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Le Corbusier Charles-douard Jeanneret, better known as Le Corbusier (French: [l kbyzje]; October 6, 1887 August 27, 1965), was an architect,

, designer,urbanist, and writer, famous for being one of the pioneers of what is now called modern architecture. He was born in Switzerland and became a Frenchcitizen in 1930. His career spanned five decades, with his buildings constructed throughout Europe, India and America. He was a pioneer in studies of modern high design and was dedicated to providing better living conditions for the residents of crowded cities. Le Corbusier adopted his pseudonym in the 1920s, allegedly deriving it in part from the name of a distant ancestor, "Lecorbsier." He was awarded the Frank P. Brown Medal and AIA Gold Medal in 1961.


"You employ stone, wood, and concrete, and with these materials you build houses and palaces: that is construction. Ingenuity is at work. But suddenly you touch my heart, you do me good. I am happy and I say: 'This is beautiful.' That is Architecture. Art enters in..." (Vers une architecture, 1923) "Architecture is the masterly, correct, and magnificent play of masses brought together in light." "Space and light and order. Those are the things that men need just as much as they need bread or a place to sleep." "The house is a machine for living in." (Vers une architecture, 1923) "It is a question of building which is at the root of the social unrest of today: architecture or revolution." (Vers une architecture, 1923) "Modern life demands, and is waiting for, a new kind of plan, both for the house and the city." (Vers une architecture, 1923) "The 'Styles' are a lie." (Vers une architecture, 1923) "Architecture or revolution. Revolution can be avoided." (Vers une architecture, 1923)

Frank Lloyd Wright Frank Lloyd Wright (born Frank Lincoln Wright, June 8, 1867 April 9, 1959) was an American architect, interior designer, writer and educator, who designed more than 1,000 structures and completed 500 works. Wright believed in designing structures which were in harmony with humanity and its environment, a philosophy he called organic architecture. This philosophy was best exemplified by his [1] design for Fallingwater (1935), which has been called "the best all-time work of American architecture". Wright was a leader of the Prairie School movement of architecture and developed the concept of the Usonian home, his unique vision for urban planning in the United States. His work includes original and innovative examples of many different building types, including offices, churches, schools, skyscrapers, hotels, and museums. Wright also designed many of the interior elements of his buildings, such as the furniture and stained glass. Wright authored 20 books and many articles and was a popular lecturer in the United States and in Europe. His colorful personal life often made headlines, most notably for the 1914 fire and murders at his Taliesin studio. Already well known during his lifetime, Wright [1] was recognized in 1991 by the American Institute of Architectsas "the greatest American architect of all time."

Taliesin West Taliesin West was architect Frank Lloyd Wright's winter home and school in the desert from 1937 until his death in 1959 at the age of [3] 91. Today it is the main campus of the Frank Lloyd Wright School of Architecture and houses the Frank Lloyd Wright Foundation. Open to the public for tours, Taliesin West is located on Frank Lloyd Wright Boulevard in Scottsdale, Arizona, USA. The complex drew its name from Wright's summer home, Taliesin, in Spring Green, Wisconsin. History Wright and the Taliesin Fellowship began to "trek" to Arizona each winter in 1933. In 1937 Wright purchased the plot of desert land that would soon become Taliesin West. He paid $3.50 an acre on a southern slope of the McDowell Range overlooking Paradise [4] Valley outside Scottsdale. Wright believed this to be the perfect spot for such a building, a place of residence, a place of business and a place to learn. Wright described it like this, Finally I learned of a site twenty-six miles from Phoenix, across the desert of the vast Paradise Valley. On up to a [5] great mesa in the mountains. On the mesa just below McDowell Peak we stopped, turned, and looked around. The top of the world. Being in the desert water could scarcely be found. This resulted in an investment of over $10,000 to dig a well deep enough to provide sufficient water for the campus. Design

Wright felt very strongly about the connection to the desert. He said: Arizona needs its own architecture Arizonas long, low, sweeping lines, uptilting planes. Surface patterned after such abstraction in line and color as find realism in the patterns of the rattlesnake, the Gila monster, thechameleon, and the saguaro, cholla or staghorn or is it the other way aroundare inspiration enough. The structure's walls are made of local desert rocks, stacked within wood forms, filled with concrete. Wright always favored using the materials readily available rather than those that must be transported to the site. In Wrights own words, There were simple characteristic silhouettes to go by, tremendous drifts and heaps of sunburned desert rocks were nearby to be used. We got it all [5] together with the landscape The flat surfaces of the rocks were placed outward facing and large boulders filled the interior space so concrete could be conserved. Natural light also played a major part in the design. In the drafting room, Wright used translucent canvas to act as a roof (later replaced by plastic because of the intense wear from the Arizona sun). In the south-facing dining room, Wright did not take the masonry walls from floor to ceiling, and designed the roof to hangover past the walls preventing unwanted sun rays from penetrating but allowing for horizontal light to pass through the room. Wright believed natural light aided the work environment he had his apprentices in, keeping the inside of his building in touch with the natural surroundings. Every part of Taliesin West bears Frank Lloyd Wrights personal touch. Upon every return after a summer in Wisconsin Wright would grab a hammer and immediately make his way through the complex. He would walk through each room making changes or shouting orders to apprentices closely following with wheelbarrows and tools. He constantly changed and improved on his design fixing arising problems and addressing new situations. Throughout the years he added an addition to the dining room, the cabaret theatre, music pavilion and numerous other rooms. All of the furniture and decorations were designed by Wright and the majority built by apprentices. A brilliant aspects of Wright's design is the cabaret theatre. Built with six sides, out of the standard rock, concrete mixture, in an irregularly hexagonal shape, the theatre provides its occupants with what someone has called "95% acoustic perfection". One sitting in the back row can hear the lightest whisper from a speaker on stage. Legacy During his lifetime, Wright continually altered and added to the complex of buildings, all of which were constructed by students. Many of Wright's most famous buildings were designed in the drafting room at Taliesin West, including the Guggenheim Museum in New York City and Grady Gammage Auditorium at Arizona State University in Tempe. Taliesin West continues as the headquarters of The Frank Lloyd Wright Foundation and as the winter home for the School of Architecture. The structure was designated a National Historic Landmark in 1982.

In 2008, the U.S. National Park Service submitted Taliesin West along with nine other Frank Lloyd Wright properties to a tentative list for World Heritage Status. The 10 sites have been submitted as one, total, site. The January 22, 2008 press release from the National Park Service website announcing the nominations states that, "The preparation of a Tentative List is a necessary first step in the [8] process of nominating a site to the World Heritage List."

Pablo Antonio

Pablo Antonio was born on January 25, 1901, in Binondo, Manila He was orphaned by the age of 12, and had to work in the daytime in order to finish his high school education at night He studied architecture at the Mapua Institute of Technology but dropped out of school in order to assist in the design and construction of the Legislative Building (now the National Museum of the Philippines) Ramon Arevalo, the engineer in charge of the Legislative Building project, funded Antonio's education at the University of London. He completed a five-year architecture course in three years, graduating in 1927 Antonio first came into prominence in 1933 with the construction of the Ideal Theater along Avenida Rizal in Manila Apart from the Ideal Theater, Antonio also designed several other theaters in Manila, including the Life Theater, the Scala Theater, the Lyric Theater, and the Galaxy Theater. As of 2008, only the Galaxy Theater remains standing, though it is threatened with demolition His work caught the eye of the founder of the Far Eastern University in Manila, Nicanor Reyes, Sr., who was looking to build a school campus that was modern in style. Between 1938 to 1950, he designed several buildings on the university campus in the Art Deco style The FEU campus is considered as the largest ensemble of surviving Art Deco architecture in Manila, and in 2005, it received an Honorable Mention citation from the UNESCO for the body's 2005 Asia-Pacific Heritage Awards for Culture Heritage Conservation Antonio's architecture and its adoption of Art Deco techniques was radical for its day, neoclassicism being the dominant motif of Philippine architecture when he began his career He was cited taking taking Philippine architecture into a new direction, with "clean lines, plain surfaces, and bold rectangular masses." Antonio strived to make each building unique, avoiding obvious trademarks Antonio died in Manila, Philippines on June 14, 1975 due to health reasons. The cause of his death is still not mentioned until after he died A pioneer of modern Philippine architecture, he was recognized in some quarters as the foremost Filipino modernist architect of his time

AWARDS He was conferred the rank and title of National Artist of the Philippines by President Ferdinand Marcos in 1976 QUOTES

"Buildings should be planned with austerity in mind and its stability forever as the aim of true architecture, that buildings must be progressive, simple in design but dignified, true to a purpose without resorting to an applied set of aesthetics and should eternally recreate truth"

Buildings Galaxy Theatre Nicanor Reyes Hall, Far Eastern University Life Theater Ideal Theater Leandro V. Locsin Leandro V. Locsin (August 15, 1928 - November 15, 1994) was a Filipino architect, artist, and interior designer, known for his use of concrete, floating volume and simplistic design in his various projects. An avid collector, he was fond of modern painting and Chinese ceramics. He was proclaimed a National Artist of the Philippines for Architecture in 1990 by President Corazon C. Aquino. Leandro V. Locsin was born on Aug 15, 1928 in Silay City, Negros Occidental, a grandson of the first governor of the province. He later studied at the De La Salle Brothers in 1935 before returning to Negros due to the Second World War. He returned to Manila to study Pre-Law, before shifting to pursue a Bachelor's Degree in Music at the University of Santo Tomas. Although he was a talented pianist, he later shifted again to Architecture, just a year before graduating. He was married to Cecilia Yulo, to which he had two children, one of whom is also an architect. An art lover, he frequented the Philippine Art Gallery, where he met the curator, Fernando Zobel de Ayala, who recommended Locsin to the Ossorio family, who was planning to build a chapel in Negros. Unfortunately, when Frederic Ossorio left for the United States, the plans for the chapel were canceled. However, in 1955, then University of the Philippines, Diliman Catholic Chaplain, Fr. John Delaney, S.J. commissioned Locsin to design a chapel that is open and can easily accommodate 1,000 people. The Church of the Holy Sacrifice is the first round chapel in the Philippines with the altar in the middle, and the first to have a thin shell concrete dome. The floor of the church was designed by Arturo Luz, the stations of the cross by Vicente Manansala and Ang Kiukok, and the cross by Napoleon Abueva, all of whom are now National Artists. Alfredo L. Juinio served as the building's structural engineer. Today, the church is recognized as a National Historical Landmark and a Cultural Treasure by the National Historical Institute and the National Museum respectively. In his visit to the United States, he met some of his influences, Paul Rudolph and Eero Saarinen. It was then he realized to use concrete, which was relatively cheap in the Philippines and easy to form, for his buildings. In 1969, he completed what is to be his most recognizable work, the Theater of Performing Arts (Now the Tanghalang Pambansa) of the Cultural Center of the Philippines. The marble faade of the building is cantilevered 12 meters from the terrace by huge arching columns at the sides of the building, giving it the impression of floating. A large lagoon in front of the theatre mirrors the building during daylight, while fountains are illuminated by underwater lights by nighttime. The building houses four theaters, a museum of ethnographic and other temporary exhibits, galleries, and a library on Philippine art and culture. In 1974, Locsin designed the Folk Arts Theater, which is one of the largest single span buildings in the Philippines with a span of 60 meters. It was completed in only seventy-seven days, in time for the Miss Universe Pageant. Locsin was also commissioned to build the Philippine International Convention Center, the country's premiere international conference building and the seat of the Vice Presidency. In 1974, he was commissioned to design the Ayala Museum, which housed the Ayala's art collection. It was known for the juxtaposition of huge blocks to facilitate the interior of the exhibition. Locsin was a close friend of the Ayalas. Before taking the board examination, he took his apprenticeship at Ayala and Company (Now the Ayala Corporation) and was even asked to design the first building in Ayala Avenue, and several of their residences. When the collection of the Ayala Museum was moved to its current location, the original was demolished, with Locsin's permission. The current building was dedicated in 2004, and was designed by the L. V. Locsin and Partners, led by Leandro Y. Locsin, Jr. Most of Locsin's work has been inside the country, but in 1970, he designed the Philippine Pavilion of the World Expo in Osaka, Japan. His largest single work is the Istana Nurul Iman, the official residence of the Sultan of Brunei. It is the largest residential palace in the world and the largest single family residence ever built. Locsin also designed some of the buildings at

the UP Los Baos campus. The Dioscoro Umali Hall, the main auditorium, is clearly an example of his distinct architecture, with its large canopy that make it resemble the main theatre of the CCP. Most of his work is concentrated on the Freedom Park, with the Student Union Building, once damaged by a fire, the Carillon, the Continuing Education Center and the auditorium. He also designed UPLB's Main Library, SEARCA Residences, and several structures at the National Arts Center (housing the Philippine High School for the Arts) situated at Mt. Makiling, Los Baos, Laguna. In 1992, he received the Fukuoka Asian Culture Prize from Fukuoka City. Locsin's last work, ironically, was also a church in Malaybalay, Bukidnon. Leandro V. Locsin died on Nov 15, 1994 in Makati City. The campus of De La Salle-Canlubang, built in 2003 on a land donated by his family, was named after him. Buildings Cultural Center of the Philippines Manila Hotel Parish of the Holy Sacrifice National Arts Center Mandarin Oriental Hotel Monastery of Transfiguration Davao International Airport St. Andrew the Apostle Church Monterey Apartments Philippine International Convention Center Philippine Center for International Trade Expo Philippine Pavilion 1970, Osaka Magallanes Church Benguet Center Folk Arts Theater Philippine Plaza Hotel Ayala Museum (old) Ayala Tower One L.V. Locsin Building InterContinental Manila Makati Stock Exchange Building Ninoy Aquino International Airport Terminal 1 Hyatt Regency Hotel Juan Felipe De Jesus Nakpil

Juan F. Nakpil was a Filipino architect, teacher and a community leader. He was born on May 26, 1899, the eldest child of Philippine Revolution veterans Julio Nakpil and Gregoria de Jesus (who married the former after the death of her first husband Andrs Bonifacio). He finished his high school at the Manila High School on 1917 He then took Civil Engineering at the University of the Philippines, Diliman While at UP Diliman, he took freehand drawing, painting, and decorative arts under Fabian de la Rosa and Fernando Amorsolo. He also took sculpture under Maestro Ocampo After two years in UP Diliman, he went to the United States to finish his degree despite the disapproval of his parents. It was told that he pawned his watch for a steerage ticket to the US He attended University of Kansas where he earned his Bachelor of Science in Civil Engineering in 1922 In 1925, he went to France and took Architecture at the Fountainbleau School of Fine Arts He then took his Masters Degree in architecture at the Harvard University under the Joseph Evelynth fellowship When he got back in the Philippines in 1926, he became an assistant architect of the Bureau of Public Works He eventually worked with Andres Luna de San Pedro (son of Juan Luna) and was part in the design of the Luis-Perez-Samanlilio Building. Two years later he bacame a Junior Partner of the firm Among Nakpil's famous projects under Luna were the Perez-Samanillo building, the Crystal Arcade and residences like those of Jacobo and Alfonso Zobel Nakpil also worked for Gonzalo Puyat and Sons as a furniture designer from 1928 to 1931. He eventually started his firm in 1930. At this time he also began teaching. He joined the Mapua Institute of Technology from 1927 to 1931, teaching history of architecture, theory of architecture and design for the junior and senior years. In 1931 to 1938 he taught at the University of Sto. Tomas College of Architecture. He helped educate a generation of architects, such that during a certain period, all six deans of architecture of different schools had been his students.

In 1933, he had established with other top architects the Philippine Architects Society (later renamed Philippine Institute of Architects) and served as its first president In 1941, Nakpil founded the Philippine College of Design with many of the leading architects like Andres Luna de San Pedro, Juan Arellano, Pablo Antonio and others, until World War II interrupted this project After his sons Ariston, Francisco, and Eulogio graduated, Nakpil established Juan F. Nakpil & Sons in 1953 Nakpil proposed concept for the Greenhills Shopping Center, modern in every aspect and suited to local conditions. The concept included a supermarket, a movie house, variety stores, a bowling alley, service shops and restaurants Juan Nakpil died on May 7, 1986 at the age of 87 and he was burried at the Libingan ng mga Bayani The wife of Juan F. Nakpil was Anita Agoncillo Noble of Batangas, who had been crowned the first Miss Philippines in 1926


Architect of the Year, 1939, 1940, 1946 Philippine Institute of Architects Gold Medal of Merit Award, 1950 Most Outstanding Professional in Architecture, 1951 (from the Philippine Association of Board Examiners) Honorary correspondent member ng Societe de Architectes par le Gouvernement Francais, 1952 Chevalier de la legion d'Honneur, 1955 Presidential Medal of Merit from President Ramon Magsaysay, 1955 Patnubay ng Sining at Kalinangan Award, 1968 Republic Cultural Heritage Award, 1971 Rizal Pro Patria Award, 1972 The first National Artists for Architecture, 1973 Dean of Filipino Architects. 1973

Buildings Luis-Perez-Samanlilio Building Quiapo Church Quezon Hall, University of the Philippines, Diliman Capitol Theater Avenue Theatre Philippine Trust Co. Building State Theater Manila Jockey Club Gonzalez Hall, University of the Philippines, Diliman Carillon Tower Rizal Theater Nakpil-Bautista Pylon Philippine Village Hotel Social Security System Building Cesar Concio 1

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Cesar Concio is the first University Architect of the University of the Philippines When the University transferred to Diliman from Padre Faura in the late 1940s, Cesar Concio was tasked to continue what Louis Croft has started He is also one of the architects selected by President Roxas in 1947 to study the trends in Architecture and Engineering to design the buildings of the Capital City, especially for his position as the chief architect of the UP DilimanCampus. This mission enabled him to meet the architect of Brasilias buildings, Oscar Niemeyer

His meeting with Niemeyer in Brasilia exposes Niemeyers influence on his designs, especially the parabolic Church of the Risen Lord in the University of the Philippines, Diliman

Niemeyer is best known for adopting modern architecture to Brasilia by using adjustable brise soleil to moderate sunlight entering the buildings. This sun shading technique is manifested in Concio's design for the Mechor and Palma Hall in UP Diliman


Philippine Institute of Architects Gold Medal of Merit, 1964 Patnubay ng Sining at Kalinangan Award, 1969

Buildings Church of the Risen Lord Melchor Hall, University of the Philippines, Diliman Insular Life Building Baclaran Church Palma Hall, University of the Philippines, Diliman

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