvin J. We note with special appreciation the excellent work of Sergei Basun in preparing the many figures and the final manuscript. suggestions. Because of the plethora of phosphor compositions reported in recent decades. Other considerations (such as ion sizes) will enter. the listing is not exhaustive but rather representative of some of the more significant phosphors developed in recent years. in the second a table of phosphors is arranged in order of emission wavelength as a guide in selecting phosphors for particular applications. and the valuable interactions with CRC Project Editor James McGovern and Development Manager Helena Redshaw. as noted in the Foreword. Section 8 presents a list of many commercial phosphor and scintillator materials and the peak wavelength of their emission. etc. we emphasize that all normal safety precautions (fume hoods. Indeed. The first presents an historical perspective on phosphors. I–VI) and the sequel Phase Equilibrium Diagrams (Vols. In this effort we have benefitted from numerous comments. so that the synthesis of any new compounds remains an area of experimentation. three appendices have been added. eye protection. We hope that the publication of Inorganic Phosphors serves to fulfill his wish. VII–XII). this volume should be considered a tribute to this unusual individual and his contributions to the phosphor art. We have restricted consideration to materials that are accessible in the open literature and have not included any recipes or description of phosphors that are proprietary. Weber Berkeley. would be with the procedures that are presented here. California April 2004 .developments including recent synthesis methods and new phosphors. Yen Athens. Willi Lehmann was anxious to have the material that he had prepared with such care published in some form. Finally. It follows that recipes for compounds doped with a certain ion of a series very likely will also be effective for other members of that series. Only a relatively few phosphors have achieved commercial success.) should be observed in the preparation and synthesis of the phosphors described in the volume.

S.C. B. CRC Press. John Wiley & Sons.J. 1993. Shionoya and W. Luminescence of Inorganic Solids. R. Berlin. 1997.F. 1991. P. 2002. 1998. Boca Raton. Boca Raton.. New York.H. 1998. Ed. Yen. Ed. Optical Spectroscopy of Inorganic Solids. K. Phosphor Handbook. Springer. Ropp. Oxford.H. 1993. Grabmaier. 1989. Imbusch.C. Luminescent Materials. Selected papers on Phosphors. Amsterdam. 1966. Weber. Eds. Bellingham. Rodnyi. The Chemistry of Artificial Lighting Devices. CRC Press. Ed. Elsevier.. 1994. Vol. R. Materials and Devices. SPIE Milestone Series. Clarendon Press. Academic Press. Kitai. SPIE Press. FL. Blasse and B. Goldberg. Pennsylvania University Press. Fluorescent Lamp Phosphors: Technology and Theory. Gaska. Butler. 1980. FL.M. . Electroluminescence. M..Further Readings Introduction to Solid-State Lighting. 151. Amsterdam. P. Shur. Zukauskas.A.. Solid State Luminescence: Theory. Luminescence and the Solid State. WA. and Scintillators: Applications of Photoluminescence. Light Emitting Diodes. Ropp. Henderson and G. Elsevier. A. G. New York. Chapman & Hall.C. Cathodoluminescence. Physical Processes in Inorganic Scintillators. and Radioluminescence. and R. London. University Park. M. A.

Weber joined the Research Division of the Raytheon Co. as Head of Basic Materials Research and Assistant Program Leader. DC.S. Weber was a Visiting Research Associate in the Department of Physics. Schawlow and accepted a faculty position at the University of Wisconsin—Madison in 1965. degrees in physics at the University of California. he was responsible for the physics and characterization of optical materials for high-power laser used in inertial confinement fusion research. He served a term of 3 years (1962–1965) as a Research Associate at Stanford University under the tutelage of Professor A. and the Electrochemical Society. and an Industrial Research IR-100 Award for research and development of fluorophosphate laser glass. Yen is the co-editor of the Phosphor Handbook published by CRC Press. the American Association for the Advancement of Science. Dr. Yen has been elected to fellowship in the American Physical Society. he retired from the Wisconsin system in 1990.D. the Optical Society of America. Jaynes Visiting Professor for the Fall of 2004.D. Stanford University. In 1987 he was appointed to the Graham Perdue Professorship at the University of Georgia—Athens where he has established a research program in the properties of phosphors and other light-emitting materials. Dr.S. Berkeley.S. the Federal University of Pernambuco—Recife (1980). He has been appointed to Visiting Professorships at the University of Tokyo (1972). In 1973 Dr. George W. 1995). Dr. Louis) as the first Edwin T. the University of Paris—South (1976). of a A. in Physics from Washington University (St. Department of Energy in Washington. He was also named by Washington University (St. Guggenheim Foundation Fellowship (1979–1980).The Editors William M. he is the recipient of the International Conference on Luminescence Prize. and the American Ceramics Society. and of a Senior Fulbright to Australia (1995). After graduation. Weber returned to the Chemistry and Materials Science Department at LLNL in 1986 and served as Associate Division Leader for condensed matter research and as spokesperson for the University of California/National Laboratories research facilities at the Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory. Yen obtained his B. He has been a member of the technical staff at the AT&T Bell Telephone Laboratories (1966) and of the Laser Fusion Project at Lawrence Livermore Labs (1974–1975). M. In 1966 to 1967 Dr. Weber joined the Laser Program at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory where. From 1983 to 1985 he accepted a transfer assignment with the Office of Basic Energy Sciences of the U. (Physics) degree from the University of Redlands. the Australian National University (1980. where he was a Principal Scientist working in the areas of spectroscopy and quantum electronics. Dr. Weber is Editor-in-Chief of the multi-volume CRC Handbook Series of Laser Science and Technology and a Fellow of the American Physical Society. the Optical Society of America. He was granted tenure at Wisconsin in 1968 and promoted to a full professorship in 1972. and the University of California—Santa Barbara (1982.. . and Ph. He is presently a scientist in the Department of Nuclear Medicine and Functional Imaging of the Life Sciences Division at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. Dr.. Among several honors. Morey Award of the American Ceramics Society.L.S. Yen has been the recipient of a J. Redlands. Weber received the A. California in 1956 and his Ph. Scientist Award (1985). von Humboldt Senior U. Dr.A. 1985).B. Louis) in 1962. Marvin J.

Henry Ivey 3392 NW 47th Avenue Coconut Creek. Richard. Japan . Sergei Basun A.Editorial Board Dr. New Jersey Dr. Puerto Rico Dr. Hajime Yamamoto Department of Electrical Engineering Tokyo University of Technology Tokyo 192-0982. Weiyi Jia Department of Physics University of Puerto Rico—Mayaguez Mayaguez. Massachusetts Dr. New York Dr. Ropp 138 Mountain Avenue Warren. Madis Raukas Osram Sylvania Beverly. Cees Ronda Philips Research Laboratory Aachen D-52085 Aachen. C. Ioffe Physico-Technical Institute Russian Academy of Sciences St. C. Petersburg. F. Alok M. Lauren Shea Sandia National Labs Albuquerque. Germany Dr. Srivastava GE Corporate R&D Center Schenectady. Russia Dr. Florida Dr. New Mexico Dr. Guy A. Hill 31 Abbey Street Faversham United Kingdom Dr.

Part 1: Lehmann’s Phosphor Cookbook and Phosphor Tables .

Section 1: Introduction .

a start for the experienced phosphor chemist in the improvement of known materials or in the development of new ones. Each one of the recipes is only a suggestion. This report describes some 200 phosphors which are commercially in use already.2 and 2. for each phosphor.Section 1 INTRODUCTION The following is Willi Lehmann's introduction to his Phosphor Cookbook: The writer of this report has.” Peculiarly. Most of them are well known (more or less). of course. but it does not mean that a variation of the recipe does not work. It may anyway serve as a convenient guide for all occasional or professional users of phosphorus showing essentially what is available. been referred to as “phosphor cook. References to open publications or internal reports. It is unavoidable in such work that many samples perform too poorly to be worth mentioning. only half jokingly. but some are new and have never been mentioned anywhere else. of the same materials. prepared and tested roughly 2 104 individual samples of inorganic phosphors of various kinds. The following tables give. where available. The phosphor collection covered by this “cookbook” is not complete. during about 25 years of practical experience. a survey of materials for which properties are available to the occasional user of phosphors. Many others were just repetitions during optimizations.3) are predominantly taken verbatim from Lehmann's report. the writer believes that most of the recipes still permit substantial improvements. It will never be. and despite of the fact that so many different phosphors are now available. It has been tried in this laboratory and it works. at least). What remains are relatively few. 2. which appear to have some potential to become commercially useful. 3. a brief description of how to prepare it and an equally brief description of its main properties. In the abstract to the report Lehmann expected that the cookbook would be useful as: 1. The professional phosphor chemist has often. To fill out this gap is the purpose of this report. or which are otherwise somehow “interesting” (to the writer. It may remain to the individual phosphor chemist to work out such improvements. are added to help anyone wishing to know more about a particular material than these tables can give. Most of the following two sections (with the exceptions of Sections 2. there has been no phosphor cookbook before. etc. . a guide to help anyone new in the field in the successful preparation of phosphors. In fact.

5 2.2 2.7 Starting Materials Amounts Mixing Containers Furnace Firing Atmospheres Treatments After Firing .Section 2: Phosphor Preparation 2.1 2.6 2.4 2.3 2.

or only to a very minor degree. analytical reagent grade. Both activators and (if necessary) co-activators are diffused into the host crystal at elevated temperatures..” Even the final host material frequently is formed only during the firing by solid-state reactions between several starting materials. The chemicals mentioned in the individual recipes are those that usually are the most readily available. and so on. The firing temperature often is little below the melting temperature of the host material. 2. MnO. CaCO3 can frequently be replaced by CaO. Ca(NO3)2. sometimes down to the parts per million range. luminescent grade) are adequate to prepare most of the phosphors. However. Section 3 of this report describes some techniques that can be used to purify commercial compounds to prepare CaS-type phosphors. Sufficiently pure ZnS and CdS are available not to require additional purification for the preparation of ZnS-type phosphors. Almost all good inorganic phosphors consist of a crystalline “host material” in which small amounts of certain impurities. The activators are primarily responsible for the luminescence. They can frequently be exchanged with others. Similarly. the chemicals needed to prepare CaS-type phosphors are not normally available in the required purity. the “firing. * This section is from W. MnS. and that the used compounds decompose readily during the firing of the phosphor to provide the necessary building blocks to the final material. CaO2.Section 2 PHOSPHOR PREPARATION* The following methods are essentially the preparation procedures used by the writer (W.g. Only sulfide-type phosphors are exceptions because they are sensitive to undesired impurities. Other impurities. MnCO3 can be replaced by MnO2. Co-activators do not. Many points probably are trivial to the professional phosphor chemist but they are certainly not so to the novice or to anyone preparing phosphors only once in a while. the “activators” are dissolved. Lehmann's Phosphor Cookbook. participate in the luminescence process.” are necessary in some (not in all) cases to dissolve the activator impurities into the host crystal. For instance. If that is impractical because of excessively high-melting temperatures of the host material. or Ca(OH)2. MnSO4. .1 Starting Materials Commercially available high-purity grade chemicals (e. Mn(C2H3O2)2. Lehmann) to make the phosphors described in this report. the “co-activators. the crystallization is facilitated at lower temperatures by addition of a “flux” (frequently a halide) to the raw mix before firing. What counts are only the necessary amounts of the particular chemical elements measured in moles.

sometimes even within still wider tolerances. This method is least time-consuming and most practical for small samples but the mixes are less uniform down to the microscopic scale than any one prepared by the other methods. Corresponding non-uniformities of the final phosphor may be the result. However.4 Containers The best container material for the preparation of most phosphors is clear quartz glass (silica). firing not only once but also several times and mortaring every time in between can usually eliminate them.g. The smaller amounts of the activating chemicals involved are even less critical.3 Mixing Very thorough mixing of the starting materials before firing is extremely important for the successful preparation of a good phosphor. etc. it is impractical to reduce the amounts to less than about 1 or 2 g of the final phosphor.. Dry Ball-Milling The dry powder mix is ball-milled with porcelain pebbles for 1–2 hours. The slurry is then dried in air and the dry material is mechanically powderized. a breakup of all possible lumps in the slurry. in particular) react too badly with quartz . This method has been used for most of the recipes of this report. Wet Ball-Milling The slurry prepared above is ball-milled with porcelain pebbles for a time (about 1–2 hours) to ensure a moist thorough mix and. Only some materials (the alkali elements. Some of the best methods are: Slurrying The finely powdered starting materials are mixed into water. can be added dissolved in water. or any other inert and volatile liquid to a uniform slurry.2 Amounts The recipes in this report are given in whole molar units to make them as clear as possible. Roughly. Variations of ±10% of the mentioned activator concentrations normally have little effect on the performance of the final phosphor. which stay free flowing all the time. Whenever such non-uniformities occur. Some materials (e. ZnO) are not free flowing and cannot be mixed this way. The slurry is dried and the dried material. This method is a bit cumbersome and it is impractical for small samples (a few grams). in particular. The materials become poorly reproducible with such very small amounts.2. alcohol. which sometimes is a more or less hard crust. This method avoids the time-consuming drying of the slurry but it works only for powders. The weightings of the starting materials are not very critical. the amounts of the chemicals involved in the formation of the host materials need to be weighed only within ±1% of the mentioned proportions. Whenever such large amounts of phosphors are not needed or wanted. Water-soluble activator chemicals. is powderized in a mortar as well as possible. otherwise it is the most ideal. Phosphor properties vary relatively little only with a variation of the starting material ratios. all amounts can be reduced by constant factors as long as the molar ratios between the individual components in the recipe are maintained. Mortaring The dry powders are simply mixed by mortaring together to make the mix as uniform as possible. Several firing steps are appropriate in many cases for other chemical reasons. 2. 2.

inert (N2. halides) are better fired in loosely covered containers permitting some contact with the surrounding atmosphere but still keeping at least some of the volatile part in the container. they consist of two tubes each closed at one end and both loosely fitting into each other. A simple on–off control is acceptable. All these containers are placed near the closed ends of bigger firing tubes made of silica. 2. Sulfurization of sulfide phosphors may be achieved by firing either in H2S or in an inert gas loaded with CS2.5 Furnace Phosphor firing requires an electric furnace permitting temperatures between about 500ºC and at least 1200ºC.. O2). forming gas. A reliable temperature control clearly is one of the weak points of phosphor preparation.glass at firing temperatures and are better fired in other container materials. H2. Pure alumina serves fairly well in these cases. Many of these gases are interchangeable. Oxygen-dominated phosphors (oxides. Some typical arrangements are shown in Figure 1. The writer has yet to see a furnace whose temperature does not occasionally deviate from that indicated by the controller. Loosely covered crucibles are appropriate wherever alumina is the container material. for instance. Capped silica tubes are widely used in our laboratory. 2. Figure 1 Schemata of different containers during phosphor firing. NH3). silicates. . better up to about 1400ºC.g. Any desired temperature should be maintained during firing by means of an automatic temperature controller to within ±20ºC or better. Phosphor raw mixes not containing volatile (at firing conditions) constituents are best fired in open boats so that the charge is fully exposed to the desired atmosphere surrounding the material. or reducing atmospheres (CO. It makes no difference. Some arrangements used to handle the various gases in the firing tubes are shown in Figure 2 assuming the phosphor containers are both open boats. The only way to eliminate this problem is frequent recalibration of furnace and controller by means of a good thermocouple and a millivolt comparator.) may be fired in oxidizing (air. Only these ends of the firing tubes are in the furnaces during firing. whether a phosphor is fired in N2 or in Ar. Ar).6 Firing Atmospheres The various phosphors are fired in different atmospheres depending on the materials and the desired reactions. Raw mixes which do contain volatile constituents (e. phosphates. etc.

The stopper is protected against radiant heat by a bit of loose glass wool in front of it. N2) before admitting the final gas. Air Firing a phosphor in air requires nothing but the container in the firing tube whose open end is left open or. When the charge enters the furnace. it is extremely important first to flush all air out the firing tube with an inert gas (e. Be extremely cautious! CO This gas is about the most convenient for firing an oxygen-dominated phosphor in a reducing atmosphere. The vapor pressure of the water is too low at room temperature to have much effect. Escaping unused CS2 gas can be burned at the end of an outlet tube. The open ends of the latter are closed by ordinary rubber stoppers with two holes for gas inlet and outlet. A carrier gas (air. The air is flushed out by plain O2 and the gas inlet tube is then closed (but leave the inlet open). closed by a bit of loose glass wool to prevent dust particles from drifting in during firing. If the phosphor is fired in H2 or in H2S. be very careful to flush all the air out the firing tube before admitting the CS2-loaded gas. The tube connection between flask and firing tube should be as short and straight as possible.Figure 2 Schemata of different containers during phosphor firing. at most. so it is necessary to heat the flask to gentle boiling. otherwise the effect (explosion) will be spectacular when the firing tube enters the furnace. CS2 An inert carrier gas (e. .g. Do not heat the flask. some of the carbon black burns to CO in situ. the vapor pressure of the CS2 is high enough at room temperature. As in cases of H2 and H2S.g. Some carbon black is placed in a separate open container next to the phosphor container in the firing tube. Gases from tanks (or other supplies) These can be piped into the firing tubes via long and thin gas inlet tubes (silica) reaching as far into the firing tubes as possible.. Steam This arrangement resembles that used for CS2. N2. etc. N2) bubbles though a flask containing some liquid CS2 in front of the firing tube.. otherwise condensing liquid water might block the gas flow.) bubbles through a flask containing some water in front of the firing tube.

Some phosphors are free flowing and easily screened. to find one remains up to the ingenuity of the experimenter. However. etc. CaO) but they are a good practice also for all others. Sb2O3.. . halides). this still requires subsequent drying. usually to remove one or the other undesired residues (e.g. Some phosphors require special washings after firing.7 Treatments after Firing Fired phosphors often (not always) are slightly sintered cakes that have to be powderized to obtain the desired fine powder. Phosphors of recipes that do not mention a washing do not need it. Unfortunately there is no general rule to pick the best additive. Al2O3. of course.g.. This powderizing usually is possible by gentle grinding or milling. All phosphors that are not immediately used up for some application should be stored in closed and labeled containers. Phosphors coming out the furnace as badly sintered lumps indicate that something is wrong. Remember that good phosphors are precious materials. All phosphors should finally be screened to remove undesired big particles. Such cases are noted in the recipes of this report. Others tend to lump and are not screenable with any reasonable effort. etc.2. most likely the firing temperature was too high. methanol. Closed containers obviously are necessary for any phosphor that is not completely stable in room air (e. A 200-mesh stainless steel sieve is adequate for most general purposes but some special applications may require finer screens. Phosphors that stubbornly refuse to become free flowing with any additive can still be wet screened in a suspension in water. Such materials can easily be made free flowing by addition of small amounts (roughly 1/10% by weight) of some additives like very fine SiO2. Avoid all hard milling because it is likely to damage the phosphor.

3 3.4 Carbonates Sulfates Oxalates Sulfur .1 3.2 3.Section 3: Purification of Some Starting Materials 3.

Both are better prepared via the oxalates. Consequently.Section 3 PURIFICATION OF SOME STARTING MATERIALS* The normal purities (analytical reagent grade.) in the starting materials are better kept below this level. Let settle. Lehmann's Phosphor Cookbook. Then filter through a milli-pore filter (0. SrCO3 and BaCO3 both precipitate in too fine particles which almost behave like a gel in the water and do not readily settle. luminescent grade. Solution A: Dissolve 1 g-mole of Ca(NO3)·4H2O (= 236 g) in about 1 liter water at room temperature. Solution B: Dissolve about 1. air ~500–1000ºC. let settle. for ~½ hour. . etc. CaCO3 precipitates and settles readily. It is best converted to MgO by heating in an open boat. The carbonate usually comes in big chunks which take considerable time to dissolve. ~1000–1200ºC. It can be converted to CaO by firing in an open quartz boat. * This section is from W. Add a few cubic centimeters of freshly prepared NH4-sulfide solution.1 g-mole of the (NH4)2CO3 (= 105 g) in 1 liter water at room temperature. Wash the carbonate in de-ionized water several times (stir.. Slowly add solution A to B (or vice versa) while stirring. Fe. harmful impurities (mainly metals like Mn. Only some CaS-type phosphors are exceptions. It helps to crush the chunks but do not try to speed up the dissolution by heating. air. etc. Do not filter this solution.1 Carbonates (described using the example of CaCO3) Prepare two separate solutions. Properties Mg carbonate prepared in this way is of somewhat uncertain composition.g.45 µm pore size). Some impurities (e. Dry with methanol in filter funnel and then completely in open air. Decant the excess liquid. White CaCO3 precipitates and some CO2 develops. decant). for ~½ hour. 3. Let stand overnight. Mn) show up in the CaS-type phosphors in concentrations as low as 1 ppm.) of commercially available starting materials are good enough to prepare almost every phosphor mentioned in this cookbook. stir.

Let stand overnight. Decant the excess liquid.2 Sulfates (described using the example of SrSO4) Prepare two separate solutions. Solution B: Dissolve about 1. It can be converted to the more stable anhydrite by heating in open boats. air ~500–1000ºC. decant). Add a few cubic centimeters of freshly prepared NH4 sulfide solution. Sr and Ba sulfates precipitate immediately as anhydrous sulfates.45 µm pore size). Let stand overnight. decant). Properties Mg sulfate cannot be prepared in this way (MgSO4 = epsom salt). White BaC2O4 will precipitate out and readily settles down. Then filter through a milli-pore filter (0. Dry with methanol in filter funnel over filter paper and then completely in open air. Solution A: Dissolve 1 g-mole (= 273 g) of Ba-acetate. CaSO4 precipitates as gypsum. . Wash in de-ionized water several times (stir. Slowly pour solution A into B (or vice versa) while stirring. Add a few cubic centimeters of freshly prepared NH4 sulfide solution. Add NH4OH to make the solution slightly alkalinic. Then filter through a milli-pore filter (0. CaSO4·2H2O.45 µm pore size). Decant the excess liquid. SrSO4 is still manageable but BaSO4 tends to be of too fine particles which behave almost like a gel in the water and do not readily settle. Solution A: Dissolve 1 g-mole (= 212 g) of Sr(NO3)2 in about 1 liter water. Ba(C2H3O2)·H2O in about 1 liter water at room temperature. Solution B: Dissolve about 1.45 µm pore size). Slowly pour solution A into B (or vice versa) while stirring. Wash in de-ionized water several times (stir. for about ½ hour. let settle.45 µm pore size). Let settle. White sulfate will precipitate. Filter through a milli-pore filter (0. stir.1 g-mole (= 138 g) of oxalic acid.3. stir. Then filter through a milli-pore filter (0.3 Oxalates (described using the example of BaC2O4) Prepare two separate solutions.1 g-mole of the (NH4)2SO4 in 1 liter water. Dry with methanol in a filter funnel over filter paper and then completely in open air. stir. H2C2O4·2H2O. Let settle. Add a few cubic centimeters of NH4OH. let settle. in 1 liter water at room temperature. 3.

air. Yellow sulfur will precipitate. Sr oxalate precipitates as SrC2O4·H2O. Wash the sulfur several times in acetone (stir. Filter the solution though a dense paper filter. . ~1 hour. It converts to SrCO3 by firing in an open boat. ~1100°C. ~500ºC. Ca oxalate precipitates as CaC2O4·H2O. It converts completely to MgO by heating in an open boat. BaCO3 is not as easily converted into the oxide by firing in H2. Black impurities (metal sulfides. etc. H2. ~500–1000°C. Properties This is a coarse yellow powder. let settle. In contrast to SrCO3. ~1100ºC. Ba-oxalate precipitates as BaC2O4 which can be converted to BaCO3 by firing in an open boat. air. It converts to CaCO3 by heating in an open boat. air. Dry in filter funnel over filter paper and then completely in open air. 3. ~½ hour. ~½ hour. sufficiently pure for all preparation work of sulfidetype phosphors. stir or shake vigorously. Pour the filtered solution into a clean flask. decant).4 Sulfur Dissolve ordinary precipitated (not sublimed) sulfur in as little CS2 as possible. H2. ~500–1000°C. add the same amount (by volume) of pure acetone. ~ ½ hour. Further conversion to SrO is not practically possible by firing in an open boat.) will remain on the paper. ~1 hour.Properties Mg oxalate precipitates as MgC2O4·2H2O.

16 Description of Data Simple Oxides Silicates Halosilicates Phosphates Halophosphates Borates Aluminates and Gallates Molybdates and Tungstates Miscellaneous Oxides Halides and Oxyhalides Sulfates ZnS-Type Sulfides CaS-Type Sulfides Double Sulfides Miscellaneous Sulfides and Oxysulfides .6 4.4 4.1 4.7 4.13 4.9 4.15 4.10 4.5 4.8 4.12 4.11 4.14 4.3 4.2 4.Section 4: Phosphor Data 4.

In this instance the symbols mean: ++ = efficiencies of 10% or more. (Lehmann notes that one should keep in mind that an efficiency improvement of a phosphor.1 to 0. The activation includes only the activator and its ionic state as far as it is known. the ratio of emitted light energy over irradiated electron beam energy). Additional impurities (co-activators. is always a possibility that cannot be ruled out. . perhaps by using modified preparation conditions. Almost all inorganic phosphors consist of a host material into which small amounts of an activator impurity have been dissolved.Section 4 PHOSPHOR DATA 4. Many emission spectra consist of diffuse bands extending over a certain range. The chemical formula corresponding to the host crystal generally is well established but the crystal structure may not be available. the ratio of emitted light quanta over irradiated UV quanta).e. The width corresponds only to band emission and indicates the width of the band at half of its peak intensity (full width at half maximum—FWHM). The efficiencies by electron beam excitation in vacuum are described by the energy ratio (i. The emission color is that as it appears to the human eye. *This subsection is adapted from W. to the spectral range of the main part of a complex emission. – = efficiencies below 10%. The symbols mean: ++ = efficiencies in the 50–100% range. + = efficiencies in the 10–50% range. – = efficiencies below 1%.e.or 254-nm ultraviolet (UV) — both the main emissions of a Hg discharge lamp — are given in Lehmann's Phosphor Tables in terms of quanta (i... Lehmann’s Phosphor Cookbook.) Efficiencies under optical excitation. Because efficiencies obtained on poor phosphor samples are of limited usefulness. by either 365. The emission peak corresponds to the spectral position where the diffuse band has a maximum.1 Description of Data* This section presents information about inorganic phosphors. others are complex in shape or consist of discrete (although sometimes somewhat diffuse) lines.) are specified only in some cases where they have a strong effect on the final luminescence of the phosphor. only observed efficiencies of the best samples known to Lehmann are shown. Both the peak and bandwidth frequently depend on preparation conditions and are reproducible only within about ±0. + = efficiencies in the 1–10% range.2 eV. The phosphor composition and a brief description of the preparation conditions used by Lehmann are given in his Phosphor Cookbook but not in the Phosphor Tables. or to one or two strongest lines in case of line emission. Optical properties summarize the emissions of the phosphors. either from Lehmann's Phosphor Cookbook or from Lehmann's Phosphor Tables. etc.

88 eV Only the main references to original publications are given. . The emission and absorption spectra measured by Lehmann are all for room temperature and for the activator concentrations shown. All spectra are plotted on a quantum basis. Too few excitation spectra were available to be included. The absorption spectra indicate where the materials may be excited (no absorption—no emission). that is. but not necessarily at the optimum in every case. It is also easier to compare the widths of approximately Gaussian-shaped emission bands plotted in eV than it is to compare the widths of very nonGaussian-shaped bands plotted in wavelength units.40 eV 254 nm — 4.The luminescence decay time is the time for the emission either to decay to 1/10 or to 1/e of its initial value. Absence of a reference means that none is known. nm) and quantum energy (in eV) is (nm) = 1240/(eV) Using this conversion. the two optical wavelengths used for excitation correspond to: 365 nm — 3. the abscissa is calibrated in electron volts (eV) rather than wavelength units because luminescence processes are quantum processes. The simple conversion between wavelength (in nanometers. These concentrations are close to.

. Na+ CaO:Mn2+ CaO:Pb2+ CaO:Sb3+ CaO:Sm3+ CaO:Tb3+ CaO:Tl+ CaO:Zn2+ ZnO:Al3+.4.390 0.2 Simple Oxides The following host compounds and activators are included in this subsection: CaO:Bi3+ CaO:Cd2+ CaO:Cu+ CaO:Eu3+ CaO:Eu3+. Powderize when dry. Dry in air. 1 hour. Keep dry.023 Preparation Mix by slurrying in water or methanol. Powderize.Ga3+ ZnO:Ga3+ ZnO:S ZnO:Se ThO2:Eu3+ ThO2:Pr3+ ThO2:Tb3+ Y2O3:Bi3+ Y2O3:Er3+ Y2O3:Eu3+ (YOE) Y2O3:Ho3+ Y2O3:Tb3+ La2O3:Bi3+ La2O3:Eu3+ La2O3:Pb2+ CaO:Bi3+ Structure: Cubic (NaCl) Composition Ingredient CaCO3 CaF2 Bi2O3 Mole % 100 0.5 0. 1200ºC. Fire in capped quartz tubes. stagnant air.01 (of Bi) By weight (g) 100 0. Store in well-closed container.

A. Hughes. G. and Asano. and Pells.29 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (3. stagnant air. Keep dry.. 1200ºC. Luminescence spectra of Bi3+ ions in MgO and CaO. Dry in air. 40. Use only purest CaCO3. Powderize. 144 (1976). Phys. Status Solidi B.4 eV). 3.E.. W... Jpn. 6. A. J. References 1. Yamashita. Store in well-closed container..40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: 5% Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 50 2 3 Remark This phosphor is very sensitive to traces of Mn.17 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0. Soc. Powderize when dry. Phys. Optical Properties Emission color: UV Emission peak: Somewhat uncertain. may vary between about 3.385 Preparation Mix by slurrying in water or methanol. 71.Optical Properties Emission color: Violet + UV Emission peak: 3. 1 hour. Lumin. 455 (1973). N. J. Calcium oxide phosphors. 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 CaO:Cd2+ Structure: Cubic (NaCl) Composition Ingredient CaCO3 CdO Mole % 100 0.00 eV Absorption (%) 100 Emission .P. 707 (1975).90 and 4.3 By weight (g) 100 0. Luminescence-centers of Ca(S. Fire in capped quartz tubes.Se):Bi3+ and CaO:Bi3+ phosphors. ++ (3.. 2. Lehmann..

88 eV).88 eV).40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: 2% Absorption (%) 100 Emission . CO. Wise. about 230 µsec Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 50 2 3 References 1.18 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0. Dry in air. ~2. Slurry in water. – (3.. Lumin.77 and ~3. Fire in capped quartz tubes..01 By weight (g) 100 0. Abh.Emission width (FWHM): 0. – (3.63 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: – (4.75 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: + (4.40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: 6–7% Decay to 10% : Exponential. OSRAM Ges.. H. 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 CaO:Cu+ Structure: Cubic (NaCl)l Composition Ingredient CaCO3 CaF2 CuSO4·5H2O Mole % 100 0. W. Powderize. Keep dry. add solution to the CaCO3 + CaF2 mix. Powderize when dry. Store in well-closed container. 1 hour.5 0. Calcium oxide phosphors. Optical Properties Emission color: Bluish + UV Emission peak: Two overlapping bands. Lange. Lehmann. 10.380 0. 6. 87 (1969).025 Preparation Dissolve the copper sulfate in a little water. J. Tech. 1200ºC. 2. 455 (1973)..

Calcium oxide phosphors.2 (of Eu) By weight (g) 100 1. After this firing. 1200ºC. Fire in open quartz boats. After this firing. Dry in air. 1200ºC. Optical Properties Emission color: Red. Lehmann. ~20 min. 2. Fire in capped quartz tubes.. 1.40 eV by addition of Bi (see CaO:Bi3+) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: Poor Absorption (%) 100 Emission .5 1. 6. 455 (1973). 1200ºC. Lumin. quench again to room temperature as quickly as possible. Powderize.. Powderize when dry. CaO:Eu3+ Structure: Cubic (NaCl) Composition Ingredient CaCO3 CaF2 Eu2O3 Mole % 100 1. stagnant air. can be sensitized for excitation at 3.015 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4. Fire in open quartz boats. – (3. N2 loaded with H2O.Spectra 800 700 600 500 400 Wavelength (nm) 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Reference 1. Keep dry. quench again to room temperature as quickly as possible. Powderize. Store in well-closed container. N2. 2 hours.1 Preparation Mix by slurrying in water or methanol. 1 hour. W. 3.40 eV).88 eV). Powderize. slightly deeper red than that of YOE Emission peak: Main line at 2.2 2. J.

Pt. P. W. 2. The fluorine in the above recipe can be replaced by chlorine or bromine but a phosphor so prepared is badly hygroscopic probably because of leftover CaCl2 or CaBr2. Z. 455 (1973). Lumin. Top efficiency requires that the phosphor passes through this range as rapidly as possible after second and third firings.015 eV to appear. Naturforsch.. Pt. Na. A. Li+ + Eu3+ = 2Ca2+) causes the red line at 2. 12.. Brauer. The phosphor reacts to a “bad” temperature range (~800–1100ºC) by greatly reduced efficiency. 2. This CaO:Eu3+ phosphor has been tested in fluorescent lamps. Z.10 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4. The red Eu3+ emission shown in the preceding figure appears only if no alkali is present. Naturforsch. and Uber eu-ionen in erdalkalioxyden und erdalkali-sulfiden. 233 (1957). 6. Lehmann.88 eV). Addition of Li. References 1. 4. A. 3. or K (perhaps for charge compensation.Spectra 800 700 600 500 400 Wavelength (nm) 300 50 2 3 Remarks 1. 6.40 eV) Spectra 800 700 600 500 400 Wavelength (nm) 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Absorption (%) 100 Emission Absorption (%) 100 Emission . 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 CaO:Eu3+. Na+ Structure: Cubic (NaCl) Optical Properties Emission color: Orange-yellow Emission peak: 2.. – (3. 561 (1951). J. Calcium oxide phosphors. It performs very poorly.

otherwise the Mn stays separate as MnO2.. about 22 msec Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 50 2 3 Remarks 1. – (3. Dependence of luminescent efficiency on concentration of activator size of luminescent centers. J. Ewles. 1. 392 (1953). Strong Mn2+ emission appears from about 1 ppm to 10% of Mn or Ca. and Lee.40 eV by addition of Bi (see CaO:Bi3+) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: 5% Decay to 10%: Exponential. Optical Properties Emission color: Orange-yellow Emission peak: 2. Electrochem.88 eV by addition of Pb (see CaO:Pb2+).20 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: – (4. Powderize when dry. Soc. Dry in air.CaO:Mn2+ Structure: Cubic (NaCl) Composition Ingredient CaCO3 CaF2 MnCO3 Mole % 100 0. Powderize.40 eV). J. can be sensitized to respond to 3.1 By weight (g) 100 0. 100. CO. Keep dry. The Mn concentration is not critical. References 1.88 eV). Store in well-closed container.115 Preparation Mix by slurrying in water.07 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0. The phosphor must be fired in a reducing atmosphere... can be sensitized to respond to 4.390 0. 2. 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Absorption (%) 100 Emission .5 0. 1200ºC. Studies on the concept of large activator centers in crystal phosphors. 1 hour. N. Fire in capped quartz tubes.

.40 eV) 400 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Reference 1. Abh. Powderize when dry. Wise. Keep dry. Phys.21 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4.2. J. Sancier. 37.. 455 (1973).. 1. Wise.. J.. and Fredericks. Fire in capped quartz tubes. A. 1 hour. Lehmann.022 Preparation Mix by slurrying in water or methanol.5 0.J.. stagnant air. W. Calcium oxide phosphors.M.390 0. Luminescence of solids excited by surface recombination of atoms. Absorption (%) 100 Emission . Techn. W.. and Ruffler.. 37. Lumin. Optical Properties Emission color: UV Emission peak: 3. Chem. CaO:Pb2+ Structure: Cubic (NaCl) Composition Ingredient CaCO3 CaF2 PbO Mole % 100 0.88 eV).. H. M. Lehmann. OSRAM Ges. 6. Excitation efficiency by e-beam: 10% Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) (3. J. Powderize.42 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0. 854 (1962). 455 (1973). K. Hühninger. W. Lumin.. Calcium oxide phosphors. 1200ºC. Dry in air. 3. 6.. 4.01 By weight (g) 100 0. Luminescence spectra. Store in well-closed container. 41 (1963).

Lumin. Witzmann. and Kunstler.51 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: (4. Store in well-closed container. (Leipzig). CO. Calcium oxide phosphors. H. G..145 0. Absorption (%) 100 Emission . Powderize when dry.CaO:Sb3+ Structure: Cubic (NaCl) Composition Ingredient CaCO3 Sb2O3 NaHCO3 Mole % 100 0. Lehmann. 1 hour. 56 (1964). Chem. 455 (1973). 6. 1200ºC. Dry in air.30 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0.88 and 3.40 eV). Fire in capped quartz tubes. Herzog. 2. Optical Properties Emission color: Yellow-green Emission peak: 2. Powderize. (3. J. Keep dry.40 eV UV by addition Bi (see CaO:Bi3+) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: Poor Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 References 1. Z. Phys. W.840 Preparation Mix by slurrying in water. can be sensitized for excitation by 4.. Zur lumineszenz antimonaktivierter erdalkalioxide insonderheit des systems CaO-Sb..88 eV). K.1 (of Sb) 1 By weight (g) 100 0.. 227..

(Leipzig). Chem. Calcium oxide phosphors. Appl. Chem. can be sensitized to respond to 4. can be sensitized for 4. R. 33 (1970).88 eV).00.. Atomic configurations in luminescent centres.. Optical Properties Emission color: Orange-yellow Emission peak: 2.40 eV).16. and Raths. Z. H. Suppl.Thermoluminescence of phosphors CaO-Sm and CaO-Bi (calcium oxide-samarium and-bismuth). 3. Beitrag zur thermolumineszenz des samariumaktivierten calciumoxids.. 1 hour. G. 6. and Abel.. 228. Dry in air. 125 (1953). Witzmann. W. Runciman. Phys. S78. W. 2. 225.CaO:Sm3+ Structure: Cubic (NaCl) Composition Ingredient CaCO3 CaF2 Sm2O3 Mole % 100 0. 2.. J. stagnant air. Keep dry. 6.40 eV excitation by addition of Bi (see CaO:Bi3+) Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 References 1. 455 (1973).A.. Lumin... 5. Powderize. Chem. 1200ºC. Crozet.. Phys. G. and 2.380 0. Rad. (Leipzig). J. Herzog.19 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: – (4. 243. 4. 14. Herzog. Powderize when dry. Phys. Lehmann. Herzog. A. J. Br. – (3.. . Fire in capped quartz tubes. Phys. and Janin.88 and 3. 13 (1965). and Wuntke. (Leipzig). Z. Absorption (%) 100 Emission .5 0. Phys.88 eV by addition of Pb (see CaO:Pb2+). K. Fiquet. Store in well-closed container. 332 (1964). W.. 4 (1955).. G.520 Preparation Mix by slurrying in water or methanol.3 (of Sm) By weight (g) 100 0. Z. J. J...

6. 1 hour.5 1.066 0. CO. Calcium oxide phosphors. – (3.8 Preparation Mix by slurrying in water or methanol.03 1 By weight (g) 56 0. Lumin. Store in well-closed container.CaO:Tb3+ Structure: Cubic (NaCl) Composition Ingredient CaCO3 CaF2 Tb4O7 Mole % 100 0.. Fire in capped quartz tubes.28 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: + (4. strongest near 2.26–2. Dry in air. J. Keep dry. Optical Properties Emission color: Pale green Emission peak: Many lines.88 eV). Lehmann.. 455 (1973).40 eV). W. Powderize when dry. low because of dark body color Excitation efficiency by e-beam: Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Reference 1.540 Absorption (%) 100 Emission .5 (of Tb) By weight (g) 100 0. Powderize. CaO:Tl+ Structure: Cubic (NaCl) Composition Ingredient CaO TlOH NH4Cl Mole % 100 0.380 2. 1200ºC.

2.5 eV (IR) Emission width (FWHM): 0. stagnant air. 1 hour. Z. 1200ºC.390 0. 130 (1964).5 0. Dry in air. Keep dry. Absorption (%) 100 Emission . 1200ºC. H. – (3.40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: 3% (Including both bands) Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 References 1.. Zur photoelektrischen messung geringer lumineszenzintensitaten. Powderize when dry.3 By weight (g) 100 0. Fire in capped quartz tubes. Phys. 1 hour.Preparation First mix only the CaO and NH4Cl by dry grinding. (Leipzig). 1200ºC. N2.88 eV).. Fire in capped quartz tubes. 1 hour.48 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: + (4.. Powderize Store in well-closed container. Optical Properties Emission color: Pale yellow + IR Emission peaks: 2. 6. 227. Calcium oxide phosphors. 1. Fire in capped quartz tubes. W.11 and 1. J. Now admit the TlOH by dry grinding. Anderson.240 Preparation Mix by slurrying in water or methanol. 455 (1973). Powderize. Chem. 2. CaO:Zn2+ Structure: Cubic (NaCl) Composition Ingredient CaCO3 CaF2 ZnO Mole % 100 0. Lehmann. Lumin. stagnant air.

Powderize. Lehmann. 2. 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 ZnO:Al3+.40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: + References 1.. varying between about 3.80 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: (4. Lehmann. Methods.. Correction. Keep dry. + (3. D.40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: 10% Decay to 10%: Exponential.88 eV). D. Edge emission of n-type conducting ZnO and CdS. A fast inorganic scintillator. Lumin. (3.13 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: + (4.88 eV).. Calcium oxide phosphors. Luckey. Methods. Luckey. Solid State Electron. 9. Instrum. 1107 (1966). J. 6. about 300 sec Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 50 2 3 Reference 1. 63. W.20 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0. 62. 358 (1968).. 119 (1968). Nucl. Optical Properties Emission color: UV Emission peak: Somewhat uncertain.Ga3+ Structure: Hexagonal (wurtzite) Optical Properties Emission color: UV Emission peak: 3. Instrum.. W. Absorption (%) 100 Emission . 455 (1973). Store in well-closed container.. Nucl.65 and 3.

3 1 By weight (g) 81 0. 63. Nucl. 3. Correction. Fire when dry. Edge emission of n-type conducting ZnO and CdS. 1 hour.88 eV). 2. Luckey. Remove all portions which look different.2% Decay to 10%: Less than 1 nsec Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 50 2 3 Remarks 1. When cool. nothing else. Powderize. 119 (1968). inspect under UV lamp. 1.. D. 358 (1968). except in H2. slowly flowing H2. When cool. 2. References 1. Material should be almost or completely dead. inspect again under UV lamp. Screen through 200 mesh (stainless steel sieve OK). Fire in open quartz boats. It is thermally in a semi-stable state. A fast inorganic scintillator.280 1. 62. Instrum. Optical Properties Emission color: Deep violet + UV Emission peak: 3. Avoid all sulfur like the plague.40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: 1–1. Methods. Luckey. 1 hour..4 Preparation Mix by slurrying in water or methanol. Lehmann. Nucl. 9. Fire in capped quartz tubes. 800ºC. 2.195 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: + (4. W. Do not heat to greater than 300ºC. Instrum.. D. Phosphor has gray (not white) body color. 1100ºC. Solid State Electron. 1107 (1966)..ZnO:Ga3+ Structure: Hexagonal (wurtzite) Composition Ingredient ZnO Ga2O3 ZnCl2 Mole % 100 0. stagnant air. 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Absorption (%) 100 Emission . Methods. Material should show deep violet luminescence. Remove any suspicious parts. + (3. This material is sensitive to traces of sulfur during preparation. Dry in air.

Electrochem. J. Lehmann.. 770 (1950). Soc. 3. Phys. Smith. Electrochem. Excitation efficiency by e-beam: + Decay to 10%: In the 1–10 sec range Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 60% 400 300 100 Emission 50 2 3 Remarks 1. + (3. S. 1 hour. W. Sulfide in zinc-oxide luminophors. Soc. The emission can be shifted towards blue by replacing 20% of the Zn by Mg. 900ºC..L. This common bluish-green emission of ZnO is greatly enhanced by the addition of sulfur during firing.. A. J. J. 155 (1952)..88 eV). CO.. 99. and towards yellow by replacing 10% of the Zn by Cd.ZnO:S Structure: Hexagonal (wurtzite) Composition Ingredient ZnO S Mole % 100 ~0. Thomsen.40 eV).M..2 By weight (g) 81 ~0. 115. Zinc oxide and zinc-cadmium oxide phosphors.45 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0. Zinc-magnesium oxide and zinc-magnesium sulfide phosphors. 2. 18. 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 . Chem. Optical Properties Emission color: Blue-green Emission peak: 2. References 1.41 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: + (4. 538 (1968). 2.064 Preparation Fire in capped tubes.

W.160 Preparation Fire in capped quartz tubes. N. Markovski.. and Oshanskaya.ZnO:Se Structure: Hexagonal (wurtzite) Composition Ingredient ZnO Se Mole % 100 ~0.e.88 eV). 2. 1 hour.S.. References 1. Optical Properties Emission color: Orange Emission peak: 1. 900ºC. CO. Optics and Spectr. J. 50–60% Excitation efficiency by e-beam: Afterglow tail observed into the millisecond range Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 100 Emission 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Remark This material can be obtained also by “burning” (i. 9. oxidizing) of ZnSe in air but the efficiency of this ZnO:Se is lower. + (3.51 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: + (4. 40 (1960). Lehmann.. .2 By weight (g) 81 0.Y. Electrochem..98 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0. 115. Soc. Zinc oxide and zinc-cadmium oxide phosphors.. 538 (1968). L..40 eV).

Optical Properties Emission color: Pinkish orange-red Emission peak: Three strongest lines.04. Dry in air. Fok. Borchard.V. Fire in capped quartz tubes. and 2.88 eV). Pat.3 3. – (3. 2.ThO2:Eu3+ Structure: Rutile Composition Ingredient ThO2 Eu2O3 NH4F Mole % 100 1. References 1.7 Preparation Mix by slurrying in water.97. Dry.5 (of Eu) 10 By weight (g) 232 2.40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: 4% Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Remark This phosphor has been proposed for X-ray excitation because of the high stopping power of ThO2 for x-rays.. 3 408 303 (1968). Powderize when dry. U. 2. 1.. H.. Wash in concentrated nitric acid and then in water until neutral.095 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4. 2.S. 1300ºC. N2. 1 hour. Absorption (%) 100 Emission . 127 (1957). Powderize..J. Optika I Spektrosk. M.

Wash in concentrated nitric acid and then in water until neutral. – (3.89.7 Preparation Mix by slurrying in water or methanol.ThO2:Pr3+ Structure: Rutile Composition Ingredient ThO2 Pr2O3 NH4F Mole % 100 0.2 (of Tb) 10 By weight (g) 232 0. 1 hour.88 eV). N2. Powderize when dry. Optical Properties Emission color: Blue-greenish white Emission peak: Strongest lines: at 1.2 (of Pr) 10 By weight (g) 232 0.375 3. and 2. 2. Dry. Fire in capped quartz tubes. Powderize.52 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: + (4.7 Absorption (%) 100 Emission .40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: 3% Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 ThO2:Tb3+ Structure: Rutile Composition Ingredient ThO2 Tb4O7 NH4F Mole % 100 0. 1300ºC. Dry in air.48.330 3.

5 By weight (g) 108 0. Dry in air. 1 hour. 1 hour. 1300ºC.Preparation Mix by slurrying in water.88 eV). H. Fire in capped quartz tubes..230 1. Dry. Reference 1. Powderize. – (3. U. stagnant air. Dry in air.95 Preparation Mix by slurrying in water or methanol.. Pat.J. Optical Properties Emission color: Bluish-greenish Emission peak: Strongest at 2. 3 408 303 (1968). Wash in concentrated nitric acid and then in water until neutral.285 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: + (4. 1300ºC.40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: 3% Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Remark This phosphor has been proposed for X-ray excitation (high stopping power of ThO2 for Xrays).S. Fire in capped quartz tubes.1 (of Bi) 2. CO. Powderize when dry. Powderize when dry. Y2O3:Bi3+ Structure: Cubic Composition Ingredient Y 2O 3 Bi2O3 CaF2 Mole % 100 (of Y) 0. Absorption (%) 100 Emission . Borchard.

1 (of Bi) 2. J. 4... 48. Lumin. p. and Bril. 1 hour. Luminescent behavior of bismuth in rare-earth oxides. stagnant air. J. 114. Soc. Powderize when dry. Intern. 3.00 eV..Z. 217 (1968). Blasse. Datta.. Boulon. 2. and Palumbo. 274 (1969). S. Leningrad. 1137 (1967).T. Fire in capped quartz tubes.88 eV).K.. + (3.230 1.. Conf.95 Preparation Mix by slurrying in water or methanol. J.. Investigations on BI3+-activated phosphors..35 eV band showing up Emission width (FWHM): 0. Dry in air. Toma.5 By weight (g) 108 0. 1300ºC. D. G. 116. References 1. Phys. Sometimes it is difficult to recognize the bands in the very diffuse emission spectrum. A. Proc. 530 (1972). frequently only the 2... Chem.83 eV (for 2. Electrochem. Electrochem. Y2O3:Er3+ Structure: Cubic Composition Ingredient Y 2O 3 Bi2O3 CaF2 Mole % 100 (of Y) 0. et al.40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: Low in either case Decay to 10%: 1 sec Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 100 Absorption (%) Emission 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Remark The Bi3+ emission in Y2O3 is very poorly expressed. R. .Optical Properties Emission color: Pale blue-greenish white Emission peak: 2. Soc. Luminescence of some bismuth-activated oxides. G.35 eV peak) Excitation efficiency by UV: + (4.35 and 3. 1.

230 1. Optical Properties Emission color: Red Emission peak: Strongest line at 2. Powderize.1 (of Bi) 2.95 Preparation Mix by slurrying in water or methanol. Dry in air. Powderize. is low for the visible part because of strong competition by IR emission Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Y2O3:Eu3+ (YOE) Structure: Cubic Composition Ingredient Y 2O 3 Bi2O3 CaF2 Mole % 100 (of Y) 0. Fire in capped quartz tubes.03 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4. stagnant air. 1300ºC. 1300ºC. 80% Excitation efficiency by e-beam: 7–8% (if Eu conc: = 3%.5 By weight (g) 108 0. air.206 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: – (4. Powderize when dry. – (3.40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: Efficiency not tested.88 eV). Fire in open quartz boats. 1300ºC. (3. 1 hour.40 eV). see below) Absorption (%) 100 Emission . 1 hour.88 eV). 1 hour.2. Fire in capped quartz tubes. Optical Properties Emission color: Pale green Emission peak: Strongest line at 2. stagnant air.

To obtain a phosphor optimized for e-beam excitation use only ½ of the above Eu concentration. 4. Wickersheim. Fire in capped quartz tubes. References 1. Appl. Y2O3:Ho3+ Structure: Cubic Composition Ingredient Y 2O 3 Bi2O3 CaF2 Mole % 100 (of Y) 0. J. Soc. 3.. 111. Absorption (%) 100 Emission . stagnant air. Ropp. stagnant air. Luminescence of europium in ternary system — A2O3-Gd2O3-Y2O3.5 By weight (g) 108 0.. R. 112.. 2. 3500 (1963). N. 34.88 eV UV. 1 hour. Phys. Soc. J.. 5. 2.1 (of Bi) 2. Datta.C. Luminescent behavior of the rare earths in yttrium oxide and related hosts. K.. Powderize. Sensitization by Bi causes excitability by 3. J. Fire in capped quartz tubes.C. Electrochem. and Lefever. 1300ºC. 1 hour. R. 181 (1965). Dry in air. 2. Ropp. The above recipe gives a phosphor optimized for excitation by 4. Spectral properties of rare earth oxide phosphors. 311 (1964).Spectra 800 700 600 500 400 Wavelength (nm) 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Remarks 1... Soc. 1300ºC. R. Powderize when dry. 1. Electrochem.. Electrochem. J. R..88 eV. 1137 (1967).A. 111..95 Preparation Mix by slurrying in water or methanol.. J.C.230 1. 114.40 eV UV but reduces the efficiency for excitation by 4.A. 47 (1964). Fluorescence and stimulated emission from trivalent europium in yttrium oxide.K. Soc. Chang. Luminescent behavior of bismuth in rare-earth oxides. Electrochem.

Optical Properties Emission color: Yellow-green Emission peak: Two lines in the visible at 2. 2. plus many lines in the IR Excitation efficiency by UV: – (4. Fire in capped quartz tubes. 1 hour. – (3.95 Preparation Mix by slurrying in water or methanol.88 eV). Optical Properties Emission color: Pale green Emission peak: Strongest lines at 2.40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: Efficiency not tested.1 (of Bi) 2. is low for the visible part because of the strong competition by IR emission Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Y2O3:Tb3+ Structure: Cubic Composition Ingredient Y 2O 3 Bi2O3 CaF2 Mole % 100 (of Y) 0.5 By weight (g) 108 0.253 and 2. CO. = 1%. (3. Fire in capped quartz tubes.286 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: + (4. 1. Powderize.230 1.88 eV). 1300ºC. Dry in air. see below) Absorption (%) 100 Emission . 1 hour.30 eV. 1300ºC. Powderize when dry.266 and 2. CO.40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: 2–3% (if Tb conc.

230 1. 311 (1964). otherwise Tb3+ oxidizes to Tb4+. The above recipe gives a phosphor optimized for excitation by 4. Store in well-closed container.1 (of Bi) 2. J.C.5 By weight (g) 163 0.5%) of Tb. Re-fire. 1200 C. Spectral properties of rare earth oxide phosphors.27 µsec Absorption (%) 100 Emission . Dry in air. 1 hour. Reference 1. To obtain a phosphor optimized for e-beam excitation use only 1% (instead of 2. Optical Properties Color: Bluish Emission peak: 2. La2O3:Bi3+ Structure: Cubic Composition Ingredient La2O3 Bi2O3 CaF2 Mole % 100 (of Y) 0. This phosphor must be fired in reducing atmosphere.95 Preparation Mix by slurrying in water or methanol.49 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4. Electrochem. Soc. R.40 eV) Decay to 1/e: 0.67 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0.88 eV). Powderize.88 eV. same conditions as above. Ropp.. 2. – (3. Fire in capped quartz tubes. stagnant air.Spectra 800 700 600 500 400 Wavelength (nm) 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Remarks 1. 111. Powderize when dry.. Powderize.

J. 112. Ropp. R. Wanmaker.95 Preparation Mix by slurrying in water or methanol. Powderize. 1 hour. Powderize when dry.. 111 (1965).40 eV) . Fire in capped quartz tubes.L. A. 1300ºC.. Fire in capped quartz tubes..985 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: – (4.K. C. 1137 (1967)..88 eV). Luminescence of europium in ternary system — A2O3-Gd2O3-Y2O3.. Powderize. Datta. Fluorescent properties of red-emitting europium-activated phosphors with cathode ray excitation. Dry in air.Spectra 800 700 600 500 400 Wavelength (nm) 300 100 Absorption (%) Emission 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 References 1. J. 1300ºC. stagnant air. Soc.C.5 By weight (g) 163 0. Soc.230 1. and deLaat.. W. Bril. Electrochem. J.. Soc. 2. La2O3:Eu3+ Structure: Cubic Composition Ingredient La2O3 Bi2O3 CaF2 Mole % 100 (of Y) 0.. R. 3. Optical Properties Emission color: Red Emission peak: Strongest line at 1. 2. Luminescent behavior of bismuth in rare-earth oxides. – (3. 114. 112. Electrochem. 1.1 (of Bi) 2. Store in well-closed container. 1 hour. 124 (1965). stagnant air. Electrochem.

Electrochem. J. Phys. A.C. 6. Wanmaker.. 311 (1964). 111 (1965).95 Optical Properties Emission color: Yellow-green Emission peak: 2. Soc. N. Phys. Chem. Ropp. 34.. G. 112. Fluorescent properties of red-emitting europium-activated phosphors with cathode ray excitation. W... 4. 111.. Barasch. Soc. Soc.. J.230 1.H.Spectra 800 700 600 500 400 Wavelength (nm) 300 50 2 3 References 1. 988 (1965). 112. Luminescent behavior of bismuth in rare-earth oxides. J. G. Fluorescence and stimulated emission from trivalent europium in yttrium oxide. Electrochem. R.. Soc.27 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0..51 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4. C. 7.5 By weight (g) 163 0.. Datta. Appl. R. and deLaat. Luminescence of europium in ternary system — A2O3-Gd2O3-Y2O3. Soc. 3500 (1963).C.K. Bril... and Lefever. Chang.. Electrochem. 43... Fluorescence decay of rare-earth ions in crystals. Electrochem.1 (of Bi) 2.... and Dieke.40 eV) Absorption (%) 100 Emission . Luminescent behavior of the rare earths in yttrium oxide and related hosts. Ropp. 5. 2. J. K.. J. 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 La2O3:Pb2+ Structure: Cubic Composition Ingredient La2O3 Bi2O3 CaF2 Mole % 100 (of Y) 0.A. Electrochem.88 eV). 47 (1964).C. R. R.. + (3. 1137 (1967). 3. J. Spectral properties of rare earth oxide phosphors.E.L. Wickersheim. 114.A. 181 (1965). 111. J.

Spectra 800 700 600 500 400 Wavelength (nm) 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Absorption (%) 100 Emission .

Mn2+ Sr2MgSi2O7:Eu2+ Ba2MgSi2O7:Eu2+ BaMg2Si2O7:Eu2+ BaSrMgSi2O7:Eu2+ Ba2Li2Si2O7:Eu2+ Ba2Li2Si2O7:Sn2+ Ba2Li2Si2O7:Sn2+.As5+ Zn2SiO4:Ti4+ (Zn+Be)2SiO4:Mn2+ Sr2SiO4:Eu2+ SrBaSiO4:Eu2+ Ba2SiO4:Eu2+ Ba2SiO4:Ce3+.3 Silicates The following host compounds and activators are included in this subsection: CaSiO3:Ce3+ CaSiO 3:Eu2+ CaSiO 3:Pb2+ CaSiO3:Ti4+ CaSiO3:Pb2+.Mn2+ Be2SiO4:Mn2+ Mg2SiO4:Mn2+ Zn2SiO4:Mn2+ Zn2SiO4:Mn2+.Mn2+ BaSi2O5:Eu2+ BaSi2O5:Pb2+ Y2SiO5:Ce3+ CaMgSi2O6:Eu2+ CaMgSi2O6:Eu2+.P Zn2SiO4:Mn2+.Mn2+ Ca2MgSi2O7:Eu2+ Ca2MgSi2O7 Ca2MgSi2O7:Eu2+.Li+.Mn2+ Sr3MgSi2O8:Eu2+ Ca5B2SiO10:Eu3+ Ca3Al2Si3O12:Eu2+ LiCeBa4Si4O14:Mn2+ LiCeSrBa3Si4O14:Mn2+ .4.Mn2+ MgSrBa2Si2O7:Eu2+ MgBa3Si2O8:Eu2+ MgSr3Si2O8:Eu2+.

Optical Properties Emission color: Violet + UV Emission peak: 3.00 eV. Elsevier. Amsterdam (1948). 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 CaSiO3:Eu2+ Structure: Triclinic (pseudowollastonite) Composition Ingredient CaCO3 SiO2 Eu2O3 CaF2 Mole % 98 100 0. 1100ºC.56 Preparation Mix by slurrying in water.42 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: + (4.88 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: + Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 50 2 3 Reference 1. Kröger.80 1.56 Absorption (%) 100 Emission . 3.1 (of Eu) 2 By weight (g) 98 60 0.CaSiO3:Ce3+ Structure: Triclinic (pseudowollastonite) Composition Ingredient CaCO3 SiO2 TiO2 CaF2 Mole % 97 100 1 2 By weight (g) 97 100 0. 1 hour.. Fire in capped quartz tubes. Dry in air. CO.A.176 1. Powderize when dry. Some Aspects of the Luminescence of Solids. F.

Powderize when dry. Optical Properties Emission color: UV Emission peak: 3. Dry in air. CO.Preparation Mix by slurrying in water.70 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0. Powderize when dry.88 eV). 1100ºC.40 eV) Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 CaSiO3:Pb2+ Structure: Triclinic (pseudowollastonite) Composition Ingredient CaCO3 SiO2 PbO CaF2 Mole % 97 100 1 2 By weight (g) 97 60 2. 1100º C.93 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0.40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: + Absorption (%) 100 Emission . 1 hour. 1 hour. Fire in capped quartz tubes. N2.25 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: + (4. Fire in capped quartz tubes. + (3.23 1.88 eV).56 Preparation Mix by slurrying in water or methanol.87 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4. Dry in air. Optical Properties Emission color: Violet Emission peak: 2. – (3.

123 (1950). Phys. J.... 16. Powderize when dry. J. Nagy. Wiss. 269 (1964).. and Hoffman. Wei. Soc. 7. Tech.. J..H. 5. C. A. Calcium zinc silicate phosphor. 1100ºC. Optical properties of tin-activated and lead-activated calcium metasilicate phosphors.J. Lange. Electrochem.. D. 2. H.. Absorption (%) 100 Emission . 346 (1954)... OSRAM Ges. W.. and Hoekstra.. Rep. E. Ginther. R. 10... Am. Butler. Dry in air.L. R. Bril. J. University Park (1980). A. 97... R.. Bril. Die manganbanden und ihre trennung im lumineszenzspektrum von calciumsilikat (Mn. 4. Opt. 6. Soc. and Wollentin. 139. and Ruffler. and Claffy. Rep. J. Schulman.. air. M. 955 (1959). 106. Hüniger.. Electrochem. 99.W. 43. J. Soc.C. 41 (1963). 356 (1961). Electrochem. Philips Res. 3. 8.E. H.H. Fluorescent Lamp Phosphors. C..H.W. CaSiO3:Ti4+ Structure: Triclinic (pseudowollastonite) Composition Ingredient CaCO3 SiO2 TiO2 CaF2 Mole % 97 100 1 2 By weight (g) 97 100 0. 9. R. 318 (1953). K. 137 (1952). Harrison. and Klick. Ginther.Spectra 800 700 600 500 400 Wavelength (nm) 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 References 1. Note on the properties of calcium silicate phosphors.W... Mooney. Pennsylvania University Press.56 Preparation Mix by slurrying in water or methanol..K. The calcium silicate Mn + Pb phosphor phase relationships and preparation. Schulman. 800 (1959). R.. Z.V. 106. Philips Res.. J. Soc. 8... A study of the mechanism of sensitized luminescence of solids.Pb). 19. Soc. Fire in capped quartz tubes.J. Electrochem. Abh. 1 hour. W.. M..80 1. and Hoekstra.

5 60 1. 1 hour.Optical Properties Emission color: Bluish Emission peak: 2. 1 hour. 1. – (3. Dry. Powderize.40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: 60% (estimated) Decay to 10% : Slightly non exponential ( 35 msec) followed by a long but weaker afterglow tail extending into seconds Absorption (%) 100 Emission . Optical Properties Emission color: Orange Emission peak: 2. Fire in capped quartz tubes. 1000ºC.88 eV).56 Preparation Mix by slurrying in methanol plus a few cubic centimeters water. Dry in air.88 eV) Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 CaSiO3:Pb2+. 2. Fire in capped quartz tubes.12 2.92 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: + (4.5 2 2 By weight (g) 97. Wash in water several times.42 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4.17 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0. 1150ºC. N2. Powderize.Mn2+ Structure: Triclinic (pseudowollastonite) Composition Ingredient CaCO3 SiO2 PbO MnCO3 CaF2 Mole % 97.93 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0. Powderize when dry.3 1.5 100 0. CO.

.97 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: – (4. 96.88 eV).88 eV Emission width (FWHM): eV Excitation efficiency by UV: – (4. A. Smith. Some new complex silicate phosphors containing calcium. magnesium. Be2SiO4:Mn2+ Structure: Trigonal (phenakite) Optical Properties Emission color: Orange-red Emission peak: 1.Spectra 800 700 600 500 400 Wavelength (nm) 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Reference 1. – (3.. and beryllium. 287 (1949).40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: + Zn2SiO4:Mn2+ Structure: Trigonal (willemite) Composition Ingredient ZnO SiO2 MnCO3 Mole % 194 110 6 By weight (g) 158 66 6. – (3. Soc.9 Absorption (%) 100 Emission . J. Electrochem.88 eV).40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: + Mg2SiO4:Mn2+ Structure: Orthorhombic (forsterite) Optical Properties Emission color: Red Emission peak: 1.L.

J.. Optical Properties Emission color: Green Emission peak: 2.. air. 5. 1184 (1970). London (1950). Stevels. 2. 117.T. Green-emitting phosphors. C.. and Holland. 229 (1979).N. Lumin.F. New York.R.. Lett. 1 hour. 6. 1200ºC. and Garlick. Efficiency enhancement in manganese-doped zinc silicate phosphor with AIPO4 substitution. Electrochem. Powderize by dry milling. Kinetics of X-ray irradiation-caused degradation of photoluminescence of some phosphors. A.L.. Soc. Leverenz. G.. Emission peak moves slightly to longer wavelength with increasing Mn concentration. The thermoluminescence characteristics of silicate phosphors activated by manganese and arsenic. 409 (1965). Bull. and Brown.F. Am. Segnit.. 1200ºC. 1. Soc. 3. 1.18 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4.. Soc. 7.E.J.T. 79 (1976). 80–90% Excitation efficiency by e-beam: 7%/+ Decay: Near exponential with time constant ~10 msec (22–25 msec to 1/10) Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 50 2 3 Remarks 1. Powderize when dry. Fire in open quartz containers. A. and Chapman & Hall. Appl. 48.. H. I.. forming gas.. Ceram. E. Up to ~20% of the Zn can be replaced by Mg without visible effect of the Mg on the emission. and decay after excitation by e-beam pulse.35 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0. 35. and Shafer. Very thorough mixing of the ingredients is essential.W. 3. Parts or all of the Si can be replaced by Ge (but not by Sn). Electronic states of Mn2+-activated phosphors. Efficiency for excitation by UV and by e-beam.Preparation Mix by ball-milling in water about 2 hours. J. System MgO-ZnO-SiO2. J. 371 (1951).. 443. J. 4. 4. 98. J.88 eV). Bauer. – (3.40 eV).. Palumbo. John Wiley & Sons. 123. M. 5... (1974). An Introduction to Luminescence of Solids. 1 hour.. References 1. 2. and Vink. Chang.T.. 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Absorption (%) 100 Emission . 2. A. depend on the Mn concentration used. J. Fire in open quartz containers.. Electrochem.W. D. 8. Soc. G. Phys. Electrochem. Dry in air.

P Structure: Trigonal (willemite) Optical Properties Emission color: Green.. commercially available as “Silanox. Zn2SiO4:Mn2+. 910 (1952). and Schulman.18 eV .04 and 2. J. Opt.35 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0.02 (of As) By weight (g) 163 0.02 (* This requires extremely fine SiO2.H.. Klick.C. orange Emission peak: 2. Am. Soc.8.230 62.” “Cab-O-Sil. air.35 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4. On the luminescence of divalent manganese in solids.2 102 0.88 eV). Dry in air. J.) Preparation Mix by ball-milling in water about 2 hours. Fire in capped quartz tubes. 42.” etc. 1200ºC. 1 hour.As5+ Structure: Trigonal (willemite) Composition Ingredient ZnO MnCO3 SiO2* As2O3 Mole % 200 0. Optical Properties Emission color: Green Emission peak: 2. C..40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: + Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 100 Emission 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Zn2SiO4:Mn2+. – (3.1 0. Powderize when dry.

Zn2SiO4:Ti4+ Structure: Trigonal (willemite) Optical Properties Emission color: Violet Emission peak: 3.40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: + Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 100 Emission 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 . Ordinary silicic acid cannot be used for this phosphor (too coarse). Phys.. J.02 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4.88 eV).. G.F..Excitation efficiency by e-beam: 3–4% Decay: Decay consisting of two subsequent branches..R. 98. Froelich.C. J. first branch near-exponential with time constant (to 1/e) 12 msec.. Chem. later part non-exponential and extending to several seconds or longer Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 100 Emission 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Remarks 1. 2. H. C. 3. Bull. – (3.. Electrochem. and Garlick. The thermoluminescence characteristics of silicate phosphors activated by manganese and arsenic. Very thorough mixing of the ingredients is important. 878 (1942). 46. 371 (1951). G. Soc. References 1. 2. The afterglow due to As5+ appears only when the phosphor has been fired in oxidizing atmosphere. and Fonda.

Kröger. Elsevier. 2.35 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4. Amsterdam (1948).23 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0. p.168. F.40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: + Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 100 Emission 50 2 3 Reference 1.A. – (3. K.H. (Zn+Be)2SiO4:Mn2+ Structure: Trigonal (willemite) Optical Properties Emission color: Green..88 eV). p. Fluorescent Lamp Phosphors. orange Emission peak: 2. 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Butler.40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: + . 244. Some Aspects of the Luminescence of Solids.Reference 1. – (3. University Park (1980).60 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4..88 eV). Pennsylvania University Press. Sr2SiO4:Eu2+ Structure: Orthorhombic Optical Properties Emission color: Green-yellow Emission peak: 2.04 eV.

40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: + . 1100ºC. Rev. Rep. Powderize. G. and Bril. Dry in air. Philips Res..Spectra 800 700 600 500 400 Wavelength (nm) 300 100 Emission 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 References 1. Fire in capped quartz tubes. Soc. Blasse.. Fire in capped quartz tubes. Characteristic luminescence. Powderize by dry milling. 733 (1968).. 1 hour. G. 23. 1 hour. Dry. 3 Blasse. and Ca3MgSi2O8.. 189 (1968). A. The absorption and emission spectra of some important activators. CO. + (3. Equilibria and Eu2+ luminescence of subsolidus phases bounded by Ba3MgSi2O8. Electrochem. 304 (1970).32 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4.36 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0. Barry. Wash in water several times (pH goes to ~10–12). 31.88 eV) .. Powderize when dry. Sr3MgSi2O8. 115.. Philips Tech. 1. Optical Properties Emission color: Yellow-green Emission peak: 2.5 5. 2. J. Then ball-mill in water. SrBaSiO4:Eu2+ Composition Ingredient SrCO3 BaCO3 SiO2 Eu2O3 NH4Cl Mole % 98 100 105 2 (of Eu) 10 By weight (g) 145 197 63 3.. et al. mix by dry milling.4 Preparation Mix by slurrying in water. T. CO. 2. Fluorescence of Eu2+ activated silicates.4 g NH4Cl.L. 1100ºC. 1. Add another 5.

733 (1968).5 63 5. 1181 (1968). 2. + (3.Spectra 800 700 600 500 400 Wavelength (nm) 300 50 2 3 Remark This phosphor is an intermediate between Sr2SiO4:Eu2+ (yellow.L. Soc. 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Ba2SiO4:Eu2+ Structure: Orthorhombic Composition Ingredient BaCO3 Eu2O3 SiO2 NH4Cl Mole % 198 2 (of Eu) 105 10 By weight (g) 390 3. and Ca3MgSi2O8. CO.28 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4. unstable) which are miscible in any ratio. Dry in air. 1 hour. Electrochem. Barry..44 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0. References 1.L. Add another ~5.88 eV). mix well. Store in a well-closed container. CO.4 g NH4Cl. 1000ºC. Sr3MgSi2O8.. Wash in water (to remove leftover halide). J. stable in water) and Ba2SiO4:Eu2+ (green. T. Electrochem..4 Preparation Mix by milling or grinding. 115. The stability of SrBaSiO4:Eu2+ may not be good enough for use in lamps. Optical Properties Emission color: Blue-green Emission peak: 2. Barry.. T. J. Powderize. Fire in capped quartz tubes. Fluorescence of Eu2+-activated phases in binary alkaline earth orthosilicate systems. Fire in capped quartz tubes. Soc.40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: + Absorption (%) 100 Emission . Equilibria and Eu2+ luminescence of subsolidus phases bounded by Ba3MgSi2O8. 1 hour. Powderize by hard milling or grinding. 1100ºC. 2. 115. 1.

Blasse. 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Ba2SiO4:Ce3+. 2. 1 hour. J. 115. 23. 2. Philips Res. Sr3MgSi2O8. 900ºC. 1 hour. T. Absorption (%) 100 Emission . Dry in air.. H2.. and Fluorescence of Eu2+-activated phases in binary alkaline earth orthosilicate systems. 733 (1968). Part or all of the Ba can be replaced by Sr causing increasing stability against water and shift of the emission towards yellow. Barry.Mn2+ Structure: Orthorhombic Composition Ingredient BaCO3 SiO2 CeO2 Li2CO3 MnCO3 NH4Br Mole % 75 50 10 20 (of Li) 5 10 By weight (g) 148 30 17 7. Equilibria and Eu2+ luminescence of subsolidus phases bounded by Ba3MgSi2O8. N2. Fire in open quartz boats. CO. SiO2. 1 hour. 189 (1968). Electrochem.4 5. 900ºC. and Ca3MgSi2O8.L. References 1. Fire in open quartz boats. Electrochem.Spectra 800 700 600 500 400 Wavelength (nm) 300 50 2 3 Remarks 1. Rep.Li+. Soc. 115.. and Li2CO3. Now admit MnCO3 and NH4Br by slurrying in methanol. Powderize when dry. 900ºC. Material is unstable in water. Soc. Powderize. et al. 2. Powderize. 3. 1181 (1968).8 10 Preparation First mix by dry ball-milling or grinding only in the BaCO3. CeO2. Fire in capped quartz tubes. 1. G.. Fluorescence of Eu2+ activated silicates. J.

24 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4. Electrochem. Emission changes color from orange-red at room temperature to yellow at 150ºC and whitish at 300ºC. 2. ++ (3. Appl. 2.. Soc.H. 4. E.88 eV).50 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4. Such phosphor has been known as “triple silicate” in England.46 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0. 26 (1955). J. A.. Temperature characteristics of barium strontium lithium silicate phosphors. J. improves temperature stability of the emission.... References 1.015 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0. and 5% Mn.Optical Properties Emission color: Orange-red Emission peak: 2. and improves chemical stability of the material. and Steward. The luminescent properties and crystal structure of some new phosphor systems. 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 BaSi2O5:Eu2+ Structure: Orthorhombic Optical Properties Emission color: Blue-green Emission peak: 2. Phosphor is believed to be a modification of Ba2SiO4 (in which Mn2+ is nonluminescent) with 25% of Ba replaced by 10% Ce.C. 105. 10% Li.H. McKeag. Partial replacement of Ba by Sr shifts the emission into somewhat deeper red. Phys.40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: Very poor Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 50 2 3 Remarks 1. 78 (1958). Br. McKeag.88 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: + BaSi2O5:Pb2+ Structure: Orthorhombic Absorption (%) 100 Emission . A. 3.

. Butler. 115. 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Ropp. Pennsylvania University Press. Phosphors based on rare earth phosphates fast decay phosphors. J.4 Preparation Mix by slurrying in methanol plus a few cubic centimeters water. R. K. Electrochem.88 eV).C.54 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0. Soc. 2.99 eV Emission width (FWHM): eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4. – (3. + (3. Fire in capped quartz tubes.. 169.. University Park (1980). 1.88 eV).39 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4.. 1000ºC.40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: + CaMgSi2O6:Eu2+ Structure: Monoclinic (diopside) Composition Ingredient CaO MgO SiO2 Eu2O3 NH4Cl Mole % 118 100 210 2 (of Eu) 40 By weight (g) 66 40 126 3. Dry in air.Optical Properties Emission color: UV Emission peak: 3. 531 (1968).5 21. Y2SiO5:Ce3+ Optical Properties Emission color: Violet Emission peak: 2. Fluorescent Lamp Phosphors. 1 hour.H. N2.40 eV) Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 100 Emission 50 2 3 References 1. p. . Powderize when dry.

Absorption (%) 100 Emission . 1150ºC. 1000ºC. Some new complex silicate phosphors containing calcium. Wash in water several times. Wash in water several times.88 eV). 1. Fire in capped quartz tubes. 60% (estimated) Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 50 2 3 Reference 1. Powderize.Mn2+ Structure: Monoclinic (diopside) Composition Ingredient CaO MgO SiO2 Eu2O3 MnCO3 NH4Cl Mole % 114 100 210 2 (of Eu) 4 40 By weight (g) 64 40 126 3. Optical Properties Emission color: Blue Emission peak: 2. Soc. and beryllium. Powderize. 1150ºC. Powderize. 2.77 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0. Electrochem. 287 (1949).2. Powderize when dry. ++ (3.40 eV). 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 CaMgSi2O6:Eu2+. CO. 1 hour. Powderize... CO. 96. 1 hour. magnesium. N2.25 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4. Dry.L.6 21. Fire in capped quartz tubes. Dry. 1 hour. Smith. Fire in capped quartz tubes. A. J.5 4.4 Preparation First mix by slurrying in methanol plus a few cubic centimeters water. Dry in air.

2. 25% Absorption (%) 100 Emission .40 eV). 1. CO. 1150ºC. 1 hour. Dry in air.88 eV). ++ (3. Fire in capped quartz tubes.77 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4.12 eV. Fire in capped quartz tubes. Optical Properties Emission color: Yellow-green Emission peak: 2.80 eV.4 Preparation First mix by slurrying in methanol plus a few cubic centimeters water. Spectra 800 700 600 500 400 Wavelength (nm) 60% (estimated) 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Ca2MgSi2O7:Eu2+ Structure: Tetragonal (ackermanite) Composition Ingredient CaO MgO SiO2 Eu2O3 NH4Cl Mole % 200 100 210 2 (of Eu) 40 By weight (g) 112 40 126 3. 2.37 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4.5 21. Powderize. 2.29 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0. N2.Optical Properties Emission color: Reddish-purple. ++ (3.40 eV).88 eV). 1000ºC. Powderize when dry. 1 hour. Emission peak: 1.

29 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0. 1 hour. 1. Fire in capped quartz tubes.5 9. 1 hour.Mn2+ Structure: Tetragonal (ackermanite) Composition Ingredient CaO MgO SiO2 Eu2O3 MnCO3 NH4Cl Mole % 205 100 210 2 (of Eu) 8 10 By weight (g) 115 40 126 3. 1000ºC. N2.Spectra 800 700 600 500 400 Wavelength (nm) 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Ca2MgSi2O7 Structure: Tetragonal (ackermanite) Optical Properties Emission color: UV Emission peak: 3. 2. 2.4 Preparation First mix by slurrying in methanol plus a few cubic centimeters water.80 eV.21 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: Excited by all UV plus visible blue Absorption (%) 100 Emission .2 5. Powderize when dry. Fire in capped quartz tubes. 1150ºC. Dry in air. Optical Properties Emission color: Deep red plus weaker yellow-green Emission peak: 1. CO.17 eV Excitation efficiency by e-beam: + Ca2MgSi2O7:Eu2+. Powderize.

Optical Properties Emission color: Blue Emission peak: 2. 1150ºC. Fluorescence of Eu2+-activated silicates. N2. G. 23. 1 hour.3 126 5. Sr2MgSi2O7:Eu2+ Structure: Tetragonal (ackermanite) Composition Ingredient SrCO2 SrF2 MgO SiO2 Eu2O3 Mole % 187 10 100 210 3 (of Eu) By weight (g) 276 12. Rep. Powderize.. Blasse. 673 (1968). Fire in capped quartz tubes. CO... 2. W. Wanmaker.W. Soc. J. 1000ºC.88 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: + Absorption (%) 100 Emission . Powderize when dry.27 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: + (4.6 40. 1 hour. Some new classes of efficient Eu2+ activated phosphors. 1. and terVrugt. et al. 189 (1968). Electrochem. Blasse.Spectra 800 700 600 500 400 Wavelength (nm) 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 References 1. 115.. Fire in capped quartz tubes. Dry in air.L. Philips Res.68 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0... 2. J.3 Preparation Mix by ball-milling in methanol. G.

Blasse.41 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: + (4.3 126 5. Rep. Optical Properties Emission color: Blue-green Emission peak: 2. Fluorescence of Eu2+-activated silicates. (1968). 2. 23. 1 hour. 189.. CO.. 1000ºC. Fire in capped quartz tubes.40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: + . Ba2MgSi2O7:Eu2+ Structure: Tetragonal (melinite) Composition Ingredient BaCO3 BaF2 MgO SiO2 Eu2O3 Mole % 187 10 100 210 3 (of Eu) By weight (g) 369 17. 1100ºC. Dry in air. Powderize when dry. Fire in capped quartz tubes. Powderize.3 Preparation Mix by ball-milling in methanol. 1.88 eV).5 40. Philips Res. et al.42 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0. + (3. 1 hour. G. N2.Spectra 800 700 600 500 400 Wavelength (nm) 300 100 Emission 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Reference 1.

and terVrugt. Rev. G. Electrochem. A.88 eV). and Bril. Soc. 115. 1.. W.3 Optical Properties Emission color: Violet + UV Emission peak: 3. 31..19 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4. Characteristic luminescence.40 eV) Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 100 Emission 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 . Wanmaker. J.. + (3.. G..Spectra 800 700 600 500 400 Wavelength (nm) 300 100 Emission 50 2 3 References 1.5 40. Blasse.. Blasse.W. J. Some new classes of efficient Eu2+ activated phosphors. 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 BaMg2Si2O7:Eu2+ Structure: Tetragonal (melinite) Composition Ingredient BaCO3 BaF2 MgO SiO2 Eu2O3 Mole % 187 10 100 210 3 (of Eu) By weight (g) 369 17. 673 (1968). Philips Tech. The absorption and emission spectra of some important activators.3 126 5.10 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0. 2.L. 304 (1970)..

Electrochem.. J. Pennsylvania University Press. Butler. 23.82 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0. Soc. ++ (3.5 40. 189 (1968). J. 1100ºC. Fluorescence of Eu2+-activated silicates.3 Preparation Mix by ball-milling in methanol. and terVrugt. G. 1 hour.2 17. Dry in air.L. (1980).88 eV). 115. 381 (1970).40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: + Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 100 Emission 50 2 3 References 1. Fire in capped quartz tubes. 117. Fire in capped quartz tubes.. Electrochem. 3.. 1 hour. K. 1000ºC. Blasse. 2. Some new classes of efficient Eu2+ activated phosphors. University Park..Reference 1. BaSrMgSi2O7:Eu2+ Structure: Ackermanite Composition Ingredient BaCO3 SrCO3 BaF2 MgO SiO2 Eu2O3 Mole % 90 97 10 100 210 3 (of Eu) By weight (g) 177.3 126 5. Optical Properties Emission color: Blue Emission peak: 2. Powderize. Luminescent properties of Eu2+ and Eu2+ + Mn2+ activated BaMg2Si2O7. Philips Res.27 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4.. Fluorescent Lamp Phosphors. Rep. 2. 1. Blasse. 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 .6 143. Powderize when dry. J.. Soc. N2.. CO. 673 (1968).J. T.W. et al.H. W. Wanmaker. Barry.. G..

Fire in open quartz boats. Optical Properties Emission color: Blue-green Emission peak: 2. Now admit the NH4Br by slurrying in methanol plus a few cubic centimeters water. Store in a well-closed container. + (3. 1 hour. excited by all UV Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Remarks 1. 2. N2. Powderize when dry.30 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4. Powderize. 3. 16 hours (overnight).3 49 Preparation First mix all ingredients but the NH4Br by dry grinding or milling . H2. Dry in air. Fire in open quartz boats. 2.44 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0. Gradual replacement of Ba by Sr causes rapid decrease of efficiency without visible change of color.Ba2Li2Si2O7:Eu2+ Composition Ingredient BaCO3 Li2CO3 SiO2 Eu2O3 NH4Br Mole % 97 110 (of Li) 110 3 (of Eu) 50 By weight (g) 191 41 66 5. 1 hour. Phosphor is chemically unstable in water and deteriorates in moist air.88 eV). CO.40 eV). Fire in capped quartz tubes. 850ºC. Absorption (%) 100 Emission . 850ºC. Powderize. 850ºC. 1.

Fire in capped quartz tubes. ~16 hours (overnight). Make slurry in methanol and stir to uniformity. N2.8 49 Preparation First mix by dry grinding or milling the BaCO3 + Li2CO3 + SiO2 . 2. ++ (3.88 eV). 850ºC. causing a shift of the emission towards bluegreen. 1 hour. CO. Powderize.22 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4. 3. Fire in open quartz boats. QE fairly high Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Remarks 1. Part or all of the Ba can be replaced by Sr. 2. Powderize. The Sn2+ emission sensitizes Mn2+ (see: Ba2Li2Si2O7:Sn2+. H2. Powderize when dry. Dry in air. Optical Properties Emission color: Violet Emission peak: 2. Store in a well-closed container. Now admit the SnO + NH4Br. 850ºC. 3.Mn2+). 1 hour. Absorption (%) 100 Emission . 850ºC. 1.89 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0.40 eV).Ba2Li2Si2O7:Sn2+ Composition Ingredient BaCO3 Li2CO3 SiO2 SnO NH4Br Mole % 95 110 (of Li) 110 5 50 By weight (g) 187 41 66 6. Fire in open boats. Phosphor is chemically unstable in water and deteriorates even in moist air.

Mn2+ Composition Ingredient BaCO3 Li2CO3 SiO2 SnO MnCO3 NH4Br Mole % 93. 850ºC. Fire in capped quartz tubes.16 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4. 1 hour.5 110 (of Li) 110 5 1. broadening and slight deformation of the emission band. ++ (3. Optical Properties Emission color: Green Emission peak: 2. 1. Powderize.Ba2Li2Si2O7:Sn2+.8 1.40 eV). Fire in open boats. 2. Store in a well-closed container. Phosphor is chemically unstable in water and deteriorates even in moist air.32 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0. Now admit the SnO + MnCO3 + NH4Br. Fire in open quartz boats. Increasing replacement of Ba by Sr causes gradual shift of the emission towards red.7 49 Preparation First mix by dry grinding or milling the BaCO3 + Li2CO3 + SiO2. 2. QE (estimated) Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 60–70% 400 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Remarks 1. and decreasing efficiency.5 50 By weight (g) 185 41 66 6. Absorption (%) 100 Emission . Powderize. ~16 hours (overnight). CO. Powderize. N2. Dry in air. 1 hour. 3. H2. 850ºC. Make a slurry in methanol and stir to uniformity. 850ºC.88 eV).

Fluorescence of Eu2+ activated silicates. Philips Res. 1181 (1968).22 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4. 189 (1968). 23.L. Rep. Electrochem. Soc. Equilibria and Eu2+ luminescence of subsolidus phases bounded by Ba3MgSi2O8. ++ (3. .82 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0. Electrochem. Barry. et al. 115.88 eV) Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 100 Emission 50 2 3 References 1.40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: + Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 100 Emission 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 MgBa3Si2O8:Eu2+ Optical Properties Emission color: Blue Emission peak: 2. T. Blasse. 733 (1968) and Fluorescence of Eu2+-activated phases in binary alkaline earth orthosilicate systems.27 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4. G. J.88 eV)... Soc.. J.MgSrBaSi2O7:Eu2+ Structure: Ackermanite Optical Properties Emission color: Blue Emission peak: 2... 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 2. Sr3MgSi2O8. 115. and Ca3MgSi2O8.82 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0.

Fire in capped quartz tubes.. Philips Res. Powderize when dry. G. 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 . 1 hour.88 eV) Sr3MgSi2O8:Eu2+ Structure: Ackermanite Composition Ingredient SrCO3 MgO SiO2 Eu2O3 NH4Cl Mole % 295 100 206 5 (of Eu) 30 By weight (g) 435 40 124 8. 1.. 304 (1970).70 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0. 1100ºC.23 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4.88 eV). G. Dry in air. et al. N2. 1000ºC. Philips Tech. Powderize 2. CO.2 sec to 1/e Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 45% 400 300 100 Emission 50 2 3 References 1.82 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4. QE Excitation efficiency by e-beam: 3% Decay: 0. 1 hour.8 16 Preparation Mix by ball-milling in methanol about 1 hour. 2. Blasse.40 eV). Rev. Rep. Characteristic luminescence.. and Bril.MgSr3Si2O8:Eu2+. 1. 23.Mn2+ Optical Properties Emission color: Deep red Emission peak: 1. Blasse. Optical Properties Emission color: Blue Emission peak: 2. 189 (1968). ++ (3.. Fire in capped quartz tubes. 31. Fluorescence of Eu2+-activated silicates.. A. The absorption and emission spectra of some important activators.

2.03 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4. QE Excitation efficiency by e-beam: Poor Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 50–60% 400 300 50 2 3 Remark The chemical stability of this material is somewhat better than that of CaO:Eu3+. air.8 Preparation Mix by dry milling or grinding. air.41 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0. Powderize by milling. – (3. Powderize. Fire in open quartz boats. 1100ºC.40 eV).47 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: Excited by all UV but low QE ( 20%) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: Very poor. 1200ºC. air.Ca5B2SiO10:Eu3+ Composition Ingredient CaCO3 H3BO3 SiO2 Eu2O3 Mole % 100 50 22 5 (of Eu) By weight (g) 100 31 13. Fire in open quartz boats.5% Absorption (%) 100 Emission . 1. 1300ºC. 1 hour. 3.88 eV). 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Ca3Al2Si3O12:Eu2+ Optical Properties Emission color: Pale bluish-green Emission peak: 2. 0. 1 hour.2 8. Fire in open quartz boats. Optical Properties Emission color: Red Emission peak: 2. 1 hour.

02 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0.88 eV).99 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0.40 eV) Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 LiCeSrBa3Si4O14:Mn2+ Optical Properties Emission color: Red Emission peak: 1.24 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4.88 eV). ++ (3.23 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4.Spectra 800 700 600 500 400 Wavelength (nm) 300 100 Emission 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 LiCeBa4Si4O14:Mn2+ Optical Properties Emission color: orange–red Emission peak: ~2. ++ (3.40 eV) Absorption (%) 100 Emission .

Spectra 800 700 600 500 400 Wavelength (nm) 300 100 Emission 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 .

Tb3+ Ca3SiO4Cl2:Pb2+ Ca3SiO4Cl2:Eu2+ Ba5SiO4Cl6:Eu2+ Sr5Si4O10Cl6:Eu2+ LaSiO3Cl:Ce3+ Composition Ingredient La2O3 SiO2 CeO2 NH4Cl Mole % 100 (of La) 160 20 120 By weight (g) 163 96 34 64 Preparation Mix by slurrying in water (NH3 develops). Powderize. 500 C. 1200 C. 1 hour. 1. Powderize when dry.4 Halosilicates The following host compounds and activators are included in this subsection: LaSiO3Cl:Ce3+ LaSiO3Cl:Ce3+. QE Excitation efficiency by e-beam: 5% Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 90% 400 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Absorption (%) 100 Emission . Dry in air. 1200 C. Optical Properties Emission color: UV Emission peak: 3. Powderize.35 and 3. Fire in capped quartz tubes.88 eV). 1 hour. Wash in water several times.56 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4. 2. Dry in air. Fire in capped quartz tubes. Powderize. Fire in open quartz boats. CO. N2. 3. 1 hour. N2.4.

Reference 1. Fire in capped quartz tubes. 2. and Isaaks. Dry in air. 2. 1200 C. Optical Properties Emission color: Pale yellow-green Emission peak: 2. Fire in open quartz boats.. but Cl seems to perform best.H. Powderize. 3. 1.Tb3+ Composition Ingredient La2O3 SiO2 CeO2 Tb4O7 NH4Cl Mole % 100 (of La) 180 20 14 (of Tb) 130 By weight (g) 163 108 34 26 60 Preparation Mix by slurrying in water (NH3 develops). LaSiO3Cl:Ce3+. 1200 C. W. Soc. Powderize. Lehmann. 1 hour.29 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4. 445 (1978). J.. Replacement of La by Y is possible but gives somewhat poorer phosphors. N2. Fire in capped quartz tubes. F or Br can replace the Cl in the above recipe. + (3. CO. Lanthanum and yttrium halo-silicate phosphors.J.Remarks 1. ~500 C. T.88 eV).. 1 hour. QE Excitation efficiency by e-beam: +/4% Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 80–90% 400 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Absorption (%) 100 Emission . Powderize. Electrochem. N2. 125. Wash in water several times. ~1 hour. Dry in air. Powderize when dry.40 eV).

Lehmann.H. Ca3SiO4Cl2:Pb2+ Optical Properties Emission color: UV Emission peak: 3. W.. T. – (3.J. The Cl in the above recipe can be replaced by F or Br but Cl seems to perform best.. Luminescence of phosphors with Ca3SiO4Cl.40 eV) . and Verriet. 125. and Isaaks..44 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0. Ca3SiO4Cl2:Eu2+ Optical Properties Emission color: Blue-green Emission peak: 2. J. 445 (1978). 2. Soc.39 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4.31 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: + (4. Lanthanum and yttrium halo-silicate phosphors. Replacement of La by Y is possible but gives somewhat poorer phosphors. W. J. 80 (1973). 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Wanmaker.88 eV).L. ++ (3.41 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0.40 eV) Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 100 Emission 50 2 3 Reference 1.88 eV).. 28. Reference 1..G. Rep. Philips Res.Remarks 1.. Electrochem.

a new blue-emitting photoluminescent material with high quenching temperature.. B.82 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0. Sr5Si4O10Cl6:Eu2+ Optical Properties Emission color: Blue-green Emission peak: 2. 80 (1973). Ba5SiO4Cl6:Eu2+ Optical Properties Emission color: blue Emission peak: 2. J.52 eV . Ba5SiO4Cl6:Eu..88 eV)..G. Latourette. 28. ++ (3. 126.40 eV) Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 100 Emission 50 2 3 Reference 1. 1734 (1979).Spectra 800 700 600 500 400 Wavelength (nm) 300 100 Emission 50 2 3 Reference 1. Luminescence of phosphors with Ca3SiO4Cl. Rep. Philips Res..19 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4. 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Garcia. J. W. 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Wanmaker. Soc. Electrochem.L. and Fouassier. C.. and Verriet. A.

++ (3.P. H... Lumin. . H.40 eV) Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 100 Emission 50 2 3 References 1. Nicholson.. J. 3. Fluorescence of Eu2+-activated alkaline earth halosilicates. and Rooksby.88 eV).38 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4.. K. 467 (1971). 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Burrus.L.Emission width (FWHM): 0.P.

Mn2+ ZnMg2(PO4)2:Mn2+ Zn3(PO4)2:Mn2 (Zn.Sr)3(PO4)2:Sn2+.Mn2+ -Ca3(PO4)2:Ce3+ CaB2P2O9:Eu2+ -Ca3(PO4)2:Sn2+ -Ca3(PO4)2:Sn2+ -Ca3(PO4)2:Pb2+ -Ca3(PO4)2:Tl+ -Ca3(PO4)2:Ce3+ -Ca3(PO4)2:Eu2+ -Ca3(PO4)2:Eu2+ -Ca3(PO4)2:Eu2+.Th4+ YPO4:V5+ LaPO4:Ce3+ LaPO4:Eu3+ CaP2O6:Mn2+ Sr2P2O7:Sn2+ Ca2P2O7:Ce3+ Ca2P2O7:Eu2+.Tb3+ YPO4:Eu3+ YPO4:Mn2+.5 Phosphates The following host compounds and activators are included in this subsection: YPO4:Ce3+ YPO4:Ce3+.4.Mn2+ -Sr3(PO4)2:Sn2+.Mg)3(PO4)2:Mn2+ Mg3Ca3(PO4)4:Eu2+ MgSr5(PO4)4:Sn2+ MgBa2(PO4)2:Sn2+ CaSr2(PO4)2:Bi3+ MgBa2(PO4)2:U Sr2P2O7:Eu2+ .Mn2+(Al) -Sr3(PO4)2:Sn2+ -Sr3(PO4)2:Eu2+ Ba3(PO4)2:Eu2+ Na3Ce(PO4)2:Tb3+ -(Ca.Mn2+ MgCaP2O7:Mn2+ BaTiP2O7 MgSrP2O7:Eu2+ MgBaP2O7:Eu2+ MgBaP2O7:Eu2+.Mn2+ Ca2P2O7:Eu2+ Li2CaP2O7:Ce3+.

YPO4:Ce3+ Structure: Tetragonal Composition Ingredient Y 2O 3 Eu2O2 H3PO4 solution. The absorption and emission spectra of some important activators. Mandel. 1508 (1971). Powderize. Fire in open quartz boats. Appl. Lett..71 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4. J. J.R.. Phys. 1300ºC. D. Add ~5 g of NH4Cl.2 64 ccm Preparation Make a thin slurry of Y2O3 and Eu2O3 in methanol.. 52 (1972). 85% Mole % 97 (of Y) 3 (of Eu) 105 (of P) By weight (g) 110 5. Rev. D. R. and Jeser. Solid State Chem. 118. ~1 hour. Phys..P.. ~500–600ºC. J. Absorption (%) 100 Emission . M. Optical Properties Emission color: UV Emission peak: 3. N2. 1. a new ultrafast scintillator.. N2. 67 (1975). A.V. ~1300ºC. ~2 hours. 192 (1960). Robbins. G. 31.. G. Blasse. Blasse. 2. 4.. Philips Tech.... Chem. mix by dry grinding. 3. ~1 hour.. Ultraviolet-absorption bands of Bi3+ and Eu3+ in oxides. Powderize. Bauman. D.P. G... – (3. Fire in capped quartz tubes.49 and 3. 27. CeP5O14.40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: 2–3% Decay: Near exponential decay. J. Bimburg. Wright. ~80 nsec to 1/10 Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 References 1. E.. Dry in air. 2. Effect of thorium on Ce+3 phosphors. and Bril. 4. Hoffman. 5. 304 (1970). 3. Slowly add the H3PO4 solution while stirring. Electrochem. Electronic transitions of rare earth ions in the infrared region. and Banks.. Powderize when dry. 33. Fire in open quartz boats. Soc. CO.88 eV).R.

4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Ropp.88 eV).40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: + Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 100 Emission 50 2 3 Reference 1.. 1..Tb3+ Structure: Tetragonal Optical Properties Emission color: Green Emission peak: 2. R. Absorption (%) 100 Emission . Spectral properties of some rare earth phosphates.C. Electrochem. 841 (1968). – (3.88 eV). Soc. 115. – (3. Phosphors based on rare earth phosphates.28 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4.YPO4:Ce3+.40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: + Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 YPO4:Eu3+ Structure: Tetragonal Optical Properties Emission color: Orange-red Excitation efficiency by UV: – (4. J.

4 64 ccm Preparation Make a slurry of La2O3. – (3. Slowly add the H3PO4 solution while stirring.99 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0. . Dry in air.40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: + Spectra 800 700 600 500 400 Wavelength (nm) 300 100 Emission 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 YPO4:V5+ Structure: Tetragonal Optical Properties Emission color: Blue Emission peak: 2. 85% LaPO4:Ce3+ Mole % 98 (of La) 2 10 105 (of P) By weight (g) 160 3.Th4+ Structure: Tetragonal Optical Properties Emission color: Blue-green Emission peak: 2.88 eV).56 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: + (4. Powderize when dry.23 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: – (4.59 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0.YPO4:Mn2+. CeO2 .44 5. and NH4Cl in methanol.88 eV) Structure: Monoclinic (monazite) Composition Ingredient La2O3 CeO2 NH4Cl H3PO4 solution.

.40 eV) Absorption (%) 100 Emission .40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: + Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Reference 1.097. 2 hours. 2. Structure: Monoclinic (monazite) Composition Ingredient La2O3 Eu2O3 NH4Cl H3PO4 solution. 2 hours. CO. 1250ºC. Mandel. Chem.1 2 Fire in open quartz boats. and Banks. Electronic transitions of rare earth ions in the infrared region. Fire in open quartz boats. – (3. Optical Properties Emission color: UV Emission peak: 3. Phys.784. R. Eu2O3.88eV). 1250ºC. and NH4Cl in methanol. Bauman. 192 (1970). E. 1 hour. 1250ºC. Fire in open quartz boats. Powderize.. 1. Powderize. Slowly add the H3PO4 solution while stirring. 1.815. 85% LaPO4:Eu3+ Mole % 95 (of La) 5 (of Eu) 10 105 (of P) By weight (g) 155 8. air.67 and 3. G. 2. N2. Optical Properties Emission color: Orange-red Emission peak: Strongest lines are at 1.P. N2. Powderize when dry. 1 hour. J. – (3..88 eV). 33.94 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4. Fire in open quartz boats.4 64 ccm Preparation Make a slurry of La2O3. Dry in air. and 2..8 5.117 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: + (4. 1250ºC.

21.. Philips Tech.L. 270 (1966).29 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: – (4.. Rev.30 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0.40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: + Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 100 Emission 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Absorption (%) 100 Emission . Luminescent properties of Eu-activated phosphors of type A3BVO4. CaP2O6:Mn2+ Optical Properties Emission color: Green Emission peak: 2.Spectra 800 700 600 500 400 Wavelength (nm) 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Reference 1. W.88 eV). – (3. Wanmaker. et al.

Sr2P2O7:Sn2+
Spectra
800 700 600 500
2+

400

Wavelength (nm)

300
2+

100

Emission

-Sr2P2O7:Sn

-Sr2P2O7:Sn

50

2

3

Reference 1.

4 Photon Energy (eV)

5

0

Ropp., R.C., and Mooney, R.W., Tin-activated alkaline-earth pyrophosphate phosphors, J. Electrochem. Soc., 107, 15 (1960).

Ca2P2O7:Ce3+
Structure: Tetragonal Composition Ingredient CaHPO4 CeO2 NaHCO3 H3PO4-solution, 85% Mole % 96 2 2 6 (of P) By weight (g) 130 3.4 1.7 4.1 ccm

Preparation Make a slurry of CaHPO4, CeO2 , and NaHCO3 in water or methanol. Add the H3PO4 solution while stirring; stir to uniformity. Dry in air. Powderize when dry. 1. Fire in open quartz boats, N2, ~500–600ºC, ~1/2 hour. Powderize. 2. Fire in open quartz boats, CO, 1200ºC, 1 hour. Optical Properties Emission color: Pale bluish (most of the emission in the UV) Emission peaks: 3.60 and 3.83 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4.88 eV), – (3.40 eV)

Spectra
800 700 600 500

400

Wavelength (nm)

300

50

2

3

4 Photon Energy (eV)

5

0

Reference 1. Ranby, P.W., Mash, D.H., and Henderson, S.T., The investigation of new phosphors, with particular reference to the pyrophosphates, Br. J. Appl. Phys., Suppl. 4, 18 (1955).

Ca2P2O7:Eu2+,Mn2+
Structure: Tetragonal Composition Ingredient CaHPO4 Eu2O3 MnCO3 H3PO4 solution, 85% Mole % 93 2 (of Eu) 5 9 (of P) By weight (g) 126 3.5 5.75 6.1 ccm

Preparation Make a slurry of CaHPO4, Eu2O3 , and MnCO3 in water or methanol. Add the H3PO4 solution while stirring; stir to uniformity. Dry in air. Powderize when dry. 1. Fire in open quartz boats, N2, ~500–600ºC, ~1 hour. Powderize. 2. Fire in open quartz boats, CO, 1200ºC, 1 hour. Optical Properties Emission color: Pink-orange Emission peak: Orange Mn2+ band at ~2.06 eV; Violet Eu2+ band at ~2.98 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0.28 eV (Mn2+ band) Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4.88 eV), ++ (3.40 eV)

Absorption (%)

100

Emission

Spectra
800 700 600 500

400

Wavelength (nm)

300

100

Emission

50

2

3

4 Photon Energy (eV)

5

0

References 1. Kröger, F.A. et al., J. Electrochem. Soc., 96, 132 (1949). 2. Kinney, D.E., Modified calcium pyrophosphate phosphors, J. Electrochem. Soc., 102, 676 (1955). 3. Ranby, P.W., Mash, D.H., and Henderson, S.T., The investigation of new phosphors, with particular reference to the pyrophosphates, Br. J. Appl. Phys., S18, Suppl. 4 (1955). 4. Ropp, R.C., Manganese-activated cadmium pyrophosphate phosphors, J. Electrochem. Soc., 109, 569 (1962).

Ca2P2O7:Eu2+
Structure: Tetragonal Composition Ingredient CaHPO4 Eu2O3 H3PO4 solution, 85% Mole % 98 2 (of Eu) 4 (of P) By weight (g) 133 3.5 2.7 ccm

Preparation Make a slurry of CaHPO4 + Eu2O3 in water or methanol. Add the H3PO4 solution while stirring; stir to uniformity. Dry in air. Powderize when dry. 1. Fire in open quartz boats, N2, ~500–600ºC, ~1 hour. Powderize. 2. Fire in open quartz boats, CO, 1200ºC, 1 hour. Optical Properties Emission color: Violet Emission peak: 2.96 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0.19 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4.88 eV), ++ (3.40 eV)

Spectra
800 700 600 500

400

Wavelength (nm)

300

100

Emission

50

2

3

4 Photon Energy (eV)

5

0

References 1. Kröger, F.A. et al., J. Electrochem. Soc., 96, 132 (1949). 2. Kinney, D.E., Modified calcium pyrophosphate phosphors, J. Electrochem. Soc., 102, 676 (1955). 3. Ranby, P.W., Mash, D.H., and Henderson, S.T., The investigation of new phosphors, with particular reference to the pyrophosphates, Br. J. Appl. Phys., S18, Suppl. 4 (1955). 4. Ropp, R.C., Manganese-activated cadmium pyrophosphate phosphors, J. Electrochem. Soc., 109, 569 (1962).

Li2CaP2O7:Ce3+,Mn2+
Composition Ingredient Li2CO3 CaHPO4 CeO2 MnCO3 H3PO4 solution, 85% Mole % 205 (of Li) 89 3 5 115 (of P) By weight (g) 75.7 121 5.2 5.75 70 ccm

Preparation Make a slurry of Li2CO3 + CaHPO4 + CeO2 + MnCO3 in methanol. Add the H3PO4 solution while stirring (CO2 develops). Dry in air. Powderize when dry. 1. Fire in open quartz boats, N2, ~500–600ºC. Powderize. 2. Fire in open quartz boats, N2, 700ºC, 16 hours (overnight). Optical Properties Emission color: Greenish-yellow Emission peak: 2.16 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0.28 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4.88 eV), – (3.40 eV)

Spectra
800 700 600 500

400

Wavelength (nm)

300

100

Emission

50

2

3

4 Photon Energy (eV)

5

0

MgCaP2O7:Mn2+
Structure: Monoclinic Optical Properties Emission color: Yellow Emission peak: 2.12 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0.20 eV Spectra
800 700 600 500 400
Wavelength (nm)

300

100

Emission

50

2

3

4 Photon Energy (eV)

5

0

BaTiP2O7
Spectra
800 700 600 500 400
Wavelength (nm)

300

100

Emission

50

2

3

4 Photon Energy (eV)

5

0

Reference 1. Henderson, S.T., and Ranby, P.W., Barium titanium phosphate – a new phosphor, J. Electrochem. Soc., 98, 479 (1951).

MgSrP2O7:Eu2+
Structure: Monoclinic Optical Properties Emission color: Violet-UV Emission peak: 3.16 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0.20 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4.88 eV), + (3.40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: + Spectra
800 700 600 500
Wavelength (nm)

400

300

100

Emission

50

2

3

References 1. 2.

4 Photon Energy (eV)

5

0

Hoffman, M.V., Eu+2 activation in some alkaline earth strontium phosphate compounds, J. Electrochem. Soc., 115, 560 (1968). Blasse, G., and Bril, A., The absorption and emission spectra of some important activators, Philips Tech. Rev., 31, 304 (1970).

MgBaP2O7:Eu2+
Structure: Monoclinic Optical Properties Emission color: Violet-UV Emission peak: 3.04 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0.35 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4.88 eV), ++ (3.40 eV)

Spectra
800 700 600 500

400

Wavelength (nm)

300

100

Emission

50

2

3

Reference 1.

4 Photon Energy (eV)

5

0

Lagos, C.C., Luminescence of divalent europium in BaO-MgO-P2O5 system, J. Electrochem. Soc., 115, 1271 (1968).

MgBaP2O7:Eu2+,Mn2+
Structure: Monoclinic Composition Ingredient Mg2P2O7 Ba2P2O7 Eu2O3 MnCO3 H3PO4-solution, 85% Mole % 90 (of Mg) 96 (of Ba) 4 (of Eu) 10 19 (of P) By weight (g) 100 215 7 11.5 12.9 ccm

Preparation Make a slurry of Mg2P2O7 + Ba2P2O7 + Eu2O3 + MnCO3 in water. Add the H3PO4 solution while stirring. Dry in air. Powderize when dry. 1. Fire in open quartz boats, N2, 500–600ºC, 1 hour. Powderize. 2. Fire in open quartz boats, N2, 950ºC, 2 hours. Optical Properties Emission color: Pinkish orange-red Emission peak: Orange-red Mn2+ band at 2.07 eV, violet Eu2+ band at 3.06 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0.18 eV (Mn2+ band) Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4.88 eV), ++ (3.40 eV)

Spectra
800 700 600 500

400

Wavelength (nm)

300

50

2

3

4 Photon Energy (eV)

5

0

-Ca3(PO4)2:Ce3+
Structure: Trigonal Optical Properties Emission color: UV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4.88 eV) Spectra
800 700 600 500 400
Wavelength (nm)

300
16/9 % Ce 2/3 1/9 1/36

100

Emission

50

2

3

Reference 1.

4 Photon Energy (eV)

5

0

Botden, T.P.J., Transfer and transport of energy by resonance processes in luminescent solids, Philips Res. Rep., 7, 197 (1952).
600 500 400
Wavelength (nm)

800 700

300
3+ 2+

100

-Ca3(PO4)2:Ce ,Mn
Emission

50

2

3

4 Photon Energy (eV)

5

0

Absorption (%)

100

Emission

Reference 1. Froelich, H.C., and Margolis, J.M., Calcium phosphate phosphor activated with cerium and manganese, J. Electrochem. Soc., 98, 400 (1951).

CaB2P2O9:Eu2+
Composition Ingredient CaHPO4 H3BO3 Eu2O3 (NH4)2HPO4 Mole % 98 200 2 (of Eu) 106 By weight (g) 134 124 3.5 140

Preparation Make a slurry of the CaHPO4 + Eu2O3 in methanol. Dissolve the H3BO3 + (NH4)2HPO4 together in a little water. Add the solution to the slurry. Stir. Dry in air. Powderize when dry. 1. Fire in open quartz boats, air, ~500–600ºC, 1 hour. Powderize. 2. Fire in open quartz boats, N2, 800ºC, 1 hour. Powderize. 3. Fire in open quartz boats, CO, 1000ºC, 1 hour. Optical Properties Emission color: Deep violet Emission peak: 3.08 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0.21 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4.88 eV), ++ (3.40 eV) Spectra
800 700 600 500
Wavelength (nm)

400

300

50

2

3

4 Photon Energy (eV)

5

0

Absorption (%)

100

Emission

Dry in air. E.61 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4. Phase equilibria and tin-activated luminescence in system Ca3(PO4)2Ba3(PO4)2. 2. Electrochem. Fire in capped quartz tubes.44 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0.35 2 Preparation Mix the CaCO3 + CaHPO4 + SnO by slurrying in methanol..A. Optical Properties Emission color: Pale blue-green Emission peak: 2.R. Physica. A proof of the associated-pair theory for sensitized luminophors. Now add the crushed (NH4)2CO4 by dry mixing.-Ca3(PO4)2:Sn2+ Structure: Monoclinic Composition Ingredient CaCO3 CaHPO4 SnO (NH4)2CO4 Mole % 10 75 1 12 By weight (g) 10 90 1. J. Soc. 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 -Ca3(PO4)2:Sn2+ Structure: Trigonal Composition Ingredient CaCO3 CaHPO4 SnO Mole % 5 75 5 By weight (g) 5 90 6. 923 (1971). 118. Kreidler. N2. Powderize when dry. Kröger..75 Absorption (%) 100 Emission . F.88 eV).40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: + Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 50 2 3 References 1. 1250ºC. 15. 801 (1949). – (3. 1 hour..

CO. A proof of the associated-pair theory for sensitized luminophors.A. Fire in capped quartz tubes.Preparation Mix by slurrying in water or methanol. Powderize by dry milling. Dry in air. 1250ºC. Kreidler. Absorption (%) 100 Emission . Electrochem.55 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4. 2. 1 hour. N2.R.40 eV) Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 References 1. 1100ºC. Powderize when dry. E. 118. Kröger. 1100ºC. N2. Soc. 1. 15.. Fire in capped quartz tubes. J. Powderize.. 923 (1971). – (3. -Ca3(PO4)2:Pb2+ Structure: Monoclinic Composition Ingredient CaCO3 CaHPO4 PbO Mole % 24 75 1 By weight (g) 24 90 2. 2. Phase equilibria and tin-activated luminescence in system Ca3(PO4)2Ba3(PO4)2. 1 hour. 1. Powderize when dry. Dry in air. Physica. F. Fire in capped quartz tubes. ~500ºC. 2 hours. 2.3 Preparation Mix by slurrying in water or methanol.92 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0.. 2 hours. CO. Fire in capped quartz tubes.88 eV). 801 (1949). Optical Properties Emission color: Pale orange Emission peak: 1.

355 (1947). Am. -Ca3(PO4)2:Tl+ Structure: Monoclinic Composition Ingredient CaCO3 CaHPO4 TlOH Al2O3 Mole % 22 75 1 2 (of Al) By weight (g) 22 90 2.88 eV).. Dry in air. 37.2 1 Preparation Mix by slurrying in water or methanol. 1 hour. Powderize when dry.88 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0.40 eV) Absorption (%) 100 Emission ..40 eV) Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Reference 1. Fire in capped quartz tubes. Ultraviolet phosphors and fluorescent sun tan lamps. R.88 eV). Optical Properties Emission color: UV Emission peak: 3. R. 1250 C. and Ginther. Clapp.H. – (3. stagnant air.68 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0. Opt. J. Soc.J.64 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4. – (3.Optical Properties Emission color: UV Emission peak: 3.66 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4..

Spectra
800 700 600 500

400

Wavelength (nm)

300

50

2

3

4 Photon Energy (eV)

5

0

References 1. Froelich, H.C., New ultraviolet phosphors, J. Electrochem. Soc., 91, 241 (1947). 2. Witzmann, H., and Buhrow, J., Ein neuer schwarzlichtphosphor, Naturwissenschaften, 49, 180 (1962). 3. Clapp, R.H., and Ginther, R.J., Ultraviolet phosphors and fluorescent sun tan lamps, J. Opt. Soc. Am., 37, 355 (1947). 4. Bril, A., and Hoekstra, W., Philips Res. Rep., 16, 356, (1961), and Philips Res. Rep., 19, 296 (1964).

-Ca3(PO4)2:Ce3+
Structure: Monoclinic Composition Ingredient CaCO3 CaHPO4 CeO3 NaHCO3 Mole % 15 75 5 5 By weight (g) 15 90 17 8.4

Preparation Mix by slurrying in water. Dry in air. Powderize when dry. Fire in open quartz boats, CO, 1250ºC, 1 hour. Optical Properties Emission color: UV Emission peak: 3.33 eV, 3.57 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4.88 eV), – (3.40 eV)

Absorption (%)

100

Emission

Spectra
800 700 600 500

400

Wavelength (nm)

300

50

2

3

4 Photon Energy (eV)

5

0

References 1. Froelich, H.C., and Margolis, J.M., Calcium phosphate phosphor activated with cerium and manganese, J. Electrochem. Soc., 98, 400 (1951). 2. Botden, T.P.J., Transfer and transport of energy by resonance processes in luminescent solids, Philips Res. Rep., 7, 197 (1952).

-Ca3(PO4)2:Eu2+
Structure: Monoclinic Composition Ingredient CaCO3 CaHPO4 Eu2O3 Mole % 24 75 1 (of Eu) By weight (g) 24 90 1.76

Preparation Mix by slurrying in water. Dry in air. Powderize when dry. Fire in open quartz boats, CO, 1250ºC, 1 hour. Optical Properties Emission color: Whitish blue-green Emission peak: ~2.52 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0.53 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4.88 eV), ++ (3.40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: +

Absorption (%)

100

Emission

Spectra
800 700 600 500

400

Wavelength (nm)

300

50

2

3

4 Photon Energy (eV)

5

0

References 1. Lagos, C.C., Luminescence of divalent europium in Ba-Ca, Ba-Sr, and Ca-Sr orthophosphate and pyrophosphate compositions, J. Electrochem. Soc., 117, 1189 (1970). 2. McCauley, R.A., Hummel, F.A., and Hoffman, M.V., Phase equilibria and Eu2+activated, Tb3+-activated, and Mn2+-activated luminescent phases in CaO-MgO-P2O5 system, J. Electrochem. Soc., 118, 755 (1971).

-Ca3(PO4)2:Eu2+
Structure: Trigonal Composition Ingredient CaCO3 CaHPO4 Eu2O3 Mole % 24 75 1 (of Eu) By weight (g) 24 90 1.76

Preparation Mix by slurrying in water. Dry in air. Powderize when dry. Fire in open quartz boats, CO, 1100ºC, 2 hours. Optical Properties Emission color: Violet Emission peak: 3.02 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0.33 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4.88 eV), ++ (3.40 eV)

Absorption (%)

100

Emission

Spectra
800 700 600 500

400

Wavelength (nm)

300

50

2

3

4 Photon Energy (eV)

5

0

Remark This phosphor easily shows a weak green emission band due to the -phosphate (see Ca3(PO4)2:Eu2+).

-Ca3(PO4)2:Eu2+,Mn2+
Structure: Trigonal Composition Ingredient CaCO3 CaHPO4 Eu2O3 MnCO3 Mole % 19 75 1 (of Eu) 5 By weight (g) 19 90 1.76 5.75

Preparation Mix by slurrying in water. Dry in air. Powderize when dry. Fire in open quartz boats, CO, 1100ºC, 2 hours. Optical Properties Emission color: Pinkish-red Emission peak: ~1.91 eV (Mn2+ band), ~3.01 eV (Eu2+ band) Emission width (FWHM): 0.24 eV (Mn2+ band) Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4.88 eV), ++ (3.40 eV)

Absorption (%)

100

Emission

Spectra
800 700 600 500

400

Wavelength (nm)

300

50

2

3

4 Photon Energy (eV)

5

0

-Sr3(PO4)2:Sn2+,Mn2+(Al)
Structure: Trigonal Composition Ingredient SrCO3 SrHPO4 Al2O3 SnO MnCO3 Mole % 8 45 4 (of Al) 1.5 1 By weight (g) 11.8 75.4 2 2 1.15

Preparation Mix by ball-milling in water. Dry in air. Powderize when dry. Fire in capped quartz tubes, CO, 1100ºC, 2 hours. Optical Properties Emission color: Orange-red Emission peak: 2.02 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0.25 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4.88 eV), – (3.40 eV) Spectra
800 700 600 500
Wavelength (nm)

400

300

50

2

3

4 Photon Energy (eV)

5

0

Absorption (%)

100

Emission

Absorption (%)

100

Emission

Remarks 1. This is a “tricky” phosphor, by no means yet understood or optimized. 2. Partial or complete replacement of Sr by Ca shifts the emission into deeper red. References 1. Kröger, F.A., A proof of the associated-pair theory for sensitized luminophors, Physica, 15, 801 (1949). 2. Botden, T.P.J., Transfer and transport of energy by resonance processes in luminescent solids, Philips Res. Rep., 7, 197 (1952). 3. Sarver, J.F., Hoffman, M.V., and Hummel, F.A., Phase equilibria and tin-activated luminescence in strontium orthophosphate systems, J. Electrochem. Soc., 108, 1103 (1961).

-Sr3(PO4)2:Sn2+
Structure: Trigonal Composition Ingredient SrCO3 SrHPO4 SnO Mole % 20 75 5 By weight (g) 29.5 138 6.75

Preparation Mix by slurrying in water. Dry in air. Powderize when dry. Fire in capped quartz tubes, CO, 1100ºC, 2 hours. Optical Properties Emission color: Violet + UV Emission peak: 3.28 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0.66 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4.88 eV), – (3.40 eV) Spectra
800 700 600 500
Wavelength (nm)

400

300

50

2

3

4 Photon Energy (eV)

5

0

Reference 1. Botden, T.P.J., Transfer and transport of energy by resonance processes in luminescent solids, Philips Res. Rep., 7, 197 (1952).

Absorption (%)

100

Emission

-Sr3(PO4)2:Eu2+
Structure: Trigonal Optical Properties Emission color: Violet Emission peak: 2.94 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0.22 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4.88 eV), + (3.40 eV) Spectra
800 700 600 500
Wavelength (nm)

400

300

50

2

3

4 Photon Energy (eV)

5

0

References 1. Lagos, C.C., Luminescence of divalent europium in Ba-Ca, Ba-Sr, and Ca-Sr orthophosphate and pyrophosphate compositions, J. Electrochem. Soc., 117, 1189 (1970). 2. Hoffman, M.V., Eu+2 activation in some alkaline earth strontium phosphate compounds, J. Electrochem. Soc., 115, 560 (1968).

Ba3(PO4)2:Eu2+
Optical Properties Emission color: Violet Emission peak: 2.99 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0.25 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4.88 eV), + (3.40 eV) Spectra
800 700 600 500
Wavelength (nm)

400

300

100

Emission

50

2

3

4 Photon Energy (eV)

5

0

Absorption (%)

100

Emission

Reference 1. Lagos, C.C., Luminescence of divalent europium in Ba-Ca, Ba-Sr, and Ca-Sr orthophosphate and pyrophosphate compositions, J. Electrochem. Soc., 117, 1189 (1970).

Na3Ce(PO4)2:Tb3+
Optical Properties Emission color: Green Emission peak: 2.27 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4.88 eV), – (3.40 eV) Spectra
800 700 600 500
Wavelength (nm)

400

300

100

Emission

50

2

3

4 Photon Energy (eV)

5

0

Reference 1. Fava, J. et al., Some new efficient luminophors with low-concentration quenching effects, J. Lumin., 18/19, 389 (1979).

-(Ca,Sr)3(PO4)2:Sn2+,Mn2+
Composition Ingredient CaCO3 SrCO3 SrHPO4 SnO MnCO3 Mole % 50 32 205 10 3 By weight (g) 50 47 376 13.5 3.45

Preparation Mix by slurrying in water or methanol. Dry in air. Powderize when dry. 1. Fire in open quartz boats, N2, 500–600ºC. Powderize. 2. Fire in capped quartz tubes, CO, 1150ºC, 2 hours. Optical Properties Emission color: Orange-red Emission peak: 1.97 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0.38 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4.88 eV), – (3.40 eV)

Spectra
800 700 600 500

400

Wavelength (nm)

300

50

2

3

Remarks 1. Increasing Mn concentration causes narrowing of the emission band but decreasing efficiency. 2. The -phosphate structure is maintained from about Ca/Sr of 10/90 to 100/0. Increasing Ca/Sr causes a shift of the Mn2+ band into deeper red. References 1. Butler, K.H., Alkaline earth orthophosphate phosphors, J. Electrochem. Soc., 100, 250 (1953). 2. Koelmans, H., and Cox, A.P.M., Luminescence of modified tin-activated strontium orthophosphate, J. Electrochem. Soc., 104, 442 (1957). 3. Mooney, R.W., Temperature dependence of fluorescence of tin-activated orthophosphates, J. Electrochem. Soc., 105, 456 (1958). 4. Uehara, Y., Kobuke, Y., and Masuda, I., Copper-activated calcium orthophosphate and related phosphors, J. Electrochem. Soc., 106, 200 (1959). 5. Wanmaker, W.L., and Bakker, C., Luminescence of copper-activated calcium and strontium orthophosphates, J. Electrochem. Soc., 106, 1027 (1959). 6. Sarver, J.F., Hoffman, M.V., and Hummel, F.A., Phase equilibria and tin-activated luminescence in strontium orthophosphate systems, J. Electrochem. Soc., 108, 1103 (1961).

4 Photon Energy (eV)

5

0

ZnMg2(PO4)2:Mn2+
Spectra
800 700 600 500 400
Wavelength (nm)

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Emission

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Absorption (%)

100

Emission

.S. 900ºC. Optical Properties Emission color: Light red Emission peak: 1. Fire in open quartz boats...40 eV UV. . This is strictly a catholuminescent phosphor. 1.6 ccm Preparation Make a thin slurry of ZnO + MnCO3 in water or methanol. Phase equilibria and manganeseactivated fluorescence in the system Zn3(PO4)2-Mg3(PO4)2. 30 msec to 1/10 Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 100 Emission 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Remarks 1.A. Katnack. Fire in open quartz boats. Electrochem. 106. Slowly add the H3PO4 solution while stirring (slurry heats up). J. Soc.88 or 3. Reference 1. 2. Dry in air. 2 hours. Ball-mill the slurry for about 1 hour.88 eV). 1 hour. Fire in open quartz boats.L. 1 hour.40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: ~7–8% Decay: Near-exponential decay. Powderize when dry. air. F. 960 (1959). ~500ºC.. 2. – (3. It cannot be sensitized to respond to 4. air. F. J. air.15 47. 950ºC. Stir to uniformity as well as possible. Powderize.Zn3(PO4)2:Mn2 Structure: Monoclinic Composition Ingredient ZnO MnCO3 H3PO4 solution Mole % 99 1 62 (of P) By weight (g) 81 1.94 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0.25 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: – (4. This phosphor has been used as the red component in early color TV picture tubes. Sarver. 3. Powderize. and Hummel.

960 (1959)..27 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: – (4.96 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0. – (3.A. 2. 950ºC. It cannot be sensitized for UV excitation.. Stir to uniformity. and Hummel. 106. Fire in open quartz boats. The 950ºC firing temperature is critical. Optical Properties Emission color: Light red Emission peak: 1.40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: ~6–8% Decay: near-exponential decay. Reference 1. Sarver. Soc. 2. F.. J. J.1 1. 1000ºC is too high.(Zn. ~500–600ºC. Powderize. Electrochem. Phase equilibria and manganeseactivated fluorescence in the system Zn3(PO4)2-Mg3(PO4)2. air. 2 hours. 900ºC is too low.7 ccm Preparation Make a thin slurry of ZnO + MgO + MnCO3 in water or methanol. The decay of this phosphor is significantly longer than that of Zn3(PO4)2:Mn2+ (~30 msec to 1/10).. 1 hour.Mg)3(PO4)2:Mn2+ Structure: Monoclinic Composition Ingredient ZnO MnO MnCO3 H3PO4 solution Mole % 79 20 1 62 (of P) By weight (g) 65 8. Dry in air. Slowly add the H3PO4 solution while stirring. Powderize when dry. 1. .S. Crush forming phosphate by wet mortaring or milling. F.15 46. Katnack.L. Fire in open quartz boats. 100–1200 msec to 1/10 Spectra 800 700 600 500 400 Wavelength (nm) 300 100 Emission 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Remarks 1. 3.88 eV). This is strictly a catholuminescent phosphor. air.

Phase equilibria and Eu2+activated.88 eV).48 eV Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 100 Emission 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Reference 1. R. and Hoffman. M.red Emission peak: 1. Hummel.Mg3Ca3(PO4)4:Eu2+ Structure: Monoclinic Optical Properties Emission color: Blue Emission peak: 2. 118.49 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4. 755 (1971). F. MgSr5(PO4)4:Sn2+ Optical Properties Emission color: Orange. – (3.A.93 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0. J. Electrochem.. McCauley.40 eV) Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Absorption (%) 100 Emission .. Tb3+-activated..A.80 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0. Soc. and Mn2+-activated luminescent phases in CaO-MgO-P2O5 system.V..

88 eV).27 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4. ++ (3.40 eV) Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 400 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 MgBa2(PO4)2:U Optical Properties Emission color: Green Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4.89 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0. – (3.88 eV) Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 50 2 3 CaSr2(PO4)2:Bi3+ Optical Properties Emission color: UV Emission peak: 3.88 eV).36 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0.67 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4.MgBa2(PO4)2:Sn2+ Optical Properties Emission color: Greenish Emission peak: 2.40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: – Absorption (%) 100 Emission Absorption (%) 100 Emission .

97 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0. Butler. 274. K.29 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4.Spectra 800 700 600 500 400 Wavelength (nm) 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Sr2P2O7:Eu2+ Optical Properties Emission color: Violet Emission peak: 2. Fluorescent Lamp Phosphors.. University Park (1980). ++ (3.H. Pennsylvania University Press.40 eV) Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 100 Emission 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Reference 1. p. Absorption (%) 100 Emission .88 eV).

6 Halophosphates The following host compounds and activators are included in this subsection: Ca5(PO4)3F:Mn2+ Ca5(PO4)3F:Sb3+ Ca5(PO4)3F:Sn2+ Ca5(PO4)3Cl:Eu2+ Ca5(PO4)3Cl:Mn2+ Ca5(PO4)3Cl:Sb3+ Ca5(PO4)3Cl:Sn2+ Sr5(PO4)3Cl:Eu2+ Sr5(PO4)3Cl:Mn2+ Sr5(PO4)3Cl:Sb3+ Sr5(PO4)3F:Mn2+ Sr5(PO4)3F:Sb3+ Sr5(PO4)3F:Sb3+.17 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0. – (3.4.88 eV). 1100ºC. Powderize when dry. N2.40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: + . 1 hour. Optical Properties Emission color: Yellow Emission peak: 2.5 Preparation Mix by ball-milling in water or methanol. Fire in capped quartz tubes.Mn2+ Sr5(PO4)3Cl:Eu2+.28 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: – (4.Pr3+ Sr5(PO4)3F:Sn2+ Ba5(PO4)3Cl:Eu2+ Ba5(PO4)3Cl:U Ca2Ba3(PO4)3Cl:Eu2+ Ca5(PO4)3F:Mn2+ Structure: Hexagonal (apatite) Composition Ingredient CaCO3 CaHPO4 CaF2 MnCO3 Mole % 140 400 50 10 By weight (g) 140 360 39 11. Dry in air.

. 2. 1 hour. and Ranby. References 1. or Ce3+. 22. Alonso. McKeag.J.6 Preparation Mix by ball-milling in water or methanol. H. J. Alkaline earth halophosphates and related phosphors. P. Lumin..70 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4.50 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0.J. Optical Properties Emission color: Pale blue-green Emission peak: 2. J. Powderize when dry..H.Spectra 800 700 600 500 400 Wavelength (nm) 300 100 Emission 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Remark Can be sensitized for UV excitation by addition of Sn2+. Soc. and Alcala.88 eV). Dry in air.. Jenkins. Fire in capped quartz tubes. N2. A. P. – (3. 96.. Excitation-spectra and fluorescent lifetime measurements of Mn2+ in CaF2 and Ca5(PO4)3F2.. 321 (1981). Electrochem. Ca5(PO4)3F:Sb3+ Structure: Hexagonal (apatite) Composition Ingredient CaCO3 CaHPO4 CaF2 Sb2O3 Mole % 140 300 50 10 (of Sb) By weight (g) 140 360 39 14. Sb3+.W. 1 (1949). 1100ºC. R.40 eV) .

Chem. H. 1100ºC.J. Fire in capped quartz tubes. Soc. Energy-transfer between antimony and manganese in fluorophosphate phosphors. 55.. 7.9 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4. E. Optical Properties Emission color: Pale bluish Emission peak: 3. Jenkins. Electrochem.40 eV) Absorption (%) 100 Emission . 1 (1949). Molecular orbital model for antimony luminescent centers in fluorophosphate. J. Soules. Phys.W. Rev. 1657 (1973). P. 96.R. N2. J..F. T. T.Spectra 800 700 600 500 400 Wavelength (nm) 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 References 1..... Phys. A.H. T..00 eV Emission width (FWHM): ~0. Alkaline earth halophosphates and related phosphors. Davis.S. et al. 3.88 eV). Powderize when dry. B. 1056 (1971).. McKeag. Ca5(PO4)3F:Sn2+ Structure: Hexagonal (apatite) Composition Ingredient CaCO3 CaHPO4 CaF2 SnO Mole % 200 300 50 10 By weight (g) 200 360 39 13.. Soules.5 Preparation Mix by ball-milling methanol plus a little water. and Kreidler. 1 hour.F. Dry in air. 2. and Ranby. – (3.

and Ranby. 1 hour. Optical Properties Emission color: Blue Emission peak: 2. Powderize. 1100º C.J. 1100ºC. A. 96.8 Preparation Mix by ball-milling methanol plus a little water.23 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4. Add 32 g NH4Cl. 1. N2. J.W. 1 hour. Jenkins. Ca5(PO4)3Cl:Eu2+ Structure: Hexagonal (apatite) Composition Ingredient CaCO3 CaHPO4 NH4Cl Eu2O3 Mole % 200 300 120 5 (of Eu) By weight (g) 200 360 64 8. Powderize when dry. 1 (1949). Powderize. McKeag. ++ (3. Fire in capped quartz tubes. Wash in water several times.72 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0. Soc. P.Spectra 800 700 600 500 400 Wavelength (nm) 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Reference 1. mix by dry grinding or milling. H.H.. Electrochem. Dry. Alkaline earth halophosphates and related phosphors. Dry in air.40 eV) Absorption (%) 100 Emission . 2.... Fire in capped quartz tubes. N2.88 eV).

Add 32 g NH4Cl. Powderize. 1100ºC.Spectra 800 700 600 500 400 Wavelength (nm) 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Reference 1. A. BL-R-6-90102-29 (1968).29 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: – (4. N2. Bloomfield Report.10 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0. Ca5(PO4)3Cl:Mn2+ Structure: Hexagonal (apatite) Composition Ingredient CaCO3 CaHPO4 NH4Cl MnCO3 Mole % 200 300 120 10 By weight (g) 200 360 64 11. N2. Dry. 2. Fire in capped quartz tubes.5 Preparation Mix by ball-milling methanol plus a little water. Powderize when dry. 1100ºC..88 eV). – (3. 1 hour. Powderize. Fire in capped quartz tubes. 1 hour. mix by dry grinding or milling. Optical Properties Emission color: Orange-yellow Emission peak: ~2. 1. Dry in air.40 eV) Absorption (%) 100 Emission . Wash in water several times. Wachtel.

A. McKeag. Fire in capped quartz tubes. Optical Properties Emission color: Pale whitish-green Emission peak: 2.H. Ca5(PO4)3Cl:Sb3+ Structure: Hexagonal (apatite) Composition Ingredient CaCO3 CaHPO4 NH4Cl MnCO3 Mole % 200 300 120 10 By weight (g) 200 360 64 11.40 eV) . H. Powderize. 1 (1949). 2. Dry. mix by dry grinding or milling.. 96. Electrochem. – (3. N2. Powderize when dry.88 eV). and Ranby. or Eu2+. Alkaline earth halophosphates and related phosphors.70 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4. Wash in water several times. Ce3+. 1100ºC. 1. Add 32 g NH4Cl. Jenkins. N2.W. 1 hour.. Dry in air. Powderize.5 Preparation Mix by ball-milling methanol plus a little water.. Reference 1. P.38 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0..J. J.Spectra 800 700 600 500 400 Wavelength (nm) 300 100 Emission 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Remark Can be sensitized for UV excitation by addition of Sn2+. Sb3+. 1100ºC. 1 hour. Fire in capped quartz tubes. Soc.

40 eV) Absorption (%) 100 Emission . Powderize when dry. P. Add 32 g NH4Cl. Dry in air. 1 hour.J.. 2. N2.95 and 3.W. Alkaline earth halophosphates and related phosphors.45 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4.. 1. H.. 1100ºC. Powderize. N2. Electrochem. 1 (1949).H. A. Jenkins. – (3. 1 hour. the two peaks near 1. Dry. Fire in capped quartz tubes. Fire in capped quartz tubes. mix by dry grinding or milling. 1100ºC. Soc.88 eV).. McKeag. and Ranby.Spectra 800 700 600 500 400 Wavelength (nm) 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Reference 1. Powderize. Wash in water several times.5 Preparation Mix by ball-milling methanol plus a little water. Ca5(PO4)3Cl:Sn2+ Structure: Hexagonal (apatite) Composition Ingredient CaCO3 CaHPO4 NH4Cl SnO Mole % 200 300 120 10 By weight (g) 200 360 64 13. 96. J. Optical Properties Emission color: Pale pinkish-white Emission peaks: Continuous distribution from the UV into the IR.

8 Preparation Mix by ball-milling methanol plus a little water. Powderize.Spectra 800 700 600 500 400 Wavelength (nm) 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Sr5(PO4)3Cl:Eu2+ Structure: Hexagonal (apatite) Composition Ingredient SrCO3 SrHPO4 NH4Cl Eu2O3 Mole % 200 300 120 5 (of Eu) By weight (g) 295 550 64 8. 1100ºC. 1 hour.75 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0. mix by dry grinding or milling. Powderize when dry. 1100ºC. ++ (3. Optical Properties Emission color: Blue Emission peak: 2. 2. 1. Wash in water several times. N2. Dry. Dry in air. Powderize. N2. Fire in capped quartz tubes.19 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4. 1 hour.40 eV) Absorption (%) 100 Emission . Add 32 g NH4Cl.88 eV). Fire in capped quartz tubes.

1 hour..16 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0.88 eV). Sr5(PO4)3Cl:Mn2+ Structure: Hexagonal (apatite) Composition Ingredient SrCO3 SrHPO4 NH4Cl MnCO3 Mole % 200 300 120 10 By weight (g) 295 550 64 11.40 eV) Absorption (%) 100 Emission . Dry. mix by dry grinding or milling. Optical Properties Emission color: Yellow Emission peak: 2. 1. N2. Dry in air. 1100ºC.32 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: – (4.5 Preparation Mix by ball-milling methanol plus a little water. BL-R-6-90102-29 (1968).Spectra 800 700 600 500 400 Wavelength (nm) 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Reference 1. Add 32 g NH4Cl. 1100ºC. A. Fire in capped quartz tubes. 2. Powderize when dry. 1 hour. Wash in water several times. Fire in capped quartz tubes. Powderize. Powderize. – (3. Bloomfield Report. N2. Wachtel.

Spectra 800 700 600 500 400 Wavelength (nm) 300 100 Emission 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Remark Can be sensitized for UV excitation by addition of Sn2+. 1100ºC. Powderize when dry.31 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0. Ce3+. 2.6 Preparation Mix by ball-milling methanol plus a little water.40 eV) . 1 hour. Electrochem.W. Dry. Add 32 g NH4Cl. 1100ºC. 1. N2.88 eV).. Fire in capped quartz tubes. P. Powderize..J. Reference 1. J. McKeag. Powderize.H. Wash in water several times. – (3. Sr5(PO4)3Cl:Sb3+ Structure: Hexagonal (apatite) Composition Ingredient SrCO3 SrHPO4 NH4Cl Sb2O3 Mole % 200 300 120 10 (of Sb) By weight (g) 295 550 64 14. H. Alkaline earth halophosphates and related phosphors. Soc. and Ranby.. or Eu2+. 1 (1949). 1 hour..68 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4. mix by dry grinding or milling. Jenkins. Sb3+. Dry in air. Fire in capped quartz tubes. Optical Properties Emission color: Whitish-green Emission peak: ~2. N2. A. 96.

. 1 hour. 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Sr5(PO4)3F:Mn2+ Structure: Hexagonal (apatite) Composition Ingredient SrCO3 SrHPO4 SrF2 MnCO3 Mole % 200 300 50 10 By weight (g) 295 550 63 11. N2. A.28 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: – (4. 1100ºC.J. Soc.5 Preparation Mix by ball-milling methanol plus a little water. Dry in air. Jenkins. 96. Powderize when dry.40 eV) Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 100 Emission 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Absorption (%) 100 Emission . – (3. McKeag. Electrochem. H.88 eV).. P..Spectra 800 700 600 500 400 Wavelength (nm) 300 50 2 3 Reference 1. Fire in capped quartz tubes. Optical Properties Emission color: Yellow Emission peak: ~2.17 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0. 1 (1949). J..W.H. and Ranby. Alkaline earth halophosphates and related phosphors.

Soc.. and Ranby.. Alkaline earth halophosphates and related phosphors. Optical Properties Emission color: Pale whitish blue-green Emission peak: ~2. Jenkins.H. 1 (1949). H.88 eV). J.. Absorption (%) 100 Emission ... Reference 1. H. P. Jenkins. N2. P. and Ranby. or Ce3+.. 96. 96.6 Preparation Mix by ball-milling methanol plus a little water.H..J.Remark Can be sensitized for UV excitation by addition of Sn2+. Sb3+. 1 hour. Electrochem. Sr5(PO4)3F:Sb3+ Structure: Hexagonal (apatite) Composition Ingredient SrCO3 SrHPO4 SrF2 Sb2O3 Mole % 140 300 50 10 (of Sb) By weight (g) 206 550 63 14. Alkaline earth halophosphates and related phosphors. A. A. Dry in air.43 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0. Powderize when dry.75 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4. Soc. Fire in capped quartz tubes.W. 1 (1949).W. McKeag. Electrochem.J. McKeag.40 eV) Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Reference 1. J. 1100ºC.. – (3.

Sr5(PO4)3F:Sb3+.5 Absorption (%) 100 Emission Absorption (%) 100 Emission .Mn2+ Structure: Hexagonal (apatite) Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Sr5(PO4)3Cl:Eu2+.Pr3+ Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Sr5(PO4)3F:Sn2+ Structure: Hexagonal (apatite) Composition Ingredient SrCO3 SrHPO4 SrF2 SnO Mole % 140 300 50 10 By weight (g) 206 550 63 13.

2. 1000ºC. Dry. ++ (3. Dry in air. Powderize when dry. mix by dry grinding.40 eV) Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Ba5(PO4)3Cl:Eu2+ Structure: Hexagonal (apatite) Composition Ingredient BaCO3 BaHPO4 NH4Cl Eu2O3 Mole % 200 300 120 5 (of Eu) By weight (g) 395 700 64 8. Powderize. 1 hour.88 eV). 1100ºC. Fire in capped quartz tubes.75 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4. Optical Properties Emission color: Bluish-white Emission peak: ~2. Wash in water several times. Add 32 g NH4Cl. Powderize.28 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4. Optical Properties Emission color: Violet-blue Emission peak: ~2. N2.40 eV) Absorption (%) 100 Emission . 1 hour.88 eV). N2. Dry in air.8 Preparation Mix by ball-milling methanol plus a little water. N2. 1 hour. 1000ºC. 1. Powderize when dry. Fire in capped quartz tubes.75 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0.84 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0. Fire in capped quartz tubes. – (3.Preparation Mix by ball-milling methanol plus a little water.

Wash in water several times (stir.88 eV). 1 hour. 2H2O Mole % 190 150 120 10 By weight (g) 443 295 64 42 Preparation Make a slurry in methanol of BaHPO4.39 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4. Dry in air. Bloomfield Report. mix by dry grinding or milling.Spectra 800 700 600 500 400 Wavelength (nm) 300 100 Emission 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Reference 1. Powderize. N2. 900ºC. Ba5(PO4)3Cl:U Structure: Hexagonal (apatite) Composition Ingredient BaHPO4 BaCO3 NH4Cl UO2(C2H3O2)2. 2 hours. 1. N2. Fire in capped quartz tubes. QE Excitation efficiency by e-beam: Poor 50% . Powderize when dry. Dry.40 eV). BL-R-6-90102-29 (1968). Optical Properties Emission color: Green Emission peaks: 2. Powderize. and add the solution to the slurry. 2. decant). Fire in capped quartz tubes. and NH4Cl.. BaCO3. 850ºC. A. let settle. Dissolve the uranyl acetate in a little methanol. Add 32 g NH4Cl. stir to uniformity. Wachtel. + (3.12–2.

Luminescent barium and magnesium halophosphates. N2. Wash in water several times.49 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4. Powderize when dry.40 eV) Absorption (%) 100 Emission . 1100ºC. and Wells. ++ (3. Ca2Ba3(PO4)3Cl:Eu2+ Structure: Hexagonal (apatite) Composition Ingredient CaCO3 BaHPO4 NH4Cl Eu2O3 Mole % 200 300 120 5 (of Eu) By weight (g) 200 700 64 8. 1 hour. Optical Properties Emission color: Pale blue-green Emission peak: 2. Add 3. Dry.. Powderize. 1 hour.. J. Anderson. 1100ºC. Dry in air. R. Electrochem. Fire in capped quartz tubes.T.S. N2..2 g NH4Cl. 414 (1951). mix by dry grinding.46 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0. J. Soc.Spectra 800 700 600 500 400 Wavelength (nm) 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Reference 1. 1. Fire in capped quartz tubes.8 Preparation Mix by ball-milling in methanol plus a little water. 2. 98. Powderize.88 eV).

BL-R-6-90102-29 (1968).. A.Spectra 800 700 600 500 400 Wavelength (nm) 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Reference 1. Wachtel. Bloomfield Report. Absorption (%) 100 Emission .

5:Pb2+ YAl3B4O12:Ce3+.Mn2+ SrO·3B2O3:Eu2+.7 Borates The following host compounds and activators are included in this subsection: YBO3:Ce3+ YBO3:Eu3+ LaBO3:Eu3+ -SrO·3B2O3:Pb2+ -SrO·3B2O3:Pb2+.Ce3+.4.Mn2+ SrB4O7:Eu2+(F.7:Eu3+ Ca2La2BO6.Cl.Tb3+ LaAl3B4O12:Eu3+ BaB8O13:Eu2+ SrB8O13:Sm2+ Ca2B5O9Cl:Eu2+ Ca2B5O9Cl:Pb2+ Ca2B5O9Br:Eu2+ Sr2B5O9Cl:Eu2+ CaYB0.Mn2+ .Cl -SrO·3B2O3:Sm2+ MgB2O4:Mn2+ MgYBO4:Eu3+ CaB2O4:Mn2+ CaB2O4:Pb2+ CaYBO4:Bi3+ CaYBO4:Eu3+ CaLaBO4:Eu3+ ZnB2O4:Mn2+ Ca2B2O5:Mn2+ LaAlB2O6:Eu3+ CaLaB3O7:Ce3+.8O3.Mn2+ YAl3B4O12:Ce3+.Cr3+ YAl3B4O12:Th4+.Br) SrB4O7:Pb2+ SrB4O7:Pb2+.Mn2+ Cd2B6O11:Mn2+ YAl3B4O12:Ce3+ YAl3B4O12:Bi3+ YAl3B4O12:Eu3+ YAl3B4O12:Eu3+.

C. 1 hour. Blasse. Chem. Rare earth cathodoluminescence in InBO3 and related orthoborates. 4. and Bril.. 3. A.. G..22 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4.. and Wiggins. Soc. 53.. 2. and Bril. . A.88 eV).. A. 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 YBO3:Eu3+ Structure: Vaterite Composition Ingredient Y 2O 3 Eu2O3 H3BO3 Mole % 92 (of Y) 8 (of Eu) 105 By weight (g) 104 14 65 Preparation Mix by dry grinding or milling. Solid State Chem. Blasse. Rev. Bril. 48. Electrochem.. ~500ºC. and de Poorter. A. J. air. and Poorter..40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: + Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 100 Emission 50 2 3 References 1. 6. G. 4. J. G..A.. Blasse. J. Phys.D. 5. 31. Bril.. Radiationless transitions in Eu3+ center in LaAlO3. The absorption and emission spectra of some important activators.A.. Chem.J. 346 (1970). J. 304 (1970).. 114. Phys.S. 3652 (1968). G. O. 52 (1972). 4450 (1970)... Soc. Avella. Philips Tech. J.. J.00 and 3. F. Fast-decay phosphors. J.. Ultraviolet-absorption bands of Bi3+ and Eu3+ in oxides.J. 1. Fire in open quartz boats.YBO3:Ce3+ Structure: Vaterite Optical Properties Emission color: Violet-UV Emission peak: 3. Blasse. 613 (1967). Electrochem. Sovers. Fluorescence of Eu3+-activated sodium lanthanide titanates... G. – (3. 117.. Blasse.

1150ºC. Fire in open quartz boats. . 1250ºC. 33. Optical Properties Emission color: Red-orange Emission peaks: 1. 3.. Fire in open quartz boats. – (3. 3.. air. air.W. air. air. Avella.. Res. 1 hour. 124 (1978).. F. LaBO3:Eu3+ Structure: Orthorhombic (aragonite) Composition Ingredient La2O3 Eu2O3 H3BO3 Mole % 92 (of La) 8 (of Eu) 105 By weight (g) 150 14 65 Preparation Mix by dry grinding or milling. Soc. 1000ºC. 2 hours.98–2. Powderize. Powderize. ~500ºC.10 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: + (4.88 eV).J. A. Rare earth cathodoluminescence in InBO3 and related orthoborates. 2. 1 hour. C. and Bril. Fire in open quartz boats..40 eV) Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 100 Emission 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 References 1.. 2. Veenis. O. 114. Fine structure in the low temperature luminescence of Zn2SiO4:Mn and Mg4Ta2O9:Mn. Powderize. 1 hour. Fire in open quartz boats.S. Fire in open quartz boats. 613 (1967). 1 hour. 1000ºC. and Wiggins.. Powderize.2. A. air. Electrochem. 1. J. Philips J. Sovers.J.

1. Electrochem. F. 2.10 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: + (4. Fluorescent properties of some europium-activated phosphors.. Powderize..33 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: + (4.3 370 2.09 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0. and 2.Optical Properties Emission color: Light red Emission peaks: 1.88 eV) Absorption (%) 100 Emission . and Wanmaker. -SrO·3B2O3:Pb2+ Composition Ingredient SrCO3 PbO H3BO3 NH4Cl Mole % 99 1 600 5 By weight (g) 146 2. 111.995. C. Fire in capped quartz tubes. 700ºC.88 eV). Bril.. 613 (1967).. Rare earth cathodoluminescence in InBO3 and related orthoborates. Sovers. A. Fire in capped quartz tubes. 114. 2. go slowly up with temperature to 600 C. air.. 2.7 Preparation Mix by dry grinding or milling. and Wiggins. W. Place into cold furnace.J. and then take out..J. Powderize. Optical Properties Emission color: UV Emission peak: 4.02.L.40 eV) Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 References 1. – (3. 3. Avella. O. 700ºC. 2 hours. Soc.. N2 . N2 . 1363 (1964). 16 hours (overnight). Fire in capped quartz tubes. J. J. Electrochem.S. Soc.

Optical Properties Emission color: Bluish-green Emission peak: 2.. Witzmann.15 372 2.. Fire in capped quartz tubes. go slowly up with temperature to 600 C. Phys. Chem. Z. 43. 2. H..und kupferbleiaktivierter strontiumboratphosphore.40 eV)..7 Preparation Mix by dry grinding or milling. Fire in capped quartz tubes. Zum emissionsvermogen blei-manganaktivierter kalziumboratphosphore (CaO. 1. 212. Place into cold furnace. 700ºC. H.Mn). (Leipzig). Z.. (Leipzig). H. 3. Witzmann. 16 hours (overnight). Naturwissenschaften. Boratluminophore MIT UV-emission.. H. Buhrow.Spectra 800 700 600 500 400 Wavelength (nm) 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 References 1. K. H.88 eV). R.41 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0. Fire in capped quartz tubes.. and Müller. G. Witzmann. QE 45–50% Absorption (%) 100 Emission . H. Zur uv-emission bleiaktivierter strontiumboratluminophore. Powderize. 700ºC. 542 (1958). Witzmann. Naturwissenschaften. – (3. Zur lumineszenz kupfer.22 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: + (4. and Schreiber. air..... W. 49. 51. 3. Phys. 580 (1956). 4. Naturwissenschaften. and Müller. Müller. R. and Treichler.. Chem. Powderize. 211. W.28 1. and Semisch. -SrO·3B2O3:Pb2+. Witzmann. N2 . and Treichler. 45. 307 (1959).. H. Naturwissenschaften. 5. N2 . 103 (1964). 6. and then take out. 2 hours. Witzmann.XB2O3-Pb.Mn2+ Composition Ingredient SrCO3 PbO MnCO3 H3BO3 NH4Cl Mole % 98 1 1 600 5 By weight (g) 180 2. 181 (1962). 205 (1959). J. 2..

850ºC. mix by dry grinding. N2 . Powderize. SrO·3B2O3:Eu2+. Wash in water several times. H. Powderize.Cl Composition Ingredient SrCO3 Eu2O3 H3BO3 NH4Cl Mole % 98 2 (of Eu) 620 50 By weight (g) 180 3.5 384 27 Preparation Mix all ingredients but the NH4Cl by dry grinding or milling. 3.. Optical Properties Emission color: UV Emission peak: 3. H. 1.und kupferbleiaktivierter strontiumboratphosphore.16 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4. 1 hour.. air. Add the above NH4Cl.Spectra 800 700 600 500 400 Wavelength (nm) 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Reference 1. Fire in open quartz boats.88 eV) Absorption (%) 100 Emission . ~500ºC. and Schreiber. Witzmann. 700ºC. 4 hours. CO . Zur lumineszenz kupfer. Fire in open quartz boats. Fire in capped quartz tubes.37 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0. Powderize. Dry. ½ hour. 2. 181 (1962). 49. Naturwissenschaften.

Place into cold furnace. QE 60% (estimated) Absorption (%) 100 Emission . Fire in open quartz boats. Powderize. Fire in open quartz boats. 2.Spectra 800 700 600 500 400 Wavelength (nm) 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Remarks 1. N2. Powderize. 800ºC. 3. 2. 900ºC. 4 hours. CO. The Cl in this recipe can be replaced by F or Br.74 370 Preparation Mix by dry grinding or milling. 1. Fire in open quartz boats. go slowly up with temperature to 600ºC. 1 hour. Optical Properties Emission color: Deep red Emission peak: 1. The exact chemical formula of this material is still unknown.812 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (3. and then take out. -SrO·3B2O3:Sm Composition Ingredient SrCO3 Sm2O3 H3BO3 Mole % 99 1 (of Sm) 600 By weight (g) 146 1. air.40 eV).

11 eV (see remark) Emission width (FWHM): 0. 1. fire 2 hours at 1000ºC. N2.32 eV.39 eV (see remark) Excitation efficiency by UV: – (4. 2.Spectra 800 700 600 500 400 Wavelength (nm) 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 MgB2O4:Mn2+ Composition Ingredient MgO MnCO3 H3BO3 Mole % 98 2 205 By weight (g) 40 2. fire 4 hours at 850ºC. ~500ºC. N2. For -structure. 3. Powderize.88 eV). Fire in open quartz boats.88 eV. N2. Powderize. Fire in open quartz boats.3 127 Preparation Mix by dry grinding or milling. 0. 1 hour. – (3. Fire in open quartz boats. 2. 700ºC. Optical Properties Emission color: Red Emission peak: 1.40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: + Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 100 Emission 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Absorption (%) 100 Emission . For -structure.

This material comes in two different modifications. air. and the low-temperature -phase. the high-temperature -phase. MgYBO4:Eu3+ Composition Ingredient MgO Y 2O 3 Eu2O3 H3BO3 Mole % 100 95 (of Y) 5 (of Eu) 205 By weight (g) 40. Ranby. air.. air.985. Fire in open quartz boats.2 Preparation Mix by dry grinding or milling. 2.. Optical Properties Emission color: Orange-red Emission peaks: 1. Fire in open quartz boats. 1000ºC.88 eV). 1 hour.S. Powderize. Fire in open quartz boats. 1. Powderize.3 107 8. 3.035.098 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: + (4. 1 hour. QE Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 25–30% 400 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Absorption (%) 100 Emission . P. Pat. It can be sensitized for UV excitation by addition of Ce3+ + Li+.8 63. ~500ºC.W. 1200ºC. 3 014 817 (1961). 2. 2. Reference 1.Remarks 1. Peak position depends on modification. U. and 2.

CaYBO4:Bi3+ Composition Ingredient CaCO Y 2O 3 Bi2O3 H3BO3 Mole % 100 99 (of Y) 1 (of Bi) 105 By weight (g) 100 112 2. 51. – (3. 103 (1964). N2. 3.82 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: + (4. K. 1 hour. J. N2. CaB2O4:Pb2+ Optical Properties Emission color: UV Emission peak: 3.. and Müller.34 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0. Zum emissionsvermogen blei-manganaktivierter kalziumboratphosphore(CaO·B2O3-Pb. 51. air. Fire in capped quartz tubes. Fire in open quartz boats. Buhrow.02 eV (for UV 3.40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: + Reference 1.99 eV (for UV 4..Mn). Powderize. K. – (3.. 1.CaB2O4:Mn2+ Structure: Orthorhombic Optical Properties Emission color: Green Emission peak: 2. Witzmann. H.40 eV) .88 eV).88 eV).. 1 hour. – (3.23 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: – (4. 103 (1964). and Müller.Mn). ~500ºC.88 eV). J. 3. Buhrow. Fire in capped quartz tubes. 1000ºC. Add 2 g of NH4Cl.88 eV).3 65 Preparation Mix by dry grinding or milling.40 eV) Excitation efficiency by UV: + (4. Naturwissenschaften.40 eV) Reference 1.. Powderize. mix by dry grinding.. 1200 C. 2. Naturwissenschaften. Witzmann. ½ hour. Zum emissionsvermogen blei-manganaktivierter kalziumboratphosphore (CaO·B2O3-Pb. Optical Properties Emission color: Blue Emission peak: 2. H.

1000ºC. CaYBO4:Eu3+ Composition Ingredient CaCO Y 2O 3 Eu2O3 H3BO3 Mole % 100 97 (of Y) 3 (of Eu) 105 By weight (g) 100 110 5.40 eV) Spectra 800 700 600 500 400 Wavelength (nm) 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Absorption (%) 100 Emission . air. 1. ½ hour. Fire in open quartz boats. Peak position seems to depend on the excitation.3 65 Preparation Mix by dry grinding or milling. air. air. 254 nm 50 exc.Spectra 800 700 600 500 400 Wavelength (nm) 300 100 Absorption (%) Emission exc. Fire in open quartz boats. Powderize. 3. 1 hour.04 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4. Optical Properties Emission color: Light red Emission peak: 2. 2. Powderize. 1 hour. Fire in open quartz boats.88 eV). – (3. ~500ºC. 365 nm 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Remark 1. 1200ºC.

2 Preparation Mix by dry grinding or milling. Reference 1. Optical Properties Emission color: Light red Emission peak: 2. CaLaBO4:Eu3+ Composition Ingredient CaCO La2O3 Eu2O3 H3BO3 Mole % 100 90 (of La) 10 (of Eu) 102 By weight (g) 100 146. Powderize. N2. 1200ºC. – (3. This phosphor is somewhat discolored and less efficient if fired in air or oxygen. 1 hour. Fire in open quartz boats... G. air. Ultraviolet-absorption bands of Bi3+ and Eu3+ in oxides. 1 hour. 1000ºC. Powderize. 4. Wash in water several times. .88 eV). Solid State Chem.. 4. Powderize. Blasse. J. 4. Spectrum resembles that of YOE. J. 2. 1200ºC.148 Inorganic Phosphors Reference 1. Fire in capped quartz tubes. Dry. 52 (1972). 52 (1972). Blasse. 1. Add 5 g of NH4Cl. Fire in open quartz boats. G. Solid State Chem.40 eV) Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 100 Emission 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Remarks 1. 3.7 17.6 63. 2. mix by dry grinding. 16 hours (overnight). Powderize.. Fire in open quartz boats. Ultraviolet-absorption bands of Bi3+ and Eu3+ in oxides. N2. ~500ºC. N2.03 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4.

. Soc. 1 hour. Growth and decay processes. and Otero..W. and Henderson.88 eV).. Proc.Section 4: Phosphor Data 149 ZnB2O4:Mn2+ Composition Ingredient ZnO MnCO3 H3BO3 Mole % 97 3 205 By weight (g) 79 3. – (3. J. air. Strange. air. Phase equilibria and fluorescence in the system zinc oxide-boric oxide. about 26 msec to 1/10 Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 100 Emission 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 References 1. P. Electrochem.. D. J. Kröger. Pt. Powderize. 4. Z. Harrison. A.T. Terol... 272 (1939). air. 900ºC.40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: +/4–5% Decay: Exponential decay. J. Phys. London. Randall. Fire in open quartz boats. 2 hours..21 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: (4. Cathodo-luminescence.. and Hummel. Elsevier. 3.A. 920 (1961).E..J. Optical Properties Emission color: Yellow-green Emission peak: 2. 700ºC. 1. 2. Soc. R. A170. Soc. 3. M. 2.A. .T. Fire in open quartz boats. Powderize. Some Aspects of Luminescence of Solids. 58.5 127 Preparation Mix by dry grinding or milling. Naturforsch. ~500ºC. Anhydrous zinc borate as a host crystal in luminescence. 369 (1946). 491 (1956). 5. F. Amsterdam (1948).29 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0. Fire in open quartz boats. 16. S. 1. F. 103. S..

1. 3. 1 hour.150 Inorganic Phosphors Spectra 800 700 600 500 Ca2B2O5:Mn2+ 400 Wavelength (nm) 300 100 Emission 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 LaAlB2O6:Eu3+ Composition Ingredient La2O3 Eu2O3 Al2O3 H3BO3 Mole % 92 (of La) 8 (of Eu) 100 (of Al) 205 By weight (g) 150 14 51 127 Preparation Mix by dry grinding or milling. Powderize. additionally a weaker line at 2.015 and 2. 1200ºC. Fire in open quartz boats. Optical Properties Emission color: Light red Emission peaks: Two overlapping lines at 2. air. ~500ºC. – (3.88 eV). Fire in open quartz boats. 1 hour. 2. 1000ºC. Fire in open quartz boats. air. Powderize.40 eV) Spectra 800 700 600 500 400 Wavelength (nm) 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Absorption (%) 100 Emission . air.10 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4.205 eV.

88 eV). 900ºC. Powderize. 1 hour. 2. 2 hours. air.40 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0.16 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4. N2.29 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: + (4. – (3.40 eV) Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 100 Emission 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 SrB4O7:Eu2+(F. Powderize.40 eV) .8 3. CO.4 192 Preparation Mix by dry grinding or milling. 1. Optical Properties Emission color: Green Emission peak: 2.37 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0. – (3.Mn2+ Composition Ingredient CaCO3 La2O3 MnCO3 CeO2 H3BO3 Mole % 95 98 (of La) 5 2 310 By weight (g) 95 160 5.Section 4: Phosphor Data 151 CaLaB3O7:Ce3+.Cl. 700ºC.Br) Optical Properties Emission color: UV Emission peak: 3. 3. Fire in open quartz boats.88 eV). ~500ºC. Fire in open quartz boats. Fire in open quartz boats.

and Semisch.Spectra 800 700 600 500 400 Wavelength (nm) 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Reference 1. Zur lumineszenz kupfer..und kupferbleiaktivierter strontiumboratphosphore..40 eV) Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 References 1. SrB4O7:Pb2+ Optical Properties Emission color: UV Emission peak: 4. Müller. Naturwissenschaften. G.. 49.. 2. K. R. Witzmann.. Boratluminophore MIT UV-emission.. H.. Adachi. 580 (1956). Absorption (%) 100 Emission Absorption (%) 100 Emission . Naturwissenschaften. 43. and Shiokawa.. 181 (1962).88 eV). and Schreiber. G. – (3. J.09 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0. Lumin. Luminescence properties of Eu(II)-borates and Eu2+-activated Sr-borates. 21.34 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4. H. H.. J. Witzmann. Machida. 101 (1979).

– (3.22 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4. 2..42.. 49. H.. R.40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: + Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 100 Emission 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Absorption (%) 100 Emission . H.und kupferbleiaktivierter strontiumboratphosphore.40 eV) Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 References 1.88 eV). Witzmann.SrB4O7:Pb2+. and Semisch.03 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0.Mn2+ Optical Properties Emission color: Blue-green Emission peak: 2. Naturwissenschaften. Zur lumineszenz kupfer. Witzmann. G. Boratluminophore MIT UV-emission.. Naturwissenschaften. Cd2B6O11:Mn2+ Optical Properties Emission color: Yellow-green Emission peak: eV Excitation efficiency by UV: – (4.88 eV). 43. 4. – (3. 580 (1956). Müller. 181 (1962).. H. and Schreiber.

Radiationless transitions in Eu3+ center in LaAlO3. F. and Hummel.. CO.40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: + Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 50 2 3 References 1.. Powderize. Characteristic luminescence.. 616 (1957). Blasse.. F. Powderize. Fire in open alumina crucibles. G. E... 104. Fluorescence. Blasse. CO.References 1. 1 hour. J. 1200ºC. Phase equilibria and fluorescence in the system zinc oxide-boric oxide.E. Fire in open quartz boats. 1. air. 491 (1956). 1 hour. + (3. Dry.88 eV). and Subbarao. 4450 (1970). N2. The absorption and emission spectra of some important activators. J.. Soc.. Powderize. Electrochem.A. Soc.D. YAl3B4O12:Ce3+ Structure: Trigonal (huntite) Composition Ingredient Y 2O 3 CeO2 Al2O3 H3BO3 Mole % 90 (of Y) 10 300 (of Al) 410 By weight (g) 102 17.20 and 3.. Hummel. J.57 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4. Fire in open alumina crucibles. Optical Properties Emission color: Blue-violet + UV Emission peaks: 3.. 1100ºC. The system cadmium oxide-boric oxide. and Bril. 1.. Rev. 1 hour. and Poorter. 2.A.. 2.C. G. A. Powderize. Harrison. A. 2. 900ºC. 304 (1970). 4. 2.. Bril. 103. Wash in hot water several times. 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Absorption (%) 100 Emission . D. Philips Tech. Chem. 3.2 153 254 Preparation Mix by dry grinding or milling. Electrochem. Fire in open alumina crucibles. 53. 31. ~500ºC. J. Phys.A.

Fire in open alumina crucibles. Fire in open alumina crucibles.. H. air.7 (of Y) 0. G. air.3 (of Bi) 300 (of Al) 410 By weight (g) 113 0. 31. Cathodoluminescent properties of yttrium terbium aluminum borate Y1-xTb x Al3B4O12 phosphors. Rev. 3652 (1968). O. Soc. 1 hour. Philips Tech. A. air. 955 (1977). J. 179 (1976). Fire in open quartz boats. YAl3B4O12:Bi3+ Structure: Trigonal (huntite) Composition Ingredient Y 2O 3 Bi2O3 Al2O3 H3BO3 Mole % 99. 2. J...88 eV).20 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0. Characteristic luminescence. 2. T. and Bril. 1.G. Chem.. G. Ultraviolet-absorption bands of Bi3+ and Eu3+ in oxides. Phys. 900ºC. 4.33 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: + (4.. 12. 124. Powderize.. Optical Properties Emission color: UV Emission peak: 4. 3. 48. Wash in hot water several times.. G. – (3.. 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Absorption (%) 100 Emission . Lumin.. 4. 304 (1970). 5. Fluorescence of Eu3+-activated sodium lanthanide titanates. 52 (1972). A. 1200ºC. Blasse. The absorption and emission spectra of some important activators.40 eV) Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 50 2 3 References 1.3. Blasse. Electrochem. Blasse. air. 1. Takahashi. ~500ºC. Powderize. 1 hour. Fire in open alumina crucibles. 1100ºC. Dry. Efficiency and fluorescence quenching of stoichiometric rare-earth laser materials. 4. J. and Yamada.. Danielmeyer. J. Powderize. Solid State Chem.. 1 hour. 1 hour. and Bril. Powderize...700 153 254 Preparation Mix by dry grinding or milling.

Philips Tech. 1067 (1968).3. 61.... 4. Powderize.. and Bril. A. ~500ºC. M. G.. 115. Soc. G. Ultraviolet-absorption bands of Bi3+ and Eu3+ in oxides. 1100ºC. Fire in open alumina crucibles. Powderize. Lett. 1 hour. Soc. Optical Properties Emission color: Red Emission peaks: 2. Luminescence of bismuth in yttrium aluminum borate.01 and 2. 2. 1 hour. Chem. Ultraviolet-absorption bands of Bi3+ and Eu3+ in oxides. 124. and Blasse...6 153 248 Preparation Mix by dry grinding or milling. air.. G. – (3. Powderize. J. air... Characteristic luminescence.. Phys.. Absorption (%) 100 Emission . 4. Takahashi. Wash in hot water several times. 5. van Os. Dry.88 eV). Fire in open quartz boats. Solid State Chem. 304 (1970). YAl3B4O12:Eu3+ Structure: Trigonal (huntite) Composition Ingredient Y 2O 3 Eu2O3 Al2O3 H3BO3 Mole % 90 (of Y) 10 (of Eu) 300 (of Al) 410 By weight (g) 102 17. Blasse. Kellendonk. 1.40 eV) Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 References 1.035 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4. Electrochem. Photoluminescent efficiency of phosphors with electronic transitions in localized centers. 955 (1977). 4. 3.. Rev. air. 52 (1972). Blasse. G. Fire in open alumina crucibles. Solid State Chem. 239 (1979). Blasse. The absorption and emission spectra of some important activators. 1 hour. J. A. and Yamada.. 1. air. Powderize. 31.. 52 (1972). G. Blasse.. and Bril. T. 1 hour. Cathodoluminescent properties of yttrium terbium aluminum borate Y1-X TbXAl3B4O12 phosphors. 2.. 900ºC. 1200ºC. F. J. O. Electrochem. Fire in open alumina crucibles. J. 4.A. 3.

40 eV) YAl3B4O12:Ce3+. Powderize. Powderize. Fire in open alumina crucibles. 2. Fire in open alumina crucibles. Phys. 1200ºC.Mn2+ Structure: Trigonal (huntite) Emission color: green Emission peak: 2. Dry. YAl3B4O12:Th4+. ~500ºC.31 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0.4 17. and Bril.2 18.Tb3+ Structure: Trigonal (huntite) Composition Ingredient Y 2O 3 CeO2 Tb4O7 Al2O3 H3BO3 Mole % 80 (of Y) 10 10 (of Tb) 300 (of Al) 410 By weight (g) 90.77 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4. Wash in hot water several times.Ce3+. 551 (1967).40 eV) Reference 1. air. 1 hour.88 eV). Some observations on Cr3+ fluorescence in huntite structure. 1 hour. CO. Status Solidi.88 eV). N2. – (3. G. Optical Properties Emission color: Green Emission peak: 2.23 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: + (4. 4. Powderize. – (3. 1 hour. 1 hour. 3.YAl3B4O12:Eu3+. Powderize. CO.. 900ºC. 1. A. 1100ºC.. – (3. Blasse. Fire in open quartz boats.29 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4.88 eV).40 eV) . Fire in open alumina crucibles. 20.7 153 254 Preparation Mix by dry grinding or milling.Cr3+ Structure: Trigonal (huntite) Optical Properties Emission color: Deep red Emission peak: 1.

2 hours. Ce3+ to Sm3+. G. 1200ºC. Characteristic luminescence. 2579 (1967). Cathodoluminescent properties of yttrium terbium aluminum borate Y1 xTbxAl3B4O12 phosphors.40 eV) Absorption (%) 100 Emission . O. Electrochem. Bi3+. A. Phys. 900ºC.. Rev.020 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: + (4. Powderize. and Bril. Philips Tech. J. air. and Bril.. 1 hour. Dy3+. J.. Fire in open quartz boats. Soc. 1. 2. 955 (1977). 31.. Phys. Eu3+. Optical Properties Emission color: Red Emission peak: 2.005 and 2. The absorption and emission spectra of some important activators.88 eV). Chem. 47. Powderize. LaAl3B4O12:Eu3+ Composition Ingredient La2O3 Eu2O3 Al2O3 H3BO3 Mole % 90 (of La) 10 (of Eu) 300 (of Al) 410 By weight (g) 147 17. G. T.. ~500ºC. Fire in open quartz boats.Spectra 800 700 600 500 400 Wavelength (nm) 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 References 1. 3. Fire in open quartz boats..6 153 254 Preparation Mix by dry grinding or milling. and Yamada.. 304 (1970). J. 46. 124. and Study of energy transfer from Sb3+. Tb3+. 1920 (1967). air. A. air. 2. Blasse. Fluorescence of Eu3+-activated lanthanide oxyhalides LnOX.. 3.. Blasse.. Takahashi. Chem. – (3. 1.

and deVries.28 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4. Absorption (%) 100 Emission .10 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0. – (3. 977 (1968). 115.. J. Bril. Blasse.Spectra 800 700 600 500 400 Wavelength (nm) 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 BaB8O13:Eu2+ Optical Properties Emission color: Violet–UV Emission peak: 3.40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: – Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 100 Emission 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Reference 1... G. Fluorescence of Eu2+-activated barium octaborate.. Soc. J. A.88 eV). Electrochem.

S. ++ (3. 3 657 141 (1972).88 eV)..F.SrB8O13:Sm Optical Properties Emission color: Deep red Emission peak: 1. Pat.81 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: + (4. Chenot. ++ (3.74 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0.88 eV).40 eV) Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Reference 1. U.40 eV) Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Ca2B5O9Cl:Pb2+ Optical Properties Emission color: UV Emission peak: 4.31 eV Absorption (%) 100 Emission Absorption (%) 100 Emission . C.. Ca2B5O9Cl:Eu2+ Optical Properties Emission color: Blue Emission peak: 2.24 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4.

– (3.88 eV).24 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4.20 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4.40 eV) Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Sr2B5O9Cl:Eu2+ Optical Properties Emission color: Blue-violet Emission peak: 2. ++ (3.34 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4.74 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0.40 eV) Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Ca2B5O9Br:Eu2+ Optical Properties Emission color: Blue Emission peak: 2.88 eV).Emission width (FWHM): 0.88 eV).92 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0. ++ (3.40 eV) Absorption (%) 100 Emission Absorption (%) 100 Emission .

88 eV). 4 202 794 (1980).5:Pb2+ Composition Ingredient CaCO3 La2O3 PbO H3BO3 Mole % 198 200 (of La) 2 105 By weight (g) 198 326 4. – (3.6 65 Absorption (%) 100 Emission Absorption (%) 100 Emission .8O3.40 eV) Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 50 2 3 Reference 1.Spectra 800 700 600 500 400 Wavelength (nm) 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 CaYB0. 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Ca2La2BO6. Pat.S.. U.7:Eu3+ Optical Properties Emission color: Red Emission peak: 2. W. Lehmann..03 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4.

~500ºC. Fire in capped quartz tubes. Powderize.Preparation Mix by dry grinding or milling. 1 hour. air.48 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: + (4. Fire in capped quartz tubes. Powderize. 2. Optical Properties Emission color: Pale yellow-green Emission peak: 2. Fire in open quartz boats.88 eV). 1000ºC. N2. ++ (3.28 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0. 1 hour.40 eV) Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Remark The formula of this peculiar material is still uncertain but the mole ratio Ca-La-B in the formula is close to 2:2:1 YAl3B4O12:Ce3+.Mn2+ Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Absorption (%) 100 Emission Absorption (%) 100 Emission . 3. 1. N2. 1200ºC.

4.Mn2+ LiAlO2:Fe3+ Structure: NaCl Composition Ingredient Li2CO3 Al2O3 Fe(NO3)3· 9H2O LiF Mole % 101 (of Li) 100 (of Al) 0.Mn2+ LiAl5O8:Fe3+ LiAl5O8:Mn2+ Y4Al2O9:Eu3+ Y3Al5O12:Ce3+ KAl11O17:Tl+ KGa11O17:Mn2+ BaMgAl10O17:Ce3+ Y3Al5O12:Eu3+ BaMgAl10O17:Eu2+ BaMgAl10O17:Eu2+.5Al12O19:Ce3+.4 51 2.Mn2+ SrGa12O19:Mn2+ SrAl12O19:Ce3+.6 2 By weight (g) 37.Mn2+ SrAl12O19:Eu2+.4 0.520 .5Ba0.Mn2+ Ca0.8 Aluminates and Gallates The following host compounds and activators are included in this subsection: LiAlO2:Fe3+ LiAlO2:Mn2+ YAlO3:Ce3+ YAlO3:Eu3+ YAlO3:Sm3+ YAlO3:Tb3+ LaAlO3:Eu3+ LaAlO3:Sm3+ MgAl2O4:Mn2+ MgGa2O4:Mn2+ CaAl2O4:Mn2+ CaAl2O4:Eu2+ ZnAl2O4:Mn2+ ZnGa2O4:Mn2+ CaGa2O4:Mn2+ CaGa4O7:Mn2+ SrAl2O4:Eu2+ BaAl2O4:Eu2+ CaAl4O7:Pb2+.

3.S. Stir to uniformity. Fire in open quartz boats.T.. 46.Preparation Dissolve iron nitrate in a little water. Luminescence of iron-activated lithium meta-gallate. J. 4. Lumin. – (3.J.. and Mizuno. The cathodoluminescence of Mn2+ activated and Fe3+ activated magnesium aluminate spinel. Powderize when dry. add solution to the mixture of other ingredients.. J. and Sarver. 252 (1964). J.T.. Electronic states of Fe3+ in LiAl5O2 and LiAl5O8 phosphors.67 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0. Add a solution of about 3 g Al(NO3)3·9H2O in little water. 3 857 054 (1974). air. 3. Fig. W. Eng. W. Palumbo. 1250ºC. J. Soc. Wash in diluted acetic acid (~10%).40 eV) Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 References 1. Absorption (%) 100 Emission . Powderize when dry. go slowly up with temperature to 900ºC. F. FL. and then in water until neutral. Optical Properties Emission color: Very deep red + IR Emission peak: 1. Electrochem.A. 19 (1971). Powderize. A. Illum. Hummel.F. Kamiya.. 4. Infrared emitting fluorescent lamp and applications. Dry in air. Stork. 78. Soc... Pat. 3.. air. J.88 eV). Place crucibles into a cold furnace. 6..H. 234 (1974). Lehmann. Soc. 1 hour. Van Broekhoven. and manganese luminescence. Studies of compound formation on alkali-gammaaluminum oxide catalyst systems using chromium. Electrochem. 1250ºC. Fire in covered alumina crucibles. 7.. Chem. 111. D. Fire in covered alumina crucibles. 2 hours.. U. 1. Phys.20 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4. J. 2... iron. G. and Watchtel. CRC Press. 422 (1998). stir to uniformity.. 920 (1978).. 2496 (1974). Boca Raton. J. Powderize. p. S... Dry in air. and Pott. air. Rabatin. 2. and then take out. H. 125. J. Phosphor Handbook. 5.

Dry in air. P.H.J... 2. Fe3+.40 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0. G.6 254 2. and Pott. 1203 (1968).375 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0. W. 78. 1200 C.. Electrochem. J. and manganese luminescence..T. Phys. J. as given): Non-exponential decay. N2. 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 YAlO3:Ce3+ Structure: Orthorhombic Optical Properties Emission color: UV Emission peak: 3. Cathodoluminescence spectra and coordination of Mn2+.M. Soc. long and strong phosphorescence Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 50 2 3 References 1. Jaffe.5 eV Absorption (%) 100 Emission .LiAlO2:Mn2+ Structure: NaCl Composition Ingredient Li2CO3 Al2O3 MnCO3 Mole % 99 (of Li) 499 (of Al) 2 By weight (g) 36. Powderize.. 1. Fire in covered alumina crucibles. Optical Properties Emission color: Green Emission peak: 2. Fire in open quartz boats. CO. Stork. 1250 C. Powderize when dry. 1 hour. Chem.3 Preparation Mix by slurrying in methanol. iron. 2496 (1974). 1/10-time in the 10 msec range. 2. 115. and Cr3+ in BeTaLiAl5O8. Studies of compound formation on alkali-gammaaluminum oxide catalyst systems using chromium.15 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: no sensitizer known to obtain response to this UV Excitation efficiency by e-beam: ~6–8% Decay to 10% (or 1/e. 2 hours.

T. Optical Properties Emission color: Light red Emission peaks: 1. Takeda. Fire in covered alumina crucibles. air. 3205 (1973).. M. 127. 4 hours. Fast decay UV phosphor YAlO3-Ce.6 6. Powderize.2 Preparation Mix by dry grinding or milling. Optical-spectra of Ce3+ and Ce3+-sensitized fluorescence in YAlO3.J.6 51 10.88 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: + Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 50 2 3 References 1.. Weber. Electrochem.785 – 2. et al. 438 (1980). – (3.. Appl.. 1000ºC. J.Excitation efficiency by UV: + (4. 1. 1 hour.40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: + Absorption (%) 100 Emission . Soc. 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 YAlO3:Eu3+ Structure: Orthorhombic Composition Ingredient Y 2O 3 Al2O3 Eu2O3 H3BO3 Mole % 94 (of Y) 100 (of Al) 6 (of Eu) 10 By weight (g) 83. air.015 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4. 1300ºC. 2. J. Fire in covered alumina crucibles. Phys. 2. 44.88 eV).

88 eV).008–3.6 51 7. Optical Properties Emission color: Orange-yellow Emission peaks: 2. (3.40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: + Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Absorption (%) 100 Emission Absorption (%) 100 Emission .8 Preparation Mix by dry grinding or milling. 4 hours. Fire in covered alumina crucibles. Fire in covered alumina crucibles.Spectra 800 700 600 500 400 Wavelength (nm) 300 50 2 3 Remark Q yield (UV excitation) is about the same as that of YOE.06. strongest line at ~2. air.06 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: (4.197 eV. 2. air. 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 YAlO3:Sm3+ Structure: Orthorhombic Composition Ingredient Y 2O 3 Sm2O3 Al2O3 CaF2 Mole % 98 (of Y) 2 (of Sm) 100 (of Al) 10 By weight (g) 110 3. Powderize. 2. 1 hour. 1300ºC. 1300ºC. 1.

8 Preparation Mix by dry grinding or milling.6 53. Powderize. Fire in covered alumina crucibles. Fire in covered alumina crucibles. 2. 1 hour. – (3.283 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: + (4.40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: + (better than Y2O3:Tb3+) Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 LaAlO3:Eu3+ Structure: Orthorhombic Composition Ingredient La2O3 Al2O3 Eu2O3 H3BO3 Mole % 94 (of La) 105 (of Al) 6 (of Eu) 20 By weight (g) 130. Optical Properties Emission color: Pale green Emission peaks: Typical Tb3+ lines.7 51 7. 4 hours.4 Absorption (%) 100 Emission . 1300ºC.6 10. CO.88 eV).6 12. 1.YAlO3:Tb3+ Structure: Orthorhombic Composition Ingredient Y 2O 3 Tb4O7 Al2O3 CaF2 Mole % 90 (of Y) 10 (of Tb) 100 (of Al) 10 By weight (g) 102 18. strongest line at ~2. CO. 1300ºC.

88 eV). Rev. Optical Properties Emission color: Yellow Emission peaks: 1. Fire in covered alumina crucibles. Philips Tech.40 eV) 400 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Remark Q yield (UV excitation) is about ~75% of YOE. LaAlO3:Sm3+ Structure: Trigonal Composition Ingredient La2O3 Al2O3 Sm2O3 H3BO3 Mole % 100 (of La) 105 (of Al) 0.4 Preparation Mix by dry grinding or milling. Fire in covered alumina crucibles. 1. Blasse. Fire in covered alumina crucibles. 1.88 eV). A. Optical Properties Emission color: Orange-red Emission peaks: 2. 1 hour.10 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4.40 eV) Absorption (%) 100 Emission . 4 hours. Reference 1.20 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: + (4. – (3. 1300ºC. The absorption and emission spectra of some important activators. Powderize..2 (of Sm) 20 By weight (g) 139 53. 1 hour. G.6 0. 1300ºC. air.01–2. 4 hours.Preparation Mix by dry grinding or milling.. 31. Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) (3. 2. air. air. Characteristic luminescence. 304 (1970). Fire in covered alumina crucibles. and Bril.. Powderize. 1000ºC. 1000ºC. 2. air. 1.925–2.300 12.

CO. Fire in covered alumina crucibles. Optical Properties Emission color: Green Emission peak: 2.Spectra 800 700 600 500 400 Wavelength (nm) 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 MgAl2O4:Mn2+ Structure: Tetragonal (spinel) Composition Ingredient MgO MnCO3 Al2O3 MgF2 Mole % 98 1 210 (of Al) 1 By weight (g) 39 1.620 Preparation Mix by dry ball-milling.36 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0. 2 hours.16 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: no sensitizer known to obtain response to this UV Excitation efficiency by e-beam: +/~7–8% Decay: Slightly non-exponential decay.15 107 0. 20 msec to 1/10 Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 100 Emission 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Absorption (%) 100 Emission . 1250ºC.

terVrugt. and Brown... Radielovic. J. D. 3.40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: + Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 50 2 3 References 1. 245 (1967). F. J. J. W. J. and deBres. 120. 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Absorption (%) 100 Emission . Greenemitting phosphors.W. 2.. J. 5. 3. D. 4. 1.G. 1184 (1970). Rep. Philips Res. Luminescence of Mn2+activated spinels in MgO-Li2O-ZnO-Ga2O3-Al2O3 system.. Amsterdam (1948). 111. Elsevier.A. J.G.Remark Reducing the Mn concentration from 1 to 0.2% reduces the efficiency of cathodoluminescence to ~4% and increases the 1/10 decay time to ~40 msec. J. Electrochem. and Verlijsdonk.. W.. F. J. J. Electrochem. 304 (1967). 25... Kröger..15 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: + (4. 114.W. Soc. Philips Res.. Choice and evaluation of phosphors for application to lamps with improved color rendition.46 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0.T. Lehmann. 78-5F4-ZSIBM-R1 (1978). The cathodoluminescence of Mn2+ activated and Fe3+ activated magnesium aluminate spinel.. Soc. J.J. 108 (1970)..L.. MgGa2O4:Mn2+ Structure: Tetragonal (spinel) Optical Properties Emission color: Blue-green Emission peak: 2. Res. Palumbo. W..... Rep.L. – (3. Soc. W. Wanmaker. and Wanmaker. Electronic states of Mn2+-activated phosphors. Electrochem. J. J. 22.. Rep. terVrugt.A. Brown. 252 (1964). Luminescence of manganeseactivated aluminiu-substituted magnesium gallate... Opstelten. 2.. and Sarver. Soc. Hummel. Some Aspects of Luminescence of Solids. 117. Electrochem. Manganese-activated luminescence in MgO-Al2O3-Ga2O3 system.M.L.88 eV).. 1400 (1973). References 1. Wanmaker..F.

27 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: no sensitizer known to obtain response to this UV Excitation efficiency by e-beam: ~ a few percent Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 100 Emission 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 CaAl2O4:Eu2+ Structure: Monoclinic Composition Ingredient CaCO3 Al2O3 Eu2O3 NH4Cl Mole % 98 210 (of Al) 2 (of Eu) 10 By weight (g) 98 107 3. 1300ºC.3 3.4 . 1 hour. 1200ºC.9 Preparation Mix by slurrying in water. Optical Properties Emission color: Yellow-green Emission peak: 2.CaAl2O4:Mn2+ Structure: Monoclinic Composition Ingredient CaCO3 Al2O3 MnCO3 CaF2 Mole % 93 200 (of Al) 2 5 By weight (g) 93 102 2.28 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0. CO. 1 hour. Fire in open quartz boats. 1. Powderize when dry. Fire in covered alumina crucibles. Powderize. CO. Dry in air. 2. Wash in a solution of 20 g NH4Cl in 1 liter of water and then several times in plain water.5 5.

2.88 eV).80 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0. 1 hour. Fire in open quartz boats. 1200ºC. + (3.13 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: – (4.34 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: + (4.40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: + Absorption (%) 100 Emission . 1200ºC. Dry in air. 2. CO. Powderize.41 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0. 1 hour. Powderize when dry. 1. Wash in a solution of ~20 g NH4Cl in 1 liter of water and then several times in plain water.Preparation Mix by ball-milling in water.88 eV). – (3. CO. Optical Properties Emission color: Deep blue Emission peak: Single Eu2+ band. Fire in capped quartz tubes.40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: 1% Decay: ~1 µsec to 1/10 Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 ZnAl2O4:Mn2+ Structure: Tetragonal (spinel) Optical Properties Emission color: Blue-green Emission peak: 2.

Soc. 369 (1946). 116. Soc.G. and Verlijsdonk. 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 .. John Wiley & Sons. 25. Leverenz. 2.T. 2. An Introduction to Luminescence of Solids. Rep.. Growth and decay processes.Spectra 800 700 600 500 400 Wavelength (nm) 300 100 Emission 50 2 3 References 1. J.. and terVrugt.. 58.W. Wanmaker.. Philips Res. Electrochem... Phys. J.. 108 (1970).L.. New York (1949).40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: + Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 100 Emission 50 2 3 References 1.. Strange. Luminescence of Mn2+activated spinels in MgO-Li2O-ZnO-Ga2O3-Al2O3 system.. S. terVrugt. H.W.W. H.13 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: + (4. J. Luminescence of gallates.W. John Wiley & Sons. Cathodo-luminescence. W. – (3. W. P. Leverenz. 3. 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 ZnGa2O4:Mn2+ Structure: Cubic (gahnite) Optical Properties Emission color: Blue-green Emission peak: 2. New York (1949).L.88 eV). and Henderson. 1. London.47 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0. J. J.W. Wanmaker. An Introduction to Luminescence of Solids. 871 (1969).

CaGa2O4:Mn2+
Structure: Monoclinic Optical Properties Emission color: Yellow-green Emission peak: 2.19 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0.21 eV Spectra
800 700 600 500
Wavelength (nm)

400

300

50

2

3

Reference 1. Brown, J.J., Can. Pat., 821 468 (1970).

4 Photon Energy (eV)

5

0

CaGa4O7:Mn2+
Optical Properties Emission color: Yellow Emission peak: 2.10 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0.21 eV Reference 1. Brown, J.J., Can. Pat., 821 468 (1970).

SrAl2O4:Eu2+
Structure: Monoclinic Composition Ingredient SrCO3 Al2O3 Eu2O3 NH4Cl Mole % 98 210 (of Al) 2 (of Eu) 10 By weight (g) 145 107 3.5 5.4

Absorption (%)

100

Emission

Preparation Mix by ball-milling in water. Dry in air. Powderize when dry. 1. Fire in capped quartz tubes, CO, 1200ºC, 1 hour. Powderize. 2. Fire in open quartz boats, CO, 1200ºC, 1 hour. Wash in a solution of ~20 g NH4Cl in 1 liter of water and then several times in plain water. Dry. Optical Properties Emission color: Green Emission peak: 2.37 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0.34 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4.88 eV), ++ (3.40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: +/~1.5% Decay: ~2 µsec to 1/10 Spectra
800 700 600 500
Wavelength (nm)

400

300

50

2

3

References 1. Blasse, G., and Bril, A., Fluorescence of Eu2+ activated alkaline-earth aluminates, Philips Res. Rep., 23, 201 (1968). 2. Palilla, F.C., Levine, A.K., and Tomkus, M.R., Fluorescent properties of alkaline earth aluminates activated by divalent europium, J. Electrochem. Soc., 115, 642 (1968). 3. Blasse, G., Wanmaker, W.L., and terVrugt, J.W., Some new classes of efficient Eu2+ activated phosphors, J. Electrochem. Soc., 115, 673 (1968). 4. Abbruscato, V., Optical and electrical properties of SrAl2O4-Eu2+, J. Electrochem. Soc., 118, 930 (1971).

4 Photon Energy (eV)

5

0

BaAl2O4:Eu2+
Structure: Hexagonal Composition Ingredient BaCO3 Al2O3 Eu2O3 NH4Cl Mole % 98 210 (of Al) 2 (of Eu) 10 By weight (g) 193 107 3.5 5.4

Absorption (%)

100

Emission

Preparation Mix by ball-milling in water. Dry in air. Powderize when dry. 1. Fire in capped quartz tubes, CO, 1200ºC, 1 hour. Powderize. 2. Fire in open quartz boats, CO, 1200ºC, 1 hour. Wash in a solution of ~20 g NH4Cl + 20 ccm NH4OH in 1 liter of water and then several times in diluted ammonium hydroxide. Dry. Optical Properties Emission color: Blue-green Emission peak: 2.47 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0.35 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4.88 eV), ++ (3.40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: + Spectra
800 700 600 500
Wavelength (nm)

400

300

50

2

3

References 1. Palilla, F.C., Levine, A.K., and Tomkus, M.R., Fluorescent properties of alkaline earth aluminates activated by divalent europium, J. Electrochem. Soc., 115, 642 (1968). 2. Blasse, G., Wanmaker, W.L., and terVrugt, J.W., Some new classes of efficient Eu2+ activated phosphors, J. Electrochem. Soc., 115, 673 (1968). 3. Blasse, G., and Bril, A., Phosphors based on lanthanide oxysulphates (Ln2SO6), Philips Res. Rep., 23, 461 (1968).

4 Photon Energy (eV)

5

0

CaAl4O7:Pb2+,Mn2+
Structure: Monoclinic Optical Properties Emission color: Yellow Emission peak: 2.20 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0.24 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: + (4.88 eV), – (3.40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: +

Absorption (%)

100

Emission

Spectra
800 700 600 500

400

Wavelength (nm)

300

50

2

3

4 Photon Energy (eV)

5

0

LiAl5O8:Fe3+
Structure: Cubic (spinel) Optical Properties Emission color: Very deep red Emission peak: 1.82 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4.88 eV), – (3.40 eV) Spectra
800 700 600 500
Wavelength (nm)

400

300

100

Emission

50

2

3

References 1. Jaffe, P.M., Cathodoluminescence spectra and coordination of Mn2+ Fe3+ and Cr3+ in BeTaLiAl5O8, J. Electrochem. Soc., 115, 1203 (1968). 2. Melamed, N.T., Viccaro, P.J., Barros, F.D.S. et al., Optical properties of Fe3+ in ordered and disordered LiAl5O8, Phys. Rev. B5, 3377 (1972). 3. Neto, J.M., Abritta, T., Barros, F.D. et al., A comparative-study of the optical-properties of Fe3+ in ordered LiGa5O8 and LiAl5O8, J. Lumin., 22, 109 (1981).

4 Photon Energy (eV)

5

0

Absorption (%)

100

Emission

LiAl5O8:Mn2+
Structure: Cubic (spinel) Composition Ingredient Li2CO3 Al2O3 MnCO3 Mole % 99 (of Li) 499 (of Al) 2 By weight (g) 36.6 254 2.3

Preparation Mix by slurrying in methanol. Dry in air. Powderize when dry. 1. Fire in open alumina crucibles, N2, 1200ºC, 1 hour. Powderize. 2. Fire in open quartz boats, CO, 1250ºC, 2 hours. Optical Properties Emission color: Green Emission peak: 2.38 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0.15eV Excitation efficiency by UV: – (4.88 eV), – (3.40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: +/~6–8% Decay: Non-exponential decay, 1/10 time in the 10 msec range; long and strong phosphorescence Spectra
800 700 600 500
Wavelength (nm)

400

300

100

Emission

50

2

3

Reference 1. Jaffe, P.M., Cathodoluminescence spectra and coordination of Mn2+ Fe3+ and Cr3+ in BeTaLiAl5O8, J. Electrochem. Soc., 115, 1203 (1968).

4 Photon Energy (eV)

5

0

Y4Al2O9:Eu3+
Structure: Monoclinic Composition Ingredient Y 2O 3 Al2O3 Eu2O3 H3BO3 Mole % 95 (of Y) 50 (of Al) 5 (of Eu) 10 By weight (g) 84.5 25.5 8.8 6.2

Preparation Mix by dry grinding or milling. 1. Fire in covered alumina crucibles, air, 1000ºC, 1 hour. Powderize. 2. Fire in covered alumina crucibles, air, 1300ºC, 4 hours. Optical Properties Emission color: Light red Emission peaks: Mainly three lines about 1.975, 2.03 eV, and 2.10 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4.88 eV), – (3.40 eV) Spectra
800 700 600 500
Wavelength (nm)

400

300

50

2

3

4 Photon Energy (eV)

5

0

Y3Al5O12:Ce3+
Structure: Cubic (garnet) Composition Ingredient Y 2O 3 Al2O3 CeO2 NH4Cl Mole % 35.5 (of Y) 62.5 (of Al) 2 5 By weight (g) 40 32 3.44 2.7

Absorption (%)

100

Emission

Preparation Mix by slurrying in water. 1. Fire in capped quartz tubes, CO, 1300ºC, 1 hour. Powderize. Add another 2.7 g NH4Cl; mix by dry grinding. 2. Fire in capped quartz tubes, 1300ºC, 2 hours. Powderize. 3. Fire in open quartz boats, CO, 1300ºC, 1 hour. Optical Properties Emission color: Yellow-green Emission peak: 2.37 eV Emission width (FWHM): ~0.45 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: + (4.88 eV), + (3.40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: +/~2% Spectra
800 700 600 500
Wavelength (nm)

400

300

50

2

3

References 1. Blasse, G., and Bril, A., Characteristic luminescence, 1. The absorption and emission spectra of some important activators, Philips Tech. Rev., 31, 304 (1970); and A new phosphor for flying-spot cathode-ray tubes for color television—yellow-emitting Y3Al5O12-Ce3+, Appl. Phys. Lett., 11, 53 (1967). 2. Blasse, G., Bril, A., and Poorter, J.A.D., Radiationless transitions in Eu3+ center in LaAlO3, J. Chem. Phys., 53, 4450 (1970). 3. Blasse, G., and Bril, A., Gibbons, E.F. et al., Ce3+ activated Y3Al5O12 and some of its solid-solutions, J. Electrochem. Soc., 120, 278 (1973); and Gibbons, E.F. et al., Some factors influencing luminous decay characteristics of Y3Al5O12 - Ce3+ , J. Electrochem. Soc., 120, 835 (1973). 4. Tien, T.Y. et al., Ce3+ activated Y3Al5O12 and some of its solid-solutions, J. Electrochem. Soc., 102, 278 (1973). 5. Sang, E., The signal generation mechanism in bistable storage-scan converters, SID Digest, 104 (1973).

4 Photon Energy (eV)

5

0

KAl11O17:Tl+
Structure: Aluminate Optical Properties Emission color: Violet + UV Emission peak: 3.14 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0.49 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4.88 eV)

Absorption (%)

100

Emission

Spectra
800 700 600 500

400

Wavelength (nm)

300

100

Emission

50

2

3

References (see below) Structure: Aluminate

4 Photon Energy (eV)

5

0

KGa11O17:Mn2+

Optical Properties Emission color: Blue-green Emission peak: 2.49 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0.14 eV Spectra
800 700 600 500
Wavelength (nm)

400

300

100

Emission

50

2

3

References 1. Verstegen, J.M., Survey of a group of phosphors, based on hexagonal aluminate and gallate host lattices, J. Electrochem. Soc., 121, 1623 (1974). 2. Verstegen, J.M.P.J., Somerdijk, J.L., and Bril, A., Luminescence of LiBaF3:Eu2+, J. Lumin., 10, 411 (1975).

4 Photon Energy (eV)

5

0

BaMgAl10O17:Ce3+
Structure: Aluminate Optical Properties Emission color: UV Emission peak: 3.40 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0.65 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4.88 eV), – (3.40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: +

Spectra
800 700 600 500

400

Wavelength (nm)

300

50

2

3

Reference 1. Stevels, A.L.N., Ce3+ luminescence in hexagonal aluminates containing large divalent or trivalent cations, J. Electrochem. Soc., 125, 588 (1978).

4 Photon Energy (eV)

5

0

Y3Al5O12:Eu3+
Structure: Cubic (garnet) Optical Properties Emission color: Orange-yellow Emission peak: 2.10 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: + (4.88 eV), – (3.40 eV) Spectra
800 700 600 500
Wavelength (nm)

400

300

50

2

3

4 Photon Energy (eV)

5

0

Absorption (%)

100

Emission

Absorption (%)

100

Emission

88 eV). Powderize.34 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4.. Dry in air. 1. J. ++ (3.J. 1 hour. 1250ºC. Fire in open quartz boats.N. Absorption (%) 100 Emission .6 17. Stevels.L. forming gas.. Fire in covered alumina crucibles. Philips Res. (1986). 1250ºC. 21. Vapor-deposited CSi-Na layers. Bull..G. Optical Properties Emission color: Blue Emission peak: 2..BaMgAl10O17:Eu2+ Structure: Aluminate Composition Ingredient BaCO3 MgO Al2O3 Eu2O3 BaF2 Mole % 80 100 1050 (of Al) 10 (of Eu) 10 By weight (g) 158 40 536 17. Rep. Morphologic and crystallographic properties.77 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0.5 Preparation Mix by ball-milling in methanol. A. and Verlijsdonk. 340 (1974).D. 1305.40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: + Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 References 1. 2. N2.. Mater. 29. Nov. A. B.M. Smets. Powderize when dry. Res. 1 hour. 2. The luminescence properties of Eu2+-doped and Mn2+-doped barium hexaaluminates. and Schrama. 1.

Dry in air.M. It may be useful for color correction in arc lamps. A. Fire in open quartz boats. Powderize when dry. Fire in covered alumina crucibles. 691 (1974). 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Absorption (%) 100 Emission .D. 29. A. 1 hour. Morphologic and crystallographic properties.BaMgAl10O17:Eu2+. forming gas. Soc. Fire in open quartz boats.6 17.D.13 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4..Mn2+ Structure: Aluminate Composition Ingredient BaCO3 MgO Al2O3 Eu2O3 MnCO3 BaF2 Mole % 80 70 1050 (of Al) 10 24 10 By weight (g) 158 28.40 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0.88 eV).L.. Optical Properties Emission color: Bluish-green Emission peak: 2. and Schrama. ½ hour.N. 1. 1250ºC.5 Preparation Mix by ball-milling in methanol. Stevels.. 340 (1974). ++ (3.2 536 17. 123. Vapor-deposited CSi-Na layers. A.N.. and Schrama. 500–600ºC. 1. 1250ºC. References 1. A. 3. Powderize. Stevels.M.L.. 2. Electrochem.40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: + Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 50 2 3 Remark This phosphor retains its high efficiency to several 100 C. Philips Res. J. CO. Rep.. 1 hour.6 27. 2.

40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: ~2–2. Powderize when dry. A. Optical Properties Emission color: Bluish-green Emission peak: 2. 1250ºC. Dry in air.8 69 617 51.M.5% Decay: Near-exponential decay.125 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4. 2. This phosphor retains its high efficiency up to several 100ºC. J. This phosphor is sensitive to lamp-lehring conditions but very stable once it is in the lamp. CO. 207 (1976). 3. 1. Lumin.J.6 27. Stevels.. Eu2+-Mn2+ energy-transfer in hexagonal aluminates. and Verstegen.Mn2+ Composition Ingredient CaCO3 CaF2 BaCO3 Al2O3 CeO2 MnCO3 Mole % 25 10 35 1210 (of Al) 30 24 By weight (g) 25 7.P.41 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0.. – (3. forming gas. J. 1250ºC. ~½ hour. 1 hour. Powderize. N2. 14. 1 hour.N. 2. Fire in open quartz boats. ~15 msec to 1/10 Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 50 2 3 Remarks 1. 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Absorption (%) 100 Emission .6 Preparation Mix by ball-milling in methanol.5Ba0..5Al12O19:Ce3+.Ca0. Reference 1. Fire in open quartz boats.L. Fire in covered alumina crucibles. ~500–600ºC.88 eV).

J.M.47 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0. Verstegen. and Bril.M. Survey of a group of phosphors. based on hexagonal aluminate and gallate host lattices.L. 121. J...12 eV Excitation efficiency by e-beam: + Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 100 Emission 50 2 3 References 1..J.. J.. J. J. Luminescence of LiBaF3:Eu2+. Soc.SrAl12O19:Eu2+.. A.P. 2. 411 (1975). Electrochem. Lumin. 1623 (1974).Mn2+ Structure: Aluminate Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 SrGa12O19:Mn2+ Structure: Aluminate Optical Properties Emission color: Blue-green Emission peak: 2. 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Absorption (%) 100 Emission . Verstegen. 10. Somerdijk.

– (3.L.14 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4.40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: + Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Reference 1. Lumin. Eu2+-Mn2+ energy-transfer in hexagonal aluminates..P. Absorption (%) 100 Emission . 14. A.N.M..SrAl12O19:Ce3+. 207 (1976).39 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0.J. and Verstegen. J. J.88 eV). Stevels.Mn2+ Structure: Aluminate Optical Properties Emission color: Green Emission peak: 2.

40 eV) Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Absorption (%) 100 Emission . 1000ºC.4.9 Molybdates and Tungstates The following host compounds and activators are included in this subsection: CaMoO4 CaMoO4:Eu3+ SrMoO4:U MgWO4 CaWO4 Ca3WO6:U Sr3WO6:U Ba3WO6:U La2W3O12:Eu3+ CaMoO4 Structure: Tetragonal Composition Ingredient CaCO3 MoO3 Mole % 100 98 By weight (g) 100 141 Preparation Mix by dry grinding or milling. 1100ºC.82 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: + (4. Powderize. Optical Properties Emission color: Pale yellow-green Emission peak: ~2. 1 hour.34 eV Emission width (FWHM): ~0. 1.88 eV). 2. air. 1 hour. air. – (3. Fire in open quartz boats. Fire in open quartz boats.

740 Absorption (%) 100 Emission .2 151 Preparation Mix by dry grinding or milling.02 and ~2.8 4. 1. 1 hour. O2. 1000ºC. Fire in open quartz boats. Fire in open quartz boats. Optical Properties Emission color: Red Emission peaks: ~2. Dry.03 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4. 1 hour.5–1% Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 SrMoO4:U Structure: Tetragonal Composition Ingredient SrCO3 MoO3 UO2(NO3)2· 6H2O Li2CO3 Mole % 100 105 0. air.CaMoO4:Eu3+ Structure: Tetragonal Composition Ingredient CaCO3 Eu2O3 NaHCO3 MoO3 Mole % 90 5 (of Eu) 5 105 By weight (g) 90 8. Powderize.2 2 (of Li) By weight (g) 148 151 1 0. 2. Powderize.88 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: ~0. 1100ºC. Wash in a strong solution of NaOH (or KOH) in water and then several times in plain water until neutral.

air.88 eV). Fire in open quartz boats. 2 hours. O2. Dry in air. Powderize when dry. Optical Properties Emission color: Blue-greenish white Emission peak: 2. 1 hour.75 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4.875 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: – (4. add this solution to the other ingredients.Preparation Dissolve the U-nitrate in a little methanol.5% Decay: Near-exponential decay. – (3. O2. Dry in air.40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 MgWO4 Structure: Monoclinic Composition Ingredient MgO WO3 Mole % 120 100 By weight (g) 48 232 Preparation Mix by slurrying in water. 800ºC. Powderize. Powderize when dry. Fire in open quartz boats. 2. 1. Powderize. Fire in open quartz boats. + (3. Wash in a strong solution of NaOH (or KOH) in water and then several times in plain water until neutral.40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: ~2. Optical Properties Emission color: Deep red Emission peak: ~1.88 eV). 1000ºC. Dry. 16 hours (overnight).50 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0. ~20 µsec to 1/10 Absorption (%) 100 Emission . 1200ºC. Add methanol to make a uniform slurry.

– (3.77 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4. Fire in open quartz boats.87 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0. O2.88 eV).40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: ~2–2. 1200ºC. ~10 µsec to 1/10 Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 50 2 3 Remark This material is completely intersoluble with CaMoO4 in any proportion. Dry in air. Optical Properties Emission color: Pale blue Emission peak: 2.5% Decay: Near-exponential decay. Powderize when dry.Spectra 800 700 600 500 400 Wavelength (nm) 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 CaWO4 Structure: Tetragonal (scheelite) Composition Ingredient CaCO3 WO3 Mole % 105 100 By weight (g) 105 232 Preparation Mix by slurrying in water. ~16 hours (overnight). 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Absorption (%) 100 Emission Absorption (%) 100 Emission .

2 2 (of Li) By weight (g) 300 232 1 0. 2. air. Gobrecht.. 1200ºC.. Optical Properties Emission color: Green Emission peak: 2. O2. Some Aspects of Luminescence of Solids. 473 (1976). B.. Soc. H.88 eV). Photoconductivity in calcium tungstate.. 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Absorption (%) 100 Emission .. Kröger. R. Luminescent sites in CaWO4 and CaWO4:Pb crystals. 2. Lumin. 139 (1955). and Scharmann. W..740 Preparation Dissolve the U-nitrate in a little methanol. 3.23 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: – (4. Dry in air. Z. J.41 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0. 68. 4.A. Ca3WO6:U Composition Ingredient CaCO3 WO3 UO2(NO3)2·6H2O Li2CO3 Mole % 300 100 0. Add methanol to make a uniform slurry. Fire in open quartz boats.. Powderize by grinding or milling. J..R. add this solution to the other ingredients. London. Phys. and Weiss. ++ (3. 900ºC. Cook. Amsterdam (1948). Grasser. P. Lumineszenzuntersuchungen an uran-aktivierten erdalkaliwolframaten und erdalkalimolybdaten. Fire in open quartz boats. 2 hours. A. Phys. F. 1 hour.40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: – Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 50 2 3 Remark U is non-luminescent in CaWO4. 12. 148 (1955). Elsevier. 1.References 1. Powderize when dry. 140.

2 2 (of Li) By weight (g) 443 232 1 0.740 Preparation Dissolve the U-nitrate in a little methanol. Garlick.F.40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: Poor Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Remark U is non-luminescent in SrWO4. 1. G. Dry in air. Optical Properties Emission color: Yellow-green Emission peak: 2. Gobrecht. Z. O2.88 eV).. Phys. 140.6H2O Li2CO3 Mole % 300 100 0. Powderize by grinding or milling.. 3. Am. Powderize when dry.References 1.. Amsterdam (1948). 2 hours. Add methanol to make a uniform slurry. Lumineszenzuntersuchungen an uran-aktivierten erdalkaliwolframaten und erdalkalimolybdaten. Lumineszenzuntersuchungen an uran-aktivierten erdalkaliwolframaten und erdalkalimolybdaten. Fire in open quartz boats. The luminescence of photo-conducting phosphors..A. 39. W. Reference 1. Opt.J. Fire in open quartz boats. Z. 935 (1949). 1000ºC. Sr3WO6:U Composition Ingredient SrCO3 WO3 UO2(NO3)2. Kröger.. A. 2. 139 (1955).. and Gibson..F.. F.19 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: + (4. Phys. 1 hour.25 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0. add this solution to the other ingredients. and Weiss. 900ºC. W. H. air. 140. 2.. + (3. H. 139 (1955). and Weiss. J. Elsevier. Absorption (%) 100 Emission .. Soc. Some Aspects of Luminescence of Solids. Gobrecht.

. + (3. G.Ba3WO6:U Composition Ingredient BaCO3 WO3 UO2(NO3)2·6H2O Li2CO3 Mole % 300 100 0.. 2. References 1.88 eV). 139 (1955). Lumin. Powderize when dry.H. 2. W. 687 (1976). 1 hour. Fire in open quartz boats. add this solution to the other ingredients. H. Fire in open quartz boats. Phys. Add methanol to make a uniform slurry.740 Preparation Dissolve the U-nitrate in a little methanol. Absorption (%) 100 Emission .20 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0. Optical Properties Emission color: Green-yellow Emission peak: 2.. Z. and Blasse.. Powderize by grinding or milling. 2 hours. 12–13.40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: Poor Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Remark U is non-luminescent in BaWO4. and Weiss.2 2 (of Li) By weight (g) 592 232 1 0. 140. 900ºC. 1000ºC. Dry in air. Gobrecht. Lumineszenzuntersuchungen an uran-aktivierten erdalkaliwolframaten und erdalkalimolybdaten.17 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: + (4. R.. 1. O2. J.. Luminescence in a new garnet phase with hexavalent metal-ions. Alberda. air.

air. 1100ºC.6 696 Preparation Mix by dry grinding or milling. Optical Properties Emission color: Red Emission peak: Strongest line at 2.88 eV).La2W3O12:Eu3+ Composition Ingredient La2O3 Eu2O3 WO3 Mole % 190 (of La) 10 (of Eu) 300 By weight (g) 310 17. 1 hour. Fire in open quartz boats. 1. Fire in open quartz boats. 1000ºC. 2. – (3.018 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: + (4.40 eV) Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Absorption (%) 100 Emission . air. 1 hour. Powderize.

08 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: – (4.0 eV Excitation efficiency by e-beam: ~5% .03 eV and 2. 1 hour. – (3. Optical Properties Emission color: Red Emission peaks: 2. Fire in open alumina crucibles.10 Miscellaneous Oxides The following host compounds and activators are included in this subsection: LiInO2:Eu3+ LiInO2:Sm3+ LiLaO2:Eu3+ NaYO2:Eu3+ CaTiO3:Pr3+ CaGeO3:Mn2+ Mg2TiO4:Mn4+ Zn2GeO4:Mn2+ YVO4:Eu3+ LaVO4:Eu3+ YAsO4:Eu3+ LaAsO4:Eu3+ Ca5(VO4)3Cl Mg8Ge2O11F2:Mn4+ CaY2ZrO6:Eu3+ Mg3SiO3F4:Ti4+ LiInO2:Eu3+ Structure: tetragonal Composition Ingredient In2O3 Eu2O3 Li2CO3 Mole % 98 (of In) 2 (of Eu) 101 (of Li) By weight (g) 136 3. weakly excited at 4. air. Powderize.4. Fire in open alumina crucibles. 2. 950ºC.4 Preparation Mix by slurrying in methanol.40 eV).5 37.88 eV). 700ºC. 1. 1 hour. air.

Eu3+ fluorescence in rocksalt lattice.15 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: + (4. 1 hour. Powderize when dry. 700ºC.. 950ºC.. 1. Powderize.Spectra 800 700 600 500 400 Wavelength (nm) 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Reference 1. LiInO2:Sm3+ Structure: tetragonal Composition Ingredient In2O3 Sm2O3 Li2CO3 Mole % 99.85–2.520 37. 5. Chem. Excitation efficiency by e-beam: ~5% (3. J. 3327 (1966). On Eu3+ fluorescence in mixed metal oxides. Fire in open alumina crucibles. A. air. air. Dry in air.7 (of In) 0.40 eV) Absorption (%) 100 Emission . and Bril. Fire in open alumina crucibles. Phys. 1 hour. Optical Properties Emission color: Orange Emission peaks: 1. Blasse.88 eV). G.3 (of Sm) 101 (of Li) By weight (g) 138 0.4 Preparation Mix by slurrying in methanol. 2. 45..

Spectra 800 700 600 500 400 Wavelength (nm) 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 LiLaO2:Eu3+ Structure: tetragonal Composition Ingredient La2O3 Eu2O3 Li2CO3 Mole % 95 (of La) 5 (of Eu) 101 (of Li) By weight (g) 155 8.8 37. Fire in open alumina crucibles. 2. Store in a well-closed container. Dry in air. Fire in open alumina crucibles. Optical Properties Emission color: Red Emission peaks: 1.775–2. 1000ºC. Powderize. – (3. ~600ºC. air. 1.40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: ~1% Spectra 800 700 600 500 400 Wavelength (nm) 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Absorption (%) 100 Emission Absorption (%) 100 Emission . air.88 eV).4 Preparation Mix by slurrying in methanol. Powderize. 1 hour. Powderize when dry.02 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: + (4.

Store in a well-closed container. Chem. A.025 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: + (4. On Eu3+ fluorescence in mixed metal oxides. 45. 1 hour.. NaYO2:Eu3+ Structure: Monoclinic Composition Ingredient Y 2O 3 Eu2O3 NaHCO3 Mole % 95 (of Y) 5 (of Eu) 101 By weight (g) 108 8. Powderize. ~600ºC. Optical Properties Emission color: Red Emission peak: 2. 900ºC.88 eV).8 85 Preparation Mix by slurrying in methanol. Powderize. 2. the reaction between Li2CO3 and La2O3 apparently does not go to completion. Fire in open alumina crucibles. Fire in open alumina crucibles.. ½ hour.40 eV) Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 100 Emission 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 . air. air. This material is difficult to prepare.. – (3. J. 5. and Bril. Dry in air. Powderize when dry. G. Blasse. 3327 (1966). Phys. 2. Eu3+ fluorescence in rocksalt lattice. Reference 1. 1. This phosphor is slightly hygroscopic.Remarks 1.

Powderize when dry. On Eu3+ fluorescence in mixed metal oxides. 5. Chem. 1300ºC. Blasse.Remarks 1.88 eV). Fire in open quartz boats. 1300ºC. Eu3+ fluorescence in rocksalt lattice. air. 3327 (1966). G. 1 hour. Powderize by grinding or milling. A.64 80 Preparation Mix by slurrying in methanol. CaTiO3:Pr3+ Structure: Cubic (perovskite) Composition Ingredient CaCO3 Pr3O4 TiO2 Mole % 100 1 100 By weight (g) 100 1. Optical Properties Emission color: Red Emission peak: 2. and Bril. 45. (b) most likely an appreciable amount of emission in the IR. Phys. Fire in open quartz boats.40 eV) Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Remark The efficiency of this phosphor is not likely improvable because of: (a) much “dead” absorption of the Ti4+-ion in the UV. This phosphor is slightly hygroscopic.025 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0.. the reaction between Na2O and Y2O3 apparently does not go to completion. 2. Absorption (%) 100 Emission .05 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: + (4. This material is difficult to prepare. 2. air.. 1 hour. Reference 1. 1.. J. Dry in air. + (3.

Dry in air. J. Powderize when dry. H. CO.88 eV). 1150ºC.88 eV was observed without addition of a sensitizer to the phosphor.40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: + Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Remark The excitation efficiency of QE ~50–60% under 4. Koelmans.3 110 2 Preparation Mix by slurrying in water or methanol. Fire in capped quartz tubes. Optical Properties Emission color: Orange Emission peak: 2. – (3.. The fluorescence of binary and ternary germanates of group-II elements.CaGeO3:Mn2+ Structure: Orthorhombic (wollastonite) Composition Ingredient CaCO3 MnCO3 GeO2 NH4Br Mole % 98 2 105 2 By weight (g) 98 2. and Verhagen..C.. Electrochem. Absorption (%) 100 Emission . 106. Soc.01 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0. 2 hours. 677 (1959). C. Attempts to improve this efficiency by addition of various other impurities failed.30 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4. Reference 1.M.

1 5. air. Kröger. ~16 hours (overnight). Fire in open quartz boats. Optical Properties Emission color: Deep red Emission peak: 1. Fire in open quartz boats. Zn2GeO4:Mn2+ Structure: Tetragonal (willemite) Composition Ingredient ZnO MgF2 MnCO3 GeO2 Mole % 90 5 5 55 By weight (g) 73.2 3.88 eV). Elsevier. Powderize by grinding or milling.8 57. 2. 1. F.. Amsterdam (1948). 1300ºC. Dry in air.885 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: – (4.40 eV) Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Reference 1. 570ºC. Powderize when dry.5 Absorption (%) 100 Emission . O2.15 Preparation Mix by slurrying in water or methanol. 1 hour.Mg2TiO4:Mn4+ Structure: Cubic (spinel) Composition Ingredient MgO TiO2 MnCO3 Mole % 300 99 1 By weight (g) 121 79 1. Some Aspects of Luminescence of Solids.A. + (3.

. and Larach.J. Dry in air. 96. 117.31 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0. Phys. J. Green-emitting phosphors..T. 3. 1. Electrochem.. and Claffy. Palumbo. J. Powderize when dry. 2. 1 hour. Soc. 1000ºC. J.J.. Luminescence and trapping in phosphors containing gallium. 21. J. E. Powderize by grinding or milling.W.Preparation Mix by slurrying in water. 2. 1100ºC. 5 (1953). S. References 1. 1. 2. R. 57 (1949)... 1814 (1971). CO. R. J. YVO4:Eu3+ Structure: Tetragonal (xenotime) Composition Ingredient Y 2O 3 Eu2O3 NH4VO3 Mole % 95 (of Y) 5 (of Eu) 110 By weight (g) 107 8. Manganese-activated zinc beryllium germanate phosphors.H.. Electronic states of Mn2+-activated phosphors. 1 hour.88 eV). Optical Properties Emission color: Green Emission peak: 2. Ginther. This material forms solid solutions with Zn2SiO4:Mn2+ in all proportions. and Brown. Chem.8 129 Absorption (%) 100 Emission . water steam. + (3...H. The emission of this phosphor is thermally quenched a little above room temperature. Soc. Schulman. Fire in open quartz boats.40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: + Comparable to that of Zn2SiO4:Mn2+ Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Remarks 1. D. Fire in capped quartz tubes.. Electrochem.20 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4. Bube.

+ (3.00 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4. This phosphor has been used for color correction of Hg arc lamps.K. Soc.. Electrochem. Fire in open quartz boats. for 3.. Rare earth activated phosphors based on yttriuum orthovanadate and related compounds.R. J. 1200ºC. M. Ropp. 940 (1968). and efficiency of luminescence. et al.Nd. Powderize.. J.Eu) for color television electron beam excitation. 3.88 eV). 115. Absorption (%) 100 Emission . Optical Properties Emission color: Red Emission peak: 2.. J. Role of F-orbital electron wave function mixing in concentration quenching of Eu3+. Energy transfer and fluorescence processes in Bi3+ and Eu3+ activated YVO4.40 eV).C. van Uitert. 2. J. O’Connor. 114.. and Palilla. Appl. Soc.Z. 1 hour. Phys. 1. Mikus. Electrochem..K. 776 (1965). J. Dry... 2.40 eV excitation can be somewhat improved by addition of Bi. 1200ºC. 1000ºC. Lett. Chem.. Optical absorption.. Phys. Unusual crystal-field energy levels and efficient laser properties of YVO4 . 5.. 9. Toma. 1 hour. A. efficiency of 3. 118 (1964).. 702 (1962). New highly efficient red-emitting cathodoluminescent phosphor (YVO4 . F.C. 4. Levine. 1 hour.C. Powderize.40 eV excitation improving considerably with increasing temperature Excitation efficiency by e-beam: +/7% Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Remarks 1. Palilla. Lett. and Rinkevics. R. A. air.. 953 (1967). Fire in open quartz boats.. S.. Levine.E. 6. 3. Fire in open quartz boats. air. 3. 2. Wash in a strong solution of NaOH (or KOH) in water and then several times in plain water. 112.G. J. F. Electrochem. References 1. F. L. 36. 407 (1966). Spectra of some rare earth vanadates.F. and Mathers. Appl. Part of the V can be replaced by P. Phys..Preparation Mix by dry grinding or milling. air. 5. Soc.

112. (1965).K.. 1 hour. Powderize. F. and Bril. Soc.. 4. Electrochem.H.. Dry. Fire in open quartz boats. Wash in a strong solution of NaOH (or KOH) in water and then several times in plain water.Palilla. 1. 1 hour.. YVO4-Eu a new highly efficient phosphor for color television. J. and Abramson.. A.115 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4.. 1100ºC. air... 70. 8. YVO4-Eu.. and Levine. A. J. Electrochem. 2.C. F. Characteristic luminescence. LaVO4:Eu3+ Structure: Monoclinic Composition Ingredient La2O3 Eu2O3 NH4VO3 Mole % 95 (of La) 5 (of Eu) 110 By weight (g) 155 8. 1467 (1966). 7. A. Datta.K. 900ºC. Fire in open quartz boats. Technol. air. 31. Electrochem. Levine. + (3. 9. E.40 eV) Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Absorption (%) 100 Emission . G.. air. Bismuth in yttrium vanadate and yttrium europium vanadate phosphors. Fire in open quartz boats..773–2. 1. L. Brixner. and Palilla.a highly efficient red-emitting phosphor for high pressure mercury lamps. Philips Tech. 3. 5. Optics.. 1057 (1967). Appl. 1 hour. Powderize. On luminescent properties of rare earth vanadates. Optical Properties Emission color: Red Emission peaks: 1. 114. Soc. 1100ºC.8 129 Preparation Mix by dry grinding or milling.K.. 16 (1966). The absorption and emission spectra of some important activators.88 eV). 11. 10. Blasse. 304 (1970).C. Rev. R.

1200ºC. Wanmaker. air. Fire in open quartz boats. Philips Res. M..09 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: – (4.8 75 Preparation Mix by slurrying in 30% H2O2.76–2.40 eV UV upon replacement of some As by V.88 eV).40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: + Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 100 Emission 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Remarks 1. Dry in air..References 1. 270 (1966). 2.88 and by 3. Optical Properties Emission color: Red Emission peaks: 1. Gently heat up while stirring until reaction (boiling) indicates formations of H3AsO4. 1. Fire in open quartz boats. Powderize. . 1 hour. Soc. YAsO4:Eu3+ Structure: Tetragonal (xenotime) Composition Ingredient Y 2O 3 Eu2O3 As2O3 Mole % 95 (of Y) 5 (of Eu) 100 (of As) By weight (g) 107 8. Luminescent properties of Eu-activated phosphors of type A3BVO4. Powderize when dry. This phosphor becomes excitable by 4. 114. Structure and luminescence of phosphate-vanadates of yttrium gadolinium lutetium and lanthanum. 367 (1967). 2. – (3. Aia. 2.A. W...L. J. 21. The material forms solid solutions with YVO4:Eu3+ in all proportions. et al. air. ~500ºC. Rep. Electrochem.

2.40 eV UV upon replacement of a few percent of the As by V. air. 1 hour.. Luminescent properties of Eu-activated phosphors of type A3BVO4. et al. The material forms solid solutions with LaVO4 in all proportions. Powderize. 1. Dry in air. 21. ~500ºC. 2.88 eV). 1000ºC. Wanmaker. Philips Res.785–2. Fire in open quartz boats. 270 (1966). This material becomes excitable by 3.149 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: + (4.L.. Powderize when dry.. air. Absorption (%) 100 Emission . Optical Properties Emission color: Red Emission peaks: 1.Reference 1.40 eV) Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Remarks 1. – (3. LaAsO4:Eu3+ Composition Ingredient La2O3 Eu2O3 As2O3 Mole % 95 (of La) 5 (of Eu) 100 (of As) By weight (g) 155 8.8 75 Preparation Mix by slurrying in 30% H2O2. Gently heat up while stirring until reaction (boiling) indicates formations of H3AsO4. Rep. Fire in open quartz boats. W.

16 hours (overnight). J. 2. air. P. Electrochem. The luminescence of this phosphor is due to the vanadate. 1331 (1966). Blue luminescence in calcium chlorovanadates. Soc. 1000ºC.. Absorption (%) 100 Emission . 2. Other impurities were tested as prospective activators but are either dead (Mn. 113..40 eV) Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Remarks 1. and Lublin.85 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0. – (3. M.. 1 hour.Ca5(VO4)3Cl Structure: Apatite Composition Ingredient CaO NH4VO3 NH4Cl Mole % 500 200 200 By weight (g) 280 234 107 Preparation Mix by dry grinding or milling (some NH3 develops).88 eV).A. Fire in capped quartz tubes. Fire in capped quartz tubes. This phosphor requires a deficiency of V and an excess of Cl in the preparation. Reference 1. 1. air. ~500ºC. Optical Properties Emission color: Bluish Emission peak: 2.73 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: + (4. Powderize. Ho) or very poorly luminescent (Eu3+). Aia. Tb.

J. Temperature dependence of the emission of an improved manganeseactivated magnesium germanate phosphor. L. Fire in capped quartz tubes. Soc. 1..88 eV). 1200ºC. Phys.Mg8Ge2O11F2:Mn4+ Composition Ingredient MgO MgF2 MgCO3 GeO2 Mole % 700 100 8 192 By weight (g) 282 62 9. 2. Activator center in magnesium fluorogermanate phosphors. The above formula is only that of the raw mix. References 1.2 201 Preparation Mix by dry ball-milling. air. Thorington. 33. Powderize by dry ball-milling. 783 (1960). 579 (1950). Absorption (%) 100 Emission . 2.88 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4.. + (3. The exact formula of this material is still uncertain.40 eV) Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Remarks 1. Am. 2 hours. 40. 1200ºC.. Kemeny. Fire in open quartz boats. and Haake. ~16 hours (overnight). G. Optical Properties Emission color: Deep red Emission peak: 1.. This phosphor has been used for color correction of Hg arc lamps. 2.. Opt.H. C. J. air. Chem. some parts (mainly Ge fluoride) sublimes out during firing.

88 eV). – (3.40 eV) Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Mg3SiO3F4:Ti4+ Optical Properties Emission color: whitish-yellow Emission peak: 2.CaY2ZrO6:Eu3+ Structure: Perovskite Optical Properties Emission color: Red Emission peak: 2.40 eV) Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Absorption (%) 100 Emission Absorption (%) 100 Emission .15 eV Excitation efficiency by UV:++ (4. – (3.88 eV).01 eV Excitation efficiency by UV:++ (4.

Tb3+ CaF2:U CaCl2:Eu2+ in SiO2 CaCl2:Eu2+. stir to uniformity.Mn2+ in SiO2 CaBr2:Eu2+ in SiO2 CaI2:Eu2+ in SiO2 CaI2:Eu2+.Mn2+ CaF2:Ce3+.11 Halides and Oxyhalides The following host compounds and activators are included in this subsection: MgF2:Mn2+ CaF2:Ce3+ CaF2:Eu2+ CaF2:Mn2+ CaF2:Ce3+. 1 hour.Th4+ KMgF3:Eu2+ KMgF3:Mn2+ LiAlF4:Mn2+ K2SiF6:Mn4+ YOBr:Eu3+ YOCl:Ce3+ YOCl:Eu3+ YOF:Eu3+ YOF:Tb3+ LaOF:Eu3+ LaOCl:Bi3+ LaOCl:Eu3+ MgF2:Mn2+ Structure: Tetragonal (sellaite) Composition Ingredient MgF2 MnCO3 Mole % 99 1 By weight (g) 62 1. Fire in capped quartz tubes.I)2:Eu2+ in SiO2 ZnF2:Mn2+ BaxSr1–xF2:Eu2+ YF3:Mn2+ YF3:Mn2+. .4.Mn2+ in SiO2 SrF2:Eu2+ SrCl2:Eu2+ in SiO2 Sr(Cl. 900ºC.15 Preparation Mix by slurrying in methanol. N2.Br. Dry. Powderize. Add ~2 g of NH4F (dissolved in a little water) and ~2–3 ccm of HF acid.

. The manganese emission in AbF3 compounds.85 4. Smith.10 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0. H.A. powderize... N2. Phys. 16. 441 (1953). New manganese-activated fluoride phosphors. 1 hour.. Klasens. Add ~2–3 g of iodine. Pt.L. Dry. Rep. Powderize. 15. CaF2:Ce3+ Structure: Cubic (fluorite) Composition Ingredient CaF2 CeF3 AlF3 Mole % 90 5 5 By weight (g) 70 9.88 eV).E. 289 (1947). J. stir to uniformity. F. A. 189 (1954). P. . Hanle. Fire in capped quartz tubes. Add ~1–2 ccm HF acid.25 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: (4. and Eyring. P. about 200 msec to 1/10 Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 100 Emission 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Remark No sensitizer is known to permit excitation by these UV wavelengths. Philips Res.40 eV). (3. 3. Zalm. Chem. H. 8. mix by dry grinding. 1000ºC... 1 hour. J. Z. Make a slurry of the CaF2 + CeF3 + AlF3 in methanol. A. Zur thermolumineszenz von MgF2-Mn. 2. air. Electrochem.. Bräunlich... The mechanism of the luminescence of solids..Optical Properties Emission color: Orange-yellow Emission peak: 2. 101.. Williams.. and Scharmann. W. 1000ºC.O. References 1. Soc. and Huysman. A. Naturforsch. F. Excitation efficiency by e-beam: +/~25% Decay: Exponential.2 Preparation Start with plain CaF2 and pre-fire it in open quartz boats. 869 (1961). 4.

J.Optical Properties Emission color: UV Emission peak: 3. E. Physica. Schlesinger. 800ºC. Excitation efficiency by e-beam: + Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) (3.. Leach. 270 (1967). Ginther. J. Rev. N2.. 3. Soc. 3. Luminescence of K4MnCl6 and KCl (Pb + Mn). Investigations of 4f–5d transitions of Ce+3 in CaF2. Soc.68 eV.. J. 361 (1968). 98. Fire in capped quartz tubes. 74 (1951). 2. powderize.2 (of Eu) By weight (g) 70 0.. stir to uniformity.40 eV) 400 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 References 1. Ultraviolet absorption spectra of Ce3+ in alkaline-earth fluorides. 628 (1941). Add ~2 ccm HF acid. and Whippey. Phys. Electrochem. 4.. Powderize. Electrochem..88 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4. Add ~2–3 g of iodine. 1 hour.. 8. Loh. Kröger.J. P. Rev.W.. Dry... Energy transfer and sensitization in single crystal phosphors. 105.88 eV). 171. and Bakker.. CaF2:Eu2+ Structure: Cubic (fluorite) Composition Ingredient CaF2 Eu2O3 Mole % 100 0. 154. R. 5. Absorption (%) 100 Emission .A.350 Preparation Mix by slurrying in methanol (in a plastic container). mix by dry grinding. F. Phys. R. 27 (1958). M.

L. Amster. 68 (1969). J. CaF2:Mn2+ Structure: Cubic (fluorite) Composition Ingredient CaF2 MnCO3 Mole % 99 1 By weight (g) 77 1. Soc. mix by dry grinding. N2.15 Preparation Mix by slurrying in methanol (in a plastic container). Absorption (%) 100 Emission .22 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4. Add ~2 ccm HF acid. Amster.. References 1.. Photosensitization of terbium fluorescence by europium in CaF2. and Wiggins. stir to uniformity. Electrochem. Soc. 2.S..40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: + Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Remark This material can be sensitized for better UV excitation with 4. Spectroscopic identification of europium-oxygen complexes in calcium fluoride.Optical Properties Emission color: Violet Emission peak: 2. R..88 eV by addition of Ce (see CaF2:Ce3+). Electrochem. 116. 791 (1970). Fire in capped quartz tubes. C.88 eV). 800ºC. J. ++ (3. powderize.L. Add ~2–3 g of iodine.. Dry. 1 hour. 117.93 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0. Powderize. R.

Klasens. Schmid. 109. H. Electrochem. J. A. and Sayer...O.. G.88 eV with addition of Ce (see CaF2:Ce3+). 365 (1967). This material can be sensitized for better UV excitation by 3. 8. 678 (1962). F. J. 2. 4. Ginther. . 104. 2.40 eV with addition of Eu (see CaF2:Eu2+). and Huysman.50 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0. 4. R. Soc. W. 340 (1963). Philips Res. 189 (1954). Zalm.Optical Properties Emission color: Blue-green Emission peak: 2.. The thermoluminescence of CaF2-Mn. Garlick. The emission shifts to lower energy (= longer wavelength) with increasing Mn concentration.L. References 1. 3.40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: +/1.D.J. J.W.. 110. Electrochem. 45 msec to 1/10 Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 100 Emission 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Remarks 1. R. Decay of cathodoluminescence and nonradiative processes in manganese activated phosphors... 441 (1953). Electrochem.88 eV).A. M. J. Soc. 5. (3. 3.F. 101. Smith. and Mooney. The manganese emission in AbF3 compounds..5% Decay: Near-exponential decay... Electrochem.. The material can be sensitized for better UV excitation by 4. New manganese-activated fluoride phosphors. Mn concentrations below 1% give somewhat longer decay times. P.. R.29 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: (4. and Kirk.J.. Soc. up to ~60 msec to 1/10.. Soc.F. Rep.

88 eV). 1000ºC. Kröger. and Bakker. Luminescence of K4MnCl6 and KCl (Pb + Mn).35 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4. Ginther. 628 (1941). R. J.50 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0. 74 (1951). Add ~2–3 g of iodine. Fire in capped quartz tubes. Electrochem.6 4. Add ~2 ccm HF acid.. stir to uniformity.2 Preparation Start with plain CaF2 and pre-fire it in open quartz boats. N2. mix by dry grinding.Tb3+ Structure: Cubic (fluorite) Composition Ingredient CaF2 CeF3 TbF3 AlF3 Mole % 80 5 10 5 By weight (g) 62 9.A. Soc. powderize. 1000ºC.40 eV) 400 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 References 1. Dry. Excitation efficiency by e-beam: + Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) (3.. 1 hour. air. CaF2:Ce3+. Absorption (%) 100 Emission . J.Mn2+ Structure: Cubic (fluorite) Optical Properties Emission color: Blue-green Emission peak: 2.. Powderize..J. 1 hour. 98.CaF2:Ce3+. 8. F. Physica. 2. Make a slurry of all the above ingredients in methanol.85 21.

+ (3. 117..6H2O LiF Mole % 100 0. Reference 1.345 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0.260 Preparation Dissolve the uranyl nitrate in a little methanol. 791 (1970). 1000ºC. J. Excitation efficiency by e-beam: + Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) (3.28 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4. Amster. powderize.L.88 eV).88 eV). Make a slurry of in methanol.1 1 By weight (g) 78 0. CaF2:U Structure: Cubic (fluorite) Composition Ingredient CaF2 UO2(NH3)2. air. Soc. Optical Properties Emission color: Green Emission peak: 2.11 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: + (4. 1 hour. R. add solution to the CaF2 + LiF mix. Fire in open alumina crucibles. Dry.Optical Properties Emission color: Pale green Emission peaks: 2. Photosensitization of terbium fluorescence by europium in CaF2. Powderize.40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: Very poor Absorption (%) 100 Emission .40 eV) 400 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Remark UV excitation is almost exclusively determined by the Ce3+ absorption (see CaF2:Ce3+). Electrochem.26–2. stir to uniformity.500 0.

CO. Add the above amount of NH4Cl once again.4 60 Preparation Mix by slurrying in methanol. 1 hour. Nicholas... 151 (1967). Gorlich...88 eV). Karras. Phys. plus a little water. Uber die optischen eigenschaften der erdalkalihalogenide vom flussspat-typ(II). Dry in air.. J. 1..195 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4. Luminescence of hexavalent uranium in CaF2 and SrF2 powders. Dry. Rev.3 1. and Lehmann. Gorlich.. 1 hour. H. 1. and Lehmann. Powderize. 1. 1000ºC. ++ (3.. R. Fire in capped quartz tubes. Karras. Uber die optischen eigenschaften der erdalkalihalogenide vom flussspat-typ(I). Powderize when dry.5 100 By weight (g) 4. N2.V..97 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0. Powderize. P.. R. Fire in capped quartz tubes.6 1 (of Eu) 17. Optical Properties Emission color: Blue-violet Emission peak: 2. H. 551 (1961). 3. CaCl2:Eu2+ in SiO2 Structure: Orthorhombic Composition Ingredient CaO Eu2O3 NH4Cl SiO2 Mole % 7.76 9. 2. mix by dry grinding. P. 155. Phys. 2. 387 (1961).40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: Absorption (%) 100 Emission . Phys. Status Solidi. 1000ºC.Spectra 800 700 600 500 400 Wavelength (nm) 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 References 1. Status Solidi. Wash in water several times.

mix by dry grinding. Wash in water several times.09 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0. 1 hour. 748 (1975). Powderize.5 20 1 (of Eu) 1 100 By weight (g) 4. Dry in air.. 122. N2. 1.76 1. Optical Properties Emission color: Yellow Emission peak: 2. Lehmann. CaCl2:Eu2+.Mn2+ in SiO2 Structure: Orthorhombic Composition Ingredient CaO NH4Cl Eu2O3 MnCO3 SiO2 Mole % 7. Electrochem. 1000ºC..30 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4. Add the above amount of NH4Cl once again. Soc. 900ºC. Powderize.15 60 Preparation Mix by slurrying in methanol.7 1. Powderize when dry. 2. Dry. J. Fire in capped quartz tubes. ++ (3. W.Spectra 800 700 600 500 400 Wavelength (nm) 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Reference 1. 1 hour. Heterogeneous halide-silica phosphors. plus a little water.40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: Absorption (%) 100 Emission .88 eV). Fire in capped quartz tubes. CO.2 10.

Optical Properties Emission color: Blue Emission peak: ~2.3 2. Lehmann. Mn2+ and CaBr2:Eu2+. 1 hour. Electrochem.88 eV). CO. N2. mix by dry grinding.Spectra 800 700 600 500 400 Wavelength (nm) 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Remarks 1. 1 hour. Fire in capped quartz tubes. 1. The Cl in this recipe can be replaced by Br. Dry in air. Powderize when dry.1 17. plus a little water. Powderize.40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: Absorption (%) 100 Emission . Reference 1.. Powderize. Mn2+ are identical. Add the above amount of NH4Br once again. 2. Dry. ++ (3. Wash in water several times. Soc. J. W. Heterogeneous halide-silica phosphors. Fire in capped quartz tubes. The emissions of CaCl2:Eu2+.2 (of Eu) 17. 122.2 60 Preparation Mix by slurrying in methanol. CaBr2:Eu2+ in SiO2 Structure: Orthorhombic Composition Ingredient CaO Eu2O3 NH4Br SiO2 Mole % 7.5 100 By weight (g) 4. 748 (1975).6 1. 1000ºC.865 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0. 2. 900ºC.18 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4..

Wash in water several times. 1 hour. 2. 900ºC. Electrochem. W. N2. plus a little water. Powderize.21 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4. mix by dry grinding. Powderize when dry. 122.67 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0. Optical Properties Emission color: Light blue Emission peak: 2. Soc. Lehmann. Fire in capped quartz tubes. CaI2:Eu2+ in SiO2 Composition Ingredient CaO CaF2 Eu2O3 NH4I SiO2 Mole % 6 3 2 (of Eu) 20 100 By weight (g) 3. 748 (1975).88 eV). Dry in air.. ++ (3. Dry.Spectra 800 700 600 500 400 Wavelength (nm) 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Reference 1. 1000ºC.4 2. Add the above amount of NH4I once again. Fire in capped quartz tubes. Heterogeneous halide-silica phosphors. CO. 1.40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: Absorption (%) 100 Emission . 1 hour.5 29 60 Preparation Mix by slurrying in methanol. J..34 3. Powderize.

1 hour.40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: – Absorption (%) 100 Emission . Heterogeneous halide-silica phosphors. Electrochem.78 1.Spectra 800 700 600 500 400 Wavelength (nm) 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Remark This phosphor is sensitive to even very small traces of Mn which causes a red emission band (see CaI2:Eu2+. Powderize.Mn2+ in SiO2 Composition Ingredient CaO CaF2 Eu2O3 MnCO3 NH4I SiO2 Mole % 7 1 0. 122. Lehmann.9 0. slightly pinkish hue Emission peak: 1. 2. Fire in capped quartz tubes.95 eV.70 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0.29 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4. 1000ºC. Powderize when dry.65 (of Eu) 0. mix by dry grinding. Powderize. 1 hour. CaI2:Eu2+. J. CO.14 0. Dry in air. 1. Add the above amount of NH4I once again. N2.. Wash in water several times. additionally a weak Eu2+-emission band at 2. ++ (3. W. Reference 1. 748 (1975). Soc.88 eV). 900ºC. Optical Properties Emission color: Light red. Dry..1 15 100 By weight (g) 3. plus a little water.Mn2+).115 21 60 Preparation Mix by slurrying in methanol. Fire in capped quartz tubes.

40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: Absorption (%) 100 Emission .12 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4. ++ (3. Can.06 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0. Pat.95 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0.Spectra 800 700 600 500 400 Wavelength (nm) 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Reference 1.40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: + Reference 1.88 eV).30 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4. Heterogeneous halide-silica phosphors. SrF2:Eu2+ Structure: Cubic (fluorite) Optical Properties Emission color: Violet Emission peak: 2. 896 453 (1972). ++ (3. 122..F. W. SrCl2:Eu2+ in SiO2 Optical Properties Emission color: Violet Emission peak: 3. Electrochem. 748 (1975). J. Soc.. C. Chenot. Lehmann..88 eV)...

015 eV.5 100 By weight (g) 8.175 eV.5 (of Eu) 17. CO..88 eV).. Optical Properties Emission color: Violet Emission peaks: Peak position depending on the used halide. Lehmann. 1000ºC. Fire in capped quartz tubes.6 9.Spectra 800 700 600 500 400 Wavelength (nm) 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Reference 1. 748 (1975). Sr(Cl. 900ºC. for SrCl2 is 0. 1 hour.12 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4.16 eV.3 2. for SrBr2 is 0. Soc.4 60 Preparation Mix by slurrying in methanol. Dry.865 eV. mix by dry grinding. 122.Br. plus a little water. N2. Powderize. Heterogeneous halide-silica phosphors. and for SrI2 is 0. 2. Add the above amount of NH4I once again. W.I)2:Eu2+ in SiO2 Structure: Cubic Composition Ingredient SrO Eu2O3 NH4Cl SiO2 Mole % 8 1.06 eV.40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: Absorption (%) 100 Emission . Powderize. 1. Powderize when dry. ++ (3. for SrCl2 is at ~3. for SrBr2 at ~3. 1 hour. and SrI2 at ~2. Electrochem. J. Wash in water several times. Dry in air. Emission width (FWHM): Width also depending on used halide. Fire in capped quartz tubes.

122. Soc. and Huysman. Heterogeneous halide-silica phosphors. Klasens. .. 2... P. F. 748 (1975). Reference 1.12 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0. ZnF2:Mn2+ Structure: Tetragonal Optical Properties Emission color: Orange-yellow Emission peak: 2.40 eV) 400 Wavelength (nm) 300 100 Emission 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 References 1.88 eV). W.O.. 441 (1953).. H. Excitation efficiency by e-beam: + Spectra 800 700 600 500 (3. Leverenz. An Introduction to Luminescence of Solids. J. H.24 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: (4.W. Zalm... Lehmann. New York (1949).A. Rep. Electrochem. 8. The manganese emission in ABF3 compounds.Spectra 800 700 600 500 400 Wavelength (nm) 300 Emission SrI2 SrBr2 SrCl2 100 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Remark The Cl in this recipe can be replaced by Br or I. John Wiley & Sons. Philips Res.

...17... Johnson.6F2:Eu Ba0. and Williams.D.J. 1007 (1948).R. 5. 38. J.. Thermoluminescence of manganese-activated zinc fluoride phosphors. C. and Rosenbaum. Phys. Opt. A. J. P. Johnson. 101. 47 no. BaxSr1–xF2:Eu2+ Structure: Cubic (fluorite) Optical Properties Emission color: varies with composition from yellow to blue Emission peak: varies with composition from 2..S. Energy levels and rate processes in the thallium activated potassium chloride phosphor. Pat. Electrochem. 4.8F2:Eu 2+ Ba0. Chem. J..2Sr0. 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Absorption (%) 100 . Opt..8Sr0.3. Rev. 709 (1949).7F2:Eu 2+ 2+ 2+ 100 Emission 50 Ba0.. Phys. Soc. F. and Williams. 11031–11038 (1993). 1007 (1948). Am.S.F. Mou. 7. F.04 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4. G. Smith.3Sr0.J. 6. F.E. New manganese-activated fluoride phosphors. 38. 39. Chenot.E. Soc..88 eV). 124 (1952).F..9F2:Eu 2+ Ba0. Optical properties of zinc fluoride phosphors.2F2:Eu 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) Wavelength (nm) 5 0 800 700 600 500 2+ 400 300 Excitation BaF2:Eu 50 2 3 References 1. D. J.1Sr0. ++ (3.. J. 189 (1954). Opt. and Studer F... and McClure. J. 20. Am. Am. The phosphorescence decay of halophosphates and other doubly activated phosphors. J. Photoionization and trapping of electrons in the system BaF2:Eu:Sm. 896 453 (1972)..04 to 3. Can. W.4Sr0.L. Fonda.40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: + Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 SrF2:Eu 2+ Ba0. 2. Soc. Studer. Soc.. B..

Reut.P.88 eV). (USSR) 13.G.60 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0.38 and 2. Spectrosc. 518 (1978) [Opt. YF3:Mn2+ Structure: Orthorhombic Optical Properties Emission color: Greenish Emission peaks: 2.G. 45. Study on characteristics of wideband luminescence of Eu and Yb ions in crystals with fluorite structure. Excitation efficiency by e-beam: + Spectra 800 700 600 500 (3. 235 (1962) [Opt. Spektr. 40. E. P. Nature of luminescence of bivalent Eu and Yb ions in fluorite-type crystals. Spektr. A. 5.29 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: (4. Opt. Spektr. Spectra of divalent rare earth ions in crystals of alkali-earth fluorides. Opt.. Spectrosc. 2. (USSR) 40.. 55 (1976)]. Spectrosc. Europium and Ytterbium.Th4+ Structure: Orthorhombic Optical Properties Emission color: Light blue Emission peak: 2. E. 13. Excitation efficiency by e-beam: + (3.40 eV) . 290 (1978)]. 4..60 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: (4.. 99 (1976) [Opt. Reut.. (USSR) 45. and Feofilov.3..A.. Kaplyansky. 129 (1962)]. Opt.88 eV).40 eV) 400 Wavelength (nm) 300 100 Emission 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 YF3:Mn2+.

12688–12695 (2000). Two-photon excitation spectroscopy of 4f7 4f7 transitions of Eu2+ ions doped in a KMgF3 crystal.L. and Bril. J. Moon. 293 (1994)... 11. 6I emission and vibronic transitions of Eu2+ in KMgF3 . H. J.42 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: + (4. KMgF3:Mn2+ Structure: Cubic (perovskite) Optical Properties Emission color: Orange Emission peak: 2.J. 363 (1976). Sommerdijk.K.. Seo.88 eV).40 eV) References 1. and Tsuboi. A. 19. and Blasse. T. Excitation efficiency by e-beam: (3. 59. G. 3..18 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: – (4. Phys. J.. Rev. Meijerink. B.08 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0...Spectra 800 700 600 500 400 Wavelength (nm) 300 100 Emission 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 KMgF3:Eu2+ Structure: Cubic (perovskite) Optical Properties Emission color: UV Emission peak: 3..40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: + . Lumin.88 eV).. no. A. B.. 62. Lumin. 2. – (3. Divalent europium luminescence in perovskite-like alkaline-earth alkaline fluorides. Ellens. A.

LiAlF4:Mn2+ Optical Properties Emission color: Red Emission peak: 1.97 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4.99 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0..88 eV). Cathodoluminescent J. Electrochem.40 eV) . ++ (3..J.40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: + Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 100 Emission 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 K2SiF6:Mn4+ Structure: Cubic Optical Properties Emission color: Red Emission peak: 1. 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 characteristics of Mn-activated KMgF3 . Soc. 18 (1962).88 eV). R.26 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: – (4. Kurtz. – (3.Spectra 800 700 600 500 400 Wavelength (nm) 300 100 Emission 50 2 3 Reference 1. 109.

to let the conversion of Y2O3 to YOBr take place). Efficient Mn(IV) emission in fluorine coordination. 2. A. – (3.G. ~500ºC. Paulusz. 1. Fire in capped quartz tubes. 1100ºC.88 eV).4 8.. YOBr:Eu3+ Structure: Rhombohedral Composition Ingredient Y 2O 3 Eu2O3 NH4Br Mole % 95 (of Y) 5 (of Eu) 110 By weight (g) 107. N2. Powderize.. Wash in water several times.996 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: – (4. Electrochem. 120. Powderize.8 108 Preparation Make a suspension of all ingredients in water. 1 hour. Powderize. 942 (1973). main line at 1. Boil down to dry (slowly. Optical Properties Emission color: Red Emission peaks: 1. N2. Soc. J.40 eV) .Spectra 800 700 600 500 400 Wavelength (nm) 300 100 Emission 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Reference 1.150 eV. Fire in capped quartz tubes. ½ hour. Dry.967–2.

Philips Tech.A. A. G.. A. Characteristic luminescence. Soc. J. 304 (1970). 1. blue emission) or to be partly oxidized (liberating brown bromine). – (3. Electrochem.47 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4.. The absorption and emission spectra of some important activators. 1067 (1968). 31. 117.. Blasse. Soc. Rev.. 115. Keep dry.. Electrochem. YOCl:Ce3+ Structure: Rhombohedral (matlockite) Optical Properties Emission color: Violet UV Emission peak: 3. Blasse. Blasse. 2. It tends either to be partly reduced (forming Eu2+. and Bril. 2.88 eV)..Spectra 800 700 600 500 400 Wavelength (nm) 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Remarks 1.D. G.24 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0. 3. G.. 346 (1970). Absorption (%) 100 Emission . This phosphor is difficult to prepare. J. Photoluminescent efficiency of phosphors with electronic transitions in localized centers. Fast-decay phosphors. and Poorter.. and Bril. A..40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: + Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 100 Emission 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 References 1.. and Bril. This phosphor is hygroscopic. J.

Absorption (%) 100 Emission . Powderize. A. Reference 1..8 59 Preparation Make a suspension of all ingredients in water.00 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4. Boil down to dry (slowly.97–2. Keep dry. N2. 2. Dry. 440 (1966). Broad band UV excitation of Sm3+-activated phosphors. Lett. Phys. to let the conversion of Y2O3 to YOCl take place).14 eV. Powderize. Optical Properties Emission color: Red Emission peaks: 1. G. 1100ºC. – (3. ½ hour. Fire in capped quartz tubes. 1. Fire in capped quartz tubes. Wash in water several times.. 1 hour. main peak at 2..40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Remark This phosphor is hygroscopic.4 8. Powderize.88 eV). Blasse. and Bril.YOCl:Eu3+ Structure: Rhombohedral (matlockite) Composition Ingredient Y 2O 3 Eu2O3 NH4Cl Mole % 95 (of Y) 5 (of Eu) 110 By weight (g) 107. 23. N2. ~500ºC.

Powderize.YOF:Eu3+ Composition Ingredient Y 2O 3 Eu2O3 YF3 Mole % 64 (of Y) 2 (of Eu) 34 By weight (g) 72.6 Preparation Mix by slurrying in water or methanol. Blasse. Optical Properties Emission color: Light red Emission peaks: 1.6 Absorption (%) 100 Emission . YOF:Tb3+ Composition Ingredient Y 2O 3 Tb4O7 YF3 Mole % 61 (of Y) 5 (of Tb) 34 By weight (g) 69 9.105 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: + (4. and Bril. Fire in capped quartz tubes. and 2. 440 (1966). N2. 1 hour. Broad band UV excitation of Sm3+-activated phosphors. A. Phys. – (3.4 49. G.88 eV). 1000ºC. 2. Lett. N2.977. 1 hour. 23.40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Reference 1. 2. Fire in capped quartz tubes.3 3... Powderize when dry. Dry in air.5 49. 1.038.. 1200ºC.

main line at 1. 1 hour.40 eV) . Fire in capped quartz tubes. Optical Properties Emission color: Pale green Emission peaks: 1. Powderize. 1.982–2.40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: +/4–5% Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 100 Emission 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Remark UV excitation is very poor (too little absorption) and can probably be improved by addition of Ce3+. Fire in capped quartz tubes.6 Preparation Mix by slurrying in water or methanol.981 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: + (4. 2. – (3. Dry in air. Optical Properties Emission color: Red Emission peak: 1. N2. 2. 1200ºC.981–2. Powderize when dry.88 eV). 1 hour. Fire in capped quartz tubes. Powderize. N2. 1 hour. Powderize when dry. – (3. N2. LaOF:Eu3+ Composition Ingredient La2O3 Eu2O3 LaF3 Mole % 61 (of La) 5 (of Eu) 34 By weight (g) 99.8 66. 1000ºC.88 eV). 1 hour.4 8.993 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: – (4. 1. Dry in air.Preparation Mix by slurrying in water or methanol. Fire in capped quartz tubes. 1000ºC. N2. 1200ºC.145 eV.

48. Phys. and Bril... 217 (1968). Blasse. G. A. 10. Investigations on BI3+-activated phosphors. G.. 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Absorption (%) 100 Emission Absorption (%) 100 Emission .. et al.88 eV). J. Lumin. 217 (1968). 95 (1975). 48. J. 2.40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: + Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 50 2 3 References 1. Proc. – (3.58 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: + (4. Int. Phys... Jaquier. Chem. Photoluminescence processes in LaOCl-Bi and YOCl-Bi.Spectra 800 700 600 500 400 Wavelength (nm) 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 LaOCl:Bi3+ Structure: Rhombohedral (matlockite) Optical Properties Emission color: UV Emission peak: 3. B.. Conf.56 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0. 3. Boulon.

A. The absorption and emission spectra of some important activators.LaOCl:Eu3+ Structure: Rhombohedral (matlockite) Optical Properties Emission color: Light red Emission peak: 2..02 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: + (4. G. Rev. Absorption (%) 100 Emission . Philips Tech. and Bril. Characteristic luminescence. Blasse.40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: – Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Reference 1.88 eV). 1.. 31. 304 (1970). – (3..

Mn2+ Mg2Sr(SO4)3:Eu2+ MgSO4:Eu2+ Structure: Orthorhombic Composition Ingredient MgSO4 Eu2O3 (NH4)2SO4 NH4Cl Mole % 97 3 ~10 1 By weight (g) 117 5.Mn2+ SrSO4:Eu2+ BaSO4:Ce3+ BaSO4:Eu2+ MgBa(SO4)2:Eu2+ Mg2Ca(SO4)3:Eu2+ Mg2Ca(SO4)3:Eu2+.24 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: + (4.2 0.12 Sulfates The following host compounds and activators are included in this subsection: MgSO4:Eu2+ MgSO4:Pb2+ CaSO4:Eu2+.4. Fire in capped quartz tubes. Optical Properties Emission color: UV Emission peak: 3.31 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0. Store in well-closed containers.88 eV).40 eV) .Mn2+ CaSO4:Pb2+ CaSO4:Bi CaSO4:Ce3+ CaSO4:Ce3+. 1000ºC. + (3.540 Preparation Mix by dry grinding or milling. Powderize. 1 hour.3 13. N2.Mn2+ CaSO4:Eu2+ SrSO4:Bi SrSO4:Ce3+ SrSO4:Eu2+.

– (3.46 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: – (4.540 Preparation Mix by dry grinding or milling.Spectra 800 700 600 500 400 Wavelength (nm) 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Remark MgSO4 (epsom salt) is water soluble. MgSO4:Pb2+ Structure: Orthorhombic Composition Ingredient MgSO4 PbO (NH4)2SO4 NH4Cl Mole % 97 3 ~10 1 By weight (g) 117 56. Powderize.2 0. N2. Store in well-closed containers. 1 hour.40 eV) Absorption (%) 100 Emission .65 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0.88 eV). 1000ºC. Optical Properties Emission color: UV Emission peak: 4. Keep dry. Fire in capped quartz tubes.7 13.

MgSO4 (epsom salt) is water soluble. Add ~5 g of NH4Br and ~10 g of (NH4)2SO4.40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: +/1% Absorption (%) 100 Emission .2 Preparation Mix by dry grinding or milling.Spectra 800 700 600 500 400 Wavelength (nm) 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Remarks 1. Wash in water several times. 2.30 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4. N2. 1. Keep dry. Powderize.Mn2+ Structure: Orthorhombic (anhydrite) Composition Ingredient CaSO4 Eu2O3 MnCO3 (NH4)2SO4 Mole % 90 5 (of Eu) 5 ~10 By weight (g) 123 8. 2. 3.88 eV). Dry. 900ºC. mix by dry grinding. Fire in capped quartz tubes.8 5. ++ (3. Fire in capped quartz tubes. 800ºC. 1 hour. Powderize. Optical Properties Emission color: Bluish-green Emission peak: 2. N2. This material is excited only by UV of ~240 nm or shorter and apparently is fairly efficient. CaSO4:Eu2+.75 13. ½ hour.42 eV (Mn2+).20 eV (Eu2+) Emission width (FWHM): 0.

1050ºC. Fire in capped quartz tubes. Add 5 g of NH4Cl. Fire in capped quartz tubes. N2. 3. Add another 6. Wash in water several times. 1.6 g of (NH4)2SO4. 1 hour. N2.780 2. N2.88 eV).6 Preparation Mix by dry grinding or milling. Powderize. 1 hour. Mix by dry grinding. CaSO4:Pb2+ Structure: Orthorhombic (anhydrite) Composition Ingredient CaSO4 CaF2 PbO (NH4)2SO4 Mole % 98 1 1 ~5 By weight (g) 133 0.40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: + Absorption (%) 100 Emission . Dry. 1 hour. 2.23 6.Spectra 800 700 600 500 400 Wavelength (nm) 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Remark The spectral positions of the Mn2+-emission band depends on the Mn concentration used. 1000ºC. – (3. Optical Properties Emission color: UV Emission peak: 5.33 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0. shifting to blue-green for 1% Mn and to yellow-green for 10% Mn. 950ºC. Powderize. Mix by dry grinding. Fire in capped quartz tubes.33 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: – (4.

mix by dry grinding. It discolors in fluorescent lamps because of (probably) undissolved PbSO4 dissociation to PbO. Powderize.16 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: – (4. 2. N2. Wash in water several times.02 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0. 2. Fire in covered alumina crucibles. Fire in covered alumina crucibles.88 eV).5 6. N2. Dry. This phosphor is excited only by UV of ~220 nm or shorter and is fairly efficient.6 Preparation Mix by dry grinding or milling. 1 hour. Optical Properties Emission color: Light red Emission peak: 2.40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: +/0. 950ºC. Add another 5–6 g of (NH4)2SO4. – (3. 1.3 3. 900ºC.7% Absorption (%) 100 Emission . 1 hour. CaSO4:Bi Structure: Orthorhombic (anhydrite) Composition Ingredient CaSO4 Bi2O3 Na2SO4 (NH4)2SO4 Mole % 98 1 (of Bi) 5 (of Na) ~5 By weight (g) 118 2.Spectra 800 700 600 500 400 Wavelength (nm) 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 6 0 Remarks 1.

96.A. 2. 900ºC. et al..40 eV) Absorption (%) 100 Emission . CaSO4:Ce3+ Structure: Orthorhombic (anhydrite) Composition Ingredient CaSO4 CeO2 Na2SO4 (NH4)2SO4 Mole % 94 3 5 (of Na) ~10 By weight (g) 128 5. Add above amounts of Na2SO4 and (NH4)2SO4 once again.2 Preparation Mix by dry grinding or milling.. Reference 1. Electrochem. Optical Properties Emission color: UV Emission peak: 3. Powderize. – (3. Fire in covered alumina crucibles. N2.01 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4. 1 hour. mix by dry grinding. 132 (1949).6 13. F.Spectra 800 700 600 500 400 Wavelength (nm) 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Remark The nature of this red emission is still unknown: It is not likely to be due to Bi3+ but it may possibly be due to Bi5+ substituting for S6+. 1 hour. Fire in covered alumina crucibles. Soc. 4..88 eV). J. 900ºC.2 3. N2. Bismuth as activator in fluorescent solids. Wash in water several times.79 eV. Dry. 1. Powderize. Kröger.

700ºC. Fire in capped quartz tubes. 4. 1 hour.5 6 ~10 By weight (g) 121 4. 700ºC. ++ (3.9 13. Powderize.5 2. Dry. mix by dry grinding. 1. 1000ºC.Mn2+ Structure: Orthorhombic (anhydrite) Composition Ingredient CaSO4 CeO2 MnCO4 (NH4)2SO4 Mole % 88. Powderize. Fire in capped quartz tubes. 3.88 eV).2 Preparation Mix by dry grinding or milling. Optical Properties Emission color: Yellow-green Emission peak: 2.35 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0. Wash in water several times. Fire in capped quartz tubes. mix by dry grinding. N2. N2. Add ~2 g of Li2SO4 and ~6 g of (NH4)2SO4. 800ºC. N2. Add ~6 g of (NH4)2SO4. mix by dry grinding. Fire in capped quartz tubes.40 eV) Absorption (%) 100 Emission .3 6.36 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4. 2. N2. Powderize. Powderize. Add ~10 g of (NH4)2SO4.Spectra 800 700 600 500 400 Wavelength (nm) 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 CaSO4:Ce3+.

Dry.88 eV). H. mix by dry grinding.. Electrochem. DC. and Ruffler. Optical Properties Emission color: Very deep violet Emission peak: 3. 232 (1958). Soc. J. Meeting. 3.1 µsec to 1/10 Absorption (%) 100 Emission . N2.40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: +/4% Decay: Near-exponential decay.6 g of (NH4)2SO4. 1000ºC.. Powderize. ++ (3. 7.20 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0. 950ºC. Rabatin. J. Wiss. 1. N2. N2. 2. Washington. Powderize. Rudolf. 1 hour. 950ºC. about 1. Add 5 g of NH4Cl. OSRAM Ges.76 6. 157 (May 1976). Tech.Spectra 800 700 600 500 400 Wavelength (nm) 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 References 1.. Fire in capped quartz tubes. Abh.12 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4. Add another 6.. Fire in capped quartz tubes. 1 hour. CaSO4:Eu2+ Structure: Orthorhombic (anhydrite) Composition Ingredient CaSO4 Eu2O3 (NH4)2SO4 Mole % 99 1 (of Eu) ~5 By weight (g) 135 1. mix by dry grinding. Powderize. Wash in water several times. 1 hour. 2.6 Preparation Mix by dry grinding or milling. Fire in capped quartz tubes. Abstr.

E.. Dixon. 383 (1974). Fire in covered alumina crucibles. Wash in water several times.5% Absorption (%) 100 Emission . Powderize. 900ºC.. Pat. 2.04 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0. Thermoluminescence of rare earth activated CdSO4.40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: +/1–1. Germ. Add another 5–6 g of (NH4)2SO4. U. R. 1. Powderize. Pat.. 2 051 240 (1971). 1 hour.5 6. D.. Luckey.L. N2. SrSO4 and BaSO4..88 eV). 8. SrSO4:Bi Structure: Orthorhombic Composition Ingredient SrSO4 Bi2O3 Na2SO4 (NH4)2SO4 Mole % 98 1 (of Bi) 5 (of Na) ~5 By weight (g) 180 2.. 950ºC. References 1.S. – (3. 1 hour.6 Preparation Mix by dry grinding or milling. K. and Ekstrand.. 3. J. Wachtel.Spectra 800 700 600 500 400 Wavelength (nm) 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Remark This CaSO4 phosphor is stable in water.15 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: – (4. 3 669 897 (1971). Optical Properties Emission color: Orange-red Emission peak: 2. N2. mix by dry grinding. Lumin.3 3. A. Fire in covered alumina crucibles. 2. Dry.

Bismuth as activator in fluorescent solids. 1. N2. 2. – (3. Electrochem. 132 (1949).40 eV) Absorption (%) 100 Emission . Optical Properties Emission color: UV Emission peak: 3. Fire in covered alumina crucibles.2 3. 900ºC. Add the above amounts of Na2SO4 and (NH4)2SO4 once again.6 13. Powderize. 1 hour. Dry.89 and 4. Fire in covered alumina crucibles. 1 hour. Powderize. Kröger. N2. Wash in water several times. J. Soc. 900ºC. F.. et al. 96.. SrSO4:Ce3+ Structure: Orthorhombic Composition Ingredient SrSO4 CeO2 Na2SO4 (NH4)2SO4 Mole % 94 3 5 (of Na) ~10 By weight (g) 173 5. mix by dry grinding.2 Preparation Mix by dry grinding or milling. Reference 1.88 eV).Spectra 800 700 600 500 400 Wavelength (nm) 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Remark The nature of this emission is still unknown: It is not likely to be due to Bi3+ but it may possibly be due to Bi5+ substituting for S6+.A.11 eV (Two overlapping bands) Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4.

26 6. Dry. Add 5 g of NH4Cl. 900ºC.30 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0. mix by dry grinding.88 eV). about 5 µsec to 1/10 Absorption (%) 100 Emission . mix by dry grinding.Spectra 800 700 600 500 400 Wavelength (nm) 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 SrSO4:Eu2+.5 1. ++ (3.6 Preparation Mix by dry grinding or milling. 3. 2. Powderize. 900ºC. 1.88 eV). 800ºC. N2.Mn2+ Structure: Orthorhombic Optical Properties Emission color: Orange Emission peak: 2.19 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0.6 g of (NH4)2SO4. 1 hour. Optical Properties Emission color: UV Emission peak: 3. Add another 6.29 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4. 1 hour. 1 hour. Powderize. N2. Powderize. Wash in water several times. Fire in capped quartz tubes. Fire in capped quartz tubes.40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: +/5% Decay: Near-exponential decay. ++ (3.24 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4.40 eV) SrSO4:Eu2+ Structure: Orthorhombic Composition Ingredient SrSO4 Eu2O3 SrF2 (NH4)2SO4 Mole % 98 2 (of Eu) 1 ~5 By weight (g) 180 3. Fire in capped quartz tubes.

Luckey.2 3. Pat. 3 669 897 (1971). 2 051 240 (1971). Wash in water several times.11 eV (Two overlapping bands) Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4. 900ºC. 4. Dixon. 2. K.88 eV). 8.Spectra 800 700 600 500 400 Wavelength (nm) 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 References 1...2 Preparation Mix by dry grinding or milling. 1 hour. Germ.. Optical Properties Emission color: UV Emission peak: 3.. 1.S.40 eV) Absorption (%) 100 Emission . N2. Pat. – (3. Thermoluminescence of rare earth activated CdSO4. N2. Fire in covered alumina crucibles. 2. D. 383 (1974). 3. A.E. 900ºC. Powderize. Lumin. Fire in covered alumina crucibles. SrSO4 and BaSO4. mix by dry grinding.. U..89 eV. R. Dry.6 13.. J.L. Wachtel. Powderize. 1 hour. and Ekstrand. Add the above amounts of Na2SO4 and (NH4)2SO4 once again. BaSO4:Ce3+ Structure: Orthorhombic Composition Ingredient BaSO4 CeO2 Na2SO4 (NH4)2SO4 Mole % 94 3 5 (of Na) ~10 By weight (g) 173 5.

40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: +/5% Decay: Near-exponential decay. mix by dry grinding. Add another 6. Fire in capped quartz tubes.30 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0. Add 5 g of NH4Cl.21 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4.26 6. 900ºC. 3. 800ºC. + (3. 1. 900ºC. mix by dry grinding.5 1. N2. Fire in capped quartz tubes. Optical Properties Emission color: UV Emission peak: 3.6 Preparation Mix by dry grinding or milling. 2. Powderize. about 5 µsec to 1/10 Absorption (%) 100 Emission . 1 hour. Powderize.Spectra 800 700 600 500 400 Wavelength (nm) 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 BaSO4:Eu2+ Structure: Orthorhombic Composition Ingredient BaSO4 Eu2O3 SrF2 (NH4)2SO4 Mole % 98 2 (of Eu) 1 ~5 By weight (g) 180 3. 1 hour. N2. Dry. 1 hour.6 g of (NH4)2SO4. Wash in water several times. Powderize. Fire in capped quartz tubes.88 eV).

88 eV). Germ. 1 hour. 2. Powderize. Fire in capped quartz tubes.Spectra 800 700 600 500 400 Wavelength (nm) 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Reference 1.2 Preparation Mix by dry grinding or milling. Powderize.455 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4. mix by dry grinding.6 13. Pat. Store in a well-closed container.. Fire in capped quartz tubes. 1100ºC. D.40 eV) Absorption (%) 100 Emission . – (3. 900ºC. N2. Add ~10 g of (NH4)2SO4. 1 hour. N2. 2 051 240 (1971). 1. MgBa(SO4)2:Eu2+ Structure: KAl (SO4)2 Composition Ingredient MgSO4 BaSO4 Eu2O3 (NH4)2SO4 Mole % 100 94 6 (of Eu) ~10 By weight (g) 120 219 10. Luckey. Optical Properties Emission color: UV Emission peak: Main peak at 3..

. Soc. Luminescence of barium magnesium-sulfate.. Inorg.... Blasse.. Optical Properties Emission color: Violet Emission peak: 3. G. J. Fire in capped quartz tubes.88 eV). Chem. VanDenHeuvel. Fine-structure in optical-spectra of divalent europium in alkalineearth sulfates. Soc. Powderize. M. 439 (1976). 950ºC. Blasse. G. mix by dry grinding. 38. J. 876 (1976).2 Preparation Mix by dry grinding or milling. N2. Crystal-structure of barium magnesiumsulfate. 3. Add ~5 g of NH4Br. Electrochem. 2.. 121. Solid State Chem.28 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4.40 eV) Absorption (%) 100 Emission . G.P. and VanDenHeuvel.Spectra 800 700 600 500 400 Wavelength (nm) 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Remark This material decomposes in contact with water or in moist air. Ryan. 1. Mg2Ca(SO4)3:Eu2+ Composition Ingredient MgSO4 CaSO4 Eu2O3 (NH4)2SO4 Mole % 200 94 6 (of Eu) ~10 By weight (g) 240 128 10. et al. 900ºC.P. Nucl. 1475 (1974).M. J. 1272 (1977). G. F.. 17. 1 hour. 124. and Stegenga. References 1...06 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0. et al. 2. Sakaguchi. Electrochem.6 13. Fire in capped quartz tubes. Thermoluminescence characteristics of binary sulfate phosphors. ++ (3.M. J. and ~10 g of (NH4)2SO4.. J. N2.M. 4.

1. 3. Add ~5 g of NH4Br. Fire in capped quartz tubes.88 eV). N2.01 eV (Mn2+). Mg2Ca(SO4)3:Eu2+. and ~10 g of (NH4)2SO4. N2.40 eV) Spectra 800 700 600 500 400 Wavelength (nm) 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Absorption (%) 100 Emission Absorption (%) 100 Emission .2 Preparation Mix by dry grinding or milling.Mn2+ Composition Ingredient MgSO4 CaSO4 Eu2O3 MnCO3 (NH4)2SO4 Mole % 200 87 5 (of Eu) 8 ~10 By weight (g) 240 119 8. 950ºC. mix by dry grinding. 2. Optical Properties Emission color: Orange-red Emission peak: 2. 900ºC.Spectra 800 700 600 500 400 Wavelength (nm) 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Remark This material decomposes in contact with water or in moist air. Fire in capped quartz tubes. Powderize. ++ (3. 1 hour.8 9.2 13.06 eV (Eu2+) Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4. Keep dry.

6 13. Powderize. Store in a well-closed container. Add 10 g of (NH4)2SO4.Remark This material decomposes in contact with water or in moist air.23 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4. 1. Optical Properties Emission color: Barely visible deep violet Emission peak: 3. N2.88 eV).21 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0. + (3. Powderize.40 eV) Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Remark This material decomposes in contact with water or in moist air. 2. Absorption (%) 100 Emission . Mg2Sr(SO4)3:Eu2+ Composition Ingredient MgO SrSO4 Eu2O3 (NH4)2SO4 Mole % 200 94 6 (of Eu) ~10 By weight (g) 240 173 10. 900ºC. Keep dry. mix by dry grinding. Fire in capped quartz tubes. N2. 1100ºC.2 Preparation Mix by dry grinding or milling. 1 hour. Fire in capped quartz tubes. 1 hour.

Al3+ ZnS:Cu+. then add the NH4Cl solution.Sn ZnS:Cu+.050 2.Cl ZnS:Pb.3 5 By weight (g) 98 0.Te2+ ZnS:P ZnS:P3 .Cl ZnS-CdS:Cu.5 Preparation Dissolve the AgNO3 and the NH4Cl separately.Ag ZnS:Sn2+. and stir again.Li+ ZnSe:Cu+.Ni ZnS-CdS:Ag+.Br high brightness ZnS-ZnTe:Mn2+ 98-2 ZnS:Ag+.In ZnS:Cl ZnS:Cu.Cl ZnS:Au. Dry in air.Cl CdS:In ZnS-CdS:Cu.4.I ZnS-CdS (25-75) ZnS-CdS (50-50) ZnS-CdS (75-25) ZnS-CdS:Ag. . each in a little water. stir.Br long life ZnS-CdS:Cu.Cl ZnS:Pb2+ ZnS:Pb2+.Br. First add the silver solution.Cl CdS:Ag+.13 ZnS-Type Sulfides The following host compounds and activators are included in this subsection: ZnS:Ag+.Cl Structure: Hexagonal (wurtzite) Composition Ingredient ZnS AgNO3 NH4Cl Mole % 100 0. Powderize when dry. Make a slurry of the ZnS in water or methanol.Cu ZnS:Sn2+ ZnS:Sn.Cl ZnS:Eu2+ ZnS:Mn2+ ZnS:Mn2+.

Academic Press. ++ (3.Add ~2–3 g of sulfur. Wash in water several times (to remove leftover halide). ZnS:Au. This phosphor corresponds to the commercial P-22B.5 Preparation Dissolve the gold in a very little amount of aqua regia. Goldberg.In Structure: Hexagonal (wurtzite) Composition Ingredient ZnS Au metal In2O3 NH4Cl Mole % 100 0.005 0.010 0. Shionoya. John Wiley & Sons. S. Fire in capped quartz tubes.. N2. 1100ºC.34 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4. Dry. Powderize. New York (1949)... in Luminescence of Inorganic Solids. Absorption (%) 100 Emission .88 eV). Powderize. H.. Dry. 2. Optical Properties Emission color: Blue Emission peak: 2.W. P.002 (of In) 5 By weight (g) 98 0. Add this solution to the ZnS. 2.40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: ++ Decay: Non-exponential decay in the microsecond range Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Remarks 1. Ed.0023 2. An Introduction to Luminescence of Solids. Make a slurry in methanol. References 1. 1 hour. The chlorine in the above recipe may be replaced by bromine. New York (1966). Leverenz.80 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0.

++ (3. N2. ZnS:Cl Structure: Cubic. ++ (3. Fire in capped quartz tubes.88 eV). 900ºC. hexagonal (wurtzite) Optical Properties Emission color: Blue Emission peak: 2. 3. Powderize.50 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4. 1 hour.40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: + Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Remark The green phosphorescence of this phosphor after excitation by UV or by e-beam is visible for several hours in the dark. N2. 2. stir. Add about 2–3 g of sulfur. 2. add the solution to the slurry. H2S. Fire in open quartz boats. and powderize.1. Dissolve the In2O3 in a little nitric acid. Make a slurry of the phosphor in methanol.34 eV. H2S. mix by dry grinding. 1 hour.40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: ++ Absorption (%) 100 Emission .88 eV). Add the dry NH4Cl and about 2–3 g of sulfur. Powderize. 4.70 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0.34 eV (First peak) Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4. 1200ºC. Fire in open quartz boats. Fire in capped quartz tubes. Optical Properties Emission color: Blue-green. dry. long afterglow Emission peaks: 2. 900ºC. 900ºC. 1 hour.67 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0.

. An Introduction to Luminescence of Solids. Make a slurry in water or methanol.150 0. H. Dry. Powderize. S. Add ~2–3 g of sulfur.. N2. Shionoya. 1150ºC. 2. P. Ed.002 Preparation Dissolve the copper acetate in a little water. Leverenz. New York (1966).001 By weight (g) 98 0..Spectra (cubic) 800 700 600 500 400 Wavelength (nm) 300 100 Emission 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) Wavelength (nm) 5 0 Spectra (hexagonal) 800 700 600 500 400 300 100 Emission 50 2 3 References 1... Goldberg. John Wiley & Sons.W. Fire in capped quartz tubes. H2O Mole % 100 0.Sn Structure: Hexagonal (wurtzite) Composition Ingredient ZnS SnS Cu(C2H3O2)2. 1 hour. 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 ZnS:Cu. add solution to the ZnS + SnS mix.1 0. in Luminescence of Inorganic Solids. New York (1949). Academic Press.

Powderize. Optical Properties Emission color: Green. ZnS:Cu+. long afterglow tail. Emission peak: 2. Fire in capped quartz tubes.88 eV). This phosphor is much more sensitive to IR than the fairly well-known ZnS:Cu.88 eV). 1 hour. Wash in water several times (stir.400 Preparation Dissolve the copper acetate and the aluminum chloride together in a little water. Dry.40 eV UV causes strong quenching of the green emission. H2O AlCl3 Mole % 100 0.001 0.41 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0.40 eV) Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Remarks 1. ++ (3.32 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4.Al3+ Structure: Hexagonal (wurtzite) Composition Ingredient ZnS Cu(C2H3O2)2.38 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0. Add enough water or methanol to make a uniform slurry. 1100ºC. Irradiation of near-IR during excitation by 3. let settle) to remove left over chloride.40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: ++ Decay: Non-exponential decay in the microsecond range Absorption (%) 100 Emission . H2S. 2.3 By weight (g) 98 0.Co phosphor.Optical Properties Emission color: Green Emission peak: 2.002 0. ++ (3.32 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4. Dry. Add solution to the ZnS mix. Add ~2–3 g of sulfur.

40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: ++ Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 100 Emission 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Reference 1. An Introduction to Luminescence of Solids.. Some Aspects of Luminescence of Solids.79 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0. Kröger. Leverenz.. Elsevier. 15. John Wiley & Sons. Structure: Cubic (zinc blende) ZnS:Cu+. Philips Res. Rep.33 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4.34 eV. This phosphor corresponds to the P-31 cathodoluminescent phosphor. W. ++ (3. 2.. References 1.Spectra 800 700 600 500 400 Wavelength (nm) 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Remarks 1..P. New York (1949). 238 (1960).. The chlorine in the above recipe may be replaced by bromine. F.W. H. 2. Absorption (%) 100 Emission .A.Cl Optical Properties Emission color: Blue + green Emission peak: 2. Amsterdam (1948). A.88 eV). and Cleiren. Gool. 2.

Weaker band at 1. H2S. H2S. 1100ºC.540 Preparation Mix by slurrying in water or methanol. 1 hour. Dry. Add ~2–3 g of sulfur.053 Preparation Mix by slurrying in water or methanol. 2. Optical Properties Emission color: Yellow-green Emission peak: 2. Absorption (%) 100 Emission .15 0. 1. Powderize. 1 hour. Powderize. Fire in open quartz boats.ZnS:Eu2+ Composition Ingredient ZnS Eu2O3 Mole % 100 0.24 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: + (4. 1100ºC.95 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0.25 eV. Dry.88 eV). Fire in open quartz boats. + (3.03 (of Eu) By weight (g) 98 0.40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: Poor Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 ZnS:Mn2+ Structure: Hexagonal (wurtzite) Composition Ingredient ZnS MnCO3 NH4Cl Mole % 99 1 1 By weight (g) 97 1. Powderize.

Make a slurry in water.Add ~2–3 g of sulfur..40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: +/5% Decay: Exponential. ++ (3. This material is remarkable for its strong triboluminescence.21 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4. ZnS:Mn2+. John Wiley & Sons. An Introduction to Luminescence of Solids. 2. S. Shionoya.13 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0. New York (1949). Academic Press. Fire in capped quartz tubes.Te2+ Structure: Hexagonal (wurtzite) Composition Ingredient ZnS MnCO3 ZnTe NH4Br Mole % 94 3 3 2 By weight (g) 92 3. ~1 msec to 1/10 Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Remarks 1. in Luminescence of Inorganic Solids. Absorption (%) 100 Emission . Goldberg.5 5. 1100ºC. The emission shifts slightly to lower energy (= longer wavelength) with increasing Mn concentration. 2. Leverenz.. Optical Properties Emission color: Orange-yellow Emission peak: 2. 1 hour. References 1.W. P. N2 or H2S. H..8 2 Preparation First mix only ZnS + MnCO3 + NH4Br (not yet the ZnTe).88 eV). Ed. New York (1966)..

Effect of tellurium on luminescence properties of zinc sulfide luminors. Optical Properties Emission color: Red Emission peak: 1.-USSR. Reference 1.I..92 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0. and Pron.5 By weight (g) 98 0. 1200ºC. 1 hour. Fire in capped quartz tubes. 900ºC. Wachtel.88 eV). 1 hour. N2. 1100ºC. Wash in a solution of a few percentage of Br in methanol and then several times in plain methanol. 67 (1967).24 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4.385 0.1. Spectrosc. 1 hour. Powderize. ZnS:P Composition Ingredient ZnS Zn3P2 NH4Cl Mole % 100 0.4 (of P) 0. Dry in air. G. H2. Now admit the ZnTe.F. Add ~2–3 g of sulfur. 2.40 eV) Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Remarks 1. ++ (3.270 Preparation Mix by dry grinding. 23. N2. This phosphor has been developed by A. This material is remarkable for its strong triboluminescence (red). 2. R. Fire in capped quartz tubes. Fire in capped quartz tubes. Opt. Powderize when dry.. Smirnova. Absorption (%) 100 Emission . mix by milling or grinding.

It shifts to a lower energy (= longer wavelengths) with increasing P.88 eV). Electrochem. Soc.24. New zinc sulfide phosphors activated by phosphorus. and Ranby. Spectral positions of the emission band depends on the P concentration..40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: +/5%. P.40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: + Absorption (%) 100 Emission .50 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4. ZnS:P3–. Reference 1. 2.Cl Structure: Hexagonal (wurtzite) Optical Properties Emission color: Yellowish Emission peak: 2. + (3.. 85 (1949). Long afterglow tail Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Remarks 1. McKeag.14 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0.W.66 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0. 96.50 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: + (4. The amount of P retained in the phosphor after firing certainly is much lower than the amount added. Phosphor is poorly reproducible because of high volatility of Zn3P2 at firing temperature. J.Optical Properties Emission color: Pale yellow Emission peak: 2.H.88 eV).. 2. A. ++ (3.

88 eV). H. Soc. 382 (1946). P. Opt. 382 (1946). .. 96.. 2.R. Soc. Soc. A. John Wiley & Sons.. J. J. New York (1949). Am. and Ranby. Opt. Fonda. 36. ZnS:Pb2+.W.98 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0..W. G. 85 (1949). Am.. Preparation and characteristics of zinc sulfide phosphors sensitive to infrared.Cl Structure: Hexagonal (wurtzite) Optical Properties Emission color: Greenish Emission peak: 2. Preparation and characteristics of zinc sulfide phosphors sensitive to infrared.40 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: (4.Spectra 800 700 600 500 400 Wavelength (nm) 300 100 Emission 50 2 3 Reference 1. ++ (3.40 eV) References 1. J..54 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0. 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 ZnS:Pb2+ Structure: Hexagonal (wurtzite) Optical Properties Emission color: Orange Emission peak: 1.. An Introduction to Luminescence of Solids. 36.40 eV) Reference 1.R. Leverenz.40 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: – (4.88 eV). Electrochem. + (3. G.H. New zinc sulfide phosphors activated by phosphorus. Fonda. McKeag..

orange afterglow Emission peak: 1. Fire in capped quartz tubes. When the afterglow has decreased to a low level.1 0. N2. Add ~2–3 g of sulfur.40 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4. Make a uniform slurry with water or methanol. add the solution to the ZnS.Cu Structure: Hexagonal (wurtzite) Composition Ingredient ZnS Pb(NO3)2 Cu(C2H3O2)2 Mole % 100 0.. 2.88 eV). G. Reference 1. Absorption (%) 100 Emission .R. Opt. irridation of near-IR causes a strong orange emission (stimulation).ZnS:Pb. ++ (3..40 eV) Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Remarks 1. Fonda. 1 hour.002 Preparation Dissolve the lead nitrate and copper acetate together in a little water. This phosphor is readily excited by UV and shows a long afterglow after excitation. Soc.99 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0. 36. Dry. J. 352 (1946).001 By weight (g) 98 0. 1100ºC. Am. Powderize. Preparation and characteristics of zinc sulfide phosphors sensitive to infrared. Optical Properties Emission color: Whitish orange during excitation.330 0.

ZnS:Sn.40 eV) Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Reference 1. 1150ºC. Fire in capped quartz tubes. Kulaszewcz. N2. S. 499 (1974). ++ (3.40 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: + (4. Optical Properties Emission color: Red Emission peak: 1.1 0.5 ~2–3 Preparation Mix by dry grinding. Polonica A.Ag Structure: Hexagonal (wurtzite) Composition Ingredient ZnS SnS AgNO3 Mole % 100 0..88 eV). 45. Acta Phys.150 0.ZnS:Sn2+ Structure: Hexagonal (wurtzite) Composition Ingredient ZnS SnS Sulfur Mole % 99 1 By weight (g) 97 1.01 By weight (g) 98 0. 1 hour.80 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0.017 Absorption (%) 100 Emission .

99 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0. Admit ~2–3 g of sulfur. Soc. 1 hour. ZnS:Sn2+. Dry in air.Li phosphor.40 eV) Absorption (%) 100 Emission . Optical Properties Emission color: Pale yellow Emission peak: 1. Make a slurry in water or methanol.99.Preparation Dissolve the AgNO3 in a little water.Sn. Add the solutions to the ZnS + SnS. 2.12 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0. In contrast to ZnS:Cu.40 eV) Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Remarks 1. 1150ºC. + (3. ZnS-Sn. The Ag in the above recipe can be replaced by Li..Li+ Structure: Hexagonal (wurtzite) Optical Properties Emission color: Orange Emission peak: 1. Fire in capped quartz tubes.88 eV). N2.50 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4. this phosphor shows only little response (stimulation) to irradiated IR. Electrochem. A..50 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: + (4. Reference 1. ++ (3.88 eV). Wachtel. 2. 105. J. 432 (1958). Powderize when dry.

New York (1949) p. Solids. 105. J. Electrochem. Phys. ZnS-Sn.Li phosphor.. 432 (1958). Luminescence in ZnS. 2.. John Wiley & Sons.Cl Structure: Cubic (zinc blende) Optical Properties Emission color: Red Emission peak: 1. Soc. Cl.F. 202. H.40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: ++ Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 100 Emission 50 2 3 References 1.30 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: (4.88 eV). 24. Se Cu. J.. 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 . Chem. 37 (1963). A.Spectra 800 700 600 500 400 Wavelength (nm) 300 100 Emission 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Reference 1.92 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0. Morehead. Wachtel. An Introduction to Luminescence of Solids.W. + (3.. ZnSe:Cu+. Leverenz. F.

55 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0. An Introduction to Luminescence of Solids. Leverenz. 1 hour.1 (of In) By weight (g) 145 0. New York (1949). H2. Fire in open quartz boats. Powderize. Material should be uniformly red luminescent. Add ~2–3 g of sulfur. Make a slurry in methanol.Cl– Structure: Hexagonal (wurtzite) Optical Properties Emission color: IR Emission peak: 1.88 eV). 900ºC. inspect under UV lamp. H.34 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4. 500ºC. H2S. John Wiley & Sons.139 Preparation Dissolve the In2O3 in a little nitric acid.40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: ++ Reference 1. Inspect again under UV lamp. Fire in capped quartz tubes. Powderize. Add the solutions to the CdS.CdS:Ag+.08 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: + (4.. Optical Properties Emission color: Green Emission peak: 2. 1.88 eV).40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: + Decay to 10%: Less than 1 nsec .W. ++ (3. Dry. 2. When cool.39 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0. Material should now be uniformly green. CdS:In Structure: Hexagonal (wurtzite) Composition Ingredient CdS In2O3 Mole % 100 0. + (3. Remove all parts which look different.

Dry. Powderize. Wash in plain water several times until neutral.4 2.Spectra 800 700 600 500 400 Wavelength (nm) 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Remarks 1. then add the NH4I-solution. This phosphor is thermodynamically in an unstable state. 2. Boil briefly in a solution of about 10 g NaOH (or KOH) + 10 g NaCN (or KCN) in 1 liter of water. 650ºC. 2. Screen through a medium-fine cloth sieve. N2. Dry with methanol in a filter funnel and then in open air. Fire in capped quartz tubes. Reference 1.9 2. W. Add the Cu solution. 1 hour. Phosphor has limited use in CR tubes for extremely fast display. and stir. Screen through 200 mesh or finer. Powderize. Solid State Electron. Absorption (%) 100 Emission . Do not heat up (except only in H2) to more than about 250ºC. each in a little water. Fire in open quartz boats. Mix well.5 2 By weight (g) 95. After this firing. stir..9 Preparation Dissolve the Cu acetate and the NH4I separately. 1 hour. ZnS-CdS:Cu. Make a slurry of the ZnS + CdS in methanol. 1107 (1966).9 2. 800ºC. Edge emission of n-type conducting ZnO and CdS. 1..I Structure: Hexagonal (wurtzite) Composition Ingredient ZnS CdS Cu(C2H3O2)2. pull the hot boat with the phosphor out of the furnace into open air and quench rapidly down to room temperature by blowing cold air against it. N2. H2O NH4I Mole % 98 2 0. Lehmann. 9. Add ~3 4 g of sulfur. Powderize.

++ (3. An Introduction to Luminescence of Solids. New York (1949).06 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0. ++ (3.35 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4.40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: ++ ZnS-CdS (50-50) Optical Properties Emission color: Orange Emission peak: 2. John Wiley & Sons.35 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4.40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: ++ ..W. ZnS-CdS (25-75) Structure: Wurtzite Optical Properties Emission color: Deep red Emission peak: 1. ++ (3. H.88 eV).38 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0.40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: ++ ZnS-CdS (75-25) Optical Properties Emission color: Green Emission peak: 2.88 eV).78 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0. Leverenz.88 eV).Optical Properties Emission color: Blue Emission peak: 2.33 eV Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 100 Emission 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Reference 1.35 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4.72 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0.

Br. Fire in capped quartz tubes. 800ºC. Add the solution to the slurry. Add ~3–4 g of sulfur. H. Dry. Fire in open quartz boats. Optical Properties Emission color: Orange-yellow Emission peak: 2. H2O NH4Br Mole % 96 4 0.13 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0. 2. 1. Leverenz. Powderize.W.40 eV) . John Wiley & Sons. 1 hour. N2. ++ (3.Ni Structure: Hexagonal (wurtzite) Composition Ingredient ZnS CdS Cu(C2H3O2)2. ZnS-CdS:Ag.88 eV).686 Preparation Make a slurry of the ZnS + CdS in methanol. stir.7 By weight (g) 93.8 1.Spectra 800 700 600 500 400 Wavelength (nm) 300 ZnS-CdS 40-60 ZnS-CdS 50-50 Emission ZnS-CdS 60-40 ZnS-CdS 70-30 ZnS-CdS 80-20 ZnS-CdS 90-10 ZnS 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 100 50 0 Reference 1. Powderize. Dissolve the Cu acetate and the NH4Br together in a little water. Mix well. H2S..8 0. New York (1949). 700ºC. Screen through a medium-fine cloth sieve.5 5. 45 minutes. An Introduction to Luminescence of Solids.6 0.37 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4.

N. Then add the NH4Cl solution. The emission intensity increases sharply super-linearly with increasing excitation intensity and decreases with increasing temperature: The best obtained temperature response is about 20% per degree Centigrade near room temperature. Am. Dry. Make a slurry of the ZnS + CdS of the desired ratio in water or methanol. Optical Properties Emission peak: Peak position depending on the ZnS/CdS ratio Emission width (FWHM): ~0.. Dry. 39. J.5 Preparation Dissolve the AgNO3 and the NH4Cl separately. Wash in water several times (to remove leftover halide). Mix well.Cl Structure: Hexagonal (wurtzite) Composition Ingredient ZnS + CdS AgNO3 NH4Cl Mole % 100 0. ++ (3. ZnS-CdS:Ag+. Urbach. Powderize.88 eV). First add the silver solution. New observations on superlinear luminescence. 1100ºC.R. stir. Nail. Reference 1. and Pearlman.Spectra 800 700 600 500 400 Wavelength (nm) 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Remarks 1. each in a little water. 2. N2. Add ~2–3 g of sulfur. 1 hour.35 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4.050 2. Soc.. This phosphor is good for thermal imaging.40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: 20% Decay to 10%: Non-exponential afterglow in the microsecond range Absorption (%) 100 Emission .03 5 By weight (g) 0. Fire in capped quartz tubes. stir again. D. F.. Opt.. 690 (1949).

Boil again in cyanide solution as above. add the solution to the slurry. New York. Dissolve the Cu acetate and the NH4Br together in a little water. H2O NH4Br Mole % 96 4 0. Fire in capped quartz tubes.6 0. pull the hot boat with the phosphor out of the furnace into open air and quench rapidly down to room temperature by blowing cold air against it.Br long life Structure: Hexagonal (wurtzite) Composition Ingredient ZnS CdS Cu(C2H3O2)2.8 0. 2.W. N2.686 Preparation Make a slurry of the ZnS + CdS in methanol. H. Screen through 200 mesh or finer. Add ~3–4 g of sulfur.5 5. 1949. Powderize. Mix well. 3. 700ºC. Wash in plain water several times until neutral. Reference 1. 45 minutes.7 By weight (g) 93. and stir. Chlorine in the above recipe may be replaced by bromine. Fire in open quartz boats. Dry. 1 hour. Boil briefly in a solution of about 10 g NaOH (or KOH) + 10 g NaCN (or KCN) in 1 liter water. . ZnS-CdS:Cu. Firing includes rapid quenching. Wash in plain water several times until neutral. 1. Leverenz.. Dry with methanol in a filter funnel and then in open air. Powderize. Fire the same as 2. H2S.Spectra 800 700 600 500 400 Wavelength (nm) 300 Emission CdS ZnS-CdS 25-75 ZnS-CdS 50-50 ZnS-CdS 75-25 ZnS 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 100 50 0 Remarks 1. The phosphor of ZnS/CdS 72/28 is commercial P-22G.8 1. Screen through a medium-fine cloth sieve. An Introduction to Luminescence of Solids. Dry with methanol in a filter funnel and then in open air. 800ºC. After this firing. Powderize. John Wiley & Sons. 2.

Dissolve the Cu acetate and the NH4Br together in a little water. Dry with methanol in a filter funnel and then in open air. 1.35 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0. H2S. Boil briefly in a solution of about 10 g NaOH (or KOH) + 10 g NaCN (or KCN) in 1 liter of water. add the solution to the slurry. After this firing. Optical Properties Emission color: Green Emission peak: 2. Powderize. 800ºC.35 eV Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 100 Emission 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Remark The zero-hour brightness of this phosphor is ~½ of that of the one on the previous page.3 0. Add ~3–4 g of sulfur. 45 minutes.8 0.7 By weight (g) 93. Wash in plain water several times until neutral. N2. 1 hour.5 5.686 Preparation Make a slurry of the ZnS + CdS in methanol. Fire in capped quartz tubes.Optical Properties Emission color: Green Emission peak: 2. pull the hot boat with the phosphor out of the furnace into open air and quench rapidly down to room temperature by blowing cold air against it. ZnS-CdS:Cu. 2.38 eV . 650ºC. Mix well. Dry. and stir.600 0. Powderize. Screen through 200 mesh or finer.35 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0. Screen through a medium-fine cloth sieve. Wash in about 2 liters of 10% H2O2 solution at room temperature for about 2 hours while stirring. Fire in open quartz boats. H2O NH4Br Mole % 96 4 0. Powderize.Br high brightness Structure: Hexagonal (wurtzite) Composition Ingredient ZnS CdS Cu(C2H3O2)2. Wash in plain water.

++ (3. 3 165 476 (1965)..40 eV) Reference 1. 23. 67 (1967).S. Opt. A.F. G. Pat. R.I. 2. The H2O2 wash is an idea by Wachtel. Spectrosc.Spectra 800 700 600 500 400 Wavelength (nm) 300 100 Emission 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Remarks 1. ZnS-ZnTe:Mn2+ 98-2 Structure: Hexagonal (wurtzite) Optical Properties Emission color: Red Emission peak: 1. Smirnova.24 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4.-USSR. . Effect of tellurium on luminescence properties of zinc sulfide luminors.88 eV).92 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0. its half-life under steady 5 kHz excitation is much shorter than that of the phosphor on the next page. and Pron. This phosphor has been developed for high zero-hour brightness.. U...

1 hour.4.K MgS:Eu2+ Structure: Cubic (NaCl) Composition Ingredient MgO Eu2O3 NH4Cl Mole % 100 0. Fire in open quartz boats. 1 hour.F CaS:Tb3+ CaS:Tb3+. Store in a well-closed container.176 1 Preparation First mix only the MgO and Eu2O3.Na CaS:Ce3+ CaS:Cu+.Na CaS:Sm3+ CaS:Sn2+ CaS:Sn2+. Keep dry. Admit above amount of NH4Cl and also 2–3 g of sulfur. 2.040 0.Mn2+ CaS:Pr3+.Na+ CaS:Eu2+ CaS:Mn2+ CaS:La3+ CaS:Pb2+. Powderize. N2.Cl CaS:Pb2+ CaS:Pb2+. mix by dry grinding.Na SrS:Eu2+ SrS:Mn2+ BaS:Au. N2 loaded with CS2.1 (of Eu) 2 By weight (g) 0.14 CaS-Type Sulfides The following host compounds and activators are included in this subsection: MgS:Eu2+ CaS:Bi3+ CaS:Bi3+. 1.Cl SrS:Ce3+ SrS:Cu+.Cl CaS:Y3+ CaS:Yb2+ CaS:Yb2+. . Fire in capped quartz tubes.Cl CaS:Sb3+ CaS:Sb3+. 1200ºC. Powderize. 800ºC.Pb2+.

H.40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: +/8% Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 100 Emission 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Reference 1.15 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4. + (3.40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: + Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Absorption (%) 100 Emission . H. CaS:Bi3+ Structure: Cubic (NaCl) Optical Properties Emission color: Near UV Emission peak: 3.. Soc. Kasano. K. – (3.21 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4. Megumi.11 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0. and Yamamoto. Electrochem. J.. Ca1-xMgxS-Ce. Cathodoluminescence of Ca1-xMgxS-Eu.88 eV).27eV Emission width (FWHM):0.. 131 (1953).88 eV)..Optical Properties Emission color: Orange-yellow Emission peak: 2.

. 275 (1972). W. Garlick. Ellervee.40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: 4–5% Decay: Non-exponential decay in the microsecond range. 3. Fire in open quartz boats. long afterglow tail extending into seconds . Activators and co-activators in calcium sulfide phosphors.Na Structure: Cubic (NaCl) Composition Ingredient CaCO3 Bi2O3 NaHCO3 Mole % 100 0.F.5 By weight (g) 100 0. J. Soc. Luminescence of Pb2+ and Bi3+ centers in alkali-earth sulfides and oxides.. 1200ºC. Lehmann. Soc. Jpn. and Asano. Powderize. 4. 5. 2. N. A. Yamashita. Electron traps and infrared stimulation of phosphors. 91 (1977). Electrochem. 144 (1976). Add the above amounts of Bi and Na. 1 hour.03 (of Bi) 0. H2S.J. 82....420 Preparation Start from purest CaCO3. and Mason. J..Se):Bi3+ and CaO:Bi3+ phosphors.. J. 5. CaS:Bi3+. Phys. stagnant air. + (3.. J. Lumin. 90 (1949).References 1. N2. Phys. Fire in capped quartz tubes. mix by dry grinding. Status Solidi B. S. Fire in capped quartz tubes..77 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0.E. 96. D.18 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: + (4. G. F. Optical Properties Emission color: Blue Emission peak: 2. 1 hour. Powderize. and Ryan. 119. 40. Lehmann.F.. 1200ºC. W.M..70 0. 1100ºC. Soc. 1 hour. and also ~ 2–3 g of sulfur.88 eV). Luminescence-centers of Ca(S. 87 (1972). Store in a well-closed container. Convert it to CaS by one of the following methods: 1. Fast cathodoluminescent calcium sulfide phosphors. Electrochem.. 3. 2.

Lehmann.. D. Add about 2–3 g of sulfur. Lumin..E.. Powderize. Status Solidi B. Activators and co-activators in calcium sulfide phosphors. W. 82. 3. 144 (1976). 96. Soc. Na in above recipe can be replaced by Li but Na seems to have a slight edge over it. Powderize. 1100ºC. Jpn.F.. Electron traps and infrared stimulation of phosphors. 5. Fire in capped quartz tubes... J. 2. G. Preparation required purest starting materials. 1 hour. 1200ºC. 40.J. Fast cathodoluminescent calcium sulfide phosphors. Contamination by Mn as low as 1 ppm will cause appearance of the yellow Mn2+ emission. Electrochem.. Store in a well-closed container. Yamashita.. 5. Fire in open quartz boats. A. Soc. Luminescence of Pb2+ and Bi3+ centers in alkali-earth sulfides and oxides. CaS:Ce3+ Structure: Cubic (NaCl) Composition Ingredient CaCO3 CeO2 Mole % 100 0. and Asano. S. Admit about 1–2 g of NH4Cl by dry grinding or milling. 91 (1977). J.086 Preparation Mix well. 2.Spectra 800 700 600 500 400 Wavelength (nm) 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Remarks 1.M. W. Absorption (%) 100 Emission .. Ellervee. F. Luminescent-grade CaCO3 is not pure enough. first 1 hour in N2 and then 1 hour in H2S. 2..F. Lehmann. 119. N2. and Ryan.05 By weight (g) 100 0. Luminescence-centers of Ca(S+Se):Bi3+ and CaO:Bi3+ phosphors. Phys. References 1. N. 1. 87 (1972). Electrochem. 275 (1972).. 90 (1949). Garlick. Phys. and Mason. Soc. J. J. 4..

F..Optical Properties Emission color: Green Emission peak: 2. 3. 2. Soc. Electrochem. or I. Cathodoluminescence of CaS-Ce3+ and CaS-Eu2+ phosphors J. Okamoto.. J. and Kato. 4. 130. 6. phosphor showing no color change and little saturation up to the highest current densities Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Remarks 1.40 eV by addition of Pb (see CaS:Pb2+). W. Decay time after excitation by an e-beam pulse can be reduced to ~200 nsec (1/10 of original) by addition of Co.. and Ryan. Electrochem.88 eV). 1164 (1971). Electrochem. 119. Phosphor can be sensitized for efficient excitation by 3. 432 (1983). F.. Soc. F. Soc.. Lehmann. Br. The distance between the two emission bands (in eV) cannot be changed but the exact positions of the bands depend slightly on the used Ce concentration. Preparation and cathodoluminescence of CaS-Ce and Ca1-xSrxS-Ce phosphors.. 2. Fast cathodoluminescent calcium sulfide phosphors. 118. – (3. 2. Phosphor has a slightly greenish body color due to the combined action of the blue absorption band and the green emission. 5.M. J. Electrochem. Soc.38 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4. This phosphor is efficiently luminescent up to ~300ºC. Absorption (%) 100 Emission . 275 (1972). and Ryan. W. W.40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: ++/20% Decay to 10%: Non-exponential decay in the microsecond range.. Lehmann. K.. 118. Lehmann. Cl in the above recipe can be replaced by F. 4. This phosphor or modifications of it have found applications in CR tubes and for correction in arc lamps. 477 (1971).. 3. References 1. Optimum efficiency of cathodoluminescence of inorganic phosphors. 7.. J..13 eV.M.

Fire in covered alumina crucibles. J. Make a uniform slurry in water or methanol. Na in the above recipe can be omitted or be replaced by Li or K. add solution to the CaCO3.40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: ++/16% Decay: Non-exponential decay. 199 (1960). Store in a well-closed container..55 eV. Soc. Wachtel. Powderize. H2S. Alkaline earth sulfide phosphors activated by copper. 2. phosphor showing much less saturation at the high beam current than P-11 Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Remarks 1. 1100ºC. Mix by dry grinding. 2. Optical Properties Emission color: Light blue Emission peak: 2. Powderize. 2. 1 hour. 2. 100 sec to 1/10. Absorption (%) 100 Emission .15 1. Electrochem. and gold. 1000ºC. 107. The peak positions of the two emission bands depend on the alkali used (if any)..Eu electroluminescent phosphors. Fire in open quartz boats. silver.88 eV). CaS-Cu. A. The relative heights of the two emission bands depend on the preparation conditions. Dry..83 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4. 117. Lehmann.Na+ Structure: Cubic (NaCl) Composition Ingredient CaCO3 Cu(C2H3O2)2·H2O NaHCO3 Mole % 100 0.5 By weight (g) 100 0. Powderize. ++ (3.CaS:Cu+.25 Preparation Dissolve the copper acetate in a little water. J. 1. H2. Soc. 3. 1389 (1970). Halides are not co-activators in CaS:Cu (in contrast to ZnS:Cu). References 1. 1 hour. Add 800 mg of NaHCO3 plus ~ 2–3 g of sulfur.. W.300 1. Electrochem.

Cl in the above recipe can be replaced by F. 1200ºC.05 (of Eu) ~2 By weight (g) 100 0. Powderize. Br. This phosphor has a very characteristic pink body color due to the combined actions of the broad blue to yellow absorption band and the red fluorescence.F) or by pB (see CaS:Pb). 2. Mix by dry grinding. Add the above amount of NH4Cl.20 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4.88 eV). also ~ 2–3 g of sulfur. 1100ºC. first 1 hour in N2 and then 1 hour in H2S.CaS:Eu2+ Structure: Cubic (NaCl) Composition Ingredient CaCO3 Eu2O3 NH4Cl Mole % 100 0. Decay: Non-exponential decay in the microsecond range Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Remarks 1. Absorption (%) 100 Emission . Fire in open quartz boats. 4. 3. see CaS:Ce3+. H2.40 eV by addition of Sn (see CaS:Sn.91 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0.40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: ++/10% (can be improved to ~16% by the addition of Ce. 1 hour. Phosphor can be sensitized for excitation by 3. 1. 2. or I. Optical Properties Emission color: Red Emission peak: 1. Fire in capped quartz tubes.088 ~1 Preparation Mix the CaCO3 and the Eu2O3. – (3. Decay time after excitation by an e-beam pulse can be reduced to ~300 nsec by addition of Co. Store in a well-closed container. Powderize. Cl).

6. Partial or complete replacement of the Ca by Sr causes the emission to sift to higher energy (= shorter wavelength). – (3. Electrochem. CaS:Mn2+ Structure: Cubic (NaCl) Composition Ingredient CaCO3 MnCO3 NH4Cl Mole % 100 0. Brauer. Wachtel. 1 hour. 1100ºC. and Ryan. and Uber eu-ionen in erdalkalioxyden und erdalkali-sulfiden. Store in a well-closed container. 3. J. Add the above amount of NH4Cl.5. 1200ºC. H2S. 5... W. J.M. W. and Ryan.11 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0. and Banks. This phosphor is efficiently luminescent up to ~300ºC. H2S. Soc. 1. 12. CaS-Cu. Electrochem. F. P. Soc. Mix by dry grinding. 107.40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: ++/16% Decay: Near-exponential decay with ~8 msec to 1/10 . 477 (1971)..Eu electroluminescent phosphors. Pt. 518 (1955). N2. 102. Lehmann. F. A. Optimum efficiency of cathodoluminescence of inorganic phosphors.. Electrochem. 1164 (1971). Jaffe. Electrochem. Powderize. 119. Cathodoluminescence of CaS-Ce3+ and CaS-Eu2+ phosphors J. 4.24 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4. The emission peak position depends slightly upon the used Eu concentration.M. Soc. Naturforsch Pt A... This phosphor or modifications of it have found applications in CR tubes and for correction in arc lamps. 6. 118. P. Fire in open quartz boats. References 1. 2. 8. Lehmann. Powderize.1 ~2 By weight (g) 100 0. J. 6. 2. 7.. Lehmann. Soc. Powderize.. 118. 233 (1957). Optical Properties Emission color: Yellow Emission peak: 2.. 561 (1951).. 1 hour. A. W. 199 (1960). Naturforsch. Soc. 3. Z. Fast cathodoluminescent calcium sulfide phosphors. 275 (1972). Electrochem. 1100ºC. E... J.M.115 ~1 Preparation Mix the CaCO3 and the MnCO3. Fire in capped quartz tubes. Z.88 eV). Oxidation states of europium in the alkaline earth oxide and sulfide phosphors. Fire in open quartz boats. 1 hour.. and ~ 2–3 g of sulfur.

B.42 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4. – (3. 5.. Br. References 1. Sensitization by bismuth of the luminescence of manganese and samarium in calcium sulfide phosphors.. W. and Mikhaylin. 2. Lehmann. The Mn concentration is not critical. 3. The emission peak position depends slightly on the Mn concentration used. Optimum efficiency of cathodoluminescence of inorganic phosphors.40 eV) Absorption (%) 100 Emission . Budapest (1966). The Cl in the above recipe is not a co-activator. the Mn2+ emission is fairly strong between about 1 ppm and 5% of Mn/Ca. 1164 (1971). 87 (1972).. Lumin.Spectra 800 700 600 500 400 Wavelength (nm) 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Remarks 1. 518 (1957).88 eV). V. Jpn. or I. Shionoya. 3. S.. It serves only as a flux and can be replaced by F. Soc. 118. and Era. Levshin..55 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0. Partial or complete replacement of Ca by Sr shifts it towards green (see SrS:Mn2+). W. Partial (up to 10%) replacement of the Ca by Mg shifts the emission from yellow to orange-red. Intern Conf.. 4.. CaS:La3+ Structure: Cubic (NaCl) Optical Properties Emission color: Blue-greenish Emission peak: 2. 2.L. J.. Lumin.V. V. 30. Soc. K. Chem. J. Electrochem. Lehmann... Paper 111. Activators and co-activators in calcium sulfide phosphors. 4.

5. Powderize. another 2 g of NH4Cl. Mix by dry grinding.. Add the above amount of PbO. Powderize.02 3 By weight (g) 100 0. 1200ºC. J. 1100ºC. Powderize. 1200ºC. decay to be shortened to about 250 nsec (to 1/10) by addition of a trace of cobalt . 2.Cl Structure: Cubic (NaCl) Composition Ingredient CaCO3 PbO NH4Cl Mole % 100 0. CaS:Pb2+. and ~ 2–3 g of sulfur. Optical Properties Emission color: Near-UV Emission peak: 3. 87 (1972). 1 hour. Lumin.045 1. H2S.5 Preparation Start from purest CaCO3. 3. Add ~1g of NH4Cl.40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: 15–17% Decay: Non-exponential decay in the microsecond range. Fire in capped quartz tubes. and ~ 2–3 g of sulfur. Activators and co-activators in calcium sulfide phosphors. Lehmann. Store in a well-closed container..22 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4.39 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0. 1 hour. + (3. Convert to CaS by one of the following methods 1. N2. Fire in capped quartz tubes. Mix by dry grinding. W. N2. Fire in open quartz boats.Spectra 800 700 600 500 400 Wavelength (nm) 300 100 Emission 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Reference 1.88 eV).

Electrochem. 118..Spectra 800 700 600 500 400 Wavelength (nm) 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Remarks 1. Normal luminescent-grade CaCO3 is not pure enough. A. This phosphor has limited application as UV emitter in CR tubes. Phys.F. 82. Ellervee. 91 (1977). References 1. Lehmann. 2. W. and Activators and co-activators in calcium sulfide phosphors. Lumin. J. Electrochem.M.. 5.. 275 (1972). Fluoride is much less effective. Optimum efficiency of cathodoluminescence of inorganic phosphors. Fast cathodoluminescent calcium sulfide phosphors. 2. 3.88 eV). and Ryan. F.. Soc. Status Solidi B. Contamination by Mn as low as 1 ppm will cause appearance of the yellow Mn2+ emission. Luminescence of Pb2+ and Bi3+ centers in alkali-earth sulfides and oxides.. 3. Lehmann.40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: ++ Absorption (%) 100 Emission . J. Soc. + (3. 1164 (1971).22 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4..39 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0. The NH4Cl in the above recipe can be replaced by NH4Br. 119.. Preparation requires purest starting materials. CaS:Pb2+ Structure: Cubic (NaCl) Optical Properties Emission color: UV Emission peak: 3. 87 (1972). J. W.

. Activators and co-activators in calcium sulfide phosphors. W. Lehmann. Lumin. and also ~ 2–3 g of sulfur. 1164 (1971). Optical Properties Emission color: Red-orange (not the yellow of CaS:Mn2+ without Pb) Emission peak: 2. Fire in capped quartz tubes.. 4.40 eV) Absorption (%) 100 Emission . 5. 1200ºC. and Ryan..M. Lehmann.670 ~1 Preparation First mix only the CaCO3 and MnCO3. Soc. Luminescence of Pb2+ and Bi3+ centers in alkali-earth sulfides and oxides. N2. J. 275 (1972). 1. J..5 0.Spectra 800 700 600 500 400 Wavelength (nm) 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 References 1. A. Status Solidi B.. 2. W.04 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0. Fast cathodoluminescent calcium sulfide phosphors.. 2. W. 1 hour..F. 118.575 0..88 eV).28 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4. Powderize. 87 (1972). Phys. 1 hour. 1100ºC. J. CaS:Pb2+. H2S. (1977). Store in a well-closed container. Electrochem. F. 82.Mn2+ Structure: Cubic (NaCl) Composition Ingredient CaCO3 MnCO3 PbO NH4Cl Mole % 100 0. Fire in open quartz boats. 119. Add the above amounts of PbO and NH4Cl. 3. Powderize. Optimum efficiency of cathodoluminescence of inorganic phosphors. Lehmann. 91. Soc. Ellervee. Mix by dry grinding. + (3.3 2 By weight (g) 100 0. Electrochem.

Fire in capped quartz tubes.5 msec to 1/10 Absorption (%) 100 Emission .50 eV.85 eV. Fire in open quartz boats. ++ (3.05 eV in the IR Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4. 1 hour.02 ~2 By weight (g) 100 0. 1200ºC. Fire in capped quartz tubes.40 eV) Decay: Exponential decay. 1. also present (not shown in figure below) a strong line at 1.1 0. Add the above amount of NH4Cl and also ~ 2–3 g of sulfur. about 0.Pb2+. Optical Properties Emission color: Pale greenish-pink Emission peak: 1. mainly two line groups in the blue-green and in the red. 1100ºC. Store in a well-closed container. 1100ºC. 3. 1 hour. respectively. 2.165 0. Add the above amount of PbO and also ~ 2–3 g of sulfur.045 ~1 Preparation First mix only the CaCO3 and MnCO3. H2. 1 hour. Mix by dry grinding. Powderize.Spectra 800 700 600 500 400 Wavelength (nm) 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Remark The Mn2+ emission shifts to lower energy (+ longer wave lengths) with increasing Pb concentration. CaS:Pr3+.Cl Structure: Cubic (NaCl) Composition Ingredient CaCO3 Pr2O3 PbO NH4Cl Mole % 100 0.88 eV). 2. Powderize. H2S. Mix by dry grinding. N2.

Lehmann. Lumin. 5. Lumin. Activators and co-activators in calcium sulfide phosphors. 87 (1972). J. CaS:Sb3+ Structure: Cubic (NaCl) Optical Properties Emission color: Yellow-green Emission peak: 2.. Reference 1. Activators and co-activators in calcium sulfide phosphors. 87 (1972)..88 eV). J.. – (3. Absorption (%) 100 Emission Absorption (%) 100 Emission . W. 5.44 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4..40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: ++ Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 References 1.27 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0.Spectra 800 700 600 500 400 Wavelength (nm) 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Remark The intensity ratio of the two visible line groups is very sensitive to the details of the preparation and excitation. W. Lehmann.

N2.40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: 18% Decay: Exponential decay (~1. H2S. 1300ºC.. 1.Na Structure: Cubic (NaCl) Composition Ingredient CaCO3 Sb2O3 NaHCO3 Mole % 100 0. Fire in covered alumina crucibles. J. Lehmann.. J. 3. Powderize.2.44 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4. 1 hour. Mix by dry grinding. W. 1164 (1971). 1100ºC. Add the above amount of Sb2O3 + NaHCO3. 1089 (1973). Luminescence centers of Ca(S-Se) phosphors activated with impurity ions having s-2 configuration.27 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0.840 Preparation 1. Soc. – (3. Optical Properties Emission color: Yellow-green Emission peak: 2. CaS:Sb3+.5 sec to 1/10) followed by a long but weak phosphorescence tail Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Absorption (%) 100 Emission . 2. Fire (purest CaCO3 only) in open quartz boats. Electrochem.. Ca(S-Se)-Sb3+ phosphors. Powderize. Phys. N. Store in a well-closed container. Yamashita. 35..88 eV). Soc. Optimum efficiency of cathodoluminescence of inorganic phosphors.1 (of Sb) 1 By weight (g) 100 0. 118.145 0. and also ~ 2–3 g of sulfur. Jpn. 1 hour.

Powderize. Phys. 3. Lehmann. CaS:Sm3+ Structure: Cubic (NaCl) Composition Ingredient CaCO3 Sm2O3 Na4Cl Mole % 100 0. ~ 1 hour and then in H2S for 1 hour. Powderize..07. Optimum efficiency of cathodoluminescence of inorganic phosphors. Activators and co-activators in calcium sulfide phosphors.88 eV). 1. – (3. Fire in capped quartz tubes. N2. Ca(S-Se)-Sb3+ phosphors. J. J. 5. 2. Yamashita.. Powderize.. 118. ~10 msec to 1/10 Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Absorption (%) 100 Emission . 2. Add the above amount of Na4Cl and also ~ 2–3 g of sulfur. J. Fire in open quartz boats. Electrochem.. Fire in open quartz boats. 1164 (1971). W.20. 2. Lehmann. Mix by dry grinding. 2. Soc.0175 ~1 Preparation First mix only the CaCO3 and Sm2O3. 1 hour. Jpn.04. 35.01 (of Sm) ~2 By weight (g) 100 0. Store in a well-closed container. H2S. also present (not shown in figure below) two strong lines at 1. Lumin.. Luminescence centers of Ca (S-Se) phosphors activated with impurity ions having s-2 configuration. 1100ºC.40 eV) Decay: Exponential decay. W. 1..34 and 1. Optical Properties Emission color: Orange-yellow Emission peak: Strongest lines at 2. and 2.23 eV. first in N2.38 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4. 1200ºC. 87 (1972). N. 1089 (1973). Soc. 1100ºC. 1 hour. 3.References 1.

L65 (1976). and Asano.. CaS:Sn2+ Structure: Cubic (NaCl) Optical Properties Emission color: Yellow-greenish Emission peak: 2... C Solid State. Lumin..135 0. Phys. Lumin. Lehmann.50 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4. Yamashita. Phys. Activators and co-activators in calcium sulfide phosphors. 41. 3.5 By weight (g) 100 0. CaS:Sn2+. 87 (1972).390 Absorption (%) 100 Emission . Jpn.F Structure: Cubic (NaCl) Composition Ingredient CaCO3 SnS CaF2 Mole % 100 0. W. N... Yamashita. Lehmann. 87 (1972). Soc. 9. ESR of 2s ½-state centers in CaS:Sn3+.Remark Phosphor can be sensitized for excitation by 3. and Asano. J. S. 536 (1976). CaSe:Sn3+ and CaSe:Pb3+. S.40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: + Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 References 1. W. 2. N.40 eV UV by addition of Sn (see CaS:Sn2+). 5. Luminescence-centers of Ca(S:Se):Sn2+ phosphors. 5..88 eV).. Activators and co-activators in calcium sulfide phosphors.1 0. J. ++ (3.30 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0. J. J. Reference 1..

88 eV).Se):Sn2+ phosphors. Yamashita. J. Lumin. Luminescence-centers of Ca(S. – (3. 2. 1200ºC. Store in a well-closed container. S. N. Soc. Powderize.. Jpn. 1 hour. N. CaS:Tb3+ Structure: Cubic (NaCl) Optical Properties Emission color: Green Emission peak: 2. 3..50 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4. J.. Phys.40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: ~4% Decay: Non-exponential decay of about 1 msec to 1/10 Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 References 1. and Asano. Add the above amount of SnS and CaF2 and about 2–3 g of sulfur.29 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4. W. J. Optical Properties Emission color: Pale yellow-green Emission peak: 2. Mix by dry grinding. 5. Lehmann. 2. Powderize. L65 (1976).88 eV). 87 (1972). S. 536 (1976). H2S. Fire in capped quartz tubes.40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: + Absorption (%) 100 Emission . Fire in plain CaCO3 in open quartz boats. Activators and co-activators in calcium sulfide phosphors.. CaSe:Sn3+ and CaSe:Pb3+. ++ (3..Preparation 1.30 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0. Yamashita. Esr of 2s ½-state centers in CaS:Sn3+.. and Asano. Phys.. 1100ºC. 9. C Solid State. 41.26–2. N2. 1 hour.

Optical Properties Emission color: Pale green Emission peak: Strongest lines a doublet at 2. Activators and co-activators in calcium sulfide phosphors. 1 hour. 5. 1 hour. 2. N2. 1100ºC. ~ 3. Fire in plain CaCO3 in open quartz boats.. Fire in capped quartz tubes. CaS:Tb3+. Lumin. 87 (1972). Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4.187 ~1 Preparation Mix the CaCO3 and the Tb4O7. – (3. W.6 msec to 1/10 Absorption (%) 100 Emission . 1..Cl Structure: Cubic (NaCl) Composition Ingredient CaCO3 Tb4O7 NH4Cl Mole % 100 0. J. 1200ºC.1 (of Tb) ~2 By weight (g) 100 0.40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: Relatively poor Decay: Exponential decay. Store in a well-closed container. Mix by dry grinding.26 and 2. also ~ 2–3 g of sulfur.88 eV). Fire in capped quartz tubes. 1200ºC. Powderize. N2. H2S. 3. 1 hour.Spectra 800 700 600 500 400 Wavelength (nm) 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Reference 1. Add the above amount of NH4Cl.29 eV. Powderize. Powderize. Lehmann.

J. Lehmann. W. Activators and co-activators in calcium sulfide phosphors. 5. Activators and co-activators in calcium sulfide phosphors.. 5..78 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4. Lumin. Lehmann. – (3.. CaS:Y3+ Structure: Cubic (NaCl) Optical Properties Emission color: Bluish Emission peak: 2.88 eV). 87 (1972). J.Spectra 800 700 600 500 400 Wavelength (nm) 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Reference 1. Absorption (%) 100 Emission ..40 eV) Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 100 Emission 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Reference 1. W. Lumin. 87 (1972).80 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0.

J. Powderize. ++ (3.CaS:Yb2+ Structure: Cubic (NaCl) Optical Properties Emission color: IR Emission peak: 1. H2S.Cl Structure: Cubic (NaCl) Composition Ingredient CaCO3 Yb2O3 NH4Cl Mole % 100 0.. Powderize. Lumin. Mix by dry grinding. N2.40 eV) Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Reference 1. Store in a well-closed container. N2. 5. Fire in plain CaCO3 in open quartz boats.197 ~1 Preparation Mix the CaCO3 and the Tb4O7.66 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0.30 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4. W. 1 hour.1 (of Yb) ~2 By weight (g) 100 0. 1 hour. Activators and co-activators in calcium sulfide phosphors. Fire in capped quartz tubes. 87 (1972). Fire in capped quartz tubes. CaS:Yb2+. Lehmann. 1200ºC. Powderize. 3.88 eV). 1200ºC. 1. Absorption (%) 100 Emission . Add the above amount of NH4Cl and also ~ 2–3 g of sulfur.. 1100ºC. 2. 1 hour.

Electrochem.. Okamoto.20 eV. 130. and Kato.. 432 (1983)..30 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4. 2.56 eV in cathodoluminescence Excitation efficiency by UV: + (4. ++ (3. Activators and co-activators in calcium sulfide phosphors.88 eV). Lumin. SrS:Ce3+ Structure: Cubic (NaCl) Optical Properties Emission color: Blue-green Emission peak: 2.66 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0. Lehmann. W.. F. Preparation and cathodoluminescence of CaS-Ce and Ca1-xSrxS-Ce phosphors. 5. Soc. 87 (1972). Absorption (%) 100 Emission . K.40 eV) Decay: Non-exponential decay in the 20–50 sec range Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Reference 1.47 eV – or 2..3 eV.88 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: + Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 100 Emission 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Reference 1. J. 2. J.Optical Properties Emission color: Very deep red Emission peak: 1.

Store in a well-closed container. silver. 117. 2. Reference 1.31 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4. Soc. Na in the above recipe cannot be replaced by other alkalies. Electrochem. This phosphor shows exceptionally long and strong phosphorescence after excitation by UV. 1389 (1970). powderize. Alkaline earth sulfide phosphors activated by copper.68 Preparation Dissolve the copper sulfate and the NaHCO3 together in a little water.SrS:Cu+.88 eV). W. J. Absorption (%) 100 Emission . ++ (3.250 1.1 2 By weight (g) 148 0.. add this solution to the SrCO3.33 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0. Powderize. H2S. Optical Properties Emission color: Green Emission peak: 2. Fire in open alumina boats. Lehmann. Make a uniform slurry in water or methanol.Na Structure Cubic (NaCl) Composition Ingredient SrCO3 CuSO4·5 H2O NaHCO3 Mole % 100 0. Dry.. and gold.40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: ++/ Very efficient Decay: Non-exponential decay in the 10 sec range followed by long phosphorescence Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Remarks 1. 1 hour. 1200ºC.

N2.176 1 Preparation First mix only the SrCO3 + Eu2O3. 2. This phosphor can be sensitized for efficient 3.40 eV excitation by addition of ~0.26 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4. 3. 1100ºC. Fire in open quartz boats. The characteristic orange body color of this phosphor is caused by the blue to green absorption band and by the orange-red emission excited by ambient light. Mix by dry grinding. The Cl in the above recipe may be replaced by F. 1100ºC. Store in a well-closed container. Add the above amount of NH4Cl.1 (of Eu) 2 By weight (g) 148 0. H2S. 1 hour. or I.03 mol% of Pb. 2. 1.40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: + Decay: Decay in the microsecond range Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Remarks 1. Br.00 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0.88 eV).SrS:Eu2+ Structure: Cubic (NaCl) Composition Ingredient SrCO3 Eu2O3 NH4Cl Mole % 100 0. Optical Properties Emission color: Orange-red Emission peak: 2. also ~ 2–3 g of sulfur. Powderize. 1 hour. + (3. Fire in capped quartz tubes. Powderize. Absorption (%) 100 Emission .

115 0. O. Optical Properties Emission color: Yellow-green Emission peak: 2. 1 hour.40 eV excitation by addition of ~0.245 eV. This also shifts the emission band peak to ~2.SrS:Mn2+ Structure: Cubic (NaCl) Composition Ingredient SrCO3 MnCO3 NH4Cl Mole % 100 0. 1000ºC. Powderize. H2S. Fire in open quartz boats..40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: +/Fairly efficient Decay: Exponential decay requiring ~4 msec to 1/10 Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Remark Phosphor can be sensitized for efficient 3.1 1 By weight (g) 148 0.03 mol% of Pb.88 eV). Reference 1. 3. H2S. Technical University of Berlin (1959).540 Preparation First mix only the SrCO3 + MnCO3. Powderize. 1 hour. Add the above amount of NH4Cl and also ~ 2–3 g of sulfur. + (3. Sorge. 1. Fire in open quartz boats. Mix by dry grinding.28 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0. Store in a well-closed container. Thesis. Powderize. 1100ºC. Fire in capped quartz tubes. 2.23 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4. 1100ºC. 1 hour. N2. Absorption (%) 100 Emission .

900ºC.38 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: + (4. Soc. Store in a well-closed container. 700ºC. J. 1 hour.1 1 (of K) By weight (g) 233 0. This material is very hygroscopic.. 1 hour. Reference 1. 2. Replacement of K in the above recipe by Li. Powderize. W. Replacement of K by Na gives near-dead material. H2S. Add both solutions. Rb. silver. or P gives slightly different emission spectra. Fire in open alumina boats. . Optical Properties Emission color: Orange-red Emission peak: 1.40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: + Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 100 Emission 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Remarks 1. let it come into contact with water. stir to uniformity.93 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0. Powderize.K Structure: Cubic (NaCl) Composition Ingredient BaSO4 Au-metal K2CO3 Mole % 100 0. H2. 2. Cs. 117. Fire in open alumina boats. + (3. Alkaline earth sulfide phosphors activated by copper. Lehmann. 1..197 0.BaS:Au. and gold.88 eV). dry and powderize. Do not. Electrochem. F. Make a slurry of the BaSO4 in water or methanol. 1389 (1970). under any circumstances.690 Preparation Dissolve the Au in a little (as little as possible) aqua regia and the K2CO3 in a little water.

Powderize. Fire in covered alumina crucibles.4. N2. Store in a well-closed container. H2S. + (3. Fire in open quartz boats. 1 hour. 2.5% .40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: 4. N2. 800ºC. Powderize. 1. Add the above amount of NaHCO3 and also ~2–3 g of sulfur. 800ºC. Optical Properties Emission color: Bluish Emission peaks: Two overlapping bands ~2. 800ºC.88 eV). 1 hour. Powderize. Mix by dry grinding.7 0. Fire in open quartz boats.840 Preparation First mix only CaCO3 + Ga2O3 + CeO2. 3.15 Double Sulfides The following host compounds and activators are included in this subsection: CaGa2S4:Ce3+ CaGa2S4:Eu2+ CaGa2S4:Mn2+ CaGa2S4:Pb2+ ZnGa2S4:Mn2+ ZnBa2S3:Mn2+ CaGa2S4:Ce3+ Structure: Orthorhombic Composition Ingredient CaCO3 Ga2O3 CeO2 NaHCO3 Mole % 98 200 (of Ga) 1 1 By weight (g) 98 187 1.68 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4. 1 hour.42 and 2.

Optical Properties Emission color: Yellow-green Emission peak: 2.. 1 hour. Powderize. N2 bubbling through CS2. J. 2. Fire in open quartz boats. Peters. + (3. Fire in open quartz boats. Reference 1. Store in a well-closed container. Luminescence and structural properties of thiogallate phosphors Ce+3 and Eu+2-activated phosphors. 800ºC.40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: 7% Absorption (%) 100 Emission .Spectra 800 700 600 500 400 Wavelength (nm) 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Remark This phosphor is slightly unstable in water.24 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4.E. 1. Electrochem. 119. Powderize.22 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0. 800ºC. T.A. H2S..88 eV).. 1 hour. dry. and Baglio.76 Preparation Mix by slurrying in water. and powderize. CaGa2S4:Eu2+ Structure: Orthorhombic Composition Ingredient CaCO3 Ga2O3 Eu2O3 Mole % 99 200 (of Ga) 1 (of Eu) By weight (g) 99 187 1. Soc. 230 (1972). J.

Electrochem. 900ºC. 1 hour. Synthesis and photoluminescence of MIIM2III(S. and Baglio. Fire in open quartz boats. 1. Powderize. T.Spectra 800 700 600 500 400 Wavelength (nm) 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Remark This phosphor is slightly unstable in water.. Donohue. J. + (3. Fire in open quartz boats. and Hanlon. H2S..3 Preparation Mix by slurrying in water. Soc.. 121. Optical Properties Emission color: Deep red Emission peak: 1. Peters.E. N2 loaded with CS2.Se)4.74 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4.40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: + Absorption (%) 100 Emission . CaGa2S4:Mn2+ Structure: Orthorhombic Composition Ingredient CaCO3 Ga2O3 MnCO3 Mole % 98 200 (of Ga) 2 By weight (g) 98 187 2.A.. References 1. P. J. Powderize. 800ºC. 230 (1972). Store in a well-closed container. Dry in air..C. J. 119. J. 2 hours. Luminescence and structural properties of thiogallate phosphors Ce+3 and Eu+2-activated phosphors. 2.. Electrochem. Powderize when dry. 2.88 eV). 137 (1974).E. Soc.

Powderize. 800ºC. 1 hour. Optical Properties Emission color: Pale whitish-yellow Emission peak: 2.5% Absorption (%) 100 Emission . Fire in open quartz boats. H2S. 3. Fire in capped quartz tubes. 1 hour. Store in a well-closed container. N2. Add the above amount of PbO and also ~2–3 g of sulfur.03 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4.88 eV).2 Preparation First mix only CaCO3 + Ga2O3. Fire in open quartz boats. ++ (3. N2 bubbling through CS2. Mix by dry grinding. 1. Powderize. 2. 800ºC. 800ºC.40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: 3. 1 hour. CaGa2S4:Pb2+ Composition Ingredient CaCO3 Ga2O3 PbO Mole % 99 200 (of Ga) 1 By weight (g) 99 187 2.Spectra 800 700 600 500 400 Wavelength (nm) 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Remark This phosphor is slightly unstable in water.

H2S. Powderize. Powderize.92 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0.88 eV). 1 hour. Powderize. dry. about 18–20 msec to 1/10 Absorption (%) 100 Emission . ZnGa2S4:Mn2+ Structure: Tetragonal Composition Ingredient ZnS Ga2O3 MnCO3 Mole % 98 200 (of Ga) 2 By weight (g) 96 187 2.3 Preparation Mix by slurrying in water. Fire in open quartz boats. and powderize. H2S. 3. 1 hour. 1100ºC.Spectra 800 700 600 500 400 Wavelength (nm) 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Remark This phosphor is slightly unstable in water. 2. Fire in open quartz boats. 1. Optical Properties Emission color: Red Emission peak: 1. Fire in open quartz boats.30 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4. N2 bubbling through CS2. 1000ºC.40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: 4% Decay: Exponential decay. ++ (3. 1 hour. 800ºC.

1. Meeting..24 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (3. 2. 800ºC. G. and Smith. A. dry. H2S.935 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0. ZnBa2S3:Mn2+ Structure: Orthorhombic Composition Ingredient ZnS BaCO3 MnCO3 Mole % 98 200 2 By weight (g) 96 275 2.3 Preparation Mix by slurrying in water.Spectra 800 700 600 500 400 Wavelength (nm) 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Reference 1. Soc. Bird. Optical Properties Emission color: Red Emission peak: 1. and powderize. Abstr. Powderize. 1 hour. 92 (May 1974). Vecht. Fire in open quartz boats.F. Fire in open quartz boats.J. 700ºC. Powderize.. San Francisco. P.. Electrochem.40 eV) Excitation efficiency be e-beam: + Absorption (%) 100 Emission . H2. 1 hour.

References 1. et al. J. 10. 2.. Soc. 93 (May 1974). Electrochem. Meeting. A. 789 (1973). Sci. Vecht. Electroluminescent displays. Vecht. Technol. Absorption (%) 100 Emission . Vac. Vecht. San Francisco.. A.Spectra 800 700 600 500 400 Wavelength (nm) 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Remark This phosphor has been used for DC-EL by A. Abstr..

Electrochem.88 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: + Reference 1.50 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0. 3. T.. Soc.61 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0. Electrochem. J. 98 (1975). P.04 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0.51 eV Excitation efficiency by e-beam: + Reference 1.16 Miscellaneous Sulfides and Oxysulfides The following host compounds and activators are included in this subsection: SrAl2S4:Eu2+ SrGa2S4:Pb2+ BaAl2S4:Eu2+ SrGa2S4:Ce2+ SrGa2S4:Eu2+ BaGa2S4:Ce3+ BaGa2S4:Eu2+ Y2O2S:Eu3+ Y2O2S:Tb3+ Gd2O2S:Tb3+ SrAl2S4:Eu2+ Optical Properties Emission color: Blue-green Emission peak: 2.40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: + .E. Red and white emitting phosphors for flying spot scanner applications. 121. Donohue... J. and Hanlon.4.C. Synthesis and photoluminescence of MIIM2III(S. J.. 122.21 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: + (4. SrGa2S4:Pb2+ Optical Properties Emission color: Orange Emission peak: 2. Luminescence properties of thiogallate phosphors.E. Peters. Soc.Se)4..31 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: + (3. BaAl2S4:Eu2+ Optical Properties Emission color: Light blue Emission peak: 2. 137 (1974).

2.53 eV. Electrochem. P. J. Red and white emitting phosphors for flying spot scanner applications. Luminescence properties of thiogallate phosphors. and Baglio. 137 (1974).Reference 1. and Hanlon. Soc..A.C. SrGa2S4:Ce3+ Optical Properties Emission color: Blue-green Emission peak: 2. J... Soc.31 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0. T.. 2. J.40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: + Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 100 Excitation (%) Emission 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 References 1. 230 (1972). Synthesis and photoluminescence of MIIM2III(S.E. Soc.E. Electrochem. Peters. T. Electrochem...20 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (3.Se)4. 98 (1975). J..E. 119.40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: + .. Donohue. Peters. 121. 122. J. 3. SrGa2S4:Eu2+ Optical Properties Emission color: Green Emission peak: 2.73 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: + (3. Luminescence and structural properties of thiogallate phosphors Ce+3 and Eu+2-activated phosphors.

121.E. Electrochem... 137 (1974).. T. and Baglio.. Peters. 121. P. Absorption (%) 100 Emission . 119.40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: + Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 100 Excitation (%) Emission 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 References 1. J. BaGa2S4:Ce3+ Optical Properties Emission color: Blue-green Emission peak: 2. Soc. J.A. Soc. Soc. and Baglio. 230 (1972). Electrochem..53 eV.C. J.E. P. J.C.Se)4. Electrochem.73 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: + (3. 2. T. Donohue..E. 230 (1972).E.. Soc.. 119. Peters. Luminescence and structural properties of thiogallate phosphors Ce+3 and Eu+2-activated phosphors.. and Hanlon. Electrochem.Se)4. J. 2. and Hanlon..A. Donohue. J. Synthesis and photoluminescence of MIIM2III(S. 137 (1974).Spectra 800 700 600 500 400 Wavelength (nm) 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Reference 1. J. Luminescence and structural properties of thiogallate phosphors Ce+3 and Eu+2-activated phosphors. Synthesis and photoluminescence of MIIM2III(S.. 2.. J.

Synthesis and photoluminescence of MIIM2III(S. T.. J.BaGa2S4:Eu2+ Optical Properties Emission color: Blue-green Emission peak: 2. and Baglio.. Electrochem. Luminescence and structural properties of thiogallate phosphors Ce+3 and Eu+2-activated phosphors.Se)4. 2.52 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (3.. P. and Hanlon. 230 (1972).E. 121. 137 (1974). J.40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: ++ Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Absorption (%) 100 Emission Absorption (%) 100 Emission .C. Peters. + (3. Soc.88 eV). Donohue.. 119. J.E. Electrochem.40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: + Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 References 1. Soc.A.. J. Y2O2S:Eu3+ Structure: Trigonal Optical Properties Emission color: Orange to red (lines) Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4..

. 3.H. Soc.. M. and Struck. Electrochem. Electrochem. U. C. Fonger. + (3.S.R. 118 (1970).40 eV) ... 124.40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: ++ Gd2O2S:Tb3+ Optical Properties Emission color: Green Emission peak: 2. 413 (1977). Preparation of Y2O2S:Eu phosphor particles of different sizes by a flux method. 117. Energy loss and energy storage from the Eu3+ chargetransfer states in Y and La oxysulfides.88 eV). Excitation efficiency by e-beam: ++ (3...29 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: + (4. Pat.W. J..26–2. J. Royce. Soc. 2. L. Y2O2S:Tb3+ Optical Properties Emission color: Blue-green Excitation efficiency by UV: + (4. W. Ozawa.88 eV).References 1. 3 418 246 (1968).

4 Phosphor Screens by Brushing Phosphor Screens by Settling in a Kasil Solution Phosphor Screens by Cathaphoretic Deposition Filming of Phosphor Screens .Section 5: Preparation of Phosphor Screens 5.3 5.2 5.1 5.

. Let dry in air. Now place all onto an electric hot plate with a flat metal top. Lehmann's Phosphor Cookbook. Simultaneously. thin but dense. phosphor layers. Procedure Place the clean substrate (glass. Keep nozzle of the spray can about 5–10 cm over the substrate and spray enough to have the liquid laquer uniformly flowing over the area. The method is quick and easy and has been extensively used in the laboratory. 5. Spray a layer of Krylon-Clear (out of a spray can) onto the substrate.1 Phosphor Screens by Brushing This method gives excellent.Section 5 PREPARATION OF PHOSPHOR SCREENS* The following are examples of how to deposit inorganic phosphor powders in thin and uniform layers onto flat surfaces (usually glass). Place the substrate. These methods have been tested and used in this laboratory. They are useful but certainly not the only ways of preparing phosphor screens. etc. The lacquer becomes tacky when hot and coats quickly with a very dense yet thin phosphor layer.) on a horizontal surface. Try to keep the laquer as uniform in thickness as possible. * This section is from W. onto a piece of white paper and some of the phosphor to be coated onto the dry lacquer layer. the lacquer up. move the phosphor over the lacquer with a soft hair brush. It is especially good for small screens. Heat up the hot plate to a temperature where the paper under the substrate just about turns brown.

face up. Small amounts of this reaction product. into a glass cylinder. Reference 1. Lacquer becomes solid. About 5–10 mg/cm2 usually is sufficient for most phosphors and purposes. Sr(C2H3O2)2 . In some cases. Screen the phosphor through a fine sieve immediately before use (this is an important point).2 Phosphor Screens by Settling in a Kasil Solution This method gives somewhat less dense (macroscopically) layer than brushing but permits tight thickness control and is easily used for large screens. will bind the phosphor to the substrate. The phosphor adheres very tightly to the substrate and is not easily damaged. 205 (1977). the phosphor will still stick to the substrate but the layer is much softer and easier damaged by accidental touching. The screen is now ready for most applications. Electron. 2 798 821 (1954). Dry in air.. * Best reaction times depend on the material. and Houston. Afterwards.S. K. Reference 1. ZnS-type phosphors react slower and have to stand overnight or longer.. R. Lehmann. Electr. Phys. the organic layer underneath of the phosphor layer cannot be tolerated. or of Sr silicate from the reaction between parts A and B. a volume equal to that of A. Weigh the amount of phosphor to give the desired layer of thickness. 5. W.K. 43. U. Place it in a sufficiently large beaker. Vosburgh. for a few minutes. Cover the beaker and let stand for about 1–24 hours. .Take the screen off the hot plate. close the upper end of the cylinder with one hand and shake vigorously.. 400ºC. Then pour the suspension quickly to the solution A in the beaker.* The phosphor settles down during this time and the phosphor layer reacts with the silicate of the solution. Procedure Clean the glass to be coated.. let cool down. grams per square centimeter. add the weighed amount of phosphor. Zn2SiO4 phosphors give well-adhering screens after 1–2 hours. Pat. over the area of the beaker opening. Adv. in 1 liter water Pour solution A into the beaker to 20–40% of the volume. It can easily be burned out by heating in the open air. Solution A: K-silicate solution in water.G. 3% solids Solution B: 1 g Sr acetate.. It is widely in use to prepare phosphor screens for cathode-ray tubes. Decant the excess liquid. Cautiously (as not to damage the still soft phosphor layer) rinse the screen several times in water. Wipe excess loose phosphor particles off with a soft paper tissue. Pour solution B. Prepare two stock solutions. Swank. however. J.M..

Pour this solution into a beaker and add a few grams of the phosphor. Procedure Coat the glass surface to be coated with a very thin. 1456 (1970).) into the upper part of the beaker.F. 5. Electrophoretic deposition of luminescent materials. D. Insert the Au-coated substrate and an inert anode (Pt. Turn off voltage and stirrer. Then take the screen cautiously out of the solution (the phosphor adheres to the substrate even in the absence of any additional binder).E. Grosso. Apply about 100–150 V DC (subtrate = negative).3 Phosphor Screens by Cathaphoretic Deposition This method is used to prepare dense layers of fine-particled phosphors for high-resolution cathode ray screens. Distance anode–cathode a few centimeters. Dry. Electrochem. . Keep the solution in suspension by stirring (magnetic stirrer). let the excess phosphor settle. The Al film provides an optically reflecting rear layer (thus enhancing the output brightness of the tube) and protects the phosphor against damage by ion bombardment from unavoidable gas residues in the tube. optically transparent gold layer by evaporation in a vacuum. A very uniform and compact phosphor layer will stick to the substrate within about 10–30 sec... Rinse again in water and then in methanol.5. Rutherford. Wash briefly in a solution of about 10 g NaOH (or KOH) + 10 g NaCN (or KCN) in 1 liter water to dissolve the Au film which is no longer needed.4 Filming of Phosphor Screens Phosphor layers in commercial CR tubes are backed by a thin metallic Al film which the exciting electrons penetrate to reach the phosphor particles. J.E. carbon. R. P.. Reference 1. 117. Current should be about 5–10 mg/cm2. Soc. Longer times give thicker but less uniform layers. etc.. Provide a solution of 200 mg MG(NO3)2·H2O in 1 liter methanol. and Sargent. Rinse briefly in water.

Add water to cover the screen. 30 ccm isopropyl alcohol. The cellulose film will burn out leaving behind a shiny Al film. The cellulose now forms a very thin solid film touching only the tops of the phosphor particles. leaving behind a solid. With an eye dropper. Carefully lift screen out. The solution will quickly spread over the whole water surface. Provide a solution of: 50 ccm ethyl cellulose in amyl acetate (commercial cellulose binder). Deposit the Al film by evaporation in vacuum. 2 ccm octyl acetate. 65 ccm propyl acetate. face up. very thin film of ethyl cellulose floating on the water. . into a beaker on a metal carrier to permit easy lifting out again. The solvent evaporates within about 20–30 sec. Let dry in air. drop 1–5 drops (depending on the surface area) of the above filming solution onto the water in the beaker. It prevents the Al during the subsequent vacuum deposition to penetrate in between the particles.Procedure Place the phosphor screen. Heat the screen in open air to about 300–400ºC for a few minutes.

Part 2: Additional Developments .

Section 6: Phosphor Synthesis 6.1 6.2 6.3 Alternative Preparation Methods Combustion Synthesis of Phosphors Preparation of Phosphors by Sol–Gel Techniques .

In these processes. As an example. they generally do not leave the reaction mixture and must be removed by washing with water or other appropriate solvents. Alternatively. The steam heating results in a very fast evaporation of the solvent or water. through either decomposition or evaporation. The amounts used are typically small. In this method. This results in a more reactive mixture. the mixture is then heated or fired under an appropriate atmosphere. come into contact with each other on an atomic or ionic level. the reactants are generally granular with radii in the micrometer range. Molten salts are used as non-volatile fluxes and generally do not react with the starting materials. As a result. and Na4P2O7. The use of an interaction medium often results in lower reaction temperatures and allows for the optimization of the grain size of the luminophores being synthesized. A suitable flux increases the reactivity of the constituents by dissolving at least one of the reactants and provides a medium to incubate the crystallization of the phosphor. Y(NO3)3 and Tb(NO3)3 dissolved in water can be precipitated by the addition of a 2-to-1 solution of oxalic acid dissolved in hot water. There are two types of fluxes which are used. the reactants are mixed thoroughly either in dryness or in suspension. The method of spray drying can also be used to synthesize luminescent materials. NH4Br. Reactivity can also be improved by choosing starting materials which are unstable in controlled circumstances. and boric acid. Examples of salts used for this purpose are Na2MoO4. The volatile flux often reacts with the starting material and leaves the reaction mixture spontaneously. the starting materials are dissolved in a solvent. Commonly used fluxes include NH4Cl.Section 6 PHOSPHOR SYNTHESIS 6. . A wet co-precipitation method is also being used. the reactants are first dissolved in a solvent. Such reactants include the carbonates and the hydroxides which decompose with the emission of CO2 or H2O upon heating the mixture. Na2SiO3. flux agents or molten salts are often added to provide a more interactive medium for the reaction. Droplets of this solution are then injected into a gas stream and are heated as they are transported downstream. Large amounts of the salts are used (up to 30% by weight of the phosphor material). As the name denotes. This method is used in cases in which an insoluble salt can be identified for each of the reaction constituents. Other routes for co-precipitation can involve sulfates or hydroxides. on the order of few mole percent. and then co-precipitate forming an intimately commingled starting mixture. as the interactive specific surface of the remaining elements increases in these processes. an intimate reaction mixture is formed and deposited downstream from the flow. To ensure the proper reactivity between the constituents of the phosphor. The oxalates obtained in the precipitate can be converted to oxides by heating at a relatively low temperature of 800ºC.1 Alternative Preparation Methods* The traditional way of preparing phosphors has been by the mix and fire techniques detailed in the earlier sections. In this method. these fluxes are always in the form of a melt. Na2B4O7. AlF3. To further facilitate the reaction and to improve the crystallinity of the luminescent materials. volatile and non-volatile. preferably water. the oxides can also be dissolved directly in hot diluted nitric acid to obtain a treatable precipitate.

3YN3O9 + 5AlN3O9 + 15CH6N4O YAG(s) + 42N2(g) + 15CO2(g) + 45H2O(g) (1) When complete combustion occurs. the advantages of combustion synthesis are in its ability to produce well-crystallized.2 Combustion Synthesis of Phosphors* Beginning in the late 1980’s. and carbohydrazide to form yttrium aluminum garnet..g. self-sustaining reactions resulting from the appropriate combination of oxidizers (e. having a negative enthalpy of reaction ( Hrxn = –3800 kJ/mol). that is the ratio of the oxidizing to reducing components of the metal nitrate-fuel precursor mixture and is defined as: e (coefficie nt of oxidizing elements in specific formula) valency ( 1) (coefficie nt of reducing elements in specific formula) valency (2) *This section was kindly provided by L. and carbohydrazide. so that no residues remain in the product material. N2. it is necessary that a large amount of heat be released during the formation of the products. the only gaseous products. * The above section was kindly provided by Cees Ronda.. Grinding has often been implicated in the degradation of luminescent emission intensity through the creation of surface defects that quench the luminescence. Rohwer. several research groups began to investigate the use of combustion synthesis for oxide phosphor preparation4–6 and found it to be a technique of interest for phosphor synthesis in general. . or ammonium perchlorate) and an organic fuel (e. CO2. fine oxide powders. exothermic. ammonium nitrate. Y3Al5O12 (YAG). A composition of metal nitrates and fuel in which the fuel reacts completely with all of the metal nitrates in the mixture.g. crystalline. The stoichiometry of metal nitrate-fuel mixtures is expressed in terms of the elemental stoichiometric coefficient. Later in the mid-1990’s. Al2O3. For combustion to occur.1–3 The method produces rapid. as an alternative to time-consuming solid-state reaction and sol–gel processing techniques. to form aluminum oxide. The reaction of aluminum nitrate. and H2O. Equation 1 is an example of a stoichiometric combustion reaction of yttrium nitrate.. For oxide phosphors. combustion synthesis has been investigated as a method to produce homogeneous. fine particle size powders rapidly without extensive high temperature (>1500oC) annealing and mechanical separation (e. urea. is known as a stoichiometric ratio or composition.g.The various methods described above pose the advantage of assuring a better and more homogeneous admixture of the reactants to be used in the synthesis and of generally requiring a lower temperature to achieve this synthesis. metal nitrates. are released and no residuals are left in the synthesized YAG material. Al(NO3)3. grinding and milling) steps. or glycine). 6. is an example of a highly exothermic reaction. carbohydrazide. e. aluminum nitrate.S. CH6N4O.

The flame temperature can also be increased by adding excess oxidizer such as ammonium nitrate. the metal nitrate to carbohydrazide molar ratio = 1. Hess’ law can be used to approximate the adiabatic flame temperature for a combustion reaction: Tf To Hr Cp Hp (4) where Hr and Hp are the enthalpies of formation of the reactants and products. Tf. The fuel alters the energetics and exothermicity of the reaction. these temperatures are clearly much lower than the temperature at which crystallization of the desired phase takes place during conventional processing. The resultant product appears as a porous foam. For example. Powders obtained from combustion reactions with urea or carbohydrazide fuels are luminescent in the as-synthesized state. metal nitrates. The maximum . oxygen is considered to be the only oxidizing element and has a positive valence while carbon. and fuel rich when e < 1. and metal cations are considered to be reducing elements and have a negative valence. Nitrogen is considered to be neutral. e Combustion reactions are initiated in a muffle furnace or on a hot plate at temperatures of 500oC or less. hydrogen. Stoichiometric mixtures are reported to produce maximum energy.875 8 (-1) {[1 C (-4)] [6 H (-1)] [4 N 0] [1 O 2]} (3) = 1 and Thus. the precursor mixture of de-ionized water. dehydrates. in Equation 1. The mixture is stoichiometric when e = 1. The photoluminescence emission spectra of YAG:Cr phosphors produced with carbohydrazide. and ruptures into a flame after about 3–5 minutes. decomposes. respectively. urea. The oxidizer/fuel molar ratio required for a stoichiometric mixture ( e = 1) is determined by summing the total oxidizing and reducing valencies in the oxidizer compounds and dividing by the sum of the total oxidizing and reducing valencies in the fuel compounds. the target phase(s) can be achieved with significantly reduced external energy input. Y(NO3)3 and Al(NO3)3 are oxidizers and the reducing agent is CH6N4O. or by adjusting the fuel to oxidizer molar ratio so e = 1. and Cp is the heat capacity of products at constant pressure. The chemical energy released during the exothermic reaction between the metal nitrates and fuel can rapidly heat the system to a high temperature (>1800oC) and sustain that high temperature in the absence of an external heat source. In these calculations. Combustion reactions using glycine fuel yield amorphous powders or ash which must be annealed to produce crystalline luminescent powders. and glycine fuels followed by a heat treatment in air at 1300oC for 1 hour show the effect of flame temperature on the luminescent properties. as noted below. the metal nitrate to carbohydrazide molar ratio is given by: 5 3 {[1 Al (-3)] [3 N 0] [9 O 2]} [1 Y (-3)] [3 N 0] [9 O 2]} 15 8 8 1. and provides a method to increase or decrease the adiabatic flame temperature. For Y3Al5O12 synthesized using carbohydrazide fuel. The type of fuel and the fuel to oxidizer ratio affect the adiabatic flame temperature.875 is needed to obtain complete combustion of all components. In a typical reaction. Thus. and fuel boils. it is fuel lean when e > 1.The coefficients of the oxidizing and reducing elements are obtained from the balanced chemical equation for the combustion reaction of metal nitrates and a fuel.

S. 6. respectively. J. The addition of a NH4(OH) or oxalic acid causes the metallic hydroxides or oxalates to precipitate from the mixture.. Shea. Lett. The photoluminescence intensity increases for powders obtained from reactions that reached higher flame temperatures. K.. 5.3 Preparation of Phosphors by Sol–Gel Techniques* 6. 6. J. Ekambaram. 3. 905 (1995). 8 (2001). Alloys Cmpds.. Lett. et. and Patil. 2. Combustion synthesis of fine-particle metal aluminates.. .. 6 (1990). The flame temperature is also controlled by the fuel to oxidizer ratio of the particular fuel used. In these devices. such as crystallite size or and degree of disorder of the local environment at the activator ions. The integrated photoluminescence intensity is a maximum for reactions at or near stoichiometry. Mater. Chick. Mater. *This section was kindly provided by W. Zych. Am. A novel combustion process for the synthesis of fine particle alpha-alumina and related oxide materials. and Patil. Ceram.C. The grain size of phosphors prepared via solid-state chemical reactions depends on the temperature and the length of the sintering process.C.1 Introduction Phosphors used for most emissive display devices are in the form of powders. J. 1305 (1990). in these cases. L. 6. 79. Mater. Kingsley. and Sluzky. small particle size luminescent oxides used an optimized combustion process.3.. in the wet method..C. Soc. and 1210oC. 1780. x-ray analysis and spectroscopic investigation of nanostructured Lu2O3:Tb.A. aqueous solutions of specific constituent metallic salts are employed. O. The quality of the displays depends on the nature of the powders used. and glycine were 1825. McKittrick. This is an indication that certain properties of the resulting powders.. the ingredients of the precipitate are in contact with each other at a molecular level and an efficient chemical reaction normally occurs. al. and in order to maintain efficiency the size of phosphor grains has to be reduced to reflect this fact. Combustion synthesis of yttria. K. et al. 5.A. This is especially true in low-voltage applications such as in the field emission displays of current interest. 323-324. E. 3257 (1996). are affected by the flame temperature of the reaction.. Synthesis of red-emitting. E.. Kingsley. urea. Suresh. Jia. References 1.. lower energy electrons do not penetrate into phosphor grains very deeply. fine and uniform powders with good crystallinity are generally preferred. Lower temperature and shorter sintering periods give rise to smaller grain size particles.. 25. J.J. 4.flame temperatures during reactions with carbohydrazide. To resolve this problem. wet methods of preparation are often used. Lopez.. Mater.J. and Patil. J. K. L. K... J. Preparation.. but both the crystallinity and grain uniformity are poor if the treatment parameters are such as not to allow the chemical reaction to be completed. Chem.E. Glycine nitrate combustion synthesis of oxide ceramic powders. 10. Sci.. 427 (1988)... J.

such as SiO2:CaX2-Eu2+/Mn2+ (where X = Cl. and NH4Cl. prepared by a solid-state reaction. or I). Br. Nano-scale uniform pores can be obtained at intermediate processing temperature while high-density materials can be produced with higher annealing temperature. samples have to be annealed above 1000°C and this may produce undesirable side effects. known as alkoxides of metals. H3BO3. processes are known to contaminate samples. which are commonly used in ceramic technology and contaminate the end products. (e) Thin films and multi-layers coatings of sol–gel materials can be readily prepared by spinning or dipping methods during the gelation period. (b) High uniformity of doping ions distribution exists. The sol–gel technique presents the following advantages: (a) High homogeneity of the chemical composition of the materials produced occurs. The technique has the following disadvantages: 1. A kind of metalorganic compounds. For example. To get rid of these organic groups. Different . The sol–gel method has been widely used to prepare a number of phosphors10-12 for displays and other materials that are of technical importance. Willi Lehmann reported in 1975 that very efficient luminescence was observed in. (b) Nanophases can be obtained by phase aggregation from doped SiO2 or other matrices during thermal treatments. The drying and annealing processes have to be slow and deliberate. Fluxes. No milling and grinding are needed. This allows the doping of fragile organic and biological molecules into porous inorganic materials and the fabrication of organic– inorganic hybrid materials. is used as precursors. the processes hydrolysis and gelation can be induced to produce homogeneous gels from the mixture of alkoxides. heterogeneous materials. sintered. 2. The sol–gel method is advantageous inasmuch as thin films or coatings of the phosphor can be formed on substrates directly and/or the sol–gel can be molded into designated forms.The sol–gel method of phosphor preparation is regarded as a wet method. (c) Processing temperature can be very low. In cases where phosphor powders are prepared by the sol–gel method. the gels can be baked. and powderized as in other traditional methods. are no longer needed. (f) The sol–gel procedures produce little unintentional contamination. such as B2O3. No "local" concentration quenching will occur because of impurity clustering. and higher doping concentration becomes possible. Through the use of the appropriate reagents. for example. the geletion process then proceeds as before.13 These materials are similar to those found in the nanoclusters in SiO2 which have been developed recently via the sol–gel method described in the first section. These metalorganic alkoxides either are in liquid form or are soluble in certain organic solvents. This "contamination" does not enter into the lattice and will not affect the intrinsic optical properties of the phosphor. what he called. Molecule-level-homogeneous multi-component materials can be obtained. contributions to the optical spectra of these materials from inhomogeneous sources are generally expected to be smaller than those encountered in unordered systems. To obtain powder or ceramic samples. It is difficult to completely remove the residual hydroxyls from the sol–gel materials. powderizing may be used and trace of foreign particles can be mix in. (d) The microstructure (porosity and size of pores) of the materials can be controlled. otherwise cracks and striations will appear in the samples. Because of the better homogeneity.14-17 There are two ways to prepare such nanophosphor composites: (a) Alkoxide solutions of the phosphor are prepared from the appropriate precursors and then blended into the sol of SiO2 (or other matrixes).

an alkoxide is a metalorganic compound. The potential of the sol–gel process was not appreciated until 1980. and hydrochloric acid (HCl) is prepared so that it has a pH in the range of 2–5. These materials are transparent and can be used for displays and laser devices. on the other hand. including hydrolysis. the particles consist of dense oxide or polymetric clusters formed by the precursors and reagents. Graham1 prepared gels of silica from aqueous salts. drying. HCl acts as a catalyst in this process. Si(OC2H5)4.nanophosphor embedded glasses have been fabricated with this method. This acidic solution is added slowly (dropwise) into the precursor alkoxide mixture. a sol is defined as a colloid of solid particles suspended in a liquid. T.3 In general. and thermal treatment.18. and a solid glass or ceramic is produced in this way. For these matrices. similar procedures are applicable to other oxide compounds.19 6. while M. Si(OCH3)4. Ebelmen2 obtained silica gels from metal alkoxides. A gel. the gel forms cells which encapsulate colloidal liquids. The sol–gel technique was developed as early as 1864. is a composite substance consisting of a continuous solid skeletal structure which results from the gelation of the sol. The reaction of alkoxides with water is called hydrolysis. alcohol. when it was "rediscovered" and found to be very useful in synthesizing various materials of practical importance. Since the sol–gel method is a wet chemical method. liquid) are commonly used. They react readily but are not soluble in water. This solute can be driven from the gel through thermal treatment. gelation. a proper solvent is needed to convert solid alkoxides. a mixture of water to alcohol to HCl with pH ~2–5 is added. TMOS (tetramethoxysilane. 1. we use silicon alkoxides as an illustrative example for the preparation of sol–gel materials.2 Sol–gel techniques The sol–gel method is a chemical technique that uses metal alkoxides for the synthesis and production of glasses or ceramics through a series of chemical processes. Preparation of precursor solutions The initial raw materials for sol–gel preparations consist of metal alkoxides either in solid or in liquid form (Table 1). liquid) or TEOS (tetraethoxysilane. These liquid mixtures of the metal alkoxides are stirred for an extended period. silicate-related materials in this case.4 A mixture of water. the procedure for the preparation of doped SiO2 sol–gel glasses is described. on the order of several hours.3. if used. 2. Some alkoxide solutions are commercially available (see Table 1). Since then the method has received considerable attention and has been investigated extensively. such as optical glasses and solidstate laser materials. As an example. To stimulate hydrolysis. Hydrolysis 3. a solvent such as MeOH (methanol) or EtOH (ethanol) is normally used to produce the precursor solution. in which a hydrogen atom belonging to the hydroxyl (OH) group on an alcohol is replaced by a metal atom. A typical reaction goes as: (OR)3-Si-OR + H2O (OR)3-Si-OH + ROH . a hydroxyl (OH) group attaches itself to the metal atom by replacing the alkoxide group (OR) in the TMOS or TEOS. into liquid form. in hydrolysis. Because the chemical–physical processes involved are similar for all metal alkoxides. Doping or activator ions are introduced through either using another alkoxide solution or an aqueous solution of the doping ions.

Table 1. Commonly used metal alkoxides and recommended solvents for solids Name aluminum isopropoxide aluminum n-butoxide aluminum sec-butoxide barium ethoxide barium isopropoxide bismuth isopropoxide calcium ethoxide calcium methoxide cerium isopropoxide copper ethoxide dysprosium isopropoxide erbium isopropoxide gadolinium isopropoxide gallium isopropoxide germanium methoxide germanium ethoxide germanium isopropoxide lanthanum isopropoxide lead isopropoxide magnesium methoxide magnesium ethoxide manganese isopropoxide praseodymium isopropoxide tetraethoxysilane (TEOS) tetramethoxysilane (TMOS) strontium isopropoxide titanium(iv) ethoxide titanium(iv) methoxide titanium(iv) isopropoxide tungsten(vi) ethoxide tungsten(vi) isopropoxide yttrium isopropoxide zinc isopropoxide zirconium n-propoxide zirconium n-butoxide Chemical Formula Al(OC3H7i)3 Al(OC4H9n)3 Al(OC4H9s)3 Ba(OC2H5)2 Ba(OC3H7i)3 Bi(OC3H7i)3 Ca(OC2H5)2 Ca(OCH3)2 Ce(OC3H7i)3 Cu(OC2H5)2 Dy(OC3H7i)3 Er(OC3H7i)3 Gd(OC3H7i)3 Ga(OC3H7i)3 Ge(OCH3)4 Ge(OC2H5)4 Ge(OC3H7i)4 La(OC3H7i)3 Pb(OC3H7i)2 Mg(OCH3)2 Mg(OC2H5)2 Mn(OC3H7i)2 Pr(OC3H7i)3 Si(OC2H5)4 Si(OCH3)4 Sr(OC3H7i)2 Ti(OC2H5)4 Ti(OCH3)4 Ti(OC3H7i)4 W(OC2H5)6 W(OC3H7i)6 Y(OC3H7i)3 Zn(OC3H7i)2 Zr(OC3H7n)4 Zr(OC4H9n)4 Solvents isopropanol n-butanol liquid ethanol isopropanol isopropanol ethanol methanol isopropanol ethanol toluene-isopropanol toluene-isopropanol toluene-isopropanol liquid liquid liquid liquid isopropanol isopropanol methanol ethanol isopropanol toluene-isopropanol liquid liquid isopropanol liquid methanol liquid ethanol isopropanol isopropanol isopropanol n-propanol n-butanol . an aqueous solution containing the doping ion/ions is also blended in during the hydrolysis step. CnH2n+1. If the sol– gels are to be doped. Hydrolysis can occur with any one of the (OR) groups of the molecule. R=CH3 for TMOS.Here R stands for the alkyl (alkylic radical). and R=C2H5 for TEOS.

Through the gelation process. these clusters begin to grow by combining with monomers or other clusters while releasing or condensing water or alcohols. sol–gel synthesis is carried out at room temperature. Several factors affect the rate of sol and gel formation including the temperature. Silica gels prepared under more normal condition (pH 5–7) and/or higher water contents produce highly branched clusters which behave as discrete species. larger structures are produced by polymerization. water. Gelation is a continuous process in which two partially hydrolyzed molecules begin to connect and intertwine with each other with the release (condensation) of water when in a water solution: (OR)3-Si-OH + HO-Si-(OR)3 (OR)3-Si-O-Si-(OR)3 + H2O Alcohol. Aging and drying Aging leads to changes in the structure and other properties of the gel.3. If the gradients are too large. the viscosity and the elastic modulus of the solution increase rapidly. and the pH of the total admixture. silica gels prepared at low pH (<3) and low water content (less than 4 mol% water per mole of alkoxide) produce primarily linear polymers with low cross-link density. colloidal silica is formed.4 With the proper thermodynamic conditions. Small clusters suspended in the liquid constitute the sol. and re-precipitation of monomers or oligomers. Syneresis or spontaneous shrinkage of the network of the gel takes place as bond formation or attraction between clusters induces a contraction of the network and expulsion of liquid from the pores. Different metal alkoxides can also coalesce to form "compound" clusters. 4. Pressure gradients develop through the volume of the gels. At still higher pH and excess water content. . That is through further condensation. and solvent. though both the sol and gel formation rates are known to increase with increasing temperature. this may cause cracking of the sample. Gelation 3. chains of polymers can cross-link to form three-dimensional clusters. With continuing gelation. these clusters link together during gelation. ROH. a common solvent such as alcohol is also normally used as a homogenizing agent. Links between clusters keep on multiplying until a giant cluster forms that spans the vessel. dissolution. The solid network retards the escape of the liquid and prevents structural collapse. Drying by evaporation under normal conditions gives rise to pressure within the pores that causes shrinkage of the gel network. during gelation. In our example. is released when an alcohol solution is employed: (OR)3-Si-OR + HO-Si-(OR)3 (OR)3-Si-O-Si-(OR)3 + ROH ROH is an alcohol: ROH=C2H5OH for TEOS and CH3OH for TMOS. gelation occurs. so that the networks are compressed more at the surfaces than in the bulk. In most cases. Because water and alkoxysilanes are immiscible. Additional cross-links form during gelation and the polymer chains become increasingly entangled. The final spanning cluster forms a skeletal framework which encloses cells containing the liquid phase (water or alcohol) and defines the gel phase. the relative concentration of the alkoxide precursors.

2288. followed by exothermic oxidation at temperatures between 300 and 400°C. Sol-gel synthesis of cadmium tin oxide powder. B.. Phys. 2. further evaporation drives the meniscus of the liquids into the bulk and the rate of evaporation decreases. J. C. Alumina sols. Livage. D. 139 (2000). 318 (1864). and Scherer.6 As an example.J. 6. W. T. 476 (1992). by 900°C.M. Bescher. Rev. 100 mol of H2O.. and Sanchez.7 Monolithic transparent -alumina results when an annealing temperature of 500ºC is used. SPIE Sol–gel Optics III. filters. 745 (1994). 518 (1994).. 17. Chim. Structural relaxation. there is partial densification of the sol–gel. 2288.. 129 (1864). M.. J. Chem. 286 (1975). 16. Brundage..M. Academic Press... The temperature interval 400–525°C represents a region where considerable skeletal densification occurs with little associated weight loss. B.. San Diego (1990).. M. The condensation (water or alcohol) and pyrolysis reactions that occur during heating liberate a large volume of gas that can generate high pressures. and 0. .. M... is the predominant shrinkage mechanism in this temperature interval. At 800°C. and drying. Graham. A. Chockalingam. and Oton. Al(OC4H9)3 (see Table 1) can be used.P. By heating.. R.T. 18. Brinker. 7. Xerogels are useful in the preparation of dense ceramics and are also interesting because of their high porosity and large surface area. et al. Prog. Henry. 183 (1988). Ebelmen. Because of low permeability of the small pores in the network. The resulting dried gel is called a xerogel. Gel glass-dispersed liquidcrystal optical shutters. G. 8. SPIE Sol-Gel Optics II.. Soc. 54. J. 5. New transparent polycrystalline silicate scintillators. 10.2D2O). Ann. this may cause cracking when the samples are heated between room temperature and 400°C. Techniques for other materials Techniques to prepare other oxide and nitride compounds are similar to those used for SiO2. the gel is completely densified leaving only a trace of silanols (Si-OH). Am. 1758. Bull. 41 (1983). Removal of organics takes place by endothermic carbonization near 200°C. et al. Solid State Chem. 27.7 References 1. E. C..5.. catalytic substrates.6 5..W. Soc. the gel constituents move by viscous flow or diffusion in such a way as to reduce the solid–vapor interfacial areas and hence reduce porosity. Yoldas. where oxidation is prevented. as described above. Serna.J. Vidal. Isotope effects in the multiphonon relaxation of hydrated and deuterated cesium chloro-manganate (CsMnCl3. 4. W. Hydrolysis can be conducted at 80°C with 1 mol of aluminum sec-butoxide. a process by which free excess volume is removed by diffusive motion of the network. 3. SPIE Sol-Gel Optics V.D.. 6..L. Jia. and Lakshmanan. SPIE Sol–Gel Optics III.2H2O. J.S. For the silicate system of our example.After shrinkage stops. and vapor sensors. Levy. A. the exothermic process is suppressed if the gels are heated under inert conditions. M. Annealing and porosity control Additional treatment of the sol–gel is required to produce pore-free ceramic materials. these materials are useful as phosphors.. Sol-gel science: The Physics and Chemistry of SolGel Processing. 3943.07 mol of HCl. Serrano. C. 9. and then dried gels can be obtained through the procedures of hydrolysis. then wet gels. Jayachandran. and Yen. sintering at high temperatures results in densification driven by interfacial energy considerations... B. Phys. the alumina becomes phase when annealed at 1200°C.. gellation. to make Al2O3. Sol-gel coating for optical chemical sensors and biosensors. MacCraith. Ceram.E.

Teowee. W.. Rare-earth clustering and aluminum codoping in solgel silica: Investigation using europium(III) fluorescence spectroscopy.. Soc. K. Soc. 1758. Symp. Boulton. D. 292 (1992)... Optically active sol-gel microspheres for flat-panel color displays. X.. W. 8. J.. and Bray.. Levy. 7. Lochhead. Reisfeld. Mater. Alloys Compds. Prospects of sol–gel technology towards luminescent materials. Fluorescence line-narrowing study of Eu3+-doped Sol-gel Silica: Effect of modifying cations on the clustering of Eu3+.. 783 (1996). Costa.J. Mater. 311. and Uhlmann. 748 (1975).R. 13. Meltzer. Lochhead. W. Quintana. 19. 529 (1994). Chem. Bommersbach. Pope. Proc.. H. Rodrigo. V.M. G.. J.M. E. R. R.11. 18.L..J. and Otón. 2288...T. 536 (1994).. J. 16.. SPIE Sol–gel Optics II..P. M.. Chem. Electrochem... SPIE Sol–gel Optica III. K. 15. 14.. Mater.J.. 17. Second-harmonic generation from sol–gel derived ferroelectric and piezoelectric thin films. D. M. Liu. C. Opt. J. 12. Feofilov..A. SPIE Sol–gel Optics III. 11 (2000)...Y3+ codoped SiO2 sol-gel glasses. 16. Spectroscopic study of Eu3+doped and Eu3+. Photoluminescence of Eu3+:Y2O3 nanoclusters embedded in SiO2 Glass. 572 (1995). 1 (2001). J.. Jia. Gel-glass dispersed liquid crystal projection display.C.L.. 271 (1998). W. 519. and Bray. . 122.M. Mater. Jia. 2288. Res. S. et al. Lehmann. and Jiao.

Halophosphates.7 Oxides Silicates Phosphates.6 7.2 7. and Borates Aluminates Halides and Oxyhalides CaS and ZnS-Type Sulfides Other Compounds .Section 7: Other Phosphor Data 7.5 7.1 7.4 7.3 7.

Gd)2O3:Eu3+ YTaO4 YTaO4:Nb5+ YVO4:Dy3+ ZnGa2O4 ZnGa2O4:Mn2+ ZnO:Bi3+ ZnO:Zn ZnO:Ga. Weiyi Jia.Al3+ SrY2O4:Eu3+ SrTiO3:Pr3+.V)O4:Eu Y2O3:Ce Y2O3:Eu (YOE) Y2O3:Eu3+ Y2O3:Tb3+ Y2O3:Ce3+. Masaaki Tamatani. Takashi Hase. 7.1 Oxides The following host compounds and activators are included in this subsection: Bi4Ge3O12 CaTiO3:Eu3+ CaTiO3:Pr3+ Gd3Ga5O12:Cr3+ GdNbO4:Bi3+ K2La2Ti3O10:Eu LuTaO4:Nb5+ SrIn2O4:Pr3+.Section 7 OTHER PHOSPHOR DATA Information about the following additional phosphors and their properties has been kindly provided (in Lehmann’s format) by Edith Bourret-Courchesne. Ultrafast Zn2SiO4:Mn . Dongdong Jia. Ultrafast ZnO-CdO:Ga. Shozo Oshio. Shea-Rowhler. Lauren E. Shinji Okamoto. Cees Ronda. Willi Lehmann (posthumously).Tb3+ Y2O2S:Eu (Y. Madis Raukas. Luis Carlos.Al3+ SrTiO3:Pr3+ Y(P. Yoshitaka Sato. Yoh Mita. and Hajime Yamamoto.

Use a platinum crucible. Luminescence of Bi4Ge3O12: Spectral and decay properties. using Czochralski method. 5495 (1973).Bi4Ge3O12 Structure: Cubic Preparation Grow the crystals of Bi4Ge3O12 from stoichiometric melts.J. 3. Springer-Verlag. Optical Properties Emission peak: 485 nm Excitation efficiency by UV: – (3. Appl. Blasse. R. Phys. and Grabmaier. References 1.40 eV). Luminescent Materials.. R.. p. 179.. B. Lumin. 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 .. This contribution is from Hajime Yamamoto. 2. J. Weber. The other growth technique of the horizontal Bridgman–Stockbarger method is now popular to prevent growths forming a core. The growth atmosphere has to be oxygen. M. (1994). G. The crystals will only be really colorless when the raw materials Bi2O3 and GeO2 have a high purity.. otherwise the Pt crucible will be attacked. J.48. Heidelberg. W. 4. 44. Rossner.3 × 10-6 s Spectra 800 700 600 500 400 Wavelength (nm) 300 100 Excitation (%) Emission 50 2 3 Remarks 1. atmospheric environment.C. 29 (1991). and Grabmaier. B..88 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: + Decay to 1/e: 0. and Monchamp.. and radio frequency induction heating.. 3. Phosphors for X-ray detectors in computed tomography. 2. The melting point of the single crystal is 1044°C. ++ (4.C.

. 1300 C.. 2. 1 hour. Master Degree Thesis. Optical Properties Emission color: Red Emission peak: 612 nm Excitation efficiency by UV: + (3. Fire in open quartz boats. I. Fire in air.98 0. 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Reference 1. 1.40 eV).352 0.CaTiO3:Eu3+ Structure: Orthorhombic Composition Ingredient CaCO3 TiO2 Eu2O3 B2O3 Mole % 100 100 1 3 By weight (g) 10. Powderize. air. University of Puerto Rico—Mayaguez (2001). 2.88 eV) Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 100 Excitation (%) Emission 50 2 3 Remarks 1.209 Preparation Mix by dry grinding or milling. This compound is known as calcium titanate. 1000 C. This contribution is from Weiyi Jia.01 7. Grind and press into pellets again. Press into pellets. 3 hours. – (4. Rivera.

CaTiO3:Pr3+ Structure: Orthorhombic.98 0. Jia. Grind and press into pellets again. Rivera.88 eV) Spectra 800 700 D2. 2.5 3 By weight (g) 10. 2..01 7. 3 hours. 2.40 eV). I. 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 References 1. Optical Properties Emission color: Red Emission peak: 612 nm Excitation efficiency by UV: + (3. Rivera. 1 hour.. Fire in open quartz boats. Press into pellets. I. 153 (2003). air. Fire in air.. 1300 C.H4 3 500 400 Wavelength (nm) 300 100 Excitation (%) Emission 1 I6. 1000 C. .. Composition Ingredient CaCO3 TiO2 Pr(NO3)3.H5 3 600 D2.209 Preparation Mix by dry grinding or milling. Powderize.6H2O B2O3 Mole % 100 100 0. This compound is also known as calcium titanate.313 0. Solid State Commun. Xu.. 126. + (4. This contribution is from Weiyi Jia. Nashville. Proceedings of the Second National Student Conference of NASA URCSC 2000. 1. W. et al. et al. 180 (2000). P1 1 3 x50 1 x10 50 P0 3 3 P0 2 3 Remarks 1. W. Effects of compositional phase transitions on luminescence of Sr1-xCaxTiO3:Pr3+.

4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 References 1. 27. 1.. Alloys Ingredients. Sci. M. G. 2. Optical Properties Emission color: Red Emission peak: 730 nm Excitation efficiency by UV: – (3. Reflectivity (%) 100 Emission .. 4. 376 (1993).C. Ball-mill the powder with a grinding media and a liquid vehicle. Ceramic scintillators.. 2 hours. + (4.40 eV). Wash with water to remove the NH4Cl by-product and excess NH4OH. B. Stir well and add the NH4OH solution. 71 (1984). J. Sci. Nucl. Grabmaier.. Fire in air. IEEE Trans.. and Grabmaier.5 0. The conversion of high energy radiation to visible light by luminescent ceramics. Co-doping with a small amount of Ce reduces the afterglow. and Huber. G. 200. J. Bodinger.2 0. Mater.88 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: + Decay to 1/e: 0. 31/32.. Blasse. W. 900°C for an hour or more. Annu. J...C. 69 (1997). and Duclos. Fire in flowing O2. C. 1500–1550°C..Structure: Cubic (garnet) Composition Ingredient Gd2O3 Ga2O3 Cr2O3 Gd3Ga5O12:Cr3+ Mole % 37. Rev. S. Leppert. B. The afterglow mechanism of chromiumdoped gadolinium gallium garnet.. and Ostertag.. 17 (1993).5 62. H. Greskovich.5 By weight (g) 100 86. Petermann.6 Preparation Combine the proper amounts of the oxides with some nitric acid to form a precipitate. Broad band fluorescence of transition metal doped garnets and tungstates. 2. K. 3.17 × 10-3 sec Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 50 2 3 Remark This contribution is from Hajime Yamamoto.. Lumin. Rossner. 40.. such as water or methanol.. Dry in air.

Store in a well-sealed container.GdNbO4:Bi3+ Structure: Tetragonal (scheelite) Composition Ingredient Gd2(C2O4)3·10H2O Nb2O5 Bi2O3 Mole % 41.51 56.350 Preparation Mix by slurrying in acetone or by dry blende. air. and Fritsch. Fire in covered crucible.51 By weight (g) 15. This contribution is from Madis Raukas. air.S. 600–800 C.701 6. 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 . 1350–1650 C.646 0.. suitable for 2537 Å Excitation efficiency by e-beam: Good Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 100 Emission 50 2 3 Remarks 1. U. 2. 3 hours. C. Fire in covered crucible. Optical Properties Emission color: Blue Emission peak: 430 nm Excitation efficiency by UV: Broad range. Pat..03. This phosphor has a general formula of Gd1-xBixNbO4 and per above ingredients yields a stoichiometry with x = 0.A. Grisafe.. 1. Powderize when dry. 3 767 589 (1973).98 1. 1 hour. Reference 1.W. Dry in air. 2. D.

Good electroluminescent properties result when this phosphor is intercalated with conductive polymers or metals. R. 5 658 495 (1997).1 fL level under focused 15 kV/ 8 A excitation Remarks 1.E.Y... R.. Reddy. Pat. R. Qi. 700 C. + (4.. S.90 0. Pat. 1100 C. 4. 5 531 926 (1996). Karam. 4.40 eV). This phosphor in general formulation of K2La2Ti3O10:Eu is another example of materials belonging to intercalation ingredients. 5 489 398 (1996). Fire in covered alumina crucibles. Qi. and Karam.S.S.. over 3 hours.S. air. J..59 12.S. Reddy..E. References 1. . 1100 C. V... V.K... Karam. The described composition yields a concentration of 0. and 702 nm. Reddy. air.19 By weight (g) 6. Optical Properties Emission peaks: Lines at 594. 3.B.06 57.K.. Fire in covered alumina crucibles. 3.E. air. 2 hours. air. Northrop. Fire in covered alumina crucibles. Filter. Excitation efficiency by UV: + (3. U.141 Preparation Mix stoichiometric amounts in a paint shaker for 30 minutes with about 20 mol% of excess potassium carbonate to compensate for losses due to volatilization. Pat. U. Y.. and Karam.B. This contribution is from Madis Raukas.. and screen through a 325-mesh stainless steel sieve. R. S.K2La2Ti3O10:Eu Structure: Layered perovskite Composition Ingredient K2CO3 TiO2 La2O3 Eu2O3 Mole % 23. Washed in de-ionized water. Pat. 2.S.B.. 24 hours.72 19.02 mol Eu per mole of phosphor. 5. U.E. 24 hours.. Fire in covered alumina crucibles. and Karam. U.Y. 617. V. R. 2.. 5 531 928 (1996).. R.E. 5 567 351 (1996). R.03 0. Qi.Y. increasing from 700 C to 1100 C. Cool to room temperature.63 9. R.R. and Cox.. U. and Zhang. Pat.88 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: Characteristic emission at about 1. Powderize.. dry at 130 C. and Northrop.

J. 2435 (1983). 1250°C. 8–10 hours.. Brixner.40 eV). . using a Freon solvent as grinding medium. 130. 10–14 hours. and Chen.. 1. air. + (4. 1200°C. 2.LuTaO4:Nb5+ Structure: Monoclinic Composition Ingredient Lu2O3 Ta2O5 Mole % — — By weight (g) — — Preparation Mix stoichiometric quantities of the Lu2O3 and Ta2O5. Wash in methanol. Ball-mill.. In the cases where flux is used. Optical Properties Emission color: Violet Emission peak: 394 nm Excitation efficiency by UV: (3.Y. Fire in alumina containers. either by itself or in the presence of 50% Li2SO4. Dry at 130°C. air. H.88 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: + Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 100 Excitation (%) Emission 50 2 3 Remark This contribution is from Masaaki Tamatani. Soc.H. On the structural and luminescent properties of the M’ LnTaO4 rare earth tantalates. Electrochem. Fire in alumina containers. 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Reference 1. leach with water. L.

900 Preparation Mix by slurrying in ethanol. Store in air.8 200 (of In) 0.007 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: – (3. 3 hours.40 eV). ++ (4. Optical Properties Emission peak: 2.64 0.340 3.88 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: ++ (10eV–1 keV) Decay to 1/e: ~10 µsec Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Remark This contribution is from Shinji Okamoto. 1250 C.SrIn2O4:Pr3+. Absorption (%) 100 Emission .517 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0. Powderize.Al3+ Structure: Orthorhombic Composition Ingredient SrCO3 In2O3 Pr6O11 Al(OH)3 Mole % 99.2 (of Pr) 5 By weight (g) 147. Fire in aluminum crucibles. stagnant air.33 277. Dry in air.

Press into pellets with a hydraulic press machine at 40.238 0.40 eV) Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 100 Excitation (%) Excitation (%) Emission Exc. 3 hours. Fire in air. 1000 C. ++ (3.251 Preparation Mix by grinding in a mortar for 30 minutes.88 eV). = 616 nm 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 . Fire in air.000 psi. 2 hours. Optical Properties Emission color: Red Emission peak: 611 nm Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (2.SrY2O4:Eu3+ Structure: Orthorhombic Composition Ingredient SrCO3 Y 2O 3 Eu2O3 H3BO3 Mole % 100 100 1 6 By weight (g) 10 15. 1350 C.3 0. = 611 nm 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) Wavelength (nm) 5 0 800 700 600 500 400 300 100 Emission Exc. = 250 nm Em. = 270 nm Em. 2. 1. Powderize by dry ball-milling. Press into pellets again.

Soc. Yu. Electrochem..33 79.88 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: ++ (10 eV–1 keV) Decay to 1/e: ~100 µsec Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 50 2 3 Remark This contribution is from Shinji Okamoto. Soc. J. M. Fire in aluminum crucibles. 2.009 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0.J.Y. J.2 (of Pr) 5–30 By weight (g) 147. 3903 (1999). Structure and luminescence of SrY2O4:Eu. 146. S.401 Preparation Mix by slurrying in ethanol. Geil. ++ (4.. 148. stagnant air. References 1. Dry in air. Optical Properties Emission peak: 2.. et al.064 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: – (3.Remark This contribution is from Weiyi Jia.. SrTiO3:Pr3+. C..Al3+ Structure: Cubic Composition Ingredient SrCO3 TiO2 Pr6O11 Al(OH)3 Mole % 99.40 eV). Xu.. Park. 2 hours. Electrochem.340 3. Park. B.H.. 1300 C. et al. A1352 (2001).900–23. 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Absorption (%) 100 Emission . Powderize.879 0. High Li+ self-diffusivity and transport number in novel electrolyte solutions. Videa. B.8 100 0. W..

40 eV). .00 5.References 1.... Fire in open quartz boats.. H.. 1300 C. 655. 2. Xu.. S. 153 (2003). 3 hours. Appl. 6387 (1999). Itoh. 1 hour. ++ (4. (2001).b ions.6H2O B2O3 Mole % 100 100 0. Jia. and Kataoka. Grind and press into pellets again. 126. Phys. This compound is also known as strontium titanate... I. Tamura.. et al.5 3 By weight (g) 10.212 0. 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Reference 1. Powderize. Lett. for low-voltage electron excitation. Press into pellets. and Yamamoto.. Jpn. This contribution is from Weiyi Jia. 1000 C. 2. 78. SrTiO3:Pr3+ Structure: Cubic Composition Ingredient SrCO3 TiO2 Pr(NO3)3.41 0. Solid State Commun. Characteristic enhancement of emission from SrTiO3:Pr3+ by addition of group. J. H. S. Effects of compositional phase transitions on luminescence of Sr1-xCaxTiO3:Pr3+. W.88 eV) Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 100 Excitation (%) Emission 50 2 3 Remarks 1. Toki. K.142 Preparation Mix by dry grinding or milling.. 2. F. Optical Properties Emission color: Red Emission peak: 615 nm Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (3. A new red-emitting phosphor. Appl. Rivera.. Okamoto. air. 1. W. Phys. 38. Fire in air. SrTiO3:Pr3+.

J. 9–16 (1966). 3. A. Luminescence. 2. Pat. 50 67782 (1975).. J.G. 2. Wanmaker.M. Absorption (%) 100 Emission . Fire in 1150 C. Cool and slurry the powder in 2 wt% (NH4)2CO3 solution..L. W. 3 417 027 (1968). 4.T. Pat. Verlijsdok. for 2 hours. 200 C.8 Preparation Dry-blend all ingredients and place in a capped quartz or alumina crucible. W. and Broos.. U.. Optical Properties Emission color: Red Emission peak: 619 nm Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (3. U. Cool and lightly mortar to break aggregates.L.W... for 2 hours.. Decant with water until neutral. Wanmaker. Fire in 700 C.9 85.0 40. + (4.G.C. 3.S. Int.. Vrugt.. J. for an additional 2 hours.. W.40 eV). Budapest. ++ (8. Dry in air.S.40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: + Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 50 2 3 Remark This contribution is from Takashi Hase..V)O4:Eu Structure: Xenotime Composition Ingredient Y 2O 3 Eu2O3 NH4VO3 (NH4)2HPO4 Mole % 48 2 35 65 By weight (g) 104.. and Verlijsdok. and Bres.L. Japanese Patent Disclosure (Kokai).Y(P. 1. G.8 7. Fire in 1150 C. Cool and break up aggregates. 51 114388 (1976). Proc. Conf. 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 References 1.88 eV). 3 647 708 (1972). Bril. Wanmaker. J.

After 20 minutes.) ethanol. Cover the cuvette with paraffin film with a pin hole in the center as a outlet of vapor. . Jia. Mater. Annealing in N2 + 5% H2 gas flow at 500–900°C to remove residual water. 55 (2001). into a small container such as cuvettes. Photoluminescence of Y2O3:Ce3+. Eng.Tb3+ nanoclusters embedded in SiO2 sol-gel glasses. C. Nanoclusters embedded in SiO2 glasses 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Reference 1.88 eV) Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 100 Excitation (%) Emission 50 2 3 Remark This contribution is from Weiyi Jia.40 eV). W. add the CeCl3 solution dropwise. Place the wet gel in an oven at 40°C for one or two weeks to obtain transparent dry gels. water and HCl (pH = 7) 1:2:3 By weight (g) — — — certain amount Preparation Stir ingredients.. 572. et al.Y2O3:Ce Structure: Cubic Composition Ingredient Mole % Si(OEt)4 100 Y(OC3H7i)3 7 1 CeCl3 (aq. Sci. Optical Properties Emission color: Violet (Ce3+) Emission peak: 375 nm Emission width (FWHM): 30 nm Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (3. or other organic groups created and entrapped in the gels during gellation process. ++ (4. ethanol.

It can also be used in plasma display panels. This phosphor is used in fluorescent lamps and also in projection television tubes.95 Preparation Mix by slurrying in water or methanol and dry in air.5 1.5 Y(OC3H7i)3 EuCl3·6H2O 0. It can be sensitized for excitation at 365 nm using Bi.9 ethanol. Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Remark This contribution is from Cees Ronda.Y2O3:Eu (YOE) Structure: Cubic Composition Ingredient Y 2O 3 Eu2O3 CaF2 Mole % 94 (Y) 6 (Eu) 2. with reduced efficiency at 254 nm. Y2O3:Eu3+ Structure: Cubic Composition Ingredient Mole % Si(OEt)4 92.5) 1:2:3 By weight (g) 100 8. at a temperature of about 1300°C for at least 1 hour.5 By weight (g) 108 10.6 6. Firing should occur in air.95 1. however. Powderize.58 Absorption (%) 100 Emission . and HCl (pH = 2. water.

. ethanol. Alloys Ingredients. Y2O3:Tb3+ Composition Ingredient Mole % Si(OEt)4 92. Pour the resulting mixture into a small container with a cover. Spectroscopic study of Eu3+doped and Eu3+. Jia. A wet gel will result. 519 (1998). J.. 271.Preparation Dissolve europium chloride in 2–3 g of distilled water. Anneal the dry gel in air at 500–1000°C to remove residual water. Mix the Si and Y solutions and stir for 20 minutes with a magnetic stirring device.6H2O ethanol.9 TbCl3. Symp. W. Feofilov. water. et al. to obtain transparent dry gels. allowing slow evaporating of the excess or resulted water and ethanol. or other organic radicals. and Jiao. Res. R. Optical Properties Emission color: Red Emission peak: 612 nm Emission width (FWHM): 30 nm Excitation efficiency by UV: Weakly excited at 3.87 eV Excitation efficiency by e-beam: Weakly excited by cathode rays Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 100 Excitation (%) Emission 50 2 3 Remark This contribution is from Weiyi Jia. Photoluminescence of Eu3+:Y2O3 nanoclusters embedded in SiO2 glass.8 certain amount . H. Mater. Jia. 11. Blend it into the ethanol/water/HCl mix...Y3+ codoped SiO2 sol-gel glasses. and HCl (pH = 7) 1:2:3 By weight (g) 100 8.95 1. Liu. Proc. Put the EuCl3/water/ethanol/HCl solution into the Si/Y mixture dropwise while stirring.6 Y(OC3H7i)3 6.... Meltzer. W. Soc. The wet gel is dried at low temperatures (45°C) for one or two weeks in an oven. Y2O3 nanoclusters embedded in SiO2 glasses. S. 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 References 1. 311 (2000).5 0.P. 2. J.

Jia.4 TbCl3·6H2O 0. ++ (4. et al.Tb3+ nanoclusters embedded in SiO2 solgel glasses.53 . and 621 nm Emission width (FWHM): 30 nm Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (3. 55 (2001).88 eV) Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 100 Excitation (%) Emission x10 50 2 3 Remark This contribution is from Weiyi Jia. Y2O3:Ce3+. Anneal the dry gel in air at 500–1000°C to remove residual water.Preparation Dissolve terbium chloride in 2–3 g of distilled water. Eng. and HCl (pH = 7) 1:2:3 By weight (g) 100 8.. water. Mix the Si and Y solutions and stir for 20 minutes with a magnetic stirring device. Nanoclusters embedded in SiO2 glasses. W. Sci. Blend it into the ethanol/water/HCl mix.9 0. Minor peaks at 495. ethanol. or other organic radicals.8 Y(OC3H7i)3 6. The wet gel is dried at low temperatures (45°C) for one or two weeks in an oven.9 CeCl3·6H2O ethanol.40 eV). Put the TbCl3/water/ethanol/HCl solution into the Si/Y mixture dropwise while stirring.61 1. A wet gel will result. 572. Photoluminescence of Y2O3:Ce3+. 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Reference 1. allowing slow evaporating of the excess or resulted water and ethanol. Optical Properties Emission color: Green Emission peak: 543 nm. 585. Pour the resulting mixture into a small container with a cover. C. Mater.Tb3+ Structure: Cubic Composition Ingredient Mole % Si(OEt)4 91. to obtain transparent dry gels.95 1.

.Preparation Dissolve cerium and terbium chlorides in 2–3 g of distilled water.Tb3+ nanoclusters embedded in SiO2 sol-gel glasses. Pour the resulting mixture into a small container with a cover. Eng.3 53 96 . A wet gel will result. 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Reference 1.39 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: Weakly excited by cathode rays Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 100 Excitation (%) Emission 50 2 3 Remark This contribution is from Weiyi Jia. allowing slow evaporating of the excess or resulting water and ethanol. et al. Photoluminescence of Y2O3:Ce3+. 55 (2001). 572. C. Anneal the dry gel in air at 500–1000°C to remove residual water. to obtain transparent dry gels. W. ++ (5.87 eV). Jia. or other organic radicals. Put the Ce-TbCl3/water/ethanol/HCl solution into the Si/Y mixture dropwise while stirring. Sci. Optical Properties Emission color: Violet (Ce3+) Emission peak: 543 nm Emission width (FWHM): 30 nm Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (3. Y2O2S:Eu Composition Ingredient Y 2O 3 Eu2O3 Na2CO3 S Mole % 94 (Y) 3 (Eu) 100 300 By weight (g) 110 5. Mater. Nanoclusters embedded in SiO2 glasses. The wet gel is dried at low temperatures (45°C) for one or two weeks in an oven. ethanol. Mix the Si and Y solutions and stir for 20 minutes with a magnetic stirring device. Blend it into the ethanol/water/HCl mix.

478 (1998). After cooling down.88 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: + Decay to 1/e: 1 × 10-3 sec . p.Preparation Mix the rare-earth oxides by slurrying in water or methanol and dry in air. 38. CRC Press. using pressures up to about 300 MPa. Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 100 Emission 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Spectrum from the Phosphor Handbook. Optical Properties Emission color: Red Emission peak: 610 nm Excitation efficiency by UV: (3. at a temperature of about 1100°C for a few hours. FL. Preferably.06O3 compacts can be densified into transparent ceramics by either vacuum sintering at 1800°C or hydrogen-gas sintering at 1800–1900°C.40 eV).Gd)2O3:Eu3+ Structure: Cubic Preparation Oxidize the co-precipitated oxalate at about 800°C. After drying.60Eu0. Boca Raton. mix the rare earth mixture with Na2CO3 and S by dry mixing. Fig. The Y1. (Y. Die or isostatically press the powder into powder compacts. Remark This contribution is from Cees Ronda. the mixture should be powdered in mortar. ++ (4. the powder should be de-agglomerated.34Gd0. the reaction product has to be washed a few times with water to remove residual flux. if either the sintering or hot-pressing processes are subsequently used to produce the ceramic scintillator. Firing should occur in air in a vessel with a well-closing lid. Subsequently.

88 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: + Absorption (%) 100 Emission . Ceramic scintillators. Annu. C. 27. S. 1200°C. Mater. Sci.. Powderize with a Freon solvent as the grinding medium. Co-doping of a small amount of Pr reduces the afterglow. 1250°C. Dry in air. 10–14 hours. The sintered samples can be annealed in an oxygen-rich atmosphere to reduce the concentration of point defect/impurity-charge states in the host lattice. Optical Properties Emission color: UV Emission peak: 330 nm Excitation efficiency by UV: – (3. In the cases where a flux is used. This contribution is from Hajime Yamamoto. Rev. and Duclos. Fire in capped alumina tubes. 69 (1997).40 eV). 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 YTaO4 Structure: Monoclinic Preparation Stoichiometric quantities are mixed Y2O3. – (4. 8–10 hours..Spectra 800 700 600 500 400 Wavelength (nm) 300 50 2 3 Remarks 1. Reference 1. 3. Ta2O5. air.. Fire in capped alumina tubes. 130°C. 2. either by itself or in the presence of 50% Li2SO4. Greskovich. leach with water and follow by methanol rinsing.

Fire in capped alumina tubes. Soc. Nb2O5. J. 130°C. Brixner. 1200°C. 8–10 hours. air. Optical Properties Emission color: Blue Emission peak: 410 nm (x-ray excitation 2% Nb) Excitation efficiency by UV: – (3.40 eV). ++ (4..H.C.88 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: + .. leach with water and follow by methanol rinsing. 1250°C. This contribution is from Masaaki Tamatani. Alloys Ingredients. Powderize with a Freon solvent as the grinding medium.Y. S. J. 130. and Chen. H. 2435 (1983). Electrochem.. Dry in air.L. C.Spectra 800 700 600 500 400 Wavelength (nm) 300 100 Emission 50 2 3 Remarks 1. On the structural and luminescent properties of the M’ LnTaO4 rare earth tantalates. 2. The use of a flux in the synthesis of M’-YTaO4 not only allows the growth of 4–12 µm single crystals but also assists greatly in the formation of the compound (see Ref. Issler. 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 YTaO4:Nb5+ Structure: Monoclinic Preparation Stoichiometric quantities are mixed Y2O3. 2. and Torardi. 10–14 hours. 54 (1995). either by itself or in the presence of 50% Li2SO4. In the cases where a flux is used. L. Solid state chemistry and luminescence of X-ray phosphors. Fire in capped alumina tubes. References 1. Ta2O5. 229. 2)..

321 Preparation Blend the materials thoroughly and fire in an open quartz crucible for 2 hours at 1700°C. Brixner. and Chen.0 0. Optical Properties Emission color: Yellowish-green Emission peak: Two strong dysprosium peaks at 480 and 570 nm Excitation efficiency by UV: Suitable for 2537 and 3650 Å Spectra 800 700 600 500 400 Wavelength (nm) 300 100 Emission 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 .05 By weight (g) 70.H. 130.Spectra 800 700 600 500 400 Wavelength (nm) 300 100 Excitation (%) Emission 50 2 3 Remarks This contribution is from Masaaki Tamatani. Rinse with deionized water until neutral. Structure: Tetragonal (zircon) Composition Ingredient Y 2O 3 NH4VO3 Dy2O3 YVO4:Dy3+ Mole % 17.15 82.80 0. On the structural and luminescent properties of the M’ LnTaO4 rare earth tantalates.0 175. L. H.Y. 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Reference 1. Dry in air and powderize.. J.. Electrochem. Soc.. Cool slightly and wash with a hot solution of 15 % NaOH. 2435 (1983).

U. Fire in capped quartz crucibles.7 lm/W or higher at 30 V DC Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 100 Excitation (%) Emission 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 . the emission characteristics can be adjusted. 2. G. Sm. U. Er. 3. 3 322 682 (1967).S. Faria.28 mol% of Dy3+.7 — Preparation Mix by slurrying in water or ethanol.. Pat.. Structure: Cubic (spinel) Composition Ingredient ZnO Ga2O3 Li3PO4 (Flux) ZnGa2O4 Mole % 50 50 — By weight (g) 8. Powderize.. S.14 18.. Ballman. Re-fire in H2 + N2 atmosphere. Other rare-earth elements (Pr. 1100 C.T. stagnant air. L. Thompson. Wash with diluted nitric acid to remove excess flux. Powderize when dry.G. U.L. which is optimum for excitation with mercury discharge lamps. This contribution is from Madis Raukas.G.S. 3 hours. Eu. 1200°C. R.4 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: 0. A. References 1. Pat. Powderize. Pat. 1 hour..Remarks 1.. Tm. 3. 3 555 337 (1968). Dry in air..A. and van Uitert.C.. and Palumbo. Optical Properties Emission color: Blue Emission peak: 460 nm Emission width (FWHM): 137 nm Absorption edge: 270 nm (4. This recipe yields a phosphor containing 0. 2. By including such elements or combinations thereof. Linares. D. 3 152 085 (1964).S. and alike) can be added up to a half of the activator content..

and vaporize moisture by warming. stagnant air. Re-fire in H2 + N2 atmosphere. S. Wash with de-ionized water. 138. J. Powderize. Itoh. The ZnGa2O4 phosphor for low-voltage blue cathodoluminescence. 1200 C.14 18. Optical Properties Emission color: Green Emission peak: 505 nm Emission width (FWHM): 25 nm Absorption edge: 270 nm (4. Fire in capped quartz crucibles. Add solution of Mn2+ ion. Electrochem. Reference 1. ZnGa2O4:Mn2+ Structure: Cubic (spinel) Composition Ingredient ZnO Ga2O3 MnSO4 Li3PO4 (Flux) Mole % 48 50 2 By weight (g) 8.0 lm/W or higher at 30 V DC Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 100 Excitation (%) Emission 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 .15 Preparation Mix by slurrying in water or ethanol Dry in air.Remark This contribution is from Sato Yoshitaka. Powderize when dry. 1509 (1991). 1100 C. 1 hour. mix.7 0. Soc. Powderize. 3 hours... et al.4 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: 1.

1120ºC. ZnGa2O4:Mn green cathodoluminescent phosphors for VFDs. and Itoh. (1992). E. H. 421 (1992). Kataoka.6 2. H...4 By weight (g) 10 1. S. University of Puerto Rico—Mayaguez (2003). Digest Jpn. 1.26 eV). Store in well-sealed container. 2. Optical Properties Emission color: Red Emission peak: 645 nm Emission width (FWHM): 3540 cm-1 Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (3. Toki. K.88 eV) Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 100 Excitation (%) Emission 50 2 3 Remark This contribution is from Weiyi Jia. ++ (4. Mosquera Vargas. Morimoto. 2... 2 hours.. References 1. Proceedings of Japan Display'92. Fire in capped quartz tubes. Y. Display. Fire in air. 1 hour. Tech. . Toki. 800ºC. stagnant air..Remark This contribution is from Yoshitaka Sato. et al.43 Preparation Mix by dry grinding. 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Reference 1. ZnO:Bi3+ Structure: Hexagonal (wurtzite) Composition Ingredient ZnO Bi2O3 Mole % 97. Master Degree Thesis.

Powderize.g.. 1 hour.ZnO:Zn Structure: Hexagonal (wurtzite) Composition Ingredient ZnO Mole % 100 By weight (g) 158 Preparation Fire in capped quartz crucibles in reduced atmosphere at 1000 C. Dissolve the ZnCl2 in a little water.280 g 1. stir to uniformity. . add solution to above mix. . over night). add alcohol to make a uniform slurry.3 (of Ga) about 1 (not critical) By weight 81 g 0. Optical Properties Emission color: Green Emission peak: 505 nm Emission width (FWHM): 0.7 g Preparation Mix ZnO and Ga2O3 porcelain dish. and dry at room temperature or at moderate heat (e. Then add a little water to make the raw mix slightly moist. 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 ZnO:Ga. Ultrafast Composition Ingredient ZnO Ga2O3 ZnCl2 (Type WL-1201) Mole % 100 0.4 eV Absorption edge: 388 nm (300 K) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: 16 lm/W or higher Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 100 Excitation (%) Emission 50 2 3 Remark This contribution is from Yoshitaka Sato.

4. J.195 eV (=388 nm) Excitation by UV: By all UV shorter than about 380 nm Excitation by e-beam: Energy— 1–1. HgI2.. This phosphor is sensitive to traces of sulfur.1. 119 (1968). Electrochem. ZnO:Ga and CdS:In. Do not heat higher than about 300ºC except in pure hydrogen. 9. This phosphor is in a frozen-in semistable state. The bulk of the material should show deep violet luminescence (just at the limit of visibility). 538 (1968). 3. The above recipe was provided by W. Cool while in H2 (Important!). Patent 3583929 (issued June 1971). or by about 1 ccm of concentrated HCl acid. one-half hour. Meth. 2.280 g 1. stir to uniformity. In case the material does not show the violet luminescence at all. slowly flowing H2. Remove suspicious parts and powderize the rest. 1 hour. inspect under UV lamp.. Edge emission of n-type conducting ZnO and CdS. S. not more)..E. 3.. 800ºC. Solid State Electron.. Instr. Meth. Fire in open quartz boats. 115. M. stagnant air.. Fire in loosely capped quartz glass tubes ( about half full.J. W. M. References 1. Lehmann during a visit to the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory in 1987.1 g of NH4Cl. near-band-edge scintillation from CuI. Remove all parts that look different. Nucl.. A fast inorganic scintillator. Soc.S. 214 (2002). Lehmann. Inspect again under UV lamp. W. 2. Instr. Zinc oxide and zinc-cadmium oxide phosphors. Nucl. add solution to above mix. When cool.2%. decay < 1 nsec Remarks 1. . Ultrafast Composition Ingredient ZnO CdO Ga2O3 ZnCl2 Mole % 90 10 0. repeat the last firing step at about 100ºC higher temperature. PbI2. Luckey. add alcohol to make a uniform slurry.. 1107 (1966) and U. 2. 62. Derenzo. D. Properties Body color: Gray Particles: About in the 5–10 m size range Emission: Narrow band in the near-UV with a tail extending into the visible violet Peak about 3. Klintenberg. Avoid all sulfur like the plague.2 g 0. Weber. Material should be completely dead.. A 486. Dissolve the ZnCl2 in a little water. The ZnCl2 in the above recipe can be replaced by about 1. ZnO-CdO:Ga. 1100ºC.K.3 (of Ga) about 1 (not critical) By weight 73 g 11. Lehmann.7 g Preparation Mix ZnO + CdO + Ga2O3 in a porcelain dish. Temperature dependence of the fast.

5. Do not heat higher than about 300ºC except in pure hydrogen. This phosphor is in a frozen-in semistable state. Instr. 6. 7. The ZnCl2 in the above recipe can be replaced by about 1.1 g of NH4Cl.. slowly flowing H2. stagnant air.. 538 (1968). Properties Body color: Yellowish-gray Particles: About in the 5–10 µm size range Emission: Narrow band. Zn2SiO4:Mn Composition Ingredient ZnO SiO2 MnCO3 Mole % 194 110 6 By weight (g) 158 66 6. 1100ºC. Solid State Electron. Inspect again under UV lamp. Do not add more. Lehmann during a visit to the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory in 1987. The above recipe was provided by W.S. repeat the last firing step at about 100ºC higher temperature).g. References 5. (just at the limit of visibility)..9 Preparation Mix by ball-milling or magnetic stirring in water or an alcohol and dry in air. 115. Luckey. inspect under UV lamp. 1107 (1966) and U. The bulk of the material should be violet luminescent (if it does not. A fast inorganic scintillator. 8. . Electrochem. 1 hour. J. 6. Zinc oxide and zinc-cadmium oxide phosphors.and dry at room temperature or at moderate heat (e. D. 9. When cool.. Nucl. Lehmann. W. Color: violet Excitation by UV: By all UV shorter than about 400 nm Excitation by e-beam: Energy— 1–1. Remove suspicious parts and powderize the rest. Lehmann. This phosphor is sensitive to traces of sulfur. not more). 7. Fire in open quartz boats.2%. Edge emission of n-type conducting ZnO and CdS. 119 (1968). Material should be completely dead. 2. 1. one-half hour.. Cool while in H2 (Important!). Meth. Remove any parts (if preaent) that look different. Then add a little water to make the raw mix slightly moist. or by about 1 ccm of concentrated HCl acid. 62. The CdO in the above recipe can be replaced by 17. Patent 3583929 (issued June 1971). 10% CdO is the limit of solid solubility. Firing should occur in reducing atmosphere at a temperature of about 1150–1250°C for at least an hour.2 g CdCO3.. Powderize.. Avoid all sulfur like the plague. 800ºC. decay < 1 nsec Remarks 4. Soc. over night). W. peak about 413 nm. Fire in loosely capped quartz glass tubes ( about half full.

J.The efficiency of this material (e-beam and (V)UV excitation) depends on the Mn2+ concentration. T. and Amrein. Reference 1. due to magnetic interactions lifting the spin selection rule.. This phosphor is used in plasma display panels and fluorescent lamps. Higher Mn2+ concentrations adjust to a shorter decay time. It has been used in monochromic computer monitor tubes and projection television tubes (mixed with other green phosphors). 69.. Remark This contribution is from Cees Ronda. 245 (1996). The quantum efficiency drops less fast than the emission decay time. Ronda. C. The emission band shifts to lower energy with increasing Mn2+ concentration. . Lumin. Evidence for exchange induced luminescence in Zn2SiO4:Mn.

16 Preparation Mix and grind. Pre-sinter at 900°C in N2 for 2 hours. Sinter at 1300°C in N2 + 5% H2 gas flow for 3 hours.84 0. Powderize and grind.00 1.7.Mn2+ Ca3MgSi2O8:Eu2+ Ca3Al2Si3O12:Ce3+ Ca3Al2Si3O12:2%Ce3+ SrMgSi2O6:Eu2+ Sr2MgSi2O7:Eu2+ Sr3MgSi2O8:Eu2+ Ba2MgSi2O7:Eu2+ Composition Ingredient BaCO3 MgO SiO2 Eu2O3 H3BO3 Mole % 39.40 1.2 Silicates The following host compounds and activators are included in this subsection: Ba2MgSi2O7:Eu2+ CaMgSi2O6:Eu2+ Ca2MgSi2O7:Eu2+. H3BO3 serves as flux.367 4.92 39.00 0.84 19.6 By weight (g) 10. Optical Properties Emission color: Light blue. Emission peak: 515 nm Excitation efficiency by UV: Excited by UV from 240 to 440 nm. 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 .120 0. Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 100 Excitation (%) Emission 50 2 3 Remark This contribution comes from Weiyi Jia.

.L. A. Jia. . Electrochem.75 0. 23. W.. The absorption and emission spectra of some important activators.51 2 By weight (g) 10. Powderize and grind. CaMgSi2O6:Eu2+ Composition Ingredient CaCO3 MgO SiO2 Eu2O3 H3BO3 Mole % 24. A.00 0. Pre-sinter at 800°C in N2 for 2 hours. Blasse.. Fluorescence of Eu2+activated silicates. Optical properties Emission color: Blue Emission peak: 448 nm Excitation efficiency by UV: Excited by UV from 250 to 460 nm Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 100 Excitation (%) Emission 50 2 3 Remark This contribution comes from Weiyi Jia. 2.. 2.87 49. G. terVrugt. and Bril. Philips Tech. Unpublished data.. Rep. Philips Res. Wanmaker..00 4. Smith. W. H3BO3 serves as flux. Characteristic luminescence.36 0. A.W. Soc. J.L. 189 (1968). Blasse. 1. Sinter at 1250°C in N2 + 5% H2 gas flow for 3 hours. Rev.. G. 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 References 1. and Bril.04 12..87 24. 96. 304 (1970). 287 (1949).. J.48 Preparation Mix and grind. 31.Reference 1..

W. Jia.Mn2+ Composition Ingredient CaCO3 MgO SiO2 Eu2O3 MnO H3BO3 Mole % 39.Ca2MgSi2O7:Eu2+. Pre-sinter at 900°C in N2 for 2 hours.68 19.120 0.00 0. 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Composition Ingredient CaCO3 MgO SiO2 Eu2O3 H3BO3 Ca3MgSi2O8:Eu2+ Mole % 49.84 39.33 By weight (g) 10. Unpublished data.16 .00 1. Optical properties Emission color: Whitish blue-green Emission peak: Two peaks at 490 and 680 nm.00 0. respectively Excitation efficiency by UV: Excited by UV from 260 to 420 nm Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 100 Excitation (%) Emission 50 2 3 Remark This contribution comes from Weiyi Jia.61 33.. Powderize and grind.34 1.22 0.16 Preparation Mix and grind.58 By weight (g) 10.367 4. Sinter at 1300°C in N2 + 5% H2 gas flow for 3 hours.40 0.367 4.40 1.071 0.83 16.68 0.120 0. H3BO3 serves as flux.00 1. Reference 1.

Jia. Fire in 95%N2 + 5% H2. Fire in air. 1. 2. H3BO3 serves as flux.. Unpublished data. Reference 1.103 Preparation Mix by grinding in a mortar for 30 minutes.40 6 0. Optical properties Emission color: Light blue Emission peak: 480 nm Excitation efficiency by UV: Excited by UV from 250 to 440nm Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 100 Excitation (%) Emission 50 2 3 Remark This contribution comes from Weiyi Jia. Press into pellets again.11 0.000 psi. 900 C. Powderize and grind. Press into pellets with a hydraulic press machine at 40. Sinter at 1350°C in N2 + 5% H2 gas flow for 3 hours. Powderize by dry ball-milling. Pre-sinter at 900°C in N2 for 2 hours. W. 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Ca3Al2Si3O12:Ce3+ Structure: Cubic Composition Ingredient CaCO3 Al2O3 SiO2 Ce2O3 H3BO3 Mole % 300 100 300 1 5 By weight (g) 10 3.Preparation Mix and grind. 3 hours . 1200 C. 2 hours.

40 6.103 Preparation Mix by dry grinding in a mortar for 30 minutes. Grind and press into pellets again. Unpublished data. Press into pellets with a hydraulic press machine at 40.000 psi.40eV) Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 100 Excitation (%) Emission 50 2 3 Remark This contribution is from Weiyi Jia.110 0. 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Ca3Al2Si3O12:2%Ce3+ Structure: Cubic Composition Ingredient CaCO3 Al2O3 SiO2 Ce2O3 H3BO3 Mole % 300 100 300 1 5 By weight (g) 10. 1200°C. 2.88 eV). ++ (4. 2 hours. Fire in 95%N2 + 5% H2. Reference 1. Fire in air. Jia. ++ (3.00 0.40 eV).. 3 hours Optical Properties Emission color: Violet Emission peaks: 280 and 355 nm Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (3.00 3.Optical Properties Emission color: Violet Emission peak: 410 nm Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (2. W.88 eV) . 1. Powderize. 900°C.

74 8.. Powderize and grind. Pre-sinter at 700°C in air for 2 hours. H3BO3 serves as flux. Optical properties Emission color: Deep blue Emission peak: 470 nm. Jia. This contribution is from Weiyi Jia. Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 100 Excitation (%) Emission 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 .75 0.238 0. This compound is also known as calcium aluminum silicate.14 0. Unpublished data. Sinter at 1050°C in N2 + 5% H2 gas flow for 3 hours.87 24. Strong afterglow Excitation by UV: Excited by UV from 240 to 450 nm. W.87 49. 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Composition Ingredient SrCO3 MgO SiO2 Eu2O3 H3BO3 SrMgSi2O6:Eu2+ Mole % 24.51 2 By weight (g) 10. Reference 1.325 Preparation Mix and grind.Spectra 800 700 600 500 400 Wavelength (nm) 300 100 Excitation (%) Emission 50 2 3 Remarks 1.00 2. 2.

W.84 0.Remark This contribution comes from Weiyi Jia. Reference 1.119 0.. Unpublished data. Optical properties Emission color: Blue Emission peak: 470 nm Excitation by UV: Excited by UV from 250 to 450 nm Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 100 Excitation (%) Emission 50 2 3 Remark This contribution comes from Weiyi Jia.. Sinter at 1200°C in N2 + 5% H2 gas flow for 3 hours. Jia.072 0. G.163 Preparation Mix and grind. Philips Res. Powderize and grind. J. Rep..00 1. H3BO3 (B2O3) serves as flux.6 By weight (g) 10. Blasse. Sr2MgSi2O7:Eu2+ Composition Ingredient SrCO3 MgO SiO2 Eu2O3 H3BO3 Mole % 39. Unpublished data. 189 (1968). A.W. . and Bril.369 4.4 1. terVrugt..W. Jia. Fluorescence of Eu2+activated silicates. Pre-sinter at 800°C in air for 2 hours.L. 23.. W.84 19.. 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 References 1. Wanmaker.92 39. 2.

Optical properties Emission color: Light blue Emission peak: 470 nm Excitation by UV: Excited by UV from 250 to 450 nm Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 100 Excitation (%) Emission 50 2 3 Remark This contribution comes from Weiyi Jia.L.61 33.83 16. 189 (1968). . J. Sinter at 1200°C in N2 + 5% H2 gas flow for 3 hours.. 304 (1970)..22 0. 2. A.715 0. The absorption and emission spectra of some important activators. G. 23.34 1..079 0. Powderize and grind. Blasse. Rep. terVrugt. Philips Res. 31. A.33 By weight (g) 10. and Bril. 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Reference 1.. Characteristic luminescence. H3BO3 (B2O3) serves as flux. Rev. Fluorescence of Eu2+activated silicates. G.Sr3MgSi2O8:Eu2+ Composition Ingredient SrCO3 MgO SiO2 Eu2O3 H3BO3 Mole % 49...108 Preparation Mix and grind. and Bril.W. W.00 0.. 1. Pre-sinter at 800°C in air for 2 hours. Blasse.. Wanmaker. Philips Tech.912 2.

0 85. Fire in capped quartz tubes. air.Gd)BO3:Tb (Y. Slurry powder in boiling 10% HCl for 30 minutes. 2. Dry at 110°C. 2 hours. 1100°C.40 eV) 400 Wavelength (nm) 300 100 Excitation (%) Emission 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 . 1.Mn Sr2B5O9Cl:Eu SrwFxB4O6. 2 hours. reducing atmosphere.9 83.3 Phosphates.5:Eu2+ SrwFxByOz:Eu2+.Sm2+ (Y. Fire in capped quartz tubes.4 15.7.Gd)BO3:Eu -Ca2P2O7:Sn.88 eV). Lightly mortar.40 eV). Decant with boiling water until neutral. ++ (4. Optical Properties Emission color: Green Emission peak: 544 nm Excitation efficiency by UV: Spectra 800 700 600 500 (3. and Bo rates The following host compounds and activators are included in this subsection: (Y.Gd)BO3:Tb Structure: Pseudovaterite Composition Ingredient Y 2O 3 Gd2O3 Tb4O7 H3BO3 Mole % 23 23 2 139 By weight (g) 51. Halophosphates. ++ (8.9 Preparation Dry blend ingredients. 400–500°C.

J. 1100°C. 92 (1983).4 Preparation Mix by dry blend.Remark This contribution is from Takashi Hase. 2. 114. Wash by decanting in boiling water until neutral.6 80. Rare earth cathodoluminescence in InBO3 and related orthoborates..40 eV).. C. Optical Properties Emission color: Red Emission peak: 619 nm Excitation efficiency by UV: Spectra 800 700 600 500 (3. Fire in capped quartz tubes or alumina crucibles. O.. Japanese Patent Disclosure (Kokai). Interscience. Soc.. Avella. 52 133 091 (1977). 613 (1967). (Y. 1. References 1.2 54. 2 hours. 110°C. air. Dry in air.. Powderize. Supplement. 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 . Wyckoff.. 2 hours. 3.4 10. Sony Research Center Reports.W. R.G. 4. 2nd ed. Slurry in boiling 10% HCl for 30 minutes. Electrochem.40 eV) 400 Wavelength (nm) 300 100 Excitation (%) Emission 50 2 3 Remark This contribution is from Takashi Hase. and Wiggins. Crystal Structure. 2. Fire in capped quartz tubes or alumina crucibles. 400–500°C. ++ (8. New York: (1964). F. Hoshina.J.Gd)BO3:Eu Structure: Pseudovaterite Composition Ingredient Y 2O 3 Gd2O3 Eu2O3 H3BO3 Mole % 32 15 3 130 By weight (g) 72. air.J.88 eV).. S. Sovers. ++ (4. T.

. Electrochem.. F.28 7. D. Fire in alumina trays.T. Okada... Acad.11 Preparation Mix by shaking with six ½ in.. Sci. U.. 5. Arbus. 114.5%H2. Bril. New York (1964). and Yokozawa. Sovers. G..32 0. Electrochem.J. 1.05 9. Rare earth cathodoluminescence in InBO3 and related orthoborates.40 eV). and Wiggins. J.73 0.. 1200 C.J. M. Soc.. 99.. II. J. Eliminate the H2 2.References 1.04 8. N2. and Cousseins. Fire in alumina trays. C.J. O. Fournier. ~½ hour. 1363 (1964). 2nd ed.. Powderize when dry... 22. Avella.. Fluorescent properties of some europium-activated phosphors. 3. W. F. 199 (1995). Koike.Mn Mole % 81. Optical Properties Emission color: Orange-red Emission peaks: 350 and 575 nm Emission width (FWHM): 72 nm (For the latter peak) Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (3.. J.88 eV) Excitation by e-beam: Weakly excited Spectra 800 700 600 500 400 Wavelength (nm) 300 100 Emission 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 . Crystal Structure. Interscience. Wyckoff. 52 54690 (1977).Z.92 0. 6.W.S. Cool in N2. M. 4. A. 320.. 111. A. nylon balls in a plastic jar on a paint mixer for ½ hour. 176 (1979). Composition Ingredient CaHPO4 SrHPO4 Sn2P2O7 MnCO3 (NH4)2HPO4 -Ca2P2O7:Sn.L.G.31 By weight (g) 18.. 1 hour. Dry in air. K. 613 (1967). 3 394 084 (1968). 7. R. Chadeyron.S.20 1. Avella. Cr. Japanese Patent Disclosure (Kokai). Soc. + (4. NHK Giken Geppo. 625 C. Pat. and Wanmaker..39 2. 2.5% N2/0. Influence of the synthesis method on the luminescent properties of the vaterite-type YBO3-Eu3+.

U.5 N2:0.E. (99.5 H2).85 9.. and Henderson.44 7. Proc. and Peters.91 0. S18. Brit. Appl. Henderson.. Fire in molybdenum trays.H. P. R. T... Phys. References 1. 18 (1955). 2. Mash. R. with particular reference to the pyrophosphates. Exhibits very strong triboluminescence or mechanoluminescence.. D. J. Sr2B5O9Cl:Eu Structure: Tetragonal Composition Ingredient SrCO3 SrCl2 Eu2O3 B2O3 Mole % 26. S.25 Preparation Dry blend ingredients.42 0. Pat. Firing temperature should not exceed 1250 C to prevent formation of -pyrophosphate. The investigation of new phosphors. Ranby.. Pappalardo. 3.Remarks 1.W. ++ (4. Soc. A. S.71 By weight (g) 8..T. 2 hours.55 45.88 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: Weakly excited by cathode rays Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Absorption (%) 100 Emission . 3.S. Dry. Cool. Wash in hot water. 4 772 417 (1988). 173..G.40 eV). 2. 323 (1939).T. This contribution is from Madis Raukas.33 27. Optical Properties Emission color: Bluish-white body Emission peak: 425 nm Emission width (FWHM): 30 nm Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (3. 1025°C.

Reference 1. Chem. Combine these two solutions.12 By weight (g) 63. Form a 1:1 solution of acetone and ammonium hydroxide and add to the above solution slowly while stirring vigorously... blend. SrwFxB4O6. 32. Nucl.11 Preparation Dissolve Eu2O3 powder in dilute nitric acid solution and Sr(NO3)2 and boric acid in warm water (80°C). Blend the precipitate with half the SrF2 and grind.77 80. J. Cool the slurry to below 20°C. Cool.5:Eu2+ Composition Ingredient Sr(NO3)2 SrF2 H3BO3 Eu2O3 Mole % 10. Place in an open quartz crucible and fire in air at 800°C for 1 hour. Luminescence and structural properties of alkaline earth chloroborates activated with divalent europium. T.Remark This contribution is from Madis Raukas. J. Peters. 1089 (1970).49 61. and Baglio. and grind with the remainder of the SrF2 into a fine powder. Fire for 2 hours at 890°C in a flow of H2 in N2 gas in the same open crucible. Cool and regrind. A fine white precipitate will result and form a slurry.11 0. and dry the precipitate in air.E. filter.00 9.30 247. Inorg. Optical Properties Emission color: UV Emission peak: 370 nm Emission width (FWHM): About 20 nm Excitation by UV: In a broad range up to about 360 nm Excitation by e-beam and x-rays: Good excitation by cathode rays Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Absorption (%) 100 Emission ..36 2.

725 and 732 nm Excitation by UV: in broad ranges 250–280. References 1. SrwFxByOz:Eu2+. which is used in high. C.98 40. 3 649 550 (1972).09 5.96F0. Chenot.20 5. This contribution is from Madis Raukas.5:Eu0.029.and low-pressure discharge lamps as well as in CRTs. A fine white precipitate will result and form a slurry. The resultant is filtered and dried in air. C. 723.58 g 309. Chenot.28 2. and 502 nm due to Sm2+ Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Absorption (%) 100 Emission . Combine these two solutions.F. and grind into a fine powder. 697. Pat. Optical Properties Emission color: Narrow red and IR Emission peaks: 684. The most efficient version has been determined to be Sr0. 3 448 056 (1969). 420. Form a 1:1 solution of acetone and ammonium hydroxide and rapidly add to the above solution while stirring vigorously.11 By weight (g) 126.. 693. 2.S.Sm2+ Composition Ingredient Sr(NO3)2 SrF2 H3BO3 Eu2O3 Sm2O3 Mole % 10.Remarks 1. Cool and re-grind.S. Cool.43 84.F. Pat. U. U. This is a Eu-sensitized. The slurry is kept at 80 C for about 2 hours and is cooled to ambient temperature... Blend the precipitate with SrF2 and grind.25 0. IR-emitting phosphor.09 Preparation Dissolve Eu2O3 and Sm2O3 powders in dilute nitric acid solution and Sr(NO3)2 and boric acid in warm water (90°C). 703. 300–390 nm with additional peaks at 395. Fire for 2 hours at 900 C in a flow of H2 in N2 gas in the same open crucible.. 2. blend.62B4O6. Place in an open quartz crucible and fire in air at 900°C for 1–2 hours.12 0.

C.029. Pat. 2. Pat.62B4O6.. Chenot. U.S. which is used in high.. Chenot. This is a Eu-sensitized.S.5:Eu0..96F0.. References 1. 3 693 006 (1972). U. 3.F.F. . 3 649 550 (1972). Pat.. C..Sm0. C.011. Chenot.S. U.F. 2. This contribution is from Madis Raukas. IR-emitting phosphor.and low-pressure discharge lamps as well as CRTs.Remarks 1. The most efficient is Sr0. 3 448 056 (1969).

5 Preparation Mix by ball-milling or magnetic stirring in an alcohol and dry in air. This phosphor can be used in plasma display panels and is in use in fluorescent lamps.6 34.4 Aluminates The following host compounds and activators are included in this subsection: BaMgAl10O17:Eu. Fire in a reducing atmosphere at a temperature of about 1200–1500°C for at least 1 hour. Powderize. Powderize.Mn (BAM:Mn) BaMgAl10O17:Eu (BAM) CaAl2O4:Tb3+ CaAl4O7:Ce3+ CaTi0.1O3:Bi3+ CaYAlO4:Eu3+ MgCeAl11O19:Tb3+ SrAl4O7:Eu3+ SrxBayClzAl2O4-z/2:Mn2+.Ce3+ Y3Al5O12:Ce Y3Al5O12:Ce3+ Y3Al5O12:Mn4+ Y3Al5O12:Cr3+ BaMgAl10O17:Eu.Mn (BAM:Mn) Composition Ingredient BaCO3 MgO Al2O3 Eu2O3 MnCO3 BaF2 Mole % 80 70 1050 (Al) 10 (Eu) 30 10 By weight (g) 158 28.9Al0.2 536 17. Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 100 Emission 25 C 300 C O O 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 .5 17. The phosphor remains efficient to high temperatures.7.

with smaller peaks at 590 and 620 nm Emission width (FWHM): 0. CaAl2O4:Tb3+ Structure: Hexagonal Composition Ingredient CaCO3 Al2O3 Tb2O3 B2O3 Mole % 100 100 1 2 By weight (g) 10 10. 1400°C. Press into pellets with a hydraulic press machine at 40.000 psi. This phosphor is used in plasma display panels and in fluorescent lamps. 2 hours. + (4. Optical Properties Emission color: Green Emission peak: 543 nm.88 eV) .48 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (3.2 0.6 17. Remark This contribution is from Cees Ronda. Fire in N2.366 0. Grind and press into pellets again. 3 hours.40 eV).5 Preparation Mix by ball-milling or magnetic stirring in an alcohol and dry in air. Remark This contribution is from Cees Ronda.139 Preparation Mix by dry grinding in a mortar for 30 minutes. Fire in N2. The phosphor remains efficient to high temperatures. Powderize. Powderize Fire in reducing atmosphere at a temperature of about 1200–1500°C for at least 1 hour. 2. BaMgAl10O17:Eu (BAM) Composition Ingredient BaCO3 MgO Al2O3 Eu2O3 BaF2 Mole % 80 100 1050 (Al) 10 (Eu) 10 By weight (g) 158 40 536 17. 1.Spectra were provided by Madis Raukas. 900°C.

.J. 2.139 Preparation Mix by dry grinding in a mortar for 30 minutes. Appl. Optical Properties Emission color: Violet Emission peak: 407 nm Emission width (FWHM): 4580 cm-1 Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (3. Powderize. 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 References 1.. Press into pellets with a hydraulic press machine at 40. Fire in 95% N2 + 5% H2.. R.366 0. Grind and press into pellets again. Green phosphorescence of CaAl2O4:Tb3+. Jia. Wang. D.Ce3+ through persistence energy transfer.4 0. 1535 (2002). 80. 2.000 psi 1.Ce3+. Jia. D. This contribution is from Weiyi Jia.. Meltzer. Lett. 93. et al.Spectra 800 700 600 500 400 Wavelength (nm) 300 100 Excitation (%) Emission 50 2 3 Remarks 1. Yen. 2. Persistent energy transfer in CaAl2O4:Tb3+. Phys.. W. Jia.40 eV)..88 eV) . 148 (2003). CaAl4O7:Ce3+ Structure: Monoclinic Composition Ingredient CaCO3 Al2O3 Ce(NO3)3·4H2O B2O3 Mole % 100 200 2 2 By weight (g) 10 20.M. J. 3 hours. Appl. Phys..S. 2 hours. 900°C. W.. This compound is known as calcium aluminate.. ++ (4. et al. Fire in N2. X. 1400°C.

1300 C. air. 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 CaTi0. Press into pellets. This contribution is from Weiyi Jia. Jia.1O3:Bi3+ Structure: Orthorhombic Composition Ingredient CaCO3 TiO2 Bi2O3 Al2O3 Mole % 90 90 10 10 By weight (g) 9. Fire in open quartz boats.. Reference 1.40 eV). + (4.66 1. This compound is known as calcium tetra-aluminate.01 7. 2.02 Preparation Mix by dry grinding or milling. Optical Properties Emission color: Deep red Emission peak: 760 nm Emission width (FWHM): 440 cm-1 Excitation efficiency by UV: + (3. 1.18 4. 1000 C. 3 hours.88 eV) . W. 1 hour. 2. Grind and press into pellets again. Unpublished data. Powderize.Spectra 800 700 600 500 400 Wavelength (nm) 300 100 Excitation (%) Emission 50 2 3 Remarks 1.9Al0. Fire in air.

150. 2. W. Grind and press into pellets again.352 0.209 Preparation Mix by dry grinding in a mortar for 30 minutes. Energy transfer between Bi3+ and Pr3+ in doped CaTiO3. 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Reference 1. Powderize. 2 hours.000 psi.01 22. This compound is known as calcium titanate. Press into pellets with a hydraulic press machine at 40. Jia. Perez-Andujar. 1. Fire in air. 161 (2003). 3 hours. + (4.. CaYAlO4:Eu3+ Structure: Tetrahedral Composition Ingredient CaCO3 Y 2O 3 Al2O3 Eu2O3 B2O3 Mole % 100 100 100 1 3 By weight (g) 10. This contribution is from Weiyi Jia.19 0. Optical Properties Emission color: Red Emission peak: 621 nm. and Rivera.Spectra 800 700 600 500 400 Wavelength (nm) 300 100 Excitation (%) Emission 50 2 3 Remarks 1.. with weaker peaks at 588 and 702 nm Excitation efficiency by UV: + (3.56 10.88 eV) . A. Fire in air. J.40 eV)... 2. I. Soc. Electrochem. 1000°C. 1400°C.

Jia.40eV).5 Tb4O7 * Desirable ingredient: (Ce. 2.3 55 56.Spectra 800 700 600 500 400 Wavelength (nm) 300 100 Excitation (%) Emission 50 2 3 Remarks 1.28 eV (543 nm) Emission width (FWHM): 0. Powderize. This compound is also known as calcium-yttrium aluminate. Reference 1. W. reducing atmosphere (95% N2/5% H2). Powderize by automatic mill. in alumina boats. Unpublished data.0 CeO2 6 10. Re-fire. This contribution is from Weiyi Jia.88eV) . 2 hours.76 nm) Excitation efficiency by UV: (3. 2 hours. 1650°C. Optical Properties Emission peak: 2.048 eV (9. +++(4. Store in a well-sealed container. stagnant air. 1600°C. Preparation Mix by automatic mill.. 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 MgCeAl11O19:Tb3+ Structure: Hexagonal Composition Ingredient Mole % By weight (g) (MgCO3)4·Mg(OH)2·3H2O·2 9.1 Al2O3 1 7.Tb)Ox (Oxide of coprecipitate as a Ce-Tb ingredient). Fire in alumina crucibles.

Spectra 800 700 600 500 400 Wavelength (nm) 300 100 Emission 50 2 3 Remark This contribution is from Shozo Oshio. and Matsuoka.40 eV).S. Fire in air. 3 hours. Shigeta. S.209 Preparation Mix by dry grinding in a mortar for 30 minutes. Fire in air. + (4.. Press into pellets with a hydraulic press machine at 40. SrAl4O7:Eu3+ Structure: Monoclinic Composition Ingredient SrCO3 Al2O3 Eu2O3 B2O3 Mole % 100 200 1 3 By weight (g) 10. T. 2 hours. Grind and press into pellets again. 6 290 875 (2001). Powderize.. Pat. 1. Oshio.98 0. T. 1350°C.88 eV) . 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Reference 1. U. 1000°C.01 7. 2.000 psi..352 0. Optical Properties Emission color: Red Emission peak: 612 nm Excitation efficiency by UV: + (3..

24 156. This contribution is from Weiyi Jia.64 Preparation Wet blend all components. Dry the admixture in air at 160 C for 5 hours.79 2. Re-fire at 1100–1200°C for about 4 hrs. 2. Fire at a temperature below 400 C for an additional 5 hours.10 0.02 1. Optical Properties Emission color: Green Emission peak: 512 nm Emission width (FWHM): 32 nm Excitation by UV: In a broad range suitable for mercury discharge Excitation by e-beam and x-rays: Specified as a phosphor for x-ray intensifiers . Jia. and standard solutions in acetone for 15 minutes. Unpublished data. Increase the temperature to 1100–1200°C and fire for 4 hours in a flow of 0.26 19.Ce3+ Composition Ingredient Sr(OH)2·8H2O Ba(OH)2·8H2O BaCl2 Al(OH)3 Mn(NO3)2 (52% solution) Ce(NO3)3 (47. powders. Re-blend and place in an open container.80 4. Cool to ambient temperature and sieve admixture through 100-mesh stainless screen.34 0.. Reference 1. 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 SrxBayClzAl2O4-z/2:Mn2+.86 39. This compound is also known as strontium tetra-aluminate.4% H2 in N2 gas.Spectra 800 700 600 500 400 Wavelength (nm) 300 100 Excitation (%) Emission 50 2 3 Remarks 1.5% solution) Mole % 7. W.34 By weight (g) 60.17 68.43 117. in a nitrogen atmosphere containing 4% H2.

3.126Al2O0.688Cl1. 3 448 056 (1969). 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Y3Al5O12:Ce Structure: Cubic (garnet) Composition Ingredient Y 2O 3 Al2O3 CeO2 NH4Cl Mole % 35. C.5 (Al) 2 5 By weight (g) 40 32 3.S. 2.5 (Y) 62.437:Mn0..S. C..44 2. The spectral position of the emission band of Ce3+ can be varied by replacing part of the Al by (e. U. as Ce3+ absorbs in the blue part of the spectral region and emits yellow light.. References 1..005. Ga). 3 693 006 (1972).g. Chenot.F. This is a cerium-sensitized xerographic lamp phosphor. 3 649 550 (1972)..3. Firing should occur in reducing atmosphere. Pat. Chenot. U. The emission spectrum consists of two bands. at a temperature of about 1300–1500°C for at least 1 hour). This phosphor is used in white LED lamps and also in high-pressure Hg lamps. Powderize. The approximate formula is Sr0. This contribution is from Madis Raukas.005.S.7 Preparation Mix by ball-milling or magnetic stirring in water and dry in air. (e. Remark This contribution is from Cees Ronda. . Pat..F. In highpressure Hg lamps it reduces the color temperature of the light. C.. Chenot. due to the spin-orbit split ground state of Ce3+.F. U.Ce0. forming gas or CO. Pat.229Ba0.Spectra 800 700 600 500 400 Wavelength (nm) 300 100 Emission 50 2 3 Remarks 1.g. 3. resulting in white light. 2. In LEDs it partially converts blue light into yellow light. The material has a pronounced daylight color.

Powderize when dry.40 eV). ++ (4. 3 hours. 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Reference 1.. Jia. Unpublished data. Press into pellets with a hydraulic press machine at 40.Y3Al5O12:Ce3+ Structure: Cubic (garnet) Composition Ingredient Y 2O 3 Al2O3 Ce(NO3)3·4H2O B2O3 Mole % 100 200 2 2 By weight (g) 10 9.03 0. 1. Press into pellets again. .555 0. Fire in N2.. Fire in 95% N2 + 5% H2. 1000ºC. 1400°C. Optical Properties Emission color: Violet Emission peak: 528 nm Emission width (FWHM): 4580 cm-1 Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (3. and Rivera.000 psi Dry in air. E.88 eV) Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 100 Excitation (%) Emission 50 2 3 Remark This contribution is from Weiyi Jia. 2 hours. W.062 Preparation Mix by dry grinding in a mortar for 30 minutes. 2. Powderize.

Fire in N2. 3 hours.051 0. 900ºC. and Rivera.Y3Al5O12:Mn4+ Structure: Cubic (garnet) Composition Ingredient Y 2O 3 Al2O3 MnCO3 B2O3 Mole % 33 66 19 2 By weight (g) 10 9. Jia. 1. 1400ºC. 2 hours.72 0.88 eV) Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 100 Excitation (%) Emission 50 2 3 Remark This contribution is from Weiyi Jia. W.0067 By weight (g) — — — . Fire in 95% N2 + 5% H2.. 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Y3Al5O12:Cr3+ Structure: Cubic (garnet) Composition Ingredient For precursor: Y(NO3)3·6H2O Al(NO3)3 Cr(NO3)3·9H2O Mole % 4.03 0.062 Preparation Mix by dry grinding in a mortar for 30 minutes. Unpublished data. ++ (4.40 eV).. Reference 1. E.04 6. 2. Optical Properties Emission color: Deep red Emission peak: 640 and 667 nm Emission width (FWHM): 4580 cm-1 Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (3. Grind.

Soc. J. Eds. R. References 1. Am.85 eV (435 nm) Spectra 800 O O 750 700 Wavelength (nm) 650 600 550 Carbohydrazide Urea Glucine 1825 C Emission 100 1780 C 1210 C O 50 1.. American Scientific Publishers.. Powders should be placed in well-sealed containers.6 1. Synthesis and crystallization of yttrium-aluminum-garnet and relatedcompounds.. Handbook of Luminescence. 141. E. Place the mixture in an appropriate flameproof dish and dissolve using de-ionized water (~50 ml).0 Photon Energy (eV) 2.. L. Phosphor development for alpha-silicon liquidcrystal light valve projection display. J.5 Preparation Mix the precursor and the fuel thoroughly in a glass mortar. This contribution is from Lauren E. Rohwer. an amorphous ash is produced that needs to be annealed in air at 1000°C for 1 hour. and Devices. 3257 (1996). and Walko. The solution boils.7 CH4N2O (urea) 2. Hess. et al. When glycine is used. 2. (688. Ceram. The combustion flame temperature is dependent on the fuel used. J.Fuels: CH6N4O (carbohydrazide) 1. N.05 eV at 707 nm Excitation efficiency by UV: 2. Electrochem. Nalwa and L.E.J. Display Materials. Shea. The spectra obtained have the same structure but the materials produced by higher temperatures show higher intensities..75.5 (fuel/oxidizer ratio) C2H5NO2 (glycine) 1.8. 707. and 1.E. Lemoine.S. For carbohydrazide and urea fuels. Place the dish into a muffle furnace. Sci.. 29.J. (2003). 79. CA. 2. 1. the result is a foamy powder which can be powderized. Stevenson Ranch. and 725 nm) Emission width: 0.2 0 . Mater. H. Shea Rohwer. and Hesse. preheated to 500°C. dehydrates.71 eV. Soc. 3. the flame lasts for about 15 sec.. et al. Sluzky. and ruptures into a flame in 5–10 minutes. 1873 (1994). 2. L. M. carbohydrazide produces the highest temperature (1825°C) while glycine produces the lowest (1210°C). Synthesis and Characterization of Phosphors for Flat Panel Displays.S.8 Remark 1.. Shea-Rohwer. 3172 (1994). Optical Properties Emission color: Deep red Emission peaks: 1... K.

Crush after cooling and seal in glass capsule. Ar. 1000.Yb3+ YF3:Tm3+.Yb3+ YF3:Er3+. Optical Properties Emission color: Mostly green Emission peak: 550 nm Excitation efficiency by IR: Can be excited with 800.Yb3+ CsI:Tl LaOBr:Tb3+ LaOBr:Tm3+ NaYF4:Er3+.7.75 Composition Ingredient ErCl3 BaCl2 Mole % 25 75 By weight (g) — — Preparation Mix thoroughly in dry.Pb2+ BaFCl:Eu2+ BaMg3F8:Eu2+.25(BaCl2)0.5 Halides and Oxyhalides The following host compounds and activators are included in this subsection: (ErCl3)0.Yb3+ (ErCl3)0. inert box.75 Ba2Mg3F10:Eu2+ BaFBr:Eu2+ BaFCl:Eu2+. Heat at 1000°C after eliminating water and O2 in stream of N2.Mn2+ BaY2F8:Er3+. and 1500 nm light Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 100 Emission 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 . and Cl2.25(BaCl2)0.

Fire in 5% volume of H2 in N2.. 2. High-efficiency infrared-to-visible up-conversion of Er3+ in BaCl2. J. higher temperature is required for activator diffusion. U.39 2. Wolfe.20 By weight (g) 68...28 Preparation Dry mix. 830°C.F.S.00 1. J. Ba2Mg3F10:Eu2+ Composition Ingredient BaF2 MgF2 EuF2 Mole % 38. 4 112 328 (1978). R. Phys. 2 hours. and Messier. R..Remarks 1. This contribution is from Madis Raukas.. Reference 1. Optical Properties Emission color: Deep blue Emission peak: 415 nm Excitation efficiency by UV: In a broad range. Pat. Appl..W.80 60. This contribution is from Hajime Yamamoto. an inert or even air atmosphere can be used for the reaction. 2. 1272 (1993). Wang. Powderize. peaking at around 330 nm Excitation efficiency by e-beam: Good for x-ray intensifier screens Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 100 Excitation (%) Emission 50 2 3 Remarks 1.04 37. The firing temperature can be lower (down to 700–750°C) for undoped barium magnesium fluoride. The phosphor is hygroscopic. Reference 1. Y. Although not producing as efficiently luminescent material. and Ohwaki. 74. 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 .

. S. K.13 0.70 17. Excess ammonium halide may be used as flux. 439 458 1. and to protect from dissolving in water during washing. Before firing. therefore. + (4.25 1..Structure: Tetragonal BaFBr:Eu2+ Preparation Intimate mixtures of raw materials (BaF2.428 0. References 1. useful for radiography.40 eV). This contribution is from Masaaki Tamatani. 55 12144. 4. The phosphors are ground and re-fired.. and Kurobori.. washed with cold water or organic liquids. The fired material is ground. J.M. Care is taken to avoid oxygen during firing. CRC Press. Kotera et al. 55 12143.S. 3. and sieved.040 .36 0. W.Pb2+ Composition Ingredient BaF2 BaCl2 EuCl2 PbF2 Mole % 49. Japanese Patent Kokai. Pat. The Phosphor Handbook.52 49. New York (1998). 13. Kotera et al. 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 BaFCl:Eu2+. U.. Phosphors for X-ray and ionizing radiation. Optical Properties Emission color: UV/blue Excitation efficiency by UV: – (3. T. dried. Shionoya. Phys. Eds.88 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: + Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 100 Excitation (%) Emission 50 2 3 Remarks 1.. and Yen. Condens. 2.0096 By weight (g) 14. Matter.. 2. Radzhabov. Takahashi. E. EuF3) are fired in a H2/N2 atmosphere at 600–1000°C (desirably at 700°C). 1159 (2001).. This compound is photostimulable and. 55 12145. BaBr2. Photoionization processes in barium fluorohalide crystals doped with Eu2+. the materials are dried at 200–300°C..

4. R. Separate the precipitate. R. 2. This contribution is from Madis Raukas... Optical Properties Emission peak: Around 385 nm Emission width (FWHM): About 35 nm Excitation by e-beam: Specified as a phosphor for x-ray intensifiers Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 100 Emission 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Remarks 1. Wolfe..W.. yttrium or lithium can be used for reducing the persistence (see the second reference). Uhle.0001FCl.000 ppm Al).J.. 2.S. Spray dry the slurry of BaFCl:Eu and aqueous BaCl2.F. Fire in N2. Pat.W. U. Sieve to –200 +355-mesh size. 3 951 848 (1976). Lead is an important additive for brightness enhancement and its amount can be varied from about 10 to 1000 molar ppm parts of host. Pat. O. R. References 1. R.Preparation Dry blend together. 8. 2 303 917 (1942).01Pb0. For the same purpose.F.. H. and Messier. 4.S. Blend with with BaCl2 to serve as a flux. 3. 3. This x-ray phosphor is represented by the formula Ba0. Dietz.S. 4 057 508 (1977). As a further improvement...9989Eu0. and Messier. the optimum being at around 100 ppm. Structure: Tetragonal BaFCl:Eu2+ Preparation Stir the following overnight: (1-2x)BaF2(s) + BaCl2(aq) + 2x EuF2(s) 2 Ba1-xEuxFCl(s) A stoichiometric excess of aqueous BaCl2 solution is used. U. Pat. . U. lead can be replaced by aluminum or thallium in slightly different proportions (10–50 ppm Tl. U. 2 hours. 2 303 963 (1942).. ~ 830°C.S. Wolfe. Pat.000–15.. Fire in a 5% H2-N2 mixture at 600–1000°C for 1 hour.

40 eV). Fire in a flow of 5% H2 in N2 at 830°C for 2 hours.7 × 10–6 sec (UV exc. U.L. Condens. Solid state chemistry and luminescence of X-ray phosphors. and Torardi.. Alloys Ingredients. This compound is photostimulable.53 70.Mn2+ Composition Ingredient BaF2 MgF2 EuF2 MnF2 Mole % 23.. BaMg3F8:Eu2+. 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 References 1. A. 2.88 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: + Decay to 1/e: 5. This contribution is from Masaaki Tamatani. 13.S.) Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 100 Excitation (%) Emission 50 2 3 Remarks 1.18 4. Ferretti. 1159 (2001). + (4.07 Preparation Dry blend together. Optical Properties Emission color: Deep blue (Eu2+) . Radzhabov. S. E. C.26 43. 2.. Optical Properties Emission color: UV/blue Emission peak: 380 nm Excitation efficiency by UV: – (3. J. Matter. Issler.59 1. Store in a well-sealed container. 54 (1995)..70 By weight (g) 41. 229. 4 524 016 (1985)... T.Heat the resultant phosphor/flux intermediate at 1000°C.23 6. Pat. 3.99 2.C. Photoionization processes in barium fluorohalide crystals doped with Eu2+. Phys. Wash. and Kurobori. J.

4 112 328 (1978)..S. Reference 1. peaking at around 330 nm Excitation by e-beam: Good Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 100 Emission 50 2 3 Remarks 1. Fire in a capped alumina crucible in inert or fluorizing atmosphere above 1100°C. This contribution is from Madis Raukas. U. and Messier. Pat.20F10.Emission peaks: Two bands.Yb3+ Structure: Monoclinic Composition Ingredient YF3 YbF3 Er F3 BaF2 ZnF2 Mole % 78 20 2 100 10 By weight (g) Preparation Mix thoroughly in ethanol. Forming undoped barium magnesium fluoride requires lower firing temperature (700– 750°C). higher temperature is required for activator diffusion.05Mg2.80Mn0. R. The ingredients in the ratio shown above yields the composition of Ba1.. 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 BaY2F8:Er3+. 3.F.95Eu0.W. Wash with water after cooling to remove flux.. Wolfe. Optical Properties Emission color: Green Emission peak: 550 nm . 410 nm (Eu2+) and 610 nm (Mn2+) Emission width (FWHM): 80 nm (Mn2+) Excitation efficiency by UV: In a broad range. R. 2.

98 × 10-6 . Thallium iodide is mixed with CsI before heating.A. 2. grown from the melt after Czochralski. References 1. Kaminskii. Quant.88 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: ++ Decay to 1/e: 0. and dissolved in the melt (melting point 623°C).5-µm wavelength laser-light emission by infrared-excitable phosphors. Y.61 eV (269 nm). Mita.13 eV (299 nm). 4. zone melting in a closed vertical crucible after Bridgman–Stockbarger 2. S95 (1990). Detection of 1. Lett. 587 (1981). Opt. Luminescence characteristics are similar to those of YF3.. 22. A. This contribution is from Hajime Yamamoto.Excitation efficiency by UV: Weak red emission Excitation efficiency by e-beam: Weak red emission Excitation efficiency by infrared light: Efficient under 970 nm Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 100 Emission 50 2 3 Remarks 1.14 eV (241 nm) Excitation efficiency by UV: + (4. 5. Electron.. Optical Properties Emission color: Green Emission peak: 550 nm Absorption edge: 4. 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Structure: Cubic CsI:Tl Preparation Single crystals can be grown by several conventional methods: 1. et al.. 2. 39. Spectroscopic and laser properties of Er3+-doped monoclinic BaY2F8 single-crystals. Appl.. Phys.

and dry. filter. IEEE Trans. and Grabmaier. Grabmaier. 1 hour.1 By weight (g) 100 2. 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Remarks 1.1 2.. J. Nucl. B. B. Fire in air. During crystal growth.. Blend with the Na2CO3.. Crystal scintillators. 3. and NH4Br.2 39. 800–1100°C.1 Preparation Combine the La2O3. 3. Structure: Tetragonal Composition Ingredient La2O3 Tb4O7 HNO3 Na2CO3 NH4Br LaOBr:Tb3+ Mole % 19. Blasse.06 and 0. The theory and practice of scintillation counting. Pergamon Press. Powderize. 1 hour.40 eV). Luminescent Materials. 372 (1984).. some of the thallium may be lost by evaporation. wash. and HNO3. 1.3 38. Sci.0 39. G. Tb4O7. Powderize and reblend powder. References 1. London (1964).7 3. This contribution is from Masaaki Tamatani.B.3 mol%.6 0.C.3 60. Springer-Verlag. The luminescence intensity is nearly constant for Tl+ concentrations between 0.88 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: + . Heidelberg (1994).C. 2. Birks. 2. NS-31.Spectra 800 700 600 500 400 Wavelength (nm) 300 100 Emission 50 2 3 Spectrum of the emission under x-ray excitation. 400–500°C. such as water. ++ (4. 2. Optical Properties Emission color: Whitish blue Excitation efficiency by UV: – (3. Fire in air. Ball-mill the powder with a grinding media and a liquid vehicle.

. Bull.. Mater. Concentration quenching of Tb3+ luminescence in LaOBr and Gd2O2S phosphors.. Spring Meeting. Pat. Soc. A. Fire in air. This contribution is from Masaaki Tamatani. Abstr.G. Rep. 14. Ammonium bromide serves as the brominating agent.40 eV). 2. Tb activated rare earth oxyhalides for x-ray intensifying screen.G. Electrochem. 3 617 743 (1971).Spectra 800 700 600 500 400 Wavelength (nm) 300 100 Excitation (%) Emission 50 2 3 Remarks 1. 800°C. 2. Holsa. 4. and Bril. Philips Res. J. J.S. 22. References 1.88 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: + . Blasse. Investigations of Tb3+-activated phosphors. et al. Res. – (4.. Rabatin. while potassium bromide acts as the flux. Alkali bromide formed by the interaction of alkali carbonate and ammonium bromide serves as a re-crystallizing agent. U. Rabatin.. 481 (1967). J. 1403 (1979).. G. 102 (1974).. Optical Properties Emission color: UV/blue Excitation efficiency by UV: – (3. 3. 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 LaOBr:Tm3+ Structure: Tetragonal Composition Ingredient NH4Br Tm2O3 La2O3 Mole % — — — By weight (g) — — — Preparation (1-x)La2O3 + xTm2O3 + 2NH4Br.

U. add some potassium antimony tartrate to the final product. References 1. Fire in capped Pt crucibles.S. Alloys Ingredients. 2. If water vapor sensitivity is a problem... Dry. S. Pat. J. J. 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Structure: Trigonal Composition Ingredient YF3 YbF3 Er F3 Na2SiF6 NaYF4:Er3+. U. Rabatin. 3 591 516 (1971).C.Yb. Rabatin..G.. in Ar atmosphere. 229. 4 208 470 (1978).Spectra 800 700 600 500 400 Wavelength (nm) 300 100 Excitation (%) Emission 50 2 3 Remarks 1.2 Preparation Mix Na2SiF6 with the proper amount of (Y. Solid state chemistry and luminescence of X-ray phosphors.9 10.. for 2 hours. Pat. and Torardi. Issler. NaF produced during decomposition of Na2SiF6 acts as flux and forms NaYF4 lattice.8 226. which has been precipitated from aqueous nitrate solution with HF solution. 630°C.G.S. 2. C. J.L. 3.Er)F3. This contribution is from Masaaki Tamatani.Yb3+ Mole % 57 39 4 100 By weight (g) 100 107. Optical Properties Emission color: Green Emission peak: 550 nm Excitation efficiency by IR: Efficient at 970-nm wavelength Excitation efficiency by UV: Weak red emission Excitation efficiency by e-beam: Weak red emission Excitation by infrared light: Efficient under 970nm .. 54 (1995).

119.La) — efficient green-emitting infrared-excited phosphors. Reference 1..Yb3+ Structure: Orthorhombic Composition Ingredient YF3 YbF3 ErF3 ZnF2 Mole % 78 20 2 10 By weight (g) — — — — Preparation Mix thoroughly in ethanol. J.. T. Electrochem.Gd. Optical Properties Emission color: Green Emission peak: 550 nm Excitation efficiency by UV: Weak Excitation efficiency by e-beam: Weak Excitation efficiency by infrared light: Efficient under 970-nm excitation . Kano. Fire in a capped alumina crucible in inert or fluorizing atmosphere above 1100°C. 1561 (1972). This contribution is from Yoh Mita. Yamamoto. 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 YF3:Er3+. and Otomo.. Wash with water after cooling to remove flux. Soc. NaLnF4-Yb3+. 2.Er3+ (Ln-Y. Y. H..Spectra 800 700 x5 Emission 600 500 x1 400 Wavelength (nm) 300 100 50 2 3 Remarks 1. Luminescence characteristics are similar to those of YF3 but more intense emission is reported.

15. 48 (1969). but higher content of Er dopant is required for obtaining efficient emission. 2. This contribution is from Hajime Yamamoto. Lett.Spectra 800 700 600 500 400 Wavelength (nm) 300 100 Emission 50 2 3 Remarks 1. Wash with water after cooling to remove flux.2 10 By weight (g) — — — — Preparation Mix thoroughly in ethanol. Appl. Comments on materials for efficient infrared conversion. Optical Properties Emission color: Pinkish-blue Excitation efficiency by IR: Excitable with 970-nm light .. which may be predominant upon higher incorporation of Er3+ and Yb3+ or partial oxidization. Phys. The green emission is observed also under 800 or 1500 nm wavelength light. Reference 1.. et al. L. 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 YF3:Tm3+.Yb3+ Structure: Orthorombic Composition Ingredient YF3 YbF3 TmF3 ZnF2 Mole % 74 35 0. The green emission is accompanied with red emission.F. Fire in a capped alumina crucible in inert or fluorizing atmosphere above 1100oC. Johnson.

F.Spectra 800 700 600 500 400 Wavelength (nm) 300 100 Emission 50 2 3 Remarks 1. 2. L.. et al. 48 (1969). This contribution is from Yoh Mita. . 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Reference 1. Johnson.. Appl. 15. Lett. Comments on materials for efficient infrared conversion. Blue emission is accompanied by red emission. Phys.

Te ZnS:Ag.2 Preparation Mix by dry grinding or milling.323 0. long blue afterglow Emission peak: 450 nm Emission width (FWHM): 1950 cm-1 Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (3.Mn CaS:Bi3+ Structure: Cubic Composition Ingredient CaS Bi2O3 S Mole % 100 0.6 CaS and ZnS-Type Sulfides The following host compounds and activators are included in this subsection: CaS:Bi3+ CaS:Eu2+ CdS:In CdS:In.88 eV) Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 100 Excitation (%) Emission 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 .5 By weight (g) 10 0.Al ZnS:Te. ++ (4. Powderize.Cl ZnS:Cu. Store in a well-sealed container. Fire in N2.40 eV). 1200ºC.7. 1 hour. Ultrafast CdS:Te CdS:In. Optical Properties Emission color: Deep blue.

R. 1200ºC. Electrochem.Y. long red afterglow Emission peak: 655 nm Emission width (FWHM): 1660 cm-1 Spectra. Jia... 2. Jia. Unpublished data.D. Lehmann. 477 (1971). Ryan. 5. Phys.. F. 87 (1972). Cathodoluminescence of CaS:Ce3+ and Cas:Eu2+ Phosphors. W. 2. W. Jia. Powderize.M. W. CaS:Eu2+ Structure: Cubic Composition Ingredient CaS Eu2O3 S Mole % 100 1 By weight (g) 10 0. 118..2 Preparation Mix by dry grinding or milling. J.Remark This contribution is from Weiyi Jia. Appl. 88. Lumin. J. 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 References 1. Fire in 95% N2 + 5% H2. Optical Properties Emission color: Red. 3402 (2000).. Store in a well-sealed container. Evans.Tm3+. 1 hour..... Activators and co-activators in calcium sulfide phosphors. Lehmann. References 1..488 0. D. 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 100 Excitation (%) Emission 50 2 3 Remark This contribution is from Weiyi Jia. Trapping processes in CaS:Eu2+. J. Soc. et al. D. . W.

S.J. and Klintenberg. Break the ampoule open and grind the compound mixture to a fine powder using a mortar and pestle. If it is not uniform it can be treated a third time at 900ºC for 10 hours in a vacuum-sealed ampoule. Weber. Seal the quartz ampoule under vacuum. The compound should be a uniform light green color. Mix vigorously using a Vortex mixer..1 % about 2 (not critical) By weight 145 g 0.J. References 1. Color: green Excitation by UV: By all UV and by visible blue light Decay time: <1 nsec. A 505. Derenzo. Seal the quartz ampoule under vacuum. M. exponential Remarks 1.. ZnO:Ga and CdS:In. Optical Properties Body color: Greenish-yellow Emission: Peak about 519 nm. Temperature dependence of the fast. about 1 10 torr.95 mg Preparation Place the dry CdS and In powders in a quartz ampoule. near-band-edge scintillation from CuI. 111 (2003). E. Instr. M. Meth.. The quest for the ideal scintillator. This contribution is from Edith Bourret-Courchesne. Weber. CdS:In.K. Meth.139 g 1g about 2 g .K. Derenzo. Place the compound in a quartz ampoule.. about 1 10 torr. HgI2.E. Nucl... and Klintenberg. A 486.E. M. Anneal in the sealed quartz ampoule at 900ºC for 10 hours. 214 (2002).CdS:In Structure: hexagonal (wurtzite) Composition Ingredient CdS In2O3 Mole % 99 % 1% By weight 1g 7. Ultrafast Composition Ingredient CdS In2O3 NH4Cl pure sulfur Mole % 100 % 0. PbI2. 2. Break the ampoule open and grind the compound. M.. Instr. Nucl. S. Anneal in the sealed quartz ampoule at 900ºC for 10 hours. Bourret-Courchesne.

Fire in open quartz boats. E. Lehmann. Weber. Material should be uniformly deep red luminescent.J. decay < 1 nsec Remarks 1. M. Bourret-Courchesne. The NH4Cl in the above recipe can be replaced by about 3. Boil till development of brown N2O3 vapor ceases (but not to dry). 1. Patent 3 583 929 (issued June 1971). HgI2. Instr. A 486. Nucl. S. PbI2. stir to uniformity. Fire in loosely capped quartz tubes (about half full. repeat the last firing step at about 100ºC higher temperature).. Solid State Electron.E. Do not heat higher than about 250ºC except in pure hydrogen. Edge emission of n-type conducting ZnO and CdS. 9. Lehmann during a visit to the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory in 1987. 6.. Cool while still in H2 (Important!) Inspect again under a UV lamp.. 3. Peak about 510 nm. 111 (2003).. over night). The material should now be uniformly green luminescent (if it does not. slowly flowing H2. Instr. Meth.g. M. M. Add both solutions to the CdS slurry. and Klintenberg.. Temperature dependence of the fast. 214 (2002).. ZnO:Ga and CdS:In. Optical Properties Body color: Grayish-yellow Particles: About in the 5–10 µm size range Emission: Narrow band. Color: green Excitation by UV: By all UV and by visible blue light Excitation by e-beam: Energy— 1–1.. Then add the sulfur to the dry raw mix.E. W. 600ºC. 4. 75% N2). The quest for the ideal scintillator. Klintenberg. one-quarter hour. A 505.. 900ºC. S. References 3. 1 hour. 5. Nucl. 2.K.J. Derenzo.6 g CdCl2...Preparation Make a slurry of the CdS in alcohol. When cool. Dissolve the NH4Cl in a little water. Derenzo. W. Remove any parts (if present) that look different. Remove any suspicious parts and powderize the rest. and dry at room temperature or at moderate heat (e. 1107 (1966).K. The above recipe was provided by W. Lehmann. Meth. not more) slowly flowing H2S. inspect under UV lamp. This phosphor is in a frozen-in semistable state. 2. near-band-edge scintillation from CuI.S. M. . Dissolve the In2O3 in a little HNO3.. U. Weber. The H2S in the above recipe can be diluted with N2 (about to 25% H2S.2%.

Structure: hexagonal (wurtzite) Composition Ingredient CdS:In* CdS:CdTe* *see previous pages CdS:In. about 5 10-5 torr.Te Mole % 1% (In) 99%(CdS) 0.J.66mg Preparation Place the dry CdS and CdTe powders in a quartz ampoule. Seal the quartz ampoule under vacuum.. Break the ampoule open and grind the compound.G. J. Appl. M.D. Nucl.. 4. 39..D. Derenzo. Nucl.. Anneal in the sealed quartz ampoule at 900ºC for 10 hours. Derenzo. Bourret-Courchesne.01 % By weight 10 g 1. V. S. Place the compound in a quartz ampoule.99%(CdS) By weight 1g 1g . A 505. Break the ampoule open and grind the compound mixture to a fine powder using a mortar and pestle. Phys. Seal the quartz ampoule under vacuum. and Klintenberg. M. 546 (1992). Cuthbert. References 1. 3. Instr. nonexponential Remarks 1.E. P. Detection of CdS(Te) and ZnSe(Te) scintillation light with silicon photodiodes.K.. Dorenbos. Temperature dependence of the fast. The compound should be a uniform yellow color.01% (CdTe) 99. D.. and Ryzhikov. Meth. 39. Optical properties of tellurium as an isoelectronic trap in cadmium sulfide.CdS:Te Structure: hexagonal (wurtzite) Composition Ingredient CdS CdTe Mole % 99.. 1573 (1968). Schotanus.E. 111 (2003). ZnO:Ga and CdS:In. HgI2. about 5 10-5 torr. Sci. S. Meth. Anneal in the sealed quartz ampoule at 900ºC for 10 hours. Mix vigorously using a Vortex mixer. The quest for the ideal scintillator. Instr. IEEE Trans.J. E. J.. Weber. A 486. Nucl. near-band-edge scintillation from CuI..K. M. 2. PbI2. and Thomas. M.. Color: red Excitation by UV: By all UV and by visible blue light Decay time: 270 nsec. 214 (2002).. Weber. This contribution is from Edith Bourret-Courchesne. P.99 % 0. and Klintenberg. Optical Properties Body color: yellow Emission: Peak about ~640 nm.

A 505. Mix vigorously using a Vortex mixer.. 8. near-band-edge scintillation from CuI. Bourret-Courchesne. E. . References 7. two modifications can be made (cubic sphalerite and hexagonal wurtzite) with slightly difference spectra. A ZnS slurry is made with water or an alcohol. Derenzo.Preparation Place the dry CdS:In and CdS:CdTe powders in a quartz ampoule. 111 (2003). and Klintenberg.E.. HgI2. Weber. Instr. Weber..03 5 — By weight (g) 98 0.K. Meth. about 5 10-5 torr. It can also be co-doped with Al.K. PbI2.. M.050 2. Excitation by UV: By all UV and by visible blue light. 214 (2002). followed by adding the NH4Cl solution. M. Heating takes place at bout 1100°C in a CO atmosphere. Nucl. The mixture is dried in air and powdered. Remark This contribution is from Cees Ronda. instead of Cl. A 486. Remarks 2. ZnO:Ga and CdS:In. exponential. The material can be washed with water to remove any flux residue.J. M.J.E. Nucl. Anneal in the sealed quartz ampoule at 900ºC for 10 hours. and Klintenberg. Then sulfur is added. The compound should be a uniform dark yellow color. The quest for the ideal scintillator. This contribution is from Edith Bourret-Courchesne. M. During stirring. Optical Properties Body color: dark yellow Emission: Peak about 618 nm. Instr. Color: red. S. Seal the quartz ampoule under vacuum. Break the ampoule open and grind the compound mixture to a fine powder using a mortar and pestle. Meth. Derenzo. This material is used as blue primary in cathode-ray tubes.5 nsec. In addition... first the AgNO3 solution is added. S. Decay time:3. ZnS:Ag..5 2–3 g Preparation AgNO3 and NH4Cl are dissolved separately in water.Cl Composition Ingredient ZnS AgNO3 NH4Cl S Mole % 100 0. Temperature dependence of the fast. Wurtzite is obtained by heating above about 1020°C and fast cooling.

3 — By weight (g) 98 0. It can also be co-doped with Au and Cu.632 0. Sinter at 1200°C in N2 gas flow for 3 hours.ZnS:Cu. Powderize and grind. The mixture is dried in air and powdered. This material is used as green primary in cathode-ray tubes.Al Composition Ingredient ZnS Cu(C2H3O2)2H2O AlCl3 S Mole % 100 0.Mn Structure: Hexagonal (wurtzite) Composition Ingredient ZnS ZnTe MnO S Mole % 94 3 3 10 By weight (g) 10. Optical Properties Emission color: Red Emission peak: 650 nm Excitation efficiency by UV: Excited by 280–380 nm and blue green 450–540 nm .03 0. Then sulfur is added. Heating takes place at about 1100°C in a CO atmosphere. The material can be washed with water to remove any flux residue.06 0.00 0. ZnS:Te. Afterwards methanol or water is added to make a uniform slurry which is stirred.08 Preparation Mix and grind.232 1. to obtain more green emission.4 2–3 g Preparation Copper acetate and aluminum chloride are dissolved in water and added to ZnS. Remark This contribution is from Cees Ronda. Pre-sinter at 800°C in N2 for 2 hours.

G. 2.. This compound exhibits strong tribo-luminescence. 23. This contribution comes from Dongdong Jia. 67 (1967). Smirnova.—USSR. Spectrosc. and Pron. Effect of tellurium on luminescence properties of zinc sulfide luminors.Spectra 800 700 600 500 400 Wavelength (nm) 300 100 Excitation (%) Emission 50 2 3 Remarks 1. Opt.. .I. 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Reference 1. R.F.

7 100 4.12TiSi4O11:Eu3+ Na1. and then wash with 3% HCl (to remove the excess CaO). Optical Properties Emission color: Blue Emission peak: 435 nm Excitation efficiency by UV: (3.46Er0.7 Other Compounds The following host compounds and activators are included in this subsection: CaWO4:Pb2+ GaN:Zn Gd2O2S:Pr3+ Gd2O2S:Tb Na(Mg2-xMnx)LiSi4O10F2:Mn Na1.23K0.88 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: + Decay to 1/e: 10-5sec Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 100 Excitation (%) Emission 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 .40 eV).23K0.29K0. Fire in air.08TiSi4O11:Eu3+ Na2Mg3Al2Si2O10F2:Tb Structure: Tetragonal Composition Ingredient CaCO3 WO3 PbO CaWO4:Pb2+ Mole % 48. ++ (4.12TiSi5O13·xH2O:Eu3+ Na1. Powderize. several hours. 1100°C.42Eu0.5 Preparation Mix ingredients.42Eu0.7.5 49.5 1 By weight (g) 231.

Optical Properties Emission color: Blue Emission peak: 460 nm Emission width (FWHM): 100 nm Absorption edge: 354 nm (3. W. GaN:Zn Structure: Hexagonal (wurtzite) Composition Ingredient ZnS Ga2S3 Mole % — — By weight (g) — — Preparation Mix by slurrying in water or methanol. NH3. CRC Press. Phosphors for plasma display. 422–423 (1998). Rep. A. Shionoya. Ed. 1100 C. 2 hours. Fire in quartz tubes.. Phosphors for lamps. and Hoekstra. 16... CRC Press. NBS1026 is used for lamps. 1100 C. 296–306 (1964). S.S. W. Rep. Bril. W. standard phosphors. 3. and Yen. 19. Ed.. M.. CRTs. pp. Excess Ca in the material blend gives favorable results. Bril. W. T. and Hoekstra. Wash with de-ionized water. Kamiya. 3. Add solution of Mn2+ and vaporize water by warming.... 356–370 (1961). in Phosphor Handbook. Philips Res..Remarks 1. References 1. Kojima. This contribution is from Masaaki Tamatani. Shionoya..5 eV) Luminance by cr: 650 cd/m2 at 50 V DC . Powderize when dry. S. 2. 629–630 (1998). 4. Powderize. Efficiencies of phosphors for short-wave ultra-violet excitation. S. Dry in air. Properties of the fluorescence of some N. 1 hour. Philips Res. pp. New York.. H. A.M. Powderize.B. 2. New York. in Phosphor Handbook. and Yen. Re-fire in H2+N2 atmosphere. and Mizuno.

Dec. Proceeding of IDW'02 (2002). H.92 Preparation Combine Gd2O3 and Pr6O11 powders with some nitric acid to form a precipitate. 2. 1000°C. 2. and Kameshima. Luminescence Properties of a Blue Phosphor.2 some some 10 By weight (g) 100 0.... Take the oxide. H. et al. 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 References 1. Proceedings of the 9th International Display Workshops.. Optical Properties Emission color: Green Emission peak: 510 nm Excitation efficiency by UV: (3. Sato. Fire in air.40 eV).Spectra 800 700 600 500 400 Wavelength (nm) 300 100 Excitation (%) Emission 50 2 3 Remark This contribution is from Yoshitaka Sato. Tamaki. Co-doping with a small amount of Ce reduces the afterglow. 4–6 (2002). Y. Y. Structure: Hexagonal Composition Ingredient Gd2O3 Pr6O11 HNO3 S2 Na2CO3 Gd2O2S:Pr3+ Mole % 100 0. Fire in air. ++ (4. 1.56 some 3 2. Sato. 1100°C. Takahashi.88 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: + Decay to 1/e: 3 × 10-6s . M. Rinse well in water.. GaN:Zn for VFDs. and combine with sulfur and NaCO3.

Yoshida.. Fall Meeting. 3. After cooling. Toshiba proposed a high-temperature. This contribution is from Masaaki Tamatani. 136. H. M.. Yokota. Abstr. Firing should occur in air in a vessel with a well-closing lid. 2713 (1989). Rossner.. and Tamatani. Praseodimium-doped gadolinium oxysulfide ceramics prepared by the hot isostatic pressing process. N. Properties and application of gadolinium oxysulfide based ceramic scintillators. and Ostertag.. the reaction product has to be washed a few times with water to remove residual flux. Gd2O2S:Tb Composition Ingredient Gd2O3 Tb4O7 Na2CO3 S Mole % 94 (Y) 6 (Tb) 100 300 By weight (g) 170. K. Hitachi is able to lower the sintering temperature during HIP by adding a sintering aid using a powder having large particle size. Electrochem. W.. Uchida. Honolulu.. Soc. Soc. mixture should be powdered in mortar.Remarks 1. M..3 53 96 Preparation Mix the rare-earth oxides by slurrying in water or methanol and dry in air. and Yamamoto. Matsuda. at a temperature of about 1100°C for a few hours.. A. After drying. J. Subsequently. H. No. mix the rare-earth mixture with Na2CO3 and S by dry mixing. Abstr. Suzuki.F for X-ray computed tomography.. Boston. Yamada. 2. 879 (1998). References 1.Ce.. No.4 11. Siemens proposed to apply a uni-axial hot pressing process instead of HIP. 1870RNP (1987). Fall Meeting. A scintillator Gd2O2S:Pr. using powders with very small particle size. Three groups have proposed different processes for fabricating the oxysulfide ceramics. Soc. hot-isostatic-pressing process using a phosphor powder prepared by the conventional method for CRT phosphors. Electrochem. Electrochem. .. 2. M. Y.

Spectra
800 700 600 500

400

Wavelength (nm)

300

100

Emission

50

2

3

Remarks 1. This contribution is from Cees Ronda. 2. This material is used in X-ray intensifying screens and in oscilloscope CRTs.

4 Photon Energy (eV)

5

0

Na(Mg2-xMnx)LiSi4O10F2:Mn
Structure: Lamellar intercalation Composition Ingredient Mole % By weight (g) Na2CO3 2.50 1.82 MgO 28.80 7.96 Li2CO3 7.50 3.80 5.00 6.45 Na2SiF6 SiO2 55.00 22.66 1.20 0.946 MnCO3 Preparation Mix stoichiometric amounts in a paint shaker for 30 minutes with about 20 mol% of excess potassium carbonate to compensate for losses due to volatilization. Fire in covered alumina crucibles, air, 915 C, 36 hours. Grind. Fire in covered alumina crucibles, 4% H2 /N2, 850 C. Cool to room temperature. Powderize. Screen through a 325-mesh stainless steel sieve. Optical Properties Emission color: Redish-pink Emission peak: 695 nm Excitation efficiency by UV: + (3.40 eV), + (4.88 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: Characteristic emission at about 1.4 fL level under focused 15 kV/8 A excitation

Spectra
800 700 600 500

400

Wavelength (nm)

300

100

Emission

50

2

3

Remarks 1. This contribution is from Madis Raukas. 2. This phosphor in formulation of Na(Mg2-xMnx)LiSi4O10F2 is an example of a broad family of intercalation ingredient that, besides micas and fluoromicas, includes vermiculites and zeolites. 3. Described composition yields a concentration of 0.08 mol Mn per mole of phosphor. 4. Good electroluminescent properties when intercalated with conductive polymers or metals. References 1. Qi, R.Y., Karam, R.E., Reddy, V.B., and Cox, J.R., U.S. Pat., 5 567 351 (1996). 2. Qi, R.Y., and Karam, R.E., U.S. Pat., 5 658 495 (1997). 3. Reddy, V.B., Karam, R.E., and Northrop, S.K., U.S. Pat., 5 489 398 (1996). 4. Qi, R.Y., and Karam, R.E., U.S. Pat., 5 531 926 (1996). 5. Reddy, V.B., and Karam, R.E., Northrop, S.K., and Zhang, Y., U.S. Pat., 5 531 928 (1996).

4 Photon Energy (eV)

5

0

Na1.23K0.42Eu0.12TiSi5O13·xH2O:Eu3+
Structure: Tetragonal Composition Ingredient Mole % Sodium silicate solution 30.7 (of Si) (8% Na2O; 27% SiO2; 65% H2O) 5.6 (of Ti) TiO2 (anatase) NaCl 58.1 (of Na) KCl 5.6 (of K) Eu(NO3)3·5H2O 0.12 (of Eu) By weight (g) 20.0 1.30 6.90 1.30 0.15

Preparation 1. To prepare ETS-10: Mix 20 g of water to the sodium silicate solution and add the NaCl and KCl. Stir and add anatase. Autoclave the gel under autogeneous pressure for 24 hours at 230°C. The resulting powder is filtered and washed with distilled water at room temperature and then allowed to dry at 110°C.

2.

To prepare Eu3+-doped ETS-10: Dissolve 0.07 g of Eu(NO3)3·5H2O in 250 ml of water and add 3.94 g of the already prepared ETS-10. The solution is stirred for 24 hours at 60°C. The precipitate is filtered and dried in air at 110°C. *The next two materials also use this as their basic recipe.

Optical Properties Emission color: Red Emission peak: 2.00 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0.044 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: The maximum excitation efficiency at 394 nm (7F0 5L6) and 465 nm (7F0 5D2) Decay to 10% (or 1/e, as given): To 1/e 3.63 ± 0.04 and 1.11 ± 0.02 msec Spectra
800 700 600 500 400
Wavelength (nm)

300

100
Excitation (%)

Emission

50

2

3

4 Photon Energy (eV)

5

0

Remarks 1. This contribution is from Luis Carlos. 2. ETS-10 is also known as microporous sodium potassium titanosilicate. 3. ETS-10 is doped through an ion exchange between Na+ and K+ with Eu3+. Reference 1. Rainho, J.P., Carlos, L.D., and Rocha, J., New phosphors based on Eu3+-doped microporous titanosilicates, J. Lumin., 87, 1083 (2000).

Na1.23K0.42Eu0.12TiSi4O11:Eu3+
Structure: Tetragonal Composition Ingredient Sodium silicate solution (8% Na2O; 27% SiO2; 65% H2O) TiO2 (anatase) NaCl KCl Eu(NO3)3·5H2O Mole % 30.7 (of Si) 5.6 (of Ti) 58.1 (of Na) 5.6 (of K) 0.12 (of Eu) By weight (g) 20.0 1.30 6.90 1.30 0.15

Preparation 1. ETS-10 and ETS-10 doped with Eu3+ are prepared as in the case of the microporous titanosilicate compound described on the previous page. 2. To obtain Eu3+ doped narsarsukite: Eu3+-doped ETS-10 is calcined in air from room temperature to 800°C at a heating rate of 5°C per minute. The material is maintained at 800°C for 3 hours. Cool in air.

Optical Properties Emission color: Red Emission peak: 2.03 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0.003 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: The maximum excitation efficiency at 394 nm (7F0 5L6) and 465 nm (7F0 5D2) Decay to 10%: To 1/e 3.63 ± 0.04 and 1.11 ± 0.02 msec Spectra
800 700 600 500
Wavelength (nm)

400

300

100
Excitation (%)

Emission

50

2

3

Remarks 1. This contribution is from Luis Carlos. 2. This material is known as synthetic narsarsukite doped with Eu3+. 3. The end product is contaminated with quartz and cristobalite impurities. References 1. Rainho, J.P., Carlos, L.D., and Rocha, J., New phosphors based on Eu3+-doped microporous titanosilicates, J. Lumin., 87, 1083 (2000). 2. Rainho, J.P. et al., Synthesis and luminescence of Eu3+-doped narsarsukite prepared by the sol-gel process, J. Sol-Gel Sci. Tecnol., 26, 1005 (2003).

4 Photon Energy (eV)

5

0

Na1.29K0.46Er0.08TiSi4O11:Eu3+
Structure: Tetragonal Composition Ingredient Mole % sodium silicate solution 30.7 (of Si) (8% Na2O; 27% SiO2; 65% H2O) TiO2 (anatase) 5.6 (of Ti) By weight (g) 20.0 1.30

NaCl KCl Eu(NO3)3·5H2O

58.1 (of Na) 5.6 (of K) 0.12 (of Eu)

6.90 1.30 0.15

Preparation 1. ETS-10 is prepared as in the case of the microporous titanosilicate compound described in the previous pages. 2. To prepare Eu3+-doped ETS-10: Dissolve 0.07 g of Eu(NO3)3·5H2O in 250 ml of water and add 3.94 g of the already prepared ETS-10. The suspension is stirred for 24 hours at 60°C. The precipitate is filtered and dried in air at 110°C. 3. To obtain Er3+ doped narsarsukite: Eu3+ doped ETS-10 is calcined in air from room temperature to 800°C at a heating rate of 5°C per minute. The material is maintained at 800°C for 3 hours. Optical Properties Emission color: IR Emission peak: 0.80 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0.014 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: Maximum excitation efficiency at 520 nm (4I15/2 2H11/2) and 488 nm (4I15/2 4F7/2) Decay to 10%: To 1/e 7.8 ± 0.2 msec Spectra
1700 1650 1600 1550 1500
Wavelength (nm)

1450

700

600

500

400

100
Excitation (%)

Emission

50

0.75

0.80

Remarks 1. 2. 3. 4.

0.85 2.0 Photon Energy (eV)

2.5

3.0

3.5

0

This contribution is from Luis Carlos. ETS-10 is doped through an ion exchange between Na+ and K+ with Eu3+. This material is known as synthetic narsarsukite. The end product is contaminated with quartz and cristobalite impurities.

References 1. Rocha, J. et al., New phosphors based on Eu3+-doped microporous titanosilicates, J. Mater. Chem., 10, 1371 (2000). 2. Rainho, J.P. et al., Er(III) environment in luminescent titanosilicates prepared from microporous precursors, J. Mater. Chem., 12, 1162 (2002).

Na2Mg3Al2Si2O10F2:Tb
Structure: Lamellar intercalation Composition Ingredient Na2CO3 MgO Al2O3 (NH4)2SiF6 SiO2 TbF3 Mole % 14.23 42.66 13.94 4.74 23.74 0.69 By weight (g) 12.26 13.98 11.56 6.87 11.60 1.21

Preparation Mix all the ingredients thoroughly for 20–30 minutes, preferably in a paint shaker or similar device. Fire in a covered alumina crucible, with graphite pellets added, 1100 C, 12–24 hours. Cool to ambient temperature, powderize, and wash in de-ionized water. Optical Properties Emission Color: Bluish-green Emission peaks: 380, 415, 440, and 540 nm Excitation efficiency by UV: + (3.40 eV), + (4.88 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: About 1 fL level under focused 15 kV/8 A excitation Spectra
800 700 600 500
Wavelength (nm)

400

300

100

Emission

50

2

3

Remarks 1. This contribution is from Madis Raukas. 2. The described procedure yields a concentration of 0.04 mol% Tb. The formula of the compound is Na2(Mg3-xTbx)Al2Si2O10F2. 3. This phosphor is an example of a broad family of intercalation compounds that includes mica, fluoromica, vermiculite, and zeolite. 4. Phosphor has good electroluminescent properties if intercalated with polymers or metals.

4 Photon Energy (eV)

5

0

References 1. Cox, J.R., and Karam, R.E., U.S. Pat., 5 656 199 (1997). 2. Reddy, V.B., Karam, R.E., and Northrup, S.K., U.S. Pat., 5 489 398 (1996). 3. Oi, R.Y., and Karam, R.E., U.S. Pat., 5 531 926 (1996). 4. Karam, R.E., Reddy, V.B., Northrup, S.K., and Zhang, Y., U.S. Pat., 5 531 928 (1996). 5. Oi, R.Y., and Karam, R.E., and Cox, J.R., U.S. Pat., 5 567 351 (1996).

Section 8: Commercial Phosphors and Scintillators

Section 8 COMMERCIAL PHOSPHORS AND SCINTILLATORS
Commercial phosphors and scintillators are arranged in order of increasing wavelength in Table 1. The data were compiled for recent producers’ data sheets and literature. Note that these may not be the only phosphors and scintillators available commercially or the materials still may not be manufactured. Many phosphors are specified by P numbers assigned by the Electronics Industries Association of the United States; these have been used since 1945 and are included in Table 1. The World Phosphor Type Designation System (WPTDS), established in 1982, is a more detailed, unified phosphor system designation system. It usually consisting of two letters: the first letter indicating the criterion for the phosphor screen emission color, the second letter indicating differences from the criterion. These symbols, together with other numbers and symbols used in Japan and Europe, are included in an extensive tabulation by Inaho and Hase in chapter 6—Section 6 of the Phosphor Handbook. Table 1 Commercial phosphors and scintillators Wavelength of maximum Chemical emission (nm) formula 220, 310(1) 305 307 315 330–352 338 342–347 350 351 358–385 365 371 380 385 390 390 400 400 400, 525 410 BaF2(1,2) CeF3(2) MgSrAl10O17:Ce CsI(2) LaCl3:Ce3+(2) (CeMg)SrAl11O18:Ce (CeMg)BaAl11O18:Ce YAlO3:Ce3+(2) BaSi2O5:Pb LaBr3:Ce3+(2) LuAlO3:Ce3+(2) SrB4O7:Eu Lu2Si2O7:Ce3+(2) Ca2MgSi2O7:Ce3+ CsF(1,2) ZnO:Ga Y2SiO5:Ce3+ Zn2SiO4:Ti P46 (70%) + P47 (30%) Y2SiO5:Ce3+(2)

Designation or acronym

YAP, YALO

LuAP LPS P16

P47 P52 P48 YSO:Ce

Ti)2P2O7:Ti ZnO:Zn Sr5(PO4)3F:Sb.F(3) ZnO:Zn Y2O2S:Pr3+ ZnS:Cu.Mn Gd2O2S:Pr(3) Gd2O2S:Pr.Table 1 Commerical phosphors and scintillators—continued Wavelength of maximum Chemical Designation emission (nm) formula or acronym 410 415 415 418–420 420 420 420 420 420 425–430 433 435 440 447 450 455–504 456. 514 460 460 465 470/540 473 480 480 480 482 494 504 509 510 510 510 513 520 525 525 YTaO4:Nb Lu1-xYxAlO3:Ce3+(2) NaI:Tl(2) — CsI:Na+(2) CaWO4(2) CaWO4:W Lu2SiO5:Ce3+ Sr2P2O7:Eu (Lu.Cl CdS:In Zn2SiO4:Mn.As LuYAP MSL CWO P5 LSO LGSO GSO BAM BAM:Eu.Cl ZnS:Ag.Mn P11* P37 CWO BGO P15 UFC P24 P31 P39 .Ce.Ni CdWO4(2) MgWO4 ZnWO4(2) Bi4Ge3O12(2) Sr6P5BO20:Eu Ca5(PO4)3F:Sb (Ba.Gd)2SiO5:Ce3+ CaWO4:Pb CaF2:Eu2+(2) Gd2SiO5: Ce3+(2) Sr5Cl(PO4)3:Eu BaMgAl10O17:Eu ZnS:Cu BaMgAl10O17:Eu:Mn Sr2P2O7:Sn ZnS:Ag.

Cl CsI:Tl(2) Zn0. 696 600 605 610 610 610 610 610 611 619 626 626 627 Zn2SiO4:Mn2+ Zn2SiO4:Mn2+ Zn2SiO4:Mn.Cd)S:Cu Y3Al5O12:Ce3+(2) MgF2:Mn2+ (Zn. YVE P54* .34Gd0.Mg)F2:Mn2+ MgF2:Mn2+ (Ca.6Cd0.Mg)3(PO4)2:Sn P1 ZSM P46 P34 P2 P43. 619.Sb2O3 Y3Al5O12:Ce3+(2) ZnS:Pb.34Gd0.Table 1 Commercial phosphors and scintillators—continued Wavelength of maximum Chemical Designation emission (nm) formula or acronym 525 526 528 530 540 543 544 544 544 544 546 546 550 550 559 560 560 560 584 585 590 590 593.06(3) Y1.Pb Y1. YOE P49*.4S:Ag ZnS:Mn.Mg)F2:Mn2+ KMgF3:Mn2+ (Y.60O3(Eu.06 Y2O3:Eu3+ YVO4:Eu3+ (Sr.Cu.Pr)0.Ce.Cl Gd2O2S:Tb3+ La2O2S:Tb3+ Y2O2S:Tb3+ Y3Al5O12:Tb3+ (Ce.Mg)3(PO4)2:Sn Y2O2S:Eu3+ (Sr.Zn.Tb)MgAl11O19:Ce:Tb (La. GOS P44 P45 P53 P28 YAG:Ce P33 P20 P26 P12 P19 P38 P21 P25 Hilight YGO P56.Gd)2O3:Eu3+(2.Cu ZnS:Ag.Pr)0.Cu KMgF3:Mn2+ (Zn.Cd)S:Ag.Mg)3(PO4)2:Sn (Y.3) CaSiO3:Mn2+. 611 593.Gd)BO3:Eu3+ Y(P.V)O4:Eu3+ (Zn.60O3(Eu.Tb)PO4:Ce:Tb (Zn.

4Cd0.Sn)O6:Mn2+ Mg4(F)GeO6:Mn2+ Gd3Ga5O12:Cr.Table 1 Commercial phosphors and scintillators—continued Wavelength of maximum Chemical Designation emission (nm) formula or acronym 627 630 635 640 658 658 730 Gd2O2S:Eu3+ Zn0.6S:Ag Zn3(PO4)2:Mn2+ MgSiO3:Mn2+ Mg4(F)(Ge. P22 can be any of several compounds.Ce(2) P27 P13 GGG:Cr * These compositions are also sometimes designated as P22. (1) Core-valence luminescence (2) Single crystal scintillator (3) Transparent ceramic .

Appendices Historical Note on Phosphor Recipes Phosphor Materials Arranged in Order of Emission Wavelength Appendix III Willi Lehmann: A Brief Biography Appendix I Appendix II .

and meaning light carrying or luminous. This phosphorescence property lent its name to the element (Figure 1). this word was used more specifically to describe substances which became luminous following exposure to light excitation. used to describe the emission of diffuse light from causes other than combustion. Initially. . These developments and observations had their origin in alchemical attempts to manufacture noble metals through use of the evasive Philosopher’s Stone. combining (light) and (to carry). distillation resulted in a white substance that gave out enough light to allow Brand to read in the dark.1 Figure 1 Depiction of the discovery of phosphorus by Brand as perceived by Joseph Wright of Derby some years later (Copyright by Derby City Council Art Galleries.APPENDIX I Historical Note on Phosphor Recipes The word phosphorus derives from the Greek [fosforos]. The element phosphorus (P) was discovered in such a search by Henning Brand (1669) while experimenting with concentrated urine. for a time. permission pending). the assignation of this word was given to any substance that evinced the property of phosphorescence. The term phosphorescence was.

it is apparent that phosphorescent materials have been around for some time. from which this passage is taken. the picture showed the cow resting inside the barn. Li Yu. Tamatani. Writings or paintings using this ink had the properties of vanishing in daylight and becoming visible in the dark. was the yongest son of the governor of Xu Wen. Hai Wai Yi Ji written by Zhang Qian. Xu presented the painting to his sovereign. like a pillar. Later. All the court officials thought the Ning’s explanation was nonsense.D. Zhao. Xiang-shan Ye Lu.D. He acquired at the same time a painting of a cow. The methods for preparing the phosphors or the phosphors used in these paintings apparently were obtained from Japan where raw materials. The Chinese written text reads as follows (right to left): Xu Zhi-e. it was five inches wide and the back of the head was flat. born South of the Yangtze River. when viewed in the dark. Often they found that these shells contained a special liquid which when collected and mixed with paint formed a special type of ink. southern people (Japanese) frequented the beaches to harvest nacre. regardless.C. there is documented evidence that phosphors have been produced and put to use as early as 2000 years ago as is recorded in a Chinese text (Figure 2).2 (A translation of the Chinese text. He was fond of collecting rare antiques and other curios. the second emperor of the Song Dynasty.). who consulted some imperial collections. Following the fall of the Tang Dynasty. Some questions have been raised as to the accuracy of the compilations. The head possessed a red crest and a golden beak which vividly resembled those of a real rooster. however. of Run Zhou. M. none of them could explain the secret of the phenomena except for an officer in charge of religious matters named Zhan Nin. On one occasion. the last emperor of the Southern Tang Dynasty. he claimed that he had obtained his information from a book. the famous envoy sent to the Western regions by Han Wu Di. kindly provided by Professor Y.Historically.) which would indicate that manmade phosphors have been available for more than 2000 years.) by Wen Ying. . he spent five hundred thousand in cash to acquire the head of a phoenix complete with a shining and colorful skeleton. courtesy of Dr. The page describing the phosphorescent painting is shown in Figure 2. reference is made to a book published in the reign of Han Wu Di (140–88 B. such as calcium from seashells and sulfur from volcanic activity. In the text.) Figure 2 Copy of the Chinese text describing the acquisition of a luminescent painting by Xu Zhi-e written for a compilation of historical and folk tales published in the Song dynasty (960–1279 A. Tai Zong showed this painting to all his Ministers. found the reference in a work dating back to the Six Dynasties (220–586 A. used for the synthesis of sulfide phosphors occur naturally. a scholar named Du Gao. The phosphors described were of the persistent type and were used in a painting which glowed in the dark and was considered to some to have inexplicable magic. is given in the caption. the painting when viewed in daylight showed the cow grazing outside an open pen. the painting eventually passed to Tai Zong. He explained that at low tide in the China Sea. He added that in the sea shores of the land of southern people (Japan) sometimes strong winds would grind these rocks with water to form a similar paint.

. Potier’s recipe is likely the first phosphor recipe on record. the stone was of interest to pharmacologists because it reputedly also possessed depilatory properties. both authors were professors at the famed University of Bologna. The best calcinations results when stones. these pores then held air suffused with light whose gradual release led to the observed phosphorescence. The first is to reduce the stone to very fine meal. for example. From this powder various animals are formed in little boxes (pyxidiculum) which shine wonderfully in the dark.5 The properties of the phosphorescent stone attracted attention throughout the Italian peninsula and the European continent and led to much speculation as to the origin of the emission. Harvey. Sometimes this is done three times. they are calcinated for four or five hours. The experiments leading to this conclusion are detailed in Ars Magna Lucis Et Umbra. that the faint light of a new moon was produced by lunar material similar to the Bolognian Stone. After they have dried out they are put in layers with coal in a blast furnace and. Calcination was thought to produce pores in the stone.The denomination of phosphor (phosphori) first appeared in the seventeenth century in connection with the discovery of the Bolognian Stone (BaS) by Vincenzo Casciarolo in 1602. Licetus postulated. though published in Latin. after a very hot fire has been made.3 The base material (BaSO4. . barite) is found near Monte Paderno as scattered stones. As quoted by E. pure and diaphanous are used. If not cooked sufficiently the procedure is repeated as before. on the other hand. as the catalyst for the conversion of ignoble to noble metals). Licetus. then to calcinate it in a crucible with very strong fire. work it into cake either with water or the white of an egg. Montalbani described the various colors of light that could be obtained from the stone as a function of preparation and first suggested an analogy between the phosphorescence and burning. in the place of thalerum (?). There was considerable interest throughout Italy in these materials and attempts were made to use it as the Philosopher’s Stone (i. One popular belief advanced by Athanasius Kircher of Fulda (Hesse) was that the phosphorus attracted light much as a magnet attracted iron filings. Of course. The second is to reduce it to a meal and.4 it reads: According to the light-bearing quality sought for.6 he reported that the recipe for the preparation of the stone had been lost by then and he apparently had not been aware of Potier’s pharmacological work. it (BaSO4) is calcinated in two ways. this suggestion lead to controversy on the source of this radiation with no lesser a luminary than Galileo Galilei. Cesare La Galla described the properties of the stone in De Phenomenis in Orbe Lunae published in 1612. News regarding the unusual properties of the lapide Bononiensi was carried to the British Isles by John Evelyn (1620– 1706) following a visit to Bologna in 1645. The method for preparation of the Bolognian Stone was described in detail by Pierre Potier in Pharmacopea Spagirica in 1625.e. he was the first to point out that phosphorescence only occurred after calcinations and he tried to explain the phenomena as due to the slow release of fire and/or light trapped in the material during exposure. related in some detail the history of the stone and various attempts by the learned community in Bologna to explain the origin of the emitted light. In his book. When the oven has cooled off the cakes are taken out. when properly treated it gave rise to a reddish glow which led to the scientific study of luminescent objects. respectively. Preliminary scientific investigations of the properties of this stone were discussed in De Illuminabili Lapide Bononiensi Epistola by Ovido Montalbani and in Litheosphorus Sive De Lapide Boboniensi by Fortinius Licetus in 1634 and 1640.N. published in 1646. shining. Galileo was right and the diffuse light observed in that lunar phase is due to sunlight reflected from Earth.

In the course of his . Balduin called his material phosphorus hermeticus and disclosed his results in Aurum Superius et Inferius Aurae Superioris et Inferioris Hermeticum which appeared simultaneous in Amsterdam and in Frankfurt in 1675. These drawings appeared in Il Fosforo o vero la Pietra Bolognese. The second material is known as Homberg’s phosphorus named after Wilhelm Homberg (1652–1715) who made notable contributions to the foundation of modern chemistry and who had an interest in the photochromic properties of silver nitrate. Balduin communicated his results to the Royal Society of London in 1676 and as a consequence was elected to Fellowship of the Society. Note that the structure of this furnace is not much different than modern ovens used for similar purposes. Drawing of the furnace used by Casciarolo for calcinations of BaSO4 (barite) to produce his magical stone. he believed that the solution formed in this way represented a spiritus mundi and it is likely that the paint used in the Chinese paintings mentioned above was a solution of this type. An illustration by Marc’Antonio Cellio allegorizing the magical phosphorescent qualities of the Bolognia Stone produced in the course of calcinations. (right). The interest in light-emitting materials led to the invention and synthesis of three other phosphori of interest to the scientific and/or the alchemical communities of that period. 3. When calcium nitrate is overheated it develops a yellowish tint and emits a reddish phosphorescence in the dark following exposure to sunlight. His phosphor was henceforth named Balduin’s phophorus.Figure 3 (left). this volume is in the University Library of Bologna. This compound is hygroscopic and turns to a liquid when exposed to atmosphere. The first one was due to Christian Adolph Balduin (1632–1682) who in 1675 prepared a phosphorescent form of calcium nitrate by mixing chalk and nitric acid and distilling the solution to dryness. Because the material needed to be kept in a sealed vessel. published in 1680 by Cellio and are reproduced from Ref.

of course. in 1751 for making artificial magnets and in 1765 for measuring the compressibility of water. magnetism. much as a sponge would absorb water and then release it as it is squeezed. and let the purest part of the calx be pulverized and sifted. These conclusions were reaffirmed in 1728 by Francesco Zanotti who also asserted that the light. and may be preserved by keeping it in a dry phial with a ground stopple.8 His report is the earliest recipe of any phosphor written in English. Nicola Zucchi (1586–1670). His receipt for making it is as follows: “Calcinate some common oyster shells. however. turn it out of the crucible. and optics. though the language in the recipe is a bit arcane. by keeping them in a good coal fire for half an hour.” We note. published in London in 1772. if good phosphorus. by which means it is now in every person’s power to amuse himself and his friends with these curious experiments. upon trial. When it is cold. the method described is not much different than some of those presented in Section 2 of this work. had a wide ranging set of scientific interests including electricity. Light and Colours. and cutting. Although Sidot’s original purpose was to study crystal growth. for example. will be a white powder. where it must be kept red hot.7 John Canton (1718–1772). Priestly writes (pages 370–372):9 In the next place I shall present my reader with an account of this composition of Mr. let this mixture be rammed in a crucible. scrape off. Beginning with the discovery of the Bolognian Stone. that clouds were electrified both positively and negatively and designed experimental methods that are (even now) used to determine the sign of charges via induction. The idea of the Bolognian Stone attracting light and causing the phosphorescence either by reemitting the light or by reflecting it. till it be almost full. Joseph Priestly cites Canton in The History and Present State of Discoveries Relating to Vision. he reported in Philosophical Transactions the discovery of a strong phosphorescent material which was promptly named Canton’s phosphorus (CaS).3 The beginning of modern studies of phosphor synthesis can be attributed to a French chemist. the synthesis methods and experimental results were reported to the French Academy by Edmond Becquerel in a note in 1866 and the material . rather than being attracted like a sponge or magnet to the stone. or breaking to pieces. another Professor from Rome. which. emanated the radiation on its own. and then be set by to cool. and has the advantage of being easily and cheaply prepared. fascination. In addition to Kircher’s conjecture as to the source of the light noted above. others such as Giullio Cesare La Galla (1576–1624) of Rome speculated that the emissions were due to the slow release of fire and light trapped in the stone in the process of calcinations. In 1768. he found that his crystals phosphoresced in the dark. persisted well into the nineteenth century. of about an inch and a half depth. who in 1866 was able to grow small ZnS crystals using sublimation. a man born under modest circumstances. He attributed this explanation to Galileo Galilei (1564–1642) himself. the brightest pieces.experimentations. and speculation. Canton’s which makes an artificial phosphorus greatly superior to any single natural substance. He showed. In 1652. Homberg synthesized calcium chloride sometime in the 1690’s and showed it had phosphorescence properties. the phenomena of and the origin of the observed phosphorescence were sources of much interest. for one hour at least. and let it be placed in the middle of the fire. He was awarded the Copley Medal of the Royal Society twice. reported that the intensity of the phosphorescence emitted from the stone was proportional to the intensity of the excitation light and that the color of the light emitted was independent of the coloration of the excitation light. Theodore Sidot. Mix with three parts of this powder one part of flowers of sulphur.

only to those materials which become self-luminous after exposure to light). we have now a much better understanding as to the mechanisms which produce luminescence in solids and we are almost to the point where we can begin thinking in terms of designing and tailoring materials to our specific technical needs. the emission from Sidot’s blende.. Discovery of the elements. It is our hope that the present volume serves to complement the information found in that handbook. Becquerel published his opus on light.was named Sidot’s blende.14 the word luminescence is used to describe most light emission processes following some form of excitation. respectively.11 perhaps due to his involvement in the discovery of Sidot’s blende.E. (<http://www. The word phosphor began to be applied in a more limited sense (i. 110–130 (1968). He was able to synthesize not only Sidot’s blende but also a series of alkaline earth chalcogenides (sulfides and selenides) and demonstrated that the light emission of the compounds could be altered by introducing metallic ions into the materials. J. Elementymology & Elements Multidict: Phosphors (2003). This led to a long-lasting controversy with Lecoq de Boisbaudran who proved to be correct in proposing that the R-line fluorescence arose due to the presence of chromium..net/elements/chronology_index. Because of his extensive work on phosphors detailed in a Handbuch article. van der Krogt. P.12 Results of studies by V. the word phosphor is used to describe principally solid luminescent inorganic materials.10 About this time. Lenard and his co-workers helped to establish phosphor research on a firm scientific footing at the turn of the nineteenth and the beginning of the twentieth century. considerable work took place at the Radio Corporation of America (RCA). Phosphorescence and fluorescence are. is due to trace amounts of copper.. Educ. One of the principals there was Humboldt Leverenz who developed synthesized and investigated the properties of many the luminescent materials that are even now in use. alkaline chalcogenide phosphors are called Lenard phosphors. for example. pp. He believed that in the latter case the luminescence observed in this gem was an intrinsic property of alumina and that Cr simply played a role as an activator. . Philip E.vanderkrogt. The latter ions form diverse centers in the material and are said to activate the luminescence.13 In the late 1800’s. The technical differences between fluorescence and phosphorescence were resolved following the introduction in 1888 of the word luminescence by Eilhardt Wiedemann in chemical processes. La Lumiere-Ses Causes et Ses Effects (1867). for many years this work was accepted as the standard text in the phosphor art and material in the book remains useful even today. Becquerel discusses at length the phosphorescence of various compounds including ruby (Al2O3:Cr3+).html>). Chem. as of late.15 Because of the necessity for better phosphors for the display industries in the late 1940’s and early 1950’s. he published An Introduction to Luminescence in Solids in which he summarized much of his life’s work. Klatt and Philip Leonard also showed that the phosphorescence properties of CaS and other phosphori depended on the presence of metal contaminants. Weeks. References 1. In 1950. The Phosphor Handbook contains an updated discussion of modern synthesis methods as well as the description of phosphors suitable for a variety of technical purposes.. M.e.A. the terminology describing phosphorescent phenomena was revised. hence they were named activator ions. still in use to categorize longand short-lived luminescent emissions.16 Because of the advent of atomic and quantum physics and chemistry and the work of many researchers in this area of inquiry which preceded us. however.

. The various antique volumes cited are in depository at the University Library of Bologna. AIM25: Royal Society: Canton. 7. Becquerel. Canton. Becquerel. Chem. 8. 10. Acad.. and Tamitani. 15. Compt. John (1718–1772). 38..E.W. 11.. Dent & Sons. Italy. John Evelyn is a famed seventeenth century chronicler and diarist who traveled extensively in Europe in the early 1600’s. Vol. E. Wied. Shionoya. 14... A History of Luminescence. London (1973). Jensen. I am grateful to Dr. 13.. Rend. and Stanley. Sci. (2003) (<http://www. American Philosophical Society. he is also known for his books on flora and gardening.. L. William M. Wiedemann.B. Roda. 3. Philadelphia (1957). M. M.. (1867) de Boisbaudran. The discovery of luminescence: the Bolognian Stone. 21–24 (1989). A. S. Pazzagli. Guy Hill for contributing this citation. Whatever happened to Wilhem Homberg?.. 63. CRC Press. History of phosphors technology. Yen .. S. Dairy of John Evelyn. La Luminiere-Ses Causes et ses Effets. in Phosphor Handbook. 4. Ann. Lecoq. Acad. Rend.ac. E. E. Accounts of his visit to Bologna in 1644–1645 appear in the inaugural volumes of the transactions and are also found in editions of his dairies: for example. 5. New York (1998).uk/>).aim25. E. Fils et Cie. H..M. Ph.. in Bioluminescence and Chemiluminescence: Perspectives for the 21stCentury. FL.N..A.. 1107 (1886). 12. Leipzig (1928). Roda. P. J. in Handbuch der Experimentalphysik. (1998). 898. and Lenard. Kricka. Librairie de Firmin Didot Frerers.. F. Akademie Verlagsgesellschaft. Paris. J. p. P. 46 (1888). Boca Raton.. Phys. Complete Works. Eds. John. Phosphoreszenz und Fluoreszenz. Eds. An Introduction to Luminescence of Solids.. R.. W. Sci. 103.J.. and Tomaschek. John Wiley & Sons. 6. 188 (1866). 3. Leverenz.2. Evelyn. 23. V. Klatt. Chapter 4. Schmidt.. Hist. 9. Chem. He was one of the principals in establishing the Royal Society. and Yen.. Ann.. W. Nakajima. A.. Bull.M.E. John Wiley & Sons. 16. and subsequently the Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society in 1665. Harvey. Lenard.. 34.. New York (1950). 90 (1889). Compt.

5:Eu2+ SrB4O7:Eu2+(F. 400.Mn BaSi2O5:Pb -Ca3(PO4)2:Ce3+ LaBr3:Ce3+ MgBa(SO4)2:Eu2+ Ca5(PO4)3Cl:Sn2+ Ca3SiO4Cl2:Pb2+ -Ca3(PO4)2:Ce3+ CaO:Pb2+ KMgF3:Eu2+ CaSiO3:Ce3+ LuAlO3:Ce3+ CaS:Pb2+ CaS:Pb2+. 460 302.Br) YAl3B4O12:Eu3+. 370 350 350 350.APPENDIX II Phosphor Materials Arranged in Order of Emission Wavelength The phosphors and scintillators in Sections 4. 310 233 254 254 267 280. 370. 344 320. 355 335 Chemical formula BaF2 CaSO4:Pb2+ BaMgAl10O17:Ce3+ YAlO3:Ce3+ MgSO4:Pb2+ Ca3Al2Si3O12:2%Ce3+ Ca2B5O9Cl:Pb2+ YAl3B4O12:Bi3+ LaOBr:Tm3+ BaSO4:Ce3+ SrSO4:Ce3+ -SrO·3B2O3:Pb2+ CeF3 MgSrAl10O17:Ce CaSO4:Ce3+ SrB4O7:Pb2+ CaO:Cd2+ CsI LuTaO4:Nb5+ CaSr2(PO4)2:Bi3+ -Ca3(PO4)2:Tl+ CaF2:Ce3+ Ca2P2O7:Ce3+ LaPO4:Ce3+ CaB2O4:Pb2+ YTaO4 LaCl3:Ce3+ CaO:Zn2+ YPO4:Ce3+ CaSiO3:Pb2+ Wavelength (nm) 337 338 342–347 347. 388 348 348. 636 360 360.Cl SrO·3B2O3:Eu2+. 319 302. and 8 are listed in order of increasing wavelength of the maximum emission.Cr3+ SrB4O7:Eu MgSO4:Eu2+ Y2O3:Ce3+ in SiO2 BaSO4:Eu2+ SrSO4:Eu2+ 453 . Wavelength (nm) 220. 371 358–385 359 359. 660 362 363 363.Cl. 327 310 314 315 315 319 320 320. 345 325 330 330–352 333 334. 413 365 366 366 368 370 370 370 371 375 375 376 376 Chemical formula -Ca3(PO4)2:Pb2+ (CeMg)SrAl11O18:Ce (CeMg)BaAl11O18:Ce YAl3B4O12:Ce3+ LaOCl:Bi3+ LaSiO3Cl:Ce3+ BaSi2O5:Pb2+ YAlO3:Ce3+ -Ca2P2O7:Sn. 337 320. 7.Cl SrwFxB4O6. 575 351 352. 355 288 295 300. 319 303 305 307 309.

Mn2+ Sr(Cl. 660 413 413 413.Ga3+ ZnO:Ga3+ CaSO4:Eu2+. 540 385 385 385 385.Gd)2SiO5:Ce3+ Ba2Li2Si2O7:Sn2+ GdNbO4:Bi3+ CaWO4 . 643 418 418–420 420 420 420 420 420 420 422 423 423 423 425 425 425–430 429 430 432 continued Chemical formula MgBaP2O7:Eu2+ YTaO4:Nb5+ BaMg3F8:Eu2+. Pb2+ Ca2MgSi2O7:Ce3+ LaOBr:Tb3+ YBO3:Ce3+ Mg2Sr(SO4)3:Eu2+ CaSO4:Eu2+ ZnO:Al3+. 440.Mn2+ Ca5(PO4)3F:Sn2+ CaYBO4:Bi3+ Y2O3:Bi3+ YOF:Tb3+ Ba2Mg3F10:Eu2+ Ca3Al2Si3O12:Eu2+ Lu1–xYxAlO3:Ce3+ NaI:Tl Y2SiO5:Ce3+ YPO4:V5+ Ca2P2O7:Eu2+ Ca2P2O7:Eu2+. 440 385.I)2:Eu2+ CaAl4O7:Ce3+ CaAl2O4:Ce3+ Ba3(PO4)2:Eu2+ Ca3Al2Si3O12:Ce3+ Wavelength (nm) 410 410 410. 413 386 388 388 388 388.Mn2+ YOCl:Ce3+ Zn2SiO4:Ti4+ –Ca3(PO4)2:Eu2+ –Ca3(PO4)2:Eu2+.Mn2+ MgBaP2O7:Eu2+.Br. 620 405–432 407 407 410 410 Chemical formula -Sr3(PO4)2:Sn2+ BaFCl:Eu2+ Lu2Si2O7:Ce3+ Na2Mg3Al2Si2O10:Tb3+ BaFBr:Eu2+ BaFCl:Eu2+.Mn2+ CsF MgSrP2O7:Eu2+ ZnO:Ga Ca2MgSi2O7 CaO:Bi3+ BaF2:Eu2+ KAl11O17:Tl+ BaB8O13:Eu2+ BaMg2Si2O7:Eu2+ Zn2SiO4:Ti P46 (70%) + P47 (30%) CaB2P2O9:Eu2+ Mg2Ca(SO4)3:Eu2+ SrCl2:Eu2+ in SiO2 Mg2Ca(SO4)3:Eu2+. 617 405. 512 390 390 390 391 391 394 395 400 400 400 400. 528 414–626 415 415 415 415 415 415 416 416. 415. 525 403 405 405 405. 410. 610 411 411 412 412.Wavelength (nm) 378 380 380 380.Mn2+ CaCl2:Eu2+ in SiO2 MSL CaWO4 CaWO4:W CsI:Na+ Lu2SiO5:Ce3+ Sr2P2O7:Eu2+ SrF2:Eu2+ –Sr3(PO4)2:Eu2+ CaF2:Eu2+ CaSiO3:Eu2+ CaSiO3:Ti4+ -Sr3(PO4)2:Eu2+ Sr2B5O9Cl:Eu2+ (Lu.

Th4+ YF3:Mn2+ YPO4:Mn2+.Mn2+ Sr3MgSi2O8:Eu2+ ZnS:Cl– ZnGa2O4 Wavelength (nm) 460 460 463.Cl ZnS:Cu Ca5(PO4)3Cl:Eu2+ ZnS–CdS:Cu.Na CaO:Cu+ BaMgAl10O17:Eu2+ CaS:Bi3+ Mg3Ca3(PO4)4:Eu2+ Sr5(PO4)3F:Sn2+ Ca2B5O9Br:Eu2+ Ca2B5O9Cl:Eu2+ BaGa2S4:Ce3+ SrGa2S4:Ce3+ ZnS-CdS:Ag+. 680 490–630 492 492 492 492. 486 440 440 440 440 443 443 443 444. 390 450 450 450 451 453 453 454.25(BaCl2)0.Na+ BaSrMgSi2O7:Eu2+ Gd2SiO5: Ce3+ MgBa3Si2O8:Eu2+ MgSrBa2Si2O7:Eu2+ CaAl2O4:Eu2+ CaS:Y3+ ZnS:Ag+.Cl– Ba5SiO4Cl6:Eu2+ Sr5(PO4)3Cl:Eu2+ Sr5(PO4)3Cl:Eu CaMgSi2O6:Eu2+ CaS:Bi3+.Cl CaGa2S4:Ce3+ La2O3:Bi3+ SrB4O7:Pb2+.Cl– ZnS:Cu+.Yb3+ CaS:La3+ ZnS:Pb2+.I BaMgAl10O17:Eu2+.Cl– (ErCl3)0. 490 454. 512 464 464 464.In Sr2P2O7:Sn2+ ZnS:Ag.Mn2+ ZnS:Au. 521 479 480 480 480 480 480.Wavelength (nm) 433 433 435 435 435 437 438. 530 445 446 447 448 448 448. 570 485 485 486 488 490.Ti)2P2O7:Ti BaTiP2O7 Ca5(PO4)3F:Sb3+ . 514 459 459 460 Chemical formula CaBr2:Eu2+ in SiO2 CaWO4:Pb CaF2:Eu2+ Ca5(VO4)3Cl CaWO4:Pb2+ Ba5(PO4)3Cl:Eu2+ CaS:Cu+. 500. 656 493 494 495 496 continued Chemical formula Sr2P2O7:Sn2+ ZnS:Ag.75 Y2O2S:Eu3+ -Ca3(PO4)2:Eu2+ BaGa2S4:Eu2+ Sr5Si4O10Cl6:Eu2+ ThO2:Pr3+ SrIn2O4:Pr3+. 490 454—800 455–504 456 456 456.Ni CaI2:Eu2+ in SiO2 Sr2MgSi2O7:Eu2+ SrMgSi2O6:Eu CdWO4 MgWO4 BaAl2S4:Eu2+ YF3:Mn2+.Al3+ (Ba.Th4+ Ca3MgSi2O8:Eu2+ Bi4Ge3O12 Sr6P5BO20:Eu ZnWO4 YVO4:Dy3+ Bi4Ge3O12 YF3:Tm3+. 532 465 465 467 467 470 470/540 473 475 477 477.

Al3+ CaS:Ce3+ LiAl5O8:Mn2+ LiAlO2:Mn2+ SrAl2O4:Eu2+ CdS:In MgAl2O4:Mn2+ SrBaSiO4:Eu2+ Zn2SiO4:Mn2+. 670 498 502 502 502.Mn2+ Zn2SiO4:Mn2+.Mn2+ Zn2GeO4:Mn2+ CaO:Sb3+ CaP2O6:Mn2+ CaS:Sn2+ CaS:Sn2+.Ce.5Ba0.F Sr5(PO4)3F:Sb3+ Ba2MgSi2O7:Eu2+ SrxBayClzAl2O4–z/2:Mn2+.As5+ Zn2SiO4:Mn2+ ZnS–CdS:Cu.Ce3+ Y2O2S:Pr3+ -SrO·3B2O3:Pb2+.5Al12O19:Ce3+.Mn2+ MgBa2(PO4)2:Sn2+ SrAl12O19:Eu2+.Mn2+ Ca2B2O5:Mn2+ Sr5(PO4)3Cl:Sb3+ SrGa2S4:Eu2+ YAl3B4O12:Th4+.Tb3+ . 528 522 522 523 525 525 525 525 525 527 528 528 528 528.Mn2+ Ca3SiO4Cl2:Eu2+ Ca3WO6:U ZnAl2O4:Mn2+ ZnS:Cu.Pb2+.Mn2+ Sr5(PO4)3F:Sb3+ Gd2O2S:Pr3+ Gd2O2S:Pr.P (Zn+Be)2SiO4:Mn2+ CaF2:U CaB2O4:Mn2+ CaMoO4 Y3Al5O12:Ce3+ SrS:Cu+.Mn2+ CaF2:Mn2+ MgWO4 SrAl2S4:Eu2+ CaS:Pr3+.Mn2+ Ca0. 608 528. 575 510 510 510 510 512 512 513 514 514 514 514 514 514 517 519 519 520 520 Chemical formula CaF2:Ce3+.Br Zn2SiO4:Mn2+.Br CaSO4:Ce3+.As5+ ZnS–CdS:Cu.Ce3+. 649 529 530 530 530 532 534 535 537 537 537 537 539 539 539 539 540 540 540 542 542 continued Chemical formula Ca5(PO4)3Cl:Sb3+ ZnS:Cu+.Na Ba2Li2Si2O7:Sn2+. 564 504 504 504 504 505 506 508 508 508 509.Wavelength (nm) 496 496 496 496 496.Sn CaLaB3O7:Ce3+.Cu ZnS-CdS(75–25) Ca2MgSi2O7:Eu2+ LaSiO3Cl:Ce3+.Mn2+ CdS:In SrAl12O19:Ce3+.F MgBa2(PO4)2:U ZnS:Pb.Cl KGa11O17:Mn2+ BaAl2O4:Eu2+ ZnGa2O4:Mn2+ SrS:Ce3+ BaSi2O5:Eu2+ Ca2Ba3(PO4)3Cl:Eu2+ MgGa2O4:Mn2+ ZnO:Zn SrGa12O19:Mn2+ ZnO:S -Ca3(PO4)2:Sn2+ Ba2Li2Si2O7:Eu2+ Ba2SiO4:Eu2+ Sr5(PO4)3F:Sb3+.Mn2+ Wavelength (nm) 521 521 521.

Tb3+ (Ce.Br.Tb3+ ZnB2O4:Mn2+ Y2O3:Tb3+ Ca2MgSi2O7:Eu2+.5:Pb2+ CaAl2O4:Mn2+ La2O2S:Tb3+ SrS:Mn2+ Y2O2S:Tb3+ Y2O3:Ho3+ Y3Al5O12:Tb3+ CaO:Tb3+ YAl3B4O12:Ce3+.Mn2+ CaS:Tb3+ Gd2O2S:Tb3+ Y2O2S:Tb3+ CaAl2O4:Tb3+ MgCeAl11O19:Tb3+ ThO2:Tb3+ Y2O3:Ce3+.6Cd0.Mn2+ CaO:Sm3+ CaSiO3:Pb2+.Mn2+ . 670 551. 689 continued Chemical formula YF3:Er3+. 689 542–549 542–549 542–549 543 543 543 543 543 543 543 544 544 544 544 544 544 544 544 544–549 545 545 546 546 546 546 546 546 546 550 550 550 550 550 Chemical formula YAl3B4O12:Ce3+. 636 551 551 551 556 556–608 559 559 560 560 562 563 564 564–644 566 566–620 571 571 573 574 574 575 577–630 577–670 577–695 579 579 580 582 582 584 585 585 585 585. 550 542.Mn2+ LaAlO3:Sm3+ SrSO4:Eu2+.Gd)BO3:Tb3+ Ca2La2BO6.Na CaS:Tb3+.Cl– Y3Al5O12:Eu3+ ZnS:Mn2+ ZnS-CdS:Ag.Ni ZnS:Mn.Yb3+ ZnS:Eu2+ Ba5(PO4)3Cl:U Sr3WO6:U ZnS:Eu2+ Sr2SiO4:Eu2+ CaS:Sm3+ CaGa2S4:Eu2+ MgF2:Mn2+ CsI:Tl Zn0.Cl (Y.Cu.Tb)MgAl11O19:Ce:Tb (La.Cd)S:Cu CsI:Tl+ Na3Ce(PO4)2:Tb3+ NaYF4:Er3+.Mn2+ Sr5(PO4)3Cl:Mn2+ Mg3SiO3F4:Ti4+ YOBr:Eu3+ LiInO2:Sm3+ LaAsO4:Eu3+ ZnS:P ZnS:P3–.Yb3+ Y3Al5O12:Ce3+ Wavelength (nm) 550.Tb3+ CaS:Sb3+ CaS:Sb3+. 665 550.Tb3+ Y2O3:Tb3+ in SiO2 YAlO3:Tb3+ ZnS:Ag.Cu KMgF3:Mn2+ MgCaP2O7:Mn2+ ZnF2:Mn2+ CaMgSi2O6:Eu2+.Mn2+ Sr5(PO4)3F:Mn2+ Ca5(PO4)3F:Mn2+ Li2CaP2O7:Ce3+.Yb3+ BaY2F8:Er3+.4S:Ag Y2O3:Er3+ Ba3WO6:U CaAl4O7:Pb2+.Tb)PO4:Ce:Tb CaF2:Ce3+.Cl La2O3:Pb2+ (Zn.Mn2+ YPO4:Ce3+.Wavelength (nm) 542 542 542.Ce.

Zn. 608.Mg)F2:Mn2+ Ca5(PO4)3Cl:Mn2+ CaGa2O4:Mn2+ CaGa4O7:Mn2+ CaO:Eu3+. 660 588.Mg)3(PO4)2:Sn CaSiO3:Mn2+.8O3. 629 593 593.V)O4:Eu3+ K2La2Ti3O10:Eu3+ YPO4:Eu3+ KMgF3:Mn2+ CaO:Mn2+ ZnS–CdS (50–50) YAlO3:Sm3+ LaAlO3:Eu3+ LiInO2:Eu3+ Wavelength (nm) 608 608 608 608 609 610 610 610 610 611 611 611 611 611 611 611 612 612 612 612 612 614 614 614 614 614 614 614–699 615 615 615 615 615 615 615–695 617 617 continued Chemical formula CaS:Pb2+.Mn2+ SrGa2S4:Pb2+ SrSO4:Bi YBO3:Eu3+ CaYBO4:Eu3+ (Y.42Eu0.Wavelength (nm) 586 586. 827 589–627 590 590 590 590 590 590 590 590 590 592.Mn2+ in SiO2 YVO4:Eu3+ (Y. 695 586–699 588 588 588. 696 594.Mn2+ CaO:Eu3+ SrTiO3:Pr3+ YAsO4:Eu3+ LiCeBa4Si4O14:Mn2+ LiCeSrBa3Si4O14:Mn2+ YAlO3:Eu3+ CaGeO3:Mn2+ CaY2ZrO6:Eu3+ .60O3(Eu.Pr3+ Y4Al2O9:Eu3+ ThO2:Eu3+ CaCl2:Eu2+. 702 595. 617. 620. 619 696 593.Gd)BO3:Eu3+ Y(P. 683. 619.Mn2+(Al) LiLaO2:Eu3+ Ba2SiO4:Ce3+.23K0.Na+ KMgF3:Mn2+ MgF2:Mn2+ Sr5(PO4)3Cl:Eu2+.7:Eu3+ Na1.Pr)0.Pb Y1.12TiSi4O11:Eu3+ SrY2O3:Eu3+ Y2O3:Eu3+ CaTiO3:Eu3+ CaTiO3:Pr3+ NaYO2:Eu3+ SrAl4O7:Eu3+ Y2O3:Eu3+ in SiO2 CaMoO4:Eu3+ CaSO4:Bi LaBO3:Eu3+ LaOCl:Eu3+ YAl3B4O12:Eu3+ -Sr3(PO4)2:Sn2+.34Gd0. 629 593. 611.06 Ca5B2SiO10:Eu3+ CaGa2S4:Pb2+ CaLaBO4:Eu3+ CaYB0. 710 596 599 600 602 605 605 Chemical formula LaAlB2O6:Eu3+ LaPO4:Eu3+ LaVO4:Eu3+ CaS:Mn2+ MgS:Eu2+ MgB2O4:Mn2+ CaO:Tl+ YOF:Eu3+ (Zn. 591.Gd)2O3:Eu3+ (Ca.Li+.

Mg)3(PO4)2:Mn2+ 2+ 635 Zn3(PO4)2:Mn 730 Gd3Ga5O12:Cr3+ 636 CaI2:Eu2+.Mn2+ 626 LaOF:Eu3+ 626 ZnO:Se 684–732 SrwFxByOz:Eu2+.Cl– 640.K 645 ZnO:Bi3+ CdS:In.Sr)3(PO4)2:Sn .Mg)3(PO4)2:Sn 681 LiAl5O8:Fe3+ 681 MgSr3Si2O8:Eu2+. 667 Y3Al5O12:Mn4+ 1540 Na1.Mn2+ in SiO2 742 LiAlO2:Fe3+ 639 Zn3(PO4)2:Mn2+ 747 CaS:Yb2+ 640 CdS:Te 747 CaS:Yb2+.Sm2+ 685 SrB8O13:Sm2+ 626 ZnS:Pb2+ 627 Gd2O2S:Eu3+ 688.1O3:Bi3+ 640 MgSr5(PO4)4:Sn2+ 800 CdS:Ag+.Mn 725 Y3Al5O12:Cr3+ 629 Be2SiO4:Mn2+ 689 ZnS:Sn 4+ 630 K2SiF6:Mn 695 Na(Mg2–xMnX)LiSi4O10F2:Mn 713 CaGa2S4:Mn2+ 630 Zn0.Cl 640 MgSiO3:Mn2+ 760 CaTi0.Cl 649 CaS:Eu2+ ·xH2O:Eu3+ 620 SrS:Eu2+ 646 ZnS-ZnTe:Mn2+ 98-2 650 ZnS:Te. 2+ 2+ 629 -(Ca.9Al0.08TiSi4O11:Eu3+ 641 ZnBa2S3:Mn2+ __________________________________________________________________________ .Wavelength (nm) 617 618 620 620 620 620 Chemical formula Wavelength (nm) continued Chemical formula SrTiO3:Pr3+. 707.12TiSi5O13 646 ZnSe:Cu+.4Cd0.6S:Ag 730 Gd3Ga5O12:Cr.Te2+ Na1.42Eu0.29K0.Te La2W3O12:Eu3+ 646 -Ca3(PO4)2:Sn2+ LaAl3B4O12:Eu3+ 646 ZnGa2S4:Mn2+ MgYBO4:Eu3+ 646 ZnS:Mn2+.Ce 633 (Zn.Al3+ 642 BaS:Au.Mn 620 YOCl:Eu3+ 2+ 658 Mg2TiO4:Mn4+ 620 ZnMg2(PO4)2:Mn 621 CaYAlO4:Eu3+ 658 Mg4(F)(Ge.Sn)O6:Mn2+ 623 LiAlF4:Mn2+ 658 Mg4(F)GeO6:Mn2+ 623 ZnS:Sn.Li+ 660 ZnS–CdS (25–75) 2+ 661 SrMoO4:U 625 Cd2B6O11:Mn 3+ 625 La2O3:Eu 680 -SrO·3B2O3:Sm2+ 626 (Sr.Cu 660 Mg8Ge2O11F2:Mn4+ 623 ZnS:Sn2+.23K0.46Er0.Ag 660 Mg2SiO4:Mn2+ 623 ZnS:Pb.

From his teens and in his own words. Willi was offered a post as photographer at the rocket facilities in Peenemunde which he declined. he began reading mathematics books and establishing a technical background which he drew on for the rest of his life. He completed a photography course in Tutow and in 1939–1940 was promoted to corporal (Unteroffizier) as the head of a small photo group at the Luftkreigsschule in Werden. In September of 1947. one of the glider club precursors to the Luftwaffe. Unavoidably. For example. he was recaptured in France by the French and interned first in Sedan and then near the Belgian border. his circumstances in the camp improved so much so that in the summer of 1946 he made his first of five escape attempts. while engaged in the glider Verband. He was captured by American forces on February 28. After a short interlude as an engineering student. he was promoted to sergeant (Feldwebel) in December 1944 and immediately assigned to an active combat unit defending the home front. Participation in the club activities naturally led to his gravitating to the air force when his time came for military service in 1936. France. world events intruded into his pastoral life and set him on a long odyssey. dirty and plain stupid. Hitler assumed power in Germany in 1933 and of course affected the course of history dramatically and disastrously.S. 461 . He attempted again to get home in June of 1947 was caught again and confined to solitary for a period. With each change of position. instead. Willi possessed a keen intellectual sense and a deep natural curiosity. Later he moved on to become a truck mechanic in the motor pool which moved to Le Havre in December 1945. “Work in father’s nursery was pretty dull. On his first two escape attempts. In the Fall of 1941. Hans. Willi was assigned to a long range reconnaissance unit on the Eastern front at Luga near Leningrad. He submitted a report on his work to the Air Ministry (Reichluftfahrtministerium)..” He consequently volunteered to become a photographer for the air force when an opportunity arose. in the form of brief autobiography Willi wrote for his family in 1990. His boot camp was in East Prussia and he did not take well to the training which was according to him “.APPENDIX III Willi Lehmann: A Brief Biography Information about Willi’s early life in Germany has been kindly supplied by one of his sons. With the war situation in flux through 1943. On his third attempt. Kiev. he became interested and did some calculations and some nascent experiments in rocket propulsion. Willi was born born in 1914 in Dinslaken am Niederrhein. a camp librarian and as a farmer’s aid during his captivity in Belgium.hot. in 1934 he joined the Deutscher Luftsport Verband. he was able to cross into Belgium but was captured and interned by the Belgians. Willi had a brief flirtation with the SA but did not become a member. While a U. prisoner.. Willi demonstrated some of his intrinsic versatility for in short order he become the camp’s typewriter repairman. Smolensk. Breslau (Wroclaw). he found himself moving from place to place with his unit…in Cherkov (Ukraine). and I started to dream about one day becoming an engineer or scientist. He worked variously as a miner. which would eventually bring him into the international phosphor community. He finished elementary school in 1928 and attended a trade school for gardeners until 1931 as preparation for taking responsibilities in the family’s plant nursery business. near Berlin. Willi managed to construct a workable bicycle out of parts from discarded bikes and was able to ride all the way to Germany and a joyful family reunion in Dinslaken. 1945 and interned in Le Mans. and Minsk.” With the encouragement of a library clerk. though the report went no further.

In the early 1980’s. He acted as a consultant with Rogers Corp. It was here that he was first encountered physics as a discipline and it immediately piqued his interest. Willi along with a wartime friend.rer. wooed and wed Renate Bauer. George. He thought briefly about starting his own phosphor business but rejected the idea on grounds of his lack of acumen in business matters. Willi’s work on electroluminescence had attracted sufficient interest that he was approached by the University at Braunschweig to explore the possibilities of submitting his work in partial fulfillment of requirements for a doctorate degree. He was granted the degree of Doctor of Natural Sciences (Dr. It is interesting to note that by 1956. Through a special dispensation. Physiker’s (equivalent to American M. Willi was given the choice of areas to investigate. and arrived in the States on October 1953 following an extended wait for immigration documents. On arrival at Westinghouse. Willi passed away on January 12. Yen Athens.) in 1950. Also as noted in the Foreword.S. In view of the dearth of jobs for physicists in postwar Germany. Willi met. Lehmann returned to Pittsburgh and currently resides there. In order to bypass the arbitur requirements. Hans. Indeed. and Mary) were all born in the United States.Nat) shortly thereafter. he was allowed to attend the Techschule in Duisberg. Claus Haake. Mrs. of course. Georgia Henry F. He chose to study electroluminescence and electroluminescent phosphors. Instruction commenced at the University in march 1948. Florida . accepted. Willi retired in 1982 at the age of 68 and took up residence in North Carolina. William M. accompanied Willi to the States and their four children (Caren. applied for admission to the Technical University of Braunschweig in October 1947. Willi’s father having passed on in 1942. During the waiting period. His contributions in this field and his other activities at Bloomfield and later at Westinghouse R&D in Pittsburgh are detailed in the Foreword. degree) in 1952. Ivey Coconut Grove. and with Lawrence Livermore Laboratories in the late 1980’s. Lehmann. This proved to be a problem since he did not possess the proper credentials (arbitur) to matriculate in a university level program having attended a trade rather than a traditional Gymnasium. The new Mrs. they had to help in the reconstruction of university buildings and other facilities destroyed during the hostilities. he developed an interest in diffraction and the limits that it imposed on resolution and was also attracted by the furor surrounding the announcement of cold fusion.In the middle of his posting to the Eastern Front. Professor Krautz also succeeded in getting Willi a scholarship which covered all his school expenses and relieved the financial burden on the Lehmann family now headed by an older brother. Willlie was granted an extended leave so that he could attend an engineering school in Germany. Willi recalled that his first instructor was Erich Krautz who not only taught the Applied Physics course but also nurtured him through to his candidacy in physics (Cand. Paul. just in time to return to the war. Both were offered positions. New Jersey. As their initiation as students. Willi and Claus Haake obtained their Diplom. Professor Krautz directed them to apply for positions in the lamp division of Westinghouse Electric then located in Bloomfield. his thesis entitled “The Electroluminescence of Zinc Sulfide Phosphors as an Equilibrium Process” was submitted in late 1957 and accepted. Phys. Following his return to Germany. The children and several grandchildren appear to be prospering. Willi attempted and passed a Begrabtemprufung (examination for the gifted) in the summer of 1944. 1993 from brain cancer.

Materials Index .

C CaAl2O4:Mn2+. BaFCl:Eu2+.Tb3+. Ba5(PO4)3Cl:Eu2+. CaBr2:Eu2+ in SiO2. CaF2:Eu2+. Ba5SiO4Cl6:Eu2+. Ba2SiO4:Eu2+. CaB2O4:Mn2+.Mn2+. CaGa2O4:Mn2+. BaMg2Si2O7:Eu2+.Mn2+.5Al12O19:Ce3+. CaGa2S4:Mn2+. CaGa4O7:Mn2+. CaGeO3:Mn2+. CaMoO4. CaAl4O7:Ce3+. CaI2:Eu2+. Ca2B5O9Cl:Pb2+.Mn2+. BaSi2O5:Pb2+.Yb3+. Ca2B5O9Br:Eu2+. Ba2Mg3F10:Eu2+. CaF2:Ce3+.Ti)2P2O7:Ti. CaCl2:Eu2+. CaAl2O4:Eu2+. BaY2F8:Er3+. . BaGa2S4:Ce3+.Mn2+. Ca2La2BO6. BaTiP2O7. BaFCl:Eu2+. BaB8O13:Eu2+. Ca0. Ca2MgSi2O7:Eu2+. BaMgAl10O17:Eu2+. CaI2:Eu2+ in SiO2. BaxSr1-xF2:Eu2+. Ca2Ba3(PO4)3Cl:Eu2+. CaGa2S4:Eu2+. Ba3(PO4)2:Eu2+.Mn2+. CaMgSi2O6:Eu2+. CaB2P2O9:Eu2+. Ca2B5O9Cl:Eu2+. BaSi2O5:Eu2+. Bi4Ge3O12. BaSO4:Ce3+. Ca5B2SiO10:Eu3+. CaAl2O4:Tb3+. BaMgAl10O17:Eu2+. BaS:Au. Ca2MgSi2O7.Mn2+. CaF2:Mn2+. Ca2B2O5:Mn2+. Ba2Li2Si2O7:Sn2+. CaB2O4:Pb2+. BaFBr:Eu2+. CaLaB3O7:Ce3+. Ca3Al2Si3O12:2%Ce3+. Ba5(PO4)3Cl:U.5:Pb2+. Be2SiO4:Mn2+. CaF2:Ce3+. CaLaBO4:Eu3+. Ca3MgSi2O8:Eu2+. BaAl2S4:Eu2+. (Ba.Mn2+. Ba2Li2Si2O7:Sn2+. B CaAl2O4:Ce3+.5Ba0.Mn2+ in SiO2. CaMgSi2O6:Eu2+. CaF2:U. CaAl4O7:Pb2+. Ba2Li2Si2O7:Eu2+.Mn2+. CaCl2:Eu2+ in SiO2. CaGa2S4:Pb2+.Mn2+ in SiO2.MATERIALS INDEX BaAl2O4:Eu2+. Ca2MgSi2O7:Eu2+.K. BaSO4:Eu2+. Ca3Al2Si3O12:Eu2+. BaMg3F8:Eu2+. Ca3Al2Si3O12:Ce3+. Ba2SiO4:Ce3+. Ca2MgSi2O7:Ce3+.Pb2+. BaSrMgSi2O7:Eu2+. CaF2:Ce3+. BaGa2S4:Eu2+. CaGa2S4:Ce3+. BaMgAl10O17:Ce3+. Ba3WO6:U. Ba2MgSi2O7:Eu2+.Mn2+. BaF2.

CaO:Pb2+. (Ce. CaSO4:Eu2+. CaSr2(PO4)2:Bi3+. CaS:Ce3+.Mn2+. Ca3SiO4Cl2:Eu2+. (Ca. CaS:Pr3+. CdS:Ag+. -Ca3(PO4)2:Ce3+.Mn2+. (CeMg)SrAl11O18:Ce. CaSiO3:Ce3+.Sr)3(PO4)2:Sn2+. -Ca3(PO4)2:Eu2+.Na. Ca5(PO4)3Cl:Sn2+. CaS:Eu2+.F. Ca3SiO4Cl2:Pb2+.Pb. -Ca3(PO4)2:Eu2+. -Ca3(PO4)2:Sn2+.Tb)MgAl11O19:Ce:Tb. CaO:Sb3+.Pb2+. Ca5(PO4)3Cl:Mn2+.Mn2+. CaO:Eu3+. CaO:Sm3+. CaSiO3:Mn2+.Na+. CaSiO3:Eu2+. -Ca3(PO4)2:Sn2+. CaSO4:Eu2+. Ca2P2O7:Eu2+. -Ca3(PO4)2:Eu2+. Ca5(PO4)3Cl:Sb3+. CaSiO3:Pb2+. CaO:Eu3+. Ca2P2O7:Ce3+. CaWO4:Pb2+. CaO:Zn2+. CaSO4:Bi. CaS:Tb3+. CaO:Tb3+.Cl.Cl–. -(Ca. CaSO4:Ce3+. -Ca3(PO4)2:Ce3+. -Ca2P2O7:Sn. CaS:Pb2+. Ca5(PO4)3F:Sb3+.Mn2+. CaS:Tb3+.Na+.Na.Mn.Cl.Mn2+. CaO:Cu+. CeF3. CaWO4. CaS:Yb2+. CdS:In.CaMoO4:Eu3+. CdS:In. Ca3WO6:U.7:Eu3+. CaS:Bi3+. CaS:Sm3+.Cl. CaO:Tl+. CaYAlO4:Eu3+. CaS:Bi3+. -Ca3(PO4)2:Pb2+. CaS:Sn2+. CaS:Pb2+. CaS:Pb2+.Mg)3(PO4)2:Sn. CaTiO3:Pr3+. CaS:Mn2+.9Al0. CaTiO3:Eu3+. CaSiO3:Pb2+.Zn.8O3. CdS:In. CaO:Bi3+. CaYBO4:Bi3+. (CeMg)BaAl11O18:Ce.Mn2+. -Ca3(PO4)2:Tl+. CaS:Yb2+. Ultrafast. CaYBO4:Eu3+. CaSO4:Ce3+. Cd2B6O11:Mn2+. CaTi0. Ca5(PO4)3Cl:Eu2+. Ca2P2O7:Eu2+.Mn2+. CaY2ZrO6:Eu3+. CaSO4:Pb2+. . CaSiO3:Ti4+. Ca5(PO4)3F:Mn2+. CaS:Sb3+. CaWO4:W. CaS:La3+.Te. Ca5(PO4)3F:Sn2+. CaS:Y3+. CaO:Mn2+. CaS:Cu+. CaS:Sb3+. CaYB0.1O3:Bi3+. CaP2O6:Mn2+. CaS:Sn2+.Cl. CaO:Cd2+. Ca5(VO4)3Cl.

LiAlF4:Mn2+.Gd)2SiO5:Ce3+. LaAlO3:Sm3+. MgBaP2O7:Eu2+. La2W3O12:Eu3+. LaOCl:Eu3+. LiAl5O8:Mn2+. MgGa2O4:Mn2+. Mg2Ca(SO4)3:Eu2+. GdNbO4:Bi3+. MgCaP2O7:Mn2+. MgBa(SO4)2:Eu2+. M . Gd2O2S:Pr.Ce.Mn2+. Mg4(F)GeO6:Mn2+. LaPO4:Eu3+.Tb)PO4:Ce:Tb. LaAsO4:Eu3+. LaOCl:Bi3+. LaAlB2O6:Eu3+. LaAl3B4O12:Eu3+. LaPO4:Ce3+. CsI CsI:Na+.CdS:Te. G KAl11O17:Tl+. LiAlO2:Mn2+. LiCeSrBa3Si4O14:Mn2+. MgF2:Mn2+. MgS:Eu2+. LaOF:Eu3+. MgBa3Si2O8:Eu2+. MgSrAl10O17:Ce. Mg3Ca3(PO4)4:Eu2+. LiInO2:Sm3+. Mg2Ca(SO4)3:Eu2+.Mn2+. LaVO4:Eu3+. MgBa2(PO4)2:U. (La. K2La2Ti3O10:Eu. MgCeAl11O19:Tb3+. LaBO3:Eu3+. K La2O3:Pb2+. LuTaO4:Nb5+. MgB2O4:Mn2+.Ce. MgBaP2O7:Eu2+. La2O3:Eu3+. Gd2O2S:Pr3+. LiCeBa4Si4O14:Mn2+.25(BaCl2)0. Lu2SiO5:Ce3+. KMgF3:Mn2+. Mg8Ge2O11F2:Mn4+. LiAl5O8:Fe3+. Gd2O2S:Tb3+. LaSiO3Cl:Ce3+.Mn2+. E GaN:Zn. LaOBr:Tb3+. LuAlO3:Ce3+. La2O3:Bi3+. KMgF3:Eu2+. MgBa2(PO4)2:Sn2+. CdWO4. CsF.Tb3+. Lu1-xYxAlO3:Ce3+. LiInO2:Eu3+. LiAlO2:Fe3+. LiLaO2:Eu3+. LaBr3:Ce3+. Gd2SiO5:Ce3+. LaOBr:Tm3+. Mg4(F)(Ge. Li2CaP2O7:Ce3+.75.F. (ErCl3)0.Ce. K2SiF6:Mn4+. Gd2O2S:Eu3+. KGa11O17:Mn2+. Gd3Ga5O12:Cr3+. La2O2S:Tb3+. L MgAl2O4:Mn2+. CsI:Tl.Sn)O6:Mn2+. Gd3Ga5O12:Cr. Lu2Si2O7:Ce3+. LaAlO3:Eu3+. LaSiO3Cl:Ce3+. (Lu. LaCl3:Ce3+.

S SrF2:Eu2+.5:Eu2+.Mn2+(Al).Cl.I)2:Eu2+ in SiO2.Mn2+. Sr5(PO4)3Cl:Eu2+. T . SrB4O7:Pb2+. Mg2TiO4:Mn4+.23K0. MSL.Pr3+. Sr5(PO4)3F:Mn2+.Mn2+. MgSrBa2Si2O7:Eu2+.Sm2+.Mn2+. –SrO·3B2O3:Sm2+.Mg)3(PO4)2:Sn. Na(Mg2–xMnx)LiSi4O10F2:Mn. Sr3MgSi2O8:Eu2+. SrS:Mn2+.Mn2+. Sr5Si4O10Cl6:Eu2+. Sr5(PO4)3F:Sb3+. MgYBO4:Eu3+. –Sr3(PO4)2:Eu2+. Sr2MgSi2O7:Eu2+. Sr5(PO4)3F:Sn2+.12TiSi5O13·xH2O:Eu3+.Mn2+. SrIn2O4:Pr3+. SrAl2O4:Eu2+. SrwFxByOz:Eu2+.Yb3+. Sr5(PO4)3Cl:Mn2+. Sr3WO6:U. SrAl4O7:Eu3+. MgWO4. SrBaSiO4:Eu2+. SrSO4:Eu2+. SrGa2S4:Eu2+. SrO·3B2O3:Eu2+. SrB8O13:Sm2+. SrB4O7:Pb2+. Sr(Cl. SrGa2S4:Pb2+. MgSO4:Pb2+. NaYO2:Eu3+. SrMoO4:U. MgSO4:Eu2+. (Sr. Sr5(PO4)3Cl:Sb3+.42Eu0. SrxBayClzAl2O4–z/2:Mn2+.46Er0. –SrO·3B2O3:Pb2+. SrTiO3:Pr3+. Sr5(PO4)3F:Sb3+. N P P46 (70%) + P47 (30%). SrB4O7:Eu2+(F. MgSr3Si2O8:Eu2+. SrSO4:Bi. –SrO·3B2O3:Pb2+. MgSr5(PO4)4:Sn2+.MgSiO3:Mn2+. Na1. SrwFxB4O6.Br).Cl. ThO2:Pr3+.12TiSi4O11:Eu3+. Sr2B5O9Cl:Eu2+. Sr6P5BO20:Eu. Na2Mg3Al2Si2O10:Tb. Sr5(PO4)3Cl:Eu2+. Sr5Cl(PO4)3:Eu. SrGa12O19:Mn2+. SrGa2S4:Ce3+.23K0.Mn2+. SrCl2:Eu2+ in SiO2. ThO2:Tb3+. NaYF4:Er3+. SrAl12O19:Eu2+. Na1. SrMgSi2O6:Eu2+. Sr2P2O7:Eu2+. SrAl2S4:Eu2+.Na.Br. SrS:Eu2+.29K0. SrS:Cu+. NaI:Tl. ThO2:Eu3+. SrTiO3:Pr3+.08TiSi4O11:Eu3+. SrSO4:Eu2+. SrAl12O19:Ce3+. –Sr3(PO4)2:Sn2+. Na3Ce(PO4)2:Tb3+. SrS:Ce3+. Mg2SiO4:Mn2+. Sr2SiO4:Eu2+.42Eu0. Na1.Al3+. SrSO4:Ce3+.Al3+. Sr2P2O7:Sn2+.Mn2+. SrY2O3:Eu3+. MgSrP2O7:Eu2+. Mg3SiO3F4:Ti4+. Mg2Sr(SO4)3:Eu2+.Ce3+. -Sr3(PO4)2:Sn2+.

YVO4:Dy3+. YOCl:Eu3+. ZnO:Zn. Zn0. ZnS:Au. Y2SiO5:Ce3+. YF3:Mn2+. YAl3B4O12:Ce3+.I. YBO3:Ce3+. YPO4:Ce3+. (Y. ZnMg2(PO4)2:Mn2+.Th4+.06. ZnGa2O4:Mn2+.Tb3+. Y(P. ZnO:Al3+. (Zn.Cd)S:Ag. ZnS-CdS:Ag. YF3:Er3+. YAl3B4O12:Th4+.Br. (Y. YOCl:Ce3+. YAl3B4O12:Ce3+. YPO4:Mn2+.Cu. Y3Al5O12:Cr3+. Y3Al5O12:Mn4+. ZnS-CdS:Ag+. ZnGa2S4:Mn2+. YPO4:Ce3+.6S:Ag.Cl–. ZnO:Se. (Y. YOF:Eu3+.Tb3+.Th4+. ZnO:S. (Zn. YAl3B4O12:Eu3+. Y2O3:Tb3+.Cr3+. Y3Al5O12:Ce3+. YAlO3:Sm3+. YF3:Mn2+.Gd)BO3:Tb.V)O4:Eu. (Zn. YAl3B4O12:Ce3+. YTaO4.Tb3+. Y2O3:Eu3+ (YOE).4Cd0.Cl. ZnGa2O4. ZnBa2S3:Mn2+.Br high brightness. YBO3:Eu3+. ZnO-CdO:Ga.Yb3+. ZnO:Ga3+. (Zn. ZnO:Ga. (Zn+Be)2SiO4:Mn2+.Gd)2O3:Eu3+. Z .60O3(Eu.YAl3B4O12:Bi3+.Ni.Ce3+.Mg)3(PO4)2:Mn2+. ZnO:Bi3+. YVO4:Eu3+. ZnS-CdS (25-75). Y2O2S:Tb3+. Y2O3:Ce. Zn2GeO4:Mn2+. YOF:Tb3+. Y1.Pr)0. ZnS:Ag+.Ga3+.Br long life. YAsO4:Eu3+.Mn2+. ZnS:Ag.Gd)BO3:Eu. YOBr:Eu3+. Y2O2S:Pr3+. YTaO4:Nb5+. YPO4:V5+. Y2O3:Bi3+. YAl3B4O12:Eu3+. Y2O3:Er3+. ZnS-CdS (75-25). ZnAl2O4:Mn2+.Mn2+. YAlO3:Ce3+. ZnB2O4:Mn2+. YAlO3:Eu3+.6Cd0. YAlO3:Tb3+. ZnS-CdS:Cu. ZnF2:Mn2+. Zn0.In.Cl. Y3Al5O12:Eu3+. Y YPO4:Eu3+.34Gd0.Cd)S:Cu. Y3Al5O12:Tb3+.Yb3+. ZnS-CdS:Cu.Mg)F2:Mn2+. Y2O2S:Eu3+. ZnS:Ag.4S:Ag. ZnS-CdS (50-50). ZnS-CdS:Cu. Y2O3:Ce3+. YF3:Tm3+. Ultrafast.Ni. Y4Al2O9:Eu3+.Cl. Ultrafast. Y2O3:Ho3+.

ZnS:Cu+. ZnS-ZnTe:Mn2+ ZnSe:Cu+. Zn3(PO4)2:Mn2+.Ag. Zn2SiO4:Mn2+.P. ZnS:Cu. ZnS:Sn2+. .Cl–.Al3+.Cl–.Cu.As5+. ZnS:Sn2+. ZnS:Mn. ZnS:Pb2+. Zn2SiO4:Ti4+. Zn2SiO4:Mn2+. ZnS:Eu2+.Te2+.Mn. ZnS:Cu+. ZnS:Mn2+. ZnS:Te. ZnS:Cu. ZnS:Mn2+.Cl–. ZnS:Eu2+.Cl. ZnS:P3–. ZnS:P. ZnS:Pb.Li+.Sn. Zn2SiO4:Mn2+.Cu. Zn2SiO4:Mn.ZnS:Cl–.Sb2O3. ZnS:Pb2+. ZnS:Sn. ZnWO4.

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