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PADMASRI DR B V RAJU INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY VISHNUPUR, NARSAPUR, MEDAK (DIST.) DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRICAL AND ELECTRONICS ENGINEERING

POWER ELECTRONICS AND SIMULATION LAB MANUAL III-B.Tech II-SEMESTER 2011-2012

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PREFACE The Power Electronics and Simulation Laboratory is a unique opportunity for you to design and build. Power electronic circuits are the backbone of almost every modern convenience. Automobiles, cell-phones, laptop and desktop computers, television sets, and kitchen appliances, among many other systems, require power electronics circuits to convert electrical energy to a useful form. The creation of a successful power electronic circuit almost always requires more than the application of a set of analytical techniques. The most elegant examples are crafted by engineers who have a rich understanding of how to make trade-offs amongst all the parts of a system, e.g., thermal, mechanical, electrical, and sometimes software. For this reason, we make special efforts to expose you to a huge number of demonstrations developed from a wide range of engineering disciplines, and to provide exciting laboratory experiences that let you try the techniques you learn on practical hardware.

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ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

It is one of lifes simple pleasures to say thank you for all the help that one has extended their support. I wish to acknowledge and appreciate Asst Prof J Deepthi, Asst Prof N Ramchander, P PrabhuDass, K Srinivasa Raju and G Suresh Raju for their sincere efforts made towards developing the Power Electronics and Simulation lab manual. I wish to thank students for their suggestions which are considered while preparing the lab manuals. I am extremely indebted to Sri. Col Dr. T. S. Surendra, Principal and Professor, Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, BVRIT for his valuable inputs and sincere support to complete the work. Specifically, I am grateful to the Management for their constant advocacy and incitement. Finally, I would again like to thank the entire faculty in the Department and those people who directly or indirectly helped in successful completion of this work.
Prof. N. BHOOPAL iii

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HOD - EEE

GUIDELINES TO WRITE YOUR OBSERVATION BOOK:


1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Experiment Title, Aim, Apparatus, Procedure should be on right side. Circuit diagrams, Model graphs, Observations table, Calculations table should be left side. Theoretical and model calculations can be any side as per your convenience. Result should always be in the ending. You all are advised to leave sufficient no of pages between experiments for theoretical or model calculations purpose.

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DOS AND DONTS IN THE LAB.


DOS:1. Proper dress has to be maintained while entering in the Lab. (Boys Tuck in and shoes, girls with apron) 2. All students should come to the Lab with necessary tools. (Cutting Pliers 6, Insulation remover and phase tester) 3. Students should carry observation notes and record completed in all aspects. 4. Correct specifications of the equipment have to be mentioned in the circuit diagram. 5. Student should be aware of operating equipment. 6. Students should be at their concerned experiment table, unnecessary moment is restricted. 7. Student should follow the indent procedure to receive and deposit the equipment from the Lab Store Room. 8. After completing the connections Students should verify the circuits by the Lab Instructor. 9. The reading must be shown to the Lecturer In-Charge for verification. 10. Students must ensure that all switches are in the OFF position, all the connections are removed. 11. All patch cords and stools should be placed at their original positions. DONTs:1. Dont come late to the Lab. 2. Dont enter into the Lab with Golden rings, bracelets and bangles. 3. Dont make or remove the connections with power ON. 4. Dont switch ON the supply without verifying by the Staff Member. 5. Dont switch OFF the machine with load. 6. Dont leave the lab without the permission of the Lecturer In-Charge.

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III-B.Tech EEE II Sem

Jawaharlal Nehru Technological University Hyderabad L T/P/D C 0 -/3/- 2

(56603)POWER ELECTRONICS AND SIMULATION LAB


Any Eight of the Experiments in Power Electronics Lab 1. Study of Characteristics of SCR, MOSFET & IGBT 2. Gate firing circuits for SCR's 3. Single Phase AC Voltage Controller with R and RL Loads 4. Single Phase fully controlled bridge converter with R and RL loads 5. Forced Commutation circuits ( Class A, Class B, Class C, Class D & Class E) 6. DC Jones chopper with R and RL Loads 7. Single Phase Parallel, inverter with R and RL loads 8. Single Phase Cyclo converter with R and RL loads 9. Single Phase Half controlled converter with R load 10. Three Phase half controlled bridge converter with R-load 11. Single phase series inverter with R and RL loads 12. Single phase bridge converter with R and RL loads 13. Single phase dual converter with RL load. Any two simulation experiments with PSPICE/PSIM 14. PSPICE simulation of single-phase full converter using RLE loads and single-phase AC voltage controller using RLE loads. 15. PSPICE simulation of resonant pulse commutation circuit and Buck chopper. 16. PSPICE simulation of single phase Inverter with PWM control. REFERENCE BOOKS: 1. Simulation of Electric and Electronic circuits using PSPICE - by M.H.Rashid, M/s PHI Publications. 2. PSPICE A/D user's manual - Microsim, USA. 3. PSPICE reference guide - Microsim, USA. 4. MATLAB and its Tool Books users manual and Mathworks USA 5. SPICE for power electronics and electric power by Rashid, CRC Press

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INDEX
s.n Name of the experiment Page.no 1-10 11-16 17-23 24-30 31-36 37-43 44-49 50-54 55-59 60-62 63-67

1. 2 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9.

Study of Characteristics of SCR, MOSFET & IGBT Forced Commutation circuits ( Class A, Class B, Class C, Class D & Class E) Single Phase AC Voltage Controller with R and RL Loads Single Phase fully controlled bridge converter with R and RL loads Single Phase Half controlled converter with R load Single Phase Cycloconverter with R and RL loads Study of Gate firing circuits for SCR's DC Jones chopper with R and RL Loads Three Phase half controlled bridge converter with R-load

10. Single Phase Parallel, inverter with R and RL loads 11. PSPICE simulation of single-phase full converter using RLE loads and single-

phase AC voltage controller using RLE loads


12. PSPICE simulation of resonant pulse commutation circuit and Buck chopper. 13. PSPICE simulation of single phase Inverter with PWM control Additional Experiments 14 68-70 71-74

Circuit Diagram for speed control of DC Shunt motor using half controlled 75-77 converter Circuit Diagram for Speed control of I- Induction motor using AC Voltage controller
78-79

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1. STUDY OF CHARACTERISTICS OF SCR, MOSFET AND IGBT


AIM: To study various characteristics of SCR, MOSFET and IGBT. APPARATUS: S.No 1. EQUIPMENT SCR,MOSFET AND IGBT KIT PATCH CARDS Qty 1

2.

1 set

THEORY: Silicon Controlled Rectifier: Silicon Controlled Rectifier is a four-layer three junction p-n-p-n switching device. It has three terminals, Anode, cathode and gate. In normal operation of thyristor anode held with high positive potential with respect to cathode and gate has a small positive with respect to cathode. When Anode is made positive with respect to cathode and switch is open in the gate circuit ,then p-n junction j1 and j3 are forward biased ,where as j2 becomes wider and j1 thinner at j1 and j3. There is no base current in transistor t2 and hence that of t1.under such conditions the SCR is in a state of blocking forward direction. If now gate is made positive w.r.t. cathode or switch is closed , a small gate current will flow through junction j2 as a result anode starts flows if anode current is greater than latching current of SCR.SCR is forward conduction state or simply SCR is closed state. MOSFET: A Power MOSFET has three terminal called drain, source and gate. MOSFET is a voltage controlled device. As its operation depends upon the flow of majority carriers only. MOSFET is uni polar device. The control signal or gate current less than a BJT. This is because of fact that gate circuit impedance in MOSFET is very high of the order of 109 ohm. This larger impedance permits the MOSFET gate be driven directly from microelectronic circuits. Power MOSFETs are now finding increasing applications in low-power high frequency converters. IGBT: IGBT is a new development in the area of Power MOSFET Technology. This device combines into its the advantages of both MOSFET and BJT. So an IGBT has high input impedance like a MOSFET and low-on-state power loss in a BJT.IGBT is also known as metal oxide insulated gate transistor (MOSIGT). Conductively modulated field effect transistor
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Power Electronics and Simulation Lab Manual, EEE Department, BVRIT

(COMFET) or gain modulated FET (GEMFET). It was initially called insulated gate transistor(IGT). CIRCUIT DIAGRAM: SCR CHARACTERISTICS:
IA

A IG
+

2.5K/25W

(0-200mA)

(0-20mA)
A

+ VAK
V

(0-50V)

(0-15V)

VGK

VAK

(0-35V)

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Power Electronics and Simulation Lab Manual, EEE Department, BVRIT

MOSFETCHARACTERISTICS: ID
+

2.5K/25W

(0-200mA)

+ VDS

S
+ VGS

(0-50V)

(0-35V)

VDD

VGS

(0-15V)

(0-20V)

IGBT CHARACTERISTICS: ID

C G

2.5K/25W

(0-200mA)

+ VCE

E
+ VBE

(0-20V)

(0-35V)

VCC

VGG

(0-15V)

(0-20V)

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Power Electronics and Simulation Lab Manual, EEE Department, BVRIT

PROCEDURE: SCR CHARACTERISTICS: A) Forward V-I Characteristics: 1. The connections are made as shown in the circuit diagram. 2. Switch on the power supply .Apply constant VAK voltage say 10V varying VAA 3. Gradually increase the gate current till the SCR becomes on i.e. VAK and IA 4. Now VAK is increased gradually and IA noted for two to three readings, 5. Steps 3 to 4 are repeated for another values of VAK say 30V. 6. Tabulate the readings in the tabule. 7. Plot a graph of VAK versus IA for different(two) values of IG B) Reverse V-I Characteristics : 1. Now reverse the polarities of the anode voltage source. 2. Open the switch in the gate circuit. 3. Note down the readings of anode voltage and current by increasing the value of voltage source in the anode circuit. C) Gate Characteristics: 1. Now open the switch in the anode circuit. 2. Set the gate circuit voltage source and anode circuit voltage source as per the given value. 3. Note down the readings of gate voltage and gate current by reducing the value of gate side rheostat. MOSFET CHARACTERISTICS: A) OUTPUT CHARACTERISTICS: 1. The connections are made as shown in the circuit diagram.

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Power Electronics and Simulation Lab Manual, EEE Department, BVRIT

2. Switch on the Supply. Keep VDS say 10V vary VGS note down the range of VGS for which drain current is varying for constant VGS 3. Keep VGS constant (VGS must be within the range determined by step2) 4. Vary VDS in steps ,note down corresponding ID

5. Step4 is repeated for different VGS 6. Tabulate the readings in the table. 7. Plot a graph of ID against VDS for different VGS B) TRANSFER CHARACTERISTICS: 1. The connections are made as shown in the circuit diagram. 2. Switch on the regulated power supplies. Keep VDS constant say 10V. Vary VGS in steps, note down the corresponding ID 3. Tabulate the readings in the table. 4. Plot a graph of ID against VGS IGBT CHARACTERISTICS: A) OUTPUT CHARACTERISTICS: 1. Connections are made as shown in the circuit diagram 2. Switch on power supply. Keep VGE say 5v, vary VGE note down the range of VGE for which collector current is varying for constant VGE. 3. Keep VGE constant ( VGE must be within the range ) 4. Vary VCE in steps ,note down corresponding IC 5. Adjust VGE to constant while doing step4. 6. Step4 is repeated for different VGE. 7. Tabulate the readings in the table. 8. Plot a graph of IC against VCE for different VGE B) TRANSFER CHARACTERISTICS:
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Power Electronics and Simulation Lab Manual, EEE Department, BVRIT

1. Connections are made as shown in the circuit diagram 2. Switch on the power supply. Keep VCE constant. Vary VGE in steps .note down corresponding IC 3. Adjust VCE to constant while doing step2. 4. Tabulate the readings in the table. 5. Plot a graph of IC against VGE for the constant VCE

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Power Electronics and Simulation Lab Manual, EEE Department, BVRIT

TABULAR COLUMN: SCR CHARACTERISTICS: A) FORWARD V-I CHARACTERISTICS B) REVERSE V-I CHARACTERISTICS S .NO. IG1= S.NO. VAK= V IA= mA VAK= V IA= mA mA IG2= mA VAK= V IA= mA

C) GATE CHARACTERISTICS:

S.No.

VG

IG

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Power Electronics and Simulation Lab Manual, EEE Department, BVRIT

MOSFET CHARACTERISTICS: A) OUTPUT CHARACTERISTICS B) TRANSFER CHARACTERISTICS

VGS1= S.NO. VDS= V

VGS2= VDS= V

S.NO. VGS= V

VDS1=

V ID = mA

ID= mA

ID= mA

IGBT CHARACTERISTICS: A) OUTPUT CHARACTERISTICS VGE1= S.NO. VBE= V IC= mA VBE= V IC= mA VCE= S.NO. VGE= V IC = mA V V VGE2= V B) TRANSFER CHARACTERISTICS

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Power Electronics and Simulation Lab Manual, EEE Department, BVRIT

MODEL GRAPHS: SCR CHARACTERISTICS:


FORWARD AND REVERSE CHARACTERISTICS: Gate characteristics:

Vg

Ig

MOSFET CHARACTERISTICS:

MOSFET V-I Characteristics


MOSFET Transfer Characteristics

ID VGS4 >VGS3 >VGS2 VGS4 VGS3 VGS2 VGS1


ID

VDS
VGST VGS

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Power Electronics and Simulation Lab Manual, EEE Department, BVRIT

IGBT CHARACTERISTICS:

IGBT IC VGE4 >VGE3 >VGE2 >VGE1 VGE4 VGE3 VGE2 VGE1 VCE

RESULT: Output and Transfer Characteristics of SCR, MOSFET and IGBT are studied

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Power Electronics and Simulation Lab Manual, EEE Department, BVRIT

2. STUDY OF FORCED COMMUTATION CIRCUITS


AIM: To Verify the different types of forced commutation circuits by connecting a resistive load. APPARATUS: S.No 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. EQUIPMENT Forced commutation Kit Regulated Power Supply Rheostat CRO Patch cards Qty 1 1 2 1

THEORY: Commutation is the process of turning off the SCR and it normally causes the transfer of current flow to other parts of circuit. Commutation can be divided into a) Natural commutation b) Forced commutation a) Natural commutation: If the source voltage AC the SCR current goes through a natural zero and reverse voltage appears across the SCR. The device is automatically turns off due to the natural behavior of the source voltage. This is known as natural commutation or line commutation. b) Forced commutation: In some SCR circuits the input voltage is DC and the forward current of the SCR is DC and the forward current of the SCR is forced to zero by external or additional circuitry called as commutation circuitry to turn off SCR. This Technique is called forced commutation and normally applied in DC to DC converters .

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Power Electronics and Simulation Lab Manual, EEE Department, BVRIT

Forced Commutation circuits can be classified as


i. ii. iii. iv. v. Class-A Commutation (Series resonant commutation circuit) Class-B Commutation (Parallel resonant commutation circuit) Class-C Commutation ( Complementary commutation circuit) Class-D Commutation (Auxiliary Commutation) Class-E Commutation (External Pulse Commutation)

CIRCUIT DIAGRAM:

CLASS-A COMMUTATION:
T1

CLASS-B COMMUTATION:

T (0-15V) R
To CRO

L C

(0-15V)

To CRO

CLASS-C COMMUTATION:

CLASS-D COMMUTATION:

T1

R1
C

R2
+ R TA

(0-15V)

T1

T2

(0-30V)
L D

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Power Electronics and Simulation Lab Manual, EEE Department, BVRIT

PROCEDURE:

CLASS-A COMMUTATION: 1. Connect the circuit as shown in the circuit. 2. Connect Trigger output T1 to gate and cathode of SCR T1 3. Switch on the DC supply to the power circuit and observe the voltage waveform across load by varying the frequency potentiometer. 4. Repeat the same for different values of L,C and R.

CLASS-B COMMUTATION: 1. Connect the circuit as shown in the circuit. 2. Connect Trigger output T1 to gate and cathode of SCR T1 3. Switch on the DC supply to the power circuit and observe the voltage waveform across load by varying the frequency potentiometer. 4. Repeat the same for different values of L,C and R. Note: Same procedure for Class-A and Class-B Commutation. CLASS-C COMMUTATION: 1. Connect the circuit as shown in the circuit.

2. Connect T1 and T2 from firing circuit to gate and cathode of Thyristor T1 and T2. 3. Observe the waveforms across R1,R2 and C by varying frequency and also duty cycle potentiometer. 4. Repeat the same for different values of C and R. CLASS-D COMMUTATION: 1. Connect the circuit as shown in the circuit.
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Power Electronics and Simulation Lab Manual, EEE Department, BVRIT

2. Connect T1 and T2 gate pulse from the firing circuit to the corresponding SCRs in the power circuit. 3. Initially keep the trigger ON/OFF at OFF position to initially charge the capacitor, this can be observed by connecting CRO across the capacitor. 4. Now switch ON the trigger output switch and observe the voltage waveform across the load T1, T2 and capacitor. Note down the voltage waveforms at different frequency of chopping and also at different duty cycle. 5. Repeat the experiment for different values of load Resistance, commutation inductance and capacitance. CLASS-E COMMUTATION: 1. Connect the circuit as shown in the circuit. 2. Connect the trigger output T1 from the firing circuit to the SCR. 3. Connect T2 to the Transistor base and emitter points 4. Switch on the Power Supply and External DC supply. 5. Switch on the trigger output and observe and note down waveforms. Repeat the Same by varying frequency and duty cycle. MODEL GRAPHS: CLASS-A COMMUTATION:

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Power Electronics and Simulation Lab Manual, EEE Department, BVRIT

CLASS-B COMMUTATION:

CLASS-C COMMUTATION:

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Power Electronics and Simulation Lab Manual, EEE Department, BVRIT

CLASS-D COMMUTATION:

CLASS-E COMMUTATION:

RESULT: The operations of class- A, B, C, D and E are observed. 16

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Power Electronics and Simulation Lab Manual, EEE Department, BVRIT

3. SINGLE PHASE AC VOLTAGE CONTROLLER WITH R & RL LOADS


AIM: To Verify the operation of single phase AC Voltage controller with R and RL Loads and to observe the output and input waveforms APPARATUS: S.No 1. 2. EQUIPMENT I- Transformer I- AC voltage controller power circuit with firing unit Voltmeters(MI meters) Rheostat Inductive load CRO with (1:10) Probe Patch cards Qty 1 1

3. 4. 5. 6. 7

2 1 1 1

THEORY: AC voltage controllers are thyristor based devices ,which converts the fixed Ac voltage into variable AC voltage with same frequency .The circuit diagram of Single phase AC voltage controller is shown in figure .It consists of two SCRs connected in anti parallel. The input and output voltage waveforms are also shown. The SCRs are gate controlled and gate pulses are obtained from firing unit. A) For R-Load: For the first half cycle of input voltage waveform SCR T1 conducts and gives controlled output to load. During the other half cycle of input voltage waveform SCR T2 conducts .During the Positive half cycle T1 is triggered at a firing angle of wt= .T1 starts conducting and source voltage is applied to the load from to . At wt= both Vo and Io falls to zero. Just after wt= , T1 is reverse biased and therefore it is turned off by self commutation. During the negative half cycle of T2 is triggered at wt= +, then T2 conducts from wt = +

Vo rms = V ph {[( ) + (1 / 2) sin 2 ] / }1/ 2

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Power Electronics and Simulation Lab Manual, EEE Department, BVRIT

Where Vorms is the theoretical RMS value of the output voltage, Vph is the phase voltage of the input voltage and is the firing angle B) For RL Load: During the first half cycle wt = 0 to SCR T1 is forward biased and is triggered at wt= and output current starts building up through load .At wt=, load and source voltage are zero. But the output current is not zero because of inductive load. At wt=(>), the load current reduces to zero, angle is called extinction angle. After wt = , SCR T1 is reverse biased, but does not turn off because the output current is not zero. At wt=, only when output current is zero T1 turns off. During the negative half cycle SCR T2 is forward biased and is triggered at wt = +. The output current flows through the load in reverse direction. The operation of SCR T2 is similar as that of SCR T1 during the period wt = + to wt = (2-) but in the negative direction. At wt= ( 2-) the SCR t2 is commutated and the next positive half cycle will be regulated by SCR T1. In this way the AC Voltage controller will be useful for regulating the AC voltage.

Vorms = V ph {[( ) + (1 / 2)(sin 2 (1 / 2) sin 2 )] / 2 }1/ 2 Theoretically the value of Extinction angle can be calculated by
= (+); Where =tan-1(wL/R)

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Power Electronics and Simulation Lab Manual, EEE Department, BVRIT

CIRCUIT DIAGRAM: AC VOLTAGE CONTROLLER:

T1

Ph

T2
1- AC Supply
V V
To CRO

Fig-1 Single Phase AC Voltage controller with R-load

T1

Ph

T2 1- AC Supply

V
L

To CRO

Fig-2 Single Phase AC Voltage controller with RL-load

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Power Electronics and Simulation Lab Manual, EEE Department, BVRIT

PROCEDURE: A) For R-Load: 1. Connect the circuit as shown in figure. 2. Verify the connections from the lab instructor before switch on the supply. 3. Keep the rheostat position value given by the lab instructor 4. Switch ON the CRO and calibrate it with the input voltage. 5. Switch on the power circuit and firing circuit. 6. Observe the output voltage waveform in the CRO. 7. Note down the reading of from the CRO and Vo from the voltmeter 8. Also calculate the theoretical value of output voltage from the formula and compare it with the practical value of the output voltage, which is observed from the voltmeter. 9. Repeat the above process from step 6 to 8 for various firing angles. B). For RL-Load: 1. Switch off the power supply and connect an inductance of given value in series with the load resistance. 2. Repeat steps 2 to 9 in this case and also note down the reading of .

TABULAR COLUMN: A) For R-Load: The input voltage Vph = Value of load resistance RL= CRO calibration: 180 degrees = S.NO. Firing angle() in milli seconds Firing angle() in degrees V (As given by the instructor) (As given by the instructor) msec = radians Vo (Practical ) Vo (Theoritical)

Firing angle() in radians


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Power Electronics and Simulation Lab Manual, EEE Department, BVRIT

A) For RL-Load: The input voltage Vph = Value of load resistance RL= Value of Load inductance L= V (As given by the instructor) (As given by the instructor) mH(As given by the instructor)

CRO calibration: 180 degrees = Theoretical Extinction angle = Practical Extinction angle =

msec = (in msec) = (in msec) =

radians (degrees) = (degrees) = (radians) (radians)

S.NO. Firing angle() in milli seconds

Firing angle() in degrees

Firing angle() in radians

Vo (Practical )

Vo (Theoritical)

MODEL GRAPHS: With R-Load:


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Power Electronics and Simulation Lab Manual, EEE Department, BVRIT

With RL-Load:

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Power Electronics and Simulation Lab Manual, EEE Department, BVRIT

RESULT: The operation of I- ac voltage controller with R&RL loads is verified and the theoretical and practical values of output voltages with R and RL loads are found.

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Power Electronics and Simulation Lab Manual, EEE Department, BVRIT

4. SINGLE PHASE FULL CONTROLLED BRIDGE CONVERTER WITH R & RL LOAD

AIM: To obtain controlled output waveforms of a single phase fully controlled bridge Converter with R and RL Loads. APPARATUS: S.No 1. 2. EQUIPMENT I- Transformer I- fully controlled power circuit with firing unit Voltmeter(MI meter) Voltmeter(MC meter) Rheostat Inductive load CRO with (1:10) Probe Patch cards Qty 1 1

3. 4. 5. 6. 7 8.

1 1 1 1 1

THEORY: A) For R-Load: A fully controlled bridge converter using four SCRs is shown in the circuit diagram. In the bridge circuit diagonally opposite pair of SCRs are made to conduct and are commutated simultaneously. During the first positive half cycle SCRs T1 and T2 are forward biased and they are triggered simultaneously at wt = then the current flowing through the path A-T1-R-T2-B. During the negative half cycle of the input SCRs T3 and T4 are forward biased and they are triggered at wt= (+) simultaneously then the current flows through B-T3-R-T4-A. Thyristors T1,T2 and T3,T4 are triggered at same firing angle in each positive and negative half cycle of the input voltage respectively.

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Power Electronics and Simulation Lab Manual, EEE Department, BVRIT

When the output voltage falls to zero, the output current also falls to zero because of resistive load .Hence SCRs T1, T2 in positive half cycle and T3,T4 in negative half cycle turn off by natural commutation. The related voltage and current wave forms are shown in the diagram. The theoretical value of the average DC output voltage can be calculated by Voth= (Vm/)(1+cos). Where Voth is the theoretical value of the output voltage Vm is the maximum value of the AC input voltage and is the firing angle. B) For RL-Load: A fully controlled bridge converter using four SCRs is shown in the circuit diagram. To conduct the SCRs simultaneously firing of SCRs T1,T2 in the first half cycle and T3,T4 in the next half cycle is necessary. To ensure this both T1,T2 are fired from the same firing angle. As shown in the diagram when wt=, SCRs T1, T2 are triggered simultaneously. The current flow through A-T1-R-L-T2-B.Supply voltage from this instant appears across output terminals and forces the current through load. At wt=,the output voltage tends to reverse its direction where as the output current tries to flows on the same direction because of inductive load. The output current becomes zero at a angle of wt=. At an angle wt=(+) SCRs T3 ,T4 are triggered, with this negative line voltage reverse biases SCRs T1 and T2 hence the SCRs T1 and T2 are commutated.Now the current flows through the path B-T3-R-L-T4-A.This continue in every half cycle and we get output voltage as shown in waveforms. The theoretical value of the average DC output voltage can be calculated by

V OTH = ( 2V m / )(cos cos )

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Power Electronics and Simulation Lab Manual, EEE Department, BVRIT

CIRCUIT DIAGRAM: With R-Load:

Ph

T1 1-, 230V AC Supply

T3
V

To CRO

T4 N

T2

Fig-1

With RL-Load:

Ph

T1 1-, 230V AC Supply

T3
V

R
To CRO

T4 N

L T2

Fig-2

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Power Electronics and Simulation Lab Manual, EEE Department, BVRIT

PROCEDURE: B) For R-Load: 1. Connect the circuit as shown in figure. 2. Verify the connections from the lab instructor before switch on the supply. 3. Keep the rheostat position value given by the lab instructor 4. Switch ON the CRO and calibrate it with the input voltage. 5. Switch on the power circuit and firing circuit. 6. Observe the output voltage waveform in the CRO. 7. Note down the reading of from the CRO and Vo from the voltmeter 8. Also calculate the theoretical value of output voltage from the formula and compare it with the practical value of the output voltage, which is observed from the voltmeter. 9. Repeat the above process from step 6 to 8 for various firing angles. B). For RL-Load: 1. Switch off the power supply and connect an inductance of given value in series with the load resistance. 2. Repeat steps 2 to 9 in this case and also note down the reading of .

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MODEL GRAPHS: With R-Load:

With RL-Load:

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TABULAR COLUMN: B) For R-Load: The input voltage Vph = Value of load resistance RL= CRO calibration: 180 degrees = S.NO. Firing angle() in milli seconds Firing angle() in degrees V (As given by the instructor) (As given by the instructor) msec = radians Vo (Practical ) Vo (Theoritical)

Firing angle() in radians

B) For RL-Load: The input voltage Vph = Value of load resistance RL= V (As given by the instructor) (As given by the instructor)

CRO calibration: 180 degrees = Theoretical Extinction angle = Practical Extinction angle =

msec = (in msec) = (in msec) =

radians (degrees) = (degrees) = (radians) (radians)

S.NO. Firing angle() in milli seconds

Firing angle() in degrees

Firing angle() in radians

Vo (Practical )

Vo (Theoritical)

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RESULT: The operation of I- fully controller converter is verified and the theoretical and practical values of output voltages are found ,both for R and RL loads at different firing angles.

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5. SINGLE PHASE HALF CONTROLLED BRIDGE CONVERTER WITH R & RL LOAD


AIM: To obtain the output waveform of single phase half controlled bridge converter with R and RL Loads. APPARATUS:

S.No Name of the Equipment 1. Single phase half controlled converter power circuit 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8 Firing Unit Voltmeter 1:1 Isolation Transformer Rheostat Inductive load CRO Patch Chords

Type

Ramge

Quantity 1 1 1 1 1 1 1

MI MC Wire wound

(0-60V) (0-50V) 1KVA 100ohm/5A 0-150mH

THEORY: Single Phase half wave controlled bridge converter with R&RL loads are shown in the diagram.

R-Load: During the positive half cycle of AC supply SCR T1 and diode D1 are forward biased. The SCR T1 is triggered at a firing angle t=, the output current flows through hthe path A-T1-R-D1-B. The load current will flow until T1 is commutated by reversal of supply at t=. During The nagative half cycle of AC supply SCR T2 and diode D2 are forward biased. When the SCR T2 is triggered at angle t=(+), the output current would flow through the path B-T2-R-D2-A. This current continues up to t=2, at this angle the SCR T2 is commutated due

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to reversal of the supply voltage. The theoretical average vale of DC output voltage can be calculated by,

Where VoTH is the theoretical average vale of DC output voltage Vm is the maximum value of AC input voltage and = is the firing angle

RL-Load: The main difference between the operation of the circuit with a complex load, and with a purely resistive load is that at end of each half-cycle of the supply voltage, the current flow is maintained in the load circuit by the inductance of the load. The thyristor that has been conducting, say SCR1, continues to conduct, but current transfers from diode D2 to D1 so that the inductive back emf of the load drives current through the bridge without including the reverse supply voltage. During this part of the cycle, the load current decays exponentially and is unaffected by the supply voltage. When SCR2 is triggered, SCR1 is reverse biased by the supply voltage and turns off. Current now flows from the supply through SCR2 and diode D1 into the load. SCR1 is triggered in the next half-cycle and the sequence is repeated. The theoretical average vale of DC output voltage can be calculated by,

Where extinction angle =+ And can be calculated as

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Ph

T1 1-, 230V AC Supply

T3
V

To CRO

D1 N

D2

Fig-1 for R-load

Ph

T1 1-, 230V AC Supply

T3
V

R
To CRO

D1 N

L D2

Fig-2 for RL-load

PROCEDURE: R-load:
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Make connections as per the circuit diagram. Verify the connections from the lab instructor before switching ON the supply. Keep the rheostat position and variac position as the value given by the lab instructor. Switch ON the CRO and calibrate it with the input voltage. Switch ON the power circuit and firing circuit.
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6. Observe the output voltage wave form in the CRO. 7. Note down the readings of from the CRO Vo from the voltmeter. 8. Also calculate the theoretical value of the output voltage from the formula and compare it with the practical value of the output voltage, which is observed from the voltmeter. 9. Repeat the above process for various firing angle. RL-load: 10. Switch off the supply and connect an inductance of given value in series with the load resistance. 11. Repeat steps 2 to 9 and also note down the readings of .

OBSERVATIONS: For R-Load: Input voltage Vph= Load resistance R=

S.No

Firing angle() in msec

Firing angle in Degrees

Firing angle in radians

Vo (theoretical)

Vo (practical)

RL-Load: Input voltage Vph= Load resistance R= Value of Inductance L= Theoretical Extinction angle = Practical Extinction angle =
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S.No

Firing angle() in msec

Firing angle in Degrees

Firing angle in radians

Vo (theoretical)

Vo (practical)

Model Graphs: R-Load:

RL Loads

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Result: The operation of Single Phase half controlled converter is verified and the theoretical and practical values of output voltage are found, both for R and RL loads.

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6. SINGLE PHASE CYCLO CONVERTER WITH R & RL LOADS


AIM: To verify the operation of single phase Cyclo Converter with R and RL Loads and to observe the output and input waveforms APPARATUS: S.No 1. EQUIPMENT I- Center tapped Transformer I- Cyclo Converter power circuit with firing unit Rheostat Inductive load Voltmeter(MI) CRO with (1:10) Probe Patch cards Qty 1

2.

3. 4. 5. 7. 8.

1 1 1 1 1 set

THEORY The circuit diagram of 1- cyclo converter with R and RL load are shown in fig. Construction ally there are four SCRs T1, T2, T3 &T4.Out of them T1, T2 are responsible for generating positive halves forming the positive group. The other two T3, T4 are responsible for negative haves forming negative group. This configuration and waveforms are shown for and 1/3 of the supply frequency. Natural commutation process is used to turn off the SCRs. A) For R-Load: During the half cycle when point A is positive with respect to O, SCR T1 is in conducting mode and is triggered at wt = then current flows through positive point A-T1-load-negative O. In the negative half cycle when B point is positive with respect to the point O,SCR T1 is automatically turned off due to natural commutation and SCR T2 is triggered at wt = +. In this condition the current flows through B-T2-load-O. The flow of
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the current direction is same as in the first case. After two positive half cycles of load voltage and load current SCR T4 is gated at wt=2+ when O is positive with respect to B. In this condition the load current flows through O-load-T4-B.Thus the direction of load current is reversed. In the next half cycle when O is positive with respect to A when wt=3, T4 turnoff due to natural commutation and at wt=3+ T3 is triggered. In this condition the load current flows through O-load-T3-A. The direction of load current is same as previous case. In this manner two negative half cycles of load voltage and load current, equal to the number of two positive half cycles are generated. Now T1 is again triggered to fabricate further two positive half cycles of load voltage and so on. Like this the input frequency 50Hz is reduced to at the output across the load. The input and output waveforms are shown in figure. The frequency of the output voltage can be calculated by: Frequency ( fo )=(Time period)-1 B) For RL-Load:When A is positive with respect to O forward biased SCR T1 is triggered at wt= and the current start to flow through A-T1-R-L-O. Load voltage becomes zero at wt= but load current will not become zero at this angle due to inductance. It becomes zero at wt = which is called extinction angle. So it is naturally commutated at wt=. After half cycle point B positive with respect to point O. Now at angle wt=+. T2 is triggered and the load current takes path from B-T2-R-L_o and its direction is positive as in the previous case. The load current decays zero at wt =+ and SCR T2 is naturally commutated. In the half cycle when O is positive with respect to B point, T4 is triggered instead of T1 at an angle of wt= (2+). Now the load current flows through O-L-R-T4-B but the direction of load current reversed. When the load current becomes zero at an angle wt= (2+) , T4 naturally commutated because the voltage is already reversed at wt = 3.When wt = (3+) and point O, is positive with respect to point A,T3 is triggered then the current flows through O-L-R-T3-A , and the direction of load current is same in previous case. In the next half cycle again T1 will triggered like this we get one cycle of output frequency for two cycles of input frequency, when the frequency division switch is at 2. The waveforms of load voltage and load current are shown in fig. The frequency of load voltage can be calculated by fo=(Time period)-1

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CIRCUIT DIAGRAMS:
T1

Ph

T3
1-, 230V 50Hz AC Supply
To CRO

T2

center tapped transformer

T4

Fig1-Single phase cyclo converter with R-load

T1

Ph

T3
1-, 230V 50Hz AC Supply

R
To CRO

T2
L

center tapped transformer

T4
Fig2-Single phase cyclo converter with RL-load Fig-2

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PROCEDURE: A) For R-Load: 1. Connect the circuit as shown in figure. 2. Verify the connections from the lab instructor before switch on the supply. 3. Keep the rheostat position value given by the lab instructor 4. Switch ON the supply and note down the frequency of input voltage from the CRO. 5. Set the frequency division switch at 2 and note the readings of time period of output voltage waveform for different set of firing angles 6. Calculate the practical value of output frequency by reciprocating the value of time period and theoretical value of frequency will be found from frequency division setting 7. Repeat the above process from step 5 to 6 for frequency division of 3 and 4. B). For RL-Load:

1. Connect the circuit as shown in figure. 2. Connect an inductance of given value in series with the load resistance. 3. Verify the connections from the lab instructor before switch on the supply. 4. Keep the rheostat position value given by the lab instructor 5. Switch ON the supply and note down the frequency of input voltage from the CRO. 6. Set the frequency division switch at 2 and note the readings of time period of output voltage waveform for different set of firing angles

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7. Calculate the practical value of output frequency by reciprocating the value of time period and theoretical value of frequency will be found from frequency division setting 8. Repeat the above process from step 5 to 6 for frequency division of 3 and 4.

TABULAR COLUMN: C) For R-Load: The input voltage Vph = Value of load resistance RL= Input frequency S.NO. Frequency division = V (As given by the instructor) (As given by the instructor) Hz Time period in msec Frequency (practical) Frequency (theoretical)

Firing angle() in degrees

C) For RL-Load: The input voltage Vph = Value of load resistance RL= Value of Load inductance L= V (As given by the instructor) (As given by the instructor) mH(As given by the instructor)

S.NO. Frequency division

Firing angle() in degrees

Time period in msec

Frequency (practical)

Frequency (theoretical)

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MODEL GRAPHS:

1/2f cycloconverter waveforms

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1/3f cycloconverter waveforms

1/4f cycloconverter waveforms

RESULT: The operation of I- cyclo converter is verified and the theoretical and practical values of output frequencies at different frequency divisions are found both for R & RL loads

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7. STUDY OF GATE FIRING CIRCUITS


AIM: To observe the output waveforms of resistance, Resistance- Capacitance and UJT gate firing Circuits of SCR. . APPARATUS: S.No 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. EQUIPMENT R-firing circuit Kit RC firing circuit kit UJT firing circuit kit CRO with (1:10) Probe Patch cards Qty 1 1 1 1 1 set

THEORY: R-firing Circuit: Uni-Junction Transistor: UJT exhibits negative resistance characteristics; it can be used as relaxation oscillator. The external characteristics RB1 and RB2 are resistances which are small in comparison with internal resistances R1 and R2 of the UJT base. The emitter potential V is varied depending on the charging rate of capacitance C. The charging resistance Rc should be such that the load line intersects the device only in the negative resistance region. is called as the intrinsic standoff ratio. It is defined as

= ( RB1 ) /( RB1 + RB 2 )

UJT is a highly efficient switch .Its switching time is in a range of nano seconds. Since UJT exhibits negative resistance characteristics it can be used as a relaxation oscillator. The rise time
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output pulse will depend on the switching speed of the UJT and duration will be proportional to the time constant RB1C of the discharge circuit. The output pulses of UJT are identical in magnitude and time period
T = RC (ln( 1 /( 1 )))

The value of is specified for each device .For UJT =0.63. CIRCUIT DIAGRAM: R-firing circuit:
VL
Ph

R1
1- AC Supply

R2
D G

R
N

RC-firing circuit:
Half Wave RC Triggering
To CRO
Ph 100E/10W A 1-, 230V 50Hz AC Supply K

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Full Wave RC Triggering


To CRO
Ph 100E/10W D1 D3 A

1-, 230V 50Hz AC Supply K D4 D2

UJT firing circuit:

UJT Firing circuit:


VBB RB2 B2 B1

Vdc
C1 C2 C3
To CRO

PROCEDURE FOR R-FIRING CIRCUIT:

1.Turn the potentiometer fully anti clockwise, connect load as shown by jumpers, 2. Connect SCR in the ckt by using shorting links as shown by the dashed lines. 3. Connect the Oscilloscope across the load. 4. Vary the firing angle and observe the waveforms on the CRO 5. Draw the corresponding waveforms.
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PROCEDURE FOR RC FIRING CKT:

1. 2. 3. 4.

Connect the load and SCR in the CKT by jumpers as shown in the ckt diagram. Tune the potentiometer fully anticlockwise. Connect oscilloscope in the load divider and switch on the power supply. Vary the firing angle and draw the corresponding waveforms.

PROCEDURE: UJT firing circuit: 1. Connect the circuit as shown in figure. 2. Connect a capacitor C1 in series with variable resistance. 3. Place the knob of variable resistance at either of the extreme positions and place one capacitor in series and take the reading of firing angle at that time period. i.e. total time is equal to the sum of turn off and turn on times. 4. Vary the resistance to the other extreme position and note down the readings. 5. Replace the capacitor with another one and calculate the RC from noted reading.

6. Calculate the RLmax and RLmin from the above readings. MODEL CALCULATIONS:

= ( RB1 ) /( RB1 + RB 2 ) =0.63 for UJT


T = RC (ln( 1 /( 1 )))

Model Graphs of R firing circuit:


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Model Graphs of RC gate firing circuit:

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Model Graphs of UJT firing circuit:

RESULT: The waveforms across the load and device for different values of firing angles are studied.

8. DC JONES CHOPPER WITH R& RL LOADS


AIM: : To obtain the output waveform of single phase fully controlled bridge converter with R and RL Loads. APPARATUS: S.No 1. Name of the Equipment Single phase fully controlled converter power circuit Firing Unit Type Ramge Quantity

1 1

2.

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3.

Voltmeter

MI MC

(0-60V) (0-50V) 1KVA

1 1 1 1 1

4. 5. 6. 7. 8

1:1 Isolation Transformer Rheostat Inductive load CRO Patch Chords Wire wound

100ohm/5A 0-150mH

THEORY: The Jones Chopper circuit is another example of class D commutation. In this circuit SCR TM is the main thyristor, where as SCR TA, capacitor C, diode D1 and auto transformer forms the commutating circuit for the main thyristor TM. Therefore the special feature of this circuit is the tapped auto T/F through a portion of which the load current flows L1 and L2 are closely coupled so that the capacitor always gets sufficient energy to turn off the main SCR TM. Let us assume that initially capacitor C is charged to a voltage Edc with the polarity shown SCR TM is triggered current flows through the path CA-TM-L1-D1-CB and capacitor C charges to opposite polarity i.e., plate B positive and plate A negative, however diode D1 prevents further oscillation of the resonating L2C circuit. Hence capacitor C retains its charge until SCR TA is triggered.

Now, SCR TA is triggered current flows through the path CB-TA-TM-CA. Therefore, discharge of capacitor C reverse biases SCR TM and turns it off. The capacitor again charges up with plate A positive and SCR TA turns off because the current through it falls below the holding current value when capacitor C is recharged.

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The cycle repeats when SCR TM is again triggered. The use of autotransformer involves that whenever current is delivered from dc source to the load, a voltage is induced in L1 in the correct polarity for changing the commutating capacitor to a voltage higher than Edc. Thus the autotransformer measurably enhances the reliability of the circuit.

The theoretical average value of the Dc output voltage can be found from

Where

is the average value of the DC output voltage?

is the duty cycle and is the average value of the DC input voltage

CIRCUIT DIAGRAMS:

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Power Electronics and Simulation Lab Manual, EEE Department, BVRIT

T1

TA
R
V
To CRO

DC Supply
L1 D1 L2

Fig-1: Circuit Diagram of DC Jones Chopper with R Load

T1

TA

DC Supply
L1 D1 L2

Dm
L

To CRO

Fig-2: Circuit Diagram of DC Jones Chopper with RL Load

PROCEDURE:
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(a) For R-Load: 1. Set the rheostat for given value, before connecting in the circuit. 2. Make the connections as per the circuit diagram. 3. Switch on the supply and set the input voltage to the given value. 4. For a particular firing angle note down the readings of ON time (Ton), OFF time (Toff), Total time (T) from the CRO and the practical value of the output voltage from the voltmeter. 5. Calculate the theoretical value of the output voltage from the data Ton, T and input voltage. 6. Repeat the step 4 and 5 for a set of different duty cycle. (b) For RL-load: 1. Now connect an inductance of given value and repeat the steps 3 to 6. OBSERVATIONS: (a) For R-Load: The value of input voltage= The value of load resistance= S.No: Ton(ms) Toff(ms) Total Time(ms) Duty cycle Vo(practical) Vo(Theoretical)

(b) For RL-load: The value of input voltage= The value of load resistance= The value of load inductance=

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S.No:

Ton(ms)

Toff(ms)

Total Time(ms)

Duty cycle

Vo(practical) Vo(Theoretical)

Result: The operation of DC Joness Chopper is verified and the theoretical and practical values of output voltage are found, both for R and RL loads.

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9. THREE PHASE HALF CONTROLLED BRIDGE CONVERTER WITH R& RL LOADS


AIM: To obtain the output waveforms of three-phase full wave half-controlled bridge rectifier with R and RL load and with or without commutating or freewheeling Diode.

APPARATUS: S.No 1. Name of the Equipment There phase Half controlled bridge converter power circuit Firing Unit Voltmeter MI MC 4. 5. 6. 7. 8 3-ph Variac Rheostat Inductive load CRO Patch Chords Wire wound (0-100V) (0-100V) 415V/(0-415V) 100ohm/5A 0-150mH Type Ramge Quantity

1 1 1 1 1 1 1

2. 3.

Theory : For large power dc loads, 3-ph ac to dc converter are commonly used. The various types of three phase controlled converter are 3-ph half wave converter, 3-ph half wave converter is rarely used in industry because it introduces de component in the supply circuit. If diodes are replaced by 3-thyristors, a semi converter bride is obtained.
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Free wheeling mode of operation of bridge connected rectifiers can be realized half of its thyristor with diodes. Therefore, circuit of three phase half-controlled bridge converter contains three thyristor in three arms and diodes in the other three arms. For <600 the continuous conduction mode is possible. For firing angles >600 the discontinuous conduction mode occurs. It can be observed from the waveforms that the output voltage becomes zero during a part of the output voltage period, because of the free wheeling action. It is easily noted from the waveforms that the freewheeling period is . Therefore the supply current flows for the period (-) in each half cycle. As increase the duration of the supply current pulse decreases. Therefore, the harmonic content in the source current increases as the firing angle increases. For large firing angle delays, commutation failure may take place due to the limited time available in symmetrical half controlled converter circuit configuration, if the current is assumed to be continuous. This may result in half weaving effect.

The theoretical output voltage can be calculated as For R-load:

-----for continuous mode ------for discontinuous mode For RL-load:

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R T1
415V, 3- 50hz, AC

T2

T3
V

To CRO

Y D1 B
415V, 3- 550hz, AC

D2

D3

Fig-1
R T1
415V, 3- 50hz, AC

T2

T3 R
V
To CRO

Y D1 B
415V, 3- 550hz, AC

D2

D3

Fig-2

Procedure: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. Make the connections as per the circuit diagram. Verify the connections before switching on the supply Keep the rheostat position and variac positions as the values given by the instructor. Switch on power circuit and firing circuit. Switch on the CRO and calibrate it with input voltage. Observe output voltage waveform on CRO. Note down readings of firing angle and output voltage. Also calculate theoretical and practical values of output voltages and compare. Repeat above steps for various firing angles.

10. For RL-load connect Inductance in series with resistance.


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Power Electronics and Simulation Lab Manual, EEE Department, BVRIT

11. Repeat the above steps.

OBSERVATIONS: For R-load: Input voltage Vph= Load resistance R=

S.No

Firing angle() in msec

Firing angle in Degrees

Firing angle in radians

Vo (theoretical)

Vo (practical)

RL-Load: Input voltage Vph= Load resistance R= Value of Inductance L= Theoretical Extinction angle = Practical Extinction angle =

S.No

Firing angle() in msec

Firing angle in Degrees

Firing angle in radians

Vo (theoretical)

Vo (practical)

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Input Supply

Model Graphs

RESULT: Observed and drawn the output waveforms of 3-phase half-controlled bridge converter with R and RL loads.

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10. SINGLE PHASE PARALLEL INVERTER

AIM: To study and obtain the AC output voltage waveform of single-phase parallel inverter with R & RL loads. APPARATUS:

S. No 1 2

Components Single Phase Parallel Inverter Kit 01

Quantity

Bulbs 230V/40W
3 4 5 CRO Patch cords Voltmeter(0-100V) MI

02
01

01

Theory: The circuit diagram of 1-ph Parallel Inverter is shown in fig., SCR1 and SCR2 are main thyristors. Supply voltage Vdc appears across the left half of the transformer primary winding OA. Terminal O is positive w.r.t.A. By transformer action terminal B will be at potential of 2Vdc w.r.t A. Thus capacitor C will get charged twice the supply voltage. The load voltage will be positive and will have a magnitude VL . At the end of half period SCR2 is firing , capacitor C will be immediately apply a reverse voltage of 2Vdc across SCR1 and turns off it. Similarly the Vdc applies to right half of the primary winding and capacitor gets charged with 2Vdc in reverse direction. Now the load voltage is negative and hence the current. Since the commutating capacitor is in parallel with SCRs, so it is called parallel inverter.

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Circuit diagram:

PROCEDURE: Make the connections as per the circuit diagram. Verify the connections before switching on the supply. Remove the link across the terminals marked LINK. Place the load lamps at place. Now switch on the main supply. Observe the wave form at terminal TP-1 and TP2 with respect to ground terminal with CRO by using 1:10 probe. 7. Now place the connecting link across terminals marked LINK. 8. Observe the output by glowing lamp. 9. Observer the waveform at terminals marked TP-3 and TP-4 with respect to the ground terminal. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

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Power Electronics and Simulation Lab Manual, EEE Department, BVRIT

Model Graphs:

Model Graph

Result: The function of single phase parallel inverter is studied.

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Power Electronics and Simulation Lab Manual, EEE Department, BVRIT

11 PSPICE SIMULATION OF SINGLE PHASE FULL CONVERTER AND SINGLE PHASE ACVC
Aim:

To study the output waveforms of single-phase full converter using RLE loads and single-phase AC voltage controller using RLE loads using PSPICE simulation. Apparatus : PSPICE Software
AC Model of SCR:

F1= P1Ig + P2Ia = 50Ig + 11Ia

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Power Electronics and Simulation Lab Manual, EEE Department, BVRIT

Circuit diagram of single phase full converter:

Circuit file for Single phase full converter:

VS 10 0 SIN (0 169.7V 60HZ) VG1 6 2 PULSE (0V 10V 2777.8US 1NS 1NS 100US 16666.7US) VG2 7 0 PULSE (0V 10V 2777.8US 1NS 1NS 100US 16666.7US) VG3 8 2 PULSE (0V 10V 11111.1US 1NS 1NS 100US 16666.7US) VG4 9 1 PULSE (0V 10V 11111.1US 1NS 1NS 100US 16666.7US) R 2 4 10 L 4 5 20MH C 2 11 793UF RX 11 3 0.1 64

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Power Electronics and Simulation Lab Manual, EEE Department, BVRIT

VX 5 3 DC 10V VY 10 1 DC 0V * SUBCIRCUIT CALLS FOR THYRISTOR MODEL XT1 1 6 2 SCR XT2 0 8 2 SCR XT3 3 7 0 SCR XT4 3 9 1 SCR . SUBCKT SCR 1 3 2 S1 1 5 6 2 SMOD RG 3 4 50 VX 4 2 DC 0V VY 5 2 DC 0V RT 2 6 1 CT 6 2 10UF F1 2 6 POLY(2) VX VY 0 50 11 .MODEL SMOD VSWITCH (RON=0.01 ROFF=10E+5 VON=0.1V VOFF=0V) .ENDS SCR .TRAN 10US 35MS 16.67MS .PROBE .OPTIONS ABSTOL=1.00U RELTOL=1.0M VNTOL=0.1 ITL5=10000 .FOUR 120HZ I(VX) .END Circuit diagram of single phase ACVC:

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Power Electronics and Simulation Lab Manual, EEE Department, BVRIT

Circuit file for Single phase ac voltage controller: VS 10 0 SIN (0 169.7V 60HZ) VG1 2 4 PULSE (0V 10V 4166.7US 1NS 1NS 100US 16666.7US) VG2 3 1 PULSE (0V 10V 12500.0US 1NS 1NS 100US 16666.7US) R 4 5 2.5 L 5 6 6.5MH VX 6 0 DC 0V CS 1 7 0.1UF RS 7 4 750 * SUBCIRCUIT CALLS FOR THYRISTOR MODEL XT1 1 2 4 SCR 66

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Power Electronics and Simulation Lab Manual, EEE Department, BVRIT

XT2 4 3 1 SCR . SUBCKT SCR 1 3 2 S1 1 5 6 2 SMOD RG 3 4 50 VX 4 2 DC 0V VY 5 2 DC 0V RT 2 6 1 CT 6 2 10UF F1 2 6 POLY(2) VX VY 0 50 11 .MODEL SMOD VSWITCH (RON=0.01 ROFF=10E+5 VON=0.1V VOFF=0V) .ENDS SCR .TRAN 10US 33.33MS .PROBE .OPTIONS ABSTOL= 1.00N RELTOL = 1.0M VNTOL=1.0M ITL5=10000 .FOUR 60HZ V(4) .END

Result :

The output waveforms of single-phase full converter using RLE loads and single-phase AC voltage controller using RLE loads using PSPICE simulation are studied.

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Power Electronics and Simulation Lab Manual, EEE Department, BVRIT

12 PSPICE SIMULATION OF BUCK CHOPPER AND RESONANT PULSE COMMUTATION


Aim: Study of resonant pulse commutation circuit and Buck chopper with PSPICE simulation

Apparatus: PSPICE Software


Circuit diagram of buck chopper

CIRCUIT FILE FOR RESONANT PULSE COMMUTATION VS 1 0 DC 12V VY 1 2 DC 0V VG 8 0 PULSE(0V 20V 0 1NS 1NS 12.24US 40US) RB 8 7 250 R 6 0 10 LE 2 3 25.47UH CE 3 0 1.38UF 68

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Power Electronics and Simulation Lab Manual, EEE Department, BVRIT

C 3 4 0.0958UF L 5 6 445.63UH VX 4 5 DC 0V Q1 3 7 0 MODQ1 .MODEL MODQ1NPN (IS=6.734F BF=416.4 ISE=6.734F BR=.7371 + CJE=3.637P MJC=0.3085 VJC=.75 CJE=4.493P MJE=.2593 VJE=.75 + TR=239.5N TF=301.2P) .TRAN 2US 300US 180US 1US UIC .PROBE .OPTIONS ABSTOL=1.00N VNTOL=0.1 ITL5=20000 .END Circuit diagram of buck converter

CIRCUIT MODEL FOR BUCK CHOPPER

VS 1 0 DC 110V VY 1 2 DC 0V 69

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Power Electronics and Simulation Lab Manual, EEE Department, BVRIT

VG 7 3 PULSE (0V 20V 0 0.1NS 0.1NS 27.28US 50US RB 7 6 250 LE 3 4 681.82UHCE 4 0 8.33UF IC=60V L 4 8 40.91UH R853 VX 5 0 DC 0V DM 0 3 DMOD .MODEL DMOD D (IS=2.2E-15 BV=1800V TT=0) Q1 2 6 3 QMOD .MODEL QMOD NPN (IS=6.734F BF=416.4 BR=.7371 CJC=3.638P + CJE=4.493P TR=239.5N TF=301.2P) .TRAN 1US 1.6MS 1US UIC .PROBE .OPTIONS ABSTOL=1.00N RELTOL=0.01 VNTOL=0.1 ITL5=50000 .FOUR 20KHZ I(VY) .END Result : PSPICE simulation of resonant pulse commutation circuit and Buck chopper is studied and output waveform are observed.

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Power Electronics and Simulation Lab Manual, EEE Department, BVRIT

13 PSPICE SIMULATION OF SINGLE PHASE INVERTER WITH PWM CONTROL


Aim : To study the output of single phase Inverter with PWM control using PSPICE simulation.

Apparatus: PSPICE Software


Circuit diagrams of single phase inverter with pwm control

(a) Circuit

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Power Electronics and Simulation Lab Manual, EEE Department, BVRIT

(b) PWM generator

(c) carrier and reference signals CIRCUIT MODEL FOR SINGLE PHASE INVERTER WITH PWM CONTROL VS 1 0 DC 100V VR 17 0 PULSE (50V 0V 0 833.33US 833.33US 1NS 16666.67US) RR 17 0 2MEG VC1 15 0 PULSE (0 -30V 0 1NS 1NS 8333.33US 16666.67US) RC1 15 0 2MEG VC3 16 0 PULSE (0 -30V 8333.33US 1NS 1NS 8333.33US 16666.67US) RC3 16 0 2MEG R 4 5 2.5 L 5 6 10MH VX 3 4 DC 0V VY 1 2 DC 0V D1 3 2 DMOD D2 0 6 DMOD D3 6 2 DMOD D4 0 3 DMOD .MODEL DMOD D (IS=2.2E-15 BV=1800V TT=0) Q1 2 7 3 QMOD Q2 6 9 0 QMOD Q3 2 11 6 QMOD Q4 3 13 0 QMOD 72

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Power Electronics and Simulation Lab Manual, EEE Department, BVRIT

.MODEL QMOD NPN(IS=6.734F BF=416.4 CJC=3.638P CJE=4.493P) RG1 8 7 100 RG2 10 9 100 RG3 12 11 100 RG4 14 13 100 * SUBCIRCUIT CALL FOR PWM CONTROL XPW1 17 15 8 3 PWM XPW2 17 15 10 0 PWM XP3 17 16 12 6 PWM XP4 17 16 14 0 PWM * SUBCIRCUIT FOR PWM CONTROL .SUBCKT PWM 1 2 3 4 R1 1 5 1K R2 2 5 1K RIN 5 0 2MEG RF 5 3 100K RO 6 3 75 CO 3 4 10PF E1 6 4 0 5 2E+5 .ENDS PWM .TRAN 10US 16.67MS 0 10US .PROBE .OPTIONS ABSTOL 1.00N RELTOL=0.01 VNTOL=0.1 ITL5=20000 .FOUR 60HZ V(3,6) 73

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Power Electronics and Simulation Lab Manual, EEE Department, BVRIT

.END Result : PSPICE simulation of single phase Inverter with PWM control is studied and output waveforms are observed.

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Power Electronics and Simulation Lab Manual, EEE Department, BVRIT

14. CIRCUIT DIAGRAM FOR SPEED CONTROL OF DC SHUNT MOTOR USING HALF CONTROLLED CONVERTER
Aim:-To control the speed of the DC Shunt motor using half controlled converter. Apparatus:Sno Name of Equipment 1 Single phase half controlled Converter power circuit 2 3 4 5 6 7 Firing Unit Voltmeter (0-60)V MI Voltmeter (0-50)V MC 1 1 1 Quantity 1

1KVA 1:1 Isolation Transformer 1 Tachometer Patch Chords 1 As required

Circuit Diagram:-

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Power Electronics and Simulation Lab Manual, EEE Department, BVRIT

DPST Switch

+
A

230 V AC Supply

+
V

A
V M

0-300V --

0-250V MC

AA

FF

Fuse +

+ FIELD

Procedure:without load: 1. Make connections as per the circuit diagram. 2. Keeping the fairing angle pot at 180 degrees switch on the supply. 3. By varying firing angle pot note down the reading of voltmeter ammeter and speed of the motor. 4. Plot the graph speed vs Firing angle.

With load: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Make connections as per the circuit diagram. Keeping the fairing angle pot at 180 degrees switch on the supply. By varying firing angle pot bring the motor to rated speed. Put some load on the motor with the help of loading arrangement. By decreasing the speed steps wise up to 90 degrees note down the readings of ammeter voltmeter, speed and spring balances. 76

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Power Electronics and Simulation Lab Manual, EEE Department, BVRIT

6. Plot the graph speed vs efficiencies.

Observation table:Without load: S.NO. Firing angle Volt meter reading Ammeter reading Speed.

With load: S.NO. Firing angle Volt meter Ammeter reading reading Speed. Load on Torque motor Out put Efficiency

Result:- The speed of the DC Shunt motor is controlled using half controlled converter.

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Power Electronics and Simulation Lab Manual, EEE Department, BVRIT

15. Circuit Diagram for Speed control of I- Induction motor using AC Voltage controller
Aim:-To obtain the speed control and to calculate the output power of I- Induction motor. Apparatus:Sno Equipment 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Quantity 1

I- Transformer

1 I- AC voltage controller power circuit with firing unit 1 I- Induction motor

Voltmeters(MI meters) CRO with (1:10) Probe Patch Chords Tachometer

1 1 As required 1

Circuit Diagram:

Ph

DPST

(0-5)A MI A S1

1- 230V 50 Hz AC Supply

(0-3000)V MI

(0-3000)V MI

V
IM

Brake Drum

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1-230v Isolated Transformer

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Power Electronics and Simulation Lab Manual, EEE Department, BVRIT

Procedure:Without load: 1. Make connections as per the circuit diagram. 2. Keeping the fairing angle pot at 180 degrees switch on the supply. 3. By varying firing angle pot note down the reading of voltmeter ammeter and speed of the motor. 4. Plot the graph speed vs Firing angle. With load: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Make connections as per the circuit diagram. Keeping the fairing angle pot at 180 degrees switch on the supply. By varying firing angle pot bring the motor to rated speed. Put some load on the motor with the help of loading arrangement. By decreasing the speed steps wise up to 90 degrees note down the readings of ammeter voltmeter, speed and spring balances. 6. Plot the graph fairing angle vs Out put power. Observation table:Without load: S.NO. Firing angle Volt meter reading Ammeter reading Speed.

With load: S.NO. Firing angle Volt meter Ammeter reading reading Speed. Load on Torque motor Out put Efficiency

Result:The speed of induction motor is controlled with single phase AC voltage controller
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