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List of members who prepared support material for Class-XI (Economics)

TEAM MEMBERS

S.No. 1.

Name Mrs. Neelam Vinayak (Team Leader)

School Vice-Principal G.G.S.S. Deputy Ganj, Delhi-110006 P.G.T. (Eco.) R.P.V.V. BT-Block Shalimar Bagh, New Delhi P.G.T. (Eco.) G.B.S.S.S. No.1, Ghonda Delhi P.G.T. (Eco.) R.P.V.V., Nand Nagri Delhi-110093 P.G.T. (Eco.) R.P.V.V., Surajmal Vihar Delhi P.G.T. (Eco.) G.B.S.S.S. No.1, Adarsh Nagar, Delhi

2.

Sh. S.P.S. Rathi

3.

Sh. Sanjeev Kumar

4.

Sh. Ram Kishan Chauhan

5.

Sh. Bharat Chand Thakur

6.

Sh. Kunwar Rovins

Economics (Hindi) XI

ECONOMICS (Code No. 30)


Rationale Economics is one of the social sciences, which has great influence on every human being. As economic life and the economy go through changes, the need to ground education in children's own experience becomes essential. While doing so, it is imperative to provide them opportunities to acquire analytical skills to observe and understand the economic realities. At senior secondary stage, the learners are in a position to understand abstract ideas, exercise the power of thinking and to develop their own perception. It is at this stage, the learners are exposed to the rigour of the discipline of economics in a systematic way. The economics courses are introduced in such a way that in the initial stage, the learners are introduced to the economic realities that the nation is facing today along with some basic statistical tools to understand these broader economic realities. In the later stage, the learners are introduced to economics as a theory of abstraction. The economics courses also contain many projects and activities. These will provide opportunities for the learners to explore various economic issues both from their day-to-day life and also from issues, which are broader and invisible in nature. The academic skills mat they learn in these courses would help to develop the projects and activities. The syllabus is also expected to provide opportunities to use information and communication technologies to facilitate their learning process. OBJECTIVES 1. Understanding of some basic economic concepts and development of economic reasoning which the learners can apply in their day-to-day life as citizens, workers and consumers. Realisation of learners' role in nation building and sensitivity to the economic issues that the nation is facing today. Equipment with basic tools of economics and statistics to analyse economic issues. This is pertinent for even those who may not pursue this course beyond senior secondary stage. Development of understanding that there can be more than one views on any economic issue and necessary skills to argue logically with reasoning.

2. 3.

4.

Economics (Hindi) XI

Class-XI Paper-1 Part A : Statistics for Economics 1. 2. 3. 4. Introduction Collection, Organisation and Presentation ofData Statistical Tools and Interpretation Developing Projects in Economics 5 25 64 10 104 Part B: Indian Economic Development 5. 6. 7. 8. Development Policies and Experience ( 1 947-90) Economic Reforms since 1 99 1 Current Challenges feeing Indian Economy Development experience of India-A comparison with neighbours 18 14 60 12 104 10 8 25 7 50 3 12 30 5 50 3 Hours 100 Marks

PART A : STATISTICS FOR ECONOMICS In this course, Ihe learners are expected to acquire skills in collection, organisation and presentation of quantitative and qualitative information pertaining to Yarious simple economic aspects systematically. It also intends to provide some basic statistical tools to analyse, and interpret any economic information and drawappropriate inferences. In this process, the learners are a!so expected to understand the behaviour of various economic data. Unit 1: Introduction What is Economics? Meaning, scope and importance of statistics in Economics Unit 2: Collection, Organisation and Presentation of data 25 Periods Collection of data - sources of data - primary and secondary; how basic data is collected; methods of collecting data; Some important sources of secondary data: Census of India and National Sample Survey Organisation. Organisation ofData: Meaning and types of variables; Frequency Distribution. Presentation ofData: Tabular Presentation and Diagrammatic Presentation ofData: (i) Geometric forms (bar diagrams and pie diagrams), (ii) Frequency diagrams (histogram, polygon and ogive) and (iii) Arithmetic line graphs (time series graph). 5 Periods

Economics (Hindi) XI

Unit 3: Statistical Tools and Interpretation 64 Periods (For all the numerical problems and solutions, the appropriate economic interpretation may be attempted. This means, the students need to solve the problems and provide interpretation for the results derived) Measures of Central Tendency- mean (simple and weighted), median and mode Measures of Dispersion - absolute dispersion (range, quartile deviation, mean deviation and standard deviation); relative dispersion (co-efficient of quartiledeviation, co-efficient of mean deviation, coefficient of variation); Lorenz Curve: Meaning and its application. Correlation - meaning, scatter diagram; Measures of correlation - Karl Pearson's method (two variables ungrouped data) Spearman's rank correlation. Introduction to Index Numbers - meaning, types - wholesale price index, consumer price index and index of industrial production, uses of index numbers; Inflation and index numbers. Unit 4: Developing Projects in Economics 10 Periods The students may be encouraged to develop projects, which have primary data, secondary data or both. Case studies of a few organisations / outlets may also be encouraged. Some of the examples of the projects are as follows (they are not mandatory but suggestive): (i) A report on demographic structure of your neighborhood; (u) Consumer awareness amongst households QS) Changing prices of a few vegetables in your market (iv) Study of a cooperative institution: milk cooperatives The idea behind introducing this unit is to enable the students to develop the ways and means by which a project can be developed using the skills learned in the course. This includes all the steps involved in designing a project starting from choosing a title, exploring Hie information relating to the title, collection of primary and secondary data, analysing the data, presentation of the project and using various statistical tools and their interpretation and conclusion. PART B: INDIAN ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT Unit 5: Development Policies and Experience (1947-90); 18 Periods

A brief introduction of the state of Indian economy on the eve of independence. Common goals of Five Year Plans. Main features, problems and policies of agriculture (institutional aspects and new agricultural strategy, etc.), industry (industrial licensing, etc,) and foreign trade.

Economics (Hindi) XI

Unit 6: Economic Reforms since 1991:

14 Periods

Need and main features - liberalisation, globalisation and privatisation; An appraisal of LPG policies. Unit 7: Current challenges facing Indian Economy: 60 Periods

Poverty- absolute and relative; Main programmes for poverty alleviation: A critical assessment; Rural development: Key issues - credit and marketing * role of cooperatives; agricultural diversification; alternative farming - organic farming Human Capital Formation: How people become resource; Role of human capital in economic development; Growth of Education Sector in India Employment: Formal and informal, growth and other issues: Problems and policies. Inflation: Problems and Policies Infrastructure: Meaning-and Types: Case Studies: Energy and Health: Problems and Policies- A critical assessment; Sustainable Economic Development: Meaning, Effects ofEconomic Development on Resources and Environment, including global warming. Unit 8: Development Experience of India: A comparison with neighbours India and Pakistan India and China Issues: growth, population, sectoral development and other developmental indicators. 12 Periods

Economics (Hindi) XI

ECONOMICS
Class XI Design of Sample Question Ppaper for March, 2012 Examination

Time: 3 hours

Maximum Marks 100

The weightage to marks over different dimensions of the question paper shall be as under : S.No. Content Unit Marks 03 12 30 Total - 45

Part-A :Statistics for Economics 1. Introduction 2. Collection, Organisation and presentation of data 3. Statistical tools and Enterpretation

Part-B : Indian Economic Development 5. Development policies and Experience (1947-90) 6. Economic Reforms since 1991 7. Current challenges facing Indian Economy 8. Development experience of IndiaA comparision with neighbours

10 08 25 07 Grand Total - 95

S.No. 1. 2. 3. 4.

B. WEIGHTAGE TO FORM OF QUESTIONS Forms of Questions Marks for No. of each Ques. Ques. Very short answer type (VSA) 1 10 Short answer type (SA-I) 3 9 Short Answer type (SA-II) 4 7 Long Answer type (LA) 6 5

Total Marks 10 27 28 30

Economics (Hindi) XI

C.

NO. OF SECTIONS The question paper will have two sections A and B. D. SCHEME OF OPTION There will be no overall choice. However, there is internal choice in one question of 3 marks, one question of 4 makrs and one question of 6 marks in each section. E. WEIGHTAGE TO FORMS OF QUESTIONS

S.No. 1. 2. 3. F.

Estimated Difficulty Level of Questions Easy Average Difficult/above overage

Percentage 30 50 20

TYPOLOGY OF QUESTIONS In order to asses different abilities to the subject, the question paper is likely to include open ended questions and numerical questions.

Economics (Hindi) XI

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nqyZHkrk ls vfHkizk; gS] oLrqvksa rFkk lalk/uksa dk mudh ekax dh rqyuk esa vHkkoA f;k,a vkfFkZd f;k,a 1- mRiknu 2- miHkksx 3- fuos'k 4- fofue; 5- forj.k vukfFkZd f;k,a lkekftd f;k,a /kfeZd f;k,a jktuSfrd f;k,a /ekZFkZ f;k,a ekrk&firk dh larku ds izfr f;k,a

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(v) lhfer@nqyZHk rFkk (c) oSdfYid mi;ksx okys gksrs gSa

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8 Economics (Hindi) XI

vkfFkZd f;k,a
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cgqopu ds vFkZ esa lkaf[;dh dk rkRi;Z ^^O;ofLFkr :i ls laxzfgr la[;kRed rF;ksa ls gSA**

lkaf[;dh dk {ks=k
izkphu dky esa lkaf[;dh dk iz;ksx dsoy jktkvksa }kjk viuk iz'kklu pykus ds fy, fd;k tkrk Fkk ysfdu vkt ds ;qx esa lkaf[;dh dk egRo c<+ x;k gS rFkk mu lHkh {ks=kksa rd tgka la[;kRed rF;ksa dk iz;ksx gksrk gS] esa bldk izlkj gks x;k gS tSls vFkZ'kkL=k] m|ksx] okf.kT;] HkkSfrd 'kkL=k] jlk;u 'kkL=k vkfnA ekuoh; f;kvksa dk ,slk dksbZ {ks=k ugha gS tgka lkaf[;dh dk iz;ksx u gksrk gksA

Economics (Hindi) XI

lkaf[;dh dk vFkZ'kkL=k esa egRo


123456;g vFkZ'kkL=kh dks vkfFkZd rF;ksa dks ;FkkrFkk fuf'pr :i esa izLrqr djus ;ksX; cukrk gSA vkdM+kas ds lewg dks dqN la[;kRed ekiksa ds :i esa laf{kIr djus esa lgk;rk djrh gSA lkaf[;dh dk iz;ksx fofHkUu vkfFkZd dkjdksa ds chp laca/ksa dks Kkr djus ds fy, fd;k tkrk gSA vFkZ'kkL=kh la[;kRed v;;uksa ds }kjk vkfFkZd Hkfo";ok.kh djus esa l{ke gksrs gSaA lkaf[;dh vkfFkZd uhfr;ksa ds fuekZ.k esa lgk;d gksrh gSa ftuls vkfFkZd leL;kvksa dk lek/ku gks ldrk gSA iwoZ vkfFkZd uhfr;ksa ds ifj.kkeksa dh leh{kk djus esa lgk;rk djrh gSA

lkaf[;dh ds dk;Z
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lkaf[;dh dh lhek,a
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10

Economics (Hindi) XI

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rhu vad okys iz'u


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11 Economics (Hindi) XI

8-

fuEufyf[kr esa vukfFkZd f;k dks igpkfu, rFkk dkj.k Hkh fyf[k,A d) lekpkj i=kksa dh NikbZ djus ds fy, NikbZ e'khu dk mRiknuA [k) gkfLiVy esa MkWDVj dh lsokA x) fu%'kqYd fpfdRlk dsU dh LFkkiuk

,d vad okys iz'uksa ds mkj


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12

Economics (Hindi) XI

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ckg~; ksr f}rh;d ksr 1- izdkf'kr ksr 2- vizdkf'kr ksr

izkFkfed vkdM+kas dks ladyu dh fof/;ka


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13

Economics (Hindi) XI

f}rh;d vkdM+kas ds ksr

1234-

iz'ukoyh dks rS;kj djrs le; ;u esa j[kus ;ksX; izeq[k fcanq
d) [k) x) ?k) ) p) N) t) >) vUos"kd dk ifjp; rFkk vUos"k.k ds mn~ns'; dk fooj.kA iz'uksa dh mi;qDr la[;kA iz'u NksVs o Li"V gksus pkfg,A iz'uksa dk e rdZlaxr gksuk pkfg,A lwpdksa ds fy, fuf'pr funs'kA Z iz'uksa ds mkj ds fy, mfpr LFkkuA vuqla/ku ls gh lacaf/r iz'uA O;fDrxr iz'u ugha iwNus pkfg,A x.kuk okys iz'uksa dh vogsyukA izfrn'kZ dh fof/;ka

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izdkf'kr ksr ljdkjh izdk'ku v/Z'kkldh; izdk'ku desVh vkSj vk;ksxksa ds izdk'ku futh izdk'ku tSl& s & nSfud vkSj lekpkj i=k & vuqla/ku laLFkku & O;kikfjd laLFkku varjkZ"Vh; izdk'ku

vizdkf'kr ksr dqN vkdM+s vizdkf'kr :i esa dk;kZy;ksa dh iQkbyksa o fjdkMZ esa miyC/ gksrs gSa vko';drk iM+us ij bUgsa Hkh iz;ksx esa yk;k tk ldrk gSA

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14

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Economics (Hindi) XI

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15

Economics (Hindi) XI

Hkkjrh; tux.kuk rFkk jk"Vh; izfrn'kZ losZ{k.k laxBu


CENSUS OF INDIA AND NSSO
u u

Hkkjrh; tu.kxuk ns'k dh tu lkaf[;dh; fLFkfr ls lacaf/r iw.kZ tkudkjh iznku djrh gSA jk"Vh; izfrn'kZ los{k.k laxBu dh LFkkiuk Hkkjr ljdkj }kjk lkekftd&vkfFkZd eqn~nksa ij Z (tSls jkstxkj] f'k{kk] ekr`Ro f'k'kq ns[kHkky] lkoZtfud forj.k foHkkx dk mi;ksx vkfn) jk"Vh; Lrj ds los{k.k ds fy, dh xbZ gSA Z
NSSO }kjk lax`fgr vkdM+s le;&le; ij fofHkUu fjiksVks ,oa bldh =kSekfld if=kdk

^^los{k.k** esa izdkf'kr fd, tkrs gSaA Z

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,d vad okys iz'u
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NSSO dk iwjk uke fyf[k,A

rhu@pkj vad okys iz'u


123izkFkfed rFkk f}rh;d vkdM+kas esa varj Li"V dhft,A tux.kuk fof/ dh pkj fo'ks"krk,a fyf[k,A izfrn'kZ fof/ dh rhu dfe;ka crkb,A
16 Economics (Hindi) XI

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izfrn'kZ =kqfV;k rFkk vizfrn'kZ =kqfV;ksa esa varj fyf[k,A tux.kuk fof/ ls D;k rkRi;Z gS\ fdu fLFkfr;ksa esa bl fof/ dk iz;ksx fd;k tkrk gS\ ;kn`fPNd izfrn'kZ D;k gksrk gS le>kb,A ^lexz* rFkk ^izfrn'kZ* dh ifjHkk"kk fyf[k, rFkk mnkgj.k nsdj le>kb,A Hkkjr dh tux.kuk f}rh;d vkdM+kas dk eq[; ksr gSA o.kZu dhft,A izk;ksfxd los{k.k fdls dgrs gSa\ bldh fo'ks"krk,a fyf[k,A Z

N% vad okys iz'u


12345iz'ukoyh ls vki D;k le>rs gks\ ,d vPNh iz'ukoyh dh fo'ks"krk,a fyf[k,A vkdM+s ladyu dh ^tux.kuk fof/* rFkk ^izfrn'kZ fof/* esa varj Li"V dhft,A jk"Vh; izfrn'kZ los{k.k laxBu D;k gS\ blds D;k&D;k dk;Z gSa\ fyf[k,A Z fo'oluh;rk] le; vkSj ykxr ds lanHkZ esa tux.kuk rFkk izfrn'kZ fof/;ksa dh rqyuk dhft,A lk{kkRdkj fof/ rFkk Mkd iz'ukoyh fof/ }kjk izkFkfed vkdM+s ,d=k djds xq.k o nks"k fyf[k,A

17

Economics (Hindi) XI

;wfuV&2
,d vad okys iz'uksa ds mkj
123456789izkFkfed vkdM+s os ekSfyd vkdM+s gksrs gSa ftUgsa vuqla/kudrkZ ;k mlds }kjk fu;qDr izx.kd Lo;a ,d=k djrs gSaA os vkdM+s ftUgsa vuqla/kudrkZ fdlh vU; laLFkk }kjk igys ls ,df=kr fd, x, vkdM+kas ls izkIr djrk gS] f}rh;d vkdM+s dgykrs gSaA lkaf[;dh esa fdlh fo"k; ls lacaf/r lHkh enksa ds ml lewg dks tula[;k ;k lexz dgk tkrk gS ftlds fo"k; esa tkudkjh izkIr djuh gksrh gSA izfrn'kZ vkdM+kas dk ,slk NksVk lewg gS tks fdlh lexz dk izfrfuf/Ro djrk gS rFkk fu"d"kZ mlh ds vk/kj ij fudkys tkrs gSaA izfrn'kZ =kqfV;k] izfrn'kZ vkadyu rFkk lef"V fo'ks"k ds okLrfod ewY; ds chp dk varj izdV djrh gSA izfrn'kZ =kqfV;k os =kqfV;k gSa tks tux.kuk fof/ rFkk (;k) izfrn'kZ fof/ }kjk ladfyr vkdM+kas esa ik;h tkrh gSa tSls ekiu laca/h =kqfV;kA izfrn'kZ los{k.k Z 10 fo|kfFkZ;ksa esa ls dsoy 3 fo|kfFkZ;ksa dk pquko nSo izfrn'kZ fof/ }kjk tSls nSo la[;k lkj.kh ;k ykVjh fof/ ls dj ldrs gSaA izfrn'kZ dh dqy la[;k 120 gksxhA
NSSO dk iwjk uke jk"Vh; izfrn'kZ los{k.k laxBu gSA Z

18

Economics (Hindi) XI

;wfuV&2
v;k;&3

(c) vkdM+ksa dk laxBu rFkk izLrqfrdj.k


Lej.kh; fcanq %
u

vkdM+kas dks ljy] laf{kIr rFkk O;ofLFkr <ax ls izLrqr djus dh fof/;ka vFkok f;kvksa dks vkdM+kas dk O;fLFkfrdj.k dgk tkrk gSA ,df=kr vkdM+kas dks mudh lekukrk rFkk vlekurkvksa ds vk/kj ij foHkUu oxks o lewgksa esa foHkkftr djuk oxhZdj.k dgykrk gSA oxhZdj.k dh fo'ks"krk,a

Li"Vrk
u u u

O;kidrk

ltkrh;rk

vuqdwyrk

ykspnkj

fLFkjrk

pj fdlh rF; dh og fo'ks"krk gS ftls la[;kRed :i esa ekik tk ldrk gSA fdlh oxZ fo'ks"k ls lecaf/r enksa dh la[;k dks oxZ vko`fk dgk tkrk gSA os pj tks ,d fuf'pr ek=kk esa gksrs gSa vkSj tks lkekU;r% fHkUukRed ugha gksrs fofoDr pj dgykrs gSaA lrr~ pj os pj gSa tks ekin.Mksa dh bdkb;ksa esa gksrs gSa vkSj vusd oxks esa foHkDr fd, tk ldrs gSaA bUgsa fHkUukRed :i esa Hkh fy[kk tk ldrk gSA vuql/kudrkZ }kjk vius mn~ns'; dh iwfrZ ds fy, ,d=k fd, x, vkdM+s 'kq vkdM+s dgykrs a gSaA ;s vO;ofLFkr :i esa gksrs gSaA og J`[kyk ftlesa ml oxZ dh lHkh vko`fk;ka 'kkfey dh tkrh gSa vFkkZr~ oxZ dh mQijh lhek a dk ewY; Hkh mlh oxZ esa 'kkfey fd;k tkrk gS rks bls lekos'kh Ja`[kyk dgk tkrk gSA
19 Economics (Hindi) XI

viothZ Ja[kyk % og J`[kyk ftlesa ,d oxZ dh mQijh lhek vxys oxZ dh fupyh lhek ` a gksrh gSA lkj.kh;u % ;g ladfyr vkdM+kas ds izLrqrhdj.k dh ,slh fof/ gS ftlesa vkdM+ksa dks LrEHkksa (dkWyeks) rFkk iafDr;ksa ds :i esa izLrqr fd;k tkrk gSA a lkjf.k;ksa ds izdkj

mn~ns';kuqlkj
u

ekSfydrkuqlkj

cukoV ds vuqlkj

lkj.kh dh fo'ks"krk,a vuqdwy 'kh"kZd rqyuk esa lgk;d vkn'kZ vkdkj iafDr 'kh"kZd enksa dh O;oLFkk izfr'kr rFkk vuqikr ljyrk leadksa ds ksr vkfn

n.M vkjs[k % vkdM+kas dks izLrqr djus okyk ,slk fp=k gS ftlesa vkdM+s n.M o vk;rksa ds :i esa izdV fd, tkrs gSaA fp=ke; izn'kZu ds xq.k@ykHk l;adksa dks ljy cukrs gSa vkd"kZd vf/d le; rd izHkko rqyukRed v;;u esa mi;ksxh

mifoHkkftr n.M vkjs[k % ,slk n.M vkjs[k gS tks fdlh rF; ds dqy ewY; rFkk mifoHkktu dks izLrqr djrk gSA o`kh; vkjs[k % bls dks.kh; fp=k Hkh dgk tkrk gSA ;g ,slk fp=k gS ftlesa o`k dks fofHkUu Hkkxksa esa vkdM+kas ds izfr'kr] lkis{k o dks.kh; ewY;ksa ds vk/kj ij ckaVk tkrk gSA
20 Economics (Hindi) XI

vk;r fp=k % enksa rFkk mudh vko`fk;ksa dks vk;r ds :i iznf'kZr djds cuk;k x;k fp=k vk;r fp=k dgykrk gSA budk fuekZ.k dsoy lrr~ Ja[kyk ds vkdM+kas dks iznf'kZr djus gsrq ` gh laHko gksrk gSA vko`fk cgqHkqt % vk;r fp=k ds lHkh vk;rksa ds 'kh"kZ ds e;&fcUnqvksa dks ljy js[kk }kjk feykdj cuk;k x;k o cgqHkqt dgykrk gSA vko`fk o % ;g vko`fk cgqHkqt o dk og ljyre :i gS ftls vk;rfp=k ds lHkh vk;rksa ds 'kh"kZ ds e; fcUnqvksa dks eqDr gLr jhfr }kjk js[kk [khapdj cuk;k tkrk gSA vkstkbo (rksj.k ;k lap;h vko`fk) o % vkstkbo o lap;h vko`fk;ksa (ls de] ls vf/d) dks vafdr djds cuk;k tkrk gSA

21

Economics (Hindi) XI

,d vad okys iz'u


123456789101112131415161718192021vkdM+kas ds O;ofLFkfrdj.k ls D;k vfHkiz;k gS\ oxhZdj.k dk vFkZ Li"V dhft,A vkdM+kas dh ltkrh;rk ls D;k vfHkizk; gS\ xq.kkRed oxhZdj.k dk vFkZ Li"V dhft,A 'kq vkdM+kas dks ifjHkkf"kr dhft,A fofoDr ;k [kf.Mr J`[kyk dks ifjHkkf"kr dhft,A a viothZ J`[kyk ls D;k vfHkizk; gS\ a ,d oxZ dh mQijh lhek dk ewY; Hkh ;fn mlh oxZ esa 'kkfey fd;k tk, rks ,slh J`[kyk a dks fdl uke ls tkuk tkrk gS\ vko`fk ls D;k vfHkizk; gS\ oxZ foLrkj ;k oxkZUrj dk vk'k; Li"V dhft,A lkj.kh;u ls D;k vfHkizk; gSA lkj.kh ds varxZr {ks=k ;k dysoj ls D;k vfHkizk; gS\ cgqxq.kh lkj.kh ls D;k vfHkizk; gS\ n.M vkjs[k ls D;k vfHkizk; gS\ mifoHkkftr n.M vkjs[k ;k varfoZHkDr n.M vkjs[k dks ikfjHkkf"kr dhft,A o`kh; vkjs[k dks ifjHkkf"kr dhft,A vk;r fp=k ls D;k vfHkizk; gS\ vko`fk o fdls dgk tkrk gS\ vk;r fp=k ds e; fcUnqvksa dks ljy js[kk }kjk feykdj cuk, x, fp=k dks fdl uke ls tkuk tkrk gSA vkstkbo (rksj.k) o dks ifjHkkf"kr dhft,A d`f=ke vk/kj js[kk dk iz;ksx D;ksa fd;k tkrk gS\

22

Economics (Hindi) XI

rhu@pkj vad okys iz'u


123456789vkdM+kas ds oxhZdj.k ds izeq[k mn~ns'; fyf[k, vkn'kZ oxhZdj.k dh izeq[k fo'ks"krkvksa dk mYys[k dhft,A [kf.Mr rFkk v[kf.Mr pjksa dks mnkgj.k dh lgk;rk ls ifjHkkf"kr dhft,A oxhZdj.k ds dksbZ rhu egRo fyf[k,A vkn'kZ lkj.kh dh izeq[k fo'ks"krk,a fyf[k,A lkj.kh;u izLrqrhdj.k ds izeq[k ykHk@xq.k fyf[k,A o`kh; vkjs[k ls D;k vfHkizk; gS blds fuekZ.k dh jpuk fof/ fyf[k,A lkj.kh;u o fp=ke; izn'kZu ds chp dksbZ rhu varj fyf[k,A fuEufyf[kr leadksa ls ,d vko`fk forj.k cukb,A vlfEefyr jhfr dk iz;ksx djrs gq, igyk oxZ 100&110 fyf[k,A 125 120 145 10o"kZ 2007 2008 2009 11108 130 137 112 126 144 126 138 150 110 125 142 113 132 150 136 119 137 130 125 132 149 140 166 ikl 130 120 180 155 148 154

fuEufyf[kr vkdM+kas dks cgqxq.kh n.M vkjs[k }kjk izLrqr dhft,& izFke Js.kh 40 80 100 f}rh; Js.kh 80 100 120

fuEufyf[kr vkdM+kas ds vk/kj ij ,d ifjokj ds miHkksx O;; dks o`kh; fp=k dh lgk;rk ls izLrqr dhft,A ensa oL=k Hkkstu f'k{kk fctyh vU; O;; (#i;ksa es) a 1600 2400 1000 1500 2500
23 Economics (Hindi) XI

12-

fuEu leadksa esa 4 dk oxkZUrj jhfr dk iz;ksx dhft,A 10 17 15 25 26 32 15 18 24 34 13 10 vad 30&35 35&40 40&45 45&50 50&55 55&60 60&65 65&70

ysdj vko`fk forj.k cukb,A forj.k cukrs le; lekos'kh 22 14 35 16 16 20 15 22 11 17 18 20 19 23 21 29 24 27 28 19 29 30 33 23 18 19 18 31

13-

fuEufyf[kr vkdM+kas dh lgk;rk ls vk;r fp=k cukb,A fo|kfFkZ;ksa dh la[;k 10 24 30 44 28 22 14 8 izfr'kr O;; 15 20 5 10 25 12 7 6

14-

fo|ky; fuekZ.k ykxr ds vkdM+kas dks o`kh; vkjs[k }kjk izLrqr dhft,A ensa etnwjh bVsa ydM+h jax jksxu bLikr lhesV a fujh{k.k vU;

24

Economics (Hindi) XI

5@6 vad okys iz'u


123vkn'kZ lkj.kh ds izeq[k Hkkxksa dh O;k[;k dhft,A vkn'kZ lkj.kh dk fuekZ.k djrs le; j[kh tkus okyh izeq[k lko/kfu;ksa dk mYys[k dhft,A fuEufyf[kr vkdM+kas dh lgk;rk ls ^ls de* rFkk ^ls vf/d* vkstkbo (rksj.k) o cukb,A vad 0&10 10&20 20&30 30&40 40&50 50&60 60&70 70&80 4vad 30&35 35&40 40&45 45&50 50&55 55&60 60&65 65&70 Nk=kksa dh la[;k 20 14 24 26 28 38 40 10 Nk=kksa dh la[;k 10 12 20 26 38 28 18 12

fuEu vkdM+kas dh lgk;rk ls vk;r fp=k rFkk vko`fk cgqHkqt cukb,A

25

Economics (Hindi) XI

,d vad okys iz'uksa ds mkj


12345678910111213141516vkdM+kas dks ljy] laf{kIr rFkk O;ofLFkr <ax ls izLrqr djus dh fof/;ksa dks vkdM+kas dk O;ofLFkrhdj.k dgk tkrk gSA ,df=kr vkdM+kas dks mudh lekurk] fo'ks"krkvksa o vlekurkvksa ds vk/kj ij fofHkUu oxks o lewgksa esa foHkkftr djuk oxhZdj.k dgykrk gSA fdlh oxZ dh lHkh bdkb;ksa esa xq.k ds vk/kj ij lekurk vkdM+kas dh ltkrh;rk dgykrh gSA vkdM+kas dk oxhZdj.k tc muds xq.kks] fo'ks"krkvksa vFkok izd`fr ds vuqlkj fd;k tkrk gS a rks bls xq.kkRed oxhZdj.k dgk tkrk gSA vuqla/kudrkZ }kjk vius mn~ns'; dh iwfrZ ds fy, ,d=k fd, x, vkdM+s 'kq vkdM+s gksrs gSaA ;s vO;ofLFkr :i esa gksrs gSaA izR;sd en ds fuf'pr eki dks Li"V :i ls izLrqr djus okyh Ja[kyk fofoDr Ja[krk dgykrh ` gSA og J`[yk ftlesa ,d oxZ dh mQijh lhek nwljs oxZ dh fupyh lhek gksrh gS mls viothZ a J`[kyk dgk tkrk gSA a lekos'kh J`[kykA a en dh vko`fk ls vfHkizk; lewg esa en dh iqujko`fk dh la[;k ls gSA fdlh oxZ dh mPpre rFkk fuEure lhek ds vUrj dks oxZ foLrkj ;k oxZ vUrjky dgk tkrk gSA ;g ladfyr vkdM+kas dks izLrqr djus dh ,slh fof/ gS ftlesa vkdM+kas dks LrEHkksa (dkWye) rFkk iafDr;ksa ds :i esa izLrqr fd;k tkrk gSA {ks=k ;k dysoj lkj.kh dk og Hkkx gS ftlesa lHkh lwpuk,a fn[kkbZ tkrh gSA vkdM+kas dh rhu ls vf/d fo'ks"krkvksa dks iznf'kZr djus okyh lkj.kh cgqx.kh lkj.kh dgykrh q gSA n.M vkjs[k ,slk o gS ftlesa vkdM+s n.M o vk;rksa ds :i esa izLrqr fd;k tkrk gSA mifoHkkftr n.M fp=k ,slk vkjs[k gS tks fdlh rF; ds dqy ewY; rFkk mifoHkktu dks izLrqr djrk gSA bls dks.kh; vkjs[k Hkh dgk tkrk gS ;g ,slk o gS ftlesa o`k dks fofHkUu Hkkxksa esa vkdM+kas ds izfr'kr] lkis{k o dks.kh; ewY;ksa ds vk/kj ij ckaVk tkrk gSA
26 Economics (Hindi) XI

1718192021-

vk;r fp=k enksa rFkk mudh vko`fk;ksa dks vk;r ds :i esa iznf'kZr djds cuk;k tkrk gSA vko`fk o vko`fk cgqHkqt o dk og ljyre :i gS ftls vk;r fp=k ds lHkh vk;rksa ds 'kh"kZ ds e; fcUnqvksa dks eqDr gLr jhfr }kjk js[kk [khapdj cuk;k tkrk gSA vko`fk cgqHkqt vkstkbo o lap;h vko`fk;ksa (ls de] ls vf/d) dks vafdr djds cuk;k tkrk gSA 'kwU; rFkk pj ds U;wure ewY; esa ;fn cgqr vf/d varj gks rks bl varj dks de djus ds fy, d`f=ke vk/kj js[kk dk iz;ksx fd;k tkrk gSA

27

Economics (Hindi) XI

;wfuV&3 (lkaf[;dh; midj.k vkSj fuopZu)


v;k;&4

dsUh; izo`fk dk eki


Lej.kh; fcanq %
u

dsUh; izo`fk og ,dd la[;kRed eku gS tks vkdM+kas ds iwjs lewg dk izfrfuf/Ro djrk gSA fdlh lead Js.kh ds lHkh ewY;ksa ds ;ksx dks mldh la[;k ls Hkkx nsus ls izkIr gksus okyh

la[;k dks lekUrj e; dgrs gSaA lw=k ds :i esa X


u

X N

tc fdlh J`[kyk ds lHkh enksa dks leku egRo fn;k tkrk gS rks mls ljy lekUrj e; a dgrs gSa vkSj ;fn J`[kyk ds fofHkUu enksa dks muds rqyukRed egRo ds vuqlkj Hkkj fn;k a tkrk gS rks mls Hkkfjr ek; dgrs gSaA fdlh Js.kh dks vkjksgh vFkok vojksgh e ls O;oLFkfr djus ij] Js.kh ds e; esa fLFkr ewY; e;dk dgykrk gSA tc fdlh lead Js.kh dks nks ls vf/d Hkkxksa esa foHkkftr fd;k tkrk gS rks bu ekuksa dks foHkktu ewY; dgrs gSaA og ewY; tks Js.kh dks pkj cjkcj Hkkxksa esa ckaVrk gS mls prqFkZd dgrs gSaA Js.kh dks pkj Hkkxksa esa ckaVus ij igys prqFkZd dks fuEu prqFkZd ;k izFke prqFkZd (Q1) dgrs gSaA blh izdkj rhljs prqFkZd dks mPp prqFkZd ;k r`rh; prqFkZd (Q3) dgrs gSaA og ewY; tks J`[kyk esa lcls vf/d ckj vkrk gS] mls cgqyd dgrs gSaA a
28 Economics (Hindi) XI

u u

vkSlrksa ds eq[; mn~ns'; ,oa dk;Z i ) vkdM+kas dk laf{kIr fooj.k ii ) lewgksa dh rqyuk iii ) uhfr fu/kZj.k esa lgk;d iv ) lkaf[;dh; fo'ys"k.k dk vk/kj v) lewg dk izfrfuf/ ewY; vPNs i) ii ) iii ) iv ) v) vi ) vii) vkSlr ds vko';d rRo& ljy rFkk le>us ;ksX; gksA x.kuk vklkuh ls dh tk ldsA ifjHkk"kk fLFkj ,oa Li"V gksA Js.kh ds lHkh enksa ij vk/kfjr gksA fuf'pr la[;k esa O;Dr gksA izfrn'kZ ds ifjorZuksa ls cgqr de izHkkfor gksA chtxf.krh; mi;ksx laHko gksA

lekUrj ek; ds xq.k& i ) x.kuk esa ljyrk ii ) lekUrj ek; dk eku fuf'pr iii ) lHkh ewY;ksa ij vk/kfjr iv ) chtxf.krh; mi;ksx laHko v) rqyuk dk vk/kj vi ) 'kqrk dh tkap laHko lekUrj ek; ds nks"k& i ) lhekUr ewY;ksa dk izHkko ii ) lekUrj ek; dk eku Js.kh ls vyx iii ) nj] izfr'kr] vuqikr vkfn ds fy, vuqi;qDr iv ) xyr fu"d"kZ laHko v) xq.kkRed fo'ys"k.k esa mi;ksxh ughaA
29 Economics (Hindi) XI

ek;dk ds xq.k& i ) dsUh; izo`fk dk ljy eki ii ) lhekar ewY;ksa ls izHkkfor ugha iii ) viw.kZ rF;ksa esa Hkh laHko iv ) xzkiQh; izn'kZu laHko v) e;dk dk eku fuf'pr ek;dk ds nks"k& i ) Js.kh ds lHkh ewY;ksa ij vk/kfjr ugha ii ) chtxf.krh; mi;ksx laHko ugha iii ) vkjksgh vojksgh e esa O;ofLFkr djus esa vf/d le; iv ) vkdM+kas ds enksa ds mrkj&p<+ko ls vf/d izHkkfor cgqyd ds xq.k& i ) ljy ,oa dsUnzh; izo`fk dk yksdfiz; ekid ii ) vk;r fp=k dh lgk;rk ls xzkiQh; fu:i.k iii ) lhekUr ekuksa dk izHkko ugha iv ) Js.kh ds lHkh ekuksa dh tkudkjh vko';d ugha v) Js.kh dk lc ls vf/d izfrfuf/ eku cgqyd ds nks"k& i ) ;g vfuf'pr rFkk vLi"V dsUnzh; izo`fk dk eki gS ii ) cht xf.krh; foospu laHko ugha iii ) lewghdj.k dh fof/ tfVy iv ) Js.kh ds lHkh ekuksa ij vk/kfjr ugha ek;] e;dk vkSj cgqyd esa laca/& cgqyd 3 e;dk & 2 ek; e;dk Kkr djus dh xzkiQh; fof/& xzkiQh; fof/ ls lap;h vko`fk o }kjk e;dk dks Kkr fd;k tkrk gSA bldh nks fof/;ka gSa& i ) ^ls de* vFkok ^ls vf/d* fof/& e;dk Kkr djus ds fy, vko`fk dks ^ls de* ;k ^ls vf/d* lap;h forj.k esa cnyk tkrk gSA blds ckn ^ls de* rFkk ls vf/d
30 Economics (Hindi) XI

vkstkbo cukus ds fy, vkdM+kas dk js[kk fp=kh; izLrqrhdj.k fd;k tkrk gSA J`[kyk a (vkstkbo) ij yac Mkyk tkrk gSA fiQj ml fcUnq ls X& v{k ij yEc Mkydj e;dk ewY; Kkr dj fy;k tkrk gSA
ii ) ^ls de* rFkk ^ls vf/d* fof/& xzkiQ isij ij ^ls de* rFkk ^ls vf/d* lap;h

vko`fk o (vkstkbo) [khaps tkrs gSA tgka ij ;s nksuksa o ,d nwljs dks dkVrs gSa a ml fcUnq ls X&v{k ij yEc Mkyk tkrk gS ;g yEc X&v{k dks ftl LFkku ij feyrk gS ogh e;dk dk eku gksrk gSA

cgqyd dh xzkiQh; fof/ ls x.kuk& nh gqbZ J`[kyk dks vko`fk vk;r fp=k esa izLrqr fd;k tkrk gS lcls mQapk vk;r cgqyd a oxZ dks izdV djrk gSA cgqyd oxZ okys vk;r ds ,d fdukjs dks nwljs vk;r ds fdukjs ls feykrs gSaA blh izdkj cgqyd oxZ ds vk;r ds vk;r ds nwljs fdukjs dks mlds lekus okys vk;r ds fdukjs ls feykrs gSaA ;s nksuksa js[kk,a ,d nwljs dks ftl fcUnq ij dkVrh gSa ogka ls X&v{k ij yEc Mkyk tkrk gSA ;g yEc ftl fcUnq ij X&v{k dks feyrk gS ogh cgqyd gSA

lekUrj ek; Kkr djus ds lw=k& Js.kh O;fDrxr Js.kh [kf.Mr Js.kh v[kf.Mr Js.kh Hkkfjr ek;

W&

Hkkjksa dk ;ksx

31

tgka ij]

WX &

WX W

enksa ,oa Hkkjksa dh xq.kk dk ;ksx

Economics (Hindi) XI

X=

X=A +

X=A +

fm N

fm N

fd' N

X=

X=A +

X=A +

fx N

fd N

fd' N

X=A +

X=A +

dh e;dk la[;k

N 2

oka en fu/kZfjr djds e;dk la[;k ls lap;h vko`fk o

izR;{k fof/
X N

y?kq fof/
d N

in fopyu fof/
d' N

e;dk rFkk foHkktu ewY; Kkr djus ds fy, lw=k& eki O;fDrxr [kf.Mr Js.kh Js.kh enksa dk enksa dk enksa dk vkdkj vkdkj vkdkj e;e
N +1 2 N +1 2 N 2

[kf.Mr Js.kh lw=k


Cf

vf[k.Mr Js.kh esa cgqyd Kkr djus dk lw=k&


2f1

f0

f2

tgka ij] l1 = cgqyd oxZ dh fuEu lhek


f0 = cgqyd oxZ ls mQij okys oxZ dh vko`fk f1 = cgqyd oxZ dh vko`fk f2 = cgqyd oxZ uhps okys oxZ dh vko`fk c = cgqyd oxZ dk oxZ vUrjky
32 Economics (Hindi) XI

cgqyd ;k

Z = l1 +

f1

f0

P1

N +1 100

N +1 100

N 100

l1

'kred

Cf

N 100

D1

N +1 10

N +1 10

N 10

l1

n'ked

Cf

N 10

Q3

N +1 4

N +1 4

N 4

l1

r`rh; prqFkZd

Cf

N 4

Q1

l1

izFke prqFkZd

Cf

N +1 4

N +1 4

N 4

N 4

l1

N 2

,d vad okys iz'u


1234567891011dsUh; izo`fk ls D;k vk'k; gS\ lekUrj ek; fdrus izdkj dk gksrk gS\ fdUgha nks foHkktu ewY;ksa ds uke crkvksA xf.krh; vkSlr dk vFkZ crkb;sA cgqyd dks ifjHkkf"kr dhft,A vkB Nk=kksa dk tsc [kpZ #- 6] 12] 18] 24] 30] 36] 42 vkSj 48 gSA ek; dh x.kuk djksA Hkkfjr ek; Kkr djus ds fy, lw=k fyf[k;sA ek;] e;dk vkSj cgqyd esa D;k laca/ gS\ fdl foHkktu ewY; dk eku vkdM+kas ds fn;s x;s iwjs lewg gks pkj cjkcj Hkkxksa esa ckaVrk gS\ lkewfgd ek; dk D;k vFkZ gS\ ,d twrk cukus okyh dEiuh dsoy o;Ldksa ds fy, twrs cukrh gS rFkk lcls vf/d pyus okys lkbt dk irk yxkuk pkgrh gSA dsUnzh; izo`fk dk dkSu lk eki dEiuh ds fy, lcls mi;qDr jgsxk\ xzkiQh; fof/ ls cgqyd Kkr djus ds fy, lkaf[;dh dh fdl xzkiQh; vkd`fr dk iz;ksx fd;k tkrk gS\ cgqyd dk dksbZ ,d nks"k crkb;sA ;fn ek; vkSj e;dk ds eku e'k% 40 vkSj 48 gksa rks cgqyd dk eku Kkr djksA fuEu vkdM+kas ls cgqyd Kkr djks& 10] 8] 10] 6] 4] 12] 10] 8] 10] 18] 16] 10] 18] 10] 10 lap;h vko`fk oksa (vkstkbo) dh lgk;rk ls e;dk dh x.kuk dSls dh tkrh gS\ fLFkfrtU; vkSlr D;k gS\ fdlh Js.kh esa ek; ls fopyuksa dk ;ksx D;k gksrk gS\

12131415161718-

33

Economics (Hindi) XI

3@4 vad okys iz'u


1234lkaf[;dh; ek; ds pkj mn~ns'; Li"V djksA fl djks fd xf.krh; ek; ls pjksa ds ekuksa ds fopyuksa dk ;ksx 'kwU; gksrk gSA e;dk ds xq.k fy[kksA fuEu rkfydk ls e;dk dk x.kuk djks&
x f

10 3

20 7

30 6

80 2

90 8

100 4 mkj 30)

56789-

cgqyd ds rhu xq.k Li"V djksA ek; ds pkj nks"k crkb;sA 50 ifjokjksa dh vkSlr vk; #- 30]000 gSa buesa ls 12 ifjokjksa dh vkSlr vk; #- 18]000 gSA 'ks"k ifjokjksa dh vkSlr vk; dh x.kuk djksA (mkj 3378-95) ,d vPNs vkSlr dh fo'ks"krk,sa crkb;sA ,d Nk=k ds ikap fo"k;ksa ds izkIrkadksa dk ek; 15 gSA ml Nk=k us vaxzsth esa 8] vFkZ'kkL=k esa 12] xf.kr esa 18 rFkk dke esa 9 vad izkIr fd;sA crkb;s ml Nk=k esa ikapos fo"k; lkaf[;dh esa fdrus vad izkIr fd;s\ Hkkfjr ek; ls D;k vk'k; gS\ bldh x.kuk dSls dh tkrh gS\ rhu lkaf[;dh; vkSlrksa ds uke fy[kdj mUgsa ifjHkkf"kr dhft,A e;dk rFkk cgqyd esa nks vUrj dkj.k lfgr Li"V dhft,A ek; ds xq.k] nks"k rFkk fo'ks"krkvksa dh O;k[;k dhft,A

10111213-

34

Economics (Hindi) XI

5 vad okys iz'u


123456,d dkYifud rkfydk dh lgk;rk ls in fopyu fof/ }kjk lekUrj ek; Kkr djus dh fof/ dh O;k[;k djksA dsUnzh; izo`fk dh eki ds mn~ns'; ,oa dk;ks dk o.kZu djksA lekUrj ek; dks dsUnzh; izo`fk dk lcls yksdfiz; eki D;ksa ekuk tkrk gS\ cgqyd ls D;k rkRi;Z gS\ cgqyd Kkr djus dh fof/;ksa dh foospuk djksA e;dk dh fo'ks"krk,a] xq.k ,oa nks"k Li"V djksA jkgqy us fofHkUu eSpksa esa fuEu lkfj.kh ds vuqlkj ju cuk,& ju 5&15 15&25 25&35 35&45 vko`fk 10 12 17 19 in fopyu fof/ ls juksa ds lekUrj ek; dh x.kuk djksA 7fuEu rkfydk esa yqIr vko`fk Kkr djks ;fn ek; dk eku 44-8 gks&
x f

45&55 22

20 5

30 \

40 15

50 10

60 8

70 5 (mkj 7)

8-

fuEu vkdM+kas dh lgk;rk ls e;dk Kkr djks& vad 46&50 41&45 36&40 31&35 26&30 21&25 16&20 11&15 Nk=k la[;k 3 11 22 35 26 13 10 7 (mkj 31-7) fuEu rkfydk dh lgk;rk ls xzkiQh; fof/ }kjk cgqyd dh x.kuk djksA xf.krh; lw=k dk iz;ksx djds vius mkj dh iqf"V djks& O;; 0&10 10&20 20&30 30&40 40&50 ikfjokj la[;k 14 23 27 21 15 (mkj 24) xzkiQh; fof/ dk iz;ksx djds fuEu vkdM+kas ls e;dk Kkr djks& vad 0&10 Nk=k la[;k 6 10&20 11 20&30 20
35

9-

10-

30&40 12

40&50 50&60 6 5 (mkj 26-5)

Economics (Hindi) XI

,d vad okys iz'uksa ds mkj


1234567891011121314dsUnzh; izo`fk og la[;kRed eku gS tks vkdM+kas ds iwjs lewg dk izfrfuf/Ro djrk gSA ek; nks izdkj dk gksrk gS& ljy ek; ,oa Hkkfjr ek; (d) prqFkZd] ([k) n'ked] (x) 'kred fdlh lead Js.kh ds lHkh ewY;ksa ds ;ksx dks mldh la[;k ls Hkkx nsus ij izkIr gksus okyh la[;k dks xf.krh; ek; dgrs gSaA og ewY; tks J`[kyk esa lcls vf/d ckj vkrk gS] mls cgqyd dgrs gSaA a

X X

N WX W

cgqyd = 3 e;dk & 2 ek; prqFkZd tc nks ;k nks ls vf/d Jsf.k;ksa dk ek; ,d lkFk Kkr fd;k tkrk gS rks mls lkewfgd ek; dgrs gSaA cgqyd vk;r fp=k cgqyd dk ,d nks"k ;g gS fd bldk chtxf.krh; foospu laHko ugha gSA cgqyd

= = = =

3 e;dk & 2 ek; 3 48 & 2 40 144&80 64

15161718-

cgqyd = 10 fcUnq ij ^ls vf/d* rFkk ^ls de* lap;h vko`fk o (vkstkbo) ,d nwljs dks dkVrs gSa ml fcUnq ls x&v{k ij Mkyk x;k yEc ek;dk dk eku crkrk gSA os vkSlr ftudk eku fdlh lkaf[;dh; lkfj.kh esa mldh fLFkfr ds vuqlkj Kkr fd;k tkrk gSA mls fLFkfrtU; vkSlr dgrs gSaA 'kwU;
36 Economics (Hindi) XI

X1

X2

X3

................Xn

;wfuV&3
v;k;&5

vifdj.k dh eki
Lej.kh; fcanq %
u u

fdlh Js.kh esa lekarj ek; ls leadksa ds foLrkj ds eki dks vifdj.k dgrs gSaA vifdj.k dh ekisa lead Js.kh ds ewY;ksa ds chp iSQyko] fc[kjko] fopj.k'khyrk] fo'oluh;rk o ,d:irk dks tkuus o le>us dh n`f"V ls egRoiw.kZ gksrh gSaA vifdj.k ds fujis{k eki dks fu'fpr bdkb;ksa esa O;Dr fd;k tkrk gSA vifdj.k ds lkis{k eki dks vuqikr ;k izfr'kr esa O;Dr fd;k tkrk gSA vifdj.k dh eki (i ) foLrkj (ii) varj prqFkZd foLrkj (iii) prqFkZd&fopyu ;k vZ&vUrj prqFkZd foLrkj

u u

(iv) ek; fopyu

(v ) izeki fopyu

ykWjsUt o

1u

foLrkj (Range)
fdlh Hkh Js.kh esa lcls cM+s vkSj lcls NksVs ewY; ds varj dks foLrkj dgrs gSaA lw=k& R = L S tgka R = foLrkj (Range) L = lcls cM+k ewY; (Largest Value) S = lcls NksVk ewY; (Smallest Value)
37 Economics (Hindi) XI

foLrkj xq.kkad

LS L+S

1-

varj&prqFkZd foLrkj (Inter Quartile Range)


varj prqFkZd foLrkj r`rh; prqFkZd ,oe~ izFke prqFkZd dk varj gksrk gSA vUrj prqFkZd foLrkj
= Q3 Q1 = Q3 = r`rh; prqFkZd (Third Quartile) = Q1 = izFke prqFkZd (First Quartile)

3-

prqFkZd fopyu ;k vZ&vUrj prqFkZd foLrkj (Quartile Deviation


or Semi Inter Quartile Range)

fdlh Js.kh ds r`rh; prqFkZd ,oe~ izFke prqFkZd ds vUrj ds vk/s dks prqFkZd fopyu vFkok vZ&vUrj prqFkZd foLrkj dgrs gSaA prqFkZd fopyu
Q.D. = Q3 Q1 2

Q.D. = prqFkZd fopyu (Quartile Deviation) Q3 = r`rh; prqFkZd (Third Quartile) Q1 = izFke prqFkZd (First Quartile)

prqFkZd&fopyu dk xq.kkad

Q3 Q1 Q3 + Q1

4-

ek; fopyu (Mean Deviation)


ek; fopyu Js.kh ds fdlh ek; (tSl& ek;] e;dk ;k Hkwf;"Bd) ls Kkr fd, x, s fofHkUu ewY;ksa dk lekUrj ek; gSA fo'ks"kr;k bls e;dk ls Kkr fd;k tkrk gSA ek; fopyu ds x.kuk lw=k&

O;fDrxr Js.kh

[f.Mr Js.kh

v[kf.Mr Js.kh

M.D. =

|D| N

M.D. =

f |D| N

M.D. =

f |D| N

38

Economics (Hindi) XI

tgka] M.D. = ek; fopyu (Mean Deviation)


|D| = + ,oe~ & fpUgksa dks ;ku esa u j[krs

ek; ;k ekf;dk ls fopyu


N f = enksa dh la[;k (No. of Items) = vko`fk;ksa dh la[;k
M.D. X or M or Z

ek; & fopyu xq.kkad (Coefficient of M.D.) =

izeki&fopyu (Standard Deviation)


vifdj.k dks ekius ds fy, izeki fopyu dk lcls vf/d iz;ksx fd;k tkrk gSA fdlh Js.kh ds lekUrj ek; ls Kkr fd, x, muds fofHkUu ewY;ksa ds fopyu ds oxks ds ek; dk oxZewy izeki fopyu dgykrk gSA

O;fDrxr Js.kh esa izeki fopyu dh x.kuk % izR;{k fof/; okLrfod lekarj ek; fof/
N

x2

tgka] dx 2 = dkYifud ek; ls fy, x;s fopyuksa dk oxZ

[kf.Mr Js.kh esa izeki fopyu dh x.kuk


izR;{k fof/ (Direct Method)

f 2 N

dx 2 N

tgka]

= izeki fopyu (StandardDeviation) = fopyuksa dk oxZ (Square of Deviation taken from mean) N = enksa dh la[;k (No. of Items) y?kq fof/ (Short method)
dx N
2

39

Economics (Hindi) XI

fx 2

in fopyu fof/%

v[kf.Mr Js.kh esa izeki fopyu dh x.kuk


fopj.k xq.kkad (Co efficient of Variation)


nks ;k nks ls vf/d Jsf.k;ksa esa rqyukRed v;;u ds fy, fopj.k dk xq.kkad Kkr fd;k tkrk gSA fopj.k xq.kkad] izeki fopyu rFkk lekarj ek; ds chp lac/ dks izfr'kr ds :i esa O;Dr a djrk gSA

C.V. = fopyu dk xq.kkad = izeki fopyu

X =

lekUrj ek;
40 Economics (Hindi) XI

C.V. =

100

in fopyu fof/

fd'2 N

y?kq fof/ %

izR;{k fof/ %

f 2 N
2

fd2 N

fd N

fd'2 N

fd2 N

fd N

fd' 2 N

fd' N

tgka]

= izeki fopkyu (StandardDeviation) = fopyuksa ds oxks dks lacaf/r vko`fk ls xq.kk djds izkIr ;ksx N = enksa dh la[;k (No. of Items) y?kq fof/ (Short method)

ykWjst o (Lorenz Curve) a


MkW- ykWjst }kjk loZizFke iz;ksx esa yk;h x;h vifdj.k dks iznf'kZr djus dh ,d xzkiQh; fof/ a gSA ykWjst o leku forj.k js[kk ls ftruh vf/d nwjh ij gksxk] forj.k esa mruh gh vf/d a vlekurk gksxh] blds foijhr o leku forj.k js[kk ds ftruk ikl esa gksxk] forj.k esa mruh gh de vlekurk gksxhA ;g o ,d lap;h izfr'kr o (Cumulative Percentage Curve) gSA

41

Economics (Hindi) XI

,d vad okys iz'u


123456789101112131415vUrj&prqFkZd foLrkj D;k gS\ fopj.k xq.kkad Kkr djus dk lw=k D;k gS\ ykWjst o D;k gS\ a foLrkj dh x.kuk dhft,A 22] 35] 32] 45] 42] 48] 39 vifdj.k dks ekius ds fy, fdl xzkiQh; fof/ dk iz;ksx djrs gSa\ vifdj.k dk D;k vFkZ gS\ ek; fopyu xq.kkad dh x.kuk dSls dh tkrh gS\ vifdj.k dk dkSu&lk eki chp ds 50 izfr'kr ewY;ksa ls lacaf/r gS\ ek; fopyu dk dksbZ ,d izeq[k nks"k crkb;s\ vifdj.k ds eki dh lkisf{kd eki D;k gS\ lkeku forj.k dh js[kk ls vki D;k le>rs gSa\ foLrkj ds nks nks"k crkb;sA vifdj.k dk lcls T;knk iz;Dr vkSj lokske eki dkSu&lk gS\ q Z prqFkZd fopyu Kkr djus dk lw=k fyf[k;s foLrkj ds nks iz;ksx crkb;sA

y?kq mkjh; iz'u (3&4 vad)


12345vifdj.k ds izeq[k eki D;k gSa\ ek; fopyu ds dksbZ nks xq.k o nks nks"k crkb;sA ek; fopyu o izeki fopyu ds chp varj crkb;sA vifdj.k ls vki D;k le>rs gSa\ vifdj.k ds eki ds fofHkUu fof/;ksa dk o.kZu dhft,A vifdj.k ds ekiksa ds :i esa foLrkj] ek;&fopyu ,oe~ izeki fopyu ds lkisf{kd xq.kksa dk foospu dhft,A
42 Economics (Hindi) XI

6-

fuEufyf[kr vkdM+kas ls foLrkj ,oe~ foLrkj xq.kkad Kkr dhft,A vad& 10 20 30 40 50 fo|kfFkZ;ksa dh la[;k 8 12 7 30 10 (foLrkj 60 vad] foLrkj xq.kkad 0-75) 60 5 70 2

7-

fuEufyf[kr vkdM+kas ls prqFkZd fopyu o mldk xq.kkad Kkr dhft,A jksy uavad 1 2 3 20 28 40 (prqFkZd fopyu 12-5 (prqFkZd fopyu xq.kkad 4 12 vad) 0-45) 5 30 6 15 7 50

8-

fuEufyf[kr vkdM+kas ls e;dk ls ek; fopyu o xq.kkad Kkr dhft,A 100] 150] 80] 90] 160] 200] 140
(Mean Deviation from median = 34.28) (Coefficient of Mean Deviation = 0.74)

9-

fuEufyf[kr vkdM+kas ls prqFkZd fopyu Kkr dhft,%


X (ls de) %

vko`fk

200 300 400 8 20 40 (prqFkZd fopyu xq.kkad 0-24) 3 3 4 5 6 7 22 60 (izeki fopyu 1-149)

500 46

600 50

10-

fuEufyf[kr vkdM+kas ls izeki fopyu Kkr dhft,A lkbZt % vko`fk % 7 85 8 32 9 8

11-

fuEu Js.kh ls izeki fopyu Kkr dhft,A Js.kh % vko`fk % 0&10 2 10&20 20&30 30&40 40&50 4 6 6 6 (izeki fopyu 15-81) 50&60 4 60&70 2

12-

fuEu lkfj.kh nks iSQfDV;ksa ds dfeZ;ksa dh nSfud etnwjh iznf'kZr djrh gSA nksuksa iSQfDV;ksa ds fy, ykWjst o cukb;s % a nSfud vk; (#-) iSQDVh (v) iSQDVh (c) 0&100 8 15 100&200 7 6
43

200&300 5 2

300&400 3 1

400&500 2 1

Economics (Hindi) XI

13-

nks daifu;ksa X vkSj Y dh 'ks;j dhers uhps nh gqbZ gSa] nksuksa esa ls dkSu lh daiuh vf/d fLFkj gS\ daiuh X : daiuh Y : 25 10 50 70 45 50 30 20 70 95 42 55 36 42 48 60 34 48 60 80

(X daiuh ds 'ks;j ewY;ksa dk fopj.k xq.kkad 29-72 Y daiuh ds 'ks;j ewY;ksa dk fopj.k xq.kkad 45-94 vr% X daiuh ds 'ks;j ewY; T;knk fLFkj gSA) 14fuEu vkdM+kas ls fopj.k xq.kkad Kkr dhft,& en (X) % vko`fk (F) % 15181710 10 11 25 12 15 13 5 14 15 15 20 16 10

(ek; 12-9 izeki fopyu 1-997 fopj.k xq.kkad 15-5) x.kuk ds vk/kj ij foLrkj] prqFkZd fopj.k] ek; fopyu vkSj izeki fopyu ds chp rqyuk dhft,A ek; fopyu ls D;k le>rs gks\ ,d O;fDrxr Js.kh ds fy, ek; fopyu Kkr djus ds fy, iz;Dr izeq[k lksikuksa dks crkb,A q in fopyu fof/ ls fuEufyf[kr vkdM+kas ls izeki fopyu Kkr dhft,A en (X) % vko`fk (F) % 0&10 2 10&20 3 20&30 4 30&40 1 (

9-165)

44

Economics (Hindi) XI

fucU/kRed iz'u (5 vad)


12345foLrkj ds xq.kks] nks"kksa ,oe~ mi;ksxksa dh O;k[;k dhft,A a ykWjst o D;k gS\ ykWjst o dh jpuk esa yxus okys izeq[k lksikuksa ds ckjs esa crkb;sA a a ek; fopyu ls D;k le>rs gSa\ ;g fdl rjg ls foLrkj vkSj prqFkZd foLrkj ls ,d csgrj eki gS\ vifdj.k ls vki D;k le>rs gSa\ vifdj.k dks ekius dh fofHkUu fof/;ksa dk mYys[k dhft,A fuEufyf[kr vkdM+kas ls foLrkj o foLrkj xq.kkad Kkr dhft,A vk;q o"kks esa % 5&10 10&15 15&20 20&25 vko`fk % 10 15 20 5 (foLrkj 20 foLrkj xq.kkad 0-67) fuEufyf[kr Js.kh ls prqFkZd fopyu] vUrj prqFkZd foLrkj o prqFkZd fopyu xq.kkad Kkr dhft,A yEckbZ (bap) esa % 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 Nk=kksa dh la[;k % 2 3 6 15 10 5 4 3 1 (prqFkZd fopyu 1] varj prqFkZd fopyu 2 prqFkZd fopyu xq.kkad 0-016 e;dk ls ek; fopyu Kkr dhft, iQyksa dh izfr ikS/ la[;k % 0 1 ikS/ksa dh la[;k % 2 5 2 7 3 4 5 6 11 18 24 12 7 8 8 6 9 4 10 3

6-

7-

(ek; 5] ek; fopyu 1-68) 8,d d{kk ijh{kk esa 100 Nk=kksa }kjk izkIr vadksa ls e;dk ls ek; fopyu Kkr dhft,% vad % 60&63 63&66 66&69 69&72 72&75 fo|kfFkZ;ksa dh la[;k % 5 18 42 27 8 (ek; fopyu 2-26) fuEufyf[kr vkdM+kas ls vZ&vUrj prqFkZd foLrkj o xq.kd Kkr dhft,A vad % 0&10 10&20 20&30 30&40 40&50 50&60 60&70 fo|kfFkZ;ksa dh la[;k % 4 8 11 15 12 6 3 (prqFkZd fopyu 11-55) (prqFkZd fopyu xq.kkad 0-337)
45 Economics (Hindi) XI

9-

10-

fuEufyf[kr vkdM+kas ls izeki fopyu Kkr dhft,% 5] 8] 7] 11] 14


(S.D = 3.16)

11-

nks Jsf.k;ksa dk fopj.k xq.kkad e'k % 58 o 69 rFkk mudk izeki fopyu e'k% 212 vkSj 15-6 gSA budk ek; Kkr dhft,A (ek; ( X ) = 36.35 o 22.50) fuEu fn;s x;s nks dk;ZdrkZvksa ds vkdM+kas ls vf/d laxr dk;ZdrkZ dks Kkr dhft,A dk;Z lekIr djus esa yxk vkSlr le; (feuV) izeki fopyu
A B

12-

40 8

42 6

(^B* dk;ZdrkZ t;knk laxr gS D;ksfd bldk fopj.k xq.kkad (14-29) a ^A* dk;ZdrkZ ls (20) de gS)

46

Economics (Hindi) XI

,d vad okys iz'u


1234vUrj prqFkZd foLrkj r`rh; prqFkZd ,oe~ izFke prqFkZd dk varj gksrk gSA
x

ykWjst o vifdj.k dks iznf'kZr djus okyh ,d xzkiQh; fof/ gSA a foLrkj lcls cM+k ewY; 48 26 & & lcls NksVk ewY; 22

567891011-

vifdj.k dks ekius ds fy, ykWjst o fof/ dk iz;ksx fd;k tkrk gSA a fdlh Js.kh esa dsUnzh; ek;ksa ls leadks ds foLrkj ds eki dks vifdj.k dgrs gSaA

ek; fopyu =

varj prqFkZd foLrkj vifdj.k ds lkis{k eki dks vuqikr ;k izfr'kr esa O;Dr fd;k tkrk gSA ykWjst o dh jpuk esa X&v{k ij iznf'kZr ^0* fcUnq dks Y&v{k ij iznf'kZr ^100* ds a fcUnq ls feykdj ,d lh/h js[kk izkIr dh tkrh gS] ;g js[kk leku forj.k dh js[kk dgykrh gSA foLrkj ds nks"k% (i) ;g Js.kh ds lHkh ewY;ksa ij vk/kfjr ugha gSA (ii) ;g nks pje inksa ls dkiQh izHkkfor jgrk gSA lokske vkSj lcls vf/d iz;ksx esa vkus okyk vifdj.k dh eki izeki fopyu gSA Z prqFkZd fopyu
= Q3 Q1 2

ek; fopyu dk izeq[k nks"k bldk

12-

131415-

foLrkj ds nks iz;ksx &

fopj.k xq.kkad =

100

f | D| N

fpUgksa dks R;kxuk gSA

(i)

xq.kokk fu;U=k.k

(ii) fofHkUu njksa tSls O;kt] fofue;] 'ks;jksa esa ifjoZru dh ekiA

47

Economics (Hindi) XI

;wfuV&3
v;k;&6

lkaf[;dh; midj.k vkSj fuoZpu


lglEca/
Lej.kh; fcanq %
u

lglaca/ ,d lkaf[;dh; midj.k gS tks nks pjksa ds e; laca/ dk v;;u djrk gSA mnkgj.kkFkZ] ewY; esa ifjorZu ls oLrq dh ekaxh x;h ek=kk esa ifjorZu gksukA lglaca/ pjksa ds chp laca/ksa dh xgurk ,oa fn'kk dk v;;u ,oa ekiu djrk gSA lglaca/ lg&izlj.k dk ekiu djrk gS u fd dk;Zdkj.k laca/ dkA lglaca/ ds izdkj % lglac/ dks vkerkSj ij /ukRed ;k .kkRed lglaca/ ds :i esa a oxhZd`r fd;k tkrk gSA tc pjksa esa ifjorZu ,d gh fn'kk dh vksj gksrk gS rks mls /ukRed lglaca/ dgk tkrk gSA mnkgj.kkFkZ] vkblhe dh fch vkSj rkieku] oLrq dh dher vkSj iwfrZ esa /ukRed lglaca/ gSA tc pjksa esa ifjorZu foijhr fn'kk dh vksj gksrk gS rks mls .kkRed lglaca/ dgk tkrk gSA mnkgj.kkFkZ] dher vkSj ekax dk laca/A

/ukRed lglaca/ ds mnkgj.k gS% d) oLrq dh dher vkSj iwfrZ dh ek=kk [k) yackbZ esa o`f ls otu esa o`f x) ifr o iRuh dh vk;q ?k) ifjokj dh vk; esa o`f ls foykflrk dh oLrqvksa ds mQij [kpZ esa o`f
48 Economics (Hindi) XI

.kkRed lglaca/ ds mnkgj.k gSa% d) rkieku esa o`f ls xeZ diM+kas dh fch esa deh [k) ewY; esa o`f ls oLrq dh ekax esa deh x) vR;f/d d`f"k mit ls dherksa esa deh ?k) i<+kbZ esa de le; yxkus ls vuqkh.kZ gksus dh vf/d lEHkkouk

lglaca/ ds ifjek.k ifjek.k iw.kZ mPp e;e fuEu 'kwU; /ukRed .kkRed $1 &1 $0-75 vkSj $1 ds chp &0-75 vkSj &1 ds chp $0-25 vkSj $0-75 ds chp &0-25 vkSj &0-75 ds chp 0 vkSj $0-25 ds chp 0 vkSj &0-25 ds chp 0 0

lglaca/ dks Kkr djus dh fof/;ka d) izdh.kZ vkjs[k [k) dkyZ fi;jlu dk lglac/ xq.kkad a x) Lih;jeSu dk dksfV lglac/ a

u u

izdh.kZ vkjs[k lglac/ dh ek=kk rFkk fn'kk dks xzkiQ ij n'kkZrk gSA a dkyZ fi;jlu dk lglac/ xq.kkad nks pjksa ds chp ds js[kh; laca/ksa dk la[;kRed ekiu a djrk gSA dkyZ fi;jlu ds lglac/ xq.kkad dks xq.ku vk?kw.kZ lglac/ Hkh dgrs gSaA a a
r =

tgka]

r = lg laca/ xq.kkad
x = (X X) y = (Y Y)

x =x y =y

N = voyksduksa dh la[;k
49 Economics (Hindi) XI

lw=k %

xy N x y

Js.kh dk ekud fopyu Js.kh dk ekud fopyu

dkyZ fi;jlu ds lglac/ xq.kkad dh x.kuk fuEufyf[kr fof/;ksa }kjk dh tkrh gS% a
r =

xy

x2 .

y2

tgka]

r = lglaca/ xq.kkad
x = (X X) y = (Y Y)

[k) dfYir ek; fof/%


r

dx .dy

(;k)

N . dx .dy ( dx ) ( dy )

N . dx 2

( dx )2 N . dy 2

( dy )2

tgka]

r = dkyZ fi;jlu dk lglac/ xq.kkad a dx = x & Js.kh ds enksa dk muds dfYir ek; ls fopyu = (X&A) dy = y & Js.kh ds enksa dk muds dfYir ek; ls fopyu dx.dy = dx vkSj dy ds xq.kuiQyksa dk ;ksx dx2 = dx ds oxks dk ;ksx dy2 = dy ds oxks dk ;ksx dx = x & Js.kh ds fopyuksa dk ;ksx dy = y & Js.kh ds fopyuksa dk ;ksx N = voyksduksa dh la[;k

50

dx 2

( dx )2 N

dy2

d) okLrfod ek; fof/%

( dx ) ( dy ) N ( dy )2 N

Economics (Hindi) XI

x) in fopyu fof/%

N . dx '.dy ' ( dx ') ( dy ') N . dx '2 ( dx ')2 N . dy '2 ( dy )2


vFkkZr~

tgka]
dx' = dy' =
dx c1 dy c2

c1 = x & Js.kh dk ,d mHk;fu"B xq.ku[k.M c2 = y & Js.kh dk ,d mHk;fu"B xq.ku[k.M


u

lglaca/ xq.kkad (r) dks xq.k


(i) (ii)

lglaca/ xq.kkad (r) dh dksbZ bdkbZ ugha gksrh gSA


r dk .kkRed eku izfrykse laca/ n'kkZrk gSA r dk eku &1 vkSj $1 ds chp fLFkr gksrk gSA vFkkZr~ &1< r <1

(iii) ;fn r dk eku /ukRed gS rks nksuksa pj ,d gh fn'kk esa xfreku gksrs gSaA (iv) (v) (vi)

;fn r = 0, rks nks pj vlglacf/r gksrs gSaA a ;fn r = +1, ;k r = &1 rks lglaca/ iw.kZ gksrk gSA n'kkZrk gSA

(vii) r dk mPp eku lqn`<+ js[kh; laca/ n'kkZrk gS rFkk fuEu eku nqcy js[kh; laca/ Z (viii) r dk mPp eku mn~xe ifjorZu ;k iSekus ds ifjorZu ls izHkkfor ugha gksrk gSA

;fn nks pj X rFkk Y fn;s x;s gksa rks nks u;s pjksa dks bl izdkj ifjHkkf"kr fd;k tk ldrk gS%
U=
XA YC V= B D

;gka] A vkSj C e'k% X vkSj Y ds dfYir eku gSa rFkk B vkSj D lekiorZd gSaA vr%
rxy = rUV
u

Lih;jeSu dh dksfV lglac/ fof/ dk iz;ksx xq.kkRed pjksa tSls lqanjrk] ohjrk] cqfekk] a ;ksX;rk vkfn ds lglac/ xq.kkad Kkr djus esa fd;k tkrk gSA a
51 Economics (Hindi) XI

rs = 1

tgka]

rs = dksfV lglaca/ xq.kkad D = dksfV vUrj N = voyksduksa dh la[;k

gS%

tc dksfV;ksa (Ranks) dks nksgjk;k tkrk gS rks fuEufyf[kr lw=k dk iz;ksx fd;k tkrk

rs = 1

tgka] m1, m2, ................, dksfV;ksa dh la[;k gS ftUgsa nqgjk;k x;k gSA

52

N3 N

Economics (Hindi) XI

lw=k %

6 D2 N3 N

(m 3m ) D2 + 1 12 1

(m 3m ) 2 2 + ............ 12

vfr y?kq mkj :ih iz'u


,d vad okys iz'u
1234567891011121314lglaca/ ls vki D;k le>rs gSa\ dqN ,sls pjksa dh lwph nks ftudk ifj'kq ekiu dfBu gksA .kkRed lglaca/ D;k gS\ /ukRed lglaca/ dk vFkZ crkb;sA lk/kj.k lglaca/ xq.kkad dk ijkl crkb;s ml izdkj ds lglac/ dk uke crkb;s tc nks pjksa esa leku vuqikr esa ifjorZu gksrk gSA a /ukRed lglaca/ ds nks mnkgj.k nhft,A izdh.kZ vkjs[k fof/ dk eq[; voxq.k crkb;s .kkRed lglaca/ ds nks mnkgj.k nhft,A dksfV lglaca/ xq.kkad fof/ dk iz;ksx dc fd;k tkrk gS\ lglaca/ Kkr djus dh fofHkUu fof/;ksa ds uke nhft,A Lih;jeSu ds dksfV lglac/ fof/ dk eq[; voxq.k D;k gS\ a dkyZ fi;jlu ds lglac/ xq.kkad dk eq[; nks"k crkb;sA a ;fn rxy = 0 rc pj x vkSj y ds chp laca/
(i)

js[kh; laca/ gksxk

(ii) js[kh; laca/ ugha gksxk (iii) Lora=k gksxk

1516-

dn (iqQVksa es) rFkk otu (fd-xzk- es) ds chp lglac/ xq.kkad dh bdkbZ gS% a a a
(i)

fd-xzke@iqQV

(ii) izfr'kr

(iii) vfo|eku

lglaca/ ekius dh dkSu lh fof/ fdlh Hkh izdkj ds laca/ dh eki dj ldrh gSA

53

Economics (Hindi) XI

y?kq mkj :ih iz'u


3@4 vad okys iz'u
123lglaca/ ls D;k vk'k; gS\ lglac/ xq.kkad ds xq.k crkb;sA a
r (lglac/ xq.kkad) ds fofHkUu ekuksa +1, &1 rFkk 0 dh O;k[;k djsA a a X vkSj Y ds e; lglaca/ xq.kkad dh x.kuk djsa vkSj muds laca/ ij fVIi.kh djsA a X Y

&3 9

&2 4

&1 1

1 1

2 4

3 9

(mkj r = 0)

4-

X vkSj Y ds e; lglaca/ xq.kkad dh x.kuk djsa vkSj muds laca/ ij fVIi.kh dhft,A X Y

1 2

3 6

4 8

5 10

7 14

8 16

(mkj r = 1) 14 11

5-

fuEufyf[kr vkdM+kas ls izdh.kZ vkjs[k cukb, vkSj ifj.kke ij fVIi.kh dhft,A X 11 10 15 13 10 16 13 8 17 Y 6 7 9 9 7 11 9 6 12

6-

fuEufyf[kr vkdM+kas ls dkyZ fi;jlu ds lglac/ xq.kkad dh x.kuk dhft,% a X 15 18 21 24 27 30 36 39 42 48 Y 25 25 27 27 31 33 35 41 41 45 (mkj r = 0.98) fuEufyf[kr vkdM+kas ls X vkSj Y ds e; xq.ku vk?kw.kZ lglac/ dh x.kuk dhft,A a XJs.kh YJs.kh d) enksa dh la[;k 15 15 [k) lekUrj ek; 25 18 x) lekUrj ek; ls fy, fopyuksa dk oxZ 136 138 ?k) X vkSj Y Js.kh ds muds e'k% lekUrj ek; ls izkIr fopyuksa ds xq.kuiQyksa dk ;ksx = 122 (mkj r = 0.89) X vkSj Y Js.kh ds voyksdu ds tksMksa dh la[;k = 10 + XJs.kh % lekUrj ek; = 65 izeki fopyu (S.D.) = 23-33
54 Economics (Hindi) XI

7-

8-

YJs.kh

9-

lekUrj ek; = 66 izeki fopyu = 14-9 X rFkk Y Js.kh esa buds lekUrj ek; ls fy, fopyuksa ds xq.kuiQy dk ;ksx = +2704 X rFkk Y dk xq.ku vk?kw.kZ lglac/ Kkr dhft,A a (mkj r = + 0.78) fuEufyf[kr vkdM+kas ls Lih;jeSu ds dksfV lglac/ xq.kkad dh x.kuk dhft,% a X 10 12 8 15 20 25 40 Y 15 10 6 25 16 12 8 (mkj r = + 0.14) ,d lkSn;Z izfr;ksfxrk esa nks fu.kkZ;dksa us 12 izfrHkkfx;ksa dks fuEufyf[kr dksfV&e iznku a fd;s% X 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 Y 12 9 6 10 3 5 4 7 8 2 11 1 dksfV lglaca/ xq.kkad Kkr dhft,A (mkj r = 0.45) fuEufyf[kr vkdM+kas ls dksfV lglac/ xq.kkad dk ifjdyu dhft,% a X 68 75 90 75 50 62 40 35 Y 10 12 14 10 10 13 9 8 (mkj r = + 0.76) D;k lglaca/ ds }kjk dk;Zdkj.k laca/ dh tkudkjh feyrh gS\ D;k 'kwU; lglaca/ dk vFkZ Lora=krk gS\ dkyZ fi;jlu lg laca/ xq.kkad ls dksfV lglac/ xq.kkad D;ksa fHkUu gksrk gS\ a ljy lglaca/ xq.kkad dh rqyuk esa dksfV lglac/ xq.kkad dc vf/d ifj'kq gksrk gS\ a

10-

11-

12131415-

55

Economics (Hindi) XI

nh?kZ mkj :ih iz'u


6 vad okys iz'u
12lglaca/ xq.kkad Kkr djus dh dkyZ fi;jlu fof/ dh O;k[;k dhft,A blds xq.kksa rFkk lhekvksa dk o.kZu dhft,A ,d lkSn;Z izfr;ksfxrk esa rhu fu.kkZ;dksa us 10 a fd,% fu.kkZ;d I 1 6 5 10 fu.kkZ;d II 3 5 8 4 fu.kkZ;d III 6 4 9 8 izfr;ksfx;ksa dks fuEufyf[kr dksfV e iznku 3 7 1 2 10 2 4 2 3 9 1 10 7 6 5 8 9 7
(Pairs

Lih;jeSu ds dksfV lglac/ xq.kkad }kjk ;g Kkr dhft, fd fu.kkZ;dksa ds fdl ;qXe a of Judges) dh lkSn;Z ds izfr lkekU; #fp gS\ a (mkj% 34rs I & II = 0.21 rs II & III = 0.29 rs I & III = +0.64) III

vr% I vkSj

ds fu.kkZ;dksa esa lgefr gSA)

dkyZ fi;jlu ds lglac/ xq.kkad dh rqyuk esa Lih;jeSu ds dksfV lglaca/ xq.kkad ds D;k a ykHk gSa\ Lih;jeSu ds dksfV lg&lac/ xq.kkad dh x.ku fof/ dh O;k[;k dhft,A a ,d d{kk ds 10 fo|kfFkZ;ksa dh yackbZ rFkk otu bl izdkj gSA ,d izdh.kZ vkjs[k cukb, rFkk ;g crkb;s fd laca/ /ukRed gS ;k .kkRedA yackbZ (bapksa es) a 72 60 63 66 70 75 58 78 72 62 otu (fd-xzk- es) 65 54 55 61 60 54 50 63 65 50 12 fo|kfFkZ;ksa }kjk xf.kr rFkk lkaf[;dh esa izkIrkadksa dk lglac/ xq.kkad Kkr dhft, rFkk a fuoZpu Hkh dhft,A vad (xf.kr es) a vad (lkaf[;dh es) a 50 54 56 59 60 62 61 65 67 71 71 74 22 25 34 28 26 30 32 30 28 34 36 40 (mkj %
r = +0.78)

5-

56

Economics (Hindi) XI

,d vad okys iz'u


1234567891011lglaca/ ,d lkaf[;dh; midj.k gS tks nks pjksa ds e; laca/ dk v;;u djrk gSA lqUnjrk] ohjrk] cqfekk] ;ksX;rk vkfnA tc pjksa esa ifjorZu foijhr fn'kk dh vksj gksrk gS rks mls .kkRed lglaca/ dgrs gSaA tc pjksa esa ifjorZu ,d gh fn'kk dh vksj gksrk gS rks mls /ukRed lglaca/ dgrs gSaA &1 < r < 1 iw.kZ lglaca/ d) oLrq dh dher vkSj iwfrZ dh ek=kk [k) yackbZ esa o`f vkSj otu esa o`f izdh.kZ vkjs[k lglac/ dk fuf'pr la[;kRed eku izLrqr ugha djrk gSA a d) rkieku esa o`f ls xeZ diM+kas dh fch esa dehA [k) vf/d d`f"k mit ls dherksa esa deh tc pj xq.kkRed izd`fr ds gksa tSl& lqUnjrk] bZekunkjh vkfnA s d) izdh.kZ vkjs[k fof/ [k) dkyZ fi;jlu dk lglac/ xq.kkad a x) Lih;jeSu dk dksfV lglac/ a 1213141516bl fof/ dk iz;ksx lkewfgd vko`fk forj.k esa lglac/ Kkr djus ds fy, ugha fd;k tk a ldrk gSA lglaca/ xq.kkad dk ewY; lhekUr enksa ls izHkkfor gksrk gSA Lora=k gksxkA vfo|eku dkyZ fi;jlu dk lglac/ xq.kkad a

57

Economics (Hindi) XI

;wfuV&3
v;k;&7

lwpdkad
Lej.kh; fcanq %
u

lwpdkad ,d lewg ls lacaf/r pj ewY;ksa ds vkdkj esa gksus okys ifjorZuksa dh eki djus dh ,d lkaf[;dh; fof/ gS lwpdkadksa dh fo'ks"krk,a % d) lwpdkadksa dks izfr'kr esa O;Dr fd;k tkrk gS rFkkfi izfr'kr fpUg () dk iz;ksx dHkh ugha fd;k tkrk gSA [k) lwpdkad vkdM+kas ds lewg ds lkis{k eki gksrs gSaA x) lwpdkad lacaf/r pjksa esa ifjorZu dk la[;kRed eki izLrqr djrs gSaA ?k) lwpdkad }kjk ifjorZuksa dks vkSlrksa ds :i esa O;Dr fd;k tkrk gSA

lwpdkadksa ds izdkj % d) Fkksd ewY; lwpdkad (WPI) [k) miHkksDrk ewY; lwpdkad (CPI) ;k thou fuokZg ykxr lwpdkad x) vkS|ksfxd mRiknu lwpdkad (IIP) ?k) d`f"k mRiknu lwpdkad (IAP)

58

Economics (Hindi) XI

) lsalsDl
u

lwpdkad fuekZ.k dh fof/;ka

lk/kj.k lwpdkad dh jpuk

Hkkfjr lwpdkad dh jpuk

ljy lewghdj.k fof/ Hkkfjr vkSlr ewY; vuqikr fof/


u

ljy vkSlr ewY; vuqikr fof/ Hkkfjr lewghdj.k fof/

ljy lewghdj.k fof/ %


P0

lw=k % ;gka]

P01 =

P1

P01 = orZeku o"kZ dk ewY; lwpdkad P0 = vk/kj o"kZ dh oLrqvksa ds ewY;ksa dk ;ksx

vk/kj o"kZ

% og o"kZ ftlls rqyuk djds orZeku (;k pkyw) o"kZ esa ifjorZu dks ekik tkrk gSA

pkyw (;k orZeku) o"kZ % og o"kZ gS ftlesa gksus okys vkSlr iforZu dks ekik tkuk gS ;k ftlds fy, lwpdkad rS;kj fd;k tkuk gSA

;gka]

P01 = pkyw o"kZ dk ewY; lwpdkad

P1 P0 = ewY;ksa dk vuqikr
59 Economics (Hindi) XI

ljy vkSlr ewY; vuqikr fof/ % P = 01

P 1 P 0

100

P1 = orZeku o"kZ dh fofHkUu oLrqvksa ds ewY;ksa dk ;ksx

100

N = oLrqvksa dh la[;k

Hkkfjr vkSlr ewY; vuqikr fof/%


P = o1

RW W

;gka]

P01 = pkyw o"kZ dk ewY; lwpdkad W R = Hkkj


Hkkfjr lewghdj.k fof/ %


dqN egRoiw.kZ lwpdkad d) miHkksDrk ewY; lwpdkad (CPI) ;g [kqnjk dherksa esa gksus okys vkSlr ifjorZu dks ekirk gSA bls thou fuokZg ykxr lwpdkad Hkh dgrs gSaA

miHkksDrk dher lwpdkadksa dh jpuk dh fof/;ka%

d) ikfjokfjd ctV fof/%


CPI =

WR W

[k) lewghd`r ctV fof/%

= Hkkj

CPR =

P1q0 P0q0

100
60 Economics (Hindi) XI

;gka]

R=

P1 P0

100

[k) ik'ps dh fof/% Po1 =

P1q1 P0 q1

d) ykLih;j dh fof/% Po1 =

= ewY; vuqikr vFkkZr~ P 0

P1

100

P1q 0 P0 q0

100

100

x) Fkksd dher lwpkdkad (WPI) %


WPI lkekU; dher Lrj esa gksus okys ifjorZu dks ekirk gSA

?k) vkS|ksfxd mRiknu lwpkdkad (IIP)% ;g vkS|ksfxd mRiknu ds Lrj esa gksus okyh lkisf{kd deh ;k o`f dks ekius ds fy, iz;Dr fd;k tkrk gS q

IIP = o1

;gka]

IIP01 = pkyw o"kZ esa vkS|ksfxd mRiknu lwpdkad q1 q0 W = pkyw o"kZ esa mRiknu Lrj = vk/kj o"kZ esa mRiknu Lrj = Hkkj ;k fofHkUu vkS|ksfxd mRiknu dk lkisf{kd egRo

) d`f"k mRiknu lwpkdkad (IAP)% bl lwpdkad dk iz;ksx] ,d le;kof/ ls nwljh le;kof/ ds chp izeq[k iQlyksa ds mRiknu esa gksus okys mrkj p<+ko ds v;;u ds fy, fd;k tkrk gSA p) lsalsDl % ;g ckWEcs LVkWd ,Dlpst laonh lwpdkad dk laf{kIr :i gS ftldk vk/kj a s o"kZ 1978&79 gSA ;g Hkkjrh; LVkWd ekdsZV ds fy, eq[; funs'k fpUg lwpdkad gSA Z blds varxZr 30 LVkWd gS] tks vFkZ O;oLFkk ds 13 {ks=kdksa dk izfrfuf/Ro djrs gSa rFkk lwphc daifu;ka vius&vius m|ksxksa esa vxz.kh gSaA
u

lwpdkadksa dh jpuk esa dfBukbZ;ka ;k leL;k,a % ( i) lwpdkad dk mn~ns'; ( ii) vk/kj o"kZ dk pquko ( iii) enksa dk pquko (iv ) enksa (vFkkZr~ oLrqvksa vkSj lsokvks) dh dherksa dk pquko a (v) Hkkjkadu dh fof/ dk pquko (vi) vkSlr dk pquko (vii) vkdM+kas ds ksr dk pquko ( viii)lwpdkad Kkr djus dh fof/ dk pquko
61 Economics (Hindi) XI

q1 q0

lwpdkadksa ds mi;ksx % ( i) eqnzk dh ; 'kfDr dk ekiu ( ii) thou Lrj esa ifjorZu dk Kku ( iii) osru ,oa Hkkksa esa leUo; (iv ) mi;qDr uhfr fu/kZj.k esa lgk;d (v) vkfFkZd cSjksehVj ds :i esa

eqnzk LiQhfr vkSj lwpdkad% ( i) eqnzk LiQhfr ls vfHkizk; ml fLFkfr ls gS ftlesa lkekU; dher Lrj esa fujarj rFkk Li"V o`f gksrh gSA

( ii) lkekU;r;k] eqnzkLiQhfr dh x.kuk Fkksd ewY; lwpdkad ds vk/kj ij dh tkrh gSA
A1

( iii) eqnzkLiQhfr dh nj = ;gka]


A1 A2

A 2 A1

100

= izFke lIrkg ds fy, Fkksd ewY; lwpdkad (WPI) = nwljs lIrkg ds fy, WPI

62

Economics (Hindi) XI

,d vad okys iz'u


1234567891011121314151617181920212223lwpdkad ls vki D;k le>rs gSa\ dher lwpdkadksa dh nks eq[; Jsf.k;ka crkb,A vk/kj o"kZ dks ifjHkkf"kr djsA a nks miHkksDrk lewgksa ds uke nhft, ftuds fy, miHkksDrk dher lwpdkad cuk, tkrs gSaA ewY; vuqikr D;k gS\ Hkkfjr lwpdkad Kkr djus ds fy, ykLih;j dk lw=k crkb,A gesa dqN egRoiw.kZ lwpdkad tSl& CIP, WPI, IIP etc. dgka ls fey ldrs gSa\ s vkS|ksfxd mRiknu lwpdkad Kkr djus dk lw=k fyf[k,A Hkkjr esa fdrus izdkj ds miHkksDrk ewY; lwpdkad cuk, tkrs gSa\ pkyw o"kZ dh ifjHkk"kk nsA a lk/kj.k lwpdkad vkSj Hkkfjr lwpdkad esa eq[; varj D;k gSa\ eqnzk LiQhfr dh nj Kkr djus dk lw=k fyf[k,A dher lwpdkad dks n'kkZus ds fy, fdl fpUg dk iz;ksx fd;k tkrk gS\ Fkksd ewY; lwpdkad D;k ekirk gS\ Hkkfjr lwpdkad Kkr djus ds fy, ik'ps dk lw=k fyf[k,A fdl lwpdkad dks fuokZg ykxr lwpdkad ds uke ls tkuk tkrk gS\ Fkksd ewY; lwpdkad esa izkFkfed oLrqvksa ds Hkkj dk mYys[k dhft,A Fkksd dher lwpdkad ds fy, lHkh oLrqvksa dks fdrus lewgksa esa oxhZd`r fd;k x;k gSA vkS|ksfxd mRiknu lwpdkad esa fofHkUu lewgksa ds Hkkj dk mYys[k djksA lkekU;r% fdl lwpdkad dk iz;ksx eqnzkLiQhfr ds ekiu ds fy, fd;k tkrk gS\ vkS|ksfxd Jfedksa ds miHkksDrk dher lwpdkad esa fdl en dk Hkkj lokZf/d gS\ miHkksDrk dher lwpdkad fdl izdkj ds ifjorZu dks ekirk gS\ dkSu ls lwpdkad esa enksa dk lkisf{kd egRo gksrk gS\

63

Economics (Hindi) XI

3@4 vad okys iz'u


12345678910lwpdkadksa ds fuekZ.k esa rhu dfBukb;ksa dk o.kZu dhft,A vk/kj o"kZ ds okafNr xq.kksa dk o.kZu djsA a gesa lwpdkad dh vko';drk D;ksa gksrh gS\ eqnzkLiQhfr vkSj lwpdkad ij ,d laf{kIr fVIi.kh fyf[k,A fHkUu&fHkUu miHkksDrkvksa ds fy, fHkUu&fHkUu miHkksDrk lwpdkadksa dh vfuok;Zrk D;ksa gksrh gS\ miHkksDrk dher lwpdkadksa ds fuekZ.k esa dfBukb;ksa dk mYys[k dhft,A dher lwpdkad rFkk ek=kk lwpdkad esa D;k varj gS\ lwpdkad dks ifjHkkf"kr dhft,A bldh D;k mi;ksfxrk gSA vkS|ksfxd mRiknu lwpdkad ls fdldk vuqeku yxk;k tkrk gS\ lw=k Hkh crkb,A fuEufyf[kr vkdM+kas ls ljy lewghdj.k fof/ }kjk o"kZ 1994 dks vk/kj o"kZ ekudj o"kZ 2004 ds fy, dher lwpdkad dh x.kuk djsa % oLrq,a A B C D E o"kZ 1994 esa dhersa (#i;s es) a 100 40 10 60 90 o"kZ 2004 esa dhersa (#i;s es) a 140 60 20 70 100 (mkj% 130) vxzfyf[kr vkdM+kas ls o"kZ 2000 dks vk/kj o"kZ eku o"kZ 2005 ds fy, ljy vkSlr ewY; vuqikr fof/ }kjk ,d lwpdkad dk fuekZ.k dhft,% oLrq,a A B C D E o"kZ 2000 esa dhersa (#i;s es) a 100 80 160 220 40 o"kZ 2005 esa dhersa (#i;s es) a 140 120 180 240 40 (mkj% 122-32) o"kZ 2004 dks vk/kj o"kZ ekudj o"kZ 2010 ds fy, Hkkfjr vkSlr ewY; vuqikr fof/ }kjk vxzfyf[kr vkdM+kas ls Hkkfjr lwpdkad dh x.kuk dhft,A o"kZ 2004 esa o"kZ 2010 esa oLrq,a Hkkj dhers (#-) dhers (#-) xsgaw 20 20 35 pkoy 12 15 18 nw/ 8 10 11 ?kh 4 5 5 'kDdj 6 4 5 (mkj% 139-4)
64 Economics (Hindi) XI

11-

12-

13-

ykLih;j dh fof/ dk iz;ksx djrs djsa% oLrq,a vk/kj o"kZ dher (#-) ek=kk A 8 B 4 C 10 D 12 E 3

gq, fuEufyf[kr vkdM+kas ls dher lwpdkad dh x.kuk pkyw o"kZ dher (#-) ek=kk (bdkb;ka) 10 120 5 80 12 25 15 30 4 6 (mkj% 124-44) pkyw o"kZ dher (#-) ek=kk (bdkb;ka) 6 3 2 1 4 6 (mkj% 69-84)

(bdkb;ka) 100 60 20 25 5

14-

fuEufyf[kr vkdM+kas ls ik'ps ds dher lwpdkad dh x.kuk dhft,% oLrq,a


A B C

vk/kj o"kZ dher (#-) ek=kk (bdkb;ka) 4 2 3 5 8 2

15-

fdlh 'kgj esa ,d e;oxhZ; ikfjokfjd ctV esa tkap&iM+rky ls fuEufyf[kr tkudkjh izkIr gksrh gS% enksa ij O;; [kk| inkFkZ b/u diM+k fdjk;k fofo/ 35 10 20 15 20 2004 esa dher (#- es) a 1500 250 750 300 400 1995 esa dher (#- es) a 1400 200 500 200 250 1995 dh rqyuk esa 2004 dk fuokZg lwpdkad dk eku D;k gksxk\ (mkj% 134-49) Hkkj 45 15 20 5 15 (mkj% 253-5)

16-

uhps fn, x;s vkdM+kas ls miHkksDrk dher lwpdkad dk fuekZ.k dhft,% oLrq,a ewY; vuqikr [kk| 250 fdjk;k 150 diM+k 320 b/u vkSj izdk'k 190 fofo/ 300
65

Economics (Hindi) XI

6 vad okys iz'u


12345lwpdkadksa ds fuekZ.k esa fufgr dfBukbZ;ksa dk o.kZu dhft,A lwpdkadksa ds fofHkUu mi;ksxksa dk o.kZu dhft,A lwpdkadksa dh eq[; fo'ks"krkvksa dh O;k[;k dhft,A Fkksd dher lwpdkad dk vFkZ crkb,A bldh mi;ksfxrk dk Hkh o.kZu djsA a fuEufyf[kr ij laf{kIr fVIi.kh fyf[k, % d) vk/kj o"kZ [k) miHkksDrk dher lwpdkad x) Fkksd dher lwpdkad ?k) vkS|ksfxd mRiknu lwpdkad 67lwpdkadksa ls D;k vk'k; gS\ lwpdkadksa ds egRo dk o.kZu dhft,A fuEufyf[kr vkdM+kas ls fuokZg ykxr lwpdkad dh x.kuk dhft, % ensa pkoy nkysa rsy diM+k fdjk;k fofo/ 8pkyw o"kZ esa miHkksx dh ek=kk 2-5 Qt. 12 3 Kg. 12 2l 12 6 metres 12 12 eghus 12 eghuksa dk O;;

vk/kj o"kZ esa dher (#- izfr bdkbZ) 12 0-4 1-5 0-75 20 #i;k izfr ekg 10 #i;k izfr ekg

pkyw o"kZ esa dher (#- izfr bdkbZ) 25 0-6 2-2 10 30 #i;k izfr ekg 15 #i;k izfr ekg (mkj% 252-8)

miHkksDrk dher lwpdkad dks ifjHkkf"kr dhft,A miHkksDrk dher lwpdkadksa ds egRo dh O;k[;k dhft,A

66

Economics (Hindi) XI

1 vad okys iz'uksa mkj


123456789lwpdkad ,d lewg ls lacaf/r pj ewY;ksa ds vkdkj esa gksus okys ifjorZuksa dh eki djus dh ,d fof/ gSA d) lk/kj.k lwpdkad [k) Hkkfjr lwpdkad og o"kZ ftlls rqyuk djds orZeku o"kZ esa ifjorZu dks ekik tkrk gSA d) vkS|ksfxd Jfedksa ds fy, miHkksDrk dher lwpdkad & CPI (IW) [k) 'kgjh xSj 'kkjhfjd deZpkfj;ksa ds fy;s miHkksDrk dher lwpdkad CPI (UNME) ;g pkyw o"kZ rFkk vk/kj o"kZ dh dherksa dk izfr'kr vuqikr gSA

vkfFkZd los{k.k ls Z
W

rhu izdkj ds miHkksDrk dher lwpdkad (CPI) cuk, tkrs gS% d) vkS|ksfxd Jfedksa ds fy, CPI [k) 'kgjh xSj 'kkjhfjd deZpkfj;ksa ds fy, CPI x) d`f"k Jfedksa ds fy, CPI

101112-

;g og o"kZ gS ftlesa gksus okys vkSlr ifjorZu dks ekik tkrk gS ;k ftlds fy, lwpdkad rS;kj fd;k tkrk gSA lk/kj.k lwpdkad esa lHkh enksa dks leku Hkkj fn;k tkrk gS tcfd Hkkfjr lwpdkad esa fHkUu&2 enksa muds lkisf{kd egRo ds vuqlkj Hkkj fn;k tkrk gSA
A1

eqnzk LiQhfr dh nj = ;gka]

1314-

P01 WPI lkekU; dher Lrj esa ifjorZu dks ekirk gSA
67 Economics (Hindi) XI

IIP = 01

P = o1

P1q 0 P0 q0

100

q 1 q W 0

100

A 2 A1

100

A 1 = igys lIrkg dk (WPI) A 2 = nwljs lIrkg dk WPI

161819-

22-02 rhu lewg d) [kuu ,oa mR[kuu [k) fofuekZ.k x) fo|qr Fkksd dher lwpdkad [kk| [kqnjk dherksa esa ifjorZuksa dks Hkkfjr lwpdkad esa Hkkj 10-47 79-36 10-17

20212223-

P = o1

15-

P1q1 P0q1

100

68

Economics (Hindi) XI

;wfuV&5
v;k;&8

Hkkjr dk vkfFkZd fodkl


^^Lora=krk ds le; Hkkjrh; vFkZO;oLFkk**
u

vaxzsth vkSifuosf'kd iz'kklu dk eq[; mn~ns'; Hkkjr dks fczVsu dks tYnh ls fodflr gks jgh vk/qfud vkS|ksfxd vFkZO;oLFkk ds fy, vk/kj ds :i esa iz;ksx djuk FkkA Lora=krk ds le; Hkkjrh; vFkZO;oLFkk dh fLFkfr d) vkfFkZd fodkl dh fuEu nj% vkSifuosf'kd ljdkj us dHkh Hkh Hkkjr dh jk"Vh; rFkk izfr O;fDr vk; ds vuqeku ds fy, dksbZ iz;kl ugha fd,A MkW- oh-ds-vkj-oh- jko ds vuqlkj (1931&32) ldy ns'kh; mRikn esa o`f dsoy 2 rFkk izfr O;fDr vk; esa o`f dsoy 0-5 FkhA [k) fiNM+k d`f"k {ks=k% ftlds fuEu dkj.k Fks v) tehankjh] egyokM+h rFkk jS;rokM+h izFkk c) O;olk;hdj.k ij ncko& uhy vkfn dk mRiknu l) ns'k dk foHkktu x) vfodkflr vkS|ksfxd {ks=k% v) fo&vkS|ksfxdhdj.k & Hkkjrh; gLrdyk m|ksx dk iru c) iwthxr oLrq m|ksx dk vHkko a l) lkoZtfud {ks=k dh lhfer f;k'khyrk n) HksnHkkoiw.kZ VSfjiQ uhfr
69 Economics (Hindi) XI

?k) izfrdwy fons'kh O;kikj v) dPps eky dk 'kq fu;kZrd rFkk rS;kj eky dk vk;krd c) fons'kh O;kikj ij fczVsu dk ,dkf/dkjh fu;a=k.k l) Hkkjrh; lEifk dk izokg ) izfrdwy tukafddh; n'kk,a % v) mQaph e`R;qnj & 40 izfr gtkj c) mPp f'k'kq e`R;q nj & 18 izfr gtkj l) lkewfgd fuj{kjrk & 83 fuj{kjrk n) fuEu thou izR;k'kk & 32 o"kZ ;k) thou dk fuEu Lrj & yksx viuh vk; dk yxHkx 80 ls 90 izfr'kr Hkkx vk/kjHkwr vko';drk ij [kpZ djrs FksA p) vfodflr vk/kjHkwr <kapk % vPNh lM+ds] fo|qr mRiknu] LokLF;] f'k{kk rFkk lapkj lqfo/kvksa dk vHkkoA ;|fi vaxzst iz'kkldksa }kjk vk/kjHkwr <kaps ds fodkl ds fy, iz;kl fd;s x, tSl& s lM+ds] jsyos] canjxkg] ty ;krk;kr vkSj Mkd o rkj foHkkx ysfdu budk eq[; mn~ns'; vke turk dks lqfo/k,a nsuk ugha Fkk cfYd lkezkT;oknh iz'kklu ds fgr esa FkkA N) izkFkfed (d`f"k) {ks=k ij vf/d fuHkZjrk% v) dk;Z cy dk vf/dre Hkkx yxHkx 72 d`f"k esa yxk FkkA c) 10 mRiknu {ks=k esa vkSj 18 dk;Zcy lsok {ks=k esa yxk FkkA
u

vaxzth lkezkT;okn ds Hkkjrh; vFkZO;oLFkk ij dqN ldkjkRed izHkko% d) ;krk;kr dh lqfo/kvksa esa o`f & fo'ks"kdj jsyos esA a [k) canjxkgksa dk fodklA x) Mkd o rkj foHkkx dh lqfo/k,aA ?k) vaxzstksa dh uhfr;ksa ls lqn`<+ rFkk dq'ky iz'kklu dk fuekZ.kA

70

Economics (Hindi) XI

,d vad okys iz'u


123456789vkSifuosf'kd dky esa f'k'kq e`R;q nj D;k Fkh\ vkSifuosf'kd dky esa thou izR;k'kk fdrus o"kZ Fkh\ f'k'kq e`R;q nj ls D;k vfHkizk; gS\ vkSifuosf'kd dky esa izfr O;fDr vk; dk vuqeku yxkus okys ,d vFkZ'kkL=kh dk uke fyf[k,A d`f"k ds O;olk;hdj.k dk D;k vFkZ gS\ Hkkjr esa lkezkT;oknh ljdkj }kjk fo&vkS|ksfxdhdj.k ds ihNs D;k mn~ns'; Fkk\ ns'k ds foHkktu ds dkj.k fdl m|ksx ij cqjk izHkko iM+k\ fu;kZr vkf/D; dk D;k vFkZ gS\ Lora=krk ds le; f}rh;d {ks=k rFkk r`rh;d {ks=k esa fdrus izfr'kr dk;Z'khy tula[;k layXu Fkh\ Lora=krk ds le; Hkkjrh; d`f"k dh pkj fo'ks"krk,a fyf[k,A Hkkjrh; vFkZO;oLFkk esa vk/kjHkwr ifjorZu ds ihNs vaxzsth 'kkldksa ds D;k mn~ns'; Fks\ vkSifuosf'kd dky esa Hkkjrh; laifk ds fu"dklu ls vki D;k le>rs gSa\ Lora=krk ds le; Hkkjrh; vFkZO;oLFkk dh O;olkf;d lajpuk dSlh Fkh\ o.kZu dhft,A Lora=krk ds le; Hkkjrh; vFkZO;oLFkk dh rhu fo'ks"krk,a fyf[k,A Lora=krk ds le; Hkkjrh; m|ksxksa ds fodkl dh voLFkkvksa dk o.kZu dhft,A

3@4 vad okys iz'u


123456-

6 vadksa okys iz'u


1234fczfV'k vkSifuosf'kd iz'kklu }kjk viukbZ xbZ vkS|ksfxd uhfr;ksa dh vkykspukRed foospuk dhft,A vkSifuosf'kd 'kkludky esa d`f"k dh xfrghurk ds eq[; dkj.k D;k Fks\ vkSifuosf'kd dky esa Hkkjr dh tukafddh; fLFkfr dk ,d la[;kRed fp=k.k izLrqr dhft,A D;k vaxzstksa us Hkkjr esa dqN ldkjkRed ;ksxnku Hkh fn;k Fkk\ foospuk dhft,A

71

Economics (Hindi) XI

,d vad okys iz'uksa ds mkj


12345678918 izfr gtkj thfor f'k'kq FkhA thou izR;k'kk 32 o"kZ FkhA f'k'kq e`R;q nj dk vFkZ gS ,d o"kZ ls de mez ds ftank iSnk gq, ,d gtkj cPpksa esa e`R;q dh la[;kA nknk HkkbZ ukSjksth] MkW- oh-ds-vkj-oh- jko d`f"k ds O;olk;hdj.k dk vFkZ gS fd Lo&miHkksx ds LFkku ij fo; ds fy, iQlyksa dk mRiknuA d) Hkkjr ls lLrh nj ij dPpk eky izkIr djukA [k) bXySM esa cukbZ xbZ oLrqvksa dks mQaph dherksa ij Hkkjrh; cktkj esa cspukA a twV rFkk diM+k m|ksx ijA fdlh ns'k dk fu;kZr vk;kr ls vf/d gksukA f}rh;d {ks=k esa 10 rFkk r`rh;d {ks=k esa 18A

72

Economics (Hindi) XI

;wfuV&5
v;k;&9

Hkkjrh; vFkZO;oLFkk 1950&1990


vFkZO;oLFkk
vFkZO;oLFkk vkfFkZd f;kvksa dk ,d ,slk laxBu gS ftlds varxZr yksx dk;Z djds viuh vkthfodk dekrs gSa vFkZO;oLFkk iwathoknh vFkZO;oLFkk
u

lektoknh vFkZO;oLFkk

fefJr vFkZO;oLFkk

iwthoknh vFkZO;oLFkk % bl vFkZO;oLFkk esa eq[; vkfFkZd fu.kZ; (D;k mRiknu djs] fdl a izdkj mRiknu djsa rFkk fdlds fy, mRiknu djs) cktkj ds 'kfDr;ks&ekax o iwfrZ }kjk Lora=k a a :i ls fy, tkrs gSaA lektoknh vFkZO;oLFkk % bl vFkZO;oLFkk esa eq[; vkfFkZd fu.kZ; ljdkj }kjk lEiw.kZ lekt ds fgr dks ;ku esa j[kdj fy, tkrs gSaA fefJr vFkZO;oLFkk % ,slh vFkZO;oLFkk esa eq[; vkfFkZd fu.kZ; dsUnzh; ljdkj dh laLFkk rFkk lkFk gh cktkj dh 'kfDr;ksa ds Lora=k iz;kl ls fy, tkrs gSaA vkfFkZd fu;kstu % dk vFkZ ns'k ds lalk/uksa dk fofHkUu fodkl dh f;kvksa esa ns'k dh izkFkfedrk ds vuqlkj mi;ksx djuk gSA Hkkjr esa fu;kstu ds mn~ns'; nh?kZdkyhu mn~ns'; 20 o"kks dh vof/ esa izkIr gksus okys mn~ns';
73

u u u

vYidkyhu mn~ns'; 5 o"kks dh vof/ esa iwjs fd, tkus okys mn~ns';
Economics (Hindi) XI

fu;kstu ds nh?kZdkyhu mn~ns';


12345vk/qfudhdj.k vkRe fuHkZjrk vkfFkZd laof ` lekurk iw.kZ jkstxkj & ubZ rduhd dks viukukA & vk;kr ij fuHkZjrk esa deh djukA * oLrqvksa o lsokvksa ds lexz mRiknu esa o`fA & vk; rFkk /u dh vlekurk esa deh djukA & ls rkRi;Z og fLFkfr gksrh gS tc dk;Z'khy vk;q oxZ ds lHkh O;fDr okLro esa fdlh ykHkizn jkstxkj esa layXu gksa

vYidkyhu mn~ns'; ;kstuk nj ;kstuk ns'k dh vko';drkuqlkj dnyrs jgrs gSa tSls igyh ;kstuk (1951&56) d`f"k mRiknu ij dsfUnzr Fkh tcfd nwljh ;kstuk (1956&61) dk mn~ns'; cnydj vkS|ksfxd fodkl gks x;k FkkA Hkkjr esa lekurk rFkk laof izR;sd ;kstuk dk mn~ns'; gksrk gSA ` orZeku X;kjgoha ;kstuk (2007&2012) dk eq[; mn~ns';&rst] foLr`r vk/kj nj rFkk yxkrkj laof gSA `

vYidkyhu mn~ns'; ;k iapo"khZ; ;kstukvksa ds mn~ns';

d`f"k
Lora=krk ds le; Hkkjrh; d`f"k dh eq[; fo'ks"krk,a
12345678fuEu mRikndrk izPNUu csjkstxkjh o"kkZ ij fuHkZjrk Lo&miHkksx ds fy, mRiknu vFkkZr fuokZfgr d`f"k ikjaifjd vkxrksa dk iz;ksx tksrksa dk NksVk vkdkj fiNM+h rduhd Hkw&Lokfe;ksa rFkk dk'rdkjksa esa la?k"kZ
74 Economics (Hindi) XI

Hkkjrh; d`f"k dh leL;k,a

12345-

lkekU; leL;k,a

Hkwfe ij tula[;k ncko Hkwfe vi{k; fuokZfgr d`f"k lkekftd okrkoj.k iQlyksa dh gkfu&dhV] ihM+d] ck<+ o lw[kk vkfn

1- mRiknu ds vizpfyr rjhds 2- flapkbZ lqfo/kvksa dk vHkko 3- iQlyksa dk nks"kiw.kZ p

rduhdh leL;k,a

1- y?kq o fc[kjh tksrsa 2- Hkwfe lq/kj dh nks"kiw.kZ izo`fk 3- lk[k ,oa cktkj lqfo/kvksa dk vHkko

laLFkkxr leL;k,a

laLFkkxr lq/kj % bUgsa Hkwfe lq/kj Hkh dgrs gSA 1234e;ofrZ;ksa dk mUewyu fdjk;s dk fu;eu tksrksa dk ,dhdj.k tksrksa dh lhek dk fu/kZj.k flapkbZ lqfo/kvksa esa foLrkj lk[k dh miyC/rk

Hkkjrh; d`f"k esa lq/kj

lkekU; lq/kj % 1234-

fu;fer foi.ku dsUnz vkSj lkeqnkf;d foi.ku lkslkbVhA leFkZu dherksa ds fu/kZj.k dh uhfr
HYV (mPp mRikndrk fdLe) ds chtksa dk iz;ksx

rduhfd lq/kj ;k gfjr kafr % 12345jlk;fud mcZjdksa dk iz;ksx iQlyksa dh lqj{kk ds fy, dhVuk'kh rFkk ihM+dukf'k;ksa dk iz;ksx oSKkfud iQly p d`f"k esa e'khuksa dk iz;ksx

75

Economics (Hindi) XI

gfjr kafr dh miyfC/;ka % 12345mRiknu ,oa mRikndrk esa o`f vk; esa o`f O;olkf;d [ksrh esa o`f lkekftd kafr dk izHkko & ubZ rduhd dk iz;ksx] HYV cht rFkk moZjdksa dk iz;ksx jkstxkj esa o`f

gfjr kafr dh vliQyrk,a % 1- lhfer iQlyksa rFkk {ks=kksa rd izfrcaf/r& tsls nks iQlys xsgwa o pkoy rFkk buls lacf/r a jkT;&iatkc] gfj;k.kk] m-iz- vkSj vka/z izns'k rd 2345xjhch dk vkaf'kd mUewyu Hkwfe lq/kjksa dh mis{kk csjkstxkjh esa o`f ikfjfLFkfrd voewY;u

m|ksx
u

Hkkjr esa vkS|ksfxd {ks=k dh Hkwfedk vkS|ksxhdj.k ns'k ds vkfFkZd fodkl ds fy, cgqr egRoiw.kZ gSA fuEufyf[kr fcUnq vFkZO;oLFkk esa m|ksx ds egRo dks n'kkZrs gS %& 1- jkstxkj iznku djrk gSA 2- yksxksa dh vk; esa o`f 3- {ks=kh; larqyu dks c<+kok 4- vk/qfudhdj.k dks izkRlkgu s 5- d`f"k ds vk/qfudhdj.k esa lgk;d 6- vkRefuHkZj fodkl esa lgk;d 7- laof ds fy, vf/d {kerk ` 8- fu;kZr dh vf/d ek=kk dh dqth a 9- lH;rk dk fodkl vkS|ksfxdhdj.k ,d vFkZO;oLFkk ds fodkl dh igyh 'krZ gSA
76 Economics (Hindi) XI

^^Lora=krk ds i'pkr vkS|ksfxd fodkl**


ldy ?kjsyw mRikn esa m|ksxksa dk fgLlk nloha iapo"khZ; ;kstuk esa c<+dj 8-3 gks x;k gSA X;kjgoha iapo"khZ; ;kstuk esa blds 10-5 gksus dh vk'kk dh tkrh gSA fuEufyf[kr eq[; ifjorZu gq, % 12345vk/kj Hkwr <kaps dk fodkl & tSls fctyh] ifjogu lapkj] cSfdax o fok] f'kf{kr ,oa a dq'ky ekuoh; lalk/u vkfnA 'kks/ ,oa fodkl ds {ks=k esa izxfr lkoZtfud {ks=k dk foLrkj iwtxr oLrqvksa fuekZ.k okys m|ksxksa dk fodkl a vuko';d miHkksDrk oLrq m|ksxksa esa laofA `

Hkkjr esa vkS|ksfxd fodkl dh leL;k,a


12345678{ks=k esa vlarqyu & d`f"k rFkk vk/kjHkwr <kapk vkS|ksfxd {ks=k dks vko';d leFkZu nsus esa vliQy jgsA {ks=kh; vlarqyu & dqN gh jkT;ksa rd lhfer vkS|ksfxd chefj;ka & ;s csjkstxkjh dh leL;k dks c<+krh gSA vkS|ksfxd mRiknksa dh mQaph ykxr& LoLFk izfr;ksfxrk ds vHkko ds dkj.k ljdkj ij fuHkZjrk % vk;kr dks ljy cukus ds fy, djks ;k uhfr esa ifjorZu lkoZtfud {ks=k dk [kjkc fu"iknu& {kerk dk vYi mi;ksx c<+rk iwth & mRiknu vuqikr a

vkS|ksfxd fodkl esa lkoZtfud {ks=k dh Hkwfedk


fuEufyf[kr dkj.kksa ls ljdkj dk izR;{k gLr{ksi t:jh FkkA 12futh m|fe;ksa ds ikl iwth dh deh a futh m|fe;ksa esa izj.kk dk vHkko& D;ksfd cktkj dk vkdkj NksVk gksus ds dkj.k ekax Hkh s a de FkhA
77 Economics (Hindi) XI

34567-

lekt dk lektoknh <kapk & ljkdj dk eq[; mn~ns'; jkstxkj l`tu djuk gS uk fd ykHk vftZr djukA vk/kjHkwr <kaps dk fodkl fiNM+s bykdksa dk fodkl vkfFkZd 'kfDr ds dsUnzh;dj.k dks jksdus ds fy,A vk;kr izfrLFkkiu dks c<+kok nsus ds fy,

vkS|ksfxd uhfr&1956
vkS|ksfxd uhfr ,d egRoiw.kZ ;U=k gS ftlds }kjk ljdkj vFkZO;oLFkk esa vkS|ksfxd f;kvksa dk fu;eu djrh gSA 1956 dh uhfr esa vkS|ksfxd uhfr ds fuEufyf[kr mn~ns'; crk, x, Fks& 12345vkS|ksxhdj.k dh laof nj dks yxkrkj c<+kukA ` Hkkjh m|ksxksa dk fodkl djukA lkoZtfud {ks=k dks c<+kukA vk; o laifk dh vlekurk esa deh ykukA ,dkf/dkj ls lqj{kk rFkk dqN gh yksxksa esa vk; o /u ds dsUnzh;dj.k dks jksduk

vkS|ksfxd uhfr 1956 dh fo'ks"krk,a


1956 dh vkS|ksfxd uhfr dh eq[; fo'ks"krk,a fuEufyf[kr gSa %& 1m|ksxksa dk u;k oxhZdj.k % m|ksxksa dks ljdkj dh Hkwfedk ds vk/kj ij fuEu rhu vuqlwfp;ksa esa ckaV fn;k x;k& d) vuqlwph ^v* & ,sls m|ksx ftuds Hkkoh fodkl dh ftEesnkjh ljkdj dh gksxhA bl vuqlwph esa 17 m|ksxksa dks j[kk x;kA [k) vuqlwph ^c* & blesa 12 m|ksxksa dks j[kk x;kA ljdkj ubZ bdkb;ksa dh LFkkiuk dj ldrh gS ysfdu futh {ks=kksa dks igys ls dk;Zjr bdkb;ksa ds foLrkj rFkk ubZ bdkb;ksa dh LFkkiuk dh vuqefr nh xbZ x) vuqlwph ^l* & vU; cps gq, m|ksx futh {ks=k ds fy, NksM+ fn, x,A 2y?kq o dqVhj m|ksxksa dh Hkwfedk ij ncko
78 Economics (Hindi) XI

34-

vkS|ksfxd ykblsflax % futh {ks=k esa m|ksx [kksyus ds fy, ljdkj ls ykblsal ysuk vfuok;ZA vkS|ksfxd fj;k;rsa & fiNM+s {ks=kksa esa vkS|ksfxd bdkb;ksa dh LFkkiuk ds fy, futh {ks=k dks fj;k;rs nsuk tSls fctyh dh nj esa deh] djksa esa fj;k;r vkfnA

y?kqLrjh; ;k NksVs iSekus ds m|ksx


NksVs iSekus dk m|ksx og gksrk gS ftlesa 5 djksM+ #i;s ls vf/d iwth dk fuos'k ugha gksrk gS a

y?kqLrjh; m|ksxksa dh Hkwfedk ;k fo'ks"krk,a


123456Je iz/ku & jkstxkj&ijd Lo&jkstxkj esa o`f de iath iz/ku w fu;kZr dks c<+kok cM+s Lrj ds m|ksxksa ds fy, vk/kj LFkku fu/kAj.k laca/h yphykiu

y?kqLrjh; m|ksxksa dh leL;k,a@dfe;ka


12345fok dh leL;k dPps eky dh deh cktkj dh leL;k vizpfyr e'khuksa dk iz;ksx cM+s Lrjh; m|ksxksa ls izfr;ksfxrk

fons'k O;kikj
Lora=krk ds le; Hkkjr ls fczVsu dks dPps eky dk fu;kZr cgqr vf/d ek=kk esa fd;k tkrk FkkA blds foijhr fczVsu ls rS;kj oLrq,a Hkkjr esa vk;kr dh tkrh FkhA ml le; Hkkjr dk O;kikj larqyu vuqdwy Fkk vFkkZr~ fu;kZr > vk;kr ls vf/d FkkA Lora=krk ds ckn Hkkjr ds fons'k O;kikj esa egRoiw.kZ ifjorZu gq,A tSl%& s 1d`f"k fu;kZrksa ds izfr'kr Hkkx esa fxjkoV 2fofufeZr oLrqvksa ds izfr'kr Hkkx esa o`f 3fu;kZr O;kikj rFkk vk;kr O;kikj dh fn'kk esa ifjorZu
79 Economics (Hindi) XI

O;kikj uhfr
igyh lkr iapo"khZ; ;kstukvksa rd O;kikj uhfr ^vareq[kh fodklkRed* Fkh ftls ^vk;kr Z izfrLFkkiu j.kuhfr* ds uke ls Hkh tkuk tkrk gSA vk;kr izfrLFkkiu ls rkRi;Z gS vk;kr dks ?kjsyw mRiknu ls izfrLFkkfir djukA vk;kr dks de djus ds fy, vk;kr ij iz'kqYd rFkk dksVk fu/kZj.k ykxw fd;k tkrk gS blls ?kjsyw m|ksx fons'kh m|ksxksa dh izfr;ksfxrk ls cprs gSaA

vk;kr izfrLFkkiu j.kuhfr dk ?kjsyw m|ksx ij izHkko


123vk;kr esa deh djds fons'kh fofue; dh cpr esa lgk;rk djrh FkhA ?kjsyw mRikn ds fy, ,d lqjf{kr cktkj rFkk vf/d ekax iznku djrh FkhA ns'k ds vkS|ksfxd vk/kj dks etcwr cukus esa lgk;rk djrh Fkh tks izR;{k :i ls vkfFkZd laof djrk FkkA `

vk;kr izfrLFkkiu j.kuhfr dh vkykspuk,a


1234blls laof ugha gksrh FkhA ` izfr;ksfxrk ds vHkko esa vk/qfudhdj.k dk vHkkoA ljdkjh {ks=k dk vdq'ky ,dkf/dkjA blls dq'kyrk esa o`f ugha gqbZA

vkS|ksfxd ykblsaflax
ykblsaflax ,d vFkZO;oLFkk ds iwoZ fu/kZfjr {ks=kksa esa nqyHkZ lalk/uksa ds fufnZ"V djus dk ;U=k gSA vkS|ksfxd fodkl rFkk fu;eu dkuwu (IDRA) dks 1951 esa ykxw fd;k x;kA bl fu;e ds eq[; mn~ns'; fuEu FksA d) fu;ksftr izkFkfedrk ds vuqlkj vkS|ksfxd fodkl rFkk fuos'k dk fu;euA [k) ,dkf/dkj ls cpko x) ?k) ) vFkZO;oLFkk ds fofHkUu {ks=kksa ds fodkl ds Lrj esa vlekurk dks de djukA cM+s Lrj ds m|ksxksa rFkk y?kq ,oa dqVhj m|ksxksa ds chp vuqfpr izfr;ksfxrk dks jksdukA nqyZHk fons'kh fofue; lalk/uksa dk b"Vre iz;ksxA
80 Economics (Hindi) XI

bl dkuwu ds varxZr fuEu fu;e ykxw gksrs gSaA 1234lHkh vuqlwfpr m|ksx ljkdj }kjk iathd`r djok, tkus pkfg,A lHkh m|ksx ftUgsa foLrkj dh vko';drk gSA mUgsa ljdkj ls ykblsal ysuk pkfg,A fdlh Hkh m|ksx dh dk;Z iz.kkyh ds fujh{k.k dk vf/dkjA ;fn m|e dk xyr izc/u gks rks ljdkj blds izc/u dks vius gkFkksa esa ysxhA a a

vkS|ksfxd ykblsal iz.kkyh dh vkykspuk


1234fdlh Hkh ykblsal laca/h vkosnu dks Lohdkj ;k vLohdkj djus dh dksbZ etcwr iz.kkyh ugha gSA rduhdh foHkkx ds funs'kd ds }kjk fd;s tkus okys ijh{k.k dh xq.kokk [kjkc gksrh gSA Z cgqr ls ykblsal izkIr m|ksxksa esa {kerk dk vYi mi;ksx gksrk gSA okLro esa bl uhfr us cM+s vkS|ksfxd ?kjkuksa dks vkfFkZd 'kfDr iznku djus esa enn dh gSA

^^ijfeV ykblsal jkt**


;g og iz.kkyh gS ftlesa dbZ ckj ykblsal izkf/dj.k cM+s O;olkf;d ?kjkuksa dks fcuk iw.kZ tkap ds gh ykblsal iznku dj nsrs gSa

81

Economics (Hindi) XI

,d vad okys iz'u


12345678910111213vFkZO;oLFkk dks ifjHkkf"kr dhft,A Hkkjr esa ;kstuk vk;ksx dk v;{k dkSu gS\ e;ofrZ;ksa ds mUewyu ds ihNs D;k mn~ns'; Fkk\ vkS|ksfxd uhfr izLrko 1956 ds vuqlkj m|ksxksa dk oxhZdj.k dhft,A gfjr kafr ls vkidk D;k rkRi;Z gS\ y?kq Lrjh; m|ksx dk D;k vFkZ gS\ cktkj vkf/D; ls D;k vfHkizk; gS\ Hkkjr esa iapo"khZ; ;kstukvksa dk lapkyu dkSu djrk gS\ orZeku iapo"khZ; ;kstuk dh vof/ fyf[k,A iapo"khZ; ;kstukvksa ds dksbZ nks loZekU; mn~ns'; fyf[k,A Hkkjr esa fdl izdkj dh vFkZO;oLFkk dks Lohdkj fd;k gS\ fdlh vFkZO;oLFkk dh rhu lkekU; leL;k,a D;k gSa\ vk;kr&izfrLFkkiu fdls dgrs gSa\

3@4 vad okys iz'u


123456789fdlh izdkj vk;kr izfrLFkkiu ?kjsyw m|ksxksa dk laj{k.k djrh gS\ ;kstuk dky esa ljdkjh {ks=k dks vkS|ksfxd fodkl dh ftEesnkjh D;ksa nh xbZ\ lfClMh fdl izdkj fdlkuksa dks ubZ rduhd iz;ksx djus ds fy, izkRlkfgr djrh gS\ o.kZu s dhft,A gfjr kafr ds ykHk D;k Fks\ fyf[k,A 1950&1990 ds e; Hkkjr dh O;olkf;d lajpuk esa fdl izdkj ifjorZu gq, gS\ y?kq Lrjh; m|ksx xzkeh.k fodkl dks c<+kok nsrs gSa\ O;k[;k dhft,A gfjr kafr dh dfe;ksa dk o.kZu dhft,A Hkkjr esa iapo"khZ; ;kstukvksa ds eq[; mn~ns'; D;k gSa\ fu;kstu mn~ns'; rFkk ;kstuk mn~ns'; esa varj fyf[k,A
82 Economics (Hindi) XI

6 vadksa okys iz'u


12345671234Hkkjr esa vkS|ksfxd fodkl dh leL;kvksa dk o.kZu dhft,A gekjs ns'k ds lkekftd&vkfFkZd fodkl esa y?kqLrjh; m|ksxksa dh Hkwfedk dk o.kZu dhft,A gfjr kafr fdl izdkj fdlkuksa dk ykHkdkjh vkSj gkfudkjd jgh gS\ vkS|ksfxd uhfr izLrko&1956 ds mn~ns'; rFkk fo'ks"krkvksa dk o.kZu dhft,A vk;kr izfrLFkkiu uhfr D;k Fkh\ vkjEHk esa bls Hkkjr ds fodkl ds fy, D;ksa viuk;k x;k Fkk\ Hkkjr esa vkfFkZd fu;kstu dh miyfC/;ksa rFkk dfe;ksa dk o.kZu dhft,A 1950&1990 ds e; ljdkj dh vareq[kh O;kikj uhfr dk ewY;kadu dhft,A Z vFkZO;oLFkk vkfFkZd f;kvksa dk ,d ,slk laxBu gS ftls varxZr yksx dk;Z djds viuh vkthfodk dekrs gSaA Hkkjr esa ;kstuk vk;ksx dk v;{k iz/kuea=kh gksrk gSA tehankjh izFkk dks lekIr djds okLrfod dk'rdkjksa rFkk ljdkj ds chp lac/ LFkkfir djuk a FkkA
IPR1956 ds vuqlkj m|ksxksa dk oxhZdj.k bl izdkj Fkk&

,d vad okys iz'uksa ds mkj

d) vuqlwph ^v* esa 17 m|ksx dsoy ljdkjh {ks=k ds fy,A [k) vuqlwph ^c* esa 12 m|ksx ljdkjh o futh {ks=kksa ds fy,A x) vuqlwph ^l* esa cps gq, m|ksx futh {ks=kksa ds fy,A 5678910111213gfjr kafr mRiknu ds mUur rjhdksa }kjk izfr ,dM+ mRiknu c<+kus dh ,d tSo jlk;u rduhd gSA os m|ksx ftuesa dsoy 5 djksM+ #i;s rd dk fuos'k fd;k x;k gksA fdlkuksa ds ikl Lo&miHkksx ls vf/d mRiknu ftls os cktkj esa cspus ds fy, tkrs gSaA ;kstuk vk;ksx Hkkjr esa ;kstukvksa dk lapkyu djrk gSA vizy 2007 ls 31 ekpZ 2012 rd S laof rFkk lekurk ` fefJr vFkZ O;oLFkk D;k mRiknu fd;k tk;] dSls mRiknu fd;k tk; rFkk mRiknu fdlds fy, fd;k tk;\ vk;kfrr oLrqvksa dk mRiknu vius ns'k esa djukA
83 Economics (Hindi) XI

;wfuV&6
v;k;&10

vkfFkZd lq/kj 1991 ls


Lej.kh; fcanq %
u

vkfFkZd lq/kj % vFkZO;oLFkk esa fodkl izf;k esa xfr mRiknu esa dq'kyrk rFkk izfr;ksxh okrkoj.k rS;kj djus gsrq 1991 esa ubZ vkfFkZd uhfr ds varxZr fd, x, vkfFkZd mnkjhdj.k] oS'ohdj.k] rFkk futhdj.k tSls iz;kl vkfFkZd lq/kj ds uke ls tkus x,A vkfFkZd lq/kjksa dh vko';drk dks tUe nsus okys dkjd 1- fons'kh eqnzk fjtoZ esa deh 2- izfrdwy Hkqxrku 'ks"k dh c<+rh nj 3- c<+rk jktdks"kh; ?kkVk 4- dher o`f 5- [kkM+h ladV 6- lkoZtfud m|eksa dh vliQyrk ubZ vkfFkZd uhfr ds mik; % d) LFkkf;Rodkjh mik; %& ;s mik; vYidkfyd ladVksa ds lek/ku gsrq tSls Hkqxrku larqyu dh izfrdwyrk esa deh o c<+rh dherksa ij fu;a=k.k o fons'kh eqnzk Hk.Mkj esa o`f gsrq fd, x,A [k) lajpukRed lq/kj % bu mik;ksa dk mn~ns'; vFkZO;oLFkk ds lajpukRed <kaps dks etcwr djds mRiknu dq'kyrk esa lq/kj ykuk rFkk varjk"Vh; Lrj ij Li/kZ {kerk dks fodflr djuk FkkA

mnkjhdj.k % mnkjhdj.k dk vFkZ gS ljdkj }kjk yxk, x, izR;{k ;k HkkSfrd fu;a=k.kksa ls vFkZO;oLFkk dh eqfDrA
84 Economics (Hindi) XI

mnkjhdkj.k ds varxZr viukbZ xbZ uhfr;ka


d) vkS|ksfxd {ks=k dk fofu;ehdj.k [k) fokh; {ks=kd lq/kj x) dj O;oLFkk esa lq/kj ?k) fons'kh fofue; esa lq/kj ) O;kikj o fuos'k uhfr esa lq/kj

futhdj.k %& ;g ,slh izf;k gS ftlds varxZr futh {ks=k }kjk lkoZtfud m|eksa ij iw.kZ ;k vkaf'kd vf/dkj djds mudk izc/ fd;k tkr gSA a

futhdj.kh gsrq viukbZ xbZ uhfr;ka@mik; %&


d) lkoZtfud {ks=k dk ladqpu [k) lkoZtfud m|e ds izc/ esa ljdkjh LokfeRo dh lekfIr a x) lkoZtfud m|eksa ds 'ks;jksa dh fch
u

oS'ohdj.k %& vFkZO;oLFkk dks fo'o ls tksMus okys laidZ lw=kksa dks c<+kus okyh ,d izf;k + gS rkfd fo'o dh vkfFkZd o lkekftd Lrj ij ikjLifjd fuHkZjrk esa o`f gks lds vkSj lhekeqDr fo'o dh jpuk dh tk ldsA

oS'ohdj.k gsrq viukbZ xbZ uhfr;ka@mik; %&


d) [k) x) ?k) fons'kh iwth fuos'k esa o`f a VSfjiQ njksa esa deh nh?kZdkyhu O;kikj uhfr vkaf'kd ifjorZu'khyrk vkfFkZd lq/kjksa ds izHkkoksa dh leh{kk

12345-

ldkjkRed izHkko fons'kh fuos'k esa o`f fons'kh fofue; dks"kksa esa o`f eqnzkLiQhfr ij jksd ?kjsyw mRikn esa o`f fu;kZrksa esa o`f
85

12345-

udkjkRed izHkko d`f"k dh vogsyuk ns'kh; m|ksxksa gsrq dM+h izfr;ksfxrk 'kgjhdj.k esa o`f miHkksDrkokn dks c<+kok fofuos'k uhfr ds nq"izHkko
Economics (Hindi) XI

,d vad okys iz'u


123456789101112345678vkfFkZd lq/kjksa dk vFkZ Li"V dhft,A jktdks"kh; ?kkVs esa fujarj o`f us fdl izdkj vkfFkZd lq/kjksa dh vko';drk dks tUe fn;kA ljdkj }kjk yxk, x, izR;{k ;k HkkSfrd fu;a=k.kksa ls vFkZO;oLFkk dh eqfDr dks fdl vkfFkZd lq/kj ds uke ls tkuk tkrk gS fons'kh eqnzk fjtoZ ls D;k vfHkizk; gS\ mnkjhdj.k ds varxZr jktdks"kh; lq/kjksa dh vko';drk D;ksa eglwl dh xbZ\ izR;{k dj ls D;k vfHkizk; gSA vizR;{k dj dks mnkgj.k dh lgk;rk ls ifjHkkf"kr dhft,A voewY;u ls D;k vfHkizk; gSA futhdj.k dk vFkZ Li"V dhft,A oS'ohdj.k ls D;k rkRi;Z gS\ iz'kqYdksa (VSfjiQ) esa deh dk ?kjsyw m|ksxksa dks D;k ykHk gksrk gS\ vkfFkZd lq/kjksa ls D;k vfHkizk; gS\ vkfFkZd lq/kjksa ds varxZr fdu mik;ksa dks viuk;k x;k\ Hkqxrku 'ks"k dh izfrdwyrk ls D;k vk'k; gS\ izfrdwy Hkqxrku 'ks"k us fdl izdkj vkfFkZd lq/kjksa dh vko';drk dks tUe fn;kA lkoZtfud {ks=k ds m|eksa dk vlarks"ktud mRiknu vkfFkZd lq/kjksa dks viukus dk izeq[k dkj.k fdl izdkj cuk\ mnkjhdj.k ls D;k vfHkizk; gS\ mnkjhdj.k ds varxZr viuk, x, vkfFkZd lq/kjksa dk mYys[k dhft,A futhdj.k dks ifjHkkf"kr djrs gq, futhdj.k gsrq fd, x, iz;klksa dk mYys[k dhft,A oS'ohdj.k dh uhfr dk vFkZ Li"V dhft, bl uhfr ds ize[k ifj.kke ckg~; izki.k dh O;k[;k q dhft,A vkfFkZd lq/kjksa ds i{k esa dksbZ pkj rdZ nhft,A vkfFkZd lq/kjksa ds pkj udkjkRed izHkko fyf[k,A

3@4 vad okys iz'u

86

Economics (Hindi) XI

5@6 vad okys iz'u


1234512345678910111991 esa viuk, x, vkfFkZd lq/kjksa dh vko';drkvksa dk o.kZu dhft,A vFkZO;oLFkk ds oS'ohdj.k gsrq fd, x, mik;ksa dh O;k[;k dhft,A vkfFkZd mnkjhdj.k dk vFkZ Li"V djrs gq, mnkjhdj.k gsrq fd, x, mik;ksa dh O;k[;k dhft,A vkfFkZd lq/kjksa ds vFkZO;oLFkk ij iM+us okys ldkjkRed izHkkoksa dh O;k[;k dhft,A vkfFkZd lq/kjksa ds udkjkRed izHkkoksa dh O;k[;k dhft,A lu~ 1991 esa vkfFkZd fodkl] mRiknu dq'kyrk esa o`f rFkk izfr;ksxh vkS|ksfxd okrkoj.k rS;kj djus gsrq fd, x, iz;kl vkfFkZd lq/kj dgyrs gSaA c<+rs jktdks"kh; ?kkVs ds dkj.k ljdkj }kjk fy, tkus okys .k ij fn;k tkus okyk C;kt dqy ljdkjh O;; dk 36-4 izfr'kr gks x;k Fkk vr% vkfFkZd lq/kj vko';d gks x,A mnkjhdj.k ljkdj ds ikl ,d fuf'pr le; ij fons'kh eqnzk ds Hk.Mkj dks fons'kh fofue; fjtoZ dgk tkrk gSA mnkjhdj.k ls iwoZ Hkkjrh; dj <kapk csgn vO;ofLFkr Fkk ftlds dkj.k turk ij dj dk Hkkj cgqr vf/d iM+ jgk Fkk vkSj ;g vfrfjDr dj Hkkj dj pksjh dks izkRlkfgr djrk gSA s izR;{k dj os dj gSa ftuds Hkkj dks vkxs foofrZr (Vkyuk) djuk laHko ugha gksrk budk djk?kkr o djkikr ,d gh O;fDr ij gksrk gS tSls %& vk; dj vizR;{k dj os dj gSa ftuds Hkkj dks vkxs foofrZr fd;k tk ldrk gS ftlls budk djk?kkr o djkikr vyx&vyx O;fDr;ksa ij gksrk gSA fo'o dh vU; eqnzkvksa dh rqyuk fdlh ns'k }kjk viuh eqnzk dk ewY; ?kVkuk voewY;u dgykrk gSA ;g ,slh izf;k gS ftlds varxZr futh {ks=k }kjk lkoZtfud m|eksa ij iw.kZ ;k vkaf'kd vf/dkj djds mudk izc/ fd;k tkrk gSA a oS'ohdj.k vFkZO;oLFkk dks fo'o ls tksMus okys laidZ lw=kksa dks c<+kus okyh ,d izf;k + gS rkfd fo'o dh vkfFkZd o lkekftd Lrj ij ikjLifjd fuHkZjrk c<+ ldsA iz'kqYdksa esa gksus okyh deh ds iQyLo:i ?kjsyw m|ksxksa ds fy, lacaf/r oLrqvksa dk vk;kr lLrk o fu;kZr ls gksus oky ykHk ekftZu c<+ tkrk gSA
87 Economics (Hindi) XI

,d vad okys iz'uksa ds mkj

;wfuV&7
v;k;&11

fu/Zurk
Lej.kh; fcanq %
u u

fu/Zurk ls vfHkizk; thou ds fy, U;wure miHkksx vko';drkvksa dh izkfIr dk u gksukA lkis{k fu/Zurk %& fu/Zurk dk rqyukRed eki lkis{k fu/Zurk dgykrk gS vFkkZr fofHkUu oxks] izns'kks] lewg] jk"Vh; o varjkZ"Vh; Lrj ij ikbZ tkus okyh rqyukRed fu/Zurk lkis{k a fu/Zurk dgykrk gSA fujis{k fu/Zurk %& fujis{k fu/Zurk dks ekius gsrq ns'k dh vkfFkZd voLFkk dks vk/kj cuk;k tkrk gSA fu/Zurk js[kk %& fu/Zurk js[kk izfr O;fDr vkSlr ekfld O;; dks izdV djrh gS tks fd U;wure vko';drkvksa dh iwfrZ gsrq vfuok;Z gksrk gSA ,sls O;fDr tks lnSo fu/Zu cus jgrs gSa vkSj lkekU;r% fu/Zu O;fDr fpjdkfyd fu/Zu dgykrs gSa tSl& vfu;fer etnwj s os lHkh O;fDr tks fujarj fu/Zu rFkk xSj fu/Zu oxZ ds chp vkrs tkrs jgrs gSa mUgsa vYidkfyd fu/Zu dgk tkrk gS tSls ekSleh etnwj o NksVs d`"kdA xSj fu/Zu Js.kh esa os O;fDr vkrs gSa tks dHkh fu/Zu ugha gksrs budk ekfld miHkksx O;; fu/Zuksa dh rqyuk esa vf/d gksrk gSA Hkkjr esa lu~ 2000 ds ckn ls 'kgjh o xzkeh.k Lrj ij fu/Zurk js[kk ls uhps jgus okyh tula[;k ds vuqikr esa deh vkbZ gS fdUrq vkt Hkh dqy tula[;k dk yxHkx 27 Hkkx fu/Zu gS vkSj fu/Zu tula[;k dk yxHkx 70 mkj izns'k] fcgkj] e; izns'k] if'pe caxky rFkk mM+hlk vkfn ikap jkT;ksa esa gSaA
88 Economics (Hindi) XI

fu/Zurk ds dkj.k %& 123456rhoz xfr ls c<+rh tula[;k jk"Vh; mRiknu dh /heh o`f@vi;kZIrrk dherksa esa o`f csjkstxkjh fodkl dh /heh xfr iath dh vi;kZIrk w dke ds cnys vukt ;kstuk xzkeh.k jkstxkj l`tu dk;Ze Lo.kZ t;arh xzke Lojkstxkj ;kstuk iz/kuea=kh jkstxkj ;kstuk Lo.kZ t;arh 'kgjh jkstxkj ;kstuk eujsxk (egkRek xk/h jk"Vh; xzkeh.k jkstxkj xkjaVh vf/fu;e)&eujsxk

fu/Zurk fuokj.k gsrq mik; ,oa uhfr;ka 123456-

89

Economics (Hindi) XI

,d vad okys iz'u


123456712345fu/Zurk dks ifjHkkf"kr dhft,\ fujis{k fu/Zurk dks Hkkjr esa fdl izdkj ekik tkrk gS\ lkis{k fu/Zurk ls D;k vfHkizk; gS\ fpjdkfyd fu/Zu fdUgsa dgk tkrk gSA os O;fDr tks fujarj fu/Zu rFkk xSj fu/Zu oxZ ds chp vkrs&tkrs jgrs gS] mUgsa fdl Js.kh a esa j[kk tkrk gS\ dherksa esa o`f fdl izdkj fu/Zurk ds fy, mkjnk;h gS\ fu/Zurk js[kk dks ifjHkkf"kr dhft,A fu/Zurk ls D;k vfHkizk; gS\ lkis{k o fujis{k fu/Zurk ds chp varj dhft,A fpjdkfyd csjkstxkjh fdl izdkj fu/Zurk dks c<+kok nsrh gS\ Hkkjr ljdkj }kjk fu/Zurk ij f=kvk;keh izgkj dh la{ksi esa O;k[;k dhft,A fu/Zurk o vk; dh vlekurk ds chp laca/ dh O;k[;k dhft,a Lo.kZ t;arh xzke Lojkstxkj ;kstuk ij ,d fVIi.kh fyf[k,A

3@4 vad okys iz'u

5@6 vad okys iz'u


123fu/Zurk ds izeq[k dkj.kksa dh O;k[;k dhft,A ljdkj }kjk fu/Zurk mUewyu ds fy, mBk;s x, fofHkUu dneksa dh O;k[;k dhft,A fu/Zurk mUewyu dk;Ze dk vkykspukRed ewY;kadu dhft,A

90

Economics (Hindi) XI

,d vad okys iz'uksa ds mkj


1234567fu/Zurk ls vfHkizk; thou ds fy, U;wure miHkksx vko';drkvksa dh izkfIr uk gksukA fujis{k fu/Zurk ds ekiu gsrq ns'k dh vkfFkZd voLFkk dks vk/kj cuk;k tkrk gS rkfd mu O;fDr;ksa dh la[;k Kkr dh tk lds tks fu/Zurk js[kk ds uhps fuokl djrs gSaA fu/Zurk dk rqyukRed eki lkis{k fu/Zurk dgykrk gS vFkkZr fofHkUu oxks] lewgks] jk"Vh; a o varjkZ"Vh; Lrj ij ik;h tkus okyh rqyukRed fu/Zurk lkis{k fu/Zurk dgykrh gSa ,sls O;fDr tks lnSo fu/Zu cus jgrs gSa vkSj lkekU;r% fu/Zu O;fDr fpjdkfyd fu/Zu dgykrs gSA a vYidkfyd fu/Zu dherksa esa o`f ds dkj.k okLrfod vk; ;k ; 'kfDr de gks tkrh gS ftlls fuEu vk; oxhZ; miHkksDrk U;wure miHkksx vko';drkvksa dks iwjk ugha dj ikrsA fu/Zurk js[kk izfr O;fDr vkSlr ekfld O;; dks izdV djrh gS tks fd U;wure vko';drkvksa dh iwfrZ gsrq vfuok;Z gksrk gSA

91

Economics (Hindi) XI

;wfuV&7
v;k;&12

Hkkjr esa ekuo iwath fuekZ.k


Lej.kh; fcanq %
u

ekuo iwth ls vfHkizk; ,d ns'k esa ,d fuf'pr le; ij dq'kyrk] {kerk] lqfoKrk] f'k{kk a rFkk Kku ds LVkd vFkok HkaMkj ls gSA ekuo iwth ds LVkd esa le; ds lkFk o`f djus dh izf;k dks ekuo iwth fuekZ.k dgk a a tkrk gSA ekuo iwth fuekZ.k ds Jksr& a 1) f'k{kk ij O;; 2) LokLF; ij O;; 3) ukSdjh ds lkFk izf'k{k.k 4) o;Ldksa ds fy, v;;u dk dk;Ze 5) LFkkukUrj.k ,oa lwpuk ij O;;

vkfFkZd laof esa ekuo iwth fuekZ.k dh Hkwfedk& ` a 1) mRiknu dks c<+krk gSA 2) dq'kyrk rFkk mRikndrk esa o`f 3) n`f"Vdks.k rFkk O;ogkj esa ldkjkRed ifjorZu ykrk gSA 4) laof ds HkkokRed rFkk HkkSfrd okrkoj.k esa ifjorZu ` 5) thou izR;k'kk esa o`f 6) lekurk rFkk lkekftd U;k; esa o`f
92 Economics (Hindi) XI

Hkkjr esa ekuo iwth fuekZ.k dh leL;k,a%& a 1) tula[;k o`f 2) mPp {ks=kh; rFkk fyax vlekurk 3) izfrHkk iyk;u 4) vi;kZIr ekuo 'kfDr fu;kstu 5) d`f"k esa dke ds nkSjku izf'k{k.k dh deh 6) mPp fu/Zurk Lrj 7) fuEu 'kSf{kd ekud

f'k{kk dk mn~ns'; rFkk egRo %& 1) f'k{kk ls vPNs ukxfjdksa dk fuekZ.k 2) ns'k ds lalk/uksa ds iz;ksx esa lgk;d 3) foKku rFkk izkS|ksfxdh dk fodkl 4) yksxksa ds ekufld f{kfrt dk fodkl 5) ukxfjdksa ds lkaLd`frd Lrj dks mPp cukus esa lgk;d 6) ekuo O;fDrRo dk fodkl

Hkkjr esa f'k{kk ds fodkl ls lacaf/kr leL;k,%& 1) vui<+ksa dh cgqr cM+h la[;k 2) vi;kZIr O;kolk;h;dj.k 3) fyax Hksn dh leL;k 4) xzkeh.k {ks=kksa esa igqap dk fuEu Lrj 5) f'k{kk ij ljdkj }kjk de O;;

Hkkjr esa ekuo iath fuekZ.k %& w 1) lkroha iapo"khZ; ;kstuk esa ekuo iwth dh egkk ij cy fn;k x;k gSA a 2) Hkkjr esa dsUnz ,oa jkT; Lrjksa ij f'k{kk eU=kky;] NCERT (jk"Vh; 'kSf{kd vuqlU/ku vkSj izf'k{k.k ifj"kn) UGC (fo'ofo|ky; vuqnku vk;ksx) AICTE (vf[ky Hkkjrh; izkS|ksfxdh; izf'k{k.k ifj"kn) f'k{kk {ks=k dk fu;eu djrs gSaA
93 Economics (Hindi) XI

3) Hkkjr esa dsUnzh; ,oa jkT; Lrjksa ij LokLF; ea=kky; rFkk ICMR (Hkkjrh; fpfdRlk vuqla/ku ifj"kn) LokLF; {ks=k dk fu;eu djrs gSaA 4) fo'o cSad ds vuqlkj Hkkjr vius vki dks ,d Kkuoku vFkZO;oLFkk ds :i esa fodflr dj ldrk gSA ;fn ,slk gqvk rks Hkkjr esa lu~ 2020 esa izfr O;fDr vk; c<+dj 3000 vesfjdh Mkyj gks tk;sxhA
u

ekuo iwth fuekZ.k fodkl dh izf;k dks c<+krk gS rFkk vkfFkZd fodkl] ekuo iwth fuekZ.k a a dh izf;k dks rst djrk gS& 1) ekuo iwth esa o`f a

vk/qfud n`f"Vdks.k rFkk fopkj] thou dh vPNh xq.kokk] mQaph thou izR;k'kk

vf/d dq'kyrk

vf/d vkfFkZd laof ` 2) vkfFZkd laof esa o`f ` izfr O;fDr vk; esa o`f

f'k{kk ,oa LokLF; esa vf/d fuos'k ekuo iwth esa o`f a
u

Hkkjr esa f'k{kk {ks=k%& 1) izkFkfed f'k{kk d) 2005&06 esa izkFkfed Ldwyksa dh la[;k 12-83 yk[k Ldwy Fks rFkk ldy izos'k vuqikr 89 izfr'kr ls mQij FkkA [k) fofHkUu uhfr;ka fuEu izdkj gSa& feM Ms ehYl ;kstuk (1995)] ftyk izkFkfed f'k{kk dk;Ze (1999) loZ f'k{kk vfHk;ku (2000)] f'k{kk xkjaVh rFkk oSdfYd vkfo"dkjksa f'k{kk] vkWijs'ku CySd cksMZ vkfnA 2) ek;fed f'k{kk %& d) 2004&05 esa ek;fed Ldwyksa dh la[;k 140 gtkj rFkk fo|kfFkZ;ks dh la[;k 33-2 fefy;u FkhA
94 Economics (Hindi) XI

[k) fofHkUu uhfr;ksa esa uoksn; fo|ky;] dsUnzh; fo|ky;] jk"Vh; 'kSf{kd vuqla/ku vkSj izf'k{k.k ifj"kn vkfn gSaA 3mPp f'k{kk %& d) 2005&06 esa 304 fo'o fo|ky; rFkk 12178 dkWyst FksA izos'k ikus okys fo|kfFkZ;ksa dh la[;k 104-8 yk[k FkhA [k) bfUnjk xk/h jk"Vh; eqDr fo'o fo|ky; dh LFkkiuk flrEcj 1985 esa dh xbZA ;g nwjLFk f'k{kk iz.kkyh dks izkRlkgu nsrk gSA s x) fo'o fo|ky; vuqnku vk;ksx (UGC) mPp f'k{kk dks fu;fU=kr djrk gSA 4rduhdh] fpfdRlk rFkk d`f"k laca/h f'k{kk&1265 bathfu;fjax dkWyst] 1-86 yk[k fo|kFkhZ] 1215 ikWyhVSfDud laLFkk,a& fo|kFkhZ 2-12 yk[k] 268 esfMdy dkyst& fo|kFkhZ 17 gtkj izfr o"kZA (o"kZ 2005&06 ds fy, vkdM+) s

lu~ 1988 esa ^jk"Vh; lk{kjrk fe'ku* dh LFkkiuk dh xbZA blds vUrxZr loZ f'k{kk vfHk;ku& ^f'k{kk lcds fy,* pyk;k tk jgk gSA

95

Economics (Hindi) XI

,d vad okys iz'u


12345678910111234567812345ekuo iwth fuekZ.k ls D;k vk'k; gS\ a ekuo iwth dks ifjHkkf"kr djksA a f'k{kk esa fuos'k dk D;k vFkZ gS\ fdl iapo"khZ; ;kstuk ds vUrxZr ekuo iwth ds egRo dks js[kkafdr fd;k x;k\ a ekuo iwth esa fuos'k dh vko';drk D;ksa gS\ a ukSdjh esa izf'k{k.k dk D;k vFkZ gS\ lk{kjrk ,oa f'k{kk esa D;k vUrj gS\ ekuo iwth fuekZ.k ds ksr ls D;k vk'k; gS\ a ekuo iwth fuekZ.k thou dh xq.kokk esa fdl izdkj lq/kj djrk gS\ a jk"Vh; lk{kjrk fe'ku }kjk izkjaHk fd;s x;s vkUnksyu dk uke D;k gS\ izf'k{k.k D;k gS\ ekuo iwth fuekZ.k ds rhu eq[; ksr D;k gSa\ a ekuo iwth fuekZ.k dh /kj.kk dks Li"V djksA a fdl izdkj ekuo iwth fuekZ.k lkekftd U;k; esa o`f djrk gSA a f'k{kk ij ljdkj ds O;; esa o`f dh foospuk djksA ;g D;k n'kkZrk gS\ vki lk{kj fdls dgsaxs\ lk{kjrk] f'k{kk ls fdl izdkj fHkUu gS\ izolu fdl izdkj ekuo iwth fuekZ.k esa o`f djrk gS\ a ekuo iath fuekZ.k esa f'k{kk ds fu;kstu dh vko';drk dh O;k[;k djksA w vkfFkZd fodkl esa ekuo iwth dh Hkwfedk dh O;k[;k djksA a ekuo iwth fuekZ.k ds ksrksa dh O;k[;k djksA a fdlh jk"V ds fodkl esa f'k{kk fdl izdkj ,d egRoiw.kZ vkxr gS\ O;k[;k djksA ekuo iwth fuekZ.k dh izf;k esa vkus okyh izeq[k dfBukb;ksa dk o.kZu djksA a Hkkjr esa o;Ld ,oa L=kh f'k{kk dh fLFkfr Li"V djksA Hkkjr ds d`f"k {ks=k esa dk;Z LFky ij izf'k{k.k dh vko';drk Li"V djksA
96 Economics (Hindi) XI

3@4 vad okys iz'u

6 vad okys iz'u

,d vad okys iz'uksa ds mkj


12345ekuo iwth ds LVkWd esa le; ds lkFk o`f djus dh izf;k dks ekuo iwth fuekZ.k dgk a a tkrk gSA ekuo iwth ,d jk"V ds fdlh le; fo'ks"k ij ik;s tkus okys dkS'ky rFkk lqfoKrk dk a Hk.Mkj gSA f'k{kk ij ljdkj }kjk fd;s x;s O;; dks f'k{kk esa fuos'k dgrs gSaA lkroha iapo"khZ; ;kstuk ds vUrxZr vkfFkZd fodkl esa ekuo iwth ds egRo dks js[kkafdr a fd;k x;kA ekuo iwth esa fuos'k djuk blfy, vko';d gS rkfd HkkSfrd iwth dks vkSj vf/d dq'kyrk a a ds lkFk iz;ksx fd;k tk lds rFkk ekuo esa e'khu] izkS|ksfxdh o Kku dks iz;ksx djus dh ml {kerk dks fodflr fd;k tk lds tks ns'k dh mRiknu {kerk esa o`f djrh gSA dk;Z {ks=k ij izf'k{k.k ls vk'k; ml izf'k{k.k ls gS tks deZpkfj;ksa dks ukSdjh ds nkSjku fn;k tkrk gS rFkk blds iQyLo:i os vf/d dk;Z dq'ky ,oa mRiknd curs gSaA lk{kjrk dh rqyuk esa f'k{kk ,d vf/d foLr`r vo/kj.kk gSA lk{kjrk ls vfHkizk; i<+us vkSj fy[kus dh ;ksX;rk ls gS tcfd f'k{kk ds rhu Lrj izkFkfed] ek;fed rFkk mPprj f'k{kk gSA lHkh f'kf{kr O;fDr lk{kj gksrs gSa fdUrq t:jh ugha fd lHkh lk{kj O;fDr f'kf{kr Hkh gksA ekuo iath fuekZ.k ds ksrksa ls vk'k; mu rjhdksa ls gS tks orZeku esa fLFkr ekuo iwth esa w a o`f djrs gSaA lk{kj] LoLFk] xq.kh rFkk izf'kf{kr yksx fdlh Hkh vFkZO;oLFkk dh tek iwth gksrs gSaA bl a izdkj ;g tula[;k dk ,d xq.k gS ftldk rkRi;Z vf/d vkfFkZd laof ls gSA ` jk"Vh; lk{kjrk fe'ku }kjk izkjEHk fd;k x;k vkUnksyu loZ f'k{kk vfHk;ku gSA izf'k{k.k dk vFkZ gS fdlh fof'k"V dk;Z dks djus ds fy, dq'kyrk vkSj Kku nsukA blls dke dh dq'kyrk c<+rh gSA

67-

891011-

97

Economics (Hindi) XI

;wfuV&7
v;k;&13

xzkeh.k fodkl
Lej.kh; fcanq %
u

xzkeh.k fodkl ls vfHkizk; xzkeh.k {ks=kksa ds vkfFkZd rFkk lkekftd mRFkku ds fy, ,d ec ;kstuk ls gSA xzkeh.k fodkl ds eq[; rRo& 1) xzkeh.k lk[k dh ,d etcwr iz.kkyhA 2) fdlkuksa dks vius mRiknu dh mfpr dher fnykus okyh foi.ku iz.kkyhA 3) iQlyksa dk fofo/hdj.k tks mRiknu ds tksf[ke dks de djs vkSj d`f"k ds O;kikjhdj.k dks c<+kok nsA 4) mRiknu dh xfrfof/;ksa dk fofo/hdj.k rkfd iQly& [ksrh ds vykok thou ds oSdfYid lk/uksa dks <w<+k tk ldsA a 5) tSfod d`f"k dks izkRlkgu nsuk ftlls fd iQly [ksrh i;kZoj.k eSf=kd gks rFkk /kj.kh; s izf;k yEch vof/ rd pysA

d`f"k ifjokjksa ds fy, lk[k dh miyC/rk dks xzkeh.k lk[k dgrs gSaA d`"kdksa dks lk[k dh vko';drk vusd dkj.kksa ls gksrh gS& tSls d`f"k midj.k ,oa e'khus [kjhnus gsrq] dqvka [kksnus ;k V~;coSy yxkus ds fy,] cht] midj.k] moZjd [kkn vkfn [kjhnus ds fy,A w Hkkjr esa xzkeh.k lk[k ds ksr nks izdkj ds gSa& 1) xSj laLFkkxr vFkok vukSipkfjd ksr& buds vUrxZr lkgwdkj] O;kikjh] deh'ku ,tsaV] tehankj] laca/h rFkk fe=k 'kkfey gksrs gSaA

98

Economics (Hindi) XI

2) laLFkkxr vFkok vkSipkfjd ksr& d) lgdkjh lk[k lfefr;ka [k) O;kikfjd cSd a x) {ks=kh; xzkeh.k cSd a ?k) d`f"k rFkk xzkeh.k fodkl ds fy, jk"Vh; cSd (NABARD) a
u

xzkeh.k cSfdax dh lhek,a& a 1) vi;kZIr fok 2) {ks=kh; vlekurk,a 3) cdk;k jkf'k 4) NksVs rFkk lhekUr fdlkuksa dks de ykHk

d`f"k foi.ku ds vUrxZr iQly dkVus ds ckn mit dk laxzg] mRikn dk izlaLdj.k] xq.kokk ds vuqlkj mRikn dk oxhZdj.k] srkvksa dh ilan ds vuqlkj mRikn dh iSfdax] Hkkoh fch ds fy, mRikn dk HkaMkj.k rFkk mRikn dks rc cspuk tc dher ykHkizn gks] vkrk gSA d`f"k foi.ku ds nks"k fuEu izdkj gSA& 1) vi;kZIr HkaMkj x`g 2) fcpkSfy;ksa dh cgqyrk 3) vfu;fer cktkjksa esa xM+cfM+;ka 4) rkSy] Js.khdj.k rFkk ekin.M ds fy, vuqfpr eki 5) i;kZIr fok dk vHkko 6) ifjogu o lapkj ds de lk/u 7) vi;kZIr cktkj lwpuk,a

foi.ku O;oLFkk dks lq/kjus ds fy, ljdkj }kjk fd;s x;s mik;& 1) fu;fer eafM;ksa dh LFkkiuk 2) HkaMkj x`g lqfo/kvksa dk izko/ku 3) fj;k;rh ;krk;kr dh O;oLFkk 4) foi.ku lwpuk dk izlkj 5) U;wure leFkZu dher uhfr 6) lqjf{kr HkaMkj rFkk lkoZtfud forj.k iz.kkyh
99 Economics (Hindi) XI

d`f"k {ks=k esa c<+rh gqbZ Je 'kfDr ds ,d cM+s fgLls dks vU; xSj d`f"k {ks=kksa esa oSdfYid jkstxkj esa volj <w<+us dh izf;k dks fofo/hdj.k dgrs gSaA blds nks igyw gSa& a 1) iQly mRiknu dk fofo/hdj.k& blds vUrxZr ,d iQly dh ctk, cgqiQly dks c<+kok fn;k tkrk gSA blds nks ykHk gSa& d) ekulwu ds vliQy gksus ls ;g [ksrh ds tksf[ke dks de djrh gSA [k) ;g [ksrh ds O;kikjhdj.k ds {ks=k dks c<+krh gSA 2) mRiknu f;kvksa dk fofo/hdj.k& iQly&[ksrh ds vfrfjDr xSj d`f"k {ks=k esa jkstxkjksa dk l`tu djukA jkstxkj ds xSj d`f"k {ks=k ds vUrxZr& d) i'kqikyu [k) eRL; ikyu x) ckxokuh ?k) dqVhj vkSj ?kjsyw m|ksx rFkk ) lwpuk izkS|ksfxdh vkrs gSa

tSfod d`f"k [ksrh dh og ifr gS tks i;kZoj.k larqyu dks iqu% LFkkfir djds mldk laj{k.k vkSj lao/Zu djrh gSA ;g [ksrh tSfod vkxrksa ij fuHkZj djrh gS rFkk jklk;fud vkxrksa ds iz;ksx dk fu"ks/ djrh gSA tSfod d`f"k ds ykHk& 1) NksVs vkSj lhekUr fdlkuksa ds fy, lLrh izf;k 2) vk; dk l`tu 3) ikSf"Vd vkSj LokLF; o/Zd Hkkstu 4) csjkstxkjh dh leL;k dks gy djrh gS 5) i;kZoj.k fe=k

tSfod d`f"k dh mRiknu izf;k esa Je xgu ifr dk iz;ksx fd;k tkrk gS vkSj Hkkjr esa Je dh cgqyrk gS blfy, tSfod d`f"k esa Hkkjr dks rqyukRed ykHk izkIr gSA

100

Economics (Hindi) XI

,d vad okys iz'u


12345678910111213141512345678xzkeh.k fodkl D;k gS\ d`f"k fofo/hdj.k dk D;k vFkZ gS\ ruok (TANWA) D;k gS\ Lof.kZe kafr (Golden Revolution D;k gS\ fdlkuksa ds fgrksa dks ;ku esa j[kdj ljdkj }kjk fd;s x;s nks mik; crkvksA lgdkfjrk foi.ku O;oLFkk D;k gS\ ^vkWijs'ku yM* ls vki D;k le>rs gSa\ vfr y?kq lk[k dk;Ze ls D;k vk'k; gS\ d`f"k lk[k ds xSj laLFkkxr ksrksa dh ifjHkk"kk fy[kksA d`f"k foi.ku D;k gS\ xzkeh.k cSfdx dh nks lhek,a (dfe;ka) crkb;sA a d`f"k lk[k ds nks ksr D;k gSa\ fdl jkT; esa nqX/ lgdkfjrk,a liQyrkiwoZd ykxw gks pqdh gSa\ ukckMZ (NABARD) dh LFkkiuk dc gqbZ\ /kkj.kh; fodkl D;k gS\ lgdkjh lk[k lfefr;ksa ds nks vk/kjHkwr mn~ns'; crkb,A xzkeh.k {ks=kksa esa Lo;a lgk;rk lewg (Self Help Groups) dk egRo Li"V dhft,A xzkeh.k d`f"k {ks=k esa futh O;kikfj;ksa dh f;kvksa ds fu;eu ds fy, ljdkj dk gLr{ksi D;ksa vko';d gS\ ckxokuh Hkkjrh; xzkeh.k fodkl dks dSls izkRlkfgr djrh gS\ s D;k ,d oSdfYid vkthfodk fodYi ds :i esa lwpuk izkS|ksfxdh dk fodkl laHko gS\ dkj.k crkb;sA Hkkjrh; fdlkuksa dks lk[k dh vko';drk D;ksa gS\ oSdfYid foi.ku ek;eksa dh vko';drk D;ksa gqbZ\ tSfod d`f"k ds D;k ykHk gSa\
101 Economics (Hindi) XI

3@4 vad okys iz'u

910-

xzkeh.k cSfdx fdlkuksa dks vko';d lk[k miyC/ djkus esa leFkZ D;ksa ugha gS\ a fuEu ls D;k vk'k; gS& d) U;wure dher fu/kZj.k (MSP) [k) lqjf{kr Hk.Mkj (Buffer Stock) x) lkoZtfud forj.k iz.kkyh (PDS) ?k) Lo;a lgk;rk lewg (SHG)

6 vad okys iz'u


1234567d`f"k fofo/hdj.k ls vki D;k le>rs gSa\ bldh vko';drk D;ksa gS\ tSfod d`f"k ds ykHk ,oa lhek,a crkb;sA Hkkjr esa d`f"k foi.ku iz.kkyh dks lq/kjus ds fy, ljdkj us dkSu ls dne mBk, gSa\ lgdkjh lk[k lfefr ds dk;Z rFkk dfe;ka D;k gSa\ xzkeh.k fodkl 'kCn ls vki D;k le>rs gSa\ xzkeh.k fodkl ds eq[; eqn~ns D;k gSa\ xzkeh.k {ks=k esa i'kqikyu] eRL; ikyu rFkk ckxokuh fdl izdkj /kj.kh; vkthfodk dk ,d egRoiw.kZ ksr gS\ fdlkuksa }kjk fofHkUu mn~ns';ksa ds fy, yh tkus okyh lk[k dh fdLeksa dh O;k[;k djsA a xSj laLFkkxr lk[k ds egRo ,oa fufgrkFkZ dk fooj.k nhft,A

,d vad okys iz'uksa ds mkj


123xzkeh.k fodkl ls vfHkizk; xzkeh.k {ks=kksa ds vkfFkZd rFkk lkekftd mRFkku ds fy, ,d ec ;kstuk ls gSA d`f"k {ks=k esa c<+rh gqbZ Je 'kfDr ds ,d cM+s fgLls ds fy, vU; xSj&d`f"k {ks=kksa esa oSdfYid jkstxkj c<+kus dh izf;k dks d`f"k fofo/hdj.k dgk tkrk gSA ruok (TANAWA) ,d ifj;kstuk gS tks rfeyukMq esa efgykvksa dks uohure~ d`f"k rduhdksa dk izf'k{k.k nsus gsrq 'kq: dh xbZ gSA blds vUrxZr efgyk,a vusd izdkj ds vk; c<+kus okys dk;ks dks izkRlkfgr dj jgh gSA s o"kZ 1991&2003 dh vof/ dks Lof.kZe kafr dky dgk tkrk gSA bl le; vUrjky esa ckxokuh esa lqfu;ksftr fuos'k cgqr gh mRiknd fl gqvk vkSj bl {ks=k us ,d /kj.kh; oSdfYid jkstxkj dk :i ys fy;kA nks mik;& d`f"k mRiknksa dk U;wure ewY; fu/kZj.k ,oa [kk|kUuksa ds lqjf{kr HkaMkjksa dk fuekZ.kA
102 Economics (Hindi) XI

4-

5-

6-

fdlkuksa dks mfpr ewY; fnykus ds fy, lgdkfjrk foi.ku O;oLFkk dk izkjaHk gqvkA blds vUrxZr lnL; fdlku vius vfrfjDr mRikn dks lgdkjh lfefr dks csp nsrs gSa bl izdkj O;fDrxr eksy Hkko ds LFkku ij la;qDr :i ls eksy Hkko djds mRikn dks cspk tkrk gS bl izdkj bl izf;k ls fdlkuksa dks lokske ykHk feyrk gSA Z 1966 esa vkjaHk fd;s x;s ^vkWijs'ku yM* dk;Ze ds vUrxZr fdlku viuk fo; ;ksX; nw/ ,d txg ,d=k djrs gSa] mldh xq.kokk ds vk/kj ij izlaLdj.k djrs gSa vkSj fiQj 'kgjh dsUksa ij lgdkfjrk ds ek;e ls csp nsrs gSA bl izf;k ls nqX/ mRiknu c<+k rFkk a fdlkuksa dks mfpr ewY; feykA Lo;a lgk;rk lewgksa }kjk lk[k dh miyC/rk dks y?kq lk[k dk;Ze dgk tkrk gSA xSj laLFkkxr ksrksa esa lkgwdkj O;kikjh] deh'ku ,tsUV] tehankj] laca/h rFkk fe=k vkrs gSaA d`f"k foi.ku ls vfHkizk; mu lHkh xfrfof/;ksa ,oa izf;kvksa ls gS tks fdlku dks vius mRikn ds cnys esa vf/dre dher izkIr djus esa lgk;rk djrh gSA vU; xfrfof/;ksa ds lkFk bu izf;kvksa esa oxhZdj.k] iSdsftax rFkk HkaMkj.k 'kkfey gSaA xzkeh.k cSfdax dh dfe;ksa esa laof esa {ks=kh; vlekurk,a ,oa c<+rh cdk;k jkf'k dh leL;k a ` dks ys ldrs gSaA lgdkjh lk[k lfefr rFkk {ks=kh; xzkeh.k cSd d`f"k lk[k ds nks ksrksa ds mnkgj.k gSaA a xqtjkr jkT; esa nqX/ lgdkfjrk,a liQyrkiwoZd ykxw gks pqdh gSA ukckMZ (NABARD) dh LFkkiuk o"kZ 1982 esa gqbZA /kj.kh; fodkl og izf;k gS tks Hkkoh ih<+h dh vko';drkvksa dks iwjk djus dh ;ksX;rk dks gkfu igqapk, fcuk orZeku ih<+h dh vko';drkvksa dks iwjk djrh gSA

7-

8910-

1112131415-

103

Economics (Hindi) XI

;wfuV&7 v;k;&14

jkstxkj&lao`f] vukSipkjhdj.k ,oe~ vU; eqn~ns


Lej.kh; fcanq %
u

dk;Z gekjs thou esa O;fDrxr rFkk lekt ds lnL; ds :i esa cgqr egRoiw.kZ Hkwfedk fuHkkrs gSaA Jfed og O;fDr gS] tks viuh thfodk vftZr djus ds fy, fdlh mRiknd jkstxkj esa yxk gSA os lHkh f;k,a] tks oLrqvksa rFkk lsokvksa ds mRiknu }kjk ldy jk"Vh; mRiknu esa ;ksxnku djrh gSa] vkfFkZd f;k,a dgykrh gSaA rhu rjg dh vkfFkZd f;k,a gS& mRiknu] miHkksx o forj.kA mRiknd f;k,a os f;k,a gSa ftUgsa oLrqvksa vkSj lsokvksa ds mRiknu ds fy, fd;k tkrk gS vkSj ftlls vk; dk l`tu gksrk gSA Je cy& Je cy ls vfHkizk; Jfedksa dh ml la[;k ls gS tks okLro esa dk;Z jgs gSa ;k dk;Z djus ds bPNqd gSaA vr% Jecy = dk;Zcy + tks djus ds bPNqd gSa ijUrq csjkstxkj gSaA lgHkkfxrk dh nj& bldk vFkZ gS mRiknu f;k esa okLro esa Hkkx ysus okyh tula[;k dk izfr'krA dk;Zcy ls vfHkizk;& izpfyr nj ij dk;Z djus ds bPNqd ,oe~ l{ke O;fDr;ksa dh la[;k ls gSA dk;Zcy okLro esa dk;Z'khy O;fDr;ksa dh dqy la[;k gSA Je vkiwfrZ& Je vkiwfrZ ls vfHkizk;% Je dh og ek=kk gS ftls etnwj ,d fo'ks"k etnwjh nj ij LosPNkiwoZd vfiZr djrs gSaA
104 Economics (Hindi) XI

u u u u

ns'k dh tula[;k ds ikap esa ls nks O;fDr fofHkUu vkfFkZd f;kvksa esa yxs gSaA eq[;r% xzkeh.k iq#"k] ns'k ds Jecy dk lcls cM+k oxZ gSA Hkkjr esa vf/dka'k Jfed Lofu;kstd gSA vfu;r fngkM+h etnwj rFkk fu;fer osruHkksxh deZpkjh feydj Hkh Hkkjr dh leLr Je'kfDr ds vuqikr ds vk/s ls Hkh de gh jg tkrs gSaA Hkkjr ds dqy Je cy dk yxHkx ikap esa ls rhu Jfed d`f"k vkSj lac dk;ks ls gh viuh vkthfodk izkIr djrk gSA ukSdjh jfgr laof % blls vfHkizk;% ml fLFkfr ls gS ftlesa ldy ?kjsyw mRikn dh ` laof nj esa rks lexz o`f gksrh gS] ijarq jksxtkj voljksa esa mlh vuqikr esa o`f ugha gksrhA `

Jecy dk vfu;rhdj.k vukSipkjhdj.k


u u

vfu;rhdj.k& vuf;rhdj.k dk vfHkizk; ml fLFkfr ls gS] ftlesa le; ds lkFk dqy Jecy esa HkkM+s ij fy, x, vkdfLed Jfedksa ds izfr'kr esa c<+us dh izof` k ikbZ tkrh gSA vukSipkjhdj.k & bldk vfHkizk;% ml fLFkfr ls gS tc yksxksa esa vFkZO;oLFkk ds vkSipkfjd {ks=k ds LFkku ij vukSipkfjd {ks=k esa jkstxkj ds volj vf/d ikus dh izof` k ikbZ tkrh gSA

105

Economics (Hindi) XI

csjkstxkjh ds dkj.k
u u u u u u u u

/heh laof izf;k ` tula[;k o`f vYi fodflr d`f"k {ks=k nks"kiw.kZ f'k{kk iz.kkyh /hek vkS|ksfxd fodkl y?kq o dqVhj m|ksxksa dk vHkko nks"kiw.kZ jkstxkj fu;kstu /heh&iwth fuekZ.k nj a ldy ?kjsyw mRikn esa o`f tula[;k o`f esa fu;a=k.k d`f"k {ks=k dk fodkl y?kq o dqVhj m|ksxksa dk fodkl vk/kfjd lajpuk esa lq/kj fo'ks"k jkstxkj dk;Ze rhoz vkS|ksxhdj.k egkRek xk/h jk"Vh; xzkeh.k jkstxkj xkjaVh vf/fu;e (eujsxk)

csjkstxkjh dh leL;k dks gy djus ds mik;


u u u u u u u

xjhch o csjkstxkjh mUewyu fo'ks"k dk;Ze


u

106

Economics (Hindi) XI

,d vad okys iz'uksa ds mkj


12345678910111213141516171819201234Jfed dkSu gSa\ ldy ?kjsyw mRikn dks ifjHkkf"kr dhft,A vkfFkZd f;k D;k gS\ Lofu;ksftr Jfedksa dks ifjHkkf"kr dhft,A lgHkkfxrk nj D;k gS\ csjkstxkjh ij vkdM+s ,df=kr djus okys rhu ksr crkb,A ukSdjh jfgr laof fdls dgrs gSa\ ` vfu;ferhdj.k D;k gS\ D;k ;s Jfed gSa& ,d fHk[kkjh] ,d pksj] ,d Lexyj] ,d tqvkjh D;ks\ a dk;Zcy ds vukSipkjhdj.k ls vki D;k le>rs gSa\ xzkeh.k {ks=k esa Lofu;ksftr Jecy ds T;knk gksus dk D;k dkj.k gS\ nks izdkj dh 'kgjh csjkstxkjh D;k&D;k gS\ izPNUu csjkstxkjh D;k gksrh gS\ Jecy esa fdUgsa lfEefyr djrs gSa\ dk;Zcy D;k gS\ Jfed&tula[;k vuqikr dks ifjHkkf"kr djksA vfu;fer etnwjksa dks ifjHkkf"kr dhft,A vki dSls irk djsxs fd Jfed ,d vukSipkfjd {ks=kd esa dk;Z dj jgk gS\ a fu;fer osruHkksxh etnwjksa dh la[;k xzkeh.k {ks=kksa dh rqyuk esa 'kgjh {ks=kksa esa vf/d gksus dk D;k dkj.k gS\ vkfFkZd f;k o mRiknd f;k ds e; varj D;ksa fd;k tkrk gS\ Jecy vkSj dk;Zcy ds e; D;k varj gS\ nks izdkj ds izeq[k HkkM+s ds etnwjksa ds izdkjksa dh O;k[;k dhft,A Hkkjr esa dk;Zcy ds fofHkUu {ks=kdksa esa forj.k ds izk:i dk vUos"k.k dhft,A nks izdkj ds xzkeh.k csjkstxkjh ds izdkjksa dh O;k[;k dhft,A
107 Economics (Hindi) XI

3@4 vad okys y?kqkjkRed iz'u

567891011-

ljdkj jkstxkj l`tu dSls djrh gS\ dk;Z'kfDr ds oxhZdj.k dh O;k[;k dhft,A egkRek xk/h jk"Vh; xzkeh.k jkstxkj xkjaVh vf/fu;e 2005 ij laf{kIr fVIi.kh fy[ksA a csjkstxkjh dks fu;af=kr djus ds dqN lkekU; mik; crkb;sA csjkstxkjh ds D;k nks"kiw.kZ izHkko gksrs gS\ a vukSipkfjd {ks=kd ij ,d laf{kIr uksV fy[ksaA vukSipkfjd {ks=kd ds etnwj fdl rjg dh leL;kvksa ls tw> jgs gSa\ jk"Vh; lSEiy losZ laLFkk }kjk mi;ksx esa yk;s tkus okys rhu izdkj dh csjkstxkjh ds izdkjksa dh O;k[;k dhft,A csjkstxkjh ds fofHkUu izdkj D;k gS\ jkstxkj l`tu djus esa ljdkj dh D;k Hkwfedk gS\ csjkstxkjh ds eq[; dkj.k D;k gSa\ dk;Z'kfDr ds vukSipkfjdrk dh O;k[;k dhft,A Jecy ds is'ksoj <kaps dh O;k[;k dhft,A laxfBr {ks=kd D;k gSa\ laxfBr {ks=kd esa jkstxkj ds de gksus dkj.k fyf[k,A Hkkjr esa csjkstxkjh dks nwj djus ds fofHkUu lq/kjkRed mik;ksa dh O;k[;k dhft,A Jecy ds vfu;rhdj.k ls vki D;k le>rs gSa\ mi;qDr rF; nsdj le>kb;sA vFkZO;oLFkk ds fofHkUu {ks=kdksa esa jkstxkj ds forj.k dh O;k[;k dhft,A la?k"kkZRed ,oe~ lajpukRed csjkstxkjh ds izdkjksa dh O;k[;k dhft,A

6 vad okys nh?kZ mkjkRed iz'u


12345678910-

108

Economics (Hindi) XI

,d vad okys iz'uksa ds mkj


123456Jfed og O;fDr gS] tks viuh thfodk vftZr djus ds fy, fdlh mRiknd jkstxkj esa yxk gSA ,d vFkZO;oLFkk esa ,d o"kZ ds vUrZxr mRikfnr oLrqvksa rFkk lsokvksa ds dqy tksM+ dks ldy ?kjsyw mRikn dgk tkrk gSA og lHkh f;k,a] tks oLrqvksa rFkk lsokvksa ds mRiknu }kjk ldy jk"Vh; mRiknu esa ;ksxnku djrh gS_ vkfFkZd f;k,a dgykrh gSaA Lofu;ksftr Jfed og O;fDr gS tks vius gh O;kikj vFkok /a/s esa dk;Z djrk gS rFkk Lofu;kstu ds iqjLdkj ds :i esa mUgsa ykHk izkIr gksrk gSA lgHkkfxrk dh nj dks mRiknu f;k esa okLro esa Hkkx ysus okyh tula[;k ds izfr'kr ds :i esa ifjHkkf"kr fd;k tkrk gS bls Jecy tula[;k vuqikr Hkh dgk tkrk gSA v) Hkkjr dh tux.kuk fjiksVZ c) jk"Vh; izfrn'kZ los{k.k laxBu dh jkstxkj vkSj csjkstxkjh dh voLFkk laca/h fjiksVZ Z l) jkstxkj vkSj izf'k{k.k egkfuns'kky; ds jkstxkj dk;kZy; esa iathd`r vkdM+s ukSdjh jfgr laof ls vfHkizk;% ml fLFkfr ls gS ftlesa ldy ?kjsyw mRikn dh laof ` ` nj esa rks lexz o`f gksrh gS] ijarq jkstxkj voljksa esa mlh vuqikl esa o`f ugha gksrhA vuf;rhdj.k dk vfHkizk; ml fLFkfr ls gS ftlesa le; ds lkFk dqy Jecy esa HkkM+s ij fy, x, vkdfLed Jfedksa ds izfr'kr esa c<+us dh izo`fk ik;h tkrh gSA ugha] ;s Jfed ugha gSa] D;ksfd os fdlh mRiknd f;k esa ;ksxnku ugha nsrsA a vukSipkjhdj.k dk vfHkizk;% ml fLFkfr ls gS tc yksxksa esa vFkZO;oLFkk ds vkSipkfjd {ks=k ds LFkku ij vukSipkfjd {ks=k esa jkstxkj ds volj vf/d ikus izo`fk ikbZ tkrh gSA xzkeh.k {ks=k esa Lofu;ksftr Je ds vf/d gksus dk dkj.k mudk viuh gh Hkw[k.M esa d`f"k djuk gSA d) vkS|ksfxd csjkstxkjh [k) 'kSf{kd csjkstxkjh 1314izPNUu csjkstxkjh og fLFkfr gS tgka Jfed dke djrs gq, utj vkrs gSa] ijarq mudh lhekar mRikndrk thjks vFkok .kkRed gksrh gSA Jecy ls vfHkizk;% Jfedksa dh ml la[;k ls gS] tks okLro esa dk;Z dj jgs gSa ;k dk;Z djus ds bPNqd gS ijarq dk;Z ugha ik ldrs vFkkZr~ tks csjkstxkj gSA

789101112-

109

Economics (Hindi) XI

151617181920-

vkfFkZd f;kvksa ls tqM+s O;fDr Jfed dgykrs gSaA dk;Z cy okLro esa dk;Z'khy O;fDr;ksa dh dqy la[;k gSA Jfed tula[;k vuqikr ls rkRi;Z tula[;k ds ml izfr'kr ls gS tks fdlh dk;Z esa yxh gqbZ gSA os O;fDr ftUgsa muds ekfyd vFkok fu;kstd fu;fer vFkok LFkkbZ :i ls dk;Z esa ugha yxkrs rFkk mUgsa lkekftd lqj{kk ds ykHk Hkh izkIr ugha gksrs] vfu;fer etnwj dgykrs gSaA ;g ,d vlaxfBr {ks=k gS] blesa oks lHkh futh m|e lfEefyr gSa] ftuesa 10 ls de Jfed dk;Z djrs gSaA os O;fDr tks muds fu;kstdksa }kjk LFkkbZ vFkok fu;fer :i ls yxk, tkrs gSa rFkk mUgsa lkeftd lqj{kk ykHk Hkh izkIr gksrs gSa fu;fer etnwj dgykrs gSaA vkfFkZd f;kvksa o mRiknd f;kvksa ds e; varj blfy, fd;k tkrk gS D;ksfd mUgha a O;fDr;ksa dks Jfed ekuk tkrk gS tks& mRiknu f;kvksa esa fyIr gSaA

110

Economics (Hindi) XI

;wfuV&7
v;k;&15

eqkLiQhfr & leL;k o uhfr;ka


Lej.kh; fcanq %
lkekU; vFkks esa eqnzkLiQhfr dk vFk dherksa dk c<+uk gSA eqnzkLiQhfr oLrq dh dher esa gksus okyh yxkrkj o`f gS] ftlds iQyLo:i eqnzk dh ; 'kfDr ?kV tkrh gSA eqnzk LiQhfr dks ukius dh izeq[k eki LiQhfr nj gSA LiQhfr nj fdlh le; lhek esa lkekU; dher Lrj esa ifjorZu ls gSA

eqnzkLiQhfr ds izdkj
1eqnzkLiQhfr dh nj ds vk/kj ij mQaph
(Hyper)

nkSM+rh
(Runnurs)

dwnrh
(Galloping)

gYdh
(Moderate)

2-

mRifk ds dkj.k ds vk/kj ij ykxrtU; eqnzkLiQhfr

ekax izfjr eqnzkLiQhfr s

ekax izsfjr eqnzkLiQhfr &


ekax izfjr eqnzkLiQhfr rc mRiUu gksrh gS tc oLrqvksa dh ekax mudh iwfrZ ls vf/d gksrh gSA tc s ekax yxkrkj c<+rh jgrh gS vkSj iwfrZ vuqikfrd :i ls ugha c<+rh] rc dhersa c<+us yxrh gSaA ekax izfjr eqnzkLiQhfr ds eq[; dkj.k fuEufyf[k gSa%& s
u u u

lkoZtfud O;; esa o`f fuos'k esa o`f eqnzk iwfrZ esa o`f
111 Economics (Hindi) XI

u u

dkys /u esa o`f tula[;k esa o`f

ykxrtU; eqnzkLiQhfr &


ykxrtU; eqnzkLiQhfr rc mRiUu gksrh gS tc dherksa esa o`f mRiknu ykxr esa o`f ds dkj.k gksrh gSA bl izdkj dh LiQhfr esa ekax dkjd fLFkj jgrs gSa rFkk iwfrZ dkjd dh eq[; Hkwfedk gksrh gSA ;fn bl izdkj dh LiQhfr fdlh ,d m|ksx esa gksrh gS rks ;g /hjs&/hjs ,d vFkZO;oLFkk ds lHkh m|ksxksa esa iSQy tkrh gSA ykxrtU; eqnzkLiQhfr ds eq[; dkj.k fuEufyf[kr gSa&
u u u u u

mQaph etnwjh njsa mQapk ykHk ekftZu mQaps dj vk/kjHkwr lalk/uksa dh miyC/rk esa deh iz'kklu }kjk lalk/uksa dh dher o`f eqnkLiQhfr ds dkj.k z ekax dkjd 1- tula[;k o`f 2- jkstxkj o vk; esa o`f 3- 'kgjhdj.k esa o`f iwfrZ dkjd 1- vfu;fer [kk| iwfrZ 2- vko';d oLrqvksa dh tke[kksjh 3- iz'kklfud dherksa esa o`f 4- vkS|ksfxd mRikn dk vi;kZIr fodkl 5- vk;kr dh c<+rh dhersa 6- [kk| dher uhfr ekSfnzd rFkk jktdks"kh; dkjd 1- ljdkjh O;; dk c<+rk Lrj 2- ?kkVs dh fok O;oLFkk

112

Economics (Hindi) XI

eqnzkLiQhfr ds izHkko&
lw{e&O;fDr ij
u u u

okLrfod vk; esa deh lEifk dh dher esa deh vk; ds iquZforj.k ls lkekftd ruko tek[kksjh o dkykcktkjh lV~Vkcktkjh dks izkRlkgu s ekSfnzd vk; esa o`f ?kfV;k xq.kokk iwth fuekZ.k esa deh a eqnkLiQhfr dks fu;af=kr djus ds mik; z ekSfnzd mik; 1- cSd nj c<+kdj a 2- [kqys cktkj dh izf;k,a 3- ifjorhZ dks"k vuqikr c<+kdj ekSfnzd rFkk xSj ekSfnzd uhfr;ka 1- mRiknu ;k vk;kr c<+kdj 2- ekSfnzd etnwjh ij fu;a=k.k 3- dher fu;a=k.k ,oe~ jk'kfuax jktdks"kh; mik; 1- jktLo uhfr 2- O;; uhfr

o`gr & vFkZO;oLFkk ij


u u u u u

113

Economics (Hindi) XI

,d vad okys iz'u


12345678910eqnzkLiQhfr dks ifjHkkf"kr djsA a voLiQhfr dh ifjHkk"kk nhft, fLFkj LiQhfr dk vFkZ crkb;s dkSu ls ekax dkjd LiQhfr mRiUu djrs gSa\ dkSu ls iwfrZ dkjd LiQhfr mRiUu djrs gSa\ ekax izfjr eqnzkLiQhfr D;k gS\ s iwfrZ izfjr eqnzk LiQhfr D;k gS\ s eqnzkLiQhfr dk nj ls D;k le>rs gSa\ Hkkjr esa ekSfnzd uhfr dks fu;af=kr dkSu djrk gS\ jktdks"kh; uhfr D;k gS\

y?kqkjkRed 3@4 vad okys iz'u


123456ekax izfjr eqnzkLiQhfr dh O;k[;k djsA s a eqnzkLiQhfr dks fu;af=kr djus ds ekSfnzd mik;ksa dh O;k[;k dhft,A eqnzkLiQhfr dks fu;af=kr djus esa jktdks"kh; uhfr;ksa dh O;k[;k dhft,A eqnzkLiQhfr ds fofHkUu izdkj dkSu ls gSa\ eqnzkLiQhfr dks tUe nsus okys iwfrZdkjd dkSu ls gSa\ vFkZO;oLFkk ij eqnzkLiQhfr ds eq[; izHkko D;k iM+rs gSa\

nh?kZ mkjkRed iz'u


12345ekax izfjr eqnzkLiQhfr D;k gS\ blds eq[; dkj.k D;k gSa\ s ykxr tU; eqnzkLiQhfr D;k gS\ blds eq[; dkj.k D;k gSa\ Hkkjr esa eqnzkLiQhfr ds lkekaU; dkj.k D;k jgs gSa\ eqnzkLiQhfr dks fu;af=kr djus ds fy, ljdkj us dkSu ls dne mBk;s gSa\ eqnzkLiQhfr dk ns'k dh vFkZO;oLFkk ij D;k izHkko iM+rk gS\

114

Economics (Hindi) XI

,d vad okys iz'uksa ds mkj


12345eqnzkLiQhfr oLrq dh dher esa gksus okyh yxkrkj o`f gS] ftlds iQyLo:i eqnzk dh ;'kfDr ?kV tkrh gSA voLiQhfr og fLFkfr gS ftlesa dhersa ?kVrh gSa rFkk eqnzk dk ewY; c<+rk gSA fLFkj LiQhfr dk vFkZ gS vFkZ O;oLFkk esa fLFkjrk rFkk LiQhfr nksuksa dk ,d lkFk gksukA tula[;k esa o`f] jkstxkj o vk; esa o`f o c<+rs 'kgjhdj.k ls eqnzkLiQhfr esa o`f gksrh gSA vko';d oLrqvksa dh tek[kksjh] vfu;fer [kk|iwfrZ] iz'kklfud dherksa esa o`f] viz;kZIr vkS|ksfxd mRiknu vkfnA eqnzkLiQhfr ds iwfrZdkjd gSaA 678910ekax isfjr eqnzkLiQhfr rc mRiUu gksrh gS tc oLrqvksa dh ekax mudh iwfrZ ls vf/d gksrh z gSA ykxr tU; eqnzkLiQhfr rc mRiUu gksrh gS tc dherksa esa o`f mRiknu ykxr esa o`f ds dkj.k gksrh gSA eqnzkLiQhfr nj] dher eqnzkLiQhfr dks ekius dk izeq[k lk/u gSA ;g o"kZ esa lkekU; dher Lrj ds lwpdkad esa izfr'kr ifjorZu gSa Hkkjrh; fjtoZ cSd Hkkjr dh ekSfnzd uhfr dks fu;af=kr djrk gSA a ljdkj dh jktLo rFkk lkoZtfud O;; laca/h uhfr;ksa dks jktdks"kh; uhfr dgrs gSaA

115

Economics (Hindi) XI

;wfuV&7
v;k;&16

vk/kfjd lajpuk
Lej.kh; fcanq %
u

vk/kfjd lajpuk dk vfHkizk; ewyHkwr lgk;d <kaps ls gS] tks ,d vFkZO;oLFkk esa fofHkUu izdkj dh lsok,a iznku djus ds fy, cukbZ xbZ gSaA vk/kfjd lajpuk ns'k ds vkfFkZd fodkl esa ;ksxnku] mRiknu ds lk/uksa dh mRikndrk c<+kdj rFkk yksxksa ds thou dh xq.kokk dks lq/kj dj djrh gSA vk/kfjd lajpuk d`f"k vkSj m|ksx ds eq[; {ks=kks] okf.kT; o ?kjsyw o fons'kh O;kikj dks a lgk;d lsok,a iznku djrh gSA vk/kfjd lajpuk ds izdkj vkfFkZd vk/kfjd lajpuk ;krk;kr mQtkZ

lkekftd vk/kfjd lajpuk nwjlapkj foKku o izkS|ksfxdh

flapkbZ o ty izcU/u

fokh; laLFkk,a

f'k{kk

LokLF;

vkokl

ukxfjd lqfo/k,a
116

dkuwu O;oLFkk bR;kfn


Economics (Hindi) XI

vk/kfjd lajpuk dk egRo


u u u u u u u

mRikndrk esa o`f jkstxkj dk l`tu fons'kh fofue; dks izkRlkgu s dk;Z{kerk esa o`f ckg~; izki.k dh lqxerk vkfFkZd fodkl esa o`f cktkj ds vkdkj esa o`f Hkkjr ldy ?kjsyw mRikn dk dsoy 5 izfr'kr gh vk/kfjd lajpuk ij fuos'k djrk gS tks phu o baMksusf'k; ls cgqr de gSA ljdkj ds lkFk&lkFk vkt futh daifu;ka Hkh Lo;a vFkok lkoZtfud {ks=k ds lkFk lk>snkjh esa vk/kfjd lajpuk ds fodkl esa cgqr egRoiw.kZ Hkwfedk fuHkk jgh gSA Hkkjr dks vHkh vk/kfjd lajpuk dks fo'ks"krj xzkeh.k mQtkZ vko';drk] is;ty] ewyHkwr ukxfjd lqfo/kvksa vkSj LokLF; o liQkbZ ds {ks=kksa esa fodflr djuk gSA

Hkkjr esa vk/kfjd lajpuk dh voLFkk


u u u

mQtkZ (Energy)
mQtkZ lHkh izdkj dh mRiknu izf;kvksa vkSj miHkksx xfrfof/;ksa ds fy, vko';d gSA mQtkZ ns'k dh fodkl izf;k dk ,d tfVy igyw gSA

mQtkZ ds ksr
u u u u

mQtkZ ds okf.kfT;d ksrksa esa dks;yk] isVk sfy;e o fo|qr vkrs gSaA mQtkZ ds xSj&okf.kfT;d ksrksa esa ydM+h] d`f"k vo'ks"k rFkk lw[ks xkscj ds xksys gSaA mQtkZ ds ijaijkxr ksrksa esa mQtkZ ds okf.kfT;d rFkk xSj&okf.kfT;d nksuksa izdkj ds ksr 'kkfey gS& tSl& izkd`frd xSl] dks;yk] isVk sy vkfnA s mQtkZ ds xSj&ijaijkxr ksrksa esa mQtkZ ds iquuZohuh&dj.kh; ksr 'kkfey gksrs gS] tSl& ck;ksxl] a s S lkSj mQtkZ] iou mQtkZ] Tokj mQtkZ vkfnA Hkkjr esa orZeku le; esa dqy mQtkZ dk 65 izfr'kr okf.kfT;d miHkksx gSA dks;ys dk lcls vf/d Hkkx 55 izfr'kr] rsy dk 33 izfr'kr rFkk izkd`frd xSl 11 izfr'kr rFkk gkbMks mQtkZ 3 izfr'kr gSA dqy mQtkZ miHkksx ds 30 izfr'kr ls vf/d xSj&okf.kfT;d ksrksa ls izkIr gksrh gSA
117 Economics (Hindi) XI

okf.kfT;d mQtkZ dh miHkksx izo`fk


u u u

mQtkZ@fo|qr
'kfDr ftls lkekU;r% fo|qr dgk tkrk gS_ mQtkZ dk lcls izeq[k :i gS] ;g vk/qfud lH;rk ds lkFk&lkFk fodflr gks jgk gSA fo|qr ds eq[; ksr FkeZy mQtkZ 70
u u u u u u u u

gkbMks o iou mQtkZ 28

ijek.kq mQtkZ 2

fo|qr {ks=k esa mHkjrh pqukSfr;ka


vi;kZIr LFkkukiUu {kerk {kerk dk de mi;ksx jkT; fo|qr cksMZ dks gksus okyh gkfu;ka futh {ks=k dh vfuf'pr Hkwfedk lkoZtfud O;xzrk dPps eky dh deh lapj.k ,oe~ forj.k dh {kfr;ka f;kRed vdq'kyrk lapj.k ,oe~ forj.k dh gkfu;ksa esa deh iykaV yksM iSQDVj esa lq/kj mQtkZ laj{k.k ds fy, ds CFL mi;ksx dks izkRlkgu s futh {ks=kksa dh lgHkkfxrk dks izkRlkgu s ty o iou mQtkZ dks izkRlkgu s jk"Vh; fxzM ck;ksxSl l`tu dk;Ze vk.kfod mQtkZ dk l`tu

fo|qr {ks=kd ds le{k pqukSfr;ksa dk lkeuk djus ds mik;


u u u u u u u u

LokLF; (Health)
LokLF; jk"V dh lexz laof vkSj fodkl ls tqM+h ,d iw.kZ izf;k gSA `

118

Economics (Hindi) XI

Hkkjr esa LokLF; vk/kfjd lajpuk dh voLFkk


u u u u u

Lora=krk ds ckn LokLF; lsokvksa dh HkkSfrd O;oLFkk esa egRoiw.kZ foLrkj vkSj LokLF; lwpdksa esa lq/kj gqvk gSSA vf/dka'k tula[;k ds fy, lkoZtfud LokLF; iz.kkyh vkSj lqfo/k,a iz;kZIr ugha gSaA xzkeh.k& 'kgjh bykdksa vkSj vehj o xjhc ds chp LokLF; ns[kHkky lqfo/kvksa ds miHkksx esa cM+k varj gSA ns'k esa Hkz.k gR;k dh c<+rh ?kVukvksa ds dkj.k ns'k esa fL=k;ksa dk LokLF; xaHkhj fpUrk dk w fo"k; cu x;k gSA futh {ks=k dh fofu;fer LokLF; lsokvksa ls fLFkfr esa lq/kj gks ldrk gSA blds lkFk&lkFk LokLF; ns[kHkky lqfo/k,a iznku djus vkSj LokLF; ds izfr tkx#drk c<+kus esa xSj&ljdkjh laxBu vkSj lkeqnkf;d lgHkkfxrk t:jh gSA fpfdRlk dh Hkkjrh; iz.kkyh& vk;qon] ;ksx] ;wukuh] fl] izkd`frd fpfdRlk vkSj gksE;ksiFkh sZ S dks vkSj vf/d izHkko'kkyh cuk;k tk ldrk gSA

119

Economics (Hindi) XI

,d vad okys iz'u


123456789101112131415mQtkZ ds xSj&okf.kfT;d ksrksa dk D;k vFkZ gS\ lapj.k ,oe~ forj.k dh gkfu;ksa ls D;k le>rs gSa\ ,d ns'k dh LokLF; n'kk ds D;k ladsrd gksrs gSa\ vk/kfjd lajpuk dk dksbZ ,d izeq[k ykHk fy[ksa\ fo'o jksx Hkkj (Global Disease Burden) D;k gS Hkkjrh; fpfdRlk iz.kkyh dh 6 O;oLFkk,a D;k gSa\ #X.krk (Morbidity) ls D;k le>rs gSa\ IykaV yksM iSQDVj (PLF) D;k ekirk gS\ jkT; fo|qr cksMZ dks dSls gkfu;ka gksrh gSa\ f'k'kq e`R;qnj ls vki D;k le>rs gSa\ fo|qr ds mRiknu ds rhu cqfu;knh ksr dkSu ls gSa\ vkfFkZd vk/kfjd lajpuk ls D;k le>rs gSa\ mu jkT;ksa ds uke fyf[k;s tgka LokLF; ns[kHkky lqfo/kvksa dk vHkko gSA fuos'kd Tokj mQtkZ ifj;kstuk esa fuos'k D;ksa ugha djrs gSa\ Hkkjr esa xzkeh.k {ks=kksa esa efgykvksa }kjk izeq[kr% dkSu lk b/u iz;Dr gksrk gS\ q

3@4 vad okys y?kqkjkRed iz'u


1234567#X.krk (Mordibidy) nj ls vki D;k le>rs gSa\ bldks izHkkfor djus okys rRo dkSu ls gSa\ mQtkZ ds okf.kfT;d vkSj xSj&okf.kfT;d ksrksa esa varj crkb;sA vk/kfjd lajpuk dks fdu nks Hkkxksa esa ckaVk x;k gS\ budks izHkkfor djus okys dkjd D;k gS\ vk/kfjd lajpuk dh lqfo/k,a dSls mRiknu dks izkRlkfgr djrh gS\ s fo|qr ds mRiknu ds rhu cqfu;knh ksr dkSu ls gS\ O;k[;k djksA Hkkjr dh oSdfYid LokLF; iz.kkyh ds ckjs esa laf{kIr esa crkb;sA mQtkZ ds izkFkfed o f}rh;d ksr D;k gSa\
120 Economics (Hindi) XI

891012345678910-

,d vFkZO;oLFkk esa fdl rjg vk/kfjd lajpuk lgk;d gksrh gS\ fiNys o"kks esa fdl rjg mQtkZ ds miHkksx dk izk:i cnyk gS\ LokLF; lqfo/k dk;Zeksa dh izHkko'khyrk esa dSls o`f gks ldrh gS\ vk/kfjd lajpuk fdl rjg ls vFkZO;oLFkk dh lkekftd o vkfFkZd fodkl esa lgk;d gS\ Hkkjr esa mQtkZ {ks=kd fdl rjg dh leL;kvksa ls tw> jgk gS\ Hkkjr esa vk/kfjd lajpuk dh rhu Lrjh; O;oLFkk D;k gS\ gekjh LokLF; ns[kHkky iz.kkyh dh izeq[k dfe;ka D;k gSa\ lkSj mQtkZ] iou 'kfDr rFkk Tokj ls mRiUu djus okyh 'kfDr mQtkZ ds Hkkoh ksr gSaA buds ykHk rFkk gkfu;ka crkb;sA ge LokLF; lqfo/k dk;Zeksa dh izHkko'khyrk dSls c<+k ldrs gSa\ mQtkZ {ks=k dh pqukSfr;ksa dk lkeuk djus ds fy, gky esa mBk;s tkus okys dneksa dh ppkZ dhft,A gekjs ns'k ds yksxksa ds LokLF; dh izeq[k fo'ks"krk,a D;k gSa\ vk/kfjd lajpuk fdl rjg ls ns'k ds vkfFkZd fodkl esa ;ksxnku ns ldrh gS\ O;k[;k djsA a Hkkjr esa LokLF; ns[kHkky esa Lo;aloh laLFkkvksa dk D;k ;ksxnku gS\ s

6 vad okys nh?kZ mkjkRed iz'u

,d vad okys iz'uksa ds mkj


12345mQtkZ ds xSj&okf.kfT;d ksr ydM+h] d`f"k vo'ks"k rFkk lw[ks xkscj ds xksys gSaA ;s xSj okf.kfT;d gSa] D;ksfd os izd`fr esa feyrs gSaA a lapj.k vkSj forj.k gkfu;ksa dk vfHkizk;% fo|qr dh pksjh ls gSA yksxksa ds LokLF; dk fu/kZj.k f'k'kq e`R;qnj vkSj ekr`Ro e`R;q nj] thou izR;k'kk vkSj iks"k.k Lrj ds lkFk&lkFk lae.k vkSj vlaked jksxksa dh ?kVukvksa tSls lwpdksa }kjk djrs gSaA vk/kfjd lajpuk mRiknu ds lk/uksa dh mRikndrk dks c<+k nsrs gSaA oSf'od jksx Hkkj fo'ks"kKksa }kjk fufnZ"V jksx ds dkj.k vifjiDo e`R;q dh la[;k ,oe~ mlh jksx ds dkj.k ,d O;fDr fdrus le; varjky rd vleFkZ jgrk gS] dk vkdyu djus ds fy, iz;ksx fd;k tkrk gSA
121 Economics (Hindi) XI

67891011121314-

Hkkjrh; fpfdRlk dh N% iz.kkyh gSa% vk;qosn] ;ksx rFkk izkd`frd fpfdRlk] ;wukuh] flk rFkk gksE;ksiSFkhA #X.krk dk vFkZ chekj iM+us dh izo`fk gSA IykaV yksM iSQDVj FkeZy IykaV dh f;kRed dq'kyrk dks ekirk gSA jkT; fo|qr cksM] fo|qr laiz"k.k vkSj forj.k ds uqdlku] fctyh dh vuqfpr dherksa vkSj Z s vdk;Zdq'kyrk dh otg ls gkfu;ka >syrs gSaA ,d o"kZ dh vk;q ls iwoZ gh e`r f'k'kqvksa dh la[;k rFkk ml o"kZ esa tUesa f'k'kqvksa dh la[;k dk vuqikr xq.kk 1000 f'k'kq e`R;q nj gSA dks;yk] isVk sy o ty fo|qr mRiknu ds rhu cqfu;knh ksr gSaA vkfFkZd vk/kfjd lajpuk izR;{k :i ls vkfFkZd iz.kkyh dks leFkZu nsrh gS] ;g vkarfjd :i ls vkfFkZd iz.kkyh dh lgk;rk djrh gSA LokLF; ns[kHkky iz.kkyh esa ihNs jg x;s jkT;ksa ds uke& fcgkj] e; izns'k] jktLFkku vkSj mkj izns'kA Tpkj mQtkZ dh iwthxr ykxr vf/d rFkk mls pykus dh ykxr fuEu gSA blds ifj.kkeLo:i a Tokj mQtkZ ls o"kks rd izfriQy ugha feyrk gS] ftlds dkj.k fuos'kd ,slh ifj;kstukvksa esa fuos'k ugha djrs gSaA xzkeh.k efgyk,a vkt Hkh viuh mQtkZ vko';drkvksa dh iwfrZ ds fy, d`f"k dk dwMk+ &dpjk] tykmQ ydM+h vkSj xkscj dk iz;ksx djrh gSA

15-

122

Economics (Hindi) XI

;wfuV&7
v;k;&17

Hkkjrh; vFkZO;oLFkk dh orZeku pqukSfr;k


^^/kj.kh; vkfFkZd fodkl**
Lej.kh; fcanq %
u

i;kZoj.k dks leLr HkweaMyh; fojklr vkSj lHkh lalk/uksa dh lexzrk ds :i esa ifjHkkf"kr fd;k tkrk gSA blesa os lHkh tSfod vkSj vtSfod rRo vkrs gSa tks ,d nwljs dks izHkkfor djrs gSA a lHkh thfor rRo& tSl] i{kh] i'kq] ikS/s] ou] eRL; vkfn tSfod rRo gSaA s vtSfod rRoksa ds varxZr gok] ikuh] Hkwfe] pV~Vku vkSj lw;Z fdj.k vkfn vthfor rRo vkrs gSaA i;kZoj.k ds dk;Z gSa& 1) ;g mRiknu ds fy, lalk/uksa (uohdj.kh; vkSj xSj uohdj.kh; nksuks) dh iwfrZ a djrk gSA 2) ;g vif"k"Vksa (;k vo'ks"k) dks lekfgr djrk gSA 3) ;g thou /kj.k esa lgk;d gSA 4) ;g thou dh xq.kokk dks c<+krk gSA i;kZoj.k bu dk;ks dks fcuk fdlh O;o/ku ds rHkh dj ldrk gS tc rd fd ;s dk;Z mldh /kj.k {kerk dh lhek esa gSaA i;kZoj.k dh /kj.k {kerk dh lhek ls rkRi;Z gS fd] 1) lalk/uksa dk fu"d"kZ.k buds iqutZuu dh nj ls de gks rFkk] 2) mRiUu vif'k"V i;kZoj.k dh lekfgr djus dh {kerk ls T;knk u gksA ;fn ,slk ugha gksrk rks i;kZoj.k ladV iSnk gks tkrk gSA
123 Economics (Hindi) XI

u u u

i;kZoj.k dh vo'kks"kh {kerk (vFkok vif'k"Vksa dks lekfgr djus dh {kerk) dk vFkZ i;kZoj.k dh vi{k; dks lks[kus dh ;ksX;rk ls gSA i;kZoj.k ladV ds fofHkUu dkj.k fuEufyf[kr gS% 1) tula[;k foLiQksV vkSj vkS|ksfxd kafr dk vkxeu 2) uohdj.kh; vkSj xSj&uohdj.kh; nksuksa lalk/uksa dk xgu rFkk O;kid fu"d"kZ.k 3) fodflr ns'kksa ds le` miHkksx rFkk mRiknu ekud

uohdj.kh; lalk/u os gS ftudh lekfIr vkSj vo{k; iz;ksx djus ls ugha gksrk vFkkZr~ lalk/u dh iwfrZ fujarj cuh jgrh gSA mnkgj.kkFkZ] ouksa esa isM] lkeqfnzd tho tUrqA + xSj uohdj.kh; lalk/u os gSa tksfd mi;ksx vkSj fu"d"kZ.k ls lekIr gks tkrs gSaA mnkgj.kkFkZ] thok'e b/u] dks;yk vkfnA i;kZoj.k ls lacaf/r nks ekSfyd leL;k,a gSa% 1) iznw"k.k dh leL;k 2) izkd`frd lalk/uksa ds vR;f/d 'kks"k.k dh leL;k ;k izkd`frd lalk/uksa dk vo{k;

iznw"k.k ls vk'k; gS ykHknk;d oLrqvksa tSl& gok] ikuh] Hkwfe vkfn esa gkfudkjd inkFkks s tSl& /qvk] tgjhys jlk;u] gkfudkjd xSlksa vkfn dk feyukA s a iznw"k.k ds izeq[k izdkj gSa % 1) ok;q iznw"k.k 2) ty iznw"k.k 3) ofu iznw"k.k 4) e`nk iznw"k.k

oSf'od m".krk (Global Warming) ls rkRi;Z gS i`Foh vkSj leqnz ds vkSlr rkieku esa o`fA oSf'od m".krk dk izeq[k dkj.k gS& ekuo }kjk ou fouk'k vkSj tho'e b/u ds tyus ls dkcZuMkbvkWDlkbM (Co2) vkSj vU; xzhu gkml xSlksa esa o`fA oSf'od m".krk ds dqN nh?kZdkyhu ifj.kke fuEufyf[kr gSa& 1) /zoh; ciZQ dk fi?kyuk ftlds iQyLo:i leqnz Lrj esa o`f vkSj ck<+ dk izdksiA q
124 Economics (Hindi) XI

2) vusd iztkfr;ksa dh foyqfIr 3) m".kdfVca/h; rwiQkuksa dh ckjackjrk 4) m".kdfVca/h; jksxksa ds izHkko esa c<+kkjhA s
u u

vkstksu vi{k; ls vk'k; lerkieaMy esa vkstksu dh ek=kk esa deh ls gSA vkstksu vi{k; dh leL;k dk dkj.k gS& DyksjksyksjksdkcZUl (CFC) dk mQapk Lrj tks fd jshtjsVj vkSj ,;jdaMh'ku esa BaMk j[kus okys inkFkZ ds :i esa iz;ksx esa yk;h tkrh gSA vkstksu vi{k; ds dkj.k ijkcSxuh fdj.ksa i`Foh dh vksj vkrh gS vkSj thoksa dks gkfu igqapkrh a gSA a Hkkjr ds i;kZoj.k dks nks rjiQ ls [krjk gS& ,d rks xjhch ds dkj.k i;kZoj.k dk vo{k; vkSj nwljk [krjk lk/u laiUurk vkSj rsth ls c<+rs gq, vkS|ksfxd {ks=kd ds iznw"k.k ls gSA Hkkjr esa izeq[k i;kZoj.kh; eqn~ns gSa % 1) Hkwfe vi{k; 2) tSo fofo/rk dh gkfu 3) 'kgjh {ks=kksa esa okgu iznw"k.k ls mRiUu ok;q iznw"k.k 4) rkts ikuh dk izc/u a 5) Bksl vif'k"V izc/u a

Hkwfe vi{k; ls vk'k; gS& eq[;r% ekuoh; xfrfof/;ksa ds dkj.k feV~Vh] ikuh vkSj ouLifr n'kkvksa dh lEiw.kZ xq.kokk esa fxjkoVA Hkwfe vi{k; ds fy, mkjnk;h izeq[k dkj.k gSa% 1) ou fouk'k ds iQyLo:i ouLifr dh gkfu 2) ouksa esa vkx vkSj vR;f/d pjkbZ 3) vuqfpr iQly p 4) ou Hkwfe dk vfre.k 5) >we [ksrh 6) d`f"k jlk;u dk vuqfpr iz;ksx tSl& jlk;fud [kkn rFkk dhVuk'kd s 7) flapkbZ O;oLFkk dk vuqfpr fu;kstu vkSj vfoosdiw.kZ izc/u a
125 Economics (Hindi) XI

8) Hkw&ty dk iqu% iw.kZ {kerk ls vf/d fu"d"kZ.k 9) e`nk laj{k.k ds i;kZIr mik; u viukuk
u u

fpidks vkSj vfIidks vkanksyu isMk+ sa dh dVkbZ jksdus ls lacaf/r gSA Hkkjr dh rhoz vkfFkZd laof us gesa nks okLrfodrkvksa ls ifjfpr djk;k gS% ` 1) vkfFkZd fodkl us yk[kksa yksxksa dks xjhch js[kk ls mQij mBk;k gSA 2) izkd`frd lalk/uksa dk vR;f/d 'kks"k.k fd;k gS vkSj i;kZoj.k xq.kokk esa rhoz fxjkoV dh gSA

/kj.kh; fodkl ls vfHkizk; fodkl dh ml izf;k ls gS tks Hkkoh ih<+h dh vko';drkvksa dks iwjk djus dh ;ksX;rk dks fcuk dksbZ gkfu igqapk;s orZeku ih<+h dh vko';drkvksa dks iwjk djrh gSA /kj.kh; fodkl dh izeq[k fo'ks"krk,a gSa% 1) okLrfod izfr O;fDr vk; rFkk vkfFkZd dY;k.k esa nh?kZdkyhu o`f 2) izkd`frd lalk/uksa dk fopkjiwoZd iz;ksx 3) Hkkoh ih<+h dh viuh vko';drkvksa dks iwjk djus dh ;ksX;rk esa deh u gks 4) iznw"k.k esa o`f u gks

/kj.kh; fodkl dh j.kuhfr;k gSa% 1) mQtkZ ds i;kZoj.k fe=k ksrksa dk iz;ksx % xzkeh.k {ks=kksa esa LPG xkscj xSl rFkk 'kgjh {ks=kksa esa CNG dk iz;ksx 2) mQtkZ ds xSj&ijaijkxr ksrksa dk iz;ksx % ok;q 'kfDr vkSj lkSj mQtkZ vkfn 3) vif'k"Vksa dk iqu% p.k 4) ;krk;kr ds lkoZtfud lk/u 5) tSfod d`f"k dh vksj LFkkukarj.k % tSfod dhV fu;a=k.k] tSfod daiksLV [kkn 6) ikjaifjd Kku o O;ogkj 7) y?kq tyh; IykaVksa dh LFkkiuk

126

Economics (Hindi) XI

vfr y?kq mkj :ih iz'u


12345678910111213141516i;kZoj.k dks ifjHkkf"kr djsA a i;kZoj.k ds tSfod rRoksa ds nks mnkgj.k nhft,A i;kZoj.k dh /kj.k {kerk dh lhek ls D;k rkRi;Z gS\ uohdj.kh; lalk/uksa dk vFkZ crkb,A xSj&uohdj.kh; lalk/uksa ls vki D;k le>rs gSa\ tc lalk/ku fu"d"kZ.k dh nj muds iqutZuu dh nj ls c<+ tkrh gS] rks D;k gksrk gS\ i;kZoj.k dh vo'kks"kh {kerk dk vFkZ crkb,A dqN lalk/u foyqIr D;ksa gks x;s gSa\ oSf'od m".krk D;k gS\ lalk/uksa ds vR;f/d mi;ksx ds nks mnkgj.k nhft,A /kj.kh; fodkl dh ifjHkk"kk nhft,A lalk/kuksa ds nq#i;ksx ds nks mnkgj.k nhft,A vktdy fo'o ds le{k dkSu ls nks i;kZoj.kh; eqn~ns izeq[k gSa\ ok;q iznw"k.k dks fu;af=kr djus ds fdlh ,d mik; dk mYys[k djsA a isMk+ sa dh dVkbZ jksdus okys nks vkanksyuksa ds uke crkb,A i;kZoj.k ls lacaf/r nks izeq[k leL;kvksa dks crkb,A

3@4 y?kq mkj :ih iz'u


1234567i;kZoj.k ds D;k dk;Z gSa\ Hkkjr esa Hkwfe vi{k; ds mkjnk;h fdUgha N% dkjdksa dk mYys[k djksA crkb;s fd udkjkRed i;kZoj.kh; izHkkoksa dh volj ykxr mPp D;ksa gksrh gS\ Hkkjr esa /kj.kh; fodkl dh izkfIr ds fy, mi;qDr mik;ksa dh :ijs[kk izLrqr djsA a D;k i;kZoj.k ladV ,d uohu ifj?kVuk gS\ ;fn gka] rks D;ks\ a vius vkl&ikl ds {ks=k dks ;ku esa j[krs gq, /kj.kh; fodkl dh pkj j.kuhfr;ka lq>kb,A /kj.kh; fodkl dks ifjHkkf"kr djsa ,oa bldh fo'ks"krkvksa dk mYys[k djsA a
127 Economics (Hindi) XI

6 vad okys nh?kZ mkj :ih iz'u


12345/kj.kh; fodkl dh j.kuhfr;ksa dk o.kZu dhft,A O;k[;k dhft, fd dSls Hkkjr dh i;kZoj.kh; leL;k xjhch ds lkFk&lkFk le` miHkksx ekudksa }kjk izfjr gS\ s /kj.kh; vkfFkZd fodkl ls D;k vk'k; gS\ bldh izeq[k fo'ks"krkvksa dh O;k[;k djsA a vkfFkZd fodkl dSls i;kZoj.k vo{k; dk dkj.k gS\ O;k[;k dhft,A i;kZoj.kh; lalk/uksa dh ekax&iwfrZ izfrykse vo/kj.kk dk o.kZu dhft,A

,d vad okys iz'uksa ds mkj


1234567891011i;kZoj.k dks leLr HkweaMyh; fojklr vkSj lHkh lalk/uksa dh lexzrk ds :i esa ifjHkkf"kr fd;k tkrk gSA tho tUrq vkSj ikS/s blls vk'k; gS fd lalk/uksa dk fu"d"k.kZ buds iqutZuu dh nj ls de gks rFkk mRiUu vo'ks"k i;kZoj.k dh vo'ks"kh {kerk ls T;knk u gksA a uohdj.kh; lalk/u os gSa ftudk mi;ksx djus ls mudh lekfIr ugha gksrh gSA mnkgj.kkFkZ] isM] eNfy;ka vkfnA + xSj uohdj.kh; lalk/u os gSa tks fd mi;ksx vkSj fu"d"kZ.k ls lekIr gks tkrs gSA tSls& thok'e a b/uA i;kZoj.k thou /kj.k dk egRoiw.kZ dk;Z djus esa vliQy gks tkrk gS vkSj blls i;kZoj.k ladV iSnk gks tkrk gSA blls vk'k; i;kZoj.k dh vi{k; dks lks[kus dh ;ksX;rk ls gSA D;ksfd] muds fu"d"kZ.k dh nj muds iqutZuu dh nj ls vf/d gks x;h gSA a oSf'od m".krk ls rkRi;Z gS i`Foh vkSj leqnz ds vkSlr rkieku esa o`fA 1) tho'e b/u dk vR;f/d 'kks"k.k 2) vR;f/d o`{kksa dh dVkbZ /kj.kh; fodkl ls vfHkizk; fodkl dh ml izf;k ls gS tks Hkkoh ih<+h dh vko';drkvksa dks iwjk djus ds ;ksX;rk dks fcuk dksbZ gkfu igqapk, orZeku ih<+h dh vko';drkvksa dks iwjk djrh gSA
128 Economics (Hindi) XI

1213141516-

1) ydM+h dk ?kjsyw b/u ds :i esa mi;ksx 2) ufn;ksa dk vkS|ksfxd vo'ks"kksa dk vo'kks"k.k djus ds fy, iz;ksx 1) izkd`frd lalk/uksa dk vR;f/d 'kks"k.k 2) i;kZoj.k vo{k; LoPN b/u tSls CNG, LPG vkfn ds iz;ksx dks c<+kok 1) fpidks vkanksyu 2) vfIidks vkanksyu 1) iznw"k.k dh leL;k 2) izkd`frd lalk/uksa ds vR;f/d 'kks"k.k dh leL;k

129

Economics (Hindi) XI

;wfuV&8
v;k;&18

Hkkjr dk fodkl vuqHko iM+kSlh ns'kksa ds lkFk rqyukRed v;;u


Lej.kh; fcanq %
Hkkjr ikfdLrku vkSj phu dk fodkl iFk %
u

rhuksa ns'kks us yxHkx ,d gh le; esa fodkl iFk dh vkSj c<+uk 'kq: fd;kA Hkkjr vkSj ikfdLRkku lu~ 1947 esa Lora=k gq, tcfd phu x.kjkT; dh LFkkiuk lu~ 1949 esa gqbZA rhuksa ns'kksa us ,d gh izdkj ls viuh fodkl uhfr;k rS;kj djuk 'kq: fd;k FkkA Hkkjr us lu~ 1951 esa viuh izFke iapo"khZ; ;kstuk dh ?kks"k.kk dh] ikfdLrku us lu~ 1956 esa rFkk phu us 1953 esa viuh izFke iapo"khZ; ;kstuk dh ?kks"k.kk dhA Hkkjr vkSj ikfdLrku us leku uhfr;k viukbZ tSls & o`gr~ lkoZtfud {ks=kd dk l`tu vkSj lkekftd fodkl ij lkoZtfud O;;A Hkkjr vkSj ikfdLrku nksuksa us fefJr vFkZO;oLFkk ds izk:i dks viuk;k tcfd phu us vkfFkZd laof ds ^funsf'kr vFkZO;oLFkk* izk:i dks viuk;kA ` Z 1980 rd lHkh rhuksa ns'kksa esa laof nj vkSj izfr O;fDr vk; yxHkx leku FkhA ` vkfFkZd lq/kj phu esa 1978 esa ikfdLrku esa 1988 esa vkSj Hkkjr esa 1991 esa 'kq: fd;s x;sA

u u

fodkl j.kuhfr;k % v- phu esa


u

,d nyh; 'kklu ds varxZr phuh x.kjkT; dh LFkkiuk ds ckn vFkZO;oLFkk ds lHkh egRoiw.kZ {ks=kdks] m|eksa rFkk Hkwfe] ftudk LokfeRo rFkk lapkyu O;fDr;ksa }kjk fd;k tkrk Fkk] dks a ljdkjh fu;a=k.k esa yk;k x;kA
130 Economics (Hindi) XI

lu~ 1958 esa n xzV yhi iQkWjoMZ uked vfHk;ku 'kq: fd;k x;k ftldk mn~ns'; cM+s iSekus s ij ns'k dk vkS|ksfxdhdj.k djuk FkkA bl vfHk;ku ds varxZr yksxksa dks vius ?kjksa ds fiNokM+s esa m|ksx yxkus ds fy, izkRlkfgr fd;k x;kA s lu~ 1965 esa] ekvksRls rqx us ^egku loZgkjk lkaLfrd kafr* dk vkjaHk fd;kA blds vUrxZr a Nk=kks vkSj fo'ks"kKksa dks xzkeh.k {ks=kksa esa dke djus vkSj v;;u djus ds fy, Hkstk x;kA xzkeh.k {ks=kksa esa dE;wu izkjaHk fd, x,A blds varxZr yksx lkewfgd :i ls [ksrh djrs Fks\ phu esa lq/kj pj.kksa esa vkjaHk fd, x,A izkjafHkd pj.k esa f"k] fons'kh O;kikj rFkk fuos'k {ks=kdksa esa lq/kj fd, x,A ckn esa pj.k eas vkS|ksfxd {ks=k esa lq/kj vkjaHk fd, x,\ lq/kj izf;k esa ^nksgjh dher fu/kZj.k ifr* ykxw FkhA bldk vFkZ gS fd dher dk fu/kZj.k nks rjhds ls fd;k tkrk FkkA fdlkuksa vkSj vkS|ksfxd bdkb;ksa ls ;g vis{kk dh tkrh Fkh fd os ljdkj }kjk fu/kZfjr dh xbZ dherksa ds vk/kj ij dPps eky vkSj mRiknu dh fu/kZfjr ek=kk,a [kjhnsxsa vkSj cspxsa vkSj 'ks"k oLrq,a cktkj dherksa ij [kjhnh vkSj csph tkrh s FkhA fons'kh fuos'kdksa dks vkdf"kZr djus ds fy, ^fo'ks"k vkfFkZd {ks=k* (,lbZtsM) LFkkfir fd, x;sA

u u

c- ikfdLrku esa
u

ikfdLrku us lkoZtfud rFkk futh {ks=k ds lg&vfLrRo okyh fefJr vFkZO;oLFkk iz.kkyh dks viuk;kA ikfdLrku us miHkksDrk oLrqvkas ds fofuekZ.k ds fy, iz'kqYd laj{k.k rFkk izfrLi/hZ vk;krksa ij izR;{k vk;kr fu;a=k.k dh uhfr;ka viukbZA gfjrkafr ds vkxeu vkSj pqfuank {ks=kksa dh vk/kfjd lajpuk esa lkoZtfud fuos'k esa o`f us [kk|kUuksa ds mRiknu esa o`f dhA lu~ 1970 ds n'kd esa iwthxr oLrqvksa ds m|ksxks dk jk"Vh;dj.k fd;k x;kA a 1988 esa lajpukRed lq/kj vkjaHk fd;s x,A eq[; tksj v&jk"Vh;dj.k vkSj futh {ks=kd dks izkRlkgu nsuk FkkA s ikfdLrku us if'peh jk"Vksa ls fokh; lgk;rk izkIr dh vkSj e;iwoZ ds ns'kksa dks tkus okys izokfl;ksa ls iz"k.k izkIr fd;kA s

u u

rqyukRed v;;u & Hkkjr] ikfdLrku vkSj phu

131

Economics (Hindi) XI

1u

tukafddh; ladsrd %&


ikfdLrku dh tula[;k cgqr de gS vkSj og Hkkjr ;k phu dh tula[;k dk yxHkx nlok Hkkx gSA S ;|fi bu rhuksa ns'kksa esa phu lcls cM+k jk"V gS rFkkfi bldk tula[;k ?kuRo lcls de gSA ikfdLrku esa tula[;k o`f lcls vf/d gS] blds ckn Hkkjr vkSj phu dk LFkku gSA phu es tula[;k dh fuEu o`f nj dk dkj.k 1970 ds n'kd ds var esa ykxw dh xbZ dsoy ,d larku uhfr gSA ijarq blds dkj.k fyaxkuqikr (vFkkZr~ izfr 1000 iq:"kksa ij efgykvksa dk vuqikr) eas fxjkoV vkbZA rhuksa ns'kksa esa fyaxkuqikr efgykvksa ds i{k esa de gSA bldk eq[; dkj.k rhuksa ns'kksa esa iq=k izkfIr dh izcy bPNk gSA phu esa iztuu nj cgqr de gS tcfd ikfdLrku esa cgqr vf/d gSA uxjhdj.k phu vkSj ikfdLrku nksuksa eas vf/d gS tcfd Hkkjr esa uxjhdj.k (vFkkZr~ 'kgjh {ks=kksa esa tula[;k dk izfr'kr) 28 izfr'kr gSA

u u

u u

2u

ldy ns'kh; mRikn (GDP) vkSj {ks=kd %&


phu dk ldy ns'kh; mRiknu 7-2 fVfy;u MkWyj gS tks fo'o esa nwljs LFkku ij gSA Hkkjr dk ldy ns'kh; mRikn 3-3 fVfy;u MkWyj gS rFkk ikfdLrku dk ldy ns'kh; mRikn Hkkjr ds ldy ns'kh; mRikn dk yxHkx 10 izfr'kr gSA 1980 ds n'kd esa ikfdLrku dh laof nj Hkkjr ls vf/d FkhA phu dh laof nj nksgjs ` ` vadks esa Fkh vkSj Hkkjr dh laof nj lcls de FkhA ` 1990 ds n'kd esa Hkkjr dh laof nj esa ekewyh o`f gqbZ vkSj phu dh laof nj esa ` ` ekewyh fxjkoV vkbZ ijUrq ikfdLrku dh laof nj esa rhoz fxjkoV vkbZA dqN fo}kuksa dk ` er gS fd ikfdLRku esa 1988 esa vkjaHk dh xbZ lq/kj izf;k vkSj jktuSfrd vfLFkjrk bl izo`fk dk eq[; dkj.k FkkA o"kZ 2000 esa phu esa 54 izfr'kr dk;Zcy f"k esa yxk gqvk Fkk ftldk ldy ns'kh; mRikn esa ;ksxnku 15 izfr'kr FkkA Hkkjr vkSj ikfdLrku nksuksa esa thMhih esa f"k dk ;ksxnku cjkcj vFkkZr~ 23 izfr'kr FkkA ijUrq ikfdLrku eas bl {ks=kd ea 49 izfr'kr yksx dk;Zjr gS tcfd Hkkjr esa 60 izfr'kr yksx bl {ks=kd (vFkkZr~ f"k) esa layXu gSA phu esa ldy ns'kh; mRikn esa lokZf/d ;ksxnku fofuekZ.k {ks=k dk gSA ;g 53 izfr'kr gSA tcfd Hkkjr vkSj ikfdLrku esa ldy ns'kh; mRikn eas lokZf/d ;ksxnku (50 izfr'kr ls vf/d) lsok {ks=kd dk gSA
132 Economics (Hindi) XI

;|fi phu us ijEijkxr fodkl uhfr dks viuk;k ftlesa e'k% f"k ls fofuekZ.k rFkk mlds ckn lsok {ks=k dh vkSj vxzlj gksus dh izo`fr FkhA ijUrq Hkkjr vkSj ikfdLrku lh/s f"k {ks=kd ls lsok {ks=kd dh vkSj pys x,A 1980 ds n'kd esa Hkkjr] phu vkSj ikfdLrku esa lsok {ks=kd esa e'k% 17] 12 vkSj 27 izfr'kr dk;Zcy yxk gqvk FkkA o"kZ 2000 esa ;g c<+dj e'k% 24] 19 vkSj 37 izfr'kr gks x;k gSA phu dh vkfFkZd laof dk eq[; vk/kj fofuekZ.k {ks=kd gS tcfd Hkkjr vkSj ikfdLrku ` dh laof dk eq[; vk/kj lsok {ks=kd gSA `

3u

ekuo fodkl ladsrd %&


ekuo fodkl ds vf/dka'k {ks=kksa esa phu us Hkkjr vkSj ikfdLrku dh rqyuk esa vPNk izn'kZu fd;k gSA ;g ckr vusd ladsrdks ds fo"k; esa lgh gS] tSls & izfr O;fDr th-Mh-ih] fu/Zurk js[kk ls uhps dh tula[;k dk izfr'kr ;k LokLFk; ladsrd tSls e`R;qnj] LoPNrk] lk{kjrk rd igqap] thou izR;k'kk vFkok dqiks"k.kA ikfdLrku xjhch js[kk ls uhps ds yksxksa dk vuqikr de djus esa Hkkjr ls vkxs gSA LoPNrk vkSj mke ty ksrksa rd igqap ds ekeyksa esa bldk fu"iknu Hkkjr ls csgrj gSA ijUrq ;s nksuksa gh ns'k efgykvksa dks ekr` e`R;q ls cpk ikus eas vliQy jgs gSA Hkkjr vkSj ikfdLrku mke ty ksr miyC/ djkus esa phu ls vkxs gSA

133

Economics (Hindi) XI

fu"d"kZ
(v) Hkkjr %& yksdrkaf=kd laLFkkvksa lfgr Hkkjr dk fu"iknu lk/kj.k jgk gSA ;g ckr vxzfyf[kr rF;ksa ls Li"V gS % (1) vf/dka'k tula[;k vkt Hkh f"k ij fuHkZj gSA (2) vusd Hkkxksa eas vk/kfjd lajpuk dk vHkko gSA (3) vkt Hkh yxHkx ,d pkSFkkbZ ls vf/d tula[;k fu/Zurk js[kk ls uhps gS ftls ij mBkus dh vko';drk gSA (c) ikfdLrku %& ikfdLrku dk fu"iknu cgqr [kjkc jgk gSA ikfdLrku dh laof nj esa deh ` vkSj fu/Zurk eas iqu% o`f ds dkj.k vxzfyf[kr gS % 1234jktuSfrd vfLFkjrk f"k {ks=kd dk vfLFkj fu"iknu iz"k.kksa vkSj fons'kh vuqnkuksa ij vR;kf/d fuHkZjrk s ,d rjiQ fons'kh .kksa ij c<+rh fuHkZjrk rks nwljh vkSj iqjkus .kksa dks pqdkus esa c<+rh dfBukbZA

(l) phu & phu dk fu"iknu lokske jgk gSA ;g ckr vxzfyf[kr rF;ksa ls Li"V gS %& Z
u u

fu/Zurk fuokj.k ds lkFk&lkFk laof nj dks c<+kus esa liQyrkA ` viuh jktuSfrd izfrcrk dks [kks;s fcuk] cktkj O;oLFkk dk iz;ksx vfrfjDr lkekftd & vkfFkZd lqvoljksa ds fy, fd;k gSA lkeqnkf;d Hkw&LokfeRo dks dk;e j[krs gq, vkSj yksxks dks Hkwfe ij f"k dh vuqefr nsdj phu us xzkeh.k {ks=kksa esa lkekftd lqj{kk lqfuf'pr dj nh gSA lkekftd vk/kfjd lajpuk miyC/ djkus esa ljdkjh gLr{ksi }kjk ekuo fodkl ladsrdksa esa ldkjkRed ifj.kke izkIr gq, gSA

134

Economics (Hindi) XI

,d vad okys iz'u


123456789101112131415phu us fdl izdkj dh vkfFkZd iz.kkyh dk vuqlj.k fd;k\ dqN {ks=kh; vkSj vkfFkZd lewgksa ds mnkgj.k nhft,\ rhuksa ns'kks esa vkfFkZd lq/kj dc izkjEHk gq,\ f'k'kq e`R;q nj dk vFkZ crkb,A fdl ns'k esa egku~ loZgkjk lakLfrd kafr izkjEHk dh x;h\ Hkkjr vkSj phu eas fdl ns'k ds ekuo fodkl lwpdkad (,pMhvkbZ) dk mPp ewY; gS\ phu esa fuEu tula[;k o`f nj ds eq[; dkj.k dk mYys[k dhft,\ phu esa 'kq: fd, x;s ml dk;Ze dk uke crkb, ftldk mn~ns'; vkS|ksfxdhdj.k djuk FkkA Hkkjr] phu ;k ikfdLrku eas fdl ns'k esa mPp thou izR;k'kk gS\ Hkkjr] ikfdLrku vkSj phu rhuksa esa fdl ns'k ds thMhih esa lsok {ks=kd dk ;ksxnku lokZf/d gS\ Hkkjr] ikfdLrku vkSj phu rhuksa esa fdl ns'k eas f"k {ks=k esa lokZf/d dk;Zcy yxk gqvk gS\ ekuo fodkl ds fdUgh nks ladsrdksa ds uke crkb,\ rqyukRed fodkl ds dksbZ nks ladsrdksa ds uke crkb,\ fodkl ds mu nks {ks=kksa ds uke crkb, tgka ikfdLRkku Hkkjr ls vkxs gS\ ,sls nks {ks=kksa ds uke crkb,A tgka Hkkjr ikfdLRkku ls ij gSA

3@4 vad okys y?kqmkjh; :ih iz'u


12345lu~ 1958 eas phu esa 'kq: fd, n xzV yhi iQkjoMZ dk;Ze dh O;k[;k dhft,\ s ekuo fodkl ds fofHkUu ladsrdksa dk mYys[k dhft,\ Hkkjr] ikfdLrku vkSj phu }kjk viukbZ xbZ fodkl j.kuhfr;ksa dh lekurkvksa dk la{ksi esa o.kZu dhft,\ ikfdLrku esa /heh laof vkSj xjhch ds iqu% mHkjus ds dkj.k nhft,\ ` Hkkjr] ikfdLRkku vkSj phu dh laof njksa dh rqyuk dhft,\ `
135 Economics (Hindi) XI

678910-

Hkkjr] ikfdLrku vkSj phu ds izeq[k tukafddh; ladsrdksa dk mYys[k djsA a phu esa ,d larku uhfr% dk egRoiw.kZ fufgrkFkZ D;k gS\ phu }kjk viuk;h x;h fodkl j.kuhfr dh ,d :ijs[kk nhft,\ Hkkjr rFkk ikfdLrku dh rqyuk eas phu dk lajpukRed ifjorZu dSls vyx gS\ Lora=krk ds i'pkr~ Hkkjr vkSj ikfdLrku }kjk viukbZ xbZ fodkl j.kuhfr dh ,d :ijs[kk izLrqr dhft,\

6 vadksa okys nh?kZ mkj :ih iz'u


12345678ekuo fodkl ds egRoiw.kZ ladsrdksa dk mYys[k dhft,\ Hkkjr ds tukafddh; ladsrdksa dh phu vkSj ikfdLrku ds lkFk rqyuk dhft,\ mu fofHkUu dkjdksa dh O;k[;k dhft, ftuds vk/kj ij phu esa rhoz vkfFkZd fodkl gqvk\ os dkSu ls {ks=k gS ftueas Hkkjr ikfdLrku ls vkxs gS\ O;k[;k djksA Hkkjr rFkk ikfdLrku dh ,d leku foiQyrkvksa ij fVIi.kh dhft,\ os dkSu ls {ks=k gS tgk ikfdLrku dk fu"iknu Hkkjr ls csgrj gS\ Hkkjr] ikfdLrku ,oa phu esa ldy ?kjsyw mRikn (thMhih) ,oa jkstxkj esa {ks=kh; ;ksxnku dh rqyuk djs\ a phu Hkkjr ls dSls vkxs gS\ O;k[;k dhft,\

136

Economics (Hindi) XI

,d vad okys iz'uks ds mkj


123456 789101112131415funsf'kr vFkZO;oLFkk ekWMy viuk;kA blds varxZr mRiknu ds LkHkh egRoiw.kZ {ks=kdksa dks Z ljdkjh fu;a=k.k esa yk;k x;kA
SAARC, ASEAN, Evropean Union (EU), G8, G20 vkfnA

phu us vkfFkZd lq/kj 1978 ea] ikfdLrku us 1988 eas vkSj Hkkjr us 1991 esa izkjEHk fd,A s f'k'kq e`R;q nj ls vk'k; ,d o"kZ esa izfr gtkj thfor tUe ij ,d o"kZ ls de vk;q ds ejus okys f'k'kqvksa dh la[;k ls gS\ phu eas phu ,d larku uhfr n xzV yhi iQkWjoMZ dk;Ze s phu esa (71-6 o"kZ) ikfdLrku Hkkjr esa (60 izfr'kr) (v) thou izR;k'kk (c) izfr O;fDr ldy ns'kh; mRiknu (PPP) (vesfjdh MkWyj es) a (v) laof ` (c) ekuo fodkl (v) xjhch js[kk ls uhps tula[;k dk de vuqikr (c) mke ty ksrksa rd /kj.kh; igqap okyh tula[;k dk izfr'kr (v) dq'ky Je 'kfDr (c) izfr O;fDr ldy ns'kh; mRikn (PPP) (vesfjdh MkWyj es) a

137

Economics (Hindi) XI

Blue Print of Question Paper SetI


No. of Marks 1 2 (2) 3 (3) 1 (1) 1 (1) 2 (2) 1 (1) 3 (9) 1 (3) 1 (4) 2 (8) 1 (3) 1 (3) 3 (12) 2 (12) 1 (6) 1 (6) 1 (6) 2 (6) 1 (4) 1 (3) 1 (3) 5 (12) 9 (30) 3 (10) 3 (8) 8 (25) 2 (7) Questions with weightage Total 3 4 6 Q. (Marks)

S.No. Name of Unit of Unit

1.

Introduction

Collection, organisation and presentation of data

3.

Statistical tools and Enter predation

4.

Development Policies and Experience (19471990)

5.

Economic references since 1991

138
10 (10) 9 (27)

6.

Current challenges facing Indian

7.

Development Experience of India A comparison with neighbours

Economics (Hindi) XI

TOTAL

7 (28)

5 (30)

31 (95)

ECONOMICS SAMPLE PAPER SETI


le; % 3 ?k.Vs vf/dre vad % 95

lkekU; funs'k % Z 1- nksuksa [kaMksa ds lHkh iz'u vfuok;Z gSa 2- izR;sd iz'u ds fu/kZfjr vad mlds lkeus fn, x, gSaA 3- iz'u la[;k 1 ls 5 vkSj 16&20 vfr y?kqkjkRed iz'u gSa] ftudk izR;sd iz'u ,d&,d vad dk gSA budk mkj dsoy ,d okD; esa gh visf{kr gSA 4- iz'u la[;k 6 ls 9 vkSj 21&25 y?kqkjkRed iz'u gSa ftuesa izR;sd ds fy, rhu&rhu vad fu/kZfjr gSaA izR;sd dk mkj lkekU;r^ 60 'kCnksa ls vf/d ugha gksuk pkfg,A 5- iz'u la[;k 10 ls 13 vkSj 26 ls 28 Hkh y?kqkjkRed iz'u gSa] ftuesa izR;sd ds fy, pkj&pkj vad fu/kZfjr gSa] izR;sd dk mkj lkekU;r% 70 'kCnksa ls vf/d ugha gksuk pkfg,A 6- iz'u la[;k 14 ls 15 vkSj 29 ls 31 O;k[;kRed iz'u gSa] ftuesa izR;sd ds fy, 6&6 vad fu/kZfjr gSaA izR;sd dk mkj lkekU;r% 100 'kCnksa ls vf/d ugha gksuk pkfg,A 7- mkj laf{kIr rFkk rF;kRed gksus pkfg, vkSj mQij nh xbZ lhek ds varxZr gh fn, tkus pkfg,A
1234567-

[k.M ^v* vifj"d`r vkdM+s (Row data) fdUgsa dgrs gSa\ ml Js.kh dk uke fyf[k, ftlesa oxZ varjky dh mQijh lhek okyh en Hkh lfEefyr gksrh gSA ;fn ek; o ef;dk ds ewY; e'k% 40 o 48 gSa rks cgqyd dk laHkkfor ewY; Kkr dhft,A ek; fopyu dk ,d izeq[k nks"k fyf[k,A /ukRed lg&laca/ ds nks mnkgj.k nhft,A izkFkfed rFkk f}rh;d vkdM+kas esa varj Li"V dhft,A o`k vkjs[k dks ifjHkkf"kr dhft,A o`k vkjs[k cukus ds fy, fofHkUu pj.kksa dh O;k[;k dhft,A ;k ,d fo|ky; ds Hkou ds fuekZ.k ls lacaf/r fn, x, vkdM+kas dks o`k vkjs[k }kjk izLrqr dhft,A ensa etnwjh bVsa ydM+h lhesV a bLikr vU; O;; (#-) 20 15 25 10 18 12
139 Economics (Hindi) XI

8910-

mnkgj.k dh lgk;rk ls [kafMr pj rFkk v[kafMr pjksa dks le>kb,A lwpdkad dh ifjHkk"kk fyf[k,A lwpdkad ds mi;ksx Hkh crkb,A ef;dk ls D;k rkRi;Z gS\ ef;dk ds rhu xq.k Hkh fyf[k,A ;k fuEufyf[kr Js.kh esa vKkr vko`fk Kkr dhft, tcfd lekUrj e; 44-8 gSA X % 20 30 40 50 60 vko`fk % 5 \ 15 10 8 vifdj.k ds ekius dh fuEufyf[kr vkdM+kas ls vad % fo|kfFkZ;ksa dh la[;k %

70 5
Ans : 7

1112-

xzkiQh; fof/ dk uke fyf[k,A blds rhu nks"k Hkh fyf[k,A varj&prqFkZd foLrkj rFkk blds xq.kkad dh x.kuk dhft,A 0&10 10&20 20&30 30&40 40&50 50&60 60&70 4 8 11 15 12 6 3
Ans : 11.55, 0.34

13-

fuEufyf[kr vkdM+kas ls ysLih;j fof/ }kjk dher lwpdkad dh x.kuk dhft,% oLrq,a vk/kj o"kZ pkyw o"kZ dher (#-) ek=kk (bdkb;ka) dher (#-) ek=kk (bdkb;ka) A 8 100 10 120 B 4 60 5 80 C 10 20 12 25 D 12 25 15 30 E 3 5 4 6 Ans : 124-44 in&fopyu fof/ dk iz;ksx djds izeki fopyu dh x.kuk dhft,A oxZ varjky % 0&10 10&20 20&30 vko`fk % 2 3 4 ;k fuEufyf[kr vkdM+kas ls cgqyd dh x.kuk dhft, etnwjh (#-) etnwjksa dh la[;k 10 ls de 5 20 ls de 17 30 ls de 35 40 ls de 57
140 Economics (Hindi) XI

14-

30&40 1
Ans : 9.17

50 ls de 60 ls de 70 ls de 15-

63 67 70
Ans : 30.14

12 fo|kfFkZ;ksa }kjk xf.kr rFkk lkaf[;dh esa izkIr vadksa ds e; dkyZ fi;jlu lglac/ xq.kkad a Kkr dhft,A xf.kr esa izkIrkad % 50 54 56 59 60 62 61 65 67 71 71 74 lkaf[;dh esa izkIrkad % 22 25 34 28 26 30 32 30 28 34 71 40
Ans : r = +0.78

16171819202122-

232425-

2627-

28-

[k.M ^[k* f'k'kq e`R;q nj ls vki D;k le>rs gSa\ eqnzk ds voewY;u ls D;k vfHkizk; gS\ jk"Vh; lk{kjrk fe'ku }kjk izkjaHk fd, x, vkanksyu dk uke crkb,A ukSdjh jfgr laof ls D;k vfHkizk; gS\ ` Hkkjr vkSj phu esa vkfFkZd lq/kj dc 'kq: fd, x, Fks\ Lora=krk izkfIr ds le; Hkkjrh; vFkZO;oLFkk dh rhu eq[; fo'ks"krk,a crkb,A Hkkjr esa vkfFkZd lq/kj ykxw djus ds i{k esa dksbZ rhu rdZ fyf[k,A ;k c<+rs gq, jktdks"kh; ?kkVs us fdl izdkj Hkkjr esa vkfFkZd lq/kjksa dh vko';drk dks c<+k;k\ ekuo iwth fuekZ.k fdl izdkj mRiknu esa o`f djrk gS\ a egaxkbZ (eqnzk LiQhfr) dks fu;af=kr djus ds ekSfnzd mik;ksa dh O;k[;k dhft,A fuEu dkjd fdl izdkj Hkwfe&vi{k; ds fy, mkjnk;h gS\ o.kZu dhft, v) taxyksa dh dVkbZ c) moZjdksa dk vR;f/d iz;ksx oS'ohdj.k dks ifjHkkf"kr dhft,A oS'ohdj.k ds fy, viukbZ xbZ rhu uhfr;ksa dks crkb, tSfod d`f"k ds D;k ykHk gSa\ o.kZu dhft,A ;k lgdkjh foi.ku fdl izdkj O;fDrxr fdlkuksa ds fy, ykHkdkjh gSa vlaxfBr {ks=k dks ifjHkkf"kr dhft,A vlaxfBr {ks=k esa dk;Zjr deZpkfj;ksa dks fdl izdkj dh leL;kvksa dk lkeuk djuk iM+rk gS\
141 Economics (Hindi) XI

2930-

31-

lkezkT;okn dky esa Hkkjrh; d`f"k dh xfrghurk ds eq[; dkj.k D;k Fks\ o.kZu dhft,A vk/kjh;&lajpuk fdl izdkj ,d vFkZO;oLFkk ds lkekftd o vkfFkZd fodkl esa eq[; Hkwfedk fuHkkrh gS\ ;k Hkkjr esa xjhch ds fy, mkjnk;h fdUgha pkj dkj.kksa dh O;k[;k dhft,A Hkkjr ds lkFk phu o ikfdLrku ds tukafddh; ladsrdksa dh rqyuk dhft,A

142

Economics (Hindi) XI

Blue Print of Question Paper SetII


No. of Marks 1 2 (2) 3 (3) 1 (1) 1 (1) 2 (2) 1 (1) 3 (9) 1 (3) 1 (4) 2 (8) 1 (3) 1 (3) 3 (12) 2 (12) 1 (6) 1 (6) 1 (6) 2 (6) 1 (4) 1 (3) 1 (3) 5 (12) 9 (30) 3 (10) 3 (8) 8 (25) 2 (7) Questions with weightage Total 3 4 6 Q. (Marks)

S.No. Name of Unit of Unit

1.

Introduction

Collection, organisation and presentation of data

3.

Statistical tools and Enter predation

4.

Development Policies and Experience (19471990)

5.

Economic references since 1991

143
10 (10) 9 (27)

6.

Current challenges facing Indian

7.

Development Experience of India A comparison with neighbours

Economics (Hindi) XI

TOTAL

7 (28)

5 (30)

31 (95)

ECONOMICS SAMPLE PAPER SETII


le; % 3 ?k.Vs vf/dre vad % 95

lkekU; funs'k % Z 1- nksuksa [kaMksa ds lHkh iz'u vfuok;Z gSa 2- izR;sd iz'u ds fu/kZfjr vad mlds lkeus fn, x, gSaA 3- iz'u la[;k 1 ls 5 vkSj 16&20 vfr y?kqkjkRed iz'u gSa] ftudk izR;sd iz'u ,d&,d vad dk gSA budk mkj dsoy ,d okD; esa gh visf{kr gSA 4- iz'u la[;k 6 ls 9 vkSj 21&25 y?kqkjkRed iz'u gSa ftuesa izR;sd ds fy, rhu&rhu vad fu/kZfjr gSaA izR;sd dk mkj lkekU;r^ 60 'kCnksa ls vf/d ugha gksuk pkfg,A 5- iz'u la[;k 10 ls 13 vkSj 26 ls 28 Hkh y?kqkjkRed iz'u gSa] ftuesa izR;sd ds fy, pkj&pkj vad fu/kZfjr gSa] izR;sd dk mkj lkekU;r% 70 'kCnksa ls vf/d ugha gksuk pkfg,A 6- iz'u la[;k 14 ls 15 vkSj 29 ls 31 O;k[;kRed iz'u gSa] ftuesa izR;sd ds fy, 6&6 vad fu/kZfjr gSaA izR;sd dk mkj lkekU;r% 100 'kCnksa ls vf/d ugha gksuk pkfg,A 7- mkj laf{kIr rFkk rF;kRed gksus pkfg, vkSj mQij nh xbZ lhek ds varxZr gh fn, tkus pkfg,A
1234567[k.M ^v* igyh ikap la[;kvksa dh ef;dk fyf[k,A lSEiy@izfrn'kZ dh ifjHkk"kk fyf[k,A Hkkfjr lekarj ek; dk lw=k fyf[k,A ijkl fdls dgrs gSa\ LiQhfr nj dh x.kuk djus dk lw=k fyf[k,A vFkZ'kkL=k esa lkaf[;dh ds egRo dk o.kZu dhft,A fuEufyf[kr lkfj.kh esa uhps ds 50 (vk/s) deZpkfj;ksa ds vf/dre osru dh x.kuk dhft,A nSfud vk; (#-) 10&14 15&19 20&24 25&29 30&34 35&39 deZpkfj;ksa dh la[;k 5 10 15 20 10 5 (mkj % 25-12) #i;s ykjsat o ds xq.k o nks"kksa dks fyf[k,A ;k /ukRed rFkk .kkRed lglac/ D;k gksrk gS\ izdh.kZ vkjs[k }kjk le>kb,A a lwpdkad ls vki D;k le>rs gks\ lwpdkad dh fo'ks"krk,a fyf[k,A
144 Economics (Hindi) XI

8-

9-

10-

11-

fuEufyf[kr fo'ks"krkvksa ds vk/kj v) ekSfydrk c) 'kqrk l) fo'oluh;rk n) Je fuEu vkdM+kas (leadks) ls ek; vad (ls de) 10 fo|kfFkZ;ksa dh la[;k 25

ij izkFkfed rFkk f}rh;d vkdM+kas esa varj Li"V dhft,%

dh x.kuk dhft,A 20 30 40 40 60 75

50 95

60 125

70 190

80 240

Ans : 49.58

;k fuEu esa cgqyd (Hkwf;"Bd) dh x.kuk dhft,& oxZ ds e; ewY; 50 60 70 vko`fk 7 12 17 12-

80 29

90 21

100 5 16&20 6

110 3 21&25 4

Ans : 80.71

fuEu vkdM+kas ls varj&prqFkZd ijkl dh x.kuk dhft, % oxZ ds varjky 1&5 6&10 11&15 vko`fk 5 10 15

Ans : 7.5 (Q3 Q1)

13-

nh xbZ Js.kh esa izeki fopyu dh x.kuk izR;{k fof/ }kjk dhft,A lkbt 0-5&1-5 1-5&4-5 4-5&5-5 5-5&8-5 vko`fk 1 2 3 4

8-5-13-5 5
Ans : 3.27

14-

fuEufyf[kr vkdM+kas ds vk/kj ij ^ls de rksj.k* rFkk ^ls vf/d rksj.k* cukb,% vad 0&10 10&20 20&30 30&40 40&50 50&60 vko`fk 7 10 14 20 6 3 (;k) iz'ukoyh ls vki D;k le>rs gSa\ ,d vPNh iz'ukoyh ds vko';d ^xq.k* fyf[k,A
X rFkk Y ds e; lglaca/ xq.kkad dh x.kuk dhft, rFkk buds laca/ ds ckjs esa crkb;s% X Y

15-

65 67

66 56

57 65

67 68

68 72

69 72

70 69

72 71

Ans : +0.44

145

Economics (Hindi) XI

161718192021-

[k.M ^[k* orZeku iapo"khZ; ;kstuk dh le;&vof/ fyf[k,A fofuos'k dks ifjHkkf"kr dhft,A vkstksu ijr dk D;k ykHk gS\ vLoLFkrk nj dks ifjHkkf"kr dhft,A vkfFkZd o {ks=kh; vk/kj ij ns'kksa ds laxBu ds nks mnkgj.k nhft,A vkSifuosf'kd dky esa Hkkjrh; laifk ds fu"dklu ls vki D;k le>rs gSa\ D;k vaxzstks us Hkkjr esa dqN ldkjkRed ;ksxnku Hkh fn;k Fkk\ foospuk dhft,A Hkkjrh; vFkZO;oLFkk esa futhdj.k ds fy, D;k mik; fd, x, gS\ o.kZu dhft,A Hkkjr ls xjhch nwj djus ds fy, D;k mik; djus pkfg,\ ekuo iwth fuekZ.k esa lgk;d ksrksa (dkjdks) dk o.kZu dhft,A a a mQtkZ ds okf.kfT;d rFkk xSj okf.kfT;d ksrksa esa varj fyf[k,A Hkkjr esa vkfFkZd lq/kjksa dh miyfC/;ksa dks fyf[k,A d`f"k foi.ku esa lq/kj ds fy, ljdkj }kjk fd;s x, nks mik;ksa dk o.kZu dhft,A csjkstxkjh ls D;k vfHkizk; gS\ csjkstxkjh ds dqizHkkoksa dh O;k[;k dhft,A fjtoZ cSd bafM;k (RBI) }kjk fd, x, fuEu mik; fdl izdkj eqnzk LiQhfr ds fu;a=k.k a esa lgk;d gS\ v) [kqys cktkj dh f;k, c) udn tek nj esa ifjorZu gfjr kafr D;k gS\ bldh vko';drk D;ksa iM+h rFkk fdl izdkj ;g fdlkuksa ds fy, ykHkdkjh jgha\ la{ksi esa o.kZu dhft,A fuEufyf[kr dne ;k uhfr;ka fdl izdkj Hkkjr esa /kj.kh; fodkl esa lgk;d gS\ v) tSo & [kkn c) lw;Z & mQtkZ l) LPG rFkk CNG dk iz;ksx n) y?kq ty fo|qr ?kj phu ds fodkl esa fuEufyf[kr uhfr;ksa dk D;k ;ksxnku jgk gSA o.kZu dhft,A v) xzV yhi iQkjoMZ dk;Ze s c) fof'k"V vkfFkZd {ks=k l) nksgjh dher fu/kZj.k ifr ikfdLrku esa /heh laof rFkk iqu% fu/Zurk ds dkj.k crkb,A `
146 Economics (Hindi) XI

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