INORGANIC PHOSPHORS

COMPOSITIONS, PREPARATION AND OPTICAL PROPERTIES

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INORGANIC PHOSPHORS
COMPOSITIONS, PREPARATION AND OPTICAL PROPERTIES

Wi l l i a m M . Ye n a n d M a r v i n J . We b e r

CRC PR E S S
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Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data
Inorganic phosphors : compositions, preparation, and optical properties / editors, William M. Yen, Marvin J. Weber. p. cm. Includes bibliographical references and index. ISBN 0-8493-1949-8 (alk. paper) 1. Phosphors. 2. Phosphors—Optical properties. I. Yen, W. M. (William M.) II. Weber, Marvin J., 1932QC476.7.I55 2004 620.1'1295—dc22

2004047813

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Willi and Renate Lehmann (circa 1970).

TABLE OF CONTENTS
FOREWORD PREFACE PART 1: LEHMANN’S PHOSPHOR COOKBOOK AND PHOSPHOR TABLES SECTION 1: INTRODUCTION SECTION 2: PHOSPHOR PREPARATION 2.1 Starting Materials 2.2 Amounts 2.3 Mixing 2.4 Containers 2.5 Furnace 2.6 Firing Atmospheres 2.7 Treatments after Firing SECTION 3: PURIFICATION OF SOME STARTING MATERIALS 3.1 Carbonates 3.2 Sulfates 3.3 Oxalates 3.4 Sulfur SECTION 4: PHOSPHOR DATA 4.1 Description of Data 4.2 Simple Oxides 4.3 Silicates 4.4 Halosilicates 4.5 Phosphates 4.6 Halophosphates 4.7 Borates 4.8 Aluminates and Gallates 4.9 Molybdates and Tungstates 4.10 Miscellaneous Oxides 4.11 Halides and Oxyhalides 4.12 Sulfates 4.13 ZnS-Type Sulfides 4.14 CaS-Type Sulfides 4.15 Double Sulfides 4.16 Miscellaneous Sulfides and Oxysulfides SECTION 5: PREPARATION OF PHOSPHOR SCREENS 5.1 Phosphor Screens by Brushing 5.2 Phosphor Screens by Settling in a Kasil Solution

5.3 Phosphor Screens by Cathaphoretic Deposition 5.4 Filming of Phosphor Screens

PART 2: ADDITIONAL DEVELOPMENTS SECTION 6: PHOSPHOR SYNTHESIS 6.1 Alternative Preparation Methods 6.2 Combustion Synthesis of Phosphors 6.3 Preparation of Phosphors by Sol–Gel Techniques SECTION 7: OTHER PHOSPHOR DATA 7.1 Oxides 7.2 Silicates 7.3 Phosphates, Halophosphates, and Borates 7.4 Aluminates 7.5 Halides and Oxyhalides 7.6 CaS and ZnS-Type Sulfides 7.7 Other Compounds SECTION 8: COMMERCIAL PHOSPHORS AND SCINTILLATORS APPENDICES Appendix I Appendix II Appendix III

Historical Note on Phosphor Recipes Phosphor Materials Arranged in Order of Emission Wavelength Willi Lehmann: A Brief Biography

MATERIALS INDEX

Foreword
Willi Lehmann
It is a truism that all individuals are unique. However, in the case of the late Willi Lehmann this is true in the strongest sense possible. One often hears of a person with a “one-track” mind. That concept describes Willi perfectly. He was indeed one of a kind. As far as I know, he lived for and only thought about phosphors. He was a very oriented, strong willed and, yes, stubborn individual. It is my pleasure to have known him and have been his manager (in truth, no one “managed” Willi) for several interesting and productive years. I knew very little about Willi’s life in Germany. Fortunately, I was able to obtain a copy of an autobiography Willi wrote for his family and was able to learn something about his history. Bill Yen and I present a brief summary of Willi’s life and times in Appendix III. I knew that he served in the German army during World War II, first on the Russian front and then on the Western front. It is difficult for me to conceive of him as a member of a military unit. He always had a very un-Germanic disregard for authority. This undoubtedly explains why, after working his way up to grade sergeant, he was “busted” back to private. I believe he objected to officers riding in comfortable first-class carriages while enlisted men rode in overcrowded second-class carriages. Another un-Germanic trait was that he disliked beer; he called it “seifewasser” (soapy water). Willi was always resourceful (surely a good trait for a scientist). At the end of the war, after being captured by the French, he managed to escape and be recaptured by the Americans because he knew they treated their German captives better. While he was in POW camp a request came asking whether any prisoner could repair typewriters. Willi, who actually had no prior experience in this line, promptly volunteered and became a successful “typewriter mechanic” overnight. Also during his time as a prisoner he spent his spare time recalling and writing down the essentials of his previously studied elementary physics textbook. I suppose he “borrowed” the necessary paper and pencils from the offices where he repaired typewriters. After the war Willi studied physics (I am not sure at what university) under Prof. Erich Krautz, who had an interest in luminescence. Later, Krautz became Director of Research at a branch of the Osram Lamp Co., located in Augsburg, near Munich. At that time, the Lamp Division of the Westinghouse Electric Corp., located in Bloomfield, New Jersey, had a patent and technical interchange agreement with Osram. On a visit to Augsburg, E.G.F. Arnott, Director of Research in Bloomfield, asked Prof. Krautz to recommend two of his former students who were interested in luminescence and would like to immigrate to the United States. Krautz recommended Willi Lehmann and Claus Haake, and both accepted the offer. This was probably in 1955, as Willi published his first American papers (Phys. Rev., 101, 489; J. Electrochem. Soc., 103, 667 and Illum. Eng., 51, 684) in 1956. Willi remained with Westinghouse, first in Bloomfield and then in Pittsburg for many years, while Claus left after about 2 years to move to Arizona for reasons of his wife’s health. In 1956 I was Manager of the Phosphor Research Section of the Westinghouse Lamp Division and thus suddenly found myself responsible for two foreigners about whom I knew nothing. The situation was conceivably complicated by the fact that I was Jewish; I didn’t know how they would react to me and vice versa. Fortunately, this never presented a

problem. Both Willi and Claus turned out to be very diligent and skilled workers (Prof. Krautz would not have recommended dummies). Their knowledge of the English language was good, although Willi always spoke with a pronounced Germanic accent, probably because he spoke only German at home. (I must admit that while Willi worked for me I always edited his scientific papers before publication, but endeavored to leave them sounding like Willi.) During those years in Bloomfield the attention of the Phosphor Section was directed primarily to electroluminescence, then in its infancy. I can truthfully say the best (brightest and longest lived) electroluminescent phosphors made anywhere in that era were made by Willi Lehmann. This activity, and that elsewhere, is summarized in my book, Electroluminescence and Related Effects (Academic Press, 1963). I was later made a fellow of the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) and an Honorary Member of the Electrochemical Society for “leadership in the advancement of the science of luminescence.” However, the work which resulted in these honors was primarily due to three outstanding members of the section: Willi Lehmann, William A. Thornton, and Anselm Wachtel. My effort was mainly that of support, coordination, and interpretation. My approach to “management” of scientific activity was essentially minimalist, consisting of four steps: (1) hire the most capable and self-motivated people, (2) provide them with the necessary equipment and facilities, (3) point them in the directions of interest to the company, and (4) don’t bother them, except for occasional encouragement and suggestions as to questions for which no one had an answer at the moment. This minimalist approach certainly worked well with Willi, who was never a “team player.” I also learned that minor infractions of company rules could be overlooked unless they were officially brought to my attention: sometimes ignorance of events can be good. Although trained as a physicist, Willi actually performed best as a self-taught chemist; he was more interested in making better phosphors than in explaining how or why they worked. He was always an enthusiastic worker. I remember one day Claus Haake stuck his head in my door and said, “Willi just made a three-gott-damn phosphor!” I said, “What does that mean?” Claus replied, “Well, when Willi has made a new sample and finds that it tests good, he says ‘Gott damn!’ Today he tested his latest sample and said, ‘Gott damn! Gott damn! GOTT DAMN!’” About 1963 both Willi and I transferred to the central Westinghouse Research Laboratories in Pittsburgh, but to different departments. I joined the Optical Physics Department, which was primarily concerned with lasers, and in 1969 became manager of the department. Willi went to the Solid State Physics Department, where he continued to work on phosphors, mainly for applications to fluorescent lamps and cathode-ray tubes. Nevertheless, we kept in frequent contact and he always put me on the distribution list for his research reports. It was during this period of his career that he organized the material for his Phosphor Cookbook. Willi always maintained his independence and disregard for rules which seemed pointless to him. There were four types of scientific documents at Westinghouse: patent disclosures, papers to be published, summary research reports for internal use, and short research “memos.” For some strange (probably historical) reason, memos had to be addressed to a particular individual, although they could have an extended distribution list. Once Willi (in Pittsburgh) apparently had trouble deciding to whom a certain memo should be addressed so in the proper place he wrote, “The Queen of England.” Some unwitting secretary typed it up that way and sent it to his department manager for signature. Considerable consternation ensued, but Willi survived unscathed and hardly ruffled. For Willi, rules were usually meant for lesser beings; he had more important things (phosphors) to think about.

It will serve as a fitting and belated recognition of the valuable work this unusual individual contributed to the science of luminescence. this book was never published. Florida April 1. I am sorry to say that I lost contact with him after 1988. and apparently did consultation on electroluminescence for the Rogers Corp. “My Phosphor Tables are completed and I don’t like the idea of them going to waste. He said then. 2003 . However. He left many important published papers. and Mary.” The present volume by Bill Yen and Marv Weber. with reference to the original publications. Caren. in Connecticut. Henry Ivey Coconut Creek. All appear to be prospering and the family has given its approval to the belated publication of Willi’s Phosphor Cookbook and Phosphor Tables he so carefully compiled nearly two decades ago. an extended collection of the main properties of about 300 of the best-known inorganic phosphors. He enclosed a copy of his contribution. George. It was his obsession and sole occupation. I have learned since that Willi passed away in January 1993 and that he is survived by his wife Renate and four children. North Carolina. Hans. which combines his Phosphor Cookbook and his Phosphor Tables. In 1988 he wrote to inform me that he had been invited to contribute to a book entitled Phosphors. He went to live in Hendersonville. finally solves that waste problem. When Willi Lehmann was alive and active he was one hell of a great phosphor maker.Willi retired from Westinghouse in about 1985 (the reason for my vagueness about dates is that Westinghouse is now defunct and I have no way of accessing company files).

if nothing else.Preface About a decade ago. Though it might be argued that the art of phosphors synthesis and characterization has advanced considerably since Lehmann’s time. In connection with efforts to establish a phosphor database. The scholarship contained in the Phosphor Cookbook and the Phosphor Tables is quite remarkable and comprises a great deal of meticulous and careful work characterizing Willi Lehmann’s career as a phosphor synthesizer. This volume is divided into two parts. a volume in the CRC Lasers and Optical Sciences and Technology Series. The phosphor data presented in Section 4 combine the results of both manuscripts. no composition or preparation information was included in the Phosphor Tables. Henry Ivey. one of us (WMY). was preserved and given to us by Dr. Updated versions of these techniques are presented in this volume along with other techniques such as sol–gel and combustion that have been developed in the past few decades. of course. initiated an effort to establish a baseline for the state of knowledge concerning the methodology for synthesis and the optical properties of a variety of phosphors used for display and other technical applications. which was prepared for a publication that never appeared. was a principal in the development of many of the phosphors included in his cookbook. for example. we believe that these contributions need to be preserved as part of the phosphor art. the two unpublished manuscripts represent a reasonably complete summary of the state of knowledge on phosphors up to the late 1980’s. at the time) first presented us with a copy of Willi Lehmann’s opus (Phosphor Cookbook) on methods for synthesis and properties of over 200 phosphors. Ronald Petersen (of Motorola. The list of materials presented in the compilations is large and the manuscripts preserve and summarize synthesis and optical data on most of the commonly used phosphors (as well as some less common ones). This report dates from the late 1970’s and covered the majority of phosphors then in use. Most of the contents of Lehmann’s Phosphor Cookbook and Phosphor Tables are preserved in the first part with either no or only slight changes in style and format. Almost all modern phosphors are synthesized by solid-state reactions at high temperatures. In the absence of any systematic database on phosphors. of past methodologies. in response to a federal broad agency announcement. Thus. Henry had a close working relationship with Willi at Westinghouse as the Foreword to this volume attests. A copy of these tables. Though for various reasons this effort ultimately turned futile. Dr. In the second part of the volume we have attempted to supplement Lehmann’s work with additional . in our becoming aware of the existence of the Phosphor Handbook published in Japanese under the auspices of the Japan Phosphor Society and led to its eventual translation and publication as the Phosphor Handbook. these methodologies are often abandoned and forgotten but often need to be rediscovered and revived when circumstances warrant it. Lehmann. several members of the phosphor/luminescence community called my attention to an existing backlog of published and unpublished literature addressed to this subject. He later updated and extended this work in 1988 in his Phosphor Tables in which the phosphor properties of over 300 luminescent materials were summarized in tabular form. However. thus such information is absent for many compounds. This resulted. it appeared to us that the content of these two unpublished manuscripts fully deserved publication as a record.

Weber Berkeley. It follows that recipes for compounds doped with a certain ion of a series very likely will also be effective for other members of that series. In this effort we have benefitted from numerous comments. as noted in the Foreword. We note with special appreciation the excellent work of Sergei Basun in preparing the many figures and the final manuscript. Only a relatively few phosphors have achieved commercial success. Other considerations (such as ion sizes) will enter. Georgia Marvin J. suggestions. eye protection. The first presents an historical perspective on phosphors. VII–XII). however. Yen Athens. etc. and contributions from our Editorial Board. a good beginning point. California April 2004 . The third gives a brief summary of Willi Lehmann’s life.) should be observed in the preparation and synthesis of the phosphors described in the volume. in the second a table of phosphors is arranged in order of emission wavelength as a guide in selecting phosphors for particular applications. Mike Caplinger and Jeff Deroshia for their computing assistance. We are very appreciative of their help and that of Ron Petersen and Henry Ivey for having preserved the original manuscripts. We hope that the publication of Inorganic Phosphors serves to fulfill his wish. Sarah Dunning for typing the manuscript. As such. Much additional information on the synthesis and characterization of a phosphor or luminescent material information can be found in the aforementioned Phosphor Handbook. and the valuable interactions with CRC Project Editor James McGovern and Development Manager Helena Redshaw. I–VI) and the sequel Phase Equilibrium Diagrams (Vols. would be with the procedures that are presented here. so that the synthesis of any new compounds remains an area of experimentation. the listing is not exhaustive but rather representative of some of the more significant phosphors developed in recent years. Willi Lehmann was anxious to have the material that he had prepared with such care published in some form. William M. We are also very thankful to the Lehmann family for giving their permission to use this material. We are aware that.developments including recent synthesis methods and new phosphors. We have restricted consideration to materials that are accessible in the open literature and have not included any recipes or description of phosphors that are proprietary. we emphasize that all normal safety precautions (fume hoods. It may be noted that the elements belonging to series such as the lanthanides (4f) have chemical behaviors that are nearly identical to each other. these volumes contain a great deal of material which is extremely useful in developing an understanding as to what can and cannot be synthesized. Indeed. The American Ceramic Society in collaboration with the National Institutes of Standards and Technology (NIST) has continued to publish and revise Phase Diagrams for Ceramists (Vols. The preparation methods described in this volume generally entail the use of laboratory procedures which are normally encountered in solid-state chemistry and which expose the experimenter to the usual perils. Section 8 presents a list of many commercial phosphor and scintillator materials and the peak wavelength of their emission. this volume should be considered a tribute to this unusual individual and his contributions to the phosphor art. Finally. three appendices have been added. Because of the plethora of phosphor compositions reported in recent decades.

Grabmaier. Berlin. Bellingham. 1989. Goldberg. Ed. Shionoya and W. London. Blasse and B. Oxford. 1997. Imbusch. Henderson and G. SPIE Milestone Series. Light Emitting Diodes. and Scintillators: Applications of Photoluminescence. FL. M. Luminescence and the Solid State.A.H. and Radioluminescence. Phosphor Handbook. A. Elsevier. Amsterdam. Vol. Academic Press. Ropp. Amsterdam. A. Weber. Optical Spectroscopy of Inorganic Solids. Butler. The Chemistry of Artificial Lighting Devices. R. Materials and Devices. Boca Raton. Electroluminescence. 1993. Chapman & Hall.M. CRC Press. Cathodoluminescence. FL. 1998. Ed. Luminescence of Inorganic Solids.. WA. Solid State Luminescence: Theory. New York. Gaska. R.C. B. Fluorescent Lamp Phosphors: Technology and Theory. M. P. 1966. Boca Raton.C. 1994.Further Readings Introduction to Solid-State Lighting. Ed. Elsevier. S. 151.J. Rodnyi. Ropp. G. .H. P.C. Pennsylvania University Press. Luminescent Materials. Kitai. Shur. University Park. Physical Processes in Inorganic Scintillators. 2002.F. CRC Press. 1993. New York.. Yen. K.. Clarendon Press. 1991. Selected papers on Phosphors. 1998. 1980. SPIE Press. Springer.. Zukauskas. John Wiley & Sons. and R. Eds.

Dr. From 1983 to 1985 he accepted a transfer assignment with the Office of Basic Energy Sciences of the U.. 1995). the Australian National University (1980. Guggenheim Foundation Fellowship (1979–1980). In 1966 to 1967 Dr. Morey Award of the American Ceramics Society. George W.L. After graduation.S. the Optical Society of America. Weber was a Visiting Research Associate in the Department of Physics. He was also named by Washington University (St.A. 1985). Louis) in 1962. He was granted tenure at Wisconsin in 1968 and promoted to a full professorship in 1972. Yen has been elected to fellowship in the American Physical Society.S. Stanford University. and Ph. In 1987 he was appointed to the Graham Perdue Professorship at the University of Georgia—Athens where he has established a research program in the properties of phosphors and other light-emitting materials. Yen is the co-editor of the Phosphor Handbook published by CRC Press. Weber is Editor-in-Chief of the multi-volume CRC Handbook Series of Laser Science and Technology and a Fellow of the American Physical Society. Dr. Weber joined the Research Division of the Raytheon Co. Redlands. Weber received the A. Marvin J.D. . Dr.S. the Federal University of Pernambuco—Recife (1980). Department of Energy in Washington. in Physics from Washington University (St. He has been a member of the technical staff at the AT&T Bell Telephone Laboratories (1966) and of the Laser Fusion Project at Lawrence Livermore Labs (1974–1975). Louis) as the first Edwin T. and the American Ceramics Society. Yen obtained his B.S.. In 1973 Dr. Yen has been the recipient of a J. Dr. he is the recipient of the International Conference on Luminescence Prize. Scientist Award (1985).B. where he was a Principal Scientist working in the areas of spectroscopy and quantum electronics. Jaynes Visiting Professor for the Fall of 2004. the Optical Society of America. he was responsible for the physics and characterization of optical materials for high-power laser used in inertial confinement fusion research. Dr. Weber joined the Laser Program at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory where.The Editors William M. and of a Senior Fulbright to Australia (1995). Dr. and the Electrochemical Society. he retired from the Wisconsin system in 1990. von Humboldt Senior U. (Physics) degree from the University of Redlands. Schawlow and accepted a faculty position at the University of Wisconsin—Madison in 1965. Weber returned to the Chemistry and Materials Science Department at LLNL in 1986 and served as Associate Division Leader for condensed matter research and as spokesperson for the University of California/National Laboratories research facilities at the Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory. the American Association for the Advancement of Science. of a A. degrees in physics at the University of California. He has been appointed to Visiting Professorships at the University of Tokyo (1972). DC.D. He served a term of 3 years (1962–1965) as a Research Associate at Stanford University under the tutelage of Professor A. the University of Paris—South (1976). and the University of California—Santa Barbara (1982. He is presently a scientist in the Department of Nuclear Medicine and Functional Imaging of the Life Sciences Division at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. and an Industrial Research IR-100 Award for research and development of fluorophosphate laser glass. California in 1956 and his Ph. as Head of Basic Materials Research and Assistant Program Leader. M. Among several honors. Berkeley.

Petersburg. Ioffe Physico-Technical Institute Russian Academy of Sciences St. Lauren Shea Sandia National Labs Albuquerque. Germany Dr. New Mexico Dr. Alok M. Florida Dr. Hajime Yamamoto Department of Electrical Engineering Tokyo University of Technology Tokyo 192-0982. Richard.Editorial Board Dr. Hill 31 Abbey Street Faversham United Kingdom Dr. F. Henry Ivey 3392 NW 47th Avenue Coconut Creek. Ropp 138 Mountain Avenue Warren. C. Japan . Madis Raukas Osram Sylvania Beverly. Massachusetts Dr. Puerto Rico Dr. Russia Dr. Guy A. C. New Jersey Dr. New York Dr. Weiyi Jia Department of Physics University of Puerto Rico—Mayaguez Mayaguez. Cees Ronda Philips Research Laboratory Aachen D-52085 Aachen. Srivastava GE Corporate R&D Center Schenectady. Sergei Basun A.

Part 1: Lehmann’s Phosphor Cookbook and Phosphor Tables .

Section 1: Introduction .

a survey of materials for which properties are available to the occasional user of phosphors. This report describes some 200 phosphors which are commercially in use already. a guide to help anyone new in the field in the successful preparation of phosphors. or which are otherwise somehow “interesting” (to the writer.2 and 2. 3. a start for the experienced phosphor chemist in the improvement of known materials or in the development of new ones. In the abstract to the report Lehmann expected that the cookbook would be useful as: 1.Section 1 INTRODUCTION The following is Willi Lehmann's introduction to his Phosphor Cookbook: The writer of this report has. where available. the writer believes that most of the recipes still permit substantial improvements. at least). during about 25 years of practical experience. Most of them are well known (more or less). a brief description of how to prepare it and an equally brief description of its main properties. Many others were just repetitions during optimizations. What remains are relatively few. It has been tried in this laboratory and it works. are added to help anyone wishing to know more about a particular material than these tables can give. which appear to have some potential to become commercially useful. To fill out this gap is the purpose of this report. but some are new and have never been mentioned anywhere else. and despite of the fact that so many different phosphors are now available. References to open publications or internal reports.” Peculiarly. The phosphor collection covered by this “cookbook” is not complete. been referred to as “phosphor cook. 2.3) are predominantly taken verbatim from Lehmann's report. It will never be. It may anyway serve as a convenient guide for all occasional or professional users of phosphorus showing essentially what is available. It may remain to the individual phosphor chemist to work out such improvements. of the same materials. . prepared and tested roughly 2 104 individual samples of inorganic phosphors of various kinds. The professional phosphor chemist has often. It is unavoidable in such work that many samples perform too poorly to be worth mentioning. but it does not mean that a variation of the recipe does not work. The following tables give. there has been no phosphor cookbook before. Most of the following two sections (with the exceptions of Sections 2. In fact. Each one of the recipes is only a suggestion. etc. for each phosphor. of course. only half jokingly.

4 2.3 2.7 Starting Materials Amounts Mixing Containers Furnace Firing Atmospheres Treatments After Firing .6 2.1 2.5 2.2 2.Section 2: Phosphor Preparation 2.

Lehmann) to make the phosphors described in this report. MnSO4. The chemicals mentioned in the individual recipes are those that usually are the most readily available. sometimes down to the parts per million range. Ca(NO3)2. Only sulfide-type phosphors are exceptions because they are sensitive to undesired impurities. 2. Mn(C2H3O2)2. Sufficiently pure ZnS and CdS are available not to require additional purification for the preparation of ZnS-type phosphors. MnO.1 Starting Materials Commercially available high-purity grade chemicals (e. analytical reagent grade. . participate in the luminescence process. Co-activators do not. Both activators and (if necessary) co-activators are diffused into the host crystal at elevated temperatures. The firing temperature often is little below the melting temperature of the host material. Section 3 of this report describes some techniques that can be used to purify commercial compounds to prepare CaS-type phosphors. and so on. Lehmann's Phosphor Cookbook. * This section is from W. Other impurities. They can frequently be exchanged with others. What counts are only the necessary amounts of the particular chemical elements measured in moles. the “firing. the “activators” are dissolved. the chemicals needed to prepare CaS-type phosphors are not normally available in the required purity. luminescent grade) are adequate to prepare most of the phosphors. Almost all good inorganic phosphors consist of a crystalline “host material” in which small amounts of certain impurities.” Even the final host material frequently is formed only during the firing by solid-state reactions between several starting materials. CaCO3 can frequently be replaced by CaO. or only to a very minor degree. The activators are primarily responsible for the luminescence.g. If that is impractical because of excessively high-melting temperatures of the host material. However.Section 2 PHOSPHOR PREPARATION* The following methods are essentially the preparation procedures used by the writer (W. the crystallization is facilitated at lower temperatures by addition of a “flux” (frequently a halide) to the raw mix before firing.. Similarly. For instance. the “co-activators. Many points probably are trivial to the professional phosphor chemist but they are certainly not so to the novice or to anyone preparing phosphors only once in a while.” are necessary in some (not in all) cases to dissolve the activator impurities into the host crystal. CaO2. or Ca(OH)2. and that the used compounds decompose readily during the firing of the phosphor to provide the necessary building blocks to the final material. MnCO3 can be replaced by MnO2. MnS.

The materials become poorly reproducible with such very small amounts. ZnO) are not free flowing and cannot be mixed this way. The weightings of the starting materials are not very critical. Water-soluble activator chemicals. firing not only once but also several times and mortaring every time in between can usually eliminate them. Only some materials (the alkali elements. sometimes even within still wider tolerances. Mortaring The dry powders are simply mixed by mortaring together to make the mix as uniform as possible.4 Containers The best container material for the preparation of most phosphors is clear quartz glass (silica). This method avoids the time-consuming drying of the slurry but it works only for powders.. Some of the best methods are: Slurrying The finely powdered starting materials are mixed into water. Some materials (e.2. in particular) react too badly with quartz . which sometimes is a more or less hard crust. Phosphor properties vary relatively little only with a variation of the starting material ratios. This method is least time-consuming and most practical for small samples but the mixes are less uniform down to the microscopic scale than any one prepared by the other methods. in particular. Several firing steps are appropriate in many cases for other chemical reasons. Whenever such non-uniformities occur. or any other inert and volatile liquid to a uniform slurry. Roughly. alcohol. Corresponding non-uniformities of the final phosphor may be the result. Dry Ball-Milling The dry powder mix is ball-milled with porcelain pebbles for 1–2 hours. The slurry is then dried in air and the dry material is mechanically powderized. Variations of ±10% of the mentioned activator concentrations normally have little effect on the performance of the final phosphor. all amounts can be reduced by constant factors as long as the molar ratios between the individual components in the recipe are maintained. a breakup of all possible lumps in the slurry. Wet Ball-Milling The slurry prepared above is ball-milled with porcelain pebbles for a time (about 1–2 hours) to ensure a moist thorough mix and.3 Mixing Very thorough mixing of the starting materials before firing is extremely important for the successful preparation of a good phosphor.2 Amounts The recipes in this report are given in whole molar units to make them as clear as possible. However. otherwise it is the most ideal. 2. Whenever such large amounts of phosphors are not needed or wanted. The slurry is dried and the dried material. This method has been used for most of the recipes of this report. etc. is powderized in a mortar as well as possible. the amounts of the chemicals involved in the formation of the host materials need to be weighed only within ±1% of the mentioned proportions. 2.g. it is impractical to reduce the amounts to less than about 1 or 2 g of the final phosphor. which stay free flowing all the time. This method is a bit cumbersome and it is impractical for small samples (a few grams). The smaller amounts of the activating chemicals involved are even less critical. can be added dissolved in water.

Some typical arrangements are shown in Figure 1. etc. The writer has yet to see a furnace whose temperature does not occasionally deviate from that indicated by the controller. Sulfurization of sulfide phosphors may be achieved by firing either in H2S or in an inert gas loaded with CS2. better up to about 1400ºC.glass at firing temperatures and are better fired in other container materials. Any desired temperature should be maintained during firing by means of an automatic temperature controller to within ±20ºC or better. Figure 1 Schemata of different containers during phosphor firing. Pure alumina serves fairly well in these cases. for instance. Ar). Loosely covered crucibles are appropriate wherever alumina is the container material. silicates. . All these containers are placed near the closed ends of bigger firing tubes made of silica. they consist of two tubes each closed at one end and both loosely fitting into each other. Capped silica tubes are widely used in our laboratory. Many of these gases are interchangeable. It makes no difference. The only way to eliminate this problem is frequent recalibration of furnace and controller by means of a good thermocouple and a millivolt comparator. phosphates. A reliable temperature control clearly is one of the weak points of phosphor preparation. forming gas. whether a phosphor is fired in N2 or in Ar. Raw mixes which do contain volatile constituents (e. A simple on–off control is acceptable. Oxygen-dominated phosphors (oxides. O2). halides) are better fired in loosely covered containers permitting some contact with the surrounding atmosphere but still keeping at least some of the volatile part in the container. or reducing atmospheres (CO.g.. 2.5 Furnace Phosphor firing requires an electric furnace permitting temperatures between about 500ºC and at least 1200ºC. Phosphor raw mixes not containing volatile (at firing conditions) constituents are best fired in open boats so that the charge is fully exposed to the desired atmosphere surrounding the material. Some arrangements used to handle the various gases in the firing tubes are shown in Figure 2 assuming the phosphor containers are both open boats. NH3). H2. 2.6 Firing Atmospheres The various phosphors are fired in different atmospheres depending on the materials and the desired reactions.) may be fired in oxidizing (air. inert (N2. Only these ends of the firing tubes are in the furnaces during firing.

The open ends of the latter are closed by ordinary rubber stoppers with two holes for gas inlet and outlet. so it is necessary to heat the flask to gentle boiling.g. otherwise the effect (explosion) will be spectacular when the firing tube enters the furnace. it is extremely important first to flush all air out the firing tube with an inert gas (e. Some carbon black is placed in a separate open container next to the phosphor container in the firing tube. As in cases of H2 and H2S. The tube connection between flask and firing tube should be as short and straight as possible. . Steam This arrangement resembles that used for CS2. otherwise condensing liquid water might block the gas flow. When the charge enters the furnace. Be extremely cautious! CO This gas is about the most convenient for firing an oxygen-dominated phosphor in a reducing atmosphere. If the phosphor is fired in H2 or in H2S. CS2 An inert carrier gas (e. The vapor pressure of the water is too low at room temperature to have much effect. Gases from tanks (or other supplies) These can be piped into the firing tubes via long and thin gas inlet tubes (silica) reaching as far into the firing tubes as possible. A carrier gas (air.. etc.) bubbles through a flask containing some water in front of the firing tube. the vapor pressure of the CS2 is high enough at room temperature. at most. N2) before admitting the final gas. The stopper is protected against radiant heat by a bit of loose glass wool in front of it. The air is flushed out by plain O2 and the gas inlet tube is then closed (but leave the inlet open).g. Air Firing a phosphor in air requires nothing but the container in the firing tube whose open end is left open or. closed by a bit of loose glass wool to prevent dust particles from drifting in during firing. N2. Do not heat the flask. Escaping unused CS2 gas can be burned at the end of an outlet tube.. N2) bubbles though a flask containing some liquid CS2 in front of the firing tube. some of the carbon black burns to CO in situ. be very careful to flush all the air out the firing tube before admitting the CS2-loaded gas.Figure 2 Schemata of different containers during phosphor firing.

Such cases are noted in the recipes of this report.g. This powderizing usually is possible by gentle grinding or milling. Phosphors that stubbornly refuse to become free flowing with any additive can still be wet screened in a suspension in water. etc. usually to remove one or the other undesired residues (e. most likely the firing temperature was too high. CaO) but they are a good practice also for all others. Phosphors of recipes that do not mention a washing do not need it.. Remember that good phosphors are precious materials. . etc. this still requires subsequent drying. All phosphors should finally be screened to remove undesired big particles. All phosphors that are not immediately used up for some application should be stored in closed and labeled containers. Phosphors coming out the furnace as badly sintered lumps indicate that something is wrong.. methanol. Unfortunately there is no general rule to pick the best additive. halides). Some phosphors require special washings after firing. to find one remains up to the ingenuity of the experimenter. Avoid all hard milling because it is likely to damage the phosphor. Al2O3.2. However. of course.7 Treatments after Firing Fired phosphors often (not always) are slightly sintered cakes that have to be powderized to obtain the desired fine powder. Some phosphors are free flowing and easily screened. Such materials can easily be made free flowing by addition of small amounts (roughly 1/10% by weight) of some additives like very fine SiO2. Closed containers obviously are necessary for any phosphor that is not completely stable in room air (e.g. Sb2O3. A 200-mesh stainless steel sieve is adequate for most general purposes but some special applications may require finer screens. Others tend to lump and are not screenable with any reasonable effort.

2 3.3 3.4 Carbonates Sulfates Oxalates Sulfur .1 3.Section 3: Purification of Some Starting Materials 3.

harmful impurities (mainly metals like Mn. White CaCO3 precipitates and some CO2 develops. stir. for ~½ hour.) of commercially available starting materials are good enough to prepare almost every phosphor mentioned in this cookbook. . It helps to crush the chunks but do not try to speed up the dissolution by heating. 3.) in the starting materials are better kept below this level. Only some CaS-type phosphors are exceptions. * This section is from W. Dry with methanol in filter funnel and then completely in open air. Some impurities (e. etc. Add a few cubic centimeters of freshly prepared NH4-sulfide solution. Solution B: Dissolve about 1.45 µm pore size). Let stand overnight. CaCO3 precipitates and settles readily. It is best converted to MgO by heating in an open boat. Consequently. SrCO3 and BaCO3 both precipitate in too fine particles which almost behave like a gel in the water and do not readily settle. let settle. Lehmann's Phosphor Cookbook. Decant the excess liquid. ~1000–1200ºC. Wash the carbonate in de-ionized water several times (stir. It can be converted to CaO by firing in an open quartz boat. decant). Let settle. Do not filter this solution. Slowly add solution A to B (or vice versa) while stirring. luminescent grade. Then filter through a milli-pore filter (0.Section 3 PURIFICATION OF SOME STARTING MATERIALS* The normal purities (analytical reagent grade. Solution A: Dissolve 1 g-mole of Ca(NO3)·4H2O (= 236 g) in about 1 liter water at room temperature. for ~½ hour.1 Carbonates (described using the example of CaCO3) Prepare two separate solutions. Both are better prepared via the oxalates. air ~500–1000ºC. air.g. Fe.1 g-mole of the (NH4)2CO3 (= 105 g) in 1 liter water at room temperature. Properties Mg carbonate prepared in this way is of somewhat uncertain composition.. Mn) show up in the CaS-type phosphors in concentrations as low as 1 ppm. The carbonate usually comes in big chunks which take considerable time to dissolve. etc.

45 µm pore size). for about ½ hour. . Let stand overnight. let settle. in 1 liter water at room temperature. decant). stir. Filter through a milli-pore filter (0. Ba(C2H3O2)·H2O in about 1 liter water at room temperature. Add a few cubic centimeters of freshly prepared NH4 sulfide solution. Solution B: Dissolve about 1.1 g-mole of the (NH4)2SO4 in 1 liter water. It can be converted to the more stable anhydrite by heating in open boats. Solution A: Dissolve 1 g-mole (= 212 g) of Sr(NO3)2 in about 1 liter water.1 g-mole (= 138 g) of oxalic acid. Dry with methanol in filter funnel over filter paper and then completely in open air. Slowly pour solution A into B (or vice versa) while stirring. Slowly pour solution A into B (or vice versa) while stirring. CaSO4·2H2O. Solution A: Dissolve 1 g-mole (= 273 g) of Ba-acetate. SrSO4 is still manageable but BaSO4 tends to be of too fine particles which behave almost like a gel in the water and do not readily settle.2 Sulfates (described using the example of SrSO4) Prepare two separate solutions. Sr and Ba sulfates precipitate immediately as anhydrous sulfates.45 µm pore size). Let settle. Wash in de-ionized water several times (stir.45 µm pore size). Then filter through a milli-pore filter (0. Let stand overnight.45 µm pore size). Add NH4OH to make the solution slightly alkalinic. Solution B: Dissolve about 1. air ~500–1000ºC. 3.3 Oxalates (described using the example of BaC2O4) Prepare two separate solutions. Let settle. let settle. White sulfate will precipitate. Add a few cubic centimeters of NH4OH. H2C2O4·2H2O. White BaC2O4 will precipitate out and readily settles down. Dry with methanol in a filter funnel over filter paper and then completely in open air. Decant the excess liquid. decant). Properties Mg sulfate cannot be prepared in this way (MgSO4 = epsom salt). stir. Wash in de-ionized water several times (stir. Then filter through a milli-pore filter (0. Then filter through a milli-pore filter (0. CaSO4 precipitates as gypsum. Decant the excess liquid. Add a few cubic centimeters of freshly prepared NH4 sulfide solution.3. stir.

It converts completely to MgO by heating in an open boat. add the same amount (by volume) of pure acetone. BaCO3 is not as easily converted into the oxide by firing in H2. It converts to CaCO3 by heating in an open boat. air. Sr oxalate precipitates as SrC2O4·H2O. H2. ~1 hour. decant). Filter the solution though a dense paper filter. It converts to SrCO3 by firing in an open boat. etc. ~1100°C. H2. . Yellow sulfur will precipitate. 3.) will remain on the paper. Ba-oxalate precipitates as BaC2O4 which can be converted to BaCO3 by firing in an open boat. ~½ hour.4 Sulfur Dissolve ordinary precipitated (not sublimed) sulfur in as little CS2 as possible. stir or shake vigorously. Black impurities (metal sulfides. Ca oxalate precipitates as CaC2O4·H2O. air. let settle. ~500–1000°C. Further conversion to SrO is not practically possible by firing in an open boat.Properties Mg oxalate precipitates as MgC2O4·2H2O. Properties This is a coarse yellow powder. ~1 hour. Wash the sulfur several times in acetone (stir. ~500–1000°C. In contrast to SrCO3. ~1100ºC. Pour the filtered solution into a clean flask. ~ ½ hour. ~500ºC. air. sufficiently pure for all preparation work of sulfidetype phosphors. Dry in filter funnel over filter paper and then completely in open air. ~½ hour.

5 4.10 4.11 4.6 4.8 4.9 4.12 4.2 4.Section 4: Phosphor Data 4.16 Description of Data Simple Oxides Silicates Halosilicates Phosphates Halophosphates Borates Aluminates and Gallates Molybdates and Tungstates Miscellaneous Oxides Halides and Oxyhalides Sulfates ZnS-Type Sulfides CaS-Type Sulfides Double Sulfides Miscellaneous Sulfides and Oxysulfides .15 4.7 4.14 4.4 4.1 4.3 4.13 4.

– = efficiencies below 1%. or to one or two strongest lines in case of line emission. + = efficiencies in the 1–10% range. Both the peak and bandwidth frequently depend on preparation conditions and are reproducible only within about ±0.) Efficiencies under optical excitation. The activation includes only the activator and its ionic state as far as it is known. the ratio of emitted light quanta over irradiated UV quanta). by either 365.) are specified only in some cases where they have a strong effect on the final luminescence of the phosphor.e. only observed efficiencies of the best samples known to Lehmann are shown.or 254-nm ultraviolet (UV) — both the main emissions of a Hg discharge lamp — are given in Lehmann's Phosphor Tables in terms of quanta (i. Lehmann’s Phosphor Cookbook. (Lehmann notes that one should keep in mind that an efficiency improvement of a phosphor. The width corresponds only to band emission and indicates the width of the band at half of its peak intensity (full width at half maximum—FWHM). + = efficiencies in the 10–50% range.e. others are complex in shape or consist of discrete (although sometimes somewhat diffuse) lines. The phosphor composition and a brief description of the preparation conditions used by Lehmann are given in his Phosphor Cookbook but not in the Phosphor Tables. – = efficiencies below 10%.. The symbols mean: ++ = efficiencies in the 50–100% range. etc. is always a possibility that cannot be ruled out. either from Lehmann's Phosphor Cookbook or from Lehmann's Phosphor Tables. Because efficiencies obtained on poor phosphor samples are of limited usefulness.. In this instance the symbols mean: ++ = efficiencies of 10% or more. The emission color is that as it appears to the human eye. perhaps by using modified preparation conditions. Additional impurities (co-activators.1 to 0. Optical properties summarize the emissions of the phosphors.Section 4 PHOSPHOR DATA 4. the ratio of emitted light energy over irradiated electron beam energy).2 eV. The chemical formula corresponding to the host crystal generally is well established but the crystal structure may not be available. The emission peak corresponds to the spectral position where the diffuse band has a maximum. Many emission spectra consist of diffuse bands extending over a certain range. . *This subsection is adapted from W. The efficiencies by electron beam excitation in vacuum are described by the energy ratio (i.1 Description of Data* This section presents information about inorganic phosphors. Almost all inorganic phosphors consist of a host material into which small amounts of an activator impurity have been dissolved. to the spectral range of the main part of a complex emission.

40 eV 254 nm — 4. All spectra are plotted on a quantum basis. the two optical wavelengths used for excitation correspond to: 365 nm — 3.88 eV Only the main references to original publications are given. These concentrations are close to. . nm) and quantum energy (in eV) is (nm) = 1240/(eV) Using this conversion. It is also easier to compare the widths of approximately Gaussian-shaped emission bands plotted in eV than it is to compare the widths of very nonGaussian-shaped bands plotted in wavelength units. The simple conversion between wavelength (in nanometers.The luminescence decay time is the time for the emission either to decay to 1/10 or to 1/e of its initial value. that is. Absence of a reference means that none is known. Too few excitation spectra were available to be included. The absorption spectra indicate where the materials may be excited (no absorption—no emission). the abscissa is calibrated in electron volts (eV) rather than wavelength units because luminescence processes are quantum processes. The emission and absorption spectra measured by Lehmann are all for room temperature and for the activator concentrations shown. but not necessarily at the optimum in every case.

Dry in air. . Na+ CaO:Mn2+ CaO:Pb2+ CaO:Sb3+ CaO:Sm3+ CaO:Tb3+ CaO:Tl+ CaO:Zn2+ ZnO:Al3+. Powderize. 1200ºC. Powderize when dry.5 0. Keep dry.4. 1 hour.2 Simple Oxides The following host compounds and activators are included in this subsection: CaO:Bi3+ CaO:Cd2+ CaO:Cu+ CaO:Eu3+ CaO:Eu3+.023 Preparation Mix by slurrying in water or methanol. Store in well-closed container. stagnant air.01 (of Bi) By weight (g) 100 0. Fire in capped quartz tubes.390 0.Ga3+ ZnO:Ga3+ ZnO:S ZnO:Se ThO2:Eu3+ ThO2:Pr3+ ThO2:Tb3+ Y2O3:Bi3+ Y2O3:Er3+ Y2O3:Eu3+ (YOE) Y2O3:Ho3+ Y2O3:Tb3+ La2O3:Bi3+ La2O3:Eu3+ La2O3:Pb2+ CaO:Bi3+ Structure: Cubic (NaCl) Composition Ingredient CaCO3 CaF2 Bi2O3 Mole % 100 0.

. Yamashita.Se):Bi3+ and CaO:Bi3+ phosphors.. 1 hour. Powderize when dry. J. 6. G. stagnant air. J.Optical Properties Emission color: Violet + UV Emission peak: 3. Powderize. and Pells. ++ (3.3 By weight (g) 100 0.4 eV). 1200ºC. Lumin. 71. Keep dry.40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: 5% Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 50 2 3 Remark This phosphor is very sensitive to traces of Mn. References 1. Phys.. Status Solidi B. Jpn. W. 707 (1975).17 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0. Optical Properties Emission color: UV Emission peak: Somewhat uncertain.29 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (3. Store in well-closed container. Luminescence-centers of Ca(S. may vary between about 3.E.. 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 CaO:Cd2+ Structure: Cubic (NaCl) Composition Ingredient CaCO3 CdO Mole % 100 0..00 eV Absorption (%) 100 Emission . A. 144 (1976). A. Phys.90 and 4. Lehmann. Hughes. 40. Use only purest CaCO3. and Asano. Fire in capped quartz tubes. Dry in air. Luminescence spectra of Bi3+ ions in MgO and CaO.. 3. Soc. N.P.. 455 (1973). Calcium oxide phosphors. 2.385 Preparation Mix by slurrying in water or methanol.

88 eV).5 0..025 Preparation Dissolve the copper sulfate in a little water. Optical Properties Emission color: Bluish + UV Emission peak: Two overlapping bands.. Lange.01 By weight (g) 100 0. – (3.Emission width (FWHM): 0. Powderize when dry.380 0. 87 (1969).40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: 2% Absorption (%) 100 Emission . Dry in air.40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: 6–7% Decay to 10% : Exponential.. Calcium oxide phosphors. CO. H. Powderize. OSRAM Ges. W. Tech. about 230 µsec Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 50 2 3 References 1. Keep dry. Fire in capped quartz tubes. J.63 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: – (4. add solution to the CaCO3 + CaF2 mix. 1 hour. Store in well-closed container. 6. 2. Abh. 1200ºC..88 eV). Wise.77 and ~3.18 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0.75 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: + (4. Lehmann. Slurry in water. 455 (1973). Lumin. – (3. 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 CaO:Cu+ Structure: Cubic (NaCl)l Composition Ingredient CaCO3 CaF2 CuSO4·5H2O Mole % 100 0. 10. ~2.

5 1. 1 hour. Dry in air. Powderize.40 eV). 6.2 (of Eu) By weight (g) 100 1. After this firing.. 1200ºC.Spectra 800 700 600 500 400 Wavelength (nm) 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Reference 1. Fire in open quartz boats. Fire in open quartz boats. Fire in capped quartz tubes. CaO:Eu3+ Structure: Cubic (NaCl) Composition Ingredient CaCO3 CaF2 Eu2O3 Mole % 100 1.2 2. 2. Calcium oxide phosphors.40 eV by addition of Bi (see CaO:Bi3+) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: Poor Absorption (%) 100 Emission . Lehmann. stagnant air. can be sensitized for excitation at 3. 2 hours.88 eV). slightly deeper red than that of YOE Emission peak: Main line at 2. Keep dry. 1200ºC. W. N2. 1200ºC. quench again to room temperature as quickly as possible. Powderize when dry. quench again to room temperature as quickly as possible. After this firing.015 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4. ~20 min.. – (3. Powderize. J.1 Preparation Mix by slurrying in water or methanol. Powderize. 1. N2 loaded with H2O. Optical Properties Emission color: Red. Lumin. 455 (1973). 3. Store in well-closed container.

Lehmann.88 eV). Naturforsch. This CaO:Eu3+ phosphor has been tested in fluorescent lamps. A. P. Z.Spectra 800 700 600 500 400 Wavelength (nm) 300 50 2 3 Remarks 1.015 eV to appear.. W.40 eV) Spectra 800 700 600 500 400 Wavelength (nm) 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Absorption (%) 100 Emission Absorption (%) 100 Emission . Calcium oxide phosphors. 6. 3. 561 (1951). Naturforsch. – (3.. 6. Pt. 4. 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 CaO:Eu3+. 2. Top efficiency requires that the phosphor passes through this range as rapidly as possible after second and third firings. 233 (1957). Brauer. Na+ Structure: Cubic (NaCl) Optical Properties Emission color: Orange-yellow Emission peak: 2. Addition of Li. The red Eu3+ emission shown in the preceding figure appears only if no alkali is present. A. 12.. Na.10 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4. The fluorine in the above recipe can be replaced by chlorine or bromine but a phosphor so prepared is badly hygroscopic probably because of leftover CaCl2 or CaBr2. The phosphor reacts to a “bad” temperature range (~800–1100ºC) by greatly reduced efficiency. 455 (1973). J. or K (perhaps for charge compensation. and Uber eu-ionen in erdalkalioxyden und erdalkali-sulfiden. It performs very poorly. References 1. Lumin. Pt. 2. Z. Li+ + Eu3+ = 2Ca2+) causes the red line at 2.

Keep dry.CaO:Mn2+ Structure: Cubic (NaCl) Composition Ingredient CaCO3 CaF2 MnCO3 Mole % 100 0. 100.88 eV). 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Absorption (%) 100 Emission . Store in well-closed container.. can be sensitized to respond to 4. 392 (1953).115 Preparation Mix by slurrying in water.07 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0. J. Dry in air.. The Mn concentration is not critical. Powderize. Soc. 1 hour.390 0.40 eV). Powderize when dry. N. otherwise the Mn stays separate as MnO2.40 eV by addition of Bi (see CaO:Bi3+) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: 5% Decay to 10%: Exponential.. Optical Properties Emission color: Orange-yellow Emission peak: 2. – (3. CO.88 eV by addition of Pb (see CaO:Pb2+). Electrochem. 1.1 By weight (g) 100 0. and Lee. Strong Mn2+ emission appears from about 1 ppm to 10% of Mn or Ca. J. Ewles. 1200ºC. Studies on the concept of large activator centers in crystal phosphors. Dependence of luminescent efficiency on concentration of activator size of luminescent centers. 2. References 1. about 22 msec Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 50 2 3 Remarks 1.5 0. can be sensitized to respond to 3. The phosphor must be fired in a reducing atmosphere. Fire in capped quartz tubes.20 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: – (4.

01 By weight (g) 100 0. 6. Lumin.5 0.. Calcium oxide phosphors.. OSRAM Ges... K. H. M. Excitation efficiency by e-beam: 10% Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) (3. 4.390 0. Keep dry..40 eV) 400 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Reference 1. 41 (1963). Optical Properties Emission color: UV Emission peak: 3. A. J. Lumin. Phys. Abh.. and Ruffler. Luminescence spectra.M. Dry in air.. Absorption (%) 100 Emission . 1 hour. W. 455 (1973). 3. Sancier. 1200ºC. J. W. Lehmann. 37.. J. Wise. Chem.2. Luminescence of solids excited by surface recombination of atoms. Fire in capped quartz tubes.. Hühninger. stagnant air. 1..J. Powderize.88 eV).42 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0. Store in well-closed container. Powderize when dry. CaO:Pb2+ Structure: Cubic (NaCl) Composition Ingredient CaCO3 CaF2 PbO Mole % 100 0. W. Calcium oxide phosphors. and Fredericks. 854 (1962). Lehmann.21 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4.022 Preparation Mix by slurrying in water or methanol. 6. 37. 455 (1973).. Techn. Wise.

.88 eV). 2.40 eV UV by addition Bi (see CaO:Bi3+) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: Poor Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 References 1. Powderize. Absorption (%) 100 Emission .30 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0. Chem. Lehmann.CaO:Sb3+ Structure: Cubic (NaCl) Composition Ingredient CaCO3 Sb2O3 NaHCO3 Mole % 100 0. Optical Properties Emission color: Yellow-green Emission peak: 2.145 0. 56 (1964).. Herzog. J.51 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: (4. Phys. Lumin. (3. 1200ºC. 1 hour. H. 227. Witzmann.40 eV). Calcium oxide phosphors.. and Kunstler. Keep dry.88 and 3.1 (of Sb) 1 By weight (g) 100 0. Zur lumineszenz antimonaktivierter erdalkalioxide insonderheit des systems CaO-Sb. (Leipzig). Fire in capped quartz tubes. W. 455 (1973). Store in well-closed container. can be sensitized for excitation by 4.840 Preparation Mix by slurrying in water. 6. G. Powderize when dry... CO. K. Dry in air. Z.

Lumin. W. W. and Janin. Phys. Herzog. Rad. stagnant air. and Abel.19 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: – (4. Br.CaO:Sm3+ Structure: Cubic (NaCl) Composition Ingredient CaCO3 CaF2 Sm2O3 Mole % 100 0. and Raths.00. A. . Beitrag zur thermolumineszenz des samariumaktivierten calciumoxids.. J. Chem.88 eV by addition of Pb (see CaO:Pb2+). J.. Witzmann. Fire in capped quartz tubes. 2.. Z. J.. 5. 33 (1970). 243. Keep dry. and Wuntke. can be sensitized for 4. Store in well-closed container. Optical Properties Emission color: Orange-yellow Emission peak: 2. J. Runciman. (Leipzig). Z. 4.. Phys. G. Dry in air. Atomic configurations in luminescent centres. Suppl. 6..380 0. 14.3 (of Sm) By weight (g) 100 0. Fiquet.40 eV excitation by addition of Bi (see CaO:Bi3+) Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 References 1. 225. Chem. R. J.A.. 4 (1955). W. Herzog. 1200ºC. 6. can be sensitized to respond to 4. Phys. Crozet. Lehmann.. 332 (1964). – (3.5 0. Phys. 228. Powderize when dry.16. Phys. G.. and 2.. Absorption (%) 100 Emission . 3. 13 (1965). 1 hour. Z.. Powderize. (Leipzig). 455 (1973). K. 125 (1953). Herzog. Appl.Thermoluminescence of phosphors CaO-Sm and CaO-Bi (calcium oxide-samarium and-bismuth). S78.. (Leipzig).88 and 3.88 eV).. G.520 Preparation Mix by slurrying in water or methanol. H.40 eV). Chem. 2.. Calcium oxide phosphors.

5 (of Tb) By weight (g) 100 0. 455 (1973). low because of dark body color Excitation efficiency by e-beam: Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Reference 1.5 1. J. Powderize. Calcium oxide phosphors. Dry in air.. Powderize when dry.40 eV). CaO:Tl+ Structure: Cubic (NaCl) Composition Ingredient CaO TlOH NH4Cl Mole % 100 0. 1 hour.88 eV). Lehmann.. W. Optical Properties Emission color: Pale green Emission peak: Many lines. Lumin.066 0.380 2. 1200ºC. CO.CaO:Tb3+ Structure: Cubic (NaCl) Composition Ingredient CaCO3 CaF2 Tb4O7 Mole % 100 0.26–2.540 Absorption (%) 100 Emission . Store in well-closed container. Keep dry. Fire in capped quartz tubes. strongest near 2.8 Preparation Mix by slurrying in water or methanol. 6. – (3.28 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: + (4.03 1 By weight (g) 56 0.

2. 1. W. Fire in capped quartz tubes. stagnant air..240 Preparation Mix by slurrying in water or methanol. 1 hour. N2. Fire in capped quartz tubes..48 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: + (4. 6. – (3. Lehmann. 227. Optical Properties Emission color: Pale yellow + IR Emission peaks: 2. Zur photoelektrischen messung geringer lumineszenzintensitaten. Z..Preparation First mix only the CaO and NH4Cl by dry grinding.5 0. 455 (1973).3 By weight (g) 100 0. Phys. Powderize Store in well-closed container. H. Fire in capped quartz tubes. 1200ºC. 1200ºC. Anderson.88 eV). Calcium oxide phosphors. Chem.5 eV (IR) Emission width (FWHM): 0. Absorption (%) 100 Emission . stagnant air. 2. Dry in air. Keep dry. 130 (1964). Powderize when dry. 1 hour. Powderize. Lumin. (Leipzig). CaO:Zn2+ Structure: Cubic (NaCl) Composition Ingredient CaCO3 CaF2 ZnO Mole % 100 0.40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: 3% (Including both bands) Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 References 1. 1200ºC.390 0. Now admit the TlOH by dry grinding. 1 hour.11 and 1. J.

.65 and 3. Methods. W. Lehmann.. Instrum..80 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: (4. Nucl. Keep dry.. Lumin.Powderize. J. D.88 eV). D. 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 ZnO:Al3+.20 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0. Store in well-closed container. Edge emission of n-type conducting ZnO and CdS.. + (3. Luckey. 1107 (1966). 2.13 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: + (4. 6. Calcium oxide phosphors. varying between about 3. Optical Properties Emission color: UV Emission peak: Somewhat uncertain.40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: + References 1. 9. Lehmann. 455 (1973). W. 62. Nucl. Absorption (%) 100 Emission . Methods.88 eV). (3..40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: 10% Decay to 10%: Exponential. 358 (1968). Correction.Ga3+ Structure: Hexagonal (wurtzite) Optical Properties Emission color: UV Emission peak: 3. Instrum. Solid State Electron. 119 (1968). Luckey. A fast inorganic scintillator. 63. about 300 sec Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 50 2 3 Reference 1.

This material is sensitive to traces of sulfur during preparation. Phosphor has gray (not white) body color. When cool. Remove any suspicious parts. 1 hour. Fire when dry.2% Decay to 10%: Less than 1 nsec Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 50 2 3 Remarks 1. inspect again under UV lamp. Luckey. Material should show deep violet luminescence. 800ºC.. Luckey. Avoid all sulfur like the plague.3 1 By weight (g) 81 0. 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Absorption (%) 100 Emission . Solid State Electron. Do not heat to greater than 300ºC. A fast inorganic scintillator. Dry in air. Nucl. Methods. Material should be almost or completely dead. Methods. 2. 1107 (1966).280 1..4 Preparation Mix by slurrying in water or methanol. 9. 1 hour. W. Instrum. When cool. stagnant air.ZnO:Ga3+ Structure: Hexagonal (wurtzite) Composition Ingredient ZnO Ga2O3 ZnCl2 Mole % 100 0. 1. Lehmann. 62. slowly flowing H2. Nucl. 2. + (3. Fire in capped quartz tubes. Optical Properties Emission color: Deep violet + UV Emission peak: 3. 358 (1968).40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: 1–1. Remove all portions which look different. References 1. It is thermally in a semi-stable state. Powderize. Fire in open quartz boats. D. 2. Instrum...88 eV). Screen through 200 mesh (stainless steel sieve OK). nothing else. 63. except in H2. 1100ºC. 119 (1968).195 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: + (4. D. Correction. Edge emission of n-type conducting ZnO and CdS. inspect under UV lamp. 3.

Lehmann. and towards yellow by replacing 10% of the Zn by Cd. Soc. 115. 1 hour.064 Preparation Fire in capped tubes. A.41 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: + (4.. Zinc oxide and zinc-cadmium oxide phosphors..L. 99. This common bluish-green emission of ZnO is greatly enhanced by the addition of sulfur during firing. + (3. Zinc-magnesium oxide and zinc-magnesium sulfide phosphors. 155 (1952).88 eV). Excitation efficiency by e-beam: + Decay to 10%: In the 1–10 sec range Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 60% 400 300 100 Emission 50 2 3 Remarks 1. W. S. 900ºC. Chem.. Optical Properties Emission color: Blue-green Emission peak: 2. 538 (1968). Thomsen. J. Phys. J. Smith.ZnO:S Structure: Hexagonal (wurtzite) Composition Ingredient ZnO S Mole % 100 ~0.45 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0. 2.. 770 (1950).40 eV). 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 . The emission can be shifted towards blue by replacing 20% of the Zn by Mg. Soc.M. Electrochem.. Sulfide in zinc-oxide luminophors. CO.. 2. Electrochem. References 1. J. 18.2 By weight (g) 81 ~0. 3.

2 By weight (g) 81 0.ZnO:Se Structure: Hexagonal (wurtzite) Composition Ingredient ZnO Se Mole % 100 ~0. Optical Properties Emission color: Orange Emission peak: 1. L.. Electrochem. and Oshanskaya.Y. 9... 538 (1968). 1 hour. 900ºC. oxidizing) of ZnSe in air but the efficiency of this ZnO:Se is lower.98 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0.88 eV). N. 50–60% Excitation efficiency by e-beam: Afterglow tail observed into the millisecond range Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 100 Emission 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Remark This material can be obtained also by “burning” (i.40 eV). Soc. 2. CO. References 1.e.51 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: + (4. . Markovski. + (3... Zinc oxide and zinc-cadmium oxide phosphors. Optics and Spectr. 115.. W. 40 (1960).160 Preparation Fire in capped quartz tubes.S. Lehmann. J.

5 (of Eu) 10 By weight (g) 232 2. M. Borchard... Fok. U. 2.. Optical Properties Emission color: Pinkish orange-red Emission peak: Three strongest lines.V. 2.7 Preparation Mix by slurrying in water.88 eV). – (3. 3 408 303 (1968). Wash in concentrated nitric acid and then in water until neutral.40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: 4% Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Remark This phosphor has been proposed for X-ray excitation because of the high stopping power of ThO2 for x-rays. 127 (1957). Powderize.3 3.04.97. 2.095 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4. References 1. Optika I Spektrosk.S. H. 1300ºC.. Fire in capped quartz tubes. 1. 1 hour. N2.J. Pat.ThO2:Eu3+ Structure: Rutile Composition Ingredient ThO2 Eu2O3 NH4F Mole % 100 1. Powderize when dry. Dry in air. and 2. Absorption (%) 100 Emission . Dry.

2 (of Tb) 10 By weight (g) 232 0. Optical Properties Emission color: Blue-greenish white Emission peak: Strongest lines: at 1. 1 hour.88 eV). Dry.48. 1300ºC.330 3. and 2.52 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: + (4. Powderize when dry. Fire in capped quartz tubes.89. Wash in concentrated nitric acid and then in water until neutral.7 Absorption (%) 100 Emission . 2. – (3.40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: 3% Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 ThO2:Tb3+ Structure: Rutile Composition Ingredient ThO2 Tb4O7 NH4F Mole % 100 0.7 Preparation Mix by slurrying in water or methanol. Dry in air.375 3. N2.ThO2:Pr3+ Structure: Rutile Composition Ingredient ThO2 Pr2O3 NH4F Mole % 100 0.2 (of Pr) 10 By weight (g) 232 0. Powderize.

5 By weight (g) 108 0. Optical Properties Emission color: Bluish-greenish Emission peak: Strongest at 2.. 1 hour. CO. Wash in concentrated nitric acid and then in water until neutral. H. – (3. Powderize. Powderize when dry. Absorption (%) 100 Emission . U. Fire in capped quartz tubes.S. Dry in air.285 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: + (4. Dry in air.Preparation Mix by slurrying in water.. Fire in capped quartz tubes. 1300ºC.95 Preparation Mix by slurrying in water or methanol. 1300ºC. Powderize when dry.40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: 3% Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Remark This phosphor has been proposed for X-ray excitation (high stopping power of ThO2 for Xrays). Dry. 3 408 303 (1968).230 1. 1 hour.88 eV). Borchard.1 (of Bi) 2.J. Reference 1. Pat. Y2O3:Bi3+ Structure: Cubic Composition Ingredient Y 2O 3 Bi2O3 CaF2 Mole % 100 (of Y) 0. stagnant air.

Z.83 eV (for 2. Phys. 114. 2. 217 (1968). stagnant air.5 By weight (g) 108 0. Electrochem.35 eV peak) Excitation efficiency by UV: + (4. J. A.230 1. Fire in capped quartz tubes. 274 (1969). Dry in air. Soc. Blasse. Intern. 1 hour. J. G. Chem. D.40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: Low in either case Decay to 10%: 1 sec Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 100 Absorption (%) Emission 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Remark The Bi3+ emission in Y2O3 is very poorly expressed.. 1.95 Preparation Mix by slurrying in water or methanol. Powderize when dry. and Bril.. 530 (1972). + (3. 48. G.. Luminescent behavior of bismuth in rare-earth oxides. S. . Datta.T. Conf. Soc.1 (of Bi) 2.K.35 eV band showing up Emission width (FWHM): 0.88 eV). Electrochem. Y2O3:Er3+ Structure: Cubic Composition Ingredient Y 2O 3 Bi2O3 CaF2 Mole % 100 (of Y) 0. Investigations on BI3+-activated phosphors.. Toma.35 and 3.. J. Proc. 1137 (1967). Lumin.. frequently only the 2. Luminescence of some bismuth-activated oxides. Sometimes it is difficult to recognize the bands in the very diffuse emission spectrum.. et al. References 1. p...Optical Properties Emission color: Pale blue-greenish white Emission peak: 2. Boulon. 1300ºC.. and Palumbo. Leningrad.00 eV. 116. 4. 3. R.

stagnant air.2. Dry in air. air.5 By weight (g) 108 0. stagnant air. Fire in capped quartz tubes. 1 hour. Powderize. 80% Excitation efficiency by e-beam: 7–8% (if Eu conc: = 3%.1 (of Bi) 2.95 Preparation Mix by slurrying in water or methanol. (3. 1300ºC. 1 hour. 1 hour. Fire in capped quartz tubes. Optical Properties Emission color: Pale green Emission peak: Strongest line at 2. 1300ºC.230 1.206 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: – (4.88 eV). Optical Properties Emission color: Red Emission peak: Strongest line at 2.03 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4. Powderize when dry. Fire in open quartz boats. 1300ºC. – (3.40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: Efficiency not tested. is low for the visible part because of strong competition by IR emission Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Y2O3:Eu3+ (YOE) Structure: Cubic Composition Ingredient Y 2O 3 Bi2O3 CaF2 Mole % 100 (of Y) 0. see below) Absorption (%) 100 Emission .88 eV). Powderize.40 eV).

. 2.95 Preparation Mix by slurrying in water or methanol. 111.Spectra 800 700 600 500 400 Wavelength (nm) 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Remarks 1.. 112.C. R. Absorption (%) 100 Emission . stagnant air. 181 (1965). 1 hour. 111.88 eV. 2. R. Luminescent behavior of bismuth in rare-earth oxides. 311 (1964). and Lefever. J..5 By weight (g) 108 0. J. Dry in air..88 eV UV. Electrochem. 114. Spectral properties of rare earth oxide phosphors. J.A.. Datta. 4.. Luminescent behavior of the rare earths in yttrium oxide and related hosts. Soc. The above recipe gives a phosphor optimized for excitation by 4. Y2O3:Ho3+ Structure: Cubic Composition Ingredient Y 2O 3 Bi2O3 CaF2 Mole % 100 (of Y) 0. 1 hour. 3500 (1963).. 1300ºC. Fluorescence and stimulated emission from trivalent europium in yttrium oxide. Luminescence of europium in ternary system — A2O3-Gd2O3-Y2O3. 5. 34. Appl. J.C. Chang. Fire in capped quartz tubes. Wickersheim. Soc. Powderize when dry. 1300ºC. Soc.1 (of Bi) 2. stagnant air. Electrochem. 1.40 eV UV but reduces the efficiency for excitation by 4. J. Soc. R.A. Ropp.. Phys. K.C.230 1. 2. 47 (1964).K.. References 1. Ropp. Fire in capped quartz tubes. 3. Powderize. N.. Electrochem. Sensitization by Bi causes excitability by 3. 1137 (1967). R. Electrochem. To obtain a phosphor optimized for e-beam excitation use only ½ of the above Eu concentration..

1300ºC. 1 hour.253 and 2.30 eV. Powderize. 1300ºC. Fire in capped quartz tubes. Fire in capped quartz tubes.266 and 2.88 eV). (3.95 Preparation Mix by slurrying in water or methanol. CO. Powderize when dry. 1.230 1. Dry in air. CO.40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: 2–3% (if Tb conc.286 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: + (4. 1 hour.Optical Properties Emission color: Yellow-green Emission peak: Two lines in the visible at 2.40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: Efficiency not tested. is low for the visible part because of the strong competition by IR emission Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Y2O3:Tb3+ Structure: Cubic Composition Ingredient Y 2O 3 Bi2O3 CaF2 Mole % 100 (of Y) 0. 2. = 1%. Optical Properties Emission color: Pale green Emission peak: Strongest lines at 2. see below) Absorption (%) 100 Emission .88 eV). – (3.5 By weight (g) 108 0.1 (of Bi) 2. plus many lines in the IR Excitation efficiency by UV: – (4.

230 1. Electrochem.5%) of Tb. otherwise Tb3+ oxidizes to Tb4+. Soc.95 Preparation Mix by slurrying in water or methanol. This phosphor must be fired in reducing atmosphere. 311 (1964). 111. J.40 eV) Decay to 1/e: 0. Re-fire. To obtain a phosphor optimized for e-beam excitation use only 1% (instead of 2. 1 hour. Powderize.Spectra 800 700 600 500 400 Wavelength (nm) 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Remarks 1. 2. The above recipe gives a phosphor optimized for excitation by 4. Powderize when dry. Powderize.C.49 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4. Ropp. La2O3:Bi3+ Structure: Cubic Composition Ingredient La2O3 Bi2O3 CaF2 Mole % 100 (of Y) 0. Fire in capped quartz tubes.88 eV.5 By weight (g) 163 0.. 1200 C. stagnant air.27 µsec Absorption (%) 100 Emission . Reference 1.. R. Dry in air. Optical Properties Color: Bluish Emission peak: 2. – (3. same conditions as above. Store in well-closed container.88 eV). Spectral properties of rare earth oxide phosphors.67 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0.1 (of Bi) 2.

1300ºC. Electrochem. – (3. R. J.985 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: – (4. Powderize. Ropp. Electrochem. 111 (1965). Store in well-closed container. J. stagnant air. Bril. J. Fluorescent properties of red-emitting europium-activated phosphors with cathode ray excitation.. and deLaat. 124 (1965).1 (of Bi) 2. Fire in capped quartz tubes. Luminescence of europium in ternary system — A2O3-Gd2O3-Y2O3. 114..5 By weight (g) 163 0. Soc.. C. Optical Properties Emission color: Red Emission peak: Strongest line at 1.88 eV)...40 eV) . 1 hour. 1300ºC.K. stagnant air.. 1137 (1967). Wanmaker.. 1. 3. Fire in capped quartz tubes. R. A.L. Datta. 2. Powderize when dry. Electrochem. Soc. Luminescent behavior of bismuth in rare-earth oxides. 112. La2O3:Eu3+ Structure: Cubic Composition Ingredient La2O3 Bi2O3 CaF2 Mole % 100 (of Y) 0. 112.Spectra 800 700 600 500 400 Wavelength (nm) 300 100 Absorption (%) Emission 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 References 1. Soc.. 1 hour.95 Preparation Mix by slurrying in water or methanol. W. Powderize. 2. Dry in air.230 1.C.

H. + (3. Soc. and deLaat. N. 1137 (1967).. J.230 1. Luminescent behavior of the rare earths in yttrium oxide and related hosts.88 eV)...51 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4. Ropp. 111.E.. 47 (1964).. Fluorescent properties of red-emitting europium-activated phosphors with cathode ray excitation. 6.. R. Wickersheim.27 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0. 112.1 (of Bi) 2. Fluorescence decay of rare-earth ions in crystals.C. Chang. Appl. J. Luminescence of europium in ternary system — A2O3-Gd2O3-Y2O3.A... Electrochem..5 By weight (g) 163 0. Soc. J. A.. G. 2. 3.C. Barasch. 114. Wanmaker. 34. W.. R. Fluorescence and stimulated emission from trivalent europium in yttrium oxide. Phys. and Dieke.Spectra 800 700 600 500 400 Wavelength (nm) 300 50 2 3 References 1.L. Electrochem. Luminescent behavior of bismuth in rare-earth oxides. 111 (1965).K. 4. J. J. 5. Electrochem.. Soc.95 Optical Properties Emission color: Yellow-green Emission peak: 2. 181 (1965). 311 (1964). and Lefever.. J. 43. Electrochem. R. Phys. Ropp.. 988 (1965). Soc. 7.A. Electrochem... G. 112. 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 La2O3:Pb2+ Structure: Cubic Composition Ingredient La2O3 Bi2O3 CaF2 Mole % 100 (of Y) 0... C. K. 111. J. 3500 (1963).C. Soc. R. Bril. Datta.. Chem. Spectral properties of rare earth oxide phosphors.40 eV) Absorption (%) 100 Emission .

Spectra 800 700 600 500 400 Wavelength (nm) 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Absorption (%) 100 Emission .

3 Silicates The following host compounds and activators are included in this subsection: CaSiO3:Ce3+ CaSiO 3:Eu2+ CaSiO 3:Pb2+ CaSiO3:Ti4+ CaSiO3:Pb2+.Mn2+ MgSrBa2Si2O7:Eu2+ MgBa3Si2O8:Eu2+ MgSr3Si2O8:Eu2+.Mn2+ BaSi2O5:Eu2+ BaSi2O5:Pb2+ Y2SiO5:Ce3+ CaMgSi2O6:Eu2+ CaMgSi2O6:Eu2+.As5+ Zn2SiO4:Ti4+ (Zn+Be)2SiO4:Mn2+ Sr2SiO4:Eu2+ SrBaSiO4:Eu2+ Ba2SiO4:Eu2+ Ba2SiO4:Ce3+.Mn2+ Be2SiO4:Mn2+ Mg2SiO4:Mn2+ Zn2SiO4:Mn2+ Zn2SiO4:Mn2+.4.Mn2+ Sr2MgSi2O7:Eu2+ Ba2MgSi2O7:Eu2+ BaMg2Si2O7:Eu2+ BaSrMgSi2O7:Eu2+ Ba2Li2Si2O7:Eu2+ Ba2Li2Si2O7:Sn2+ Ba2Li2Si2O7:Sn2+.Mn2+ Sr3MgSi2O8:Eu2+ Ca5B2SiO10:Eu3+ Ca3Al2Si3O12:Eu2+ LiCeBa4Si4O14:Mn2+ LiCeSrBa3Si4O14:Mn2+ .Mn2+ Ca2MgSi2O7:Eu2+ Ca2MgSi2O7 Ca2MgSi2O7:Eu2+.Li+.P Zn2SiO4:Mn2+.

Fire in capped quartz tubes.56 Absorption (%) 100 Emission . Elsevier. Dry in air.CaSiO3:Ce3+ Structure: Triclinic (pseudowollastonite) Composition Ingredient CaCO3 SiO2 TiO2 CaF2 Mole % 97 100 1 2 By weight (g) 97 100 0. 1 hour.1 (of Eu) 2 By weight (g) 98 60 0.176 1.88 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: + Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 50 2 3 Reference 1. 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 CaSiO3:Eu2+ Structure: Triclinic (pseudowollastonite) Composition Ingredient CaCO3 SiO2 Eu2O3 CaF2 Mole % 98 100 0. F.56 Preparation Mix by slurrying in water.00 eV.42 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: + (4.80 1.. Amsterdam (1948). 1100ºC. Kröger. Some Aspects of the Luminescence of Solids. 3. Powderize when dry.A. CO. Optical Properties Emission color: Violet + UV Emission peak: 3.

Fire in capped quartz tubes.23 1. Optical Properties Emission color: Violet Emission peak: 2. Dry in air. Dry in air.88 eV). 1 hour.87 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4. Optical Properties Emission color: UV Emission peak: 3. Powderize when dry. – (3. 1100º C. 1 hour. Powderize when dry. CO. 1100ºC.25 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: + (4.88 eV).40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: + Absorption (%) 100 Emission .70 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0.93 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0. Fire in capped quartz tubes.40 eV) Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 CaSiO3:Pb2+ Structure: Triclinic (pseudowollastonite) Composition Ingredient CaCO3 SiO2 PbO CaF2 Mole % 97 100 1 2 By weight (g) 97 60 2.56 Preparation Mix by slurrying in water or methanol. N2.Preparation Mix by slurrying in water. + (3.

V. and Hoffman.W. R. Fluorescent Lamp Phosphors. Dry in air. Philips Res. 800 (1959). Fire in capped quartz tubes. 19. J. D. 16. J.. 1 hour.L. Am.. A. Optical properties of tin-activated and lead-activated calcium metasilicate phosphors.. Wiss.E. J.Spectra 800 700 600 500 400 Wavelength (nm) 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 References 1.J. Schulman. Ginther. Soc. 9..J. 137 (1952). Mooney. 346 (1954).. Soc.H. 6. 4. J. Rep. 97.. J. and Ruffler. 8. C. Rep. Calcium zinc silicate phosphor. 139. Bril. K... Absorption (%) 100 Emission . 269 (1964).. Ginther. R. 123 (1950).. Lange. The calcium silicate Mn + Pb phosphor phase relationships and preparation. Powderize when dry. Schulman... Nagy. air. 41 (1963).. 106. M. and Hoekstra. 99. Bril. Soc. A study of the mechanism of sensitized luminescence of solids. 10.W..C.W. Opt. Z. Pennsylvania University Press. W. Harrison.80 1. Wei. Hüniger.. Electrochem. Butler. 356 (1961)... Electrochem.. Electrochem. H. and Klick. Note on the properties of calcium silicate phosphors. E.. CaSiO3:Ti4+ Structure: Triclinic (pseudowollastonite) Composition Ingredient CaCO3 SiO2 TiO2 CaF2 Mole % 97 100 1 2 By weight (g) 97 100 0. University Park (1980). and Hoekstra. Phys... 7. 5. Electrochem. R. 3. W.Pb).. R. H. C. and Wollentin. 2. Die manganbanden und ihre trennung im lumineszenzspektrum von calciumsilikat (Mn. 8. Philips Res. 318 (1953). Soc. 106. Soc.. OSRAM Ges.. 43.H.. Abh. and Claffy..K. M...56 Preparation Mix by slurrying in water or methanol. A. Tech.H.. R. J. 955 (1959). J. 1100ºC.

92 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: + (4.3 1. 1 hour. N2. Wash in water several times.17 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0.12 2.88 eV). Fire in capped quartz tubes.56 Preparation Mix by slurrying in methanol plus a few cubic centimeters water. Powderize.5 60 1. 1 hour.5 100 0.40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: 60% (estimated) Decay to 10% : Slightly non exponential ( 35 msec) followed by a long but weaker afterglow tail extending into seconds Absorption (%) 100 Emission . Powderize. – (3. 1000ºC.Optical Properties Emission color: Bluish Emission peak: 2. 2. Optical Properties Emission color: Orange Emission peak: 2.88 eV) Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 CaSiO3:Pb2+. Fire in capped quartz tubes.Mn2+ Structure: Triclinic (pseudowollastonite) Composition Ingredient CaCO3 SiO2 PbO MnCO3 CaF2 Mole % 97. 1150ºC. 1. Dry in air.42 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4. Dry.5 2 2 By weight (g) 97. Powderize when dry. CO.93 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0.

Spectra 800 700 600 500 400 Wavelength (nm) 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Reference 1. Soc. A. 96..97 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: – (4.88 eV). Smith. – (3.40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: + Mg2SiO4:Mn2+ Structure: Orthorhombic (forsterite) Optical Properties Emission color: Red Emission peak: 1. Electrochem. Be2SiO4:Mn2+ Structure: Trigonal (phenakite) Optical Properties Emission color: Orange-red Emission peak: 1.L.9 Absorption (%) 100 Emission ..88 eV). 287 (1949). magnesium. J. Some new complex silicate phosphors containing calcium. and beryllium.88 eV Emission width (FWHM): eV Excitation efficiency by UV: – (4.40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: + Zn2SiO4:Mn2+ Structure: Trigonal (willemite) Composition Ingredient ZnO SiO2 MnCO3 Mole % 194 110 6 By weight (g) 158 66 6. – (3.

and Shafer. and decay after excitation by e-beam pulse. Efficiency enhancement in manganese-doped zinc silicate phosphor with AIPO4 substitution. Bauer. 6. 80–90% Excitation efficiency by e-beam: 7%/+ Decay: Near exponential with time constant ~10 msec (22–25 msec to 1/10) Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 50 2 3 Remarks 1.R. 229 (1979). Up to ~20% of the Zn can be replaced by Mg without visible effect of the Mg on the emission. Am. M. Kinetics of X-ray irradiation-caused degradation of photoluminescence of some phosphors. 3. (1974).. London (1950). The thermoluminescence characteristics of silicate phosphors activated by manganese and arsenic. 371 (1951).E. Optical Properties Emission color: Green Emission peak: 2. Soc. Very thorough mixing of the ingredients is essential. J. 2.. Green-emitting phosphors. 4.. 5. 117. 443.J. 1 hour.. 2. Soc. and Holland. J. 35.18 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4.35 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0. Stevels.T. and Garlick. Electrochem. New York. Emission peak moves slightly to longer wavelength with increasing Mn concentration. Fire in open quartz containers. I. Electrochem. 98. and Brown. Ceram. Efficiency for excitation by UV and by e-beam.. A. depend on the Mn concentration used. 1 hour. E. Appl.N. G. – (3. and Vink. 8. H.. John Wiley & Sons.F. air. Segnit.. Leverenz.. 1184 (1970). 123. Parts or all of the Si can be replaced by Ge (but not by Sn). and Chapman & Hall. Soc. 5..40 eV). A. J.. Bull.. Chang..L. J. 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Absorption (%) 100 Emission . forming gas.. 1200ºC. 409 (1965). 1. A. 3.. Palumbo. Dry in air. 1. Lett. D. System MgO-ZnO-SiO2. 2. Electronic states of Mn2+-activated phosphors.. Powderize when dry. Lumin.. 79 (1976). G. References 1. Powderize by dry milling. Fire in open quartz containers.T. Phys. 4.88 eV).W.W. 1200ºC.T. 48.. C. J. An Introduction to Luminescence of Solids. Electrochem. Soc.Preparation Mix by ball-milling in water about 2 hours. 7..F. J.

02 (of As) By weight (g) 163 0. 910 (1952).. 1200ºC. – (3. air.230 62.1 0..H.35 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4. orange Emission peak: 2. J.) Preparation Mix by ball-milling in water about 2 hours.18 eV .P Structure: Trigonal (willemite) Optical Properties Emission color: Green. and Schulman. Zn2SiO4:Mn2+. Dry in air. Klick. Powderize when dry. C..” etc. 1 hour. Opt. Am. 42. Soc.35 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0.C. On the luminescence of divalent manganese in solids. Fire in capped quartz tubes.As5+ Structure: Trigonal (willemite) Composition Ingredient ZnO MnCO3 SiO2* As2O3 Mole % 200 0.04 and 2.88 eV). J.02 (* This requires extremely fine SiO2. commercially available as “Silanox.” “Cab-O-Sil.2 102 0. Optical Properties Emission color: Green Emission peak: 2.40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: + Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 100 Emission 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Zn2SiO4:Mn2+.8.

Zn2SiO4:Ti4+ Structure: Trigonal (willemite) Optical Properties Emission color: Violet Emission peak: 3. later part non-exponential and extending to several seconds or longer Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 100 Emission 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Remarks 1.02 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4. References 1. – (3. 2. The thermoluminescence characteristics of silicate phosphors activated by manganese and arsenic. Electrochem.R. 3. 46. first branch near-exponential with time constant (to 1/e) 12 msec. Froelich. J. 371 (1951).. 98. Chem. G. Soc. and Fonda.88 eV). 2.40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: + Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 100 Emission 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 . G...F. H.C. Very thorough mixing of the ingredients is important. C.. Bull. and Garlick. Ordinary silicic acid cannot be used for this phosphor (too coarse). Phys.Excitation efficiency by e-beam: 3–4% Decay: Decay consisting of two subsequent branches... 878 (1942). J. The afterglow due to As5+ appears only when the phosphor has been fired in oxidizing atmosphere.

35 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4. K. 2. (Zn+Be)2SiO4:Mn2+ Structure: Trigonal (willemite) Optical Properties Emission color: Green. University Park (1980). Kröger.168. p.H. p.88 eV). orange Emission peak: 2.60 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4.40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: + .. – (3.88 eV). Some Aspects of the Luminescence of Solids.A. Fluorescent Lamp Phosphors.40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: + Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 100 Emission 50 2 3 Reference 1. – (3.04 eV. Sr2SiO4:Eu2+ Structure: Orthorhombic Optical Properties Emission color: Green-yellow Emission peak: 2.23 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0.Reference 1. Amsterdam (1948). 244. Elsevier. F. Pennsylvania University Press.. 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Butler.

. 1. et al. mix by dry milling. Powderize.5 5. G. 304 (1970). CO.. Sr3MgSi2O8.Spectra 800 700 600 500 400 Wavelength (nm) 300 100 Emission 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 References 1. CO. Fluorescence of Eu2+ activated silicates. 1.36 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0.. Dry in air. Powderize by dry milling. Dry. 115. Powderize when dry.32 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4. Add another 5. 23.L. Then ball-mill in water. 1 hour. Barry. 1100ºC. Philips Tech. Electrochem. Philips Res. The absorption and emission spectra of some important activators..40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: + . A. Rev. Characteristic luminescence. Soc. G. J. 2. 189 (1968). 2.4 Preparation Mix by slurrying in water.. T. 1 hour. Fire in capped quartz tubes. Rep. 733 (1968). Wash in water several times (pH goes to ~10–12). and Ca3MgSi2O8. 31.88 eV) .. Blasse. and Bril. SrBaSiO4:Eu2+ Composition Ingredient SrCO3 BaCO3 SiO2 Eu2O3 NH4Cl Mole % 98 100 105 2 (of Eu) 10 By weight (g) 145 197 63 3. Fire in capped quartz tubes. Optical Properties Emission color: Yellow-green Emission peak: 2. + (3. Equilibria and Eu2+ luminescence of subsolidus phases bounded by Ba3MgSi2O8..4 g NH4Cl. 1100ºC. 3 Blasse.

. Sr3MgSi2O8. Powderize by hard milling or grinding. stable in water) and Ba2SiO4:Eu2+ (green. 2. CO.4 g NH4Cl.4 Preparation Mix by milling or grinding.L. Barry. Fire in capped quartz tubes. J. 1 hour. The stability of SrBaSiO4:Eu2+ may not be good enough for use in lamps. and Ca3MgSi2O8. J. Electrochem. mix well. 1100ºC. Wash in water (to remove leftover halide). Fire in capped quartz tubes. Store in a well-closed container. 1181 (1968). Electrochem. Fluorescence of Eu2+-activated phases in binary alkaline earth orthosilicate systems.L. CO.88 eV).5 63 5. Soc. 2. Powderize. Optical Properties Emission color: Blue-green Emission peak: 2.. Equilibria and Eu2+ luminescence of subsolidus phases bounded by Ba3MgSi2O8.40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: + Absorption (%) 100 Emission . T. T. 1. 733 (1968).. Dry in air. + (3.. 115.Spectra 800 700 600 500 400 Wavelength (nm) 300 50 2 3 Remark This phosphor is an intermediate between Sr2SiO4:Eu2+ (yellow. 1000ºC.44 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0. 115. Add another ~5. unstable) which are miscible in any ratio. 1 hour. Soc. Barry. 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Ba2SiO4:Eu2+ Structure: Orthorhombic Composition Ingredient BaCO3 Eu2O3 SiO2 NH4Cl Mole % 198 2 (of Eu) 105 10 By weight (g) 390 3. References 1.28 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4.

4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Ba2SiO4:Ce3+. Electrochem. 1 hour. SiO2. Fire in open quartz boats. 900ºC. Soc. 2.. Fire in open quartz boats.. T. 189 (1968). et al. 115. 3. 2. and Li2CO3. Now admit MnCO3 and NH4Br by slurrying in methanol.Li+. Electrochem. 115.4 5. Material is unstable in water. Soc.L. Blasse. Powderize. 1181 (1968). Philips Res. Fluorescence of Eu2+ activated silicates.8 10 Preparation First mix by dry ball-milling or grinding only in the BaCO3. Absorption (%) 100 Emission . N2. Fire in capped quartz tubes.. J.. CeO2. and Fluorescence of Eu2+-activated phases in binary alkaline earth orthosilicate systems. G. Equilibria and Eu2+ luminescence of subsolidus phases bounded by Ba3MgSi2O8. 23. 1. H2. 900ºC. J.Mn2+ Structure: Orthorhombic Composition Ingredient BaCO3 SiO2 CeO2 Li2CO3 MnCO3 NH4Br Mole % 75 50 10 20 (of Li) 5 10 By weight (g) 148 30 17 7. CO.Spectra 800 700 600 500 400 Wavelength (nm) 300 50 2 3 Remarks 1. 1 hour. Dry in air. Sr3MgSi2O8. 2. 733 (1968). Powderize. Part or all of the Ba can be replaced by Sr causing increasing stability against water and shift of the emission towards yellow. Rep. 900ºC. Barry. 1 hour. References 1. and Ca3MgSi2O8. Powderize when dry.

E. Emission changes color from orange-red at room temperature to yellow at 150ºC and whitish at 300ºC.88 eV). 2..24 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4. McKeag.C. A. McKeag..88 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: + BaSi2O5:Pb2+ Structure: Orthorhombic Absorption (%) 100 Emission .50 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4. Soc. Temperature characteristics of barium strontium lithium silicate phosphors. Phosphor is believed to be a modification of Ba2SiO4 (in which Mn2+ is nonluminescent) with 25% of Ba replaced by 10% Ce.. 105.015 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0. Phys.H.46 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0. 78 (1958). and 5% Mn.H. Br. ++ (3. Appl.40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: Very poor Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 50 2 3 Remarks 1.. Partial replacement of Ba by Sr shifts the emission into somewhat deeper red. and Steward. 10% Li. The luminescent properties and crystal structure of some new phosphor systems. Such phosphor has been known as “triple silicate” in England. 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 BaSi2O5:Eu2+ Structure: Orthorhombic Optical Properties Emission color: Blue-green Emission peak: 2. J. References 1. and improves chemical stability of the material. J.Optical Properties Emission color: Orange-red Emission peak: 2. 3. improves temperature stability of the emission. 26 (1955). Electrochem.. 2. 4. A.

1. 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Ropp.. 169. 1 hour.88 eV). Fluorescent Lamp Phosphors.. + (3.54 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0.. University Park (1980).Optical Properties Emission color: UV Emission peak: 3.H. Electrochem. Soc. Y2SiO5:Ce3+ Optical Properties Emission color: Violet Emission peak: 2. 1000ºC. p. R.4 Preparation Mix by slurrying in methanol plus a few cubic centimeters water. K. 115. J. 531 (1968). Fire in capped quartz tubes. N2. Dry in air. Pennsylvania University Press. 2.5 21.40 eV) Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 100 Emission 50 2 3 References 1. Powderize when dry. . Butler. – (3.40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: + CaMgSi2O6:Eu2+ Structure: Monoclinic (diopside) Composition Ingredient CaO MgO SiO2 Eu2O3 NH4Cl Mole % 118 100 210 2 (of Eu) 40 By weight (g) 66 40 126 3.88 eV).39 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4. Phosphors based on rare earth phosphates fast decay phosphors.99 eV Emission width (FWHM): eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4..C.

Fire in capped quartz tubes. 1 hour.88 eV). 287 (1949). Powderize.4 Preparation First mix by slurrying in methanol plus a few cubic centimeters water. Powderize when dry. Fire in capped quartz tubes. CO. ++ (3.. Powderize.5 4. magnesium. Soc. Absorption (%) 100 Emission .25 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4. Powderize. CO. 60% (estimated) Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 50 2 3 Reference 1. 96. 1000ºC. J. 2.L. 1150ºC. 1 hour. Smith. A.Mn2+ Structure: Monoclinic (diopside) Composition Ingredient CaO MgO SiO2 Eu2O3 MnCO3 NH4Cl Mole % 114 100 210 2 (of Eu) 4 40 By weight (g) 64 40 126 3. Optical Properties Emission color: Blue Emission peak: 2. 1150ºC. Powderize. Wash in water several times. N2. 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 CaMgSi2O6:Eu2+.6 21. 1.77 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0. Electrochem. Wash in water several times.40 eV). Fire in capped quartz tubes.. Dry. Dry. Dry in air.2. Some new complex silicate phosphors containing calcium. 1 hour. and beryllium.

Fire in capped quartz tubes. 1. 2.77 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4.40 eV). 2. Emission peak: 1. CO.37 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4.40 eV).5 21. Fire in capped quartz tubes. 1 hour.29 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0. 1000ºC. ++ (3. ++ (3. 25% Absorption (%) 100 Emission . 1150ºC. Powderize.12 eV. 2. Dry in air.Optical Properties Emission color: Reddish-purple.88 eV).88 eV). Optical Properties Emission color: Yellow-green Emission peak: 2.4 Preparation First mix by slurrying in methanol plus a few cubic centimeters water.80 eV. N2. Powderize when dry. Spectra 800 700 600 500 400 Wavelength (nm) 60% (estimated) 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Ca2MgSi2O7:Eu2+ Structure: Tetragonal (ackermanite) Composition Ingredient CaO MgO SiO2 Eu2O3 NH4Cl Mole % 200 100 210 2 (of Eu) 40 By weight (g) 112 40 126 3. 1 hour.

Spectra 800 700 600 500 400 Wavelength (nm) 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Ca2MgSi2O7 Structure: Tetragonal (ackermanite) Optical Properties Emission color: UV Emission peak: 3. 1150ºC.17 eV Excitation efficiency by e-beam: + Ca2MgSi2O7:Eu2+. 1000ºC.4 Preparation First mix by slurrying in methanol plus a few cubic centimeters water. CO. Powderize. Fire in capped quartz tubes. Optical Properties Emission color: Deep red plus weaker yellow-green Emission peak: 1. 1 hour. Dry in air. 2.2 5. Powderize when dry. 1.21 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: Excited by all UV plus visible blue Absorption (%) 100 Emission .80 eV. 2. N2. 1 hour.29 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0.Mn2+ Structure: Tetragonal (ackermanite) Composition Ingredient CaO MgO SiO2 Eu2O3 MnCO3 NH4Cl Mole % 205 100 210 2 (of Eu) 8 10 By weight (g) 115 40 126 3.5 9. Fire in capped quartz tubes.

6 40. Sr2MgSi2O7:Eu2+ Structure: Tetragonal (ackermanite) Composition Ingredient SrCO2 SrF2 MgO SiO2 Eu2O3 Mole % 187 10 100 210 3 (of Eu) By weight (g) 276 12. 1 hour. CO. 1000ºC.. 23.3 Preparation Mix by ball-milling in methanol. Fire in capped quartz tubes. 1 hour. 189 (1968). Some new classes of efficient Eu2+ activated phosphors.3 126 5.. 2. 1150ºC. and terVrugt. Powderize. 673 (1968). J. 115. W. G.Spectra 800 700 600 500 400 Wavelength (nm) 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 References 1. Blasse. Fluorescence of Eu2+-activated silicates.27 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: + (4. 2.. Rep. N2. Fire in capped quartz tubes... Wanmaker. G.88 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: + Absorption (%) 100 Emission . Blasse. Electrochem. Optical Properties Emission color: Blue Emission peak: 2.L.. et al. Philips Res. Powderize when dry. Dry in air.W.68 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0. J. Soc. 1.

23. (1968). CO. 1100ºC.41 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: + (4. Blasse.3 126 5. Ba2MgSi2O7:Eu2+ Structure: Tetragonal (melinite) Composition Ingredient BaCO3 BaF2 MgO SiO2 Eu2O3 Mole % 187 10 100 210 3 (of Eu) By weight (g) 369 17. Optical Properties Emission color: Blue-green Emission peak: 2.3 Preparation Mix by ball-milling in methanol. Dry in air. Powderize when dry. + (3. 1 hour.Spectra 800 700 600 500 400 Wavelength (nm) 300 100 Emission 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Reference 1. Powderize. 2. Fire in capped quartz tubes. Philips Res..42 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0.88 eV).. Fire in capped quartz tubes. 189. N2.40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: + . 1 hour. G. 1. Fluorescence of Eu2+-activated silicates. 1000ºC. et al.5 40. Rep.

Rev. Wanmaker. Characteristic luminescence.. G. Some new classes of efficient Eu2+ activated phosphors. Electrochem. Blasse.. 31.88 eV).3 Optical Properties Emission color: Violet + UV Emission peak: 3. Philips Tech.. A. The absorption and emission spectra of some important activators. 304 (1970).10 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0.W. Soc. and terVrugt.. 1. J.Spectra 800 700 600 500 400 Wavelength (nm) 300 100 Emission 50 2 3 References 1..L.. 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 BaMg2Si2O7:Eu2+ Structure: Tetragonal (melinite) Composition Ingredient BaCO3 BaF2 MgO SiO2 Eu2O3 Mole % 187 10 100 210 3 (of Eu) By weight (g) 369 17. + (3. 673 (1968).19 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4. 115. 2.5 40.3 126 5.. and Bril. Blasse. G.40 eV) Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 100 Emission 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 . W. J.

. Barry. J. W. 673 (1968).J. Blasse. Fluorescent Lamp Phosphors.. 1. 189 (1968). 1 hour. (1980). ++ (3. and terVrugt. Fire in capped quartz tubes.Reference 1.3 Preparation Mix by ball-milling in methanol. 115. BaSrMgSi2O7:Eu2+ Structure: Ackermanite Composition Ingredient BaCO3 SrCO3 BaF2 MgO SiO2 Eu2O3 Mole % 90 97 10 100 210 3 (of Eu) By weight (g) 177. CO. 1100ºC. Optical Properties Emission color: Blue Emission peak: 2..88 eV). T. N2. Powderize when dry. Electrochem. 381 (1970). J. Powderize. et al.82 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0. Philips Res. G. 1 hour. Wanmaker. 2. Blasse. Soc.. J.2 17. Rep. Electrochem.H.3 126 5. Soc. 1000ºC.. 2. G. 3. University Park.W. 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 . Luminescent properties of Eu2+ and Eu2+ + Mn2+ activated BaMg2Si2O7. 23. Butler..... 117. Dry in air. Fire in capped quartz tubes. Fluorescence of Eu2+-activated silicates.6 143.27 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4. Some new classes of efficient Eu2+ activated phosphors.5 40.40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: + Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 100 Emission 50 2 3 References 1. K.L. Pennsylvania University Press.

CO.88 eV).Ba2Li2Si2O7:Eu2+ Composition Ingredient BaCO3 Li2CO3 SiO2 Eu2O3 NH4Br Mole % 97 110 (of Li) 110 3 (of Eu) 50 By weight (g) 191 41 66 5. excited by all UV Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Remarks 1. 3. 2. Powderize. 850ºC. Optical Properties Emission color: Blue-green Emission peak: 2. 16 hours (overnight). Phosphor is chemically unstable in water and deteriorates in moist air. Powderize when dry. 1 hour.44 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0.40 eV). N2. 2. + (3. Fire in open quartz boats. Now admit the NH4Br by slurrying in methanol plus a few cubic centimeters water.3 49 Preparation First mix all ingredients but the NH4Br by dry grinding or milling .30 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4. 850ºC. Gradual replacement of Ba by Sr causes rapid decrease of efficiency without visible change of color. Absorption (%) 100 Emission . Fire in open quartz boats. Fire in capped quartz tubes. Store in a well-closed container. Dry in air. 850ºC. 1 hour. 1. Powderize. H2.

1 hour. Dry in air. ~16 hours (overnight).22 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4. Phosphor is chemically unstable in water and deteriorates even in moist air. The Sn2+ emission sensitizes Mn2+ (see: Ba2Li2Si2O7:Sn2+. Powderize. 3. 1. QE fairly high Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Remarks 1.Ba2Li2Si2O7:Sn2+ Composition Ingredient BaCO3 Li2CO3 SiO2 SnO NH4Br Mole % 95 110 (of Li) 110 5 50 By weight (g) 187 41 66 6. Powderize when dry. N2.8 49 Preparation First mix by dry grinding or milling the BaCO3 + Li2CO3 + SiO2 . Part or all of the Ba can be replaced by Sr. 850ºC. Optical Properties Emission color: Violet Emission peak: 2. Fire in open boats. 850ºC. 3. Store in a well-closed container.40 eV). Fire in open quartz boats.Mn2+). Absorption (%) 100 Emission . 2. 850ºC. causing a shift of the emission towards bluegreen. Now admit the SnO + NH4Br. 2. Make slurry in methanol and stir to uniformity. H2.88 eV). 1 hour. CO. Fire in capped quartz tubes. Powderize. ++ (3.89 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0.

N2. QE (estimated) Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 60–70% 400 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Remarks 1. 2.88 eV). Store in a well-closed container. 1. H2. 850ºC. Dry in air. Now admit the SnO + MnCO3 + NH4Br. Fire in open boats.32 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0. 1 hour. ~16 hours (overnight). 1 hour. Increasing replacement of Ba by Sr causes gradual shift of the emission towards red. Powderize. Make a slurry in methanol and stir to uniformity.5 50 By weight (g) 185 41 66 6. CO. Powderize.8 1.7 49 Preparation First mix by dry grinding or milling the BaCO3 + Li2CO3 + SiO2. 850ºC. Absorption (%) 100 Emission . 850ºC. and decreasing efficiency. ++ (3.Mn2+ Composition Ingredient BaCO3 Li2CO3 SiO2 SnO MnCO3 NH4Br Mole % 93.40 eV). broadening and slight deformation of the emission band. Powderize. Fire in capped quartz tubes.5 110 (of Li) 110 5 1. 3.Ba2Li2Si2O7:Sn2+. 2. Optical Properties Emission color: Green Emission peak: 2. Fire in open quartz boats. Phosphor is chemically unstable in water and deteriorates even in moist air.16 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4.

733 (1968) and Fluorescence of Eu2+-activated phases in binary alkaline earth orthosilicate systems.L. G. . Fluorescence of Eu2+ activated silicates. 23.. Blasse. Electrochem. ++ (3. T..82 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0.. J. J.27 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4. Electrochem. Rep. et al.22 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4. Sr3MgSi2O8... Soc. 115. 115.82 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0.88 eV) Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 100 Emission 50 2 3 References 1. Soc. 1181 (1968). 189 (1968).88 eV). Equilibria and Eu2+ luminescence of subsolidus phases bounded by Ba3MgSi2O8. 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 2.MgSrBaSi2O7:Eu2+ Structure: Ackermanite Optical Properties Emission color: Blue Emission peak: 2. and Ca3MgSi2O8. Barry.40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: + Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 100 Emission 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 MgBa3Si2O8:Eu2+ Optical Properties Emission color: Blue Emission peak: 2. Philips Res.

70 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0. Blasse. et al. A. Characteristic luminescence. 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 . G.. Optical Properties Emission color: Blue Emission peak: 2. and Bril. Rev. 1000ºC.8 16 Preparation Mix by ball-milling in methanol about 1 hour. Fire in capped quartz tubes. Dry in air. Blasse. 1. ++ (3.. 189 (1968). CO.88 eV) Sr3MgSi2O8:Eu2+ Structure: Ackermanite Composition Ingredient SrCO3 MgO SiO2 Eu2O3 NH4Cl Mole % 295 100 206 5 (of Eu) 30 By weight (g) 435 40 124 8. 1 hour. G. 31... 1 hour. Rep. N2. Philips Tech. Fluorescence of Eu2+-activated silicates.40 eV). Fire in capped quartz tubes. 1100ºC..23 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4.Mn2+ Optical Properties Emission color: Deep red Emission peak: 1. QE Excitation efficiency by e-beam: 3% Decay: 0. The absorption and emission spectra of some important activators. 1. 23. Philips Res.MgSr3Si2O8:Eu2+. Powderize 2. 2.82 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4.88 eV).2 sec to 1/e Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 45% 400 300 100 Emission 50 2 3 References 1. 304 (1970). Powderize when dry.

2 8. 1 hour. 2.Ca5B2SiO10:Eu3+ Composition Ingredient CaCO3 H3BO3 SiO2 Eu2O3 Mole % 100 50 22 5 (of Eu) By weight (g) 100 31 13. – (3. Powderize by milling. QE Excitation efficiency by e-beam: Poor Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 50–60% 400 300 50 2 3 Remark The chemical stability of this material is somewhat better than that of CaO:Eu3+. 3. 0. 1100ºC. air. 1 hour. air.47 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: Excited by all UV but low QE ( 20%) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: Very poor.40 eV).41 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0.5% Absorption (%) 100 Emission . 1300ºC. Powderize. 1. Fire in open quartz boats. air. 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Ca3Al2Si3O12:Eu2+ Optical Properties Emission color: Pale bluish-green Emission peak: 2.03 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4. Fire in open quartz boats. 1200ºC. Fire in open quartz boats. 1 hour.88 eV). Optical Properties Emission color: Red Emission peak: 2.8 Preparation Mix by dry milling or grinding.

24 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4.99 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0. ++ (3.88 eV).23 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4. ++ (3.02 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0.40 eV) Absorption (%) 100 Emission .40 eV) Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 LiCeSrBa3Si4O14:Mn2+ Optical Properties Emission color: Red Emission peak: 1.88 eV).Spectra 800 700 600 500 400 Wavelength (nm) 300 100 Emission 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 LiCeBa4Si4O14:Mn2+ Optical Properties Emission color: orange–red Emission peak: ~2.

Spectra 800 700 600 500 400 Wavelength (nm) 300 100 Emission 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 .

1 hour. Fire in capped quartz tubes. QE Excitation efficiency by e-beam: 5% Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 90% 400 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Absorption (%) 100 Emission . Powderize. Fire in open quartz boats. 1200 C. Powderize when dry. CO. Powderize. 1200 C.88 eV).56 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4. 1 hour. N2. Powderize. 2. Optical Properties Emission color: UV Emission peak: 3.35 and 3. 500 C. Fire in capped quartz tubes.Tb3+ Ca3SiO4Cl2:Pb2+ Ca3SiO4Cl2:Eu2+ Ba5SiO4Cl6:Eu2+ Sr5Si4O10Cl6:Eu2+ LaSiO3Cl:Ce3+ Composition Ingredient La2O3 SiO2 CeO2 NH4Cl Mole % 100 (of La) 160 20 120 By weight (g) 163 96 34 64 Preparation Mix by slurrying in water (NH3 develops). Wash in water several times. Dry in air.4 Halosilicates The following host compounds and activators are included in this subsection: LaSiO3Cl:Ce3+ LaSiO3Cl:Ce3+. 1 hour. Dry in air. 3.4. 1. N2.

but Cl seems to perform best. Electrochem. QE Excitation efficiency by e-beam: +/4% Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 80–90% 400 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Absorption (%) 100 Emission .29 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4. 445 (1978). W. Lehmann. 2. J. Powderize.Tb3+ Composition Ingredient La2O3 SiO2 CeO2 Tb4O7 NH4Cl Mole % 100 (of La) 180 20 14 (of Tb) 130 By weight (g) 163 108 34 26 60 Preparation Mix by slurrying in water (NH3 develops).. Powderize when dry. Fire in capped quartz tubes. 1 hour. Soc. Replacement of La by Y is possible but gives somewhat poorer phosphors.. 1 hour. 2.Remarks 1. Fire in open quartz boats. ~500 C. ~1 hour. Powderize. 1200 C. T.J. N2. Optical Properties Emission color: Pale yellow-green Emission peak: 2. Dry in air.H. CO.88 eV). + (3.40 eV). F or Br can replace the Cl in the above recipe. Reference 1. 1. Fire in capped quartz tubes. and Isaaks. Wash in water several times. Powderize. LaSiO3Cl:Ce3+. 125.. 1200 C. Dry in air. 3. Lanthanum and yttrium halo-silicate phosphors. N2.

. The Cl in the above recipe can be replaced by F or Br but Cl seems to perform best. 28. Electrochem..J. J.Remarks 1. 80 (1973). – (3. W. and Verriet. Ca3SiO4Cl2:Pb2+ Optical Properties Emission color: UV Emission peak: 3. 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Wanmaker.G. Luminescence of phosphors with Ca3SiO4Cl.L. Lehmann..44 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0.31 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: + (4.88 eV). 2.40 eV) . 445 (1978).. 125. Ca3SiO4Cl2:Eu2+ Optical Properties Emission color: Blue-green Emission peak: 2. T.. W. Replacement of La by Y is possible but gives somewhat poorer phosphors. Rep.39 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4.88 eV). Philips Res. Lanthanum and yttrium halo-silicate phosphors. ++ (3. and Isaaks.41 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0.H. Soc. Reference 1..40 eV) Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 100 Emission 50 2 3 Reference 1. J.

28. and Verriet. Ba5SiO4Cl6:Eu2+ Optical Properties Emission color: blue Emission peak: 2. Ba5SiO4Cl6:Eu.88 eV). ++ (3. a new blue-emitting photoluminescent material with high quenching temperature. W. C.40 eV) Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 100 Emission 50 2 3 Reference 1. 126.L. 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Garcia. 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Wanmaker. and Fouassier. Luminescence of phosphors with Ca3SiO4Cl... J. Philips Res.19 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4. Electrochem. Latourette.G.. 80 (1973).. J.82 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0. Sr5Si4O10Cl6:Eu2+ Optical Properties Emission color: Blue-green Emission peak: 2. Rep. Soc.Spectra 800 700 600 500 400 Wavelength (nm) 300 100 Emission 50 2 3 Reference 1. 1734 (1979). A.52 eV . B..

..P. 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Burrus.. ++ (3. K. Nicholson. Fluorescence of Eu2+-activated alkaline earth halosilicates. H.L. H.P.Emission width (FWHM): 0.88 eV).38 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4.40 eV) Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 100 Emission 50 2 3 References 1.. 3. . and Rooksby. Lumin. J. 467 (1971).

5 Phosphates The following host compounds and activators are included in this subsection: YPO4:Ce3+ YPO4:Ce3+.4.Mn2+ MgCaP2O7:Mn2+ BaTiP2O7 MgSrP2O7:Eu2+ MgBaP2O7:Eu2+ MgBaP2O7:Eu2+.Mn2+ -Ca3(PO4)2:Ce3+ CaB2P2O9:Eu2+ -Ca3(PO4)2:Sn2+ -Ca3(PO4)2:Sn2+ -Ca3(PO4)2:Pb2+ -Ca3(PO4)2:Tl+ -Ca3(PO4)2:Ce3+ -Ca3(PO4)2:Eu2+ -Ca3(PO4)2:Eu2+ -Ca3(PO4)2:Eu2+.Mn2+ ZnMg2(PO4)2:Mn2+ Zn3(PO4)2:Mn2 (Zn.Th4+ YPO4:V5+ LaPO4:Ce3+ LaPO4:Eu3+ CaP2O6:Mn2+ Sr2P2O7:Sn2+ Ca2P2O7:Ce3+ Ca2P2O7:Eu2+.Tb3+ YPO4:Eu3+ YPO4:Mn2+.Mn2+(Al) -Sr3(PO4)2:Sn2+ -Sr3(PO4)2:Eu2+ Ba3(PO4)2:Eu2+ Na3Ce(PO4)2:Tb3+ -(Ca.Mg)3(PO4)2:Mn2+ Mg3Ca3(PO4)4:Eu2+ MgSr5(PO4)4:Sn2+ MgBa2(PO4)2:Sn2+ CaSr2(PO4)2:Bi3+ MgBa2(PO4)2:U Sr2P2O7:Eu2+ .Mn2+ -Sr3(PO4)2:Sn2+.Sr)3(PO4)2:Sn2+.Mn2+ Ca2P2O7:Eu2+ Li2CaP2O7:Ce3+.

J. N2. Blasse. Philips Tech. and Banks...V. 27. D. Powderize when dry. Bauman. Effect of thorium on Ce+3 phosphors. G. Add ~5 g of NH4Cl. Rev.. 304 (1970)... G. 5. 33. ~1 hour. Soc. 1300ºC.YPO4:Ce3+ Structure: Tetragonal Composition Ingredient Y 2O 3 Eu2O2 H3PO4 solution. Powderize. 192 (1960). J. 1508 (1971). Absorption (%) 100 Emission . Chem. Solid State Chem.. R. J. and Jeser.. Blasse.2 64 ccm Preparation Make a thin slurry of Y2O3 and Eu2O3 in methanol. Phys. M. CO.P. D. 3. 52 (1972). 1.. Powderize. 67 (1975). Robbins.. Fire in open quartz boats. 4. ~500–600ºC. and Bril. ~2 hours. G.R. Appl. A. 118. D. 85% Mole % 97 (of Y) 3 (of Eu) 105 (of P) By weight (g) 110 5. E. Electrochem. Ultraviolet-absorption bands of Bi3+ and Eu3+ in oxides. Fire in open quartz boats.. Slowly add the H3PO4 solution while stirring.P. 2. ~80 nsec to 1/10 Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 References 1.40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: 2–3% Decay: Near exponential decay..R. Phys. Fire in capped quartz tubes. Hoffman. Wright. The absorption and emission spectra of some important activators.71 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4... 4. ~1300ºC. – (3.49 and 3. J... Electronic transitions of rare earth ions in the infrared region. mix by dry grinding. Dry in air. ~1 hour. CeP5O14. 2. a new ultrafast scintillator. Bimburg. 31. Mandel. Optical Properties Emission color: UV Emission peak: 3. Lett. N2..88 eV). 3.

40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: + Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 100 Emission 50 2 3 Reference 1. 115. Spectral properties of some rare earth phosphates. Soc. J. 841 (1968).C. – (3.88 eV).88 eV). Phosphors based on rare earth phosphates. – (3. Electrochem.. 1.28 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4.40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: + Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 YPO4:Eu3+ Structure: Tetragonal Optical Properties Emission color: Orange-red Excitation efficiency by UV: – (4. R.Tb3+ Structure: Tetragonal Optical Properties Emission color: Green Emission peak: 2..YPO4:Ce3+. Absorption (%) 100 Emission . 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Ropp.

Th4+ Structure: Tetragonal Optical Properties Emission color: Blue-green Emission peak: 2.88 eV). Powderize when dry.99 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0.44 5. . and NH4Cl in methanol. Dry in air.23 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: – (4.4 64 ccm Preparation Make a slurry of La2O3.59 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0. CeO2 .40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: + Spectra 800 700 600 500 400 Wavelength (nm) 300 100 Emission 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 YPO4:V5+ Structure: Tetragonal Optical Properties Emission color: Blue Emission peak: 2. 85% LaPO4:Ce3+ Mole % 98 (of La) 2 10 105 (of P) By weight (g) 160 3. – (3.56 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: + (4.YPO4:Mn2+. Slowly add the H3PO4 solution while stirring.88 eV) Structure: Monoclinic (monazite) Composition Ingredient La2O3 CeO2 NH4Cl H3PO4 solution.

Optical Properties Emission color: UV Emission peak: 3.097..94 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4. Optical Properties Emission color: Orange-red Emission peak: Strongest lines are at 1.40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: + Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Reference 1. 85% LaPO4:Eu3+ Mole % 95 (of La) 5 (of Eu) 10 105 (of P) By weight (g) 155 8. 2.88eV). 192 (1970). Slowly add the H3PO4 solution while stirring. Eu2O3. Fire in open quartz boats.. and Banks. 1. 1250ºC. Powderize. G. and NH4Cl in methanol.117 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: + (4.. E.4 64 ccm Preparation Make a slurry of La2O3. Chem. 1 hour. and 2..P. air. 1 hour. 2 hours. – (3.784.40 eV) Absorption (%) 100 Emission . J. – (3.815. N2. 33. Structure: Monoclinic (monazite) Composition Ingredient La2O3 Eu2O3 NH4Cl H3PO4 solution. Fire in open quartz boats. N2. Bauman.8 5.1 2 Fire in open quartz boats. 1250ºC. Powderize. 1250ºC. 1250ºC. R. 1.67 and 3. CO. 2 hours. Mandel. Phys. Powderize when dry.88 eV). Electronic transitions of rare earth ions in the infrared region. 2. Fire in open quartz boats. Dry in air.

29 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: – (4.. – (3. Rev. CaP2O6:Mn2+ Optical Properties Emission color: Green Emission peak: 2. Wanmaker. 270 (1966). 21.Spectra 800 700 600 500 400 Wavelength (nm) 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Reference 1. Philips Tech.40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: + Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 100 Emission 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Absorption (%) 100 Emission .L. et al. W.. Luminescent properties of Eu-activated phosphors of type A3BVO4.30 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0.88 eV).

Sr2P2O7:Sn2+
Spectra
800 700 600 500
2+

400

Wavelength (nm)

300
2+

100

Emission

-Sr2P2O7:Sn

-Sr2P2O7:Sn

50

2

3

Reference 1.

4 Photon Energy (eV)

5

0

Ropp., R.C., and Mooney, R.W., Tin-activated alkaline-earth pyrophosphate phosphors, J. Electrochem. Soc., 107, 15 (1960).

Ca2P2O7:Ce3+
Structure: Tetragonal Composition Ingredient CaHPO4 CeO2 NaHCO3 H3PO4-solution, 85% Mole % 96 2 2 6 (of P) By weight (g) 130 3.4 1.7 4.1 ccm

Preparation Make a slurry of CaHPO4, CeO2 , and NaHCO3 in water or methanol. Add the H3PO4 solution while stirring; stir to uniformity. Dry in air. Powderize when dry. 1. Fire in open quartz boats, N2, ~500–600ºC, ~1/2 hour. Powderize. 2. Fire in open quartz boats, CO, 1200ºC, 1 hour. Optical Properties Emission color: Pale bluish (most of the emission in the UV) Emission peaks: 3.60 and 3.83 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4.88 eV), – (3.40 eV)

Spectra
800 700 600 500

400

Wavelength (nm)

300

50

2

3

4 Photon Energy (eV)

5

0

Reference 1. Ranby, P.W., Mash, D.H., and Henderson, S.T., The investigation of new phosphors, with particular reference to the pyrophosphates, Br. J. Appl. Phys., Suppl. 4, 18 (1955).

Ca2P2O7:Eu2+,Mn2+
Structure: Tetragonal Composition Ingredient CaHPO4 Eu2O3 MnCO3 H3PO4 solution, 85% Mole % 93 2 (of Eu) 5 9 (of P) By weight (g) 126 3.5 5.75 6.1 ccm

Preparation Make a slurry of CaHPO4, Eu2O3 , and MnCO3 in water or methanol. Add the H3PO4 solution while stirring; stir to uniformity. Dry in air. Powderize when dry. 1. Fire in open quartz boats, N2, ~500–600ºC, ~1 hour. Powderize. 2. Fire in open quartz boats, CO, 1200ºC, 1 hour. Optical Properties Emission color: Pink-orange Emission peak: Orange Mn2+ band at ~2.06 eV; Violet Eu2+ band at ~2.98 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0.28 eV (Mn2+ band) Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4.88 eV), ++ (3.40 eV)

Absorption (%)

100

Emission

Spectra
800 700 600 500

400

Wavelength (nm)

300

100

Emission

50

2

3

4 Photon Energy (eV)

5

0

References 1. Kröger, F.A. et al., J. Electrochem. Soc., 96, 132 (1949). 2. Kinney, D.E., Modified calcium pyrophosphate phosphors, J. Electrochem. Soc., 102, 676 (1955). 3. Ranby, P.W., Mash, D.H., and Henderson, S.T., The investigation of new phosphors, with particular reference to the pyrophosphates, Br. J. Appl. Phys., S18, Suppl. 4 (1955). 4. Ropp, R.C., Manganese-activated cadmium pyrophosphate phosphors, J. Electrochem. Soc., 109, 569 (1962).

Ca2P2O7:Eu2+
Structure: Tetragonal Composition Ingredient CaHPO4 Eu2O3 H3PO4 solution, 85% Mole % 98 2 (of Eu) 4 (of P) By weight (g) 133 3.5 2.7 ccm

Preparation Make a slurry of CaHPO4 + Eu2O3 in water or methanol. Add the H3PO4 solution while stirring; stir to uniformity. Dry in air. Powderize when dry. 1. Fire in open quartz boats, N2, ~500–600ºC, ~1 hour. Powderize. 2. Fire in open quartz boats, CO, 1200ºC, 1 hour. Optical Properties Emission color: Violet Emission peak: 2.96 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0.19 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4.88 eV), ++ (3.40 eV)

Spectra
800 700 600 500

400

Wavelength (nm)

300

100

Emission

50

2

3

4 Photon Energy (eV)

5

0

References 1. Kröger, F.A. et al., J. Electrochem. Soc., 96, 132 (1949). 2. Kinney, D.E., Modified calcium pyrophosphate phosphors, J. Electrochem. Soc., 102, 676 (1955). 3. Ranby, P.W., Mash, D.H., and Henderson, S.T., The investigation of new phosphors, with particular reference to the pyrophosphates, Br. J. Appl. Phys., S18, Suppl. 4 (1955). 4. Ropp, R.C., Manganese-activated cadmium pyrophosphate phosphors, J. Electrochem. Soc., 109, 569 (1962).

Li2CaP2O7:Ce3+,Mn2+
Composition Ingredient Li2CO3 CaHPO4 CeO2 MnCO3 H3PO4 solution, 85% Mole % 205 (of Li) 89 3 5 115 (of P) By weight (g) 75.7 121 5.2 5.75 70 ccm

Preparation Make a slurry of Li2CO3 + CaHPO4 + CeO2 + MnCO3 in methanol. Add the H3PO4 solution while stirring (CO2 develops). Dry in air. Powderize when dry. 1. Fire in open quartz boats, N2, ~500–600ºC. Powderize. 2. Fire in open quartz boats, N2, 700ºC, 16 hours (overnight). Optical Properties Emission color: Greenish-yellow Emission peak: 2.16 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0.28 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4.88 eV), – (3.40 eV)

Spectra
800 700 600 500

400

Wavelength (nm)

300

100

Emission

50

2

3

4 Photon Energy (eV)

5

0

MgCaP2O7:Mn2+
Structure: Monoclinic Optical Properties Emission color: Yellow Emission peak: 2.12 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0.20 eV Spectra
800 700 600 500 400
Wavelength (nm)

300

100

Emission

50

2

3

4 Photon Energy (eV)

5

0

BaTiP2O7
Spectra
800 700 600 500 400
Wavelength (nm)

300

100

Emission

50

2

3

4 Photon Energy (eV)

5

0

Reference 1. Henderson, S.T., and Ranby, P.W., Barium titanium phosphate – a new phosphor, J. Electrochem. Soc., 98, 479 (1951).

MgSrP2O7:Eu2+
Structure: Monoclinic Optical Properties Emission color: Violet-UV Emission peak: 3.16 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0.20 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4.88 eV), + (3.40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: + Spectra
800 700 600 500
Wavelength (nm)

400

300

100

Emission

50

2

3

References 1. 2.

4 Photon Energy (eV)

5

0

Hoffman, M.V., Eu+2 activation in some alkaline earth strontium phosphate compounds, J. Electrochem. Soc., 115, 560 (1968). Blasse, G., and Bril, A., The absorption and emission spectra of some important activators, Philips Tech. Rev., 31, 304 (1970).

MgBaP2O7:Eu2+
Structure: Monoclinic Optical Properties Emission color: Violet-UV Emission peak: 3.04 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0.35 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4.88 eV), ++ (3.40 eV)

Spectra
800 700 600 500

400

Wavelength (nm)

300

100

Emission

50

2

3

Reference 1.

4 Photon Energy (eV)

5

0

Lagos, C.C., Luminescence of divalent europium in BaO-MgO-P2O5 system, J. Electrochem. Soc., 115, 1271 (1968).

MgBaP2O7:Eu2+,Mn2+
Structure: Monoclinic Composition Ingredient Mg2P2O7 Ba2P2O7 Eu2O3 MnCO3 H3PO4-solution, 85% Mole % 90 (of Mg) 96 (of Ba) 4 (of Eu) 10 19 (of P) By weight (g) 100 215 7 11.5 12.9 ccm

Preparation Make a slurry of Mg2P2O7 + Ba2P2O7 + Eu2O3 + MnCO3 in water. Add the H3PO4 solution while stirring. Dry in air. Powderize when dry. 1. Fire in open quartz boats, N2, 500–600ºC, 1 hour. Powderize. 2. Fire in open quartz boats, N2, 950ºC, 2 hours. Optical Properties Emission color: Pinkish orange-red Emission peak: Orange-red Mn2+ band at 2.07 eV, violet Eu2+ band at 3.06 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0.18 eV (Mn2+ band) Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4.88 eV), ++ (3.40 eV)

Spectra
800 700 600 500

400

Wavelength (nm)

300

50

2

3

4 Photon Energy (eV)

5

0

-Ca3(PO4)2:Ce3+
Structure: Trigonal Optical Properties Emission color: UV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4.88 eV) Spectra
800 700 600 500 400
Wavelength (nm)

300
16/9 % Ce 2/3 1/9 1/36

100

Emission

50

2

3

Reference 1.

4 Photon Energy (eV)

5

0

Botden, T.P.J., Transfer and transport of energy by resonance processes in luminescent solids, Philips Res. Rep., 7, 197 (1952).
600 500 400
Wavelength (nm)

800 700

300
3+ 2+

100

-Ca3(PO4)2:Ce ,Mn
Emission

50

2

3

4 Photon Energy (eV)

5

0

Absorption (%)

100

Emission

Reference 1. Froelich, H.C., and Margolis, J.M., Calcium phosphate phosphor activated with cerium and manganese, J. Electrochem. Soc., 98, 400 (1951).

CaB2P2O9:Eu2+
Composition Ingredient CaHPO4 H3BO3 Eu2O3 (NH4)2HPO4 Mole % 98 200 2 (of Eu) 106 By weight (g) 134 124 3.5 140

Preparation Make a slurry of the CaHPO4 + Eu2O3 in methanol. Dissolve the H3BO3 + (NH4)2HPO4 together in a little water. Add the solution to the slurry. Stir. Dry in air. Powderize when dry. 1. Fire in open quartz boats, air, ~500–600ºC, 1 hour. Powderize. 2. Fire in open quartz boats, N2, 800ºC, 1 hour. Powderize. 3. Fire in open quartz boats, CO, 1000ºC, 1 hour. Optical Properties Emission color: Deep violet Emission peak: 3.08 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0.21 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4.88 eV), ++ (3.40 eV) Spectra
800 700 600 500
Wavelength (nm)

400

300

50

2

3

4 Photon Energy (eV)

5

0

Absorption (%)

100

Emission

F. J. A proof of the associated-pair theory for sensitized luminophors. Soc. Electrochem. Kreidler. E. 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 -Ca3(PO4)2:Sn2+ Structure: Trigonal Composition Ingredient CaCO3 CaHPO4 SnO Mole % 5 75 5 By weight (g) 5 90 6.61 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4..40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: + Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 50 2 3 References 1.-Ca3(PO4)2:Sn2+ Structure: Monoclinic Composition Ingredient CaCO3 CaHPO4 SnO (NH4)2CO4 Mole % 10 75 1 12 By weight (g) 10 90 1. 923 (1971). N2. 1250ºC. Kröger. 15.R.35 2 Preparation Mix the CaCO3 + CaHPO4 + SnO by slurrying in methanol. Optical Properties Emission color: Pale blue-green Emission peak: 2.. 118. 1 hour. 801 (1949).44 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0. Phase equilibria and tin-activated luminescence in system Ca3(PO4)2Ba3(PO4)2.A. Dry in air. – (3. Fire in capped quartz tubes. Powderize when dry. Now add the crushed (NH4)2CO4 by dry mixing..88 eV).75 Absorption (%) 100 Emission . 2. Physica.

Phase equilibria and tin-activated luminescence in system Ca3(PO4)2Ba3(PO4)2. Fire in capped quartz tubes. 1 hour. 1.. Optical Properties Emission color: Pale orange Emission peak: 1. Dry in air.R. 1100ºC. F. A proof of the associated-pair theory for sensitized luminophors. ~500ºC. Physica. Fire in capped quartz tubes. 1250ºC. 2. Kröger. 1.A. Electrochem. Soc. Absorption (%) 100 Emission .88 eV). N2.Preparation Mix by slurrying in water or methanol. 1100ºC. Powderize when dry. N2. 2 hours.. -Ca3(PO4)2:Pb2+ Structure: Monoclinic Composition Ingredient CaCO3 CaHPO4 PbO Mole % 24 75 1 By weight (g) 24 90 2. 1 hour. CO. E. Powderize when dry. CO. 2. Kreidler. 2. 801 (1949).40 eV) Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 References 1. Dry in air. 15. Fire in capped quartz tubes. J. – (3. 923 (1971). Powderize.. 2 hours.55 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4. Powderize by dry milling. 118.92 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0.3 Preparation Mix by slurrying in water or methanol. Fire in capped quartz tubes.

Clapp. 1 hour. and Ginther. Dry in air.40 eV) Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Reference 1. – (3. -Ca3(PO4)2:Tl+ Structure: Monoclinic Composition Ingredient CaCO3 CaHPO4 TlOH Al2O3 Mole % 22 75 1 2 (of Al) By weight (g) 22 90 2. stagnant air.J. 37..Optical Properties Emission color: UV Emission peak: 3. R. Optical Properties Emission color: UV Emission peak: 3..66 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4.40 eV) Absorption (%) 100 Emission .2 1 Preparation Mix by slurrying in water or methanol.88 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0.88 eV). Soc. 355 (1947).88 eV). R.68 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0.H.64 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4. Am.. Fire in capped quartz tubes. J. Opt. 1250 C. Ultraviolet phosphors and fluorescent sun tan lamps. Powderize when dry. – (3.

Spectra
800 700 600 500

400

Wavelength (nm)

300

50

2

3

4 Photon Energy (eV)

5

0

References 1. Froelich, H.C., New ultraviolet phosphors, J. Electrochem. Soc., 91, 241 (1947). 2. Witzmann, H., and Buhrow, J., Ein neuer schwarzlichtphosphor, Naturwissenschaften, 49, 180 (1962). 3. Clapp, R.H., and Ginther, R.J., Ultraviolet phosphors and fluorescent sun tan lamps, J. Opt. Soc. Am., 37, 355 (1947). 4. Bril, A., and Hoekstra, W., Philips Res. Rep., 16, 356, (1961), and Philips Res. Rep., 19, 296 (1964).

-Ca3(PO4)2:Ce3+
Structure: Monoclinic Composition Ingredient CaCO3 CaHPO4 CeO3 NaHCO3 Mole % 15 75 5 5 By weight (g) 15 90 17 8.4

Preparation Mix by slurrying in water. Dry in air. Powderize when dry. Fire in open quartz boats, CO, 1250ºC, 1 hour. Optical Properties Emission color: UV Emission peak: 3.33 eV, 3.57 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4.88 eV), – (3.40 eV)

Absorption (%)

100

Emission

Spectra
800 700 600 500

400

Wavelength (nm)

300

50

2

3

4 Photon Energy (eV)

5

0

References 1. Froelich, H.C., and Margolis, J.M., Calcium phosphate phosphor activated with cerium and manganese, J. Electrochem. Soc., 98, 400 (1951). 2. Botden, T.P.J., Transfer and transport of energy by resonance processes in luminescent solids, Philips Res. Rep., 7, 197 (1952).

-Ca3(PO4)2:Eu2+
Structure: Monoclinic Composition Ingredient CaCO3 CaHPO4 Eu2O3 Mole % 24 75 1 (of Eu) By weight (g) 24 90 1.76

Preparation Mix by slurrying in water. Dry in air. Powderize when dry. Fire in open quartz boats, CO, 1250ºC, 1 hour. Optical Properties Emission color: Whitish blue-green Emission peak: ~2.52 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0.53 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4.88 eV), ++ (3.40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: +

Absorption (%)

100

Emission

Spectra
800 700 600 500

400

Wavelength (nm)

300

50

2

3

4 Photon Energy (eV)

5

0

References 1. Lagos, C.C., Luminescence of divalent europium in Ba-Ca, Ba-Sr, and Ca-Sr orthophosphate and pyrophosphate compositions, J. Electrochem. Soc., 117, 1189 (1970). 2. McCauley, R.A., Hummel, F.A., and Hoffman, M.V., Phase equilibria and Eu2+activated, Tb3+-activated, and Mn2+-activated luminescent phases in CaO-MgO-P2O5 system, J. Electrochem. Soc., 118, 755 (1971).

-Ca3(PO4)2:Eu2+
Structure: Trigonal Composition Ingredient CaCO3 CaHPO4 Eu2O3 Mole % 24 75 1 (of Eu) By weight (g) 24 90 1.76

Preparation Mix by slurrying in water. Dry in air. Powderize when dry. Fire in open quartz boats, CO, 1100ºC, 2 hours. Optical Properties Emission color: Violet Emission peak: 3.02 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0.33 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4.88 eV), ++ (3.40 eV)

Absorption (%)

100

Emission

Spectra
800 700 600 500

400

Wavelength (nm)

300

50

2

3

4 Photon Energy (eV)

5

0

Remark This phosphor easily shows a weak green emission band due to the -phosphate (see Ca3(PO4)2:Eu2+).

-Ca3(PO4)2:Eu2+,Mn2+
Structure: Trigonal Composition Ingredient CaCO3 CaHPO4 Eu2O3 MnCO3 Mole % 19 75 1 (of Eu) 5 By weight (g) 19 90 1.76 5.75

Preparation Mix by slurrying in water. Dry in air. Powderize when dry. Fire in open quartz boats, CO, 1100ºC, 2 hours. Optical Properties Emission color: Pinkish-red Emission peak: ~1.91 eV (Mn2+ band), ~3.01 eV (Eu2+ band) Emission width (FWHM): 0.24 eV (Mn2+ band) Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4.88 eV), ++ (3.40 eV)

Absorption (%)

100

Emission

Spectra
800 700 600 500

400

Wavelength (nm)

300

50

2

3

4 Photon Energy (eV)

5

0

-Sr3(PO4)2:Sn2+,Mn2+(Al)
Structure: Trigonal Composition Ingredient SrCO3 SrHPO4 Al2O3 SnO MnCO3 Mole % 8 45 4 (of Al) 1.5 1 By weight (g) 11.8 75.4 2 2 1.15

Preparation Mix by ball-milling in water. Dry in air. Powderize when dry. Fire in capped quartz tubes, CO, 1100ºC, 2 hours. Optical Properties Emission color: Orange-red Emission peak: 2.02 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0.25 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4.88 eV), – (3.40 eV) Spectra
800 700 600 500
Wavelength (nm)

400

300

50

2

3

4 Photon Energy (eV)

5

0

Absorption (%)

100

Emission

Absorption (%)

100

Emission

Remarks 1. This is a “tricky” phosphor, by no means yet understood or optimized. 2. Partial or complete replacement of Sr by Ca shifts the emission into deeper red. References 1. Kröger, F.A., A proof of the associated-pair theory for sensitized luminophors, Physica, 15, 801 (1949). 2. Botden, T.P.J., Transfer and transport of energy by resonance processes in luminescent solids, Philips Res. Rep., 7, 197 (1952). 3. Sarver, J.F., Hoffman, M.V., and Hummel, F.A., Phase equilibria and tin-activated luminescence in strontium orthophosphate systems, J. Electrochem. Soc., 108, 1103 (1961).

-Sr3(PO4)2:Sn2+
Structure: Trigonal Composition Ingredient SrCO3 SrHPO4 SnO Mole % 20 75 5 By weight (g) 29.5 138 6.75

Preparation Mix by slurrying in water. Dry in air. Powderize when dry. Fire in capped quartz tubes, CO, 1100ºC, 2 hours. Optical Properties Emission color: Violet + UV Emission peak: 3.28 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0.66 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4.88 eV), – (3.40 eV) Spectra
800 700 600 500
Wavelength (nm)

400

300

50

2

3

4 Photon Energy (eV)

5

0

Reference 1. Botden, T.P.J., Transfer and transport of energy by resonance processes in luminescent solids, Philips Res. Rep., 7, 197 (1952).

Absorption (%)

100

Emission

-Sr3(PO4)2:Eu2+
Structure: Trigonal Optical Properties Emission color: Violet Emission peak: 2.94 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0.22 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4.88 eV), + (3.40 eV) Spectra
800 700 600 500
Wavelength (nm)

400

300

50

2

3

4 Photon Energy (eV)

5

0

References 1. Lagos, C.C., Luminescence of divalent europium in Ba-Ca, Ba-Sr, and Ca-Sr orthophosphate and pyrophosphate compositions, J. Electrochem. Soc., 117, 1189 (1970). 2. Hoffman, M.V., Eu+2 activation in some alkaline earth strontium phosphate compounds, J. Electrochem. Soc., 115, 560 (1968).

Ba3(PO4)2:Eu2+
Optical Properties Emission color: Violet Emission peak: 2.99 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0.25 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4.88 eV), + (3.40 eV) Spectra
800 700 600 500
Wavelength (nm)

400

300

100

Emission

50

2

3

4 Photon Energy (eV)

5

0

Absorption (%)

100

Emission

Reference 1. Lagos, C.C., Luminescence of divalent europium in Ba-Ca, Ba-Sr, and Ca-Sr orthophosphate and pyrophosphate compositions, J. Electrochem. Soc., 117, 1189 (1970).

Na3Ce(PO4)2:Tb3+
Optical Properties Emission color: Green Emission peak: 2.27 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4.88 eV), – (3.40 eV) Spectra
800 700 600 500
Wavelength (nm)

400

300

100

Emission

50

2

3

4 Photon Energy (eV)

5

0

Reference 1. Fava, J. et al., Some new efficient luminophors with low-concentration quenching effects, J. Lumin., 18/19, 389 (1979).

-(Ca,Sr)3(PO4)2:Sn2+,Mn2+
Composition Ingredient CaCO3 SrCO3 SrHPO4 SnO MnCO3 Mole % 50 32 205 10 3 By weight (g) 50 47 376 13.5 3.45

Preparation Mix by slurrying in water or methanol. Dry in air. Powderize when dry. 1. Fire in open quartz boats, N2, 500–600ºC. Powderize. 2. Fire in capped quartz tubes, CO, 1150ºC, 2 hours. Optical Properties Emission color: Orange-red Emission peak: 1.97 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0.38 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4.88 eV), – (3.40 eV)

Spectra
800 700 600 500

400

Wavelength (nm)

300

50

2

3

Remarks 1. Increasing Mn concentration causes narrowing of the emission band but decreasing efficiency. 2. The -phosphate structure is maintained from about Ca/Sr of 10/90 to 100/0. Increasing Ca/Sr causes a shift of the Mn2+ band into deeper red. References 1. Butler, K.H., Alkaline earth orthophosphate phosphors, J. Electrochem. Soc., 100, 250 (1953). 2. Koelmans, H., and Cox, A.P.M., Luminescence of modified tin-activated strontium orthophosphate, J. Electrochem. Soc., 104, 442 (1957). 3. Mooney, R.W., Temperature dependence of fluorescence of tin-activated orthophosphates, J. Electrochem. Soc., 105, 456 (1958). 4. Uehara, Y., Kobuke, Y., and Masuda, I., Copper-activated calcium orthophosphate and related phosphors, J. Electrochem. Soc., 106, 200 (1959). 5. Wanmaker, W.L., and Bakker, C., Luminescence of copper-activated calcium and strontium orthophosphates, J. Electrochem. Soc., 106, 1027 (1959). 6. Sarver, J.F., Hoffman, M.V., and Hummel, F.A., Phase equilibria and tin-activated luminescence in strontium orthophosphate systems, J. Electrochem. Soc., 108, 1103 (1961).

4 Photon Energy (eV)

5

0

ZnMg2(PO4)2:Mn2+
Spectra
800 700 600 500 400
Wavelength (nm)

300

100

Emission

50

2

3

4 Photon Energy (eV)

5

0

Absorption (%)

100

Emission

air.L. This phosphor has been used as the red component in early color TV picture tubes. Phase equilibria and manganeseactivated fluorescence in the system Zn3(PO4)2-Mg3(PO4)2. and Hummel. Electrochem. Powderize.40 eV UV. 1..40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: ~7–8% Decay: Near-exponential decay. 30 msec to 1/10 Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 100 Emission 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Remarks 1.. 106. Katnack. Dry in air. F.. Fire in open quartz boats. 900ºC. F. – (3. J. Powderize when dry. Stir to uniformity as well as possible. Slowly add the H3PO4 solution while stirring (slurry heats up).94 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0. Ball-mill the slurry for about 1 hour. .25 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: – (4.Zn3(PO4)2:Mn2 Structure: Monoclinic Composition Ingredient ZnO MnCO3 H3PO4 solution Mole % 99 1 62 (of P) By weight (g) 81 1. 2. J. 1 hour. ~500ºC. air. 2.88 eV).S. This is strictly a catholuminescent phosphor.. air. Sarver. 2 hours. 960 (1959). It cannot be sensitized to respond to 4. Fire in open quartz boats. 1 hour.15 47. Optical Properties Emission color: Light red Emission peak: 1.88 or 3. Powderize. 3. Soc. Reference 1.6 ccm Preparation Make a thin slurry of ZnO + MnCO3 in water or methanol.A. Fire in open quartz boats. 950ºC.

F. ~500–600ºC.96 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0. 2.1 1. Slowly add the H3PO4 solution while stirring.7 ccm Preparation Make a thin slurry of ZnO + MgO + MnCO3 in water or methanol. J. F. This is strictly a catholuminescent phosphor.Mg)3(PO4)2:Mn2+ Structure: Monoclinic Composition Ingredient ZnO MnO MnCO3 H3PO4 solution Mole % 79 20 1 62 (of P) By weight (g) 65 8. 900ºC is too low. Electrochem. Optical Properties Emission color: Light red Emission peak: 1. Reference 1.(Zn. 100–1200 msec to 1/10 Spectra 800 700 600 500 400 Wavelength (nm) 300 100 Emission 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Remarks 1. air.. 950ºC. Crush forming phosphate by wet mortaring or milling. 3. Phase equilibria and manganeseactivated fluorescence in the system Zn3(PO4)2-Mg3(PO4)2. air.A. 1 hour.S. The 950ºC firing temperature is critical. Fire in open quartz boats. J.. Fire in open quartz boats.L. 106. The decay of this phosphor is significantly longer than that of Zn3(PO4)2:Mn2+ (~30 msec to 1/10). 960 (1959). Dry in air. 2. and Hummel.15 46. 1000ºC is too high.. It cannot be sensitized for UV excitation. Soc.27 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: – (4. .. Katnack. Stir to uniformity. Powderize.40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: ~6–8% Decay: near-exponential decay.88 eV). – (3. 2 hours. Powderize when dry. 1. Sarver.

. Phase equilibria and Eu2+activated..red Emission peak: 1. J.40 eV) Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Absorption (%) 100 Emission .. and Mn2+-activated luminescent phases in CaO-MgO-P2O5 system.49 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4.V.88 eV). Hummel.. M. Electrochem. Tb3+-activated. 118. R.80 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0.A.A. F. 755 (1971). – (3. Soc.93 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0. and Hoffman. MgSr5(PO4)4:Sn2+ Optical Properties Emission color: Orange.Mg3Ca3(PO4)4:Eu2+ Structure: Monoclinic Optical Properties Emission color: Blue Emission peak: 2. McCauley.48 eV Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 100 Emission 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Reference 1.

67 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4. – (3.40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: – Absorption (%) 100 Emission Absorption (%) 100 Emission .88 eV) Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 50 2 3 CaSr2(PO4)2:Bi3+ Optical Properties Emission color: UV Emission peak: 3.36 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0.89 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0.88 eV).88 eV).27 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4.40 eV) Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 400 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 MgBa2(PO4)2:U Optical Properties Emission color: Green Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4. ++ (3.MgBa2(PO4)2:Sn2+ Optical Properties Emission color: Greenish Emission peak: 2.

p. K.40 eV) Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 100 Emission 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Reference 1. Butler.H. Pennsylvania University Press. 274. University Park (1980).97 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0. ++ (3.Spectra 800 700 600 500 400 Wavelength (nm) 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Sr2P2O7:Eu2+ Optical Properties Emission color: Violet Emission peak: 2.29 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4. Fluorescent Lamp Phosphors.. Absorption (%) 100 Emission .88 eV).

Fire in capped quartz tubes. Optical Properties Emission color: Yellow Emission peak: 2. Dry in air.Pr3+ Sr5(PO4)3F:Sn2+ Ba5(PO4)3Cl:Eu2+ Ba5(PO4)3Cl:U Ca2Ba3(PO4)3Cl:Eu2+ Ca5(PO4)3F:Mn2+ Structure: Hexagonal (apatite) Composition Ingredient CaCO3 CaHPO4 CaF2 MnCO3 Mole % 140 400 50 10 By weight (g) 140 360 39 11. N2.17 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0.88 eV). Powderize when dry.6 Halophosphates The following host compounds and activators are included in this subsection: Ca5(PO4)3F:Mn2+ Ca5(PO4)3F:Sb3+ Ca5(PO4)3F:Sn2+ Ca5(PO4)3Cl:Eu2+ Ca5(PO4)3Cl:Mn2+ Ca5(PO4)3Cl:Sb3+ Ca5(PO4)3Cl:Sn2+ Sr5(PO4)3Cl:Eu2+ Sr5(PO4)3Cl:Mn2+ Sr5(PO4)3Cl:Sb3+ Sr5(PO4)3F:Mn2+ Sr5(PO4)3F:Sb3+ Sr5(PO4)3F:Sb3+.28 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: – (4. 1100ºC.4.Mn2+ Sr5(PO4)3Cl:Eu2+. – (3. 1 hour.40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: + .5 Preparation Mix by ball-milling in water or methanol.

Ca5(PO4)3F:Sb3+ Structure: Hexagonal (apatite) Composition Ingredient CaCO3 CaHPO4 CaF2 Sb2O3 Mole % 140 300 50 10 (of Sb) By weight (g) 140 360 39 14. McKeag. Fire in capped quartz tubes. 321 (1981). Jenkins. Soc..W. 96. Lumin. N2. or Ce3+. Alkaline earth halophosphates and related phosphors. J.H. 1100ºC.J. Powderize when dry. 1 hour.J.. Optical Properties Emission color: Pale blue-green Emission peak: 2..6 Preparation Mix by ball-milling in water or methanol. References 1. J. Dry in air. A.88 eV). 2. H.50 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0. Electrochem.Spectra 800 700 600 500 400 Wavelength (nm) 300 100 Emission 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Remark Can be sensitized for UV excitation by addition of Sn2+.40 eV) . Sb3+. P. Alonso.. 22. Excitation-spectra and fluorescent lifetime measurements of Mn2+ in CaF2 and Ca5(PO4)3F2... and Ranby. – (3. P. and Alcala. R. 1 (1949).70 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4.

S.5 Preparation Mix by ball-milling methanol plus a little water. T.40 eV) Absorption (%) 100 Emission . McKeag. Dry in air. Soules.. 1 (1949). Alkaline earth halophosphates and related phosphors..Spectra 800 700 600 500 400 Wavelength (nm) 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 References 1.. H.9 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4. Davis. Energy-transfer between antimony and manganese in fluorophosphate phosphors..00 eV Emission width (FWHM): ~0.. Rev. 3. Electrochem. 1100ºC. T. T. 1 hour.R. Ca5(PO4)3F:Sn2+ Structure: Hexagonal (apatite) Composition Ingredient CaCO3 CaHPO4 CaF2 SnO Mole % 200 300 50 10 By weight (g) 200 360 39 13.F. and Ranby. 1657 (1973).F. Phys. Chem.. Soc. Jenkins. Fire in capped quartz tubes. N2.H. E. Molecular orbital model for antimony luminescent centers in fluorophosphate. 1056 (1971). A.J. 7. Optical Properties Emission color: Pale bluish Emission peak: 3.. et al. Powderize when dry. B. P. – (3. J. 96. Soules. 2. 55. Phys..88 eV)..W. and Kreidler. J.

1 hour.40 eV) Absorption (%) 100 Emission . Optical Properties Emission color: Blue Emission peak: 2. P. N2.88 eV). Electrochem. McKeag. and Ranby.23 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4. Powderize. Powderize when dry. H. Add 32 g NH4Cl.. Powderize.W. ++ (3. Wash in water several times.H.72 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0. A..8 Preparation Mix by ball-milling methanol plus a little water. 96.Spectra 800 700 600 500 400 Wavelength (nm) 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Reference 1. Soc. Dry. 1100º C. Ca5(PO4)3Cl:Eu2+ Structure: Hexagonal (apatite) Composition Ingredient CaCO3 CaHPO4 NH4Cl Eu2O3 Mole % 200 300 120 5 (of Eu) By weight (g) 200 360 64 8. 1 (1949).J. Fire in capped quartz tubes. J.. Alkaline earth halophosphates and related phosphors. Jenkins. 1100ºC. Dry in air. mix by dry grinding or milling. 1. N2.. 1 hour. Fire in capped quartz tubes. 2.

Fire in capped quartz tubes. Fire in capped quartz tubes. N2.Spectra 800 700 600 500 400 Wavelength (nm) 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Reference 1. Wash in water several times. Add 32 g NH4Cl. – (3. mix by dry grinding or milling. Dry. Powderize. Bloomfield Report. Ca5(PO4)3Cl:Mn2+ Structure: Hexagonal (apatite) Composition Ingredient CaCO3 CaHPO4 NH4Cl MnCO3 Mole % 200 300 120 10 By weight (g) 200 360 64 11. 2.10 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0.. 1 hour.40 eV) Absorption (%) 100 Emission . Powderize. Wachtel. Powderize when dry.88 eV). Dry in air. 1. BL-R-6-90102-29 (1968).5 Preparation Mix by ball-milling methanol plus a little water.29 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: – (4. Optical Properties Emission color: Orange-yellow Emission peak: ~2. 1100ºC. A. N2. 1100ºC. 1 hour.

Wash in water several times.. Reference 1. Sb3+. 1. H. Alkaline earth halophosphates and related phosphors. Powderize when dry. Add 32 g NH4Cl. Jenkins. P. 1 hour.38 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0. and Ranby.88 eV). 96. Powderize.. N2. J. 1100ºC..Spectra 800 700 600 500 400 Wavelength (nm) 300 100 Emission 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Remark Can be sensitized for UV excitation by addition of Sn2+. Electrochem. 1 (1949).H.W. mix by dry grinding or milling. Fire in capped quartz tubes. 2.5 Preparation Mix by ball-milling methanol plus a little water. Ca5(PO4)3Cl:Sb3+ Structure: Hexagonal (apatite) Composition Ingredient CaCO3 CaHPO4 NH4Cl MnCO3 Mole % 200 300 120 10 By weight (g) 200 360 64 11. Dry in air. A.40 eV) . 1100ºC. Dry.J. Optical Properties Emission color: Pale whitish-green Emission peak: 2. or Eu2+. Ce3+. – (3. Fire in capped quartz tubes..70 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4. Powderize. McKeag. 1 hour. Soc. N2.

1 hour. N2. Add 32 g NH4Cl. Electrochem. Powderize when dry. 96. Wash in water several times. J.. – (3. Powderize.H.W. 2.45 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4.. Alkaline earth halophosphates and related phosphors. H. 1 (1949).Spectra 800 700 600 500 400 Wavelength (nm) 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Reference 1. Dry in air.. 1100ºC. Powderize.J. mix by dry grinding or milling.95 and 3. Soc. McKeag. Fire in capped quartz tubes. the two peaks near 1.88 eV). Jenkins. N2..40 eV) Absorption (%) 100 Emission . 1 hour. Optical Properties Emission color: Pale pinkish-white Emission peaks: Continuous distribution from the UV into the IR.5 Preparation Mix by ball-milling methanol plus a little water. Fire in capped quartz tubes. 1. 1100ºC. Ca5(PO4)3Cl:Sn2+ Structure: Hexagonal (apatite) Composition Ingredient CaCO3 CaHPO4 NH4Cl SnO Mole % 200 300 120 10 By weight (g) 200 360 64 13. Dry. A. and Ranby. P.

1. mix by dry grinding or milling.75 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0. 1100ºC.40 eV) Absorption (%) 100 Emission . ++ (3. Add 32 g NH4Cl. Fire in capped quartz tubes. Powderize. 2. Wash in water several times. Powderize.8 Preparation Mix by ball-milling methanol plus a little water.Spectra 800 700 600 500 400 Wavelength (nm) 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Sr5(PO4)3Cl:Eu2+ Structure: Hexagonal (apatite) Composition Ingredient SrCO3 SrHPO4 NH4Cl Eu2O3 Mole % 200 300 120 5 (of Eu) By weight (g) 295 550 64 8. Dry in air. 1100ºC. 1 hour. Dry. Optical Properties Emission color: Blue Emission peak: 2. N2. 1 hour. Fire in capped quartz tubes.88 eV).19 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4. Powderize when dry. N2.

2.Spectra 800 700 600 500 400 Wavelength (nm) 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Reference 1. BL-R-6-90102-29 (1968). 1 hour. A. N2. mix by dry grinding or milling.. Powderize when dry. Optical Properties Emission color: Yellow Emission peak: 2. Fire in capped quartz tubes. Dry. – (3.40 eV) Absorption (%) 100 Emission . Fire in capped quartz tubes.16 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0. 1 hour. Dry in air. Add 32 g NH4Cl.32 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: – (4. N2.88 eV). Powderize. 1100ºC. Wachtel. Powderize. Wash in water several times. 1100ºC. Bloomfield Report.5 Preparation Mix by ball-milling methanol plus a little water. Sr5(PO4)3Cl:Mn2+ Structure: Hexagonal (apatite) Composition Ingredient SrCO3 SrHPO4 NH4Cl MnCO3 Mole % 200 300 120 10 By weight (g) 295 550 64 11. 1.

Wash in water several times. Dry in air. or Eu2+. Powderize when dry.6 Preparation Mix by ball-milling methanol plus a little water. J. – (3.W. McKeag.68 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4. and Ranby.. 1 hour. 1. mix by dry grinding or milling. Ce3+.J. 2. A. 1100ºC. H. Add 32 g NH4Cl. 1100ºC.. N2. Alkaline earth halophosphates and related phosphors. Powderize. Fire in capped quartz tubes. P. Electrochem. Sr5(PO4)3Cl:Sb3+ Structure: Hexagonal (apatite) Composition Ingredient SrCO3 SrHPO4 NH4Cl Sb2O3 Mole % 200 300 120 10 (of Sb) By weight (g) 295 550 64 14.. Optical Properties Emission color: Whitish-green Emission peak: ~2. Jenkins. 1 (1949). Fire in capped quartz tubes. Soc.88 eV).H. 1 hour.Spectra 800 700 600 500 400 Wavelength (nm) 300 100 Emission 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Remark Can be sensitized for UV excitation by addition of Sn2+. Reference 1.31 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0. Dry. 96. Sb3+. N2.40 eV) . Powderize..

H..5 Preparation Mix by ball-milling methanol plus a little water.. Jenkins. 1100ºC. 96.W. 1 hour. 1 (1949). Electrochem. 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Sr5(PO4)3F:Mn2+ Structure: Hexagonal (apatite) Composition Ingredient SrCO3 SrHPO4 SrF2 MnCO3 Mole % 200 300 50 10 By weight (g) 295 550 63 11. A. Dry in air. J..40 eV) Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 100 Emission 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Absorption (%) 100 Emission .88 eV).H. Alkaline earth halophosphates and related phosphors. N2.17 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0.J. and Ranby. P. Powderize when dry. Optical Properties Emission color: Yellow Emission peak: ~2. – (3..Spectra 800 700 600 500 400 Wavelength (nm) 300 50 2 3 Reference 1.28 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: – (4. McKeag. Fire in capped quartz tubes. Soc.

Optical Properties Emission color: Pale whitish blue-green Emission peak: ~2. A. 1 (1949). Jenkins. J.J. Alkaline earth halophosphates and related phosphors. and Ranby.W. Jenkins. Electrochem.J. Soc. 96.75 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4. Alkaline earth halophosphates and related phosphors.... or Ce3+.88 eV). 96. McKeag. Powderize when dry. Fire in capped quartz tubes. Sb3+. Sr5(PO4)3F:Sb3+ Structure: Hexagonal (apatite) Composition Ingredient SrCO3 SrHPO4 SrF2 Sb2O3 Mole % 140 300 50 10 (of Sb) By weight (g) 206 550 63 14.Remark Can be sensitized for UV excitation by addition of Sn2+.. McKeag.H. 1 hour.. H. H. Electrochem..H.6 Preparation Mix by ball-milling methanol plus a little water. P. and Ranby. A.43 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0. P. Absorption (%) 100 Emission .40 eV) Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Reference 1. 1 (1949). Soc. Dry in air... Reference 1. 1100ºC.W. N2. – (3. J.

5 Absorption (%) 100 Emission Absorption (%) 100 Emission .Sr5(PO4)3F:Sb3+.Mn2+ Structure: Hexagonal (apatite) Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Sr5(PO4)3Cl:Eu2+.Pr3+ Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Sr5(PO4)3F:Sn2+ Structure: Hexagonal (apatite) Composition Ingredient SrCO3 SrHPO4 SrF2 SnO Mole % 140 300 50 10 By weight (g) 206 550 63 13.

28 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4.88 eV).88 eV). – (3. Fire in capped quartz tubes.75 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4.40 eV) Absorption (%) 100 Emission . Dry in air. Dry in air.75 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0. Dry. 1 hour. Add 32 g NH4Cl. 1. Powderize. N2.8 Preparation Mix by ball-milling methanol plus a little water. Powderize when dry.84 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0. Powderize. 1000ºC. 1 hour. 2. Wash in water several times.Preparation Mix by ball-milling methanol plus a little water. Fire in capped quartz tubes. N2. mix by dry grinding. Optical Properties Emission color: Violet-blue Emission peak: ~2. N2. Fire in capped quartz tubes. 1100ºC. Optical Properties Emission color: Bluish-white Emission peak: ~2. ++ (3. Powderize when dry.40 eV) Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Ba5(PO4)3Cl:Eu2+ Structure: Hexagonal (apatite) Composition Ingredient BaCO3 BaHPO4 NH4Cl Eu2O3 Mole % 200 300 120 5 (of Eu) By weight (g) 395 700 64 8. 1 hour. 1000ºC.

Ba5(PO4)3Cl:U Structure: Hexagonal (apatite) Composition Ingredient BaHPO4 BaCO3 NH4Cl UO2(C2H3O2)2. Dissolve the uranyl acetate in a little methanol. 1 hour. Optical Properties Emission color: Green Emission peaks: 2. 900ºC. 1. 2H2O Mole % 190 150 120 10 By weight (g) 443 295 64 42 Preparation Make a slurry in methanol of BaHPO4. Dry. BL-R-6-90102-29 (1968). + (3. Bloomfield Report. Dry in air.40 eV). mix by dry grinding or milling. 2 hours. let settle. stir to uniformity.39 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4. 850ºC.Spectra 800 700 600 500 400 Wavelength (nm) 300 100 Emission 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Reference 1.12–2. Powderize when dry. Add 32 g NH4Cl. Powderize. and add the solution to the slurry. Fire in capped quartz tubes. 2. QE Excitation efficiency by e-beam: Poor 50% . BaCO3.88 eV). Powderize. N2. Fire in capped quartz tubes. A.. and NH4Cl. N2. decant). Wachtel. Wash in water several times (stir.

Ca2Ba3(PO4)3Cl:Eu2+ Structure: Hexagonal (apatite) Composition Ingredient CaCO3 BaHPO4 NH4Cl Eu2O3 Mole % 200 300 120 5 (of Eu) By weight (g) 200 700 64 8.2 g NH4Cl.. Powderize. R. Add 3. Wash in water several times. 414 (1951). 1 hour. Dry. Fire in capped quartz tubes. N2.Spectra 800 700 600 500 400 Wavelength (nm) 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Reference 1. Powderize.T.S. Electrochem. Soc.8 Preparation Mix by ball-milling in methanol plus a little water. Powderize when dry. Luminescent barium and magnesium halophosphates. J. Optical Properties Emission color: Pale blue-green Emission peak: 2.88 eV). 1. N2. 1100ºC. Fire in capped quartz tubes. Dry in air.49 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4. Anderson. 2.40 eV) Absorption (%) 100 Emission . ++ (3.46 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0.. 1100ºC.. 98. and Wells. J. 1 hour. mix by dry grinding.

Bloomfield Report.. BL-R-6-90102-29 (1968).Spectra 800 700 600 500 400 Wavelength (nm) 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Reference 1. Wachtel. A. Absorption (%) 100 Emission .

Ce3+.Mn2+ YAl3B4O12:Ce3+.Cl.Br) SrB4O7:Pb2+ SrB4O7:Pb2+.7:Eu3+ Ca2La2BO6.Cl -SrO·3B2O3:Sm2+ MgB2O4:Mn2+ MgYBO4:Eu3+ CaB2O4:Mn2+ CaB2O4:Pb2+ CaYBO4:Bi3+ CaYBO4:Eu3+ CaLaBO4:Eu3+ ZnB2O4:Mn2+ Ca2B2O5:Mn2+ LaAlB2O6:Eu3+ CaLaB3O7:Ce3+.4.Mn2+ SrO·3B2O3:Eu2+.5:Pb2+ YAl3B4O12:Ce3+.Mn2+ Cd2B6O11:Mn2+ YAl3B4O12:Ce3+ YAl3B4O12:Bi3+ YAl3B4O12:Eu3+ YAl3B4O12:Eu3+.Mn2+ SrB4O7:Eu2+(F.8O3.Cr3+ YAl3B4O12:Th4+.Mn2+ .Tb3+ LaAl3B4O12:Eu3+ BaB8O13:Eu2+ SrB8O13:Sm2+ Ca2B5O9Cl:Eu2+ Ca2B5O9Cl:Pb2+ Ca2B5O9Br:Eu2+ Sr2B5O9Cl:Eu2+ CaYB0.7 Borates The following host compounds and activators are included in this subsection: YBO3:Ce3+ YBO3:Eu3+ LaBO3:Eu3+ -SrO·3B2O3:Pb2+ -SrO·3B2O3:Pb2+.

. 1 hour. Radiationless transitions in Eu3+ center in LaAlO3. air. G. Phys.. Fluorescence of Eu3+-activated sodium lanthanide titanates. ~500ºC.YBO3:Ce3+ Structure: Vaterite Optical Properties Emission color: Violet-UV Emission peak: 3. 1. Blasse.. 53.A.88 eV). Electrochem. Blasse. .. Philips Tech. and Bril. Electrochem.22 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4. J.. 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 YBO3:Eu3+ Structure: Vaterite Composition Ingredient Y 2O 3 Eu2O3 H3BO3 Mole % 92 (of Y) 8 (of Eu) 105 By weight (g) 104 14 65 Preparation Mix by dry grinding or milling. 5.. and de Poorter. C.J. 4450 (1970). J. G. A.. J. A. 3652 (1968). 346 (1970). Blasse. 613 (1967).. and Bril.. 117. Solid State Chem. G. 52 (1972)..00 and 3. The absorption and emission spectra of some important activators. and Poorter.. Rev. Fast-decay phosphors.. J. G. 4.. 48. Phys. 6. Bril. Fire in open quartz boats.. – (3.. 2. Blasse.A. F. Blasse.J. Ultraviolet-absorption bands of Bi3+ and Eu3+ in oxides. 31. Soc.D.. 114. 3. 304 (1970). J.S.. O.. A. G. Soc.40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: + Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 100 Emission 50 2 3 References 1. and Wiggins. J. Chem. 4. A.. Rare earth cathodoluminescence in InBO3 and related orthoborates. Avella.. Chem. Sovers. Bril. J.

10 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: + (4.. 33.J. ~500ºC. Electrochem. Powderize. 1150ºC.. O.. Fire in open quartz boats. Res. 1 hour. 3.S. Rare earth cathodoluminescence in InBO3 and related orthoborates. Soc. 3. Fire in open quartz boats. air.40 eV) Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 100 Emission 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 References 1. Powderize. Veenis. 1 hour. F. 114.J. Avella. air. A. and Wiggins.. 1250ºC... 613 (1967). 2. air. 1 hour.2. Philips J. 2 hours. – (3. Optical Properties Emission color: Red-orange Emission peaks: 1. and Bril. 1000ºC.. Fire in open quartz boats. 1.98–2. Sovers.88 eV). air. 124 (1978). 1 hour. Powderize. Powderize. Fine structure in the low temperature luminescence of Zn2SiO4:Mn and Mg4Ta2O9:Mn. Fire in open quartz boats. . C. LaBO3:Eu3+ Structure: Orthorhombic (aragonite) Composition Ingredient La2O3 Eu2O3 H3BO3 Mole % 92 (of La) 8 (of Eu) 105 By weight (g) 150 14 65 Preparation Mix by dry grinding or milling. A. air. Fire in open quartz boats. 2. 1000ºC. J.W.

700ºC. and then take out. Fire in capped quartz tubes.J.J. Fire in capped quartz tubes... and 2..10 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: + (4. Fire in capped quartz tubes. Avella. Powderize. J. 3. 2. and Wiggins. Soc.09 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0.40 eV) Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 References 1.7 Preparation Mix by dry grinding or milling. go slowly up with temperature to 600 C.. J. 700ºC. and Wanmaker. W. 613 (1967).33 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: + (4.88 eV) Absorption (%) 100 Emission . 2 hours.995. A. – (3. Powderize. air. Optical Properties Emission color: UV Emission peak: 4. 16 hours (overnight). -SrO·3B2O3:Pb2+ Composition Ingredient SrCO3 PbO H3BO3 NH4Cl Mole % 99 1 600 5 By weight (g) 146 2. C. N2 . 2. Place into cold furnace.. N2 .88 eV).S.02. Rare earth cathodoluminescence in InBO3 and related orthoborates. F. 1. O. 111. 2.. Soc.. Electrochem. Electrochem.3 370 2.Optical Properties Emission color: Light red Emission peaks: 1. Sovers. 114. 1363 (1964). Bril. Fluorescent properties of some europium-activated phosphors.L.

Z. 4. 2. 700ºC. K. N2 . air. H. H.40 eV)... Witzmann. -SrO·3B2O3:Pb2+. Place into cold furnace. 3.. 3. Z. and Schreiber.. and Semisch. and Treichler. R. Powderize. Naturwissenschaften. W.. 700ºC.Mn). 542 (1958)..XB2O3-Pb. 43. and Treichler.28 1.Spectra 800 700 600 500 400 Wavelength (nm) 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 References 1. 2 hours. J. 181 (1962). 51.. Witzmann. 580 (1956). Naturwissenschaften.. go slowly up with temperature to 600 C.41 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0.und kupferbleiaktivierter strontiumboratphosphore. Fire in capped quartz tubes. Boratluminophore MIT UV-emission. Naturwissenschaften. Phys. Powderize. Zum emissionsvermogen blei-manganaktivierter kalziumboratphosphore (CaO. Fire in capped quartz tubes.Mn2+ Composition Ingredient SrCO3 PbO MnCO3 H3BO3 NH4Cl Mole % 98 1 1 600 5 By weight (g) 180 2. 1. Phys. QE 45–50% Absorption (%) 100 Emission . W... Chem. Witzmann. Witzmann. N2 . 49. and Müller. 211..88 eV). and Müller. H. Buhrow. 205 (1959). 212.. Zur uv-emission bleiaktivierter strontiumboratluminophore. 16 hours (overnight). 103 (1964). G.. H. and then take out. Optical Properties Emission color: Bluish-green Emission peak: 2. Chem. Fire in capped quartz tubes. H. (Leipzig). Naturwissenschaften. 2. R. Müller.15 372 2.7 Preparation Mix by dry grinding or milling. – (3. Witzmann. Zur lumineszenz kupfer. H. 5. 307 (1959). (Leipzig). 45.22 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: + (4. H.. 6. Witzmann.

Witzmann.88 eV) Absorption (%) 100 Emission . Fire in open quartz boats.16 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4.Spectra 800 700 600 500 400 Wavelength (nm) 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Reference 1.. Fire in capped quartz tubes. 4 hours.Cl Composition Ingredient SrCO3 Eu2O3 H3BO3 NH4Cl Mole % 98 2 (of Eu) 620 50 By weight (g) 180 3. Wash in water several times. Zur lumineszenz kupfer. air. Dry. 1. mix by dry grinding. Naturwissenschaften. 700ºC. 181 (1962). and Schreiber. CO .5 384 27 Preparation Mix all ingredients but the NH4Cl by dry grinding or milling. Fire in open quartz boats. Optical Properties Emission color: UV Emission peak: 3. 3.37 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0.. ½ hour. Powderize.und kupferbleiaktivierter strontiumboratphosphore. Add the above NH4Cl. Powderize. H. ~500ºC. N2 . Powderize. 1 hour. H. 2. SrO·3B2O3:Eu2+. 49. 850ºC.

Place into cold furnace. air. 2.40 eV). 3. 4 hours. 2. N2. Optical Properties Emission color: Deep red Emission peak: 1. The exact chemical formula of this material is still unknown. 1. go slowly up with temperature to 600ºC. Fire in open quartz boats. -SrO·3B2O3:Sm Composition Ingredient SrCO3 Sm2O3 H3BO3 Mole % 99 1 (of Sm) 600 By weight (g) 146 1. CO.812 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (3. Fire in open quartz boats. QE 60% (estimated) Absorption (%) 100 Emission . 800ºC. Powderize. and then take out.74 370 Preparation Mix by dry grinding or milling. Powderize. 900ºC. The Cl in this recipe can be replaced by F or Br. 1 hour.Spectra 800 700 600 500 400 Wavelength (nm) 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Remarks 1. Fire in open quartz boats.

39 eV (see remark) Excitation efficiency by UV: – (4. Powderize.Spectra 800 700 600 500 400 Wavelength (nm) 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 MgB2O4:Mn2+ Composition Ingredient MgO MnCO3 H3BO3 Mole % 98 2 205 By weight (g) 40 2.40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: + Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 100 Emission 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Absorption (%) 100 Emission . 700ºC.88 eV. N2. 1 hour. N2. 0. – (3. For -structure.3 127 Preparation Mix by dry grinding or milling. Powderize. Fire in open quartz boats. 2. ~500ºC. Optical Properties Emission color: Red Emission peak: 1. fire 4 hours at 850ºC. Fire in open quartz boats. fire 2 hours at 1000ºC. 3.32 eV. 2.11 eV (see remark) Emission width (FWHM): 0. 1.88 eV). Fire in open quartz boats. For -structure. N2.

Powderize. air. Optical Properties Emission color: Orange-red Emission peaks: 1. air. the high-temperature -phase. 1 hour. Pat.2 Preparation Mix by dry grinding or milling.88 eV).8 63. Fire in open quartz boats.. air. Reference 1.985. 1000ºC.3 107 8. 3. 3 014 817 (1961). It can be sensitized for UV excitation by addition of Ce3+ + Li+.S. Ranby. This material comes in two different modifications.035.098 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: + (4. and the low-temperature -phase. Fire in open quartz boats. U.. MgYBO4:Eu3+ Composition Ingredient MgO Y 2O 3 Eu2O3 H3BO3 Mole % 100 95 (of Y) 5 (of Eu) 205 By weight (g) 40. 1. P.Remarks 1. 1200ºC. Powderize. QE Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 25–30% 400 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Absorption (%) 100 Emission . 2. 2.W. ~500ºC. Peak position depends on modification. 2. Fire in open quartz boats. 1 hour. and 2.

.99 eV (for UV 4. – (3. and Müller.. Powderize. Add 2 g of NH4Cl. 1 hour.. CaYBO4:Bi3+ Composition Ingredient CaCO Y 2O 3 Bi2O3 H3BO3 Mole % 100 99 (of Y) 1 (of Bi) 105 By weight (g) 100 112 2. Buhrow.88 eV).. Powderize. mix by dry grinding. H. J.02 eV (for UV 3. 51.88 eV)..34 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0. Buhrow. Zum emissionsvermogen blei-manganaktivierter kalziumboratphosphore (CaO·B2O3-Pb. Fire in capped quartz tubes..CaB2O4:Mn2+ Structure: Orthorhombic Optical Properties Emission color: Green Emission peak: 2. 1 hour. – (3. 103 (1964).23 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: – (4.40 eV) . K. Naturwissenschaften. Zum emissionsvermogen blei-manganaktivierter kalziumboratphosphore(CaO·B2O3-Pb.88 eV). ~500ºC. Naturwissenschaften. 3. 1.Mn).3 65 Preparation Mix by dry grinding or milling. N2.82 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: + (4. J.Mn).88 eV). Optical Properties Emission color: Blue Emission peak: 2. and Müller. 1000ºC. 2.40 eV) Reference 1. Fire in capped quartz tubes.40 eV) Excitation efficiency by UV: + (4. 1200 C. 3. ½ hour. N2. 51. CaB2O4:Pb2+ Optical Properties Emission color: UV Emission peak: 3. air. Fire in open quartz boats. Witzmann. Witzmann.40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: + Reference 1. – (3. K. 103 (1964). H.

Peak position seems to depend on the excitation. 254 nm 50 exc.88 eV). Fire in open quartz boats.3 65 Preparation Mix by dry grinding or milling. 1. CaYBO4:Eu3+ Composition Ingredient CaCO Y 2O 3 Eu2O3 H3BO3 Mole % 100 97 (of Y) 3 (of Eu) 105 By weight (g) 100 110 5. Powderize. Fire in open quartz boats. Powderize. Optical Properties Emission color: Light red Emission peak: 2.Spectra 800 700 600 500 400 Wavelength (nm) 300 100 Absorption (%) Emission exc.40 eV) Spectra 800 700 600 500 400 Wavelength (nm) 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Absorption (%) 100 Emission . air. 1 hour. air. – (3. 3. 2. ½ hour. Fire in open quartz boats. ~500ºC.04 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4. 1000ºC. air. 1200ºC. 365 nm 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Remark 1. 1 hour.

1 hour.. N2. 1000ºC. 2. Solid State Chem. Powderize. 1200ºC. N2. G.. Fire in open quartz boats.. Powderize. 1. 4. 16 hours (overnight). Spectrum resembles that of YOE. Wash in water several times. mix by dry grinding. N2. 52 (1972). J. 52 (1972). 4. . 4. ~500ºC. 1200ºC. Ultraviolet-absorption bands of Bi3+ and Eu3+ in oxides. 3.148 Inorganic Phosphors Reference 1.88 eV). Reference 1. CaLaBO4:Eu3+ Composition Ingredient CaCO La2O3 Eu2O3 H3BO3 Mole % 100 90 (of La) 10 (of Eu) 102 By weight (g) 100 146.2 Preparation Mix by dry grinding or milling. – (3. 1 hour. Optical Properties Emission color: Light red Emission peak: 2. Add 5 g of NH4Cl.7 17. 2. Dry. Blasse.03 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4.40 eV) Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 100 Emission 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Remarks 1.6 63. Ultraviolet-absorption bands of Bi3+ and Eu3+ in oxides. air. Fire in open quartz boats. G. Fire in open quartz boats. Powderize. Fire in capped quartz tubes.. Blasse. Solid State Chem. This phosphor is somewhat discolored and less efficient if fired in air or oxygen. Powderize. J.

F. 920 (1961).40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: +/4–5% Decay: Exponential decay. A.21 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: (4. D. 2 hours. Terol.. 2. 369 (1946). Proc. Randall. Phase equilibria and fluorescence in the system zinc oxide-boric oxide. S. R. Cathodo-luminescence. 1. J. Phys. .A. Some Aspects of Luminescence of Solids. 5.T. A170. ~500ºC.88 eV). Fire in open quartz boats. Optical Properties Emission color: Yellow-green Emission peak: 2.. Harrison. Pt. J. 16. M. air. Strange. Electrochem. – (3. about 26 msec to 1/10 Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 100 Emission 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 References 1. Powderize. 3. 103.. Z. Elsevier. Soc.Section 4: Phosphor Data 149 ZnB2O4:Mn2+ Composition Ingredient ZnO MnCO3 H3BO3 Mole % 97 3 205 By weight (g) 79 3. Powderize.29 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0. 1.. and Hummel. and Otero. F. Naturforsch.J. 272 (1939). P. Kröger. air. J.E.. 4..A... 58. Amsterdam (1948). Soc.. Growth and decay processes. 900ºC.T. Soc.. London.5 127 Preparation Mix by dry grinding or milling. 700ºC.W. Anhydrous zinc borate as a host crystal in luminescence. air. Fire in open quartz boats. 3. Fire in open quartz boats. and Henderson. 1 hour. 491 (1956). S. 2.

~500ºC. Fire in open quartz boats.015 and 2. 1.150 Inorganic Phosphors Spectra 800 700 600 500 Ca2B2O5:Mn2+ 400 Wavelength (nm) 300 100 Emission 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 LaAlB2O6:Eu3+ Composition Ingredient La2O3 Eu2O3 Al2O3 H3BO3 Mole % 92 (of La) 8 (of Eu) 100 (of Al) 205 By weight (g) 150 14 51 127 Preparation Mix by dry grinding or milling. 3. additionally a weaker line at 2. 2. Powderize. – (3. 1 hour. Optical Properties Emission color: Light red Emission peaks: Two overlapping lines at 2. Powderize.205 eV.40 eV) Spectra 800 700 600 500 400 Wavelength (nm) 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Absorption (%) 100 Emission . 1000ºC.88 eV). air. Fire in open quartz boats. 1200ºC. 1 hour.10 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4. Fire in open quartz boats. air. air.

1 hour.Br) Optical Properties Emission color: UV Emission peak: 3.Cl. 1.29 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: + (4.Mn2+ Composition Ingredient CaCO3 La2O3 MnCO3 CeO2 H3BO3 Mole % 95 98 (of La) 5 2 310 By weight (g) 95 160 5.40 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0. Powderize. – (3.4 192 Preparation Mix by dry grinding or milling.Section 4: Phosphor Data 151 CaLaB3O7:Ce3+.8 3. Fire in open quartz boats. Optical Properties Emission color: Green Emission peak: 2. Fire in open quartz boats. 2. 2 hours.40 eV) Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 100 Emission 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 SrB4O7:Eu2+(F. 3. 700ºC. Powderize.16 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4.40 eV) .88 eV). – (3. N2. CO.88 eV). Fire in open quartz boats.37 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0. ~500ºC. 900ºC. air.

. Witzmann. Absorption (%) 100 Emission Absorption (%) 100 Emission . Luminescence properties of Eu(II)-borates and Eu2+-activated Sr-borates. Müller. H. K. 49.. – (3.. H. G. H. and Semisch. 43.34 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4. J. Adachi. 21.Spectra 800 700 600 500 400 Wavelength (nm) 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Reference 1. 101 (1979). 2. Machida. Lumin. and Shiokawa. R.. G..88 eV).09 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0. 580 (1956). SrB4O7:Pb2+ Optical Properties Emission color: UV Emission peak: 4. J.und kupferbleiaktivierter strontiumboratphosphore... Naturwissenschaften. and Schreiber.40 eV) Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 References 1. 181 (1962).. Witzmann.. Naturwissenschaften. Zur lumineszenz kupfer. Boratluminophore MIT UV-emission.

Witzmann..Mn2+ Optical Properties Emission color: Blue-green Emission peak: 2. Müller. – (3.42.88 eV). H. and Semisch. H.40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: + Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 100 Emission 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Absorption (%) 100 Emission . 49. Zur lumineszenz kupfer. 580 (1956).03 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0. 43. G. R. – (3. 181 (1962). 4. and Schreiber. H.. Witzmann.22 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4.SrB4O7:Pb2+. Naturwissenschaften.40 eV) Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 References 1... Cd2B6O11:Mn2+ Optical Properties Emission color: Yellow-green Emission peak: eV Excitation efficiency by UV: – (4.88 eV). Boratluminophore MIT UV-emission. 2..und kupferbleiaktivierter strontiumboratphosphore. Naturwissenschaften.

2.A.. 2.. Phys. Blasse. J. CO.A. air. A. and Poorter. 53. 1 hour.D.57 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4. The system cadmium oxide-boric oxide. 900ºC. Dry. 4. 1100ºC.. Hummel.88 eV). Harrison. F.40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: + Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 50 2 3 References 1. E. J. Soc.C. Blasse. Soc. and Bril. Fire in open quartz boats. ~500ºC. Powderize. 491 (1956).. 2. 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Absorption (%) 100 Emission . Electrochem. 104. J. Optical Properties Emission color: Blue-violet + UV Emission peaks: 3... 31. 103. The absorption and emission spectra of some important activators. 1 hour. Wash in hot water several times. 4450 (1970).. N2. Fire in open alumina crucibles. Radiationless transitions in Eu3+ center in LaAlO3. J. Powderize.A. Fluorescence. Powderize. G.References 1... Chem.E. F. Powderize. YAl3B4O12:Ce3+ Structure: Trigonal (huntite) Composition Ingredient Y 2O 3 CeO2 Al2O3 H3BO3 Mole % 90 (of Y) 10 300 (of Al) 410 By weight (g) 102 17.20 and 3. 1200ºC. 1. A. Characteristic luminescence. 1. 616 (1957). Philips Tech. Electrochem.2 153 254 Preparation Mix by dry grinding or milling. Rev. 3. 2. 304 (1970).. G.. Bril. CO.. and Hummel. D. Fire in open alumina crucibles.. Fire in open alumina crucibles. + (3. and Subbarao. 1 hour. Phase equilibria and fluorescence in the system zinc oxide-boric oxide.

Fire in open alumina crucibles. Rev.88 eV). Philips Tech. Soc. Characteristic luminescence. 1200ºC. Wash in hot water several times. Takahashi... and Bril. G.. The absorption and emission spectra of some important activators.20 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0. air. 1. 52 (1972). 48. J. G. Efficiency and fluorescence quenching of stoichiometric rare-earth laser materials.. J.33 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: + (4. 1 hour. Danielmeyer. H. 4. Ultraviolet-absorption bands of Bi3+ and Eu3+ in oxides. 4. Fire in open quartz boats. Cathodoluminescent properties of yttrium terbium aluminum borate Y1-xTb x Al3B4O12 phosphors. 12.. 124. G. Fluorescence of Eu3+-activated sodium lanthanide titanates. Powderize. 1. Phys. A. 955 (1977)..G. Fire in open alumina crucibles. 900ºC.700 153 254 Preparation Mix by dry grinding or milling. air. 304 (1970). YAl3B4O12:Bi3+ Structure: Trigonal (huntite) Composition Ingredient Y 2O 3 Bi2O3 Al2O3 H3BO3 Mole % 99. Blasse. O.3 (of Bi) 300 (of Al) 410 By weight (g) 113 0. 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Absorption (%) 100 Emission . air.. Powderize. 4. 2.. T. 2..40 eV) Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 50 2 3 References 1. Optical Properties Emission color: UV Emission peak: 4... Fire in open alumina crucibles. Chem. J.7 (of Y) 0. 1100ºC. ~500ºC. Blasse. air. 3.. 1 hour. J. Lumin.. Blasse. 1 hour. Powderize. Solid State Chem. – (3. A.3. 31. and Bril. and Yamada. Dry. Powderize. 3652 (1968). 5. Electrochem. 179 (1976). 1 hour.

A. Electrochem. 1 hour. 3. Lett. air. G. and Yamada. The absorption and emission spectra of some important activators. Cathodoluminescent properties of yttrium terbium aluminum borate Y1-X TbXAl3B4O12 phosphors. Blasse. YAl3B4O12:Eu3+ Structure: Trigonal (huntite) Composition Ingredient Y 2O 3 Eu2O3 Al2O3 H3BO3 Mole % 90 (of Y) 10 (of Eu) 300 (of Al) 410 By weight (g) 102 17. 1.. Takahashi. Electrochem. and Bril. 5.. Powderize. Philips Tech. Photoluminescent efficiency of phosphors with electronic transitions in localized centers.. air. 4.01 and 2. Powderize. 61. M. Fire in open quartz boats. 1 hour.3. Phys.. Rev.. 52 (1972). A.. G. ~500ºC. 304 (1970). Soc. and Bril. Chem.... 1067 (1968). Ultraviolet-absorption bands of Bi3+ and Eu3+ in oxides. F. Fire in open alumina crucibles... van Os. Absorption (%) 100 Emission . 1100ºC. Optical Properties Emission color: Red Emission peaks: 2. J. 239 (1979).. and Blasse. Blasse. 900ºC. G. Powderize. 124. 4... 52 (1972). J. Blasse. 1 hour. Wash in hot water several times. Fire in open alumina crucibles. air. Dry. 115. 1 hour. Solid State Chem. J. 1200ºC. 955 (1977). 1. G.. 4. – (3. Fire in open alumina crucibles. G.. Powderize. Blasse. Luminescence of bismuth in yttrium aluminum borate.035 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4..40 eV) Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 References 1.A. air.88 eV). Kellendonk. O. Solid State Chem.6 153 248 Preparation Mix by dry grinding or milling. T. 4. Characteristic luminescence. 2. Soc. J. Ultraviolet-absorption bands of Bi3+ and Eu3+ in oxides. 31. 2. 3.

Some observations on Cr3+ fluorescence in huntite structure.88 eV). CO. – (3.YAl3B4O12:Eu3+. 1. CO. A. Fire in open alumina crucibles.40 eV) YAl3B4O12:Ce3+. 3. Powderize. 1200ºC. 1 hour.2 18. Fire in open alumina crucibles. – (3.88 eV). 4..40 eV) . 551 (1967). ~500ºC. Blasse. N2. Powderize. Status Solidi. G.40 eV) Reference 1. Optical Properties Emission color: Green Emission peak: 2. and Bril. Wash in hot water several times.Ce3+.. Powderize.7 153 254 Preparation Mix by dry grinding or milling. 1 hour.4 17. 1100ºC.Mn2+ Structure: Trigonal (huntite) Emission color: green Emission peak: 2. YAl3B4O12:Th4+.23 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: + (4. Phys.Tb3+ Structure: Trigonal (huntite) Composition Ingredient Y 2O 3 CeO2 Tb4O7 Al2O3 H3BO3 Mole % 80 (of Y) 10 10 (of Tb) 300 (of Al) 410 By weight (g) 90. Powderize. air. 2.77 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4.88 eV). Dry. 1 hour. 20. Fire in open alumina crucibles.Cr3+ Structure: Trigonal (huntite) Optical Properties Emission color: Deep red Emission peak: 1. 1 hour. – (3.29 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4. Fire in open quartz boats.31 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0. 900ºC.

Fluorescence of Eu3+-activated lanthanide oxyhalides LnOX. 1. 1200ºC.. 955 (1977). J. O. and Yamada. Phys. Takahashi. 3. air. 124. Dy3+. 47. Fire in open quartz boats.. Phys. T.40 eV) Absorption (%) 100 Emission . Soc. Powderize.. Rev. Philips Tech. G.Spectra 800 700 600 500 400 Wavelength (nm) 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 References 1. Cathodoluminescent properties of yttrium terbium aluminum borate Y1 xTbxAl3B4O12 phosphors. LaAl3B4O12:Eu3+ Composition Ingredient La2O3 Eu2O3 Al2O3 H3BO3 Mole % 90 (of La) 10 (of Eu) 300 (of Al) 410 By weight (g) 147 17.005 and 2. and Study of energy transfer from Sb3+. 2 hours. A. Eu3+. G. Chem. – (3.. The absorption and emission spectra of some important activators. 1 hour. 1. Electrochem. Blasse. Characteristic luminescence. J. 2. Fire in open quartz boats. Bi3+. 46. Ce3+ to Sm3+. air. Chem. Fire in open quartz boats. Blasse.. and Bril. 2579 (1967)...020 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: + (4. ~500ºC. 900ºC. 1920 (1967). J...88 eV). 2. 304 (1970). and Bril. 31. A. air.. 3. Tb3+. Optical Properties Emission color: Red Emission peak: 2. Powderize.6 153 254 Preparation Mix by dry grinding or milling.

J.40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: – Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 100 Emission 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Reference 1.. Soc. 977 (1968). A.. Blasse. G. 115. J. Electrochem. Absorption (%) 100 Emission .. and deVries. – (3..88 eV).10 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0.28 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4. Bril.Spectra 800 700 600 500 400 Wavelength (nm) 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 BaB8O13:Eu2+ Optical Properties Emission color: Violet–UV Emission peak: 3. Fluorescence of Eu2+-activated barium octaborate.

Ca2B5O9Cl:Eu2+ Optical Properties Emission color: Blue Emission peak: 2.31 eV Absorption (%) 100 Emission Absorption (%) 100 Emission ..F. U.88 eV).40 eV) Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Reference 1.40 eV) Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Ca2B5O9Cl:Pb2+ Optical Properties Emission color: UV Emission peak: 4. 3 657 141 (1972). Pat.24 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4. ++ (3. Chenot.74 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0. ++ (3.88 eV).S.SrB8O13:Sm Optical Properties Emission color: Deep red Emission peak: 1.81 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: + (4.. C.

88 eV). ++ (3.92 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0.34 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4.74 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0. – (3.88 eV).88 eV).40 eV) Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Sr2B5O9Cl:Eu2+ Optical Properties Emission color: Blue-violet Emission peak: 2.40 eV) Absorption (%) 100 Emission Absorption (%) 100 Emission .40 eV) Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Ca2B5O9Br:Eu2+ Optical Properties Emission color: Blue Emission peak: 2.24 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4.Emission width (FWHM): 0. ++ (3.20 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4.

S. W.03 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4.7:Eu3+ Optical Properties Emission color: Red Emission peak: 2. 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Ca2La2BO6. 4 202 794 (1980). U.88 eV).8O3. – (3.5:Pb2+ Composition Ingredient CaCO3 La2O3 PbO H3BO3 Mole % 198 200 (of La) 2 105 By weight (g) 198 326 4.Spectra 800 700 600 500 400 Wavelength (nm) 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 CaYB0. Lehmann.6 65 Absorption (%) 100 Emission Absorption (%) 100 Emission . Pat..40 eV) Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 50 2 3 Reference 1..

1 hour. ++ (3. Optical Properties Emission color: Pale yellow-green Emission peak: 2. N2. Fire in open quartz boats. 1 hour.40 eV) Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Remark The formula of this peculiar material is still uncertain but the mole ratio Ca-La-B in the formula is close to 2:2:1 YAl3B4O12:Ce3+.28 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0. Powderize. 3. Powderize. N2. ~500ºC. Fire in capped quartz tubes.88 eV).Preparation Mix by dry grinding or milling. 1. 1000ºC. air. Fire in capped quartz tubes.Mn2+ Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Absorption (%) 100 Emission Absorption (%) 100 Emission . 2. 1200ºC.48 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: + (4.

Mn2+ LiAlO2:Fe3+ Structure: NaCl Composition Ingredient Li2CO3 Al2O3 Fe(NO3)3· 9H2O LiF Mole % 101 (of Li) 100 (of Al) 0.Mn2+ SrAl12O19:Eu2+.Mn2+ LiAl5O8:Fe3+ LiAl5O8:Mn2+ Y4Al2O9:Eu3+ Y3Al5O12:Ce3+ KAl11O17:Tl+ KGa11O17:Mn2+ BaMgAl10O17:Ce3+ Y3Al5O12:Eu3+ BaMgAl10O17:Eu2+ BaMgAl10O17:Eu2+.520 .6 2 By weight (g) 37.5Ba0.4 0.4 51 2.8 Aluminates and Gallates The following host compounds and activators are included in this subsection: LiAlO2:Fe3+ LiAlO2:Mn2+ YAlO3:Ce3+ YAlO3:Eu3+ YAlO3:Sm3+ YAlO3:Tb3+ LaAlO3:Eu3+ LaAlO3:Sm3+ MgAl2O4:Mn2+ MgGa2O4:Mn2+ CaAl2O4:Mn2+ CaAl2O4:Eu2+ ZnAl2O4:Mn2+ ZnGa2O4:Mn2+ CaGa2O4:Mn2+ CaGa4O7:Mn2+ SrAl2O4:Eu2+ BaAl2O4:Eu2+ CaAl4O7:Pb2+.Mn2+ Ca0.Mn2+ SrGa12O19:Mn2+ SrAl12O19:Ce3+.5Al12O19:Ce3+.4.

J. 2 hours.20 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4. 234 (1974). Powderize. U.. F.H.. Boca Raton. J.. Stork. Electrochem.. 19 (1971). 1 hour. 4. 111. stir to uniformity.. Phys. 5. and Sarver. S. Pat.. Powderize. W. 3 857 054 (1974). Van Broekhoven.40 eV) Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 References 1. Infrared emitting fluorescent lamp and applications. Dry in air. 125.. 6. 1. Kamiya.Preparation Dissolve iron nitrate in a little water. and then in water until neutral. air. Lumin. 3. Chem. D. Fire in covered alumina crucibles. J. Soc..T.. 2. 3. J. 920 (1978).. Soc. Fig. and Pott. J. go slowly up with temperature to 900ºC. J. W. Add a solution of about 3 g Al(NO3)3·9H2O in little water.. 46. FL. Palumbo. J. Powderize when dry. and then take out. Luminescence of iron-activated lithium meta-gallate. air.. Wash in diluted acetic acid (~10%). A.A. Phosphor Handbook. air. H. Place crucibles into a cold furnace. The cathodoluminescence of Mn2+ activated and Fe3+ activated magnesium aluminate spinel. Hummel. Electrochem. 2496 (1974). Lehmann.. CRC Press.67 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0. and Watchtel. G. Stir to uniformity. J. Electronic states of Fe3+ in LiAl5O2 and LiAl5O8 phosphors. – (3. 3. Powderize when dry. 422 (1998). iron.. 1250ºC. 78.. J. 2.F. p. add solution to the mixture of other ingredients. Fire in open quartz boats.. Soc. Optical Properties Emission color: Very deep red + IR Emission peak: 1. Fire in covered alumina crucibles. Eng.88 eV). 7.S. and manganese luminescence.T. 1250ºC. Illum. 252 (1964). Rabatin. Dry in air.. and Mizuno. Absorption (%) 100 Emission . 4. Studies of compound formation on alkali-gammaaluminum oxide catalyst systems using chromium.

Stork. 1250 C.40 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0. CO. J. N2. Fire in open quartz boats. iron.6 254 2. as given): Non-exponential decay.. Optical Properties Emission color: Green Emission peak: 2. 2. Electrochem. and Pott. 2 hours. 1200 C. Fe3+. and Cr3+ in BeTaLiAl5O8.5 eV Absorption (%) 100 Emission . and manganese luminescence. 115. Studies of compound formation on alkali-gammaaluminum oxide catalyst systems using chromium. 1 hour.3 Preparation Mix by slurrying in methanol. Cathodoluminescence spectra and coordination of Mn2+.LiAlO2:Mn2+ Structure: NaCl Composition Ingredient Li2CO3 Al2O3 MnCO3 Mole % 99 (of Li) 499 (of Al) 2 By weight (g) 36. J. 2496 (1974).M. 1. W. Powderize when dry. Powderize. 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 YAlO3:Ce3+ Structure: Orthorhombic Optical Properties Emission color: UV Emission peak: 3. 2. 1/10-time in the 10 msec range. P. Dry in air.T...H.375 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0. 78. Jaffe. Phys. long and strong phosphorescence Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 50 2 3 References 1. Fire in covered alumina crucibles. 1203 (1968). Soc.J. Chem.. G.15 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: no sensitizer known to obtain response to this UV Excitation efficiency by e-beam: ~6–8% Decay to 10% (or 1/e..

Optical Properties Emission color: Light red Emission peaks: 1.Excitation efficiency by UV: + (4. 3205 (1973). 1000ºC. Optical-spectra of Ce3+ and Ce3+-sensitized fluorescence in YAlO3. T. Soc.88 eV). Powderize. 1300ºC. 127.40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: + Absorption (%) 100 Emission . – (3. air. 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 YAlO3:Eu3+ Structure: Orthorhombic Composition Ingredient Y 2O 3 Al2O3 Eu2O3 H3BO3 Mole % 94 (of Y) 100 (of Al) 6 (of Eu) 10 By weight (g) 83... air.6 51 10. Phys. 2. 44. Takeda. M. 1.785 – 2..015 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4. 1 hour. 4 hours.2 Preparation Mix by dry grinding or milling. 438 (1980).88 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: + Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 50 2 3 References 1.. Fire in covered alumina crucibles.J. J. Fire in covered alumina crucibles. J. Electrochem.6 6. 2. Weber. et al. Appl. Fast decay UV phosphor YAlO3-Ce.

6 51 7. 1 hour. 2. strongest line at ~2. 1300ºC. 2. 1300ºC.06 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: (4.197 eV. Fire in covered alumina crucibles. air. Optical Properties Emission color: Orange-yellow Emission peaks: 2.Spectra 800 700 600 500 400 Wavelength (nm) 300 50 2 3 Remark Q yield (UV excitation) is about the same as that of YOE.8 Preparation Mix by dry grinding or milling. Powderize. air.008–3.88 eV). 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 YAlO3:Sm3+ Structure: Orthorhombic Composition Ingredient Y 2O 3 Sm2O3 Al2O3 CaF2 Mole % 98 (of Y) 2 (of Sm) 100 (of Al) 10 By weight (g) 110 3. (3. 4 hours.40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: + Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Absorption (%) 100 Emission Absorption (%) 100 Emission .06. Fire in covered alumina crucibles. 1.

6 10.YAlO3:Tb3+ Structure: Orthorhombic Composition Ingredient Y 2O 3 Tb4O7 Al2O3 CaF2 Mole % 90 (of Y) 10 (of Tb) 100 (of Al) 10 By weight (g) 102 18. 4 hours.283 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: + (4. Fire in covered alumina crucibles.40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: + (better than Y2O3:Tb3+) Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 LaAlO3:Eu3+ Structure: Orthorhombic Composition Ingredient La2O3 Al2O3 Eu2O3 H3BO3 Mole % 94 (of La) 105 (of Al) 6 (of Eu) 20 By weight (g) 130. CO.8 Preparation Mix by dry grinding or milling. Optical Properties Emission color: Pale green Emission peaks: Typical Tb3+ lines. CO.7 51 7. 1 hour. 1300ºC. 1. 1300ºC. – (3. strongest line at ~2.6 12.4 Absorption (%) 100 Emission . Powderize.88 eV). Fire in covered alumina crucibles.6 53. 2.

2.300 12. 4 hours. 1. Powderize. and Bril.4 Preparation Mix by dry grinding or milling. 1..40 eV) Absorption (%) 100 Emission . Fire in covered alumina crucibles. 1300ºC. Fire in covered alumina crucibles. G. 1. 1000ºC. Powderize. 4 hours. Fire in covered alumina crucibles.01–2. Philips Tech. Characteristic luminescence.Preparation Mix by dry grinding or milling.20 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: + (4. 1000ºC. 304 (1970).40 eV) 400 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Remark Q yield (UV excitation) is about ~75% of YOE. Reference 1.6 0. 1300ºC. 1 hour. air.88 eV). 31. air.. The absorption and emission spectra of some important activators. Optical Properties Emission color: Orange-red Emission peaks: 2. Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) (3. air. air. Optical Properties Emission color: Yellow Emission peaks: 1. LaAlO3:Sm3+ Structure: Trigonal Composition Ingredient La2O3 Al2O3 Sm2O3 H3BO3 Mole % 100 (of La) 105 (of Al) 0.925–2. Rev. 2.2 (of Sm) 20 By weight (g) 139 53. 1 hour.. Blasse.10 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4. – (3. Fire in covered alumina crucibles. A.88 eV).

36 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0. CO. Fire in covered alumina crucibles. 20 msec to 1/10 Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 100 Emission 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Absorption (%) 100 Emission . Optical Properties Emission color: Green Emission peak: 2.15 107 0.16 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: no sensitizer known to obtain response to this UV Excitation efficiency by e-beam: +/~7–8% Decay: Slightly non-exponential decay. 2 hours.Spectra 800 700 600 500 400 Wavelength (nm) 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 MgAl2O4:Mn2+ Structure: Tetragonal (spinel) Composition Ingredient MgO MnCO3 Al2O3 MgF2 Mole % 98 1 210 (of Al) 1 By weight (g) 39 1. 1250ºC.620 Preparation Mix by dry ball-milling.

Kröger.W. Wanmaker. Electrochem.L. Lehmann. J. 1400 (1973).15 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: + (4. Luminescence of manganeseactivated aluminiu-substituted magnesium gallate. W... D. J. Philips Res. Soc. J. F.. Rep. Soc. References 1. and Sarver. 78-5F4-ZSIBM-R1 (1978).Remark Reducing the Mn concentration from 1 to 0. 117. Wanmaker. and deBres. J.L. J.. and Brown. Opstelten. Choice and evaluation of phosphors for application to lamps with improved color rendition.. Soc.T.88 eV). J.J.. 252 (1964).. Brown.. MgGa2O4:Mn2+ Structure: Tetragonal (spinel) Optical Properties Emission color: Blue-green Emission peak: 2..A.. 108 (1970). 4. 120. Rep. Greenemitting phosphors. 304 (1967). J.. 3. J. D. Electrochem.. Hummel.. Radielovic. Luminescence of Mn2+activated spinels in MgO-Li2O-ZnO-Ga2O3-Al2O3 system. and Wanmaker. J.G. 245 (1967). Palumbo. Electrochem. Philips Res.W. Some Aspects of Luminescence of Solids. J.. – (3.F.G. 2..M. and Verlijsdonk. 22. Manganese-activated luminescence in MgO-Al2O3-Ga2O3 system. Res. Elsevier. W. 25.. 1184 (1970). The cathodoluminescence of Mn2+ activated and Fe3+ activated magnesium aluminate spinel. Electrochem. W.L..2% reduces the efficiency of cathodoluminescence to ~4% and increases the 1/10 decay time to ~40 msec.. Electronic states of Mn2+-activated phosphors.A. 1. 111. Soc.46 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0. Amsterdam (1948). F.. 5. 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Absorption (%) 100 Emission . 3.40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: + Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 50 2 3 References 1.. terVrugt. Rep. terVrugt.. J. W.. J. 2. 114..

1200ºC. 1 hour. 1 hour. CO.27 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: no sensitizer known to obtain response to this UV Excitation efficiency by e-beam: ~ a few percent Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 100 Emission 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 CaAl2O4:Eu2+ Structure: Monoclinic Composition Ingredient CaCO3 Al2O3 Eu2O3 NH4Cl Mole % 98 210 (of Al) 2 (of Eu) 10 By weight (g) 98 107 3. Optical Properties Emission color: Yellow-green Emission peak: 2.5 5.CaAl2O4:Mn2+ Structure: Monoclinic Composition Ingredient CaCO3 Al2O3 MnCO3 CaF2 Mole % 93 200 (of Al) 2 5 By weight (g) 93 102 2. Powderize when dry.28 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0. Fire in covered alumina crucibles. CO. Dry in air. Wash in a solution of 20 g NH4Cl in 1 liter of water and then several times in plain water.9 Preparation Mix by slurrying in water.3 3. 1300ºC.4 . Fire in open quartz boats. 1. 2. Powderize.

34 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: + (4. Optical Properties Emission color: Deep blue Emission peak: Single Eu2+ band.13 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: – (4. CO.88 eV). + (3.88 eV). Fire in capped quartz tubes. 2. Wash in a solution of ~20 g NH4Cl in 1 liter of water and then several times in plain water. Dry in air.80 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0. 1. 1200ºC.Preparation Mix by ball-milling in water. 2. 1200ºC.40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: + Absorption (%) 100 Emission . 1 hour. CO. Powderize. 1 hour.40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: 1% Decay: ~1 µsec to 1/10 Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 ZnAl2O4:Mn2+ Structure: Tetragonal (spinel) Optical Properties Emission color: Blue-green Emission peak: 2. – (3. Fire in open quartz boats. Powderize when dry.41 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0.

Phys. J. Luminescence of Mn2+activated spinels in MgO-Li2O-ZnO-Ga2O3-Al2O3 system. 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 . W. Leverenz. Luminescence of gallates.W. Growth and decay processes. and terVrugt.13 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: + (4. J. Rep. John Wiley & Sons. 25. Soc. 369 (1946). J.. W. Soc. Philips Res. 871 (1969).. Cathodo-luminescence. An Introduction to Luminescence of Solids.W. J. 2. Electrochem. 116. H.. terVrugt. H. 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 ZnGa2O4:Mn2+ Structure: Cubic (gahnite) Optical Properties Emission color: Blue-green Emission peak: 2.88 eV).. and Henderson. New York (1949). Leverenz. 2.W. Wanmaker.G..W.40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: + Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 100 Emission 50 2 3 References 1. S. London... 3. Strange. P.L.T.Spectra 800 700 600 500 400 Wavelength (nm) 300 100 Emission 50 2 3 References 1. 58.47 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0. An Introduction to Luminescence of Solids.W. and Verlijsdonk. Wanmaker. John Wiley & Sons.. 1. 108 (1970). – (3.L. New York (1949). J....

CaGa2O4:Mn2+
Structure: Monoclinic Optical Properties Emission color: Yellow-green Emission peak: 2.19 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0.21 eV Spectra
800 700 600 500
Wavelength (nm)

400

300

50

2

3

Reference 1. Brown, J.J., Can. Pat., 821 468 (1970).

4 Photon Energy (eV)

5

0

CaGa4O7:Mn2+
Optical Properties Emission color: Yellow Emission peak: 2.10 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0.21 eV Reference 1. Brown, J.J., Can. Pat., 821 468 (1970).

SrAl2O4:Eu2+
Structure: Monoclinic Composition Ingredient SrCO3 Al2O3 Eu2O3 NH4Cl Mole % 98 210 (of Al) 2 (of Eu) 10 By weight (g) 145 107 3.5 5.4

Absorption (%)

100

Emission

Preparation Mix by ball-milling in water. Dry in air. Powderize when dry. 1. Fire in capped quartz tubes, CO, 1200ºC, 1 hour. Powderize. 2. Fire in open quartz boats, CO, 1200ºC, 1 hour. Wash in a solution of ~20 g NH4Cl in 1 liter of water and then several times in plain water. Dry. Optical Properties Emission color: Green Emission peak: 2.37 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0.34 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4.88 eV), ++ (3.40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: +/~1.5% Decay: ~2 µsec to 1/10 Spectra
800 700 600 500
Wavelength (nm)

400

300

50

2

3

References 1. Blasse, G., and Bril, A., Fluorescence of Eu2+ activated alkaline-earth aluminates, Philips Res. Rep., 23, 201 (1968). 2. Palilla, F.C., Levine, A.K., and Tomkus, M.R., Fluorescent properties of alkaline earth aluminates activated by divalent europium, J. Electrochem. Soc., 115, 642 (1968). 3. Blasse, G., Wanmaker, W.L., and terVrugt, J.W., Some new classes of efficient Eu2+ activated phosphors, J. Electrochem. Soc., 115, 673 (1968). 4. Abbruscato, V., Optical and electrical properties of SrAl2O4-Eu2+, J. Electrochem. Soc., 118, 930 (1971).

4 Photon Energy (eV)

5

0

BaAl2O4:Eu2+
Structure: Hexagonal Composition Ingredient BaCO3 Al2O3 Eu2O3 NH4Cl Mole % 98 210 (of Al) 2 (of Eu) 10 By weight (g) 193 107 3.5 5.4

Absorption (%)

100

Emission

Preparation Mix by ball-milling in water. Dry in air. Powderize when dry. 1. Fire in capped quartz tubes, CO, 1200ºC, 1 hour. Powderize. 2. Fire in open quartz boats, CO, 1200ºC, 1 hour. Wash in a solution of ~20 g NH4Cl + 20 ccm NH4OH in 1 liter of water and then several times in diluted ammonium hydroxide. Dry. Optical Properties Emission color: Blue-green Emission peak: 2.47 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0.35 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4.88 eV), ++ (3.40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: + Spectra
800 700 600 500
Wavelength (nm)

400

300

50

2

3

References 1. Palilla, F.C., Levine, A.K., and Tomkus, M.R., Fluorescent properties of alkaline earth aluminates activated by divalent europium, J. Electrochem. Soc., 115, 642 (1968). 2. Blasse, G., Wanmaker, W.L., and terVrugt, J.W., Some new classes of efficient Eu2+ activated phosphors, J. Electrochem. Soc., 115, 673 (1968). 3. Blasse, G., and Bril, A., Phosphors based on lanthanide oxysulphates (Ln2SO6), Philips Res. Rep., 23, 461 (1968).

4 Photon Energy (eV)

5

0

CaAl4O7:Pb2+,Mn2+
Structure: Monoclinic Optical Properties Emission color: Yellow Emission peak: 2.20 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0.24 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: + (4.88 eV), – (3.40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: +

Absorption (%)

100

Emission

Spectra
800 700 600 500

400

Wavelength (nm)

300

50

2

3

4 Photon Energy (eV)

5

0

LiAl5O8:Fe3+
Structure: Cubic (spinel) Optical Properties Emission color: Very deep red Emission peak: 1.82 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4.88 eV), – (3.40 eV) Spectra
800 700 600 500
Wavelength (nm)

400

300

100

Emission

50

2

3

References 1. Jaffe, P.M., Cathodoluminescence spectra and coordination of Mn2+ Fe3+ and Cr3+ in BeTaLiAl5O8, J. Electrochem. Soc., 115, 1203 (1968). 2. Melamed, N.T., Viccaro, P.J., Barros, F.D.S. et al., Optical properties of Fe3+ in ordered and disordered LiAl5O8, Phys. Rev. B5, 3377 (1972). 3. Neto, J.M., Abritta, T., Barros, F.D. et al., A comparative-study of the optical-properties of Fe3+ in ordered LiGa5O8 and LiAl5O8, J. Lumin., 22, 109 (1981).

4 Photon Energy (eV)

5

0

Absorption (%)

100

Emission

LiAl5O8:Mn2+
Structure: Cubic (spinel) Composition Ingredient Li2CO3 Al2O3 MnCO3 Mole % 99 (of Li) 499 (of Al) 2 By weight (g) 36.6 254 2.3

Preparation Mix by slurrying in methanol. Dry in air. Powderize when dry. 1. Fire in open alumina crucibles, N2, 1200ºC, 1 hour. Powderize. 2. Fire in open quartz boats, CO, 1250ºC, 2 hours. Optical Properties Emission color: Green Emission peak: 2.38 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0.15eV Excitation efficiency by UV: – (4.88 eV), – (3.40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: +/~6–8% Decay: Non-exponential decay, 1/10 time in the 10 msec range; long and strong phosphorescence Spectra
800 700 600 500
Wavelength (nm)

400

300

100

Emission

50

2

3

Reference 1. Jaffe, P.M., Cathodoluminescence spectra and coordination of Mn2+ Fe3+ and Cr3+ in BeTaLiAl5O8, J. Electrochem. Soc., 115, 1203 (1968).

4 Photon Energy (eV)

5

0

Y4Al2O9:Eu3+
Structure: Monoclinic Composition Ingredient Y 2O 3 Al2O3 Eu2O3 H3BO3 Mole % 95 (of Y) 50 (of Al) 5 (of Eu) 10 By weight (g) 84.5 25.5 8.8 6.2

Preparation Mix by dry grinding or milling. 1. Fire in covered alumina crucibles, air, 1000ºC, 1 hour. Powderize. 2. Fire in covered alumina crucibles, air, 1300ºC, 4 hours. Optical Properties Emission color: Light red Emission peaks: Mainly three lines about 1.975, 2.03 eV, and 2.10 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4.88 eV), – (3.40 eV) Spectra
800 700 600 500
Wavelength (nm)

400

300

50

2

3

4 Photon Energy (eV)

5

0

Y3Al5O12:Ce3+
Structure: Cubic (garnet) Composition Ingredient Y 2O 3 Al2O3 CeO2 NH4Cl Mole % 35.5 (of Y) 62.5 (of Al) 2 5 By weight (g) 40 32 3.44 2.7

Absorption (%)

100

Emission

Preparation Mix by slurrying in water. 1. Fire in capped quartz tubes, CO, 1300ºC, 1 hour. Powderize. Add another 2.7 g NH4Cl; mix by dry grinding. 2. Fire in capped quartz tubes, 1300ºC, 2 hours. Powderize. 3. Fire in open quartz boats, CO, 1300ºC, 1 hour. Optical Properties Emission color: Yellow-green Emission peak: 2.37 eV Emission width (FWHM): ~0.45 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: + (4.88 eV), + (3.40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: +/~2% Spectra
800 700 600 500
Wavelength (nm)

400

300

50

2

3

References 1. Blasse, G., and Bril, A., Characteristic luminescence, 1. The absorption and emission spectra of some important activators, Philips Tech. Rev., 31, 304 (1970); and A new phosphor for flying-spot cathode-ray tubes for color television—yellow-emitting Y3Al5O12-Ce3+, Appl. Phys. Lett., 11, 53 (1967). 2. Blasse, G., Bril, A., and Poorter, J.A.D., Radiationless transitions in Eu3+ center in LaAlO3, J. Chem. Phys., 53, 4450 (1970). 3. Blasse, G., and Bril, A., Gibbons, E.F. et al., Ce3+ activated Y3Al5O12 and some of its solid-solutions, J. Electrochem. Soc., 120, 278 (1973); and Gibbons, E.F. et al., Some factors influencing luminous decay characteristics of Y3Al5O12 - Ce3+ , J. Electrochem. Soc., 120, 835 (1973). 4. Tien, T.Y. et al., Ce3+ activated Y3Al5O12 and some of its solid-solutions, J. Electrochem. Soc., 102, 278 (1973). 5. Sang, E., The signal generation mechanism in bistable storage-scan converters, SID Digest, 104 (1973).

4 Photon Energy (eV)

5

0

KAl11O17:Tl+
Structure: Aluminate Optical Properties Emission color: Violet + UV Emission peak: 3.14 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0.49 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4.88 eV)

Absorption (%)

100

Emission

Spectra
800 700 600 500

400

Wavelength (nm)

300

100

Emission

50

2

3

References (see below) Structure: Aluminate

4 Photon Energy (eV)

5

0

KGa11O17:Mn2+

Optical Properties Emission color: Blue-green Emission peak: 2.49 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0.14 eV Spectra
800 700 600 500
Wavelength (nm)

400

300

100

Emission

50

2

3

References 1. Verstegen, J.M., Survey of a group of phosphors, based on hexagonal aluminate and gallate host lattices, J. Electrochem. Soc., 121, 1623 (1974). 2. Verstegen, J.M.P.J., Somerdijk, J.L., and Bril, A., Luminescence of LiBaF3:Eu2+, J. Lumin., 10, 411 (1975).

4 Photon Energy (eV)

5

0

BaMgAl10O17:Ce3+
Structure: Aluminate Optical Properties Emission color: UV Emission peak: 3.40 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0.65 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4.88 eV), – (3.40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: +

Spectra
800 700 600 500

400

Wavelength (nm)

300

50

2

3

Reference 1. Stevels, A.L.N., Ce3+ luminescence in hexagonal aluminates containing large divalent or trivalent cations, J. Electrochem. Soc., 125, 588 (1978).

4 Photon Energy (eV)

5

0

Y3Al5O12:Eu3+
Structure: Cubic (garnet) Optical Properties Emission color: Orange-yellow Emission peak: 2.10 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: + (4.88 eV), – (3.40 eV) Spectra
800 700 600 500
Wavelength (nm)

400

300

50

2

3

4 Photon Energy (eV)

5

0

Absorption (%)

100

Emission

Absorption (%)

100

Emission

N2. Mater. Stevels. Smets.. forming gas.L. ++ (3. Absorption (%) 100 Emission .. 1.6 17.. Fire in covered alumina crucibles. 1 hour. Optical Properties Emission color: Blue Emission peak: 2. and Schrama.88 eV). Dry in air.BaMgAl10O17:Eu2+ Structure: Aluminate Composition Ingredient BaCO3 MgO Al2O3 Eu2O3 BaF2 Mole % 80 100 1050 (of Al) 10 (of Eu) 10 By weight (g) 158 40 536 17.D.40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: + Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 References 1.34 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4.. Powderize when dry. Morphologic and crystallographic properties. Philips Res. B. 21.77 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0.M. 340 (1974). Bull.J.. Nov. 1305. The luminescence properties of Eu2+-doped and Mn2+-doped barium hexaaluminates.5 Preparation Mix by ball-milling in methanol. 29.N. 2. A. 1250ºC. 1. A.G. (1986). Fire in open quartz boats. 1250ºC. Res. 2. Powderize. Rep. J. Vapor-deposited CSi-Na layers. and Verlijsdonk. 1 hour.

3. 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Absorption (%) 100 Emission .BaMgAl10O17:Eu2+. Soc.2 536 17.6 27. forming gas..40 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0. J. Philips Res. 1250ºC. Vapor-deposited CSi-Na layers.5 Preparation Mix by ball-milling in methanol.M.13 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4. A.M. CO. Stevels. 1. Fire in open quartz boats. A. 500–600ºC.. and Schrama. and Schrama.D.. Dry in air.N. 1 hour. Rep. 2. References 1. Morphologic and crystallographic properties. 691 (1974)..N. ++ (3. 340 (1974). A. Optical Properties Emission color: Bluish-green Emission peak: 2. Fire in open quartz boats. Fire in covered alumina crucibles.L.D. Stevels.40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: + Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 50 2 3 Remark This phosphor retains its high efficiency to several 100 C. 1250ºC. It may be useful for color correction in arc lamps. 123. 29.88 eV). 1 hour. Powderize when dry. ½ hour.6 17.L. A. Electrochem.. 1. Powderize.. 2.Mn2+ Structure: Aluminate Composition Ingredient BaCO3 MgO Al2O3 Eu2O3 MnCO3 BaF2 Mole % 80 70 1050 (of Al) 10 24 10 By weight (g) 158 28.

6 Preparation Mix by ball-milling in methanol. 2.5% Decay: Near-exponential decay. CO. This phosphor retains its high efficiency up to several 100ºC.. and Verstegen.N. 1250ºC. 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Absorption (%) 100 Emission . Fire in open quartz boats. 1 hour. 3. Lumin. ~15 msec to 1/10 Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 50 2 3 Remarks 1. 207 (1976). 1250ºC.. 14.P. This phosphor is sensitive to lamp-lehring conditions but very stable once it is in the lamp. J. Eu2+-Mn2+ energy-transfer in hexagonal aluminates.40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: ~2–2.. Optical Properties Emission color: Bluish-green Emission peak: 2. ~500–600ºC.88 eV).J. 2. 1 hour.Ca0. Powderize. 1.125 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4. Dry in air. N2. – (3. Fire in covered alumina crucibles.6 27.L. J. Reference 1.Mn2+ Composition Ingredient CaCO3 CaF2 BaCO3 Al2O3 CeO2 MnCO3 Mole % 25 10 35 1210 (of Al) 30 24 By weight (g) 25 7. Stevels.5Ba0. Powderize when dry. forming gas. ~½ hour.8 69 617 51.5Al12O19:Ce3+. Fire in open quartz boats. A.41 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0.M.

. A.. J. J.Mn2+ Structure: Aluminate Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 SrGa12O19:Mn2+ Structure: Aluminate Optical Properties Emission color: Blue-green Emission peak: 2. J. Lumin. Verstegen. Survey of a group of phosphors. Soc.. 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Absorption (%) 100 Emission . 1623 (1974). Luminescence of LiBaF3:Eu2+. and Bril.M.L.J.SrAl12O19:Eu2+.M... based on hexagonal aluminate and gallate host lattices. 10.. 411 (1975). 121. J.47 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0. Electrochem.12 eV Excitation efficiency by e-beam: + Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 100 Emission 50 2 3 References 1. 2. Verstegen. Somerdijk. J.P.

14 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4. 14.40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: + Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Reference 1. Stevels. Absorption (%) 100 Emission . Eu2+-Mn2+ energy-transfer in hexagonal aluminates.M.N. J. A.39 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0.. Lumin. J.88 eV).P. – (3.J. and Verstegen..L.Mn2+ Structure: Aluminate Optical Properties Emission color: Green Emission peak: 2.SrAl12O19:Ce3+. 207 (1976).

air. 1000ºC. Fire in open quartz boats. Fire in open quartz boats.82 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: + (4. Powderize. 1100ºC. 1. air. 2. 1 hour.34 eV Emission width (FWHM): ~0.88 eV). – (3.9 Molybdates and Tungstates The following host compounds and activators are included in this subsection: CaMoO4 CaMoO4:Eu3+ SrMoO4:U MgWO4 CaWO4 Ca3WO6:U Sr3WO6:U Ba3WO6:U La2W3O12:Eu3+ CaMoO4 Structure: Tetragonal Composition Ingredient CaCO3 MoO3 Mole % 100 98 By weight (g) 100 141 Preparation Mix by dry grinding or milling. 1 hour.4. Optical Properties Emission color: Pale yellow-green Emission peak: ~2.40 eV) Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Absorption (%) 100 Emission .

03 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4. Optical Properties Emission color: Red Emission peaks: ~2. Fire in open quartz boats.2 151 Preparation Mix by dry grinding or milling. Powderize.5–1% Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 SrMoO4:U Structure: Tetragonal Composition Ingredient SrCO3 MoO3 UO2(NO3)2· 6H2O Li2CO3 Mole % 100 105 0. Dry. O2.88 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: ~0. 1000ºC.8 4. 1. Fire in open quartz boats.740 Absorption (%) 100 Emission . air.CaMoO4:Eu3+ Structure: Tetragonal Composition Ingredient CaCO3 Eu2O3 NaHCO3 MoO3 Mole % 90 5 (of Eu) 5 105 By weight (g) 90 8. Powderize.2 2 (of Li) By weight (g) 148 151 1 0. 1 hour.02 and ~2. Wash in a strong solution of NaOH (or KOH) in water and then several times in plain water until neutral. 1 hour. 1100ºC. 2.

1000ºC. 2 hours. 1200ºC. air. – (3. Optical Properties Emission color: Deep red Emission peak: ~1. Dry. + (3.40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 MgWO4 Structure: Monoclinic Composition Ingredient MgO WO3 Mole % 120 100 By weight (g) 48 232 Preparation Mix by slurrying in water. ~20 µsec to 1/10 Absorption (%) 100 Emission . Powderize. Fire in open quartz boats. 800ºC. Powderize. 16 hours (overnight). Wash in a strong solution of NaOH (or KOH) in water and then several times in plain water until neutral. Fire in open quartz boats. 1 hour. Powderize when dry. Add methanol to make a uniform slurry.875 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: – (4. O2.Preparation Dissolve the U-nitrate in a little methanol. Dry in air.5% Decay: Near-exponential decay.40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: ~2. Powderize when dry. O2. 1.88 eV).50 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0. 2. Dry in air. Fire in open quartz boats.75 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4.88 eV). Optical Properties Emission color: Blue-greenish white Emission peak: 2. add this solution to the other ingredients.

77 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4. ~10 µsec to 1/10 Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 50 2 3 Remark This material is completely intersoluble with CaMoO4 in any proportion. Fire in open quartz boats.Spectra 800 700 600 500 400 Wavelength (nm) 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 CaWO4 Structure: Tetragonal (scheelite) Composition Ingredient CaCO3 WO3 Mole % 105 100 By weight (g) 105 232 Preparation Mix by slurrying in water. O2. Dry in air.40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: ~2–2. Powderize when dry. – (3. 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Absorption (%) 100 Emission Absorption (%) 100 Emission . 1200ºC. Optical Properties Emission color: Pale blue Emission peak: 2.88 eV).5% Decay: Near-exponential decay. ~16 hours (overnight).87 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0.

and Scharmann.. Fire in open quartz boats. F. Cook. 139 (1955). 2... 148 (1955)...88 eV). O2. 4. Gobrecht.A. Grasser. 1200ºC. P. Elsevier. Z. Powderize when dry. Lumin. air. London.740 Preparation Dissolve the U-nitrate in a little methanol. J.. 3. 2. add this solution to the other ingredients. 1.2 2 (of Li) By weight (g) 300 232 1 0.R. ++ (3. 12. Ca3WO6:U Composition Ingredient CaCO3 WO3 UO2(NO3)2·6H2O Li2CO3 Mole % 300 100 0. 1 hour. J. 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Absorption (%) 100 Emission . Fire in open quartz boats.41 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0. Dry in air. Luminescent sites in CaWO4 and CaWO4:Pb crystals. Add methanol to make a uniform slurry.40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: – Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 50 2 3 Remark U is non-luminescent in CaWO4. 473 (1976).23 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: – (4. Phys. Soc.. A. Phys. R. 68. 900ºC. 2 hours.References 1. Kröger. Amsterdam (1948). 140. Optical Properties Emission color: Green Emission peak: 2. Some Aspects of Luminescence of Solids. Lumineszenzuntersuchungen an uran-aktivierten erdalkaliwolframaten und erdalkalimolybdaten. W. B. and Weiss. Powderize by grinding or milling. H. Photoconductivity in calcium tungstate..

Fire in open quartz boats. Am. air. G. and Weiss. Some Aspects of Luminescence of Solids.. + (3. Dry in air.2 2 (of Li) By weight (g) 443 232 1 0. 140. W. 2. Powderize by grinding or milling.A. add this solution to the other ingredients.J. Powderize when dry. Gobrecht. Gobrecht. 1000ºC. Optical Properties Emission color: Yellow-green Emission peak: 2.... 39. 140.6H2O Li2CO3 Mole % 300 100 0. J. W.. F. Elsevier. A. Z.F. Absorption (%) 100 Emission . Phys. 1 hour. 935 (1949). Opt. Lumineszenzuntersuchungen an uran-aktivierten erdalkaliwolframaten und erdalkalimolybdaten. Fire in open quartz boats. O2. Garlick. H. Add methanol to make a uniform slurry. 139 (1955). 3. 2 hours..19 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: + (4.40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: Poor Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Remark U is non-luminescent in SrWO4. and Gibson. 139 (1955). Lumineszenzuntersuchungen an uran-aktivierten erdalkaliwolframaten und erdalkalimolybdaten.F. 2. 900ºC.740 Preparation Dissolve the U-nitrate in a little methanol. The luminescence of photo-conducting phosphors.88 eV).25 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0.. Amsterdam (1948)...References 1. Z. Sr3WO6:U Composition Ingredient SrCO3 WO3 UO2(NO3)2. Kröger. Phys.. 1. and Weiss. H. Reference 1. Soc.

Gobrecht. 1000ºC.. References 1. and Weiss. and Blasse. R. 2. Powderize by grinding or milling. 140. 1. Phys.. 1 hour.. Luminescence in a new garnet phase with hexavalent metal-ions. G. Z. Lumin. Fire in open quartz boats. Dry in air.Ba3WO6:U Composition Ingredient BaCO3 WO3 UO2(NO3)2·6H2O Li2CO3 Mole % 300 100 0. Alberda.17 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: + (4. add this solution to the other ingredients. H. + (3.. 139 (1955). J. Optical Properties Emission color: Green-yellow Emission peak: 2..20 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0.H.740 Preparation Dissolve the U-nitrate in a little methanol. Lumineszenzuntersuchungen an uran-aktivierten erdalkaliwolframaten und erdalkalimolybdaten.40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: Poor Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Remark U is non-luminescent in BaWO4.. 12–13. Add methanol to make a uniform slurry. W.88 eV). Powderize when dry.2 2 (of Li) By weight (g) 592 232 1 0. Fire in open quartz boats. 687 (1976). air. 900ºC. Absorption (%) 100 Emission . 2. O2. 2 hours.

018 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: + (4.40 eV) Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Absorption (%) 100 Emission . 1 hour. – (3. air.88 eV). Fire in open quartz boats. air. Powderize. Fire in open quartz boats. 1000ºC. Optical Properties Emission color: Red Emission peak: Strongest line at 2. 2.6 696 Preparation Mix by dry grinding or milling. 1. 1 hour. 1100ºC.La2W3O12:Eu3+ Composition Ingredient La2O3 Eu2O3 WO3 Mole % 190 (of La) 10 (of Eu) 300 By weight (g) 310 17.

700ºC.10 Miscellaneous Oxides The following host compounds and activators are included in this subsection: LiInO2:Eu3+ LiInO2:Sm3+ LiLaO2:Eu3+ NaYO2:Eu3+ CaTiO3:Pr3+ CaGeO3:Mn2+ Mg2TiO4:Mn4+ Zn2GeO4:Mn2+ YVO4:Eu3+ LaVO4:Eu3+ YAsO4:Eu3+ LaAsO4:Eu3+ Ca5(VO4)3Cl Mg8Ge2O11F2:Mn4+ CaY2ZrO6:Eu3+ Mg3SiO3F4:Ti4+ LiInO2:Eu3+ Structure: tetragonal Composition Ingredient In2O3 Eu2O3 Li2CO3 Mole % 98 (of In) 2 (of Eu) 101 (of Li) By weight (g) 136 3.08 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: – (4. 950ºC. 1 hour.5 37. Optical Properties Emission color: Red Emission peaks: 2. Powderize.0 eV Excitation efficiency by e-beam: ~5% . 1 hour. – (3. air.4 Preparation Mix by slurrying in methanol. weakly excited at 4. 2. Fire in open alumina crucibles. Fire in open alumina crucibles.03 eV and 2.4.40 eV).88 eV). 1. air.

5.4 Preparation Mix by slurrying in methanol. Excitation efficiency by e-beam: ~5% (3. 3327 (1966). G. Chem. air. Eu3+ fluorescence in rocksalt lattice.. 950ºC.520 37. 1 hour.15 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: + (4. Powderize.. Phys. Optical Properties Emission color: Orange Emission peaks: 1. J. 45. Dry in air.40 eV) Absorption (%) 100 Emission . On Eu3+ fluorescence in mixed metal oxides. Powderize when dry. 700ºC.Spectra 800 700 600 500 400 Wavelength (nm) 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Reference 1.88 eV).3 (of Sm) 101 (of Li) By weight (g) 138 0.. 2. 1 hour. LiInO2:Sm3+ Structure: tetragonal Composition Ingredient In2O3 Sm2O3 Li2CO3 Mole % 99. and Bril. Blasse. Fire in open alumina crucibles. A.85–2. 1. air. Fire in open alumina crucibles.7 (of In) 0.

40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: ~1% Spectra 800 700 600 500 400 Wavelength (nm) 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Absorption (%) 100 Emission Absorption (%) 100 Emission . Powderize.8 37. Store in a well-closed container. – (3. 1. Fire in open alumina crucibles. air. 1000ºC.88 eV). air.Spectra 800 700 600 500 400 Wavelength (nm) 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 LiLaO2:Eu3+ Structure: tetragonal Composition Ingredient La2O3 Eu2O3 Li2CO3 Mole % 95 (of La) 5 (of Eu) 101 (of Li) By weight (g) 155 8. Powderize when dry.775–2. 1 hour. Fire in open alumina crucibles. Dry in air.02 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: + (4. Powderize. 2. Optical Properties Emission color: Red Emission peaks: 1.4 Preparation Mix by slurrying in methanol. ~600ºC.

. Reference 1. 45.40 eV) Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 100 Emission 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 . Phys. Powderize when dry. 2. Powderize. This material is difficult to prepare. 3327 (1966). air. and Bril. ~600ºC. air. Fire in open alumina crucibles. – (3. the reaction between Li2CO3 and La2O3 apparently does not go to completion. NaYO2:Eu3+ Structure: Monoclinic Composition Ingredient Y 2O 3 Eu2O3 NaHCO3 Mole % 95 (of Y) 5 (of Eu) 101 By weight (g) 108 8. Powderize. A.Remarks 1. Dry in air.025 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: + (4. 1 hour. Fire in open alumina crucibles. J.8 85 Preparation Mix by slurrying in methanol. 5. ½ hour. Store in a well-closed container. 1. Chem. On Eu3+ fluorescence in mixed metal oxides.88 eV).. 900ºC. 2. Optical Properties Emission color: Red Emission peak: 2. G. This phosphor is slightly hygroscopic. Eu3+ fluorescence in rocksalt lattice. Blasse..

air.05 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: + (4.64 80 Preparation Mix by slurrying in methanol.88 eV). 3327 (1966). A. Eu3+ fluorescence in rocksalt lattice. Powderize when dry. 1300ºC. This material is difficult to prepare.40 eV) Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Remark The efficiency of this phosphor is not likely improvable because of: (a) much “dead” absorption of the Ti4+-ion in the UV. This phosphor is slightly hygroscopic. 1 hour. J. (b) most likely an appreciable amount of emission in the IR. the reaction between Na2O and Y2O3 apparently does not go to completion. Optical Properties Emission color: Red Emission peak: 2. 2. Absorption (%) 100 Emission . Reference 1. 1. 1300ºC..025 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0. + (3. 2. 45. Blasse. Fire in open quartz boats.. CaTiO3:Pr3+ Structure: Cubic (perovskite) Composition Ingredient CaCO3 Pr3O4 TiO2 Mole % 100 1 100 By weight (g) 100 1. Chem. G. On Eu3+ fluorescence in mixed metal oxides. Fire in open quartz boats. 5. Powderize by grinding or milling. and Bril. Dry in air. Phys.Remarks 1. 1 hour.. air.

The fluorescence of binary and ternary germanates of group-II elements. – (3..88 eV was observed without addition of a sensitizer to the phosphor.40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: + Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Remark The excitation efficiency of QE ~50–60% under 4. 2 hours. Dry in air... Attempts to improve this efficiency by addition of various other impurities failed. Fire in capped quartz tubes. 106. Optical Properties Emission color: Orange Emission peak: 2. Powderize when dry.CaGeO3:Mn2+ Structure: Orthorhombic (wollastonite) Composition Ingredient CaCO3 MnCO3 GeO2 NH4Br Mole % 98 2 105 2 By weight (g) 98 2.3 110 2 Preparation Mix by slurrying in water or methanol. Soc.C. C. 1150ºC. Absorption (%) 100 Emission .30 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4. and Verhagen. Koelmans. 677 (1959). Electrochem. CO.01 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0.88 eV). Reference 1. H.M. J.

. air.5 Absorption (%) 100 Emission .88 eV). Zn2GeO4:Mn2+ Structure: Tetragonal (willemite) Composition Ingredient ZnO MgF2 MnCO3 GeO2 Mole % 90 5 5 55 By weight (g) 73. Fire in open quartz boats. 2. F. Kröger. 1 hour. Powderize by grinding or milling. 570ºC.885 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: – (4.40 eV) Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Reference 1.1 5. 1. ~16 hours (overnight). Fire in open quartz boats. Some Aspects of Luminescence of Solids. O2.2 3. Dry in air. + (3.Mg2TiO4:Mn4+ Structure: Cubic (spinel) Composition Ingredient MgO TiO2 MnCO3 Mole % 300 99 1 By weight (g) 121 79 1. Optical Properties Emission color: Deep red Emission peak: 1. Powderize when dry. Amsterdam (1948). 1300ºC.A. Elsevier.15 Preparation Mix by slurrying in water or methanol.8 57.

Phys.J.. Manganese-activated zinc beryllium germanate phosphors.. Soc. S. 2.31 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0.. 1 hour. Luminescence and trapping in phosphors containing gallium.. 1000ºC. J.. Dry in air. 2. 117. J.. Soc. J.Preparation Mix by slurrying in water. E. Schulman. Powderize by grinding or milling. YVO4:Eu3+ Structure: Tetragonal (xenotime) Composition Ingredient Y 2O 3 Eu2O3 NH4VO3 Mole % 95 (of Y) 5 (of Eu) 110 By weight (g) 107 8. Electrochem. This material forms solid solutions with Zn2SiO4:Mn2+ in all proportions.H. J. The emission of this phosphor is thermally quenched a little above room temperature. 1.. Optical Properties Emission color: Green Emission peak: 2. Palumbo. 21. and Larach. R. and Claffy. R..T.40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: + Comparable to that of Zn2SiO4:Mn2+ Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Remarks 1.. 2. 1814 (1971).J. References 1. water steam. 1. Bube. J. 57 (1949). 1100ºC.. 5 (1953).20 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4. Electrochem. Electronic states of Mn2+-activated phosphors. Ginther. D. Green-emitting phosphors. Chem.H. Fire in open quartz boats. and Brown. 1 hour.88 eV). Fire in capped quartz tubes.W.8 129 Absorption (%) 100 Emission . 96. Powderize when dry. 3. CO. + (3.

S.C..40 eV excitation improving considerably with increasing temperature Excitation efficiency by e-beam: +/7% Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Remarks 1. 1 hour. 1 hour.K. J. Phys.. and Palilla. air. Absorption (%) 100 Emission .Eu) for color television electron beam excitation.C.Nd. A.F.G. F. Ropp. 115. O’Connor.. + (3. Levine. Role of F-orbital electron wave function mixing in concentration quenching of Eu3+.Preparation Mix by dry grinding or milling.. Soc. Electrochem. Dry. 3. M. and Mathers. 1. Powderize. 2. Fire in open quartz boats. van Uitert. Fire in open quartz boats.E. 2. 1 hour..C. Toma. F.00 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4. Part of the V can be replaced by P. 118 (1964). Mikus. 953 (1967). R.40 eV excitation can be somewhat improved by addition of Bi. Chem.. and efficiency of luminescence. This phosphor has been used for color correction of Hg arc lamps. 3. Optical Properties Emission color: Red Emission peak: 2. New highly efficient red-emitting cathodoluminescent phosphor (YVO4 . air. Spectra of some rare earth vanadates. Powderize. 1200ºC. Soc. Appl. air. J. 36. 5.. 1200ºC. 5.. 940 (1968). Rare earth activated phosphors based on yttriuum orthovanadate and related compounds.R. J. 114... 6. J. for 3.. Electrochem. Soc. Appl. References 1. L. Fire in open quartz boats. Unusual crystal-field energy levels and efficient laser properties of YVO4 . 9. J. Lett. 1000ºC. 2. A. Electrochem. F. 407 (1966).88 eV). 3.. Levine. Phys.40 eV). Energy transfer and fluorescence processes in Bi3+ and Eu3+ activated YVO4.. 4... 702 (1962).Z. Lett. 112.. efficiency of 3.K. et al. 776 (1965). Optical absorption. Phys. Palilla. Wash in a strong solution of NaOH (or KOH) in water and then several times in plain water. and Rinkevics. J.

+ (3. Optical Properties Emission color: Red Emission peaks: 1... Dry. and Bril. 1 hour. Characteristic luminescence. Philips Tech. L.115 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4.. air. and Levine.. Levine.. and Palilla.. LaVO4:Eu3+ Structure: Monoclinic Composition Ingredient La2O3 Eu2O3 NH4VO3 Mole % 95 (of La) 5 (of Eu) 110 By weight (g) 155 8. Electrochem. air.a highly efficient red-emitting phosphor for high pressure mercury lamps. E. Rev. F. A.. Electrochem. 16 (1966). 1 hour...Palilla. On luminescent properties of rare earth vanadates. Optics... 2. 7.8 129 Preparation Mix by dry grinding or milling. 112. Fire in open quartz boats. and Abramson. R. 900ºC. J. Datta. 304 (1970). 1. 5. 10. 114. J.88 eV). 8.K.H. The absorption and emission spectra of some important activators. Soc. YVO4-Eu. 1 hour. 4. G. A. 3. Soc. Electrochem...40 eV) Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Absorption (%) 100 Emission . Wash in a strong solution of NaOH (or KOH) in water and then several times in plain water. Fire in open quartz boats. 1467 (1966). 31. 70.K. 1057 (1967). Fire in open quartz boats. A. Technol. 1100ºC. Bismuth in yttrium vanadate and yttrium europium vanadate phosphors. 1.C. Blasse. F. 1100ºC.K. YVO4-Eu a new highly efficient phosphor for color television. Powderize. Appl. Brixner.C. 9. 11. air. (1965). Powderize.773–2.

YAsO4:Eu3+ Structure: Tetragonal (xenotime) Composition Ingredient Y 2O 3 Eu2O3 As2O3 Mole % 95 (of Y) 5 (of Eu) 100 (of As) By weight (g) 107 8. M. 367 (1967).References 1... The material forms solid solutions with YVO4:Eu3+ in all proportions.8 75 Preparation Mix by slurrying in 30% H2O2. Soc. ~500ºC. W.88 eV). Powderize when dry. 114. Rep. et al.L. Fire in open quartz boats.. J. Philips Res. 1 hour. air.40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: + Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 100 Emission 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Remarks 1. 270 (1966).88 and by 3. 1200ºC. Wanmaker. This phosphor becomes excitable by 4. Powderize. 2.09 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: – (4. . 21. Fire in open quartz boats. Gently heat up while stirring until reaction (boiling) indicates formations of H3AsO4. – (3.76–2.40 eV UV upon replacement of some As by V. 2. 2.. Luminescent properties of Eu-activated phosphors of type A3BVO4. Aia.A. Structure and luminescence of phosphate-vanadates of yttrium gadolinium lutetium and lanthanum. Dry in air. Electrochem. air. Optical Properties Emission color: Red Emission peaks: 1. 1.

1000ºC. Powderize.. – (3.149 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: + (4. Absorption (%) 100 Emission . et al.L. 2. 1 hour.40 eV UV upon replacement of a few percent of the As by V. air. Luminescent properties of Eu-activated phosphors of type A3BVO4. Fire in open quartz boats. 1. Dry in air. 2.88 eV).. 21..Reference 1. Rep. Fire in open quartz boats.8 75 Preparation Mix by slurrying in 30% H2O2. 270 (1966). The material forms solid solutions with LaVO4 in all proportions. Gently heat up while stirring until reaction (boiling) indicates formations of H3AsO4.40 eV) Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Remarks 1. Powderize when dry. air. LaAsO4:Eu3+ Composition Ingredient La2O3 Eu2O3 As2O3 Mole % 95 (of La) 5 (of Eu) 100 (of As) By weight (g) 155 8. Wanmaker. ~500ºC. Philips Res. This material becomes excitable by 3. Optical Properties Emission color: Red Emission peaks: 1. W.785–2.

This phosphor requires a deficiency of V and an excess of Cl in the preparation. Ho) or very poorly luminescent (Eu3+). 2. The luminescence of this phosphor is due to the vanadate.Ca5(VO4)3Cl Structure: Apatite Composition Ingredient CaO NH4VO3 NH4Cl Mole % 500 200 200 By weight (g) 280 234 107 Preparation Mix by dry grinding or milling (some NH3 develops). Reference 1.. and Lublin. 1. Other impurities were tested as prospective activators but are either dead (Mn. air. air. 1331 (1966). 16 hours (overnight). Blue luminescence in calcium chlorovanadates.. M. Fire in capped quartz tubes. – (3. Electrochem. 1000ºC. Fire in capped quartz tubes.40 eV) Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Remarks 1. 113. P..88 eV). Tb. Optical Properties Emission color: Bluish Emission peak: 2. Powderize. J. ~500ºC.73 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: + (4. Absorption (%) 100 Emission .A. 1 hour. Soc. Aia. 2.85 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0.

The exact formula of this material is still uncertain. J. Absorption (%) 100 Emission . Phys..88 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4. This phosphor has been used for color correction of Hg arc lamps. Optical Properties Emission color: Deep red Emission peak: 1. Opt.. and Haake. Kemeny. 2.Mg8Ge2O11F2:Mn4+ Composition Ingredient MgO MgF2 MgCO3 GeO2 Mole % 700 100 8 192 By weight (g) 282 62 9.2 201 Preparation Mix by dry ball-milling. Fire in open quartz boats.. 579 (1950). 1200ºC. 2 hours. 1. Powderize by dry ball-milling. References 1.88 eV). 2. The above formula is only that of the raw mix.H. 1200ºC. Activator center in magnesium fluorogermanate phosphors. air. 40. air. some parts (mainly Ge fluoride) sublimes out during firing. + (3. 33. G. Temperature dependence of the emission of an improved manganeseactivated magnesium germanate phosphor. L. 783 (1960). Chem. Soc. 2..40 eV) Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Remarks 1. J. C. Thorington. Fire in capped quartz tubes.. ~16 hours (overnight). Am.

– (3.40 eV) Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Absorption (%) 100 Emission Absorption (%) 100 Emission .CaY2ZrO6:Eu3+ Structure: Perovskite Optical Properties Emission color: Red Emission peak: 2. – (3.15 eV Excitation efficiency by UV:++ (4.01 eV Excitation efficiency by UV:++ (4.40 eV) Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Mg3SiO3F4:Ti4+ Optical Properties Emission color: whitish-yellow Emission peak: 2.88 eV).88 eV).

Add ~2 g of NH4F (dissolved in a little water) and ~2–3 ccm of HF acid. 900ºC.15 Preparation Mix by slurrying in methanol.I)2:Eu2+ in SiO2 ZnF2:Mn2+ BaxSr1–xF2:Eu2+ YF3:Mn2+ YF3:Mn2+.Th4+ KMgF3:Eu2+ KMgF3:Mn2+ LiAlF4:Mn2+ K2SiF6:Mn4+ YOBr:Eu3+ YOCl:Ce3+ YOCl:Eu3+ YOF:Eu3+ YOF:Tb3+ LaOF:Eu3+ LaOCl:Bi3+ LaOCl:Eu3+ MgF2:Mn2+ Structure: Tetragonal (sellaite) Composition Ingredient MgF2 MnCO3 Mole % 99 1 By weight (g) 62 1.4. stir to uniformity.Mn2+ in SiO2 SrF2:Eu2+ SrCl2:Eu2+ in SiO2 Sr(Cl. 1 hour.Br. Fire in capped quartz tubes.Mn2+ in SiO2 CaBr2:Eu2+ in SiO2 CaI2:Eu2+ in SiO2 CaI2:Eu2+. N2.11 Halides and Oxyhalides The following host compounds and activators are included in this subsection: MgF2:Mn2+ CaF2:Ce3+ CaF2:Eu2+ CaF2:Mn2+ CaF2:Ce3+. Powderize.Tb3+ CaF2:U CaCl2:Eu2+ in SiO2 CaCl2:Eu2+.Mn2+ CaF2:Ce3+. Dry. .

Optical Properties Emission color: Orange-yellow Emission peak: 2. W. 2. 189 (1954)... Zur thermolumineszenz von MgF2-Mn. 1000ºC. The manganese emission in AbF3 compounds. 1000ºC. F. Electrochem. Philips Res. 441 (1953).. and Eyring. CaF2:Ce3+ Structure: Cubic (fluorite) Composition Ingredient CaF2 CeF3 AlF3 Mole % 90 5 5 By weight (g) 70 9. A. Chem.L. Powderize... A. Zalm. powderize. Phys. air.25 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: (4. A. 869 (1961). . P. 289 (1947). J. (3.. 101. Hanle.E. 1 hour.. References 1. Add ~2–3 g of iodine. Pt. Excitation efficiency by e-beam: +/~25% Decay: Exponential. Klasens. stir to uniformity. Rep. Naturforsch. Dry.O. Bräunlich. Add ~1–2 ccm HF acid.A.40 eV). N2. The mechanism of the luminescence of solids. mix by dry grinding. about 200 msec to 1/10 Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 100 Emission 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Remark No sensitizer is known to permit excitation by these UV wavelengths.2 Preparation Start with plain CaF2 and pre-fire it in open quartz boats.. H. P. F. Williams. 8. and Scharmann.85 4. 1 hour. Smith. Soc. and Huysman. 16.88 eV). Fire in capped quartz tubes.10 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0. 4.. Make a slurry of the CaF2 + CeF3 + AlF3 in methanol. New manganese-activated fluoride phosphors. J. Z.. 15. 3... H.

Ultraviolet absorption spectra of Ce3+ in alkaline-earth fluorides. Energy transfer and sensitization in single crystal phosphors.350 Preparation Mix by slurrying in methanol (in a plastic container). 154. Leach. 98. mix by dry grinding. Absorption (%) 100 Emission . 4. Excitation efficiency by e-beam: + Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) (3. Electrochem. Add ~2 ccm HF acid. R. J. Soc. Fire in capped quartz tubes. Add ~2–3 g of iodine. and Whippey. F.. 8. Phys.68 eV. 361 (1968). Investigations of 4f–5d transitions of Ce+3 in CaF2. M. Powderize. CaF2:Eu2+ Structure: Cubic (fluorite) Composition Ingredient CaF2 Eu2O3 Mole % 100 0. 1 hour. J. 5.Optical Properties Emission color: UV Emission peak: 3. Physica. 800ºC..J. Rev. 74 (1951). Electrochem.88 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4. 270 (1967). P. Kröger.. Rev.. E. Luminescence of K4MnCl6 and KCl (Pb + Mn).W.A. R.. Schlesinger. Dry. Phys. powderize.2 (of Eu) By weight (g) 70 0. 2.. stir to uniformity..... 105. 3.40 eV) 400 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 References 1.. Soc. Loh. 3.88 eV). N2. 171. J. 27 (1958). 628 (1941). Ginther. and Bakker.

Optical Properties Emission color: Violet Emission peak: 2.22 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4. and Wiggins. Electrochem. 2. C..S.. ++ (3. J. 117. 800ºC. J.88 eV by addition of Ce (see CaF2:Ce3+).15 Preparation Mix by slurrying in methanol (in a plastic container). 791 (1970). 68 (1969). Dry. CaF2:Mn2+ Structure: Cubic (fluorite) Composition Ingredient CaF2 MnCO3 Mole % 99 1 By weight (g) 77 1. Soc. Photosensitization of terbium fluorescence by europium in CaF2. Electrochem. mix by dry grinding. Fire in capped quartz tubes.. N2.40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: + Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Remark This material can be sensitized for better UV excitation with 4. Absorption (%) 100 Emission . Spectroscopic identification of europium-oxygen complexes in calcium fluoride. Amster. powderize. Powderize.93 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0. stir to uniformity.L. 1 hour.. Add ~2 ccm HF acid. 116. Add ~2–3 g of iodine..88 eV). References 1. Soc. R. Amster.L. R.

2. New manganese-activated fluoride phosphors.. The thermoluminescence of CaF2-Mn. 5. W. G.. Mn concentrations below 1% give somewhat longer decay times. 4.50 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0.J. The emission shifts to lower energy (= longer wavelength) with increasing Mn concentration. 45 msec to 1/10 Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 100 Emission 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Remarks 1. J.D.29 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: (4. J. Zalm. Electrochem.F. Klasens. The material can be sensitized for better UV excitation by 4. Philips Res. and Kirk. 4. 3. . Soc. P. R.. J.5% Decay: Near-exponential decay... and Huysman. A. Soc.. 8. F. 189 (1954). Decay of cathodoluminescence and nonradiative processes in manganese activated phosphors. H. Schmid..F. (3. J. 110. R.88 eV). 3.40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: +/1.. 101..Optical Properties Emission color: Blue-green Emission peak: 2. M.. up to ~60 msec to 1/10. Smith. 109.J.W. Rep..88 eV with addition of Ce (see CaF2:Ce3+). 104.. Soc. Electrochem. 441 (1953).A. 365 (1967). Soc..L. References 1. 2. Electrochem. Ginther. 340 (1963). and Mooney. and Sayer. Garlick. R. The manganese emission in AbF3 compounds.40 eV with addition of Eu (see CaF2:Eu2+). Electrochem.. 678 (1962).O. This material can be sensitized for better UV excitation by 3.

50 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0.. Absorption (%) 100 Emission . Physica. Add ~2 ccm HF acid. Ginther.J.85 21. 8.. Kröger.2 Preparation Start with plain CaF2 and pre-fire it in open quartz boats. F.35 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4. J. 628 (1941). Make a slurry of all the above ingredients in methanol.40 eV) 400 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 References 1. Fire in capped quartz tubes. air. 1000ºC.Tb3+ Structure: Cubic (fluorite) Composition Ingredient CaF2 CeF3 TbF3 AlF3 Mole % 80 5 10 5 By weight (g) 62 9. 1000ºC. powderize.Mn2+ Structure: Cubic (fluorite) Optical Properties Emission color: Blue-green Emission peak: 2..6 4. 98. Electrochem. J. mix by dry grinding.CaF2:Ce3+. CaF2:Ce3+. Soc. 1 hour. Luminescence of K4MnCl6 and KCl (Pb + Mn).. Powderize. 74 (1951).88 eV). N2. Dry. 2. 1 hour. Excitation efficiency by e-beam: + Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) (3. and Bakker. stir to uniformity. Add ~2–3 g of iodine.A. R.

Optical Properties Emission color: Pale green Emission peaks: 2. Excitation efficiency by e-beam: + Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) (3. 117.1 1 By weight (g) 78 0. Photosensitization of terbium fluorescence by europium in CaF2.345 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0.28 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4. Amster.500 0. Make a slurry of in methanol. Fire in open alumina crucibles. Electrochem.88 eV). Optical Properties Emission color: Green Emission peak: 2.40 eV) 400 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Remark UV excitation is almost exclusively determined by the Ce3+ absorption (see CaF2:Ce3+). powderize. + (3.88 eV). add solution to the CaF2 + LiF mix.11 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: + (4.6H2O LiF Mole % 100 0. J. Reference 1. 1000ºC. Dry. air.L..40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: Very poor Absorption (%) 100 Emission . stir to uniformity. 791 (1970). R.26–2. Powderize. Soc. 1 hour.260 Preparation Dissolve the uranyl nitrate in a little methanol. CaF2:U Structure: Cubic (fluorite) Composition Ingredient CaF2 UO2(NH3)2.

plus a little water. 155.V. Dry.. N2. 1000ºC. Dry in air. Status Solidi. H.195 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4. Fire in capped quartz tubes. Luminescence of hexavalent uranium in CaF2 and SrF2 powders. Powderize. Uber die optischen eigenschaften der erdalkalihalogenide vom flussspat-typ(II). 1. 3. R. and Lehmann. ++ (3. Powderize when dry.Spectra 800 700 600 500 400 Wavelength (nm) 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 References 1.. 1 hour. H. 387 (1961).6 1 (of Eu) 17. Karras. CaCl2:Eu2+ in SiO2 Structure: Orthorhombic Composition Ingredient CaO Eu2O3 NH4Cl SiO2 Mole % 7. 1 hour. P. Karras. Phys. Uber die optischen eigenschaften der erdalkalihalogenide vom flussspat-typ(I). Rev. 2. Gorlich. Phys. 1000ºC. Gorlich. mix by dry grinding.40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: Absorption (%) 100 Emission . Status Solidi....88 eV). Phys.. Nicholas. P. Wash in water several times. 1. and Lehmann. 2.5 100 By weight (g) 4.4 60 Preparation Mix by slurrying in methanol.. 151 (1967)..76 9. Fire in capped quartz tubes. Add the above amount of NH4Cl once again. Powderize. J. Optical Properties Emission color: Blue-violet Emission peak: 2. CO.3 1. R.. 1. 551 (1961)..97 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0.

2 10. 2. Lehmann. Electrochem. J. Optical Properties Emission color: Yellow Emission peak: 2. CaCl2:Eu2+. Powderize when dry. Soc. Dry in air.30 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4. Wash in water several times. 1 hour. Heterogeneous halide-silica phosphors.76 1. ++ (3. CO. Fire in capped quartz tubes.15 60 Preparation Mix by slurrying in methanol.Mn2+ in SiO2 Structure: Orthorhombic Composition Ingredient CaO NH4Cl Eu2O3 MnCO3 SiO2 Mole % 7. W. Dry.5 20 1 (of Eu) 1 100 By weight (g) 4. N2.Spectra 800 700 600 500 400 Wavelength (nm) 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Reference 1.09 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0. 1 hour. 122. 1000ºC. 1. Add the above amount of NH4Cl once again. plus a little water.. 748 (1975).. Fire in capped quartz tubes. Powderize.88 eV). mix by dry grinding.7 1. Powderize.40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: Absorption (%) 100 Emission . 900ºC.

122. plus a little water. Mn2+ and CaBr2:Eu2+.5 100 By weight (g) 4. mix by dry grinding.Spectra 800 700 600 500 400 Wavelength (nm) 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Remarks 1. Fire in capped quartz tubes. 1. Powderize. CO. 2. 900ºC. J.40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: Absorption (%) 100 Emission .2 (of Eu) 17. 1 hour.. Dry in air. W. Powderize. Lehmann.. 1 hour. CaBr2:Eu2+ in SiO2 Structure: Orthorhombic Composition Ingredient CaO Eu2O3 NH4Br SiO2 Mole % 7. 748 (1975). Mn2+ are identical. 1000ºC. Optical Properties Emission color: Blue Emission peak: ~2.88 eV). 2.3 2.18 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4. Electrochem. The Cl in this recipe can be replaced by Br. The emissions of CaCl2:Eu2+.1 17. N2. Fire in capped quartz tubes. Wash in water several times. Dry.865 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0. Powderize when dry. ++ (3. Heterogeneous halide-silica phosphors.2 60 Preparation Mix by slurrying in methanol. Add the above amount of NH4Br once again.6 1. Soc. Reference 1.

Fire in capped quartz tubes.88 eV). Soc.67 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0.21 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4. plus a little water. Dry. CO. CaI2:Eu2+ in SiO2 Composition Ingredient CaO CaF2 Eu2O3 NH4I SiO2 Mole % 6 3 2 (of Eu) 20 100 By weight (g) 3. Powderize. 1 hour. Electrochem. Wash in water several times.Spectra 800 700 600 500 400 Wavelength (nm) 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Reference 1. ++ (3. 1. Heterogeneous halide-silica phosphors. Powderize. Powderize when dry. Fire in capped quartz tubes. W.4 2. 122. 900ºC. Dry in air.. 1 hour. J. 1000ºC. N2. 748 (1975).34 3. Add the above amount of NH4I once again.40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: Absorption (%) 100 Emission . Lehmann.5 29 60 Preparation Mix by slurrying in methanol.. mix by dry grinding. 2. Optical Properties Emission color: Light blue Emission peak: 2.

Mn2+ in SiO2 Composition Ingredient CaO CaF2 Eu2O3 MnCO3 NH4I SiO2 Mole % 7 1 0.78 1. additionally a weak Eu2+-emission band at 2. CaI2:Eu2+. 1 hour. W.88 eV). Fire in capped quartz tubes. plus a little water. 748 (1975). 900ºC. slightly pinkish hue Emission peak: 1. Dry in air.Mn2+). Reference 1. Add the above amount of NH4I once again. N2. Powderize when dry. Wash in water several times. mix by dry grinding. Powderize. Heterogeneous halide-silica phosphors. 2..Spectra 800 700 600 500 400 Wavelength (nm) 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Remark This phosphor is sensitive to even very small traces of Mn which causes a red emission band (see CaI2:Eu2+.14 0. 1 hour.29 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4. Soc.70 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0. Dry. 1. Optical Properties Emission color: Light red.1 15 100 By weight (g) 3. J.115 21 60 Preparation Mix by slurrying in methanol. 122.65 (of Eu) 0. Lehmann. CO. Fire in capped quartz tubes. 1000ºC.9 0. Powderize..40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: – Absorption (%) 100 Emission . Electrochem. ++ (3.95 eV.

122. Lehmann. 896 453 (1972).06 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0. ++ (3.40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: + Reference 1. 748 (1975). C. Pat.. J. W.30 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4.12 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4. Electrochem. Soc.Spectra 800 700 600 500 400 Wavelength (nm) 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Reference 1.88 eV).88 eV). Can.F.95 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0... SrCl2:Eu2+ in SiO2 Optical Properties Emission color: Violet Emission peak: 3. Chenot.40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: Absorption (%) 100 Emission .. Heterogeneous halide-silica phosphors. ++ (3. SrF2:Eu2+ Structure: Cubic (fluorite) Optical Properties Emission color: Violet Emission peak: 2..

and for SrI2 is 0.16 eV. for SrCl2 is 0. Sr(Cl.5 (of Eu) 17. Dry in air. plus a little water. for SrBr2 at ~3.12 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4. Wash in water several times. W. Electrochem. Emission width (FWHM): Width also depending on used halide. CO.06 eV. Fire in capped quartz tubes. ++ (3. 122.40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: Absorption (%) 100 Emission ..Spectra 800 700 600 500 400 Wavelength (nm) 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Reference 1.865 eV. Dry. J.3 2. Lehmann. 2. 900ºC. Fire in capped quartz tubes.88 eV).Br.015 eV.6 9. 1 hour. and SrI2 at ~2. Powderize when dry.. Soc. Powderize. Heterogeneous halide-silica phosphors. 748 (1975).4 60 Preparation Mix by slurrying in methanol. for SrBr2 is 0. mix by dry grinding. for SrCl2 is at ~3. 1. Add the above amount of NH4I once again. 1000ºC.I)2:Eu2+ in SiO2 Structure: Cubic Composition Ingredient SrO Eu2O3 NH4Cl SiO2 Mole % 8 1.175 eV.5 100 By weight (g) 8. 1 hour. Optical Properties Emission color: Violet Emission peaks: Peak position depending on the used halide. N2. Powderize.

122. and Huysman.. Zalm. 2. J. 748 (1975).Spectra 800 700 600 500 400 Wavelength (nm) 300 Emission SrI2 SrBr2 SrCl2 100 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Remark The Cl in this recipe can be replaced by Br or I. Klasens. New York (1949). F. Electrochem. ... Leverenz. H. The manganese emission in ABF3 compounds. Lehmann. John Wiley & Sons. 8.24 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: (4.. Reference 1.W.88 eV). P. W. Soc.A.40 eV) 400 Wavelength (nm) 300 100 Emission 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 References 1. An Introduction to Luminescence of Solids. Rep. ZnF2:Mn2+ Structure: Tetragonal Optical Properties Emission color: Orange-yellow Emission peak: 2...12 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0. H. Excitation efficiency by e-beam: + Spectra 800 700 600 500 (3.. Heterogeneous halide-silica phosphors. 441 (1953).O. Philips Res.

.R.F. Am. Am. C.04 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4. ++ (3.. BaxSr1–xF2:Eu2+ Structure: Cubic (fluorite) Optical Properties Emission color: varies with composition from yellow to blue Emission peak: varies with composition from 2. and Rosenbaum.8Sr0.. J. Fonda.S. and Studer F.S.. Electrochem.L...2Sr0. 189 (1954).8F2:Eu 2+ Ba0.7F2:Eu 2+ 2+ 2+ 100 Emission 50 Ba0.1Sr0. Can. 124 (1952).04 to 3.9F2:Eu 2+ Ba0. Soc. Mou.... and McClure... Opt. P. W. J. 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Absorption (%) 100 ... 2.88 eV). 4.3.3Sr0. J. Optical properties of zinc fluoride phosphors. J.. 47 no. 709 (1949). Phys. Soc. D. F. Chem.F. Opt. 39. 896 453 (1972). F.D. Studer.E. J.. B. Chenot. 38. Soc.17. and Williams.2F2:Eu 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) Wavelength (nm) 5 0 800 700 600 500 2+ 400 300 Excitation BaF2:Eu 50 2 3 References 1. Rev. 38. Johnson.. G. 11031–11038 (1993). 101. Pat. Johnson. J. Photoionization and trapping of electrons in the system BaF2:Eu:Sm. F. Thermoluminescence of manganese-activated zinc fluoride phosphors. 5. 7. 20.4Sr0.E.. Smith.J. 1007 (1948). J. and Williams. Energy levels and rate processes in the thallium activated potassium chloride phosphor.J.40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: + Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 SrF2:Eu 2+ Ba0.. 6. The phosphorescence decay of halophosphates and other doubly activated phosphors. Opt. Phys. New manganese-activated fluoride phosphors. Soc. Am. A.6F2:Eu Ba0. 1007 (1948).

Study on characteristics of wideband luminescence of Eu and Yb ions in crystals with fluorite structure. 235 (1962) [Opt. 13. Spectrosc.88 eV). Spectrosc. E. P. Spektr.G.. and Feofilov. Excitation efficiency by e-beam: + Spectra 800 700 600 500 (3. Spektr. (USSR) 40. Spectrosc. Reut. Nature of luminescence of bivalent Eu and Yb ions in fluorite-type crystals..P. 40. (USSR) 45.88 eV)..60 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: (4.G. E.40 eV) 400 Wavelength (nm) 300 100 Emission 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 YF3:Mn2+. 290 (1978)]. Spectra of divalent rare earth ions in crystals of alkali-earth fluorides. Excitation efficiency by e-beam: + (3. 129 (1962)].60 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0. 2.A..38 and 2. Opt.40 eV) .. Europium and Ytterbium. 4. Reut. Spektr. 55 (1976)]. 518 (1978) [Opt. A. Kaplyansky.. Opt..29 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: (4. 99 (1976) [Opt.Th4+ Structure: Orthorhombic Optical Properties Emission color: Light blue Emission peak: 2. 5. Opt. (USSR) 13. 45.3. YF3:Mn2+ Structure: Orthorhombic Optical Properties Emission color: Greenish Emission peaks: 2.

Excitation efficiency by e-beam: (3. 3. 19. Divalent europium luminescence in perovskite-like alkaline-earth alkaline fluorides.. 2. and Tsuboi. 293 (1994). J. Ellens.08 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0. Moon. J. A.88 eV). 59. Seo.88 eV).. T.. Rev. 62. Sommerdijk. Two-photon excitation spectroscopy of 4f7 4f7 transitions of Eu2+ ions doped in a KMgF3 crystal. KMgF3:Mn2+ Structure: Cubic (perovskite) Optical Properties Emission color: Orange Emission peak: 2..L. G. Lumin. and Bril. – (3.40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: + .. 11. 363 (1976). B.. Lumin.. Meijerink. A. B. Phys. A. and Blasse.Spectra 800 700 600 500 400 Wavelength (nm) 300 100 Emission 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 KMgF3:Eu2+ Structure: Cubic (perovskite) Optical Properties Emission color: UV Emission peak: 3.K. no. J.18 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: – (4..40 eV) References 1.J.42 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: + (4. H.. 12688–12695 (2000). 6I emission and vibronic transitions of Eu2+ in KMgF3 ..

Cathodoluminescent J.40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: + Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 100 Emission 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 K2SiF6:Mn4+ Structure: Cubic Optical Properties Emission color: Red Emission peak: 1. R. – (3.Spectra 800 700 600 500 400 Wavelength (nm) 300 100 Emission 50 2 3 Reference 1. LiAlF4:Mn2+ Optical Properties Emission color: Red Emission peak: 1. 18 (1962). Soc.. Kurtz. 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 characteristics of Mn-activated KMgF3 .88 eV).99 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0.88 eV).40 eV) .J. ++ (3. Electrochem.26 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: – (4. 109..97 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4.

Efficient Mn(IV) emission in fluorine coordination. J.88 eV). Powderize.. A. Soc.G. 2.996 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: – (4. Optical Properties Emission color: Red Emission peaks: 1.150 eV. Boil down to dry (slowly. 1100ºC. Powderize. ½ hour. Paulusz. Electrochem. Fire in capped quartz tubes. – (3. main line at 1. Wash in water several times. 120..8 108 Preparation Make a suspension of all ingredients in water. 1 hour. 942 (1973). N2. YOBr:Eu3+ Structure: Rhombohedral Composition Ingredient Y 2O 3 Eu2O3 NH4Br Mole % 95 (of Y) 5 (of Eu) 110 By weight (g) 107.Spectra 800 700 600 500 400 Wavelength (nm) 300 100 Emission 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Reference 1. ~500ºC. N2. Dry.4 8.40 eV) .967–2. 1. Fire in capped quartz tubes. to let the conversion of Y2O3 to YOBr take place). Powderize.

346 (1970). 117.. Absorption (%) 100 Emission .. Electrochem. It tends either to be partly reduced (forming Eu2+. Blasse. Photoluminescent efficiency of phosphors with electronic transitions in localized centers.47 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4. 3..40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: + Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 100 Emission 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 References 1. Keep dry. Rev. A.. Philips Tech. Soc. Blasse.Spectra 800 700 600 500 400 Wavelength (nm) 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Remarks 1. The absorption and emission spectra of some important activators.. 31. G. J. and Bril. J. 2. and Bril. Fast-decay phosphors.. G.A.24 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0. G. and Bril. YOCl:Ce3+ Structure: Rhombohedral (matlockite) Optical Properties Emission color: Violet UV Emission peak: 3.. 2. Soc.. blue emission) or to be partly oxidized (liberating brown bromine). A. 1.. 1067 (1968).. This phosphor is difficult to prepare.88 eV). 304 (1970). Blasse.D. – (3. A. Electrochem. Characteristic luminescence. J. This phosphor is hygroscopic. 115. and Poorter.

Powderize. 1100ºC.4 8. Fire in capped quartz tubes. main peak at 2... G.. N2. 2. Reference 1. Dry. 440 (1966). ~500ºC.14 eV. Blasse. 1.40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Remark This phosphor is hygroscopic.YOCl:Eu3+ Structure: Rhombohedral (matlockite) Composition Ingredient Y 2O 3 Eu2O3 NH4Cl Mole % 95 (of Y) 5 (of Eu) 110 By weight (g) 107. A. Broad band UV excitation of Sm3+-activated phosphors. 23.97–2. and Bril. Phys. Absorption (%) 100 Emission . to let the conversion of Y2O3 to YOCl take place). Optical Properties Emission color: Red Emission peaks: 1. N2. 1 hour. Keep dry. Powderize. Fire in capped quartz tubes. Lett. Wash in water several times.88 eV). Powderize. Boil down to dry (slowly. ½ hour. – (3.00 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4.8 59 Preparation Make a suspension of all ingredients in water.

. Powderize when dry. Phys.977. Optical Properties Emission color: Light red Emission peaks: 1.6 Preparation Mix by slurrying in water or methanol.105 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: + (4. A. Fire in capped quartz tubes. Lett. YOF:Tb3+ Composition Ingredient Y 2O 3 Tb4O7 YF3 Mole % 61 (of Y) 5 (of Tb) 34 By weight (g) 69 9.4 49. – (3.. 2. Broad band UV excitation of Sm3+-activated phosphors. N2. 1 hour. Blasse.YOF:Eu3+ Composition Ingredient Y 2O 3 Eu2O3 YF3 Mole % 64 (of Y) 2 (of Eu) 34 By weight (g) 72.3 3. G. 1.88 eV). N2.5 49. 23. and 2.6 Absorption (%) 100 Emission . Powderize. 1200ºC..038. 1 hour. Fire in capped quartz tubes. 440 (1966). and Bril.40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Reference 1. 1000ºC. 2. Dry in air.

Dry in air. 2. Powderize when dry. Fire in capped quartz tubes. 1 hour. 2. main line at 1.981–2. Powderize. 1. Powderize when dry. 1000ºC.Preparation Mix by slurrying in water or methanol.982–2.145 eV. 1 hour. Powderize. Fire in capped quartz tubes.6 Preparation Mix by slurrying in water or methanol. N2. LaOF:Eu3+ Composition Ingredient La2O3 Eu2O3 LaF3 Mole % 61 (of La) 5 (of Eu) 34 By weight (g) 99.88 eV).8 66. N2. 1000ºC.88 eV). N2.40 eV) . – (3. N2.981 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: + (4.993 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: – (4.40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: +/4–5% Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 100 Emission 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Remark UV excitation is very poor (too little absorption) and can probably be improved by addition of Ce3+. 1 hour. – (3. Optical Properties Emission color: Red Emission peak: 1. Dry in air. Fire in capped quartz tubes. 1200ºC. Optical Properties Emission color: Pale green Emission peaks: 1. Fire in capped quartz tubes. 1. 1200ºC.4 8. 1 hour.

Proc. Investigations on BI3+-activated phosphors. 48. 2. Photoluminescence processes in LaOCl-Bi and YOCl-Bi. 95 (1975). Phys.Spectra 800 700 600 500 400 Wavelength (nm) 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 LaOCl:Bi3+ Structure: Rhombohedral (matlockite) Optical Properties Emission color: UV Emission peak: 3. Lumin..40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: + Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 50 2 3 References 1. B. Conf. G.58 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: + (4. and Bril. Boulon. 3. Jaquier.. 217 (1968). J. 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Absorption (%) 100 Emission Absorption (%) 100 Emission ...88 eV). 217 (1968).. Int. J. 48. et al. G.56 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0. Chem.. Phys. 10. Blasse. – (3. A..

88 eV). A. 1. Rev.LaOCl:Eu3+ Structure: Rhombohedral (matlockite) Optical Properties Emission color: Light red Emission peak: 2.. Philips Tech. and Bril. 31. Characteristic luminescence.. 304 (1970).. – (3. G. The absorption and emission spectra of some important activators.40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: – Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Reference 1. Absorption (%) 100 Emission .02 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: + (4. Blasse.

Mn2+ Mg2Sr(SO4)3:Eu2+ MgSO4:Eu2+ Structure: Orthorhombic Composition Ingredient MgSO4 Eu2O3 (NH4)2SO4 NH4Cl Mole % 97 3 ~10 1 By weight (g) 117 5. + (3. 1 hour.4.Mn2+ SrSO4:Eu2+ BaSO4:Ce3+ BaSO4:Eu2+ MgBa(SO4)2:Eu2+ Mg2Ca(SO4)3:Eu2+ Mg2Ca(SO4)3:Eu2+. N2.12 Sulfates The following host compounds and activators are included in this subsection: MgSO4:Eu2+ MgSO4:Pb2+ CaSO4:Eu2+. Powderize. Optical Properties Emission color: UV Emission peak: 3. Fire in capped quartz tubes.88 eV).540 Preparation Mix by dry grinding or milling. Store in well-closed containers.2 0.Mn2+ CaSO4:Pb2+ CaSO4:Bi CaSO4:Ce3+ CaSO4:Ce3+. 1000ºC.31 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0.24 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: + (4.40 eV) .Mn2+ CaSO4:Eu2+ SrSO4:Bi SrSO4:Ce3+ SrSO4:Eu2+.3 13.

MgSO4:Pb2+ Structure: Orthorhombic Composition Ingredient MgSO4 PbO (NH4)2SO4 NH4Cl Mole % 97 3 ~10 1 By weight (g) 117 56. – (3. 1000ºC.88 eV).46 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: – (4.Spectra 800 700 600 500 400 Wavelength (nm) 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Remark MgSO4 (epsom salt) is water soluble. Optical Properties Emission color: UV Emission peak: 4. Powderize. N2. Fire in capped quartz tubes.540 Preparation Mix by dry grinding or milling.2 0.7 13. 1 hour.40 eV) Absorption (%) 100 Emission .65 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0. Keep dry. Store in well-closed containers.

2.42 eV (Mn2+).Mn2+ Structure: Orthorhombic (anhydrite) Composition Ingredient CaSO4 Eu2O3 MnCO3 (NH4)2SO4 Mole % 90 5 (of Eu) 5 ~10 By weight (g) 123 8.Spectra 800 700 600 500 400 Wavelength (nm) 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Remarks 1. ++ (3. 1 hour.8 5.40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: +/1% Absorption (%) 100 Emission . Dry.30 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4. Wash in water several times. Keep dry. Fire in capped quartz tubes. 800ºC.20 eV (Eu2+) Emission width (FWHM): 0.75 13. N2.2 Preparation Mix by dry grinding or milling. Add ~5 g of NH4Br and ~10 g of (NH4)2SO4. MgSO4 (epsom salt) is water soluble. ½ hour. Powderize. CaSO4:Eu2+. 900ºC.88 eV). Powderize. This material is excited only by UV of ~240 nm or shorter and apparently is fairly efficient. 2. N2. Fire in capped quartz tubes. Optical Properties Emission color: Bluish-green Emission peak: 2. mix by dry grinding. 3. 1.

Add another 6. N2. Powderize. – (3.88 eV).40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: + Absorption (%) 100 Emission . Dry. Mix by dry grinding.23 6. N2. 2. Add 5 g of NH4Cl. shifting to blue-green for 1% Mn and to yellow-green for 10% Mn. Fire in capped quartz tubes. 1 hour. N2. CaSO4:Pb2+ Structure: Orthorhombic (anhydrite) Composition Ingredient CaSO4 CaF2 PbO (NH4)2SO4 Mole % 98 1 1 ~5 By weight (g) 133 0. 1050ºC.33 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0. Optical Properties Emission color: UV Emission peak: 5. 3.6 g of (NH4)2SO4. Wash in water several times. 950ºC.780 2.6 Preparation Mix by dry grinding or milling. 1 hour. 1. 1000ºC. Powderize.Spectra 800 700 600 500 400 Wavelength (nm) 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Remark The spectral positions of the Mn2+-emission band depends on the Mn concentration used. Fire in capped quartz tubes. Mix by dry grinding. Fire in capped quartz tubes. 1 hour.33 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: – (4.

Add another 5–6 g of (NH4)2SO4.5 6.02 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0.88 eV). 1 hour.Spectra 800 700 600 500 400 Wavelength (nm) 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 6 0 Remarks 1. 2. This phosphor is excited only by UV of ~220 nm or shorter and is fairly efficient.16 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: – (4. N2. Fire in covered alumina crucibles.7% Absorption (%) 100 Emission .40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: +/0. N2. Dry. Fire in covered alumina crucibles. Optical Properties Emission color: Light red Emission peak: 2. – (3. Powderize.6 Preparation Mix by dry grinding or milling. mix by dry grinding. Wash in water several times. 950ºC. It discolors in fluorescent lamps because of (probably) undissolved PbSO4 dissociation to PbO. 1 hour. 900ºC. CaSO4:Bi Structure: Orthorhombic (anhydrite) Composition Ingredient CaSO4 Bi2O3 Na2SO4 (NH4)2SO4 Mole % 98 1 (of Bi) 5 (of Na) ~5 By weight (g) 118 2. 1. 2.3 3.

40 eV) Absorption (%) 100 Emission .01 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4. CaSO4:Ce3+ Structure: Orthorhombic (anhydrite) Composition Ingredient CaSO4 CeO2 Na2SO4 (NH4)2SO4 Mole % 94 3 5 (of Na) ~10 By weight (g) 128 5. Reference 1. Wash in water several times. 1 hour. N2. 1 hour. Dry. 96. F.6 13. Bismuth as activator in fluorescent solids. Fire in covered alumina crucibles.Spectra 800 700 600 500 400 Wavelength (nm) 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Remark The nature of this red emission is still unknown: It is not likely to be due to Bi3+ but it may possibly be due to Bi5+ substituting for S6+. Electrochem. Fire in covered alumina crucibles.. et al..2 3. 2. Powderize..79 eV. J. 900ºC. Powderize. N2. 1. mix by dry grinding.A. Add above amounts of Na2SO4 and (NH4)2SO4 once again. 4. Kröger. Soc.2 Preparation Mix by dry grinding or milling. – (3.88 eV). 900ºC. Optical Properties Emission color: UV Emission peak: 3. 132 (1949).

Wash in water several times. 4. 1 hour. 800ºC. Add ~2 g of Li2SO4 and ~6 g of (NH4)2SO4. Add ~10 g of (NH4)2SO4.36 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4.35 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0. Powderize. mix by dry grinding. Fire in capped quartz tubes. 1. Fire in capped quartz tubes. Fire in capped quartz tubes. 3. Powderize. 700ºC. 1000ºC.9 13. Fire in capped quartz tubes. N2. mix by dry grinding. Add ~6 g of (NH4)2SO4.40 eV) Absorption (%) 100 Emission . N2.3 6. N2.5 2. Dry. Powderize.5 6 ~10 By weight (g) 121 4. 2. N2. 700ºC.88 eV).2 Preparation Mix by dry grinding or milling.Spectra 800 700 600 500 400 Wavelength (nm) 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 CaSO4:Ce3+.Mn2+ Structure: Orthorhombic (anhydrite) Composition Ingredient CaSO4 CeO2 MnCO4 (NH4)2SO4 Mole % 88. Optical Properties Emission color: Yellow-green Emission peak: 2. Powderize. mix by dry grinding. ++ (3.

2. Abstr. Powderize. J. about 1. N2. mix by dry grinding. Meeting. 1000ºC.12 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4.6 Preparation Mix by dry grinding or milling. Soc.1 µsec to 1/10 Absorption (%) 100 Emission . Tech. 232 (1958).40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: +/4% Decay: Near-exponential decay. Electrochem. CaSO4:Eu2+ Structure: Orthorhombic (anhydrite) Composition Ingredient CaSO4 Eu2O3 (NH4)2SO4 Mole % 99 1 (of Eu) ~5 By weight (g) 135 1. 157 (May 1976). 950ºC. Powderize. 1 hour. Washington. 1 hour.88 eV). J.. Optical Properties Emission color: Very deep violet Emission peak: 3. Wiss. OSRAM Ges. N2. Wash in water several times.. Fire in capped quartz tubes.6 g of (NH4)2SO4. 2. Fire in capped quartz tubes. DC. mix by dry grinding. 1 hour.20 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0. 1.Spectra 800 700 600 500 400 Wavelength (nm) 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 References 1. 3. 7.76 6. N2. Abh. Add another 6... Fire in capped quartz tubes. Rudolf. ++ (3. and Ruffler. Rabatin. Powderize. H. Add 5 g of NH4Cl. Dry. 950ºC.

.. Fire in covered alumina crucibles.5 6.88 eV). 2. 2 051 240 (1971). SrSO4 and BaSO4.5% Absorption (%) 100 Emission .15 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: – (4. Luckey. mix by dry grinding. D. Pat. U. K. N2. Powderize. Dixon.04 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0.. Fire in covered alumina crucibles. 1 hour.40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: +/1–1. and Ekstrand.L. J. Optical Properties Emission color: Orange-red Emission peak: 2. Wachtel. A..S. Lumin.6 Preparation Mix by dry grinding or milling. 2. – (3. 1 hour. SrSO4:Bi Structure: Orthorhombic Composition Ingredient SrSO4 Bi2O3 Na2SO4 (NH4)2SO4 Mole % 98 1 (of Bi) 5 (of Na) ~5 By weight (g) 180 2..Spectra 800 700 600 500 400 Wavelength (nm) 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Remark This CaSO4 phosphor is stable in water. 3. Powderize. Add another 5–6 g of (NH4)2SO4. 3 669 897 (1971). Thermoluminescence of rare earth activated CdSO4.3 3. 900ºC. R. 950ºC. Dry. 383 (1974). References 1. Pat. Germ.. Wash in water several times. N2. 1.. 8.E.

J. 900ºC.A. mix by dry grinding.11 eV (Two overlapping bands) Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4. 96. Reference 1.6 13.. Powderize. 1 hour. Optical Properties Emission color: UV Emission peak: 3. Bismuth as activator in fluorescent solids. – (3. 1.Spectra 800 700 600 500 400 Wavelength (nm) 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Remark The nature of this emission is still unknown: It is not likely to be due to Bi3+ but it may possibly be due to Bi5+ substituting for S6+. Wash in water several times. Fire in covered alumina crucibles.88 eV).89 and 4. et al. 900ºC. N2. SrSO4:Ce3+ Structure: Orthorhombic Composition Ingredient SrSO4 CeO2 Na2SO4 (NH4)2SO4 Mole % 94 3 5 (of Na) ~10 By weight (g) 173 5. 1 hour. Add the above amounts of Na2SO4 and (NH4)2SO4 once again. Powderize.2 Preparation Mix by dry grinding or milling.2 3. 2.40 eV) Absorption (%) 100 Emission .. 132 (1949). Soc. Kröger. Electrochem. F. N2. Dry. Fire in covered alumina crucibles.

Fire in capped quartz tubes. N2.88 eV). Optical Properties Emission color: UV Emission peak: 3. 1 hour. Fire in capped quartz tubes.19 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0. ++ (3. 800ºC.24 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4.6 Preparation Mix by dry grinding or milling. Add another 6. Wash in water several times. mix by dry grinding. 1. 900ºC.Spectra 800 700 600 500 400 Wavelength (nm) 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 SrSO4:Eu2+.40 eV) SrSO4:Eu2+ Structure: Orthorhombic Composition Ingredient SrSO4 Eu2O3 SrF2 (NH4)2SO4 Mole % 98 2 (of Eu) 1 ~5 By weight (g) 180 3.Mn2+ Structure: Orthorhombic Optical Properties Emission color: Orange Emission peak: 2. N2.5 1.30 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0.29 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4. ++ (3. Powderize.40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: +/5% Decay: Near-exponential decay. Powderize.88 eV).6 g of (NH4)2SO4. 1 hour. 900ºC. 1 hour. Add 5 g of NH4Cl. Powderize. mix by dry grinding. Fire in capped quartz tubes. about 5 µsec to 1/10 Absorption (%) 100 Emission . Dry. 2. 3.26 6.

D. R.. Fire in covered alumina crucibles. 1. 900ºC. Wash in water several times.2 3.E. A. SrSO4 and BaSO4.88 eV). – (3.S. 383 (1974). 8. Luckey. Pat. and Ekstrand. 3. 4. 900ºC. 2. Powderize. 1 hour. 2. 1 hour.Spectra 800 700 600 500 400 Wavelength (nm) 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 References 1... Powderize. N2. BaSO4:Ce3+ Structure: Orthorhombic Composition Ingredient BaSO4 CeO2 Na2SO4 (NH4)2SO4 Mole % 94 3 5 (of Na) ~10 By weight (g) 173 5..2 Preparation Mix by dry grinding or milling.. U. Fire in covered alumina crucibles. Wachtel.L.. Pat. Dixon. Dry. 2 051 240 (1971). J.89 eV.6 13.40 eV) Absorption (%) 100 Emission . K.11 eV (Two overlapping bands) Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4.. mix by dry grinding. Thermoluminescence of rare earth activated CdSO4. 3 669 897 (1971). N2. Optical Properties Emission color: UV Emission peak: 3. Lumin. Germ. Add the above amounts of Na2SO4 and (NH4)2SO4 once again.

6 g of (NH4)2SO4. N2.30 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0. 1 hour.88 eV). Powderize.21 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4. N2. 1 hour.Spectra 800 700 600 500 400 Wavelength (nm) 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 BaSO4:Eu2+ Structure: Orthorhombic Composition Ingredient BaSO4 Eu2O3 SrF2 (NH4)2SO4 Mole % 98 2 (of Eu) 1 ~5 By weight (g) 180 3. mix by dry grinding.26 6. Add another 6. mix by dry grinding. Fire in capped quartz tubes. Powderize. Optical Properties Emission color: UV Emission peak: 3. 3. 800ºC. Wash in water several times.6 Preparation Mix by dry grinding or milling. 2.5 1. Dry. 1. Powderize. + (3. 1 hour. Fire in capped quartz tubes. Fire in capped quartz tubes. Add 5 g of NH4Cl. 900ºC. about 5 µsec to 1/10 Absorption (%) 100 Emission . 900ºC.40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: +/5% Decay: Near-exponential decay.

– (3. Add ~10 g of (NH4)2SO4. 1 hour. mix by dry grinding.88 eV). Powderize.2 Preparation Mix by dry grinding or milling. Powderize. 2 051 240 (1971). Pat. 900ºC. 2. Germ.. D. N2. Luckey. Fire in capped quartz tubes. 1. N2. 1 hour.Spectra 800 700 600 500 400 Wavelength (nm) 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Reference 1. MgBa(SO4)2:Eu2+ Structure: KAl (SO4)2 Composition Ingredient MgSO4 BaSO4 Eu2O3 (NH4)2SO4 Mole % 100 94 6 (of Eu) ~10 By weight (g) 120 219 10.. 1100ºC. Fire in capped quartz tubes.6 13.455 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4. Optical Properties Emission color: UV Emission peak: Main peak at 3.40 eV) Absorption (%) 100 Emission . Store in a well-closed container.

P.. Fire in capped quartz tubes. Sakaguchi. J.. 950ºC. et al. Blasse.P. Electrochem. J.M.. J. G. 2. 124. Chem. G. Electrochem. 1272 (1977). Crystal-structure of barium magnesiumsulfate.06 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0.. G. VanDenHeuvel. Thermoluminescence characteristics of binary sulfate phosphors.. ++ (3.. 17.. 4. Soc. F..Spectra 800 700 600 500 400 Wavelength (nm) 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Remark This material decomposes in contact with water or in moist air.40 eV) Absorption (%) 100 Emission .. 1475 (1974).28 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4. J. and VanDenHeuvel. Nucl. References 1. Add ~5 g of NH4Br. J. Ryan.2 Preparation Mix by dry grinding or milling. et al.88 eV). and Stegenga. Inorg. Mg2Ca(SO4)3:Eu2+ Composition Ingredient MgSO4 CaSO4 Eu2O3 (NH4)2SO4 Mole % 200 94 6 (of Eu) ~10 By weight (g) 240 128 10. 38. Soc. Fire in capped quartz tubes. Luminescence of barium magnesium-sulfate..M. Solid State Chem. 900ºC. G. Powderize. Blasse. M. 876 (1976). Optical Properties Emission color: Violet Emission peak: 3. 439 (1976). N2. 1 hour. 121.M. mix by dry grinding. Fine-structure in optical-spectra of divalent europium in alkalineearth sulfates. 3. N2.6 13. 1.. and ~10 g of (NH4)2SO4. 2.

950ºC. Add ~5 g of NH4Br.8 9. Keep dry.Mn2+ Composition Ingredient MgSO4 CaSO4 Eu2O3 MnCO3 (NH4)2SO4 Mole % 200 87 5 (of Eu) 8 ~10 By weight (g) 240 119 8.2 13.2 Preparation Mix by dry grinding or milling.88 eV). Fire in capped quartz tubes. 2. 1 hour. Optical Properties Emission color: Orange-red Emission peak: 2. ++ (3. N2.01 eV (Mn2+). Mg2Ca(SO4)3:Eu2+. 1. 3.40 eV) Spectra 800 700 600 500 400 Wavelength (nm) 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Absorption (%) 100 Emission Absorption (%) 100 Emission . N2.06 eV (Eu2+) Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4. and ~10 g of (NH4)2SO4.Spectra 800 700 600 500 400 Wavelength (nm) 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Remark This material decomposes in contact with water or in moist air. mix by dry grinding. Fire in capped quartz tubes. 900ºC. Powderize.

Store in a well-closed container. mix by dry grinding. N2. Optical Properties Emission color: Barely visible deep violet Emission peak: 3. + (3. Keep dry. Powderize.40 eV) Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Remark This material decomposes in contact with water or in moist air. Add 10 g of (NH4)2SO4. N2.88 eV). 900ºC. Fire in capped quartz tubes.2 Preparation Mix by dry grinding or milling. Fire in capped quartz tubes.6 13. Mg2Sr(SO4)3:Eu2+ Composition Ingredient MgO SrSO4 Eu2O3 (NH4)2SO4 Mole % 200 94 6 (of Eu) ~10 By weight (g) 240 173 10.23 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4. 2. 1100ºC.21 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0. 1. Powderize. 1 hour. Absorption (%) 100 Emission .Remark This material decomposes in contact with water or in moist air. 1 hour.

Sn ZnS:Cu+.3 5 By weight (g) 98 0.Br.Br long life ZnS-CdS:Cu.Ag ZnS:Sn2+.Cl ZnS:Au.Te2+ ZnS:P ZnS:P3 .5 Preparation Dissolve the AgNO3 and the NH4Cl separately. Dry in air.Cu ZnS:Sn2+ ZnS:Sn.050 2. each in a little water. Powderize when dry.In ZnS:Cl ZnS:Cu.Cl ZnS:Eu2+ ZnS:Mn2+ ZnS:Mn2+.I ZnS-CdS (25-75) ZnS-CdS (50-50) ZnS-CdS (75-25) ZnS-CdS:Ag.Br high brightness ZnS-ZnTe:Mn2+ 98-2 ZnS:Ag+.Cl ZnS:Pb2+ ZnS:Pb2+.Cl CdS:Ag+. and stir again.Li+ ZnSe:Cu+. stir. . First add the silver solution.Cl Structure: Hexagonal (wurtzite) Composition Ingredient ZnS AgNO3 NH4Cl Mole % 100 0.Ni ZnS-CdS:Ag+.4.13 ZnS-Type Sulfides The following host compounds and activators are included in this subsection: ZnS:Ag+.Cl CdS:In ZnS-CdS:Cu.Cl ZnS-CdS:Cu. then add the NH4Cl solution. Make a slurry of the ZnS in water or methanol.Al3+ ZnS:Cu+.Cl ZnS:Pb.

Absorption (%) 100 Emission .40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: ++ Decay: Non-exponential decay in the microsecond range Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Remarks 1.80 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0.Add ~2–3 g of sulfur.W. P. References 1. Optical Properties Emission color: Blue Emission peak: 2.In Structure: Hexagonal (wurtzite) Composition Ingredient ZnS Au metal In2O3 NH4Cl Mole % 100 0. An Introduction to Luminescence of Solids. 2. ZnS:Au.5 Preparation Dissolve the gold in a very little amount of aqua regia.. Add this solution to the ZnS. Ed. S. Powderize. John Wiley & Sons.005 0.002 (of In) 5 By weight (g) 98 0. Goldberg.010 0. New York (1949). Academic Press. Dry. Shionoya.. Dry. in Luminescence of Inorganic Solids. ++ (3. The chlorine in the above recipe may be replaced by bromine.. 2. H. Wash in water several times (to remove leftover halide). Make a slurry in methanol.88 eV). New York (1966). 1 hour.. Leverenz.0023 2. 1100ºC.34 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4. N2. Powderize. This phosphor corresponds to the commercial P-22B. Fire in capped quartz tubes.

Fire in capped quartz tubes. dry. 3.40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: + Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Remark The green phosphorescence of this phosphor after excitation by UV or by e-beam is visible for several hours in the dark. ZnS:Cl Structure: Cubic. Fire in open quartz boats.40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: ++ Absorption (%) 100 Emission . 2. N2. 1 hour. ++ (3. stir. 1200ºC. Powderize. 900ºC.34 eV. add the solution to the slurry. Optical Properties Emission color: Blue-green. and powderize. Add the dry NH4Cl and about 2–3 g of sulfur. 1 hour. 900ºC. Make a slurry of the phosphor in methanol.70 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0. N2. hexagonal (wurtzite) Optical Properties Emission color: Blue Emission peak: 2.1. 2. 900ºC.88 eV). H2S. 4.88 eV). ++ (3. 1 hour. Powderize. Fire in open quartz boats. Fire in capped quartz tubes.67 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0.50 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4. long afterglow Emission peaks: 2.34 eV (First peak) Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4. Add about 2–3 g of sulfur. Dissolve the In2O3 in a little nitric acid. H2S. mix by dry grinding.

New York (1966).. in Luminescence of Inorganic Solids. An Introduction to Luminescence of Solids.. Dry. Goldberg. Leverenz. Fire in capped quartz tubes. Make a slurry in water or methanol. Powderize. H. Ed.Spectra (cubic) 800 700 600 500 400 Wavelength (nm) 300 100 Emission 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) Wavelength (nm) 5 0 Spectra (hexagonal) 800 700 600 500 400 300 100 Emission 50 2 3 References 1. 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 ZnS:Cu.150 0. N2. Academic Press.001 By weight (g) 98 0. John Wiley & Sons.Sn Structure: Hexagonal (wurtzite) Composition Ingredient ZnS SnS Cu(C2H3O2)2. S.W. 1150ºC. 2. New York (1949).1 0. H2O Mole % 100 0. P. Shionoya. 1 hour.. .002 Preparation Dissolve the copper acetate in a little water. Add ~2–3 g of sulfur. add solution to the ZnS + SnS mix..

Irradiation of near-IR during excitation by 3.40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: ++ Decay: Non-exponential decay in the microsecond range Absorption (%) 100 Emission .88 eV). 1 hour.Optical Properties Emission color: Green Emission peak: 2.32 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4. ZnS:Cu+.32 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4. Optical Properties Emission color: Green. Wash in water several times (stir. This phosphor is much more sensitive to IR than the fairly well-known ZnS:Cu.40 eV) Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Remarks 1.3 By weight (g) 98 0. ++ (3. 2. Emission peak: 2. H2O AlCl3 Mole % 100 0.400 Preparation Dissolve the copper acetate and the aluminum chloride together in a little water.Al3+ Structure: Hexagonal (wurtzite) Composition Ingredient ZnS Cu(C2H3O2)2.40 eV UV causes strong quenching of the green emission. Fire in capped quartz tubes. Add solution to the ZnS mix. let settle) to remove left over chloride.Co phosphor. Dry.88 eV). Add enough water or methanol to make a uniform slurry.001 0. H2S. ++ (3. long afterglow tail. Add ~2–3 g of sulfur.38 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0.002 0. Dry.41 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0. Powderize. 1100ºC.

Amsterdam (1948). John Wiley & Sons. Structure: Cubic (zinc blende) ZnS:Cu+. and Cleiren.40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: ++ Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 100 Emission 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Reference 1. 2. Some Aspects of Luminescence of Solids.. H.. Rep.Spectra 800 700 600 500 400 Wavelength (nm) 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Remarks 1. ++ (3. Philips Res.P.. A. 2. Gool.79 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0. Absorption (%) 100 Emission .. The chlorine in the above recipe may be replaced by bromine. 2. New York (1949).. Elsevier.34 eV. 15. Kröger. References 1. 238 (1960). W.A. This phosphor corresponds to the P-31 cathodoluminescent phosphor. Leverenz.W.33 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4. F.88 eV). An Introduction to Luminescence of Solids.Cl Optical Properties Emission color: Blue + green Emission peak: 2.

Weaker band at 1. 2.95 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0. Dry.053 Preparation Mix by slurrying in water or methanol.ZnS:Eu2+ Composition Ingredient ZnS Eu2O3 Mole % 100 0.25 eV.88 eV). Dry. Powderize. Add ~2–3 g of sulfur. Fire in open quartz boats. Powderize. 1100ºC. Fire in open quartz boats.24 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: + (4. 1. 1 hour.540 Preparation Mix by slurrying in water or methanol. Absorption (%) 100 Emission . Powderize.15 0.03 (of Eu) By weight (g) 98 0. 1 hour. H2S. 1100ºC. H2S.40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: Poor Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 ZnS:Mn2+ Structure: Hexagonal (wurtzite) Composition Ingredient ZnS MnCO3 NH4Cl Mole % 99 1 1 By weight (g) 97 1. + (3. Optical Properties Emission color: Yellow-green Emission peak: 2.

Te2+ Structure: Hexagonal (wurtzite) Composition Ingredient ZnS MnCO3 ZnTe NH4Br Mole % 94 3 3 2 By weight (g) 92 3. References 1.5 5. Goldberg. Academic Press. ~1 msec to 1/10 Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Remarks 1. in Luminescence of Inorganic Solids... 2. John Wiley & Sons. Absorption (%) 100 Emission . 1100ºC. 2. New York (1966). ZnS:Mn2+.8 2 Preparation First mix only ZnS + MnCO3 + NH4Br (not yet the ZnTe). New York (1949). P.. The emission shifts slightly to lower energy (= longer wavelength) with increasing Mn concentration.88 eV). S. ++ (3. Ed.13 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0. An Introduction to Luminescence of Solids.Add ~2–3 g of sulfur. Optical Properties Emission color: Orange-yellow Emission peak: 2.40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: +/5% Decay: Exponential. Leverenz.21 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4.. Make a slurry in water. 1 hour. H. This material is remarkable for its strong triboluminescence. Shionoya.W. N2 or H2S. Fire in capped quartz tubes.

mix by milling or grinding. 1200ºC.92 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0. This phosphor has been developed by A. G. 23. Add ~2–3 g of sulfur. R. ++ (3. H2.24 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4.. Absorption (%) 100 Emission . Spectrosc.5 By weight (g) 98 0. This material is remarkable for its strong triboluminescence (red).I. Wachtel. 1100ºC.40 eV) Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Remarks 1. 67 (1967). Effect of tellurium on luminescence properties of zinc sulfide luminors. N2. Opt.88 eV). Powderize.4 (of P) 0. Smirnova. 1 hour. Powderize when dry.-USSR. Wash in a solution of a few percentage of Br in methanol and then several times in plain methanol. Now admit the ZnTe. Fire in capped quartz tubes. ZnS:P Composition Ingredient ZnS Zn3P2 NH4Cl Mole % 100 0. Fire in capped quartz tubes. Dry in air. Optical Properties Emission color: Red Emission peak: 1. 2. Reference 1.. Fire in capped quartz tubes. 900ºC.F. 2. and Pron.385 0.1. 1 hour.270 Preparation Mix by dry grinding. 1 hour. N2.

. McKeag. Long afterglow tail Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Remarks 1. P.50 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4. The amount of P retained in the phosphor after firing certainly is much lower than the amount added. and Ranby. ++ (3.W. + (3. A. 85 (1949). J.88 eV). ZnS:P3–. 2.H. Reference 1.Cl Structure: Hexagonal (wurtzite) Optical Properties Emission color: Yellowish Emission peak: 2. Phosphor is poorly reproducible because of high volatility of Zn3P2 at firing temperature. 96. It shifts to a lower energy (= longer wavelengths) with increasing P. New zinc sulfide phosphors activated by phosphorus. Soc.88 eV).Optical Properties Emission color: Pale yellow Emission peak: 2. 2.66 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0..14 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0.40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: +/5%. Spectral positions of the emission band depends on the P concentration. Electrochem.24.40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: + Absorption (%) 100 Emission ..50 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: + (4.

.. McKeag. 96. New zinc sulfide phosphors activated by phosphorus. P.40 eV) Reference 1.Cl Structure: Hexagonal (wurtzite) Optical Properties Emission color: Greenish Emission peak: 2.R. Soc. ZnS:Pb2+. Leverenz. John Wiley & Sons. G. Soc.54 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0. New York (1949). G..40 eV) References 1.W. A.. 382 (1946). 2... J. 36.Spectra 800 700 600 500 400 Wavelength (nm) 300 100 Emission 50 2 3 Reference 1. Preparation and characteristics of zinc sulfide phosphors sensitive to infrared.40 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: – (4. Am. 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 ZnS:Pb2+ Structure: Hexagonal (wurtzite) Optical Properties Emission color: Orange Emission peak: 1. Am. Opt. J.. An Introduction to Luminescence of Solids. and Ranby. .88 eV). H.W. 382 (1946). Preparation and characteristics of zinc sulfide phosphors sensitive to infrared. Opt. 85 (1949). Electrochem. Fonda.R.98 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0. Soc.40 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: (4.H. + (3. Fonda..88 eV). 36. ++ (3. J.

orange afterglow Emission peak: 1..001 By weight (g) 98 0. 1100ºC. ++ (3.002 Preparation Dissolve the lead nitrate and copper acetate together in a little water. J. 2.99 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0. Make a uniform slurry with water or methanol. 1 hour. When the afterglow has decreased to a low level. Dry.ZnS:Pb. Add ~2–3 g of sulfur.88 eV). add the solution to the ZnS. N2. Am. G.330 0. 352 (1946).1 0. Fire in capped quartz tubes.R.. Powderize. Optical Properties Emission color: Whitish orange during excitation.40 eV) Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Remarks 1. Absorption (%) 100 Emission . irridation of near-IR causes a strong orange emission (stimulation). This phosphor is readily excited by UV and shows a long afterglow after excitation.Cu Structure: Hexagonal (wurtzite) Composition Ingredient ZnS Pb(NO3)2 Cu(C2H3O2)2 Mole % 100 0. 36.40 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4. Preparation and characteristics of zinc sulfide phosphors sensitive to infrared. Opt. Fonda. Soc. Reference 1.

Acta Phys. 45. Fire in capped quartz tubes. Polonica A.80 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0. Kulaszewcz.40 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: + (4.5 ~2–3 Preparation Mix by dry grinding. ZnS:Sn. Optical Properties Emission color: Red Emission peak: 1.017 Absorption (%) 100 Emission . N2. 1 hour.88 eV). 499 (1974).150 0.ZnS:Sn2+ Structure: Hexagonal (wurtzite) Composition Ingredient ZnS SnS Sulfur Mole % 99 1 By weight (g) 97 1.01 By weight (g) 98 0.. 1150ºC.Ag Structure: Hexagonal (wurtzite) Composition Ingredient ZnS SnS AgNO3 Mole % 100 0. S.1 0.40 eV) Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Reference 1. ++ (3.

Soc. 2. ZnS-Sn. this phosphor shows only little response (stimulation) to irradiated IR. A. The Ag in the above recipe can be replaced by Li. 1150ºC.Sn.99. 1 hour. Make a slurry in water or methanol.40 eV) Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Remarks 1. N2..99 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0. Dry in air. + (3. Optical Properties Emission color: Pale yellow Emission peak: 1. Fire in capped quartz tubes. 2.40 eV) Absorption (%) 100 Emission .50 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4.12 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0. Powderize when dry. J. 432 (1958). Electrochem.88 eV).88 eV).Li phosphor. 105. Wachtel. ++ (3.Li+ Structure: Hexagonal (wurtzite) Optical Properties Emission color: Orange Emission peak: 1. In contrast to ZnS:Cu. ZnS:Sn2+. Reference 1.Preparation Dissolve the AgNO3 in a little water.50 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: + (4.. Add the solutions to the ZnS + SnS. Admit ~2–3 g of sulfur.

Phys. + (3. An Introduction to Luminescence of Solids.88 eV).F. ZnS-Sn. A. 432 (1958).. New York (1949) p.40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: ++ Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 100 Emission 50 2 3 References 1. Soc.92 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0.Li phosphor.30 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: (4..Cl Structure: Cubic (zinc blende) Optical Properties Emission color: Red Emission peak: 1. 105. Se Cu. 2.Spectra 800 700 600 500 400 Wavelength (nm) 300 100 Emission 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Reference 1. John Wiley & Sons. Luminescence in ZnS. H. Cl. J. Leverenz. 202. F.. 24. 37 (1963).W. Electrochem.. Morehead. 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 . Chem. Wachtel. J. ZnSe:Cu+. Solids.

CdS:In Structure: Hexagonal (wurtzite) Composition Ingredient CdS In2O3 Mole % 100 0.40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: + Decay to 10%: Less than 1 nsec .W. Powderize. H. 1 hour.55 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0. 900ºC. John Wiley & Sons.. ++ (3.34 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4. When cool.40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: ++ Reference 1.39 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0. 1.139 Preparation Dissolve the In2O3 in a little nitric acid. Remove all parts which look different. 500ºC. An Introduction to Luminescence of Solids. + (3. Powderize.1 (of In) By weight (g) 145 0.Cl– Structure: Hexagonal (wurtzite) Optical Properties Emission color: IR Emission peak: 1. Optical Properties Emission color: Green Emission peak: 2. Material should be uniformly red luminescent. Fire in open quartz boats. Material should now be uniformly green.08 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: + (4. Dry. Make a slurry in methanol. H2S. 2.88 eV). Leverenz. Add ~2–3 g of sulfur. New York (1949). Add the solutions to the CdS. H2. inspect under UV lamp.CdS:Ag+.88 eV). Fire in capped quartz tubes. Inspect again under UV lamp.

9 Preparation Dissolve the Cu acetate and the NH4I separately.. 800ºC.. Powderize. stir. pull the hot boat with the phosphor out of the furnace into open air and quench rapidly down to room temperature by blowing cold air against it. Lehmann.4 2. Edge emission of n-type conducting ZnO and CdS. Do not heat up (except only in H2) to more than about 250ºC. Powderize.9 2. This phosphor is thermodynamically in an unstable state. Wash in plain water several times until neutral.9 2. then add the NH4I-solution. and stir. Phosphor has limited use in CR tubes for extremely fast display. Reference 1. 1107 (1966). 1 hour. Dry. 2. 650ºC.5 2 By weight (g) 95. Boil briefly in a solution of about 10 g NaOH (or KOH) + 10 g NaCN (or KCN) in 1 liter of water. ZnS-CdS:Cu. N2. Add ~3 4 g of sulfur. Powderize. Fire in capped quartz tubes. Make a slurry of the ZnS + CdS in methanol. Screen through 200 mesh or finer. Solid State Electron. Dry with methanol in a filter funnel and then in open air. 9. Absorption (%) 100 Emission . After this firing. N2. 1 hour. each in a little water.I Structure: Hexagonal (wurtzite) Composition Ingredient ZnS CdS Cu(C2H3O2)2. Mix well.Spectra 800 700 600 500 400 Wavelength (nm) 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Remarks 1. Fire in open quartz boats. H2O NH4I Mole % 98 2 0. 1. Screen through a medium-fine cloth sieve. Add the Cu solution. W. 2.

40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: ++ ZnS-CdS (50-50) Optical Properties Emission color: Orange Emission peak: 2. ZnS-CdS (25-75) Structure: Wurtzite Optical Properties Emission color: Deep red Emission peak: 1. ++ (3.. ++ (3. H. ++ (3. John Wiley & Sons.88 eV).Optical Properties Emission color: Blue Emission peak: 2.40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: ++ ZnS-CdS (75-25) Optical Properties Emission color: Green Emission peak: 2.06 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0.40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: ++ .35 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4.78 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0. An Introduction to Luminescence of Solids.88 eV). New York (1949).88 eV).35 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4. Leverenz.72 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0.38 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0.33 eV Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 100 Emission 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Reference 1.35 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4.W.

1. H2O NH4Br Mole % 96 4 0. Dissolve the Cu acetate and the NH4Br together in a little water. stir. 1 hour. Fire in capped quartz tubes. John Wiley & Sons.37 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4. An Introduction to Luminescence of Solids. Powderize.Ni Structure: Hexagonal (wurtzite) Composition Ingredient ZnS CdS Cu(C2H3O2)2.686 Preparation Make a slurry of the ZnS + CdS in methanol. 800ºC..W. New York (1949). ++ (3. Optical Properties Emission color: Orange-yellow Emission peak: 2. Screen through a medium-fine cloth sieve.7 By weight (g) 93.8 0.88 eV). N2. Add the solution to the slurry. Add ~3–4 g of sulfur. Dry. H2S.6 0.5 5. 700ºC. Powderize.40 eV) . Leverenz.8 1. ZnS-CdS:Ag. Fire in open quartz boats. H. 2.13 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0. Mix well.Spectra 800 700 600 500 400 Wavelength (nm) 300 ZnS-CdS 40-60 ZnS-CdS 50-50 Emission ZnS-CdS 60-40 ZnS-CdS 70-30 ZnS-CdS 80-20 ZnS-CdS 90-10 ZnS 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 100 50 0 Reference 1.Br. 45 minutes.

. Soc. Mix well. The emission intensity increases sharply super-linearly with increasing excitation intensity and decreases with increasing temperature: The best obtained temperature response is about 20% per degree Centigrade near room temperature.R. 1100ºC. J. Nail. D.5 Preparation Dissolve the AgNO3 and the NH4Cl separately. N2. Then add the NH4Cl solution.050 2. ++ (3. Opt. N. Dry.35 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4. stir. Wash in water several times (to remove leftover halide). stir again. Optical Properties Emission peak: Peak position depending on the ZnS/CdS ratio Emission width (FWHM): ~0.40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: 20% Decay to 10%: Non-exponential afterglow in the microsecond range Absorption (%) 100 Emission . First add the silver solution. 1 hour.Spectra 800 700 600 500 400 Wavelength (nm) 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Remarks 1. Urbach.. Add ~2–3 g of sulfur. 2. 690 (1949).88 eV). and Pearlman.Cl Structure: Hexagonal (wurtzite) Composition Ingredient ZnS + CdS AgNO3 NH4Cl Mole % 100 0. Reference 1..03 5 By weight (g) 0. each in a little water. New observations on superlinear luminescence. ZnS-CdS:Ag+. Fire in capped quartz tubes. Powderize. F.. Am. Make a slurry of the ZnS + CdS of the desired ratio in water or methanol. This phosphor is good for thermal imaging. Dry. 39.

Fire in open quartz boats.Spectra 800 700 600 500 400 Wavelength (nm) 300 Emission CdS ZnS-CdS 25-75 ZnS-CdS 50-50 ZnS-CdS 75-25 ZnS 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 100 50 0 Remarks 1.8 0. John Wiley & Sons. Wash in plain water several times until neutral. Wash in plain water several times until neutral. Powderize. H2O NH4Br Mole % 96 4 0. 1949. Boil briefly in a solution of about 10 g NaOH (or KOH) + 10 g NaCN (or KCN) in 1 liter water.6 0. Chlorine in the above recipe may be replaced by bromine. An Introduction to Luminescence of Solids. After this firing. Dry with methanol in a filter funnel and then in open air. N2.8 1. New York. Fire the same as 2. 2. Powderize. Powderize. Screen through a medium-fine cloth sieve. H2S. Reference 1. and stir. H. 45 minutes.5 5. ZnS-CdS:Cu. Screen through 200 mesh or finer. 1.W. Dry. 800ºC.. Fire in capped quartz tubes. 1 hour. pull the hot boat with the phosphor out of the furnace into open air and quench rapidly down to room temperature by blowing cold air against it. 3. Leverenz. . 700ºC. Boil again in cyanide solution as above. Add ~3–4 g of sulfur. Firing includes rapid quenching. The phosphor of ZnS/CdS 72/28 is commercial P-22G. Dissolve the Cu acetate and the NH4Br together in a little water. Mix well. add the solution to the slurry.686 Preparation Make a slurry of the ZnS + CdS in methanol.7 By weight (g) 93. Dry with methanol in a filter funnel and then in open air.Br long life Structure: Hexagonal (wurtzite) Composition Ingredient ZnS CdS Cu(C2H3O2)2. 2.

Screen through a medium-fine cloth sieve.686 Preparation Make a slurry of the ZnS + CdS in methanol. pull the hot boat with the phosphor out of the furnace into open air and quench rapidly down to room temperature by blowing cold air against it.3 0. H2S. 800ºC. 650ºC. ZnS-CdS:Cu. Wash in about 2 liters of 10% H2O2 solution at room temperature for about 2 hours while stirring.Br high brightness Structure: Hexagonal (wurtzite) Composition Ingredient ZnS CdS Cu(C2H3O2)2.7 By weight (g) 93. 1.8 0. 1 hour.35 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0. Screen through 200 mesh or finer. Add ~3–4 g of sulfur. Optical Properties Emission color: Green Emission peak: 2. Fire in open quartz boats.5 5.Optical Properties Emission color: Green Emission peak: 2.35 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0. 2. Powderize. add the solution to the slurry.35 eV Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 100 Emission 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Remark The zero-hour brightness of this phosphor is ~½ of that of the one on the previous page. and stir. Fire in capped quartz tubes. 45 minutes. Powderize. Boil briefly in a solution of about 10 g NaOH (or KOH) + 10 g NaCN (or KCN) in 1 liter of water. H2O NH4Br Mole % 96 4 0. After this firing. Wash in plain water. N2. Wash in plain water several times until neutral. Powderize. Mix well. Dry.600 0.38 eV . Dissolve the Cu acetate and the NH4Br together in a little water. Dry with methanol in a filter funnel and then in open air.

and Pron.-USSR. A. ZnS-ZnTe:Mn2+ 98-2 Structure: Hexagonal (wurtzite) Optical Properties Emission color: Red Emission peak: 1. Smirnova.24 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4.S..Spectra 800 700 600 500 400 Wavelength (nm) 300 100 Emission 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Remarks 1. 23. Effect of tellurium on luminescence properties of zinc sulfide luminors. U. R.. The H2O2 wash is an idea by Wachtel. 2.92 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0. its half-life under steady 5 kHz excitation is much shorter than that of the phosphor on the next page.I.40 eV) Reference 1. This phosphor has been developed for high zero-hour brightness..88 eV). ++ (3. Opt. . 67 (1967). Spectrosc..F. G. Pat. 3 165 476 (1965).

Na+ CaS:Eu2+ CaS:Mn2+ CaS:La3+ CaS:Pb2+.K MgS:Eu2+ Structure: Cubic (NaCl) Composition Ingredient MgO Eu2O3 NH4Cl Mole % 100 0.176 1 Preparation First mix only the MgO and Eu2O3.Na CaS:Sm3+ CaS:Sn2+ CaS:Sn2+.040 0. 1.14 CaS-Type Sulfides The following host compounds and activators are included in this subsection: MgS:Eu2+ CaS:Bi3+ CaS:Bi3+. N2. 1 hour. 1200ºC. Fire in capped quartz tubes.Pb2+. mix by dry grinding. 2.Cl SrS:Ce3+ SrS:Cu+. Admit above amount of NH4Cl and also 2–3 g of sulfur.4.F CaS:Tb3+ CaS:Tb3+.Na SrS:Eu2+ SrS:Mn2+ BaS:Au.Cl CaS:Y3+ CaS:Yb2+ CaS:Yb2+. Powderize. N2 loaded with CS2.Na CaS:Ce3+ CaS:Cu+. 800ºC.1 (of Eu) 2 By weight (g) 0. .Cl CaS:Pb2+ CaS:Pb2+. Keep dry. Store in a well-closed container.Cl CaS:Sb3+ CaS:Sb3+. Powderize.Mn2+ CaS:Pr3+. Fire in open quartz boats. 1 hour.

40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: + Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Absorption (%) 100 Emission .15 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4.27eV Emission width (FWHM):0. CaS:Bi3+ Structure: Cubic (NaCl) Optical Properties Emission color: Near UV Emission peak: 3. – (3. Soc. + (3.40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: +/8% Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 100 Emission 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Reference 1..11 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0. J. Cathodoluminescence of Ca1-xMgxS-Eu.. K.88 eV).. Electrochem. Megumi. Kasano. H. 131 (1953). H.88 eV).21 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4.Optical Properties Emission color: Orange-yellow Emission peak: 2. and Yamamoto. Ca1-xMgxS-Ce..

40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: 4–5% Decay: Non-exponential decay in the microsecond range. 1200ºC. W. stagnant air. 96. Electrochem.Se):Bi3+ and CaO:Bi3+ phosphors. Status Solidi B. 82. N.420 Preparation Start from purest CaCO3. 275 (1972). Ellervee.. 1 hour.. Lehmann.F. G. long afterglow tail extending into seconds . 119. J. Phys.88 eV). Jpn.70 0. J. Phys.5 By weight (g) 100 0. Powderize. Fast cathodoluminescent calcium sulfide phosphors. Fire in capped quartz tubes. J. 3. F. 40. Lehmann.. 2.03 (of Bi) 0. 5. 4. Store in a well-closed container. W.... 1 hour. and Mason. 2.77 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0.. Activators and co-activators in calcium sulfide phosphors. 3..J. Soc. Optical Properties Emission color: Blue Emission peak: 2.. 90 (1949). Soc. Add the above amounts of Bi and Na.Na Structure: Cubic (NaCl) Composition Ingredient CaCO3 Bi2O3 NaHCO3 Mole % 100 0. Powderize. Luminescence-centers of Ca(S. H2S. Yamashita. Electron traps and infrared stimulation of phosphors. and Ryan. J. D.18 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: + (4..References 1. 5. 1 hour. 1100ºC. Fire in capped quartz tubes. mix by dry grinding. + (3. Soc. and also ~ 2–3 g of sulfur.. 144 (1976). 91 (1977). Lumin.E. Luminescence of Pb2+ and Bi3+ centers in alkali-earth sulfides and oxides. and Asano.F.. A.M. N2. Convert it to CaS by one of the following methods: 1. 87 (1972). Garlick. Fire in open quartz boats. 1200ºC. S. CaS:Bi3+. Electrochem.

N2. A. Electrochem.. F. 87 (1972). J. G. S. 1. References 1. Ellervee. and Asano.J. J. Jpn. J. Lehmann. 90 (1949). 275 (1972). Luminescence of Pb2+ and Bi3+ centers in alkali-earth sulfides and oxides. Soc. Add about 2–3 g of sulfur. CaS:Ce3+ Structure: Cubic (NaCl) Composition Ingredient CaCO3 CeO2 Mole % 100 0. Electron traps and infrared stimulation of phosphors. Fast cathodoluminescent calcium sulfide phosphors. 1100ºC. 2. first 1 hour in N2 and then 1 hour in H2S. Powderize.M... Phys. Luminescence-centers of Ca(S+Se):Bi3+ and CaO:Bi3+ phosphors. Activators and co-activators in calcium sulfide phosphors..05 By weight (g) 100 0. Luminescent-grade CaCO3 is not pure enough. W. Contamination by Mn as low as 1 ppm will cause appearance of the yellow Mn2+ emission.. Soc. 5. Lehmann. and Ryan. Fire in open quartz boats.Spectra 800 700 600 500 400 Wavelength (nm) 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Remarks 1. 3.. 1 hour. 96. Phys. Status Solidi B. and Mason. 82.F. Absorption (%) 100 Emission . Electrochem. 2.F. D. W. 40.E.. Preparation required purest starting materials. 1200ºC. Admit about 1–2 g of NH4Cl by dry grinding or milling. 4. Powderize.. 2.086 Preparation Mix well.. J. Garlick. 144 (1976). Fire in capped quartz tubes. N.. Na in above recipe can be replaced by Li but Na seems to have a slight edge over it.. 91 (1977). 119.. Lumin. Soc. 5. Yamashita. Store in a well-closed container.

F. Preparation and cathodoluminescence of CaS-Ce and Ca1-xSrxS-Ce phosphors. 6. 3.Optical Properties Emission color: Green Emission peak: 2.. Optimum efficiency of cathodoluminescence of inorganic phosphors.. Lehmann.. F.. Cl in the above recipe can be replaced by F. 2. 2. – (3.. J. Lehmann. 5. W. 477 (1971). J.40 eV by addition of Pb (see CaS:Pb2+). 118. Soc. Absorption (%) 100 Emission ... 118. The distance between the two emission bands (in eV) cannot be changed but the exact positions of the bands depend slightly on the used Ce concentration.. phosphor showing no color change and little saturation up to the highest current densities Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Remarks 1. K. Electrochem. Fast cathodoluminescent calcium sulfide phosphors. J. 119. and Ryan.. This phosphor or modifications of it have found applications in CR tubes and for correction in arc lamps. References 1. 7. 2.38 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4. Soc. Phosphor has a slightly greenish body color due to the combined action of the blue absorption band and the green emission. 130.88 eV). 432 (1983). Cathodoluminescence of CaS-Ce3+ and CaS-Eu2+ phosphors J. Phosphor can be sensitized for efficient excitation by 3. and Kato. Electrochem. 275 (1972). Electrochem. Soc. W. Okamoto. Electrochem. Lehmann. 3. and Ryan.M.13 eV. 4. 4.M. 1164 (1971). Soc.. Decay time after excitation by an e-beam pulse can be reduced to ~200 nsec (1/10 of original) by addition of Co.. This phosphor is efficiently luminescent up to ~300ºC. Br. F.40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: ++/20% Decay to 10%: Non-exponential decay in the microsecond range. W. or I.

phosphor showing much less saturation at the high beam current than P-11 Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Remarks 1. Soc.. Mix by dry grinding. Powderize.Na+ Structure: Cubic (NaCl) Composition Ingredient CaCO3 Cu(C2H3O2)2·H2O NaHCO3 Mole % 100 0. 1100ºC.15 1. and gold. Soc. Optical Properties Emission color: Light blue Emission peak: 2.88 eV). A. H2.83 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4. 100 sec to 1/10. 2. Store in a well-closed container. Electrochem.300 1.. Fire in covered alumina crucibles. The peak positions of the two emission bands depend on the alkali used (if any). The relative heights of the two emission bands depend on the preparation conditions. 3. W.5 By weight (g) 100 0.. Dry. J.55 eV.25 Preparation Dissolve the copper acetate in a little water. 107. ++ (3. Electrochem. Absorption (%) 100 Emission . 199 (1960). CaS-Cu. Fire in open quartz boats. J. 117. silver. References 1. Make a uniform slurry in water or methanol. 1 hour. Halides are not co-activators in CaS:Cu (in contrast to ZnS:Cu). Powderize. Lehmann.CaS:Cu+.Eu electroluminescent phosphors. 2. 2. Na in the above recipe can be omitted or be replaced by Li or K. H2S. Wachtel. Alkaline earth sulfide phosphors activated by copper. 1389 (1970). Add 800 mg of NaHCO3 plus ~ 2–3 g of sulfur. 1. add solution to the CaCO3.40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: ++/16% Decay: Non-exponential decay. Powderize. 1000ºC.. 2. 1 hour.

see CaS:Ce3+. Decay time after excitation by an e-beam pulse can be reduced to ~300 nsec by addition of Co. Br. Add the above amount of NH4Cl. Cl in the above recipe can be replaced by F. first 1 hour in N2 and then 1 hour in H2S.88 eV).F) or by pB (see CaS:Pb). Cl). Powderize.91 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0.20 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4. Optical Properties Emission color: Red Emission peak: 1. Store in a well-closed container.40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: ++/10% (can be improved to ~16% by the addition of Ce. 1200ºC. Phosphor can be sensitized for excitation by 3. Powderize. Decay: Non-exponential decay in the microsecond range Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Remarks 1. 3. also ~ 2–3 g of sulfur. Absorption (%) 100 Emission . 1. 1 hour. H2.05 (of Eu) ~2 By weight (g) 100 0. 2. Mix by dry grinding. – (3. or I. 2. Fire in capped quartz tubes.CaS:Eu2+ Structure: Cubic (NaCl) Composition Ingredient CaCO3 Eu2O3 NH4Cl Mole % 100 0. 4.40 eV by addition of Sn (see CaS:Sn. This phosphor has a very characteristic pink body color due to the combined actions of the broad blue to yellow absorption band and the red fluorescence. 1100ºC.088 ~1 Preparation Mix the CaCO3 and the Eu2O3. Fire in open quartz boats.

Brauer. 1164 (1971). A. Fire in open quartz boats. Mix by dry grinding. Electrochem. Jaffe. Add the above amount of NH4Cl. Pt. CaS:Mn2+ Structure: Cubic (NaCl) Composition Ingredient CaCO3 MnCO3 NH4Cl Mole % 100 0. Naturforsch Pt A. Partial or complete replacement of the Ca by Sr causes the emission to sift to higher energy (= shorter wavelength).M. and ~ 2–3 g of sulfur. 118. Lehmann. Optimum efficiency of cathodoluminescence of inorganic phosphors. Oxidation states of europium in the alkaline earth oxide and sulfide phosphors.... E. H2S. 199 (1960). F. and Ryan. 12. A. 1 hour. 6.. 102.115 ~1 Preparation Mix the CaCO3 and the MnCO3. 6. This phosphor or modifications of it have found applications in CR tubes and for correction in arc lamps. P. Fire in capped quartz tubes. and Banks. Electrochem. Fast cathodoluminescent calcium sulfide phosphors. J. 3.1 ~2 By weight (g) 100 0. Z. Soc. and Uber eu-ionen in erdalkalioxyden und erdalkali-sulfiden. Soc. The emission peak position depends slightly upon the used Eu concentration.M. 8. 477 (1971).11 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0. 5.24 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4. Soc. H2S. This phosphor is efficiently luminescent up to ~300ºC. Powderize.5. 107. Powderize.40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: ++/16% Decay: Near-exponential decay with ~8 msec to 1/10 . 518 (1955).. J. P. 118.. 233 (1957). 2. Electrochem. 1.Eu electroluminescent phosphors. J. F.. Wachtel. J. Soc.M. Fire in open quartz boats. 7. W. Electrochem. – (3. N2. 275 (1972). W. 2. Lehmann.. Electrochem.. 3.. Optical Properties Emission color: Yellow Emission peak: 2. Store in a well-closed container.88 eV). References 1. Naturforsch. W. CaS-Cu. 6. 1 hour. Powderize. 4. Z. 119. Soc. and Ryan.. 1 hour. 1100ºC. 561 (1951). Cathodoluminescence of CaS-Ce3+ and CaS-Eu2+ phosphors J.. 1200ºC. Lehmann.. 1100ºC.

S.. It serves only as a flux and can be replaced by F. The Cl in the above recipe is not a co-activator. Partial (up to 10%) replacement of the Ca by Mg shifts the emission from yellow to orange-red. W. Chem. B. 3. 2.V. the Mn2+ emission is fairly strong between about 1 ppm and 5% of Mn/Ca. The emission peak position depends slightly on the Mn concentration used. Sensitization by bismuth of the luminescence of manganese and samarium in calcium sulfide phosphors. Activators and co-activators in calcium sulfide phosphors. V. and Mikhaylin.42 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4.55 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0. J. Optimum efficiency of cathodoluminescence of inorganic phosphors. 118..40 eV) Absorption (%) 100 Emission .. References 1. Lumin. Jpn. 30.. 4. 2. CaS:La3+ Structure: Cubic (NaCl) Optical Properties Emission color: Blue-greenish Emission peak: 2. 3. The Mn concentration is not critical. Lehmann. – (3.... Soc. 5. V.L. and Era.. Intern Conf.Spectra 800 700 600 500 400 Wavelength (nm) 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Remarks 1. Levshin. K. Soc.. Partial or complete replacement of Ca by Sr shifts it towards green (see SrS:Mn2+). Shionoya. 4. Paper 111.. 87 (1972). or I. Electrochem. Lumin. 518 (1957). J. Br. Lehmann. Budapest (1966). W. 1164 (1971).88 eV).

045 1. and ~ 2–3 g of sulfur. 1 hour.5 Preparation Start from purest CaCO3. Mix by dry grinding. Powderize. Mix by dry grinding.40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: 15–17% Decay: Non-exponential decay in the microsecond range. CaS:Pb2+. Powderize. N2. 2.39 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0.. Lumin. J. 3. W.Cl Structure: Cubic (NaCl) Composition Ingredient CaCO3 PbO NH4Cl Mole % 100 0. 1200ºC. Fire in open quartz boats. Add the above amount of PbO.88 eV). and ~ 2–3 g of sulfur. Powderize. 1 hour.Spectra 800 700 600 500 400 Wavelength (nm) 300 100 Emission 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Reference 1. H2S. another 2 g of NH4Cl. Store in a well-closed container. Add ~1g of NH4Cl. Activators and co-activators in calcium sulfide phosphors. decay to be shortened to about 250 nsec (to 1/10) by addition of a trace of cobalt .02 3 By weight (g) 100 0. Fire in capped quartz tubes. Convert to CaS by one of the following methods 1. N2. + (3.. 1200ºC. Fire in capped quartz tubes. Optical Properties Emission color: Near-UV Emission peak: 3. 1100ºC. 87 (1972).22 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4. Lehmann. 5.

The NH4Cl in the above recipe can be replaced by NH4Br. Contamination by Mn as low as 1 ppm will cause appearance of the yellow Mn2+ emission. Fast cathodoluminescent calcium sulfide phosphors. Optimum efficiency of cathodoluminescence of inorganic phosphors. This phosphor has limited application as UV emitter in CR tubes. References 1. 118. 275 (1972). and Activators and co-activators in calcium sulfide phosphors. Soc. Electrochem. + (3. Lehmann. Electrochem.M. 3. Ellervee.22 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4.Spectra 800 700 600 500 400 Wavelength (nm) 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Remarks 1. Status Solidi B. 2. Preparation requires purest starting materials.. CaS:Pb2+ Structure: Cubic (NaCl) Optical Properties Emission color: UV Emission peak: 3.. J. 87 (1972).F. A.39 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0.... Luminescence of Pb2+ and Bi3+ centers in alkali-earth sulfides and oxides. 82. Lehmann. Soc. Normal luminescent-grade CaCO3 is not pure enough. J. and Ryan. 91 (1977). W. 3.. 119. F.. Fluoride is much less effective.88 eV). W. Lumin. 2.40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: ++ Absorption (%) 100 Emission . J. 5. 1164 (1971). Phys.

5 0. CaS:Pb2+.575 0. Electrochem. 275 (1972). J. 1164 (1971).. N2. Activators and co-activators in calcium sulfide phosphors. 1100ºC. 2. 118. (1977). 87 (1972). Soc.670 ~1 Preparation First mix only the CaCO3 and MnCO3. 119. Soc. Powderize. 1200ºC. W. 1 hour. H2S...04 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0. Lehmann. A. 82. F. Lumin. Lehmann. J. W. Fast cathodoluminescent calcium sulfide phosphors.40 eV) Absorption (%) 100 Emission . Mix by dry grinding.. and also ~ 2–3 g of sulfur.Spectra 800 700 600 500 400 Wavelength (nm) 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 References 1. 1 hour. Powderize. J.28 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4. W. 1. Store in a well-closed container.3 2 By weight (g) 100 0.. 2.88 eV). 5. Optimum efficiency of cathodoluminescence of inorganic phosphors. Lehmann.M. Ellervee. and Ryan.. 4. Fire in open quartz boats. Phys. Optical Properties Emission color: Red-orange (not the yellow of CaS:Mn2+ without Pb) Emission peak: 2.. Luminescence of Pb2+ and Bi3+ centers in alkali-earth sulfides and oxides. Electrochem.F. + (3.. Add the above amounts of PbO and NH4Cl. 3. Status Solidi B.Mn2+ Structure: Cubic (NaCl) Composition Ingredient CaCO3 MnCO3 PbO NH4Cl Mole % 100 0. Fire in capped quartz tubes. 91.

Fire in capped quartz tubes. about 0.Spectra 800 700 600 500 400 Wavelength (nm) 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Remark The Mn2+ emission shifts to lower energy (+ longer wave lengths) with increasing Pb concentration.05 eV in the IR Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4. Mix by dry grinding. H2. respectively.85 eV. ++ (3. Powderize. 1100ºC. 1 hour. Add the above amount of PbO and also ~ 2–3 g of sulfur.50 eV. H2S.1 0. Fire in open quartz boats. 1 hour.02 ~2 By weight (g) 100 0. mainly two line groups in the blue-green and in the red. 3.Pb2+. 1200ºC. 1. Add the above amount of NH4Cl and also ~ 2–3 g of sulfur. Optical Properties Emission color: Pale greenish-pink Emission peak: 1. 1100ºC.165 0. 2. Store in a well-closed container.Cl Structure: Cubic (NaCl) Composition Ingredient CaCO3 Pr2O3 PbO NH4Cl Mole % 100 0.40 eV) Decay: Exponential decay. Powderize.88 eV). 1 hour.5 msec to 1/10 Absorption (%) 100 Emission . 2. Fire in capped quartz tubes. Mix by dry grinding. CaS:Pr3+. N2. also present (not shown in figure below) a strong line at 1.045 ~1 Preparation First mix only the CaCO3 and MnCO3.

Lumin. Lehmann.. 87 (1972). W. W. Absorption (%) 100 Emission Absorption (%) 100 Emission . 5.. Lehmann.. 5.44 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4. – (3. Reference 1. Lumin.. Activators and co-activators in calcium sulfide phosphors.Spectra 800 700 600 500 400 Wavelength (nm) 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Remark The intensity ratio of the two visible line groups is very sensitive to the details of the preparation and excitation. 87 (1972). Activators and co-activators in calcium sulfide phosphors. J.27 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0. CaS:Sb3+ Structure: Cubic (NaCl) Optical Properties Emission color: Yellow-green Emission peak: 2. J.88 eV).40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: ++ Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 References 1.

Electrochem. 1 hour. 3..Na Structure: Cubic (NaCl) Composition Ingredient CaCO3 Sb2O3 NaHCO3 Mole % 100 0. Fire in covered alumina crucibles. N2.2. 1164 (1971). Powderize. 1100ºC.27 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0.40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: 18% Decay: Exponential decay (~1. Optimum efficiency of cathodoluminescence of inorganic phosphors. Yamashita. Jpn. 1. J. H2S.145 0. and also ~ 2–3 g of sulfur.. 2. 1300ºC. 1 hour. Powderize.. Lehmann. Mix by dry grinding. Fire (purest CaCO3 only) in open quartz boats. 1089 (1973). W. N. Luminescence centers of Ca(S-Se) phosphors activated with impurity ions having s-2 configuration. Ca(S-Se)-Sb3+ phosphors. Soc. CaS:Sb3+.44 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4. Phys. Optical Properties Emission color: Yellow-green Emission peak: 2. Soc. Add the above amount of Sb2O3 + NaHCO3. J.. – (3.5 sec to 1/10) followed by a long but weak phosphorescence tail Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Absorption (%) 100 Emission .1 (of Sb) 1 By weight (g) 100 0.88 eV). 35. Store in a well-closed container. 118.840 Preparation 1.

118. Store in a well-closed container. 1100ºC. Optical Properties Emission color: Orange-yellow Emission peak: Strongest lines at 2. Powderize. Fire in open quartz boats.. W. first in N2. Lehmann. Fire in open quartz boats.0175 ~1 Preparation First mix only the CaCO3 and Sm2O3.. Ca(S-Se)-Sb3+ phosphors. Add the above amount of Na4Cl and also ~ 2–3 g of sulfur. N2.20. 1164 (1971). 35.07.88 eV).38 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4. 87 (1972).04. Powderize. J.34 and 1. 2. 3. Powderize. 1200ºC. Lumin. 1. Phys. and 2. Soc.References 1.. ~ 1 hour and then in H2S for 1 hour. J.. Jpn.40 eV) Decay: Exponential decay. – (3. Lehmann. Optimum efficiency of cathodoluminescence of inorganic phosphors. H2S. 5. Soc. J. W. also present (not shown in figure below) two strong lines at 1. 2. Electrochem.23 eV. 1089 (1973). Mix by dry grinding. 1 hour.01 (of Sm) ~2 By weight (g) 100 0. CaS:Sm3+ Structure: Cubic (NaCl) Composition Ingredient CaCO3 Sm2O3 Na4Cl Mole % 100 0. 1 hour. N. Fire in capped quartz tubes. Yamashita.. Activators and co-activators in calcium sulfide phosphors. 2. 2. 1. 3. 1100ºC. ~10 msec to 1/10 Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Absorption (%) 100 Emission . Luminescence centers of Ca (S-Se) phosphors activated with impurity ions having s-2 configuration..

390 Absorption (%) 100 Emission . Activators and co-activators in calcium sulfide phosphors. J. CaS:Sn2+ Structure: Cubic (NaCl) Optical Properties Emission color: Yellow-greenish Emission peak: 2. J. CaSe:Sn3+ and CaSe:Pb3+. 87 (1972).. 87 (1972). C Solid State.40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: + Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 References 1. and Asano. and Asano. W. 536 (1976)..30 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0.Remark Phosphor can be sensitized for excitation by 3. J.40 eV UV by addition of Sn (see CaS:Sn2+). Lehmann..F Structure: Cubic (NaCl) Composition Ingredient CaCO3 SnS CaF2 Mole % 100 0. N. ++ (3. S. Lehmann..50 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4. Phys. Soc. Luminescence-centers of Ca(S:Se):Sn2+ phosphors. W. J.135 0. 41. 3.88 eV). ESR of 2s ½-state centers in CaS:Sn3+. 5. Reference 1. CaS:Sn2+.1 0. L65 (1976).. Yamashita..5 By weight (g) 100 0. 5. S. Yamashita. Phys.. Activators and co-activators in calcium sulfide phosphors.. Jpn. Lumin. Lumin.. 9. N. 2.

Fire in capped quartz tubes.40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: ~4% Decay: Non-exponential decay of about 1 msec to 1/10 Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 References 1. N. 1 hour. 87 (1972).. Luminescence-centers of Ca(S. Fire in plain CaCO3 in open quartz boats. Esr of 2s ½-state centers in CaS:Sn3+. S. 9. Yamashita. Powderize. Soc.88 eV). 3. 2. Phys. J.30 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0. C Solid State. Store in a well-closed container. 41. CaS:Tb3+ Structure: Cubic (NaCl) Optical Properties Emission color: Green Emission peak: 2.Se):Sn2+ phosphors. Yamashita. N2. CaSe:Sn3+ and CaSe:Pb3+. Activators and co-activators in calcium sulfide phosphors. Optical Properties Emission color: Pale yellow-green Emission peak: 2. 5. Mix by dry grinding.26–2. 1100ºC.Preparation 1. W. Lumin. L65 (1976).. Phys..40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: + Absorption (%) 100 Emission . and Asano.50 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4. 2. – (3. Powderize. and Asano. H2S. 1 hour. Jpn. 536 (1976). J.. Lehmann. J. Add the above amount of SnS and CaF2 and about 2–3 g of sulfur. N.. ++ (3. 1200ºC.88 eV).29 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4.. S..

Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4. W. J. Lehmann. 1 hour. Fire in capped quartz tubes. Lumin. also ~ 2–3 g of sulfur.1 (of Tb) ~2 By weight (g) 100 0. 1 hour. N2.88 eV). 1 hour. 1. 1200ºC.6 msec to 1/10 Absorption (%) 100 Emission .29 eV. Add the above amount of NH4Cl.. Mix by dry grinding.Cl Structure: Cubic (NaCl) Composition Ingredient CaCO3 Tb4O7 NH4Cl Mole % 100 0. Optical Properties Emission color: Pale green Emission peak: Strongest lines a doublet at 2. Fire in capped quartz tubes. 87 (1972).40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: Relatively poor Decay: Exponential decay. ~ 3. Powderize. Fire in plain CaCO3 in open quartz boats. 5. Powderize.187 ~1 Preparation Mix the CaCO3 and the Tb4O7. Powderize. – (3. CaS:Tb3+. Activators and co-activators in calcium sulfide phosphors.Spectra 800 700 600 500 400 Wavelength (nm) 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Reference 1. H2S. Store in a well-closed container.. N2. 1200ºC. 3.26 and 2. 1100ºC. 2.

. Absorption (%) 100 Emission . Activators and co-activators in calcium sulfide phosphors.80 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0. 5. 87 (1972)... W. Lumin. CaS:Y3+ Structure: Cubic (NaCl) Optical Properties Emission color: Bluish Emission peak: 2. Lumin. Lehmann. W..Spectra 800 700 600 500 400 Wavelength (nm) 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Reference 1. Lehmann.78 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4. Activators and co-activators in calcium sulfide phosphors. 87 (1972). 5.40 eV) Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 100 Emission 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Reference 1. J.88 eV). – (3. J.

1 hour. Powderize.197 ~1 Preparation Mix the CaCO3 and the Tb4O7. 1100ºC. Lehmann. 1 hour.Cl Structure: Cubic (NaCl) Composition Ingredient CaCO3 Yb2O3 NH4Cl Mole % 100 0.30 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4. Activators and co-activators in calcium sulfide phosphors. Powderize. Add the above amount of NH4Cl and also ~ 2–3 g of sulfur. N2. 1200ºC. Store in a well-closed container. 1 hour. Fire in capped quartz tubes. Lumin.1 (of Yb) ~2 By weight (g) 100 0. ++ (3. Powderize. 3. Mix by dry grinding. N2. 2. Fire in capped quartz tubes. W..88 eV). 87 (1972). CaS:Yb2+. 5. H2S. Absorption (%) 100 Emission . 1.. 1200ºC.40 eV) Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Reference 1. Fire in plain CaCO3 in open quartz boats.66 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0.CaS:Yb2+ Structure: Cubic (NaCl) Optical Properties Emission color: IR Emission peak: 1. J.

30 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4.20 eV. J. Preparation and cathodoluminescence of CaS-Ce and Ca1-xSrxS-Ce phosphors.. ++ (3.56 eV in cathodoluminescence Excitation efficiency by UV: + (4.. F.88 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: + Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 100 Emission 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Reference 1. 2. Activators and co-activators in calcium sulfide phosphors.66 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0. J. Okamoto. Absorption (%) 100 Emission .. Soc. 87 (1972). 130..47 eV – or 2. 5. Lehmann. Lumin. Electrochem.88 eV). 432 (1983). and Kato.40 eV) Decay: Non-exponential decay in the 20–50 sec range Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Reference 1.. W. K.3 eV.Optical Properties Emission color: Very deep red Emission peak: 1. 2. SrS:Ce3+ Structure: Cubic (NaCl) Optical Properties Emission color: Blue-green Emission peak: 2.

1 2 By weight (g) 148 0.68 Preparation Dissolve the copper sulfate and the NaHCO3 together in a little water. add this solution to the SrCO3.88 eV). H2S. Lehmann. and gold. 117.250 1. Alkaline earth sulfide phosphors activated by copper.40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: ++/ Very efficient Decay: Non-exponential decay in the 10 sec range followed by long phosphorescence Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Remarks 1. 1389 (1970).. silver. 1200ºC. Absorption (%) 100 Emission . 1 hour. Make a uniform slurry in water or methanol. Optical Properties Emission color: Green Emission peak: 2. J.31 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4. This phosphor shows exceptionally long and strong phosphorescence after excitation by UV. Reference 1.SrS:Cu+.. Soc. 2. Electrochem. Powderize. ++ (3. Na in the above recipe cannot be replaced by other alkalies. Store in a well-closed container. Dry. Fire in open alumina boats. W. powderize.33 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0.Na Structure Cubic (NaCl) Composition Ingredient SrCO3 CuSO4·5 H2O NaHCO3 Mole % 100 0.

00 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0.88 eV).26 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4. Optical Properties Emission color: Orange-red Emission peak: 2.40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: + Decay: Decay in the microsecond range Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Remarks 1. also ~ 2–3 g of sulfur.40 eV excitation by addition of ~0.1 (of Eu) 2 By weight (g) 148 0. Absorption (%) 100 Emission . Fire in capped quartz tubes. The Cl in the above recipe may be replaced by F. + (3. Br. Mix by dry grinding. 3. 1 hour. 1. N2. Add the above amount of NH4Cl. or I. 1100ºC. Powderize. Store in a well-closed container. H2S. Powderize.03 mol% of Pb. This phosphor can be sensitized for efficient 3. 1 hour.SrS:Eu2+ Structure: Cubic (NaCl) Composition Ingredient SrCO3 Eu2O3 NH4Cl Mole % 100 0. The characteristic orange body color of this phosphor is caused by the blue to green absorption band and by the orange-red emission excited by ambient light. Fire in open quartz boats. 1100ºC.176 1 Preparation First mix only the SrCO3 + Eu2O3. 2. 2.

Fire in capped quartz tubes.SrS:Mn2+ Structure: Cubic (NaCl) Composition Ingredient SrCO3 MnCO3 NH4Cl Mole % 100 0.88 eV).540 Preparation First mix only the SrCO3 + MnCO3.. Powderize.245 eV.40 eV excitation by addition of ~0. 1 hour. Optical Properties Emission color: Yellow-green Emission peak: 2. Powderize. O. 1 hour. Fire in open quartz boats. 1 hour. Fire in open quartz boats. Sorge. This also shifts the emission band peak to ~2. Powderize. N2. 3. Reference 1. 1. 2. Technical University of Berlin (1959). Store in a well-closed container. H2S.23 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4.1 1 By weight (g) 148 0.115 0.03 mol% of Pb. H2S. Add the above amount of NH4Cl and also ~ 2–3 g of sulfur. Thesis.28 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0. Absorption (%) 100 Emission .40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: +/Fairly efficient Decay: Exponential decay requiring ~4 msec to 1/10 Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Remark Phosphor can be sensitized for efficient 3. 1100ºC. 1000ºC. + (3. 1100ºC. Mix by dry grinding.

Powderize. Fire in open alumina boats. Lehmann. Add both solutions.88 eV). and gold. 1 hour. + (3. H2S. .38 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: + (4. This material is very hygroscopic. Replacement of K in the above recipe by Li. under any circumstances. silver. 117. 2.690 Preparation Dissolve the Au in a little (as little as possible) aqua regia and the K2CO3 in a little water. Reference 1. 2. 1389 (1970). 700ºC. Optical Properties Emission color: Orange-red Emission peak: 1.197 0. 1 hour. Replacement of K by Na gives near-dead material. Fire in open alumina boats. Electrochem. Alkaline earth sulfide phosphors activated by copper..K Structure: Cubic (NaCl) Composition Ingredient BaSO4 Au-metal K2CO3 Mole % 100 0. Do not. stir to uniformity. Soc. Powderize. W. 1. Rb.1 1 (of K) By weight (g) 233 0. 900ºC.. Make a slurry of the BaSO4 in water or methanol. let it come into contact with water. dry and powderize. J. F. Store in a well-closed container.BaS:Au.93 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0.40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: + Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 100 Emission 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Remarks 1. H2. Cs. or P gives slightly different emission spectra.

840 Preparation First mix only CaCO3 + Ga2O3 + CeO2. Powderize. 1 hour. Fire in open quartz boats. Fire in open quartz boats. 2.68 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4. 3.15 Double Sulfides The following host compounds and activators are included in this subsection: CaGa2S4:Ce3+ CaGa2S4:Eu2+ CaGa2S4:Mn2+ CaGa2S4:Pb2+ ZnGa2S4:Mn2+ ZnBa2S3:Mn2+ CaGa2S4:Ce3+ Structure: Orthorhombic Composition Ingredient CaCO3 Ga2O3 CeO2 NaHCO3 Mole % 98 200 (of Ga) 1 1 By weight (g) 98 187 1. N2. 1 hour. Store in a well-closed container.5% . N2. Powderize. Powderize. Optical Properties Emission color: Bluish Emission peaks: Two overlapping bands ~2. 1 hour.42 and 2.88 eV). 800ºC. 1. + (3.4.7 0. Add the above amount of NaHCO3 and also ~2–3 g of sulfur. Mix by dry grinding.40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: 4. H2S. 800ºC. Fire in covered alumina crucibles. 800ºC.

.76 Preparation Mix by slurrying in water. J. 800ºC. and Baglio.A. Reference 1.E. Electrochem. Luminescence and structural properties of thiogallate phosphors Ce+3 and Eu+2-activated phosphors. 119.. 2. Fire in open quartz boats. Peters. 1 hour. + (3. Soc. 800ºC.. Fire in open quartz boats. 1 hour.24 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4. H2S.40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: 7% Absorption (%) 100 Emission . Optical Properties Emission color: Yellow-green Emission peak: 2. Store in a well-closed container. J. Powderize.Spectra 800 700 600 500 400 Wavelength (nm) 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Remark This phosphor is slightly unstable in water.22 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0. CaGa2S4:Eu2+ Structure: Orthorhombic Composition Ingredient CaCO3 Ga2O3 Eu2O3 Mole % 99 200 (of Ga) 1 (of Eu) By weight (g) 99 187 1. 230 (1972). T.88 eV). N2 bubbling through CS2. dry. and powderize. Powderize. 1.

P. Powderize. Soc. Electrochem.. Synthesis and photoluminescence of MIIM2III(S.Spectra 800 700 600 500 400 Wavelength (nm) 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Remark This phosphor is slightly unstable in water.. Store in a well-closed container. Optical Properties Emission color: Deep red Emission peak: 1.88 eV). CaGa2S4:Mn2+ Structure: Orthorhombic Composition Ingredient CaCO3 Ga2O3 MnCO3 Mole % 98 200 (of Ga) 2 By weight (g) 98 187 2. N2 loaded with CS2. 2.. References 1. 1.. J. 1 hour. + (3. Fire in open quartz boats. J.3 Preparation Mix by slurrying in water. Soc. T. 121.E. 2 hours. 119. Powderize when dry. 2.40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: + Absorption (%) 100 Emission . J.E. Fire in open quartz boats. Donohue. and Baglio.74 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4. 800ºC. H2S. Electrochem.C. Peters. and Hanlon.. J.. Powderize.Se)4. 230 (1972).A. Luminescence and structural properties of thiogallate phosphors Ce+3 and Eu+2-activated phosphors. 900ºC. 137 (1974). Dry in air.

Optical Properties Emission color: Pale whitish-yellow Emission peak: 2. Fire in open quartz boats. 2. ++ (3.88 eV). Store in a well-closed container. Add the above amount of PbO and also ~2–3 g of sulfur.Spectra 800 700 600 500 400 Wavelength (nm) 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Remark This phosphor is slightly unstable in water. CaGa2S4:Pb2+ Composition Ingredient CaCO3 Ga2O3 PbO Mole % 99 200 (of Ga) 1 By weight (g) 99 187 2. 1 hour. 1. N2. 800ºC. Powderize.5% Absorption (%) 100 Emission . N2 bubbling through CS2. Fire in capped quartz tubes.40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: 3. H2S.2 Preparation First mix only CaCO3 + Ga2O3.03 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4. 3. 1 hour. Powderize. Fire in open quartz boats. 1 hour. 800ºC. Mix by dry grinding. 800ºC.

1000ºC.Spectra 800 700 600 500 400 Wavelength (nm) 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Remark This phosphor is slightly unstable in water. Fire in open quartz boats. and powderize.3 Preparation Mix by slurrying in water. about 18–20 msec to 1/10 Absorption (%) 100 Emission . Fire in open quartz boats. Fire in open quartz boats. 1 hour.30 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4. 1 hour. N2 bubbling through CS2. Optical Properties Emission color: Red Emission peak: 1. 3. 1. H2S. Powderize. Powderize. 2. 1100ºC. 1 hour. dry. 800ºC.88 eV). ++ (3.40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: 4% Decay: Exponential decay.92 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0. H2S. ZnGa2S4:Mn2+ Structure: Tetragonal Composition Ingredient ZnS Ga2O3 MnCO3 Mole % 98 200 (of Ga) 2 By weight (g) 96 187 2. Powderize.

ZnBa2S3:Mn2+ Structure: Orthorhombic Composition Ingredient ZnS BaCO3 MnCO3 Mole % 98 200 2 By weight (g) 96 275 2. 1 hour. and powderize. 1. Fire in open quartz boats. Optical Properties Emission color: Red Emission peak: 1.40 eV) Excitation efficiency be e-beam: + Absorption (%) 100 Emission .3 Preparation Mix by slurrying in water. A.Spectra 800 700 600 500 400 Wavelength (nm) 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Reference 1.F. 92 (May 1974).935 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0. Electrochem. dry. Powderize... 2. 700ºC. Vecht.J. H2. Fire in open quartz boats. Powderize. Meeting. P.. G. Abstr. Soc. 800ºC. 1 hour. and Smith. San Francisco.24 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (3. H2S. Bird.

A. Electrochem. Technol. San Francisco. 789 (1973).. 10. Soc. Sci. J. Absorption (%) 100 Emission . Electroluminescent displays. Vecht. Vecht. Abstr. et al. A. 2. References 1. Vac.. Meeting..Spectra 800 700 600 500 400 Wavelength (nm) 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Remark This phosphor has been used for DC-EL by A. Vecht. 93 (May 1974).

16 Miscellaneous Sulfides and Oxysulfides The following host compounds and activators are included in this subsection: SrAl2S4:Eu2+ SrGa2S4:Pb2+ BaAl2S4:Eu2+ SrGa2S4:Ce2+ SrGa2S4:Eu2+ BaGa2S4:Ce3+ BaGa2S4:Eu2+ Y2O2S:Eu3+ Y2O2S:Tb3+ Gd2O2S:Tb3+ SrAl2S4:Eu2+ Optical Properties Emission color: Blue-green Emission peak: 2. Synthesis and photoluminescence of MIIM2III(S. Electrochem.. J.88 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: + Reference 1. Donohue.61 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0. Electrochem. J. Peters. J. and Hanlon..04 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0.21 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: + (4.4. 137 (1974).. 122. T. Luminescence properties of thiogallate phosphors.C.40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: + . Soc. SrGa2S4:Pb2+ Optical Properties Emission color: Orange Emission peak: 2.. 98 (1975).Se)4.50 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0.31 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: + (3. Red and white emitting phosphors for flying spot scanner applications. 121. BaAl2S4:Eu2+ Optical Properties Emission color: Light blue Emission peak: 2. 3. Soc.E.51 eV Excitation efficiency by e-beam: + Reference 1. P..E.

.31 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0. and Hanlon. Red and white emitting phosphors for flying spot scanner applications. 3. J. T. Luminescence and structural properties of thiogallate phosphors Ce+3 and Eu+2-activated phosphors. Electrochem... Electrochem. T. Soc.40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: + . P. 121. J. Donohue.40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: + Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 100 Excitation (%) Emission 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 References 1. 122. SrGa2S4:Eu2+ Optical Properties Emission color: Green Emission peak: 2. Soc. J. 137 (1974).E. Synthesis and photoluminescence of MIIM2III(S.E. J.C. 98 (1975). Peters..Se)4. 230 (1972).Reference 1. and Baglio. J.73 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: + (3. Luminescence properties of thiogallate phosphors.20 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (3..A. Soc. 119. 2. Electrochem. Peters. 2....53 eV. SrGa2S4:Ce3+ Optical Properties Emission color: Blue-green Emission peak: 2.E.

Luminescence and structural properties of thiogallate phosphors Ce+3 and Eu+2-activated phosphors. 119.C. Synthesis and photoluminescence of MIIM2III(S.E.. Synthesis and photoluminescence of MIIM2III(S. 121. Soc. Absorption (%) 100 Emission . J.. P. 2.. T. Donohue. 119. 230 (1972). J. Soc.E...Spectra 800 700 600 500 400 Wavelength (nm) 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Reference 1. 2. 137 (1974). and Hanlon. Luminescence and structural properties of thiogallate phosphors Ce+3 and Eu+2-activated phosphors. Electrochem. J.. 2.. T.53 eV. P.. 121.A. 230 (1972).40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: + Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 100 Excitation (%) Emission 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 References 1. J.Se)4.. and Hanlon..A. J.73 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: + (3. Electrochem.Se)4. J. J. Donohue. Electrochem. Electrochem. J. Peters.C.. BaGa2S4:Ce3+ Optical Properties Emission color: Blue-green Emission peak: 2. Peters.. 137 (1974). Soc.E. and Baglio. Soc.E. and Baglio.

230 (1972). Synthesis and photoluminescence of MIIM2III(S.40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: + Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 References 1. J..BaGa2S4:Eu2+ Optical Properties Emission color: Blue-green Emission peak: 2. Electrochem. and Hanlon. Soc. 2.E.. J.. 137 (1974). Soc. Donohue. T.. 121. + (3. Y2O2S:Eu3+ Structure: Trigonal Optical Properties Emission color: Orange to red (lines) Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (4. P.A. J.88 eV).E. Peters. and Baglio.Se)4.C.40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: ++ Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Absorption (%) 100 Emission Absorption (%) 100 Emission .. Luminescence and structural properties of thiogallate phosphors Ce+3 and Eu+2-activated phosphors.52 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (3. 119. Electrochem. J..

References 1.. Electrochem. 2.29 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: + (4. Soc. Excitation efficiency by e-beam: ++ (3.S.88 eV). U. Soc. Electrochem.R. Y2O2S:Tb3+ Optical Properties Emission color: Blue-green Excitation efficiency by UV: + (4.. 118 (1970). Preparation of Y2O2S:Eu phosphor particles of different sizes by a flux method.. + (3.40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: ++ Gd2O2S:Tb3+ Optical Properties Emission color: Green Emission peak: 2. and Struck. 124. W. C. Ozawa. Fonger.40 eV) . Pat. J. Royce. M. Energy loss and energy storage from the Eu3+ chargetransfer states in Y and La oxysulfides. L. 3 418 246 (1968). 117. 3. 413 (1977).W.26–2.H.. J....88 eV).

4 Phosphor Screens by Brushing Phosphor Screens by Settling in a Kasil Solution Phosphor Screens by Cathaphoretic Deposition Filming of Phosphor Screens .2 5.3 5.1 5.Section 5: Preparation of Phosphor Screens 5.

) on a horizontal surface. . The method is quick and easy and has been extensively used in the laboratory. Spray a layer of Krylon-Clear (out of a spray can) onto the substrate. etc. Lehmann's Phosphor Cookbook. Procedure Place the clean substrate (glass. 5. Heat up the hot plate to a temperature where the paper under the substrate just about turns brown. phosphor layers. They are useful but certainly not the only ways of preparing phosphor screens. Let dry in air. These methods have been tested and used in this laboratory. Try to keep the laquer as uniform in thickness as possible. move the phosphor over the lacquer with a soft hair brush.Section 5 PREPARATION OF PHOSPHOR SCREENS* The following are examples of how to deposit inorganic phosphor powders in thin and uniform layers onto flat surfaces (usually glass).1 Phosphor Screens by Brushing This method gives excellent. The lacquer becomes tacky when hot and coats quickly with a very dense yet thin phosphor layer. Simultaneously. Keep nozzle of the spray can about 5–10 cm over the substrate and spray enough to have the liquid laquer uniformly flowing over the area. It is especially good for small screens. * This section is from W. the lacquer up. Now place all onto an electric hot plate with a flat metal top. thin but dense. Place the substrate. onto a piece of white paper and some of the phosphor to be coated onto the dry lacquer layer.

Prepare two stock solutions. 43.. Swank. ZnS-type phosphors react slower and have to stand overnight or longer. Solution A: K-silicate solution in water. let cool down. however. the phosphor will still stick to the substrate but the layer is much softer and easier damaged by accidental touching. Place it in a sufficiently large beaker. J. Adv.G. Cautiously (as not to damage the still soft phosphor layer) rinse the screen several times in water. It can easily be burned out by heating in the open air. . Lacquer becomes solid. Then pour the suspension quickly to the solution A in the beaker. grams per square centimeter. Phys. Weigh the amount of phosphor to give the desired layer of thickness. In some cases. 2 798 821 (1954). Cover the beaker and let stand for about 1–24 hours. K. add the weighed amount of phosphor. and Houston. It is widely in use to prepare phosphor screens for cathode-ray tubes.. Vosburgh. 3% solids Solution B: 1 g Sr acetate.. the organic layer underneath of the phosphor layer cannot be tolerated. Zn2SiO4 phosphors give well-adhering screens after 1–2 hours. Procedure Clean the glass to be coated. face up. R. 400ºC. will bind the phosphor to the substrate.* The phosphor settles down during this time and the phosphor layer reacts with the silicate of the solution. close the upper end of the cylinder with one hand and shake vigorously. Reference 1. Afterwards.. * Best reaction times depend on the material. for a few minutes.S. in 1 liter water Pour solution A into the beaker to 20–40% of the volume.2 Phosphor Screens by Settling in a Kasil Solution This method gives somewhat less dense (macroscopically) layer than brushing but permits tight thickness control and is easily used for large screens. Electron. into a glass cylinder.. Pour solution B. a volume equal to that of A. 205 (1977). Lehmann. U. Small amounts of this reaction product. W. The screen is now ready for most applications. Wipe excess loose phosphor particles off with a soft paper tissue. 5. over the area of the beaker opening.M. Pat. Decant the excess liquid. Screen the phosphor through a fine sieve immediately before use (this is an important point). Reference 1..K. Dry in air. or of Sr silicate from the reaction between parts A and B. Electr.Take the screen off the hot plate. Sr(C2H3O2)2 . About 5–10 mg/cm2 usually is sufficient for most phosphors and purposes. The phosphor adheres very tightly to the substrate and is not easily damaged.

117. P.E. Rinse briefly in water. Apply about 100–150 V DC (subtrate = negative). Electrophoretic deposition of luminescent materials. and Sargent.. Distance anode–cathode a few centimeters. Wash briefly in a solution of about 10 g NaOH (or KOH) + 10 g NaCN (or KCN) in 1 liter water to dissolve the Au film which is no longer needed. etc. 5. Pour this solution into a beaker and add a few grams of the phosphor. Keep the solution in suspension by stirring (magnetic stirrer). Grosso. The Al film provides an optically reflecting rear layer (thus enhancing the output brightness of the tube) and protects the phosphor against damage by ion bombardment from unavoidable gas residues in the tube. Reference 1. A very uniform and compact phosphor layer will stick to the substrate within about 10–30 sec. Rutherford. Procedure Coat the glass surface to be coated with a very thin. Then take the screen cautiously out of the solution (the phosphor adheres to the substrate even in the absence of any additional binder). Electrochem. Dry. J. carbon. ..F. let the excess phosphor settle.) into the upper part of the beaker. Current should be about 5–10 mg/cm2. 1456 (1970). optically transparent gold layer by evaporation in a vacuum. Turn off voltage and stirrer.5..4 Filming of Phosphor Screens Phosphor layers in commercial CR tubes are backed by a thin metallic Al film which the exciting electrons penetrate to reach the phosphor particles. Longer times give thicker but less uniform layers.E. D. Provide a solution of 200 mg MG(NO3)2·H2O in 1 liter methanol. Rinse again in water and then in methanol.. Insert the Au-coated substrate and an inert anode (Pt. R.3 Phosphor Screens by Cathaphoretic Deposition This method is used to prepare dense layers of fine-particled phosphors for high-resolution cathode ray screens. Soc.

2 ccm octyl acetate. into a beaker on a metal carrier to permit easy lifting out again. Heat the screen in open air to about 300–400ºC for a few minutes. Add water to cover the screen. . The cellulose film will burn out leaving behind a shiny Al film. drop 1–5 drops (depending on the surface area) of the above filming solution onto the water in the beaker. The cellulose now forms a very thin solid film touching only the tops of the phosphor particles. With an eye dropper. face up. It prevents the Al during the subsequent vacuum deposition to penetrate in between the particles. 65 ccm propyl acetate. The solvent evaporates within about 20–30 sec. The solution will quickly spread over the whole water surface. Deposit the Al film by evaporation in vacuum. Provide a solution of: 50 ccm ethyl cellulose in amyl acetate (commercial cellulose binder). 30 ccm isopropyl alcohol. Carefully lift screen out. very thin film of ethyl cellulose floating on the water. leaving behind a solid.Procedure Place the phosphor screen. Let dry in air.

Part 2: Additional Developments .

Section 6: Phosphor Synthesis 6.1 6.2 6.3 Alternative Preparation Methods Combustion Synthesis of Phosphors Preparation of Phosphors by Sol–Gel Techniques .

come into contact with each other on an atomic or ionic level. The steam heating results in a very fast evaporation of the solvent or water. an intimate reaction mixture is formed and deposited downstream from the flow. they generally do not leave the reaction mixture and must be removed by washing with water or other appropriate solvents. NH4Br. through either decomposition or evaporation. . volatile and non-volatile. The use of an interaction medium often results in lower reaction temperatures and allows for the optimization of the grain size of the luminophores being synthesized. Other routes for co-precipitation can involve sulfates or hydroxides. The oxalates obtained in the precipitate can be converted to oxides by heating at a relatively low temperature of 800ºC. Y(NO3)3 and Tb(NO3)3 dissolved in water can be precipitated by the addition of a 2-to-1 solution of oxalic acid dissolved in hot water. Molten salts are used as non-volatile fluxes and generally do not react with the starting materials. these fluxes are always in the form of a melt. and boric acid. As the name denotes. the reactants are mixed thoroughly either in dryness or in suspension. The amounts used are typically small. This results in a more reactive mixture.1 Alternative Preparation Methods* The traditional way of preparing phosphors has been by the mix and fire techniques detailed in the earlier sections. To further facilitate the reaction and to improve the crystallinity of the luminescent materials. flux agents or molten salts are often added to provide a more interactive medium for the reaction. As a result. The method of spray drying can also be used to synthesize luminescent materials.Section 6 PHOSPHOR SYNTHESIS 6. The volatile flux often reacts with the starting material and leaves the reaction mixture spontaneously. Such reactants include the carbonates and the hydroxides which decompose with the emission of CO2 or H2O upon heating the mixture. Droplets of this solution are then injected into a gas stream and are heated as they are transported downstream. as the interactive specific surface of the remaining elements increases in these processes. the reactants are generally granular with radii in the micrometer range. Alternatively. AlF3. Large amounts of the salts are used (up to 30% by weight of the phosphor material). the reactants are first dissolved in a solvent. Commonly used fluxes include NH4Cl. preferably water. Na2B4O7. There are two types of fluxes which are used. A suitable flux increases the reactivity of the constituents by dissolving at least one of the reactants and provides a medium to incubate the crystallization of the phosphor. and Na4P2O7. and then co-precipitate forming an intimately commingled starting mixture. the mixture is then heated or fired under an appropriate atmosphere. This method is used in cases in which an insoluble salt can be identified for each of the reaction constituents. on the order of few mole percent. As an example. Reactivity can also be improved by choosing starting materials which are unstable in controlled circumstances. In this method. the oxides can also be dissolved directly in hot diluted nitric acid to obtain a treatable precipitate. Examples of salts used for this purpose are Na2MoO4. A wet co-precipitation method is also being used. To ensure the proper reactivity between the constituents of the phosphor. the starting materials are dissolved in a solvent. In these processes. In this method. Na2SiO3.

1–3 The method produces rapid. 6. For oxide phosphors. Equation 1 is an example of a stoichiometric combustion reaction of yttrium nitrate. to form aluminum oxide. e. is an example of a highly exothermic reaction. A composition of metal nitrates and fuel in which the fuel reacts completely with all of the metal nitrates in the mixture. it is necessary that a large amount of heat be released during the formation of the products. aluminum nitrate. fine oxide powders. and carbohydrazide to form yttrium aluminum garnet. 3YN3O9 + 5AlN3O9 + 15CH6N4O YAG(s) + 42N2(g) + 15CO2(g) + 45H2O(g) (1) When complete combustion occurs. Grinding has often been implicated in the degradation of luminescent emission intensity through the creation of surface defects that quench the luminescence. that is the ratio of the oxidizing to reducing components of the metal nitrate-fuel precursor mixture and is defined as: e (coefficie nt of oxidizing elements in specific formula) valency ( 1) (coefficie nt of reducing elements in specific formula) valency (2) *This section was kindly provided by L. or ammonium perchlorate) and an organic fuel (e. The stoichiometry of metal nitrate-fuel mixtures is expressed in terms of the elemental stoichiometric coefficient. grinding and milling) steps. Y3Al5O12 (YAG).g.The various methods described above pose the advantage of assuring a better and more homogeneous admixture of the reactants to be used in the synthesis and of generally requiring a lower temperature to achieve this synthesis. is known as a stoichiometric ratio or composition. * The above section was kindly provided by Cees Ronda. so that no residues remain in the product material. the advantages of combustion synthesis are in its ability to produce well-crystallized. carbohydrazide. CH6N4O. Rohwer. ammonium nitrate. fine particle size powders rapidly without extensive high temperature (>1500oC) annealing and mechanical separation (e. Al(NO3)3. CO2.2 Combustion Synthesis of Phosphors* Beginning in the late 1980’s. For combustion to occur. urea. N2.g. combustion synthesis has been investigated as a method to produce homogeneous.. metal nitrates. as an alternative to time-consuming solid-state reaction and sol–gel processing techniques. several research groups began to investigate the use of combustion synthesis for oxide phosphor preparation4–6 and found it to be a technique of interest for phosphor synthesis in general. having a negative enthalpy of reaction ( Hrxn = –3800 kJ/mol). Later in the mid-1990’s. Al2O3. and H2O. self-sustaining reactions resulting from the appropriate combination of oxidizers (e.S. or glycine). are released and no residuals are left in the synthesized YAG material.. and carbohydrazide..g. exothermic. the only gaseous products. crystalline. The reaction of aluminum nitrate. .

and ruptures into a flame after about 3–5 minutes. The flame temperature can also be increased by adding excess oxidizer such as ammonium nitrate. The resultant product appears as a porous foam. Combustion reactions using glycine fuel yield amorphous powders or ash which must be annealed to produce crystalline luminescent powders. The fuel alters the energetics and exothermicity of the reaction. oxygen is considered to be the only oxidizing element and has a positive valence while carbon.The coefficients of the oxidizing and reducing elements are obtained from the balanced chemical equation for the combustion reaction of metal nitrates and a fuel. the precursor mixture of de-ionized water. Y(NO3)3 and Al(NO3)3 are oxidizers and the reducing agent is CH6N4O. dehydrates. or by adjusting the fuel to oxidizer molar ratio so e = 1. Tf. The oxidizer/fuel molar ratio required for a stoichiometric mixture ( e = 1) is determined by summing the total oxidizing and reducing valencies in the oxidizer compounds and dividing by the sum of the total oxidizing and reducing valencies in the fuel compounds. the metal nitrate to carbohydrazide molar ratio = 1. e Combustion reactions are initiated in a muffle furnace or on a hot plate at temperatures of 500oC or less. The type of fuel and the fuel to oxidizer ratio affect the adiabatic flame temperature. Stoichiometric mixtures are reported to produce maximum energy. in Equation 1. as noted below. Hess’ law can be used to approximate the adiabatic flame temperature for a combustion reaction: Tf To Hr Cp Hp (4) where Hr and Hp are the enthalpies of formation of the reactants and products. Thus. the metal nitrate to carbohydrazide molar ratio is given by: 5 3 {[1 Al (-3)] [3 N 0] [9 O 2]} [1 Y (-3)] [3 N 0] [9 O 2]} 15 8 8 1. For example. hydrogen. respectively. The maximum . The chemical energy released during the exothermic reaction between the metal nitrates and fuel can rapidly heat the system to a high temperature (>1800oC) and sustain that high temperature in the absence of an external heat source. and fuel boils. Nitrogen is considered to be neutral. Powders obtained from combustion reactions with urea or carbohydrazide fuels are luminescent in the as-synthesized state. In these calculations. decomposes. and provides a method to increase or decrease the adiabatic flame temperature. The mixture is stoichiometric when e = 1. For Y3Al5O12 synthesized using carbohydrazide fuel. The photoluminescence emission spectra of YAG:Cr phosphors produced with carbohydrazide. the target phase(s) can be achieved with significantly reduced external energy input. In a typical reaction. and glycine fuels followed by a heat treatment in air at 1300oC for 1 hour show the effect of flame temperature on the luminescent properties. and fuel rich when e < 1. metal nitrates. it is fuel lean when e > 1. urea. and Cp is the heat capacity of products at constant pressure.875 8 (-1) {[1 C (-4)] [6 H (-1)] [4 N 0] [1 O 2]} (3) = 1 and Thus. these temperatures are clearly much lower than the temperature at which crystallization of the desired phase takes place during conventional processing.875 is needed to obtain complete combustion of all components. and metal cations are considered to be reducing elements and have a negative valence.

1 Introduction Phosphors used for most emissive display devices are in the form of powders. 5.. Lower temperature and shorter sintering periods give rise to smaller grain size particles. J. This is an indication that certain properties of the resulting powders. in these cases. K.C. Mater. Sci. Glycine nitrate combustion synthesis of oxide ceramic powders. S. 8 (2001). Mater..E. J.A.A. 1780.. *This section was kindly provided by W. et al.. The grain size of phosphors prepared via solid-state chemical reactions depends on the temperature and the length of the sintering process. respectively. L. The integrated photoluminescence intensity is a maximum for reactions at or near stoichiometry. This is especially true in low-voltage applications such as in the field emission displays of current interest. Chick.J. O. Synthesis of red-emitting. are affected by the flame temperature of the reaction. Soc. Am. Lett.. The quality of the displays depends on the nature of the powders used. 1305 (1990). 6. . 3257 (1996). To resolve this problem. 427 (1988). Jia. 79.. 323-324.. Mater. 4. E. Ceram. Shea. The photoluminescence intensity increases for powders obtained from reactions that reached higher flame temperatures.C. Kingsley. K. Chem. J... Alloys Cmpds. The addition of a NH4(OH) or oxalic acid causes the metallic hydroxides or oxalates to precipitate from the mixture. such as crystallite size or and degree of disorder of the local environment at the activator ions. Ekambaram. al. 905 (1995).flame temperatures during reactions with carbohydrazide. et. Suresh. K. 2.. References 1. and in order to maintain efficiency the size of phosphor grains has to be reduced to reflect this fact. 6. J. E. 6. urea. Mater. K. 6 (1990). and glycine were 1825. 5. Lopez... Preparation. 10. and 1210oC. in the wet method. McKittrick. and Patil. small particle size luminescent oxides used an optimized combustion process. Zych. A novel combustion process for the synthesis of fine particle alpha-alumina and related oxide materials. L. Lett... Combustion synthesis of yttria. Combustion synthesis of fine-particle metal aluminates. but both the crystallinity and grain uniformity are poor if the treatment parameters are such as not to allow the chemical reaction to be completed. and Patil.. J. fine and uniform powders with good crystallinity are generally preferred. lower energy electrons do not penetrate into phosphor grains very deeply. 25.3. J.3 Preparation of Phosphors by Sol–Gel Techniques* 6. The flame temperature is also controlled by the fuel to oxidizer ratio of the particular fuel used.. 3. and Patil. the ingredients of the precipitate are in contact with each other at a molecular level and an efficient chemical reaction normally occurs. wet methods of preparation are often used.C. aqueous solutions of specific constituent metallic salts are employed. and Sluzky. Kingsley.J. J... In these devices. x-ray analysis and spectroscopic investigation of nanostructured Lu2O3:Tb..

(e) Thin films and multi-layers coatings of sol–gel materials can be readily prepared by spinning or dipping methods during the gelation period.14-17 There are two ways to prepare such nanophosphor composites: (a) Alkoxide solutions of the phosphor are prepared from the appropriate precursors and then blended into the sol of SiO2 (or other matrixes). The sol–gel technique presents the following advantages: (a) High homogeneity of the chemical composition of the materials produced occurs. sintered. what he called. (b) Nanophases can be obtained by phase aggregation from doped SiO2 or other matrices during thermal treatments. samples have to be annealed above 1000°C and this may produce undesirable side effects. It is difficult to completely remove the residual hydroxyls from the sol–gel materials. This allows the doping of fragile organic and biological molecules into porous inorganic materials and the fabrication of organic– inorganic hybrid materials. No "local" concentration quenching will occur because of impurity clustering. (f) The sol–gel procedures produce little unintentional contamination. the geletion process then proceeds as before. processes are known to contaminate samples. Willi Lehmann reported in 1975 that very efficient luminescence was observed in.13 These materials are similar to those found in the nanoclusters in SiO2 which have been developed recently via the sol–gel method described in the first section. A kind of metalorganic compounds. otherwise cracks and striations will appear in the samples. The technique has the following disadvantages: 1. Molecule-level-homogeneous multi-component materials can be obtained. 2. known as alkoxides of metals. Nano-scale uniform pores can be obtained at intermediate processing temperature while high-density materials can be produced with higher annealing temperature. No milling and grinding are needed. (b) High uniformity of doping ions distribution exists. the processes hydrolysis and gelation can be induced to produce homogeneous gels from the mixture of alkoxides. The sol–gel method has been widely used to prepare a number of phosphors10-12 for displays and other materials that are of technical importance. Because of the better homogeneity. Through the use of the appropriate reagents. and NH4Cl. The sol–gel method is advantageous inasmuch as thin films or coatings of the phosphor can be formed on substrates directly and/or the sol–gel can be molded into designated forms. This "contamination" does not enter into the lattice and will not affect the intrinsic optical properties of the phosphor.The sol–gel method of phosphor preparation is regarded as a wet method. contributions to the optical spectra of these materials from inhomogeneous sources are generally expected to be smaller than those encountered in unordered systems. is used as precursors. These metalorganic alkoxides either are in liquid form or are soluble in certain organic solvents. are no longer needed. Br. which are commonly used in ceramic technology and contaminate the end products. For example. such as SiO2:CaX2-Eu2+/Mn2+ (where X = Cl. for example. H3BO3. and higher doping concentration becomes possible. the gels can be baked. The drying and annealing processes have to be slow and deliberate. such as B2O3. and powderized as in other traditional methods. heterogeneous materials. (c) Processing temperature can be very low. prepared by a solid-state reaction. Fluxes. (d) The microstructure (porosity and size of pores) of the materials can be controlled. Different . To obtain powder or ceramic samples. powderizing may be used and trace of foreign particles can be mix in. To get rid of these organic groups. or I). In cases where phosphor powders are prepared by the sol–gel method.

2. in hydrolysis. The reaction of alkoxides with water is called hydrolysis. similar procedures are applicable to other oxide compounds. T. TMOS (tetramethoxysilane. Graham1 prepared gels of silica from aqueous salts. Since the sol–gel method is a wet chemical method. Preparation of precursor solutions The initial raw materials for sol–gel preparations consist of metal alkoxides either in solid or in liquid form (Table 1). liquid) are commonly used.4 A mixture of water. These liquid mixtures of the metal alkoxides are stirred for an extended period. A gel. A typical reaction goes as: (OR)3-Si-OR + H2O (OR)3-Si-OH + ROH . the particles consist of dense oxide or polymetric clusters formed by the precursors and reagents. For these matrices. alcohol. a mixture of water to alcohol to HCl with pH ~2–5 is added. when it was "rediscovered" and found to be very useful in synthesizing various materials of practical importance. such as optical glasses and solidstate laser materials. and thermal treatment. silicate-related materials in this case. is a composite substance consisting of a continuous solid skeletal structure which results from the gelation of the sol. the procedure for the preparation of doped SiO2 sol–gel glasses is described.nanophosphor embedded glasses have been fabricated with this method. This acidic solution is added slowly (dropwise) into the precursor alkoxide mixture. They react readily but are not soluble in water. and hydrochloric acid (HCl) is prepared so that it has a pH in the range of 2–5. The potential of the sol–gel process was not appreciated until 1980. if used. a proper solvent is needed to convert solid alkoxides. These materials are transparent and can be used for displays and laser devices. Hydrolysis 3. on the order of several hours. an alkoxide is a metalorganic compound. Ebelmen2 obtained silica gels from metal alkoxides.19 6. drying. liquid) or TEOS (tetraethoxysilane.18.3. Si(OC2H5)4. we use silicon alkoxides as an illustrative example for the preparation of sol–gel materials. Si(OCH3)4. Some alkoxide solutions are commercially available (see Table 1). Doping or activator ions are introduced through either using another alkoxide solution or an aqueous solution of the doping ions. Because the chemical–physical processes involved are similar for all metal alkoxides. To stimulate hydrolysis. a hydroxyl (OH) group attaches itself to the metal atom by replacing the alkoxide group (OR) in the TMOS or TEOS. a sol is defined as a colloid of solid particles suspended in a liquid.2 Sol–gel techniques The sol–gel method is a chemical technique that uses metal alkoxides for the synthesis and production of glasses or ceramics through a series of chemical processes. 1. gelation. including hydrolysis. on the other hand. the gel forms cells which encapsulate colloidal liquids. a solvent such as MeOH (methanol) or EtOH (ethanol) is normally used to produce the precursor solution. in which a hydrogen atom belonging to the hydroxyl (OH) group on an alcohol is replaced by a metal atom. Since then the method has received considerable attention and has been investigated extensively. As an example. This solute can be driven from the gel through thermal treatment. while M. The sol–gel technique was developed as early as 1864.3 In general. HCl acts as a catalyst in this process. and a solid glass or ceramic is produced in this way. into liquid form.

Hydrolysis can occur with any one of the (OR) groups of the molecule. CnH2n+1. Table 1. an aqueous solution containing the doping ion/ions is also blended in during the hydrolysis step.Here R stands for the alkyl (alkylic radical). If the sol– gels are to be doped. R=CH3 for TMOS. Commonly used metal alkoxides and recommended solvents for solids Name aluminum isopropoxide aluminum n-butoxide aluminum sec-butoxide barium ethoxide barium isopropoxide bismuth isopropoxide calcium ethoxide calcium methoxide cerium isopropoxide copper ethoxide dysprosium isopropoxide erbium isopropoxide gadolinium isopropoxide gallium isopropoxide germanium methoxide germanium ethoxide germanium isopropoxide lanthanum isopropoxide lead isopropoxide magnesium methoxide magnesium ethoxide manganese isopropoxide praseodymium isopropoxide tetraethoxysilane (TEOS) tetramethoxysilane (TMOS) strontium isopropoxide titanium(iv) ethoxide titanium(iv) methoxide titanium(iv) isopropoxide tungsten(vi) ethoxide tungsten(vi) isopropoxide yttrium isopropoxide zinc isopropoxide zirconium n-propoxide zirconium n-butoxide Chemical Formula Al(OC3H7i)3 Al(OC4H9n)3 Al(OC4H9s)3 Ba(OC2H5)2 Ba(OC3H7i)3 Bi(OC3H7i)3 Ca(OC2H5)2 Ca(OCH3)2 Ce(OC3H7i)3 Cu(OC2H5)2 Dy(OC3H7i)3 Er(OC3H7i)3 Gd(OC3H7i)3 Ga(OC3H7i)3 Ge(OCH3)4 Ge(OC2H5)4 Ge(OC3H7i)4 La(OC3H7i)3 Pb(OC3H7i)2 Mg(OCH3)2 Mg(OC2H5)2 Mn(OC3H7i)2 Pr(OC3H7i)3 Si(OC2H5)4 Si(OCH3)4 Sr(OC3H7i)2 Ti(OC2H5)4 Ti(OCH3)4 Ti(OC3H7i)4 W(OC2H5)6 W(OC3H7i)6 Y(OC3H7i)3 Zn(OC3H7i)2 Zr(OC3H7n)4 Zr(OC4H9n)4 Solvents isopropanol n-butanol liquid ethanol isopropanol isopropanol ethanol methanol isopropanol ethanol toluene-isopropanol toluene-isopropanol toluene-isopropanol liquid liquid liquid liquid isopropanol isopropanol methanol ethanol isopropanol toluene-isopropanol liquid liquid isopropanol liquid methanol liquid ethanol isopropanol isopropanol isopropanol n-propanol n-butanol . and R=C2H5 for TEOS.

Because water and alkoxysilanes are immiscible. Additional cross-links form during gelation and the polymer chains become increasingly entangled. this may cause cracking of the sample. Several factors affect the rate of sol and gel formation including the temperature. sol–gel synthesis is carried out at room temperature. The final spanning cluster forms a skeletal framework which encloses cells containing the liquid phase (water or alcohol) and defines the gel phase. and re-precipitation of monomers or oligomers. ROH. If the gradients are too large. Aging and drying Aging leads to changes in the structure and other properties of the gel. though both the sol and gel formation rates are known to increase with increasing temperature. the relative concentration of the alkoxide precursors. gelation occurs. Links between clusters keep on multiplying until a giant cluster forms that spans the vessel. silica gels prepared at low pH (<3) and low water content (less than 4 mol% water per mole of alkoxide) produce primarily linear polymers with low cross-link density. so that the networks are compressed more at the surfaces than in the bulk. during gelation. colloidal silica is formed. larger structures are produced by polymerization. That is through further condensation.4 With the proper thermodynamic conditions. The solid network retards the escape of the liquid and prevents structural collapse. is released when an alcohol solution is employed: (OR)3-Si-OR + HO-Si-(OR)3 (OR)3-Si-O-Si-(OR)3 + ROH ROH is an alcohol: ROH=C2H5OH for TEOS and CH3OH for TMOS. Small clusters suspended in the liquid constitute the sol. In most cases. chains of polymers can cross-link to form three-dimensional clusters. Pressure gradients develop through the volume of the gels. water. a common solvent such as alcohol is also normally used as a homogenizing agent. Drying by evaporation under normal conditions gives rise to pressure within the pores that causes shrinkage of the gel network. In our example. Syneresis or spontaneous shrinkage of the network of the gel takes place as bond formation or attraction between clusters induces a contraction of the network and expulsion of liquid from the pores. At still higher pH and excess water content.3. With continuing gelation. Gelation is a continuous process in which two partially hydrolyzed molecules begin to connect and intertwine with each other with the release (condensation) of water when in a water solution: (OR)3-Si-OH + HO-Si-(OR)3 (OR)3-Si-O-Si-(OR)3 + H2O Alcohol. these clusters link together during gelation. and solvent. Silica gels prepared under more normal condition (pH 5–7) and/or higher water contents produce highly branched clusters which behave as discrete species. Through the gelation process. the viscosity and the elastic modulus of the solution increase rapidly. Different metal alkoxides can also coalesce to form "compound" clusters. dissolution. 4. and the pH of the total admixture. . these clusters begin to grow by combining with monomers or other clusters while releasing or condensing water or alcohols. Gelation 3.

139 (2000). sintering at high temperatures results in densification driven by interfacial energy considerations. the gel constituents move by viscous flow or diffusion in such a way as to reduce the solid–vapor interfacial areas and hence reduce porosity. 41 (1983). J.D. J. .7 Monolithic transparent -alumina results when an annealing temperature of 500ºC is used.P. R. By heating. Gel glass-dispersed liquidcrystal optical shutters.. B. C. and then dried gels can be obtained through the procedures of hydrolysis.. C.. 3. 6. 9. Rev. 10. Yoldas. 8. gellation.. G. M.J. the alumina becomes phase when annealed at 1200°C.07 mol of HCl. 18. Alumina sols. 16. 3943. Prog.S.6 5. Hydrolysis can be conducted at 80°C with 1 mol of aluminum sec-butoxide. Jia. Chim. Graham.. Xerogels are useful in the preparation of dense ceramics and are also interesting because of their high porosity and large surface area. 318 (1864). J... as described above. W..2D2O). Phys. SPIE Sol–Gel Optics III. and vapor sensors.. J. where oxidation is prevented.. 27. The temperature interval 400–525°C represents a region where considerable skeletal densification occurs with little associated weight loss. M. Chockalingam. San Diego (1990). Sol-gel synthesis of cadmium tin oxide powder. and Yen. Brinker. Sol-gel coating for optical chemical sensors and biosensors. Ebelmen. 476 (1992).7 References 1. 17. Al(OC4H9)3 (see Table 1) can be used. Removal of organics takes place by endothermic carbonization near 200°C. 1758. Sol-gel science: The Physics and Chemistry of SolGel Processing. Bescher.. Soc. B.M.M. 7. 2. 4. and drying.. 54.J. and 0. Academic Press. Annealing and porosity control Additional treatment of the sol–gel is required to produce pore-free ceramic materials.L. catalytic substrates. 6.. 518 (1994). SPIE Sol-Gel Optics V.6 As an example. A.2H2O. New transparent polycrystalline silicate scintillators.. Techniques for other materials Techniques to prepare other oxide and nitride compounds are similar to those used for SiO2. Henry. the exothermic process is suppressed if the gels are heated under inert conditions. A. 100 mol of H2O.. Serna.T. SPIE Sol–gel Optics III. and Scherer. by 900°C. At 800°C. E. Chem. there is partial densification of the sol–gel. 286 (1975). followed by exothermic oxidation at temperatures between 300 and 400°C. Soc. 2288. Isotope effects in the multiphonon relaxation of hydrated and deuterated cesium chloro-manganate (CsMnCl3. Bull. filters.W. Jayachandran. 183 (1988). The resulting dried gel is called a xerogel. Vidal. Ann. and Sanchez.. For the silicate system of our example..5. this may cause cracking when the samples are heated between room temperature and 400°C. T. M. Livage. The condensation (water or alcohol) and pyrolysis reactions that occur during heating liberate a large volume of gas that can generate high pressures. a process by which free excess volume is removed by diffusive motion of the network.. further evaporation drives the meniscus of the liquids into the bulk and the rate of evaporation decreases. these materials are useful as phosphors.After shrinkage stops. Ceram. to make Al2O3. SPIE Sol-Gel Optics II.. M. then wet gels.. Because of low permeability of the small pores in the network.. Structural relaxation. 129 (1864). B. 5. 745 (1994). Brundage.E. W. Serrano. Solid State Chem.. C. 2288. et al.. MacCraith. Phys.. is the predominant shrinkage mechanism in this temperature interval. and Oton. and Lakshmanan. the gel is completely densified leaving only a trace of silanols (Si-OH). D. Levy. et al. Am.

D. Optically active sol-gel microspheres for flat-panel color displays. Levy. 8.... 122. G. Pope. 2288. Mater. 1758.. Spectroscopic study of Eu3+doped and Eu3+. Fluorescence line-narrowing study of Eu3+-doped Sol-gel Silica: Effect of modifying cations on the clustering of Eu3+. 7. 536 (1994). and Uhlmann. Alloys Compds. Reisfeld.. W. SPIE Sol–gel Optica III. 748 (1975).M. J. 13. V.L. X. 14... SPIE Sol–gel Optics III. W. R. 519. Boulton.. 19. J. 529 (1994). and Bray. Costa. Lochhead. Opt. Soc. J. Second-harmonic generation from sol–gel derived ferroelectric and piezoelectric thin films. Feofilov. Rare-earth clustering and aluminum codoping in solgel silica: Investigation using europium(III) fluorescence spectroscopy. 572 (1995). Jia.R. Mater... Chem.. Teowee...J.. Mater.J. Bommersbach. W. Photoluminescence of Eu3+:Y2O3 nanoclusters embedded in SiO2 Glass. Rodrigo. M. et al. SPIE Sol–gel Optics II. H. 16. 783 (1996).P. 271 (1998). S..Y3+ codoped SiO2 sol-gel glasses..M.T. Soc. 15.A. K. Proc. 12. C. and Bray. 2288. Chem. Lehmann.. 1 (2001). R. Meltzer.J. Liu. K. 11 (2000). Lochhead. Gel-glass dispersed liquid crystal projection display... D.. M. and Otón. 311. 292 (1992). W. Mater. Prospects of sol–gel technology towards luminescent materials.... 16.C.L. E.11. Symp. Res... Electrochem. J. 18. . 17. J. Quintana.M. Jia.. and Jiao.

1 7.Section 7: Other Phosphor Data 7.7 Oxides Silicates Phosphates.6 7. Halophosphates.4 7. and Borates Aluminates Halides and Oxyhalides CaS and ZnS-Type Sulfides Other Compounds .5 7.3 7.2 7.

Lauren E. Takashi Hase. Ultrafast Zn2SiO4:Mn . Weiyi Jia.Gd)2O3:Eu3+ YTaO4 YTaO4:Nb5+ YVO4:Dy3+ ZnGa2O4 ZnGa2O4:Mn2+ ZnO:Bi3+ ZnO:Zn ZnO:Ga.Al3+ SrY2O4:Eu3+ SrTiO3:Pr3+. Cees Ronda.1 Oxides The following host compounds and activators are included in this subsection: Bi4Ge3O12 CaTiO3:Eu3+ CaTiO3:Pr3+ Gd3Ga5O12:Cr3+ GdNbO4:Bi3+ K2La2Ti3O10:Eu LuTaO4:Nb5+ SrIn2O4:Pr3+. 7. Dongdong Jia. Yoh Mita. Shinji Okamoto. Yoshitaka Sato. and Hajime Yamamoto. Shozo Oshio.V)O4:Eu Y2O3:Ce Y2O3:Eu (YOE) Y2O3:Eu3+ Y2O3:Tb3+ Y2O3:Ce3+. Shea-Rowhler. Willi Lehmann (posthumously).Section 7 OTHER PHOSPHOR DATA Information about the following additional phosphors and their properties has been kindly provided (in Lehmann’s format) by Edith Bourret-Courchesne. Ultrafast ZnO-CdO:Ga. Masaaki Tamatani.Tb3+ Y2O2S:Eu (Y. Luis Carlos.Al3+ SrTiO3:Pr3+ Y(P. Madis Raukas.

C. References 1. 2. B.. R. 2. Rossner. Phosphors for X-ray detectors in computed tomography. Lumin. R. (1994). 3. 3. Heidelberg. p. otherwise the Pt crucible will be attacked.Bi4Ge3O12 Structure: Cubic Preparation Grow the crystals of Bi4Ge3O12 from stoichiometric melts.. The other growth technique of the horizontal Bridgman–Stockbarger method is now popular to prevent growths forming a core. The crystals will only be really colorless when the raw materials Bi2O3 and GeO2 have a high purity. atmospheric environment.C. 4. This contribution is from Hajime Yamamoto. The melting point of the single crystal is 1044°C..J. Blasse. Luminescent Materials. and Monchamp. J. G. M. and Grabmaier. Phys. 44.3 × 10-6 s Spectra 800 700 600 500 400 Wavelength (nm) 300 100 Excitation (%) Emission 50 2 3 Remarks 1. 29 (1991).. Appl. W. ++ (4. Weber.88 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: + Decay to 1/e: 0. and radio frequency induction heating. Springer-Verlag. Optical Properties Emission peak: 485 nm Excitation efficiency by UV: – (3. 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 .... 179. Luminescence of Bi4Ge3O12: Spectral and decay properties. J. The growth atmosphere has to be oxygen.40 eV).. and Grabmaier. Use a platinum crucible. using Czochralski method. B. 5495 (1973).48.

I.352 0. University of Puerto Rico—Mayaguez (2001). Master Degree Thesis. 1 hour. Powderize.88 eV) Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 100 Excitation (%) Emission 50 2 3 Remarks 1. Fire in air.CaTiO3:Eu3+ Structure: Orthorhombic Composition Ingredient CaCO3 TiO2 Eu2O3 B2O3 Mole % 100 100 1 3 By weight (g) 10. Optical Properties Emission color: Red Emission peak: 612 nm Excitation efficiency by UV: + (3. 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Reference 1. air. 2.98 0. Press into pellets.209 Preparation Mix by dry grinding or milling. This compound is known as calcium titanate. Fire in open quartz boats.. 1. Rivera. 1300 C. This contribution is from Weiyi Jia. 2. 1000 C. Grind and press into pellets again. 3 hours. – (4.01 7. .40 eV).

Powderize.. 1300 C. Xu.313 0. This compound is also known as calcium titanate. 1 hour. Fire in open quartz boats.H4 3 500 400 Wavelength (nm) 300 100 Excitation (%) Emission 1 I6. Proceedings of the Second National Student Conference of NASA URCSC 2000.. 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 References 1. 1000 C. Press into pellets. Optical Properties Emission color: Red Emission peak: 612 nm Excitation efficiency by UV: + (3. W.H5 3 600 D2. 2. Rivera. 180 (2000). et al. Grind and press into pellets again. + (4.40 eV).5 3 By weight (g) 10. This contribution is from Weiyi Jia. air.. 1. Composition Ingredient CaCO3 TiO2 Pr(NO3)3. .209 Preparation Mix by dry grinding or milling..98 0. Rivera. 2. Effects of compositional phase transitions on luminescence of Sr1-xCaxTiO3:Pr3+. 153 (2003). W. Nashville.01 7.CaTiO3:Pr3+ Structure: Orthorhombic. 3 hours. Fire in air.88 eV) Spectra 800 700 D2. I. et al.. Solid State Commun. P1 1 3 x50 1 x10 50 P0 3 3 P0 2 3 Remarks 1. 2. Jia.6H2O B2O3 Mole % 100 100 0. I. 126.

5 62.. 27. 1. 900°C for an hour or more. G.6 Preparation Combine the proper amounts of the oxides with some nitric acid to form a precipitate. Alloys Ingredients. K. 2. Co-doping with a small amount of Ce reduces the afterglow. 4.. and Grabmaier.Structure: Cubic (garnet) Composition Ingredient Gd2O3 Ga2O3 Cr2O3 Gd3Ga5O12:Cr3+ Mole % 37. Sci. Ball-mill the powder with a grinding media and a liquid vehicle. 69 (1997).. Lumin. Rev. 17 (1993). + (4.40 eV). 40. 3. 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 References 1. Greskovich. 1500–1550°C. 376 (1993)..C. S. such as water or methanol.2 0.5 By weight (g) 100 86.. The conversion of high energy radiation to visible light by luminescent ceramics. Rossner. 71 (1984).. H. J.5 0.. Optical Properties Emission color: Red Emission peak: 730 nm Excitation efficiency by UV: – (3.. Dry in air. and Duclos. 2.88 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: + Decay to 1/e: 0. Fire in flowing O2. Ceramic scintillators. IEEE Trans. W. Stir well and add the NH4OH solution.. G. J. Nucl. Wash with water to remove the NH4Cl by-product and excess NH4OH. Annu. M. Grabmaier.. Broad band fluorescence of transition metal doped garnets and tungstates. Mater. and Ostertag. Sci. Reflectivity (%) 100 Emission .. J..C.17 × 10-3 sec Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 50 2 3 Remark This contribution is from Hajime Yamamoto. 200. Blasse. Petermann.. B. Bodinger. C. 31/32. Fire in air.. B. Leppert. The afterglow mechanism of chromiumdoped gadolinium gallium garnet. 2 hours. and Huber.

Pat. Fire in covered crucible.. U.51 By weight (g) 15. Grisafe. Fire in covered crucible.A. 1350–1650 C. 2.51 56. D. This phosphor has a general formula of Gd1-xBixNbO4 and per above ingredients yields a stoichiometry with x = 0.W. 1.350 Preparation Mix by slurrying in acetone or by dry blende. 600–800 C.701 6. air. suitable for 2537 Å Excitation efficiency by e-beam: Good Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 100 Emission 50 2 3 Remarks 1. 1 hour. 3 hours. Optical Properties Emission color: Blue Emission peak: 430 nm Excitation efficiency by UV: Broad range. Reference 1.03.646 0.. and Fritsch. 2. This contribution is from Madis Raukas. air. Store in a well-sealed container. 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 . C.98 1. Powderize when dry. Dry in air..S. 3 767 589 (1973).GdNbO4:Bi3+ Structure: Tetragonal (scheelite) Composition Ingredient Gd2(C2O4)3·10H2O Nb2O5 Bi2O3 Mole % 41.

4..R. Qi.141 Preparation Mix stoichiometric amounts in a paint shaker for 30 minutes with about 20 mol% of excess potassium carbonate to compensate for losses due to volatilization.03 0.40 eV). U. U. Fire in covered alumina crucibles... 5 658 495 (1997). Qi. 3. J....Y. Washed in de-ionized water. Pat.. V. and Karam. over 3 hours.. 5 531 928 (1996).. Powderize.06 57. 617. 1100 C.Y.. and Karam.. 5 567 351 (1996).S. R. 2. Pat. Pat. Y. This contribution is from Madis Raukas. and 702 nm. R. References 1.B.. Reddy. and Northrop.E.E. S. 5 489 398 (1996). Pat. air. V. 2 hours. 700 C.S.. 1100 C. This phosphor in general formulation of K2La2Ti3O10:Eu is another example of materials belonging to intercalation ingredients. and Zhang. Reddy.90 0. Karam. R. 5. Fire in covered alumina crucibles.Y. 24 hours. Good electroluminescent properties result when this phosphor is intercalated with conductive polymers or metals. air. 3.1 fL level under focused 15 kV/ 8 A excitation Remarks 1..59 12.E. air.K. U. 24 hours.E.88 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: Characteristic emission at about 1.S. 5 531 926 (1996). and screen through a 325-mesh stainless steel sieve. 2.72 19.S.E... Reddy.K2La2Ti3O10:Eu Structure: Layered perovskite Composition Ingredient K2CO3 TiO2 La2O3 Eu2O3 Mole % 23.63 9. Northrop. Qi. R. U. Cool to room temperature. R. The described composition yields a concentration of 0. 4. R. air.S. increasing from 700 C to 1100 C. Fire in covered alumina crucibles. Excitation efficiency by UV: + (3. and Karam.. R.K. Karam. R.. + (4. Filter.. Fire in covered alumina crucibles.B. dry at 130 C. V. U.19 By weight (g) 6.B. and Cox..02 mol Eu per mole of phosphor. Optical Properties Emission peaks: Lines at 594. S. Pat. .

2. On the structural and luminescent properties of the M’ LnTaO4 rare earth tantalates. 1250°C. Brixner. 1200°C. 8–10 hours.88 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: + Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 100 Excitation (%) Emission 50 2 3 Remark This contribution is from Masaaki Tamatani. Soc. + (4. Dry at 130°C. air. Optical Properties Emission color: Violet Emission peak: 394 nm Excitation efficiency by UV: (3. either by itself or in the presence of 50% Li2SO4. In the cases where flux is used.. 1. 130. Fire in alumina containers.40 eV). air. using a Freon solvent as grinding medium..LuTaO4:Nb5+ Structure: Monoclinic Composition Ingredient Lu2O3 Ta2O5 Mole % — — By weight (g) — — Preparation Mix stoichiometric quantities of the Lu2O3 and Ta2O5.. . 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Reference 1. Electrochem. L. 2435 (1983). and Chen. 10–14 hours.Y. Fire in alumina containers. Ball-mill. Wash in methanol. leach with water.H. J. H.

stagnant air. Dry in air.2 (of Pr) 5 By weight (g) 147. Store in air.40 eV).64 0. Optical Properties Emission peak: 2. Powderize.340 3.33 277. Fire in aluminum crucibles.Al3+ Structure: Orthorhombic Composition Ingredient SrCO3 In2O3 Pr6O11 Al(OH)3 Mole % 99.900 Preparation Mix by slurrying in ethanol.8 200 (of In) 0.88 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: ++ (10eV–1 keV) Decay to 1/e: ~10 µsec Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Remark This contribution is from Shinji Okamoto.517 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0.007 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: – (3. Absorption (%) 100 Emission . 1250 C. ++ (4. 3 hours.SrIn2O4:Pr3+.

1000 C. Press into pellets again. Optical Properties Emission color: Red Emission peak: 611 nm Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (2.SrY2O4:Eu3+ Structure: Orthorhombic Composition Ingredient SrCO3 Y 2O 3 Eu2O3 H3BO3 Mole % 100 100 1 6 By weight (g) 10 15. = 250 nm Em. 1. Powderize by dry ball-milling. = 270 nm Em.3 0.238 0.40 eV) Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 100 Excitation (%) Excitation (%) Emission Exc. 2 hours. = 611 nm 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) Wavelength (nm) 5 0 800 700 600 500 400 300 100 Emission Exc.88 eV). = 616 nm 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 . ++ (3. Fire in air. 3 hours. Fire in air.000 psi.251 Preparation Mix by grinding in a mortar for 30 minutes. 2. 1350 C. Press into pellets with a hydraulic press machine at 40.

.. 148. Soc. ++ (4. Park.33 79.Y.064 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: – (3. High Li+ self-diffusivity and transport number in novel electrolyte solutions. S.900–23. Structure and luminescence of SrY2O4:Eu. J.879 0. B.340 3. Soc. 3903 (1999).8 100 0. 2 hours. Electrochem. 1300 C.Al3+ Structure: Cubic Composition Ingredient SrCO3 TiO2 Pr6O11 Al(OH)3 Mole % 99.40 eV). Geil. 2.J. C. Xu. 146. W. A1352 (2001).H. J. stagnant air. et al.401 Preparation Mix by slurrying in ethanol. Dry in air. Powderize.. Videa. 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Absorption (%) 100 Emission . Optical Properties Emission peak: 2.. M. B.88 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: ++ (10 eV–1 keV) Decay to 1/e: ~100 µsec Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 50 2 3 Remark This contribution is from Shinji Okamoto. Fire in aluminum crucibles. Yu. SrTiO3:Pr3+. References 1.009 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0. et al.... Park.Remark This contribution is from Weiyi Jia..2 (of Pr) 5–30 By weight (g) 147. Electrochem.

. A new red-emitting phosphor.References 1.... Fire in air. Characteristic enhancement of emission from SrTiO3:Pr3+ by addition of group. Solid State Commun..6H2O B2O3 Mole % 100 100 0. 38. Toki. and Kataoka. 78.. Press into pellets. Tamura. This compound is also known as strontium titanate. 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Reference 1.b ions. H. K. 2. 1 hour. and Yamamoto. Phys. S.. Rivera. SrTiO3:Pr3+. 2. W.142 Preparation Mix by dry grinding or milling. air. SrTiO3:Pr3+ Structure: Cubic Composition Ingredient SrCO3 TiO2 Pr(NO3)3. 1300 C. 6387 (1999). Fire in open quartz boats. (2001).. I. H. .. Jia.212 0.5 3 By weight (g) 10. 3 hours. This contribution is from Weiyi Jia. 126. J. Okamoto. 2. Xu. Grind and press into pellets again.00 5. 1000 C.40 eV). Phys. Effects of compositional phase transitions on luminescence of Sr1-xCaxTiO3:Pr3+. Optical Properties Emission color: Red Emission peak: 615 nm Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (3. Powderize. 1. 655. ++ (4. 153 (2003). for low-voltage electron excitation.41 0. Lett..88 eV) Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 100 Excitation (%) Emission 50 2 3 Remarks 1. Jpn. S. Appl. F. Appl.. W. et al. Itoh..

4.. G.8 7. ++ (8. and Broos. 1. J. 200 C. U. for 2 hours. 2. 2. 51 114388 (1976)..C. Luminescence.S. Decant with water until neutral. 50 67782 (1975). + (4. Cool and break up aggregates.0 40. Dry in air. 3 647 708 (1972). 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 References 1. W.. Verlijsdok. W. Fire in 1150 C.8 Preparation Dry-blend all ingredients and place in a capped quartz or alumina crucible. and Bres. 3 417 027 (1968).T. Cool and slurry the powder in 2 wt% (NH4)2CO3 solution.. Budapest. 3. Conf.G..M..... Vrugt. 3. Absorption (%) 100 Emission .S.L. Proc.88 eV). Wanmaker. Pat. U..W. and Verlijsdok.. 9–16 (1966).. J. J. Japanese Patent Disclosure (Kokai). Pat. A.L. Bril.40 eV). Int. Fire in 1150 C.L. W.9 85. J. Cool and lightly mortar to break aggregates. Wanmaker.Y(P.V)O4:Eu Structure: Xenotime Composition Ingredient Y 2O 3 Eu2O3 NH4VO3 (NH4)2HPO4 Mole % 48 2 35 65 By weight (g) 104. for an additional 2 hours.G. for 2 hours.40 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: + Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 50 2 3 Remark This contribution is from Takashi Hase. Wanmaker. Fire in 700 C. Optical Properties Emission color: Red Emission peak: 619 nm Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (3.

ethanol.40 eV).. or other organic groups created and entrapped in the gels during gellation process. Cover the cuvette with paraffin film with a pin hole in the center as a outlet of vapor. After 20 minutes. et al. Eng. C.Tb3+ nanoclusters embedded in SiO2 sol-gel glasses. Sci. Place the wet gel in an oven at 40°C for one or two weeks to obtain transparent dry gels. Optical Properties Emission color: Violet (Ce3+) Emission peak: 375 nm Emission width (FWHM): 30 nm Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (3. . Nanoclusters embedded in SiO2 glasses 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Reference 1. Jia. Annealing in N2 + 5% H2 gas flow at 500–900°C to remove residual water. ++ (4. W. into a small container such as cuvettes. add the CeCl3 solution dropwise.88 eV) Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 100 Excitation (%) Emission 50 2 3 Remark This contribution is from Weiyi Jia. 55 (2001). Photoluminescence of Y2O3:Ce3+. Mater. 572.Y2O3:Ce Structure: Cubic Composition Ingredient Mole % Si(OEt)4 100 Y(OC3H7i)3 7 1 CeCl3 (aq.) ethanol. water and HCl (pH = 7) 1:2:3 By weight (g) — — — certain amount Preparation Stir ingredients.

with reduced efficiency at 254 nm.95 1. at a temperature of about 1300°C for at least 1 hour.6 6.95 Preparation Mix by slurrying in water or methanol and dry in air.Y2O3:Eu (YOE) Structure: Cubic Composition Ingredient Y 2O 3 Eu2O3 CaF2 Mole % 94 (Y) 6 (Eu) 2. It can be sensitized for excitation at 365 nm using Bi. Y2O3:Eu3+ Structure: Cubic Composition Ingredient Mole % Si(OEt)4 92.9 ethanol. however.5) 1:2:3 By weight (g) 100 8. Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Remark This contribution is from Cees Ronda.5 By weight (g) 108 10. and HCl (pH = 2. Powderize. Firing should occur in air.58 Absorption (%) 100 Emission . This phosphor is used in fluorescent lamps and also in projection television tubes.5 1.5 Y(OC3H7i)3 EuCl3·6H2O 0. It can also be used in plasma display panels. water.

Pour the resulting mixture into a small container with a cover.5 0.. W. or other organic radicals. Y2O3:Tb3+ Composition Ingredient Mole % Si(OEt)4 92.6 Y(OC3H7i)3 6. J.9 TbCl3.8 certain amount . Meltzer. Feofilov. Optical Properties Emission color: Red Emission peak: 612 nm Emission width (FWHM): 30 nm Excitation efficiency by UV: Weakly excited at 3. 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 References 1. Liu.P.. and HCl (pH = 7) 1:2:3 By weight (g) 100 8. J. The wet gel is dried at low temperatures (45°C) for one or two weeks in an oven. 311 (2000). ethanol. H. S. Res. Photoluminescence of Eu3+:Y2O3 nanoclusters embedded in SiO2 glass. R. Anneal the dry gel in air at 500–1000°C to remove residual water.. Put the EuCl3/water/ethanol/HCl solution into the Si/Y mixture dropwise while stirring. W.Y3+ codoped SiO2 sol-gel glasses. Blend it into the ethanol/water/HCl mix. Jia. Mater. Spectroscopic study of Eu3+doped and Eu3+.. Soc.95 1. Y2O3 nanoclusters embedded in SiO2 glasses.Preparation Dissolve europium chloride in 2–3 g of distilled water.. and Jiao.. Proc. 271. A wet gel will result.87 eV Excitation efficiency by e-beam: Weakly excited by cathode rays Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 100 Excitation (%) Emission 50 2 3 Remark This contribution is from Weiyi Jia.. water. Mix the Si and Y solutions and stir for 20 minutes with a magnetic stirring device. Symp. allowing slow evaporating of the excess or resulted water and ethanol. 11. 519 (1998).6H2O ethanol. Jia. 2. et al. Alloys Ingredients. to obtain transparent dry gels.

Photoluminescence of Y2O3:Ce3+.40 eV). ethanol. 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Reference 1. Anneal the dry gel in air at 500–1000°C to remove residual water. Nanoclusters embedded in SiO2 glasses.8 Y(OC3H7i)3 6. Pour the resulting mixture into a small container with a cover.61 1. and 621 nm Emission width (FWHM): 30 nm Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (3.53 . et al. The wet gel is dried at low temperatures (45°C) for one or two weeks in an oven. Mix the Si and Y solutions and stir for 20 minutes with a magnetic stirring device. Sci.Preparation Dissolve terbium chloride in 2–3 g of distilled water. or other organic radicals. 585. A wet gel will result. water. Optical Properties Emission color: Green Emission peak: 543 nm.Tb3+ Structure: Cubic Composition Ingredient Mole % Si(OEt)4 91.4 TbCl3·6H2O 0. Put the TbCl3/water/ethanol/HCl solution into the Si/Y mixture dropwise while stirring. and HCl (pH = 7) 1:2:3 By weight (g) 100 8.9 CeCl3·6H2O ethanol. allowing slow evaporating of the excess or resulted water and ethanol. Mater. 55 (2001). ++ (4. W. Eng.88 eV) Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 100 Excitation (%) Emission x10 50 2 3 Remark This contribution is from Weiyi Jia. to obtain transparent dry gels.95 1. Blend it into the ethanol/water/HCl mix. 572. Minor peaks at 495.. Y2O3:Ce3+. Jia.Tb3+ nanoclusters embedded in SiO2 solgel glasses.9 0. C.

Anneal the dry gel in air at 500–1000°C to remove residual water. The wet gel is dried at low temperatures (45°C) for one or two weeks in an oven. Optical Properties Emission color: Violet (Ce3+) Emission peak: 543 nm Emission width (FWHM): 30 nm Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (3. Mix the Si and Y solutions and stir for 20 minutes with a magnetic stirring device.Preparation Dissolve cerium and terbium chlorides in 2–3 g of distilled water. Nanoclusters embedded in SiO2 glasses.. et al. Jia.Tb3+ nanoclusters embedded in SiO2 sol-gel glasses. Y2O2S:Eu Composition Ingredient Y 2O 3 Eu2O3 Na2CO3 S Mole % 94 (Y) 3 (Eu) 100 300 By weight (g) 110 5. 55 (2001). Mater. ethanol. 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Reference 1. C. W. 572.3 53 96 . Put the Ce-TbCl3/water/ethanol/HCl solution into the Si/Y mixture dropwise while stirring.87 eV). Pour the resulting mixture into a small container with a cover. allowing slow evaporating of the excess or resulting water and ethanol. A wet gel will result. to obtain transparent dry gels. Sci. or other organic radicals. Eng. ++ (5. Blend it into the ethanol/water/HCl mix. Photoluminescence of Y2O3:Ce3+.39 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: Weakly excited by cathode rays Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 100 Excitation (%) Emission 50 2 3 Remark This contribution is from Weiyi Jia.

FL. Optical Properties Emission color: Red Emission peak: 610 nm Excitation efficiency by UV: (3. mix the rare earth mixture with Na2CO3 and S by dry mixing.06O3 compacts can be densified into transparent ceramics by either vacuum sintering at 1800°C or hydrogen-gas sintering at 1800–1900°C.88 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: + Decay to 1/e: 1 × 10-3 sec . 38. if either the sintering or hot-pressing processes are subsequently used to produce the ceramic scintillator. After drying. ++ (4. The Y1. using pressures up to about 300 MPa. Subsequently. at a temperature of about 1100°C for a few hours. the reaction product has to be washed a few times with water to remove residual flux.40 eV). After cooling down. Fig. Remark This contribution is from Cees Ronda.Gd)2O3:Eu3+ Structure: Cubic Preparation Oxidize the co-precipitated oxalate at about 800°C. Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 100 Emission 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Spectrum from the Phosphor Handbook. Boca Raton.60Eu0. p. Preferably. 478 (1998).Preparation Mix the rare-earth oxides by slurrying in water or methanol and dry in air. Firing should occur in air in a vessel with a well-closing lid. the mixture should be powdered in mortar.34Gd0. (Y. the powder should be de-agglomerated. Die or isostatically press the powder into powder compacts. CRC Press.

. Greskovich.88 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: + Absorption (%) 100 Emission . 10–14 hours.40 eV). 1250°C. Ta2O5.. C. Reference 1. 27. Annu. 2. 8–10 hours. 3. Co-doping of a small amount of Pr reduces the afterglow. air. This contribution is from Hajime Yamamoto. The sintered samples can be annealed in an oxygen-rich atmosphere to reduce the concentration of point defect/impurity-charge states in the host lattice. 1200°C. In the cases where a flux is used. Sci. leach with water and follow by methanol rinsing. Fire in capped alumina tubes. and Duclos. Dry in air. Mater. – (4. S. Rev. 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 YTaO4 Structure: Monoclinic Preparation Stoichiometric quantities are mixed Y2O3. Ceramic scintillators.Spectra 800 700 600 500 400 Wavelength (nm) 300 50 2 3 Remarks 1. 69 (1997). either by itself or in the presence of 50% Li2SO4.. 130°C. Fire in capped alumina tubes. Optical Properties Emission color: UV Emission peak: 330 nm Excitation efficiency by UV: – (3. Powderize with a Freon solvent as the grinding medium.

The use of a flux in the synthesis of M’-YTaO4 not only allows the growth of 4–12 µm single crystals but also assists greatly in the formation of the compound (see Ref.Y. In the cases where a flux is used.. 1200°C. Ta2O5. either by itself or in the presence of 50% Li2SO4. On the structural and luminescent properties of the M’ LnTaO4 rare earth tantalates. C. 2.L. and Chen. 1250°C. ++ (4. Fire in capped alumina tubes. 2). Alloys Ingredients.40 eV). This contribution is from Masaaki Tamatani.88 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: + . 229.. Powderize with a Freon solvent as the grinding medium. Fire in capped alumina tubes. Nb2O5. leach with water and follow by methanol rinsing. References 1.C. Optical Properties Emission color: Blue Emission peak: 410 nm (x-ray excitation 2% Nb) Excitation efficiency by UV: – (3.H.Spectra 800 700 600 500 400 Wavelength (nm) 300 100 Emission 50 2 3 Remarks 1. and Torardi. Electrochem. 2435 (1983). H.. 10–14 hours. Solid state chemistry and luminescence of X-ray phosphors. Dry in air. Issler. 2. L. J. air. 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 YTaO4:Nb5+ Structure: Monoclinic Preparation Stoichiometric quantities are mixed Y2O3. S. 130. 130°C. Soc. 54 (1995). Brixner. J.. 8–10 hours.

Brixner.15 82. Soc.. Rinse with deionized water until neutral. On the structural and luminescent properties of the M’ LnTaO4 rare earth tantalates. Dry in air and powderize. 2435 (1983). and Chen.80 0.Spectra 800 700 600 500 400 Wavelength (nm) 300 100 Excitation (%) Emission 50 2 3 Remarks This contribution is from Masaaki Tamatani. J. 130. H. 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Reference 1.0 0.. Structure: Tetragonal (zircon) Composition Ingredient Y 2O 3 NH4VO3 Dy2O3 YVO4:Dy3+ Mole % 17. Electrochem. Optical Properties Emission color: Yellowish-green Emission peak: Two strong dysprosium peaks at 480 and 570 nm Excitation efficiency by UV: Suitable for 2537 and 3650 Å Spectra 800 700 600 500 400 Wavelength (nm) 300 100 Emission 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 .0 175. L. Cool slightly and wash with a hot solution of 15 % NaOH..Y.H.05 By weight (g) 70.321 Preparation Blend the materials thoroughly and fire in an open quartz crucible for 2 hours at 1700°C.

A.4 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: 0.. G. Powderize when dry. U. References 1. Ballman. 2.S..S..C.14 18. Other rare-earth elements (Pr. the emission characteristics can be adjusted. R. Eu. L.. and alike) can be added up to a half of the activator content. stagnant air. 3. Fire in capped quartz crucibles. Powderize. and van Uitert.. Dry in air. 1 hour. Pat. Pat.G..G. 3 hours. U. 3 555 337 (1968). Wash with diluted nitric acid to remove excess flux. A. Sm. which is optimum for excitation with mercury discharge lamps. Thompson. S. 1200°C. 3 152 085 (1964)..7 lm/W or higher at 30 V DC Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 100 Excitation (%) Emission 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 .. Optical Properties Emission color: Blue Emission peak: 460 nm Emission width (FWHM): 137 nm Absorption edge: 270 nm (4. Faria. 2.. 1100 C. Pat. Structure: Cubic (spinel) Composition Ingredient ZnO Ga2O3 Li3PO4 (Flux) ZnGa2O4 Mole % 50 50 — By weight (g) 8. Er.Remarks 1. U. Linares. and Palumbo.7 — Preparation Mix by slurrying in water or ethanol.28 mol% of Dy3+. Re-fire in H2 + N2 atmosphere. By including such elements or combinations thereof. 3. This contribution is from Madis Raukas. Tm. D. This recipe yields a phosphor containing 0. 3 322 682 (1967).T.S. Powderize.L.

Re-fire in H2 + N2 atmosphere. Electrochem. 1 hour. Add solution of Mn2+ ion. Optical Properties Emission color: Green Emission peak: 505 nm Emission width (FWHM): 25 nm Absorption edge: 270 nm (4. Wash with de-ionized water. et al. Powderize when dry. Reference 1. S. 138.Remark This contribution is from Sato Yoshitaka. Soc.15 Preparation Mix by slurrying in water or ethanol Dry in air. Fire in capped quartz crucibles. 1509 (1991). Itoh. 3 hours. stagnant air. mix. ZnGa2O4:Mn2+ Structure: Cubic (spinel) Composition Ingredient ZnO Ga2O3 MnSO4 Li3PO4 (Flux) Mole % 48 50 2 By weight (g) 8. Powderize. The ZnGa2O4 phosphor for low-voltage blue cathodoluminescence.7 0.4 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: 1. J. and vaporize moisture by warming..14 18.0 lm/W or higher at 30 V DC Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 100 Excitation (%) Emission 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 . Powderize. 1200 C.. 1100 C.

Digest Jpn. Toki. Display.43 Preparation Mix by dry grinding. Proceedings of Japan Display'92. References 1..26 eV). ZnGa2O4:Mn green cathodoluminescent phosphors for VFDs. 1 hour. E.88 eV) Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 100 Excitation (%) Emission 50 2 3 Remark This contribution is from Weiyi Jia. S. Fire in air. (1992). 2. Toki. Fire in capped quartz tubes. . ++ (4. Master Degree Thesis.. et al.. Morimoto. Optical Properties Emission color: Red Emission peak: 645 nm Emission width (FWHM): 3540 cm-1 Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (3.6 2.. and Itoh. ZnO:Bi3+ Structure: Hexagonal (wurtzite) Composition Ingredient ZnO Bi2O3 Mole % 97. 2. 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Reference 1. Mosquera Vargas. K. 800ºC. University of Puerto Rico—Mayaguez (2003).4 By weight (g) 10 1. H. Tech. Y. 421 (1992).. 1. 2 hours. stagnant air. H.Remark This contribution is from Yoshitaka Sato. Kataoka. 1120ºC.. Store in well-sealed container.

Optical Properties Emission color: Green Emission peak: 505 nm Emission width (FWHM): 0.3 (of Ga) about 1 (not critical) By weight 81 g 0.7 g Preparation Mix ZnO and Ga2O3 porcelain dish.g.. over night). 1 hour. Powderize. Dissolve the ZnCl2 in a little water. Ultrafast Composition Ingredient ZnO Ga2O3 ZnCl2 (Type WL-1201) Mole % 100 0. Then add a little water to make the raw mix slightly moist. . add alcohol to make a uniform slurry.280 g 1. stir to uniformity. add solution to above mix. . and dry at room temperature or at moderate heat (e.4 eV Absorption edge: 388 nm (300 K) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: 16 lm/W or higher Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 100 Excitation (%) Emission 50 2 3 Remark This contribution is from Yoshitaka Sato. 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 ZnO:Ga.ZnO:Zn Structure: Hexagonal (wurtzite) Composition Ingredient ZnO Mole % 100 By weight (g) 158 Preparation Fire in capped quartz crucibles in reduced atmosphere at 1000 C.

ZnO:Ga and CdS:In. Electrochem.195 eV (=388 nm) Excitation by UV: By all UV shorter than about 380 nm Excitation by e-beam: Energy— 1–1. or by about 1 ccm of concentrated HCl acid. A 486. Ultrafast Composition Ingredient ZnO CdO Ga2O3 ZnCl2 Mole % 90 10 0. The bulk of the material should show deep violet luminescence (just at the limit of visibility).280 g 1. W. Patent 3583929 (issued June 1971). M.. 214 (2002). Weber.2%.. 1100ºC. Edge emission of n-type conducting ZnO and CdS.S. 3. add alcohol to make a uniform slurry. HgI2. S. ZnO-CdO:Ga. Remove all parts that look different. In case the material does not show the violet luminescence at all. Klintenberg. Temperature dependence of the fast. Soc. Instr. Inspect again under UV lamp. Meth. 1 hour. 9. J.. Properties Body color: Gray Particles: About in the 5–10 m size range Emission: Narrow band in the near-UV with a tail extending into the visible violet Peak about 3. Fire in open quartz boats. inspect under UV lamp.1 g of NH4Cl. References 1. D. 2. Instr. Derenzo. PbI2.. Nucl. 538 (1968). Solid State Electron. 3.. one-half hour.K. add solution to above mix. stagnant air..7 g Preparation Mix ZnO + CdO + Ga2O3 in a porcelain dish. The ZnCl2 in the above recipe can be replaced by about 1. Lehmann during a visit to the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory in 1987. not more).. Lehmann. Meth. Fire in loosely capped quartz glass tubes ( about half full. 1107 (1966) and U.1. 115. 2. Cool while in H2 (Important!). A fast inorganic scintillator. M. Luckey. repeat the last firing step at about 100ºC higher temperature. Zinc oxide and zinc-cadmium oxide phosphors.3 (of Ga) about 1 (not critical) By weight 73 g 11. Avoid all sulfur like the plague. When cool. Material should be completely dead. This phosphor is in a frozen-in semistable state. 62. Remove suspicious parts and powderize the rest. This phosphor is sensitive to traces of sulfur. 119 (1968).2 g 0. 800ºC.. 4.E. Nucl..J. near-band-edge scintillation from CuI. 2. The above recipe was provided by W. Lehmann. decay < 1 nsec Remarks 1. stir to uniformity. slowly flowing H2. Do not heat higher than about 300ºC except in pure hydrogen. Dissolve the ZnCl2 in a little water. . W.

. Fire in loosely capped quartz glass tubes ( about half full. .. 5. 119 (1968). slowly flowing H2. inspect under UV lamp. Zinc oxide and zinc-cadmium oxide phosphors. W. The above recipe was provided by W. (just at the limit of visibility). Meth. 7. 7. 115. This phosphor is sensitive to traces of sulfur. Patent 3583929 (issued June 1971). References 5. Luckey. 6. 6. Nucl. The CdO in the above recipe can be replaced by 17. Avoid all sulfur like the plague. Zn2SiO4:Mn Composition Ingredient ZnO SiO2 MnCO3 Mole % 194 110 6 By weight (g) 158 66 6. 10% CdO is the limit of solid solubility. Remove suspicious parts and powderize the rest.. 800ºC. or by about 1 ccm of concentrated HCl acid. J. not more). Fire in open quartz boats. Solid State Electron.. one-half hour. Powderize. Soc.and dry at room temperature or at moderate heat (e. This phosphor is in a frozen-in semistable state. 2.. Electrochem. When cool. Then add a little water to make the raw mix slightly moist. 1100ºC. Instr. peak about 413 nm. Lehmann.1 g of NH4Cl. D. Do not heat higher than about 300ºC except in pure hydrogen.. W. Color: violet Excitation by UV: By all UV shorter than about 400 nm Excitation by e-beam: Energy— 1–1.2%. decay < 1 nsec Remarks 4. 9.g. Edge emission of n-type conducting ZnO and CdS. Firing should occur in reducing atmosphere at a temperature of about 1150–1250°C for at least an hour. 62. 1107 (1966) and U. Lehmann. 538 (1968). The ZnCl2 in the above recipe can be replaced by about 1. Properties Body color: Yellowish-gray Particles: About in the 5–10 µm size range Emission: Narrow band. 8. The bulk of the material should be violet luminescent (if it does not. Material should be completely dead. 1.2 g CdCO3. over night).S. Lehmann during a visit to the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory in 1987. Do not add more..9 Preparation Mix by ball-milling or magnetic stirring in water or an alcohol and dry in air. Inspect again under UV lamp. Cool while in H2 (Important!). A fast inorganic scintillator. repeat the last firing step at about 100ºC higher temperature). stagnant air. Remove any parts (if preaent) that look different. 1 hour.

This phosphor is used in plasma display panels and fluorescent lamps. T. J.The efficiency of this material (e-beam and (V)UV excitation) depends on the Mn2+ concentration. Higher Mn2+ concentrations adjust to a shorter decay time. Ronda. . The quantum efficiency drops less fast than the emission decay time.. Lumin. C. 245 (1996). It has been used in monochromic computer monitor tubes and projection television tubes (mixed with other green phosphors). Reference 1. Remark This contribution is from Cees Ronda. due to magnetic interactions lifting the spin selection rule. and Amrein. 69.. Evidence for exchange induced luminescence in Zn2SiO4:Mn. The emission band shifts to lower energy with increasing Mn2+ concentration.

H3BO3 serves as flux.00 1. Sinter at 1300°C in N2 + 5% H2 gas flow for 3 hours.Mn2+ Ca3MgSi2O8:Eu2+ Ca3Al2Si3O12:Ce3+ Ca3Al2Si3O12:2%Ce3+ SrMgSi2O6:Eu2+ Sr2MgSi2O7:Eu2+ Sr3MgSi2O8:Eu2+ Ba2MgSi2O7:Eu2+ Composition Ingredient BaCO3 MgO SiO2 Eu2O3 H3BO3 Mole % 39. Emission peak: 515 nm Excitation efficiency by UV: Excited by UV from 240 to 440 nm.40 1.84 0.120 0.84 19.16 Preparation Mix and grind.7.367 4. Powderize and grind. Pre-sinter at 900°C in N2 for 2 hours. 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 .6 By weight (g) 10.92 39.00 0.2 Silicates The following host compounds and activators are included in this subsection: Ba2MgSi2O7:Eu2+ CaMgSi2O6:Eu2+ Ca2MgSi2O7:Eu2+. Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 100 Excitation (%) Emission 50 2 3 Remark This contribution comes from Weiyi Jia. Optical Properties Emission color: Light blue.

..L. Pre-sinter at 800°C in N2 for 2 hours. 23. Soc. A.87 49.L. A. 96. Optical properties Emission color: Blue Emission peak: 448 nm Excitation efficiency by UV: Excited by UV from 250 to 460 nm Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 100 Excitation (%) Emission 50 2 3 Remark This contribution comes from Weiyi Jia.. 1. Electrochem. 189 (1968). Powderize and grind..75 0. H3BO3 serves as flux. J. Philips Res.00 4.51 2 By weight (g) 10.00 0. Rev.. terVrugt.. 31. J.04 12... Characteristic luminescence. G. Jia.36 0. .. Rep. Smith.. 304 (1970). and Bril. CaMgSi2O6:Eu2+ Composition Ingredient CaCO3 MgO SiO2 Eu2O3 H3BO3 Mole % 24.48 Preparation Mix and grind. Blasse.Reference 1. A. 2. Philips Tech. W. Wanmaker.87 24. Unpublished data. 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 References 1.W. Fluorescence of Eu2+activated silicates. 2. Blasse. W. The absorption and emission spectra of some important activators. and Bril. 287 (1949). Sinter at 1250°C in N2 + 5% H2 gas flow for 3 hours. G.

00 0. Unpublished data.120 0. 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Composition Ingredient CaCO3 MgO SiO2 Eu2O3 H3BO3 Ca3MgSi2O8:Eu2+ Mole % 49.33 By weight (g) 10.61 33.58 By weight (g) 10. H3BO3 serves as flux.22 0.16 .68 0. Powderize and grind.367 4.84 39.Mn2+ Composition Ingredient CaCO3 MgO SiO2 Eu2O3 MnO H3BO3 Mole % 39. W.120 0.83 16.. Reference 1.00 1. Optical properties Emission color: Whitish blue-green Emission peak: Two peaks at 490 and 680 nm.40 1. Jia.68 19.16 Preparation Mix and grind.Ca2MgSi2O7:Eu2+.071 0. respectively Excitation efficiency by UV: Excited by UV from 260 to 420 nm Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 100 Excitation (%) Emission 50 2 3 Remark This contribution comes from Weiyi Jia.40 0.367 4.00 0.00 1. Pre-sinter at 900°C in N2 for 2 hours. Sinter at 1300°C in N2 + 5% H2 gas flow for 3 hours.34 1.

H3BO3 serves as flux. Reference 1. Sinter at 1350°C in N2 + 5% H2 gas flow for 3 hours.11 0. Unpublished data. Optical properties Emission color: Light blue Emission peak: 480 nm Excitation efficiency by UV: Excited by UV from 250 to 440nm Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 100 Excitation (%) Emission 50 2 3 Remark This contribution comes from Weiyi Jia. Fire in 95%N2 + 5% H2..000 psi. Powderize by dry ball-milling. Press into pellets with a hydraulic press machine at 40.103 Preparation Mix by grinding in a mortar for 30 minutes. W. 1. 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Ca3Al2Si3O12:Ce3+ Structure: Cubic Composition Ingredient CaCO3 Al2O3 SiO2 Ce2O3 H3BO3 Mole % 300 100 300 1 5 By weight (g) 10 3. Jia. 2. Press into pellets again. 2 hours. Powderize and grind. 900 C. Pre-sinter at 900°C in N2 for 2 hours. Fire in air.40 6 0.Preparation Mix and grind. 1200 C. 3 hours .

++ (3. 3 hours Optical Properties Emission color: Violet Emission peaks: 280 and 355 nm Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (3.00 0.110 0. 2.00 3. Fire in air. 2 hours.40 6.. 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Ca3Al2Si3O12:2%Ce3+ Structure: Cubic Composition Ingredient CaCO3 Al2O3 SiO2 Ce2O3 H3BO3 Mole % 300 100 300 1 5 By weight (g) 10.Optical Properties Emission color: Violet Emission peak: 410 nm Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (2.88 eV) . Reference 1. Powderize. W. Grind and press into pellets again. Jia.40 eV).000 psi. Unpublished data. 1. Press into pellets with a hydraulic press machine at 40.103 Preparation Mix by dry grinding in a mortar for 30 minutes. ++ (4.40eV) Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 100 Excitation (%) Emission 50 2 3 Remark This contribution is from Weiyi Jia. 1200°C.88 eV). Fire in 95%N2 + 5% H2. 900°C.

87 49. Optical properties Emission color: Deep blue Emission peak: 470 nm. 2.75 0.325 Preparation Mix and grind. This compound is also known as calcium aluminum silicate.74 8.14 0.Spectra 800 700 600 500 400 Wavelength (nm) 300 100 Excitation (%) Emission 50 2 3 Remarks 1.00 2. Unpublished data. H3BO3 serves as flux.238 0. Strong afterglow Excitation by UV: Excited by UV from 240 to 450 nm. This contribution is from Weiyi Jia. Powderize and grind.. W.51 2 By weight (g) 10. Jia. Pre-sinter at 700°C in air for 2 hours. 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Composition Ingredient SrCO3 MgO SiO2 Eu2O3 H3BO3 SrMgSi2O6:Eu2+ Mole % 24. Reference 1. Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 100 Excitation (%) Emission 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 . Sinter at 1050°C in N2 + 5% H2 gas flow for 3 hours.87 24.

Blasse.Remark This contribution comes from Weiyi Jia.92 39. 189 (1968). 2. Optical properties Emission color: Blue Emission peak: 470 nm Excitation by UV: Excited by UV from 250 to 450 nm Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 100 Excitation (%) Emission 50 2 3 Remark This contribution comes from Weiyi Jia.84 0.. .00 1. W.072 0. 23. A. Rep. terVrugt. Jia. J. Reference 1.4 1. Fluorescence of Eu2+activated silicates. Powderize and grind.163 Preparation Mix and grind.6 By weight (g) 10. Philips Res. Unpublished data. Wanmaker.W.369 4. and Bril. Jia.W.L.84 19. G... Pre-sinter at 800°C in air for 2 hours. H3BO3 (B2O3) serves as flux... Unpublished data.W.119 0. 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 References 1. Sinter at 1200°C in N2 + 5% H2 gas flow for 3 hours.. Sr2MgSi2O7:Eu2+ Composition Ingredient SrCO3 MgO SiO2 Eu2O3 H3BO3 Mole % 39.

H3BO3 (B2O3) serves as flux. 23.61 33. Blasse. J. Characteristic luminescence. The absorption and emission spectra of some important activators. A. Powderize and grind. Fluorescence of Eu2+activated silicates. 31.. W. Philips Res... terVrugt. 189 (1968). A.33 By weight (g) 10. Sinter at 1200°C in N2 + 5% H2 gas flow for 3 hours.079 0..22 0.. 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Reference 1.715 0.. G. 2. Wanmaker.L.. 304 (1970).108 Preparation Mix and grind. 1.. . Optical properties Emission color: Light blue Emission peak: 470 nm Excitation by UV: Excited by UV from 250 to 450 nm Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 100 Excitation (%) Emission 50 2 3 Remark This contribution comes from Weiyi Jia. Philips Tech.00 0. Pre-sinter at 800°C in air for 2 hours. and Bril.34 1.W. Blasse. Rep.83 16. G. Rev.912 2. and Bril.Sr3MgSi2O8:Eu2+ Composition Ingredient SrCO3 MgO SiO2 Eu2O3 H3BO3 Mole % 49.

5:Eu2+ SrwFxByOz:Eu2+. Fire in capped quartz tubes. 1.40 eV) 400 Wavelength (nm) 300 100 Excitation (%) Emission 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 . and Bo rates The following host compounds and activators are included in this subsection: (Y. reducing atmosphere. Fire in capped quartz tubes. 2 hours.0 85.Mn Sr2B5O9Cl:Eu SrwFxB4O6. 1100°C. ++ (8. 400–500°C.9 Preparation Dry blend ingredients. Slurry powder in boiling 10% HCl for 30 minutes.Gd)BO3:Tb (Y. 2 hours. Optical Properties Emission color: Green Emission peak: 544 nm Excitation efficiency by UV: Spectra 800 700 600 500 (3.3 Phosphates. Lightly mortar. air.88 eV). Decant with boiling water until neutral. Halophosphates.40 eV).Sm2+ (Y. ++ (4. Dry at 110°C.Gd)BO3:Eu -Ca2P2O7:Sn. 2.4 15.7.9 83.Gd)BO3:Tb Structure: Pseudovaterite Composition Ingredient Y 2O 3 Gd2O3 Tb4O7 H3BO3 Mole % 23 23 2 139 By weight (g) 51.

40 eV). Fire in capped quartz tubes or alumina crucibles. Electrochem. air.. 613 (1967). (Y. and Wiggins. air. Powderize. Avella. Wash by decanting in boiling water until neutral. Wyckoff.2 54. Soc. Sony Research Center Reports.G. 2. O. 2 hours. Supplement.88 eV).. J. ++ (8.. 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 .W. Japanese Patent Disclosure (Kokai). F.J.Remark This contribution is from Takashi Hase. 114.J..Gd)BO3:Eu Structure: Pseudovaterite Composition Ingredient Y 2O 3 Gd2O3 Eu2O3 H3BO3 Mole % 32 15 3 130 By weight (g) 72. 2.. 4. New York: (1964). C. 92 (1983). 52 133 091 (1977). 1. T. Sovers. Crystal Structure.6 80. Interscience. Hoshina. References 1.4 10. Dry in air. 2 hours. R. Optical Properties Emission color: Red Emission peak: 619 nm Excitation efficiency by UV: Spectra 800 700 600 500 (3. 400–500°C. 110°C. Rare earth cathodoluminescence in InBO3 and related orthoborates.. 2nd ed.40 eV) 400 Wavelength (nm) 300 100 Excitation (%) Emission 50 2 3 Remark This contribution is from Takashi Hase.. 3. Fire in capped quartz tubes or alumina crucibles. S. Slurry in boiling 10% HCl for 30 minutes. ++ (4. 1100°C.4 Preparation Mix by dry blend.

5% N2/0.. 1 hour..11 Preparation Mix by shaking with six ½ in. J.W. Koike.05 9.88 eV) Excitation by e-beam: Weakly excited Spectra 800 700 600 500 400 Wavelength (nm) 300 100 Emission 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 ..39 2.. 7. 2nd ed. Soc.S.. M. F. Wyckoff. NHK Giken Geppo. Fire in alumina trays. Arbus. Crystal Structure.References 1. II..73 0. M.Z. Acad. F. 111.G. Interscience. Electrochem. D.. J. and Wanmaker.20 1. Influence of the synthesis method on the luminescent properties of the vaterite-type YBO3-Eu3+. Chadeyron. New York (1964). J.L..92 0.J. 3 394 084 (1968). 114. nylon balls in a plastic jar on a paint mixer for ½ hour. Cr.. Avella.J.40 eV). 199 (1995). O. Avella. Fournier. Dry in air..5%H2. Sci. R. 2. 4. Electrochem.S. Fluorescent properties of some europium-activated phosphors. Powderize when dry.. Rare earth cathodoluminescence in InBO3 and related orthoborates. A.31 By weight (g) 18. 1363 (1964). and Wiggins. 176 (1979). Optical Properties Emission color: Orange-red Emission peaks: 350 and 575 nm Emission width (FWHM): 72 nm (For the latter peak) Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (3.04 8. Eliminate the H2 2. 3... 6. A.. Sovers.J.. 613 (1967). W.. 1. ~½ hour.28 7. and Cousseins. and Yokozawa.Mn Mole % 81. U. Pat.T. G. Composition Ingredient CaHPO4 SrHPO4 Sn2P2O7 MnCO3 (NH4)2HPO4 -Ca2P2O7:Sn. Soc. K. Cool in N2. Japanese Patent Disclosure (Kokai). 625 C. 5. N2. 1200 C. 320. 22. C.. Fire in alumina trays. Bril. + (4. Okada.. 99. 52 54690 (1977).32 0.

42 0. Phys.91 0. Fire in molybdenum trays.5 H2). Mash. Wash in hot water. with particular reference to the pyrophosphates. Firing temperature should not exceed 1250 C to prevent formation of -pyrophosphate.E. References 1. Optical Properties Emission color: Bluish-white body Emission peak: 425 nm Emission width (FWHM): 30 nm Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (3. S... 18 (1955).T. Sr2B5O9Cl:Eu Structure: Tetragonal Composition Ingredient SrCO3 SrCl2 Eu2O3 B2O3 Mole % 26. 2. Proc.55 45. 173.T.71 By weight (g) 8.44 7.85 9. The investigation of new phosphors.88 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: Weakly excited by cathode rays Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Absorption (%) 100 Emission .. 1025°C.. 2. U. Exhibits very strong triboluminescence or mechanoluminescence..W. T. Cool. 2 hours. A.H. 323 (1939). R. Appl. Ranby.. Soc.G. S18. Brit. J. and Peters. ++ (4. and Henderson.S. D. Pappalardo. Dry. 4 772 417 (1988). (99.40 eV).25 Preparation Dry blend ingredients..5 N2:0.Remarks 1. 3. 3. S.. Pat.33 27. Henderson. P. This contribution is from Madis Raukas. R.

and dry the precipitate in air. A fine white precipitate will result and form a slurry. Place in an open quartz crucible and fire in air at 800°C for 1 hour. Cool and regrind. Cool the slurry to below 20°C. Reference 1.. blend. and Baglio.12 By weight (g) 63.5:Eu2+ Composition Ingredient Sr(NO3)2 SrF2 H3BO3 Eu2O3 Mole % 10. Chem. J.E. Inorg.Remark This contribution is from Madis Raukas.11 Preparation Dissolve Eu2O3 powder in dilute nitric acid solution and Sr(NO3)2 and boric acid in warm water (80°C). SrwFxB4O6. Blend the precipitate with half the SrF2 and grind. Combine these two solutions. T. Nucl. and grind with the remainder of the SrF2 into a fine powder. J. Optical Properties Emission color: UV Emission peak: 370 nm Emission width (FWHM): About 20 nm Excitation by UV: In a broad range up to about 360 nm Excitation by e-beam and x-rays: Good excitation by cathode rays Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Absorption (%) 100 Emission . 32. Form a 1:1 solution of acetone and ammonium hydroxide and add to the above solution slowly while stirring vigorously.30 247.00 9. 1089 (1970). Cool. filter.11 0... Luminescence and structural properties of alkaline earth chloroborates activated with divalent europium.77 80. Peters.36 2.49 61. Fire for 2 hours at 890°C in a flow of H2 in N2 gas in the same open crucible.

A fine white precipitate will result and form a slurry. Pat.12 0. 3 448 056 (1969).029.. Blend the precipitate with SrF2 and grind.. and 502 nm due to Sm2+ Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Absorption (%) 100 Emission . Place in an open quartz crucible and fire in air at 900°C for 1–2 hours. blend. Combine these two solutions.5:Eu0.11 By weight (g) 126. References 1.F. and grind into a fine powder. Optical Properties Emission color: Narrow red and IR Emission peaks: 684. The most efficient version has been determined to be Sr0.98 40. 697. 693. 703. The slurry is kept at 80 C for about 2 hours and is cooled to ambient temperature.62B4O6. 300–390 nm with additional peaks at 395. Fire for 2 hours at 900 C in a flow of H2 in N2 gas in the same open crucible. which is used in high. U. 420.96F0. The resultant is filtered and dried in air.. This contribution is from Madis Raukas.58 g 309. 723.28 2.and low-pressure discharge lamps as well as in CRTs.F. Form a 1:1 solution of acetone and ammonium hydroxide and rapidly add to the above solution while stirring vigorously. This is a Eu-sensitized.. 2. Pat. 725 and 732 nm Excitation by UV: in broad ranges 250–280. Chenot. C. IR-emitting phosphor.S. C.09 Preparation Dissolve Eu2O3 and Sm2O3 powders in dilute nitric acid solution and Sr(NO3)2 and boric acid in warm water (90°C).S. Cool and re-grind. Cool.09 5.Remarks 1. SrwFxByOz:Eu2+. U.20 5.25 0. Chenot.43 84.Sm2+ Composition Ingredient Sr(NO3)2 SrF2 H3BO3 Eu2O3 Sm2O3 Mole % 10. 2. 3 649 550 (1972).

IR-emitting phosphor.62B4O6.F. Pat. U. 2.and low-pressure discharge lamps as well as CRTs.029. Chenot. U.F.Remarks 1. 3 649 550 (1972).. which is used in high. Pat.011.. .. C. The most efficient is Sr0. 3. This contribution is from Madis Raukas. C.Sm0. Chenot.. 3 693 006 (1972). 2.. U.S.S.5:Eu0. Pat. References 1.F. This is a Eu-sensitized.S. 3 448 056 (1969). Chenot..96F0. C.

9Al0.Mn (BAM:Mn) Composition Ingredient BaCO3 MgO Al2O3 Eu2O3 MnCO3 BaF2 Mole % 80 70 1050 (Al) 10 (Eu) 30 10 By weight (g) 158 28. Powderize.5 17.1O3:Bi3+ CaYAlO4:Eu3+ MgCeAl11O19:Tb3+ SrAl4O7:Eu3+ SrxBayClzAl2O4-z/2:Mn2+.2 536 17. Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 100 Emission 25 C 300 C O O 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 . Fire in a reducing atmosphere at a temperature of about 1200–1500°C for at least 1 hour. This phosphor can be used in plasma display panels and is in use in fluorescent lamps.5 Preparation Mix by ball-milling or magnetic stirring in an alcohol and dry in air.6 34.Mn (BAM:Mn) BaMgAl10O17:Eu (BAM) CaAl2O4:Tb3+ CaAl4O7:Ce3+ CaTi0.7.Ce3+ Y3Al5O12:Ce Y3Al5O12:Ce3+ Y3Al5O12:Mn4+ Y3Al5O12:Cr3+ BaMgAl10O17:Eu.4 Aluminates The following host compounds and activators are included in this subsection: BaMgAl10O17:Eu. Powderize. The phosphor remains efficient to high temperatures.

Powderize Fire in reducing atmosphere at a temperature of about 1200–1500°C for at least 1 hour. 900°C.6 17. Grind and press into pellets again.48 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (3. Fire in N2.139 Preparation Mix by dry grinding in a mortar for 30 minutes. with smaller peaks at 590 and 620 nm Emission width (FWHM): 0. Remark This contribution is from Cees Ronda. This phosphor is used in plasma display panels and in fluorescent lamps. CaAl2O4:Tb3+ Structure: Hexagonal Composition Ingredient CaCO3 Al2O3 Tb2O3 B2O3 Mole % 100 100 1 2 By weight (g) 10 10. + (4.88 eV) .366 0. Powderize. 3 hours. Optical Properties Emission color: Green Emission peak: 543 nm.40 eV).000 psi. BaMgAl10O17:Eu (BAM) Composition Ingredient BaCO3 MgO Al2O3 Eu2O3 BaF2 Mole % 80 100 1050 (Al) 10 (Eu) 10 By weight (g) 158 40 536 17. Fire in N2.2 0. The phosphor remains efficient to high temperatures. Press into pellets with a hydraulic press machine at 40. 2 hours. 2. Remark This contribution is from Cees Ronda.5 Preparation Mix by ball-milling or magnetic stirring in an alcohol and dry in air. 1400°C. 1.Spectra were provided by Madis Raukas.

Powderize. 1400°C. D. 1535 (2002). Lett. Phys.40 eV). Persistent energy transfer in CaAl2O4:Tb3+.. CaAl4O7:Ce3+ Structure: Monoclinic Composition Ingredient CaCO3 Al2O3 Ce(NO3)3·4H2O B2O3 Mole % 100 200 2 2 By weight (g) 10 20. J. Yen.. 80. W.S. et al...J. Phys.. ++ (4. W. X. Wang. Fire in N2.Spectra 800 700 600 500 400 Wavelength (nm) 300 100 Excitation (%) Emission 50 2 3 Remarks 1. Jia. 93. Optical Properties Emission color: Violet Emission peak: 407 nm Emission width (FWHM): 4580 cm-1 Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (3. 900°C.4 0..88 eV) . Press into pellets with a hydraulic press machine at 40. Meltzer. 3 hours. This contribution is from Weiyi Jia..366 0. Fire in 95% N2 + 5% H2.. This compound is known as calcium aluminate. Appl. Jia. 2 hours.139 Preparation Mix by dry grinding in a mortar for 30 minutes.Ce3+ through persistence energy transfer.000 psi 1. Green phosphorescence of CaAl2O4:Tb3+. 2. 148 (2003).M. Jia. 2.. Grind and press into pellets again. 2. Appl. R. 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 References 1. et al.Ce3+. D.

1O3:Bi3+ Structure: Orthorhombic Composition Ingredient CaCO3 TiO2 Bi2O3 Al2O3 Mole % 90 90 10 10 By weight (g) 9. Fire in open quartz boats. 2. This contribution is from Weiyi Jia.Spectra 800 700 600 500 400 Wavelength (nm) 300 100 Excitation (%) Emission 50 2 3 Remarks 1. Reference 1.9Al0. 1 hour. + (4. Powderize. Unpublished data. W.. 1. air.88 eV) . Grind and press into pellets again. Optical Properties Emission color: Deep red Emission peak: 760 nm Emission width (FWHM): 440 cm-1 Excitation efficiency by UV: + (3. 1300 C.40 eV). Fire in air. 1000 C.18 4. 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 CaTi0.01 7.66 1. Jia. This compound is known as calcium tetra-aluminate.02 Preparation Mix by dry grinding or milling. 3 hours. 2. Press into pellets.

J. Grind and press into pellets again. CaYAlO4:Eu3+ Structure: Tetrahedral Composition Ingredient CaCO3 Y 2O 3 Al2O3 Eu2O3 B2O3 Mole % 100 100 100 1 3 By weight (g) 10. 3 hours. 2. 2. 161 (2003).000 psi. and Rivera. This compound is known as calcium titanate. Press into pellets with a hydraulic press machine at 40. This contribution is from Weiyi Jia.40 eV).01 22.56 10. 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Reference 1. Fire in air.. 1400°C. Jia.. A. W.. Energy transfer between Bi3+ and Pr3+ in doped CaTiO3. Powderize.19 0. with weaker peaks at 588 and 702 nm Excitation efficiency by UV: + (3. I. Fire in air. Soc. Perez-Andujar. Electrochem.88 eV) . Optical Properties Emission color: Red Emission peak: 621 nm. 150. 1000°C. 2 hours. + (4. 1.209 Preparation Mix by dry grinding in a mortar for 30 minutes.352 0..Spectra 800 700 600 500 400 Wavelength (nm) 300 100 Excitation (%) Emission 50 2 3 Remarks 1.

This compound is also known as calcium-yttrium aluminate. 1650°C. 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 MgCeAl11O19:Tb3+ Structure: Hexagonal Composition Ingredient Mole % By weight (g) (MgCO3)4·Mg(OH)2·3H2O·2 9.76 nm) Excitation efficiency by UV: (3. Optical Properties Emission peak: 2.3 55 56.Spectra 800 700 600 500 400 Wavelength (nm) 300 100 Excitation (%) Emission 50 2 3 Remarks 1.88eV) . Fire in alumina crucibles. 1600°C. Powderize.28 eV (543 nm) Emission width (FWHM): 0.Tb)Ox (Oxide of coprecipitate as a Ce-Tb ingredient). Reference 1. stagnant air. 2 hours. 2.5 Tb4O7 * Desirable ingredient: (Ce. Jia.. in alumina boats. Powderize by automatic mill. +++(4.1 Al2O3 1 7.40eV). reducing atmosphere (95% N2/5% H2). Store in a well-sealed container. Unpublished data. This contribution is from Weiyi Jia. Re-fire. 2 hours.048 eV (9. Preparation Mix by automatic mill. W.0 CeO2 6 10.

Oshio.. 2. Press into pellets with a hydraulic press machine at 40. Grind and press into pellets again.352 0. U.000 psi. 1000°C. Fire in air. Fire in air. Powderize.209 Preparation Mix by dry grinding in a mortar for 30 minutes.S.Spectra 800 700 600 500 400 Wavelength (nm) 300 100 Emission 50 2 3 Remark This contribution is from Shozo Oshio. 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Reference 1. 6 290 875 (2001). SrAl4O7:Eu3+ Structure: Monoclinic Composition Ingredient SrCO3 Al2O3 Eu2O3 B2O3 Mole % 100 200 1 3 By weight (g) 10.98 0.01 7. and Matsuoka. 1350°C. Shigeta.. 3 hours.88 eV) .. T. Pat. + (4. Optical Properties Emission color: Red Emission peak: 612 nm Excitation efficiency by UV: + (3. 2 hours.40 eV). 1. T. S..

Re-blend and place in an open container.5% solution) Mole % 7.Spectra 800 700 600 500 400 Wavelength (nm) 300 100 Excitation (%) Emission 50 2 3 Remarks 1. Increase the temperature to 1100–1200°C and fire for 4 hours in a flow of 0.80 4. W. Re-fire at 1100–1200°C for about 4 hrs.43 117. Fire at a temperature below 400 C for an additional 5 hours. This contribution is from Weiyi Jia.17 68.34 By weight (g) 60.64 Preparation Wet blend all components. powders.79 2.4% H2 in N2 gas.26 19.86 39.10 0. Jia. Reference 1. Unpublished data.34 0. This compound is also known as strontium tetra-aluminate. in a nitrogen atmosphere containing 4% H2. 2. and standard solutions in acetone for 15 minutes.Ce3+ Composition Ingredient Sr(OH)2·8H2O Ba(OH)2·8H2O BaCl2 Al(OH)3 Mn(NO3)2 (52% solution) Ce(NO3)3 (47. Cool to ambient temperature and sieve admixture through 100-mesh stainless screen. Dry the admixture in air at 160 C for 5 hours.. 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 SrxBayClzAl2O4-z/2:Mn2+.24 156.02 1. Optical Properties Emission color: Green Emission peak: 512 nm Emission width (FWHM): 32 nm Excitation by UV: In a broad range suitable for mercury discharge Excitation by e-beam and x-rays: Specified as a phosphor for x-ray intensifiers .

5 (Y) 62. The emission spectrum consists of two bands. C.44 2.F.7 Preparation Mix by ball-milling or magnetic stirring in water and dry in air. The approximate formula is Sr0. resulting in white light. Pat.. 2. 3.005. forming gas or CO. as Ce3+ absorbs in the blue part of the spectral region and emits yellow light. C. (e. 3 649 550 (1972).005.229Ba0.. Pat.. C.Spectra 800 700 600 500 400 Wavelength (nm) 300 100 Emission 50 2 3 Remarks 1.S.g. U.3. In highpressure Hg lamps it reduces the color temperature of the light. In LEDs it partially converts blue light into yellow light. Powderize.126Al2O0.S. Firing should occur in reducing atmosphere.F.Ce0. References 1.5 (Al) 2 5 By weight (g) 40 32 3. U. The material has a pronounced daylight color.. 3. Pat. due to the spin-orbit split ground state of Ce3+.. 2. at a temperature of about 1300–1500°C for at least 1 hour). Remark This contribution is from Cees Ronda. .F. This contribution is from Madis Raukas. Chenot. Ga).. 3 448 056 (1969). Chenot. U. This phosphor is used in white LED lamps and also in high-pressure Hg lamps. Chenot. 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Y3Al5O12:Ce Structure: Cubic (garnet) Composition Ingredient Y 2O 3 Al2O3 CeO2 NH4Cl Mole % 35. 3 693 006 (1972)..437:Mn0. The spectral position of the emission band of Ce3+ can be varied by replacing part of the Al by (e.S.g.688Cl1. This is a cerium-sensitized xerographic lamp phosphor.

062 Preparation Mix by dry grinding in a mortar for 30 minutes. 3 hours. Powderize when dry. W. Unpublished data. Optical Properties Emission color: Violet Emission peak: 528 nm Emission width (FWHM): 4580 cm-1 Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (3. ++ (4.555 0.88 eV) Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 100 Excitation (%) Emission 50 2 3 Remark This contribution is from Weiyi Jia.03 0. Fire in 95% N2 + 5% H2. Fire in N2... Press into pellets with a hydraulic press machine at 40. 1400°C. 1.Y3Al5O12:Ce3+ Structure: Cubic (garnet) Composition Ingredient Y 2O 3 Al2O3 Ce(NO3)3·4H2O B2O3 Mole % 100 200 2 2 By weight (g) 10 9. Jia. 1000ºC.000 psi Dry in air. .40 eV). 2. and Rivera. Press into pellets again. Powderize. 2 hours. E. 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Reference 1.

++ (4. Reference 1.. 1400ºC. W. Grind.03 0. E. 2.0067 By weight (g) — — — . Unpublished data.04 6. 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Y3Al5O12:Cr3+ Structure: Cubic (garnet) Composition Ingredient For precursor: Y(NO3)3·6H2O Al(NO3)3 Cr(NO3)3·9H2O Mole % 4. and Rivera..88 eV) Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 100 Excitation (%) Emission 50 2 3 Remark This contribution is from Weiyi Jia.062 Preparation Mix by dry grinding in a mortar for 30 minutes. Jia.051 0.72 0. 900ºC. Optical Properties Emission color: Deep red Emission peak: 640 and 667 nm Emission width (FWHM): 4580 cm-1 Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (3.Y3Al5O12:Mn4+ Structure: Cubic (garnet) Composition Ingredient Y 2O 3 Al2O3 MnCO3 B2O3 Mole % 33 66 19 2 By weight (g) 10 9. Fire in 95% N2 + 5% H2. 1. 2 hours. 3 hours. Fire in N2.40 eV).

141. References 1. J.. an amorphous ash is produced that needs to be annealed in air at 1000°C for 1 hour... (688.J. Synthesis and Characterization of Phosphors for Flat Panel Displays.5 (fuel/oxidizer ratio) C2H5NO2 (glycine) 1. and ruptures into a flame in 5–10 minutes.S.5 Preparation Mix the precursor and the fuel thoroughly in a glass mortar. Soc. et al. L. L. Phosphor development for alpha-silicon liquidcrystal light valve projection display.. When glycine is used. 3257 (1996)...Fuels: CH6N4O (carbohydrazide) 1.8. Am. 3172 (1994). and 725 nm) Emission width: 0.J. and Walko.. J. Shea-Rohwer. The solution boils. and Hesse. Hess. dehydrates. Optical Properties Emission color: Deep red Emission peaks: 1.85 eV (435 nm) Spectra 800 O O 750 700 Wavelength (nm) 650 600 550 Carbohydrazide Urea Glucine 1825 C Emission 100 1780 C 1210 C O 50 1. 1873 (1994). The spectra obtained have the same structure but the materials produced by higher temperatures show higher intensities. 79. H. Shea Rohwer. Rohwer. 29.7 CH4N2O (urea) 2. et al. preheated to 500°C. 707.. Sluzky. K. and Devices. Stevenson Ranch.05 eV at 707 nm Excitation efficiency by UV: 2. Mater. the result is a foamy powder which can be powderized. and 1. Ceram. N. Place the dish into a muffle furnace..75.0 Photon Energy (eV) 2.6 1. J. The combustion flame temperature is dependent on the fuel used. 1. Place the mixture in an appropriate flameproof dish and dissolve using de-ionized water (~50 ml). 2. This contribution is from Lauren E.2 0 . E.8 Remark 1. Shea. M. Electrochem.S. Nalwa and L. Handbook of Luminescence. Powders should be placed in well-sealed containers. carbohydrazide produces the highest temperature (1825°C) while glycine produces the lowest (1210°C). American Scientific Publishers. Sci. CA. 2. Display Materials. 3. the flame lasts for about 15 sec. Eds. Synthesis and crystallization of yttrium-aluminum-garnet and relatedcompounds.E. Soc.71 eV.E.. 2. For carbohydrazide and urea fuels. Lemoine. (2003). R.

7. and Cl2.25(BaCl2)0.Yb3+ YF3:Tm3+.Mn2+ BaY2F8:Er3+.Yb3+ YF3:Er3+.Yb3+ CsI:Tl LaOBr:Tb3+ LaOBr:Tm3+ NaYF4:Er3+. Heat at 1000°C after eliminating water and O2 in stream of N2.Pb2+ BaFCl:Eu2+ BaMg3F8:Eu2+. and 1500 nm light Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 100 Emission 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 . 1000. Ar.Yb3+ (ErCl3)0.75 Composition Ingredient ErCl3 BaCl2 Mole % 25 75 By weight (g) — — Preparation Mix thoroughly in dry.5 Halides and Oxyhalides The following host compounds and activators are included in this subsection: (ErCl3)0.25(BaCl2)0.75 Ba2Mg3F10:Eu2+ BaFBr:Eu2+ BaFCl:Eu2+. inert box. Optical Properties Emission color: Mostly green Emission peak: 550 nm Excitation efficiency by IR: Can be excited with 800. Crush after cooling and seal in glass capsule.

Remarks 1.F. and Messier. This contribution is from Madis Raukas. Pat. 4 112 328 (1978). Phys. 2. U. R.20 By weight (g) 68. 830°C.00 1... The firing temperature can be lower (down to 700–750°C) for undoped barium magnesium fluoride. Reference 1.. R. Although not producing as efficiently luminescent material. This contribution is from Hajime Yamamoto.80 60. 2 hours. Reference 1. 74. J. Optical Properties Emission color: Deep blue Emission peak: 415 nm Excitation efficiency by UV: In a broad range. Wolfe.39 2. High-efficiency infrared-to-visible up-conversion of Er3+ in BaCl2. higher temperature is required for activator diffusion.S. Ba2Mg3F10:Eu2+ Composition Ingredient BaF2 MgF2 EuF2 Mole % 38. peaking at around 330 nm Excitation efficiency by e-beam: Good for x-ray intensifier screens Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 100 Excitation (%) Emission 50 2 3 Remarks 1. Powderize. an inert or even air atmosphere can be used for the reaction.. Appl. 2..28 Preparation Dry mix. Wang. Fire in 5% volume of H2 in N2. The phosphor is hygroscopic. Y. 1272 (1993).W. 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 .04 37. and Ohwaki. J..

36 0.M. and sieved. The phosphors are ground and re-fired.. 1159 (2001). BaBr2. Phosphors for X-ray and ionizing radiation. dried.. S. Excess ammonium halide may be used as flux.S. The fired material is ground.Pb2+ Composition Ingredient BaF2 BaCl2 EuCl2 PbF2 Mole % 49. washed with cold water or organic liquids. U. The Phosphor Handbook. and to protect from dissolving in water during washing. 3.. Care is taken to avoid oxygen during firing...0096 By weight (g) 14. CRC Press. useful for radiography. Kotera et al. Pat.13 0. Matter. Condens. Takahashi.428 0. J. Eds. This contribution is from Masaaki Tamatani. 2.25 1. E.. Phys. Before firing. + (4.Structure: Tetragonal BaFBr:Eu2+ Preparation Intimate mixtures of raw materials (BaF2. therefore... This compound is photostimulable and. and Kurobori.52 49. 2. Shionoya. 13.88 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: + Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 100 Excitation (%) Emission 50 2 3 Remarks 1. 55 12144. W.40 eV). Japanese Patent Kokai. 4.. 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 BaFCl:Eu2+. Radzhabov. 439 458 1. T. References 1.70 17. New York (1998). EuF3) are fired in a H2/N2 atmosphere at 600–1000°C (desirably at 700°C). K. and Yen.040 . Optical Properties Emission color: UV/blue Excitation efficiency by UV: – (3. 55 12145. 55 12143. the materials are dried at 200–300°C. Kotera et al. Photoionization processes in barium fluorohalide crystals doped with Eu2+.

W. Pat. Dietz. and Messier..S. O.9989Eu0. For the same purpose.. As a further improvement. 2 303 917 (1942).S.01Pb0. yttrium or lithium can be used for reducing the persistence (see the second reference). Sieve to –200 +355-mesh size. U. and Messier. 4.F. 2 hours.. Fire in a 5% H2-N2 mixture at 600–1000°C for 1 hour.000–15.000 ppm Al). Wolfe.. 3. ~ 830°C. Fire in N2. Optical Properties Emission peak: Around 385 nm Emission width (FWHM): About 35 nm Excitation by e-beam: Specified as a phosphor for x-ray intensifiers Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 100 Emission 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Remarks 1. . Pat. the optimum being at around 100 ppm.F. R.. This contribution is from Madis Raukas.0001FCl. Lead is an important additive for brightness enhancement and its amount can be varied from about 10 to 1000 molar ppm parts of host. References 1. R. Wolfe. Blend with with BaCl2 to serve as a flux. 3 951 848 (1976). 4. 2. Pat. Structure: Tetragonal BaFCl:Eu2+ Preparation Stir the following overnight: (1-2x)BaF2(s) + BaCl2(aq) + 2x EuF2(s) 2 Ba1-xEuxFCl(s) A stoichiometric excess of aqueous BaCl2 solution is used. 2 303 963 (1942). U..W. Spray dry the slurry of BaFCl:Eu and aqueous BaCl2. R. U. 4 057 508 (1977). H. This x-ray phosphor is represented by the formula Ba0. lead can be replaced by aluminum or thallium in slightly different proportions (10–50 ppm Tl. Pat. Separate the precipitate.J.S. 8.. R..Preparation Dry blend together..S. 3.. Uhle. 2. U.

Photoionization processes in barium fluorohalide crystals doped with Eu2+. S. 54 (1995). 2. Optical Properties Emission color: UV/blue Emission peak: 380 nm Excitation efficiency by UV: – (3. 4 524 016 (1985). E. 229. J...C.59 1. Solid state chemistry and luminescence of X-ray phosphors. Optical Properties Emission color: Deep blue (Eu2+) . 13. Pat. Wash..53 70.88 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: + Decay to 1/e: 5.07 Preparation Dry blend together. Issler. Radzhabov. and Torardi.40 eV). Alloys Ingredients. 2.26 43.Heat the resultant phosphor/flux intermediate at 1000°C.) Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 100 Excitation (%) Emission 50 2 3 Remarks 1. BaMg3F8:Eu2+. This compound is photostimulable. A. 1159 (2001). Matter. Store in a well-sealed container. Condens.23 6.L. 3... T. Ferretti.S. This contribution is from Masaaki Tamatani. 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 References 1. C. J. Phys. Fire in a flow of 5% H2 in N2 at 830°C for 2 hours.70 By weight (g) 41.. and Kurobori.18 4. U.Mn2+ Composition Ingredient BaF2 MgF2 EuF2 MnF2 Mole % 23. + (4.99 2.7 × 10–6 sec (UV exc.

.05Mg2.Emission peaks: Two bands.Yb3+ Structure: Monoclinic Composition Ingredient YF3 YbF3 Er F3 BaF2 ZnF2 Mole % 78 20 2 100 10 By weight (g) Preparation Mix thoroughly in ethanol.F. peaking at around 330 nm Excitation by e-beam: Good Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 100 Emission 50 2 3 Remarks 1. and Messier. Wash with water after cooling to remove flux. 2. U. Fire in a capped alumina crucible in inert or fluorizing atmosphere above 1100°C.S. 410 nm (Eu2+) and 610 nm (Mn2+) Emission width (FWHM): 80 nm (Mn2+) Excitation efficiency by UV: In a broad range.95Eu0. Wolfe. R.W. Reference 1.20F10. Optical Properties Emission color: Green Emission peak: 550 nm ..80Mn0. This contribution is from Madis Raukas. 3. higher temperature is required for activator diffusion.. 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 BaY2F8:Er3+. R. 4 112 328 (1978). Forming undoped barium magnesium fluoride requires lower firing temperature (700– 750°C). Pat. The ingredients in the ratio shown above yields the composition of Ba1.

39.. Quant. Opt. Phys. This contribution is from Hajime Yamamoto. Y. 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Structure: Cubic CsI:Tl Preparation Single crystals can be grown by several conventional methods: 1. Kaminskii. Spectroscopic and laser properties of Er3+-doped monoclinic BaY2F8 single-crystals. grown from the melt after Czochralski.88 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: ++ Decay to 1/e: 0..13 eV (299 nm). Electron...5-µm wavelength laser-light emission by infrared-excitable phosphors. zone melting in a closed vertical crucible after Bridgman–Stockbarger 2.98 × 10-6 . References 1. 2. S95 (1990). Appl. Mita.Excitation efficiency by UV: Weak red emission Excitation efficiency by e-beam: Weak red emission Excitation efficiency by infrared light: Efficient under 970 nm Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 100 Emission 50 2 3 Remarks 1. Thallium iodide is mixed with CsI before heating. Optical Properties Emission color: Green Emission peak: 550 nm Absorption edge: 4. Lett. Luminescence characteristics are similar to those of YF3.61 eV (269 nm). 4.A. 5. A. 587 (1981).14 eV (241 nm) Excitation efficiency by UV: + (4. and dissolved in the melt (melting point 623°C). Detection of 1. et al. 22. 2.

3. Springer-Verlag.. IEEE Trans..40 eV). The luminescence intensity is nearly constant for Tl+ concentrations between 0.88 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: + .3 38.. Crystal scintillators. and HNO3. Grabmaier.B.6 0.Spectra 800 700 600 500 400 Wavelength (nm) 300 100 Emission 50 2 3 Spectrum of the emission under x-ray excitation. 2. During crystal growth. G. B. 1 hour. Blend with the Na2CO3. and dry..1 2.3 mol%.0 39.1 By weight (g) 100 2. ++ (4. The theory and practice of scintillation counting. Optical Properties Emission color: Whitish blue Excitation efficiency by UV: – (3. 1 hour. 2. 372 (1984).3 60. Powderize. J. such as water. Fire in air. Nucl. 400–500°C. and NH4Br. 2. Blasse. 1. 800–1100°C.06 and 0. Ball-mill the powder with a grinding media and a liquid vehicle. NS-31. and Grabmaier. Heidelberg (1994). 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Remarks 1.2 39.C. Sci.7 3. B. Tb4O7.C. Pergamon Press. Birks. Powderize and reblend powder. This contribution is from Masaaki Tamatani. wash. Structure: Tetragonal Composition Ingredient La2O3 Tb4O7 HNO3 Na2CO3 NH4Br LaOBr:Tb3+ Mole % 19. References 1. 3. some of the thallium may be lost by evaporation. filter. Luminescent Materials. Fire in air.1 Preparation Combine the La2O3. London (1964).

U. Bull... 102 (1974).S. Rabatin. 22. Tb activated rare earth oxyhalides for x-ray intensifying screen. Res. Abstr. G. Pat. 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 LaOBr:Tm3+ Structure: Tetragonal Composition Ingredient NH4Br Tm2O3 La2O3 Mole % — — — By weight (g) — — — Preparation (1-x)La2O3 + xTm2O3 + 2NH4Br. – (4. A. J. Concentration quenching of Tb3+ luminescence in LaOBr and Gd2O2S phosphors.. Alkali bromide formed by the interaction of alkali carbonate and ammonium bromide serves as a re-crystallizing agent. and Bril. 481 (1967). Mater. 14. Ammonium bromide serves as the brominating agent. References 1. J. 3 617 743 (1971). 2. 1403 (1979).G.40 eV). Soc. Fire in air.G. Blasse. Philips Res. 800°C.88 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: + . Electrochem.. while potassium bromide acts as the flux. Rabatin. 3.. Optical Properties Emission color: UV/blue Excitation efficiency by UV: – (3. Investigations of Tb3+-activated phosphors. 4. Holsa. This contribution is from Masaaki Tamatani. J.Spectra 800 700 600 500 400 Wavelength (nm) 300 100 Excitation (%) Emission 50 2 3 Remarks 1. Rep. Spring Meeting.. 2. et al..

C.. Rabatin. J.Yb3+ Mole % 57 39 4 100 By weight (g) 100 107.9 10. Rabatin. J. C. 229.L. 2.. Pat. Pat. J. U. for 2 hours. This contribution is from Masaaki Tamatani.2 Preparation Mix Na2SiF6 with the proper amount of (Y. 54 (1995). S. Alloys Ingredients.8 226. NaF produced during decomposition of Na2SiF6 acts as flux and forms NaYF4 lattice. If water vapor sensitivity is a problem.G.Er)F3. add some potassium antimony tartrate to the final product.S. Dry.S.Yb. References 1. 3 591 516 (1971). which has been precipitated from aqueous nitrate solution with HF solution. 2. Fire in capped Pt crucibles. Solid state chemistry and luminescence of X-ray phosphors.Spectra 800 700 600 500 400 Wavelength (nm) 300 100 Excitation (%) Emission 50 2 3 Remarks 1. 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Structure: Trigonal Composition Ingredient YF3 YbF3 Er F3 Na2SiF6 NaYF4:Er3+. Optical Properties Emission color: Green Emission peak: 550 nm Excitation efficiency by IR: Efficient at 970-nm wavelength Excitation efficiency by UV: Weak red emission Excitation efficiency by e-beam: Weak red emission Excitation by infrared light: Efficient under 970nm ... 4 208 470 (1978). U.. in Ar atmosphere.. 3.G. 630°C. Issler. and Torardi.

Fire in a capped alumina crucible in inert or fluorizing atmosphere above 1100°C.Yb3+ Structure: Orthorhombic Composition Ingredient YF3 YbF3 ErF3 ZnF2 Mole % 78 20 2 10 By weight (g) — — — — Preparation Mix thoroughly in ethanol. Wash with water after cooling to remove flux.Spectra 800 700 x5 Emission 600 500 x1 400 Wavelength (nm) 300 100 50 2 3 Remarks 1. 119. 1561 (1972). Kano. 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 YF3:Er3+. Reference 1. and Otomo. H. Soc. This contribution is from Yoh Mita. Optical Properties Emission color: Green Emission peak: 550 nm Excitation efficiency by UV: Weak Excitation efficiency by e-beam: Weak Excitation efficiency by infrared light: Efficient under 970-nm excitation .Er3+ (Ln-Y.Gd. 2. J. Y. NaLnF4-Yb3+.. Electrochem.La) — efficient green-emitting infrared-excited phosphors. Yamamoto. T.... Luminescence characteristics are similar to those of YF3 but more intense emission is reported.

. which may be predominant upon higher incorporation of Er3+ and Yb3+ or partial oxidization. Wash with water after cooling to remove flux. 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 YF3:Tm3+. Reference 1. This contribution is from Hajime Yamamoto.2 10 By weight (g) — — — — Preparation Mix thoroughly in ethanol. 48 (1969). but higher content of Er dopant is required for obtaining efficient emission. Phys. et al. The green emission is accompanied with red emission.F. Fire in a capped alumina crucible in inert or fluorizing atmosphere above 1100oC. L. Lett. The green emission is observed also under 800 or 1500 nm wavelength light.. Optical Properties Emission color: Pinkish-blue Excitation efficiency by IR: Excitable with 970-nm light . 2.Spectra 800 700 600 500 400 Wavelength (nm) 300 100 Emission 50 2 3 Remarks 1. Johnson.Yb3+ Structure: Orthorombic Composition Ingredient YF3 YbF3 TmF3 ZnF2 Mole % 74 35 0. Comments on materials for efficient infrared conversion. 15. Appl.

Appl.F. Comments on materials for efficient infrared conversion. Phys. et al. This contribution is from Yoh Mita.Spectra 800 700 600 500 400 Wavelength (nm) 300 100 Emission 50 2 3 Remarks 1. 48 (1969).. Blue emission is accompanied by red emission.. 15. . Johnson. 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Reference 1. Lett. L. 2.

1200ºC. Store in a well-sealed container. Ultrafast CdS:Te CdS:In. Powderize.6 CaS and ZnS-Type Sulfides The following host compounds and activators are included in this subsection: CaS:Bi3+ CaS:Eu2+ CdS:In CdS:In. 1 hour.5 By weight (g) 10 0. long blue afterglow Emission peak: 450 nm Emission width (FWHM): 1950 cm-1 Excitation efficiency by UV: ++ (3.Cl ZnS:Cu.88 eV) Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 100 Excitation (%) Emission 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 .323 0.2 Preparation Mix by dry grinding or milling.Te ZnS:Ag. Optical Properties Emission color: Deep blue. ++ (4. Fire in N2.7.Al ZnS:Te.Mn CaS:Bi3+ Structure: Cubic Composition Ingredient CaS Bi2O3 S Mole % 100 0.40 eV).

488 0. Lehmann. 1200ºC. Soc. .R. J... 2. References 1. Lehmann.D. 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 100 Excitation (%) Emission 50 2 3 Remark This contribution is from Weiyi Jia. Electrochem. Jia. J. Appl. Ryan.Y. Optical Properties Emission color: Red.. W. Phys. 87 (1972). W.. 5. Activators and co-activators in calcium sulfide phosphors.. 88.M. Evans. J.Remark This contribution is from Weiyi Jia. CaS:Eu2+ Structure: Cubic Composition Ingredient CaS Eu2O3 S Mole % 100 1 By weight (g) 10 0. Store in a well-sealed container.Tm3+. Trapping processes in CaS:Eu2+. 2.. W. Jia.. Cathodoluminescence of CaS:Ce3+ and Cas:Eu2+ Phosphors. 118. Powderize. 3402 (2000). W... 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 References 1. 477 (1971). D. D. F. long red afterglow Emission peak: 655 nm Emission width (FWHM): 1660 cm-1 Spectra.. 1 hour.2 Preparation Mix by dry grinding or milling. Lumin. Unpublished data. Jia. et al. Fire in 95% N2 + 5% H2.

Instr. Weber. Break the ampoule open and grind the compound. The compound should be a uniform light green color. Bourret-Courchesne. A 486. 111 (2003).. E. Derenzo. Nucl. Derenzo. Anneal in the sealed quartz ampoule at 900ºC for 10 hours. Seal the quartz ampoule under vacuum.1 % about 2 (not critical) By weight 145 g 0. M. Meth. PbI2. CdS:In. The quest for the ideal scintillator. If it is not uniform it can be treated a third time at 900ºC for 10 hours in a vacuum-sealed ampoule. ZnO:Ga and CdS:In.. Ultrafast Composition Ingredient CdS In2O3 NH4Cl pure sulfur Mole % 100 % 0.J. HgI2. Anneal in the sealed quartz ampoule at 900ºC for 10 hours. References 1. S. Temperature dependence of the fast. A 505.K. Meth. M.. Weber. near-band-edge scintillation from CuI. Break the ampoule open and grind the compound mixture to a fine powder using a mortar and pestle.95 mg Preparation Place the dry CdS and In powders in a quartz ampoule. about 1 10 torr..139 g 1g about 2 g . and Klintenberg. Nucl. 2. M. exponential Remarks 1. 214 (2002). Place the compound in a quartz ampoule. This contribution is from Edith Bourret-Courchesne. S.E. Seal the quartz ampoule under vacuum..K.. and Klintenberg. about 1 10 torr..J. Optical Properties Body color: Greenish-yellow Emission: Peak about 519 nm. Color: green Excitation by UV: By all UV and by visible blue light Decay time: <1 nsec. Mix vigorously using a Vortex mixer.CdS:In Structure: hexagonal (wurtzite) Composition Ingredient CdS In2O3 Mole % 99 % 1% By weight 1g 7. Instr. M.E.

1107 (1966). A 505. Boil till development of brown N2O3 vapor ceases (but not to dry). Edge emission of n-type conducting ZnO and CdS. Remove any parts (if present) that look different. M. Solid State Electron. Add both solutions to the CdS slurry. 5. Nucl. Derenzo. 2. Do not heat higher than about 250ºC except in pure hydrogen. Lehmann. A 486. Lehmann. M. Meth. This phosphor is in a frozen-in semistable state. and Klintenberg.. When cool. 2. Color: green Excitation by UV: By all UV and by visible blue light Excitation by e-beam: Energy— 1–1. The quest for the ideal scintillator. not more) slowly flowing H2S. Remove any suspicious parts and powderize the rest.K. Optical Properties Body color: Grayish-yellow Particles: About in the 5–10 µm size range Emission: Narrow band.. Derenzo. Fire in open quartz boats.Preparation Make a slurry of the CdS in alcohol. M. Patent 3 583 929 (issued June 1971).. ZnO:Ga and CdS:In.6 g CdCl2. 3. S. HgI2. PbI2. 1 hour...S. 900ºC.J. 1. M. 75% N2). Nucl. over night).. 4. Dissolve the NH4Cl in a little water..g. U. S. slowly flowing H2. repeat the last firing step at about 100ºC higher temperature). . one-quarter hour. Peak about 510 nm. The material should now be uniformly green luminescent (if it does not. inspect under UV lamp. 111 (2003)..J. and dry at room temperature or at moderate heat (e. Bourret-Courchesne. The NH4Cl in the above recipe can be replaced by about 3. Instr. Dissolve the In2O3 in a little HNO3.E. References 3.K. 6. Material should be uniformly deep red luminescent.2%. W.E. decay < 1 nsec Remarks 1.. E. The H2S in the above recipe can be diluted with N2 (about to 25% H2S. Weber. Meth. Cool while still in H2 (Important!) Inspect again under a UV lamp. Klintenberg. stir to uniformity. 600ºC... W. The above recipe was provided by W. 214 (2002). Fire in loosely capped quartz tubes (about half full. Weber. Lehmann during a visit to the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory in 1987. Instr. Then add the sulfur to the dry raw mix. 9. near-band-edge scintillation from CuI. Temperature dependence of the fast.

3. Meth.E. M. near-band-edge scintillation from CuI. Temperature dependence of the fast. and Klintenberg. Anneal in the sealed quartz ampoule at 900ºC for 10 hours. Optical properties of tellurium as an isoelectronic trap in cadmium sulfide. Phys. Seal the quartz ampoule under vacuum. Weber. 1573 (1968). S. Break the ampoule open and grind the compound. 214 (2002). Break the ampoule open and grind the compound mixture to a fine powder using a mortar and pestle. This contribution is from Edith Bourret-Courchesne. The compound should be a uniform yellow color.99 % 0....99%(CdS) By weight 1g 1g . Nucl. 4. Place the compound in a quartz ampoule. 39.01 % By weight 10 g 1.. Instr. V.D. A 505. and Klintenberg. Cuthbert. D. about 5 10-5 torr.Te Mole % 1% (In) 99%(CdS) 0. about 5 10-5 torr. Instr. HgI2.K. Detection of CdS(Te) and ZnSe(Te) scintillation light with silicon photodiodes. M. References 1. P.01% (CdTe) 99. Anneal in the sealed quartz ampoule at 900ºC for 10 hours. IEEE Trans. Optical Properties Body color: yellow Emission: Peak about ~640 nm. 39. M. A 486.. PbI2. ZnO:Ga and CdS:In. Bourret-Courchesne. Derenzo. Appl. Color: red Excitation by UV: By all UV and by visible blue light Decay time: 270 nsec. Mix vigorously using a Vortex mixer. The quest for the ideal scintillator. Schotanus. Weber. 546 (1992). and Ryzhikov. J. Structure: hexagonal (wurtzite) Composition Ingredient CdS:In* CdS:CdTe* *see previous pages CdS:In. Meth. Nucl.D.. nonexponential Remarks 1..CdS:Te Structure: hexagonal (wurtzite) Composition Ingredient CdS CdTe Mole % 99. Sci. 111 (2003).G. 2.K. Derenzo. Nucl. E. P. M. S....J. J. and Thomas.J.. Seal the quartz ampoule under vacuum. Dorenbos.66mg Preparation Place the dry CdS and CdTe powders in a quartz ampoule.E.

050 2. Optical Properties Body color: dark yellow Emission: Peak about 618 nm. Nucl. Temperature dependence of the fast. Meth. This contribution is from Edith Bourret-Courchesne. Weber.K.J. A ZnS slurry is made with water or an alcohol.. near-band-edge scintillation from CuI.Cl Composition Ingredient ZnS AgNO3 NH4Cl S Mole % 100 0. 214 (2002). M. 8. References 7. Weber.03 5 — By weight (g) 98 0. .5 2–3 g Preparation AgNO3 and NH4Cl are dissolved separately in water. Meth. instead of Cl.Preparation Place the dry CdS:In and CdS:CdTe powders in a quartz ampoule. Anneal in the sealed quartz ampoule at 900ºC for 10 hours. and Klintenberg. The compound should be a uniform dark yellow color. A 505... It can also be co-doped with Al. The quest for the ideal scintillator. PbI2. about 5 10-5 torr. S. Wurtzite is obtained by heating above about 1020°C and fast cooling. M. The material can be washed with water to remove any flux residue. Derenzo. Bourret-Courchesne.J.. The mixture is dried in air and powdered. two modifications can be made (cubic sphalerite and hexagonal wurtzite) with slightly difference spectra. M. Derenzo.... Seal the quartz ampoule under vacuum. E. ZnO:Ga and CdS:In. Then sulfur is added. Color: red. Remarks 2. During stirring.5 nsec. Remark This contribution is from Cees Ronda. first the AgNO3 solution is added. A 486. Excitation by UV: By all UV and by visible blue light.E. Instr. followed by adding the NH4Cl solution. This material is used as blue primary in cathode-ray tubes. M. and Klintenberg.K. S. ZnS:Ag.E. Heating takes place at bout 1100°C in a CO atmosphere. Instr. Decay time:3. 111 (2003). exponential. Nucl. HgI2. Mix vigorously using a Vortex mixer. In addition. Break the ampoule open and grind the compound mixture to a fine powder using a mortar and pestle.

3 — By weight (g) 98 0.00 0. This material is used as green primary in cathode-ray tubes. Pre-sinter at 800°C in N2 for 2 hours. Then sulfur is added. Heating takes place at about 1100°C in a CO atmosphere. Optical Properties Emission color: Red Emission peak: 650 nm Excitation efficiency by UV: Excited by 280–380 nm and blue green 450–540 nm . Afterwards methanol or water is added to make a uniform slurry which is stirred. to obtain more green emission. Powderize and grind.ZnS:Cu.Al Composition Ingredient ZnS Cu(C2H3O2)2H2O AlCl3 S Mole % 100 0.06 0. Remark This contribution is from Cees Ronda. It can also be co-doped with Au and Cu. ZnS:Te. The mixture is dried in air and powdered.03 0.632 0. Sinter at 1200°C in N2 gas flow for 3 hours.4 2–3 g Preparation Copper acetate and aluminum chloride are dissolved in water and added to ZnS.Mn Structure: Hexagonal (wurtzite) Composition Ingredient ZnS ZnTe MnO S Mole % 94 3 3 10 By weight (g) 10. The material can be washed with water to remove any flux residue.08 Preparation Mix and grind.232 1.

and Pron. This contribution comes from Dongdong Jia. R.. This compound exhibits strong tribo-luminescence.Spectra 800 700 600 500 400 Wavelength (nm) 300 100 Excitation (%) Emission 50 2 3 Remarks 1. .—USSR.I. G. 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 Reference 1. 67 (1967).. 2. Opt. 23. Effect of tellurium on luminescence properties of zinc sulfide luminors. Spectrosc.F. Smirnova.

5 49.23K0.5 1 By weight (g) 231.46Er0.88 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: + Decay to 1/e: 10-5sec Spectra 800 700 600 500 Wavelength (nm) 400 300 100 Excitation (%) Emission 50 2 3 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 .42Eu0. ++ (4.29K0.40 eV).5 Preparation Mix ingredients. Fire in air.42Eu0.23K0. Powderize.7. several hours.12TiSi5O13·xH2O:Eu3+ Na1. 1100°C. and then wash with 3% HCl (to remove the excess CaO).08TiSi4O11:Eu3+ Na2Mg3Al2Si2O10F2:Tb Structure: Tetragonal Composition Ingredient CaCO3 WO3 PbO CaWO4:Pb2+ Mole % 48.12TiSi4O11:Eu3+ Na1. Optical Properties Emission color: Blue Emission peak: 435 nm Excitation efficiency by UV: (3.7 100 4.7 Other Compounds The following host compounds and activators are included in this subsection: CaWO4:Pb2+ GaN:Zn Gd2O2S:Pr3+ Gd2O2S:Tb Na(Mg2-xMnx)LiSi4O10F2:Mn Na1.

and Hoekstra. Ed. Dry in air. Wash with de-ionized water. GaN:Zn Structure: Hexagonal (wurtzite) Composition Ingredient ZnS Ga2S3 Mole % — — By weight (g) — — Preparation Mix by slurrying in water or methanol. 4.. 16.Remarks 1. Rep. Shionoya.. A. New York.. Add solution of Mn2+ and vaporize water by warming.B. standard phosphors. 3. W.S. Efficiencies of phosphors for short-wave ultra-violet excitation. Properties of the fluorescence of some N. Powderize. Philips Res. CRC Press.. New York. and Yen.. A.. Re-fire in H2+N2 atmosphere. NH3. 1100 C..M. References 1.. S. 3. NBS1026 is used for lamps. Bril. in Phosphor Handbook.. W. T.. 296–306 (1964). W. in Phosphor Handbook. S. This contribution is from Masaaki Tamatani. 1 hour. 19. 2 hours. M. Phosphors for plasma display. 422–423 (1998).5 eV) Luminance by cr: 650 cd/m2 at 50 V DC . 1100 C. 629–630 (1998).. H. 356–370 (1961). and Yen. Optical Properties Emission color: Blue Emission peak: 460 nm Emission width (FWHM): 100 nm Absorption edge: 354 nm (3. Kamiya. Powderize. 2. Ed. Excess Ca in the material blend gives favorable results. 2. and Hoekstra. pp. Powderize when dry. CRTs. S. Bril. Philips Res. and Mizuno. Phosphors for lamps. Shionoya. Kojima. W. Fire in quartz tubes. pp. Rep. CRC Press.

40 eV).2 some some 10 By weight (g) 100 0.92 Preparation Combine Gd2O3 and Pr6O11 powders with some nitric acid to form a precipitate. 2.. Dec. Take the oxide. 1100°C. GaN:Zn for VFDs. Co-doping with a small amount of Ce reduces the afterglow. 4–6 (2002)... Takahashi.. 2.. et al. Proceedings of the 9th International Display Workshops. Luminescence Properties of a Blue Phosphor. Y. 1000°C. Y. Tamaki. and Kameshima. ++ (4. M.88 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: + Decay to 1/e: 3 × 10-6s . 1. Structure: Hexagonal Composition Ingredient Gd2O3 Pr6O11 HNO3 S2 Na2CO3 Gd2O2S:Pr3+ Mole % 100 0. Rinse well in water. H. and combine with sulfur and NaCO3. Fire in air. Sato.56 some 3 2.Spectra 800 700 600 500 400 Wavelength (nm) 300 100 Excitation (%) Emission 50 2 3 Remark This contribution is from Yoshitaka Sato. H. Sato. 4 Photon Energy (eV) 5 0 References 1. Fire in air. Optical Properties Emission color: Green Emission peak: 510 nm Excitation efficiency by UV: (3. Proceeding of IDW'02 (2002).

mixture should be powdered in mortar. 2713 (1989). Suzuki. After drying. A. Y.. Electrochem. Soc. Matsuda. and Tamatani. 879 (1998). Abstr. No. 136. Subsequently. Yamada. 2. References 1..F for X-ray computed tomography..Remarks 1. K. Yoshida. the reaction product has to be washed a few times with water to remove residual flux. Hitachi is able to lower the sintering temperature during HIP by adding a sintering aid using a powder having large particle size. 3.. and Ostertag..Ce. Soc. 2.. Electrochem. mix the rare-earth mixture with Na2CO3 and S by dry mixing. Electrochem.. Three groups have proposed different processes for fabricating the oxysulfide ceramics. and Yamamoto. This contribution is from Masaaki Tamatani. hot-isostatic-pressing process using a phosphor powder prepared by the conventional method for CRT phosphors. J. Yokota. N. H. 1870RNP (1987). Properties and application of gadolinium oxysulfide based ceramic scintillators. No.. Uchida. Abstr. H. at a temperature of about 1100°C for a few hours. Honolulu. M. Praseodimium-doped gadolinium oxysulfide ceramics prepared by the hot isostatic pressing process.. M. Boston.4 11.. Rossner. Toshiba proposed a high-temperature. Siemens proposed to apply a uni-axial hot pressing process instead of HIP.. Fall Meeting. Fall Meeting. A scintillator Gd2O2S:Pr.3 53 96 Preparation Mix the rare-earth oxides by slurrying in water or methanol and dry in air. Soc. using powders with very small particle size. M. W. . Gd2O2S:Tb Composition Ingredient Gd2O3 Tb4O7 Na2CO3 S Mole % 94 (Y) 6 (Tb) 100 300 By weight (g) 170. After cooling. Firing should occur in air in a vessel with a well-closing lid.

Spectra
800 700 600 500

400

Wavelength (nm)

300

100

Emission

50

2

3

Remarks 1. This contribution is from Cees Ronda. 2. This material is used in X-ray intensifying screens and in oscilloscope CRTs.

4 Photon Energy (eV)

5

0

Na(Mg2-xMnx)LiSi4O10F2:Mn
Structure: Lamellar intercalation Composition Ingredient Mole % By weight (g) Na2CO3 2.50 1.82 MgO 28.80 7.96 Li2CO3 7.50 3.80 5.00 6.45 Na2SiF6 SiO2 55.00 22.66 1.20 0.946 MnCO3 Preparation Mix stoichiometric amounts in a paint shaker for 30 minutes with about 20 mol% of excess potassium carbonate to compensate for losses due to volatilization. Fire in covered alumina crucibles, air, 915 C, 36 hours. Grind. Fire in covered alumina crucibles, 4% H2 /N2, 850 C. Cool to room temperature. Powderize. Screen through a 325-mesh stainless steel sieve. Optical Properties Emission color: Redish-pink Emission peak: 695 nm Excitation efficiency by UV: + (3.40 eV), + (4.88 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: Characteristic emission at about 1.4 fL level under focused 15 kV/8 A excitation

Spectra
800 700 600 500

400

Wavelength (nm)

300

100

Emission

50

2

3

Remarks 1. This contribution is from Madis Raukas. 2. This phosphor in formulation of Na(Mg2-xMnx)LiSi4O10F2 is an example of a broad family of intercalation ingredient that, besides micas and fluoromicas, includes vermiculites and zeolites. 3. Described composition yields a concentration of 0.08 mol Mn per mole of phosphor. 4. Good electroluminescent properties when intercalated with conductive polymers or metals. References 1. Qi, R.Y., Karam, R.E., Reddy, V.B., and Cox, J.R., U.S. Pat., 5 567 351 (1996). 2. Qi, R.Y., and Karam, R.E., U.S. Pat., 5 658 495 (1997). 3. Reddy, V.B., Karam, R.E., and Northrop, S.K., U.S. Pat., 5 489 398 (1996). 4. Qi, R.Y., and Karam, R.E., U.S. Pat., 5 531 926 (1996). 5. Reddy, V.B., and Karam, R.E., Northrop, S.K., and Zhang, Y., U.S. Pat., 5 531 928 (1996).

4 Photon Energy (eV)

5

0

Na1.23K0.42Eu0.12TiSi5O13·xH2O:Eu3+
Structure: Tetragonal Composition Ingredient Mole % Sodium silicate solution 30.7 (of Si) (8% Na2O; 27% SiO2; 65% H2O) 5.6 (of Ti) TiO2 (anatase) NaCl 58.1 (of Na) KCl 5.6 (of K) Eu(NO3)3·5H2O 0.12 (of Eu) By weight (g) 20.0 1.30 6.90 1.30 0.15

Preparation 1. To prepare ETS-10: Mix 20 g of water to the sodium silicate solution and add the NaCl and KCl. Stir and add anatase. Autoclave the gel under autogeneous pressure for 24 hours at 230°C. The resulting powder is filtered and washed with distilled water at room temperature and then allowed to dry at 110°C.

2.

To prepare Eu3+-doped ETS-10: Dissolve 0.07 g of Eu(NO3)3·5H2O in 250 ml of water and add 3.94 g of the already prepared ETS-10. The solution is stirred for 24 hours at 60°C. The precipitate is filtered and dried in air at 110°C. *The next two materials also use this as their basic recipe.

Optical Properties Emission color: Red Emission peak: 2.00 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0.044 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: The maximum excitation efficiency at 394 nm (7F0 5L6) and 465 nm (7F0 5D2) Decay to 10% (or 1/e, as given): To 1/e 3.63 ± 0.04 and 1.11 ± 0.02 msec Spectra
800 700 600 500 400
Wavelength (nm)

300

100
Excitation (%)

Emission

50

2

3

4 Photon Energy (eV)

5

0

Remarks 1. This contribution is from Luis Carlos. 2. ETS-10 is also known as microporous sodium potassium titanosilicate. 3. ETS-10 is doped through an ion exchange between Na+ and K+ with Eu3+. Reference 1. Rainho, J.P., Carlos, L.D., and Rocha, J., New phosphors based on Eu3+-doped microporous titanosilicates, J. Lumin., 87, 1083 (2000).

Na1.23K0.42Eu0.12TiSi4O11:Eu3+
Structure: Tetragonal Composition Ingredient Sodium silicate solution (8% Na2O; 27% SiO2; 65% H2O) TiO2 (anatase) NaCl KCl Eu(NO3)3·5H2O Mole % 30.7 (of Si) 5.6 (of Ti) 58.1 (of Na) 5.6 (of K) 0.12 (of Eu) By weight (g) 20.0 1.30 6.90 1.30 0.15

Preparation 1. ETS-10 and ETS-10 doped with Eu3+ are prepared as in the case of the microporous titanosilicate compound described on the previous page. 2. To obtain Eu3+ doped narsarsukite: Eu3+-doped ETS-10 is calcined in air from room temperature to 800°C at a heating rate of 5°C per minute. The material is maintained at 800°C for 3 hours. Cool in air.

Optical Properties Emission color: Red Emission peak: 2.03 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0.003 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: The maximum excitation efficiency at 394 nm (7F0 5L6) and 465 nm (7F0 5D2) Decay to 10%: To 1/e 3.63 ± 0.04 and 1.11 ± 0.02 msec Spectra
800 700 600 500
Wavelength (nm)

400

300

100
Excitation (%)

Emission

50

2

3

Remarks 1. This contribution is from Luis Carlos. 2. This material is known as synthetic narsarsukite doped with Eu3+. 3. The end product is contaminated with quartz and cristobalite impurities. References 1. Rainho, J.P., Carlos, L.D., and Rocha, J., New phosphors based on Eu3+-doped microporous titanosilicates, J. Lumin., 87, 1083 (2000). 2. Rainho, J.P. et al., Synthesis and luminescence of Eu3+-doped narsarsukite prepared by the sol-gel process, J. Sol-Gel Sci. Tecnol., 26, 1005 (2003).

4 Photon Energy (eV)

5

0

Na1.29K0.46Er0.08TiSi4O11:Eu3+
Structure: Tetragonal Composition Ingredient Mole % sodium silicate solution 30.7 (of Si) (8% Na2O; 27% SiO2; 65% H2O) TiO2 (anatase) 5.6 (of Ti) By weight (g) 20.0 1.30

NaCl KCl Eu(NO3)3·5H2O

58.1 (of Na) 5.6 (of K) 0.12 (of Eu)

6.90 1.30 0.15

Preparation 1. ETS-10 is prepared as in the case of the microporous titanosilicate compound described in the previous pages. 2. To prepare Eu3+-doped ETS-10: Dissolve 0.07 g of Eu(NO3)3·5H2O in 250 ml of water and add 3.94 g of the already prepared ETS-10. The suspension is stirred for 24 hours at 60°C. The precipitate is filtered and dried in air at 110°C. 3. To obtain Er3+ doped narsarsukite: Eu3+ doped ETS-10 is calcined in air from room temperature to 800°C at a heating rate of 5°C per minute. The material is maintained at 800°C for 3 hours. Optical Properties Emission color: IR Emission peak: 0.80 eV Emission width (FWHM): 0.014 eV Excitation efficiency by UV: Maximum excitation efficiency at 520 nm (4I15/2 2H11/2) and 488 nm (4I15/2 4F7/2) Decay to 10%: To 1/e 7.8 ± 0.2 msec Spectra
1700 1650 1600 1550 1500
Wavelength (nm)

1450

700

600

500

400

100
Excitation (%)

Emission

50

0.75

0.80

Remarks 1. 2. 3. 4.

0.85 2.0 Photon Energy (eV)

2.5

3.0

3.5

0

This contribution is from Luis Carlos. ETS-10 is doped through an ion exchange between Na+ and K+ with Eu3+. This material is known as synthetic narsarsukite. The end product is contaminated with quartz and cristobalite impurities.

References 1. Rocha, J. et al., New phosphors based on Eu3+-doped microporous titanosilicates, J. Mater. Chem., 10, 1371 (2000). 2. Rainho, J.P. et al., Er(III) environment in luminescent titanosilicates prepared from microporous precursors, J. Mater. Chem., 12, 1162 (2002).

Na2Mg3Al2Si2O10F2:Tb
Structure: Lamellar intercalation Composition Ingredient Na2CO3 MgO Al2O3 (NH4)2SiF6 SiO2 TbF3 Mole % 14.23 42.66 13.94 4.74 23.74 0.69 By weight (g) 12.26 13.98 11.56 6.87 11.60 1.21

Preparation Mix all the ingredients thoroughly for 20–30 minutes, preferably in a paint shaker or similar device. Fire in a covered alumina crucible, with graphite pellets added, 1100 C, 12–24 hours. Cool to ambient temperature, powderize, and wash in de-ionized water. Optical Properties Emission Color: Bluish-green Emission peaks: 380, 415, 440, and 540 nm Excitation efficiency by UV: + (3.40 eV), + (4.88 eV) Excitation efficiency by e-beam: About 1 fL level under focused 15 kV/8 A excitation Spectra
800 700 600 500
Wavelength (nm)

400

300

100

Emission

50

2

3

Remarks 1. This contribution is from Madis Raukas. 2. The described procedure yields a concentration of 0.04 mol% Tb. The formula of the compound is Na2(Mg3-xTbx)Al2Si2O10F2. 3. This phosphor is an example of a broad family of intercalation compounds that includes mica, fluoromica, vermiculite, and zeolite. 4. Phosphor has good electroluminescent properties if intercalated with polymers or metals.

4 Photon Energy (eV)

5

0

References 1. Cox, J.R., and Karam, R.E., U.S. Pat., 5 656 199 (1997). 2. Reddy, V.B., Karam, R.E., and Northrup, S.K., U.S. Pat., 5 489 398 (1996). 3. Oi, R.Y., and Karam, R.E., U.S. Pat., 5 531 926 (1996). 4. Karam, R.E., Reddy, V.B., Northrup, S.K., and Zhang, Y., U.S. Pat., 5 531 928 (1996). 5. Oi, R.Y., and Karam, R.E., and Cox, J.R., U.S. Pat., 5 567 351 (1996).

Section 8: Commercial Phosphors and Scintillators

Section 8 COMMERCIAL PHOSPHORS AND SCINTILLATORS
Commercial phosphors and scintillators are arranged in order of increasing wavelength in Table 1. The data were compiled for recent producers’ data sheets and literature. Note that these may not be the only phosphors and scintillators available commercially or the materials still may not be manufactured. Many phosphors are specified by P numbers assigned by the Electronics Industries Association of the United States; these have been used since 1945 and are included in Table 1. The World Phosphor Type Designation System (WPTDS), established in 1982, is a more detailed, unified phosphor system designation system. It usually consisting of two letters: the first letter indicating the criterion for the phosphor screen emission color, the second letter indicating differences from the criterion. These symbols, together with other numbers and symbols used in Japan and Europe, are included in an extensive tabulation by Inaho and Hase in chapter 6—Section 6 of the Phosphor Handbook. Table 1 Commercial phosphors and scintillators Wavelength of maximum Chemical emission (nm) formula 220, 310(1) 305 307 315 330–352 338 342–347 350 351 358–385 365 371 380 385 390 390 400 400 400, 525 410 BaF2(1,2) CeF3(2) MgSrAl10O17:Ce CsI(2) LaCl3:Ce3+(2) (CeMg)SrAl11O18:Ce (CeMg)BaAl11O18:Ce YAlO3:Ce3+(2) BaSi2O5:Pb LaBr3:Ce3+(2) LuAlO3:Ce3+(2) SrB4O7:Eu Lu2Si2O7:Ce3+(2) Ca2MgSi2O7:Ce3+ CsF(1,2) ZnO:Ga Y2SiO5:Ce3+ Zn2SiO4:Ti P46 (70%) + P47 (30%) Y2SiO5:Ce3+(2)

Designation or acronym

YAP, YALO

LuAP LPS P16

P47 P52 P48 YSO:Ce

As LuYAP MSL CWO P5 LSO LGSO GSO BAM BAM:Eu. 514 460 460 465 470/540 473 480 480 480 482 494 504 509 510 510 510 513 520 525 525 YTaO4:Nb Lu1-xYxAlO3:Ce3+(2) NaI:Tl(2) — CsI:Na+(2) CaWO4(2) CaWO4:W Lu2SiO5:Ce3+ Sr2P2O7:Eu (Lu.Ti)2P2O7:Ti ZnO:Zn Sr5(PO4)3F:Sb.Mn P11* P37 CWO BGO P15 UFC P24 P31 P39 .Table 1 Commerical phosphors and scintillators—continued Wavelength of maximum Chemical Designation emission (nm) formula or acronym 410 415 415 418–420 420 420 420 420 420 425–430 433 435 440 447 450 455–504 456.Mn Gd2O2S:Pr(3) Gd2O2S:Pr.Cl CdS:In Zn2SiO4:Mn.Gd)2SiO5:Ce3+ CaWO4:Pb CaF2:Eu2+(2) Gd2SiO5: Ce3+(2) Sr5Cl(PO4)3:Eu BaMgAl10O17:Eu ZnS:Cu BaMgAl10O17:Eu:Mn Sr2P2O7:Sn ZnS:Ag.Cl ZnS:Ag.F(3) ZnO:Zn Y2O2S:Pr3+ ZnS:Cu.Ce.Ni CdWO4(2) MgWO4 ZnWO4(2) Bi4Ge3O12(2) Sr6P5BO20:Eu Ca5(PO4)3F:Sb (Ba.

60O3(Eu.Pr)0.Mg)F2:Mn2+ KMgF3:Mn2+ (Y.Cu.Sb2O3 Y3Al5O12:Ce3+(2) ZnS:Pb.4S:Ag ZnS:Mn.Tb)MgAl11O19:Ce:Tb (La.Mg)3(PO4)2:Sn (Y. 696 600 605 610 610 610 610 610 611 619 626 626 627 Zn2SiO4:Mn2+ Zn2SiO4:Mn2+ Zn2SiO4:Mn.34Gd0.34Gd0.6Cd0.Gd)2O3:Eu3+(2.Cd)S:Cu Y3Al5O12:Ce3+(2) MgF2:Mn2+ (Zn. YOE P49*. 611 593.Cu KMgF3:Mn2+ (Zn.Pr)0.V)O4:Eu3+ (Zn.Pb Y1.06(3) Y1.60O3(Eu.Table 1 Commercial phosphors and scintillators—continued Wavelength of maximum Chemical Designation emission (nm) formula or acronym 525 526 528 530 540 543 544 544 544 544 546 546 550 550 559 560 560 560 584 585 590 590 593.Zn.Cd)S:Ag. YVE P54* .Cu ZnS:Ag.Gd)BO3:Eu3+ Y(P.Tb)PO4:Ce:Tb (Zn.Cl CsI:Tl(2) Zn0.3) CaSiO3:Mn2+.Cl Gd2O2S:Tb3+ La2O2S:Tb3+ Y2O2S:Tb3+ Y3Al5O12:Tb3+ (Ce.06 Y2O3:Eu3+ YVO4:Eu3+ (Sr. GOS P44 P45 P53 P28 YAG:Ce P33 P20 P26 P12 P19 P38 P21 P25 Hilight YGO P56. 619.Mg)3(PO4)2:Sn Y2O2S:Eu3+ (Sr.Ce.Mg)F2:Mn2+ MgF2:Mn2+ (Ca.Mg)3(PO4)2:Sn P1 ZSM P46 P34 P2 P43.

Sn)O6:Mn2+ Mg4(F)GeO6:Mn2+ Gd3Ga5O12:Cr.6S:Ag Zn3(PO4)2:Mn2+ MgSiO3:Mn2+ Mg4(F)(Ge.Table 1 Commercial phosphors and scintillators—continued Wavelength of maximum Chemical Designation emission (nm) formula or acronym 627 630 635 640 658 658 730 Gd2O2S:Eu3+ Zn0. (1) Core-valence luminescence (2) Single crystal scintillator (3) Transparent ceramic .Ce(2) P27 P13 GGG:Cr * These compositions are also sometimes designated as P22.4Cd0. P22 can be any of several compounds.

Appendices Historical Note on Phosphor Recipes Phosphor Materials Arranged in Order of Emission Wavelength Appendix III Willi Lehmann: A Brief Biography Appendix I Appendix II .

APPENDIX I Historical Note on Phosphor Recipes The word phosphorus derives from the Greek [fosforos]. used to describe the emission of diffuse light from causes other than combustion. this word was used more specifically to describe substances which became luminous following exposure to light excitation. combining (light) and (to carry). The element phosphorus (P) was discovered in such a search by Henning Brand (1669) while experimenting with concentrated urine. permission pending). for a time. The term phosphorescence was.1 Figure 1 Depiction of the discovery of phosphorus by Brand as perceived by Joseph Wright of Derby some years later (Copyright by Derby City Council Art Galleries. This phosphorescence property lent its name to the element (Figure 1). the assignation of this word was given to any substance that evinced the property of phosphorescence. Initially. distillation resulted in a white substance that gave out enough light to allow Brand to read in the dark. . These developments and observations had their origin in alchemical attempts to manufacture noble metals through use of the evasive Philosopher’s Stone. and meaning light carrying or luminous.

the second emperor of the Song Dynasty. used for the synthesis of sulfide phosphors occur naturally. He acquired at the same time a painting of a cow. Writings or paintings using this ink had the properties of vanishing in daylight and becoming visible in the dark. reference is made to a book published in the reign of Han Wu Di (140–88 B. Zhao. . Often they found that these shells contained a special liquid which when collected and mixed with paint formed a special type of ink. He explained that at low tide in the China Sea. it is apparent that phosphorescent materials have been around for some time. He was fond of collecting rare antiques and other curios.) which would indicate that manmade phosphors have been available for more than 2000 years. when viewed in the dark. none of them could explain the secret of the phenomena except for an officer in charge of religious matters named Zhan Nin. the famous envoy sent to the Western regions by Han Wu Di.D. is given in the caption.) Figure 2 Copy of the Chinese text describing the acquisition of a luminescent painting by Xu Zhi-e written for a compilation of historical and folk tales published in the Song dynasty (960–1279 A. He added that in the sea shores of the land of southern people (Japan) sometimes strong winds would grind these rocks with water to form a similar paint. All the court officials thought the Ning’s explanation was nonsense. Following the fall of the Tang Dynasty. M. was the yongest son of the governor of Xu Wen. Li Yu. The phosphors described were of the persistent type and were used in a painting which glowed in the dark and was considered to some to have inexplicable magic. of Run Zhou. the last emperor of the Southern Tang Dynasty. Xu presented the painting to his sovereign. Tai Zong showed this painting to all his Ministers.) by Wen Ying. The Chinese written text reads as follows (right to left): Xu Zhi-e. the picture showed the cow resting inside the barn. born South of the Yangtze River. like a pillar.D. Later. he spent five hundred thousand in cash to acquire the head of a phoenix complete with a shining and colorful skeleton. such as calcium from seashells and sulfur from volcanic activity. In the text. he claimed that he had obtained his information from a book. Some questions have been raised as to the accuracy of the compilations. it was five inches wide and the back of the head was flat. The methods for preparing the phosphors or the phosphors used in these paintings apparently were obtained from Japan where raw materials. who consulted some imperial collections. The page describing the phosphorescent painting is shown in Figure 2. a scholar named Du Gao. regardless. Xiang-shan Ye Lu. however.). from which this passage is taken. the painting when viewed in daylight showed the cow grazing outside an open pen.C. southern people (Japanese) frequented the beaches to harvest nacre.Historically. the painting eventually passed to Tai Zong. Hai Wai Yi Ji written by Zhang Qian. Tamatani.2 (A translation of the Chinese text. there is documented evidence that phosphors have been produced and put to use as early as 2000 years ago as is recorded in a Chinese text (Figure 2). found the reference in a work dating back to the Six Dynasties (220–586 A. On one occasion. courtesy of Dr. kindly provided by Professor Y. The head possessed a red crest and a golden beak which vividly resembled those of a real rooster.

.The denomination of phosphor (phosphori) first appeared in the seventeenth century in connection with the discovery of the Bolognian Stone (BaS) by Vincenzo Casciarolo in 1602. Harvey. Potier’s recipe is likely the first phosphor recipe on record. Calcination was thought to produce pores in the stone. for example. The best calcinations results when stones. If not cooked sufficiently the procedure is repeated as before.. this suggestion lead to controversy on the source of this radiation with no lesser a luminary than Galileo Galilei. he was the first to point out that phosphorescence only occurred after calcinations and he tried to explain the phenomena as due to the slow release of fire and/or light trapped in the material during exposure. In his book. As quoted by E. Galileo was right and the diffuse light observed in that lunar phase is due to sunlight reflected from Earth.5 The properties of the phosphorescent stone attracted attention throughout the Italian peninsula and the European continent and led to much speculation as to the origin of the emission. Of course. From this powder various animals are formed in little boxes (pyxidiculum) which shine wonderfully in the dark. After they have dried out they are put in layers with coal in a blast furnace and. News regarding the unusual properties of the lapide Bononiensi was carried to the British Isles by John Evelyn (1620– 1706) following a visit to Bologna in 1645. when properly treated it gave rise to a reddish glow which led to the scientific study of luminescent objects. There was considerable interest throughout Italy in these materials and attempts were made to use it as the Philosopher’s Stone (i.6 he reported that the recipe for the preparation of the stone had been lost by then and he apparently had not been aware of Potier’s pharmacological work.e. on the other hand. after a very hot fire has been made. The method for preparation of the Bolognian Stone was described in detail by Pierre Potier in Pharmacopea Spagirica in 1625. One popular belief advanced by Athanasius Kircher of Fulda (Hesse) was that the phosphorus attracted light much as a magnet attracted iron filings. shining. barite) is found near Monte Paderno as scattered stones.4 it reads: According to the light-bearing quality sought for. work it into cake either with water or the white of an egg. The first is to reduce the stone to very fine meal. The experiments leading to this conclusion are detailed in Ars Magna Lucis Et Umbra. they are calcinated for four or five hours. the stone was of interest to pharmacologists because it reputedly also possessed depilatory properties. that the faint light of a new moon was produced by lunar material similar to the Bolognian Stone.N. these pores then held air suffused with light whose gradual release led to the observed phosphorescence. though published in Latin. as the catalyst for the conversion of ignoble to noble metals). respectively. Cesare La Galla described the properties of the stone in De Phenomenis in Orbe Lunae published in 1612. Montalbani described the various colors of light that could be obtained from the stone as a function of preparation and first suggested an analogy between the phosphorescence and burning. in the place of thalerum (?). Licetus postulated. then to calcinate it in a crucible with very strong fire. published in 1646. related in some detail the history of the stone and various attempts by the learned community in Bologna to explain the origin of the emitted light. pure and diaphanous are used. both authors were professors at the famed University of Bologna. Licetus. it (BaSO4) is calcinated in two ways. Preliminary scientific investigations of the properties of this stone were discussed in De Illuminabili Lapide Bononiensi Epistola by Ovido Montalbani and in Litheosphorus Sive De Lapide Boboniensi by Fortinius Licetus in 1634 and 1640. Sometimes this is done three times. The second is to reduce it to a meal and. When the oven has cooled off the cakes are taken out.3 The base material (BaSO4.

In the course of his . These drawings appeared in Il Fosforo o vero la Pietra Bolognese. (right). The first one was due to Christian Adolph Balduin (1632–1682) who in 1675 prepared a phosphorescent form of calcium nitrate by mixing chalk and nitric acid and distilling the solution to dryness. The second material is known as Homberg’s phosphorus named after Wilhelm Homberg (1652–1715) who made notable contributions to the foundation of modern chemistry and who had an interest in the photochromic properties of silver nitrate. His phosphor was henceforth named Balduin’s phophorus. he believed that the solution formed in this way represented a spiritus mundi and it is likely that the paint used in the Chinese paintings mentioned above was a solution of this type. 3. The interest in light-emitting materials led to the invention and synthesis of three other phosphori of interest to the scientific and/or the alchemical communities of that period. An illustration by Marc’Antonio Cellio allegorizing the magical phosphorescent qualities of the Bolognia Stone produced in the course of calcinations. When calcium nitrate is overheated it develops a yellowish tint and emits a reddish phosphorescence in the dark following exposure to sunlight. Balduin called his material phosphorus hermeticus and disclosed his results in Aurum Superius et Inferius Aurae Superioris et Inferioris Hermeticum which appeared simultaneous in Amsterdam and in Frankfurt in 1675. Drawing of the furnace used by Casciarolo for calcinations of BaSO4 (barite) to produce his magical stone. published in 1680 by Cellio and are reproduced from Ref. Balduin communicated his results to the Royal Society of London in 1676 and as a consequence was elected to Fellowship of the Society. This compound is hygroscopic and turns to a liquid when exposed to atmosphere. this volume is in the University Library of Bologna. Note that the structure of this furnace is not much different than modern ovens used for similar purposes.Figure 3 (left). Because the material needed to be kept in a sealed vessel.

Nicola Zucchi (1586–1670). and then be set by to cool. and speculation. by which means it is now in every person’s power to amuse himself and his friends with these curious experiments. reported that the intensity of the phosphorescence emitted from the stone was proportional to the intensity of the excitation light and that the color of the light emitted was independent of the coloration of the excitation light. much as a sponge would absorb water and then release it as it is squeezed. rather than being attracted like a sponge or magnet to the stone. Homberg synthesized calcium chloride sometime in the 1690’s and showed it had phosphorescence properties. magnetism. for one hour at least. of course. others such as Giullio Cesare La Galla (1576–1624) of Rome speculated that the emissions were due to the slow release of fire and light trapped in the stone in the process of calcinations. In addition to Kircher’s conjecture as to the source of the light noted above. or breaking to pieces.3 The beginning of modern studies of phosphor synthesis can be attributed to a French chemist.8 His report is the earliest recipe of any phosphor written in English. These conclusions were reaffirmed in 1728 by Francesco Zanotti who also asserted that the light. where it must be kept red hot. Light and Colours.7 John Canton (1718–1772). emanated the radiation on its own. in 1751 for making artificial magnets and in 1765 for measuring the compressibility of water. He was awarded the Copley Medal of the Royal Society twice. he reported in Philosophical Transactions the discovery of a strong phosphorescent material which was promptly named Canton’s phosphorus (CaS). and let it be placed in the middle of the fire. and optics. by keeping them in a good coal fire for half an hour. the method described is not much different than some of those presented in Section 2 of this work. published in London in 1772. scrape off. His receipt for making it is as follows: “Calcinate some common oyster shells. Canton’s which makes an artificial phosphorus greatly superior to any single natural substance. let this mixture be rammed in a crucible. of about an inch and a half depth. the brightest pieces. Mix with three parts of this powder one part of flowers of sulphur.” We note. that clouds were electrified both positively and negatively and designed experimental methods that are (even now) used to determine the sign of charges via induction. Beginning with the discovery of the Bolognian Stone. He attributed this explanation to Galileo Galilei (1564–1642) himself.experimentations. Although Sidot’s original purpose was to study crystal growth. upon trial. In 1652. will be a white powder. Theodore Sidot. the phenomena of and the origin of the observed phosphorescence were sources of much interest. Joseph Priestly cites Canton in The History and Present State of Discoveries Relating to Vision. he found that his crystals phosphoresced in the dark. had a wide ranging set of scientific interests including electricity. which. if good phosphorus. He showed. for example. Priestly writes (pages 370–372):9 In the next place I shall present my reader with an account of this composition of Mr. When it is cold. though the language in the recipe is a bit arcane. however. and let the purest part of the calx be pulverized and sifted. and has the advantage of being easily and cheaply prepared. and may be preserved by keeping it in a dry phial with a ground stopple. persisted well into the nineteenth century. the synthesis methods and experimental results were reported to the French Academy by Edmond Becquerel in a note in 1866 and the material . and cutting. The idea of the Bolognian Stone attracting light and causing the phosphorescence either by reemitting the light or by reflecting it. who in 1866 was able to grow small ZnS crystals using sublimation. till it be almost full. In 1768. another Professor from Rome. turn it out of the crucible. fascination. a man born under modest circumstances.

A.16 Because of the advent of atomic and quantum physics and chemistry and the work of many researchers in this area of inquiry which preceded us.vanderkrogt. (<http://www. Weeks. The technical differences between fluorescence and phosphorescence were resolved following the introduction in 1888 of the word luminescence by Eilhardt Wiedemann in chemical processes. van der Krogt. In 1950. the word phosphor is used to describe principally solid luminescent inorganic materials.14 the word luminescence is used to describe most light emission processes following some form of excitation.. the emission from Sidot’s blende. for many years this work was accepted as the standard text in the phosphor art and material in the book remains useful even today. Lenard and his co-workers helped to establish phosphor research on a firm scientific footing at the turn of the nineteenth and the beginning of the twentieth century. M. hence they were named activator ions. He believed that in the latter case the luminescence observed in this gem was an intrinsic property of alumina and that Cr simply played a role as an activator. the terminology describing phosphorescent phenomena was revised. J. One of the principals there was Humboldt Leverenz who developed synthesized and investigated the properties of many the luminescent materials that are even now in use. pp. considerable work took place at the Radio Corporation of America (RCA).E. Philip E.. Discovery of the elements. References 1.12 Results of studies by V. It is our hope that the present volume serves to complement the information found in that handbook.13 In the late 1800’s. Educ. He was able to synthesize not only Sidot’s blende but also a series of alkaline earth chalcogenides (sulfides and selenides) and demonstrated that the light emission of the compounds could be altered by introducing metallic ions into the materials. This led to a long-lasting controversy with Lecoq de Boisbaudran who proved to be correct in proposing that the R-line fluorescence arose due to the presence of chromium. is due to trace amounts of copper.. . Phosphorescence and fluorescence are. we have now a much better understanding as to the mechanisms which produce luminescence in solids and we are almost to the point where we can begin thinking in terms of designing and tailoring materials to our specific technical needs. Klatt and Philip Leonard also showed that the phosphorescence properties of CaS and other phosphori depended on the presence of metal contaminants.html>). P. he published An Introduction to Luminescence in Solids in which he summarized much of his life’s work. The latter ions form diverse centers in the material and are said to activate the luminescence.15 Because of the necessity for better phosphors for the display industries in the late 1940’s and early 1950’s. 110–130 (1968).11 perhaps due to his involvement in the discovery of Sidot’s blende. Chem.10 About this time.was named Sidot’s blende.net/elements/chronology_index.. alkaline chalcogenide phosphors are called Lenard phosphors. respectively. Becquerel discusses at length the phosphorescence of various compounds including ruby (Al2O3:Cr3+). however. Elementymology & Elements Multidict: Phosphors (2003). The word phosphor began to be applied in a more limited sense (i. as of late. The Phosphor Handbook contains an updated discussion of modern synthesis methods as well as the description of phosphors suitable for a variety of technical purposes. for example. still in use to categorize longand short-lived luminescent emissions.e. Becquerel published his opus on light. Because of his extensive work on phosphors detailed in a Handbuch article. only to those materials which become self-luminous after exposure to light). La Lumiere-Ses Causes et Ses Effects (1867).

(2003) (<http://www. Compt. 14. Dairy of John Evelyn.2. The various antique volumes cited are in depository at the University Library of Bologna. The discovery of luminescence: the Bolognian Stone.M. Hist. Rend. 13. John (1718–1772).. Ann... P. Eds..E. 1107 (1886). Acad. and Tomaschek. American Philosophical Society. Pazzagli. 34. Ann.N. John Evelyn is a famed seventeenth century chronicler and diarist who traveled extensively in Europe in the early 1600’s. and Lenard. Leverenz. Phosphoreszenz und Fluoreszenz. 5. John. (1998)... FL. Philadelphia (1957). in Phosphor Handbook. R. Bull. Eds. F. 15. Vol. Canton.ac. and Yen.. AIM25: Royal Society: Canton. John Wiley & Sons. 8.. and Tamitani.. A. I am grateful to Dr. Shionoya. and subsequently the Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society in 1665. Dent & Sons. in Bioluminescence and Chemiluminescence: Perspectives for the 21stCentury. 63. W.E. Fils et Cie.. Roda... Complete Works... New York (1950). Whatever happened to Wilhem Homberg?. CRC Press.. William M.aim25. 21–24 (1989)..A.. (1867) de Boisbaudran. 6. 3. 10. E. E.. Roda. J.W. 9. John Wiley & Sons. Lenard... J. 46 (1888). Ph. Wiedemann. L. Chem. An Introduction to Luminescence of Solids. S. Yen . Phys.. Lecoq. 16. he is also known for his books on flora and gardening. Klatt.B. He was one of the principals in establishing the Royal Society. Guy Hill for contributing this citation.M. 188 (1866). Librairie de Firmin Didot Frerers. Acad. and Stanley. 7. Sci. p. Leipzig (1928). Becquerel. 90 (1889). London (1973).. A. New York (1998). Wied. S. 38. Nakajima. A History of Luminescence. Italy. Chapter 4. Sci. 898. in Handbuch der Experimentalphysik. H. Rend. Evelyn. 11. Boca Raton. M. 23. Chem. 4. Becquerel. Kricka. Jensen. Schmidt. E.. 3.. W. P.. History of phosphors technology. M.J. Compt. 12. Akademie Verlagsgesellschaft. E.. La Luminiere-Ses Causes et ses Effets. Paris. Harvey. Accounts of his visit to Bologna in 1644–1645 appear in the inaugural volumes of the transactions and are also found in editions of his dairies: for example. V. 103.uk/>).

and 8 are listed in order of increasing wavelength of the maximum emission. 319 302. 460 302. 337 320. 370 350 350 350. 345 325 330 330–352 333 334.Cr3+ SrB4O7:Eu MgSO4:Eu2+ Y2O3:Ce3+ in SiO2 BaSO4:Eu2+ SrSO4:Eu2+ 453 .Cl SrwFxB4O6. 575 351 352. 355 335 Chemical formula BaF2 CaSO4:Pb2+ BaMgAl10O17:Ce3+ YAlO3:Ce3+ MgSO4:Pb2+ Ca3Al2Si3O12:2%Ce3+ Ca2B5O9Cl:Pb2+ YAl3B4O12:Bi3+ LaOBr:Tm3+ BaSO4:Ce3+ SrSO4:Ce3+ -SrO·3B2O3:Pb2+ CeF3 MgSrAl10O17:Ce CaSO4:Ce3+ SrB4O7:Pb2+ CaO:Cd2+ CsI LuTaO4:Nb5+ CaSr2(PO4)2:Bi3+ -Ca3(PO4)2:Tl+ CaF2:Ce3+ Ca2P2O7:Ce3+ LaPO4:Ce3+ CaB2O4:Pb2+ YTaO4 LaCl3:Ce3+ CaO:Zn2+ YPO4:Ce3+ CaSiO3:Pb2+ Wavelength (nm) 337 338 342–347 347. 310 233 254 254 267 280. 344 320. 7. 355 288 295 300. 388 348 348.Cl SrO·3B2O3:Eu2+.Mn BaSi2O5:Pb -Ca3(PO4)2:Ce3+ LaBr3:Ce3+ MgBa(SO4)2:Eu2+ Ca5(PO4)3Cl:Sn2+ Ca3SiO4Cl2:Pb2+ -Ca3(PO4)2:Ce3+ CaO:Pb2+ KMgF3:Eu2+ CaSiO3:Ce3+ LuAlO3:Ce3+ CaS:Pb2+ CaS:Pb2+. 371 358–385 359 359. 370.5:Eu2+ SrB4O7:Eu2+(F. Wavelength (nm) 220. 636 360 360. 327 310 314 315 315 319 320 320.Cl. 319 303 305 307 309. 413 365 366 366 368 370 370 370 371 375 375 376 376 Chemical formula -Ca3(PO4)2:Pb2+ (CeMg)SrAl11O18:Ce (CeMg)BaAl11O18:Ce YAl3B4O12:Ce3+ LaOCl:Bi3+ LaSiO3Cl:Ce3+ BaSi2O5:Pb2+ YAlO3:Ce3+ -Ca2P2O7:Sn. 660 362 363 363. 400.Br) YAl3B4O12:Eu3+.APPENDIX II Phosphor Materials Arranged in Order of Emission Wavelength The phosphors and scintillators in Sections 4.

413 386 388 388 388 388. 660 413 413 413. 617 405.Ga3+ ZnO:Ga3+ CaSO4:Eu2+. 620 405–432 407 407 410 410 Chemical formula -Sr3(PO4)2:Sn2+ BaFCl:Eu2+ Lu2Si2O7:Ce3+ Na2Mg3Al2Si2O10:Tb3+ BaFBr:Eu2+ BaFCl:Eu2+. 643 418 418–420 420 420 420 420 420 420 422 423 423 423 425 425 425–430 429 430 432 continued Chemical formula MgBaP2O7:Eu2+ YTaO4:Nb5+ BaMg3F8:Eu2+.Mn2+ MgBaP2O7:Eu2+. 525 403 405 405 405.Wavelength (nm) 378 380 380 380.Mn2+ CaCl2:Eu2+ in SiO2 MSL CaWO4 CaWO4:W CsI:Na+ Lu2SiO5:Ce3+ Sr2P2O7:Eu2+ SrF2:Eu2+ –Sr3(PO4)2:Eu2+ CaF2:Eu2+ CaSiO3:Eu2+ CaSiO3:Ti4+ -Sr3(PO4)2:Eu2+ Sr2B5O9Cl:Eu2+ (Lu.Gd)2SiO5:Ce3+ Ba2Li2Si2O7:Sn2+ GdNbO4:Bi3+ CaWO4 .I)2:Eu2+ CaAl4O7:Ce3+ CaAl2O4:Ce3+ Ba3(PO4)2:Eu2+ Ca3Al2Si3O12:Ce3+ Wavelength (nm) 410 410 410. 610 411 411 412 412. 512 390 390 390 391 391 394 395 400 400 400 400.Mn2+ YOCl:Ce3+ Zn2SiO4:Ti4+ –Ca3(PO4)2:Eu2+ –Ca3(PO4)2:Eu2+.Mn2+ Sr(Cl. 440 385. 440. Pb2+ Ca2MgSi2O7:Ce3+ LaOBr:Tb3+ YBO3:Ce3+ Mg2Sr(SO4)3:Eu2+ CaSO4:Eu2+ ZnO:Al3+.Mn2+ CsF MgSrP2O7:Eu2+ ZnO:Ga Ca2MgSi2O7 CaO:Bi3+ BaF2:Eu2+ KAl11O17:Tl+ BaB8O13:Eu2+ BaMg2Si2O7:Eu2+ Zn2SiO4:Ti P46 (70%) + P47 (30%) CaB2P2O9:Eu2+ Mg2Ca(SO4)3:Eu2+ SrCl2:Eu2+ in SiO2 Mg2Ca(SO4)3:Eu2+. 415.Br. 540 385 385 385 385. 410.Mn2+ Ca5(PO4)3F:Sn2+ CaYBO4:Bi3+ Y2O3:Bi3+ YOF:Tb3+ Ba2Mg3F10:Eu2+ Ca3Al2Si3O12:Eu2+ Lu1–xYxAlO3:Ce3+ NaI:Tl Y2SiO5:Ce3+ YPO4:V5+ Ca2P2O7:Eu2+ Ca2P2O7:Eu2+. 528 414–626 415 415 415 415 415 415 416 416.

Cl ZnS:Cu Ca5(PO4)3Cl:Eu2+ ZnS–CdS:Cu.Na CaO:Cu+ BaMgAl10O17:Eu2+ CaS:Bi3+ Mg3Ca3(PO4)4:Eu2+ Sr5(PO4)3F:Sn2+ Ca2B5O9Br:Eu2+ Ca2B5O9Cl:Eu2+ BaGa2S4:Ce3+ SrGa2S4:Ce3+ ZnS-CdS:Ag+. 486 440 440 440 440 443 443 443 444. 390 450 450 450 451 453 453 454.Cl– ZnS:Cu+.Th4+ YF3:Mn2+ YPO4:Mn2+.Mn2+ Sr3MgSi2O8:Eu2+ ZnS:Cl– ZnGa2O4 Wavelength (nm) 460 460 463.75 Y2O2S:Eu3+ -Ca3(PO4)2:Eu2+ BaGa2S4:Eu2+ Sr5Si4O10Cl6:Eu2+ ThO2:Pr3+ SrIn2O4:Pr3+. 570 485 485 486 488 490. 532 465 465 467 467 470 470/540 473 475 477 477.Cl– (ErCl3)0.Cl– Ba5SiO4Cl6:Eu2+ Sr5(PO4)3Cl:Eu2+ Sr5(PO4)3Cl:Eu CaMgSi2O6:Eu2+ CaS:Bi3+. 514 459 459 460 Chemical formula CaBr2:Eu2+ in SiO2 CaWO4:Pb CaF2:Eu2+ Ca5(VO4)3Cl CaWO4:Pb2+ Ba5(PO4)3Cl:Eu2+ CaS:Cu+.25(BaCl2)0.Al3+ (Ba.Wavelength (nm) 433 433 435 435 435 437 438. 656 493 494 495 496 continued Chemical formula Sr2P2O7:Sn2+ ZnS:Ag.Yb3+ CaS:La3+ ZnS:Pb2+. 521 479 480 480 480 480 480.Ni CaI2:Eu2+ in SiO2 Sr2MgSi2O7:Eu2+ SrMgSi2O6:Eu CdWO4 MgWO4 BaAl2S4:Eu2+ YF3:Mn2+.Mn2+ ZnS:Au.Na+ BaSrMgSi2O7:Eu2+ Gd2SiO5: Ce3+ MgBa3Si2O8:Eu2+ MgSrBa2Si2O7:Eu2+ CaAl2O4:Eu2+ CaS:Y3+ ZnS:Ag+. 490 454.I BaMgAl10O17:Eu2+. 680 490–630 492 492 492 492. 490 454—800 455–504 456 456 456.Th4+ Ca3MgSi2O8:Eu2+ Bi4Ge3O12 Sr6P5BO20:Eu ZnWO4 YVO4:Dy3+ Bi4Ge3O12 YF3:Tm3+.In Sr2P2O7:Sn2+ ZnS:Ag.Ti)2P2O7:Ti BaTiP2O7 Ca5(PO4)3F:Sb3+ . 500.Cl CaGa2S4:Ce3+ La2O3:Bi3+ SrB4O7:Pb2+. 512 464 464 464. 530 445 446 447 448 448 448.

564 504 504 504 504 505 506 508 508 508 509.Ce3+.F Sr5(PO4)3F:Sb3+ Ba2MgSi2O7:Eu2+ SrxBayClzAl2O4–z/2:Mn2+.Mn2+ Wavelength (nm) 521 521 521.Cu ZnS-CdS(75–25) Ca2MgSi2O7:Eu2+ LaSiO3Cl:Ce3+.Pb2+.Ce.Mn2+ Ca3SiO4Cl2:Eu2+ Ca3WO6:U ZnAl2O4:Mn2+ ZnS:Cu.5Ba0.Na Ba2Li2Si2O7:Sn2+. 608 528.Mn2+ CaF2:Mn2+ MgWO4 SrAl2S4:Eu2+ CaS:Pr3+.Wavelength (nm) 496 496 496 496 496. 575 510 510 510 510 512 512 513 514 514 514 514 514 514 517 519 519 520 520 Chemical formula CaF2:Ce3+.Ce3+ Y2O2S:Pr3+ -SrO·3B2O3:Pb2+.Br CaSO4:Ce3+.P (Zn+Be)2SiO4:Mn2+ CaF2:U CaB2O4:Mn2+ CaMoO4 Y3Al5O12:Ce3+ SrS:Cu+.As5+ ZnS–CdS:Cu.Mn2+ Ca0.Br Zn2SiO4:Mn2+. 528 522 522 523 525 525 525 525 525 527 528 528 528 528.Sn CaLaB3O7:Ce3+. 649 529 530 530 530 532 534 535 537 537 537 537 539 539 539 539 540 540 540 542 542 continued Chemical formula Ca5(PO4)3Cl:Sb3+ ZnS:Cu+.Mn2+ Zn2GeO4:Mn2+ CaO:Sb3+ CaP2O6:Mn2+ CaS:Sn2+ CaS:Sn2+.5Al12O19:Ce3+.Cl KGa11O17:Mn2+ BaAl2O4:Eu2+ ZnGa2O4:Mn2+ SrS:Ce3+ BaSi2O5:Eu2+ Ca2Ba3(PO4)3Cl:Eu2+ MgGa2O4:Mn2+ ZnO:Zn SrGa12O19:Mn2+ ZnO:S -Ca3(PO4)2:Sn2+ Ba2Li2Si2O7:Eu2+ Ba2SiO4:Eu2+ Sr5(PO4)3F:Sb3+.Mn2+ CdS:In SrAl12O19:Ce3+.As5+ Zn2SiO4:Mn2+ ZnS–CdS:Cu. 670 498 502 502 502.Al3+ CaS:Ce3+ LiAl5O8:Mn2+ LiAlO2:Mn2+ SrAl2O4:Eu2+ CdS:In MgAl2O4:Mn2+ SrBaSiO4:Eu2+ Zn2SiO4:Mn2+.Mn2+ Ca2B2O5:Mn2+ Sr5(PO4)3Cl:Sb3+ SrGa2S4:Eu2+ YAl3B4O12:Th4+.Tb3+ .Mn2+ Sr5(PO4)3F:Sb3+ Gd2O2S:Pr3+ Gd2O2S:Pr.Mn2+ MgBa2(PO4)2:Sn2+ SrAl12O19:Eu2+.F MgBa2(PO4)2:U ZnS:Pb.Mn2+ Zn2SiO4:Mn2+.

Mn2+ .Yb3+ ZnS:Eu2+ Ba5(PO4)3Cl:U Sr3WO6:U ZnS:Eu2+ Sr2SiO4:Eu2+ CaS:Sm3+ CaGa2S4:Eu2+ MgF2:Mn2+ CsI:Tl Zn0.Tb3+ ZnB2O4:Mn2+ Y2O3:Tb3+ Ca2MgSi2O7:Eu2+.Tb)MgAl11O19:Ce:Tb (La.Cl (Y. 636 551 551 551 556 556–608 559 559 560 560 562 563 564 564–644 566 566–620 571 571 573 574 574 575 577–630 577–670 577–695 579 579 580 582 582 584 585 585 585 585.Br.Cu KMgF3:Mn2+ MgCaP2O7:Mn2+ ZnF2:Mn2+ CaMgSi2O6:Eu2+. 689 542–549 542–549 542–549 543 543 543 543 543 543 543 544 544 544 544 544 544 544 544 544–549 545 545 546 546 546 546 546 546 546 550 550 550 550 550 Chemical formula YAl3B4O12:Ce3+.Tb)PO4:Ce:Tb CaF2:Ce3+.Cl– Y3Al5O12:Eu3+ ZnS:Mn2+ ZnS-CdS:Ag.4S:Ag Y2O3:Er3+ Ba3WO6:U CaAl4O7:Pb2+.Cl La2O3:Pb2+ (Zn.Tb3+ (Ce.Mn2+ YPO4:Ce3+.Cu.Mn2+ Sr5(PO4)3Cl:Mn2+ Mg3SiO3F4:Ti4+ YOBr:Eu3+ LiInO2:Sm3+ LaAsO4:Eu3+ ZnS:P ZnS:P3–.Wavelength (nm) 542 542 542. 670 551.Na CaS:Tb3+.Ni ZnS:Mn.Tb3+ CaS:Sb3+ CaS:Sb3+.Ce.Mn2+ LaAlO3:Sm3+ SrSO4:Eu2+.Mn2+ Sr5(PO4)3F:Mn2+ Ca5(PO4)3F:Mn2+ Li2CaP2O7:Ce3+.Mn2+ CaS:Tb3+ Gd2O2S:Tb3+ Y2O2S:Tb3+ CaAl2O4:Tb3+ MgCeAl11O19:Tb3+ ThO2:Tb3+ Y2O3:Ce3+.Mn2+ CaO:Sm3+ CaSiO3:Pb2+.Yb3+ Y3Al5O12:Ce3+ Wavelength (nm) 550.Yb3+ BaY2F8:Er3+. 689 continued Chemical formula YF3:Er3+. 665 550.Tb3+ Y2O3:Tb3+ in SiO2 YAlO3:Tb3+ ZnS:Ag.6Cd0.Cd)S:Cu CsI:Tl+ Na3Ce(PO4)2:Tb3+ NaYF4:Er3+. 550 542.Gd)BO3:Tb3+ Ca2La2BO6.5:Pb2+ CaAl2O4:Mn2+ La2O2S:Tb3+ SrS:Mn2+ Y2O2S:Tb3+ Y2O3:Ho3+ Y3Al5O12:Tb3+ CaO:Tb3+ YAl3B4O12:Ce3+.

617.Mn2+ in SiO2 YVO4:Eu3+ (Y. 619 696 593.V)O4:Eu3+ K2La2Ti3O10:Eu3+ YPO4:Eu3+ KMgF3:Mn2+ CaO:Mn2+ ZnS–CdS (50–50) YAlO3:Sm3+ LaAlO3:Eu3+ LiInO2:Eu3+ Wavelength (nm) 608 608 608 608 609 610 610 610 610 611 611 611 611 611 611 611 612 612 612 612 612 614 614 614 614 614 614 614–699 615 615 615 615 615 615 615–695 617 617 continued Chemical formula CaS:Pb2+. 695 586–699 588 588 588. 629 593. 702 595.Li+.Gd)BO3:Eu3+ Y(P.8O3. 696 594. 710 596 599 600 602 605 605 Chemical formula LaAlB2O6:Eu3+ LaPO4:Eu3+ LaVO4:Eu3+ CaS:Mn2+ MgS:Eu2+ MgB2O4:Mn2+ CaO:Tl+ YOF:Eu3+ (Zn. 660 588.Mn2+ SrGa2S4:Pb2+ SrSO4:Bi YBO3:Eu3+ CaYBO4:Eu3+ (Y.Wavelength (nm) 586 586.Na+ KMgF3:Mn2+ MgF2:Mn2+ Sr5(PO4)3Cl:Eu2+.Zn.Mg)3(PO4)2:Sn CaSiO3:Mn2+. 591.34Gd0. 683.60O3(Eu. 629 593 593.Pb Y1. 619. 827 589–627 590 590 590 590 590 590 590 590 590 592. 620.06 Ca5B2SiO10:Eu3+ CaGa2S4:Pb2+ CaLaBO4:Eu3+ CaYB0.7:Eu3+ Na1.Pr)0.Mn2+(Al) LiLaO2:Eu3+ Ba2SiO4:Ce3+. 611.Pr3+ Y4Al2O9:Eu3+ ThO2:Eu3+ CaCl2:Eu2+. 608.12TiSi4O11:Eu3+ SrY2O3:Eu3+ Y2O3:Eu3+ CaTiO3:Eu3+ CaTiO3:Pr3+ NaYO2:Eu3+ SrAl4O7:Eu3+ Y2O3:Eu3+ in SiO2 CaMoO4:Eu3+ CaSO4:Bi LaBO3:Eu3+ LaOCl:Eu3+ YAl3B4O12:Eu3+ -Sr3(PO4)2:Sn2+.23K0.Mn2+ CaO:Eu3+ SrTiO3:Pr3+ YAsO4:Eu3+ LiCeBa4Si4O14:Mn2+ LiCeSrBa3Si4O14:Mn2+ YAlO3:Eu3+ CaGeO3:Mn2+ CaY2ZrO6:Eu3+ .Mg)F2:Mn2+ Ca5(PO4)3Cl:Mn2+ CaGa2O4:Mn2+ CaGa4O7:Mn2+ CaO:Eu3+.42Eu0.Gd)2O3:Eu3+ (Ca.

Cl– 640.Ag 660 Mg2SiO4:Mn2+ 623 ZnS:Pb.Cl 649 CaS:Eu2+ ·xH2O:Eu3+ 620 SrS:Eu2+ 646 ZnS-ZnTe:Mn2+ 98-2 650 ZnS:Te. 707.Te La2W3O12:Eu3+ 646 -Ca3(PO4)2:Sn2+ LaAl3B4O12:Eu3+ 646 ZnGa2S4:Mn2+ MgYBO4:Eu3+ 646 ZnS:Mn2+.Mn 620 YOCl:Eu3+ 2+ 658 Mg2TiO4:Mn4+ 620 ZnMg2(PO4)2:Mn 621 CaYAlO4:Eu3+ 658 Mg4(F)(Ge.Sm2+ 685 SrB8O13:Sm2+ 626 ZnS:Pb2+ 627 Gd2O2S:Eu3+ 688.Mn2+ in SiO2 742 LiAlO2:Fe3+ 639 Zn3(PO4)2:Mn2+ 747 CaS:Yb2+ 640 CdS:Te 747 CaS:Yb2+.Sr)3(PO4)2:Sn .Mg)3(PO4)2:Mn2+ 2+ 635 Zn3(PO4)2:Mn 730 Gd3Ga5O12:Cr3+ 636 CaI2:Eu2+.Al3+ 642 BaS:Au.Ce 633 (Zn.K 645 ZnO:Bi3+ CdS:In.Li+ 660 ZnS–CdS (25–75) 2+ 661 SrMoO4:U 625 Cd2B6O11:Mn 3+ 625 La2O3:Eu 680 -SrO·3B2O3:Sm2+ 626 (Sr.Cl 640 MgSiO3:Mn2+ 760 CaTi0.Wavelength (nm) 617 618 620 620 620 620 Chemical formula Wavelength (nm) continued Chemical formula SrTiO3:Pr3+.08TiSi4O11:Eu3+ 641 ZnBa2S3:Mn2+ __________________________________________________________________________ .Mg)3(PO4)2:Sn 681 LiAl5O8:Fe3+ 681 MgSr3Si2O8:Eu2+.12TiSi5O13 646 ZnSe:Cu+. 2+ 2+ 629 -(Ca.9Al0.42Eu0.29K0.46Er0.Cu 660 Mg8Ge2O11F2:Mn4+ 623 ZnS:Sn2+.23K0.Mn 725 Y3Al5O12:Cr3+ 629 Be2SiO4:Mn2+ 689 ZnS:Sn 4+ 630 K2SiF6:Mn 695 Na(Mg2–xMnX)LiSi4O10F2:Mn 713 CaGa2S4:Mn2+ 630 Zn0.Mn2+ 626 LaOF:Eu3+ 626 ZnO:Se 684–732 SrwFxByOz:Eu2+. 667 Y3Al5O12:Mn4+ 1540 Na1.4Cd0.1O3:Bi3+ 640 MgSr5(PO4)4:Sn2+ 800 CdS:Ag+.Te2+ Na1.6S:Ag 730 Gd3Ga5O12:Cr.Sn)O6:Mn2+ 623 LiAlF4:Mn2+ 658 Mg4(F)GeO6:Mn2+ 623 ZnS:Sn.

. Breslau (Wroclaw). his circumstances in the camp improved so much so that in the summer of 1946 he made his first of five escape attempts.” He consequently volunteered to become a photographer for the air force when an opportunity arose. Kiev. Smolensk. a camp librarian and as a farmer’s aid during his captivity in Belgium. he found himself moving from place to place with his unit…in Cherkov (Ukraine). On his first two escape attempts. world events intruded into his pastoral life and set him on a long odyssey. he was promoted to sergeant (Feldwebel) in December 1944 and immediately assigned to an active combat unit defending the home front. one of the glider club precursors to the Luftwaffe. 461 . Willi was offered a post as photographer at the rocket facilities in Peenemunde which he declined. Willi had a brief flirtation with the SA but did not become a member. He attempted again to get home in June of 1947 was caught again and confined to solitary for a period. Later he moved on to become a truck mechanic in the motor pool which moved to Le Havre in December 1945.hot. He was captured by American forces on February 28. near Berlin. Willi possessed a keen intellectual sense and a deep natural curiosity. He submitted a report on his work to the Air Ministry (Reichluftfahrtministerium). Willi was assigned to a long range reconnaissance unit on the Eastern front at Luga near Leningrad. Participation in the club activities naturally led to his gravitating to the air force when his time came for military service in 1936.” With the encouragement of a library clerk. With the war situation in flux through 1943. For example. Unavoidably. Willi demonstrated some of his intrinsic versatility for in short order he become the camp’s typewriter repairman. He finished elementary school in 1928 and attended a trade school for gardeners until 1931 as preparation for taking responsibilities in the family’s plant nursery business. in 1934 he joined the Deutscher Luftsport Verband. which would eventually bring him into the international phosphor community. In September of 1947. On his third attempt. Willi was born born in 1914 in Dinslaken am Niederrhein. He completed a photography course in Tutow and in 1939–1940 was promoted to corporal (Unteroffizier) as the head of a small photo group at the Luftkreigsschule in Werden. In the Fall of 1941. he began reading mathematics books and establishing a technical background which he drew on for the rest of his life. His boot camp was in East Prussia and he did not take well to the training which was according to him “. “Work in father’s nursery was pretty dull.. Willi managed to construct a workable bicycle out of parts from discarded bikes and was able to ride all the way to Germany and a joyful family reunion in Dinslaken. dirty and plain stupid. He worked variously as a miner. he was able to cross into Belgium but was captured and interned by the Belgians. Hans. in the form of brief autobiography Willi wrote for his family in 1990.APPENDIX III Willi Lehmann: A Brief Biography Information about Willi’s early life in Germany has been kindly supplied by one of his sons. After a short interlude as an engineering student. From his teens and in his own words. prisoner. Hitler assumed power in Germany in 1933 and of course affected the course of history dramatically and disastrously. France. instead. he became interested and did some calculations and some nascent experiments in rocket propulsion. while engaged in the glider Verband. and I started to dream about one day becoming an engineer or scientist. 1945 and interned in Le Mans.S. While a U. With each change of position. he was recaptured in France by the French and interned first in Sedan and then near the Belgian border. and Minsk. though the report went no further.

Yen Athens. Willi and Claus Haake obtained their Diplom. applied for admission to the Technical University of Braunschweig in October 1947. He thought briefly about starting his own phosphor business but rejected the idea on grounds of his lack of acumen in business matters. During the waiting period.rer. just in time to return to the war. Lehmann returned to Pittsburgh and currently resides there. He was granted the degree of Doctor of Natural Sciences (Dr. He acted as a consultant with Rogers Corp. Willi along with a wartime friend. degree) in 1952. Physiker’s (equivalent to American M. Paul. and Mary) were all born in the United States. accompanied Willi to the States and their four children (Caren. of course. It was here that he was first encountered physics as a discipline and it immediately piqued his interest. Professor Krautz also succeeded in getting Willi a scholarship which covered all his school expenses and relieved the financial burden on the Lehmann family now headed by an older brother. In the early 1980’s. Willi’s father having passed on in 1942. In view of the dearth of jobs for physicists in postwar Germany. accepted. Willi was given the choice of areas to investigate. Lehmann. Georgia Henry F. Indeed. Phys.S. This proved to be a problem since he did not possess the proper credentials (arbitur) to matriculate in a university level program having attended a trade rather than a traditional Gymnasium. Willi passed away on January 12. Through a special dispensation. Mrs. Both were offered positions. Ivey Coconut Grove.Nat) shortly thereafter. he was allowed to attend the Techschule in Duisberg. New Jersey.In the middle of his posting to the Eastern Front. His contributions in this field and his other activities at Bloomfield and later at Westinghouse R&D in Pittsburgh are detailed in the Foreword. In order to bypass the arbitur requirements. Willlie was granted an extended leave so that he could attend an engineering school in Germany. Florida . Willi’s work on electroluminescence had attracted sufficient interest that he was approached by the University at Braunschweig to explore the possibilities of submitting his work in partial fulfillment of requirements for a doctorate degree. As their initiation as students. It is interesting to note that by 1956. and with Lawrence Livermore Laboratories in the late 1980’s. Willi retired in 1982 at the age of 68 and took up residence in North Carolina. and arrived in the States on October 1953 following an extended wait for immigration documents. Instruction commenced at the University in march 1948. wooed and wed Renate Bauer. Willi met. The new Mrs. his thesis entitled “The Electroluminescence of Zinc Sulfide Phosphors as an Equilibrium Process” was submitted in late 1957 and accepted. Willi attempted and passed a Begrabtemprufung (examination for the gifted) in the summer of 1944. 1993 from brain cancer. William M. he developed an interest in diffraction and the limits that it imposed on resolution and was also attracted by the furor surrounding the announcement of cold fusion. On arrival at Westinghouse.) in 1950. Hans. Also as noted in the Foreword. He chose to study electroluminescence and electroluminescent phosphors. they had to help in the reconstruction of university buildings and other facilities destroyed during the hostilities. Following his return to Germany. George. Claus Haake. Professor Krautz directed them to apply for positions in the lamp division of Westinghouse Electric then located in Bloomfield. The children and several grandchildren appear to be prospering. Willi recalled that his first instructor was Erich Krautz who not only taught the Applied Physics course but also nurtured him through to his candidacy in physics (Cand.

Materials Index .

BaSO4:Ce3+. Ba2SiO4:Ce3+.Mn2+ in SiO2. BaTiP2O7.Yb3+.5Ba0. CaGa2O4:Mn2+. Ca2B5O9Br:Eu2+. Ca2B5O9Cl:Eu2+.Mn2+. BaSrMgSi2O7:Eu2+. CaI2:Eu2+ in SiO2. BaAl2S4:Eu2+. CaAl4O7:Ce3+. BaSO4:Eu2+.5:Pb2+.Ti)2P2O7:Ti. CaGeO3:Mn2+. Ba2Li2Si2O7:Sn2+. BaFCl:Eu2+. Ba5(PO4)3Cl:Eu2+. BaY2F8:Er3+. CaF2:Ce3+. BaFCl:Eu2+. Ca2MgSi2O7. Ba5(PO4)3Cl:U.5Al12O19:Ce3+. Ba3WO6:U. Ca5B2SiO10:Eu3+. CaGa2S4:Pb2+. C CaAl2O4:Mn2+. (Ba. CaMgSi2O6:Eu2+.Mn2+. Ca3MgSi2O8:Eu2+. BaB8O13:Eu2+. CaGa2S4:Mn2+.Mn2+.K. CaCl2:Eu2+.Mn2+. Ca2La2BO6.Mn2+. Ca2MgSi2O7:Ce3+. Ba2Li2Si2O7:Sn2+. BaSi2O5:Eu2+. CaB2O4:Pb2+. CaAl2O4:Tb3+. CaF2:Eu2+. BaGa2S4:Ce3+.Tb3+. Ca2MgSi2O7:Eu2+. Ca0.Mn2+. BaGa2S4:Eu2+. CaLaB3O7:Ce3+.Mn2+. CaGa2S4:Eu2+. Be2SiO4:Mn2+. CaB2O4:Mn2+. CaAl2O4:Eu2+. CaLaBO4:Eu3+. CaGa2S4:Ce3+. CaF2:Ce3+. BaMgAl10O17:Eu2+. BaMgAl10O17:Ce3+. CaAl4O7:Pb2+. Ba2SiO4:Eu2+.Pb2+. Ca2MgSi2O7:Eu2+. CaMoO4. CaGa4O7:Mn2+. . Ba2MgSi2O7:Eu2+. CaF2:Mn2+. CaB2P2O9:Eu2+. Ba2Li2Si2O7:Eu2+.Mn2+. Ca3Al2Si3O12:2%Ce3+. Ca3Al2Si3O12:Eu2+. CaF2:Ce3+. CaMgSi2O6:Eu2+. CaBr2:Eu2+ in SiO2. BaMg2Si2O7:Eu2+. CaCl2:Eu2+ in SiO2. BaS:Au. BaFBr:Eu2+. CaI2:Eu2+. BaF2. BaSi2O5:Pb2+. Ba5SiO4Cl6:Eu2+. Ca2Ba3(PO4)3Cl:Eu2+. BaxSr1-xF2:Eu2+.Mn2+. BaMgAl10O17:Eu2+. Ba2Mg3F10:Eu2+. Ca2B5O9Cl:Pb2+. B CaAl2O4:Ce3+.Mn2+ in SiO2. Ca2B2O5:Mn2+. Ca3Al2Si3O12:Ce3+. Ba3(PO4)2:Eu2+. CaF2:U.MATERIALS INDEX BaAl2O4:Eu2+. Bi4Ge3O12. BaMg3F8:Eu2+.

-Ca3(PO4)2:Sn2+. Ca5(PO4)3Cl:Sn2+. CaWO4. CaO:Pb2+. Ca5(PO4)3Cl:Mn2+. CaS:Yb2+.Mn2+. CaSO4:Ce3+. Ca2P2O7:Eu2+. CaS:Cu+. CaS:Pb2+. Ca3SiO4Cl2:Pb2+. CaO:Zn2+.Sr)3(PO4)2:Sn2+. (CeMg)SrAl11O18:Ce.Na+. CaSiO3:Eu2+. CaS:Eu2+. CaY2ZrO6:Eu3+. -Ca3(PO4)2:Tl+. -Ca3(PO4)2:Ce3+. CaO:Tl+.Zn. CaTiO3:Pr3+.Mn2+.Cl. Ca5(PO4)3Cl:Sb3+. Ca5(PO4)3F:Mn2+. CaS:Sb3+. Ca2P2O7:Ce3+. CaO:Tb3+. CaS:Pb2+. CaO:Cu+. CaSO4:Ce3+. CaS:Pb2+.Cl–. Ca5(VO4)3Cl.1O3:Bi3+. CeF3. CaS:Bi3+. Ca5(PO4)3F:Sn2+. CaWO4:W. CaS:Sb3+. Ca3SiO4Cl2:Eu2+. (Ce. Ca2P2O7:Eu2+.8O3. (CeMg)BaAl11O18:Ce. -(Ca.Cl. CdS:Ag+.Na. CaTiO3:Eu3+. -Ca2P2O7:Sn.Mn. -Ca3(PO4)2:Eu2+.Mn2+.Mg)3(PO4)2:Sn. CaO:Mn2+. Ca5(PO4)3Cl:Eu2+. (Ca.Pb. CaS:Sn2+.Pb2+. CaS:Ce3+. CaSiO3:Mn2+. CaO:Eu3+. CaO:Sm3+. CaSiO3:Ti4+. CaSO4:Eu2+.9Al0.Mn2+. CaSiO3:Ce3+. CaYB0. . CaSO4:Bi. CaO:Cd2+. CaYBO4:Bi3+. -Ca3(PO4)2:Pb2+.Mn2+. Cd2B6O11:Mn2+. Ca3WO6:U. CaS:Bi3+. CaYAlO4:Eu3+.7:Eu3+.Mn2+. CaSO4:Pb2+. CaO:Bi3+. CaS:Tb3+. CaS:Y3+. CaS:Pr3+.Cl.CaMoO4:Eu3+. -Ca3(PO4)2:Eu2+. -Ca3(PO4)2:Eu2+. CaS:Tb3+. CaSO4:Eu2+.F.Na. CaSiO3:Pb2+.Te. CaS:Sm3+.Mn2+.Na+. CaSiO3:Pb2+.Tb)MgAl11O19:Ce:Tb. CaS:Yb2+.Cl. CaS:Mn2+. CaO:Eu3+. CdS:In. -Ca3(PO4)2:Ce3+. CaYBO4:Eu3+. CaP2O6:Mn2+. CdS:In. CaTi0. CaSr2(PO4)2:Bi3+. CaWO4:Pb2+. Ultrafast. CaS:Sn2+. CdS:In. Ca5(PO4)3F:Sb3+. CaO:Sb3+. CaS:La3+. -Ca3(PO4)2:Sn2+.

LiAl5O8:Mn2+. LaOCl:Bi3+. G KAl11O17:Tl+.Tb3+. Mg2Ca(SO4)3:Eu2+. LuAlO3:Ce3+. MgF2:Mn2+. LaOF:Eu3+. Gd2SiO5:Ce3+. KMgF3:Eu2+. LaAl3B4O12:Eu3+. MgBa2(PO4)2:U. MgCeAl11O19:Tb3+. LiCeSrBa3Si4O14:Mn2+.Ce. (Lu. Mg4(F)GeO6:Mn2+. CdWO4. K2SiF6:Mn4+. MgCaP2O7:Mn2+. LaAsO4:Eu3+. LiInO2:Sm3+. LaVO4:Eu3+.Mn2+.Gd)2SiO5:Ce3+. LaOBr:Tb3+. LiCeBa4Si4O14:Mn2+. CsF. La2O2S:Tb3+. LiAlF4:Mn2+. MgS:Eu2+. LaOCl:Eu3+. LaSiO3Cl:Ce3+. LiLaO2:Eu3+. L MgAl2O4:Mn2+. LaPO4:Ce3+. LiAlO2:Mn2+.75. Mg2Ca(SO4)3:Eu2+.Ce. LaCl3:Ce3+. LaPO4:Eu3+. Gd2O2S:Eu3+. Mg8Ge2O11F2:Mn4+. Mg4(F)(Ge. (La. Gd3Ga5O12:Cr3+. MgBa2(PO4)2:Sn2+. MgBa(SO4)2:Eu2+. LuTaO4:Nb5+. Mg3Ca3(PO4)4:Eu2+. LiAl5O8:Fe3+. MgBa3Si2O8:Eu2+. KMgF3:Mn2+. MgBaP2O7:Eu2+. CsI:Tl. Lu2SiO5:Ce3+.Sn)O6:Mn2+. LaBO3:Eu3+. La2W3O12:Eu3+. LiAlO2:Fe3+.CdS:Te. LiInO2:Eu3+. MgB2O4:Mn2+. Gd2O2S:Pr. La2O3:Eu3+. (ErCl3)0.F. Gd2O2S:Tb3+. CsI CsI:Na+. GdNbO4:Bi3+. KGa11O17:Mn2+. LaAlO3:Sm3+. K La2O3:Pb2+. E GaN:Zn.Ce.25(BaCl2)0. MgSrAl10O17:Ce. LaBr3:Ce3+. Lu2Si2O7:Ce3+. Gd3Ga5O12:Cr. LaSiO3Cl:Ce3+. Gd2O2S:Pr3+. K2La2Ti3O10:Eu. LaAlB2O6:Eu3+.Mn2+. LaOBr:Tm3+.Mn2+. MgBaP2O7:Eu2+. Lu1-xYxAlO3:Ce3+.Tb)PO4:Ce:Tb. La2O3:Bi3+. M . Li2CaP2O7:Ce3+. LaAlO3:Eu3+. MgGa2O4:Mn2+.

Yb3+. Sr(Cl.Br.42Eu0. SrS:Cu+. SrAl2S4:Eu2+.Mn2+(Al). MgSr5(PO4)4:Sn2+.Mn2+. SrO·3B2O3:Eu2+. MgSr3Si2O8:Eu2+. SrY2O3:Eu3+. SrTiO3:Pr3+. MSL. –SrO·3B2O3:Sm2+. Sr2P2O7:Sn2+. SrwFxByOz:Eu2+. MgWO4. SrwFxB4O6.Mn2+. Na1. ThO2:Tb3+.Mg)3(PO4)2:Sn. Na1. Mg3SiO3F4:Ti4+. SrBaSiO4:Eu2+. Sr2P2O7:Eu2+. SrGa2S4:Ce3+. MgSO4:Pb2+. Mg2Sr(SO4)3:Eu2+. SrB4O7:Pb2+.12TiSi5O13·xH2O:Eu3+.Ce3+. SrB4O7:Eu2+(F. Sr5(PO4)3Cl:Eu2+.Mn2+.08TiSi4O11:Eu3+. Sr2B5O9Cl:Eu2+.5:Eu2+. S SrF2:Eu2+. SrB8O13:Sm2+.46Er0.I)2:Eu2+ in SiO2. SrS:Eu2+. SrMoO4:U. SrAl12O19:Eu2+.29K0. –Sr3(PO4)2:Sn2+. SrB4O7:Pb2+. (Sr.42Eu0.Mn2+. SrAl2O4:Eu2+.Sm2+. SrxBayClzAl2O4–z/2:Mn2+. SrS:Ce3+. SrSO4:Eu2+.12TiSi4O11:Eu3+. Sr6P5BO20:Eu. Sr5Cl(PO4)3:Eu. ThO2:Pr3+. SrIn2O4:Pr3+. Sr3MgSi2O8:Eu2+. Na3Ce(PO4)2:Tb3+. NaYF4:Er3+. Na(Mg2–xMnx)LiSi4O10F2:Mn. SrMgSi2O6:Eu2+. MgSrBa2Si2O7:Eu2+. SrCl2:Eu2+ in SiO2. Sr2MgSi2O7:Eu2+. Sr5Si4O10Cl6:Eu2+. SrGa2S4:Eu2+. T . NaYO2:Eu3+. Sr5(PO4)3Cl:Sb3+. Mg2SiO4:Mn2+. Na1.Al3+.Mn2+. SrTiO3:Pr3+. SrGa12O19:Mn2+.Mn2+. Sr5(PO4)3F:Mn2+. MgYBO4:Eu3+. Sr3WO6:U. ThO2:Eu3+. Sr2SiO4:Eu2+. SrGa2S4:Pb2+.Pr3+. SrSO4:Bi.Cl. SrS:Mn2+.Na.Cl.23K0. Sr5(PO4)3Cl:Eu2+. –SrO·3B2O3:Pb2+. -Sr3(PO4)2:Sn2+.Mn2+. –SrO·3B2O3:Pb2+. Mg2TiO4:Mn4+. MgSrP2O7:Eu2+. –Sr3(PO4)2:Eu2+.Br). Sr5(PO4)3F:Sb3+. SrSO4:Eu2+. SrSO4:Ce3+. SrAl12O19:Ce3+. NaI:Tl.23K0.Al3+. Na2Mg3Al2Si2O10:Tb. SrAl4O7:Eu3+. N P P46 (70%) + P47 (30%).MgSiO3:Mn2+. MgSO4:Eu2+. Sr5(PO4)3F:Sb3+. Sr5(PO4)3F:Sn2+. Sr5(PO4)3Cl:Mn2+.

YTaO4. (Zn. ZnO-CdO:Ga.Yb3+. YBO3:Eu3+. ZnO:S.Ga3+.Gd)BO3:Tb.4S:Ag. Zn0.I. (Zn. Z .Ce3+.34Gd0.4Cd0. ZnB2O4:Mn2+. ZnS-CdS:Ag+. ZnO:Zn. YAl3B4O12:Th4+. ZnAl2O4:Mn2+. ZnS:Ag.Mg)F2:Mn2+.Th4+. Y3Al5O12:Ce3+.Th4+. Zn0.Cr3+.Ni. YAlO3:Ce3+.Tb3+. Y2O3:Tb3+.Mn2+.Ni. ZnS:Ag. YAl3B4O12:Ce3+. Y4Al2O9:Eu3+. YAl3B4O12:Ce3+.Tb3+. ZnBa2S3:Mn2+.Cl–. Y2O3:Ce. YAlO3:Sm3+. Y3Al5O12:Eu3+. Y(P.Cd)S:Ag. Y1. YAl3B4O12:Eu3+. Y2O3:Ho3+. YPO4:Mn2+. ZnGa2S4:Mn2+. YVO4:Dy3+. YAl3B4O12:Ce3+. ZnMg2(PO4)2:Mn2+.Br long life. ZnF2:Mn2+. YAsO4:Eu3+.06.In. Y2O2S:Pr3+. Y2O3:Eu3+ (YOE). YOCl:Ce3+. ZnS-CdS:Cu.Cd)S:Cu. ZnGa2O4:Mn2+. YF3:Er3+. (Y. Ultrafast. YTaO4:Nb5+. Ultrafast. Y2O3:Bi3+.Mn2+. YOF:Eu3+.Pr)0. YF3:Mn2+. YF3:Tm3+. YOCl:Eu3+. YF3:Mn2+.Yb3+. YPO4:Ce3+. YBO3:Ce3+.Cl.Mg)3(PO4)2:Mn2+.Cl. ZnGa2O4.Gd)2O3:Eu3+. Y2O3:Er3+. (Y. ZnS-CdS (50-50).6S:Ag. YOBr:Eu3+. Y3Al5O12:Tb3+. ZnS-CdS:Ag. Y3Al5O12:Cr3+. Y2SiO5:Ce3+. ZnS-CdS:Cu. YAl3B4O12:Eu3+. Y2O2S:Eu3+. ZnO:Ga. YOF:Tb3+. (Y. ZnO:Bi3+.YAl3B4O12:Bi3+. ZnO:Se.Gd)BO3:Eu.Cl. Y3Al5O12:Mn4+. ZnS:Au.6Cd0. ZnO:Ga3+.60O3(Eu.Br. YVO4:Eu3+. YAlO3:Eu3+.Tb3+. YAlO3:Tb3+. ZnO:Al3+. YPO4:V5+. ZnS-CdS (25-75). Y YPO4:Eu3+. YPO4:Ce3+. ZnS-CdS (75-25).V)O4:Eu. Zn2GeO4:Mn2+. Y2O3:Ce3+. ZnS:Ag+. (Zn+Be)2SiO4:Mn2+. (Zn.Br high brightness. Y2O2S:Tb3+. (Zn. ZnS-CdS:Cu.Cu.

ZnS:Cu. ZnS:Cu. .Cu.ZnS:Cl–.Mn. Zn2SiO4:Mn2+. ZnS:Te. ZnS:Cu+. ZnS:Sn2+. ZnWO4.Cl. ZnS:Mn2+. ZnS:Sn.Al3+.Cl–.Cl–.Cu.Sb2O3. ZnS:Pb2+. ZnS-ZnTe:Mn2+ ZnSe:Cu+. ZnS:Pb2+.Sn.As5+. Zn2SiO4:Mn2+.Cl–. Zn2SiO4:Mn2+. ZnS:P. ZnS:Eu2+.P. Zn2SiO4:Ti4+. ZnS:Eu2+.Li+. ZnS:Cu+. ZnS:Mn. ZnS:Pb.Te2+. Zn2SiO4:Mn. ZnS:P3–. ZnS:Mn2+. ZnS:Sn2+. Zn3(PO4)2:Mn2+.Ag.

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