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Unit 1

Past tenses
A Past simple
The past simple is used:

look back from that point and mention something that happened before it, we use the past perfect. I got home very late. Id met some friends and wed gone to the cinema.

with time linkers such as when/after/before/by the time/as


By the time I got home it had stopped raining. I emailed Sara after Id downloaded the information.

soon as/until to emphasize the order of events in the past.

to talk about a completed action at a specific time in the


past. The time can be stated or implied. The plane landed at 10.30. I bought this coat in Paris. Why did you decide to study English?

For more information on Time linkers with past tenses, see Unit 5 below.

to talk about an activity or situation that continued for


a period of time leading up to another point of time in the past. This use often involves stative verbs, such as have, be, know. I went to the doctors on Friday. Id had a bad headache for three days.

to refer to an activity or situation that continued for a

period of time in the past. The period finished in the past. We usually use a time phrase with for to indicate the period. I lived in New York for six months when I was a student.

to talk about a past habit or regular action in the past.


On our holiday in Spain we had dinner every evening at 10 oclock. In my last year at school we sometimes went swimming on Friday afternoons.

D Past perfect continuous


The past perfect continuous is used:

to describe and focus on the duration of an activity

to give a series of single, completed actions in the past.


I got up, had breakfast and walked to school with my friends.

before and continuing up to a point of time in the past. The activity may have stopped at that point or continued after it. James arrived at 4.30. Id been waiting for half an hour. I looked at my watch. It was three oclock. Id been waiting for half an hour and he still wasnt there. When Dave got here he was very tired. Hed been driving for twelve hours.

B Past continuous
The past continuous is used:

to talk about an activity or situation that was in


This time yesterday I was travelling to Rome.

progress at a particular moment in the past. It does not give an indication of the length of the activity.

E Used to and would


1 Used to + infinitive is used to talk about regular actions or situations in the past that have now changed. I used to take the train to work but now I go by car. My sister used to hate eating vegetables but now she loves them. 2 Note how we make negatives and questions using used to. We didnt use to go on holidays abroad very often. Now I go every year. Did you use to go to Middleton School? I think I recognise you. 3 Remember that we can only use used to to talk about the past, not the present. To talk about regular actions or situations in the present, we can use an adverb such as usually or normally with the present simple. usually I dont use to watch the news on television.

to talk about an activity that was in progress when

another action happened. The activity in the past continuous started before the action in the past simple and may or may not have continued after it. When Peter phoned me I was watching a DVD.

to give a background description.


I was in the park. The sun was shining and a lot of students were sitting on the grass. A young girl was playing ball with her dog. Then I saw Mark ...

C Past perfect simple


The past perfect simple is used:

to talk about and focus on an action that happened

before another action in the past. We use the past simple to talk about an event in the past, and then if we want to
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Grammar reference
4 Would + infinitive is also used to talk about regular action in the past. However, it is NOT used with stative verbs to talk about permanent states in the past. It often describes typical behaviour and can be used with always/ usually/never/often. My gran would always give me a piece of cherry cake and a cup of hot chocolate after school. Our teacher would never let us use a dictionary during tests! 5 It is possible to use would in the negative and question form but it is not common. Have you phoned Renee yet? (I know you planned to) Have you ever done a bungee jump? (to emphasize in your life)

with stative verbs to talk about something that began in


the past and is continuing at the time of speaking. This may or may not continue in the future. We usually use for and since with this use. For indicates the length of the period. Since indicates the point of time that the period began. Ive been here for ten minutes. How long have you known Katy? My brothers had his laptop since his birthday.

The present perfect


The present perfect is used to link the past and the present.

B Present prefect continuous


The present perfect continuous is used:

A Present perfect simple


The present perfect simple is used:

to talk about an activity that began in the past and is

to talk about events that happened before the present

time. The exact time is not stated because either it is not known or it is not important. This event can be a single event: Ive seen the new James Bond film. Ive never eaten sushi. or it can refer to several events. Ive been to America three times. Our teacher has taught in several different countries.

still continuing at the present time. It emphasizes the length of time spent on the activity. For and since are usually used to talk about the time period. Ive been working on this assignment for two hours. (and I havent finished yet) Shes been talking on the phone for at least half an hour.

to talk about an activity that started in the past,


Ive been working out at the gym and I ache all over! What have you been doing? You look very guilty!

continued for a certain period and finished recently. This activity has a result in the present.

to talk about the first/second/third etc time an action


This is the first time Ive eaten cheese and jam together! Pierre is the nicest person Ive ever met.

has happened. We are making the comment in present time. We also use this pattern + ever after superlatives.

Note the difference between the present perfect simple and present perfect continuous. The simple form focuses on one or more completed actions. Ive cleaned the car. It looks really nice. Ive written three letters this morning. The continuous form focuses on the activity, which may or may not be completed. Ive been cleaning the car and Im soaking wet! Ive been writing letters this morning.

to talk about a recent event that has a relevance to the


present. The taxis just arrived. Hurry up! Jackies had some bad news. Shes really upset.

to talk about an event or events that happened before

the present. The time period in which it happened hasnt finished yet. We usually use time phrases such as this year/today/this morning. Ive been abroad three times this year. Helen has eaten six chocolate bars this morning!

to talk about a repeated action in the recent past that

has a result in the present. The focus here is not on a single, prolonged activity but a series of actions. We often use the words a lot/too much/too many and recently/ lately. Ive been going out a lot recently and I need to catch up on some sleep! Harrys been buying a lot of things for his car lately and hes a bit short of money at the moment. Ive been eating too much recently and I need to go on a diet!

with the words

just/yet/already/ever/never

Ive just seen Tim. (a moment before the present) Weve already done this exercise. (so we dont need to do it again) The teacher hasnt given us the results yet. (but she will)

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Grammar reference

Unit 2
Ability
A Can and be able to
The modal verb can is used to talk about the present, and also general ability. Be quiet! I can hear someone coming. (present) Maggie can play the violin very well. (general) be able to is also possible but more formal. Ms Smith is able to see you now please come this way. Camels are able to travel for several days without drinking water. could and was/were able to can both be used to talk about past ability (see section B below). Since there is no infinitive, future or participle form of can, only be able to is possible in these cases. I used to be able to play the guitar. Pam might be able to help you. Will you be able to come to my party? Steves been able to get tickets for the match. The negative form of can is cant or cannot; in the past, couldnt or could not are used. To form the negative of be able to, not is used in an appropriate position; be unable to is also possible. I cant/cannot believe how lucky I am to have met you! I regret that I am not able/am unable to attend the ceremony. Sue hasnt been able/has been unable to play tennis since she broke her finger.

Nick couldnt/didnt manage to/wasnt able to get to the meeting on time. We didnt succeed in convincing him to change his mind.

C Further ways of expressing ability


be (in)capable of + gerund means to have the ability, capacity or potential to do something. Lara is capable of doing well in her exams she just needs to work hard. Roger was incapable of telling the truth. Be possible/impossible/not possible for someone to + infinitive Im afraid its not possible for the doctor to see you today. With so many good players it should be impossible for United to lose. (not) know/learn how to + infinitive My dad doesnt know how to drive. Elisa has learnt how to write her own name.

Comparisons Comparatives and superlatives


A Formation 1 One-syllable adjectives
Add er to make the comparative form, and est to make the superlative form. short shorter shortest If the adjective ends in e (eg safe, late, large), add r and est. strange stranger strangest If the adjective ends in a single vowel and a consonant (eg thin, hot, wet), double the consonant and add -er and -est. big bigger biggest

B Past ability
1 When we talk about general ability in the past, both could and was/were able to (and their negative forms) are possible. Our last dog could swim really well. Sam couldnt/wasnt able to read until he was eight. After the course Emily was able to speak Spanish quite fluently. 2 When we talk about ability to do something on one occasion in the past, could is not possible. Instead we use was/were able to, succeeded in + gerund or managed to + infinitive. I was able to/managed to repair the DVD player myself. The police succeeded in recovering the stolen jewellery. Couldnt, wasnt/werent able to, didnt manage to and didnt succeed in can all be used to talk about inability to do something on one occasion in the past.

2 Adjectives with more than one syllable


Use more and most in front of the adjective to form the comparative and superlative. modern more modern most modern comfortable more comfortable most comfortable If the adjective ends in y (eg funny, noisy, unhappy), change y to i and add er and est. dirty dirtier dirtiest With some two-syllable adjectives both types of comparative and superlative forms can be used. These include the following: clever, common, friendly, gentle,

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Grammar reference
narrow, pleasant, polite, quiet, simple, stupid. narrow narrower/more narrow narrowest/most narrow be used with all adjectives and adverbs, regardless of the number of syllables. I bought the least expensive coat I could find. Like more and most, they can be used without adjectives and adverbs. Most women here work more than the men and get paid less. Which subjects do you like (the) most and (the) least at school? d Use more or less with uncountable nouns, and more or fewer with plural countable nouns. You may have less money than him, but hes got fewer friends. Similarly, use most or least with uncountable nouns, and most and fewest with plural countable nouns. We aim to sell your house for the most money in the least amount of time with the fewest problems.

3 Adverbs
Use more and the most in front of most adverbs. quickly more quickly most quickly Adverbs with the same form as an adjective, such as early, fast, hard, late, long, have comparative and superlative forms which end in er (or r) and est (or st). The adverb soon is another example. soon sooner soonest

4 Irregular adjectives and adverbs


Some adjectives and adverbs have irregular comparative and superlative forms. good & well better best bad & badly worse worst far farther/further farthest/furthest

2 (just) as + adjective/adverb + as can be used:


a To talk about people or things that are the same in some way. Dont ask me Im just as confused as you are! Use almost, nearly to qualify the comparisons. She sings almost as well as her mother. b In negative sentences so can replace the first as. Alan isnt so optimistic about the future as I am. Use not quite with this structure to describe small differences. It isnt quite so cold today as it was yesterday. (= its a little warmer) Use not nearly for big differences. The exam wasnt nearly as hard as I thought it would be. (= it was much easier) c Use as much with uncountable nouns, and as many with plural countable nouns. There werent as many people at the party as I expected. Ive got just as much work to do today as yesterday. They can also be used without nouns. I didnt eat as much as you but I still feel full. d Use not/never such before adjective + uncountable or plural countable noun We didnt have such good weather on our holiday this year. Ive never seen such ugly buildings as these. Use not/never such a before adjective + singular countable noun

B Use 1 Comparative and superlative adjectives and adverbs


a To make a comparison between two people or things we can use comparative forms of adjectives and adverbs with than. Alison is more confident than her brother. My order arrived earlier than expected. To describe small differences, use a bit, a little, slightly. Im feeling a little better than I was this morning. To describe big differences, use (quite) a lot, much, far. This house is much more spacious than our old flat, and the neighbourhoods a lot quieter, too. b To make a comparison between more than two people or things we can use superlative forms of adjectives and adverbs. To specify the group use in before the noun. Amys the most intelligent student in the class. The Burj Dubai is the tallest building in the world. It is possible to use single-word superlative adverbs with or without the. Lets see who can sing (the) loudest. To emphasize the difference between one person or thing and all the others, use by far, easily. This is easily the worst holiday Ive ever had! c less than and the least Less and least are the opposites of more and most; they can

Mr Phillips isnt such a good teacher as Mrs Reid.

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Grammar reference
e the same .. as can also be used with nouns. Grandpas car is the same colour as ours.

B Speculating and making deductions about the past.


1 We can speculate and make deductions about the past using information from either the present or the past. Bill must have passed his exams. (He looks very happy!) Bill must have passed his exams. (He worked very hard for them.) 2 We use must/cant/couldnt + perfect infinitive to express certainty and we use may(not)/might(not)/could + perfect infinitive for possibility. We can also use the continuous forms. Derek cant have got the information about the meeting because hes not here. Jackie might have been driving when I called her. Her phone was switched off. The holiday must have cost them a fortune. They were away for a month.

3 Other structures
a the + comparative, the + comparative Use this structure to show that two changes happen together; the second is often the result of the first. The easier I find a subject, the less interesting it is for me. The harder you work, the more you can earn. b like + noun, pronoun or gerund You children behave like animals! c (not) a lot of/a great deal of/much/little/no difference between There isnt a lot of difference between the film and the book. (= the film is very similar to the book)

Unit 3
Modals for speculation and deduction
A Speculating and making deductions about the present.
1 When we are sure something is true we use must + simple infinitive/continuous infinitive without to You must be Garys sister. The two of you look very similar. Lenny and Rita must know each other. They were at Barton High School at the same time. Penny must be working very hard. She hasnt had a break for two hours. 2 When we are sure something is not true we use cant/ couldnt + simple infinitive/continuous infinitive without to. We do not normally use mustnt to express this concept. We cant be out of petrol. I filled up two days ago. He couldnt be having a shower. Theres no hot water. 3 When we think something is possibly true we use may(not)/might(not)/could + infinitive/continuous infinitive without to. We do not use could not to express the concept. Jack could be in his bedroom but Im not sure. Why dont you check? I have no idea of the answer but Peter might know. Ask him. Kathys gone home. I think she may not be feeling very well.

Present simple and continuous


A Present simple
The present simple is used:

to talk about something that is permanent or long term


We live on the edge of a big town. Ken speaks both French and Russian. I dont like horror films.

to talk about facts, things that are always true


Too much sun causes skin damage.

to talk about regular, habitual actions.


I catch the 8.30 bus every morning. We usually meet after school in the cafe. My dad rarely takes a holiday in the summer. We often use frequency adverbs to show how regularly an action takes place. These are the most common: Always, normally, usually, frequently, often, sometimes, occasionally, seldom, rarely, hardly ever, never A frequency adverb is usually put before the main verb or following the verb to be or an auxiliary verb. I often go swimming at the weekend. I dont usually enjoy detective stories. We are always on time for class. It is possible to put some frequency adverbs at the beginning of a sentence for emphasis. These include sometimes, occasionally, normally, usually but not always, rarely, seldom or never. Usually we have dinner at about 7.30.

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Grammar reference
Sometimes I go round to my friends to play computer games after school. My brother is always borrowing my bicycle without asking me.

to describe a series of events in a film or story. We often


use the present simple when we are telling someone about the plot of a film we have seen or a book we have read. It is also used by reviewers when describing films and books. The detective flies to Paris where he meets his informant. She takes him to a night club. He finds the leader of the gang and they fight in the streets.

to describe future arrangements.


Im getting the 9.30 train tomorrow. Its usually crowded so Ive reserved a seat. See Grammar reference Unit 5 below.

we do not usually use the continuous form with stative


verbs. I have a new laptop. Do you want to see it? Do you think itll rain today? However, sometimes these same verbs can be used with an active meaning. In these cases, the continuous form can be used. Im having dinner at the moment. Ill see you in about half an hour. Johns very quiet. I wonder what hes thinking about.

to dramatise a series of events that happened in the past.


The effect of this is to make the actions more immediate so that the listener can imagine the events happening. I dont know what the matter is with Phil these days. Take yesterday for example. He comes home after school, throws his bag on the floor and starts shouting at me for some reason.

to talk about a scheduled or timetabled event in the


future. The exam starts at 10.30 tomorrow morning. Dont be late! See Grammar reference Unit 5 below.

Unit 4
Gerunds and infinitives
The gerund is used:

B Present continuous
The present continuous is used:

to describe an action in progress at the time of speaking.


We often include now or at the moment but a time reference is not always necessary as the time may be implied. Sorry, I cant come out at the moment. Im doing my homework. What are you listening to? Is it the new Killers album?

as the subject, object or complement of a sentence or


clause. Walking makes me hungry. Robs given up smoking. Joes favourite pastime is doing nothing.

after prepositions.
Are you interested in going to the cinema tonight?

to talk about an action that is in progress but not


necessarily happening at the time of speaking. Im reading the new Larsson novel. Im about half way through. Its excellent! Were setting up a new school website. Perhaps you can help us.

after look forward to and be/get used to, where to is a


preposition. Ive got used to being on holiday, and Im not looking forward to going back home on Saturday.

to refer to something that is in the process of changing.


The companys profits are increasing. My English is getting much better!

after certain verbs.


eg admit, adore, appreciate, avoid, cant help, cant stand, consider, delay, deny, detest, dislike, enjoy, feel like, finish, imagine, involve, keep, mind, miss, postpone, practise, prevent somebody, resist, risk, suggest I like the countryside but I miss living in the city. We planted that tree to prevent people looking into our house from the street. not is placed before the gerund to make it negative: Its hard to imagine not having a mobile phone.

to talk about a temporary situation.


Im working at the cafe at the moment. Its only for a few weeks during the holiday. Mr. Thomas is teaching us this week while Miss Browne is away.

with always to refer to a repeated action that annoys the


speaker. This is one occasion where we can use always without the simple tense. The government is always talking about reducing taxes but they never do.

after these expressions.


have difficulty/problems/trouble, its/theres no use, its (not) worth, theres no point (in)

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Grammar reference
Its worth buying a good guidebook before you go to Rome. She had difficulty understanding his Scottish accent at first. If the subjects of the main verb and the gerund are different, an object (pronoun) is added or, in formal English, a possessive determiner. I cant imagine him (or his) playing football. Id better go its very late. Id rather stay here, though. Make and let are followed by a direct object; help can be used with or without a direct object. Can you help (me) clean the kitchen?

The infinitive with to is used:

Verbs followed by either a gerund or an infinitive with to

to say why you do something.


We gave the children some sweets to keep them quiet.

Begin, start and continue can be followed by either a

after certain adjectives.


eg (It is/was etc) difficult, easy, essential, important, lovely, (un)necessary, (im)possible, (un)usual, wonderful (I am/She will be etc) delighted, disappointed, (un)happy, (un) lucky, sad, surprised Were sad to hear you cant come; it would have been wonderful to see you again.

gerund or infinitive with to, without any difference in meaning. The gerund is not usually used after a progressive form of these verbs. He continued writing/to write until his hand began aching/to ache. Its starting to rain. [not Its starting raining]

Either form can also be used after hate, like, love and
prefer with no difference in meaning. I like singing/to sing in the shower.

With remember, forget, stop and go on the gerund refers to


actions or states occurring before these verbs; the infinitive with to refers to things occurring afterwards. I remember reading something about Andorra last year. forget doing something is not often used to talk about an action you do not recall. Instead, not remember is used. I dont remember telling you Id lend you some money. remember/forget to do something = (not) to do something you have to do or intend to do I remembered to buy your stamps here you are. But I forgot to post your letter Im really sorry. stop doing something = no longer do something You can put your umbrella down its stopped raining. stop to do something = interrupt one activity to do another On his way home from school, Ian stopped to buy some sweets. go on doing something = continue doing something If you go on eating like that, youll have a stomach ache. go on to do something = do something after doing something else After losing their first two matches, the Italians went on to win the tournament. remember doing something = to recall a previous action

after certain nouns.


eg ability, chance, decision, failure, idea, opportunity, plan, refusal, right, way Whats the best way to get to the station?

after certain verbs.


eg afford, agree, appear, arrange, attempt, choose, decide, demand, deserve, hesitate, hope, learn, manage, offer, prepare, promise, pretend, refuse, seem, threaten Pattys arranged to meet Mike on Saturday. not is placed before the infinitive to make it negative: Jodie called to her son but he pretended not to hear her. With some verbs a direct object is needed. eg advise, allow, enable, encourage, force, invite, order, persuade, recommend, remind, teach, tell, warn Pattys persuaded him to go to the opera with her! Some verbs can be used either with or without a direct object. eg ask, expect, help*, need, want, would like, would love, would hate, would prefer Julie wants to buy a new coat and she wants me to go with her. * Help can also be used with an infinitive without to: see below.

The infinitive without to is used:

mean doing something = involve


If you come fishing with me, itll mean getting up early. mean to do something = intend I didnt mean to break the window it was an accident.

after modal verbs.


You can go to the party, but you must be home by midnight.

after help, let, make, would rather, had better.


7

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Grammar reference try doing something = do something to see what will


happen If you have problems sleeping, try counting sheep. try to do something = attempt/make an effort to do something I tried to tell her I was sorry, but she didnt want to listen. Chris was so tired (that) he fell asleep in the cinema. It was such a short book (that) I finished in one morning.

Indirect ways of asking questions


When asking for information, it is generally more polite to use an indirect form of question with the help of phrases such as these. Could you explain ? mind telling me? Could you tell me ? Would you

need + gerund has a passive meaning


This kitchen needs cleaning. (= needs to be cleaned) need + infinitive with to has an active meaning We need to clean this kitchen.

Do you think you could tell me ? Could you (possibly) give me an idea ? I would like to know I would be interested to know I was wondering if I would be grateful if you could tell me you could tell me Compare: How do I get to the station? Could you tell me how I get to the station? When asking questions in this more indirect way:

So and such
So and such can both be used to give emphasis. 1 So is used before adjectives and adverbs (without a noun) and means:

very/really.
I was so proud of my daughter. She sang so beautifully in the school concert.

there is no inversion of the subject and verb. The word


order is the same as for making statements. Would you mind telling me how old you are? [not how old are you?]

to this or that extent/like this or that


She was shaking. Id never seen her looking so nervous. Youre shouting at me again. Why are you behaving so rudely? So is also used before the quantifiers much, many, little and few. A noun may or may not be present: an uncountable noun is used after so much and so little, and a plural countable noun after so many and so few. Ive got so much to do and so little time to do it. There are so many people looking for work but so few jobs available. 2 Such is used on its own before uncountable and plural countable nouns (with or without an adjective). Miguel speaks such good English! (= really good English) Ive never seen such ugly buildings. (= buildings as ugly as these ones) If the noun is singular and countable, the definite article a or an is needed. Why are you in such a hurry? Helen is such an interesting person to talk to. Such is used before a lot (of). Weve got such a lot of homework to do tonight. Dont complain its not such a lot. 3 So and such can both be followed by a that clause to talk about results or consequences. The word that can be omitted.

the auxiliary verbs do, does and did are not used in
indirect questions. I would be interested to know where you bought it. [not where did you buy it] A question mark is used if the indirect question begins with a question form (Would you mind telling me ?), but not if it is a statement (I would be interested to know ). In Yes/No questions (where the answer to the question will be either yes or no) if or whether are used. We would like to know if/whether we can hire bikes in your campsite.

Unit 5
Time linkers with past tenses
1 After, as soon as, before, once, until, when, whenever can be used with the past simple. The gerund is also common with after and before. I recognized him as soon as I saw him. Before she went/Before going to bed Sue had a glass of milk. Two past simple tenses often indicate that the second action resulted from the first, and that it happened soon afterwards. I cried when I heard the news.

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Grammar reference
Whenever means every time that. Whenever we went camping, it rained/used to rain. After, before, as soon as can be qualified in the following way: soon after, (not) long after, shortly after; (not) long before, shortly before; almost as soon as. Just can be used with all three. Just/Shortly/Soon/Not long after he got married, Tim lost his job. The past perfect can be used, especially if we want to emphasize that the first action finished before the second one started. My mum wouldnt let me go out until Id tidied my room.. Once Id eaten something, I felt a lot better. 2 As, while, when can be used with the past continuous to introduce an action or situation which was in progress when another, shorter action occurred. Whilst is formal. When/As/While we were having our picnic, we saw a deer. They can also be used with two clauses in the past continuous to talk about two actions or situations occurring at the same time. While is more common in this use. While you were having fun and making lots of noise, I was trying to do my homework! 3 During, for are prepositions and followed by a noun. During tells us when something happened. I stayed at my sisters house during the summer. For tells us how long something took or lasted. My brother was on the phone for two hours! 4 At first, at last, finally, eventually, at the end, in the end, by the end At first is used to talk about the beginning of a situation and to contrast it with what happens later. It is often followed by but. At first it was cold and grey, but then the sun came out. At last indicates very strongly that you have been waiting for something to happen for a long time. Finally has a similar meaning. After ten years in prison he was free at last! Mike finally managed to pass his driving test on the sixth attempt. In the end and eventually suggest that something happens after some problems, changes or uncertainty. Lucy wasnt sure about the job, but she accepted it in the end/ eventually. At the end refers to the point at which something finishes. It can be followed by of + noun. I spoke to the teacher at the end of the class. By the end can also be followed by of + noun and means at some time during the period before something finishes. I started reading the book at lunchtime and by the end of the day Id finished it. 5 By the time, at the time By the time is used for saying what had already happened before something else occurred. It can be followed by the past simple or the past perfect. By the time we (had) arrived at the station, our train had left. (= The train left before we arrived at the station) At the time means at the particular point when something occurred. It may suggest a contrast with what happens later. It seemed like a good idea at the time (but I know now that it wasnt).

As and like
We use like:

to introduce an example or examples.


I enjoy team sports like football and basketball.

before nouns and pronouns to make comparisons.


Carla sang like a bird. This use is common after these verbs: feel, look, seem, smell, sound, taste. My daughter looks like me, but she sounds just like her mum.

to describe typical or untypical behaviour.


Its just/not like John to be late. (= John is late and that is/ isnt typical)

to ask for descriptions or information about someone or


something. Whats Sue like? Is she nice? What was the campsite like?

to mean in the same way (as someone). The verb do usually


follows like. Im going to cycle to school like Paul does. As is also possible, but is very formal.

We use as:

to mean in the same way.


Please leave the room as you found it clean and tidy. Like might also be used, but is very informal.

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Grammar reference in the expression it looks as if/though + verb phrase, when


something appears to be true. It looks as if its going to rain. Like is common instead of as if/though in spoken English, but is considered incorrect by some.

talk about decisions made at the moment of speaking,


including offers. Youre cold, arent you? Ill close the window.

Going to
Be going + infinitive with to can be used to talk about:

after such to introduce an example or examples.


You can feed your hamster vegetables such as carrots or broccoli.

intentions and plans formulated before the moment of


speaking. Owen says hes going to leave school at 16. The infinitive to go can be omitted. Im not going (to go) to Sarahs party tomorrow.

after the verbs consider, describe, regard, think of, refer to,
know. Ive always considered/regarded/thought of him as a friend. As is optional with the verb consider.

to say what someone or something is, does or is used for.


As a vegetarian, I never cook meat. Roger once worked as a waiter. The Romans used salt as money.

predictions, as an alternative to will.


I dont think Taylor is going to/will win the election. If there is evidence now that something is certain to happen, we usually use going to. That car is out of control its going to crash!

with adjectives and adverbs to make comparisons. (see


Unit 2) I cant run as fast as I used to.

Modal verbs
Modal verbs express degrees of certainty when talking about:

to mean because.
As we havent got any homework, we could go to the cinema.

intentions.
We may/might have a barbecue on Sunday. (Possibility)

to mean when or while. (see Time linkers p.8) As I was leaving the house, the phone rang. in a number of phrases, including: as far as I know, as far as Im concerned, as soon as possible, as well as, as a result, as usual I look forward to hearing from you as soon as possible.

predictions.
It may/might/could well rain tomorrow. (Probability) You should be able to find a parking space quite easily. (Probability)

Present simple
The present simple can be used:

The future
Will
Will + infinitive without to can be used to:

to talk about timetabled or scheduled events.


Our train leaves at 6.30 tomorrow morning.

to refer to the future after time linkers such as after, as


Ill call you just before we get on the plane. After weve had our lunch were going shopping. While Im driving to work, youll still be in bed.

talk about hopes, expectations and predictions. It is


often used after these verbs: hope, expect and think. A present tense can also be used after hope. I expect Tom will arrive late he usually does. We hope you come/will come back and visit us. Adverbs such as probably and definitely are normally placed after will and before wont. I think shell definitely pass the exam but she probably wont get an A.

soon as, before, until, when. The present perfect and present continuous can also be used.

Present continuous
The present continuous can be used to describe future arrangements we have made, usually with other people or organisations. Im picking Gavin up at 1.30 and were having lunch at Le Bistro. Ive booked a table for two oclock.

make factual statements about the future.


Spring will be here soon. Tim will be twenty in April.

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Grammar reference
Future continuous
The future continuous, will + be + present participle, is used to talk about:

Unit 6
Reported Speech
When we are reporting what someone has said we can use either direct speech or reported speech. Direct speech: Ive bought a new car, said Dan. Reported speech: Dan said that he had bought a new car. When we use reported speech, we may have to make changes to the actual words that the person spoke. We can use that after the reporting verb but it is optional. He said (that) he wanted to live in Poland. 1 We usually have to make changes to the verb tenses. This is sometimes called backshift as most tenses go back one tense. Direct speech Present simple We live in the countryside. Present continuous Im waiting for Tina. Present perfect Ive worked here for three years. Present perfect continuous Jacks been looking for you. Past simple I spoke to Matt outside school. He said hed spoken to Matt outside school. Past continuous We were playing a computer Future Ill meet you at 6.30. She said she would meet me at 6.30. He said theyd been playing game. a computer game. She said Jack had been looking for me. She said shed worked there for three years. He said he was waiting for Tina. She said they lived in the countryside. Reported speech

actions that will be in progress at a particular moment


in the future. My mum cant come to the parents meeting; shell be working then.

plans and decisions we have made for the future.


My sons ill, so he wont be going to school tomorrow.

Future perfect simple


The future perfect, will + have + past participle, is used to talk about actions which will be completed before a certain time in the future. I think Ill have finished this book by the end of the week.

Future perfect continuous


The future perfect continuous, will + have + been + present participle, is used to talk about actions which continue up to, and possibly beyond, a certain time in the future. Well have been going out with each other for six months on Friday.

Other ways of talking about the future

Be (just) about + infinitive with to is used to talk about the


immediate future. Im sorry, I cant talk Im just about to go out.

Be (un)likely + infinitive with to is used to express


probability. Its likely to snow later on so take a hat.

Shall I and shall we are used to ask for suggestions, advice


and instructions. What time shall we meet this evening? Where shall we go? Shall I phone Peter tomorrow?

The infinitive with to is used after some verbs to talk


We expect/hope to get home before 9 oclock. I plan/intend to go to bed early tonight.

about future hopes, plans, intentions and expectations.

The modal verbs must/may/can are reported in these ways: I can understand the text easily She said she could understand the text easily. I may be a bit late. I must do the essay before Friday. He said he might be a bit late. She said she had to do the essay before Friday.

The verbs plan and think can be followed by a preposition and a gerund. Mick and Irene are planning on getting married next year. Theyre thinking of going to Tahiti for the honeymoon.

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Grammar reference
2 We do not need to change the tense: He said (that) hed seen the film on DVD. He told me (that) hed seen the film on DVD. He said hed never thought about it. He said me (that) hed seen .... He told (that) hed seen .... Say, like explain and complain, can be used with an indirect object. I said/explained/complained (to the receptionist) that the heating in my room wasnt working. 2 Verb patterns for other reporting verbs are:

for verbs in the past perfect.


Id never thought about it.

for the modal verbs might/could/would/should/ought to


You should buy a new computer, He said I should buy a new computer.

if the statement is still true.


I want to talk to Mia. Bill said he wants to talk to you, Mia.

if we are reporting a statement using a present reporting


verb. The answer is number 4. Paula says the answer is number 4. (teacher to class)

verb + infinitive with to


Offer, promise, refuse, threaten I wont take the test again. He refused to take the test again.

3 Other changes we may have to make are:

verb + object pronoun/noun + infinitive with to


Advise, beg, encourage, invite, order, persuade, recommend, remind, urge, warn You really should go to university. My parents encouraged me to go to university.

to pronouns and possessive adjectives.


Ive forgotten your phone number. If you havent got a dictionary you can borrow mine. He said he had forgotten my phone number. She said if I hadnt got a dictionary I could borrow hers.

verb + gerund
Recommend, suggest Lets go to the new Thai restaurant. He recommended going to the new Thai restaurant.

to this/that/these. We sometimes replace them with the.


This article is very interesting. He said that the article was very interesting.

to adverbs and adverbial phrases of place and time.


Direct speech Now today tomorrow yesterday the day after tomorrow three days ago next week/month/year last week/month/year this morning here Reported speech then that day the next/following day the previous day/day before in two days time three days before/earlier the following ... the previous .... the ... before that morning there

These verbs can also be followed by that + should + infinitive without to. The words that and should are optional. You ought to do more exercise. She suggested (that) I (should) do more exercise.

Suggest, unlike recommend, cannot be followed by an infinitive. She recommended me to do more exercise. She suggested me to do more exercise.

Reported questions
When we report questions we have to make the same changes as for reporting statements regarding tenses, pronouns and phrases indicating time and place. We also need to remember the following:

the word order in a reported question is the same as for

Reporting verbs
1 The most common verbs we use to report statements are say and tell. The verb tell must be followed by a direct object. Ive seen the film on DVD.

a statement. We do not use inversion as we would with a direct question and we do not use auxiliaries do/does/did. When we report a question we do not use a question mark. Where do you live? Who was your first teacher? He asked me where I lived. He asked me who my first teacher had been.

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Grammar reference when we are reporting a yes/no question we use if/


whether. Do you speak Spanish? Are you English? He asked me if/whether I spoke Spanish. He asked me if/whether I was English. news smoke travel pollution spaghetti water progress traffic weather research transport work

Languages (eg English, Polish, Swiss) are also uncountable.

when we are reporting a question beginning with a


Where have you been?

B
Nouns which can be used both countably and uncountably.

wh- question word, we use that question word in the reported question. She asked me where I had been.

Some words for food and drink change their meaning


slightly: Would you like a coffee? ([C] = a cup of coffee) No, thanks. I dont drink coffee. ([U] = coffee in general) Ive made a cake. ([C] = a whole cake) Can I have some cake? ([U] = a piece of cake)

when we report a request we use the pattern ask + object


pronoun/noun + infinitive with to Could you shut the window please? She asked me to shut the window.

Reported command
We use tell + object pronoun/noun + infinitive with to to report a command or imperative. Take the next turning on the right, Anna. said the driving instructor. The driving instructor told Anna to take the next turning on the right.

Other words, such as paper, room, time and work, change


their meaning completely: The storys in all the Sunday papers. ([C] = a newspaper) Can I have some paper, please? ([U] = paper to write/draw on) Three of Taylors works are on display. ([C] = a work of art) Jos having trouble finding work. ([U] = a job)

For a negative command we add not before the infinitive. Dont open your books, class. The teacher told the class not to open their books.

C
Making uncountable nouns countable.

Unit 7
Countable and uncountable nouns
A Countable nouns have a singular and a plural form. In the singular they are always preceded by a word such as an article, a number or a determiner. a garden four student each day some animals Uncountable nouns have no plural form. They can appear alone or be preceded by a word such as the or a determiner, but not a/an or a number. They are used with a singular verb form. Knowledge is strength. The news was good. Weve made little progress. These nouns are usually uncountable. Accommodation equipment health information advice food help knowledge behaviour furniture homework luggage damage graffiti housework money

Some uncountable nouns have countable equivalents


with a similar meaning. Uncountable accommodation advice luggage travel work piece(s) or item(s). Countable a room/hotel/guesthouse a tip/suggestion a bag/suitcase a trip/journey/holiday a job/an occupation/a profession

Some other nouns can be made countable by using


a piece of advice / chewing gum / equipment / food / furniture / homework / information / luggage / news / research an item of clothing / equipment / jewellery / luggage / news Passengers are limited to one piece of hand luggage. Two items of news caught my attention.

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Grammar reference
D Words and phrases used with countable and uncountable nouns. Before countable nouns (very) few a few quite a few many too many several a large/small number of each every (Very) little and (very) few mean not much/many or not as much/many as you would like or expect. Ive got very little money left. Can you lend me some? Few people attended the meeting. A little and a few mean some or a small number of. A little knowledge is a dangerous thing. Ive got a few sweets left. Would you like one? Quite a few and quite a lot of mean a fairly large number/ amount of. Quite a few people came to our concert we were very pleased. Plenty of means a lot of or more than enough. Pauls got plenty of toys dont buy him any more. Each is used to talk about two or more people or things; every is only used to talk about more than two. They both precede a singular countable noun and a singular verb. Each player starts with six cards. Before uncountable nouns (very) little a little much too much a great deal of a large/small amount of a couple of Before countable and uncountable nouns some any no (quite) a lot of plenty of most all enough more Notice on building site: Hard hats must be worn at all times.

to give strong advice.


You really must go to that new Indian restaurant.

to make polite invitations.


You must come and have dinner with us sometime.

to tell ourselves what we personally feel is necessary.


I must remember to buy some more bread. Have to can also be used to express obligation, particularly when this is imposed by someone else or by external circumstances. One student to another: The teacher says I have to finish my essay by tomorrow. My eyesights getting worse so I have to wear glasses for reading. Must only has a present form; have to is used for all other forms. Youll have to hurry if you want to get there on time. I had to buy some more bread. Mustnt + infinitive without to is used to express prohibition (see below). Dont have to expresses a lack of obligation. Compare: You mustnt eat those chips youre on a diet! You dont have to eat all those chips if you dont want to, but you must finish the fish. Make + infinitive without to is used to express obligation. I hate fish but my parents make me eat it.

Obligation, prohibition, advice and necessity


Obligation
Must + infinitive without to can be used:

to express strong obligation.


Teacher to student: You must finish your essay by tomorrow.

in signs and notices indicating rules and laws.


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Grammar reference
In the passive, make is followed by the infinitive with to. Liam was made to apologise to the teacher for his behaviour. Neednt have + past participle is used to indicate a past action that was completed but that was not necessary. We neednt have taken our coats; the weather was warm all week. Didnt need to + infinitive is used to indicate a past action that was not necessary. The context usually makes it clear whether the action was performed or not. We didnt need to wear a suit to the party, but I wanted to look smart so I did. There is/was no need (for someone) + infinitive with to can also be used to express a lack of necessity in the past or present. Theres no need (for you) to shout! I can hear perfectly well.

Prohibition

The modal verbs cannot/cant and must not/mustnt can be used to express prohibition. You cannot/must not talk during the exam. Negative forms of let + infinitive without to, and allow + infinitive with to can be used with a direct object. My parents wont let me have a tattoo. The hotel does not allow guests to have pets in their rooms. The passive am/are/is not allowed + infinitive with to can also be used. The dogs not allowed to come into the kitchen. To talk about past prohibition, use couldnt, didnt/ wouldnt let, didnt/wouldnt allow or was/were not allowed to. There is no past form of mustnt and no passive form of let. When I was your age, we couldnt wear trainers to school. Mark wasnt allowed to go fishing; his parents wouldnt let him stay out all night.

Unit 8
The passive
A Form
1 To form the passive we use the appropriate tense of the verb to be and the past participle. Present simple: Present perfect: Past simple: Past continuous: Past perfect: Future simple: Gerund: Infinitive with to: My salary is paid directly into my bank. Ive been asked to join the football team. Luke was given his results on Friday. I didnt know I was being tricked. The papers had been signed before we saw them. Well be transferred from the airport to the hotel. Do you like being photographed? Id like to be invited to the party.

Advice
Should/shouldnt and ought (not) to are used to give advice. You should see/ought to see a doctor about your headaches. They can also be used to say what we think is the right thing to do. Supermarkets ought not to give customers plastic bags; they should charge for them. In the negative, I dont think you should is more natural than I think you shouldnt. I dont think you should eat any more sweets. Had/d better (not) + infinitive without to is used to give advice and warnings. It suggests that the speaker thinks there will be negative consequences if the advice is not followed. Wed better get the tickets soon theyll sell out very quickly. Youd better not be late - Ill be furious if you are!

Present continuous: My car is being repaired at the moment.

Infinitive without to: Mobile phones must not be taken into the exam room.

B Use
We use the passive when an event or action is more important than who or what is doing the action (the agent). Our attention is directed to the person or thing that is affected by the action. It can be used in both spoken and formal written English: My husband was made redundant last month. Crime figures for the last year will be released tomorrow. If we want to indicate the agent in a passive construction, we use by. This book was written by P.J.Stone.

Necessity
Need to + infinitive is used to express necessity. Have you got a minute, Sven? I need to talk you. Neednt and dont need to both express a lack of necessity. The doors open at seven thirty but we neednt get/dont need to get there until eight.

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Grammar reference
If we want to indicate the instrument used by the agent to do the action, we use with. The graffiti was painted with a spray gun. The passive cannot be used with intransitive verbs. The glass was fallen off the shelf. When there are two objects in a sentence, the person usually becomes the subject of the passive sentence. The teacher gave Trudy a prize. Trudy was given a prize by the teacher. (This is more usual than: A prize was given to Trudy by the teacher.) Verbs that we often use with these constructions are say, believe, expect, know, think, feel, consider, hope. 2 We can use these constructions to introduce ideas about present time, past time and the future. Present It is felt that school class sizes are too large. The government is known to be thinking about the introduction of another tax soon. Future It is believed that astronauts will visit the moon again within twenty years. Brian is expected to pass all his exams next month. Past It is said that Einstein did not speak until he was four years old. The famous sailor, Lawrence Jarvis, is thought to have drowned off the coast of southern Australia last weekend.

C Non-use of agent
The agent is not usually included in passive constructions:

when we do not know the agent or the agent is


unimportant. Graffiti has been painted all over the front wall of the building. These houses were built fifty years ago.

Unit 9
Conditionals
Conditional sentences contain: a) a subordinate clause expressing a condition and introduced by words such as if, unless, as long as b) a main clause describing the likely result of the condition becoming reality. If I miss the last bus, Ill phone you. (condition) (result) When the result clause appears first in the sentence, there is usually no comma. Id learn to sail if I had more time. (result) (condition)

when the agent is obvious from the context.


The thief was sentenced to ten years in prison. Our rubbish is collected every Monday.

when the agent is people in general.


The killer is known as Jack the Ripper.

in official notices or advice to avoid using you.


Tablets should be taken after meals.

when we want to avoid mentioning the agent.


It has been decided not to increase salaries this year.

Passive of reporting verbs


1 Reporting verbs can be used with passive constructions when we want to introduce a widely held opinions or facts. There are two ways of doing this. It + passive + that clause It is said that fish is good for our brains. It is thought that global warming caused the floods last month. It is believed that economic conditions are getting worse. Subject + passive + infinitive/perfect infinitive/ continuous infinitive Fish is said to be good for our brains. Global warming is thought to have caused the floods last month. Economic conditions are believed to be getting worse.

Zero conditional
The zero conditional is used to talk about situations which are always or generally true. We use the present simple in both the conditional clause and the main clause. If has the same meaning as when, whenever or every time in these sentences. Everyday situations: I usually feel sick if I read in the car. Scientific facts: If you add salt to water, it dissolves.

First conditional
The first conditional is used to talk about possible future situations and their likely results. We use the present simple in the conditional clause and a future tense in the main clause. Well probably go swimming if the weathers fine tomorrow. If you dont let me play, Im going to tell my mum.

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Grammar reference
Modal verbs such as can, may, might and could can also be used in the main clause. If the pain gets worse, I might go to the doctors. Otherwise can be used to introduce the result clause. We use it to talk about the negative consequences of something not happening. I hope it stays sunny, otherwise we wont be able to have a barbecue. (= If it doesnt stay sunny, we wont be able to have a barbecue.) Its a good job we took our umbrellas, otherwise we would have got soaking wet. (= If we hadnt taken our umbrellas, we would have got soaking wet) Or can be used in a similar way, especially in warnings, threats and advice. Youd better go now, or youll be late for school. (= If you dont go now, youll be late for school.) Stop being silly, or Ill send you to bed early. (= If you dont stop being silly, Ill send you to bed early.)

Second conditional
The second conditional is used to talk about imaginary, impossible or unlikely situations in the present or future. We use the past simple or, less frequently, the past continuous in the conditional clause and would/ might/could + infinitive without to in the main clause. If I lived/was living in Spain, Id eat paella every Sunday. (imaginary) I could do this job a lot faster if I had six pairs of hands. (impossible) When the second conditional refers to the future, the implication is that the condition is less likely to become reality than if it were expressed with a first conditional. Compare: If Ian phones tonight (possible), what will you say to him? If Ian phoned tonight (unlikely), what would you say to him? Were instead of was is often used after if in second conditional sentences. If I were/was you, I wouldnt worry about it.

Relative clauses
Relative clauses give information about someone or something in the main clause. They usually begin with a relative pronoun (who, which, that, whose, what) or a relative adverb (where, when, why).

Defining relative clauses


Defining relative clauses identify, or define, who or what we are talking or writing about and are essential for our understanding of the whole sentence. Commas are not required at the beginning or end of the relative clause. The relative pronoun that can be used instead of who and which. Ive got a friend who/that can speak four languages. An widower is a man whose wife has died. There are not many places where you can experience complete silence.

Third conditional
The third conditional is used to talk about imaginary situations in the past and to speculate about how things might have been different. We use the past perfect simple or continuous in the conditional clause and would/could/might + perfect infinitive without to in the main clause. If Id lost my job, we would have had to sell the house. (I didnt lose my job so we didnt have to sell the house.) If my wife hadnt been working last night, we could have gone to the concert. (My wife was working last night so we couldnt go to the concert.)

The relative pronouns who, which and that can be

omitted, but only if they are the object of the verb in the defining relative clause. What was the name of that film (which/that) we saw on television last night? (The relative pronoun is the object of saw and can be omitted.) People who/that say they never cry are liars. (The relative pronoun is the subject of say and cannot be omitted.)

Mixed conditional
A mixed conditional is a combination of a second and a third conditional. The time reference in the conditional clause is different from that in the main clause. My parents would be happier if I hadnt bought a motorbike. If the car wasnt so unreliable, we would have driven down to London.

The relative adverbs when and why can also be omitted in


defining relative clauses. Ill never forget the time (when) you fell in that lake. The reason (why) he disappeared remains a mystery.

Alternatives to if clauses
As long as and provided/providing (that) can be used in place of if to emphasize the condition.
Ill let you borrow my bike as long as you promise to look after it.

The relative pronoun what can be used in defining


relative clauses and means the thing which. He showed me what hed bought.

You can watch the television provided you finish your homework first.

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Grammar reference
Non-defining relative clauses
Non-defining relative clauses contain information which is not essential to our understanding of who or what we are writing or talking about. The main clause would make sense, even without this additional information. Commas are used to separate the relative clause from the main clause. That cannot be used instead of who or which, and the relative pronoun cannot be omitted. JK Rowling, who is now a multi-millionaire, once taught English in Portugal. The Man of the Match was Ward, whose two goals ensured his teams victory. We went to Gouda, where the cheese comes from.

Unit 10
Wish, if only and hope
We use the verb wish when we would like things to be different. We can also use If only to express the same ideas as wish. We use If only when we want to make the wish stronger. It is often considered more dramatic. I wish I had enough money to buy that bicycle. If only I had enough money to buy that bicycle!

Wish/If only + past simple


1 We use wish + past simple when we are unhappy with a present situation and would like it to be different, even though this may not be possible. The verbs used with wish for present situations are normally stative verbs such as have, be, know, live etc. I wish I didnt live in the town centre. Maria wishes she had a car like ours. If only I were/was old enough to learn to drive. I wish I didnt speak English so badly. I wish we didnt have to do tests every day. If only I could speak another language. Verbs other than stative verbs can be used if we are referring to regular or habitual actions. I wish it didnt rain so much in this country. If only Paul didnt smoke. Hed be so much healthier.

The relative pronoun which can be used in non-defining


relative clauses to refer to the whole of the main clause. Alex arrived on time, which surprised everyone.

Whom
In both defining and non-defining relative clauses whom can be used instead of who when it is the object of the verb in the relative clause. Sarahs French teacher was Mr Jenkins, whom she had always disliked. There is someone here whom I would like you to meet. However, many speakers consider whom to be too formal and avoid using it. There is someone here (who) Id like you to meet.

Relative clauses and prepositions


Prepositions can be placed at the end of both defining and non-defining relative clauses. In defining relative clauses the relative pronoun can be omitted. The film was directed by Clint Eastwood, who I have a lot of respect for. This is not a subject (which/that) I want to comment on. In more formal English, the preposition often appears immediately before the relative pronoun; whom for people and which for things. That cannot be used and the relative pronoun cannot be omitted. The film was directed by Clint Eastwood, for whom I have a great deal of respect. The Finance Minister said it was not a subject on which he wished to comment.

Wish/If only + would/could


1 When we want someone to do something or something to happen now or in the future but it is very unlikely we can use wish + person + would I wish James would ask Greta out. They really like each other. 2 We often use this form when something irritates us and we want it to stop/change. I wish the neighbours would stop parking their car right outside our front gate. 3 We can never use I wish I would when talking about the future. We use I wish I could to talk about something that we would like to do in the future but cannot. I wish I could go on holiday with you this summer but Ive got to work. 4 We use hope + present when a future event is possible. I hope I win the swimming competition on Saturday.

Wish/If only + past perfect


1 When we regret something about the past we use wish + past perfect. Obviously changing the past is impossible

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Grammar reference
but using wish indicates that we would like things to have been different. I wish I had gone to Tonys party. Sue says it was really good. I wish we hadnt played that trick on Miss Barker. She was very upset. My dad wishes hed gone to university when he was my age.

Should have/ought to have done


We can also use should/shouldnt + have + past participle and ought/ought not + to have + past participle to express regret about the past. I shouldnt have stayed out so late last night. I feel terrible this morning. We ought to have told your mum where we were going. Shell be worried if were late for dinner. I should have revised more for the test. Its my own fault I got bad marks.

Causative passive with have


1 When we refer to things that we do not do ourselves but pay for or ask others to do we use subject + the correct form of have + object + past participle. Get can be used instead of have. I had my laptop repaired last week. Im going to get my car serviced tomorrow. Our friends are having their house extended at the moment. I must get my eyes checked soon. I think I need contact lenses. 2 We can also use the construction when we talk about unpleasant events that are not asked for. We had our house broken into three times last year. Daves going to have his driving licence taken away because of the crash. The shop had its windows smashed yesterday evening.

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