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.1102 .oga ,272-342 .p ,)24( 2 .n ,02 .

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.rb.psu@inaluap :liam-E .lisarB ,PS ,oluaP oS ,PSU/AEF od aimonocE me oaudarg-sp ed amargorp od e PSU-AEF ad aimonocE ed otnematrapeD od ralutiT arosseforP )3( .asiuqsep ad osulcnoc ed odacifitrec od onetbo soirssecen sotisiuqer so erpmuc ogitra etsE .inaluaP airaM adeL arosseforp ad osivrepus a bos 8002/7002 me )oluaP oS ed edadisrevinU ad edadilibatnoC e oartsinimdA ,aimonocE ed edadlucaF( PSU-AEF ad aimonocE ed otnematrapeD on otnemarotuod-sp ed oigtse mu ed oazilaer a uitimrep euq ,sepaC-dacorP od oiopa o ecedarga rotua O .rb.ufu@ohlifan :liam-E .lisarB ,GM ,aidnlrebU ,)UFU( aidnlrebU ed laredeF edadisrevinU ad aimonocE ed otutitsnI od odaicossA rosseforP )2( .9002 ed orbmevon ed 81 me odavorpa e 8002 ed oram ed 82 me odibecer ohlabarT )1(

dna noitaluger laicos fo seiroeht eht neewteb noitaicossa eht taht wohs ot skees suht elcitra ehT .dezingocer yllausu naht xelpmoc erom noitaluger fo eussi eht sekam hcihw ,deifisrevid noitaluger laicos fo metsys a si ereht mih rof taht gniwohs ,noitaluger laicos fo ssecorp eht gninrecnoc ,hcsriH mihcaoJ fo stnemele laciteroeht fo noitaroprocni na si ereht ,os gniod nI .msilatipac yraropmetnoc fo noitaziretcarahc eht ni sdleif scitilop fo stnemele yek secudortni ,noitaluger laicos fo snoitcnuf sti yllaicepse ,noitarepo fo edom sti ,etatS eht fo noissucsid eht woh nwohs si ti retfaerehT .siansehC sionarF yb noitubirtnoc eht ni desserpxe noitazilaicnanif fo seseht eht yb deifilauq dna detnorfnoc si noitisoporp sihT .yrotaderp yllaitnesse si erutan siht taht lasoporp sih ylralucitrap ,msilatipac yraropmetnoc fo erutan eht fo noitaterpretni s`yevraH divaD morf derutcurts si elcitra ehT
msilatipac yraropmetnoc fo noitaziretcarahc eht ni etats eht fo erutan eht dna noitazilaicnanif fo seseht eht fo ecnesse eht no noitcelfer - noitailops yb noitalumucca dna noitaluger laicoS

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.oenropmetnoc omsilatipaC ;laicos oalugeR ;oailopse rop oalumucA :evahc-sarvalaP .sesirc sa rarepus ed seidnoc saus ed esilna a omoc meb ,ejoh ed omsilatipac on oudorper ed laicos ossecorp od oaziretcarac ed opocse o railpma edop oailopse rop oalumuca ad e laicos oaluger ad seset sa ertne oaicossa a euq rartsom ,missa ,acsub ogitra O .ecehnocer es etnemlausu euq od oxelpmoc siam meb oaluger ad amet o anrot euq ,odacifisrevid laicos oaluger ed ametsis mu h ,ele arap ,euq odnartsom ,laicos oaluger ed ossecorp oa sovitaler ,hcsriH mihcaoJ ed sociret sotnemele es-maroprocni ,ralucitrap etseN .oenropmetnoc omsilatipac od oaziretcarac an ocitlop opmac od siaicnesse sotnemele zudortni ,laicos oaluger ed senuf saus ed oduterbos ,oarepo ed amrof aus ed ,odatsE od ossucsid a omoc es-artsom ,etnaid me aD .siansehC sionarF ed oiubirtnoc an sasserpxe oaziriecnanif ad seset salep adacifilauq e adatnorfnoc oisoporp atsE .arodailopse etnemlaicnesse azerutan atse euq ed oisoporp aus ed etnemralucitrap ,yevraH divaD ed oenropmetnoc omsilatipac od azerutan ad oaterpretni ad ritrap a es-aruturtse ogitra O omuseR

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oailopse rop oalumuca e laicos oalugeR

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omsixram od setnetrev sartuo euq od odnatart ,etnemetnerapa ,tse yevraH ,amrof assed atsilatipac edadeicos ad oudorper ed ossecorp o ralumrof oA .odatsE od redop od setnednepedni sedadivita ed seder saxelpmoc odnizudorp ,sedadilanoiger sairprp saus ,oapse on oarepo ed saruturtse sairprp saus sarienam saremni ed rairc medop latipac ed oalumuca ed seralucelom sossecorp so euq ed acitsretcarac a moc rev euq met levsnepsidni etnemlautriv O .oalumuca ed ossecorp on atsilatipac odatsE oa levsnepsidni etnemlautriv oiubirta amu h euq ed oisoporp a eregus yevraH ,oalumrof atsen esab moC .)63 .p ,4002 ,yevraH( ragul oriemirp me ahnev lairotirret acigl a euq me sotnemom ajah arobme ,atsilatipac acigl a etnemacipit animoderp elen euq oirpmi ed sepecnoc sartuo ed atsilatipac omsilairepmi o eugnitsid euq O .latipac ed oalumuca ad oirssecen oiem mu odaredisnoc )soirtirret ed satercnoc oartsinimda a e oairporpa a revlovne on uo edop euq( lairotirret elortnoc o euq me oautis amun etnemlaicnatsbus aretla es ordauq o ,rotua o odnuges ,saM .).cte ohlabart e latipac ed soxulf sod ,sotubirt ed oartxe ad onalp on( sacimnoce etnemacoviuqeni saicnuqesnoc meret ed rasepa ,is me mif mu omoc mauta sele erbos selortnoc ed oisopmi a e soirtirret ed acsub a ,usnes otcirts omsilairepmi od otibm oN .)aicnrrocnoc ad onalp on latipac ed sedadinu sad( latipac od seralucelom soterid sesseretni so moc oaler etrof amu mahnet arobme ,sodatsE ed sotnujnoc uo odatsE ed sea omoc sadacifitnedi os satsilairepmi sea sa ,sianoican sodatsE sod oiutitsnoc a moc aicini es euq ocirtsih odorep on oduterbos ,omsilatipac oN .omsilairepmi o etnemaralc siam atneserpa es euq oirtirret od acigl an .ranimoderp edop sacigl sassed artuo uo amu ,odad ocifrgoeg-ocirtsih otnemom odot me ,euq odnaredisnoc ,latipac od e oirtirret od sacigl sad airtidartnoc oaler alep sodidneerpa os ,laicos medro ad oudorper a ,missa ,e atsilatipac otnemivlovnesed ed ossecorp o ,eleN .)2891( latipac ot stimil ehT :ogelf roiam ed ociret orvil ues me zaf yevraH euq omsilatipac od azerutan ad oisopxe ad ritrap a odalumrof oailopse rop oalumuca ed otiecnoc O .etnenamrep retrac odnet omoc ,ogrubmexuL asoR ed ahlirt an ,aredisnoc yevraH euq ,avitimirp oalumuca ed airtaderp acitrp etnerrocer e etnetsisrep amun etsisnoc oailopse rop oalumuca A .oenropmetnoc omsilatipac od oaziretcarac an ,ocitrc opmac on ,odnidnufid es mev euq otiecnoc mu ahnuc yevraH divaD ,)4002 me arielisarb oudart( 3002 me odacilbup ,omsilairepmi ovon O orvil ues mE
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.1P ,1O ,5B LEJ msilatipac yraropmetnoc ;noitaluger laicos ;noitailops yb noitalumuccA :sdrowyeK .sisirc eht emocrevo ot snoitidnoc rieht fo sisylana eht sa llew sa ,yadot msilatipac ni noitcudorper laicos fo ssecorp eht gniziretcarahc fo epocs eht nedaorb nac noissessopsid yb noitalumucca
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.odatsE on sadartnec otse e acimnoce acitlop ed os airoet ad merroced euq sea sa euq ratatsnoc atsab ,sn araP .)3891 ,9791( zteipiL ;)0891( reyoB ;)0891( ziduO e nalrO ,atteilgA ;)6891( atteilgA me sodartnocne res medop ,acop assed sodot ,sorofse sessed solpmexE .sianoican seautis sad onrot me sexelfer san etnemralucitrap ,avisiced aicntropmi amu ed ,acimnoce acitlop ad svarta ,odicenraug odnes rabaca odatsE o ,sesilna sassen ,ed otaf o oivsed essed mvda euq somireguS .aziduga es 0791 sona sod esirc a odnauq 0891 sona sod oemoc on oduterbos ,acimnoce acitlop sadanoicaler etnematerid seisoporp sad onrot me atupsid amu arap airoet a ranava ed orofse od otnemacolsed mu evuoh etnemadipar euq oralc acif ,oalugeR ad alocsE saciret seiubirtnoc ed seatic ed svarta e orvil od ognol oa ,odutnoC .adivlovnesed sonem ajes arobme ,hcsriH ed ahlemessa es euq opecnoc amu atsE .)64 .p ,0991 ,reyoB( .setnegiv siaicos samrof sa e sacimnoce saruturtse sa atsiv me odnet ,lareg oudorper a mevomorp euq somsinacem sod onujnoc omoc oaluger ]ed[ opecnoc amu satsinoicaluger sod seisop sasrevid sa acifinu euq o ele odnuges ,oirrtnoc oA .aicnlecxe rop rodaluger lepap mu ed odatsE oa oiubirta amu etnemaciroet h on ,osiv assen ,euq oralc acif ,oacilbup assed odnauq otnemivlovnesed me adnia sociret sotcepsa sod otnauq siaicini saiedi sad otnat esetns amu h edno ,olpmexe rop ,)0991]6891[( reyoB mE .adacifilauq res ecerem euq oamrifa amu atsE )5( .oazilaicos an ocof o e ocimnoce ocof o ,lanoicanretni a ,lanoican a :sesnemid ortauq ed atnujnoc osneerpa ad ,alocse adac arap ,mvda savitcepsrep ed sopit ortauq sO .acidrn alocse a e dretsmA ed alocse a ,latnedico-mela alocse a ,anacirema-etron alocse a ,)FCP od satsinoicalugeR so e ;sesneisiraP satsinoicalugeR so ;CERRG setsilatipaC seimonocEd noicalugR al rus ehcrehceR ed epuorG( sasecnarf srt sa os salocse sA .savitcepsrep ed sopit ortauq e salocse etes ed oacifitnedi a h ,oaluger ad amet o erbos aicnrefer ed otxet ,)0991( posseJ mE .ogitra etsen sotisporp sosson sod ortned tse on satsinoicaluger snegadroba sasrevid sad oaicnerefid A )4(

ad alocsE ad acitrc oailava amu rezaf oa ,)7002 ]4991[( hcsriH mihcaoJ .5esirc ed sodorep me oduterbos ,aimonoce ad oaluger an avitnatsbus edadilibasnopser amu odatsE oa maubirta satsinoicaluger sesiv sa ,ossi rop zevlaT .acimnoceorcam acitlop animoned es ejoh euq oliuqad avisserpxe siam etrap a searepo siat odniutitsnoc ,sonretxe soirtenom soxulf sod e oibmc ed saxat sad otnemarotinom o moc etnemlaidromirp es-anoicaler odatsE od lepap o ,ossi moC .oalucric me sianoican soriehnid ed edadicilpitlum amu h lauq on e ,ohlabart olep adizudorp airodacrem amu a etsed aicnrefer a aicngiv me siam tse on euq me ocirtsih odorep mun etnemlaicepse ,oriehnid od aitnarag a moc adanoicaler tse saled lapicnirp a euq odnes ,oaluger ed ossecorp on sadinifed meb senuf met euq oiutitsni amu omoc odatsE o etnemaciroet atart avitcepsrep assE .4setnetrev sasrevid saus me ,satsinoicaluger snegadroba san otse osiv ed opit etse erbos siapicnirp saicnrefer sA .sesirc saus etnemairaropmet marepus oalumuca ed ossecorp od esaf avon adac matnetsus euq siaruturtse seamrofsnart sa lauq on ossecorp mu omoc ,etnemlapicnirp zevlat e ,mbmat sam ,sacisb saruturtse e sealer ed oudorper omoc sanepa on satsilatipac saimonoce sad acimnid a racilpxe me orofse mu ,missa ,H .omsilatipac oa setnereni os euq sesirc sa moc madil e latipac ed oalumuca a mtnam satsilatipac saimonoce sa omoc rasilana ed oapucoerp a moc ,etnematnujnoc sadadutse res a massap esirc e oalumucA .satsilatipac saimonoce sad airtejart ad oagitsevni ed ohnimac ovon mu maruguani )9791( atteilgA ed seisoporp sa omoc artsom )6002( itnerA .laicos oaluger ed mamahc
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.)4002 me asecnarf oide( 5002 ,adazilaidnum ananiF e )6991 me asecnarf oide( 8991 ,ariecnanif oazilaidnum A :sale oS .lisarB on seide marahnag sadirefer saenteloc saud sA )7( .oenropmetnoc omsilatipac od savitcepsrep sad e azerutan ad otiepser a yevraH divaD oirprp od e ihgirrA innavoiG ed ,rennerB treboR ed sesiv sad acitrc osiver amu edneerpme ,)8002 ]7002[( etnecer ohlabart me ,euq ,enotsoP ehsioM ed eleuqa moc ahnila es odivlovnesed iuqa orofse O )6(

.7serodasiuqsep sortuo ed seiubirtnoc rop sadicserca e sadahlated ,sadivlovnesed os saiedi saus euq me sogitra ed saenteloc saud ,sohlabart sortuo sosrevid ertned ,uozinagro ele ,arbo atsed aicnuqes aN .)6991 me arielisarb oudart( 4991 me latipaC od oazilaidnuM A orvil ues ed otnemanal o edsed omsixram od opmac on lautceletni anaredil amu me odniutitsnoc es mev siansehC sionarF
oailopse rop oalumuca e ananiF 1

.odacidni oditnes on esetns ed orofse mu somezaf ,oes ariecret aN .aditrap ed otnop omoc anaixram osiv a odnet ,odatsE od matart euq serotua siod sortuo ,effO sualC e icsmarG oinotnA ed sa moc a-odnatnorfnoc ,oenropmetnoc omsilatipac od ohnesed o arap seacilpmi saus ed e hcsriH mihcaoJ ed odatsE ed opecnoc ad somatart ,oes adnuges aN .yevraH divaD ed oalumrof an adimusbus res edop ,rev osson a ,ale omoc e oalugeR ad asecnarF alocsE alep sodahnuc sotiecnoc son es-atnessa opecnoc aus atse euq me adidem an siansehC sionarF rop atsoporp oaziriecnanif ad oalumrof a somitucsid oes ariemirp aN .sees srt rop otsopmoc tse ogitra o ,oudortni atsed mlA .6evahc-sotnemele sues ed snugla ed ,sonem olep ,uo ,omsilatipac od aenropmetnoc azerutan ad oaziretcarac amu riregus a odom ed ,sale ertne edadiratnemelpmoc uo/e edadilibitapmoc h euq me sotnop so ,sodahnilbus iuqa ta sotcepsa sosrevid sod esilna amu ed ritrap a ,racidni edneterp ogitra etse ,satnitsid seapucoerp e sesafn moc euq adnia ,anaixram esab etrof amu mumoc me meussop sesiv setnerefid sasse euq ed otsopus od odnitraP .yevraH ed oalumrof a macifilauq ,hcsriH ed seavresbo sa moc otnujnoc me ,amica sodazitetnis somret son ,oaluger ad amet o euq son-eceraP .)35 .p ,7002( odatsE o euq olpma siam oaluger ed ametsis mu h ,hcsriH arap ,euq odnes ,odatsE ed aenropmetnoc opecnoc a res airedop euq od esetns amu atluser aD .odatsE ed sepecnoc sa erbos e acitlop aicntsni ad lepap o erbos ,omsixram od otibm on ,ocirtsih etabed od oailava amu a ojesne d acitrc A .acilpmi rolav amrof a euq socimnoce sossecorp sod oazimonotua a ajes lauq ,ametsis od evahc acitsretcarac amu etnerf ed raracne me alocse assed asucer amu ,rednetne ues me ,h ,socimnoce sossecorp sod laicos oresni a ocitmetsis odom ed atnoc me avel euq ,aimonoce ed odailpma otiecnoc mu moc rahlabart me otirm ues ed rasepa ,missA .redop ues ed avissecxe oazirolav amu mbmat h ,)alocse assed sanairessuhtla sezar s atiderc ele euq( odatsE o erbos airoet ed ticifd mu a h euq me opmet omsem oa ,euq raredisnoc iav ,asecnarF oalugeR
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.0791-sp omsilatipac on ariecnanif oazirolav ad aicnnimeorp asse aratnopa mbmat ,ociret laicnerefer omsem o moc on euq adnia ,)5891( agarB 6991 ed oaziriecnanif a erbos siansehC ed ohlabart oriemirp o ,somiv omoc ossid setna meb ,lisarB on ,euq rarbmel elaV )01( .)0991 ,reyoB( socimnoce serota sod etrap rop ametsis od otnematsuja ed soipcnirp sod oaziroiretni a airssecen ajes euq mes ,sadazilartnecsed sesiced ed edadilibitapmoc a ritnarag e sadanimreted etnemacirotsih sianoicutitsni samrof ed svarta siatnemadnuf sealer sa rizudorper ,rogiv me AR o ratolip e ratnetsus ed zapac sotnemidecorp ed otnujnoc o omoc odinifed RM euq otnauqne ,oalumuca a ,ozarp ognol on ,metnarag ,ocirtsih otnemom odad mun ,euq siaicos e sacimnoce sedadiraluger sad otnujnoc o omoc odinifed AR euq aD .otnemivom ues me latipac olep sadimussa sarugif e samrof setnerefid sa sadad ,ocirtsih otnemom adac me etnerefid res edop avitefe es ale omoc amrof a ,etneserp erpmes ratse )rolav od oazirolav ad acsub a( atsilatipac acigl a ed rasepa ,euq acisb aiedi A .oudorp ed odom ed onaixram otiecnoc od ritrap a sodibecnoc sotiecnoc os )RM( oalugeR ed odoM e )AR( oalumucA ed emigeR )9( .)5002( odarP es-ajev ,siansehC ed seisop s etnemralucitrap ,oaziriecnanif ad seset s airrtnoc oisop amu araP )8(

,es-maranrot ananif ad aiv alep oalumuca an marazilaicepse es euq latipac ed sedadinu sa ,maravitefe es sanadum siat euq me sacirtsih seidnoc saN .essecelebatse es ainomegeh asse euq arap sailmaf sad sanapuop sad e saserpme sad soditsevnier on sodiuql sodnuf sod oazilartnec ad otnemicerovaf ed sacitlop ratoda ed mla ,sianoican soriecnanif sametsis sues raeuqolbsed e ratnemalugersed ,siatipac sod otnemivom o rarebil messidiced sodivlovnesed sodatsE so euq oirssecen iof ,siansehC araP .odatsE olep atief oaluger ad ecnacla on sanadum sad etnemralucitrap ,sacirtsih seidnoc ed otudorp latipac ed amrof atsed ainomegeh A .)ananif a etnemselpmis uo ,oriecnanif latipac o uo( soruj ed rodatrop latipac o ,latipac ed ocifcepse opit essed osneerpmoc an tse evahc otcepsa O .otnemivlovnesed odnigixe ,aciret edadisned met oisoporp A .omsilatipac ovon mu )odnarugifnoc uo( odnanimreted ,ocinmegeh latipac ed opit etse euq ele atnetsuS .01seralucitrap soart moc latipac mu ed savitutitsnoc maires euq ,saircnab on sa etnemlaicepse ,sasse ertne ,e sariecnanif seiutitsni sa arap etnatropmi siam aicnrefer a ,odutnoC .sovitudorp soivres e sotudorp ed sianoicanretni soxulf so erbos e ,etnemacigoloncet adacitsifos siam ,lairtsudni a oduterbos ,labolg oudorp a erbos elortnoc o )mailpma uo( mtnam sopurg sessE .sievsiv latipac ed sedadinu omoc odnauta maunitnoc euq ,sianoicansnart sopurg soa )6991]4991[( ele rop adirefnoc etnemroiretna aicntropmi a aretla on oamrifa A .siaicos e sacimnoce sealer sad ortnec on odautis tse soruj ed rodatrop latipac o lauq an ,omsilatipac od acifcepse oarugifnoc amu atneserpa oenropmetnoc odnum o euq ednetne siansehC ,9oaluger ed odom e oalumuca ed emiger oaluger ad airoet ad socisb sotiecnoc sod odnitraP .8atsilainomirtap omsilatipac e oaziriecnanif :sevahc sotiecnoc siod me adazitetnis res edop euq ,oenropmetnoc omsilatipac od azerutan a erbos oalumrof amu es-edneerpa sacifrgoilbib saicnrefer sasseD
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.)4002( ihcurziM es-ajev airnigiro acitmet ad etnecer otnematart mu araP )11(

sehl on ,serodeved sues os meuq maehnoc siamaj sosrucer ed serodacilpa so euq moc zaf odacrem ed opit essed osufid A .etnetsixe j edadeirporp ad aictcif oazirolav a atilibissop e soditime j sovita aicogen s euq ,solutt ed oirdnuces odacrem o lartnec oiutitsni auS .avon azeuqir ed oairc ad e oudorp ad sedadissecen salep adivom ,asse omoc , on lauta ananif a saM .ritsevni ajesed meuq arap sanapuop sa ranoicerid ed o ,aicntsni amitl me , euq sananif sad lepap mu a e omitsrpme a etemer roderc omret o ,ele araP .lauta emiger o maziretcarac ,siansehC arap ,euq ,saterid sananif e ,)0791 sona sod sodaem a 5491 ed( roiretna oalumuca ed emiger o mairaziretcarac euq ,sadaidemretni sananif ertne onitsid etemer edadeirporp ad aicnnimeorp assE .11elortnoc e edadeirporp ertne oarapes omoc odatart etnemacirotsih iof euq od osrevni amun ,oirteirporp od aicnnimeorp ed oisop amu acifingis ,sarvalap sartuo mE .lainomirtap etnemlaicnesse ,AUE son etsixe ele omoc sonem oa ,oenropmetnoc oalumuca ed emiger o euq atnetsus euq ,)8991( atteilgA a aditemer eset A .ozarp ognol ed oazimixam a aigelivirp euq ,soicgen sod acigtartse osiv a onalp odnuges a odnageler ,ozarp otruc on sotla siam so majes sorcul so euq arap e levssop roiam a ajes sovita sues ed oazirolav a euq arap manoisserp soirteirporp sesse euq rezid reuq otsI .aziretcarac es etnemlamron omoc ,seroderc on e ,oudorp edadiroiretxe ed oisop amun sodautis soirteirporp etnemavitefe os socilbp solutt ed setnatropmi semulov ed e otibd ed sodavirp solutt e sea sad serotneted so euq eset A .acilbp adivd ad solutt ed soirteirporp solep e saserpme ed solutt ed rodiussop olep ,atsinoica oirteirporp od arugif alep adanimod aires atsE .atsilatipac lainomirtap edadeirporp ad aenropmetnoc azerutan a menifed e ananif ad opmac o marugifnoc euq otnemaicnanif ed samrof setnerefid acifitnedi ele euq osneerpa atsed ritrap a .esilna asse atnetsus euq lautcaf osneerpa amu omoc missa amica odatneserpa etnemacitetnis iof euq od olpma otnemivlovnesed h )5002( siansehC mE .ananif ad oazilartnec a razilaer marargol euq ,)egdeh ed sodnuf ,sotnemitsevni ed sedadeicos martsinimda euq socnab ,soruges ed sedadeicos ,oacilpa ed soviteloc sodnuf ,osnep ed sodnuf( sianoicutitsni seroditsevni so os siansehC erefer es euq a sadazilaicepse seiutitsni sA .sananif sad etnecserc e roiam otium etnemavitaler osnemid alep odatneiro ,etnanimod ,odnuges o e ;avitudorp oalumuca ad elortnoc olep odatneiro lanoicidart siam e oriemirp o odnes ,oalumuca ed sotnemivom ed oisoprepus amu h ,oditnes etseN .oirnoica rolav od oazimixam alep adatneiro acimnid amu ovitudorp latipac ed oalumuca airprp maresupmi ,arienam atseD .labolg levn me setnatropmi siam siairaserpme sopurg sod sairteirporp ,sietsrub sodacrem sod svarta
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942

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.)45 .p ,5002( asioc artuo reuqlauq rop euq od siam ,asloB ad aicndnet alep odatuap otnematropmoc ojuc ,oriecnanif rodartsinimda olep lairtsudni rodartsinimda o odniutitsbus ossi zef ale e siairtsudni sopurg sod enrec oirprp on oudorp ad edadiroiretxe a rajola uiugesnoc ananif a ... euq ed otaf o e etnemlanoicanretni otnauq lanoican otnat siatipac ed oazilartnec ed ossecorp od arof emrone a :setnatropmi sodatluser siod evet sananif sad otnemicelatrof o siansehC araP )21(

socingatna sossecorp so e seidartnoc sa moc aroga es-anibmoc atingnoc aigolotap asse saM .ohlabart ed arof aus rednev ed edadissecen ad oalupop ad airoiam oisopmi an e oudorp ed soiem sod adavirp edadeirporp an sadadnuf ,ametsis od seralisab seidartnoc sa aicntropmi ronem mahnet uo sadarepus majetse euq ramrifa ,siansehC arbmel ,acifingis on otsI .socipt sessapmi e seidartnoc saus moc ,soruj ed rodatrop latipac od laicos e acimnoce oanimod alep adacram labolg omsilatipac od oarugifnoc amu ed ohnesed o airacilpmi otsi , laidnum aimonoceorcam a aruturtseorcam ad levn oN .21oudorp airprp ad oies on oudorp edadiroiretxe ed oisop assed otnemajola o omoc meb marimussa omsitner o e edadeirporp a euq omsinogatorp o ovon odnes omoc acatsed siansehC euq O .ocirtsih otnemivlovnesed ues ed sesaf sad amu adac me ,adidem ronem uo roiam me ,erpmes uitsixe e omsilatipac on ovon ossid adan etnemetnedivE .)05 .p ,5002 ,siansehC( sarep d arierep a omoc etnemlarutan ot sotnemidner ranoicroporp ed edadeirporp a meriuqda saimonoce saus siop ,soruj ed rodatrop latipac on odazilaer artnocne es rodaruosetne od osodeip otov o lauq a odnuges xraM ed oamrifa ad zaf ele euq oarepucer a ednod ,zudorp euq rolav mu me ,odiuql ovita ed ,oriehnid o ramrofsnart arap odanoicerid etnemarietni odnes omoc lainomirtap omsilatipac o ramot me tse siansehC ed oalumrof ad odnuforp siam oditnes o ,missA .)soerp ed oairav ad mecsan euq sohnag ed oapicetna( oalucepse ad uo sietsrub sailav-siam ed ,sodnedivid ed sele mahnevorp ,asloB me seacilpa s sodanoicaler soxulf ed e soruj ed ,olos od sadner ed ,siugula ed amrof a bos sotnemidner a sotierid airc lainomirtap edadeirporp A .)adner ed soxulf soa ,otnatrop ,sodanoicaler odnatse ,sodnedivid ed ,olpmexe rop ,setneinevorp majes sele euq omsem( sananif salep sodanoicroporp sohnag sod oudorp oaler me oaziroiretxe ed retrac o otnemugra od esab an acoloc sam ,)azeuqir ed seuqotse x adner ed soxulf( onitsid asse a ednerp es on ejoh ed omsilatipac od adaziriecnanif azerutan otnauq siansehC rop adamrifa eset ad etnatropmi siam otnemele o ,odutnoC .azeuqir ed seuqotse soa etnemetnanimoderp es-anoicaler ,soirdnuces sodacrem solep adadnamoc ,ariecnanif oalumuca a euq otnauqne ,aimonoce ad )rolav ed e( adner ed soxulf so evlovne oalumuca ed odnes omoc odicehnocer etnemlanoicidart siam otnemivom o euq ratnecserca ai-es-redop ,oditnes esseN .)94 .p ,5002 ,siansehC( sodiuql orecenamrep sodacrem so es rebas sam ,ocim o ragap meuq ]rebas[ odnatropmi
o ail o p s e r o p o a l u m u c a e l ai c o s o al u g e R

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.)49-39 .p ,4002 ,yevraH( sodizuder siam soerp a arbo ed om ,olpmexe rop ,omoc ,sosrucer sovon ed uo/e sodacrem sovon ed arutreba a metimrep euq ,siaicapse sotnemacolsed ed uo/e ,)olpmexe rop ,asiuqsep a omoc( siaicos sotsag uo )aruturtsearfni me lareg me( ozarp ognol ed sotejorp me sotnemitsevni ed svarta ,laropmet otnemacolsed ed res medop sotnemivom sessE .oalumucaerbos ed sesirc setnerrocer sa ratnerfne arap latipac olep sodazilitu setneidepxe so os siaropmet-oapse seanedro sa ,ele arap ,euq rarbmel anep a elav ,yevraH ed searedisnoc sad someraf euq seroiretsop sotnemivlovnesed sod onuf mE )41( .)0991( reyoB otiepser esse a es -ajeV .)sianoican saimonoce sasrevid sa ertne sealer sa( lanoicanretni emiger o e atsilatipacretni laicnerrocnoc oaler a ,oriecnanif e oirtenom emiger o ,ohlabart ed oaler a :os samrof ortauq sartuo sA )31(

sodom ed aicngreme a e sanredom-sp siarutluc samrof ed osnecsa a ,sarvalap sartuo mE .41siaropmet-oapse oanedro ed samrof san saterid seacilpmi odnet airatse euq o ,latipac ed sietlov e sadiulf siam samrof sad redop ed otnemua o e etnecserc oazilitu a moc ,oalumuca ed avon amrof amu odardnegne airet atsilatipac otnemivlovnesed O .oapse od e opmet od oatnemirepxe ed setnanimod sarienam savon ed aicngreme sadalucniv mairatse euq sacimnoce -ocitlop omoc meb siarutluc sacitrp san savisserpxe sanadum odnerroco mairatse ,0791 sona so edsed ,euq ed eset a ,9891 ed ohlabart on ,rednefed iav ele ,latipac ot stimiL me setna sona snugla adivlovnesed aciret esilna a oiopa rop odneT .ocimnoce etnematirtse o euq od olpma siam laicnerefer mu aditrap ed otnop omoc amot ,)2991 me arielisarb oudart ,9891 me odacilbup( anredom -sp oidnoc A me ,yevraH ,oenropmetnoc omsilatipac olep sadatnemirepxe seamrofsnart sa rasilana arap ,siansehC ed etnemetnerefiD .atsilatipac airtsih ad apate avon assen odatsE od lepap o etnematerid ritucsid ed megatnav a moc ,ralimis evahc me ahlabart ,oaluger omret o rasu on ed rasepa ,euq ,yevraH divaD ed oalumrof alep )adimusbus uo( adiler res edop lautcaf esab atse euq ,ossi rop ,son-eceraP .ananif alep odadnamoc oalumuca ed emiger etsen acitlop aicntsni ad lepap o e odatsE od lepap o erbos adacof siam esilna amu ,saenteloc ed soriehnapmoc sues ed son men ,ohlabart ues me artnocne es on ,31laicos oaluger ed odom od sarodiutitsnoc sianoicutitsni samrof ocnic sad amu res odatsE od oazinagro ed amrof a ,oaluger ad asecnarf alocse a odnuges ,ed rasepa ,odutnoC .serodasiuqsep sodicehnocer ed ovitacifingis otnujnoc mu rop adazilaer lautcaf esilna ed adahnapmoca mev ale euqrop oduterbos ,siansehC ed aciret esilna ad arof a recehnocer ed raxied edop es on ,etnemetnedivE .)16 .p ,5002 ,siansehC( seanimreted s a u s e d ot n uj n o c o n a e n r o p m et n o c e d a d ei c o s a r al e d o m a , m b m at , e d n et al e s a M . s e a zi t a vir p s a d o m o c m i s s a , o hl a b art o d o at n e m al u g er s e d a d s e zirt o m s a r of s a d a m u . o u d or p e d a dir oir et x e a u s e d ai c n u q e s n o c a m u r a d e d o p al e euq od siam aimonoce ad radnamed arap soruj ed rodatrop latipac od osneporp A .senup saus ed levn oa otnauq ananif ad edadilibaicasni ed odamahc ,esetpih rop ,euq o ,ortuo ed ,e adnarb oalumuca amu ,odal mu ed , megiro ajuc seratnemelpus
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.sodacatsed siam sorbmem sues ed mu leduarB dnanreF me evet alocse asse ,0291 sona sod lanif on adaicinI .airtsih aus riutitsnoc rop mabaca euq siautnop sotneve son euq od siam ,edadeicos ad oudorper a e saruturtse sad onetunam a metimrep euq sotnemele son esilna ad otneca o ep euq ,aifargoirotsih ad asecnarf megadroba etneulfni ,sianA sod alocsE adamahc ecnetrep ,ebas es omoc ,omret O )61( .)39 .p ,medi( adnuges a moc arap sariemirp sad atsilanoicnuf esilna amu a airatimil es euq ,oalugeR ad airoeT ad mla iav ,omsilatipac od alacse agral ed oarugifnoc amu moc siarutluc samrof sa etnemacesnirtni ralucniv rop ,omsilatipac e arutluc ertne oaler ad megadroba aus euq ,otnatne on ,avresbo enotsoP .anucal asse etnematsuj rirboc iav ,oailopse rop oalumuca ed otiecnoc od oatneserpa aus ed atnoc rop edadiroirp iuqa somerad esilna ajuc a ,omsilairepmi ovon O ed avitcepsrep A .)29 .p ,8002 ]7002[( setnanilced e setnednecsa snomegeh sod otseuq odagil lauq o ,)XX olucs ognol O( ihgirrA ed o euq od odatsE on odartnec sonem ele ,oaziriecnanif ad otseuq an odacof ed rasepa ,euq avresbo ,9891 ed yevraH ed ohlabart o odnasilana ,enotsoP mbmaT )51(

.)medibi ,medi( sievtsni e sievtum searugifnoc ed etnaid somatse iuqa mbmat saM .omsilatipac od otibm on ainomegeh a aiopa es euq me seralip srt so ,ele arap ,sesse oS .ratilim arof an e avitudorp edadicapac an ,oriehnid on lairetam esab asse racifitnedi iav yevraH e lairetam esab amuglan meradnuf es es sovitefe os s soiem sesse ,ele arap ,sam ,)34 .p ,4002 ,yevraH( otnemitnesnoc od otnemivlovnesed o etnaidem anaredil ad oiccrexe e sealume ,sereoc ed levtsni oanibmoc amugla rop odutitsnoc erpmes ocitlop redop o ,rotua osson araP .)ii v x . p( s er e d o p s u e s e o e n r o p m et n o c o d at s E o r e d n et n e o m o c e r b o s )... ( o g r al si a m a d ni a o p o c s e e d et a b e d m u a o d u tit s e r o d n e s i e b a c a u e s a M )... ( o d a b a c a n i o g l a m u o m o c o t s e u q a s s e i e xi e d uE .otxet o odot ed ognol oa etneserpino res ele ed rasepa ,atsilatipac odatsE o erbos acifcepse airoet amu eporp on ,oicfsop on ocidni ue omoc ,stimiL .acitlana a n a d u m a m u m b m at e p m i o ail o p s e r o p o al u m u c a a n o d at s E o d l e p a p O :yevraH divaD evercse ,latipac ot stimil ehT od 6002 ed oide oudortni aus mE .sohlabart sortuo me adatart etnatsab ,oapse od oapuco airprp a odniulcni ,latipac od acigl a euq j ,yevraH ed esilna an etnatropmi edadivon amu res ecerap atsE .atsilatipac odatsE od otibm on ,otnatrop ,ocitlop redop od otibm on ecelebatse es lairotirret acigl a euq rartsom etnemlaicini iav ele ,al-dnopser araP .latipac od e oirtirret od saleuqa majes siauq ,atsilatipac otnemivlovnesed oa sairprp sacigl saud sad otnorfnoc on odnevlovnesed es mev e uidnapxe es onacirema redop o omoc rebas me ediser otseuq lapicnirp auS .)11 .p ,4002 ,yevraH( ocifrgoeg-ocirtsih omsilairetam od setnel salep adalumrof erud eugnol ad ,ohlabart od oudortni an amrifa ele omoc ,avitcepsrep 61 A .odnahnepmesed a ratse airedop omsilairepmi ovon mu euq lepap o e labolg omsilatipac od oidnoc lauta a adanimaxe omsilairepmI ovoN O mE .odacofne etnematerid siam otseuq ad otibm esse ,setnecer siam sohlabart soN .51oamrofsnart ed lareg ossecorp essen odatsE od lepap o odadutse etnemacitametsis on ,mrop ,esilna asseN .omsilatipac od oazinagro avon amu odnarugifnoc mairatse oalumuca e oudorp ed sievxelf siam
o ail o p s e r o p o a l u m u c a e l ai c o s o al u g e R

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.)siartnec sesap sod eleuqa euq od odipr siam radna euq ahnit euq( latipac ed oalumuca ed ossecorp ues ed oietse o odatsE on marevit ,odorep omsem on ,euq sadivlovnesed sonem saimonoce s odacilpa etnemlausu omret o euqrop es-macifitsuj atsitnemivlovnesed me sapsa sA )71(

.71maraiciporp euq odacrem ed sedadinutropo s saarg labolg aicntropmi emrone marimussa anacirema aimonoce ad sanretni seamrofsnart sasse e ,lanoiger otnemivlovnesed e aruturtsearfni ,socilbp soivres me sadacilpa latipac ed sedaditnauq semrone moc atsitnemivlovnesed odatsE mu sona sessen es-uonrot onacirema -etron odatsE o ,yevraH araP .odnum od otser o ratsarra e raredil ed zapac ,latipac ed oalumuca ad rotom lapicnirp o omoc sotsiv res a marassap sodinU sodatsE so ,odal ortuo roP .sonacirema serolav sod edadiroirepus ad oomorp a e setnedaced sueporue serolav soa larutluc euqata moc ,omsinacirema-rp o roiretxe on maratejorp e siaudividni sotierid sod oitsab o omoc es-marutitsnoc sodinU sodatsE so ,otsi odut a edutercnoc rad araP .)35 .p ,4002 ,yevraH( sugrub ocitlop emiger od apate adnuges amu a odairporpa siaudividni sotierid sod e adavirp edadeirporp ed omsilasrevinu mu radnuf maracsub e omsicar oa edadilav maragen ocsenU ad sodutse soirv e UNO ad sonamuH sotieriD sod oaralceD a :roiretna apate an omsilairepmi o moc omsilanoican od oailicnocer a aritimrep yevraH odnuges ,lauq o ,omsicar o etnemlamrof odnazirotuased ,atsilatipac odnum od airtazilivic aicnrefer a mbmat odanrot es mairet sodinU sodatsE so ,laidnuM arreuG adnugeS-sp on atsilairepmi oan a es-ranrot oA .atsilatipac oalumuca ad osnapxe adipr amu odnaiciporp ,ocimnoce otnemivlovnesed oa e oicrmoc oa atreba lanoicanretni medro amu riurtsnoc maracsub sodinU sodatsE so ,)elihC e aisnodnI ,anacinimoD acilbpeR ,ognoC ,lisarB ,alametauG ,rI os ele rop sodatic sosac so( sotiele etnemacitarcomed sonrevog ed adaburred a raiopa ed mlA .anihC ad ,edrat siam ,e acitivoS oinU ad aicnulfni a retabmoc e satsilatipacretni sarreug ed edadilibissop a ratimil ed mif a )etroN ocitnltA od odatarT od oazinagrO( NATO a omoc seratilim sanaila odnasu ,etnaveler etnemralucitrap ,e sadinU seaN sa odnasu aviteloc anaruges ed sodroca sod etnerf es-maresup sodinU sodatsE so ,yevraH odnugeS .ocitlop redop od oiccrexe on e atsilatipac ocolb o erbos anacirema-etron ainomegeh an adacoloc iuqa esafn A .omsilatipac od sodaruod sona so omoc odicehnoc odorep od a uo ,0791 sona so ta laidnuM arreuG adnugeS-sp od a apate adnuges A .)atsilatipac acigl ad sotisiuqer soa al-uqeda a odom ed lairotirret acitlop a odnatneiroer ,sueporue sodatsE son sugrub ocitlop redop od oadilosnoc ed odorep( 5491 a 0781 ed odorep on ,seseugrub somsilairepmi sod osnecsa a evercsed ,saled ariemirp aN .sapate srt me satsilatipac somsilairepmi sod odorep o odnidivid ,acirtsih esilna amu zaf yevraH ,soipcnirp sessed ritrap A
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.etnemlargetni evlovnesed a ele euq ,8991 ed ,ecnelubrut labolg fo scimonoce ehT ,roiretna ohlabart me ,eset asse amoter rennerB edno ,)3002 me arielisarb oudart( 2002 ed ,ahloB a e mooB o orvil oa es-rirefer yevraH ed rasepA )91( .)251 .p ,4002( ol-zaf arap socsir sednarg aicnuqerf moc odnerroc euq adnia ,teertS llaW ed satsitner sesseretni soa snegatnav sednarg rad ed mif a sianoicanretni soicgen so uortseuqro ,sremmuS-nibuR otseg ,oruoseT od otnematrapeD o euq me ,notnilC sona son uegopa oa uogehc ametsis essE .oudorp an sodinU sodatsE sod ainomegeh a rapalos me ocuop mu men maratropmi es on sonacirema-etron soriecnanif sesseretni so ... :yevraH amrifa ossi erboS )81(

sartuo ed erefid euq O .91)3002 ]2002[( rennerB rop adidnefed eset ad ,olpmexe rop ,ortnec on tse euq otnemugra ,oalumucaerbos ed azerutan ,ele arap ,erpmes mt medecus es euq sesirc sa euq ed oaretier a elaV .satsixram serotua sortuo ed saleuqad etnemlaicnesse erefid on ale siop ,yevraH rop atief odorep essed acirtsih esilna ad largetni oarepucer a airssecen ecerap son oN .81oriecnanif latipac oa sadalucniv seiutitsni arap savitudorp sedadivita ed aiseugrub ad sesseretni ed e redop od oirbliuqe od megassap a uevlovne etnemetnedive euq ,acimnoce aixodotro avon amu odnum oa ropmi ed zapac iof onacirema odatsE o ,laidnuM ocnaB e IMF etnemralucitrap ,siaretalitlum seiutitsni sad es-odnazilitU .sodinU sodatsE sod osserp asnetni ed e otnel ossecorp mu iof etsE .etnemlanoicanretni messirba es ,ralucitrap me latipac ed sodacrem so e ,lareg me sodacrem so euq uigixe euq o ,sananif sad oiem rop ainomegeh aus a raticrexe a massap sodinU sodatsE so ,oudorp ad opmac on sodaaemA .odatsE od ocitlop redop olep sadaidem ,oirtirret od e latipac od setnetrev saud sa odnegnarba erpmes ,odnum ed osiv omoc omsilarebiloen od oamrifa ed siatnemadnuf socirtsih sotaf so meres rc euq od oircsed amu zaf yevraH ,iuqA .adanoisivrepus edadilanoicutitsni amu moc saimonoce sad otnemitemorpmocsed od mla ,lairetam aicnrefer reuqlauq ed rald od otnemalocsed od ritrap a es-arugifnoc alE .ejoh ta aicngiv me airatse e 0791 sona son aicini es euq ,larebiloen od ainomegeh ad a ,otnatrop , apate ariecret A .)UNO ,NATO( onacirema omsilairepmirepus od esab a mare euq sianoicanretni saruturtse sad ospaloc o e ,oalucric me aro oictcif latipac ed osolpxe a arap sacitneg seidnoc sa riutitsnoc a mv euq ,siaidnum sairnoicalfni sesserp ed otnemanoted o iof aicnuqesnoc A .labolg aimonoce ad otnemicserc od sedadissecen sad mla arap rald ed sessime sad osnapxe moc ,lanoicanretni adeom ad rotneted sap o res ed aizamirp ad osu o iof ataidemi atsopser a e sodinU sodatsE sod roiretni on odatsE od lacsif esirc amu iof odatluser O .nteiV od arreuG ad odorep on oduterbos ,sodavele otium sievn me seratilim sotsag so uocoloc omsinumoc o moc oatnorfnoc a euq j ,avissecxe aicngnarba a saled ariemirp a odnes ,sezar sasrevid rop ,0791 sona son animret apate asse ,yevraH odnuges adniA
o ail o p s e r o p o a l u m u c a e l ai c o s o al u g e R

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ed oapse on oarepo ed saruturtse sairprp saus sa merairc e rairc meredop latipac ed oalumuca ed seralucelom sossecorp so ed rasepa ,missA .)08-97 .p ,4002( latipac od secaf setnerefid ed seacidnivier sa ert n e r arti br a e s e s s al c e d s otilf n o c r et n o c ar a p o al u g er e d s ar u t urt s e m eir c e s e u q m e e s a dit n a r a g et n e m l a g el m aj e s )... ( si a ut a rt n o c s a r g e r e o d a c r e m e d s e i uti t s ni e u q m e s u gr u b o d at s E m u at sil ati p a c e d a di vit a a ar a p a dir ef er p o i d n o c a )... ( s oi c g e n r e z af e d s a ri e n a m e s a r g e r s a u s r ati e c a o n u o r e c e h n o c e r o n m e d o p e u q s et n ei b m a m e r e g et or p e s e d m t s el E . s o c sir s er oi a m m art n o c n e el e d ai c n s u a a n s a m ,r a n oi c n uf ar a p o u o b a cr a e s s e et n e m at ul o s b a m er e u q er o n s at s il ati p a c s O .omsilatipac od acirtsih aifargoeg agnol ad siaicurc sacitsretcarac ,etniugesnoc rop , o di s m t a s e u gr u b e d a d il a n oi c u tit s n o c a d ot n e m i g r u s o m o c o ai c o s s a m e o d at s E o d o a m r of A . s o di n if e d s i a n oi c u tit s n o c s oj n arr a m o c ol- t n et s u s e l a n oi c uti t s ni o u o b a cr a l at rit n ar a g e d o p ai c n l oi v e d s oi e m s o d oil p o n o m o d e ai cl o p e d seredop ed odatod etrof odatsE mU .oriehnid-amrof ad anaruges ad e otartnoc od ,adavirp edadeirporp ad ,iel ad sianoicutitsni saruturtse satrec ed otibm on rohlem e c s er olf s o er p e d ar o d a x if o d a cr e m e d a c ort a d oi e m r o p l ati p a c e d o al u m u c a A :atsilatipac edadivita ad otnemassecorp on ovisiced lepap mu met odatsE o euq ouobacra lat otnauqne .)97 .p ,medi( latipac ed oalumuca ed seralucelom sossecorp so mega lauq od roiretni on odazilairotirret ouobacra omoc otsiv odatsE o ,avitcepsrep asseN .odatsE olep sodazilaer odnauq ,atsiv ed otnop etsed ,sovitefe siam otium os euq sam ,latipac olep sodazilaer res mairedop euq )acisb asiuqsep e oacude ,seacinumoc e setropsnart ed seder( oarud agnol ed siaicos e sacisf saruturtsearfni me sotnemitsevni evlovne acifrgoeg osnapxe a euq otseuq A .)87 .p ,4002( etnedecxe latipac od amelborp o arap siaropmet-oapse seanedro racsub ed odnuf ed onap esse artnoc ,ue omrifa ,adidnetne res ed met omsilairepmi od )lairotirret acigl oisopo me( atsilatipac acigl A :yevraH zid otiepser esse A .latipac od oaicerped a magitim sonem olep uo manoicroporp laropmet e laicapse oazinagroer a e acifrgoeg osnapxe a somsinacem euq ed svarta e omoc ed osneerpa amu h ,3 olutpac oN .latipac ed oalumuca ed ossecorp oa ozav meed euq savitarcul sedadinutropo ed aicnsua a :omsilatipac od etnerrocer amelborp o res aredisnoc yevraH euq oliuqa satnitsid setnetrev saud me ratart oapucoerp A .avitimirp oalumuca radnamed ed omsilatipac od etnenamrep azerutan ad uo ,oailopse rop oalumuca ad atart odnuges o otnauqne ,latipac ed oalumuca a e omsem o ertne oaler a odnartsom ,ocitlop redop od atart oriemirp O .oenropmetnoc omsilatipac od esilna aus ed siatnemadnuf sotnemele siod so ratneserpa iav yevraH euq omsilairepmi ovon O ed 4 e 3 solutpac son ,avitcepsrep asseN .aiseugrub ad oa an laidromirp oapse omoc ocitlop redop od oaredisnoc a sesilna
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sarret arap rarrupme es ed ossecorp o ,olpmexe rop ,etneuqerf es-odnanrot ,oviturtsed retrac mu ribixe a massap ,aviturtsnoc azerutan amu memussa sezev sad siam on ,euq seanedro sasse ,ossid atnoc roP .aruatsni es ad ritrap a euq oalumucaerbos aicndnet etnetsisrep e acinrc ad amelborp od ratart arap setneicife soidmer otnauqne rassacarf rop mabaca )savitudorp sedadicapac savon e sodacrem sovon ed arutreba ad oiem rop ,oapse on sotnemacolsed e ,oarutam ed ozarp ognol ed sotnemitsevni ed oiem rop ,opmet on sotnemacolsed( siaropmet-oapse seanedro sa ,0791 sona sod ritrap a ,yevraH araP .)29 .p ,4002( otnemitsevni o arap sosarap ed oairc sianoicutitsni samrofer ed ov solpmexe sO .sal-pmi ed edadicapac aus e siel ralumrof ed oiubirta aus etnaidem sam ,ovitartsinimda otarapa ues od svarta e siaruturtsearfni sotnemitsevni sod oinmod ues ed oiem rop s on lanoiger acimnid a ranoicerid arap seredop sues asu odatsE o ,missA .latipac od odnamoc o bos mis sam ,etnemairotaela siam d es on sacigl saud sasse ertne oaicossa a ,oalumuca ad oirssecen oiem mu odaredisnoc j )soirtirret ed atercnoc oairporpa a revlovne on uo edop euq( lairotirret elortnoc o odnauq ,yevraH arap ,oudortni an odatnaida j omoC .oalumuca ed ossecorp o ,missa ,odnatnemof ,latipac ed e ohlabart ed ,sneb ed oxulf oa zediulf roiam ranoicroporp rop mabaca )oirtirret od oetorp uo ratilim elortnoc ,oartsinimda ed snif arap sodurtsnoc oacinumoc ed sametsis e sadartse( lairotirret acigl arup ad onuf me sodizudorp soapse ,oirrtnoc oa ,uo oalumuca ed seralucelom sossecorp solep sodizudorp sianoiger sesseretni solep adarutpac res edop orietni odatsE mu ed acitlop a ,olpmexe roP .artuo a moc amu aterid oaler reuqlauq etnemairassecen mt on sacigl saud sasse euq laicini atsopser a ,yevraH odnugeS ?sedadilanoiger ed oudorp an megrevnoc mbmat euq seralucelom sossecorp sues moc ,latipac od oalumuca ad acimnid aicossa es ,oirpmi od e odatsE od acitlop an asserpxe ,lairotirret redop od acigl a amrof euq ed ,).cte omsimanid x aicrni ,otnemivom x zedixif( satsopo azerutan rop os sale es :otseuq avon amu egreme ,mrop ,megadroba asseD .ainomegeh e oisop rop savititepmoc satul rop odaziretcarac ametsis mu ed otibm on odatsE od seredop sod osserpxe arem omoc al-redisnoc redop od lairotirret acigl asnefni etnematelpmoc essof ale es omoc omsilatipac od oulove a revercsed otnauq rodatimil ot ,rotua osson arap ,missA .ele moc rohlem anoicnuf ale euq ed sam ,odatsE o mes levssopmi aires atsilatipac edadivita a euq ed ,otnatrop ,atart es oN .odatsE od oa a etneserp tse edno eleuqa atsilatipac edadivita ad otnemanoicnuf o arap odireferp e oicporp siam oirnec o ,)08 .p ,4002 ,yevraH( odatsE od redop od saruturtse sad setnednepedni satsilatipac sedadivita ed siaicapse seder sadacnirtni rizudorp ed samrof omoc socitsugnil sogidc so e socint e sosoigiler solucnv so ,saropsid sa ,ocsetnerap o odniulcni ,sarienam saremni
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euqrop ajes ,oirssecen retrac mu ret a assap odatsE o ,oailopse rop oalumuca ad a acigl asse odnauq ,ele moc rohlem enoicnuf ale euq adnia ,atsilatipac edadivita ad otnemanoicnuf o arap edadissecen omoc ecerapa on odatsE o ,oalumuca ad acigl a etnemselpmis adaredisnoc odnauq es ,missA .)121 .p ,4002( sossecorp sessed oomorp an e oiopa on laicurc lepap met ,edadilagel ed seinifed saus e aicnloiv ad oilponom ues moc ,odatsE o e ,eduarf e oaderp ed soiem setnatropmi es -maranrot oriecnanif latipac o e otidrc ed ametsis o ,yevraH araP .siatatse sadivd ed setnatnom semrone a sarietni sealupop ed otnemanoisirpa o e otnemiceuqirne ed sameuqse soslaf ,satneluduarf seazirolav ,sovita ed oadipalid ,sasioc sartuo ertne ,metimrep sele siop ,oriecnanif latipac on e otidrc ed ametsis on es-martnocne oailopse rop oalumuca ed ossecorp o margetni euq setneidepxe sortuo sO .zudnoc so meuq euq ,odatsE ed redop o oietse omoc erpmes met sotnemivom sesse a etnereni euq aicnloiv A .oazitavirp ad o opit essed ralpmexe ossecorp O .ovitarcul osu mu sehl-rad e sovita sessed rassopa es zaf oailopse rop oalumuca a euq o ,osac esseN .)orez uo( oxiab otium otsuc a somusni ed ahnopsid es euq edsed ,ele arap oazilitu amu rartnocne es edop ,ecetnoca on ossi es ,saM .avitefe adnamed a meugre siauq so ,sotnemitsevni me sadot macobmesed euq ,siausu siaropmet-oapse seanedro rop odimusnoc res edop etnedecxe essE .latipac ed etnedecxe ,otnatrop , iuqa evahc omret O .)satsimusnocbus seset sa( otnemugra ues ed odetnoc od etnemairporp on euq adnia ,ogrubmexuL ed esilna ad srt rop avatse euq oapucoerp ad oaroprocni amu ed es-atart ,missA .es-razilibatse arap omsem is ed arof ogla ed etnemauteprep ropsid euq met omsilatipac o euq ed aiedi a aD .opmet on es-ragnola a mednet oalumuca a erbos sotiefe so ,osac etsen ,euq j ,latipac od oaicerped e oartnecnoc alep sanepa sadivloser res medop on euq setnenamrep sesirc a atiejus oalumuca ad acimnid a euq etnatropmi otnop O .)5891( latipac ed oalumuca A orvil ues me oduterbos ,ogrubmexuL asoR ed seapucoerp arepucer eset a ,etrap mE .ovitutitsnoc ehl euq ogla omoc acirtsih megiro aus me acitsongaid xraM euq ,avitimirp oalumuca a ,omsem ossi rop ,mbmat met ele ,larutan aicndnet omoc oalumucaerbos a met atsilatipac ametsis o omoc missa ,yevraH araP .aicamolpid a arap tse arreug a omoc saviturtsnoc siaropmet-oapse seanedro sa arap tse euq onevretni ed opit mu areg oriecnanif latipac od soirtaderp sotcepsa so moc odatsE ed seredop sod anaila a euq amrifa ele ,acitlopoeg a moc aigolana amu odnezaF .oailopse rop oalumuca ed otiecnoc o eporp ,yevraH lauq on otxetnoc o esse .setnegreme sesap sod otnujnoc o odot rop marahlapse es euq ,09 sona sod e ,anitaL acirmA ad sesap so etnemlatnemadnuf marignita euq ,08 sona sod sesirc sad osac o ,ele arap ,iof essE .oazirolavsed ed sossecorp soirssecen so ametsis od siartnec sotnop sod setnatsid
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,oailopse rop oalumuca ad aicnloiv alep e ananif alep odignat oalumuca ed ossecorp o odnauq ,arof siam otium moc es-alucniv ,siagel saitnarag ed odivorpsed airacif odacrem ed seiutitsni sad orietni ametsis o lauq od aicnsua an ,ocimnoce etneibma od rodatnemaluger otiefe mu a es-ranoicaler euq od siam otium ,odatsE oa erefnoc yevraH euq levsnepsidni etnemlautriv oiubirta a ,sarvalap sartuo mE .)siel ralumrof ed avitagorrerp a e aicnloiv ad oilponom o reted ed atnoc rop( azeuqir ad oaziriecnanif ed sossecorp sod rodatilicaf omoc ,etnemlanif ,ajes ,)acilbp adivd etnemlapicnirp( oictcif latipac ed adabrecaxe oairc ad svarta ajes ,)oazitavirp ed sossecorp son omoc( oalumuca ed soirtirret sovon ed arutreba ad oiem rop ajes ,oailopse ed setneidepxe setnerefid ed oarepo a razilibaiv a odom ed odnazinagro es etnemanitaluap iav odatsE o ,0791 sona sod oicni on aruguani es euq apate an ,ele arap ,euq riulcnoc ritimrep ecerap ossecorp essen odatsE o arap ovita lepap mun yevraH ed esafn a ,amrof reuqlauq eD .oalumucaerbos ed sesirc rizudorp a ametsis od acinrc aicndnet ad mla ,)lairotirret acigl an adatnessa( ocitlop oapse od a e latipac od a ,sacigl saud ertne oidartnoc an adatnessa ,omsilatipac od amsem azerutan a moc levtapmoc ocirtsih otnemarbodsed mu omoc atsiv res edop adaziriecnanif acimnid a ,odnuges o arap ,euq otnauqne ,otidni ed ogla ahnet acimnid asse oriemirp o arap arobme ,oenropmetnoc omsilatipac od acimnid otnauq yevraH e siansehC ed sealumrof san aicndicnioc h ,otnatroP .sossecorp sessen odatsE od lartnec lepap o moc e oailopse ed setneidepxe razilibom etnemetnerrocer ed iussop omsem o euq edadissecen a moc ,oalumucaerbos ed sesirc rizudorp ed ametsis od aicndnet a moc ,atnopa siansehC etnemadatreca ot euq ,oaziriecnanif a ranoicaler etimrep euq avitatnemugra aiet asse .labolg levn me acimtsis oudorper ad seidartnoc sa moc e odatsE ed redop o moc samrof sassed otnemaalertne o sam ,laicos oaluger ed samrof sa sanepa on evlovne euq ,alpma siam acitmelborp amun sodiresni ed mla ,sodacifilauq rohlem iuqa mecerap sam ,yevraH ed esilna atse a sohnartse os on siansehC erefer es siauq soa ananif ad levicasni retrac o e senup sA .)321-221 .p ,4002 ,yevraH( sovitalucepse seuqata rardnegne ed edadicapac aus rop oriecnanif odacrem od seiutitsni sartuo e sovitavired ed sodnuf so moc ejoh airatse oailopse rop oalumuca assed adraugnav a euq odnes ,oirtaderp e ovitalucepse olitse ues rop ralucatepse odut me odis met ,3791 edsed mev euq ,adno asse ,yevraH araP .yevraH ed e siansehC ed sesilna sa ertne etrof siam otatnoc ed otnop o somartnocne euq ejoh ed omsilatipac on oaziriecnanif ed sossecorp soa e oriecnanif latipac oa adirefnoc edadilartnec an .aicnloiv ad oilponom o mted euqrop etnemlanif ajes ,siel sa ropmi e ralumrof ed oiubirta aus rop ajes ,oictcif latipac zudorp euqrop ajes ,oalumucaerbos ed sesirc sa ragitim arap sovita sues ed ropsid edop
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.atsilatipac otnemivlovnesed od siauta seidnoc sad oaterpretni amu arap siatnemadnuf mecerap son euq sairoet samugla ranibmoc e regele etnemos ot edneterp es euq O .oxelpmoc ot amet ratogse ed osneterp a iuqa met es on etnemetnedivE )12( .acitmet amsem ad ,ralimis avitcepsrep bos ,atart )8002( nielK ,atnitsid ocuop mu evahc mE .)8002( inaluaP e )4002( icivocreB ,)4002( nebmagA otiepser a reV .etnenamrep oecxe ed odatse mu ed uo ocimnoce aicngreme ed odatse mu ed ,omsilatipac od oigtse etsen ,aicngiv a erbos seset sad etnecer otnemarolfa od sasuac sad amu etnematrec atsE )02(

.odatsE od onuf a e amrof a latipac ed oalumuca ed ossecorp od zuded euq ,hcsriH mihcaoJ ed ohlabart olep adatneserper ,omsinoicavired o erbos omela etabed od adnuiro ,ariecret A .etneserper a odatsE ed aicarcorub a euq adnia ,atsilatipac essalc ad ocitmetsis elortnoc reuqlauq ed etnednepedni odatsE o euq atnemugra euq ,)4891( effO sualC ed osiv a adnuges A .ainomegeh ed aiedi a oduterbos ,sanretlabus sessalc salep sessalc ed edadeicos ad oatieca a redneerpmoc es arap evahc otnop mu omoc odatsE o acoloc euq ,anaicsmarg opecnoc a ariemirp A .12etnadnuf omoc xraM ed avitcepsrep a odnaredisnoc ,siatnemadnuf mecerap son euq snegadroba srt h ,oes ariemirp an sodacoloc sotcepsa so radnuforpa ed sotisporp sosson so araP .met a on etnemselpmis es uo ,)latipac ed oalumuca ,oudorp( aimonoce oaler me aimonotua )ednarg amu uo( amugla met acitlop a es rebas me tse laicurc otseuq a e acitlop ad sairoet os odatsE od sairoet sa ,)8891( yonraC araP .)9 .p( edadeicos amu ed latnemadnuf acimnid a redneerpmoc ametsis essed ot x et n o c o n l a n oi c a n o d at s E o r e d n e er p m o c e l a n oi c a n o d at s E o r e d n e er p m o c , si o p , ejoh ed laidnum ocimnoce ametsis on acitlop ajes euq o redneerpmoC .etrom a e adiv airprp a arap ,samra sad etnecserc oacitsifos ad svarta ,e laudividni edadrebil a arap ,laicos anaruges a arap ,ocimnoce otnemivlovnesed o arap evahc a reted ecerap odatsE O .)...( siaicos satsitneic so arap laicurc oapucoerp a m u o d a nr ot e s m t o d at s E o d l e p a p et n e c s er c o ar u g if n o c e s o m o c e err o c o o s si e u q r o P .) s a d a m r a s a r of , ai cl o p( l a g el a r of ot n a u q e ) o a ci n u m o c e d s oi e m s o ,r al o c s e o a c u d e( o ci g l o e di ,) o i u birt si d , s a n a n if , o u d or p( o ci m n o c e omoc ,ocitlop sanepa on edadeicos ad sotcepsa so sodot me e )...( sedadeicos s a s a d ot m e ai c n tr o p m i m e u e c s er c o d at s E e d o d a m a h c i u q a o cil b p r ot e s o , o d n u m o o d ot m e m a r e v l o v n e s e d e s s ai m o n o c e s a e u q m e a di d e m a n ... .saciret sedadlucifid sad artsom amu d son euq otnematnopa mu h )8891( yonraC mE .ocitrc opmac on omsem ,ociret osnesnoc etnemacirotsih odnatneserpa on ,osrevortnoc odatsE amet O
ocitlop redop e odatsE 2

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erecrc od sonredaC sues me odnatnemoC .aiseugrub ad oviticreoc otnemurtsni omoc sanepa avamot o euq ,atsinel-atsixram o euq olpma siam avired ad euq odatsE ed otiecnoc o ,)osnesnoc od serotomorp socigloedi sohlerapa sues a saarg( livic edadeicos e )arof ad oilponom o mted euqrop( acitlop edadeicos ed ,ecaf alpud aus moC .atsilatipac edadeicos ad osneerpmoc an laicnesse levirav es-anrot ,aruturtserepus ad otnemele otnauqne ,odatsE o ,anaicsmarg oaterpretni an ,missA .acitlop edadeicos a erbos livic edadeicos ad aicamerpus a razitafne oa e acimnoce aruturtse a erbos sacigloedi saruturtserepus sad aicamerpus a razitafne oa ,sotcepsa siod me lanoicidart atsixram airoet a etrevni icsmarG euq amrifa etse odnauq oibboB otrebroN moc adrocnoc yonraC .)39 .p ,8891 ,yonraC( .aruturtse a on e ,esilna ad ortnec o es-anrot sealer sassed acitlop osserpxe a e ,lautceletni e lautiripse adiv a ,siarutluc e sacigloedi sealer sad oxelpmoc o ... missa euq odom ed ,aruturtserepus a argetni ale ,oirrtnoc oa ,icsmarG arap ,oudorp ed sealer sad arodatrop a euq j ,edadeicos ad aruturtse ad etrap zaf ale oriemirp o arap es ,sam ,atsilatipac otnemivlovnesed od osneerpmoc an evahc rotaf o livic edadeicos a ,icsmarG arap otnauq xraM arap otnat ,rotua etse odnugeS .aciret oavoni roiam aus me ,yonraC odnuges ,etsisnoc euq e oirprp livic edadeicos ed otiecnoc mu azilitu icsmarG ,otxetnoc esseN .)59 .p ,73 ,31 onredaC ,0002/43-2391( ...airoiam ad osnesnoc on adaiopa aerap arof a euq moc rezaf odnatnet ,oirrtnoc oa , s a m , o s n e s n o c o oti u m m e et n al p u s a r of a e u q m e s , o d air a v o d o m e d m ar bili u q e e s e u q , o s n e s n o c o d e a r of a d o a n i b m o c al e p e s- a zir et c ar a c ,r at n e m alr a p e mi g er o d o ci s s l c o d a nr ot o n err et o n , ai n o m e g e h a d l a m r o n oi c cr e x e O ,icsmarG oirprp o odnugeS .arof ad oilponom od odavired ,ovisserper ohlerapa o euq od laicos oudorper an setnatropmi siam ,ossi rop ,os odatsE od socigloedi sohlerapa sO .acinmegeh essalc ad oinmod on laicnesse ,otnatrop ,lepap mu ,edadilaer ad ocin otiecnoc esse revomorp ed onuf ad etrap odatsE oa iubirta icsmarG .siaicos sealer e semutsoc so sodot ,siarom sotnematropmoc e sotsog so sodot odnaicneulfni ,edadeicos a adot rop sodidnufid os ,adiv ed odom ues omsem e ,essalc assed serolav so e otnemasnep o ,sarvalap sartuo mE .sanretlabus sa oduterbos ,sessalc siamed sa erbos seseugrub serolav e samron sad ocigloedi oinmoderp o acifingis ,omsilatipac od otnemanoicnuf o erbos icsmarG ed osrev ad lartnec amet o euq ,ainomegeh a ,rotua esse odnugeS .)8891( yonraC ed oaterpretni a ,siareg sahnil me ,someriuges ,otnat araP .atsoporp iuqa ossucsid ad otnemivlovnesed o arap setnatropmi martsom es euq sotiecnoc snugla ratagser ed sam ,acitrc anutrof aus ed sonem otium ,oiubirtnoc aus ed azeuqir a adot rarolpxe ed iuqa atart es on ,etnemetnedive ,euq ,ometna ed ,odnavresbo icsmarG ed megadroba alep somecemoC
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e omerpus esseretni o ,ossecorp etse razinagro ed zapac omsem ele res mes ,latipac ed oalumuca ed ossecorp od edneped odatsE od redop o omoc aicnrefer ed otnop omoc oalumuca a )c ;siairetam soiem rop mbmat redop ues ralever assop euq odom ed ,otnemaro ues arap sosrucer sessed etnedneped odatsE od redop o euq otsid oacilpmi a ;adavirp oalumuca ad ,oirtubirt ametsis od somsinacem sod svarta ,etnemateridni ,edneped ocilbp redop o sotsopmi ed aicndneped a )b ;adavirp etnemlaicnesse amsem a euq j ,soirtirc soirprp sues odnuges oudorp a ezinagro odatsE o euq arap )ocitlop( otnemidepmi mu h ,lareg me ,otnatrop ;lairetam oudorp ed senuf sadaicossa otse on ,oipcnirp me ,)ocilbp rotes od oa ,ajes uo( odatsE od otibm oa oudorp ad oazitavirp a )a :senuf sasse matimiled euq siaruturtse setnanimreted ortauq ed oiem rop satircsed res medop odatsE o moc oaler aus e atsilatipac laicos oamrof a ,ele araP .siaicos senuf sadanimreted met j euq oiutitsni amu erbos meacer siauq sa ,siaicos sarof sad aicnrefretni levtecsus odnes ,ocitlop etnemetnenime odetnoc mu met )lareg me acilbp acitlop a( acimnoce acitlop a ,ele odnugeS .atsilatipac odatsE od siaruturtse senuf sad osneerpmoc a arap sotnemele snugla acnele )4891( effO ,lanoicnevnoc siam osiv amu ed odnitraP .atsilatipac laicos oudorper ad ossecorp o etnemavitefe d es amrof euq ed rednetne edop es on ,ele arap ,lauq o mes esse otnemagrala ,odatsE rop odidnetne res eved euq od opocse o agrala icsmarG ,oviticreoc otnemurtsni orem omoc ranoicnuf ed o euq od roiam otium redop mu odatsE oa erefnoc euq me opmet omsem oa ,missA .)711 .p ,medi( siarom e siarutluc ,siaicos serolav sues rahlitrapmoc e sanerc ed ametsis ues ratieca a sodidausrep mare sodanimod so euq ,odatsE on e livic edadeicos an asserpxe ,ainomegeh aus rop are euq sam ,oterid ocimnoce redop ues ed omsem uo onrevog ed ohlerapa od oviticreoc redop od sanepa aidneped on etnanimod essalc a euq odibecrep airet icsmarG .)711-611 .p ,8891 ,yonraC( arodahlabart essalc ad avitacifingis ot alecrap amu a otnuj oatieca retnam ed ,soirnoiculover sotnemivom ed otnemivlovnesed od rasepa ,zapac are omsilatipac o omoc racilpxe a icsmarG uotilibah euq livic edadeicos airprp a iulcni odatsE o euq ed opecnoc a omoc missa ,aruturtserepus ad aicnulfni an esafn a ,missA .)452 .p ,731 ,6 onredaC ,0002/23-0391( livic edadeicos uo ,ainomegeh ed odavirp ohlerapa o mbmat ,onrevog ed ohlerapa od mla ,rednetne es-eved odatsE rop euq acifingis otsi saM :icsmarG amrifa ,sap od sodicehnocsed soirnoicnuf sednarg ed e )roiam -odatsE o e satsilatipac saserpme sele ertne( sodavirp somsinagro ed sam ,socitlop usnes otcirts somsinagro ed savitaicini a on meved es XIX olucs od lanif o edsed asecnarf airtsih ad setnatropmi siam sotaf so euq erbocsed ,ovitatneserper ohlerapa o omoc odatsE o rinifed ed rasepa ,euq ,yvlaH leinaD ed orvil mu
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assE .8791 me ottoicciP e yawolloH rop adazinagro aenteloc amun ecerapa atsilatipac odatsE od azerutan a erbos hcsriH ed lanigiro aicnrefer A .latipac ed oalumuca ed ossecorp oa erefnoc oriemirp o euq edadilartnec alep etnemralucitrap ,setnatropmi sanerefid mahnetnam es adnia arobme ,effO e icsmarG ed seset samugla ed hcsriH ed oisop a otium amixorpa oacifilauq atsE .oes ariemirp an sodatart sotcepsa soa odauqeda otium otnemelpmoc mu res airedop euq on es-odniutitsnoc ,asecnarF oalugeR ad alocsE a erbos ocitrc orofse mu ed ritrap a oalumrof atse acifilauqer omsem ele ,etnemetnecer siam ,aivadoT .sacimnoce sesirc sa razilartuen ed mif a odatsE o rasu arap atsilatipac essalc ad sorofse soa etnemos ot acitlop a alucniv 0791 sona son erroco euq atsixram etabed od otxetnoc on lanigiro oalumrof aus me ,hcsriH euq rarbmel osicerp osiv aus erbos ritelfer ed setnA .oenropmetnoc omsilatipac on lepap e ragul ues ed e odatsE od avitaterpretni esetns amu arap ,rednetne osson me ,odnatnopa e laicos oaluger ed ossecorp od oxelpmoc retrac o odnacidni ,effO ed a euq olpma siam meb opocse ed oaluger ad asecnarf alocse ad sociret so moc ecelebatse )7002 ]4991[( hcsriH euq ossucsid A .)521 .p ,medi( odacrem on , otsi ,oibmcretni ed sealer san odadic adac riulcni arap sairssecen seidnoc sa rairc ed a ajes lauq ,odatsE od oa ed lareg aigtartse )amu etnemos e( amu airitsixe s euq odnes ,siaruturtse seanimreted ortauq sa ertne edadilibitapmoc a e odroca o etnemetnatsnoc mezudorper e mezudorp es siauq sa etnaidem saigtartse ed otnujnoc mu omoc odatsE ed acitlop a rinifed levssop ,arienam atseD .latipac ed oalumuca ed ossecorp od sotisiuqer solep e otnemivlovnesed olep odanimreted tse redop esse ,odetnoc ues olep ,e )on uo ocitrcomed( onrevog ed sarger salep odanimreted tse redop esse ,lanoicutitsni amrof aus aleP .atsilatipac odatsE mu otiejus tse euq a ocitlop redop od oanimreted alpud amu rizuded metimrep senuf sasse ,sadacoloc missA .)421-321 .p ,4891 ,effO( .serodahlabart sod seacidnivier s oiridemretni ed odnivres ,laicos otnujnoc od oiopa o moc ratnoc ,ossi rop ,odneved ,siareg seiele me sotov sod airoiam a eugesnoc odnauq odatsE ed redop o rimussa ed seidnoc mtbo s acitlop ozilaoc uo oditrap mu ,ocitrcomed-ratnemalrap ametsis od saicntsnucric san acitrcomed oamitigel a )d e ;)oalumuca oaler me acilbp edadivita ad laruturtse lanoicutitsni aicndneped ad aicnuqesnoc a ones ,asuac on erroco etnemlautneve otsi odnauq( odatsE od osiced ed sortnec soa atsilatipac essalc ad sorbmem sod odaigelivirp osseca o men ,siaicos sessalc sa e odatsE ed redop od setnapuco so ertne aterid anaila reuqlauq asserpxe on aicndneped atse euq odnes ,adavirp oalumuca ed ossecorp o maerovaf euq seidnoc rarugessa me etsisnoc odatsE ed ohlerapa o mapuco euq sod lareg siam
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odnes airatse euq atsilatipac edadeicos ad anaixram osiv amu a acitrc ed otxetnoc mun adasnep iof somahneser iuqa ta euq hcsriH ed oalumrof A .)mezudorp sa euq savitejbo siel sad aicnulfni e aicntropmi ronem amu e atsilatipac edadeicos ad sacisb saruturtse sad etneicsnoc oaluger amu airacilpmi otsi euq j( etnanimod essalc ad oivres a ajetse ele euq ed eset a ramrifa otsi moc mes ,odanidrobus retrac mu met odatsE o euq ednetne ,oirrtnoc oA .oalumuca ed ossecorp od etnaid aimonotua uo oirprp otnemivom ed opit mugla ahnet odatsE o euq ele arap oditnes muhnen zaf on ,otnatroP .oalumuca ad siel salep odigirid etnemlaicnesse euq laicos oudorper ed ossecorp mu ed etrap odatsE o euq hcsriH ed oatnemugra assed oirloroc O .)16 .p ,8791 ,hcsriH( otaredised ues oa saditembus mairatse oalumuca ed odavirp ossecorp oa sadanoicaler etnematerid saleuqa majes on euq saicntsni ,oditnes etseN .etnegiv medro ad laicnesse otnemele mu ohnimac on majetse euq sarierrab sa sadot ed oiloba a ,siaugi ertne acort ad oipcnirp on adaesab sairodacrem ed oalucric ervil alep sodaidem os etnedecxe od oairporpa a e laicos oudorper ed ossecorp o omoc ,aivadoT .socigloedi avisserper arof ad e redop od ocuopmat ,arof ed sealer ed etnematerid medneped on laicos aruturtse ad oseoc moc oavreserp a e etnedecxe rolav od oairporpa a ,atsilatipac edadeicos an ,hcsriH arap ,oalumrof ariemirp asseN .satsilatipac sealer sad oiloba a airigixe siaicos sealer sad etneicsnoc oazinagro a ,aicntsni amitl mE .etnemacitilop sadaluger meres ed sievssap os on atsilatipac edadeicos ad otnemivlovnesed ed siel sa e sacisb saruturtse sa ,sarvalap sartuo mE .sadamrofsnart e acitlop oditnes etsen adajenalp ,etneicsnoc aicnulfni amu a saditembus res medop on ,ohlabart od osivid ad etnanimod amrof a ,sessalc ed autm oaler a ,satercnoc siaicos saruturtse sa euq acifingis otsI .laicos oudorper ed ossecorp on etnanimreted otiefe mu mt siel sasse ,sotcatni merecenamrep edadeicos ed atsilatipac amrof ad aruturtse ad siaicnesse sotcepsa so otnauqnE .siaudividni sea sad svarta mamrifa es euq savitejbo siel ed ocirtsih otudorp o erpmes os sacisb siaicos sealer sA .acitlop onevretni ,.e.i ,etneicsnoc anretxe onevretni reuqlauq rereuqer etnemlaicini mes ,oudorp ed sealer saus evisulcni ,laicos oidnocerp airprp aus ,odavoner etnemetnatsnoc otnemivom mun ,oazirolav ed ossecorp omoc ,etnemaenatlumis zudorper ,rolav od iel alep odanrevog ,oudorp ed ossecorp O .odatneserpa missa res edop otnemugra od otirtse siam odetnoc O .ocitlop od onevretni a ,.e.i ,etneicsnoc anretxe aduja reuqlauq rereuqer etnemlaicini mes ,siaicos seidnocerp saus sa zudorper etnemaenatlumis ,adavirp edadeirporp ad ritrap a odurtsnoc ,latipac ed oalumuca ed ossecorp o euq otne arof-eset auS .)ocitlop oa uo( odatsE oa ociret otejbo ed oditnes mu rad arap sadatierpme savitcepser saus me ,sortuo ertne ,icsmarG ed otnauq effO ed otnat seisop sad acitrc etrap me oamixorpa ariemirp
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.sartuo majes sezar sa ,osac etsen ,arobme ,ocitrc opmac on mbmat etnahlemes siv mu atnopa )7002( hcsriH ed ogitra o ,odom otrec eD .senuf saus sa etnemadauqeda odnirpmuc essevitse on ,aimonotua anelp aus ed essop ed ,ele es omoc odatsE o es-azilibasnopser ,socesnrtni seled sotium ,oalumuca ed ossecorp o moc samelborp merroco siauq san sacirtsih saicntsnucric sasrevid me ,missA .odacrem ed somsinacem sod aicnicife a ratefa uo/e rirefretni mes sam ,atsilatipac otnemivlovnesed oa oirssecen lagel lanoicutitsni ordauq od aicngiv a ritnarag e ,airtenom otseuq enrecnoc euq on etnemralucitrap ,sacisb senuf saus ed atnoc rad eved odatsE o ,missA .osoutriv erpmes etnematsopus odacrem o euq j ,ametsis od otnemadna mob olep levsnopser oiutitsni acin a omoc odatsE o es-aredisnoc ,lanoicnevnoc airoet aN .adazivitaler etnematelpmoc res aved odatsE od aimonotua atsopus a euqrop mbmat aD .ele a sodizuder res medop on euq sam ,mtnam es e epmi es odatsE o siauq sod oiem rop siaicos sotilfnoc so e sossecorp so evom euq oidartnoc a atse odnes ,)22 .p ,medi( siaugi e servil etnemlamrof sivic socidruj sotiejus e essalc amu ed sorbmem ,opmet omsem oa ,os atsilatipac edadeicos ad soudvidni so ,hcsriH arap ,missA .)22-12 .p ,7002( airtidartnoc edadilatot amu mamrof sele o dit n e s e s s e N . s et n e n a mr e p s i ai c o s s otilf n o c m e a d ai o p a a zil a er e s o i n u/ o ar a p e s at s e e , s o di n u o p m et o m s e m o a s a m , s o d ar a p e s et n e m s el p m i s o t s e o n e d a d ei c o s e o d at s E . e d a d ei c o s a m o c ri d n u f n o c r a xi e d e s m e s s a m , ol p m a s i a m o dit n e s o n at si n oi c n e vr et ni o d at s E m u er p m e s et n e m air a s s e c e n o d at s E O . l ai c e p s e ai c n t s ni ot n a u q n e o d at s E o d ai c n t s i x e a e p u s s er p a ci m n o c e o u d or p er ed ossecorp od aicnnamrep a ,opmet omsem oa )...( latipac od oazirolav ed ossecorp omoc acimnoce oudorper ed ossecorp o oditnarag revitse ot n a u q n e ,l a m r of o a n i m r et e d r al u citr a p a u s m e r et n a m e s e d o p s o d at s E O ,hcsriH araP .odatsE od oauta odizuder res ,ele arap ,edop on laicos oaluger ed ossecorp o siop , otaf ed ele euq od roiam otium ,olpmexe rop ,sesirc sa rarotinom arap ,odatsE od redop o euq anigami es ,ossid atnoc rop ,euq j ,siamed agral e ,senuf sadubirta os lauq oa laicos aruturtse ad otnemele mu siam sanepa essof ele es omoc ,siamed atiertse ,opmet s mu a , alocse assed atluser euq odatsE ed osiv a ,ossid atnoc roP .)zteipiL ,reyoB ,atteilgA( siaicini sociret sues me artnocne es omoc lat ,oaluger ad airoet ad odnuf ed e roiam amelborp o airoet ed ticifd esse odnes ,)rolav-amrof a moc zef o xraM omoc lat( adadnevsed eseng aus ret eved )acitlop amrof a( ocitlop o ,ele arap ,ossi roP .acirtsih oamrof adanimreted amu a ecnetrep ele ,airodacrem a omoc missa ,euq ,ajes uo ,sedadeicos sa sadot ed ocitsretcarac onemnef mu on odatsE o euq ed oipcnirp od ritrap iav hcsriH ,oxelfer avon asseN .oalugeR ad alocsE ad oiubirtnoc a etnemacitirc ritucsid onetni a euq es-odnaredisnoc oduterbos ,etnerefid ocuop mu otnop o ,)7002 ]4991[( avoner es ale euq me ,lauta otxetnoc oN .adiceuqse
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od oartxe ed ossecorp o ramitigel arap airssecen( aimonoce e acitlop ertne oarapes etnerapa a euq ramrifa iav ,0791 sona sod lanif oa odirroco odatsE od oavired a erbos etabed od oxelfer omoc adnia ,hcsriH .rizudorp ed zapac odacrem oirprp o euq oaluger an etnemadivedni uirefretni e senuf saus uolopartxe odatsE o euq es-aredisnoc ,lareg arger ,euq otsiv ,ocigloedi etnemarietni ohnuc ed os sezar saus ,erroco otsi odnauq ,e oa ed opocse e edadicapac aus massapartlu euq sedadilibasnopser odatsE oa riubirta oticl on ,missa odneS .odatsE od laicos lepap o acifilauqer siop ,)4891( effO alumrof euq o aretla ,odom mugla ed ,otsI .aimonoce ad otnujnoc o ocuopmat men ,laicos otnujnoc o raluger ed ecnacla o mt on ,siaer meres ed mla arap ,odatsE od oaluger ed senuf sa euq )7002 ]4991[( hcsriH ed otxet od ratagser etnatropmi euq O .somsinogatna sessed oagil a e osserpxe ed amrof a ,laicnesse arienam ed ,animreted ,laicepse aicntsni amu odatsE on met euq ,atsilatipac oazilaicos ed odom O .siaicos sealer sad otnujnoc od oudorper a moc sievtapmoc res massop sosoigiler uo socint somsinogatna so e oreng ed mbmat sam ,essalc ed atsilatipac oisopo a etnemos on siaicos somsinogatna so euq etimrep otsI .)medibi ,medi( esab aus a martnocne ohlabart od osivid a e oreng ed acifcepse oazilaicos a edno lacol o res ed mla ,oome a e edadilaudividni a revlovnesed edop es edno e essalc ed seisopo sa sadizudorper e sadizudorp os ,opmet s mu a ,lauq on ragul o ailmaf a ;soirteirporp sues ed ohlabart ed arof ed atrefo ed soirtnulov sitrac e airrepo essalc ad )salecrap ed( seazinagro etnemaenatlumis os sotacidnis so ;setnerrocnoc sodavirp serotudorp ed seaicossa e latipac od setnatneserper opmet omsem oa os siairaserpme searedef sa :essalc ed oazilaicos a e odacrem olep oazilaicos a ertne oidartnoc alep avisiced arienam ed sadangerpmi otse savitaluger seiutitsni sa sadot E .)35 .p ,7002 ,hcsriH( satsilatipac edadilibaicos ed sealer sad sairtidartnoc siamrof seanimreted salep ,opmet s mu a , o d a n i m o d e a di v e d s o d n u m e si ar u tl u c s e at n ei r o , si ai c o s s oi e m e d a x el p m o c e d er a m u e d n e er p m o c el E . o hl a b art e d a r of a d o u d or p er e d r a g ul o m o c , ail m af a , o m itl r o p o n , e o v it art si n i m d a- o citl o p a m et si s o d ot ar a p a o d ot n uj n o c o , o a ci n u m o c e d s oi e m s o , o ni s n e e d s e i ut it s ni s a ,l ar e g e s s er et ni e d s e a zi n a gr o e d a h l a m a , s ot a ci d ni s s o , s e ar e d ef s a u s e s a s er p m e s a m e c n etr e p ot s i A :siaicos sexenoc e seazinagro ,seiutitsni ed edadicilpitlum amun etsisnoc euq oaluger ed ametsis mu edadrev an H .seiutitsni sasrevid ertne e/ed aentlumis oarepo amu rop etnemlaicos erroco euq ones ,latatse otibm oa adatimil tse on ,otnatrop ,oaluger A
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.)53 .p ,7002 ,hcsriH( sailmaf e seaicossa ,sadavirp saserpme ,assam ed oacinumoc ed soiem ,searedef ,soditrap ,sortuo ertne ,abolgne euq seiutitsni ed oxelpmoc otxetnoc mun azilaer es sam ,odatsE ed ohlerapa o moc ednufnoc es on acitlop amrof a euq ed oaredisnoc aus edadimixorp asse ramrifnoc ecerap euq hcsriH ed esilna ad otnemele ortuO )32( .serota sod etneicsnoc onetni ad etluser ele euq mes atsissalc retrac ues odatsE oa erefnoc euq ,sessalc e sopurg setnerefid soa oaler me sacitlop seiutitsni sad laruturtse edadiviteles a mbmat ad saM .edadeicos e odatsE ertne ,aimonoce e acitlop ertne oarapes airssecen a aD .odatsE od oamrof ad oiem rop siaicos sessalc sa sadot ed adarapes lanoicutitsni amrof amu martnocne euq ,acisf oaoc ed soiem sod oterid osu oa raicnuner a adagirbo euq omoc etnanimod essalc a ,etnemairatnulov maaf o marepo a euq setnega so euq ,oinifed rop ,reuqer acort a omoC )22(

.sodatneserpa sociret sotnemele sod esetns ed orofse mu a aroga somessaP .ocitrc etabed od onerret oa mbmat essesupmi es odatsE oa erefnoc etnanimod opmac o euq oiubirta a es omoc .)2 aton ediv( rapicitrap a sodagirbo marof satsinoicaluger so lauq od ocirtsih etabed od oisopmi amu rop zevlat ,alocse assed sociret sotnemadnuf so moc levtapmocni oidnoc amu rimussa a airassap odatsE o euq a .otnemivlovnesed ed ossecorp od etnanimreted etnegirid otiejus mu mes sotiecnoc sues ralumrof ed alocse asse airet euq edadicapacni an adartnec ,aciret acitrc A .laicreni on otseuq me ossecorp o euq ed mezaf somsem so euq oamrifa alep ocuopmat ,atsilatipac otnemivlovnesed oa lartnec ossecorp mu omoc oaluger ad aiedi ad oagen amu rop irtsnoc es on alE .oaluger ad sociret soa hcsriH rop atief acitrc zev amu siam avel son otsI .etnegiv laicos medro ad oarepus amu arap sadanoicerid euq s ,sacigloedi sezar mecelaverp osac etsen mbmaT .ocitrc opmac on mbmat etneserp tse sam ,odacrem ed oaluger ad serosnefed sod sanepa acitsretcarac on laicos oaluger ed orietni ossecorp olep edadilibasnopser ad odatsE oa oiubirta a euq ,zev amu siam ,rartsiger ebaC .32acitnmes etnemarem omoc adaredisnoc res edop ,otcepsa etsen sonem olep ,serotua siod so ertne aicntsid a otne ,acimnoce aruturtse a etnarep aizamirp mt sacigloedi saruturtserepus sa ,anaicsmarg osiv an ,ossid mla ,euq e ,livic edadeicos airprp a odnabolgne ,olpma siam otium atropmi euq odatsE ed otiecnoc o icsmarG arap euq somrarbmel es ,odutnoC .aruturtserepus ad onalp on etnematicilpxe odatsE o acoloc omitl etse euq otsiv ,icsmarG ed aleuqad hcsriH ed osiv a etnematelpmoc airatsafa ,oipcnirp me ,oisop laT .)91 .p ,7002 ,hcsriH( acimnoce esab oaler me adacilpxe res assop euq aruturtserepus amuhnen ,otnatrop , on odatsE o e etnemacirotsih men aciret men acitlop atsopusserp tse on aimonoce a siop ,acimnoce aruturtse ad adavired res assop acitlop amrof a euq riulcnoc etimrep on ,22)airodacrem alep sadaidem euq j ,sateridni sadot os siairetam sealer sa edno edadeicos amun etnedecxe
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.oirnoicircsid redop ues ed osu rezaf odatsE o ed edadissecen a etnetap euqif euq arap ,sap osson me seazitavirp sad airtsih etnecer ad rarbmel atsaB .seazitavirp sa omoc ,yevraH rop sodanoicnem mbmat ,serodailopse sossecorp sortuo ed ,olpmexe rop ,otid res edop on omsem O .)ametsis od larutan etrap oriecnanif ametsis o ,satnoc ed lanifa ,euq j( soirnoicircsid seredop moc e otulosba odatse mu ,avitimirp oalumuca ed soirnigiro sossecorp son osac o iof omoc ,rereuqer a agehc on ale ,seahlupme e seduarf ed otiuqs ues ahcram me rp arap odatsE od etnemlaicurc redneped ed rasepa ,missA .oalumuca ad lamron otnemivom od ,ajes uo ,latipac od amrof a ret ,ejoh ed omsilatipac on serodailopse setneidepxe sod avitacifingis alecrap amu a ednopserroc euq ,aictcif oazirolav a ed otaf oa eved es ossi ,airedop otnauq levsiv ot on oailopse a eS )52( .omsilairepmi o erbos orvil ues me tdnerA annaH rop adahnuc ,adairporpa otium ,osserpxe ed amrof asse atagser meuq yevraH oirprp o )42(

.52odireuqer rodailopse retrac o ririuqda medop ,oalumuca ad edadivita an setneserp erpmes ,siaropmet-oapse seanedro sa missa s siop ,ossecorp od ovita otnemele omoc odatsE o reuqer oailopse rop oalumuca a euq j ,atsilatipac siam adnia oief amu ahnag ,oirtirret od a ,adacidni ele rop ,sacigl sad adnuges a ,ossi moC .ametsis od arger a aroga odanrot es ahnet ,42etneper ed erap on oalumuca ad rotom o euq arap ratnoc euq erpmes met omsilatipac o lauq o moc ,omsem is ed arof ogla o es omoc assap es oduT .railopse a aicndnet aus ,ajes lauq ,avitutitsnoc aires ehl euq acitsretcarac amu adnuforpa e aromirpa oaziriecnanif ed ossecorp o ,lauta omsilatipac on ,oirrtnoc oa ,yevraH araP .atsilatipac airtsih an otidni ordauq mu odnarugifnoc ,oaluger ed odom ovon mu odardnegne airet ,ariecnanif oalumuca an odartnec ,emiger ovon esse e odaruatsni iof oalumuca ed emiger ovon mu ,oaterpretni aus me ,euq j ,oaluger ad alocse oailif aus eved es edadilacidar assE .ametsis od amsem aicnsse a raretla ed zapac ,rodavoni ossecorp mu omoc amot o etnemlautriv euq ,siansehC ed edadilacidar a moc zaf o on mrop ,oalumuca ed ossecorp o erbos oriecnanif latipac od aicnulfni amsem a atroper yevraH .acigl aus ovitudorp ossecorp o etembus mbmat sam ,aimonotua s on ahnag ,soruj ed rodatrop latipac od ,etnemacificepse siam ,oriehnid od otnemivom o euq acifingis otsi ,siansehC rop sodatneserpa somret soN .oalumuca ed ossecorp od oaziriecnanif etnecserc amu h euq lauta esaf an ovon ed h euq o ,sacigl sassed ariemirp a erboS .oaluger ad sairoet sadamahc missa sad megadroba ed amrof ad yevraH amixorpa euq o ,odatsE olep adarepo ,laicos oaluger ed oief a ,sn arap ,emussa ,lairotirret acigl an adatnessa ,adnuges a J .latipac ed oalumuca ed ralucelom ossecorp ed amahc ele euq oliuqa uo ,oalumuca ed adavirp acigl a moc rev euq met ariemirp A .seanimreted saud me adatnetsus omoc yevraH divaD ed oenropmetnoc omsilatipac od oalumrof a somednetne ,oudortni an somacidni j omoC
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.odatsE od otiepser a etabed od siartnec sotcepsa razitametsis ed edadicapac aus rop ,adazilaicepse aifargoilbib an adatic etnemetnerrocer oudortni atsE .orvil o arap sodanoiceles sotxet solep satsop setseuq sad ahneser -ogitra mun ,edadrev an ,etsisnoc euq ,oudortnI an serotua siod solep otief otxet oa somirefer son iuqA )62(

osicerp euq me ossucsid ed opmac mu ,otsi roP .sadivloser on adnia saciret sacimlop a otiejus atsilatipac odatsE od airoet ad uo acitlop ad opmac o euq ,)8891( yonraC e 62)8791( ottoicciP e yawolloH ed ritrap a ,somatnetsuS .oenropmetnoc omsilatipac o raziretcarac medop euq sotnemele sod otnujnoc o ailpma es e esilna a eceuqirne es euq o moc ,oirssecen es-zef odatsE ed sairoet sa erbos etabed od otibm on sadivlovne sealumrof s osrucer o ,ossi roP .odot mu omoc oaluger ed ametsis o e ,etnanimod essalc ad ainomegeh ad e redop od oiutitsnoc ed adarapes aicntsni otnauqne ,odatsE o ertne etnetsixe acimnid axelpmoc a erbos adnuforp siam oxelfer amu a agirbo euq ordauq essed oaredisnoc a .sadative majes sesirc sa euq arap laicos oaluger ed orietni ossecorp od siam zev adac odnigixe ,adnuforp siam zev adac -es-ranrot oalumuca ed sossecorp son adivlovne aicnloiv a euq raredisnoc oticl ecerap ,missa odneS .siam zev adac avarga o euqrop etneod od odatse o arohlem s ,aicndneped asuac euq agord amu omoc lat ,euq ,oalumucaerbos a arap oidmer mu omoc anoicnuf oaziriecnanif a euq acifingis ossi ,yevraH ed somret soN .etnenamrep ocimtsis ocsir ed oautis amun acoloc o euq o ,etnacram siam acitsretcarac aus omoc sadnuforp e setneuqerf sesirc ed oareg a moc sam ,latipac ed sedadinu s sievnopsid otse euq megacnavala ed somsinacem sod edutilpma alep ,ocimnid siam ta res etnemlautneve assop oenropmetnoc oalumuca ed ossecorp o euq moc mezaf euq sacitsretcarac sa moc rev euq met ,odal ortuo rop ,edadiligarf A .orcul ed axat ad etnecserced aicndnet a ratnerfne arap atsilatipac essalc alep odazilitu res a etneidepxe mu omoc etnemos ot otsiv iof odatsE o odnauq ,)8791( hcsriH ed oalumrof ariemirp ahnartse on mbmat euq oaterpretni ,effO sualC atnopa son omoc ,odavirp etnemacesnirtni lairetam oudorp ed ossecorp o euq ed acitsretcarac a moc ,rezid elav ,laicos medro a moc rev euq met edadilibatsni a euq somaredisnoc ,atsoporp iuqa sesiv setnerefid sa ertne oamixorpa ad somret soN .atsilatipac airtsih ad esaf atsed otidni retrac o ramrifa odnacsub ,onitsid a zaf meuq )5002( siansehC .lausac on acimtsis edadiligarf e laruturtse edadilibatsni somret somitl siod sessed oazilitu A .ossecorp od odnamoc on tse oriecnanif latipac o odnauq acimtsis edadiligarf me amrofsnart es edadilibatsni asse e )etnemarietni mted on ele oirtbra ojuc ,sonretxe somsinacem ed edadilibinopsid etnenamrep ad mbmat sam ,omsitamotua ues ed s edneped on ossecus ues euqrop( laruturtse euq edadilibatsni amu ed rodatrop ametsis o euq rezid mbmat somedop ,yevraH ed oaterpretni ad ritrap A
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soiem ed oxelpmoc od merroced euq seidartnoc ed ,amsem ale ,adavie mbmat acigl amu omoc sam ,odatsE od ocitlop redop olep adaidem acigl amu omoc s on ,yevraH erefer es euq a lairotirret acigl a rednetne a odom ed esilna ad opocse o ragrala osicerp euq artsnomed euq o ,sairnigiro sianoiger sarutluc sad oavreserp ed siaicos sotnemivom ed oazilativer ,soirtidartnoc sotnemele sortuo ertne ,mbmat es-etsissa ,odutnoC .atsilatipac arutluc ad oudorper ed socigloedi somsinacem so ertne etnetop siam e roiam otium oxenoc amu ,)2991( yevraH reuq omoc ,etnemavitefe maritimrep omsilatipac od lauta esaf ad oalumuca ed ossecorp od esab a os euq ,savitudorp seavoni sa ,olpmexe roP .eregus son yevraH ed esilna a euq od oxelpmoc siam ecerap opmac etsE .icsmarG amrofni son emrofnoc ,laicos ainomegeh ad atupsid ed ocitlop opmac oa erefer es etnemlamron euq ossucsid amu ed sotnemele os sessE .ailmaf e onisne ed seiutitsni s hcsriH zaf euq senem sa os anerefid assed setnatropmi solpmexE .ossecorp esse a soditembus etnematerid otse on mbmat euq sotnemele e sotcepsa moc sairtidartnoc sealer recelebatse medop sale e ,oalumuca ad otnemivom oa oterid odom ed sadanidrobus etnemairassecen otse seder sa sadot meN .racidni ecerap yevraH ed oisoporp a otnauq oterid ot on elortnoc o a euq es-edneerped mrop ,ametsis od latot oudorper an ,otnatrop ,e oaluger an siaicos sealer ed seder sad aicntropmi a euqatsed moc ecerapa ,hcsriH me mbmat ,missA .atsilatipac edadilibaicos ad sairtidartnoc seanimreted salep adanimod eder axelpmoc asse adot odnes ,sailmaf sa e oacinumoc ed soiem so ,ovitartsinimda -ocitlop ametsis od otarapa o ,siairaserpme seaicossa sa e serodahlabart ed sotacidnis so ,lareg esseretni ed seazinagro sa ,sortuo ertne ,otse eleN .siaicos sexenoc e seazinagro ,seiutitsni ed edadicilpitlum amu me etsisnoc hcsriH ed oaluger ed ametsis o ,etnahlemes arienam eD .socitsgnil sogidc so e ,socint e sosoigiler solucnv so ,saropsid sa ,ocsetnerap o odniulcni ,latipac od oarepo ed saruturtse e seder sa etnemacisab otse a ,odapicetna j emrofnoC .)oditimda etnematerid ajes on ossi euq omsem ,odatsE od aicnrefretni a reuqer euq o( latipac ed oalumuca ad ralucelom acigl aditembus etnemarietni e aterid tse odatsE od otibm od arof erroco euq oaluger a yevraH araP .)08 .p ,4002 ,yevraH( odatsE od setnednepedni redop ed saruturtse odnes omoc uotnopa yevraH euq o moc ,es-racifitnedi mes ,egrevnoc oaluger ed ametsis o euq somireguS .odatsE o euq od olpma siam oaluger ed ametsis mu etnemavitefe h )35 .p ,7002]4991[( hcsriH arap ,siamedA .oenropmetnoc laicos oaluger ed ossecorp od azerutan ad otiepser a otnemadnuforpa mu mbmat sam ,asecnarF oalugeR ad alocsE ad acitrc oailava amu sanepa on h ,etseN .)7002]4991[( hcsriH ed o yevraH divaD ed oa ratnemelpmoc e levtapmoc ocitlop opmac od otnemivlovnesed levssop mu euq somireguS .esilna ad saicngixe sad ritrap a saciret sepo rezaf
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sotnemarbodsed sod atnoc rop s on otsi e otreba me otse adnia edadidnuforp e osnetxe aus ,)onacirema oirilibomi odacrem od esirc otnauqne uecerapa euq ariecnanif oazirolav ed somsinacem son enap amu( adinifed meb etnemlevaozar megiro met lauta esirc a es ,missA .latnedico arutluc ad arodazienegomoh atsilanoicanretni acigl amu ed oisoporp a ta ordap sacimnoce sacitlop ed oisopmi a edsed odni ,salpitlm os otnemanoisnet essed sezar sA .oailopse rop oalumuca a mabrecaxe e aviturtsed amrof ed marepo oalumucaerbos ad amelborp o ratnerfne arap sairssecen siaropmet-oapse seanedro sa euq me otnemom mun etnemralucitrap ,ocitlop opmac o odnanoisnet ,sianoican sedadeicos sad otibm on etnemadaigelivirp mauta euq sarof sa uouga ,etnemairotidartnoc ,oazilabolg A .72sianoican etnemacesnirtni os euq ,laicos oaluger ed sametsis so manacla euqrop sievlortnocni os esirc ad socimtsis sotiefe so ,raredisnoc ed somiv euq oleP .ametsis o ecedap euq ed acinrc oalumucaerbos a odaivila mt euq )serodailopse( somsinacem sortuo so rauteprep ed mbmat sam ,sairteled on siaropmet-oapse seanedro ed rovaf me rirefretni ed s on )odatsE od otibm o malopartxe sam ,mevlovne euq( oaluger ed somsinacem sod lareg edadicapacni amu etelfer alE .omsilatipac od oaluger ed odot mu omoc ossecorp od esirc omoc es-atneserpa adatnemirepxe etnemlauta esirc a ,olpmexe rop ,missA .someviv euq me sacirtsih seidnoc sad ,oudart ed edadicapac roiam moc ,oalumrof an es-iutitsnoc ,)lanoicanarpus acitlop ad ,laruturtseorcam( lanoicanretni otibm on ajes ,)odatsE od( lanoican otibm on ajes ,ocitlop opmac od adnuforp siam ossucsid amu rop adailpma ,)siansehC ed oaziriecnanif ad seset s zuder es on sam ,evlovne euq( oenropmetnoc omsilatipac o erbos yevraH divaD ed eset a euq ,ossi rop ,somireguS .laicos oaluger ed latot ossecorp od edadixelpmoc ad maname euq seidartnoc sa moc ,ossi rop ,rev es ed met ,oalumuca ed ossecorp od euqober a aroga ahnimac ,yevraH oirprp o artsnomed omoc ,euq ,omsilairepmi etse euq edadrev mbmat ,odatsE od oauta ad e ocitlop redop od otibm on ,otnatrop ,satsilairepmi sacitrp sad enrec on amitl atse odnatse ,)aictcif e ariecnanif oazirolav ed setneidepxe son esafn moc( oailopse rop oalumuca a arap adailpma oalumuca ad rassap esafn ed anadum a otsiv met atsilatipac esaf lauta a euq ,yevraH reuq omoc ,edadrev es ,missA .atsilatipac oanimod ad oudorper e oudorp ad arodaif aicntsni otnauqne odatsE od oa ed redop o matimil seidartnoc sassE .hcsriH rop odidnetne omoc lat ,laicos oaluger ed ossecorp on ,etnemateridni uo aterid ,setneserp mbmat adiv ed sodnum e siarutluc seatneiro ,siaicos
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.8891 ]4891[ ,suripaP :sanipmaC .de .2 .acitlop airoet e odatsE .M ,YONRAC .5002 ,JRFU/orienaJ ed oiR od laredeF edadisrevinU)odarotuoD( eseT .lisarB on oalumuca ed emiger od seamrofsnart sa :oiubirtsid e siaruturtse sanadum ,ocimnoce otnemicserC .P .A .M ,ONURB .3002 ]2002[ ,droceR :orienaJ ed oiR .ahlob a e moob O .________ . 8 9 9 1 y a M , 9 2 2 . n , w ei v e R tf e L w e N . 8 9 9 1- 0 5 9 1 y m o n o c e dl r o w e ht n o tr o p er l ai c e p s a : e c n el u br u t l a b ol g f o s ci m o n o c e e h T . R , R E N N E R B .3991 ,2 .n ,sanipmaC ,edadeicoS e aimonocE .siartnec somsilatipac sod acimnid avon a e ariecnanif aruturtseorcam a azeuqir ad oaziriecnanif A .________ . 5 8 9 1 ,san i p m a C ed laudatsE edadisrevinU ad aimonocE ed otutitsnI)odarotuoD( eseT .atsilatipac acimnid ad airoet oiubirtnoc amU azeuqir ad edadilaropmeT .S ed .C .J ,AGARB .955-145 .p .5891 ,acimonocE :siraP .seuqitilop te seiroht :iuhdruojua senyeK .) . d E( . A , E R R R A B : nI . s e n n ei s n y e k s e u qi m o n o c s e u qitil o p s e d e sir c al e d si u p r o s s el ed noitatrpretni enU .elarng eiroht al seticilpmi noitasinagrod semroF .________ .0991 ]6891[ ,leboN :oluaP oS .acitrc esilna amu oaluger ad airoet A .R ,REYOB .4002 ,lairotidE euguozA :oluaP oS .ramieW ed edadilauta A etnenamrep oecxe ed odatsE e oiutitsnoC .G ,ICIVOCREB .4002 .tuo ,244-724 .p ,2 .n ,52 .v .ergelA otroP ,EEF soiasnE .sarodadnuf setseuq e acirtsih m e gir o : o al u g er a d m e g a dr o b a a d s o ci g l o d ot e m s ot n e m a d n u F . G . A , O T S U G U A .6002 .nuj/.naj ,06-83 .p ,1 .n , 9 . v , sil o p n air ol F , ai m o n o c E e d s ot x e T . o m si l a n oi c n uf e o m s il ar u t urt s e , o m s i ci m o n o c e od mla :odotm e otejbo ,atsilatipac oaluger ad sairoeT .L .W ,ITNERA .0891 .tes ,602 -571 .p ,3 .n ,64 .v ,niavuoL ed seuqimonocE sehcrehceR .selanoitan seuqimonocorcam snoitaluger te egnahc ed setniartnoC .G ,ZIDUO ;.A ,SNAELRO ;________ .6891 ,etrevuoceD aL :siraP .slc sesived sed nif aL .________ .4002 .voN .nomiS-tniaS noitadnoF al ed setoN .niamed ed emsilatipac eL .________ .4002 ,opmetioB :oluaP oS .oecxe ed odatsE .G ,NEBMAGA
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