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Aeroelastic Analysis of a Reference Aircraft Wing for Investigation of Structural Stability using ANSYS

Student: Muhammad Amir Pak No. 71008

Advisor : S/L Nadeem Co-Advisor : S/L Kashif

SCOPE

A Reference Aircraft Wing shall be Investigated for its Structural Stability by Performing FluidStructure Interaction Studies, using ANSYS as Computational Platform.
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MILESTONES
Two-Way FSI in ANSYS Workbench
Static Aeroelastic Analysis to Compute Divergence Speed

Validation of Divergence Speed and Flutter Boundary

Dynamic Aeroelastic Analysis and Calculating Flutter Boundary


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METHODOLOGY
Literature Review and Software Learning Demonstration of Two-way FSI Material Properties and Flow Characteristics Discretization of Structural and Aerodynamic domains Static Aeroelastic Analysis
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METHODOLOGY
Dynamic Aeroelastic Analysis
Results and Discussion on Stability Parameters

Conclusion

Recommendations
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Aeroelasticity and ANSYS 13

Aeroelasticity
A Coupled Field
No flexibility, No Aeroelasticity Max Wingtip Displacement of Boeing 747=24 ft

Serious Threat to Flight Safety

Aeroelasticity
Static Aeroelastic Phenomena
Wing Divergence Control Reversal

Dynamic Aeroelastic phenomena


Flutter Limit Cycle Oscillation Gust Response

Flutter
Highly Non-linear Phenomena Experimental Tests are Destructive Analytical Results not Possible

Best Option is Finite Element Method


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ANSYS 13

ANSYS 13 Capabilities....

Flow Analysis: CFX/Fluent

Meshing: ICEM CFD

Two Way FSI: Multi-field Solver

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ANSYS 13

One Way FSI

Two Way FSI

ANSYS MECHANICALFLUENT/CFX

ANSYS MECHANICALCFX

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TWO WAY FSI

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DEMONSTRATION OF TWO WAY FSI


Model: 2D Plate Material: Structural Steel Element Type: Solid 186 Initial Disturbance and Left Free

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COUPLING
Transient Structural and CFX

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Tip Displacement

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TWO-WAY FSI
1st Time-step

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Results
Damping Motion Shows Transfer of Loads between Fields

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STATIC AEROELASTIC ANALYSIS

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STATIC AEROELASTIC ANALYSIS


Model Selection : NASA Wind-Tunnel Experiments on Divergence of Forward Swept Wing(Aug 1980)

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Model Specification
MODEL 1 SWEEP TAPER AR TRANSITION STRIP MODEL MOUNT -30 1 4 MODEL 2 -15 1 4

NO.46 CARBORANDUM NO 46 CARBORANDUM GRIT GRIT CANTILEVER CANTILEVER

AOA

.1

.1

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Experimental Results
MODEL 1(-30 Sweep) MODEL 2(-15 Sweep)

DIVERGENCE SPEED(m/s)

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73.41

Ref: Wind-Tunnel Experiments on Divergence of Forward-Swept Wings, NASA Technical Paper 1685

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MODEL 1 = -30

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MODEL 1: -30
Model Transition Strip is not Modelled

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Monitor Point

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Divergence Speed(-30 Sweep)

V= 48 m/s

V= 45 m/s

Divergence Speed 46.5 m/s


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DEFORMATION
Velocity = 48 m/s

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MODEL 2 = -15

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Wingtip Displacement
Velocity = 75 m/s

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Wingtip Displacement
Velocity = 80 m/s

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Divergence Speed(-15 Sweep)

V= 80 m/s

V= 78 m/s

Divergence Speed 79 m/s


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RESULTS
Divergence Speed
ANSYS (m/s) MODEL 1 46.5 EXPERIMENTAL (m/s) 51 Error

8.8%

MODEL 2

79

73

8.2%

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RESULTS
Divergence Dynamic Pressure

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CONCLUSION
Divergence Results are in Good Agreement with the Experimental Results Difference in Results is due to Simplified Model

Divergence Speed Increase as Wing Sweep Back Increases


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DYNAMIC AEROELATIC STUDY

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Methodology
Model Selection = AGARD 445.6
Flutter Boundary Calculation of AGARD wing

Geometric Modelling

Mode Shape and Modal Frequency Matching

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AGARD 445.6 WING


Holes are Drilled to Reduce Stiffness Number of Holes are Unknown Modelling Holes Creates Extra Surfaces that Increase Processing Time

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Problems
Structural Properties are not Well Defined Modal Matching Requires an Iterative Process Dynamic Pressure Matching Requires Iterative Process
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Model

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Mesh

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Modal Frequency Matching


Density is Tuned to 390 kg/m3 to Match Modes
Mode 1 2 3 4 ANSYS 9.61 40.098 50.4 96.63 EXPERIMENTAL 9.6 38.10 50.7 98.5 ERROR .1% 5.2% .5% 1.8%

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Mode Shapes

Mode 1

Mode 2

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Mode Shapes

Mode 3

Mode 4

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Flutter Analysis

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Flutter Analysis
General Solution Methods
Time Domain Method Frequency Domain Method

Flutter Solution is Mostly Found using Frequency Domain Method


Simple Technique, Quick Solution

ANSYS uses Time-Domain Method


Average Time per Run 72 hour
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Flutter Analysis

Setting Desired Mach Number

Varying Dynamic Pressure

Checking Time History of Motion

FFT of TimeHistory of Motion

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Flutter Analysis
Flutter Analysis is Performed at only one Mach# due to Unbearably Large Solution Time Solution Time for one Flutter Test is >72Hr

Dynamic Pressure is Changed at Constant Mach Number till Flutter is Achieved


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Result
Mach = .9 Dynamic Pressure = 4520 Pa

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Flutter Boundary at Mach=.9 (Flutter Dynamic Pressure)


ANSYS Experimental

4520 Pa

4500 Pa

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Flutter Frequency
Error in Tip-Displacement Plot due to Data Corruption

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Flutter Frequency
Neglecting the First Jump,
Computed Experimental %age Error 17 Flutter Frequency(Hz) 20.35 16%

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Flutter in ANSYS Workbench


The First time, Flutter is Performed in ANSYS WB. Flutter Frequency Can be Improved by making the Mesh more Fine
Adds Solution Time

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Additional Work

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Two-way FSI (APDL + FLOTRAN)


Two-way FSI

Physics File-Based Procedure

Multi-field Solver(ANSYS Workbench)

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Two-way FSI (APDL + Flotran)


Multi-field Solver(ANSYS Workbench)
Allows FSI of only 3D Geometry Element Selection is not Allowed

Physics File-Based Procedure(APDL+Flotran)


Requires Node to Node Matching Mesh of Structural and Fluid part Problematic in 3D

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Two-way FSI (APDL + Flotran)


Methodology
Modelling Geometry
Element Selection Defining Morphing Region Flow Solution Reading Pressure into a File

Applying Pressure Loads on Structure


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Two-way FSI (APDL + Flotran)


Methodology
Send Deformation to Fluid Physics Morph The Mesh

Solve Fluid Physics


Read Pressure Loads Apply Pressure on Structure
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Geometry

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Results
Tip Motion

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Results
Streamlines

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Results
Von-Mises Stress

1st Time-Step
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Results
Von-Mises Stress

Last Time-Step
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Conclusion
Significant Changes in Deformation is Considered Stress if

Accurate Prediction of Lift if Deformation is Considered All the Milestones Successfully Achieved Extra Task of Doing Two-way FSI in APDL achieved
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References
Wind-Tunnel Experiments on Divergence of Forward-Swept Wings, NASA Technical Paper 1685 AGARD Standard Aeroelastic Configurations for Dynamic Response. Candidate Configuration I.-Wing 445.6, NASA TM-100492 Time and Frequency Domain Flutter Solutions for The AGARD 445.6 Wing by Ryan J. Beaubien, Fred Nitzsche, and Daniel Feszty Static Aeroelastic Analysis of the Arw-2 Wing Including Correlation with Experiment By Joseph P. Hepp (Department of Mechanical Engineering and Material Science Duke University) AGARD Report 765, Dynamic Aeroelastic Analysis of AGARD 445.6 Wing

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Thank You

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Questions

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