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# Jon A. Beck Math Term III What, How, Why.

What What I strive for my students to learn from this lesson is applying their knowledge of fractions to a practical and challenging real-life problem. My sixth grade class uses Prentice Halls PA Mathematics Course 1 textbook and we are on chapter 4.6. As Ive been working with my students, Ive noticed that many of the students have struggled with a few problems in which they have to apply their knowledge of fractions to contextual, real-world problem, usually integrating elements of measurement. Its not clear to me if the students are able to translate what seems to be a strictly symbolic knowledge of fractions to a modeled fraction problem. (Chapin & Johnson) The class, as a whole, has struggled with understanding increments of a ruler, and how they relate to fractions. I believe that students are unable to make the connection of the spacing of increments between inches on a ruler and furthermore how a point on a ruler, or measurement can be represented in terms of a fraction with a numerator being the point, and the denominator representing the total amount of increments in a measurement system. How I plan to implement various types of instruction and pedagogy throughout this lesson with one central, hands-on activity for my students. The students will also be engaging in a conversation (or discourse) as related to my inquiry question for the term 3 assignment. The first portion of the lesson will be a review of adding and then multiplying fractions. I will be facilitating, and potentially instructing as needed. This will help me gauge and pre-assess where my group stands in terms of this content. The second portion of this lesson will be the jump rope activity. This hands-on and engaging activity will be the focus of the lesson. How the students solve the jump rope problem will directly relate to Chapin & Johnsons chapter 5 on Fractions. In the jump

rope problem, the students will add and multiply fractions using models. The model in this instance will be the rope that they physically measure. The final portion of this lesson will be a conversation (or discourse)which directly relates to my inquiry questionabout how and why they solved the problem in the way that they did. Furthermore, I will aim to guide the discussion towards students articulating how multiplication of fractions is related to repeated addition of fractions. Why? The students will be guided use repeated addition as well as modeling fraction multiplication in this lesson as my chief aim is to build these skills and furthermore assess them. I know that many students can simply multiply given fractions, but its unclear to me whether they actually understand contextualized arithmetic and can relate it to non-symbolic equations. Its important to note that this lesson covers symbols and models (Chapin & Johnson) so I can properly assess whether students can make the connection between the symbols/numeration and a contextual/modeled mathematical problem. The focus problem of the lessonjump rope activity-- can be solved by using repeated addition of fractions, or more efficiently by multiplying fractions. The activity will be valuable for students with different mathematical skill sets and needs. I think it will be greatly beneficial to be able to assess what strategies students are using in order to evaluate and assess where they stand in terms of their skills in working with fractions. Why I crafted this particular lesson seeks to answer the question posed by Chapin and Johnson regarding, How can we connect symbols and the models? Tasks Students will work individually and collaboratively to complete addition and multiplication with fractions. Students will complete not only symbolic fractional computation, but also complete a conceptual model of a fraction problem. Discourse

One central focus of this lesson is the students engaging in a conversation and discourse regarding why they can use repeated addition or multiplication. Students will discuss measurement and the relation between inches to a foot and how that is related and can be depicted in fractional form. Tools Pencils, paper, white board, white board markers, individual white boards, answer tin, one 8 inch ruler, one 14 foot rope. Norms Students are very familiar with working in small groups, and furthermore they are familiar with what is expected of them and what is appropriate behavior within small group work. One new norm that I hope to implement is open dialogue amongst the students.

The Lesson Plan To be executed during the week of: November 20th/21 Goals/Objectives: Students will be able to add fractions with uncommon denominators. Students will be able to multiply fractions. Students will be able to convert inches into feet. Students will be able to explain the relationship of fractions to a real-world problem.

Common Core Standards: CC.2.1.5.C.1 Use the understanding of equivalency to add and subtract fractions. CC.2.1.5.C.2 Apply and extend previous understandings of multiplication and division to multiply and divide fractions. Materials and preparation Pencils, paper, white board, white board markers, individual white boards, answer tin, one 8 inch ruler, one 14 foot rope. Classroom arrangement and management issues Its not clear as of right now what space will be available for me to use for this lesson. The next-door classroom is typically available during the afternoon (which is when this lesson is planned for) but I will need to look into that. The alternative spaces

are outside the classroom, which has a large table and chairs (and we can bring a large white board out there) or we might be able to use a section of the library. One potential issue, depending on the location will be the outside distractions, especially if we are in the hallway. I believe the lesson being more hands on should help keeping the students engaged. One strategy Ive used in working in the hallway space is focusing on keeping the outside students (not in the group) away from the students I am working with.

Plan: Introduction/Hook: 5 minutes. For the transition, students will be asked to bring their math notebooks, a pencil, their white board and white board marker. For the hook of this lesson, as the students get settled into our location, I present the students with the jump rope for our main activity and I will hand them small pieces of paper in which they will write down their estimate for the length of the jump rope. The top portion will ask for a measurement in inches, and the second question will ask they what they predict the length of the rope will be in feet. Not only will this allow me to assess whether the students have any pre-knowledge about the relation of inches-feet, but it will also serve to capture their attention and get them excited for the lesson to come. The students will have the option of putting their name on this estimation, or they can omit it if they would like. After I collect all of their answers in my answer tin, we will proceed to the pre-lesson. Pre-activity Work: 8-10 minutes. The pre-activity lesson will be an independent work assignment with some guidance and facilitation in which I will pose addition and multiplication fraction equations on the board (1 at a time) and the students will write out on their white boards their work for the individual problems. After all students have completed a given problem, I will pick

students to show their work to the rest of the group. We will do a handful of these so there will be an opportunity for all students to share their work with the rest of the small group. The questions that I will pose are below. These questions are representations of symbol fraction equations (Chapin & Johnson).

1/3 + 1/3 + 1/3 = ? (Answer 1/1 or 1 whole). 3/1 x 1/3= ? (Answer 1/1 or 1 whole). Please write on your white board why you believe the answer to the first question and the second question are the same. (Both questions will remain on the board).

6/10 + 6/10 +6/10 + 6/10 = 2 and 2/5 (This must be reduced from 24/10).

8/1 x 6/12 = ? (Answer 4 after reduced) It will be interesting to see if the students reduce 6/12 before doing the multiplication, because 6 x 8 seems to be one of the more difficult facts for them. Ideally students will attack this problem in different ways and I will have them explain their logic and reasoning to the class. 6/10 x 4 = ? (4) This links back to the addition problem we did before the last one. I spaced them out to challenge the students further and to ensure that they arent just repeating the relationship talked about in the first two problems.

The Main Event/ActivityThe Jump Rope: 15-18 minutes. As I take out the rope again, the first question I will pose isStudents, if I gave you a ruler or a tape measure, how quickly and easily could you tell me how to the length in inches and feet of this rope?

I anticipate that the students will say something to the effect of oh Mr. Beck thats too easy. After they settle down, I will state Okay, now what if I gave you the same task with this ruler?(as I break out the 8 inch ruler and have them pass it around). At this time I will present them with their individual worksheets and I will read aloud the instructions for this activity. See Jump Rope worksheet attached

Debrief/wrap: 5 minutes. This will take place in a conversational forum. I will provide the students with a conversational prompt and my aim will be to guide the conversation and ensure that all students are participating. One thing to anticipate here is that, to the best of my knowledge, these students havent had much practice in engaging in discourse in school, and its possible that I will be need gauge my involvement and participation if students are hesitant to share. Some strategies I can employ include a circular talk where we go around in a circle, to ensure that everyone speaks. I can also employ the NOSTUESO rule which is-- no one speaks twice until everyone speaks once. The last portion of the debrief will be the revisiting of their estimates from the beginning of the lesson. Questions to guide discussion: What role did you assume within the group during the jump rope activity? How did you solve question x? Why did you use that particular method? If you could do it again, what would you have done to be more efficient?

Assessment of goals/objectives

The assessment of the various goals and objectives will be a blend of my observers check-list (see attached), the students debrief discussion, and my collection of their work from the jump rope activity. As students will all have the opportunity to explain their work during the pre-activity portion of the lesson, which will be beneficial in terms of assessing whether my students can successfully add and multiply fractions.

Accommodations/Anticipation of students needs Its not clear, as of right now, which students I will be able to pull for this lesson. Fortunately, I believe its quite flexible. If the students in my group cannot multiply fractions, we can simply proceed with repeated addition. If the students are up to speed on their fraction addition, we can focus more on multiplication. The important thing is for them to see the relationship between both if they understand both concepts. One thing to anticipate is that the students might actually come up with a method of changing the units to feet while measuring. They could measure the 8 inches, then 4, and then count that as one whole unit. If they do attack the problem in this manner, I will need to further inquire about why they did it that way. Then I can ask them to do it by only using full 8 inch measurements. Since the bulk of this lesson will be group work, it will be helpful in keeping all of the students on a similar timing and pace. If some students are struggling with the mathematical concepts, I will pair them up with a student who has a strong understanding and they can assist them. This is a method I employ frequently in the classroom.

Works Cited: Chapin, S. (2006). Math Matters : understanding the math you teach, grades K-8. Sausalito, CA: Math Solutions Publications. The Common Core Standards: Retrieved from: http://static.pdesas.org/content/documents/PA_CC_Standards_PreK-HS.pd

## Extra credit- write this fraction in decimal form:

As a group, please measure the length of Mr. Becks jump rope How many inches long is it?

## How long is this jump rope in feet?

How did you solve the last two questions, and why did you solve them this way?

Student can add fractions (as symbolspre activity) Student can multiply fractions (as symbols pre activity) Student shows understanding of the relation between addition and mult. of fractions. Student shows understanding of the relation between fractions as symbols and fractions as modelspre act. vs. jump rope Student engages in discourse during the debrief

Student Name:

Misc Notes

## How long is it in feet? Prediction:

Prediction: Name (optional): How long is the jump rope in inches? Name (optional): How long is the jump rope in inches?