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GOVERNING SYSTEM

GOVERNOR
Quality of power depends on: Frequency Voltage

These need to be regulated properly for stable and accurate output for good performance.
Governing system is used for regulating frequency and power output.

GOVERNOR

Hydraulic turbine governor is used for controlling the guide vanes by detecting turbine speed & its guide vane opening in order to keep turbine speed stable or to regulate its output.
The performance of the governor dominates the controllability of the power plant and quality of an electrical power produced .

MAIN COMPONENTS OF GOVERNING SYSTEM

Speed Signal
Electrical/Electronic Governor Hydro-Mechanical Cabinet G.V.Position Feedback Device Oil Pressure Unit Servomotors

SPEED SENSING DEVICES


TYPE PMG Toothed Wheel (capacitor type probe) PT Voltage (frequency detection) Over Speed Detection (mechanical)

SPEED SENSING BY TOOTHED WHEEL SENSOR


Governor is a speed sensing type,sensitive to speed deviation from a set value of speed.The speed signal is generally produced with a turbine shaft mounted toothed wheel and magnetic pickup. f = n * p / 60, f = frequency of sensor output n = speed of the toothed wheel( r.p.m) p = no. of teeth on the toothed wheel The signal is processed in frequency to voltage converter

USE OF SPEED SENSING


Speed
Power

Control
Control

Braking Field Over

Breaker Control Speed Tripping Standstill Signal

Machine

To Servo Motor Displacement of Transducer

Supply

W C

LVDT Linear Voltage Differential Transducer

FEEDBACK MECHANISM

ELECTRO HYDRAULIC GOVERNOR


POWER

SUPPLY UNIT SPEED SIGNAL MODULE SPEED RELAYS SPEED SETTING POWER SETTING PERMANENT SPEED DROOP TEMPORARY SPEED DROOP AMPLIFIERS

Freq. Signal Freq. Ref. Setting O/P Setting Command

Comparator

P. Droop Setting

Permanent Droop Signal Summation Amplifier

Booster Amplifier

E. Hydro. Transducer Gate Opening Feedback From OPU Hydro. Amplifier

Servo Motor

PERMANENT DROOP

100%

100%

Power

0 45 HZ

Power 0 47.5 HZ

Freq.

50 HZ

Freq.

50 HZ

Permanent Droop Setting 10%

Permanent Droop Setting 5%

TEMPORARY DROOP SIGNAL


Freq. Signal Freq. Ref. Setting O/P Setting Command

Differentiator Adjustable Setting of Time & %

Comparator

Temp. Droop Signal

Summation Amplifier

Gate Opening Feedback

Temporary Droop Signal is a damping signal. It opposes transiently gate movement and thus provides main stablisation to speed control loop.

DEAD BAND UNIT

Prevents Governor action over a selected band of speed M/c will maintain constant power for system frequency variation of (Fn DB)Hz Fn - Normal Frequency DB - Selected Dead Band

ZERO SPEED DETECTOR

It is to disengage the generator brakes when


turbine comes to almost dead halt

It gives signal when speed drops out to less than 0.1 Hz

GOVERNOR PANEL FOR CONTROL OF SPEED AND POWER OF THE MACHINE

STATUS COMMAND COMMAND START STOP SPEED SIGNAL C.B. POSITION (M/C) (M/C) (PMG.SSG.PT.)

INDICATION FOR
1 2 3 4 5 SPEED GATE POSITION SPEED SETTING OUTPUT SETTING EHT CURRENT

GATE POSITION FEED BACK

GOVERNOR

O U T P U T

GATE OPEN/CLOSE CONTROL SENSING OF SPEED RELAYS


1 2 3 4 5 ZERO SPEED BRAKE PROTECTION EXCITATION CONTROL H.S.LUB.START

SPEED SETTING OUTPUT GATE COMMAND SETTING OPEN LIMIT POSITION COMMAND COMMAND

GOVERNOR

Commands

GOVERNING SYSTEM
Temp. Droop Amplifier Permanent Droop Distributing Valve Gate Servomotor

Gate Or Needle

Turbine Speed/Freq. Sensor Gen. PT Voltage

PMG/
TWG

GATE POSITION SWITCH (MASTER CONTROLLER)


1. Gate Closed Position 2. M/C Start Gate Open Position 3. Controlled Action Shutdown Gate Position 4. Full Gate Open Position

CONTROL AVAILABLE IN GOVERNOR


1. Auto/Mannual Selector Switch 2. Local / Remote Selector Switch 3. Increase/Decrease Power/Frequency These Buttons/Switch Changes

Frequency Reference
45 HZ 0 50 HZ 55 HZ 50 % 100 %

0 - 100%

Output Reference
0 No Power Full Power

0 - 100%

100%

4. Increase/Decrease Guide Vane Limiter 0 100% - Electronic - Mechanical

5. Droop Characteristic
One of two Permanent Droop curves may be

selected.
However set values of curves has to be altered by software package

HYDRO MECHANICAL CABINET

AUTO/MANUAL SWITCH

GATE POSITION LIMITER


GUIDE VANE POSITION INDICATOR SPEED INDICATOR BALANCE INDICATOR PRESSURE INDICATOR

ELECTRO HYDRAULIC TRANSDUCER


EMERGENCY SLIDE VALVE GUIDE VANE OPENING FEEDBACK

SPEED CONTROL BY SERVOMECHANISM

SPEED SIGNAL GENERAROR

SPEED SENSOR

MECH. CONNECTION

ELECT. GOV

GENERATOR TURBINE PILOT SERVO VALVE

TURBINE INFLOW

HYDRAULIC POWER

TURBINE WICKWT GATE

TURBINE SERVOMOT0R

MAIN VALVE

RETURN OIL/LEAKAGE PRESSURE TANK OIL PUM P

40

Kg/CM2

OIL SUMP

G.V. Opening

Limiter

Start Pos. 1 Start Pos. 2 No Load Position G. V. Lock to Service Position Time Start Input

FACTORS AFFECTING GOVERNING PERFORMANCE


1.

Unit acceleration time (Tm) This is the time in seconds to accelerate the unit from standstill to normal speed. It is a measure of sensibility of the unit on load changes. Given by: Tm = WR2n2/(9.08*104*N) WR2= flywheel effect of generation in kg-m2 n= Rotational speed N= Turbine capacity in kW

2.

Inertia of water mass (TW) Higher inertia of water masses leads to unstable governing. Where the water conductor system is long, Surge tanks are provided. Given by, TW= LV/(g*h) Where, L= length of water conductor in m V= velocity in m/sec. H= Rated head in m

3.

SPEED RISE: Depends upon guide vanes/ Deflector minimum closing time. PRESSURE RISE: Depends upon guide vane/ needle servomotor minimum closing time.

4.

OIL PRESSURE UNIT


OIL

SUMP WITH LEVEL INDICATOR OIL PRESSURE PUMPMAIN/STANDBY PRESSURE RECEIVER WITH PRESSURE SWITCH, LEVEL SWITCH MACHINE IS TRIPPED FOR VERY LOW PRESSURE AND VERY LOW LEVEL AND FOR LOW LEVEL/PRESSURE ALARM IS PROVIDED

LEVEL RELAY

MOTOR STARTER

PRESSURE RELAY

LEVEL RELAY

OIL SUMP TANK

OIL PUMPS

PRESSURE RECEIVER ELECT. HYDRAULIC GOVERNOR G. V. SERVOMOTOR

HP COMPRESSED AIR

OLU

GUIDE VANES

OIL PUMPING UNIT

CONTROL OF O P U
Pump Motors are controlled in Auto Mode by the following Pressure switches: Pressure Normal Stop both pumps Pressure switch to start pump main Pressure switches for M/c control Pressure Normal Unit ready to start condition Pressure Low - Alarm Pressure Very Low - Emergency shut down

OIL LEVEL SWITCHES

Sump oil level normal


Sump oil level low Pressure receiver oil level normal Pressure receiver oil level low (Pumps are not working) Pressure Receiver oil level high (Air admission is required)

THANK YOU