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Although the machines available in market are of reasonable quality, we were facing problems in one of the factories I worked

for. No machine would last more than one year; these are made from plastic, sheet metal, puter or aluminum etc., which makes them disposable. The machines available are more delicate and could not stand the rough use which is a habit of the less skilled workers of third world countries. Problems faced were; broken handle, broken switch, frequent consumption of carbon brush, damaged armature. Most of these machines are designed with integrated motor with bevel gear-set which also was frequent source of down-time. We decided to have more rugged machine to serve our purpose. No such machine was available in the local market, that compelled us design and fabricate a machine for our use. If you intend to fabricate a machine yourself the following pages will guide you do that. Those who go for such a venture should respect local laws and regulations governing the manufacture and use of cut-off saw. Syed Jaffer 00

SAFETY OPERATING PROCEDURES

Abrasive Cut Off Saw


DO NOT use this machine unless a teacher has instructed

you in its safe use and operation and has given permission.
Safety glasses must be worn at all times in work areas. Sturdy footwear must be worn at all times in work areas.
Rings and jewellery must not be worn.

Long and loose hair must be contained. Close fitting/protective clothing must be worn. Hearing protection must be worn when using this machine.

PRE-OPERATIONAL SAFETY CHECKS


1. 2. 3. 4. Ensure the saw is properly secured to a worktable by bolts/ clamps at approximately hip height. Ensure the saw is operated on an RCD protected circuit. Use abrasive cut off wheels with the correct size arbor hole. Use abrasive cut off wheels which have a maximum safe operating speed greater than the no load RPM marked on the machines nameplate. 5. Before each use inspect the cut off wheel for chips and cracks. 6. Check workspaces and walkways to ensure no slip/trip-hazards are present. 7. Ensure all guards are in place, in working order, and in proper adjustment and alignment. 8. Ensure the depth stop is properly adjusted. 9. Ensure you are familiar with the operation of the ON/OFF starter. 10. Keep table and work area clear of all tools and off-cut material. 11. Faulty equipment must not be used. Immediately report suspect equipment.

OPERATIONAL SAFETY CHECKS


This machine and abrasive wheel is not intended to cut wood or wood products. 1. Ensure all adjustments to machine are secure before making a cut. 2. Do not hold a work-piece by hand. Work-piece will become very hot while being cut. 3. Use the vice to clamp the work and properly support the over-hanging portion or the work-piece level with the base of the machine. 4. Do not use a length stop on the free off-cut end of a clamped work-piece. 5. Allow the machine to reach full speed before contacting the work-piece. 6. Do not have any part of your body in line with the path of the abrasive disc. 7. Ease the abrasive disc against the work piece when starting to cut. Do not force tool. 8. Keep hands away from cutting area. Do not attempt to remove cut material while wheel is moving. 9. After finishing the cut, release the switch, hold the saw arm down and wait for the disc to stop before removing work or off-cut piece. 10. Disconnect the plug from the power source and bring the machine to a complete standstill before making any adjustments.

HOUSEKEEPING
1. Ensure ventilation openings and switch levers are kept clean and free of foreign matter. 2. Leave the machine in a safe, clean and tidy state.

POTENTIAL HAZARDS
Metal sparks Contact with rotating disc Noise Eye injuries Sharp metal burrs Burns from work-piece

FORBIDDEN
Do not grind on the side of abrasive cut off wheels

This SOP does not necessarily cover all possible hazards associated with the machine and should be used in conjunction with other references. It is designed to be used as an adjunct to teaching Safety Procedures and to act as a reminder to users prior to machine use.
Courtesy: http://www.decs.sa.gov.au/docs/files/communities/docman/1/2003_10_14_Abrasive_Cut_Of.doc

The following 12 drawings will give you the most important assembly of the machine. Except for the 11th drawing all the components are fabrication parts; need cutting and finishing only. The drawing previously referred to is an important part of the machine, this housing has to be machined with precision, and it houses bearings. For best performance of the machine one has to know the correct fitting of the bearings, you can get the details from any book, from the book supplied by the bearing manufacturers or the following table. The material we used was commercially available ordinary mild steel and works fine. The last drawing of this assembly is the handle and can be made out of wood or plastic material. The spacer bush between the bearings has to be of precise length, any deviation will result in poor performance and life of the machine.

Standardization ISO Tolerance Zones, Allowances, Fit Tolerances Inside Dimensions (Holes)
ISO tolerance zones, allowances, fit tolerances; Inside dimensions (holes) acc. to DIN 7157, 1.66 edition; DIN ISO 286 Part 2, 11.90 edition
m + 500 + 400 + 300 + 200 + 100 0 100 200 300 400 500 ISO Series 1 abbrev. Series 2 from to above to above to above to above to above to above to above to above to above to above to above to above to above to above to above to above to above to above to above to above to above to above to above to above to 1 3 3 6 6 10 10 14 14 18 18 24 24 30 30 40 40 50 50 65 65 80 80 100 100 120 120 140 140 160 160 180 180 200 200 225 225 250 250 280 280 315 315 355 355 400 400 450 450 500 H7 P7 6 16 8 20 9 24 11 29 N7 4 14 4 16 4 19 5 23 N9 4 29 0 30 0 36 0 43 M7 2 12 0 12 0 15 0 18 K7 0 10 + 3 9 + 5 10 + 6 12 J6 + + + 2 4 5 3 5 4 J7 + + + 4 6 6 6 8 7 +10 0 +12 0 +15 0 +18 0 +14 0 +18 0 +22 0 +27 0 H8 H11 + 60 0 + 75 0 + 90 0 +110 0 G7 +12 + 2 +16 4 +20 + 5 +24 + 6 + + + + + + 20 6 28 10 35 13 + + + + + + 39 14 50 20 61 25 F8 E9 D9 + + + + + + 45 20 60 30 76 40 + + + + + + 60 20 78 30 98 40 +120 + 60 +145 + 70 +170 + 80 D10 C11

Standardization ISO Tolerance Zones, Allowances, Fit Tolerances Outside Dimensions (Shafts)
ISO tolerance zones, allowances, fit tolerances; Outside dimensions (shafts) acc. to DIN 7157, 1.66 edition; DIN ISO 286 Part 2, 11.90 edition
m + 500

Tolerance zones shown for nominal dimension 60 mm

+ 400 + 300 + 200 + 100 0 100 200 300 400 500 ISO abbrev. from to above to above to above to above to above to above to above to above to above to above to above to above to above to above to above to above to above to above to above to above to above to above to above to above to ISO abbrev. Series 1 x8/u8 Series 2 1) 1 + 34 3 + 20 3 + 46 6 + 28 6 + 56 10 + 34 10 + 67 14 + 40 14 + 72 18 + 45 18 + 87 24 + 54 24 + 81 30 + 48 30 + 99 40 + 60 40 +109 50 + 70 50 +133 65 + 87 65 +148 80 +102 80 +178 100 +124 100 +198 120 +144 120 +233 140 +170 140 +253 160 +190 160 +273 180 +210 180 +308 200 +236 200 +330 225 +258 225 +356 250 +284 250 +396 280 +315 280 +431 315 +350 315 +479 355 +390 355 +524 400 +435 400 +587 450 +490 450 +637 500 +540 Series 1 x8/u8 Series 2 1) r6 s6 + 20 + 14 + 27 + 19 + 32 + 23 r5 + 14 + 10 + 20 + 15 + 25 + 19 + + + + + + 16 10 23 15 28 19 n6 +10 + 4 +16 + 8 +19 +10 m5 + 6 + 2 + 9 + 4 +12 + 6 m6 + 8 + 2 +12 + 4 +15 + 6 k5 + 4 0 + 6 + 1 + 7 + 1 k6 + 6 0 + 9 + 1 +10 + 1

Tolerance zones shown for nominal dimension 60 mm

A11 +330 +270 +345 +270 +370 +280 +400 +290

j6 + 4 2 + 6 2 + 7 2

h6 h9 js6 h7 h8 h11 + 3 0 0 0 0 0 3 6 10 14 25 60 + 4 0 0 0 0 0 4 8 12 18 30 75 +4.5 0 0 0 0 0 4.5 9 15 22 36 90

f7 g6 2 8 4 12 5 14 6 16 10 22 13 28 e8 14 28 20 38 25 47 d9 20 45 30 60 40 76 c11 60 120 70 145 80 170 a11 270 330 270 345 280 370

+ 6 5

+10 8

+ 43 + 75 + 93 +120 +205 + 16 + 32 + 50 + 50 + 95

+ 39 + 31 + 34 +23 +15 +18 + 9 +12 + 8 +5.5 0 0 0 0 0 6 16 32 50 95 290 + 28 + 23 + 23 +12 + 7 + 7 + 1 + 1 3 5.5 11 18 27 43 110 17 34 59 93 205 400

14 35

7 28

0 52

0 21

+ 6 15

+ 8 5

+12 9

+21 0

+33 0

+130 0

+28 + 7

+ 53 + 92 +117 +149 +240 + 20 + 40 + 65 + 65 +110 +280 + 64 +112 +142 +180 +120 + 25 + 50 + 80 + 80 +290 +130 +330 + 76 +134 +174 +220 +140 + 30 + 60 +100 +100 +340 +150 +390 + 90 +159 +207 +260 +170 + 36 + 72 +120 +120 +400 +180 +450 +200 +106 +185 +245 +305 +460 + 43 + 85 +145 +145 +210 +480 +230 +530 +240 +122 +215 +285 +355 +550 + 50 +100 +170 +170 +260 +570 +280 +620 +137 +240 +320 +400 +300 + 56 +110 +190 +190 +650 +330 +720 +151 +265 +350 +440 +360 + 62 +125 +210 +210 +760 +400 +840 +165 +290 +385 +480 +440 + 68 +135 +230 +230 +880 +480 F8 E9 D9 D10 C11

+430 +300 +470 +310 +480 +320 +530 +340 +550 +360 +600 +380 +630 +410 +710 +460 +770 +520 +830 +580 +950 +660 +1030 + 740 +1110 + 820 +1240 + 920 +1370 +1050 +1560 +1200 +1710 +1350 +1900 +1500 +2050 +1650 A11

+ 48 + 37 + 41 +28 +17 +21 +11 +15 + 9 +6.5 0 0 0 0 0 7 20 40 65 110 300 + 35 + 28 + 28 +15 + 8 + 8 + 2 + 2 4 6.5 13 21 33 52 130 20 41 73 117 240 430 120 310 0 0 0 0 0 9 25 50 80 280 470 16 25 39 62 160 25 50 89 142 130 320 290 480 140 340 0 0 0 0 0 10 30 60 100 330 530 19 30 46 74 190 29 60 106 174 150 360 340 550 170 380 0 0 0 0 0 12 36 72 120 390 600 22 35 54 87 220 34 71 126 207 180 410 400 630 200 460 450 710 0 0 0 0 0 14 43 85 145 210 520 25 40 63 100 250 39 148 245 25 40 63 100 250 39 83 148 245 460 770 230 580 480 830 240 660 530 950 0 0 0 0 0 15 50 100 170 260 740 29 46 72 115 290 44 172 285 29 46 72 115 290 44 96 172 285 550 1030 280 820 570 1100 300 920 0 0 0 0 0 17 56 110 190 620 1240 32 52 81 130 320 49 108 191 320 330 1050 650 1370 360 1200 0 0 0 0 0 18 62 125 210 720 1560 36 57 89 140 360 54 119 214 350 400 1350 760 1710 440 1500 0 20 68 135 230 840 1900 0 0 0 0 40 63 97 155 400 60 131 232 385 480 1650 880 2050 h6 h9 f7 h7 h8 h11 g6 e8 d9 c11 a11

17 42

8 33

0 62

0 25

+ 7 18

+10 6

+14 11

+25 0

+39 0

+160 0

+34 + 9

+ 59 + 45 + 50 +33 +20 +25 +13 +18 +11 + 43 + 34 + 34 +17 + 9 + 9 + 2 + 2 5 + 72 + 53 + 78 + 59 + 93 + 71 +101 + 79 +117 + 92 +125 +100 +133 +108 +151 +122 +159 +130 +169 +140 +190 +158 +202 +170 +226 +190 +244 +208 +272 +232 +292 +252 s6 + 54 + 41 + 56 + 43 + 66 + 51 + 69 + 54 + 81 + 63 + 83 + 65 + 86 + 68 + 97 + 77 +100 + 80 +104 + 84 +117 + 94 +121 + 98 +133 +108 +139 +114 +153 +126 +159 +132 r5 + 60 + 41 + 62 + 43 + 73 + 51 + 76 + 54 + 88 + 63 + 90 + 65 + 93 + 68 +106 + 77 +109 + 80 +113 + 84 +126 + 94 +130 + 98 +144 +108 +150 +114 +166 +126 +172 +132 r6

+8 8

Nominal dimensions in mm

Nominal dimensions in mm

21 51

9 39

0 74

0 30

+ 9 21

+13 6

+18 12

+30 0

+46 0

+190 0

+40 +10

+39 +24 +30 +15 +21 +12 +9.5 +20 +11 +11 + 2 + 2 7 9.5

24 59

10 45

0 87

0 35

+10 25

+16 6

+22 13

+35 0

+54 0

+220 0

+47 +12

+45 +28 +35 +18 +25 +13 +11 +23 +13 +13 + 3 + 3 9 11

28 68 68

12 52 52

0 100 100

0 40 40

+12 28 28

+18 7

+26 14 14

+40 0

+63 0

+250 0

+54 +14

+52 +33 +40 +21 +28 +14 +12.5 11 12.5 +27 +15 +15 + 3 + 3 11 12.5

33 79 79

14 60 60

0 115 115

0 46 46

+13 33 33

+22 7

+30 16 16

+46 0

+72 0

+290 0

+61 +15

+60 +37 +46 +24 +33 +16 +14.5 13 14.5 +31 +17 +17 + 4 + 4 13 14.5

36 88

14 66

0 130

0 52

+16 36

+25 7

+36 16

+52 0

+81 0

+320 0

+69 +17

+66 +43 +52 +27 +36 +16 +16 +34 +20 +20 + 4 + 4 16 16

41 98

16 73

0 140

0 57

+17 40

+29 7

+39 18

+57 0

+89 0

+360 0

+75 +18

+73 +46 +57 +29 +40 +18 +18 +37 +21 +21 + 4 + 4 18 18

45 108

17 80

0 155

0 63

+18 45

+33 7

+43 20

+63 0 H7

+97 0 H8

+400 0

+83 +20

+80 +50 +63 +32 +45 +20 +20 +40 +23 +23 + 5 + 5 20 20 n6 m5 m6 k5 k6 j6 js6

ISO Series 1 abbrev. Series 2

P7

N7

N9

M7

K7

J6

J7

H11

G7

1) Up to nominal dimension 24 mm: x8; above nominal dimension 24 mm: u8

46

47

Following 5 drawings when machined and completed form the rotating parts not only these have to be machined precisely following all standard practices. These parts, since rotate at high r.p.m, therefore should be dynamically balanced. The specifications given on the next page pertain to specific job of cutting rail tracks. Purpose of giving the specification is to give you an idea as to what considerations are necessary before undertaking these kinds of jobs. Prior to use this assembly should stand the test for vibration loose part, proper speed etc. The spacer bush between the bearings should be of exact required length. In both the cases whether long or short will cause the machine to malfunction and unusual wear of the bearings. There are a few missing part also which you should design, these are lock arrangement for the holding nut of the bearings and the fixing washer and of the disc.

SPECIFICATION OF RAIL CUTTING WHEEL (ABRASIVE DISC) (No TM/SM/2 Rev.01 of 2007) 1.0 Scope: This specification covers the functional and technical requirements with testing details of Abrasive Rail Cutting Wheel (Abrasive Disc) which is used to cut rails. The rail cutting wheel (abrasive disc) will be termed as abrasive disc in this specification 2.0 Reference: Following specification has been referred to in this specification. Updated copy of the specification shall be available in the works of the manufacturer/supplier TM/SM/01 Rev. 01-2007 specification of Abrasive Rail Cutter. 3.0 Functional Requirements: 3.1 The abrasive disc shall be so designed that it may be used with abrasive rail cutter with ease. The abrasive disc shall have the technical features mentioned in clause no. 4.0 3.2 The materials shall be such that, the disc periphery doesnt break/chip off during cutting operation. The disc shall be capable of cutting of rails or any section upto 65 kg/gm and of any metallurgy upto 110 UTS. 3.3 The bore and diameter of the abrasive disc shall make it compatible to use with RDSO/Railway Board approved abrasive rail cutter as per specification no. TM/SM/01 Rev. 01-2007 3.4 The abrasive disc during cutting operation shall not loose its abrasive particles rapidly so that it can retain its discarded diameter upto the specified number of cuts.

3.5 the disc materials shall be such that, there shall be no fumes/smokes emitted during the cutting operation. The physical stability to retain the disc flat in new condition and also during cutting operation shall be sufficient. 4.0 Technical Features: (i) (ii) (iii) (iv) (v) (vi) (vii) Diameter Thickness Bore Nominal Size Operation Speed Self life of Disc Cutting timings :400 (+5mm / -3mm) :40 (+ / - 0.25 mm) :22.23 (+0.5mm / -0 mm) :400 x 4 x 22.23 mm :4800 r.p.m. (approximately) :Min. 02 Years. :(using RDSO/Railway Board approved abrasive rail cutter machine as per RDSO specification no. TM/SM/01-2007 0 5 min. 5 min 4 min 4 min 2 min Discard Diameter 260 mm. in order to ensure proper cutting material, total depth of cutting material available (diameter of disc minus discard diameter) shall be minimum 140 mm a)ambient temperature: -5 to 55C Min 7 cuts on 52 kg / 90 UTS and min 06 cuts on 60 kg / 90 UTS at discard diameter of 260 mm.

a) 60 kg/m, 110 UTS rails b) 60 kg/m, 90 UTS rails c) 60 kg/m, 72 UTS rails d) 52 kg/m, 90 UTS rails e) 52 kg/m, 72 UTS & others (viii) Discard Diameter (ix) (x) Atmospheric condition Number of cuts to be given by each disc

5.0 Tests: 5.1 Type Tests: type tests are meant to be conducted on prototypes at the time of initial approval. The manufactures / supplier shall produce four prototypes of the abrasive disc.

5.2 following type tests shall be carried out on the prototypes: (i) Visual & dimensional check: The abrasive disc shall be visually checked for any crack, uneven periphery, warpage etc. The dimensions shall also be checked (ii) Test for fitment of the abrasive disc to abrasive rail cutting machine: The abrasive disc shall be fitted to the spindle of the abrasive rail cutting machine. Fitting of the disc to the abrasive rail cutter shall be easy and the abrasive disc when fitted to the spindle of the abrasive rail cutter shall be self centered automatically. (iii) Cutting performance test: The abrasive disc shall be fitted to an abrasive rail cutter (as per RDSO Specification no. TM/SM/01 Rev. 01-2007) and shall be operated to cut 52 kg/m or 60 kg/m rails of 90 UTS. Minimum 04 nos. discs shall be tested for cutting performance. The cutting timings shall be as per clause no. 4.0 (vii). Following details shall be recorded: a) Cutting timing b) Cutting tolerance (shich shall be 0.5 mm in vertical and horizontal direction) c) Diameter of the abrasives disc after each cut. The cutting test shall be continued upto discard diameter of 260 mm 6.0 Inspection: 6.1 The inspection of abrasive disc shall be carried out by the purchaser zonal railways or any representative / agency authorized by DTE of zonal railways. The cost of inspection and testing shall be borne by the supplier / manufacturer. The arrangement for conducting all the tests shall be done by the manufacturer / supplier. 6.2 05% or min 02 nos. of abrasive disc per lot/P.O. (randomly taken) shall be inspected for its performance as mentioned in clause no. 7.0. It the samples satisfy all the tests prescribed as per acceptance criteria, the lot is acceptable otherwise the lot is rejected.

6.3 after abrasive discs have been supplied at consignees end the supply shall be considered as complete only after conducting training on operation etc. is provided by the manufacturer/ supplier as per clause 10.0 7.0 Acceptance test: I) ii) iii) Visual and dimensional check [as per clause 6.1 (i)] Test for fitment of the abrasive disc to the abrasive rail cutter [6.1(ii)] Cutting performance test [as per clause 4.0 (x) & 5.2 (iii)] : all the abrasive discs of the consignment -doOn randomly selected samples.

8.0 Marking: Each abrasive disc shall be legibly and indelibly marked with the following details; (a) Name and trade mark of the manufacturer. (b) Year and month of manufacturing (c) Date of supply-On the date of supply the disc shall have min 1 yrs. Effective life (d) Expiry date (e) Operating speed 9.0 Makers test Certificate: Copies of makers test certificate guaranteeing the performance of the abrasive disc shall be supplied in duplicate with each lot of abrasive disc 10.0 Training:

Adequate training in operation and maintenance of the disc shall be imparted to railway operators by the manufacturer either at manufacturers premises or at railway premises, as per the convenience of the purchaser/mutually agreed between the purchaser and the supplier, at the rate of two operators per lot of disc. 11.0 Manual: Detailed manual for safe operation and storage shall be supplied in duplicate along with each lot of abrasive disc. 12.0 Warranty: the manufacturer of the abrasive disc shall provide warranty of the abrasive disc against any manufacturing defect or post manufacturing defect/ defect due to aging within expiry period and up to the discard diameter of 260 mm of the abrasive disc. 13.0 Packaging: the abrasive discs, in suitable numbers shall be packed in thick transparent plastic sheet and anti-moisture compound in small perforated sachet shall be placed inside each plastic packing. The plastic pack then shall be enclosed in card board/good, hard and thick paper boxes and each box shall be sealed. If number of such boxes in consignment is more, a few numbers of boxes shall be enclosed in a wooden carton / suitable box and care shall be taken during transportation so that no moisture can percolate into the wooden/card board boxes and abrasive disc do not break due to mishandling.

***********************

The following 9 drawings are for the components to make the table portion of the machine. There are no special requirements for except for the good fabrication practices and a good welding job. The fabrication of present machine does require many details. outlined below but it is worthwhile a study for those who are associated with serious fabrication. You should give consideration to the following guide for steel fabrication, inspection and required procedures in the structural steel building industry. A serious consideration to the hints will be a useful tool for everyone involved with the fabrication and inspection of steel fabrication for buildings. Applicable standards, specifications and references Fabrication and tolerances Bolting and bolting materials Structural steel materials Welding and welding materials Surface preparation and coatings

We should look for quality information from the numerous standards and codes that govern steel fabrication, including: AISC Specification for Structural Steel Buildings RCSC Specification for Structural Joints Using ASTM A325 or A490 Bolts AWS A5.XX Filler Metal Specifications SSPC Surface Preparation and Coating Standards AISC Code of Standard Practice AWS D1.1 Structural Welding Code - Steel ASTM Steel and Fastener Standards

Shop inspection personnel should not be expected to have all these references memorized, nor carry these references everywhere they go. Several books are available including The Shop Inspection Handbook for Structural Steel Buildings you should have a library to keeps this information handy and easily accessible. Standards, Specifications and References AISC: American Institute of Steel Construction AWS: American Welding Society ASTM: American Society for Testing and Materials AGA: American Galvanizers Association Structural Steel Inspection Structural Steels Listed in AISC Specification Section A3.1a Bar, Plate, Strip and Sheet Nomenclature Product Identification Steel Compositions - A36, A572, A913, A992

RCSC: Research Council on Structural Connections ASNT: American Society of Nondestructive Testing SSPC: The Society for Protective Coatings ASTM: American Society for Testing and Materials

ASTM A6 Shape Groupings ASTM A6 Color Identification System Charpy V-Notch Impact Test for Structural Shapes:

Alternate Core Location Tolerances for Shapes Permitted Cross-Sectional Variations for W Shapes Permitted Variations in Cut Length of W and HP Shapes Permitted Variations in Cut Length for S, M, C, MC, L, T, Z and Bulb Angle Shapes Permitted Cross-Sectional Variations for S-Shapes and M-Shapes Permitted Variations in Depth for Split Tee Sections

Mill Straightness Tolerances for W Shapes Permitted End Out-of-Square for W and HP Shapes Permitted Variations in Cut Length and End Out-ofSquare for Milled Shapes Permitted Cross-Sectional Variations for Channels Permitted Cross-Sectional Variations for Angles

Tolerances for Hollow Structural Sections ASTM A53 (Round) ASTM A500 (Round) ASTM A618 (Round) ASTM A847 (Round) ASTM A501 (Rectangular) ASTM A618 (Rectangular) Surface Condition and Repair Steel Fabrication Inspection Column Length

ASTM A501 (Round) ASTM A500 (Rectangular) ASTM A847 (Rectangular)

Member Length (other than columns with finished ends) Member Straightness Tolerances (other than Member Straightness Tolerances (compression compression members) members) Welded Beam and Girder Straightness (with no camber Welded Beam and Girder Sweep specified) Welded Column and Truss Straightness Fabrication Practice

Induced Beam Camber Induced Camber Tolerances for Beams Over 50 Feet in Length Welded Beam and Girder Camber (Typical Girder) Variation Between Web and Flange Centerlines for Welded Built-Up Members Welded Beam and Girder Depth Variation Thermal Cutting Quality Common Access Hole Details Finished Surfaces

Induced Camber Tolerances for Beams 50 Feet and Under in Length Camber Tolerances for Trusses Welded Beam and Girder Camber (without Designed Concrete Haunch) Welded Beam and Girder Flange Warpage and Tilt Stiffener Location and Fit Beam Copes and Reentrant Corners Surface Reconditioning Architecturally Exposed Structural Steel

Bolting Inspection Principal North American Producers and Suppliers of ASTM A325, F1852, and A490 Bolts Bolt Head Markings, A325 and A490, A449 and A354, A307, Nut Markings, A563 and A194, Manufacturer Certification and Packaging Requirements, A325, F1852, A490, A563, A959, F1554 Dimensions A325 and A490 Heavy Hex BoltsA307, A449 and A354 Hex Bolts F1852 Twist-Off-Type Tension-Control Bolts (Button Head Type) A563 and A194 Heavy Hex Nuts F436 Washers F959 Direct Tension Indicators

Suitable A563 Heavy Hex Nuts for A325, F1852 and A490 Bolts Suitable A194 Heavy Hex Nuts for A325, F1852 and A490 Bolts Suitable A563 Heavy Hex Nuts for A307 Bolts Suitable A563 Heavy Hex Nuts for A449 Bolts Suitable A563 Heavy Hex Nuts for A354 Bolts Hole-Making Nominal Bolt Hole Dimensions Lubrication of Black Fasteners Lubrication of Galvanized Fasteners AASHTO Maximum Torque for Rotational-Capacity Testing Joint Types Loading - Shear Only Loading - Combined Shear & Tension Loading - Applied Tension Only Previous Nomenclature Bolt Tension Calibration Devices Skidmore-Wilhelm Data Snug-Tightened Joints Inspection Procedures-Pretensioned and Slip-Critical Joints Common to all Pretensioning Methods Systematic Tightening Pre-Installation Verification Requirements - General Pretensioned and Slip-Critical Joints - General Required Minimum Bolt Pretension Turn-of-the-Nut Pretensioning Method Inspection Procedure

Pre-Installation Verification when bolts are long enough to fit into a Skidmore-Wilhelm Pre-Installation Verification when bolts are too short to fit into a Skidmore-Wilhelm Installation Procedure Twist-Off-Type Tension Control Bolt Pretension Method Inspection Procedure Pre-Installation Verification when bolts are long enough to fit into a Skidmore-Wilhelm Pre-Installation Verification when bolts are too short to fit into a Skidmore-Wilhelm Installation Procedure Direct Tension Indicator Pretensioning Method Inspection Procedure Pre-Installation Verification when bolts are long enough to fit into a Skidmore-Wilhelm Pre-Installation Verification when bolts are too short to fit into a Skidmore-Wilhelm Installation Procedure Calibrated Wrench Pretensioning Method Inspection Procedure Pre-Installation Verification when bolts are long enough to fit into a Skidmore-Wilhelm Pre-Installation Verification when bolts are too short to fit into a Skidmore-Wilhelm Installation Procedure Arbitration of Disputes Torque Method - Long Bolts Torque Method - Short Bolts

Determining the DTI Calibration for Calibrated Wrench and Twist-Off Bolt Installation Methods, and Arbitration of Disputes, when using Short Bolts Stickout Requirements for Washers Reuse of Bolts Previously Pretensioned Bursts Welding Inspection Welding Inspection - General Provisions Inspection Prior to Welding Inspection during Welding Inspection after Welding

FCAW - Flux Cored Arc Welding A5.20 Classification System for Carbon Steel Electrodes for FCAW A5.29 Classification System for Low Alloy Steel Electrodes for FCAW FCAW Electrode Properties - A5.20 FCAW Electrode Properties - A5.29 Matching Filler Metals

SMAW - Shielded Metal Arc Welding A5.1 Classification System for Carbon Steel Electrodes for SMAW A5.5 Classification Systems for Low-Alloy Steel Electrodes for SMAW SMAW Electrode Properties - A5.1 SMAW Electrode Properties - A5.5 Permissible Atmospheric Exposure of Low-Hydrogen SMAW Electrodes GMAW - Gas Metal Arc Welding AWS A5.18 Classification System for Carbon Steel Electrodes for GMAW AWS A5.28 Classification System for Low Alloy Steel Electrodes for GMAW GMAW Electrode Properties - A5.18 GMAW Electrode Properties - A5.28 WPS - Welding Procedure Specifications

Welding Positions Fillet Weld Positions on Plate Groove Weld Positions on Plate Fillet Weld Positions on Tubular Product Groove Weld Positions on Tubular Product

Typical Elements in a Welding Procedure Specification (WPS) Common Tolerances for WPS Adjustment SMAW Typical Amperage Ranges FCAW Welding Procedure Adjustments

Preheat and Interpass Temperatures - Weld Quality - Assembly Fit-Up Tolerances for Fillet Welds Measurement of Fillet Welds - Assembly Fit-Up Tolerances and Measurement of Groove Welded Joints Fillet Weld Size - Fillet Weld Convexity - Fillet Weld Concavity - Groove Weld Reinforcement - Groove Weld Underfill - Location - Overlap - Undercut - Crater - Spatter - Surface Slag - Slag Inclusions - Piping Porosity - Subsurface Porosity - Incomplete Fusion - Incomplete Joint Penetration Cracks Prequalified Groove Weld Joints Identification of Prequalified Groove Weld Joints - Welder Qualification Using Plate Tests - Electrode Diameters Welding Symbols - Filter Shades for Welding and CuttingSafety Surface Preparation and Coatings Inspection Shop Cleaning and Painting - ASTM Standards Regarding Surface Preparation and Coatings Surface Preparation Specifications - Comparison of SSPC and ISO Visual Standards Instructions for Use of Common Inspection Tools 1. Taylor Pocket Sling Psychrometer Model 1330 2. Weksler Pocket Sling Psychrometer Model WE-10-140 3. Keane-Tator Surface Profile Comparator

4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11.

Elcometer Surface Profile Gage Model 123 Testex Press-O-Film(R) Surface Profile Gage Business Card" Wet Film Thickness Gage Gardner Wet Film Thickness Gage Model C (Similar to Erichsen Gage Model 234) Erichsen/Rossman Dry Film Thickness Gage Model DF-233 Erichsen/Rossman Wet and Dry Film Thickness Gage Model WF-296 Defelsko PosiTest Dry Film Thickness Gage Elcometer Dial Dry Film Thickness Gage Model 126