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Dictionary of Metis Biography

Volume T
Edited and Compiled By Lawrence J. Barkwell
Tait, Caroline. Ph.D. Caroline is Metis from MacDowall, Saskatchewan. She received her Ph.D. from the Departments of Anthropology and Social Studies of Medicine at McGill niversity in !""#. Caroline has a $achelor of Arts degree from McGill niversity in anthropology and a Master%s of Arts degree in medical anthropology from the niversity of California at $erkeley. During &''()&''* academic year, Caroline was a +ul,right Scholar and -isiting +ellow at .arvard niversity in the Departments of Anthropology and Social Medicine. Caroline is the past coordinator of the /ational /etwork for A,original Mental .ealth 0esearch funded ,y the 1nstitute for A,original Peoples .ealth 0esearch and completed a postdoctoral fellowship in the Division of Social and 2ranscultural Psychiatry, Department of Psychiatry, McGill niversity in May !""3. She is past -ice)chair of the A,original 4omen5s .ealth and .ealing 0esearch Group, a national group of A,original women who are funded ,y the 4omen5s .ealth $ureau, .ealth Canada. 1n May !""3 she 6oined the 1ndigenous Peoples% .ealth 0esearch Centre, +irst /ations niversity of Canada and the Department of 4omen5s and Gender Studies, niversity of Saskatchewan as an Assistant Professor. 1n !""7, Caroline 6oined the Department of /ative Studies. Caroline5s research spans across /orth America, contrasting the Canadian and American pu,lic health responses to su,stance a,use ,y pregnant women. .er doctoral dissertation is entitled, 2he tip of the ice,erg8 2he 9making: of +etal Alcohol Syndrome in Canada.: Caroline is also the author of A Study of the Service /eeds of Pregnant Addicted 4omen in Manito,a,: and +etal Alcohol Syndrome among Canadian A,original Peoples8 0eview and Analysis of the 1ntergenerational Links to Residential Schools, commissioned ,y the A,original .ealing +oundation. Some of her pu,lications are listed ,elow8 2ait, Caroline ;. <!""'=. 91s Canada +ailing Metis Children> An ?@amination of the Challenges and $arriers to 1mproved .ealth.: 1n, Canadian /1C?+ Committee, The State of the Worlds Children 2009: Aboriginal Childrens Health. 2oronto8 !""'8 #")#*. 2ait, Caroline ;. <!""A=. 9A postcolonial paradigm for mental health and addiction programming in A,original communities.: Pimatisiwin, Bune !""A.. &

Cirmayer, ;aurence BD 2ait, Caroline ;D Simpson, Cori. <!""7=. 92he Mental .ealth of Canadian A,original Peoples8 2ransformation of 1dentity and Community.: ?dited ,y ;aurence B. Cirmayer and Gail -alaskakis. -ancouver8 niversity of $ritish Colum,ia Press, forthcoming. 2ait, C. ;. <!""7= 9Disruptions in /ature, Disruptions in Society8 1ndigenous Peoples of Canada and the 9Making: of +etal Alcohol Syndrome.: The ental Health of Canadian Aboriginal Peo!les: Transformations of "dentit# and Comm$nit#. ?dited ,y ;aurence Cirmayer and Gail -alaskakis. -ancouver8 niversity of $ritish Colum,ia Press, forthcoming. 2ait, Caroline ;. <!""7=. 9Simmering Eutrage During an 9?pidemic: of +etal Alcohol Syndrome.: Canadian Women St$dies%les Cahiers de la &emmes . !* <3= <4inter !""7F!""A=.. 2ait, Caroline ;. <!""7=. 9Canadian A,original 4omen and .ealth.: 'o$rnal of Aboriginal Health. -olume 3 1ssue &.

Tait, David. <&A#7)&A7#= David was the .alf)$reed son of 4illiam 2ait <,. &A7!= and Mary $ear <,. &A&(=. 4illiam lived on ;ots 7#)73 at Poplar Point. David 2ait married Bane ?liGa,eth Cnight, also a .alf)$reed. Bane and David lived at ;ot 7' in Poplar Point, David was the postmaster for that town and he also farmed. .e was involved in the &A*' 0esistance, an ally of Bane%s cousins, the .allets, who were opponents of 0iel. David was imprisoned ,y 0iel. Tait, Cuthbert. <,. &A*#= Cuth,ert 2ait was ,orn in &A*# in Souris 0iver District, he was the son of Boseph 2ait Sr. and Marguerite Des6arlais. 2he 2ate%s ,ecame ,and mem,ers of the MuscoweHuan $and. .e signed a petition for a Metis reserve in Montana, sent ,y ;ouis 0iel to General /elson A. Miles, August *, &AA". Cuth,ert died Ecto,er &A'* in Prince Al,ert district while crossing the /orth Saskatchewan 0iver. .e married Madeleine ;emire < ,8 /ovem,er !", &A7" at the ;ittle +orks= she was ,aptiGed on /ovem,er #"th &A7" in the ;e,ret Mission, Iu%Appelle -alley. 2hey were married on Ecto,er &!, &AA* in the ;e,ret Mission, Iu5Appelle -alley. She was the daughter of +rancois ;emire and +rancoise $irston. 2ate, Cuth,ertD address8 Maple CreekD ,orn8 &A*# at Souris 0iverD father8 Boseph 2ate <MJtis=D mother8 Marguerite Des6arlais <MJtis=D scrip for K!3"D claim no. 3#. Tait, John. Eld Bohn 2ait, accompanied his son)in)law, Ale@ander $irston and his daughter Beanette, in the Bames Sinclair)led group of 0ed 0iver .alf)$reed and Metis emigrants for the Colum,ia. 2he &7"")mile trip took them from 4hite .orse Plains to +ort -ancouver and finally +ort /isHually. Bemmy Bock $ird acted as their guide for the part of the 6ourney that crossed $lackfoot territory. En Ecto,er &!, &A3&, after a &#")day 6ourney, the group reached +ort -ancouver on the Colum,ia 0iver. Tait (Tate , Jose!h Jr. !

Boseph 2ait, the son of Bames 2ait and Sarah <Saulteau@= was married to Marguerite Des6arlais <,. &A##=, the daughter of Bean $aptiste 9/isheca,o: Des6arlais and Charlotte Cardinal. Scrip claim related to this family8 Garriepy, BulieD address8 Maple CreekD claim no. &"''D ,orn8 &A7( at Iu5AppelleD father8 Boseph 2ait <MJtis=D mother8 Marguerite Des6arlais <MJtis=D scrip cert.8 form C, no. *7A. 2ait, Marguerite, for her deceased children8 Catherine, ,orn8 &A7# at Iu5AppelleD died8 &A73 at Iu5AppelleD Michel, ,orn8 at 0egina in &A7&D died8 &A7' at Cypress .illsD address8 Maple CreekD father8 Boseph 2ait <deceased MJtis=D mother8 Marguerite Des6arlais <MJtis=D claim no. &&&&. Boseph 2ate married Marguerite Des6arlais and lived on the MuscoweHuan 0eserve. Boseph 2ate <$and L7= is shown as leaving treaty on May !", &AA*. Tait (Tate , Jose!h Sr. (b. "#$% Boseph 2ait, the son of Bames 2ait and Sarah <Saulteau@=. .e ,ecame an 1ndian in the MuscoweHuan $and under 2reaty +our in &A7* <$and mem,er L7=. 1n his Scrip application in &AA(, Boseph states that he was ,orn at +ort ;acorne in Bune &A!*. .e then lived after &A#& at St. Peter%s Mission for twenty years. 1n &A(& he left to go to +ort ?llice and afterward to the Iu%Appelle -alley and then 2ouchwood .ills and Maple Creek. 1n &A7" he was living at +ort ?llice. .e signed a petition for a Metis reserve in Montana, sent ,y ;ouis 0iel to General /elson A. Miles, August *, &AA". At the time of Scrip application he had ,een at Maple Creek for four years <i.e. from &AA&=. 1n &A33 at St. Peter%s he married Marguerite Asham. 1n &A(3 at St. +rancois Mavier Boseph was married to Marguerite Des6arlais <,. &A##=, the daughter of Bean $aptiste 9/isheca,o: Des6arlais and Charlotte Cardinal. Boseph 2ate <$and L7= is shown as leaving treaty on May !", &AA*. Scrip claims related to this family8 Garriepy, BulieD address8 Maple CreekD claim no. &"''D ,orn8 &A7( at Iu5AppelleD father8 Boseph 2ait <MJtis=D mother8 Marguerite Des6arlais <MJtis=D scrip cert.8 form C, no. *7A. 2ait, Marguerite, for her deceased children8 Catherine, ,orn8 &A7# at Iu5AppelleD died8 &A73 at Iu5AppelleD Michel, ,orn8 at 0egina in &A7&D died8 &A7' at Cypress .illsD address8 Maple CreekD father8 Boseph 2ait <deceased MJtis=D mother8 Marguerite Des6arlais <MJtis=D claim no. &&&&. 2ate, CatherineD address8 Maple CreekD ,orn8 Summer, &A7" at +ort ?lliceD father8 Boseph 2ate <MJtis=D mother8 Marguerite Des6arlais <MJtis=D scrip for K!3"D claim no. 3".

Tait, Robert. <&A#")&'&!= 0o,ert was the third son of 4illiam 2ait and Mary Auld. .e was married to Bane 1nkster the daughter of Bohn 1nkster. 2hey had five children. After some years in Minnesota they returned to 0ed 0iver in &A(" and 0o,ert ,ecame one of the leading .alf) $reeds of the area. .e farmed at St. Bames parish and represented that parish in the conventions of &A*' and &A7". .e was noted for introducing the first reaping and threshing machines to 0ed 0iver. 1n &A*', he ,uilt the first steam gristmill in St. Bames. $y &A7A, he owned and operated a steam ferry ,etween 4innipeg and St. $oniface. Tait, Tho&as 2homas was the son of Boseph 2ait Sr. and Marguerite Des6arlais. 2he 2ate%s ,ecame ,and mem,ers of the MuscoweHuan $and. .e signed a petition for a Metis reserve in Montana, sent ,y ;ouis 0iel to General /elson A. Miles, August *, &AA". Tait, 'illia& (uld. <&A!*)&'""= 4illiam 2ait was ,orn in .eadingley on Decem,er *, &A!*, the eldest son of 4illiam 2ait <,. &7'(, Erkney%s= and Mary Auld <Metis, the daughter of .$C Governor 4illiam Auld =. .e attended St. Bohn%s school. 1n &A(& he married Boanna Gunn, daughter of Bohn and Anne Gunn. 2he couple had thirteen children. After the flood of &A(7, he moved from St. Bohn%s to .eadingley a,out &A*" and was engaged in farming until his death. .e also operated a ferry service across the Assini,oine 0iver from his property at ;ot L&3. En && March &A*#, he was appointed one of the petty magistrates for the 4hite .orse Plain district. 1n &A*' he was chosen as a representative from .eadingley to attend the Convention of the 92wenty)+our: called ,y ;ouis 0iel. 2ait was a delegate from .eadingley to the convention of !3 in /ovem,er of &A*'. 2his Scottish farmer was then elected to the ;egislative Assem,ly of Assini,oia on +e,ruary !!, &A7". ;ater he served as a mem,er of the <2emporary= Council of the /orth 4est 2erritories until it was dissolved in &A7*. .is ,rother 0o,ert 2ait was elected as a representative to the Convention of +orty. 2ait died on # +e,ruary &'"", and was ,uried at .oly 2rinity Cemetery, .eadingley. Tanner, John The )a&bler. <&A3!)&'&*= 3

Gam,ler 2anner <(dit)ta)ga#)win)nin, Ata*awinin or (tahaoman=. Gam,ler 2anner was the eldest son of Chief Picheito 2anner. .e was pro,a,ly ,orn in the 0ed ;ake area of Minnesota since the 0ed ;ake $and moved freely ,ack and forth across the international ,order. Gam,ler was the grandson of Bohn 9+alcon: 2anner <2he 4hite 1ndian= and his Saulteau@ wife, 0ed Sky of the Morning. ;ike his cousin <also Bohn 2anner=, Gam,ler had served in the American Army during the Civil 4ar. +ollowing the war he ,ecame a trader in the Iu%Appelle ;akes region. .e rarely traded at +ort ?llice, preferring to do ,usiness further north at +ort Pelly. 1n earlier years Gam,ler, along with his father Picheito, had ,een deeply involved in the freighting ,usiness ,etween St. Paul, Minnesota and 4innipeg. Gam,ler was one of the Plains)E6i,way%s most noted warriors against the Siou@ at Portage la Prairie during the &A*"s. during the &A7"s he lead a ,and of at least #" families including his si,lings, Boseph <+asesawa#, $right Star=, 2homas Bohn <Cheton=, ?dward <Ah,i,$*oon-e=, $aGel, and Ale@ander. ;ittle more is known of him until he appeared as spokesman for the Saulteau@ at the 2reaty +our negotiations. 1n the &A7"s he was one of the most vigorous opponents of the .udson%s $ay Company land holdings and had a great influence in the making of 2reaty +our. 2his antipathy for the .$C was likely inherited from his <step= great)grandmother /etnokwa <an Edawa= who was affiliated with the /orth 4est Company. .e represented the Iu%Appelle ;akes Saulteau@ in this negotiation. Gam,ler was originally slated to live on the 4aywayseecappo reserve at ;iGard Point, however, in &AA&, a dispute arose ,etween Chief 4aywayseecappo and his headman, Gam,ler. $y way of settlement, a portion of the ;iGard Point 0eserve <#" sHuare miles= was allocated for Gam,ler and his followers. 2hey were given this appropriation at Silver Creek, situated appro@imately five and one half miles southwest of the present day $inscarth Manito,a. Clerk of the Privy Council, B.D. Cote approved this allocation ,y Chief 4aywayseecappo on April !7, &AA&. 2his was recorded on Buly !7, &AA& and confirmation of Gam,ler5s reserve ,ecame effective on May &7, &AA', eight years later. 2wo years previous to this confirmation, ;ongclaws, Gam,ler and their followers decided to return to ;iGard Point, claiming that there was insufficient wood and water availa,le at Silver Creek. 1n &AA7, Gam,ler and his followers returned to ;iGard Point, giving as a reason, the shortage of hay land at Silver Creek. 2here was also some indication the land survey at Silver Creek did not place the reserve e@actly where Gam,ler had originally reHuested it. 2he resultant location e@cluded the wood and hay areas across the river. 2his was not a pro,lem in the early &AA"s, as there were few other people in the region and the group continued to make use of this land and its resources in spite of its location off) reserve. .owever, as settlement and immigration increased Gam,ler recogniGed that these practices could not continue. .e made several efforts in &AA( and &AA* to make a land e@change for land with ,etter hay and wood resources ,ut was re,uffed or ignored ,y officials. An additional reason to move was that the ;iGard Point 0eserve was much closer to their traditional hunting and trapping areas. $etween &AA" and &A'" some of Gam,lers followers 6oined the 1ndians who lived at -alley 0iver, leaving only mem,ers of the 2anner family living at Silver Creek. 2he census of &'"& shows that ,y that year, only &3 people remained at Gam,ler 0eserve8 Bohn 2anner <age 3"=, wife Marie <#(=, ( sons and ! daughtersD Ah)pa)tis5 widow <age *'=D (

Bohn Cook <Pa)pa)mas, age !&=D Mrs. Swan <age 3"=D and /aGakeeass <Bim 2anner, age !3= and his wife. $y &'"(, only Bohn 2anner and his son Boseph 2anner and their families remained at Gam,ler. /ote that of Gam,ler5s ,rothers, Boseph 2anner <Cakashaway, $right Star= died at 4aywayseecappo in &A'#. .is widow then lived at various locations in the /orth 4est 2erritories. .is daughters took Metis scrip one year after his death <&A'3=. $aGil 2anner later transferred to the Cowessess $and. Ale@ander 2anner <Pawanaway)askung=, 2ommy 2anner <Cakeewaycomo= and Bohn Cheton 2anner Nd. &'#7O, and his wife May Nd. &'!!O= stayed at Silver Creek, ,ut in &A'3 they took Metis scrip and were discharged from 2reaty status. Ether relatives such as Am,roise +isher also took scrip as Metis, in &'"" Am,roise was granted A" acres. $ecause of legal difficulties, Ale@ander later fled to /orth Dakota. Gam,ler had two other ,rothers, Boseph <+asesawa# or $right Star= and ?dward <or Ah,i,$*oon-e=. +asesawa# <+issowa#= was a trader and freighter on the St. Paul)Pem,ina)4innipeg route, he was known to have as many as !"" 0ed 0iver carts on the road at one time. .e married Chief Pellow Iuill5s sister and was a mem,er of Pellow Iuill5s ,and. .e died in &A'7 at the Crooked ;ake 0eserve. Ah,i,$*oon-e <?dward= never lived on Gam,ler%s reserve. .e likely lived at 4hite ?arth reserve in Minnesota, having moved there in the &A7"s. +rom &A73 until &A'# Gam,ler was Chief at Silver Creek. 4ith his wife +a#te!a#tonoo* and his family, he lived in a converted granary which, according to the 1ndian agent, was, 9 partitioned, whitewashed, a good comforta,le dwelling.: .e owned fine horses, cattle, geese and pigs. .e had fifty acres ,roken and had a large sta,le and other ,uildings. +or pets he had a moose calf and later a young adult moose. .e and a neigh,our purchased a mower and a rake together to further their farming activities. 1n his later years living on the Silver Creek 0eserve, Gam,ler provided a home for his aunt Poopie, widow of the 0everend Bames 2anner. She left his care in &'&" to live with her son Bohn and his wife at Cinosota, Manito,a. Gam,ler moved to 4aywayseecappo%s 0eserve in &AA7 and then moved on to Pine Creek in &A'7. ?ventually, Gam,ler withdrew from the $irtle Agency on Bune !', &A'A. ?dmund Morris records in his diary <August #", &'"A8 '"= 92he Gam,ler lives at Shoal ;ake ,etween ;iGard Point and Minnedosa.: According to the recollection of others he moved to -alley 0iver and then to Pine Creek, near Camperville Manito,a, where he ,ecame a mem,er of that ,and. .e spent the last years of his life at $ig Stone in the 0iding Mountain. .e died Ban. !!, &'&* at ?lphinstone while living with his daughter at Ceeseekowenin. .e was ,uried on 1ndian land at Clear ;ake <Manito,a +ree Press, Ban. !', &'&*=. Tanner, Reverend *d+in Ja&es. <&A"()&A7"= Manito,a%s first election was lively and violent. A campaign homicide, still unsolved, was that of 0ev. Bames 2anner of the Portage la Prairie region. Sometimes considered the first Pres,yterian minister west of 4innipeg, this Metis son of the famous 94hite 1ndian,: Bohn +alcon 2anner, was half),rother to one of Manito,a%s greatest war Chiefs8 Picheito 2anner. Picheito had ,attled the Siou@ long into the 0ed 0iver Settlement era. .is *

ela,orate log house stood in what is now the heart of Portage la Prairie. .e and his sons played a ma6or part in the fur trade freighting ,usiness to St. Paul. Bames was ,orn in the +ond du ;ac area, the son of Bohn +alcon 2anner and his second wife, a Saulteau@ woman from the Sault Ste. MarieF0ainy 0iver area who later took the name 2heresa <she died in Makinak in &A("=. +rom &A&!)&A!A Bohn 2anner was employed ,y the +ond du ;ac department of the American +ur Company and as an interpreter for S 1ndian agent, Col. George $oyd. During this time Bames received a fairly good education at the 0ev. 4illiam 2erry School. After the family moved to Sault Ste. Marie in &A!A, Bames attended the $aptist Mission school of 0ev. A,el $ingham. At age !#, 0oman Catholic $ishop $araga ,aptiGed Bames at ;a Pointe, 4isconsin and Bames then married ;ouise 1nstkwekamegoka. She was the well)known 9Granny: 2anner who spent her later years from &A7" to &AA* at 2anners Crossing, Manito,a <after Bames was killed=. After a reckless life as a .alf)$reed freighter working for the well)known trader, /orman Cittson, at Pem,ina, Bames 2anner ,ecame a Pres,yterian missionary among the Saulteau@ people on the plains around Pem,ina, +ort Gary and Portage la Prairie. +or at least a decade, Bames 2anner worked for /orman Cittson%s famous line connecting St. Paul with +ort Garry. .e also helped Cittson cut the 4oods 2rail from St. Paul to Pem,ina. During his many trips to Manito,a he came to know well his famous half),rother, Chief Picheito 2anner of Portage la Prairie <also a trader and freighter=. During this time Bames is descri,ed as 9a notorious character, a giant in strength, who would terroriGe entire villages when under the influence of rum.: .owever, in &A3*, the tragic year of his father%s death, Bames and his wife were converted to Methodism and ,ecame missionaries. +or two years they la,oured at ;ake 4inni,igoshish near $imid6i. During Buly &A(", Bames went on a &,""")mile mission trip across the 4est on horse,ack from the 0ed ;ake region of Minnesota, west ,efore circling ,ack to the 4innipeg)Portage la Prairie region of Manito,a. Ene Pem,ina resident commented on this amaGing conversion 9he is a changed man, 1 think the ,i,le is the only ,ook he readsQ.: After preaching ,riefly to a 7"" cart ,uffalo hunting Metis ,rigade, he 6oined a ("")cart ,rigade for over one week. Su,seHuently, on various occasions, Bames would preach to 0ev. Bohn $lack%s Eld Cildonan congregation and to the congregation at 0ev. Cochran%s St. Peter%s Mission. Bames is reported to have assisted 0ev. ?dwin Bames in translating the $i,le into the Saulteau@ language. 4ith 0ev. Bohn $lack%s help, Bames worked diligently through &A(! to esta,lish a Pres,yterian mission to his ,rother%s ,and ,ut .udson%s $ay Company Governor ?den Colville turned a deaf ear <likely ,ecause there was already a 0oman Catholic mission at St. +ranRois Mavier=. +ailing this, 2anner got the support of the American $aptist Society to ,uild a mission in the Metis community of St. Boseph, /orth Dakota. .owever, after the wife of his Pres,yterian mission colleague and his mission%s school teaching assistant were killed in separate Siou@ 1ndian raids, his superiors closed down the mission. Su,seHuently, 0ev. 2anner went on a lecture tour to $oston and several other American cities. .e then traveled to ?ngland where his family had an audience with Iueen -ictoria. pon his return to Canada he took up freighting again for a short period. During the &A*')7" resistance Bames 2anner played a moderating role since he tended to side with the ?nglish Metis, he was instrumental in keeping his fiery ,rother, Picheito, out of the conflict. .e did however ,ecome involved in the su,seHuent first provincial election campaign. .e wrote to Bames 0oss in 4innipeg trying to persuade him 7

to run against the Canadian Party <led ,y Dr. ;ynch= in the MarHuette riding. Bames 0oss, along with his ,rother)in)law 0ev. George +lett, were moderate Metis who had served in 0iel%s Provisional Government. 2wo weeks after writing to 0oss, following an election meeting at Portage la Prairie, where 0ev. 2anner had spoken on ,ehalf of ;ieutenant Governor Archi,ald, he was killed in a fall from a wagon when two men stampeded the team. 4hen 0ev. Bohn $lack of Cildonan drove his team furiously from 4innipeg to claim his friend%s ,ody for Christian ,urial, he found that 2anner%s ,rother, Chief Picheito 2anner, was already there. +ace hard and scornful, he told $lack8 9Alive my ,rother preached your Gospel. Pou <4hites= killed him. 1 take him to my people who do not kill their Medicine Men.: 2hus ended Picheito%s &( year period of Christianity and to this day Bames 2anner%s final resting)place is unknown. $lack, a close friend of 2anner%s although living over (" miles away, claimed that the team was deli,erately stampeded ,y Colonel 4olseley%s soldiers who were whooping and firing shots into the air. At the inHuest, David McCenGie testified he had ,een a passenger in the wagon and that driver Bohn 2ait and Bames 2anner were thrown from it during the runaway. .e and Boseph Pritchin who was riding ,ehind, ,oth testified that the stampede was deli,erately caused ,y two men on foot, who were hiding at the corner ,etween the 2aylor and Gunn farms. 2he two had suddenly appeared and spooked the team ,y hurling o,6ects at the horses. 2he 6ury concluded that death was due to the fall caused ,y the runaway caused 9willfully and maliciously ,y two persons unknown to this 6ury.: <Contri,uted from the editor%s notes and correspondence with Dr. Peter ;orenG /eufeld.= .eferen-e /eufeld, Peter ;. 9Manito,a 1ndian Chiefs and Missionaries8 $rothers and Cousins.: 4innipeg8 npu,lished, no date, author%s copy. Tanner, John <&A#')&'#!= Bohn 2anner, the son of 0everend Bames 2anner, was a veteran of the American Civil 4ar. Bohn was ,orn on August &7, &A#' at 2orch ;ake <;ac du +lam,eau=, 4isconsin. Bohn had 6ust started farmng in 2earns county near his home at St. Boseph when the Civil 4ar started. 1n August of &A*! he went to St. cloud to enlist as a private in the nion Army%s /inth 0egiment of the Minnesota -oluntary 1nfantry. .e fought for three years ,efore taking an honourary discharge at +ort Snelling near St. Paul, Minnesota. 4hile he originally lived in Minnesota, following the war he found that his family had moved across the ,order and were living near Portage la Prairie. At the time his father%s half ,rother, Picheito 2anner was an important chief of the 0ed ;ake tri,e located in the Portage)Delta)4hite .orse Plains area. 2hus Bohn came to Manito,a around the time of his father%s death, and with his wife Catherine, and his mother, Poopie, took up residence along the ;ittle Saskatchewan 0iver, near the +ort ?llice 2rail. .ere he esta,lished a ferry, post office, and store at 2anners Crossing. 2his was the ,eginning of what was to ,ecome the Manito,a town of Minnedosa. During the early &AA"s, white agriculturists from Entario were populating the area around 2anner%s Crossing. ;ike other mi@ed),loods who were not comforta,le with this, the 2anner family left Manito,a in &AA& to settle further west at Prince Al,ert. 2hey lived there until &'&!. 4hen this area ,ecame more densely populated with agriculturists from the ?ast, Bohn 2anner again A

moved, this time ,ack to Manito,a, to the Metis community of Cinosota. .e lived there until his death in &'#!, leaving no direct descendants. 4hile scouting near +ort A,ercrom,ie in &A*#, Bohn had sustained a serious rupture and as a result of complicationshe could not father children. 1n &A*', he married Catherine 2rottier, daughter of Boseph 2rottier of S. Mary%s and the widow of .$C +actor Bohn Sinclair. Tanner, Tho&as DeCorb,. <,. &A!"= 2homas 2anner was the son of Chief Picheito 2anner and the younger ,rother of Chief Gam,ler 2anner. .e was pro,a,ly ,orn in the 0ed ;ake area of Minnesota since the 0ed ;ake $and moved freely ,ack and forth across the international ,order. 1n &A#*, he married Marie AngeliHue ;edou@ at 2urtle Mountain near what is now $elcourt, /orth Dakota. Marie%s mother was 4ehwashk. 2heir children were8 Bean $aptiste who married -ictoire $oyer <,orn &A(! at Grand Coteau= in &A7( at 4innipegD AngeliHue, who was ,orn &A(" at Carlton. She married Boseph Descheneau@ in &A*' at St. Al,ert D and Marie, ,orn &A(3. She married Bean $elhumeur dit Monet on May !7, &A73 at Duck ;ake. Tanner, Jose!h -e.she.sha.+a,. <,. &A!!= Boseph 2anner was another son of Chief Picheito 2anner and younger ,rother of Chief Gam,ler 2anner. .e was pro,a,ly ,orn in the 0ed ;ake area of Minnesota since the 0ed ;ake $and moved freely ,ack and forth across the international ,order. Boseph was the grandson of Bohn 9+alcon: 2anner and his Saulteau@ wife, 0ed Sky of the Morning. +asheshawa# <+issowa#= was a trader and freighter on the St. Paul)Pem,ina)4innipeg route, he was known to have as many as !"" 0ed 0iver carts on the road at one time. Boseph first married AngJliHue Clermont and they had a daughter, Marie ,orn in &A3! at +ort ?llice. Marie married Bean /olin of St. -ital. Boseph 2anner then married Chief Pellow Iuill5s sister and was a mem,er of Pellow Iuill5s ,and. 2hey had one daughter, Bulie, ,orn in &A3' at Portage la Prairie. She married Bohn 4ells of St. +rancois Mavier. Boseph died in &A'7 at the Crooked ;ake 0eserve in what is now Saskatchewan. Tanner, Picheito. <d. &A7!= Picheito 2anner was the eldest son of Bohn 9+alcon: 2anner <2he 4hite 1ndian= and his Saulteau@ wife, 0ed Sky of the Morning. 2here were two daughters as well, ,ut nothing is known of them. 2he historical record indicates that Chief Picheito 2anner moved west into the Assini,oine 0iver valley, from Portage ;a Prairie very soon after his half),rother 0ev. Bames 2anner was killed in &A7". Picheito was known at various times as ;ittle Pheasant, Pheasant 2ail or 0ump, ;e Croup de Pheasant and /ahawananan. .is oldest son was Gam,ler 2anner,&3 also known as, Ata*awinin or (tahaoman or possi,ly Bames. .ugh McCay, former Chief at 4aywayseecappo, says that the correct spelling of Gam,ler5s 1ndian name is (dit)ta)ga#)win)nin. Picheito was a leader of his mother%s people, the 0ed ;ake Saulteau@, who lived in the 4hite .orse Plains, Portage la Prairie Delta area. Picheito lived in the largest house in Portage la Prairie, near the main road leading into the settlement <presently the corner of Crescent Ave. and $roadway=. .e had many souvenirs in his home, such as glass
4&3

Archdeacon Cochran states that when he arrived in Portage la Prairie in the early &A("s ,oth Picheito <1mage= and Atakawinin <Gam,ler= were living there as permanent residents <Garrioch, &'!#8 '3=.

'

candlesticks and mechanical toys, which he ,rought ,ack from his many trips to the nited States. .e was known as a man with a taste for elegance and comfort. .e is thought to have ,een the Chief, /ahawananan, who signed 2reaty /o. & on August # rd &A7&. Sometime after this, he took his ,and to the +ort Iu%Appelle region and died there around &A7!. .is chieftanship there,y passed to his son Gam,ler 2anner. During the &A7"s, Picheito%s other sons attached themselves to a group of their Metis relatives who were making a last attempt at the ,uffalo ro,e trade. 2hey followed the ,uffalo ro,e trade west to the vicinity of $uffalo ;ake Al,erta, then south into Montana. 2hey were eventually forced out of Montana ,y S troops <e@cept for the Plains)E6i,way who remained on 0ocky $oy5s reserve=. A num,er of these hunters then congregated at the Cypress .ills near +ort 4alsh. A num,er of 2anners appear on the 2reaty Annuity Paylists at Maple Creek Saskatchewan. 2he 2anners are reported to have moved from there to Silver Creek to 6oin their ,rother Gam,ler in the early &AA"s. 2hree other families also moved to Gam,ler 0eserve from Maple Creek a,out the same time8 namely, Bandrew, Cakaneeshik and MaHua <$lack $ear=. Cowessess and the ,alance of the Plains) E6i,way where eventually persuaded to move from Cypress .ills to the Iu5Appelle -alley ,ecause the American government was pressuring Canadian authorities not to settle them along the S ,order. Ta,lor, (le/ander. <,. &A33= Ale@ander was a 0ed 0iver ,orn .alf)$reed married to Mary McDonald <also Metis=. .e was a Poplar Point farmer who opposed 0iel and was captured along with the Portage Gang on +e,ruary &7, &A7". Ta,lor, David. <,. &A#7= David was a 0ed 0iver ,orn .alf)$reed married to /ancy $ird <,. &A#(=. .e too was a Poplar Point farmer who opposed 0iel and was captured along with the Portage Gang on +e,ruary &7, &A7". Ta,lor, *d+ard. <,. &A3&= 0o,ert 2aylor <,. &A#*= and ?dward 2aylor <,. &A3&= were ,oth mem,ers of the 3' th 0angers, the Metis Scouts of the &A7#)73 $oundary Commission. ?dward Prince 2aylor was ,aptiGed on +e,. &, &A3& at St. Bohn%s, the son of George 2aylor 11 and Bane $ruce or Prince and younger ,rother to 0o,ert 2aylor. .e married Mary Sa,iston on Bune !#, &A*! at St. Andrew%s and later married Sarah Stevens on Bune &(, &A7& at St. Andrew%s. .e had three children with Mary and && with Sarah. Ta,lor, John, 0.L.(. <&A#3)&'!(= 2his Scottish .alf)$reed was ,orn at Middlechurch, educated at St. Paul%s School and was chosen ,y $ishop David Anderson to ,e trained to teach on the 1ndian settlements. .e was the son of Bames 2aylor and Mary 1nkster. .e married +lora Camp,ell. .e was the first schoolteacher at .eadingley and represented that area in the convention of &A7". Bohn was an ?nglish)speaking delegate to the &A7" Convention of +ourty, then he was part of the armed party from Portage la Prairie that was imprisoned ,y 0iel. ;ater, he was a magistrate and was elected to the Manito,a legislature as M;A from Assini,oia in &A7&. .e was Minister of Agriculture during &A7A)7'. &"

Ta,lor, )eorge. <&A!')&'&'= George 2aylor was a mem,er of the Palliser ?@pedition. 2he Palliser ?@pedition, <&A(7)*"=, was initiated ,y Bohn Palliser, who su,mitted to the 0oyal Geographical Society a plan to travel from the 0ed 0iver Colony to and through the 0ocky Mountains along the unsurveyed American ,oundary. 2he society e@panded the pro6ect into a scientific e@pedition and applied for a grant of S(""" from the imperial government, which was then facing the pro,lem of the future of the .udson5s $ay Company territories. Palliser arranged to employ a num,er of Metis <&!= and other 0ed 0iver men to assist his scientific party. 2hey were to e@plore the old /orth 4est Company canoe route west from ;ake Superior, the plains south of the /orth Saskatchewan 0iver and the southern passes through the 0ockies and find ,adly needed information a,out them. Dr Bames .ector was appointed geologist and naturalist, ?ugene $ourgear ,otanical collector and Bohn 4. Sullivan secretary and astronomical o,server. Magnetical o,server ;t. 2homas 4. $lakiston ,rought his delicate instruments ,y way of the .udson $ay to 6oin them on the prairies. George 2aylor was ,orn on Ecto,er &, &A!' at Pork +actory, the son of George 2aylor 11 and Bane $ruce or Prince. George married 1sa,ella Cooper, the daughter of Charles Cooper and Catherine 2homas in &A(" at St. Andrews. George was a sailor for the .udson%s $ay Company ,efore accompanying the Palliser ?@pedition across the 4est in &A(7. .e later settled near ;ower +ort Garry and in &A7' moved west to Prince Al,ert to homestead. .e died in ?dgerton, Al,erta. 1n &A!7 the .$C sent his father George 2aylor 11 on a 6ourney to ascertain the American $oundary ;ine and in his 6ournal of &A!7)!A <.udson5s $ay Archives $.!#(FaF'= 2aylor records arriving at the site of Eld $randon .ouse on #rd /ovem,er, &A!7, where he met Cuth,ert Grant5s people. .is ,rothers, 0o,ert 2aylor <,. &A#*= and ?dward 2aylor <,. &A3&= were ,oth mem,ers of the 3'th 0angers, the Metis Scouts of the &A7#)73 $oundary Commission. 1n &A7!, the formal survey of the ,order ,etween Canada and the nited States ,egan. 2he Commission surveyed from the /orthwest Angle of the ;ake of the 4oods to the 0ed 0iver over the winter of &A7!)7#. 2hey used Metis guides and Chippewa men to assist them with this task. 2he $ritish Commission employed 4illiam .allett and #" armed Metis guides and scouts. George 2aylor <&7'A)&A33=, father of George Br., 0o,ert and ?dward 2aylor, was a sloop master and surveyor for the .udson%s $ay Co.D his service record is shown ,elow.

&&

Ta,lor, 0argaret. <&A"()&AA(= Margaret 2aylor was ,orn on .udson%s $ay in &A"(. She was the daughter of Bane, an 1ndian woman and George 2aylor the .$C%s sloopmaster. .er parents had at least eight children. George returned to ?ngland in &A&( leaving Bane and the children ,ehind. At age !&, Margaret 2aylor ,ecame the Metisse 9Country wife: of Sir George Simpson, the Governor of 0upert%s ;and. She accompanied him on his historic voyage ,y canoe to the Pacific Ecean in &A!A. After ,earing him two sons, she was a,andoned ,y Simpson when he married his ?nglish cousin. Margaret then married a +rench Canadien voyageur, Ama,le .ogue. .ogue had ,een among Simpson%s elite voyageur crew. 1n return for his Company service, .ogue was given a river lot on the Assini,oine 0iver west of the +orks. .eferen-e 4elsh, Christine. 9-oices of Eur Grandmothers8 0eclaiming MJtis .eritage.: Canadian 0iterat$re, -ol. &#&, &''&8 &()!3. Ta,lor, Robert. <&A#*)&'&'= 0o,ert 2aylor <,. &A#*= and ?dward 2aylor <,. &A3&= were ,oth mem,ers of the 3'th 0angers, the Metis Scouts of the &A7#)73 $oundary Commission. 0o,ert Ale@ander 2aylor was ,orn in &A#* at +ort of the 0ockies and ,aptiGed at St. Bohn%s on March ', &A#*, the son of George 2aylor 11 and Bane $ruce or Prince. 0o,ert married ?liGa -oller the daughter of Bames -oller and /ancy $irston. .e died March !*, &'&'. .e is the ,rother)in)law of ?dward McCay another mem,er of the 3'th 0angers. &!

Ta,lor, Tho&as Jr. 2homas was the maternal grandson of a .$C Chief +actor. 2homas entered .$C service in &A37 as an apprentice clerk and was promoted to Chief 2rader in &A*". Ta,lor, '.1. 2ill. $ill was the son of 2homas 2aylor and Caroline Cennedy, the daughter of Captain Cennedy. $ill was a pioneer schoolteacher of the north and an 1ndian Agent for many years. .e was ,orn at ;ower +ort Garry and was educated at ?mmanuel College at Prince Al,ert. 1n &A'!, he was appointed schoolteacher at 2he Pas Day School, and later taught at Moose ;ake. .e then ,egan working for the .$C and was post manager at Manito,a .ouse and at +ort Pelly. .e then left to ,ecome 1ndian Agent at Camsack, 2he Pas and /orway .ouse ,efore transfer to 0egina as assistant to Commissioner Graham. 1n his later years he returned to teaching school in Manito,a at $ig ?ddy and Cedar ;ake. Tchehasaso. <&A(#)&'&*= See entry under La3ond, Jean 2a!tiste. Teillet, Jean. 23(, LL2, LL0. <,. &'(#= Bean 2eillet, lawyer, professional dancer and actor, artist, choreographer, academic, and volunteer, is a Metis patriot of the highest order. 1t can ,e said without contradiction that the multi)talented Bean 2eillet is the most respected practicing Metis lawyer in Canada. Bean 2eillet is the great grand)niece of ;ouis 0iel and the niece of 0oger 2eillet who was a ;i,eral MP and ca,inet minister under prime minister ;ester Pearson. She is a founding mem,er of the MJtis /ation of Entario and what has now ,ecome the /ational Aboriginal oot at the niversity of 2oronto +aculty of ;aw. She has ,een called to the ,ar in Entario, $C, /42 and Manito,a. She is a partner of the law firm of Pape Salter 2eillet. A former modern dancer, she left that profession to attend law school and pursue a career in A,original 0ights law. She was vice)president and secretary)treasurer of the 1ndigenous $ar Association of Canada. As a legal consultant to the Metis /ational Council, 2eillet has ,een involved in the ongoing Metis legal ,attles with the government of Canada concerning Metis land rights, harvesting rights, commercial harvesting, and self) government. Bean 2eillet was awarded the first ever ;incoln Ale@ander Award in !""! ,y the ;aw Society of pper Canada. 2his award recogniGed her outstanding contri,utions and commitment to the legal profession and to community service. 1n !""(, she received the A,original Bustice Award from the /ative ;aw Students of the niversity of Al,erta, which recogniGes her outstanding contri,utions to A,original Bustice 1nitiatives. 1n !""7, the niversity of 4indsor +aculty of ;aw created the Bean 2eillet Access to Bustice Scholarship. .er pu,lication, the etis 0aw S$mmar#, updated regularly since &''', is the ,est availa,le resource on the law with respect to Metis people. 1t is availa,le on the Pape Salter 2eillet we,site at www.pstlaw.ca . &#

+or !( years she worked in professional theatre as a dancer, writer, actor, teacher, choreographer and director, with 2oronto Dance 2heatre, 2oronto 4orkshop Productions, Danny Grossman Dance Company, 2heatre ;ondon, Studio Seven, CC0C 0adio, and several other performance organiGations. She got her start as a teenager in 4innipeg writing and taping daily editorials at C0CC radio. /e@t she worked as a professional dancer and actress in 4innipeg and 2oronto and choreographed for theatre, including several productions for George ;uscom,e at 2oronto 4orkshop Productions. 2eillet was a producer of live staged events for corporate and theatrical sponsors such as Ma6or ;eague $ase,all, 2oyota, Entario Place, Cellogg%s and Ewl 2-. She also produced musicals, puppet shows, plays, dance and even a circus. 2he venues included theatres, stadiums, auditoriums, schools and outdoor amusement parks. She also produced records, ,ooks, musical scores and merchandise in support of these productions. 1n a long career as a visual artist she has had several shows and her work is in private collections in the nited States and Canada. Ene of her pieces 92he 2wo 0ow 4ampum $elt: hangs in the ;aw School of the niversity of 2oronto. Bean was the lead lawyer on the 0 vs Powley Metis hunting rights case, which she argued ,efore the Supreme Court of Canada on March &7, !""#. She was successful in this decade long ,attle to reaffirm Metis rights under Section #( of the Constit$tion A-t of &'A!, when the Supreme Court handed down their decision to deny the Crown%s appeal on Septem,er &', !""#. Bean is a partner in the firm of Pape Salter 2eillet, $arristers and Solicitors. She has ,een called to the $ar in Entario, $C, /42 and Manito,a. 1n her words8 92he primary focus of my work as a lawyer has ,een to assist in the development of a healthy space for A,original people within Canadian SocietyTa space where A,original people will ,e respected and valued as contri,uting citiGens of Canada.: Bean%s pro ,ono legal work and community involvement has ,een e@tensive. Bean has written a,out the notion of a pardon or other e@oneration for ;ouis 0iel in 9?@oneration for ;ouis 0iel8 Mercy, Bustice, or Political ?@pediency>: She takes the view that e@oneration would likely have little to do with the Metis people or the cause for which 0iel died. 2he interested reader can read her paper in the Sas*at-hewan 0aw .e1iew, -olume *7, !""38 #(')#'!.
Christi Belcourts painting Portrait of Jean Teillet Part of the Great Metis of My Time series. 2 !"2 #.

.er scholarly pu,lications include8 94hat Might .ave $een: in the trial of ;ouis 0iel. 2tis 3o#age$r, Septem,erFEcto,er !""! U an article on

90. v. Powley8 MJtis .arvesting 0ights in Canada:, Australia, "ndigeno$s 0aw 4$lletin8 Ecto,er !""& U a case study of Powle# and how it developed A,original rights law in Canada ,y e@panding the law for MJtis. &3

9MJtis in Search of 0ecognition: pu,lished ,y the Pitblado 0e-t$re Series ,y the ;aw Society of Manito,a, !""!= U recognition is a key concept for all A,original people. 1t is the foundation that is necessary ,efore rights can ,e affirmed or accommodated. 2he paper e@amines the language issues, social theory and the political rights dialogues that have evolved surrounding the MJtis in Canada. The .ole of the .eg$lator# .egime in Aboriginal .ights 5is!$tes in (ntario <!""(= U this paper was prepared for the 1pperwash 1nHuiry. Part of this paper, with respect to the &'th Century history of the harvesting regulatory regime in Entario, was co) authored with Dr. +rank 2ough. 2he paper looks at the historical role of the regulatory regime as well as how it has ,een engaged in very recent events. 2he paper was pu,lished on the 1nHuiry%s we,site at8 www.ipperwashinHuiry.caFpolicyVpartFinde@.html. 2tis 0aw S$mmar# U this is an annually updated <since &'''= summary of the law with respect to MJtis. 2he 0S traces MJtis cases ,ack to the mid &A""s. 1t includes scrip cases from the early &'""s and harvesting decisions of the Al,erta MJtis Settlements 2ri,unal. 1t tracks all MJtis cases as they move through the courts. 2he 0S also provides a ,rief analysis of A,original rights law as it applies to MJtis. 2he 0S includes a new section on consultation and administrative tri,unals. 2he 2tis 0aw S$mmar# is availa,le on the Pape Salter 2eillet we,site, in PD+ format, at pstlaw.caFresources . 2he 0S is also used in courses in the /ative Studies Department at the niversity of ?dmonton and ,y the niversity of 2oronto +aculty of ;aw. 6?@oneration for ;ouis 0iel8 Mercy, Bustice or Political ?@pediency78 Sas*at-hewan 0aw .e1iew, -ol. *7<&=, !""3 at #('. 9Eld and Difficult Grievances8 ?@amining the 0elationship ,etween the MJtis and the Crown: 9 <!""3= !3 S$!reme Co$rt 0aw .e1iew <!d=8 !'&)#!#. 94inds of Change8 MJtis 0ights after Powley, 2aku and .aida: U in The 0ong 'o$rne# of a &orgotten Peo!le: etis "dentities : &amil# Histories, te ;ischke and David 2. Mc/a, <?ds.= 4aterloo8 4ilfred ;aurier Press, !""78 (()7A. 9+ederal and Provincial Crown E,ligations to the Metis: in Metis)Crown 0elations8 0ights, 1dentity, Burisdiction, and Governance <ed8 +rederica 4ilson W Melanie Mallet= pu,lished ,y 1rwin ;aw in !""A. 9A 2ale of 2wo Agreements8 1mplementing Section (!<&= 0emedies for the -iolation of Metis .arvesting 0ights: in Aboriginal 0aw Sin-e 5elgam$$*w <?d Maria Morellato, IC= pu,lished ,y Canada ;aw $ooks, !""'= 92he Metis of the /orthwest: ) Masters 2hesis, pu,lished ,y !""A. niversity of 2oronto,

Bean 2eillet has given numerous lectures in Canada and the nited States. 1n Canada, at the ;aw Society of pper Canada, at a conference of the Entario /ative Bustices of the Peace, at the /ative Studies Department in the niversity of ?dmonton, at the ;earneds Society, for the ;aw Society of Manito,a, the Canadian $ar Association, Continuing &(

;egal ?ducation of $C, the MJtis /ation Pouth Advisory Commission and several times for the 1ndigenous $ar AssociationD in Cracow, Poland at the Bagiellonian niversityD in /agoya Bapan at ?@po !""(D in 1srael at the 0uppin Academic CenterD and in the nited States at the Canadian American 0esearch 1nstitute conference in /PC and at a MJtis conference in Montana. 2hese lectures usually revolve around MJtis and A,original rights and the relationship ,etween A,original people and the governments of Canada. Bean has also lectured at various law schools across Canada including the faculties of law at the niversity of 4indsor, the niversity of Manito,a, the niversity of Saskatchewan, the niversity of ?dmonton, the niversity of 2oronto, Pork niversity, the niversity of Ettawa and the niversity of -ictoria. 2hese lectures include issues such as8 working pro ,ono, access to 6ustice, the relationship ,etween environmental law and A,original rights, MJtis rights, a,original rights, and the role of an a,original lawyer. 0eference8 0esume of Bean 2eillet at www.pstlaw.caFresourcesFBeanV2eillet)0esume.doc Teillet, Phili!!e 0artin. <,. &'("= Metis scientist Philippe 2eillet is the son of 0oger 2eillet noted ,elow. Philippe is an ad6unct professor in the Department of Geography, niversity of Ettawa. .e is employed as a research scientist ,y /atural 0esources Canada. .e holds as $Sc. from the niversity of Ettawa and MSc. and PhD. +rom the niversity of 2oronto Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics. .is &'77 dissertation was entitled 9Differential 0otation and Meridional Circulation in Stellar Atmospheres.: At the !# rd Canadian 0emote Sensing Symposium Dr. 2eillet was awarded 9$est Symposium Paper,: for 9A ;ifeime 0adiometric Cali,ration 0ecord for ;andsat 2hematic Mapper.: Teillet, Roger, 0.L.(., 0.P., P.C. <&'&!)!""!= 0ed 0iver Metis 0oger 2eillet was the grandson of ;ouis 0iel%s younger ,rother, Boseph. .e was ,orn on August &!, &'&! in St. -ital, across the road from the present 0iel .ouse historical site. .e attended College Saint)$oniface ,ut was forced to leave after two years ,ecause of the Depression. .e apprenticed at the $anHue /ationale then 6oined the 0oyal Canadian Air +orce &7 days ,efore Canada entered 4orld 4ar 11. .e served as a navigator in the #( SHuadron and was shot down while on his !(th night ,om,ing raid <August !#, &'3!=. .e parachuted ,ehind German lines at 0ecy, +rance thus ,ecoming a mem,er of the 9Caterpillar Clu,: for airmen saved ,y parachute on land. .e evaded capture for &( days ,efore he was taken prisoner. .e was imprisoned at Stalag 111 <Sagan, Germany=. During the Great ?scape from this camp, later immortaliGed in movies, 0oger was num,er &#* on the escape list. Seventy)si@ men got out ,efore their escape tunnel was discovered. Seventy)three of these men were recaptured and the Germans shot fifty of those. 4hen the 0ussians entered Germany in Banuary &'3(, the prisoners were herded ,ack and forth across Germany and many perished on the 9death marches.: 2he $ritish li,erated 0oger and his group on May *, &'3(, 0oger weighed only &!7 pounds when li,erated. Su,seHuently, he always wore his $ird in a Cage pin, the sym,ol of imprisoned flyers. pon returning to 4innipeg, 0oger opened an insurance agency and settled down with his wife Beanne. .e then ran in the provincial election and served as a ;i,eral M;A under Premier Douglas Camp,ell. .e then ran federally and was elected as an MP in &'*!. Prime Minister ;ester $. Pearson made him minister of -eterans Affairs in April of &*

&'*#. 1n &'*A, after Pierre 2rudeau%s election call, 2eillet lost the ;i,eral nomination to Boe Guay ,y &"" votes. 2rudeau su,seHuently named 2eillet as head of the Canadian Pension Commission and gave him a mandate to reform veterans% pensions. .e always said that this was his proudest accomplishment. 0oger retired from the commission in &'A" and they continued to live in Ettawa. .is wife Beanne predeceased him in !""". <Contri,uted ,y Cathleen 2eillet.= 0eference8 2eillet, Cathleen, 9A Manito,a native son is laid to rest.: Winni!eg &ree Press, May &!, !""!8 A3. Teillet, 4olande (Schick . <&'!A)!""*= .all of fame ,ase,all player Polande 2eillet is the daughter of Camille 2eillet and Sarah 0iel. .er grandfather was Boseph 0iel the younger ,rother of ;ouis 0iel. Boseph 0iel married ?lJonor Poitras on April #", &AA3 and was su,seHuently married to Amanda Perrault in &A'3. .e remained at the family home in St. -ital and farmed. .e was always active in 0ed 0iver Metis associations. Camille, Polande%s father, although not Metis was a very active mem,er of ;% nion /ationale MJtisse Saint)Boseph du Manito,a. She is the sister of Manito,a Mem,er of Parliament, 0oger 2eillet whose ,iography appears a,ove. A catcher, Polande was a Canadian mem,er of the All)American Girls $ase,all ;eague from &'3( to &'37. 2he league scouted in Canada and si@ Manito,a women were selected. At the time she was scouted Polande was playing for the St. -ital 2igerettes. Polande played for the +ort 4ayne <1llinois= Daisies. 1n &'3( her team finished second <*!)37 record= to the league champion 0ockford Peaches. Polande notes that they converted from soft,all players to hard,all. 2he ,all used in the the All)American Girls $ase,all ;eague was somewhat larger than a regulation hard,all used ,y the men%s professional leagues. Polande 2eillet from St. -ital, Manito,a was inducted into the Canadian $ase,all .all of +ame in Bune of &'AA. Also in &'AA, the /ational $ase,all .all of +ame in Cooperstown, /ew Pork honoured the AAG$; with a permanent display and listed the names of each player. Similarly, the Manito,a $ase,all .all of fame inducted Polande in &'AA. Tho&, )erald. Gerald 2hom ,ecame interim president of the Metis /ation U Al,erta after the death of ;arry Desmeules in &''!. .e went on to win the following election ,ut cut his term short due to illness in &''#. Tho&as, (delaide 0orin. <&A37)&'(7= $y Audreen .ourie Adelaide Morin, the daughter of Metis parents Genevieve 0oui@ <0oy= and Pierre Morin, was ,orn at 1le X la Crosse in &A37. 2he family moved to $rochet and there Adelaide met dashing George <Geordie= 2homas, ,orn to a Metis family at $rochet in &A3". .e ,ecame .udson5s $ay +actor at Moose +actory. 2hey were married at $rochet in &A*3, at a time when the Civil 4ar was still raging ,etween the northern and southern nited States. 4ith the e@ception of a few trips to Selkirk ,y Pork $oat, Adelaide spent &7

most of her life in the hard north. Adelaide lived to ,e &&" years old. 9She made history U then outlived it.: Geordie 2homas died in &'!7, at the age of A7 years old and is ,uried in the St. ;uke5s Anglican cemetery at $alsam $ay, Manito,a. ntil a,out &'(!, Adelaide lived alone in a tiny home at 2raverse $ay, Manito,a. 2here she snared ra,,its and trapped muskrats to sell for provisions. As she did almost one hundred years ago, Adelaide continued to live off the land. She netted fish when the water was open, and in winter drilled holes in the ice for her catch. Close at hand was a grove of Maple trees that Adelaide tapped and ,oiled down the sap. /ow almost a forgotten art in Manito,a, maple syrup was a vital part of her e@istenceD a few Huarts to her diet during the year. 92he taste of PemmicanD the life of the northD: Adelaide would sayD 9is still fresh in my mouthQ: 1le a la Crosse was a depot for Pemmican storage and Adelaide ,ecame an e@pert at making the 9condensed: food that was often the only rations for northern e@plorers and trappers. Adelaide often shared her recipe for Pemmican. She would dry the lean parts of the meat in the sun, then pounded it into a paste with a mi@ture of fat. 2he result was a flavored with acid)type ,erries such as saskatoons. Pemmican was truly the life,lood of the north. Adelaide lived near her sister)in)law Sophia ;inklater)2homas <Daniel= at 2raverse $ay. 2he two women shared a lifestyle and made long leather Metis coats. 2he coats were designed with fringes and intricate ,eadwork. A mi@ture of cornmeal and kerosene was used to clean the leather coats. Sophia also made ra,,it ro,es <,lankets= which she sold to the .udson%s $ay Company along with the Metis coats. 2he fleshing tools of the two Metis women were part of the .udson5s $ay Company Collections and are now in the museum collections at the Manito,a Museum of Man and /ature in 4innipeg. 1n her later years, Adelaide lived with her daughter Bosephine Ervis at 2raverse $ay. 0etiring early at family ,irthday cele,rations to the tune of the 0ed 0iver Big and over a century of memories, Adelaide died at &&" years of agein in &'(7. She is ,uried at St. Margaret5s 0oman Catholic Church cemetery at 2raverse $ay. <Contri,uted ,y Great Granddaughter Audreen .ourie of Grand Marais from her recollections, those of .elen .ourie of Stony Point, the history of the 0.M. of St. Clements, and memories of the women in the family.= Tho&as, 2ernard. <,. &A('= $ernard was ,orn in Decem,er &A(' at Iu%Appelle, the son of Boaseph 2homas and Marie 4akitipik. .e married ?liGa St. Denis in &A7', at Cypress .ills. .e died in &'!7 at the Crow Agency, she died in &'"" at Glasgow, Montana. Tho&as, Charles. <&A&3)&'"3= Charles 2homas was ,orn on +e,ruary (, &A&3 at +ort Al,any, the son of Bohn 2homas Br. and his Cree wife Meenish <9;ittle Mary:=. .is grandfather, Bohn 2homas Sr., was Chief +actor at Moose +actory. Charles 2homas was selected along with a group of !" sons of officers of the .$C to train for the position of postmaster during the &A3"s and &A("s. 2he work record of Charles 2homas shows that he served as a postmaster from &A(& to &A7# at Deer ;ake and Portage la ;oche. .e was married to /ancy $ouvier and they had ast least three sons who also worked for the .$C. Charles died on April !7, &'"3 and is ,uried at the Eld Stone Church at ;ittle $ritain, south of ;ower +ort Garry. <Contri,uted ,y Doreen .ood N?yolfsonO.= &A

Tho&as, Charles. <&A3()&'!(= Charles, also called Challius& <ChYlins=, was the son of Boseph 2homas dit 0oussain <,. &A&*=! and Marie Adele 4akitipik Michel. .e was married to .elene ;etendrJ <,. &A37=, the daughter of ;ouis ;etendre <,. &A"&= and Marie .allett at St. $oniface on Bune &#, &A7". 2hey had nine children. 2hey lived on the south half of ;ot 3A <23#)&)#= in the St. ;aurent Settlement southeast of his ,rother)in)law <;etendrJ=. Charles and .elene lived ne@t to +ranRois)Mavier ;etendrJ on the south half of ;ot forty)eight in $atoche. +rom time to time Charles operated +rancois)Mavier%s post at +ort X la Corne. Charles was a mem,er of Captain 4illiam $oyer%s company, one of the &' di;aines led ,y Ga,riel Dumont during the &AA( Metis 0esistance. .e was wounded in the arm at the ,attle of 2ourond%s Coulee. Charles was rescued at 2ourond%s Coulee ,y ?douard Dumont%s arrival. ?douard gave him a coat ,ecause he was nearly froGen due to ,eing pinned down in the water of the creek. Charles then headed up the hill after the soldiers ,ut they had all retreated ,y then. En the last day of ,attle Moise Euellette gives this account of the retreat toward Champagne%s house8 Charles 2homas arrives with his gun and his rosary. Z4hat is 0iel saying>% he asks. ZDoes he say that we%re going to win>% NEuellette repliesO Z?h[ 4hat are you talking a,out> .aven%t you noticed that we%re running away like ra,,its> .ow do you e@pect us to win># Tho&as, Constance (*,ol5son . <&'#*)!""!= Connie was the daughter of a commercial fisherman, Boseph <Bosie= 2homas and ?liGa,eth Maud <Bennings=. She was ,orn at 2raverse $ay, Manito,a in &'#*. At si@teen she left school to earn a living as a housekeeper, first in 4innipeg, then at Pine +alls. +rom &'(3 on, she served for three years with the 0oyal Canadian Air +orce as an aircraft)refinishing technician. At age !&, she married Gerald ?yolfson and they su,seHuently had nine children. 4hen first married they moved to Pine +alls where she ,egan working at the hospital. During &'*7)7", she was employed at a clothing factory, then at Children%s .ome of 4innipeg at their summer camp at .illside $each. ;ater, when Children%s .ome closed this camp, Connie ,ought it to serve as the site for Strong ?arth 4oman%s ;odge. Connie was always a community activist. 1n +e,ruary &'7&, in response to the poor housing conditions of the Metis at 2raverse $ay, she formed the 2raverse $ay Metis Association, to serve as a non)profit housing corporation. She was then elected as Secretary)2reasurer of the Association. 1n Bune of the same year elected as -ice)President of the South)4est 0egion of the MM+. She was re)elected ,y acclamation for two further terms in &'7! and &'7# <a two)year term=. Connie was appointed as Acting Provincial President of the MM+ in May of &'7#, to serve during the time that Angus Spence was granted a leave of a,sence. 2his appointment, initially made ,y the $oard of Directors, was ratified at the following Annual General Assem,ly of MM+. She was also a founding mem,er of the 2raverse $ay <fisherman%s= Co)op.
& !

.ow the Cree say Charles. Boseph 2homas was the ,rother of Chief Ga,riel Cote of Saskatchewan, Boseph married Marie Adele at St. +rancois Mavier sometime ,efore &A3". # 0udy 4ie,e and $o, $eal <?ditors=. War in the West: 3oi-es of the <==> .ebellion. 2oronto8 McClelland and Stewart ;td., &'A(8 &!7.

&'

ntil her retirement, Connie was a long)term employee of the Canada Secretary of State department. She was involved as a volunteer for many other community groups. She served on the $oard of Directors of the +amily Planning Association of Manito,aD the ?@ecutive Committee of the Pregnancy Distress ServiceD the +isherman%s ;icense Appeal $oardD and the 0emote .ousing Committee. Tho&as, )eorge ()eordie . <,. &A3"= George <Geordie= 2homas was ,orn to a Metis family at $rochet in &A3". .e ,ecame .udson5s $ay +actor at Moose +actory. .is wife, Adelaide Morin, the daughter of Metis parents Genevieve 0oui@ <0oy= and Pierre Morin, was ,orn at 1le X la Crosse in &A37. 2he family moved to $rochet and there Adelaide met the dashing Geordie. 2hey were married at $rochet in &A*3, at a time when the Civil 4ar was still raging ,etween the northern and southern nited States. <Contri,uted ,y Audreen .ourie.= Tho&as, John Jr. <&7'7)&A&*= Bohn 2homas Br. was the son of Bohn 2homas Sr., a Chief +actor at Moose +actory. Bohn Br.%s Cree wife was Meenish <9;ittle Mary:=. Bohn died on Bune #, &A&* at Moose +actory. <Contri,uted ,y Doreen .ood N?yolfsonO.= Tho&as, Jose!h. <,. &A3"= 2homas was the son of Boaseph 2homas and Marie 4akitipik. Tho&as, Jose!h Daniel 0arshall. <&A(#)&'3!= Daniel was ,orn on March &!, &A(# at ;ac du $rochet, the son of Charles 2homas and Marie /ancy $ouvier. .e married Sophie ;inklater, ,orn March #, &A(*, the daughter of Peter ;inklater and Marie Morin <d. April (, &'3"=. Daniel%s father, Charles <,. &A!A= was a guide and steersman for the .udson%s $ay Company. .e rose to the rank of Postmaster in &A(&. Daniel also worked for the .udson%s $ay Company, as a guide fisherman and ,owsman. .e retired at Cum,erland .ouse in &A'#. 2he family then moved to $alsam $ay, on ;ake 4innipeg.

!"

Sophie ;inklater 2homas <&'#'= Children8 2homas, ,. &A73, ;ac du $rochet. Peter, ,. &A7* at Pelican /arrows. Catherine Marie, ,. &A7' at ;ac du $rochet. ?dward Daniel, ,. &AA& at Cum,erland .ouse. Sophia ,. &AA3 at ;ac du $rochet Marguerite /ancy, ,. &AA( at ;ac du $rochet Boseph .enry, ,. &AA7 at 0eindeer ;ake. ?tienne, ,. &AA' at Pelican /arrows. Marie, ,. &A'" at ;ac du $rochet. Marie ?liGa, ,. &A'& at 0eindeer ;ake. -irginie, ,. &A'# at ;ac du $rochet. Sarah, ,. &A'( at $alsam $ay. Peter 4illiam, ,. &'"" at $alsam $ay. 4illiam Charles Marie ?liGa,eth, ,. &'"# at $alsam $ay.

!&

.$C record for his father8

!!

Tho&as, Louis Jr. <,. &A3(= ;ouis 2homas had the misfortune of ,eing deported from Montana along with the Canadian Plains Cree deportations of &A'* carried out ,y Ma6or Sanno. ;ouis% grandmother was a Chippewa)Cree and his mother was a .alf)$reed. ;ouis was ,orn in the nited States at Pem,ina when his father was employed as a herder of cattle and horses at +ort Pem,ina. ;ater his father was living south of 2urtle Mountain in /orth Dakota. ;ouis 2homas Br. was well known to everyone from 2urtle Mountain to +ort $enton. .e had a ranch at the mouth of the Mussel Shell 0iver on the north ,ank of the Missouri 0iver. .e also sold cordwood to the Missouri river ,oats. 4hile cutting cord wood at a sawmill near +ort Custer, he was apprehended ,y the nited States Army and shipped to Coutts, Al,erta with the refugee Plains Cree. .e presented the following certificate upon arrival ,y train at Coutts 8 Bune !3, &A'* 2he ,earer, ;ouis 2homas, was ,y mistake transported to Coutts, Canada with a ,and of Cree 1ndians. 1 am authoriGed ,y Ma6or Sanno, nited States army to state that he should not have ,een taken across the line, and that he and his family have permission to return to the nited States. Ma6or Sanno had charge of the Cree transportation. 4.S. 4ood !nd ;ieutenant, &"th .S. Calvary. ;ouis 2homas Br. was the son of ;ouis 9le Petit: 2homas and Marguerite +rederic. .is paternal grandparents were 2homas 2homas and Margueite Daunais. .is parents lived !#

at ;eroy, /orth Dakota in the &A3"s and moved to the $elcourt area in the &AA"s. ;ouis Br. married Angeline ;a0ocHue at ;eroy, /orth Dakota. Tho&as, Paul. Paul 2homas served from &'3& to &'3* in 4411 with the 0oyal Canadian Army Service Corps of the (th Armored Division. .e served in ?ngland, 1taly, $elgium, .olland and Germany. +or this he was awarded si@ service medals. En Septem,er !7, !""! the Metis /ational Council awarded him the Golden Bu,ilee Medal. 2he Metis /ational Council was provided with !" Golden Bu,ilee Medals ,y the Governor General of Canada, commemorating the ("th Anniversary of .er Ma6esty%s reign. 2hey chose to award these medals to !" Metis -eterans who accepted them on ,ehalf of themselves, their fallen comrades and their fellow Metis -eterans across Canada. 2he ceremony, held in ?dmonton, recogniGed the outstanding contri,utions of Metis -eterans to their fellow citiGens, their community and to Canada. Tho&as, So!hia (0ason , <&A!!)&A*&= Sophie 2homas was ,orn /ovem,er &(.&A!! at 0ed 0iver, the youngest daughter of Dr 2homas 2homas and and his Cree wife. .er father was a .$C chief factor and governor of the /orthern Department. 4hen Dr 2homas died in &A!A he left each of his si@ daughters S&,""" in # per cent consolidated $ank of ?ngland annuities. Sophia had the ,enefit of a good up,ringing, first in the home of the 0everend David 2homas Bones, in whose trust she had ,een placed ,y her father, and, after Bones% death, in the home of the 0everend 4illiam Cockran. She received her education at the 0ed 0iver Academy. 1n &A3#, an offer made to her to ,e a governess in the ladies% section of the academy. She declined in order to marry, the 0everend 4illiam Mason, a 4esleyan Methodist missionary 2he couple were first posted at the 0ossville mission, at /orway .ouse in &A3#. 2his ,ecame their home for && years. At that time 0ossville mission was in the charge of the 0everend Bames ?vans, the inventor of the sylla,ic system of writing the Cree language. 1n the summer of &A3( ?vans left with his family ,ecause of ill health. 1t thus fell to 4illiam Mason to propagate the Gospel among the 1ndians ,y means of the printed word. Sophia Mason%s a,ility to speak Cree was of great assistance to her hus,and. Sophia, helped out at the 1ndian day school, made visits to the 1ndian homes, as well as attending to the needs of their large family, in spite of rather fragile health. 1n &A(3 Mason left the Methodist Church, 6oined the Church of ?ngland. 2hey then moved to Pork +actory. +our years later the Masons sailed to ?ngland to superintend the printing of the /ew 2estament in Cree sylla,icsD when this was completed in &A(', they remained to see the Eld 2estament through the press. Shortly after her arrival in ?ngland in &A(A Sophia suffered a severe attack of pleurisy, and she continued to have pulmonary afflictions. .er translating was freHuently interrupted ,y seiGures of pain. 1n Buly&A*& she gave ,irth to her ninth child. She continued her work on he last of the Eld 2estament ,ooks and three months later was dead 0eference $ruce Peel, 9Sophia 2homas.: 1n 5i-tionar# of Canadian 4iogra!h#, -ol. 1M <&A*&) &A7"=. 2oronto8 niversity of 2oronto Press, &'7*. !3

Thorn, 'illia&. <&A(')&'#"= 4illiam was ,orn at St. $oniface the son of David 2horn and Madeleine Auger. En +e,ruary !!, &AA& he married Bulie 0oss at St. +rancois Mavier. .e was a mem,er of Captain $aptiste -andal Sr.%s company, one of the &' di;aines led ,y Ga,riel Dumont during the &AA( Metis 0esistance. .is father)in)law, Donald 0oss, was a mem,er of 0iel%s &* man Council <?@ovedate= at $atoche. Throssel, Richard (lbert, 0.L.(. <&AA!)&'##= 0ichard 2hrossel was ,orn in Marengo, 4ashington and was of Manito,a Metis <+rench, Cree, ?nglish and Scottish= descent. 1n &'"', 0ichard 2hrossel ,ecame the first Metis in /orth America to ,e employed as a professional photographer when he was appointed as a field photographer in the 1ndian Service. .e held this position until &'&&, when he moved to $illings, Montana to esta,lish his own studio, the 2hrossel Photocraft Company. 2hrossel%s Metis roots were in 0ed 0iver. .is Metis grandparents, Banet <2ait= and Ale@ander $irston along with his mother, Mary $irston, were part of the Metis emigrant party that travelled to the Colum,ia 0iver in Eregon 2erritory in &A3& in a &7"" mile e@pedition lead ,y Bames Sinclair. 2hrossel, who had rheumatism, moved to the Crow reservation in southeastern Montana in &'"! for the drier climate and to 6oin his ,rother .arry as an office clerk with the 1ndian Service. ;ater, he and his ,rother were ,oth adopted ,y the Crow /ation in &'"(. .e was given the name ?sh @$on 5$!ahs, or 9Cills 1nside the Camp. .e ,ecame their tri,al photographer, a mem,er Montana State ;egislature, /ational Guardsman and local /ational 0ifle Association mem,er. 1n &'"', Commissioner for 1ndian Affairs 0.G. -alentine appointed 2hrossel to ,e field photographer for the Crow reservation and assigned him to take documentary pictures of the tri,e in a campaign against tu,erculosis. Shortly afterwards he esta,lished his own photography studio, the 2hrossel Photocraft Company, in $illings, Montana. 2horssel%s photography, showed local 1ndians, adapted to changing circumstances, while retaining aspects of their traditional culture. 2he 9-anishing: 1ndian motif never enthralled himD instead his su,6ects were shown as defiant people who adapted they ,est they could. 1n &'!3, 0ichard was elected as Pellowstone County%s representative to the nineteenth session of the Montana State ;egislature, one of the first Metis to hold elected office in Montana at the state level. .e declared his candidacy only one month after gaining the vote himself after Congress granted citiGenship and voting rights to all non) citiGen /orth American 1ndians ,orn in the nited States. .e was elected to a second term in &'!* ,ut was defeated in his third attempt in &'!A, when he did not advance past the primary. .eferen-e Al,right, Peggy. Crow "ndian Photogra!her: The Wor* of .i-hard Throssel. Al,uHuerHue8 niversity of /ew Me@ico Press, &''7. Tobin, Tho&as Tate6 Scout <&A!#)&'"3= 2homas 2ate 2o,in was ,orn in St. ;ouis, Missouri, on May &, &A!#, the son of $artholomew 9$artlett: 2o,in, an 1rish immigrant and Sarah Auto,ees. Sarah is ,elieved !(

to have ,een a Delaware who had ,een widowed ,efore marrying 2o,in and ,rought a son, Charles Auto,ees <later Auto,ee=, into the marriage. A year later, a daughter Catherine was ,orn to the couple. 2om 2ate 2o,in first married Maria Pascuala $ernal circa. &A3*. 2heir daughter Maria Pascuala 2o,in ,orn !# Ecto,er &A*# in Costilla, married 4illiam Carson the son of legendary Cit Carson. 2homas then married Maria 0osa Iuintana. .e was employed delivering dispatches to +ort ;eavenworth for General S. Cearny. E,ituary8 2homas 2o,in ) 4ray 0attler ) May !7, &'"3 ) 2homas 2o,in, a noted scout and 1ndian fighter of the early days of Colorado, died at +ort Garland, a few days ago at the age of eighty)seven. .e spent the declining years of his life on his farm four miles from +ort Garland, where his children were ,orn. 2hey are Mrs. $reen of Silverton, Mrs. 4illiam Carson of +ort Garland, who married Cit Carson5s eldest son, Mrs. /ewton of Alamosa, and Bohn 2o,in of San ;uis -alley, who has ,een ,lind for some time.

Todd, Donald. <,. &A((= 1n the early &A7"s, Donald 2odd esta,lished residence on the $attle 0iver at what ,ecame known as 2odd%s Crossing. 1t is located on the stretch of the $attle 0iver ,etween the modern day cities of 4etaskiwin and Camrose. Donald 2odd was ,orn August 3, &A(( at St. Clements, the son of 4illiam 2odd <,orn &A!# at Pork +actory= and Sarah Bane Bohnstone. 1n &A7(, he married SuGanne Durand dit Dumont at $ear%s .ill, Al,erta. !*

Todd, John. <&A(()&'3#= Bohn 2odd was ,orn at 0ed 0iver, the son of Bohn 2odd Sr. and Madeline Ducharme. .e was married to 1sa,elle ,ousHuet, a 2reaty 1ndian from $attleford. +or many years Bohn was the mail carrier ,etween 4innipeg and ?dmonton.3 Todd, Loretta. <,. &'*#= ;oretta 2odd is an award)winning director, writer and producer who has ,een called 9one of Canada5s smartest, young directors.: She is a commanding presence known for her powerful, visual storytelling, the highest production standards and professional demeanor. Ms. 2odd is MetisFCree, originally from /orthern Al,erta. ;oretta is the daughter of George and Budy 2odd. ;oretta was ,orn in ?dmonton, Al,erta. .er father, a CreeFMJtis, left his community in northern Al,erta and travelled from 6o, to 6o,, working on oil rigs, in road construction, and as a trapper. .e and Budy raised their eight children in ?dmonton and northern Al,erta. ;oretta was the fourth of George and Budy5s children. Although her family struggled with poverty and George5s alcoholism, 2odd remem,ers her childhood as ,eing filled with storytelling and art. .er father would sometimes come home and tell her stories, drawing horses on the walls for illustration. +amily gatherings were filled with aunts and uncles <George had &* ,rothers and sisters= who would dance and share stories. 2odd left home at the age of &!, after finishing seventh grade. .olding down a series of 6o,s, from waitress to ,akery employee to construction worker, she grew up Huickly. Pregnant while still in her early teens, 2odd was soon supporting herself and an infant daughter, Camala, while other girls her age were learning to navigate high school. $y &A she Hualified for community college, where she discovered a gift for writing. $y the time she finished school, she had gained significant videomaking skills. She then found employment with the federal government and various /ative organiGations, 2odd supervised intervention programs, aiding /ative youth in coping with drug and alcohol addiction, and helped develop and implement ,usiness pro6ects on various reserves. She also oversaw pre)employment programs helping /ative women to find 6o,s. At times, she used video as a tool in these 6o,s as well. 2odd5s first full)length documentary, The 0earning Path <&''&=, com,ines first) person testimonials of Canadian residential)school survivors with ghostly, atmospheric re) enactments. Hands of Histor# <&''(= provides a ,risk, playful portrait of four women artists, and &orgotten Warriors <&''*=, which was nominated for a Genie award, remem,ers the 4orld 4ar 11 soldiers who risked their lives overseas only to return to find their land confiscated. Toda# is a Aood 5a# <&'''= takes a more standard ,iographic approach to the story of the actor Chief Dan George, and +aina#ssini "manistaisiwa: The Peo!le Ao (n <!""#= e@plores the repatriation of /ative artifacts. 2odd5s work has ,een recogniGed with lifetime achievement awards at the 1magine/A21-? and 2aos 2alking Picture festivals, and she has participated at the Sundance 4riters ;a,. ;oretta 2odd is of Cree, Metis, 1roHuois and Scottish ancestry. She has worked within /ative communities producing and directing educational and television productions and writing dramatic scripts. She is the recipient of a prestigious 0ockerfeller +ellowship. Todd, 'illia& Jr., <&A!#)&A7&=
3

Douglas 4. ;ight, &oot!rints in the 5$st. /orth $attleford8 2urner)4arwick Pu,lications 1nc., &'A78 !7!.

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4illiam 2odd Br. was ,orn at Pork +actory, ,aptiGed Sept. 7, &A!# at St. Bohn5s Cathedral ,y Bohn 4est. .e was the son of Dr. 4illiam 2odd ( and his Metis wife 1sa,elle Dennett, the daughter of 4illiam Dennett and Sophia $allendine. 1n &A3& 4illiam 6oined the .udson $ay Company as Apprentice Postmaster in Swan 0iver District and worked as Clerk and Postmaster in the Colum,ia district until &A*( when he ,ecame a +ree)trader and returned to 0ed 0iver. .e was married on Aug.&*, &A3' at St. Andrew5s Anglican, 0ed 0iver Settlement to Sarah Bane Bohnstone. 2hey had si@ children8 Al,ert, ,orn &A3*. Samuel, ,orn &A(". 1sa,elle, ,orn &A(!. 4illiam, ,orn &A(#. Donald, ,orn &A((. +anny, ,orn &A(7.

After the death of Sarah he married +annie Anne .ourie <,. &A3!=, the daughter of Bohn .enry .ourie and Bessie Dennett circa &A7". 2heir daughter, Mary Bane, was ,orn &A7", and ,aptiGed at St. Clements in Mapleton /ov. !7 &A7" and died &A77. +anny%s mother was Bessie Banet Bane Dennet the sister of 4illiam%s mother, 1sa,ella Dennet. .er father was Bohn .ourie a farmer. 4illiam died on Buly &A, &A7". Todd, 'illia& Ja&es 777. <&A(#)&A'!= 4illiam 2odd was ,orn on Banuary &(, &A(# at St. Clements, the son of 4illiam 2odd Br.* <,. &A!#= and Sarah Bane Bohnstone <,. &A!'=. .is paternal grandparents were Dr. 4illiam 2odd and 1sa,elle Dennett <the daughter of 4illiam Dennett and Sophia $allendine=. 4illiam married Marie Dufresne, ,orn &A*(, the daughter of ?douard +rancois Dufresne <,. &A"* in Iue,ec= and Margueite Mondion <Moignon= ,orn &A&* at +ort Carlton. 4illiam was initially employed as a freighter. 4illiam 2odd died in &A'! and is ,uried in the old St. Al,ert Catholic Cemetery ne@t to the Church Mission. 1n &AA3 Marie and 4illiam were living in $resaylor, Saskatchewan and the following spring during the &AA( 0esistance, while living at +ort Pitt, were taken prisoner along with her parents and si,lings into the camp of $ig $ear were moved under force a,out the countryside during April to Bune of &AA(. 1n &A'& 4illiam was working as a school teacher at +ort Pitt. Children Bames 2odd, ,orn May #, &AA!F# at +ort Pitt, Saskatchewan. .e married Caroline ;afram,oise ,efore &'"#. 2hey farmed on a homestead near near St. Paul, Al,erta, -ermillion 0iver and the lastly ,efore he retired near the town of Deville on .astings ;ake near South Cooking ;ake Al,erta. Bames died Ect. !!, &'*7, in 0ossdale
( *

Dr. 4illiam ?rnest 2odd, ,orn &7A7 in 1reland and died on Dec. !#, &A(& at his homestead in St. Bames. 1n &A3& 4illiam Br. 6oined the .udson $ay Company as Apprentice Postmaster in Swan 0iver District and worked as Clerk and Postmaster in the Colum,ia district until &A*( when he ,ecame a +ree)trader and returned to 0ed 0iver.

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?llen 2odd ,orn in &AA3 at $resaylor, Saskatchewan and died in the Spring &AA* at +ort Pitt. Mary 2odd, ,orn &AA* at +ort Pitt. She was registered in the &'"& federal census as &3 years old, living at Saddle ;ake with her mother Marie and her step)father Bames .owse. She married 4illiam Bohn ;a,oucane <,. &AA" d.&'((=. 2heir homestead registered March !#, &'"' was at /? !)(A)&")3 near St. Paul Al,erta. 1sa,elle <$elle= 2odd, ,orn &AA' in Manito,a and ,aptiGed at Enion ;ake. She was && years old during the &'"& Al,erta Census and living at Saddle ;ake with her mother Marie and her step)father Bames .owse. $elle married Bules ;a,oucane in &'&& and their farm was /? 3)(7)&")3, near ;afond, Al,erta. $elleF$ella was killed ,y lightening. 4illiam Pierre 2odd, ,orn &A'", died &A'" at Enion ;ake, A$.

+amily Scrip8 2odd, BamesD address8 St. PaulD ,orn8 # May, &AA! at +ort PittD father8 4illiam 2odd <MJtis=D mother8 Marie Dufresne <MJtis=D scrip cert.8 form ?, no. &#3*D claim no. !"3'. 2odd, $ella ) Concerning her claim as a head of family ) Address, -ictoria ) $orn, &A(! in $ritish Colum,ia ) +ather, 4illiam 2odd, <deceased MJtis= ) Mother, Cree 1ndian ) Married, &A*7 at 4hite +ish ;ake to 4illiam Sinclair and &A7* at -ictoria to George Spence ) Scrip for K&*" ) Claim &!&A .ouse, MaryD for her deceased daughter, ?llen 2odD claim no. !"(&D address8 ;ower St. PaulD ,orn8 &AA3 at $resaylor, SaskD died8 Spring, &AA* at +ort PittD father8 4illiam 2odd <MJtis=D mother8 Marie Dufresne <MJtis W deponent=D heirs8 Mary .ouse, scrip cert.8 form D, no. &'*! for K3".""D Bames 2odd, scrip cert.8 form D, no. &'*3 for K3".""D Mary 2odd, scrip cert.8 form D, no. &'** for K3".""D 1sa,elle 2odd, scrip cert.8 form D, no. &'*A for K3".""D Marguerite Marie .ouse, scrip cert.8 formD, no. &'7"D for K3".""D /orman .ouse, scrip cert.8 form D, no. &'7! for K3"."".

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4illiam 2odd 111

Trois Pouce. See entry under 0o8se Carri9re. Tol&ie, Si&on 3raser. <&A*7)&'#7= $imon Tolmie %as the first Metis Premier of British Colum&ia. $imon %as a veterinarian' farmer' politician' an( the !&st Premier of the Province of $ritish Colum,ia. Simon was the son of Dr. 4illiam +raser 2olmie <&A&!)&AA*=, a prominent figure in the .udson5s $ay Company7 and a mem,er of ,oth the colonial assem,ly of Colony of -ancouver 1sland and the ;egislative Assem,ly of $ritish Colum,ia. .is mother, Bane 4ork <&A!7)&AA"=, was the Metis daughter of Bohn 4ork <&7'!)&A*&= and Bosette ;egace
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.$C &A#! to &A7" in the Colum,ia district. After a ,rief visit home in &A3&)3!, 2olmie returned to +ort /isHually sometime shortly after May &A3#. At /isHually, 2olmie acted as medical officer and trader, and as manager of the Puget Sound Agricultural Company, the .$C5s farming su,sidiary. En !* /ovem,er &A((, 2olmie ,ecame chief +actor at +ort /isHaully. 1n &A3# he had settled in the 4illamette -alley <now in 4ashington State=. .e ,rought in large herds of cattle and sheep. 1n &A3*, the authorities would not let 2olmie and &* others acHuire land so he relocated to -ictoria.

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<&A&!)&A'*, Metis=. 4ork was a .udson%s $ay Company Chief +actor, and mem,er of the former colony5s assem,ly. $orn in -ictoria, 2olmie spent his early life on his family5s vast farm called .illside <now a -ictoria neigh,ourhood=. .e graduated from the Entario -eterinary College in &A'& and later ,ecame the Dominion 1nspector of ;ivestock. .e married ?dith Mary Palmer <&A*#)&'""=, the daughter of 0ichard 4. Palmer. 2olmie entered federal politics in the election of &'&7, ,ecoming nionist MP for -ictoria City. .e was returned in the su,seHuent four elections as a Conservative <the riding changed its name to -ictoria in &'!3=. 2olmie served as Minister of Agriculture in the governments of Sir 0o,ert $orden and Arthur Meighen from &'&'U&'!&, and in &'!*. 2olmie was elected leader of the $ritish Colum,ia Conservative Party in &'!* ,ut continued to sit as a Mem,er of Parliament until the &'!A provincial election, in which he ran and was elected M;A for Saanich. 2he Conservatives were victorious that year, taking #! of the legislature5s 3A seats, including every seat in -ancouver and -ictoria. 2olmie thus ,ecame Premier of the province, also serving as Minister of 0ailways. ;ike their federal counterparts, who returned to power in &'#", 2olmie%s 2ories% commitment to applying \,usiness principles to the ,usiness of government,\ re,ounded to their disadvantage in the Great Depression. $y &'#&, unemployment reached !A] ) the highest in Canada ) and 2olmie was finally forced to act, setting up remote relief camps. 2olmie acceded to the reHuest from the ,usiness community that a royal commission ,e esta,lished to propose solutions to the province%s dire financial situation. 2he Cidd 0eport, issued in &'#!, recommended such sharp cuts to social services that mainstream $ritish Colum,ians were enraged. 2hey had come to e@pect more from their provincial government than its traditional functions of maintaining law and order, providing physical infrastructure and encouraging private enterprise. 2he strained situation took its toll on the provincial party which had so much internal discord that the e@ecutive decided to run no candidates in the &'## election. 0ather, each local riding association acted on its own. Some candidates ran as independents, some as 1ndependent Conservatives. 2hose supporting 2olmie, ran as nionists, and those grouped around 4illiam Bohn $owser, a former premier, ran as /on)Partisans. 2he result was easily foreseen. 2he ;i,erals captured 3!] of the vote and #3 of the 37 seats, the new social democratic Co)operative Commonwealth +ederation ,ecame the official opposition, and the Conservatives who had run under various ,anners picked up 6ust five seats. 2olmie lost his own seat. 2olmie returned to politics three years later, returning to his old federal seat of -ictoria in a &'#* ,y)election. .e died in -ictoria a little over a year later. To&kins, Peter Jr. <&A'')&'7"= Peter 2omkins Br. was ,orn on Banuary &, &A'' at Poundmaker%s 0eserve. .e was the son of Peter 2omkins and Marie ?ssawakapiw from Poundmaker%s 0eserve. Pete 2omkins Br. was raised on various reserves and spoke Cree fluently since his father was an 1ndian Department farm instructor at reserves such as Saddle ;ake, Sweetgrass and Ene Arrow. .is father had a great influence on his life and told him stories a,out the &AA( 0esistance at $atoche. Pete 2omkins Sr. worked as a cut line worker on the telegraph line near Duck ;ake. During this government contract, the Metis took him as a prisoner of war at $atoche. Pete Sr. was sympathetic towards 0iel and felt the Metis were not treated 6ustly ,y government officials. 1n an &'*' interview with Pete Br. he e@plains his father%s #&

perspective on 0iel, 9...he used to say, 9Pete, some day these scissor),ills that they%ve got who put 0iel to hang him, they%ll ,e gone and another outfit will spring up and they%ll see the mistake that these guys made. 2hey should never have hanged 0iel. .e never did anything worse than a good nion man would do to his group and some day they%ll ,uild a monument. And look what they%ve done.: Pete Sr. was a very community minded person and he ,uilt the first hospital in Grouard, Al,erta. People always came to the 2omkins family for assistance and advice. Pete Br. followed closely in his father%s footstepsD he was always good at lo,,ying and got doctors to come to the community of Grouard. .e took action on health care issues and helped many people in the community. Pete Br. received a formal education in 4innipeg and lived with his father%s sister. 1n 4innipeg he e@perienced discrimination ,ecause he spoke no ?nglish, only Cree. Pete went through a challenging educational process and later moved ,ack to Grouard and opened a ,lacksmith shop. .e married 1sa,ella Andrews a MJtis originally from the Grouard area. 1n the &'#"s, Boe Dion, a teacher, often met with Pete 2omkins Br. to discuss the conditions of the MJtis people of Al,erta. 2omkins was a good organiGer, diplomat and negotiator and played a key role in the esta,lishment of the early Al,erta MJtis political organiGation. At that time he formed what was to ,ecome a long lasting friendship with activists, Malcolm /orris and Bim $rady. 2omkins, $rady, and /orris were the main negotiators with the Province of Al,erta during the ?wing Commission, in &'#(, which studied the 9Al,erta .alf)$reed Pro,lem.: 2he main focus of 2omkins during the commission hearings was to liaise with Dr. Cross the Minister of .ealth for Al,erta. 2omkins wanted government studies a,out the health concerns of the MJtis. 2he leaders all ,elieved the MJtis had inherent rights to land, education, resources and healthcare. .owever, the provincial government viewed the assistance to the MJtis as a welfare scheme, not a right. After the recommendations of the ?wing Commission were presented to the Al,erta legislature, Pete 2omkins Br., ,ecause of his diplomacy, was selected to assist in drafting the MJtis $etterment Act, which was passed in &'#A. 2omkins was made supervisor of the Metis settlements ,efore 4.4.11 and traveled to the MJtis settlements to ask where they wanted the settlements located and made sure the Metis chose the settlements themselves. 2omkins had high e@pectations for the settlements and ,oth he and his ,rother signed over their lands to the ?liGa,eth MJtis Settlement. nfortunately, his role in Settlement administration was cut short and a new non) Metis supervisor was hired to replace him. After the war it was very difficult to get Metis people organiGed especially since government was then overseeing the management and daily affairs of the Metis settlements with very little input ,y the Metis people themselves. 2omkins drifted away from Metis politics especially since all five of his sons entered into the Canadian Army, which had a significant impact on the family. Ef the original MJtis Association leaders in the &'#"s, 2omkins was one of the only ones left in Al,erta as Bim $rady and Malcolm /orris ,oth enlisted in the military during 4.4.11. After his great disappointment with the Metis settlements and the stagnation of the MJtis Association, he turned his socialist efforts into organiGing the +resh +ish Marketing, +ur Marketing, and Cooperative Movements in /orthern Al,erta and Saskatchewan. 1n order to o,tain 6ustice for A,original people he felt it was necessary to ,reak the e@ploitation of the .udson%s $ay Company monopoly. 1n &'(", Bim $rady and Malcolm #!

/orris arranged for 2omkins to come to Saskatchewan as a special field officer for the Cooperative Commonwealth +ederation <CC+= government. .is work involved setting up cooperatives and government stores in northern communities such as ;a0onge and Cum,erland .ouse. 4hile in the province he also worked with the C$C providing Cree radio programs in /orthern Saskatchewan. Pete 2omkins was part of a close knit family and they remem,er him as a great man, a revolutionary without a revolution. 1n the minutes of the MJtis Association meeting in &'3", Boe Dion comments a,out 2omkins and other Metis leaders. Dion states that8 Pete as we like to call him, has ,een a pillar of strengthD his untiring efforts on ,ehalf of his ,rother MJtis have ,orne fruit and will ever ,e remem,ered. 4e have made numerous friends, and 1 hope that some day when a complete history of the MJtis struggle is finally written and introduced to the pu,lic, the names of these men will live through the ages to come, a fitting tri,ute for the part they have played in helping to ,etter conditions amongst my poor MJtis people. Ene of the ma6or misfortunes is that Pete 2omkins never took residency on the MJtis Settlements in which he worked so hard to form. .e is remem,ered for his organiGing a,ilities and his dedication to improving the Huality of life for ,oth 1ndian and Metis people. .e suffered three strokes and passed away in &'7". <Contri,uted ,y ;eah Dorion.= Tourond, Cali/te. <&A(#)&AA(= Cali@te was ,orn at $aie St. Paul, the second son of Boseph 2ourond Sr. and Bosephte PaulD his first wife was Marguerite 0oss. .e then married Bosephte Gervais in &AA! at $atoche. 2hey had three children, all ,orn at +ish Creek. Cali@te fought and died on May &3, the last day of ,attle in the &AA( 0esistance at $atoche. Tourond, Charles 0enard. <&A*#)&AA(= Charles was the seventh son of Boseph 2ourond Sr. and Bosephte Paul. .e fought at $atoche in &AA( along with Ga,riel Dumont. .e died at $atoche at age !& on Buly &', &AA(. Tourond, David. <&A(&)&A'"= David was the oldest son of Boseph 2ourond Sr. and Bosephte Paul. .e married -irginie +isher and they settled near +ish Creek in &AA#. .e was a mem,er of 0iel%s &* man Council <?@ovedate= at $atoche during the &AA( 0esistance. .e was not tried for his 0esistance activities having escaped to Montana. .e then took up residence at 2urtle Mountain, /orth Dakota. .e later returned to $atoche and died there on Septem,er &&, &A'". Tourond, *l:ear. <&A(A)&AA(= ?lGear 2ourond was the fifth son of Boseph 2ourond Sr. and Bosephte Paul. .e married Marguerite $reland in &AA! at St. +rancois Mavier. 2hey had two children. .e was a mem,er of Captain ?douard Dumont%s company, one of the &' di;aines led ,y Ga,riel Dumont during the &AA( Metis 0esistance. .e died at age !(, on the last day of ,attle, May &!, &AA( ##

Tourond, 3ran;ois. <,. &A*&= +rancois was the si@th son of Boseph 2ourond and Bosephte Paul. .e served a prison sentence ,ecause of his participation in the &AA( 0esistance. 1n his testimony of August &#,&AA( at the 0egina trial +ather Ale@is Andre says8 9+rancois and Patrice 2ourond are ,rothers. 1 have known them for a long time. 2hey are unmarried. 2hey are among the most respecta,le families of the /orthwest. 2hey were seven sons and a widowed mother. 2hese young men were the admiration of the neigh,ourhoodD they were so Huiet and hard workingD their farm was the nicest kept in the settlement. 2hey were opposed to 0iel in all his movements. 2he crafty 0iel tried every means to induce the ,oys to 6oin him, ,ut without success. 2hey were well off, had a fine farm, plenty of cattle and horses, and were worth a good deal of money. 0iel went day after day to the poor widow, and with his devilish cunning played on her superstition and credulity. .e told her of his .oly visions, how he saw himself surrounded ,y seven glorious stars of e@traordinary ,rightness crowning him with glory. 2hese ,right stars, he cried, are your seven glorious sons, who are to achieve the glory of the .alf)$reed /ation, and the poor woman, in her simple faith of his divine mission, prayed of her fine young sons to go forth and ,attle under the ,anner of heaven. Alas, with what terri,le results[ 2hat once happy home is now desolate, the wealth produced ,y industry and so,riety is swept away like snow ,efore the windD the proud young sons, their mothers pride and strength, where are they> 2hree of them, shot on the field of ,attle, lie in hurried graves on the ,anks of the Saskatchewan, another died of a ,roken heart at the sudden shock of the terri,le death of his ,rothers, another wounded and crippled for life, and two, the two, a,ove named prisoners awaiting sentence at the hands of outraged ma6esty of the law of their country. Eh, spirit of mercy enter the heart of their 6udge in pity and compassion, for the poor heart,roken widow now almost childlessD deal mercifully with these poor deluded young men, and in mercy send them home to console the desolate heart of their mother. <CSP, &AA*, -ol. &#, #A*= Tourond, Jean 2a!tiste. <,. &A#A= $aptiste was ,orn Bune &, &A#A at St. $oniface, the son of Boseph 2ourond and 0osalie ;aderoute <,. &A&*=. .e married AngJliHue Delorme in &A*&. 2hey lived at St. nor,ert and had &! children. En Ecto,er &&, &A*', $aptiste was part of 0iel%s group who stopped Colonel Dennis and crew from surveying on Metis land. $aptiste represented St. /or,ert at the convention of /ovem,er &A*', then served on 0iel%s 0ed 0iver Council in &A7". Tourond, Jose!hte )ervais. <,. &A(&= Bosephte was the daughter of Ale@is Gervais and Madeleine +agnant. She married ;eopold McGillis in &A7!, then married Cali@te 2ourond on /ovem,er (, &AA! at $atoche. She was his second wife, his first wife, Marguerite 0oss A had died in &AA". Bosephte%s sister Catherine was married to Cali@te%s ,rother Pierre 2ourond and sister Marie was later married to Patrice 2ourond. Cali@te was killed on the last day of fighting during the &AA( 0esistance. Bosephte was left with two small children to care for and was
)

Marguerite%s father was a mem,er of 0iel%s Council <?@ovedate= at $atoche. .er father, ,rother, and five uncles were all active in the 0esistance.

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pregnant with their third child. <Bean $aptiste ,orn Septem,er 7, &AA#, Charles ,orn Ecto,er !#, &AA3 and Marguerite su,seHuently ,orn on Ecto,er !", &AA(= Tourond, Patrice. <&A(7)&A'A= Patrice was the fourth son of Boseph 2ourond and Bosephte Paul. .e was married to Marie Gervais. Patrice and Boseph Delorme served as principal lieutenants to Ga,riel Dumont during the &AA3 /orthwest 0esistance. Patrice acted as a ,odyguard and protector for ;ouis 0iel during the final day of ,attle. .e too served a prison sentence ,ecause of his participation in the &AA( 0esistance. +rom &AA7)&AAA, Patrice was living at AlvJna and was secretary for the 2ache School District in Saskatchewan Tourond, Pierre. <&A(()&AA7= Pierre was the third son of Boseph 2ourond and Bosephte Paul. .e married Catherine Gervais and they lived at +ish Creek. .e was a mem,er of Captain $aptiste -andal Sr.%s company, one of the &' di;aines led ,y Ga,riel Dumont during the &AA( Metis 0esistance. Tourond, Pierre. Pierre was a mem,er of Captain Bames Short%s company, one of the &' di;aines led ,y Ga,riel Dumont during the &AA( Metis 0esistance. Tourond, <irginie (3isher . <,. &A('=. -irginie was ,orn at Iu%Appelle, the daughter of George +isher and ?melie $oyer. She married David 2ourond, the oldest son of Boseph 2ourond Sr. and Bosephte Paul at St. +rancois Mavier in &A7(. 2hey settled near 2ourond%s Coulee in &AA#. David was a mem,er of 0iel%s Council <?@ovedate= at $atoche during the &AA( 0esistance. .e was not tried for his 0esistance activities having escaped to Montana. 2hey then took up residence at 2urtle Mountain, /orth Dakota. 2he family later returned to $atoche and David died there on Septem,er &&, &A'". -irginie su,seHuently married /apoleon .amelin at ;e,ret in &A'". -irginie gave ,irth to a child, r,ain, on the night of April #" or the morning of May &, &AA( in a tent situated on a slope near $atoche%s Crossing. She was along with her mother)in)law. So frightened were they that they did not dare have some light which could have attracted the enemy%s attention. .owever, they finally decided that some lighting was necessary. Such were the tragic circumstances surrounding the child%s ,irth. During the ,attle, or rather, several days later, the women would change places constantly so as to avoid the fire of the enemy. 2hey would hide ,ehind trees or in damp holes. After the ,attle, while walking around the ,ooty collected ,y the enemy, Mrs. 2ourond recogniGed one of her suitcases which contained the very clothes she needed. She tried to gra, it. Some soldiers ,rutally shoved her ,ack. $ut since she spoke ?nglish very well, she argued with them and answered them sharply. An officer arrives who asks what is going on. She e@plained to him that she had 6ust had a ,a,yD that she does not have any clothes to change intoD and that this suitcase which ,elongs to her contains what she needs. 2he officer immediately gives it to her and apparently, he severely punished the soldiers who had ,een rude to her. #(

David 2ourond had not surrendered right away. .e wanted to turn himself in at Prince Al,ert. .e met +ather Andre who was returning from Prince Al,ert and who told him8 9Don%t turn yourself inD go to the other side of the ,order.' To+a, (L=(,voise , 0arie (Dorion . <&7A*)&A(#= Marie 2oway, married, according to the custom of the country, Pierre Dorion Br. Marie was acknowledged ,y some authors as ,eing of half 1owa 1ndian and half +rench) Canadian <Shirley, &''(=. 2he practice of MJtissage was ,ecoming an accepted marriage practice ,y the Dorion family in the St. ;ouis area. Marie and Pierre Br. had three children together, Bean $aptiste, Margaret and Paul. As was the local custom this marriage secured peace, diplomatic relations and trade with the 1owa 1ndians. During &A&&)&! Marie accompanied her hus,and on the Astoria e@pedition overland from St. ;ouis to the mouth of the Colum,ia 0iver. She walked most of the way while pregnant and with two young children. She gave ,irth on the trail ,ut the child did not survive. 2hus Madame Marie Dorion is known as the 9Madonna of the Eregon 2rail.: 1n Banuary &A&3, Marie was at a Pacific +ur Company Post when she received word that a ,and of $annock 1ndians was heading for her hus,and%s camp with murderous intentions. She ,undled up her young sons <Bean $aptiste and Paul= and set out to warn the men. 2he trip took three days on horse,ack. As she approached the camp, a man named ;eClerc appeared. .e was wounded and indicated that his companions had ,een killed. Marie captured two horses that had ,een left loose, hoisted ;eClerc on one horse and with her sons on the other, headed ,ack to the post <near what is now Caldwell, 1daho=. ;eClerc died that night from loss of ,lood. En returning to the post she found that the trappers there had ,een murdered as well. She collected some food and headed out to what is now Eregon. $y the time she reached the $lue Mountains in northeastern Eregon, one of her horses had given out. She decided to wait out the winter there. She slaughtered the horses and smoked the meat, ,uilt a shelter out of the horse hides and cedar and grass and waited out the remaining two months of winter. 1n March she continued on with her children ,ut was caught in a ,liGGard for three days. After &( days, they reached the plains ,ut their food was gone. +ortunately they were near a camp of friendly 4alla 4allas encamped on the Colum,ia 0iver. Shortly thereafter a Pacific +ur Company search party found them. 1n &A&A, Marie remarried to ;ouis Boseph -anier. 2he couple had a daughter, Margeurite. 1ndians also killed -anier. Marie married for the third time in &A!3 to Bean $aptiste 2oupin, a Metis who was an interpreter for the .$C at +ort /eG Perce. 2he family moved to the 4illamette -alley in the &A3"s. 2hey had two children, +rancis and Marie Anne. Marie lived out the rest of her life at +rench Prairie near present day Salem, she died on Septem,er (, &A(". Marie%s prominent role in Eregon history is reflected ,y the fact that she was always addressed ,y the honorific, Madame. Some called her 9Madame 1owa: after her mother%s tri,e. She was ,uried 9under the steeple: of the St. ;ouis Catholic Church. <Contri,uted ,y ;eah Dorion.= .eferen-e 0oss, Ale@ander. Ad1ent$res of the &irst Settlers on the (regon or Col$mbia .i1er, 4eing the /arrati1e of the ?B!edition fitted b# 'ohn 'a-ob Astor to ?stablish the Pa-ifi&$r Com!an#Q. ;ondon8 Smith)?lder, &A3'.
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S.M, pp. A!)A#.

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Tre&bla,, *sdras. ?sdras was a mem,er of Captain $aptiste $oucher%s company, one of the &' di;aines led ,y Ga,riel Dumont during the &AA( Metis 0esistance. Trindell, Ted. <&'"")&'A&= 2ed%s Scottish)Metis father, Peter, came from the ;esser Slave ;ake area. .e was a speaker of ,oth +rench and ?nglish. 2ed%s mother, Annie, was a Slavey)Dene from +ort Simpson. 2rindell was a recogniGed e@pert on Dene mythology and 1ndian medicine. .e descri,ed himself as a 9full)swing ,ush man.: .e trapped in the ;aird 0iver area of the /orthwest 2erritories. .is nephew, Senator /icholas Si,,eston, descri,es 2ed as the 9Shakespeare of the Slavey.: 2ed said that he had a degree from the niversity of +ort ProvidenceTa Grade ! education. .e spoke Slavey, Chipewyan, Michif, ?nglish and +rench fluently. $etween stints in the ,ush 2ed worked for the /orthern Canada Power Commission, /42 .ealth, and the Metis Association of the /orthwest 2erritories. .e was also a river ,oat pilot and a translator for the C$C, oil companies and the courts. 1n the late &'*"s 2ed was involved in organiGing the Metis local at +ort Simpson, /42. .eferen-e Morriset, Bean and 0ose)Marie Pelletier <?ditors=, Ted Trindell: /orth, -ancouver8 2illacum ;i,rary, &'A*. 2tis Witness to the

Trottier, (lbert. <&A*"= Al,ert was ,orn at +ort ?llice in &A*", the son of Boseph 2rottier and 2herese -allee dit ;aplante. .e married 1sa,elle Cayan dit $oudreau. 1n &A7A, Al,ert and other Metis ,uffalo hunters at Cypress .ills wrote a petition asking for a special Metis reserve of land. Al,ert was on the 2reaty Pay list of Muskeg ;ake 0eserve in &AA3. .e was a mem,er of Captain Philippe GariJpy%s company, one of the &' di;aines led ,y Ga,riel Dumont during the &AA( Metis 0esistance. 1n &AA* he married 1sa,elle Cayen dit $oudreau at Duck ;ake. Al,ert was the nephew of Charles 2rottier listed ,elow and the ,rother of Charles Br. and Boseph 2rottier. Trottier, (ndr>. <&7A3)&A73= AndrJ 2rottier was ,orn in &7A3 in the /42, the son of AndrJ 2rottier and ;ouise <Chippewa=. .e married Marguerite St. Denis dit PaHuette, the daughter of AndrJ PaHuette and ;iGette <Cree= in &A&& at 0ed 0iver. 2his family was enumerated in the Pem,ina Census of &A(" as +amily L A3. 2hey list Andre age **, a hunter, Marguerite age (", Boseph age !!, a hunter, Michel age &', a hunter, Antoine age &3, and Charles age &". Andre and his ,rother Boseph were participants in the $attle of Seven Eaks as part of Cuth,ert Grant%s party. +rom the Coltman 0eport8 Andr2 Trottier, 6Half)4reed,8 stated the following to Commissioner William Coltman as des!otion Csi-D into the in1estigation of the f$r trade war: That on his arri1al near the en-am!ment he was met b# r. AleBander a-5onnell, who had with him Sera!him 0amar and 4ostonais Pangman, and as*ed him, 6What #7

news78 to whi-h he answered, 6we fo$ght #esterda#8E and being f$rther F$estioned, he answered, 6that there were 22 of the ?nglish *illed, that on their side, his brother G'ose!h TrottierH was wo$nded, and a half)breed of the name 4ato-he, *illed.8 4ostonais Pangman was F$oted as sa#ing that 4ato-he was his -o$sin and he m$st be re1enged.<0

AndrJ 2rottier died on April !3, &A73 at ;e,ret in the Iu%Appelle -alley. Trottier, (ndr> <,. &A&*= Andre 2rottier was a participant in the $attle of the Grand Coteau. 2his ,attle took place on the Grand Coteau, 6ust south of the ,ig ,end of the Souris 0iver, ,etween a Metis ,uffalo hunting party from St. +ranRois Mavier, led ,y Bean $aptiste +alcon and the Cut .ead <Pa,aksa= Panktonai <1hanktonwanna=, Dakota, led ,y Chief Medicine <Sacred= $ear, on Buly &( to &*, &A(&. Andre married 1sa,el +alcon, the daughter of Pierre +alcon and Marie Grant. Andre was the son of Andre 2rottier Sr. && and Marguerite St. Denis dit PaHuette. .is ,rother Charles 2rottier <,. &A#'= later ,ecame the leader of the Metis from Prairie)0onde, south of SaskatoonD he had wintered there since the mid)&A("s. Charles 2rottier <,orn &A#'= and Michel 2rottier <,orn &A#!= appear on &A*#)*3 0ed ;ake and Pem,ina Chippewa 2reaty as num,ers 333 and 3(7 when they were given 0ed ;ake .alf),reed Scrip in &A7(. Children of Andre Br. and 1sa,el8 4illiam Bohn DuHuette <Adopted=, ,orn &A*". Ale@andre 2rottier, ,orn &A*#, died &AA& at ;e,ret age &7.

Trottier, (ntoine. <,. &A#3= Antoine was ,orn August &!, &A#3. .e was the son of Andre 2rottier <,. &A73= and Marguerite St. Denis dit PaHuette. Andre and his family were enumerated in the Pem,ina
&" &&

State .istorical Society of /orth Dakota, -ol. 3, p. (#3

Andre 2rottier Sr. <,. &7A3= and his ,rother Boseph were participants in the $attle of Seven Eaks as part of Cuth,ert Grant%s party in &A&*.

#A

census of &A(" as family L A3D he is listed as a hunter. .e married AngeliHue ;afram,oise. .er sister rsule ;afram,oise was married to her hus,and%s ,rother Charles. Antoine died at .avre, Montana in &'"!. Antoine and AngeliHue had eight children ,orn at St. +rancois Mavier, .um,oldt, and Prairie 0onde. 1n &A7A, Antoine 2rottier, and other Metis ,uffalo hunters at Cypress .ills wrote a petition asking for a special Metis reserve of land. 2hey reHuested a re)opening of the ,uffalo hunt ,etween /ovem,er &3th and +e,ruary &(th each year and the granting of Metis 9reserve: landTA strip of land &(" miles long along the American ,order ,eginning where the Pem,ina 0iver crosses the ,order. 2his strip was to ,e fifty miles from south to north. Trottier, 2r,an. <,. &'(*= $ryan 2rottier, a Metis, was ,orn in -al Marie, Saskatchewan. .e is one of the greatest hockey players to ever come out of Saskatchewan. Ever an &A)year /ational .ockey ;eague career, he led his teams to the Stanley Cup si@ times, including four consecutive titles with the /ew Pork 1slanders in the early &'A"s. +rom &'7! to &'73 $ryan played for the Swift Current $roncos, and moved with the $roncos to ;eth,ridge for the &'73)7( season to finish his 6unior hockey career. 2hat same year he was voted Most -alua,le Player in the 4estern hockey ;eague. .e was drafted ,y the /ew Pork 1slanders in &'73. 1n &'7(, at age &', he made the 6ump to the /ational .ockey ;eague. .e scored three goals and had five points at the 1slanders home opener that year. 1n &'7A and led the /.; with 77 assists. 2he ne@t year he was unstoppa,le, using his playmaking skills to collect A7 assists and his a,ility around the net to record 37 goals. .e was the league5s top scorer and won the .art 2rophy as the most valua,le player. 1n &'A" the 1slanders won the Stanley Cup and 2rottier was the star, leading all playoff scorers with !' points and earning the Conn Smythe 2rophy as the most outstanding post)season performer. .e went on to lead the /ew Pork 1slanders to four Stanley Cups and played on two Pitts,urgh Penguin Stanley Cup winners. .e is seventh on the /.; all time players list with &,!7' games played, (!3 goals, '"& assists and &,3!( total career points. .e was inducted into the /ational .ockey ;eague%s .ockey .all of +ame in &''7. 1n &''A, he received an A,original Achievement Award for Sports. Trottier, Charles 'ah!ass (Rabbit . <,. &A#'= Charles 2rottier was ,orn Decem,er 3, &A#' at St. +rancois Mavier, the son of Andre 2rottier&! <,. &A73= and Marguerite St. Denis dit PaHuette. Andre and his family were
*2

AndrJ 2rottier was ,orn in &7A3 in the /42, the son of AndrJ 2rottier and ;ouise <Chippewa=. .e married Marguerite St. Denis dit PaHuette, the daughter of AndrJ PaHuette and ;iGette <Cree= in &A&& at 0ed 0iver. 2his family was enumerated in the Pem,ina Census of &A(" as +amily L A3. 2hey list Andre age **,

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enumerated in the Pem,ina census of &A(" as family L A3D he is listed as a hunter. Charles married rsule ;afram,oise, the daughter of Bean $aptiste ;afram,oise and SuGanne $eaudry on august !*, &A*" at St. +rancois Mavier. 2hey had eleven children, ,orn at St. +rancois Mavier, Prairie 0onde, ;e,ret, Cypress .ills and St. Peter%s Mission in Montana. .is older ,rother, Andre 2rottier Br. <,. &A&*= was married 1sa,el +alcon, the daughter of Pierre +alcon and Marie Grant.&# 1n &A7A, Charles 2rottier, Augustin ;afram,oise and other Metis ,uffalo hunters at Cypress .ills wrote a petition asking for a special Metis reserve of land. 2hey reHuested a re)opening of the ,uffalo hunt ,etween /ovem,er &3th and +e,ruary &(th each year and the granting of Metis 9reserve: landTA strip of land &(" miles long along the American ,order ,eginning where the Pem,ina 0iver crosses the ,order. 2his strip was to ,e fifty miles from south to north. Su,seHuent to the petition of &A7A, Charles and his group could ,e found at 4olf Point, Montana with the /akota during the hunting and trading seasons. Michel .ogue reports8 ntil the fall of &AA&Q a Metis man ,y the name of Charles 2rochJ had relied on Assini,oine chief 0ed Stone%s&3 permission to live and hunt on the reservation. Chief 0ed Stone and the ;ower Assini,oinesQ had longstanding ties to the 0ed 0iver Metis and a history of sharing territory with them.&( 2roche was a petty trader, and it is possi,le that, as such, he was also useful to the local tri,es. .e had successfully avoided e@pulsion Nfrom MontanaO in &A7' ,y demonstrating that the Assini,oine and Gros -entre chiefs had permitted him to remain on the reservation N+ort PeckO. 1n the fall of &AA&, though, it appears that he was less successful. .e told ;ieutenant 0o,ert
a hunter, Marguerite age (", Boseph age !!, a hunter, Michel age &', a hunter, Antoine age &3, and Charles age &". Andre and his ,rother Boseph were participants in the $attle of Seven Eaks as part of Cuth,ert Grant%s party. +rom the Coltman 0eport8 Andr2 Trottier, 6Half)4reed,8 stated the following to Commissioner William Coltman as des!otion Csi-D into the in1estigation of the f$r trade war: That on his arri1al near the en-am!ment he was met b# r. AleBander a-5onnell, who had with him Sera!him 0amar and 4ostonais Pangman, and as*ed him, 6What news78 to whi-h he answered, 6we fo$ght #esterda#8E and being f$rther F$estioned, he answered, 6that there were 22 of the ?nglish *illed, that on their side, his brother G'ose!h TrottierH was wo$nded, and a half)breed of the name 4ato-he, *illed.8 4ostonais Pangman was F$oted as sa#ing that 4ato-he was his -o$sin and he m$st be re1enged.
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$oth active at the $attle of the Grand Coteau in &A(& although not yet married. 1sa,elle%s ,rother Bean $aptiste +alcon was the leader of the Metis during this ,attle. *4 $y &A*', smallpo@ greatly reduced the num,ers in the pper Assini,oine ,and. 2o avoid the same fate, the ;ower Assini,oine avoided the pper Assini,oine and followed their chief, 0ed Stone, to live with the Panktonai Siou@ who had moved into the north eastern part of Montana to hunt ,uffalo. 1n &A7&, the +ort Peck agency was esta,lished for the Siou@ who were una,le to get along with anyone other than their newly found friends, the ;ower Assini,oine. 2he alliance ,etween these two tri,es has remains in effect to this day.
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2he Metis allied with the Cree, Assini,oine, and E6i,wa as part of the /ehiyaw Pwat Confederacy </ehiyaw Pwat means \Cree Assini,oine\ in Cree= also known as the 1ron Confederacy. 2he /ehiyaw Pwat Confederacy homeland stretched from the 0ed 0iver on the east, to the +ront 0ange of the 0ockies in the west, and straddled the ,orderlands of what ,ecame the nited States and Canada.

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$ates that he did 9not like to ,e driven off, ,ut that he would return to his camp and move north of the line at once.:&*

Charles was the leader of the Metis from Prairie)0onde, south of SaskatoonD he had wintered there since the mid)&A("s. Charles 2rottier <,orn &A#'= and Michel 2rottier <,orn &A#!= appear on &A*#)*3 0ed ;ake and Pem,ina Chippewa 2reaty as num,ers 333 and 3(7 when they were given 0ed ;ake .alf),reed Scrip in &A7(. Charles was a trader in the /orth 4est 2erritories, having hunted with his nephew /or,ert 4elsh for many years. .is hunting ,and often 6oined with that of 1sidore 9?capow: Dumont when on the plains. Charles spoke e@cellent ?nglish and +rench as well as over ten A,original languages and was often sent as a messenger ,y the Metis councils. .is first marriage was to Marie)Anne Parenteau, his second to rsula ;afram,oise <,orn &A3! at .avre, Montana=. rsula was the daughter of Bean $aptiste ;afram,oise <,. &A"*= and SuGanne $eaudry.&7 rsula%s ,rother, Augustin was living on the Muskeg ;ake 0eserve and was a Captain of one of the &' companies led ,y Ga,riel Dumont during the &AA( Metis 0esistance. .is son ?douard also served in his Company. 2his family escaped to Montana after &AA(. 2hey lived with the group that was sustaining themselves ,y cutting wood for +ort Shaw. 2hey were accompanied ,y their sons, 0emi, 1sidore and Bean $aptiste. 2rottier was a close friend and relative of Ga,riel Dumont and ,rought his men along with the Dakota 1ndians of 4hitecap%s $and to fight at $atoche in April of &AA( <a,out *"
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Michel .ogue, 9$etween 0ace and /ation8 2he Plains Metis and the Canada) nited States $order.: 4isconsin8 Ph.D. thesis, niversity of 4isconsin)Madison, !""'8 !(')!*". &7 .er parents were at the $attle of the Grand Coteau in &A(& and she was likely with them.

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men in all=. .e and 4hitecap were mem,ers of 0iel%s ?@ovedate <Provisional Government=. Among this group were three of his sons and two of his nephews. 1t is said that 4hitecap and forty of his men had 6oined the 0esistance under duress. .owever, /or,ert 4elsh contradicts this account.

Charles 2rottier Sr. Trottier, Charles Jr. <,. &A*(= Charles was ,orn at St. +ranRois Mavier on April !3, &A*(, the son of Boseph 2rottier and 2herese -allJe dit ;aplante. Charles was the nephew of Charles Sr. noted a,ove. .e was a mem,er of Captain Philippe GariJpy%s company, one of the &' di;aines led ,y Ga,riel Dumont during the &AA( Metis 0esistance. .e was active in the fighting at Duck ;ake, 2ourond%s Coulee and $atoche. ;ater, he lived at ;oon ;ake. En Bune &!, &AA7, at Duck ;ake, Charles married Madeleine Ekimassis, the daughter of Mavier Ekemassis <Metis= and Marie 2herese Gladu <Metis=. Ekimassis was a 4illow Cree Chief in the Duck ;ake area. Charles and his wife lived on the $eardy 0eserve near Duck ;ake and were ,oth on the 2reaty Pay list of that ,and.&A Trottier, Clarence <,. &'!(= Clarence 2rottier was president of Metis ;ocal && <Saskatoon= of the Saskatchewan Metis Society. Clarence was the son of Bustine ;andry and Peter 2rottier. .is mother Bustine, was the daughter of Moise ;andry and Philomene ;afram,oise. Peter was the son of Ale@andre 2rottier and Catherine ;afram,oise. Peter%s grandparents were Michel 2rottier and AngeliHue Des6arlais. Cheryl 2roupe reports8 +or the Saskatoon MJtis, it was not until the &'*"s when they once again ,ecame politically active under the leadership of Clarence 2rotchie, a great nephew of Charles 2rottier and rsule ;afram,oise. 1nterestingly, in the early si@ties, there was an effort ,y Clarence% father, Peter 2rotchie, to document those that were ,uried at 0ound Prairie in recognition of the connection ,etween the 0ound Prairie
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David ;ee. 92he Metis Militant 0e,els of &AA(.: Canadian ?thni- St$dies, MM1, #, &'A'8 &&.

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MJtis community and the growing Saskatoon ur,an MJtis community. According to 0ita Schilling, 2rotchie was only&* in &'"* when he had dug the grave for his great aunt, rsule ;afram,oise, Charles% wife. Charles had earlier donated the land for the cemetery.&' 2he Saskatoon MJtis community ,egan to reorganiGe itself as a Saskatchewan MJtis Society local, under the leadership of Clarence 2rotchie, in late &'*A)*'. $y this time, 2rotchie and other community mem,ers were already involved in the new Saskatoon 1ndian and MJtis +riendship Centre that had opened in &'*7. 4hen organiGing ;ocal &&, the community once again relied on past traditions of having male leadership that was supported ,y the women in the community. 1n his efforts to organiGe the community, 2rotchie sought the assistance of women in the community to encourage active community participation in social events and political meetings. Ever time, 2rotchie came to rely on the efforts of the women in his family in cluding his sister 1rene Dimick as well as his half sisters, Cay MaGer, Marge ;afram,oise, Dorothy Askwith, and $ertha Euellette. .e also sought the help of his wife Phyllis, his niece /ora Cummings <then /ora 2hi,odeau=, and other MJtis women who worked tirelessly alongside 2rotchie and other male leaders to help organiGe MJtis ;ocal &&. !" ?arly in the &'*"%s, Pete 2rottier, great nephew of Charles 2rottier, ,egan a movement among his people to remem,er his relatives ,uried at 0ound Prairie. 2he memory of the cemetery was sketched in his mind, for he had ,een the one to dig the first grave in &'"*, at the age of &* years, for his great aunt, Charles 2rottier%s wife, rsula <;afram,oise= 2rottier. .is great uncle Charles had donated the land from his holdings. 2hen in the &'7"%s, Clarence 2rotchie, Pete 2rottier%s son, and President of MJtis Society, ;ocal &&, picked up where his father left off, and in &'7# 0ound Prairie Cemetery was restored as a historic site unearthing at least part of the story of 0ound Prairie. 2he cemetery was fenced, crosses were ,uilt and a memorial cairn and plaHue were dedicated. 1n interview Clarence recalls8 My mother grew up in .elena, Montana, where they lived along a ,ig river and there was lots of game and they always had lots of food and lots of good fresh water. 2hey talked a,out all the Metis that lived in the Montana area there as far as, .avre, Great +alls, and all these places where we originated from. Bust after the 4ar years, when 1 came ,ack from overseas 1 didn5t even know where 1 lived. 4e had no address. My mother and 1 were living in a little shack on the road allowance this side of Saskatoon here. My ,rother Ale@ was in a little
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Cheryl Troupe' M,tis -omen. $ocial $tructure' /r&ani0ation an( Political 1cti2ism' *)! "*+) . $as3atoon. /ni2ersity of $as3atche%an M.1. Thesis' 2 +. ***"**2. !" Cheryl 2roupe p. &&3.

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shack on the road allowance, my ,rother 1rvin )) he come ,ack the year ,efore me )) and he was living in a shack. And 1 think a lot of the Metis people in Saskatoon, here, they were all living in little shacks 6ust south of Saskatoon on the road allowances. 0eference8 http8FFwww.metismuseum.caFmediaFdocument.phpF"&"!#.pdf Caren ;ouise 2rottier interview with Clarence 2rottier, +e,ruary !!, &'A3. Cheryl 2roupe, 9MJtis 4omen8 Social Structure, r,aniGation and Political Activism, &A(")&'A". Saskatoon8 niversity of Saskatchewan M.A. 2hesis, !""'. Trotchie, Clarice Rose. <,. &'3!= $y Backie 2rochie <2rottier= Clarice 0ose 2rotchie was ,orn in +ort $elknap, Montana on Bune *th, &'3! to George 2rotchie <2rottier= and Mary ;ouise $riere <$ruyere=. As a girl, she was told she had ,een named after her Aunt Clara /aples therefore she assumed her name was Clara. She never did use her ,irth name ,ut instead went ,y the namesD Clara and .aha, a nickname her ,rother Boseph aka Chic gave her since he couldn%t pronounce her name. 2he family of 2rotchie%s, moved to .elena in the &'("s where she attended St. Mary5s ?lementary and in &'*!, she graduated from .elena Senior .igh. She immediately went to work for $lue Cross $lue Shield ,ut decided she could earn more money working with the family out in the hay fields in 2ownsend, Montana ,ucking ,ales onto stone ,oats. Clara put several of the male employees to shame ,ecause she could throw a *()7" pound ,ale seven feet high. At !#, Clara married -aughn Anderson a farmer from Shelley, 1daho where she worked all winter running a snow plow to raise enough money to take her sister to .awaii ,ut the night ,efore they were to leave, her hus,and used her savings to ,uy a semi)truck to haul hay to Montana until each of them filed for a homestead of &*" acres. 2hey later sold land and moved to work in 4ashington and Alaska ,ut when a flood wiped out the small town of 0ig,y in 1daho the two moved ,ack and ,uilt a home in 0o,erts, 1daho. $eing a farmer, -aughn ,ought some calves and started working for other farmers while Clara started a ,usiness called Arrowhead Construction <her daughter owns ?agle +eather Construction=. Soon she had developed a multi)million dollar operation and her hus,and Huickly 6oined her in doing the la,or while she did the ,ids and office work. $oth were eHuipment operators and they raised her daughter and son on the eHuipment too and now that she is retired, the children have their own ,usinesses.

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Trottier dit Trotchie, )eorge *d+ard. <,. &'"(= $y Backie 2rotchie <2rottier= Georges father was Andre 2rottier dit 2rotchie <,. &A7#=, the son of Charles 2rottier

2 !

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<,. &A#'= and rsule ;afram,oise. Charles was the son of Andre 2rottier <,. &7A3= !& and Marguerite PaHuette. Georges mother was Susan Pauline 4allace. Susan was ,orn at Duck ;ake in &A7', the daughter of +rank 4allace and Madeleine Savoy. Georges grandfather, Charles 2rottier and his ,rothers Antoine <,. &A#3= and Andre <,. &A&*=, all signed the &A7A petition of the Metis hunting ,and at Cypress .ills which reHuested a Metis reserve. Charles 2rottier, his ,rother Michel and his sons, 1sidore <,. &A*#= and Bean $aptiste <,. &A*3= were all 0esistance fighters in the &AA( /orthwest Metis 0esistance. George married Mary ;ouise $riere, the daughter of Gregoire $ruyere <,. &A*!= !! and Marie Alphonsine Allary!#, the daughter of Andre Allary and Bosephte McGillis, on April &", &'&& at 4hitewater, Montana. Marie ;ouise $ruyere%s grandfather Bean $aptiste $ryuere <,. &A33= and ,rothers ;ouison <,. &A3!=, Beremie <,. &A(3=, and Cleophas <,. &A(*= all signed the &A7A petition of the Metis hunting ,and at Cypress .ills which reHuested a re)opening of the ,ison hunt ,etween /ovem,er &3th and +e,ruary &(th each year and the granting of a Metis 9reserve.: 2hey reHuested a &(")mile strip of land along the American ,order ,eginning where the Pem,ina 0iver crosses the ,order in Manito,a and thence west. 2his strip was to ,e fifty miles wide from north to south. Somewhere ,etween .avre, Montana, Maple Creek, or 0ound Prairie, Saskatchewan and around Dec. !, &'"( George 2rottier aka 2rotchie was ,orn to Andrew 2rottier and Susie Pauline 4allace. /o one knew for certain what side of the ,order they were on nor which prairie and that5s how George ended up with two ,irth certificates8 one in the S and one in Canada. /either does anyone know how 2rottier was changed to 2rotchie, however, George ,elieved the post master changed it in the S census for Choteau County, his grandfather Charles 2rottier of the 0iel 0esistance is listed as 92rouchia: suggesting the census takers couldn5t pronounce or spell +rench names. After returning to Montana, Andrew and George moved into the old homestead 6ust north of +ort $enton where George went to school. .e often said he had to walk five miles to get there and he was right. .e completed the third grade ,efore moving on to Chinook, Montana, where years later he met his future father)in)law Gregoire $ruyere aka Gregory $riere who taught him to herd, shear and tag sheep which he ,ecame proficient at despite a crippled hand and shear the siGe of an electric raGor. George ended up marrying Gregory5s daughter Mary ;ouise in &'!' at the urging of her mother Mary Alphonsine Allery who ,elieved George would always ,e a good provider
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Andre 2rottier <,. &7A3= and his ,rother Boseph <,. &7'"= were ,oth active with Cuth,ert Grant in the $attle of Seven Eaks. .is son, also Andre 2rottier <,. &A&*=, was active in the $attle of the Grand Coteau on Buly &! to &(, &A(&. !! Gregoire was the son of Bean $aptiste $ruyere <,.&A33= and Marie Allary the daughter of Michel Allary and Marie PaHuin. Bean was the son of Bean $aptiste $ruyere Sr. <,. &A&&= and AngeliHue Guil,ault. 24 5er first mate %as John 6aMere %ho %as the one that taught my (a( to shear' tag' etc. 1n( later she marrie( my gran(father %ho %as Gregoire Bruyere.

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and he was. 2heir honeymoon home was an old sheep wagon ,ut later the couple moved to Chinook where all ,ut one of their nine children were ,orn. 4hen the eldest ,oy Al,ert passed the family moved to .elena where they remained until their children were grown.

Sheepshearers taking a ,reakD north of ;ohman, Montana, &'!A8 ;)0 Sitting in the far ,ack is Artie Morris <sheep man=. Standing8 Boe ?mily, Boe ;aMere, ?d ;aMere, Bohn ;aMere, ;ouis Parsion and his two sons. Seated8 Martin +isher, $ill Saddler and George 2rotchie <Captain=. Custom Contractor George was a custom contractor who was always 9rustling: up work for his family and crew. Men like Boe $riere, Ale@ Allery, Bohnny Caplette, and ;ouie 2rotchie were his core crew who worked on most of the 6o,s George found picking spuds, shearing, tagging and trapping ,ut in the summer, his family put up the hay until they grew up and moved on. All of George5s core crew passed away ,efore him ,ut he was remem,ered ,y their families ,ecause of his generosity. George was known to gather up all the 9culls: in the spud fields, hunt, fish and ,uy veggies from the .utterites then load his pick)up and say to his wife8 9Gotta go feed the elders.: Trottier, 7sidore. <,. &A*#= 1sidore was the son of Charles 2rottier and rsule ;afram,oise. 1sidore was active with his father and ,rothers during the $atoche 0esistance. .e fought at ,oth +ish Creek and $atoche. After the defeat he fled south to Montana. Trottier, Jean 2a!tiste. <,. &A*3= Bean $aptiste was the son of Charles 2rottier and rsule ;afram,oise. .e was active with his father and ,rothers during the $atoche 0esistance. After the defeat he fled south to Montana. Trottier, Jean John,, 'ar.bish.tee.g+an ()re, 1air . <,. &A*#= Bohny was ,orn on Banuary &(, &A*# at St. +rancois Mavier, the son of Antoine 2rottier and AngeliHue ;afram,oise. .e fought at +ish Creek and $atoche along side his 3A

uncle Charles 2rottier Sr. and cousins 1sidore and 0emi 2rottier. After the defeat he fled south to Montana. Trottier, Jose!h Sr.6 <,. &7'"= Boseph 2rottier was wounded with a ,roken leg during the $attle of Seven Eaks. .is ,rother AndrJ reported to Ale@andre Greenfield Macdonell that he was going from the forks to get his parents from the Souris 0iver to come and care for his ,rother. !3 Boseph was ,orn circa &7'", the son of AndrJ 2rottier and ;ouise <Chippewa=D his ,rother AndrJ <a,ove= was also in the ,attle. .e married Marie <Saulteau@= ,efore &A!3 ,y custom marriage and they were formally married on Bune &3, &A3& at St. +rancois Mavier. 2he family was enumerated in the &A(" Pem,ina Census as +amily L !". 2hey list Boseph as age *", a hunter, Marie also age *", $aptiste age !*, a hunter, Marguerite age !!, and Catherine age !". Boseph died in Banuary of &A(! and was ,uried at Pem,ina 2he son of Andre 2rottier and Marguerite St. Denis dit PaHuette was Andre Br. .e fought at the $attle of the Grand Coteau in &A(& as did his wife 1sa,elle +alcon <her ,rother Bean $aptiste +alcon was the leader of the Metis hunting group. Trottier, Jose!h. <&A!A)&AA(= Boseph was ,orn at St. +ranRois Mavier, the son of Boseph Sr. and 2herese -allee. 1n &A7', he married Bulie ;a Grosse <Grossiterre= at Duck ;ake. 1n &A7A, Boseph and other Metis ,uffalo hunters at Cypress .ills wrote a petition asking for a special Metis reserve of land. Boseph was on the 2reaty Pay list of $eardy%s 0eserve in &AA3. !( Boseph fought and died in the &AA( 0esistance at $atoche. .e was a mem,er of Captain Daniel GariJpy%s company, one of the &' di;aines led ,y Ga,riel Dumont during the &AA( Metis 0esistance. Trottier, Jose!h Jr. or (ssi,i+in. <d. &AA(= Assiyiwin <Ah)si)we)in= was a .eadman for $eardy%s $and and was partially ,lind. .e was also called Boseph 2rottier after his Godfather <listed a,ove ,orn &A!A= who was a mem,er of the same ,and and married to Bulie ;a Grosse. .is adoptive parents were Charles and rsula 2rottier of Prairie 0onde. Boseph was Charles% older ,rother. Assiyiwin was returning from the Duck ;ake store when Boe McCay, a Metis Scout for CroGier%s troops, confronted him. McCay shot Aseeweyin when he refused to turn ,ack. McCay then killed 1sidore Dumont, Ga,riel%s older ,rother. <See 0ita Schilling, Aabriels Children, p. 3A.= Trotchie. 0ar, (2ru,ere . <&'&&)&'A!=8 $y Backie 2rotchie <2rottier= Metis fiddler Mary $ruyere <$riere= was ,orn at 4hitewater, Montana, the daughter of Gregoire $ruyere and Alphonsine Mary Allary. .er father was ,orn in &A7! at St. +rancois Mavier and her mother Alphonsine, the daughter of Andre Allary and Bosephte McGillis dit .amelin, was ,orn in Bune &A77 at 4ild .orse ;ake. Mary married George
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Macdonell, Ale@ander Greenfield, 9A narrative of transactions in the 0ed 0iver country8 +rom the commencement of the operations of the ?arl of Selkirk, till the summer of the year &A&*.: ;ondon8 $. McMillan, &A!"8 7A. !( 0G &", Annuity Paylists, &AA#)&AA7, 2reaties 3, * and 7. Boseph Sr. is $and Mem,er L (& and Boseph 2rottier Br. is shown as $and Mem,er L (& on the &AA3 paylst.

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?dward 2rotchie the son of Andre 2rottier and Susie 4allaceD he was a descendant of Charles 2rottier who led the Metis fighters from Prairie 0onde in the &AA( Metis 0esistance at $atoche. .e was also a descendant of rsule ;afrom,oise 2rottier whose ,iography appears ,elow. Mary showed an interest in fiddling from a young age and was taught ,y her father and uncles, Alec and Sam Allery. She also listened to Canadian Metis fiddlers, Andy Des6arlis and /ed ;andry on the radio. She toured as a performer with the Cecil /ichols% .awaiian Show where she was featured as a dancer and as the 9 kulele Iueen.: Mary ,egan playing the fiddle at the age of four. $ecause her hands were too small to get around the neck of the fiddle she taped small sticks on the end of each finger and thus she could play. Mary ,egan competing in fiddle contests in the &'("s and took many honours over the ne@t thirty years, such as the /orthwest 0egional +iddle Championship in &'*' <first place, 4omen%s Division=, the /ational +iddle Contest in &'*' <first place, 4omen%s Division=. 4ith this later win she was elected to the +iddler%s .all of +ame in 4eiser, 1daho. Trottier, 0ichel. <&A#!)&AA(= Michel was the son of AndrJ 2rottier and Marguerite St. Denis dit PaHuette. Michel married Marie AngJliHue Des6arlais. .e then married Marguerite ;andry in &A7*. 1n &A7A, Michel and other Metis ,uffalo hunters at Cypress .ills wrote a petition asking for a special Metis reserve of land. 2his family had two children ,orn at Crooked ;ake and his wife was on the 2reaty Pay list at the Duck ;ake Agency. .e fought and died on May &!, &AA( in the last ,attle of the &AA( 0esistance at $atoche. Trottier, ?orbert. <,. &A*&= /or,ert 2rottier was ,orn on March *, &A*& at .um,oldt, the son of Antoine 2rottier and AngeliHue ;afram,oise. .e married ?liGa +isher, the daughter of Bohn +isher and ?liGa,eth $ra,ant. ?liGa +isher was ,orn in &A(A near +ort Iu%Appelle. She was first married to Bean $aptiste Desmarais on May !(, &A7( at ;e,retD they had four children. She then married /or,ert 2rottier on August !*, &AA( at ;e,ret. 2heir daughter -irginie 2rottier was ,orn August 3, &AA* at ;e,ret. Daughter 0osalie 2rottier was ,orn on Ecto,er &&, &AA'. 1n &A7A /or,ert 2rottier signed the petition of the Metis hunting ,and at Cypress .ills which reHuested a re)opening of the ,ison hunt ,etween /ovem,er &3 th and +e,ruary &(th each year and the granting of a Metis 9reserve.: 2hey reHuested a &(")mile strip of land along the American ,order ,eginning where the Pem,ina 0iver crosses the ,order in Manito,a and thence west. 2his strip was to ,e fifty miles wide from north to south.

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/or,ert 2rottier and his wife ?lise <?liGa= +isher <seated=. 2heir daughter 0osalie and son in law, Andre 2rottier are on the right. 2he grandchildren pictured are David and ?dwardD ;ucy and Annie. Photo courtesy of Mark Calette Scrip Applications8 0G&( , 1nterior , Series D)11)A), , -olume &##! , 0eel C)&3'3! , Access code8 '" Trottier, ?orbert ) Concerning his claim as a child ) Address, 1ndian .ead ) $orn, * March, &A*" at .um,oldt ) +ather, Antoine 2rottier, <MJtis= ) Mother, AngeliHue ;afram,oise, <MJtis= ) Claim &!A. 0G&( , 1nterior , Series D)11)A), , -olume &#!7 , 0eel C)&3'#A , Access code8 '" 3isher, *li:a ) Concerning her claim as a child ) Address, 1ndian .ead ) $orn, &A(A near +ort Iu5Appelle ) +ather, Bohn +isher, <MJtis= ) Mother, $etsy $ra,ant, <MJtis= ) Married, after &A7" to $aptiste Desmarais, <deceased= ) Children living, four <names on declaration= ) Claim A( Trottier, Re&i. <,. &A*&= 0emi was the son of Charles 2rottier and rsule ;afram,oise. 0emi was active with his father and ,rothers during the $atoche 0esistance. .e fought at ,oth +ish Creek and $atoche. After the defeat he fled south to Montana. 1n &A'!, at Maple Creek he married Marie Magdeleine ;afram,oise. Trottier, @rsule La5ra&boise. <,. &A3!=. rsule was ,orn at .avre, Montana the daughter of Bean $aptiste ;afram,oise and SuGanne $eaudry dit Gaudry. She married Charles 2rottier, the son of Andre 2rottier and

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Marguerite St. Denis, on August !&, &A*" at St. +rancois Mavier. .er hus,and was a mem,er of 0iel%s ?@ovedate. rsula%s ,rother, Augustin was living on the Muskeg ;ake 0eserve and was a Captain of one of the &' companies led ,y Ga,riel Dumont during the &AA( Metis 0esistance. .is son ?douard also served in his Company. .e was involved in the &AA( 0esistance at Duck ;ake with Dumont and was killed there ,y CroGier%s troops on March !*, &AA(. 1n &A7A, Charles 2rottier, Augustin ;afram,oise and other Metis ,uffalo hunters at Cypress .ills wrote a petition asking for a special Metis reserve of land. 2hey reHuested a re)opening of the ,uffalo hunt ,etween /ovem,er &3th and +e,ruary &(th each year and the granting of Metis 9reserve: landTA strip of land &(" miles long along the American ,order ,eginning where the Pem,ina 0iver crosses the ,order. 2his strip was to ,e fifty miles from south to north. 2his family escaped to Montana after &AA(. 2hey lived with the group that was sustaining themselves ,y cutting wood for +ort Shaw. 2hey were accompanied ,y their sons, 0emi, 1sidore and Bean $aptiste. Trou!e, Cher,l. <,. &'7!= Cheryl 2roupe completed a $.A. <.onours= degree in /ative Studies in !""& at the niversity of Saskatchewan, where she received the Arts and Science Convocation Award for the Most Distinguished Graduate of /ative Studies for !""&. pon completing her studies, she ,egan work with Ga,riel Dumont 1nstitute5s Pu,lishing Department where she worked as a writer and researcher on various community),ased curriculum and research pro6ects. 1n !""#, one of her works, Expressing Our Heritage: Metis Artistic Designs won two Saskatchewan $ook Awards in the +irst Peoples ?ducation and +irst Peoples Pu,lishing categories. Cheryl was a contri,utor to the ,ook etis 0ega-#, 3ol$me Two: i-hif C$lt$re, Heritage and &ol*wa#s, ,y ;. B. $arkwell, ;.M. Dorion and A. .ourie <?ds.= <Saskatoon, Ga,riel Dumont 1nstitute, 4innipeg8 Pemmican Pu,lications, !""7=. 2his ,ook was short)listed for the argaret -Williams Award for writing in history. .er chapter on 9Metis Decorative Arts: adds to the work she pu,lished in Expressing Our Heritage. She continues to work within the Metis community on various community development pro6ects, most recently with the 0egina Iu5Appelle .ealth 0egion and the 1nstitut +ranRais. She has completed an M.A. in /ative Studies at the nivesity of Saskatchewan where she e@amined the ur,aniGation of the Metis community in Saskatoon and the development of Metis social and political institutions ,y grassroots Metis leaders. +or this, she received the .oward and Marge Adams Award <!""# and !""3=, 2he /ational A,original .ealth ErganiGation Metis +ellowship <!""3= and a Social Sciences and .umanitites 0esearch Council Masters Scholarship <!""(=. .er thesis completed in !""' was entitled 9Metis 4omen8 Social Structure, r,aniGation and Political Activism, &A(")&'A".: Turcotte, ?oel. /oel was a mem,er of Captain Antoine ;afontaine%s company, one of the &' di;aines led ,y Ga,riel Dumont during the &AA( Metis 0esistance.

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Turcotte, ?orbert. <,. &A((= /or,ert was the son of vital 2urcotte and Madeleine Caplette. .e married Bosephte ;epine. /or,ert was a mem,er of Captain Cor,et +lamant%s company, one of the &' di;aines led ,y Ga,riel Dumont during the &AA( Metis 0esistance. Turner (Tanner , Jean 2a!tiste. <,. &A(#= Bean Apitchito 2anner was ,orn on August !", &A(#, the son of 2homas DeCor,y 2anner and Marie /eshotokoway /eukatek ;edou@ of the Iu%Appelle -alley. .e signed a petition for a Metis reserve in Montana, sent ,y ;ouis 0iel to General /elson A. Miles, August *, &AA". Bean 2urner <Pee)chee)too= was married to -ictoire $oyer <MJtis=, they also lived in the Iu%Appelle -alley. -ictoria $oyer, ,orn August !, &A(3 at St. +rancois Mavior was the daughter of ;ouis $oyer and Madeleine 2rottier. She died south of 4ood Mountain in &AA&. -ictoria%s ,rother David $oyer is also listed here as one of the petitioners. T+att, 0ansack. <,. ca. &7A(= Mansack 2watt was the son of a Metis Cree woman and Magnus 2watt <,. &7(&=, an Erkneyman in the employ of the .$C. 1n &77&, Magnus had ,een taken on as a la,ourer for the .$C and was stationed at Pork +actory. 1n &7A# he was transferred to Severn 0iver ,ut returned to Pork factory the following year. $y &7A(, he was an inland canoeman and at Cum,erland .ouse ,y &7'&. $y &7'*, he was placed in charge of Cum,erland .ouse Post after Peter +idler left. Peter died on Ecto,er !#, &A"& while enroute to the Carrot 0iver area. .is wife apparently remarried into a local Cree ,and within a year of his death. $y &A&', Magnus 2watt%s sons Mansack and 4illock appear in the Cum,erland .ouse Bournals as part of a .alf)$reed hunting ,and headed ,y Mansack. 2his ,and would range from the Sturgeon 0iver area down to the ;ower Saskatchewan 0iver. .owever, they eventually took up semi)permanent residence in the /ipawin area. 0ight up to &A3" Mansack appears in 6ournal entries as 9Chief from the /ipawins.: Mansack and 4illock were ,oth highly respected ,y the traders at Cum,erland .ouse and were usually given preferential treatment in trading and in the advances they were allowed on account. 2homas 1s,ister noted that the 2watts were regarded as the ,est trappers trading at Cum,erland .ouse. .eferen-e 2histle, Paul C. 92he 2watt +amily, &7A")&A3"8 Amerindian, ?thnic Category, or ?thnic Group 1dentity.: Prairie &or$m, -ol. !!, /o. !, &''78 &'#)!&!. T+att, 'illock. <,. ca. &7A*= See the entry a,ove on 4illock%s older ,rother, Mansack.

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