Você está na página 1de 57

DEVESH TIKYANI ,JECRC

2012-2013
A REPORT ON PRACTICAL TRAINING AT

NATIONAL BEARING CORPORATION,JAIPUR,RAJASTHAN

SUBMITTED TO:
MR. R.O.RUSTAGI SENIOR PROFESSOR (DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING.)

SUBMITTED BY:
DEVESH TIKYANI B.TECH (ME) IV YEAR ROLL NO: 025 CLASS: 7(ME) A-1
1|Page

DEVESH TIKYANI ,JECRC

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

EVERY GOOD WORK REQUIRES THE GUIDANCE OF SOME EXPERTS


Words fail me to express my sincerest gratitude to this esteemed organization, which has conferred on us the privilege to pragmatically convert our theoretical knowledge into practical viable experience. During the course of my training at NATIONAL ENGINEERING INDUSTRIES LIMITED, JAIPUR so many people have guided me and I will remain indebted to them throughout my life for making my training at NBC, a wonderful learning experience.

I would like to thank MR. PARAG BHASKAR my project head, Mr. SHIVRAJ, who gave me opportunity to work in his department and guided me through my project from time to time. His words were a true inspiration for me. The exposure to the working of the industry that I have got here would not have been possible without his kind support.

He took keen interest in my project and ensured that my tenure at NBC, JAIPUR is a learning experience for a lifetime for me.

Thanks to all those operators, Diploma Engineer Trainees and my trainee colleagues with whom I had developed a special bond. In the end I would like to thank Mr. A. THOMAS for providing me the opportunity to add a new dimension in my knowledge by getting trained in this esteemed organization.

2|Page

DEVESH TIKYANI ,JECRC

PREFACE

As per the requirement of B. Tech. Course, National Engineering Industries Ltd. (NEI), Jaipur has been kind enough to permit me to complete my Practical Training under TAPER ROLLER BEARING Division. This report prepared during the practical training which is students first and greatest treasure as it is full of experience, observation and knowledge. The summer training was very interesting and gainful as it is close to real what have been studied is all the years through was seen implemented in a modified and practical form. My project was mainly based on ANALYSIS OF THE PNUEMATICS TECHNOLOGY INVOLVED IN ROLL FILLING AND PRESS WORKING MACHINE. This report also covers introduction to the bearings and its type and the processes involved in their preperation. The student wishes that this Gorgeous Private Sector undertaking success so that it may flourish and serve the nation which has reached significant years of its independence and has to achieve many goals.

3|Page

DEVESH TIKYANI ,JECRC

DECLARATION
I, Mr. -------------------------------------------------------------------------------Hereby declare that this project report is the record of authentic work carried out by me during the period from ------------- to ---------- and has not been submitted earlier to any University or Institute for the award of any degree / diploma etc.

DEVESH TIKYANI NAME OF THE STUDENT

4|Page

DEVESH TIKYANI ,JECRC

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Sr. No.
1 2 3 4 5 a) b) c) 6 7 ACKNOWLEDGEMENT PREFACE DECLARATION

TOPIC

Pg. No.
2 3 4 6 88-12 12-17 18-30 31-36 37-43

INTRODUCTION OF BEARING INDUSTRY COMPANY PROFILE BRIEF PROFILE PRODUCTS ACHIEVEMENTS INTRODUCTION TO BEARING AND ITS TYPES PROCESSES INVOLVED IN MANUFACTURING OF TAPER ROLLED BEARING

PROJECT :- ANALYSIS OF THE PNUEMATICS TECHNOLOGY INVOLVED IN ROLL FILLING AND PRESS WORKING MACHINE. 8 9 10 CONCLUSION BIBLIOGRAPHY 44-55 56 57

5|Page

DEVESH TIKYANI ,JECRC

DEFINITION OF INDUSTRY: Industry can be defined as: Any type of Economic Activity producing GOODs or SERVICES It is part of a chain from raw materials to finished product, finished product to service sector, and service sector to research and development. It includes AGRICULTURE, MANUFACTURING and SERVICES Industry varies over time and between different countries

INDUSTRIAL LINKAGE: When one Industry depends on the output of another This can cause problems if one industry has production problems or closes down The CAR INDUSTRY is a good example each component (engine parts, lights, body etc.) may be produced by a different company before it goes to the ASSEMBLY PLANT.
____________________________________________________________________________________

INTRODUCTION OF BEARING INDUSTRY

Although the development of India's ball and roller bearing industry is not quite enviable, it can be said without contradiction that India has relatively strong base for the manufacture of bearings. There are about 12 large and medium units which together turn out over 100 million bearings every year. Almost all the units have foreign collaboration. The Indian Bearing industry makes around 500 types of bearings as against over 30,000 types of bearings being used by the Indian industry. Bulks of these are only of standard types and are used mostly in low-technology areas like fans, electric motors, water pumps, and by the automotive sector. The current Indian bearings industry is worth Rs.3500 crore. In this, automotive segment accounts for 45 percent of the revenues, which amount to Rs 1,350 crores and the remaining 55 percent of revenues, are being contributed by industrial demand. In the automotive bearings market, the organized segment manufactures cater to 50 percent of the demand. About 15 percent of the production is by the unorganised segment in India, and the remaining 35 percent of demand is fulfilled through imports.
6|Page

DEVESH TIKYANI ,JECRC

Out of the total revenues in the automotive segment, 60 percent of the revenues are contributed by the OEMs and the remaining 40 percent is by the demand from the aftermarket. There has been a growth of 15 percent in the aftermarket segment and OE demand has increased by more than 25 percent from the financial year 2005-06. Though the demand from the aftermarket segment is increasing, the growth rate is declining compared to the year 2005 - 06. In the aftermarket, 6 percent demand is from the engineering applications segment, 5 percent from LCV segment, 4 percent from MUV segment, 8 percent from car segment, 11 percent from tractor segment, and the remaining 15 percent from automotive ancillary segment. Rest of the 50 percent demand is from the Railway sector. BEARING INDUSTRY GLOBAL SCENARIO: The world Market of quality Bearing is very vast. The Big players of bearing sector are present in U.S.A, Russia, Japan, China and Eastern Europe. Some of leading bearing Manufacturers are: - NSK Japan - NTN Japan - KOYA Seiko Japan - FAG Germany - SKF Sweden - NRB France - Timken USA There are few of leading bearing manufacturer present in India. Most of the big player is having either technical or financial Collaboration with leading Auto Manufacturer. International Collaboration gives Access to best technology in the world.

BEARING INDUSTRY INDIAN SCENERIO: The Indian Bearing Industry is estimated at Rs. 30 Billion Approximately. The Industry has established a highly diversified product range of around 1000 type of Bearing having High Volume Demand. As much as 70% of the total Demand for common varieties and size of bearing is met by the domestic Industry, and the remaining demand to the tune of 30% is imported essentially for Industrial Application and special purpose. The Indian bearing Industry can be divided in to the organized sector and un-organized sector. The organized sector primarily caters to the original equipment Manufacturer
7|Page

DEVESH TIKYANI ,JECRC

(OEM) Segment, which predominantly comprises automotive industries and other mechanical Industrial users. The replacement market is dominated by unorganized Sector.

COMPANY PROFILE:

NATIONAL ENGINEERING INDUSTRIES LTD., the renowned industrialist, late Shri B.M. Birla, under the name of National Bearing Company Limited, founded JAIPUR in the year 1946 as a pioneer industry in the field of bearing manufacture. The first bearing was manufactured in 1950 with a modest start of 30,000 bearings in 19 sizes. The company is now manufacturing nearly 3.8 million bearings per month in over 500 different sizes ranging from 6 mm bore to 1300 mm outer diameter and has the capacity to manufacture bearings up to 2000 mm outer diameter. At NEI, the development of bearings is a never-ending job. With ever increasing activities and grant of industrial licenses for other vital industries and manufacturing of Roller Bearing Axle Boxes for Railway Rolling Stock, Steel Balls, Tapered Roller Bearings, Spindle Inserts etc., the name of the company was changed in 1958 to "National Engineering Industries Ltd." retaining its original trade mark NBC. The industry is spread over 118 acres of land in Jaipur and 56 acres in Gunsi (Newai). This is the only unit in the country manufacturing wide variety and range of bearings such as Ball Bearings, Steel Balls, Tapered Roller Bearings, and Cylindrical Roller Bearings & Axle Boxes for Railway Rolling Stock including Spherical Roller Bearings, Cartridge Tapered Roller Bearings and Large Diaz special Bearings in separate fully equipped factories. The development of National Engineering Industries Ltd. was pioneered with a theme "Indigenisation and Self-reliance". NBC Bearings are widely used by 2 and 3 Wheelers, Cars, Trucks, Tractors, Electric Motors, Railway wagon, Coach & Locomotive manufacturers as Original Equipment and Steel Mills, Heavy Engineering Plants, Bulldozers, Shovels, Tillers and Thermal Power Plants all across the country. The development of NEI ltd. was pioneered with a theme Indigenisation and self reliance.

____________________________________________________________________________________

8|Page

DEVESH TIKYANI ,JECRC

PLANTS OF NBC

PLANT AT JAIPUR: (i) Ball Bearing: Precision Ball Bearings from 6 mm bore to 75 mm bore diameter are manufactured on state of the art manufacturing facilities with in-process and post-process gauging in grinding and centrally air conditioned assembly lines with auto gauging and testing equipments. The latest advanced techniques for manufacturing and Quality Assurance are implemented to meet the rapid increase in demand for Quality, diversity of specifications and new types of bearings. This Division is spread over a covered area of 14,694 Sq. Meters.

(ii) Steel Ball: Precision Steel Balls up to 25 mm diameters for NBC Bearings are manufactured on precision grinding and lapping machines to achieve super finished surface, accuracy and roundness as per ISO standards. This Division is spread over a covered area of 4,700 Sq. Meters.

(iii) Tapered Roller Bearing: Precision Tapered Roller Bearings are manufactured in Inch and Metric series from 15.875mm bore to 95.25mm bore with technology obtained from our earlier collaborator, Federal Mogul Corporation, USA and now with NTN Corporation, Japan. All major Automobile manufacturers in the country as Original Equipment use these bearings. This Division is spread over a covered area of 11,652 Sq. Meters. PLANT AT GUNSI (NEWAI): Established in the year 1980-81 as an expansion project of NEI Ltd. The factory is equipped with fully automated grinding lines with electronic in process & post- process gauging and centrally air-conditioned assembly lines with auto gauging and test equipments for quality and reliability of the products. The plant is spread over a covered area of 7,200 Sq. Meters.

9|Page

DEVESH TIKYANI ,JECRC

PLANT AT MANESAR: NEI has set up its third Ball Bearing manufacturing plant in the fastest growing industrial town of Manesar in Haryana. The plant is having a covered area of 5200 sq. meters. With the most advanced and sophisticated machines imported from reputed manufacturers from Europe and Japan. This plant is equipped with state of the art fully automated grinding lines, assembly lines and inspection equipments.

RESEARCH & DEVELOPMENT AT JAIPUR:


(Design & Development: a Complete in-house facility for design development of all types of bearings and tooling )is available. The design of all types of bearings is done on ProEngineer 3D Modeling & Analysis Software. Complete engineering and research facility is available to solve intricate problems with expert advice on design, development, manufacturing, installation and maintenance of bearings. With the signing of the technical collaboration agreement with NTN Corporation, Japan & BRENCO Inc of USA, the capability to offer finest engineering services in the bearing industry has enhanced. Services of team of experienced engineers are available for selection of bearing as per application. (Machine Building: b NEI has the capability of machine building to design, )develop and manufacture special purpose CNC Grinding Lines, HT Lines, Material Handling Equipments and other special purpose machines which have been made for its captive use to keep pace with latest technology. A well-equipped electronic design, development laboratory with all testing facilities supports the Machine Building Division. Machine Building has the capability and supports the Manufacturing Divisions by overhauling and retrofitting of the existing equipments, resulting in upgraded quality and improved productivity. R&D Division is spread over a covered area of 2,007 Sq. Meters.

SAP - ERP: In order to reengineer and integrate the Business processes for sales, production, materials and finance, NEI has successfully implemented SAP- ERP. By use of this Package, our processes now conform to international standard.
10 | P a g e

DEVESH TIKYANI ,JECRC

(iv) Railway Bearing: (a) Roller Bearing in Axle Box: With the production of Roller Bearings and Axle Boxes since 1952, the company has fully met the requirements of the Indian Railways (one of the largest systems of the world) by designing and developing Axle Boxes and bearings for fitment to Locomotives manufactured by Diesel Locomotive Works, Chittaranjan Locomotive Works, various wagon builders, the ICF broad and meter gauge coaches. Over a million NBC bearings and boxes are in service with the Indian Railways. The development of completely indigenised Axle Boxes and bearings for the high speed Rajdhani Locomotive, the Yugoslavian and Egyptian Railway wagons are the highlights of the design capabilities at NEI. On date more than 100 types of Axle Boxes & Bearings have been manufactured. (b) Spherical Roller Bearing: The manufacturing of Spherical Roller Bearings was started in the year 1975-76 for fitment to broad gauge and meter gauge passenger coaches with designs, technology, machines and equipment procured from the collaborators. (c) Cartridge Tapered Roller Bearing: For fitment to the new BOX-IN Uprated Wagons designed by the RDSO, NEI is the only manufacturer in the country to indigenise these bearings to a high percentage under collaboration with the largest manufacturer of these bearings in the world. Production of these bearings commenced in the year 1984. These bearings are grease packed and require no field lubrication for a period of 7 years. This Division is spread over a covered area of 4,855 Sq. Meters. (v) Large Diameter Bearing: Self-sufficiency in steel is the call of the day, so is the importance of bearings in Steel Mills Equipment. NEI has the distinction of being one of the ten manufacturers of these bearings in the world, who can manufacture large diameter bearings up to 2000 mm diameter.

Mr. G.P. Birla released the largest bearing manufactured by NEI for fitment to the Plate Mill of Rourkela Steel Plant in September 1985. This 4-Row Tapered Roller Bearing measures 1300 mm diameter and weigh 4.39 tons. The large diameter bearings are mainly manufactured out of case carburising steel, heat treated on special equipment and furnaces developed by NEI. Precision grinding is done to close tolerances on CNC Twin Spindle Programmable Berthiez Machine for bearings ranging from 500 to 2000 mm diameter with electronic sizing and numerical
11 | P a g e

DEVESH TIKYANI ,JECRC

display. Production of these bearings started in 1975 and to date over 100 different types of special large diameter bearings have been manufactured and successfully used, saving considerable foreign exchange for the country. The Large Diameter Bearings Division is spread over a covered area of 2,508 Sq. Meters.

QUALITY:

At NEI, They have embarked upon system improvement and implemented modern concepts of Total Quality Management. The company has been accredited with a number of certifications like ISO/TS 16949:2002 and ISO 9001:2000 by BVQI for the design, development, manufacture & supply of Ball Bearing, Tapered Roller Bearing and Cylindrical Roller Bearings, Spherical Roller Bearings, Cartridge Tapered Roller Bearings, Railway Rolling Stock and Spares in addition to the ISO 14001:1996 certification for ensuring a clean and pollution free environment. Association of American Rail Roads has approved NEI and granted AAR Approval for design, manufacture and supply Cartridge Tapered Roller Bearings for Freight Wagons. We are the leading suppliers of Cartridge Tapered Roller Bearings to Indian Railways since last twenty years.

PRODUCTS RANGE OF BEARINGS MANUFACTURED AND EXPORTED UNDER THE TRADE MARK OF NBC INCLUDES:

Ball Bearings Tapered Roller Bearings Cylindrical Roller Bearings Axle Boxes Spherical Roller Bearings Cartridge Tapered Roller Bearings Large Diameter Special Bearings

NBC Bearings are widely used by two and three Wheelers, Cars, Trucks, Tractors,
12 | P a g e

DEVESH TIKYANI ,JECRC

Electric Motors, Railway Wagons, Coaches & Locomotives and also in Steel Mills, Heavy Engineering Plants, Bulldozers, Shovels, Tillers and Thermal Power Plants all across the country and overseas. BALL BEARING:

TYPE OF BALL BEARINGS: Radial Ball Bearing Angular Contact Bearing Self-Aligning Two-Row Ball Bearing Belt Tensioned NO. OF SIZES: - 257, including derivatives. The initial technology was from Hoffman Manufacturing Company Ltd., U.K. a collaboration, which continued for 20 years. They offer a wide range of both metric and inch series deep groove ball bearings, angular contact ball bearings, self-aligning ball bearings etc. With their tie up with the world's leading bearing manufacturing company NTN Corporation, JAPAN, They have gained access to the most advanced ball bearing technology i.e. thermo mechanical bearings (TMB) and tensioner bearings available today and our wide range of ball bearings is increasing under this collaboration. Precision ball bearing from 6mm bore to 160mm OD is manufactured with latest advance techniques. The unit has advanced assembly line with auto gauging and testing equipment. NEI has 22 automatic Grinding lines from M/s. NTN & Izumi, Japan. All machines with in process & post process gauges to ensure grinding accuracy. Use of High Quality coolants for consistent grinding quality and surface finish. Complete automation by flex-link conveyor system. NEI has automatic plant for Track Grinding, Bore Grinding and Honing, New Automatic Grinding and Assembly Line has been purchased for Manufacturing of DRAC bearings.
13 | P a g e

DEVESH TIKYANI ,JECRC

TAPERED ROLLER BEARINGS:

TYPE OF TAPERED ROLLER BEARINGS: Single Row Tapered Roller Bearing Double Row Tapered Roller Bearing

NO. OF SIZES: 76.

Manufactured at an ultra modern plant, with technology obtained from our earlier collaborators, Federal Mogul Corporation, USA and now with NTN Corporation, JAPAN, these bearings are used by all major automobiles, truck and tractor manufacturers in the country as original equipment. The above bearings are manufacture in inch & metric series form 15.857mm bore to 95.25mm bore. For TRB NEI has Automatic Grinding Lines with in-process & post process gauges. Complete automation by Flex link conveyor. Crowning provision on Inner (Cone) & Outer (Cup). Complete Automatic Line for Roll Grinding, Super finishing, Inspection and Sorting imported from NTN, Japan automatic checking & prevention of inverted roller & roller missing. Automatic checking of stand height, noise and run outs. For TRB, NEI has technical collaboration with NTN Corporation JAPAN, all major automobile manufacturers as OEM original equipment uses the above bearings. NEI has purchased new state of the art Automatic Grinding line consisting of 4 nos. Grinding machines from M/s Linkoping, Sweden and 2 Nos. Super finishing machines from M/s Supfina.
14 | P a g e

DEVESH TIKYANI ,JECRC

SPHERICAL ROLLER BEARING: The above bearing is fitment to broad & meter gauge passenger coaches, for manufacturing SPHERICAL ROLLER BEARING design, technology, and equipments is procured from NEI collaborator (NTN JAPAN).

Originally developed in collaboration with Swiss leaders FAG-SRO. Vital for broad gauge and meter gauge coaches manufactured by ICF, Chennai and RCF, Kapoorthala for the Indian Railways. Now new sizes are being developed with the help of NTN Corporation, JAPAN

(Railway Bearing NO. OF SIZES: 5

CYLINDRICAL ROLLER BEARINGS & AXLE BOX ASSEMBLY: -

NO. OF SIZES: 58 Developed by NBC for the Indian Railways for use in rolling stocks. Excellent performance even in the high speed Rajdhani locomotives, the Yugoslavian and Egyptian Railway wagons.

A total of 34 different types of the axle boxes are turned out at the NEI plant in Jaipur.
15 | P a g e

DEVESH TIKYANI ,JECRC

Designs for high-speed railway application are being developed together with NTN. More than one million NBC axle boxes and roller bearings are in operation with Indian Railways. We have the privilege of being the single largest source of bearings to Indian Railways, which is one of the largest networks of its kind in the world. The most of the production of this type of bearing for Indian Railways, Production of the bearing started in 1952, on date plant is producing 100 different types of Axle Box bearing, over a million NEI bearings and boxes are in service with the Indian railways. New Automatic Grinding and Assembly Line has been purchased for manufacturing of Axle Unit Bearings (DRAC bearings) from M/s Izumi Kinzoku. CARTRIDGE TAPER ROLLER BEARING

Successful Track record in the Railways for the past 30 years, these require no field lubrication. Developed in collaboration with BRENCO Inc. USA, these bearings are being used in all broad gauge wagons of Indian Railways. This is new box in for upgraded wagons design by RDSO, NEI only manufacturer with the collaboration with largest manufacturer of the world. Production of this bearing started from 1989. These bearing are grease packed and require no filed lubrication for period 7years exporting Cartridge Tapered Roller Bearings for wagon application to M/s Brenco USA since 2004.

CARTRIDGE TAPERED ROLLER BEARINGS: (Railway Bearing) NO. OF SIZES: 1

NEI has Automatic Grinding Lines with in process gauges to ensure high accuracy and surface finish. Complete automation by Flex link conveyor. Facility for crowning on inner race and outer race LARGE DIA METER BEARING

16 | P a g e

DEVESH TIKYANI ,JECRC

LARGE DIA SPECIAL BEARINGS: Single Row & Double Row Ball, Cylindrical and Four Row Tapered Roller Bearing NO. OF SIZES: 132 NEI is one of the top 10 manufacturers of LDA bearing & its plant can produced up to 2000mm Dia meter bearing also, The largest bearing produced by the plant was 4 row tapered roller bearing with 1300mm Dia and weight 4.39 tons. NEI has Single &Double Spindle Internal and External Grinding. To Capable of Grinding 1000 mm Dia. to 2000 mm Dia.

LONG TERM OBJECTIVE 2008-2014


TO ACHIEVE BY THE YEAR 2013-14: 1. A TURN OVER OF RS. 10000 Million 2. EXPORT SALES AS 20% OF TURNOVER & DEVELOP OE CUSTOMERS FOR EXPORT SALES 3. CONTRIBUTION FROM NEW PRODUCT DEVELOPED IN LASTFIVE YEARS AT 15% OF SALES TURNOVER 4. INCOME FROM SERVICES TO RS 300 Million 5. INCOME FROM ALLIED ENGINEERING PRODUCTS TO RS 50 Million 6. ROI Pre Tax 24.4% Post tax 17.1% AND BECOME A DEBT FREE COMPANY CUSTOMER SATISFACTION INDEX OF 95%

ANNUAL OPERATING PLAN 2008-09 TO ACHIEVE: 1. TURN OVER OF Rs. 6005.50 Million.
17 | P a g e

DEVESH TIKYANI ,JECRC

2. EXPORT SALES AS 6.40% OF TURNOVER 3. CONTRIBUTION FROM NEW PRODUCT DEVELOPED IN LAST FIVE YEARS AT 10% OF SALES TURNOVER 4. INCOME FROM SERVICES TO Rs. 155 Million ROI - PRE TAX > 20.9%

MILESTONES:

1946

Company Established as National Bearing Company (NBC) Under Technical Collaboration with Hoffman, UK .

1950 1951 1957 1967

Ball Bearing Production Started. Railway Bearing Production Started. Company name changed to National Engineering Industries ltd. (Retained NBC as Trade Mark). Tapered Roller Bearings Production Started Under Technical Collaboration with Federal Mogul Corporation, USA.

1971 1971 1975 1976

Established Research and Development Division. Established Machine Building Division. Large Diameter Special Bearings Production Started. Spherical Roller Bearings Production started with Technical Know How from FAG-SRO. Separate Factory for Ball Bearing at Gunsi (Newai). Cartridge Tapered Roller Bearings Production Started in Technical Collaborations with BRENCO Incorporated, USA.

1981 1982

1985

Largest Bearing with outer diameter 1.3 meter and weight 4.39 tons (4390 Kgs) Produced.

1985

Technical Collaboration with NTN Corporation of Japan for Ball, Cylindrical and Spherical Roller Bearings.

18 | P a g e

DEVESH TIKYANI ,JECRC

1990-95 1995 1996 1997

Modernization in Three Phases. ISO 9001 Certificate. Technical Collaboration with m/s Izumi Kinzoku Kogyo Co. ltd Japan for Machine Retrofitting/Remanufacturing and Overhauling o Grinding and --Super finishing Machines for Bearing Race. Technical Collaboration with NTN Corporation of Japan for Taper Roller Bearing and Hub Bearings.

1998 1999 2000 2003 2005 2006

IV Phase Modernization Started. Implemented 1st Phase of SAP ERP Solutions. QS 9000 and ISO -14001Certification. TS 16949Certification. AAR Certification M 1003 for Cartridge Tapered Roller Bearing. New Manufacturing Facility at IMT Manesar (Haryana).

Departments at NEI Ltd, Jaipur

Personnel Division Taper Division Research & Development Division Machine Building Large Diameter Bearing Division Railway Division Bearing Division Ball Department Ring Rolling Division Quality Assurance
19 | P a g e

DEVESH TIKYANI ,JECRC

Metallurgy Division

Sales Department Budget Department Accounts Department ERP/EDP

SISTER CONCERN:
Hindustan Motors ltd. Car plant (lancer), Chennai Power Product Division, Hosur Power Unit Plant (ISUZU engines) India Automobile Division, Uttarpare GMMCO ltd, Chennai Hukumchand Jute and Industries ltd, Amlai Orient Fans, Kolkata Orient Paper Mills, Amlai Orient Paper and Industries ltd, Kolkata Orient Cement, Devapur (A.P.) Hyderabad Industries Limited, Hyderabad Birlasoft, Noida.
20 | P a g e

DEVESH TIKYANI ,JECRC

OVERSEAS COMPANIES:

Panafrican Paper Mills (EA) Nairobi Nigeria Engg. Works (NEW) Nigeria Rivers Vegetable Oil Company ltd, Nigeria.

PLANTS AREA:

21 | P a g e

DEVESH TIKYANI ,JECRC

COLLABORATIONS:
BRENCO Incorporated, USA
Since 1982, for Cartridge Tapered Roller Bearings for Railway wagons and locomotives

NTN Corporation, Japan


Since 1985, for Ball Bearings, Cylindrical and Spherical Roller Bearings, Clutch Release Gen- 1, Gen- 2 Wheel Bearings. Since 1997, for Tapered Roller Bearings.

Izumi Kinzoku Co. ltd, Japan


Since 1996, for re- manufacturing, retrofitting and overhauling of grinding and super- finishing machines for bearing races

NBC Bearings are used by all major auto OE Customers in India Like:-

BAJAJ AUTO YAMAHA MOTORS LIMITED KINETIC ENGINEERING HERO HONDA MOTORS ROYAL ENFIELD INDIA TVS MOTOR INDIA (P) LTD

22 | P a g e

DEVESH TIKYANI ,JECRC

HMSIL MAJESTIC AUTO LIMITED

BAJAJ AUTO FORCE MOTORS SCOOTERS INDIA LIMITED MAHINDRA & MAHINDRA LTD. ATUL AUTO LIMITED

MARUTI UDYOG LIMITED

HINDUSTAN MOTORS

FORCE MOTORS

MAHINDRA & MAHINDRA LTD.

23 | P a g e

DEVESH TIKYANI ,JECRC

ASHOK LEYLAND FORCE MOTORS EICHER MOTORS HINDUSTAN MOTORS MAHINDRA & MAHINDRA LTD. TATA MOTORS LTD

ESCORTS FORCE MOTORS MAHINDRA & MAHINDRA LTD. PUNJAB TRACTORS

TAFE NEW HOLLAND VST TILLERS HMT TRACTORS SONALIKA


24 | P a g e

DEVESH TIKYANI ,JECRC

OTHER MAIN CUSTOMER

INDIAN RAILWAY

CROMPTON GREAVES

KIRLOSKAR

GE ELECTRICALS

MICO

TEXMACO

25 | P a g e

DEVESH TIKYANI ,JECRC

NBC Bearings Exports in following Countries

26 | P a g e

DEVESH TIKYANI ,JECRC

USA Japan Italy Sri lanka Indonesia Bangladesh Singapore Nepal Peru Pakistan Brazil Awards
NEI has bagged some of the most prestigious awards in its field in various categories:-

Challenge India Support (Engine GP) Award for 2003-04 by Honda Motorcycles and Scooters India ltd. Direct On Line (DOL) Award, 2005 by M/s Hero Honda Motors ltd. Customers Delight Award, 2006 by Eicher Motors ltd. National safety Award from The Government of India

27 | P a g e

DEVESH TIKYANI ,JECRC

AWARDS

28 | P a g e

DEVESH TIKYANI ,JECRC

CERTIFICATIONS OF NBC:-

29 | P a g e

DEVESH TIKYANI ,JECRC

NEI NETWORK IN INDIA

BRAN CH OFFICE WORKS JAIPUR MANESAR NEWAI DELHI MUMBAI PUNE CHENNAI

HEAD OFFICE JAIPUR

REGISTERED OFFICE KOLKATA

30 | P a g e

DEVESH TIKYANI ,JECRC

BEARING:A bearing is a device to allow constrained relative motion between two or more parts, typically rotation or linear movement. Bearings may be classified broadly according to the motions they allow and according to their principle of operation as well as by the directions of applied loads they can handle.

31 | P a g e

DEVESH TIKYANI ,JECRC

TYPES:There are many different types of bearings. Type Description Friction Stiffnes Speed s Life Notes

Depends Rubbing on surfaces, materials usually with and lubricant; constructio some n, PTFE Plain bearings use has bearing pumped coefficient lubrication and of friction behave ~0.05-0.35, similarly to depending fluid bearings. upon fillers added

Good, provided wear is Low to low, but very some high slack is normally present

Widely used, relatively high friction, suffers from stiction in Low to very some high - depends applications. upon Depending application and upon the lubrication application, lifetime can be higher or lower than rolling element bearings.

Ball or rollers Rolling are used to element prevent or bearing minimize rubbing

Rolling coefficient of friction with steel can be ~0.005 (adding resistance due to seals, packed grease, preload and misalignme nt can increase friction to as much as 0.125)

Moderat Good, e to but some high slack is (often usually requires present cooling)

Used for higher Moderate to moment high (depends loads than on lubrication, plain often requires bearings maintenance) with lower friction

Off-center Jewel bearing rolls in Low bearing seating

Low due Low to flexing

Adequate (requires maintenance)

Mainly used in low-load, high


32 | P a g e

DEVESH TIKYANI ,JECRC

Fluid is forced between two Zero friction Fluid Very faces and held at zero bearing high in by edge speed, low seal

Very high (usually limited to a few hundred feet per second at/by seal)

precision work such as clocks. Jewel bearings may be very small. Can fail quickly due to grit or Virtually infinite dust or other in some contaminant applications, s. may wear at Maintenanc startup/shutdo e free in wn in some continuous cases. Often use. Can negligible handle very maintenance. large loads with low friction.

Zero friction at zero speed, but constant power for levitation, Faces of eddy bearing are Magneti currents are kept separate c often by magnets Low bearing induced (electromagne s when ts or eddy movement currents) occurs, but may be negligible if magnetic field is quasi-static Material flexes Flexure to give and Very low bearing constrain movement

Active magnetic bearings (AMB) need Indefinite. considerabl No Maintenance e power. practical free. (with Electro limit electromagnets dynamic ) bearings (EDB) do not require external power.

Low

Very high.

Very high or low depending on materials and strain in application. Usually

Limited range of movement, no backlash, extremely smooth


33 | P a g e

DEVESH TIKYANI ,JECRC

maintenance motion free. Stiffness is the amount that the gap varies when the load on the bearing changes, it is distinct from the friction of the bearing.

Table 1: Types of bearing

Tapered Roller Bearing: Tapered roller bearings are designed in such a way that vertices of the cone for each roller and those for the inner and outer raceways coincides on the bearing axis or extensions of the raceways and rollers converge at a common point on the axis of rotation. This results in true rolling motion of the rollers on the raceways at every point along the rollers. The tapered roller bearings support radial loads and axial loads from one direction only. The line contact between rollers and raceways provide the bearings with a high load carrying capacity. Steep angle tapered roller bearing with exceptionally steep cone angle enables the bearings to take heavier axial load. The bearings are of separable type, enabling separate mounting of cups and cones. Since the tapered roller bearings can absorb thrust loads in one direction only, these bearings should generally be installed as opposed mountings. The correct amount of radial and axial clearance is obtained by adjusting the two bearings against each other. Besides, double row and four row tapered roller bearings are also widely used for heavy loads such as rolling mills. The inner and outer ring raceways are segments of cones and the rollers are also made with a taper so that the conical surfaces of the raceways and the roller axes if projected, would all meet at a common point on the main axis of the bearing.

34 | P a g e

DEVESH TIKYANI ,JECRC

Taper Roller Bearing This conical geometry is used as it gives a larger contact patch, which permits greater loads to be carried than with spherical (ball) bearings, while the geometry means that the tangential speeds of the surfaces of each of the rollers are the same as their raceways along the whole length of the contact patch and no differential scrubbing occurs. When a roller slides rather than rolls, it can generate wear at the roller-to-race interface, i.e. the differences in surface speeds creates a scrubbing action. Wear will degenerate the close tolerances normally held in the bearing and can lead to other problems. Much closer to pure rolling can be achieved in a tapered roller bearing and this avoids rapid wear. The rollers are guided by a flange on the inner ring. This stops the rollers from sliding out at high speed due to their momentum. The larger the half angles of these cones the larger the axial force that the bearing can sustain. Tapered roller bearings are separable and have the following components: outer ring, inner ring, and roller assembly (containing the rollers and a cage). The non-separable inner ring and roller assembly is called the cone, and the outer ring is called the cup. Internal clearance is established during mounting by the axial position of the cone relative to the cup.
35 | P a g e

DEVESH TIKYANI ,JECRC

RAW MATERIAL: The Races & Rolling elements of Bearing are subjected to stress on a very small contact surface must be of such material also as to with stand wear and have high elastic Limit & fatigue Limit. The raw material being used by the Industry for Manufacturing of various Bearing components are as under: CUP AND CONE: The raw material used in the Manufacturing of bearing Races is SAE 52100 high Carbon Chrome bearing steel, which has composition similar to EN-31 (100 CR 6 As per BIS specification). The raw material for Bearing Races is in the form of Rods & Seamless Hollow Tubes. This is a Spheroids Annealed Steel. Approx. 80% of the Seamless Hollow tubes are purchased by the Industry from M/s. Indian Seamless Metal tube PUNE, while the rest of the tube used in the cluster is imported material. The Steel bar are purchased from M/s. Indian Seamless Steel & Alloy Pune & M/s. Mahindra Ugine Steel Company KHAPOLI (Maharashtra). Some of the units are buying the steel scrap rod for manufacturing bearing races. Bearing Races material and their heat treatment are required to be selected carefully, taking account the mechanical strength and required life of the Bearing, Approximate required composition for bearing races are Constitute % Composition Carbon Chromium Manganese Silicon Sulphur Phosphorous CAGE'S: Cage is used to return balls at proper distance to prevent them from containing each other and to prevent a temperature rise and resultant damage due to friction.
36 | P a g e

0.95 to 1.1 1.4 to 1.6 0.50 max. 0.15 to 0.35 0.025 (Max.) 0.05

DEVESH TIKYANI ,JECRC

The Material for manufacturing cages is CRCA Strips of C2015 Bearing grade steel having carbon percentage at0.08% max. and Magnesium ranging from 0.25% to 0.45% MANUFACTURING PROCESS OF TAPER ROLLER BEARING: Forged rings (De-scaled) as raw material (SAE 52100 steel) Turning Operation Centre Less Grinding Heat Treatment Hardness Testing Rough Grinding Finish Grinding Honing & Super Finishing Washing Application for Rust Preventive Ready For Dispatch to Assembly

HEAT TREATMENT PROCESS:Heat treatment process is the process of hardening the soft material. The row material is soft material and it has to be hardened before grinding, and hardening increase the life of bearing. Hardening is done in a special furnace named CHUGAIRO furnace. The soft machined material is feed in the furnace and washed at 60 0 C, then send to a chamber where the material heated in four chambers the first chamber has the
37 | P a g e

DEVESH TIKYANI ,JECRC

temperature 8400 C and further chamber contains the 8500 C temperature. Then it dipped into an oil tank at temperature 25 0C where the material get quenched then it washed and then it tempered in water about 90 min. at temperature 105 0 C . then dried and cooled in air. The hardened material is obtained.

The systematic flowchart is shown in following fig:

Fig2: flowchart of heat treatment

After heat treatment following process are done:

38 | P a g e

DEVESH TIKYANI ,JECRC

DIFFERENT PROCESS FOR CONE:Dimensions Checking Before starting the grinding process, various dimensions of cone should be checked in a machine or manually. Various dimensions to be checked are: Flange diameter Cone width Cone track diameter Bore diameter Face Grinding Face is the surface at side of the inner and outer race , face should be finished indeed to get the desire width of the bearing and since the bearing is a mating part and it has to be assembled somewhere in the machine where it should be fit precisely. The face grinding is done in a machine where the faces are grinded in between the grinding wheel. Size Limit : : Width Variation : UCL LCL 5 m +35 m -35 m

There are various semi-automatic face grinding machine installed in taper section for cone 1. DAISHO MACHINE 2. NISSEI MACHINE 3. NISSEI MACHINE

OD (Outer Dia.) Grinding OD is the circumferential surface of the outer race of the bearing. The OD should be surface finished since the bearing has to be assembled in machine. It is obtain in an OD grinding machine. In this machine the outer race is rotated between two grinding wheel. The outer race is passed in machine three times to get highly finished as follows: 1. Rough1 2. Rough2 3. Fine finish

39 | P a g e

DEVESH TIKYANI ,JECRC

Size Limit Target Size Flange Grinding

: :

15 to 35 m +30 m

The flange should be surface finished since the bearing has to be assembled in machine. It is obtain in the flange grinding machine. In this machine one grinding stone is used to cut and grind the flange portion of cone. NC Mode Feed Mode Override AUTO AUTO 120% (used to change machine speed.)

Tool movement during grinding is in all three dimensional axes i.e. X, Y, Z axis.

Bore Grinding Bore is the inner circumferential surface of the bearing. The bore should be surface finished since the bearing has to be assembled in machine. It is obtain in the bore grinding machine. In this machine the grinding stone is moved in X and Y axis. Size Limit : +4 m to -4 m.

TOOL movement during grinding is in only two dimensional axes i.e. X, Z axis.

Auto Dimension Check Various dimensions of cone are checked in this machine. This machine includes various sensors for sensing the dimension of cone. This machine use weight sensors and position sensors to identify the position and weight of cone. All dimensions should be checked in this machine. M1 M2 M3 M4 0.7 2.1 -2 -0.2 ID1 - X ID 2 - X TAPER ID1 - Y

40 | P a g e

DEVESH TIKYANI ,JECRC

M5 M6

1.6 0.9

ID 2 Y OVALITY

It automatically discards the work piece if its dimensions are not compatible with prefeed data. The limitations of size are: Size limit TAPER OOR CHATTER SQUARENESS : : : : : +4 m to -4 m. 5 m maximum 5 m maximum 3 m maximum 5 m maximum

Honing Machine Honing is an abrasive machining process that produces a precision surface on a metal work piece by scrubbing an abrasive stone against it along a controlled path. Honing is primarily used to improve the geometric form of a surface, but may also improve the surface texture. DIFFERENT PROCESS FOR CUP : OD Grinding OD is the circumferential surface of the outer race of the bearing. The OD should be surface finished since the bearing has to be assembled in machine. It is obtain in an OD grinding machine. In this machine the outer race is rotated between two grinding wheel. The outer race is passed in machine three times to get highly finished as follows: Rough1, Rough2, Fine finish.

Size Limit Target Size

: :

15 to 35 m +30 m

Honing Machine Honing is an abrasive machining process that produces a precision surface on a metal work piece by scrubbing an abrasive stone against it along a controlled path. Honing is primarily used to improve the geometric form of a surface, but may also improve the surface texture.

41 | P a g e

DEVESH TIKYANI ,JECRC

ASSEMBLY LINE: Once respective CUP and CONE of corresponding bearing is finished, they are sent in the Assembly line where these cup and cone get assembled with retainers having rollers in them and after some important test, they are finally packed and are ready for use. Laser Printing Machine: It is a machine which is used for marking purpose of the company brand and specification on respective cup or cone. This technology utilizes laser beam for marking. The movement of laser beam is controlled by automatic 3d table movement. The point on metal surfaces where these laser beams hits leave marks as required. Names of few Laser Machine which are installed in Taper Bearing Section are: 1. AKSHAR FIBER-PRO 2. SAJIAJANAND Laser Technology ltd Roll Filling Machine: It is an automatic machine which is actuated by pneumatic technology. In this machine, first Retainer is placed on first station where rollers are inserted at there respective position. Then they are sensed by position sensor, actuated by pneumatic and then cone is fixed within cage. Pressing Machine: It is an automatic machine which is actuated by pneumatic and hydraulic technology both. The Cone is pressed against Retainer with downstroke powered by hydraulics and upstroke powered by pneumatics. Weight check: At this station, Weight of bearing is checked and if the weight is not compatible with the given standard of weight limits, machine will reject the workpiece sample. Demagnetizer: It is a machine which is used to remove magnetism induced during the above process. It is done by impact hitting. Washing: Then the bearing is washed by fast stream of kerosene jet. Noise checking: The bearing is supposed to be produce low noise hence this machine rotates the bearing at certain rpm and noise is checked. The noise limit is nearby 0.1 Mpa.
42 | P a g e

DEVESH TIKYANI ,JECRC

Press checking: At this station, the bearing is checked whether its assembly is pressed properly or not. Final checking: This machine has 2 or 4 stations where various dimensions of final bearing are checked. If any bearing is found incompatible with the given dimensions and tolerances, they are rejected by the machine. In ideal position 1, width of bearing, runout and commet or clearance of bearing is checked. And at ideal position 2, bore size, taper and roundness are checked. All those bearings which does not have compatible size and tolerance with the given data, they are rejected by the machine itself. Ideal position 1 Ideal position 2 : : width, run out, commet bore size, bore taper, bore roundness

Oiling and Drawer Machine: In this machine, bearing is subjected to a fast flowing stream of coolant which is used to lubricate the bearing parts. And then the excess oil is again sucked by the machine. Visual Inspection: Now, the bearing is checked manually by the operators. All the dimensions and surface properties are checked and rejected workpiece are sent again for correction. Packing: Finally, finished product is packed for market use and export.

_____________________________________________________________________

43 | P a g e

DEVESH TIKYANI ,JECRC

PROJECT:

ANALYSIS OF THE PNUEMATICS TECHNOLOGY INVOLVED IN ROLL FILLING AND PRESS WORKING MACHINE.

In todays challenging environment, technology departments are in danger of being crushed between the pincers of growing business expectation and an unstinting focus on cost control and development. Introduction of pneumatics: A fluid power system is one that transmits and control energy through the use of pressurized liquid and gases. In pneumatics, the power comes from the atmosphere and it is reduced by compression, thus increasing its pressure. Compressed air is mainly used to do work by acting on a piston or vane. Basic application of pneumatics: 1. 2. 3. 4. Operation of system valves for air, water and chemicals. Lifting and moving in slab moulding machine. Holding in jigs and fixtures in assembly machinery and tools. Pneumatics robots.

Basic pneumatic system: Pneumatic cylinders, rotary actuators and air motors provide the force and movement of most Pneumatics control system, to hold, move, and form and process material. To operate and control these actuators, other Pneumatics components are required i.e. air service unit to prepared the compressed air and valve to control the pressure, flow2 and direction of movement of the actuators. A basic Pneumatics system consists of 2 main sections: 1. The air production and distribution system 2. The air consuming system Air production system: 1. 2. 3. 4. Compressor Electric motor Pressure switch Check valve
44 | P a g e

DEVESH TIKYANI ,JECRC

5. 6. 7. 8.

Tank Pressure gauge Air dryer Line filter

Air consuming system: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Air take-off Auto drain DCV Actuators Speed controllers

Block diagram of roller filling and press machine

No cone No roller Roller unit Cone supply transfer orientation

Cage positioning

set

Assembly unit

press

check

discharge

No cage

Cage Assembly Unit Cage supply


Fig: Block diagram of roller filling and press machine
45 | P a g e

DEVESH TIKYANI ,JECRC

Major process carried out by pneumatics in roll filling and press machine: Main components of roll filling and press machine which are actuated by pneumatics: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. Cage supply Cage positioning Roller filling in cage Cage and roller assembly check Cone supply Pressing Check and discharge

Direction control valve: A directional control valve determines the flow of air between its ports by opening, closing and changing its internal connections. The valves are described in terms of the number of ports and the number of switching position, its normal position, and the method of operation. The first two points are normally expressed in terms 5/2, 3/2, or 2/2etc

46 | P a g e

DEVESH TIKYANI ,JECRC

Monostable and bistable valve: Spring returned valve is monostable. They have a defined preferred position to which they automatically return.
47 | P a g e

DEVESH TIKYANI ,JECRC

A bistable valve has no preferred position and remains in either position until one of its two impulse signals are operated.

Valve types:

Poppet valve Direction Control Valve Sliding valve Spool valve Rotary valve Plane Slide valve

Elastomer seal

Metal seal

Poppet valve: flow through a poppet valve is controlled by a disc or plug lifting at right angles to a seat, with an elastic seal. Sliding valve: spool, rotary and plane slide valves use a sliding action to open and close ports. Spool valves: a cylindrical spool slides longitudinally in the valve body with the air flowing at right angles to the spool movement. Spools have equal sealing areas and are pressure balanced. Elastomer Seal: common seal and seal arrangements are as shown in figure. O rings are fitted in grooves on the spool and move in a metal sleeve. Two of them are crossing output ports, which are divided into a great number of small holes in the sleeve.

48 | P a g e

DEVESH TIKYANI ,JECRC

Metal seal: Lapped and matched metal spool and sleeve valves have very low frictional resistance, rapid cycling and exceptionally long working life. Plane slide valve: Flow through the ports is controlled by the position of a slide made of metal, nylon or other plastic. Rotary valves: A metal ported disk is manually rotated to inter connect the ports in the valve body .Pressure supply is above the disc.

49 | P a g e

DEVESH TIKYANI ,JECRC

Basic Rules For Drawing Pneumatic Circuits & Symbols: Pneumatic circuits are represented by common symbols and should be drawn following several basic guidelines. By following these guidelines engineers can quickly and simply construct circuits that can be easily and safely interpreted by all those involved in system design, specification, manufacturing and maintenance. The symbols used for constructing fluid power systems and for defining individual components are detailed in the standard ISO 1219, which covers both pneumatic and hydraulic devices. This states that: A symbol consists of the lines, letters and abbreviations which identify the purpose and method of operation of the component represented. The symbols show connections, flow paths and the functions of the components represented. The symbols do not indicate the physical location of ports or the position of control elements on actual components. With certain obvious exceptions symbols may be reversed and/or rotated without altering their meaning. It should be noted, however, that the ISO standards do not always keep abreast of developments in pneumatics technology, so that new products often fail to be clearly defined until sometime after their introduction. As a result, product manufacturers often use proprietary symbols until such time as a standard unit is defined.

50 | P a g e

DEVESH TIKYANI ,JECRC

51 | P a g e

DEVESH TIKYANI ,JECRC

52 | P a g e

DEVESH TIKYANI ,JECRC

Basic Pneumatic Circuits:

Bearing Visual Defects:


Appearance Small indentations around the raceways and rolling elements. Dull, worn surfaces. Cause Lack of cleanliness before and during mounting operation. Action Do not unpack bearing until just before it is to be mounted. Keep workshop clean and use clean tools. Photo Outer ring of a spherical roller bearing with raceways that have been worn by abrasive particles. It is easy to feel where the dividing line goes between worn and unworn

53 | P a g e

DEVESH TIKYANI ,JECRC

sections. Grease discoloured green. Ineffective seals Check and possibly improve the sealing. Always use fresh, clean lubricant. Wipe the grease nipples. Filter the oil.

Lubricant contaminated by worn particles from brass cage

Appearance

Cause

Action

Photo

Worn, frequently mirror-like, surfaces; at a later stage blue to brown discoloration.

Lubrication has gradually been used up or has lost its lubricating properties.

Check that the lubricant reaches the bearing. More frequent relubrication.

Outer ring of a spherical roller bearing that has not been adequately lubricated. The raceways have a mirror finish.

Appearance

Cause

Action

Photo

54 | P a g e

DEVESH TIKYANI ,JECRC

Depressions in raceways. These depressions are rectangular in roller bearings and circular in ball bearings. The bottom of these depressions may be bright or dull and oxidized.

The bearing has been exposed to vibration while stationary.

Secure the bearing during transport by radial preloading. Provide a vibrationdamping base. Where possible, use ball bearings instead of roller bearings. Employ oil bath lubrication, where possible.

Outer ring of taper roller bearing damaged by vibration during operation.

Vibration damage to the ring of a cylindrical roller bearing. The damage has arisen while the bearing was not running.

Inner and outer ring of a cylindrical roller bearing exposed to vibration. The inner ring has changed position.

55 | P a g e

DEVESH TIKYANI ,JECRC

CONCLUSION

My training at NATIONAL ENGINEERING INDUSTRIES, JAIPUR was very fruitful and I gained a lot of practical knowledge about various manufacturing processes and techniques. I also got the opportunity to realize the challenges faced and expertise required in manufacturing processes for mass production. It was indeed a great experience undergoing training at the plant.

56 | P a g e

DEVESH TIKYANI ,JECRC

BIBLIOGRAPHY

www.bearingindustry.com

www.cbi.edu

NEI Literature

www.neibearing.com

www.wikipedia.com

57 | P a g e