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TOOLS OF TQM

Abdulla Jassim Abdulla

INTRODUCTION
Data-Driven Methodology Data generated by processes

Statistical interpretation Seasonal variations New Technology

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THE SEVEN SIMPLE TOOLS


Flowcharts Cause and Effect (Ishikawa / fishbone) Diagrams Check sheets Pareto Charts Histograms Run Charts and Control Charts Scatter plots and Correlation Analysis

FLOWCHARTS

Remember system theory: (Input, Output, customer supplier and their interactions). Divide complex processes into simple sub-processes. A Qualitative tools

Patient Transport Process Example

Request made Doctor determines patient needs X-ray Ward contacts dispatcher

Log & prioritize request Information taken & request is logged Request prioritized

Dispatch transport Required equipment is found Transport is dispatched

Take patient to X-ray Transporter arrives on ward Patient transferred from bed Patient taken to X-ray

Types of Flowcharts

LAYOUT FLOWCHART Example Staff movement


DATA FLOW DIAGRAMS leave approval process

ISHIKAWA DIAGRAMS
Also known as Fishbone or Cause-andEffect Diagrams Non-quantitative tools (Qualitative) Sometimes called the 5M Diagram (Men, Machine, Materials, Measurements and methods)

ISHIKAWA DIAGRAM
Cause-and-Effect Diagram
Measurements Materials Men

Effect

Environment

Methods

Machines

CHECKSHEETS
Central tool for Quality Assurance programs Specially useful for operational procedures Could be derived from the flowchart and fishbone diagrams

Example check sheets


Patient Transport Problem Sheet
Area: Ward 3b Type Equipment broken Patient not ready Not enough staff Patient having another exam etc. Period: June 1996 Tally IIIII IIIII II III IIIII IIIII II Subtotal 5 7 3 12