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In U.S. presidential elections, voter turnout is typically b1. less than 60 percent.


The text argues that conventional data comparing U.S. and European voter turnout rates are misleading because they d2. compute turnout by two different measures.


Compared with other Western nations, the percentage of registered voters in the United States who actually vote is f3.about the same.


In European countries, the burden of voter registration rests on h4. the government.


Political participation encompasses all of the following activities except j5.paying your taxes.

611. One unusualbut possibleexplanation suggested by the text for the low rate of voter registration in the United States is that l6.people are happy with the way government is working. 713. Today, the largest percentage of voter registration applications comes from n7. motor vehicle offices.

815. A 2001 study found that motor-voter registrants were p8. less likely to vote than other new registrants.

917. Which of the following was required by the U.S. Constitution? r9.Popularly elected House members 1019. Which of the following statements about the right to vote in the United States is correct? t10. Not every U.S. citizen of voting age is allowed to vote.

1121. Which of the following statements about elections in the United States is correct? v11. The U.S. Constitution left entirely to the states the decision of who could vote and for what offices. 1223. Suffrage was extended to include virtually all white males by the administration of x12. Andrew Jackson.

1325. Which of the following was not a device intended to prevent blacks from voting? z13. The Australian ballot

1427. Which Amendment stated the right of citizens of the United States to vote shall not be abridged by the United States or by any state on account of race, color, or previous condition of servitude? bb14. The 15th Amendment

1529. Blacks first voted in large numbers in the South dd15. after the Voting Rights Act of 1965.

1631. One way that blacks were prevented from voting prior to passage of the Voting Rights Act of 1965 was by requiring them to ff16. pass a literacy test. 1733. Between 1915 and 1925, the size of the eligible voting population in the United States almost doubled. The main reason for this was that hh17. women were given the right to vote.

1835. Until 1920, women were generally kept from voting by jj18. law. 1937. The first elections in which all persons between the ages of eighteen and twenty-one were able to vote were held in ll19. 1972. 2039. When Congress passed the Voting Rights Act of 1970 and lowered the voting age to eighteen, nn20. the Supreme Court declared the adjustment unconstitutional.

2141. Suffrage was extended in the Twenty-sixth Amendment to pp21. those aged eighteen to twenty. 2243. Which of the following statements about 18-24 year olds is correct? rr22. They appear to vote less but participate in civic activities more.

2345. In the first presidential election in which eighteen-year-olds were allowed to vote, they tt23. made little difference to the outcome of the election. 2447. By 1972, those who had received the right to vote in all U.S. elections and who had been previously disenfranchised included vv24. blacks, women, and eighteen-year-olds only.

2549. By federal law, those areas in which less than 50 percent of the population has voted in presidential elections xx25. can be subject to federal voter registrars and poll watchers. 2651. Which of the following statements applies to the voting rights of U.S. citizens who cannot speak English? zz26. Areas with many such citizens must provide ballots written in the citizens' languages. 2753. The _____ Amendment gave voters in the District of Columbia the right to vote in presidential elections. bbb27. Twenty-third

2855. States may not have residency requirements for voters of more than ____ days. ddd28. 30

2957. Which of the following statements about U.S. voter participation in presidential elections is correct? fff29. It has declined since the latter part of the nineteenth century. 3059. In the late 1800s, voter turnout in a typical presidential election might be as high as ______ percent. hhh30. 75 3161. One explanation given by the text for the decline in U.S. voter participation in presidential elections after 1900 is that jjj31. election fraud was rampant in the nineteenth century.

3263. The steady decline in U.S. voter turnout appears to be the unintentional result of lll32. strict voter registration procedures. 3365. In the nineteenth century, voting ballots were printed by nnn33. political parties. 3467. Which of the following statements regarding the Australian ballot is incorrect? ppp34. It eliminated vote fraud. 3569. In the 19th century, the term floaters refer to rrr35. individuals who voted more than once.

3671. The Voting Age Population (VAP) is calculated from ttt36. census reports. 3773. If a researcher insists on using VEP statistics in a study of vote turnout, as opposed to VAP statistics, he/she is probably concerned about vvv37. removing individuals from the data who are actually ineligible to vote. 3875. When Voting Eligible Population (VEP) statistics are examined, xxx38. it is apparent that voter turnout has not declined since the early 1970s. 3977. The texts suggests that, if the party of nonvoters had participated at a higher rate in the 1992 and 1996 presidential elections, zzz39. Bill Clinton would probably have won by a wider margin.

4079. In a typical survey, one might expect ________ percent of respondents to claim to have voted when, in fact, they did not. bbbb40. 8 to 10

4181. Verba and Nie found that about ________ of the population was never active in politics in any way. dddd41. one-fifth

4283. Compared to the rest of the population, voting specialists tend to be ffff42. older and less educated.

4385. Youth, low income, and minority status are associated with which of the following participation groups? hhhh43. Inactives

4487. The willingness to engage in partisan competition separates which two of the participation groups described by Verba and Nie? jjjj44.Communalists from campaigners 4589. Campaigners are distinguished from the general population by their llll45.higher education levels and stronger opinions.

4691. Two of the participation groups Verba and Nie describe, campaigners and communalists, differ primarily in their nnnn46. taste for conflict.

4793. Which of the following participation groups is distinguished from the others by its higher education and willingness to take strong stands on issues? pppp47. Campaigners

4895. Which of the following participation groups appears to want to avoid conflict and tension more than the others? rrrr48. Communalists

4997. Which of the following participation groups avoids both elections and community groups in its political activity? tttt49.Parochial participants

5099. Which of the following factors are highly correlated with a high rate of political participation? vvvv50. More education, older than thirty-five years old 51101. Which of the following statements about the voting habits of men and women is correct?


Men and women vote at about the same rate.

52103. The text suggests that one reason religious involvement increases political participation is because zzzz52. it leads to social connectedness and increases awareness of larger issues. 53105. Which of the following statements about political participation by blacks is correct? bbbbb53. Blacks participate more than whites of the same socioeconomic status.

54107. According to studies, what effect does cynicism have on voter turnout? ddddd54. It has no effect on turnout at all. 55109. Which of the following statements is true of voter registration in recent years? fffff55. It has become easier for eligible voters. 56111. Since 1970, federal law has prohibited states from having residency requirements longer than ___ days for presidential elections. hhhhh56. 30

57113. Maine, Minnesota, Oregon, and Wisconsin have each legislated voter registration jjjjj57. on the same day as the elections.

58115. Most of the states that initiated same-day voter registration (on election day) have experienced lllll58. slight improvements in voter turnout. 59117. One cause of the decline in voter turnout may be the increasingly distant and bureaucratic image of nnnnn59. the major political parties. 60119. All of the following have probably contributed to the recent declines in voter turnout except: ppppp60. increasing difficulties with respect to registration.

61121. Two multinational studies of voter turnout concluded that party strength, automatic registration, and compulsory voting laws accounted for how much of the variance in turnout? rrrrr61. Almost all

62123. One argument against compulsory voting in this country is ttttt62. voter objections to identification papers. 63125. Which of the following forms of participation has been decreasing in recent years? vvvvv63. Voting

64127. If measures were taken to improve voter turnout, it is safest to say that xxxxx64. such measures would hurt both parties and help independent candidates.

65129. When Jesse Jackson ran for president in 1984, which of the following happened to black voter registration in the South? zzzzz65. It increased but was more than offset by an increase in voter registration by southern whites.

66131. Between 1967 and 1987, a considerable increase was noted in the proportion of Americans who bbbbbb66. contacted public officials.

67133. Since 1960, the percentage of nonvoters with some college education or who held white-collar jobs has dddddd67. increased.

68135. Compared to voters in the United States, most European voters have the opportunity to cast ballots ffffff68. less frequently, for fewer offices.

69137. Compared to the profile of voters in the United States, the social composition of voters in most European countries is hhhhhh69. closer to the general population.

70139. The text suggests that the profile of voters in the United States may make the government more responsive to jjjjjj70. confronting ideologies of higher-status people. 71141. The most powerful determinant of political participation, other than education and information, is llllll71. age. 72143. The authors of the text believe that U.S. elections affect the conduct of government officials nnnnnn72. more than in other nations. 73145. One excellent study explains the difference in the participation rates of blacks and Latinos as the

result of the fact that blacks pppppp73. are more likely to be members of churches that stimulate political interest, activity and mobilization.

74147. Which of the following statements concerning slavery and the election of 1860 is incorrect? rrrrrr74. Party loyalities remained fluid after 1860. 75149. Which of the following statements about the critical election of 1896 is correct? tttttt75. The Republicans won the support of those in cities. 76151. The elections of Ronald Reagan could not have represented a realignment because vvvvvv76. they left control of Congress in the hands of the Democratic party. 77153. Dramatic realignments, such as the one that occurred in 1932, may not occur again because xxxxxx77. party labels have lost their meaning for a growing number of voters. . 78155. In recent elections, ticket splitting has been most common zzzzzz78. in the South. 79157. Ticket splitting was almost unheard of in the nineteenth century because bbbbbbb79. political parties provided voters with ballots. ccccccc80. government printed ballots listed candidates in columns. ddddddd81. a and d. 80161. One would generally expect split-ticket voting to occur more often when fffffff82. states adopt the office ballot.

81163. The national convention meets every _____ years to nominate a presidential candidate. hhhhhhh83. four

82165. Between the national conventions party affairs are managed by a ______________ made up of delegates from each state and territory. jjjjjjj84. national committee

83167. In Congress each party has a _______________ that helps members of Congress who are running for re-election or would-be members seeking election. lllllll85. congressional campaign committee 84169. This person manages the day-to-day work of the party. nnnnnnn86. National chairman

85171. Beginning in the 1960s, the ________ became more bureaucratized, while the ________ became more factionalized. ppppppp87. Republican party, Democratic party

86173. Who selects the time and place of the national convention and issues a call for the convention? rrrrrrr88. A partys national committee

87175. The number of convention delegates from each state, along with the rules under which they are chosen, is determined by ttttttt89. the partys national committee.

88177. Which of the following statements about the formula by which delegates to the nominating conventions are apportioned is correct? vvvvvvv90. The Democrats and Republicans use different formulas. 89179. The formula for the selection of delegates to the Republican national convention generally stresses the importance of xxxxxxx91. loyalty. 90181. Throughout the 1970s, the general thrust of the Democratic rules commissions considering delegate selection was to zzzzzzz92. weaken the influence of party leaders and enlarge the role of the rank and file.

91183. The Republicans changed the goal of their national party to the election of candidates while the Democrats sought to make their party bbbbbbbb93. achieve a fairer distribution of power. 92185. Democratic rule changes were drafted in 1972 by a commission headed by dddddddd94. George McGovern.

93187. The Hunt commissions changes in the Democratic party rules were designed to ffffffff95. increase the influence of party leaders. 94189. The term superdelegate refers to hhhhhhhh96. elected officials and party leaders who are not required to pledge themselves in advance to a presidential candidate. 95191. All of the following statements concerning the delegates to the 2004 conventions are correct except: jjjjjjjj97. More of the Democrats were male. 96193. Over 40 percent of the delegates to the conventions of both parties llllllll98. were born again Christians. 97195. The winner-reward systems of delegate distribution were banned in the campaign of nnnnnnnn99. 1992.

98197. The 1992 Democratic National Committee penalized states that violated the rules with what percentage loss of their national delegates? pppppppp100. 25 percent

99199. The three areas of rule-changes approved by the 1992 Democratic National Committee were rrrrrrrr101. rules violation penalty, winner-reward systems, proportional representation.

100201. According to the text, the role of national conventions has been transformed by party rules into a tttttttt102. place where delegates ratify decisions made by voters.

101203. Within both major parties, it is the ________ level that has most obviously declined. vvvvvvvv103. grassroots 102205. Party machines xxxxxxxx104. are characterized by a high degree of leadership control over member activity.

103207. The classical machine-type party was developed and perfected zzzzzzzz105. in the nineteenth century before the large-scale Irish and Italian immigrations.

104209. Old-style political machines counted heavily on the support of bbbbbbbbb106. civil servants.

105211. Unlike political machines, ideological parties tend to be ddddddddd107. factionalized. 106213. The ideological groups, or reform clubs, of the 1950s and 1960s gave rise to ideological parties composed of fffffffff108.single-issue activists.

107215. According to Barbara Mikulski, the training grounds for national political activists today are hhhhhhhhh109. social movements.

108217. People can join a party for reasons other than patronage. The text cites all of the following other reasons except jjjjjjjjj110. to join a delegating committee (caucus groups).

109219. Party organizations based on their members' enjoyment of the sociability of politics are referred to as lllllllll111. solidary parties.

110221. The political involvement of the United Auto Workers (UAW) in Detroit provides an example of a(n) nnnnnnnnn112. sponsored party.

111223. An example of an organization that sponsors a local party is ppppppppp113. the United Auto Workers (UAW) in Detroit.

112225. Today, a person wanting to win an election will most often seek the support of rrrrrrrrr114. a personal following. 113227. Which of the following statements about the traditional party organization in the United States is correct? ttttttttt115. It exists, but only in a few states.

114229. Which of the following statements about the two-party system is correct? vvvvvvvvv116. The United States is one of the few countries with such a system.

115231. To win in a plurality system such as that in the United States, a candidate must xxxxxxxxx117. gather more votes than anyone else. 116233. The plurality electoral system in the United States means that zzzzzzzzz118. every party must be a broad-based coalition.

117235. Why should elections based on a plurality system discourage new parties from forming? bbbbbbbbbb119. Because under this winner-take-all system no incentive is given for finishing second (or lower)

118237. The most dramatic example of the winner-take-all principle in the U.S. electoral system is the dddddddddd120. electoral college. 119239. The two-party system has worked in the United States, but not in Europe, because ffffffffff121. Americans agree on enough issues to form broad coalitions.

120241. The most recent independent candidate for president who was able to get on the ballot in every state was hhhhhhhhhh122. Ross Perot.

121243. Which of the following statements about minor parties in the United States is correct? jjjjjjjjjj123. They were once discouraged by the election laws of many states.

122245. The platform of the Free Love party (a fictitious party) is, as you might guess, free love. This party is most likely a(n) llllllllll124. one-issue party.

123247. The Libertarian and Socialist parties in the United States are examples of nnnnnnnnnn125. ideological parties.

124249. George Wallaces American Independent party was an example of a(n) pppppppppp126. factional party.

125251. The Populist party is an example of a(n) rrrrrrrrrr127. economic protest party.

126253. An example of an economic protest party is the tttttttttt128. Populist party. . 127255. Which of the following kinds of minor parties tends to endure the longest? vvvvvvvvvv129. Ideological

128257. The kind of minor party that has probably had the greatest influence on public policy is the xxxxxxxxxx130. factional party. . 129259. Many strong social movements in the United States (e.g., the antiwar movement of the late 1960s) never produced a significant third party. One reason for this is that zzzzzzzzzz131. dissident elements were able to influence elections through party primaries and national conventions.

130261. Even though minor parties have had little success in national elections, they have played an important role in many elections by bbbbbbbbbbb132. influencing the public policy positions of the two major parties. . 131263. In the days when party conventions were heavily influenced by party leaders and elected officials, it was relatively easy to ignore ddddddddddd133. the policy preferences of dissident factions. 132265. At party conventions in recent years, the ________ has (have) become increasingly important. fffffffffff134. policy interests of the party

133267. National convention delegates, compared to their respective party members, tend to be hhhhhhhhhhh135. more liberal if they are Democrats, more conservative if they are Republicans.

134269. A meeting of party followers at which convention delegates are picked is known as a jjjjjjjjjjj136. caucus.

135271. The makeup of state party caucuses can best be characterized as lllllllllll137. highly partisan.

136273. Compared to primary voters, members of caucuses are more likely to nnnnnnnnnnn138. support the most ideological candidate.

137275. An example of how the partisan makeup of state party caucuses can result in the choice of the most ideological candidate was the success of ppppppppppp139. Jesse Jackson in the 1988 Democratic party caucuses.

138277. The typical convention delegateDemocratic or Republicancan best be characterized as a(n) rrrrrrrrrrr140. issue-oriented amateur.

139279. The disadvantage of the new primary system that has developed in the United States is that it ttttttttttt141. increases the chances that the party will nominate a candidate who is unappealing to the average voter.

140281. Why should the Democrats have been so unsuccessful in winning the presidency before 1992 at the same time that they were so successful in winning congressional seats? vvvvvvvvvvv142. Because their presidential candidates tended to be out of step with voters on issues of taxation and social policy

141283. Since 1972, ideological differences between convention delegates and rank-and-file party voters have been greatest among xxxxxxxxxxx143. Democrats.

142285. How can the differences between the two major parties in the United States best be characterized? zzzzzzzzzzz144. There are large policy differences among activists and much smaller ones among the rank and file.

143287. Which of the following statements about political parties in the United States is true? bbbbbbbbbbbb145. Parties today are relatively weak, but they are not weak in all areas of the country.

144289. The key term in the definition of a political party is dddddddddddd146. label, to give a candidate party identification.

145291. Party identification among voters is one way of gauging the strength of a party. Another cited by the text is the ffffffffffff147. strength of the organization that recruits and campaigns for candidates.

146293. The federal system goes a long way toward explaining why U.S. parties are ________ than their European counterparts. hhhhhhhhhhhh148. more decentralized 147295. One reason why political parties in the United States today are weaker than in Europe is that, in the United States, jjjjjjjjjjjj149. party leaders do not typically select people to run for office.

148297. In most states, candidates for office are chosen by llllllllllll150. primary elections.

149299. In Europe, almost the only way a person can become a candidate is by nnnnnnnnnnnn151. being nominated by party leaders. 150301. What role do political parties play in the lives of most Americans? pppppppppppp152. Most Americans separate political parties from other aspects of their lives. 151303. George Washingtons view of parties may have been influenced by rrrrrrrrrrrr153. the constant quarreling between Hamilton and Jefferson in his cabinet.

152305. Why should George Washington, among other Founders of our nation, have been so opposed to political parties? tttttttttttt154. Because disputes over policies and elections were not easily separated from disputes over government legitimacy

153307. The Founders saw political parties as vvvvvvvvvvvv155. factions motivated by ambition and self-interest. 154309. The first organized political party in American history was xxxxxxxxxxxx156. made up of the followers of Jefferson.

155311. Some were so distraught by the election of Thomas Jefferson that they zzzzzzzzzzzz157. organized to have New England secede from the union. 156313. During the founding period of U.S. history, political parties could best be characterized as bbbbbbbbbbbbb158. small coalitions based more on geography and class than on common economic interests.

157315. According to the text, when did political parties in the United States develop a comprehensive organizational form and appeal? ddddddddddddd159. From the time of President Jackson to the Civil War

158317. The first Republican party, with its base of support in the South, was organized in the 1790s by fffffffffffff160. Thomas Jefferson. 159319. The Federalist party could not compete effectively in national elections because hhhhhhhhhhhhh161. it had such a limited sectional and class base.

160321. National party conventions were developed as a reform of jjjjjjjjjjjjj162. party caucuses.

161323. In the Jacksonian era, for the first time a party system was built lllllllllllll163. from the bottom up.

162325. Prior to 1824, presidential candidates were nominated by nnnnnnnnnnnnn164. caucuses comprising of members of Congress.

163327. Party conventions emerged during the Jacksonian era as a means of ppppppppppppp165. giving some measure of local control to the presidential nominating process. 164329. The first Convention in American history was that of the ________ party. rrrrrrrrrrrrr166. Anti-Masonic

165331. Which of the following statements about the modern Republican party is correct? ttttttttttttt167. It emerged as a major party only after the Civil War.

166333. One effect of the geographic split in parties that occurred as a consequence of the Civil War was the vvvvvvvvvvvvv168. emergence of strong party factions such as the mugwumps.

167335. The ________, a faction of the Republican party, were opposed to the patronage system and feared the influx of immigrants who could be incorporated into the political machine. xxxxxxxxxxxxx169. progressives 168337. The progressives favored all of the following except zzzzzzzzzzzzz170. better relations with business.

169339. The progressive movement reduced the level of political corruption but ultimately failed to bbbbbbbbbbbbbb171. solve the problem of how to select candidates. 170341. Procedures such as the initiative and the referendum arose as efforts to give dddddddddddddd172. citizens a direct say in making laws. 171343. Scholars have identified ____ critical or realigning periods in American politics. ffffffffffffff173. 5 172345. The three clearest cases of critical or realigning elections seem to be hhhhhhhhhhhhhh174. 1865, 1896 and 1932. 173347. Which of the following were major issues in the three clearest cases of critical or realigning periods? jjjjjjjjjjjjjj175. Slavery and economics