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ENI S.p.A. Agip Division
TYPE OF ACTIVITY'
REFER TO SECTION N.
TITLE COMPLETION DESIGN MANUAL
DISTRIBUTION LIST Eni - Agip Division Italian Districts Eni - Agip Division Affiliated Companies Eni - Agip Division Headquarter Drilling & Completion Units STAP Archive Eni - Agip Division Headquarter Subsurface Geology Units Eni - Agip Division Headquarter Reservoir Units Eni - Agip Division Headquarter Coordination Units for Italian Activities Eni - Agip Division Headquarter Coordination Units for Foreign Activities
NOTE: The present document is available in Eni Agip Intranet (http://wwwarpo.in.agip.it) and a CD-Rom version can also be distributed (requests will be addressed to STAP Dept. in Eni - Agip Division Headquarter) Date of issue:
B A @ ? >
Issued by M. Bassanini 28/06/99 REVISIONS PREP'D C. Lanzetta 28/06/99 CHK'D A. Galletta 28/06/99 APPR'D
The present document is CONFIDENTIAL and it is property of AGIP It shall not be shown to third parties nor shall it be used for reasons different from those owing to which it was given
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1.1. 1.2. 1.3. 1.4. PURPOSE OF THE MANUAL OBJECTIVES FUNCTIONS OF A COMPLETION MANUAL UPDATING, AMENDMENT, CONTROL & DEROGATION
8 12 13 13
2.1. 2.2. INTRODUCTION CHARACTERISTICS OF RESERVOIR ROCKS 2.2.1. Porosity 2.2.2. Permeability 2.2.3. Relative Permeability 2.2.4. Wettabilty 2.2.5. Fluid Distribution 2.2.6. Fluid Flow In The Reservoir 2.2.7. Effects Of Reservoir Characteristics 2.2.8. Reservoir Homogeneity HYDROCARBON DATA 2.3.1. Oil Property Correlation RESERVOIR/PRODUCTION FORECAST 2.4.1. Inflow Perfomance 2.4.2. Reservoir Simulation For IPR Curves 2.4.3. IPR Selection 2.4.4. Outflow Performance 2.4.5. Flow Rate Prediction
14 14 14 14 15 16 17 18 24 27 28 28 29 31 42 44 46 55
3.1. 3.2. 3.3. 3.4. INTRODUCTION 3.1.1. Types of Tests DST OBJECTIVE DST STRING RESERVOIR CHARACTERISTICS 3.4.1. Pressure Build-Up Analysis 3.4.2. Basics Of DST Operations 3.4.3. Common Test Tools Description 3.4.4. Tools Utilised With Permanent Packer Systems 3.4.5. Sub-Sea Test Tools Used On Semi-Submersibles 3.4.6. Deep Water Tools 3.4.7. Downhole Pressure Recording
60 60 63 64 69 69 77 77 80 80 81 82
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3.5. WELL PRODUCTION TEST OBJECTIVES 3.5.1. Periodic Tests 3.5.2. Productivity Or Deliverability Tests 3.5.3. Transient Tests
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4.1. CASING DESIGN 4.1.1. Casing Profile 4.1.2. Casing Specifications 4.1.3. Casing Connections WELL DEVIATION SURVEYS CASING CEMENTING CONSIDERATIONS 4.3.1. Production Casing Cementing 4.3.2. Production Casing Cement Evaluation
87 87 88 89 89 90 90 91
WELL COMPLETION DESIGN
5.1. FACTORS INFLUENCING COMPLETION DESIGN 5.1.1. Reservoir Considerations 5.1.2. Mechanical Considerations 5.1.3. Safety Considerations RESERVOIR-WELLBORE INTERFACE 5.2.1. Open Hole Completions 5.2.2. Uncemented Liner Completions 5.2.3. Perforated Completions 5.2.4. Multi-Zone Completions CASING-TUBING INTERFACE 5.3.1. Packer Applications 5.3.2. Packer-Tubing Interfaces 5.3.3. Annulus Circulation TUBING-WELLHEAD INTERFACE 5.4.1. Tubing Hanger Systems 5.4.2. Xmas Trees 5.4.3. Metal-To-Metal Seals FUTURE CONSIDERATIONS 5.5.1. Stimulation 5.5.2. Formation Management 5.5.3. Well Servicing Techniques OPTIMISING TUBING SIZE 5.6.1. Reservoir Pressure 5.6.2. Flowing Wellhead Pressure 5.6.3. Gas-Liquid Ratio 5.6.4. Artificial Lift
94 94 96 96 97 97 98 100 101 104 106 107 108 109 109 115 115 117 118 118 119 121 123 123 123 124
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6.1. 6.2. 6.3. DEVELOPMENT WELLS CONTRIBUTING FACTORS TO CORROSION FORMS OF CORROSION 6.3.1. Sulphide Stress Cracking (SSC) 6.3.2. Corrosion Caused By CO2 And Cl 6.3.3. Corrosion Caused By H2S, CO2 And ClCORROSION CONTROL MEASURES CORROSION INHIBITORS CORROSION RESISTANCE OF STAINLESS STEELS 6.6.1. Martensitic Stainless Steels 6.6.2. Ferritic Stainless Steels 6.6.3. Austenitic Stainless Steels 6.6.4. Precipitation Hardening Stainless Steels 6.6.5. Duplex Stainless Steel COMPANY DESIGN PROCEDURE 6.7.1. CO2 Corrosion 6.7.2. H2S Corrosion MATERIAL SELECTION 6.8.1. OCTG Specifications 6.8.2. DHE Specifications 6.8.3. Wellhead Specifications ORDERING SPECIFICATIONS
126 126 128 128 135 137 138 139 139 139 140 140 140 142 142 142 142 144 145 146 147 152
6.4. 6.5. 6.6.
7.1. 7.2. POLICIES THEORY 7.2.1. Mechanical Properties of Steel 7.2.2. Temperature 7.2.3. Tubing Movement/Stress Relationship WELL DATA. 7.3.1. Casing Profile/Geometry 7.3.2. Tubing Data 7.3.3. Bottom-hole Pressure 7.3.4. Temperatures (Static and Flowing) 7.3.5. Reservoir Fluids 7.3.6. Completion Fluid PRESSURE INDUCED FORCES 7.4.1. Piston Effect 7.4.2. Buckling Effect 7.4.3. Ballooning Effect 7.4.4. Temperature Effect EVALUATION OF TOTAL TUBING MOVEMENT
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7.6. ANCHORED TUBING 7.6.1. Tubing Permitting Limited Motion 7.6.2. Packer Setting 7.7. TUBING LOAD CONDITIONS 7.7.1. Pressure Testing 7.7.2. Acid Stimulation 7.7.3. Fracturing 7.7.4. Flowing 7.7.5. Shut-In 7.7.6. Load Condition Summary TUBING SELECTION 7.8.1. Critical Factors 7.8.2. Tubing Size And Weight 7.8.3. Anchoring Systems TUBING CONNECTIONS 7.9.1. Policy 7.9.2. Class of Service 7.9.3. Selection Criteria 7.9.4. NACE And Proximity Definitions 7.9.5. CRA Connections 7.9.6. Connection Data
170 172 174 174 174 175 175 177 177 181 181 182 182 184 185 185 185 186 189 190 190 190 191 193 195 195 196 205
7.10. TUBING STRESS CALCULATIONS 7.10.1. Calculation Methods 7.10.2. Safety Factor 7.10.3. External Pressure Limit 7.10.4. Packer Load Limits 7.10.5. Example Manual Calculation 7.10.6. Example Computation
8.1. PACKERS 8.1.1. Selection Procedure 8.1.2. Selection Criteria 8.1.3. Well Classification 8.1.4. Packer Selection For Single String Completion 8.1.5. Single Selective Completion Packers SUB-SURFACE SAFETY VALVES 8.2.1. Policy 8.2.2. Applications 8.2.3. Wireline Retrievable Safety Valves 8.2.4. Surface Controlled Sub-Surface Safety Valves 8.2.5. Valve Type/Closure Mechanism Selection
206 207 207 209 209 217 223 223 223 223 224 224
Impact On Completion Design 10.1.1.4. SCREW PUMP SYSTEMS 10. Operating Conditions Summary 10.3.8. Tube Specifications 22.214.171.124.2.3. ROD PUMPS 10.1.1.2.3. 126.96.36.199.4. Material Selection 8. Common Problems 10. Through-Tubing Hollow Carrier Guns 188.8.131.52.2. Control Lines 8. Common Problems 10.3.6.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 6 OF 295 ENI S. 10.6. SHAPED CHARGE PERFORATING GUN TYPES 9.3. Impact On Completion Design 10. Selective Nipple Configuration REVISION 0 225 225 225 226 228 230 230 231 233 236 237 238 239 8. ESP Performance 10. HYDRAULIC PUMPING SYSTEMS 10.1. Tapered Nipple Configuration 184.108.40.206.7. PERFORATING 9.2. PLUNGER LIFT 10.2.2.7.1.p. Fittings 8. Through-Tubing Strip Guns 220.127.116.11. Artificial Lift Considerations 250 251 253 254 254 256 259 259 260 262 262 265 265 265 268 268 270 272 .4.2. Underbalanced Perforating 9.1.A. GAS LIFT 10.4. Encapsulation 8. Perforating Procedures 240 240 241 241 243 243 243 244 244 246 247 247 9. CONTROL/INJECTION LINE SELECTION 8. ARTIFICIAL LIFT 10.3.1.3.2. 18.104.22.168.22.214.171.124. Tubing Conveyed Perforating GUN PERFORMANCE 9.2.3. Injection Lines 8. Protectors 126.96.36.199.1. ELECTRICAL SUBMERISBLE PUMPS 10. Wireline Conveyed Casing Guns 188.8.131.52.2. API And Performance Data 9.2. SCSSV Hydraulic Control fluid 8.5.1. Firing Heads 9.2. SUMMARY ARTIFICIAL LIFT SELECTION CHARTS 10.3. Control/Injection Line Selection Procedure Flow Chart WIRELINE NIPPLE SELECTION 8. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 8. Impact On Completion Design 10. Design Considerations And Comparisons 10. Impact On Completion Design 10.3.
p. A.184.108.40.206.2. USE OF UNDERBALANCE COMPLETION FLUIDS 11. INITIAL ACTIVITY REPORT (ARPO 01) DAILY REPORT (ARPO 02) WASTE DISPOSAL MANAGEMENT REPORT (ARPO 06) PERFORATING REPORT (ARPO 07) GRAVEL PACK REPORT (ARPO 08) MATRIX STIMULATION/HYDRAULIC FRACTURE REPORT (APRO 09) WIRELINE REPORT (ARPO 11) PRESSURE/TEMPERATURE SURVEY REPORT (ARPO 12) WELL PROBLEM REPORT (ARPO 13) WELL SITUATION REPORT (ARPO 20) 276 277 278 279 280 281 282 283 284 285 286 APPENDIX B .6. APPLICATION 11.ABBREVIATIONS APPENDIX D .1.5. POLICY 11. Completions 274 274 274 274 275 275 275 APPENDIX A .3.7. A.4.NOMENCLATURE FOR TUBING CALCULATIONS APPENDIX C .4. Well Testing 11.1. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 0 REVISION 11.BIBLIOGRAPHY APPENDIX E . A.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 7 OF 295 ENI S. RISK ASSESSMENT 11.REPORT FORMS A. A. A.3. A.2. A.TUBING MOVEMENT/STRESS COMPUTER PROGRAMMES 287 289 292 294 . BARRIER PRINCIPLES 11. A.4.A.2. A.3.
The final conceptual design will be used as the basis for the detailed design process.1. still enables each individual Affiliated Company the capability to operate according to local laws or particular environmental situations. in the completion design process and its importance on well productivity. figure 1.a. methodologies and rules that enable to operate uniformly and in compliance with the Corporate Company Principles.c. The final aim is to improve performance and efficiency in terms of safety. The activities in each phase are illustrated in figure 1. however. . The Corporate Standards in this manual define the requirements. During this phase. This does not mean that the process is sequential and many decisions can be made from studies and analysis run in parallel. at an early time. well servicing capabilities and completion life. Production Engineering and Drilling Engineering. 1. This. For instance. The manual will provide the engineers within the various disciplines with a system to guide them through the process with the objectives of helping them make the key decisions and obtaining the optimum design to maximise productivity and. as it has a fundamental effect on the field final design and development. The conceptual design process begins at the field appraisal stage when a Statement Of Requirements (SOR) of the completion is produced. The conceptual design process guides the engineers through analysis and key questions to be considered. the decision on the well architecture may subsequently be changed due to the availability of well servicing or workover techniques. The approach to completion design must be interdiscipline. hence profit. It is essential that this is an accurate statement including all the foreseen requirements. The design process consists of three phases: • • • Conceptual Detailed design Procurement. Many of the decisions made by the various disciplines are interrelated and impact on the decisions made by other disciplines. The process of well preparation and installation of completions is fully described in the ‘Completions Procedures manual’.b and figure 1.A. Agip Division STAP-M-1-P-7100 0 REVISION 1. while providing all personnel involved in Drilling & Completion activities with common guidelines in all areas worldwide where Eni-Agip operates. raised by the interrelated decisions. involving Reservoir Engineering. quality and costs. the user will resolve many of the dilemmas. Petroleum Engineering. This is vital in order to obtain the optimum completion design utilising the process described in this manual.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 8 OF 295 ENI S.p. within the Eni-Agip Division and Affiliated Companies. These in consequence. have a large impact on costs and field profit. INTRODUCTION PURPOSE OF THE MANUAL The purpose of this manual is to guide experienced engineers of all technical disciplines.
p. increased knowledge of the field and incorporate new technologies. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 0 REVISION As more information is gleamed from further development wells and as conditions change.A. the statement of requirements need to reviewed and altered to modify the conceptual design for future wells. Figure 1.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 9 OF 295 ENI S.Conceptual Completion Design Process . This provides a system of ongoing completion optimisation to suit changing conditions.A .
p. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 0 REVISION Figure 1.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 10 OF 295 ENI S.A.Detailed Completion Design Process .B .
A. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 0 REVISION Figure 1.Procurement Process .C .ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 11 OF 295 ENI S.p.
OBJECTIVES The fundamental objectives for a completion are: • • • • • • • 0 REVISION Achieve a desired (optimum) level of production or injection.p.D . An expensive completion may derive more long term profit than a low cost completion but the initial capital costs will be higher (Refer to figure 1.A.d). In conjunction with other wells. however. Be as simple as possible to increase reliability. in reality is not simple and many critical decisions are needed to balance long term and short term cash flow and sometimes compromises are made. Be as flexible as possible for future operational changes in well function. Achieve the optimum production rates reliably at the lowest capital and operating costs. These may be summarised as to safely provide maximum long term profitability.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 12 OF 295 ENI S.Completion Design Versus Profitability .2. Figure 1. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 1. Provide adequate maintenance and surveillance programmes. Provide adequate safety in accordance with legislative or company requirements and industry common practices. This. effectively contribute to the whole development plan reservoir plan.
. Inhibiting scale or corrosion. still enables each individual Affiliated Company the capability to operate according to local laws or particular environmental situations. Reservoir and geoscience groups often have to set plans and objectives for the field on well performance based on limited information. This. methodologies and rules that enable to operate uniformly and in compliance with the Corporate Company Principles. Producing single or multiple zones. An inherent problem is that the Reservoir Engineering Department’s objectives do not coincide with the Completion Engineering Department’s in that Reservoir Engineering’s objectives are for the whole field performance whereas the Completion Group’s is to optimise for profit on a long term well by well basis which includes well servicing/workover. but are not concerned about production problems. This is its primary function. The final aim is to improve performance and efficiency in terms of safety. Protecting the casing from corrosion attack by well fluids. MANUAL UPDATING. quality and costs.4. Preventing hydrocarbon escape if there is a surface leak. the estimate of some well performance and characteristics throughout the life of the well may be wrong and early workover or well intervention operations will impact on well profitability. AMENDMENT. 1. while providing all personnel involved in Drilling & Completion activities with common guidelines in all areas worldwide where Eni-Agip operates. FUNCTIONS OF A COMPLETION The main function of a completion is to produce hydrocarbons to surface or deliver injection fluids to formations.p. Protecting the production casing from formation pressure. Perforating (underbalanced or overbalanced).A. however. Permanent downhole pressure monitoring. CONTROL & DEROGATION The Corporate Standards in this manual define the requirements. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 0 REVISION On the other hand if the data available is not accurate. well maintenance or detailed operations.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 13 OF 295 ENI S. pressure monitoring and reservoir maintenance. servicing. optimising production. These main functional requirements must be built into the conceptual design and include: • • • • • • • 1. however a completion must also satisfy a great many other functions required for safety. in the early stages.3.
CHARACTERISTICS OF RESERVOIR ROCKS Porosity Porosity or pore space in reservoir rocks provides the container for the accumulation of oil and gas and gives the rock characteristic ability to absorb and hold fluids. limestone or dolomite rocks. shales. K= qµL A∆p Eq. In a rock having a permeability of 1 Darcy. RESERVOIR CONSIDERATIONS INTRODUCTION Oil and gas wells are expensive faucets that enable production of petroleum reservoirs or allow injection of fluids into an oil or gas reservoir. oil or gas even although they may be quite porous. 2. Permeability Permeability is a measure of the ability of which fluid can move through the interconnected pore spaces of the rock. The purpose of this section is to consider the characteristics of reservoir fluids and the flow of these in the area around the wellbore to allow these parameters to be tied into the well completion design and well intervention/workover operational requirements.A. 2. Many rocks such as clays. 2. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 0 REVISION 2. 2.2. anhydrite and some highly cemented sandstones are impervious to movement of water. 2. a completion conceptual design must take into account all the well objectives to produce the optimum design to maximise profitability. and varies inversely with the viscosity of the fluid flowing. developed the first relationship which described the flow through porous rock which is still used today. Darcy. if the pressure across the rock is 1 atmosphere. Most commercial reservoirs have sandstone. however some reservoirs even occur fractured shale.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 14 OF 295 ENI S.1.2. Darcy’s Law states that the rate of flow through a given rock varies directly with permeability (measure of the continuity of inter-connected pore spaces) and the pressure applied.1. a French engineer. chalk.2. As pointed out in section 1. working with water filters.p.2.A .1. 1cc of a 1cp viscosity fluid will flow each second 2 through a portion of rock 1cm in length and having a cross-section of 1cm .
the gas rate continues to increase and less oil flows through the pores until finally only gas flows. 2. Relative permeability represents the ease at which one fluid flows through connecting pore spaces in the presence of other fluids.B Relative Permeability As normally two or three fluids exist in the same pore spaces in a reservoir. gas saturation continues to increase and at some point (equilibrium gas saturation) gas begins to flow and the oil rate is further reduced. md 3 Flow rate. in comparison to the ease that it would flow if there was no other fluid. the relative permeability to oil is significantly greater when the rock is ‘water wet’. Significant oil may still occupy the pores but cannot be recovered by primary production means as the permeability to oil has dropped to zero. psi Formation volume factor. psi Outlet pressure. stb/day Permeability.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 15 OF 295 ENI S. ft Viscosity. Flow of oil is reduced but gas saturation is too small for it to flow through the pores. If reservoir pressure is allowed to decline. To understand this. The gas-oil or water-oil relative permeability relationships of a particular reservoir rock depend on the configurations of the rock pore spaces and the wetting characteristics of the fluids and rock surfaces. This same principle governs the flow of oil in the presence of water. relative permeability relationships must be considered. The saturation of each fluid present affects the ease of fluid movement or relative permeability. = = = = = = = = Flow rate.A. ft Inlet pressure.3.2. With further increases in gas saturation. cp Flow length.127 ×10 −3 where: q k A µ L p1 p2 B 2. If pressures to continue to decline. In an oil-water system.p. res bbl/stb kA(p 1 −p 2 ) BµL Eq. assume a rock filled with only with oil at high pressure where gas has not been able to come out of solution: • • • • • All available space is taken up by the oil and only oil is flowing. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 0 REVISION In oilfield units the linear form of Darcy’s Law for flow of incompressible fluid through a rock filled with only one fluid is: q=1. some lighter components of the oil will evolve as gas in the pore spaces. .
= = = = = = Relative permeability to oil Relative permeability to water Viscosity of oil. res bbl/stb Formation volume factor for water.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 16 OF 295 ENI S. 2.D where: ko kw µo µw Bo Bw 2. md Relative permeability to oil k abs k ro A(p1 −p 2 ) B o µL Eq. This can be achieved by multiplying absolute permeability of the rock by the relative permeability of the rock to the desired fluid.C For a well producing both water and oil. The productivity of oil in this condition is maximised. it is important when completing or servicing the well in that any foreign substance which may come into contact with the rock may alter its wettability characteristic and reduce the relative permeability to hydrocarbon fluids and cause emulsion which may block flow.2. it is not important as this characteristic is included in the permeability measurements. most reservoir rocks are considered to be ‘water wet’.b represents the permeability of the rock to the desired fluid. This means that the grains of the rock matrix are coated with a film of water permitting hydrocarbons to fill the centre of the pore spaces. Wettabilty Most reservoirs were formed or laid down in water with oil moving in later from adjacent zones to replace a portion of the water. cp Formation volume factor for oil.127 ×10 −3 where: qo kabs kro = = = Oil flow rate. 2. res bbl/stb . stb/day Absolute permeability. q=1.4. Although it is extremely difficult to determine wettability of cores due to the cutting and preparing specimens for laboratory testing which alters the wettability characteristics. the permeability in eq. However. cp Viscosity of water. the ‘water cut’ or fraction of water in the total flow stream at standard conditions of temperature and pressure can be calculated by: fw = 1 k o µw Bw 1 × + + k w µo Bo Eq.p. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 0 REVISION Where two or more fluids are present. For this reason.A. 2.
therefore the water film between the water and the oil will have the same curvature.A. depending on the saturations of each fluid present at the completion level. only oil will flow in an oil-water system. figure 2. These can be summarised in three statements: • • • The lower the permeability of a given sand. gas and water present at a particular level determines the fluids that produced by a well completed at that level and also influence the relative rates of fluid production. A well completed in the transition zone will be expected to produce both oil and water. oil and gas.5. The nature and thickness of the transition zones between the water and oil. surface tension and the relative density differences between the fluids. the higher will be the connate water saturation. and water and gas are influenced by several factors: uniformity. wettability. Above the transition zone. Fluid Distribution 0 REVISION The distribution of fluids vertically in the reservoir is very important as the relative amounts of oil.p. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 2.2. In lower permeability sands.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 17 OF 295 ENI S. the transition zones will be thicker than in higher permeability sands. In rock the capillary forces. Water saturation above the transition zone is termed ‘irreducible water saturation’ or more commonly the ‘connate water saturation’. hence more oil will be contained in larger pore spaces. . For a given height. From the point in a zone of the free water level upward to some point where water saturation becomes constant is called the ‘transition zone’. permeability.a summarises oil. Due to the greater density difference between gas and oil as compared to oil and water. which are related to water wettability. the transition zone between the oil and gas is not as thick as the transition zone between oil and water. work to change the normal sharp interfaces between the fluids separated by density. Connate water is related to permeability and pore channels in lower rocks are generally smaller. Relative permeability permits both water and oil to flow within the transition zone. water and gas saturation in a typical homogeneous rock example. the capillary pressure in two different pore sizes will be the same.
2. in associated free gas caps. Pressure distribution around a producing oil well completed in a homogeneous zone will gradually drop from the reservoir pressure some distance from the wellbore until closer to the wellbore where it will decline quite sharply.Example Fluid Distribution in a Uniform Sand Reservoir (Containing Connate Water. .ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 18 OF 295 ENI S. or in associated aquifers. It is produced principally by pressure inherent in gas dissolved in oil.p.6.A. Pressure Distribution Around the Wellbore Pressure distribution in the reservoir and factors which influence it are of great of significance in interpreting well production trends caused by pressure characteristics. Fluid Flow In The Reservoir Oil has little natural ability to produce itself into the wellbore. The wellhead pressure will be much lower due to the influence of hydrostatic pressure and tubing frictional effects. Oil and Gas Cap) 2.A . Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 0 REVISION Figure 2.
E Corrections are required to account for the flow of compressible fluids and for turbulent flow velocities. the pressure drop across the last 15ft of the formation surrounding the wellbore is about one half of the total pressure drop from the well to a point 500ft away in the reservoir.Pressure Distribution Near Wellbore In Radial Flow Radial Flow Around The Wellbore Steady state radial flow of incompressible fluid is described by Darcy’s Law: q= 0. As shown in figure 2. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 0 REVISION In a radial flow situation.p.b. Obviously flow velocities increase tremendously as fluid approaches the wellbore. Figure 2. 2. most of the pressure drop in the reservoir occurs fairly close to the wellbore.A. in a uniform sand.B . where fluids move towards the well from all directions. This area around the wellbore is the ‘critical area’ and as much as possible should be done to prevent damage or flow restrictions in this critical area.00708kh(p o −p w ) r Bµ1n( o ) rw Eq. .ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 19 OF 295 ENI S.
ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 20 OF 295 ENI S.A. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 0 REVISION Figure 2. 2.C.F Figure 2. k= k 1h1 +k 2 h 2 +k 3 h 3 h1 +h 2 +h 3 Eq. which is the usual case. permeablities must be averaged for flow through parallel layers of differing permeabilities.D .p.Units For Darcy’s Law Equation For non-homogeneous zones.Radial Flow In Parallel Combination of Beds .
Actual test data with very high permeability sand. Curve A indicates that plugging with even high permeability (1 Darcy) sand gives a large pressure drop.f below.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 21 OF 295 ENI S.p.G Figure 2. curve B. proves turbulent flow results in higher pressure drop than Darcy’s Law calculations. In cases where there may be sand problems and a gravel pack is used. Investigators have provided turbulence correction factors which can be applied to Darcy’s equation to permit calculation of pressure drop through perforating tunnels. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 0 REVISION Varying permeabilities around the well in series can be averaged as follows: ro ) rw k= r r r 1n( 1 ) 1n( 2 ) 1n( 3 ) rw r1 r2 + + k1 k2 k3 1n( Eq. predict. the tunnels are packed with gravel to hold the formation in place. which will cause a restriction. 2.Radial Flow In Series Combination Of Beds Linear Flow Through Perforations Ideally perforating tunnels should provide be large and deep enough to prevent any restriction to flow. Experiments have shown that pressure drop through gravel filled perforations compared with uncorrected linear flow Darcy’s Law calculations is substantial as shown in figure 2.E . Flow through perforating tunnels is linear rather radial and Darcy’s equation must be corrected as turbulent flow usually exists. curve C.A. .
Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 0 REVISION Figure 2. Low permeability is often caused by damage close to the wellbore through drilling. pressure drawdown will be appreciable higher than normal thus reducing flowing bottom-hole pressures and causing the well to be placed on artificial lift if higher productions rates are necessary.F .A. two factors may cause low flowing bottomhole pressures. These are permeability and producing rate.p. This is particularly detrimental as the effect close to the wellbore is greatly magnified. With low permeability or excessive rate of production. . completion or intervention operations.Pressure Drop Versus Flow Rate Through Perforation Causes Of Low Flowing Bottom-Hole Pressure In a well with uniform sand and fluid conditions.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 22 OF 295 ENI S.
. in an otherwise productive interval. where transient pressure testing techniques may give questionable results concerning formation damage.A. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 0 REVISION The existence of damage can be calculated by well test results analysing the pressure build-up periods. production logging techniques may provide helpful data.K In multi-zone completion intervals.I Flow efficiency: FE= = Jideal Jactual p−p wf −∆p s p−p wf Eq. which are not contributing to the total flow. 2. 2. 2.H Other terms which are used to quantify formation damage are Damage Ratio and Flow Efficiency. Flow profiling may highlight zones. The skin effect (abnormal pressure drop) or the normal radial flow pressure drop can be calculated by: ∆p s = 141. Non-contributing zones are likely to have been damaged. Damage ratio calculation is: DR= where: qt qa also: DR= = Jideal Jactual p−p wf p−p wf −∆p s Eq.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 23 OF 295 ENI S. 2.p.J = = Theoretical flow rate without damage Actual flow rate observed qt qa Eq.2qBµ ×s kh Eq.
There are three basic drive mechanisms: • • • Dissolved gas Gas cap Water drive. In a dissolved gas drive reservoir without any artificial pressure maintenance technique. A gas drive reservoir’s primary pressure source is the expansion of a gas cap over the oil zone. Well spacing. is fundamental and the cost of time.h. pressure declines rapidly. Water drive reservoirs pressure remains high and gas-oil ratios are lower but downstructure well intervals quickly begin to produce water.g and figure 2. figure 2. gas-oil ratio peaks rapidly and then declines rapidly. . Gradually even the up-structure wells will water out to maximise oil recovery.p.e.2. i. the source of pressure is principally the liberation and expansion of gas from the oil phase as pressure is reduced. A water drive reservoir’s principle pressure source is an external water hydrostatic pressure communicated to below the oil zone. these can be drilled at the appropriate spacing to maximise recovery with the least amount of wells. In a dissolved gas reservoir.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 24 OF 295 ENI S. or well location. Obviously many factors must be considered in developing a reservoir. the investment will have already been made.7. and also for later re-completions. Re-completing would not reduce the gas-oil ratio. Most reservoirs in actuality produce by a combination of all three mechanisms. therefore lose pressure less rapidly. In a gas cap drive reservoir. however the main factors concentrate on the reservoir itself and the procedure used to exploit hydrocarbon recovery. to systematically recover reservoir hydrocarbons. By careful planning when enough information is gained to determine the well locations. Well intervention or recompletion to shut-off up-structure intervals may control the gas-oil ratio. and primary oil recovery is relatively low. The effect of the drive mechanism on the producing characteristics must be evaluated in the completion design process. pressure declines less rapidly and gas-oil ratios increase as the gas cap expands into the up-structure well completion intervals. establish the detailed geological picture regarding zone continuity and locate oil-water and gas-oil contacts. Effects Of Reservoir Characteristics Reservoir Drive Mechanisms 0 REVISION In an oil reservoir. This is controlled by well interventions or re-completions to shut-off the water production or the well is shut-in. therefore if development drilling proceeds on the basis of close spacing before the drive mechanism is identified. This does not usually present an insurmountable problem as a field of any considerable size will require a minimum number of wells to be drilled in any case to define the reservoir. labour and materials consumed in the drilling are largely non-recoverable. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 2.A. primary production results from existing pressure in the reservoir. show typical reservoir pressures versus production trends and gas-oil ratio production trends for the three basic drive mechanisms.
Figure 2.p.Gas-Oil Ratios Trends For Various Drive Mechanisms . Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 0 REVISION Many case histories are available to show problems resulting from reservoir development without having sufficient information about the stratigraphy of the reservoir.G .H .ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 25 OF 295 ENI S.Reservoir Pressure Trends For Various Drive Mechanisms Figure 2.A.
can be set low in the reservoir bed.p. Regular spacing would place many completions too near the gas-oil contact. provided the rock is stratified. the wells in thin sands with a high angle of dip is likely to be more efficiently controlled by having the completion irregularly spaced and low to conform to the shape of the reservoir. some general statements can be made: Dissolved gas drive reservoirs: Well completions in reservoirs with low structural relief can be made in a regularly spaced pattern throughout the reservoir and. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 0 REVISION With regard to drive mechanisms. Again completion intervals should be low in the structure to permit the gas cap to grow for maximum recovery and minimum gas production. Significant levels of water production are unavoidable in later field life when maximising production rates. If this is recognised after drilling begins. Regular spacing of the wells may cause early water production and possible early abandonment in conjunction with reducing the drive effectiveness through excessive water production.A. Due to the low recovery by the primary drive mechanism. .ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 26 OF 295 ENI S. Like the dissolved gas drive reservoir. In this scenario it would be expected that oil recovery would be greater with the minimum well investment as the oil will drain down-structure through time. dip angle is low and gas cap is completely underlayed by oil. A water reservoir in a thin sand with high angle of dip may best be developed with irregular well spacing because of the structural characteristics. Again the completion intervals should be structurally low because of the angle of dip and the exact sub-surface location would vary with well location on the structure. Water drive reservoirs: Wells can be spaced on a regular pattern on a thick sand and low angle of dip. the well locations must be changed quickly to take full advantage of the situation. Completion intervals should be selected high on the structure to permit long production life while oil is displaced up to the completion intervals by invading water from below. some means of secondary recovery will almost certainly be required at some point in life of the reservoir and the initial well completion design should take this into account. Such reservoirs are common where multiple this sands are found on a single structure and the oil column is only a fraction of the total productive relief. A regular spacing can also be used for dissolved gas reservoirs with high angle of dip. Gas cap drive reservoirs: Wells are generally spaced on a regular pattern where the sand is thick.
as described in the previous section is to complete water drive reservoirs high and for dissolved gas drive reservoir low on the structure to obtain an adequate number of wells without excess. is a distinct possibility.i and figure 2. Completions with more than one zone are termed multi-zone completions and are required for long completion intervals for obtaining sufficient volumes of production. Reservoir Homogeneity 0 REVISION The general procedures.I . Additional distribution of intervals in the various members can then be made during later well interventions on the basis of data obtained. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 2. Single string/single zone completions are preferred to facilitate thorough flushing for higher recovery and flexibility of re-completion to control reservoir performance. Figure 2. or water from a water basin. If the reservoir is stratified. In thin beds or highly stratified beds. either by shale breaks or by variations in permeability. Similar assumptions can be made for carbonate and even reef type reservoirs which results in reservoirs of a highly stratified nature. ‘fingering’ of the free gas down from a gas cap. Most sandstone reservoirs were originally laid down as stratified layers of varying porosity and permeability.8. it will probably be necessary to stagger the completion intervals in various members of the reservoir to be sure that each is drained properly. Vertical staggering of the completion can be effected during development to obtain proportionate depletion of the various strata. experience and operating conditions. However this is only practical if the reservoir is uniform.Irregular Water Encroachment and Breakthrough .j.A. Fluids from such reservoirs will flow through the various layers at different restrictions to flow and often there are impervious beds between the layers so that fluid cannot flow between the bed to bed.2. To maximise recovery. This is demonstrated in figure 2.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 27 OF 295 ENI S. especially if the interval is short and production rates are high. intervals should be produced independently wherever practical (usually determined by economics).p.
1.p. If the gas is wet with no retrograde condensation. If retrograde condensation is involved.High GOR Production by Encroachment of Gas 2.J . or if dry gas. the changes occurring in the reservoir samples. by means of subsurface samplers and by obtaining surface samples of separator liquid and gas.A.3. Information concerning the characteristics and behaviour of gas needed for gas reservoirs. it may require numerous tests and measurements. Two general methods are used to obtain samples of reservoir oil for laboratory examination purposes. . Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 0 REVISION Figure 2. 2. and to measure. the information is less complex. HYDROCARBON DATA The practical approach to the study of reservoir fluid behaviour is to anticipate pressure and temperature changes in the reservoir and at surface during production.3. The surface samples are then recombined in the laboratory in proportions equal the gas-oil ratio measured at the separator during well testing. by laboratory tests. The results of these tests then provide the basic fluid data for estimates of fluid recovery by various methods of reservoir operations and also to estimate reservoir parameters through transient pressure testing. Oil Property Correlation Several generalisations of oil sample data are available to permit correlations of oil properties to be made (refer to the Compant Well Test Manual for sampling techniques). depends upon the type of gas and the nature of the problem.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 28 OF 295 ENI S.
is mainly caused by the drilling and completion practices. Good drilling and completion practices can or may minimise this damage allowing use of the idealised IPR curve to be used for completion design. The theoretical IPR is an idealistic assumption of flow performance without pressure drop due to skin effect in the near wellbore region and governed only by the size. high rate or high GOR oil wells.k. Some completion designs to deal with reservoir conditions. varies with flowrate against a fixed back-pressure which is normally the wellhead or separator pressure. velocity effects in gas wells. The prediction of this relationship is complicated by the nature of multi-phase fluid flow. The inflow performance relationship (IPR) provides the flow potential of the reservoir into the wellbore against the resistance to flow of the formation and near wellbore region. it is first necessary to determine its full potential and which way this can be fully exploited within any technical or economic constraints. shape and permeability of the producing zone and the properties of the produced fluids.p. stimulation procedures which can provide a negative skin are desirable as this increases production.k which requires continuous repetition during field life to account for changing conditions.A. or pump intake pressure. The basic theory of this is described in this section along with some simplified IPR relationships from observed field data. Flow behaviour in the near wellbore region may cause a dramatic effect on the IPR curve which results in greatly reduced flow capability. friction losses and flowing temperatures. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 2. Alternatively. The process of this analysis is shown in figure 2. The results of the outflow performance analysis are usually produced graphically depicting how bottom hole flowing pressure (BHFP).4. .ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 29 OF 295 ENI S. These curves are termed tubing performance curves (TPC) and the point of intersection is the natural flowing point as demonstrated earlier in figure 2. will also cause reduced IPR curves which must be anticipated during the design phase. Two phase flow. This is characterised by a damaged IPR curve and the amount of damage or skin effect. in undamaged near wellbore regions also reduce the IPR curve. Hence. Once the IPR is completed. The determination of the well’s performance entails analysing the following: • • • • In-flow performance Near wellbore performance and design Multiphase flow of tubing performance Artificial lift. such as gravel packs for unconsolidated sands. effective fluid density. RESERVOIR/PRODUCTION FORECAST 0 REVISION To obtain the optimum performance from a well. analysis of the outflow performance requires predictions of phase behaviour. the outflow performance can be determined which takes into consideration the relationship between the surface flowrate and pressure drop in the tubing.
or optimising.p. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 0 REVISION Figure 2. the tubing size is necessary to optimise the well performance over the life of the well and should include the potential benefits of artificial lift systems and/or stimulation to reduce near wellbore skin effects.A.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 30 OF 295 ENI S.Process of Determining Optimum Well Performance Selecting.K . .
Straight Line IPR The simplest IPR equation assumes that inflow into a well is proportional to the pressure differential between the reservoir and the wellbore which is termed the ‘drawdown’. it has been verified that the straight line approach also provides the accuracy needed for well performance calculations in situations which exceed the theoretical basis. As more data becomes available.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 31 OF 295 ENI S. is: J= where: q = Total liquid flow rate at surface under stock tank conditions (14.4.A. ∆p=p R −p wf Eq. The use of IPRs generated from reservoir simulation models is also described as is the technique for the applications of the various techniques for predicting inflow performance.g. the more appropriate it is to use theoretical radial flow equation. o 60 F) q p R − p wf Eq.e. The linear relationship can be substantiated from theoretical arguments for a single incompressible fluid (i. psi Reservoir pressure.1. above the bubble point). 2. the constant of proportionality is termed the productivity index (PI). However.M . Oil Well .p. an empirical expression can be validated and applied. low drawdowns and damaged wells. the flow rate is directionally proportional to the drawdown. psi Bottom-hole flowing pressure. PI defined as J by the API. psi. however for larger projects. Inflow Perfomance 0 REVISION This section addresses the fundamental principles of inflow performance for oil and gas wells. 2.7psia. e.L where: ∆p pR pwf = = = Drawdown pressure. Essentially the less data which is available. In situations which allow the use of a straight line IPR. With a straight line IPR. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 2. reservoir simulation is usually employed.
Productivity Index. ft Wellbore radius. result in higher estimates of productivity than when under stabilised conditions. md Reservoir fluid viscosity.Straight Line IPR or Productivity Index J The assumption of stable inflow performance relationship. Production Engineers relate J to gross liquid production (oil and water) whereas Reservoir Engineers relate it to oil productivity. is that well is producing in pseudo-steady state or steady state flow conditions. also needs to be treated with caution as Production Engineers and Reservoir Engineers assume different basis for J. J. cp Reservoir formation volume factor. dimensionless (S ’= S + Dq) .75+S′ Eq. J can be calculated directly from bottom-hole gauges in well test results or estimated pressures from simulation studies. Before this the well produces under transient conditions. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 0 REVISION Figure 2. ft Total effective skin. J.A.2µ o B o 1n e rw −0. or stabilised flow. bbl/stb Drainage radius.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 32 OF 295 ENI S. 2.N where: h ko µo Bo ro rw S’ = = = = = = Net pay thickness. can also be derived theoretically from Darcy’s radial flow equation: Jo = k oh r 141. Oil PI. ft Effective oil permeability.L .p. as in most well tests.
As water saturation increases. Straight line IPRs with PIs greater than the ideal are typical of wells with negative skin such as when they have been stimulated. increased gas saturation in oil wells. Deviation from the theoretical ideal PI (i. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 0 REVISION This assumes pseudo-steady state flow from a well in the centre of a circular reservoir and it is worth noting that ko is the effective permeability to oil for an oil PI. The PI is very useful for describing the potential of various wells as it combines all rock and fluid properties as well as geometrical issues in a single constant making it unnecessary to consider these properties individually. changes in radial flow geometry and non-Darcy pressure losses due to high flow velocities in gas wells. producing below the bubble point. S’ = 0) should be expected as a result of additional pressure losses in the near wellbore area due to damage.e.p.Effect of Damage And Fractures on a Well’s PI . have natural fractures or are highly deviated. Damaged wells with positive skins have straight line IPRs with PIs less than the ideal PI.A. Ko obviously decreases and as does Jo. high rate or high GOR oil wells. fractures.M.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 33 OF 295 ENI S. Figure 2.
psi Bottom-hole flowing pressure. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 Oil Well . Once the BHFP falls below the bubble point pressure. Figure 2.p.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 34 OF 295 ENI S.2 wf p qmax R q where: pR pwf q qmax = = = = Reservoir pressure. stb/d Maximum liquid production rate when pwf = 0.o).8 wf p R 2 Eq. Vogel used a computer programme to model a variety of solution gas reservoirs and developed a generalised IPR reference curve to account for the two phase flow effects below the bubble point.A. gas saturation builds up around the wellbore which reduces the permeability to liquid which of course reduces well productivity at that particular drawdown compared to predicted by linear PI.Vogel’s Two Phase Flow IPR 0 REVISION The previous straight line IPR does not hold with two phase flow (gas and liquid) in the reservoir. This means the true IPR is curved and.N . He also presented an approximation using the expression: p =1−0.Typical IPR Curve for Saturated Reservoir .O Qmax is a theoretical value sometimes referred to as Absolute Open Flow (AOF) of the oil well. 2. There may also be some non-Darcy gas flow effects in wells producing below the bubble point. decreases with increasing drawdown (slopes 1 and 2 in figure 2. hence the PI J. psi Liquid production. stb/d p −0.
Procedures to correct for skin are available.O . Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 0 REVISION Vogel’s equation has been validated through observed field data particularly on pumped wells with high drawdowns where pwf approaches zero. Figure 2.A.p.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 35 OF 295 ENI S.Vogel’s IPR Reference Curve . The model used to develop Vogel’s reference curve did not include skin effects which would tend to straighten the IPR curve.
A.T . 2.8 wf p R 2 Eq. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 0 REVISION Where inflow relationship passes through the bubble point.2 wf p 1 . psi p −0.8 wf p b 2 Eq. As oil is normally produced from a different zone to the water. 2. 2.S If oil and water both flow from the same zone then the Vogel equation is used for the gross flow rate: p q o +q w =(q o +q o max )1−0.P Eq. 2.Q If water production is involved.8 wf p R 2 Eq.p. For this. Vogel’s equation is combined with the PI to develop a general IPR equation.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 36 OF 295 ENI S. it is dependant upon whether it is produced from the same interval or others. 2.8 b where: pb = Bubble point pressure. a straight line IPR is drawn above the bubble point and the curved IPR signifies the two phase flow below this point. When the BHFP is above the bubble point use the normal straight line equation: q o =J(p R −p wf ) and when it drops below the bubble point use the modified Vogel equation: p Jp qo =J(p R −p wf )+ b 1−0.2 wf p R p −0.2 wf p R Eq. the following equations are applied: q w =J(p R −p wf ) p q o =q o max 1−0.R p −0. This has been published by Brown.
curvature of the IPR curve is not solely due to the reasons highlighted above but also due to rate dependent skin. This is where Darcy’s law which is good for moderate to low flow rates is affected by high velocities.P .Generalised IPR Curves As described earlier.A. 2. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 0 REVISION Figure 2.5 to 1. Fetkovich recognised that many oil wells could be handled in the same way as gas wells using the curved IPR: q o =C p R −p wf 2 ( 2 n ) Eq.U where: C n = = Linear deliverability coefficient Deliverability exponent (0. This non-Darcy flow.p.0) .Combined Straight Line IPR and Vogel IPR Oil Wells .ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 37 OF 295 ENI S. is sometimes the most dominant factor especially for gravel packs and high rate gas-liquid ratio wells. or turbulence.
Q .p. however it requires four points at widely different flow rates to maximise the benefit of this method. Blount and Jones presented an alternative generalised IPR equation which was an extension to the Forcheimer equation to include the non-Darcy flow effects: p R −p wf =aq+bq 2 Eq. It is recommended that n be assumed to be 1 where no multi-rate data is available. It is seen that when n = 1. n.W . If such data is not available.A. Figure 2. n should be assumed as 1. for two values of the exponent. the Vogel and Fetkovich IPRs are similar.V This equation is compared with Vogel’s reference curve in figure 2. 2. n is considered as the means to account for non-Darcy flow but there is no theoretical technique for finding it as it is a function of the rate used during testing.pwf ) will give a straight line with a slope of 1/n. If multi-rate data is 2 2 available then a log-log plot of q versus (pR .q.Vogel And Fetkovich IPR Curve Comparisons Use of this approach will provide better results than Vogel’s method. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 0 REVISION Golan and Whitson showed how this relationship could be expressed in a similar form to Vogel’s reference curve as: p = 1− wf q max p R q 2 n Eq.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 38 OF 295 ENI S. 2.
etc. leads to a significant increase in skin due to scaling. the reservoir pressure will decline against time. Oil Wells . The effects of increasing water influx on the gross PI.Y J * future J * present and: q future =J * future p p R future 1−0. it takes no account of completion non-Darcy effects such as inefficient perforating.2. The relative permeability to oil will also decrease due to increased gas saturation further shifting the curve downwards.75+S Eq. can also be found theoretically but requires a knowledge of the turbulence factor. where two phase flow effects are negligible) . 2. The liberation of gas also affects the oil fluid properties. skin damage during remedial operations and reduced contribution from reduced pay through plugging back. coefficient b can be much greater than b and perforating efficiency (shots/ft and penetration) is a very important to productivity.2µ o B o re ln kh rw −0. mobilisation of fines. if multi-rate test data is available. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 0 REVISION The Darcy flow coefficient. In very high permeability wells. 2. Again. S. which is rarely measured in the laboratory. Similarly. 2. b.8 p wf p Rfuture 2 Eq. β.e. Standing presented a method of predicting future IPR curves by the equation: k ro µ o B o future = k ro µ o B o present Eq.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 39 OF 295 ENI S. both a and b can be determined using a plot of (q R . a. shifting the IPR curve downwards resulting in a decline of the production rate and causing flow instability.Predicting Future IPRs Estimates of future IPR curves throughout the life of the reservoir are frequently required for production forecasting and planning artificial lift designs.X The skin term. In solution drive reservoirs. is relative to all non-rate dependent skin contributions. can be determined theoretically for a well producing at pseudo-steady state flow in the middle of a circular reservoir: a= 141. The other non-Darcy flow coefficient.Z where: J* = PI at minimal drawdown (i.pwf)/q versus q gives a straight line with a slope of b and an interception of a.A. described earlier in Section 2.p.2 wf p R future −0.
Relative permeabilities and fluid saturations are determined from special core analysis data and reservoir material balance analysis (using either analytical calculations or a reservoir simulation model).pwf ) versus q is conducted from which the slope gives the value of 1/n.Simplified Deliverability Relationship Rawlins and Schellardt developed a simplified gas well back-pressure equation which relates gas flow rate to the BHFP and is the well Known AOF equation. 2. This exponent can vary between 1. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 0 REVISION J* at present conditions is established by carrying out a well test or theoretically. it is normal to test the well at three rates at a fixed period of time followed by a single rate until stabilisation is reached to obtain C. While this method is widely used throughout the industry.present p Rpresent = q max . If data for Standing’s equation are not available. however in high rates this is highly improbable and makes the IPR projections almost impossible and erring on the optimistic side. Gas Wells .66 have been found in actual field studies by Eickmeir. Obviously at low to moderate rates there is little turbulence and n is close to 1.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 40 OF 295 ENI S. which in modified form is: q max . . It is. in the equation must be estimated from one of a number of well test methods (e. The exponent.g. therefore. it is not recommended for estimating IPRs as it lacks the theoretical basis and other rigorous equations are available. The constant C is also found from the log-log plot and varies as a function of flow time until it reaches a constant pseudo-steady state. Eickmeier first proposed an expression based on Fetkovich’s work. Fluid viscosities and volume are determined from PVT correlations. p g =C p R −p wf 2 ( 2 n ) Eq. A 2 2 log-log plot of (pR . To obtain a value of n. 2.0 for laminar flow to 0. isochronal test) due to there being no accepted theoretical basis available.BB This equation was developed empirically using several hundred multi-rate gas well test data and not by theory but satisfactorily describes the behaviour of the gas well tests considered.future p R future m Eq. n . the simpler approach like Fetkovich relation for predicting qmax in Vogel’s reference curve. using kh and S from build-up data but is only applicable if flow is laminar (n = 1).A. In some instances C can be calculated from reservoir parameters.p.5 for fully turbulent flow. An exponent of 2. critical that well tests are conducted up to or above the rate of intended production. The problem with this isochronal test is the time required to reach stabilised flow in tight gas sands which could be months.5 gives the best fit to the gas drive IPR curves by Vogel while values of 1.AA It may be shown theoretically that exponent m could vary between 1 and 3.
75+S+Dqg Eq. there is curvature in the plot of µz against p making neither approach applicable. The non-Darcy coefficient B can also be calculated theoretically but.FF .75+S 2 Eq. The expression below is based on the work of Forchemier and is: p R −p wf = Aqg + Aqg 2 Eq. It will be seen that the gas IPR is curved even when the non-Darcy term is 0. A and B.DD Gas viscosity. 2.CC The Darcy and non-Darcy coefficients.000psi. 2.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 41 OF 295 ENI S. 2. however the straight line plot is (pR .000psi when µz is proportional to pressure. are determined in a similar manner as the 2 2 generalised IPR equation for an oil well. β.A. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 Gas Wells . For most gas compositions this is valid only at pressures less than approx 2. an equation similar to eq.Generalised Deliverability 0 REVISION Due to the shortcomings of the back-pressure equation described above and since turbulence which is common in gas wells. as for oil wells. The non-Darcy skin is also frequently accounted for by using: m(p R )−m(p wf )=1422 q g T re ln k gh rw −0. Between 2.w can be used.m(pwf)/q versus q to find a value of B from the slope and to check the value of A from the intercept. In this range the correct inflow equation is written in terms of pseudo-pressures: m(p)=2 where: µg z = = ∫ p dp pb µ z g p Eq.pwf )/q versus q. it must be accounted for properly and a theoretical based method is more often used in modern engineering.EE B = 1422 Here the results of the multi-rate test would be plotted as m(pg) . normally pg and pwf for inflow calculations. 2.cc is not precisely correct since inherent in its derivation is an assumption that the product of µ and z is constant.p.000psi or if drawdown pressure changes are small which is the case in high permeability wells above 3.000psi and 3. 2. requires knowledge of the correct turbulence factor. eq. 2. hence: m(p R )−m(p wf )= Aq g +Bqg where: A = 1422 T re ln k gh rw TD k gh −0. cp Gas deviation factor and where the integration limits are substituted with the pressure range being considered.
ff) can also be directly entered into some simulators. the pseudo-pressure values are readily available. a model needs to be set up by the reservoir engineer with input from the production engineer. Reservoir Simulation For IPR Curves Reservoir simulation is commonly used in the development. etc. artificial lift or use of compression. workovers and movement of fines will have on near wellbore performance causing changes of skin during the life of the project. predict turbulence and two phase flow effects by the use of total skin S’ inclusive of near wellbore and rate dependent skin effects. Future stimulation or any damaging effects need to be considered.4. planning and reservoir management of many fields today. The value of D (Refer to eq.p. but also to generate IPR curves for determination of how current and future well IPRs will vary across the field. To obtain the best use of simulation studies. Variations between the ideal IPRs and actual IPRs which may be expected from the undrilled well locations. 2. well radius. With the use of simulation the production engineer is able not only to predict pressures.2.A. WORs and GORs to obtain production targets. Using expected off takes.. 2. If a PI is entered in rather than skin. F The sum of all non-rate dependent skin Rate dependent skin Effective gas permeability. mscf/d o Reservoir temperature. it will be necessary to correct it for the grid block’s size and shape. This information is derived from well test results and is input into the models theoretical IPR equations as skin factor. md 0 REVISION As modern test analysis use computer software. Outflow performance curves should be derived from an accurate computer programme as some programmes are not rigorous in the handling of two phase flow. • • • • . Typically the following should be addressed: • • Assumptions on the minimum permissible value of Pwf as dictated by the outflow performance altered by varying water-cut.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 42 OF 295 ENI S. Long term effects from well interventions. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 where: D qg T S D kg is = = = = = Derived from well tests Gas flow rate. therefore there is a growing trend to use gas pseudo pressures for predicting gas well IPRs at all pressure conditions although the pressure squared method has a use in the field for convenience.
Often more reliable predictions in shape of the well IPR can be achieved by engineers using single well models to study the probability of water or gas conning or to model transient well test results. production rates and wellbore saturations at various time steps. stimulation. Input on skin is realistic for the period covered. skins. then the model can be used to evaluate the effect of depletion. It is extremely important that production engineers understand that the uncertainties involved and do not give greater reliability on model studies than reasonably can be expected. therefore the predicted flow rates should not be considered as precise and the relevant reservoir engineer should be consulted to establish the accuracy. it should be used to update the generalised IPR to reflect the actual pay interval. If the reservoir pressure refers to grid block or to the drainage area. however judgement is required when using these results. As the use of full field reservoir simulation requires many assumptions and simplifications are made to manage the problem. partial completion. however.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 43 OF 295 ENI S. revisions can be made to the completion designs.g. They may also be able to advise on possible sudden changes in water cut or gas production due to conning or cusping. Once this achieved. gravel packing. in extrapolating the shape of the IPR and determining the effects by well operations and production may have on skin. e.A. . water breakthrough and saturation changes on production and used for artificial lift studies. reservoir quality. etc. After using measured IPR curves. saturations. It is also used to determine the sensitivity of production to drawdown and optimise perforating strategy. deviation. From this. Care must be exercised. pressure and mechanical data. Whether rates have been modified for downtime due to maintenance. have been considered.p. When and as new well data from log and RFT/DST results becomes available. etc. workover or sales contracts. programmes and production forecast. Ensure that proposed completion effects on near wellbore performance. in particular check: • • • • • Confirm if non-Darcy and multi-phase flow effects have been taken into consideration. the model needs to be updated to include actual log and test results. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 0 REVISION The results from such field models will provide the reservoir pressure.
b.m(pwf) = Aq + Bq ) Omit B if only single rate data available Table 2. The selection of an IPR model based on this is given in table 2.4. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 2.IPR Selection Based on Reservoir Type The appropriate technique will also depend on the reservoir data that is available which is function of the development stage.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 44 OF 295 ENI S.A . IPR Selection 0 REVISION In developing representative IPRs for a field. These are summarised again in the following table: Type Of Well Undersaturated oil Saturated oil Damaged saturated oil Undersaturated oil at pR but saturated at pwf Wells producing oil and water Producing Conditions Pwf > pb Pwf < pb Pwf < pb S > +3 PR > pb Pwf < pb WC > 0 Use as above for the appropriate oil and linear PI or radial flow equation for water Linear PI or radial flow equation Blount .p.A.Jones Pseudo-pressure equation (m(pR) . the appropriate IPR model needs to be selected based upon the anticipated production conditions.Jones or radial flow equation with turbulence Blount .3. 2 Recommended IPR Model Linear PI or radial flow equation Vogel or Fetkovich Standing or linear PI if very damaged (S > 7) Composite Vogel and linear Water zone High rate undersaturated oil High rate saturated oil Gas wells WC > 90% q > 25stb/d/ft q > 25stb/d/ft Pwf < pb .
large field Conceptual design. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 0 REVISION Radial Flow Equation Technical Evaluations Prospect evaluation Exploration well results Development Planning Conceptual design.B .IPR Selection Based on Development Stage . Identify variations geographically with time. Optimising Operations/ Workover Well performance assessment Field studies (forecasts/ artificial lift. Primary method for post workover IPR Primary method for post workover IPR. Highlight damage risks. Table 2. Evaluate completion methods. Validate reservoir model results. small field/single well Development plan Primary method.A. Highlight damage risks. Validate results. Highlight damage risks. If available. Validate results. Guestimate potential. small field/single well Primary method. Primary method for current IPRs. Detailed design. - Primary method. Highlight damage risks. - Reservoir Model IPRs - Empirical IPRs Validate interpretation Validate results. Primary method for current IPRs. Estimate skin and determine cause. Validate results. Validate results. lift/ compression) Workover planning Revised development plan Predict future IPR Predict future IPR Primary method.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 45 OF 295 ENI S. Primary method. Primary method. Extrapolate test results. Validate results and skin assumptions. Highlight damage risks. Validate results. use for future IPRs. large field Detailed design.p. Evaluate completion results. Define model input Primary method.
The variable composition model requires performing vapour-liquid equilibrium (VLE) or ‘flash’ calculations to determine the amount and composition of both the gas and liquid phases. PVT Relationships There are two PVT methods used in the prediction of mass transfer between oil and gas. Each model uses differing methods to determine the densities and viscosities for each phase and interfacial surface tension. Refer to the following sections. the ‘black oil’ model and the ‘compositional’ model. In the vast majority of cases there are sufficient data to use the tuned black oil model correlation method.p. Pressure drop prediction.A. Oil Well .PVT Relationships With most modern software programmes there are four methods of obtaining PVT properties for oil wells which are listed in order of preference. The methods for predicting pressure and temperature drops are addressed in the following sections. The black oil model assumes a constant composition for the liquid phase and accounts for mass transfer using the parameters gas-oil ratio and formation volume factor. In general the black oil model is easier to use than the compositional model. Flowing Temperature prediction. Tuned black oil model empirical correlations. Application of these concepts. Untuned black oil model empirical correlations. Interpolate from compositional simulation data.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 46 OF 295 ENI S. Outflow Performance Tubing Performance 0 REVISION Predicting fluid flow behaviour in tubing involves combining the basic fundamentals of mass momentum and energy conservation with complex mass transfer phenomena for multicomponent hydrocarbon mixtures. • • • • Interpolate directly from experimental data. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 2. . The relationship between pressure and temperature drop in wells and PVT behaviour is complex. Pressure drop is determined using empirical and semi-empirical correlations and carried out on computer software programmes.4. results in utilising the following interrelated topics: • • • Phase behaviour.4.
reservoir or production reasons. Profile based on adiabatic heat transfer. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 0 REVISION The approach adopted when choosing the appropriate method for each application should be: a) Use the black oil model flash vaporisation lab data if they are available. Use black oil model parameters generated from results of compositional simulation if it has been performed for incidental reasons.e. Use the tuned empirical correlations for black oil model variables if the appropriate although limited experimental data are available. High pour point crude oil wells.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 47 OF 295 ENI S. Profile based on conservation of energy that utilises complex wellbore heat transfer calculations. Do not use differential separation data since it is not representative of the vaporisation that occurs in the tubing. The linear profile is the most widely used due to the complexity of heat transfer calculations in conjunction with the lack of sufficient measured data. i. Do not use untuned black oil model empirical correlations unless the data available cannot justify a more rigorous method. Black oil models parameters should never be used to predict PVT properties for gas or gas condensate systems.A. the error has been found to be less than 15% in overall temperature drop in typical wells. Although the linear approach is unrealistic. b) c) d) Gas/Gas Condensate Wells . Some software programmes. Temperature Drop Calculation Predicting the temperature loss in the wellbore as a function of depth and time is necessary to determine PVT properties for use in calculating pressure drop. . PVT properties for gas and gas condensate wells must be described with the compositional model. Profile based on a simplified version of the complete rigorous calculation involving correlating parameter for which there is unavailable information but with data which are available.g. Profile based on a specified heat transfer coefficient. However. Wells in which hydrate formation can occur. These are: • • • Gas condensate wells with retrograde condensate.p. in gas wells it has amore significant effect. constant temperature throughout the length of the string.PVT Relationships In software programmes. Some wells have produced fluids with special properties that are very sensitive to temperatures and more complex heat transfer calculations are required. temperature profiles may be specified in five ways: • • • • • Linear profile based on measured or assumed wellhead and bottom-hole temperatures. but only if experimental data is not available. e.
referred to as the ‘flow pattern’ or ‘flow regime’.GG is the pressure gradient caused by the hydrostatic head of potential energy of the multiphase liquid. The hydrostatic head is the most predominant component of the pressure gradient in oil wells.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 48 OF 295 ENI S. 2.A. the pressure is sensitive to the relative amounts of gas and liquid present at any location in the tubing. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 Pressure Drop Calculation 0 REVISION Calculating pressure drop in tubing involve numerical integration of the steady-state pressure gradient equation over the entire tubing length. This slippage causes an additional accumulation of liquid in the tubing which is termed liquid hold up. f pv 2 dp = dL FR 2g c D is the pressure gradient caused by wall friction. 2. 2. The amount of slippage that occurs is dependent upon the geometrical distribution of the gas and liquid in the pipe.II . p vdv dp = g c dL dL ACC is the pressure gradient caused by fluid acceleration. Gas and oil phases normally flow at different speeds which is the phenomenon referred to as slippage.JJ Eq. Eq. therefore.p. 2. often accounting for 90% of the pressure drop. tubing diameter and to a lesser extent PVT properties. the variables such as p and v in the pressure gradient equation are normally averages for the gas and liquid phases present.HH Eq. The equation consists of three components and can be expressed as follows: dp dp dp dp = + + dL dL HYD dL FR dL ACC where: pgsin θ dp = gc dL HYD Eq. In multi-phase systems. Flow patterns are governed primarily by the flow rates of each phase. The friction losses are the remainder of the pressure loss and are more significant in gas wells with acceleration effects being negligible except when near to atmospheric pressure.
0 REVISION Considering the above. The accuracy of existing correlations for predicting flow pattern. liquid hold up pressure gradient is limited by the ranges of data used in their development and no single method can be applied universally. Subsequent correlations were developed to predict liquid hold up but most of these first required an empirical correlation or ‘map’ to predict the flow pattern. no single method has been universally been accepted. The early developed correlations assumed the flow as homogeneous mixtures ignoring liquid hold up effects.25psi/ft 0. can be identified using flow pattern maps. Flow Patterns Transition between the various flow patterns.2psi/ft Hence. . slug and churn floe predominate in oil wells.36psi/ft 0.20psi/ft 0.1 . Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 Typical flow patterns are: • • • • • Annular flow Churn flow Slug flow Bubble flow Liquid flow.0. Typical pressure gradients in wells for different flow patterns are: • • • • Single phase oil Bubble flow Slug flow Mist flow = = = = 0.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 49 OF 295 ENI S. Although many of these have been successful to some degree. offer more potential for accurate predictions but these are not readily accepted as standard design methods as yet. Although bubble. diameter and PVT properties. The most common maps are empirically derived with coordinates based on dimensionless groups of variables that include volumetric flow rates. the total pressure drop is very dependent on flow pattern. it is obvious that the pressure at each point in the well and.A. it is possible for oil and gas wells to include all flow patterns in addition to single phase liquid and gas. referred to as mechanical models. Some software programmes use all the correlations available and the more recent promising mechanical models can be added. as listed in the previous section. it is seen that prediction of pressure drop in multi-phase systems is complex and has led to the development of different correlations to be used. therefore.p. Attempts were made to compensate for these errors in the equations by single empirical derived friction factor. More recent models developed based on flow mechanisms and conservation principles.
8 110.p.3 12.2 Relative Performance Factor.178 1.A.6 134. Ansari recently performed an evaluation of the most widely used correlations and his own proposed mechanistic model.666 Method Ansari Hagbr Dunros Aziz Begbril Orkis Mukbr Average Error 9.198 1.Evaluation of Pressure Loss Methods Using TUFFP Well Databank . As illustrated in figure 2.5 33.3 102.9 116.. Slip flow correlations where slippage is considered but not flow pattern.9 151.C .9 273.3 217.2 78.000 1.7 Table 2. RPC 1. however any one of these may be successful in a given field.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 50 OF 295 ENI S.s.8 41. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 Classification Of Methods 0 REVISION Published methods of multi-phase flow pressure gradients in wells can be placed into one of three general categories based on the assumptions from which the method was developed: • • • • Homogeneous flow correlations where slippage and flow pattern are not considered. these correlations predict different pressure drops for the same application.132 1.4 -20.7 190. Validation and actual field data are the only means of choosing a pressure loss method but this is not available at the time of designing the completions. Covier and Fogarasi (1972) Beggs and Brill (1973). table 2. performed using the TUFFP well databank consisting of 1775 flowing well surveys covering a broad range of production variables and pressure loss methods were also evaluated for each flow pattern. Mechanised models where slippage.c presents the overall results below: Absolute Average Error 101.4 177.8 Standard Deviation 163. Flow pattern dependent correlations where liquid hold up and flow pattern are considered.3 -28.3 159. flow pattern and basic flow mechanisms are considered.9 178.597 1.r and figure 2. Oil Well Correlations Oil well correlations for predicting pressure gradients in oil wells have been published and those most widely accepted in the Industry are: • • • • • Duns and Ros (1963) Hagedorn and Brown (1967) Orkiszewski (1967) Aziz.4 207.404 1.
p. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 0 REVISION Selecting the best prediction method from table 2.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 51 OF 295 ENI S.A.Comparison Lift Curves for High Gas-Oil Ratio Well . Figure 2.c is not appropriate as the best statistical results do not guarantee the best performance for a specific application. The applicability of the various methods is compared in table 2.d. The choice must be made on experience.R .
Comparison of Lift Curves for Low Gas-Oil Ratio Well .ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 52 OF 295 ENI S. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 0 REVISION Figure 2.p.A.S .
field Oil. Aziz et al (!972) Flow Pattern Dependent Brill Flow Pattern Variable depending on version Poor Laboratory and field Laboratory Oil. water. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 0 REVISION Method Ansari 1963) (TUFFP Category Mechanistic Model Accuracy Good Data N/A Fluids N/A Application/Comments Appears a little conservative. . Good where several flow patterns exist. Tends to over-predict pressure drop. can cause convergence problems in computing algorithm. Gas Duns (1963) and Ros Flow Pattern Dependent Oil. Optimistic. Liquid hold up prediction can be less than for no slip flow.A.p. Optimistic. water Oil. Developed for deviated wells but tends to over-predict. Should be avoided unless well is highly deviated. air Slip Flow Field Oil. water Hagedorn Brown (1965) and Slip Flow Good in some flow patterns Good Oil. Gas Flow Pattern Dependent Fair Some Hagedorn and Brown data. tends to under-predict pressure drop. gas Table 2. Developed for deviated wells but tends to significantly over-predict pressure drop. Should not be used except for similar conditions. Poor in bubble flow. Does not predict a TPC minimum. Gives consistent results for all flow patterns and TCP minimum. Tends to over-predict pressure drop.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 53 OF 295 ENI S. Conservative. experiment al plus field data Field experiment Air. water. gas Air. gas.Applicability of Pressure Loss Prediction Methods Gas And Gas Condensate Correlations For gas and gas condensate wells the following methods are frequently used: • • • • Cullender and Smith Single phase gas with modified gravities Multi-phase flow correlations Gray correlation. Should be used with caution. water.D. Developed to optimise gas lift in o highly deviated wells (>70 ) in Claymore field. water Beggs (1973) and Beggs and Brill with Palmer Cornish (1976) Flow Pattern Dependent Homogeneous Fair Good in some flow patterns Good Laboratory Field (annular flow) Laboratory . Tends to under-predict pressure drop. Usually not applicable for completion design. Conservative. air Does not predict a TCP minimum. Hagedorn and Brown with Griffith Bubble and restriction on hold up Kleyweg et al Occidental mod (1983) Orkiszewski (1967) Flow Pattern Dependent Field experiment Oil. Needs to be verified through use. water. water. This is the preferred correlation in the absence of other data.
If this is the case. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 0 REVISION As with oil wells. Although any of the correlations can be used. validation with field data is the only reliable method for determining the most appropriate correlation and. Flow pattern and liquid hold up is very dependent on deviation angle. When a multiphase mixture flows through a restriction. The accuracy of pressure drop calculations in these circumstances using correlations developed for vertical is obviously extremely questionable. behaviour is very dependent on geometry and a simple Bernoulli type equation with a discharge coefficient is recommended. If these reach sonic velocity. In gas wells. the Gray correlation is recommended based on the work with ‘Reinicke et al’ but results should be used with caution. the Gray correlation is generally recommended although the Ansari model mat prove to be even more accurate since it includes a good model for predicting pressure gradient in annular flow which is the most predominant in gas wells. even in low liquid rates. the phase velocities dramatically increase. liquid loading can also be predicted using simplified methods presented with Turner et al which are independent of pressure drop calculations. In any study. For sub-critical flow. accounting for deviation by simply using the sine in the hydrostatic component of the pressure gradient equation may not be adequate in these cases. either the Beggs and Brill correlation or a mechanistic model would be necessary. For wells producing high gas-water or gas-condensate ratios. Effect Of Restrictions Most oil and gas wells contain some types of flow control devices in the completion which choke flow. .ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 54 OF 295 ENI S. wells can quickly ‘load up’ over a few weeks if it is not correctly sized. For critical flow. as the difference between the predicted pressure drops is generally greater than the effect of the deviation itself. vertical correlations perform accurately enough for wells o greater than 45 .A. For wells with o deviations up to 45 from vertical. critical flow occurs. simple empirical correlations such as the Gilbert equation are sufficiently accurate. this is never usually available at the time that the completions are designed. Care is needed in the selection of tubing in that. These methods have been reviewed by Lea and Tighe.p. similarly. Effect Of Deviation Angle Nowadays most wells of interest to operators are directional or deviated wells. it is recommended that tubing size be assessed using these methods in addition to lift curve methods and that the most conservative approach be adopted. The geometry of these restrictions varies from a simple reduced diameter axial flow path to a tortuous complex path. differing correlations should not be used for different deviations.
A. etc. they must be presented in the same plot from which the intersection of the lines can be used to predict the flow rate of a well at given set of stable flow conditions (Refer to figure 2. will effect either or both the IPR and TPC and in consequence alters the production rate. reservoir pressure. Flow Rate Prediction Following the establishment of both the IPR and TPC..p.Combining IPR and TPC Curves .T .5. 2. The most common points for erosion is where there are restrictions which cause increased velocities. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 Effect Of Erosion 0 REVISION Erosion in completions occurs when there are high velocities and if there are solids particles in the flow stream. The API have published a method in API RP 14E. GLR.t ). This section describes this analysis. Systematically varying the system parameters allows comparison of the incremental effects on production and these can. be forecast and analysed for cost/benefit of the completion options. Figure 2. Continuing in this manner provides information on which decisions can be made on optimum well configuration or optimum operating conditions.4. Changing the system parameters like the tubing ID.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 55 OF 295 ENI S. in turn. to determine the threshold velocities for erosion to occur in piping systems but the validity of this for all conditions is questionable.
slippage occurs.p. as the flow rate increases. The TCP. As liquid velocities tend toward zero. the well will flow at a stable rate defined as the natural flow point. Figure 2.U. under these conditions.e. the IPR and TPC curves intersect well to the right of the minimum and. occurs due to the gas and liquid phase velocities differ at low flow rates.Combined IPR and TPC Curves Under Unstable Conditions .v. or GLR. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 Natural Flow Point 0 REVISION The characteristic ‘J’ shape of the TPC means there can be several possible intersections with the IPR as shown in figure 2. In figure 2. As the usual aim is to keep to the right of Pmin. the gas escapes from the well and the hydrostatic gradient approaches the static pressure of the liquid. the start of unstable flow conditions is rarely known especially with large size tubing. i. the hydrostatic component in the total pressure drop predominates. this is generally not a problem.t. Because of the inaccuracies of the two phase flow correlations and the difficulty in obtaining reliable data in this region. but without incurring excessive friction losses.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 56 OF 295 ENI S. If the intersection is either close to or to the left of the minimum (Refer to Figure). will give an intersection well to the right of the pmin and out of the flat portion of the TCP curve. On the other hand. the hydrostatic component reduces due the gas lift effect while the friction component increases until the minimum is reached when the friction pressure drop exactly offsets the decrease in hydrostatic pressure drop. At low flow rates. the well will tend to head and flow at unstable conditions due to the cyclic build up of liquid and periodic slug lifting by accumulated pressure of the trapped gas. The optimum tubing size.A. Pmin.t through figure 2.
a smaller size tubing or artificial lift system should be considered.A.v).p. whereas small tubing may sustain unsteady flow until the IPR and TPC curves become almost tangential. the intersection point to the left is always unstable and the well will either die or progressively produce more fluid until it reaches the stable flow point. Figure 2. or to the left of the minimum. To obtain flow at these conditions.V . Using smaller tubing may result in higher frictional pressure drops and if this reduces flow rates to below uneconomic levels. it is necessary to kick the well off quickly. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 0 REVISION If the natural flow point is in the unstable region. a tapered tubing string may be a consideration. Where the IPR and TCP curves intersect close to.IPR and TPC Curves with Two Apparent Intersection Points .ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 57 OF 295 ENI S. the flow will become increasingly unstable and wells with large size tubing will die quickly. Where the curves intersect at two rates (Refer to figure 2.
From this an economic cost analysis can be produced to analyse capital and operating cost differences.p.w).Combining Pump Performance and TCP Curves . the displacement is dependent on the pump performance curve (i. they can be used to compare the deliverability of the various methods. the TPC is displaced as a result of the effect of the gas on the density. An artificial lift system places an injection of energy into the flow system which displaces the TPC curve downwards. to consider the effect of downhole gas separation on pump outflow performance.W. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 Artificial Lift Effects 0 REVISION A well will not flow naturally if the IPR and TPC curves do not intersect and in this case artificial lift could be used to provide the pressure differential between the curves (Refer to figure 2. In gas lifted wells. By generating an outflow performance curve for each potential system. pump differential versus rate) which is plotted below the well performance curves as shown in figure 2. velocity and flow regime in the tubing above the operating gas lift valve. In a pumping well.A.e. It is necessary when carrying out this analysis. This results in a combined outflow performance curve termed the pump intake curve.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 58 OF 295 ENI S. Figure 2.w.
0stb/d/psi) provided there is no drawdown limitation.Artificial Lift Options for Deep Wells with 5 1/2ins Casing .X .p.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 59 OF 295 ENI S. while submersible pumping gives the maximum rate from the poorer zones (PI = 0.4 to 1. however the operating and capital costs of equipment must be justified against the incremental increase in production rate.A. Artificial lift is often widely used to improve flow stability and increase the production of existing producing wells. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 0 REVISION As shown in the example (figure 2. it is apparent that gas lift will maximise the deliverability of good wells (PI = 2.5std/d/psi) provided 2 7/8ins tubing is installed.x below). Figure 2.
The drawdown data should also be analysed using type curves. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 0 REVISION 3. There are two types of well test methods available: • Drill Stem Test (DST) Where Drillpipe/Tubing in combination with downhole tools is used as a short term test to evaluate the reservoir. Types of Tests Drawdown A drawdown test entails flowing the well and analysing the pressure response as the reservoir pressure is reduced below its original pressure. • Many designs of well testing strings are possible depending on the requirements of the test and the nature of the well and the type of flow test to be conducted but basically it consists of installing a packer tailpipe. WELL TESTING INTRODUCTION The main objective when drilling an exploration well is to test and evaluate the target formation. Production Test Many options of string design are available depending on the requirements of the test and the nature of the well. This was the original definition of a drill stem test or DST. The normal method of investigating the reservoir is to conduct a well test. in conjunction with the build up test. This is termed drawdown. 3. packer and downhole test tools and a tubing or drill pipe string then introducing a low density fluid into the string in order to enable the well to flow through surface testing equipment which controls the flow rate.1.1. It is not usual to conduct solely a drawdown test on an exploration well as it is impossible to maintain a constant production rate throughout the test period as the well must first cleanup. During a test where reservoir fluids do not flow to surface.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 60 OF 295 ENI S. Multi-Rate Drawdown A multi-rate drawdown test may be run when flow rates are unstable or there are mechanical difficulties with the surface equipment. It is normal to conduct a build-up test after a drawdown test. However. This is usually more applicable to gas wells but can be analysed using the Odeh-Jones plot for liquids or the Thomas-Essi plot for gas. it is not normal nowadays to plan a test on this basis. separates the fluids and measures the flow rates and pressures. 3. analysis is still possible. .p.A.1.
On low production rate gas wells. Deliverability A deliverability test is conducted to determine the well’s Inflow Performance Relation. D. There are three types of deliverability test: • • • Flow on Flow Test Isochronal Test The Modified Isochronal Test. each rate of equal duration and separated by a pressure build-up long enough to reach the stabilised reservoir pressure.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 61 OF 295 ENI S. Usually the rate is increased at each step ensuring that stabilised flow is achievable. AOFP. The AOFP is the theoretical fluid rate at which the well would produce if the reservoir sand face was reduced to atmospheric pressure. This is the normal type of test conducted on an oil well and can be analysed using the classic Horner Plot or superposition. is to conduct a second flow and PBU at a different rate to the first flow and PBU. the original pressure which is termed the pressure build-up or PBU. The final flow period is extended to achieve a stabilised flowing pressure for defining the IPR. and in the case of gas wells the Absolute Open Flow Potential. IPR. kh. This calculated rate is only of importance in certain countries where government bodies set the maximum rate at which the well may be produced as a proportion of this flow rate.A. Isochronal An isochronal test consist of a similar series of flow rates as the flow-on-flow test. This type of test is applicable to high rate gas well testing and is followed by a single pressure build up period. Flow-on-Flow Conducting a flow-on-flow test entails flowing the well until the flowing pressure stabilises and then repeating this at several different rates. except the final flow period which is extended similar to the isochronal test. D. This is the simplest form of deliverability test described below. and the rate dependant skin coefficient. where there is a flow rate dependant skin. The flow and shut-in periods are of the same length. . Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 Build-Up 0 REVISION A build-up test requires the reservoir to be flowed to cause a drawdown then the well is closed in to allow the pressure to increase back to.p. From these the permeability-height product. a simple form of test to evaluate the rate dependant skin coefficient. The flow rate again is increased at each step. The durations of each flow period are equal. and the near wellbore skin can be analysed. Modified Isochronal The modified isochronal test is used on tight reservoirs where it takes a long time for the shut-in pressure to stabilise. or near to.
if required. Interference An interference test is conducted to investigate the average reservoir properties and connectivity between two or more wells. Very high surface injection pressures may be required in order to fracture the formation.p. these must therefore be of the high accuracy electronic type gauges with negligible drift. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 Reservoir Limit 0 REVISION A reservoir limit test is an extended drawdown test which is conducted on closed reservoir systems to determine their volume. The water can be filtered and treated with scale inhibitor. based on the maximum reservoir size.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 62 OF 295 ENI S. linear with time. Once a well is fractured. The difference between the initial reservoir pressure. . is the depletion. The analysis of this test is similar to a pressure build-up. The reservoir volume may be estimated directly from the depletion. which may also be caused by the thermal shock of the cold injection water reaching the sandface. but is complicated by the cold water bank. It may also be conducted on a single well to determine the vertical permeability between separate reservoir zones. The well is produced at a constant rate until an observed pressure drop. which can be determined by conducting a step rate test. A well-to-well interference test is not carried out offshore at the exploration or appraisal stage as it is more applicable to developed fields. where the flowrate at one of the wells is varied in a series of steps. The volume produced must be sufficient. Injectivity In these tests a fluid.A. the pressure fall-off is measured. biocide and oxygen scavenger. Surface readout pressure gauges should be used in this test. is achieved. also the volume of produced fluid and the effective isothermal compressibility of the system. It is common practice to follow the extended drawdown with a pressure build-up. It is only applicable where there is no regional aquifer support. Pulse testing. a short term injection test will generally not provide a good measure of the long term injectivity performance. to provide a measurable pressure difference on the pressure gauges. After the injectivity test. usually seawater offshore is injected to establish the formation’s injection potential and also its fracture pressure. and the pressure to which it returns. is sometimes used to overcome the background reservoir pressure behaviour when it is a problem.
In many cases.4) and. The starting premise should be that testing is not required unless it is clearly justified. actual well production rates can be accurately predicted from DST data as it shows what the well will produce against a gradually increasing back-pressure. such as coring. Such inter-disciplinary discussions should be formalised by holding a meeting (or meetings) at which these objectives are agreed and fixed. the Petroleum Engineer should not appear to be negative but work towards obtaining essential data. Currently. The Petroleum Engineer should discuss with the geologists and reservoir engineers about the information required and make them aware of the costs and risks involved with each method. The test objectives must be agreed by those who will use the results and those who will conduct the test before the test programme is prepared. if possible.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 63 OF 295 ENI S. From this a Productivity Index (PI) or Inflow Performance Relationship (IPR) can be established (Refer to Section 2. then actual producing rates can also be determined. DST OBJECTIVE 0 REVISION A DST is conducted to determine the productivity characteristics of one specific zone.A. in the most cost-effective manner. The objectives of an exploration well test are to: • • • • • • • • Conduct the testing in a safe and efficient manner Determine the nature of the formation fluids Measure reservoir pressure and temperature Interpret reservoir permeability-height product (kh) and skin value Obtain representative formation fluid samples for laboratory analysis Define well productivity and/or injectivity investigate formation characteristics Evaluate boundary effects. The second premise is that. it should be done in the simplest possible manner. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 3. They should select the easiest means of obtaining data. therefore. analysis can provide good data to help evaluate the productivity of the zone. completion practices. By adopting this position. extent of formation damage and if there is a requirement for stimulation. which the company needs rather than that which is nice to have. . such as running wireline or coil tubing through the testing string. should only be conducted for essential data. avoiding any operations which entail higher risk. Testing is an expensive and high risk operation and.p. if testing is warranted. if the flowing pressure gradient in the tubing can be estimated.2.
well tests are performed inside a 7ins production liner. For more detailed information on well test strings and tooling. the tools should be full opening to allow production logging across perforated intervals. prognosed production fluids.A. and other tools may be included.25ins ID. In smaller casing sizes. smaller test tools will be required. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 3.3. However. In general. In larger production casing sizes the same tools will be used with a larger packer. temperature and the stimulation programme. The list of tools is not exhaustive. if applicable. but similarly. refer to the Company ‘Well Test Manual’. If conditions allow.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 64 OF 295 ENI S. using full opening test tools with a 2. . The tools should be dressed with elastomers suitable for the operating environment. tools which are required both in production tests and conventional tests are included. the bottom of the test string should be 100ft above the top perforation to allow production logging of the interval. test location and relevant planning will dictate which is the most suitable test string configuration to be used. DST STRING 0 REVISION The well testing objectives. conventional test tools will usually be used with a packer set inside the 9 /8ins casing. In the following description.p. For a 5 barefoot test. Some generic test strings used for testing from various installations are shown overleaf. considering packer fluids. the test string should be kept as simple as possible to reduce the risk of mechanical failure.
p.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 65 OF 295 ENI S.Typical Jack Up Test String With TCP Guns On Permanent Packer .A.A. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 0 REVISION Figure 3.
Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 0 REVISION Figure 3.Typical Test String With TCP Guns Stabbed Through Production Packer .ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 66 OF 295 ENI S.B .A.p.
A. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 0 REVISION Figure 3.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 67 OF 295 ENI S.p.C .Typical Jack Up Test String With Retrievable Packer .
p.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 68 OF 295 ENI S.Retrievable Packer . Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 0 REVISION Figure 3.Typical Semi-Submersible Test String .A.D .
Also effective permeability rather than absolute permeability is obtained. 3. 3. An estimate of how far away. This may be better than core permeability since much greater volume is averaged. Pressure Build-Up Analysis Horner Equation Transient pressure analysis is based on the Horner pressure build-up equation which describes the re-pressuring of the wellbore area during the shut-in period as the formation fluids moves into the ‘pressure sink’ created by the flowing portion of the test: p ws =p i − 162. Depletion. the DST can ‘see’. ft . the DST if properly applied is an essential tool for the Completions Engineer.1. psig Rate of flow.4. Barriers/Permeability Changes/Fluid Contacts. reservoir bbl/stb/day Formation permeability. Measured if shut-in time is adequate. Radius Of Investigation. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 3. mins Shut-in reservoir pressure. RESERVOIR CHARACTERISTICS 0 REVISION Reservoir characteristics that may be estimated from DST analysis include: • • • • • • Average Effective Permeability. Damage ratio method permits estimation of what the well should make without damage.A where: pws t’ ∆t’ pi q µ B k h = = = = = + = = = Measured pressure in the wellbore during the build-up.A.4.p. Can be detected if the reservoir is small and the test is conducted properly. In summary. Reservoir Pressure.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 69 OF 295 ENI S. psig Flowing time. stb/day Fluid viscosity. These reservoir anomalies affect the slope of the pressure build-up plot.6qµB t ′−∆t ′ log10 kh ∆t ′ Eq. mins Shut-in time. md Formation thickness. or calculated if not. cp Formation volume factor. Wellbore Damage. from the wellbore. They usually require substantiating data to differentiate one from the other.
t’p can be assumed to be the total of the flowing times with very little error. selecting a value for t’p creates some problem mathematically. Most of these conditions are met on a typical DST although steady state flow is the condition which may cause most concern particularly at early shut-in time. In figure 3.a to be strictly correct are: • • • • • Radial flow Homogenous formation Steady state conditions Infinite reservoir Single phase flow. m is the change in pressure over one log cycle. An important issue is the time required to approach steady state or straight line conditions. With equal flow periods on a multiple flow period DST. this is usually done. four points are the fewest to determine a straight line. Experience has formulated some certain rules of thumb to help determine the shut-in time.e shows an idealised Horner Plot with the pressure chart showing very simply how t’p and formation pressure pws at varied shut-in times ∆t’ are picked from the chart and related to the Horner plot. Usually pws is determined at 5min intervals along the shut-in pressure curve.6qµB kh Eq. 3. With a very short initial flow period.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 70 OF 295 ENI S.p.the slope m of the straight line is numerically the difference between the t’p t ′ + ∆t ′ t ′ +∆t ′ p =0 and at log10 p pressure value at log10 ∆t ′ ∆t ′ =1. since ‘after-flow’ or wellbore storage effects cause deviation from the straight line in the early region. then a plot of pws versus log10 ∆t ′ should yield a straight line and the slope (m) of the straight line should be: m= 162.A. .B The constant m is representative of a given fluid having physical properties µB flowing at a rate q through a formation having physical properties kh. figure 3.0 If the points are plotted on semi-log paper. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 0 REVISION Conditions which must be assumed during the build-up period for eq. depends on reservoir and fluid characteristics. Horner Build-Up Plot t ′ + ∆t ′ p Assuming these conditions are met. As a rule of thumb. .e. One of these is that generally the shut-in pressure must reach at least 65% of the static pressure. The ideal plot is where all the points align up in a straight line but is seldom found in actuality. In a multi-phase flow period DST. and flow conditions. 3. however little error is caused by assuming that t’p is the time of the flowing period immediately before the particular shut-in period.
A.6qµB m Eq.p. Figure 3. Formation thickness. 3. and formation volume. however.C Parameters. no analysis of the plot was possible unless the straight line was achieved. µ. can be calculated:: k= 162.6qµB mh Eq. sometimes reasonable estimates of formation parameters could be made. k. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 0 REVISION Prior to type curve matching methods. determined from electric log analysis. B. viscosity. If the net thickness is not available then kh or formation capacity is determined: kh= 162. h. must be the net thickness of the productive zone.Idealised Horner Build-Up Plot Reservoir Parameters Obtained By Build-Up Analysis Average permeability.D . 3.E . can be estimated from available correlations if the gravity of the crude oil and the gas-oil ratio are determined by measurement.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 71 OF 295 ENI S.
for calculation of DR based on the skin factor relation of Hurst and van Everdingen.85 p i −p ff kt′ p Eq. or as shown in figure 3. vol/vol/psi Formation porosity. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 If all the parameters are unknown. 3. fraction Viscosity of reservoir pressure. both the 1 build-up and 2 build-up plots extrapolate to the same static pressure lending confidence to the analysis.151 i ff −log m φµcrw Eq.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 72 OF 295 ENI S. them depletion may have occurred. 3. this factor cannot be readily applied to specific formations to obtain to show the potential of the zone would be if there was no damage. transmissibility kh 162. pi. is presented by the empirical equation for the dimensionless value. cp Well bore radius.A. s. psi (final flowing pressure) Fluid compressibility. is: DR= m log φµcr 2 w −2. which compares the flow rate observed. 3.6q = m µB 0 kh is determined: µB REVISION Eq. If the second build-up pressure was lower than st the 1 .0. ′ ∆t st nd In figure 3.85 s=1. to the theoretical flow rate without damage: DR= qt qa An another equation. This was carried on a stage further introducing the concept of damage ratio. DR. mins . log10 ∆t ′ = 0 .e.G where: pi pff c Φ µ rw k t’p = = = = = = = = Shut-in reservoir pressure. md Flowing time.e. Wellbore damage. skin factor: kt ′ p −p p +2.F However. ins Effective permeability. t ′ + ∆t ′ t ′ + ∆t ′ p = 1. psi Formation pressure at flow time T.p.0 . is obtained by extrapolating the Horner straight line to an ‘infinite’ shut-in time: At infinite shut-in time.E Static reservoir pressure. q.
viscosity.F . If it is seen that the rate of flow q remains constant. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 Reservoir And Fluid Anomaly Indications 0 REVISION Many times the Horner build-up equation does not hold up under actual case.Effect of a Fault .f .p. or existence of a barrier. In summary. If the barrier is a straight line as A . Permeability may change due to natural lensing or formation damage but it is doubtful that formation damage would affect sufficient volume of formation to be detected as a change of slope on the build-up plot. seeing a gas-liquid contact from a down-structure well is a much more likely possibility. Fluid viscosities change by phase change or type of fluid. If changes occur within the radius of investigation of the DST.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 73 OF 295 ENI S. Alternatively.A’ in figure 3. then permeability k or fluid viscosity µ are likely suspects for change as the wave of increasing pressure travels towards the wellbore. they can be detected by a change in shape of the slope of the of the line. a change in permeability. can cause a change in the slope of the Horner plot. then the build-up slope will change by a factor of 2.A. Figure 3. leaves open the question of what caused the anomaly. A sealing barrier such as a fault or permeability pinchout can cause a change of slope m. ‘Seeing’ a gas-liquid contact from an up-structure well would be difficult due to the normally short radius of investigation through a gas column. therefore the fact that a change of slope appears on the build-up plot. This must be resolved through other geologic or reservoir information.
mins kt i 5.A. the deeper the radius of investigation. however there is plenty of field examples to prove that it occurs. ra.303ln p − E ∆t kt p a where: ra Tp ∆ta -E = = = = Distance to anomaly. a reservoir would need to be extremely small for this to occur. change of permeability.p. can be calculated: − 3. 3. Eq.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 74 OF 295 ENI S. then depletion may be the cause. the longer the flowing time. 3. if the extrapolated pressure from a second build-up is lower than the initial pressure of the first build-up. Obviously.76×10 φµc 4 Eq. This effect needs to be diagnosed to confirm supercharging. Another reason that a recorded initial shut-in pressure may be higher than true shut-in pressure. ft Flow time. hrs Shut-in time at the point of slope change. This effect is termed supercharged which may be caused by leak off of filtrate over-pressuring the formation. . hrs Exponential integral value. or a fluid contact.793r 2 a φµc t + ∆t a =2. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 0 REVISION The distance to the anomaly.H Radius Of Investigation The following equation from Van Poollen may be used to estimate the radius of investigation of any particular DST in an infinite radial flow system: ri = where: ri tp = = Radius of investigation Flow time.I Needless to point out. Depletion As explained previously. whether it be a barrier.
flow rate is calculated in scf/day or if in large quantities mscf/d. 3.Gaseous System 0 REVISION When conducting DSTs of gas zones. during the build-up is t ′ + ∆t ′ p plotted versus ∆t ′ as shown in figure 3.G . pws. This involves correcting for deviation of the reservoir gas from the o perfect gas law using the gas deviation factor. the square of the formation pressure. For the Horner build-up plot. R.g. Figure 3.p. and the absolute temperature factor. the values of Z and µ can be found from standard testing literature. mscf/day o o Formation temperature. Z. R = ( F + 460) Horner build-up slope for gas well 1637 q g Tf µZ mg h Eq. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 Reservoir Parameters . If the SG of the gas is known. estimated wellbore AOFP for a gas zone are: Permeability: k= where: Z Qg Tf mg = = = = Gas deviation factor Rate of flow.J .A.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 75 OF 295 ENI S.Gas well Equations for permeability.Typical Horner Plot .
M If n=0. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 Wellbore Damage: 2 2 p −p i ff EDR = 1 m g log t + 2. 3.0Max AOF= Eq. Although these methods are generally used on longer term production tests. McKinley and Earlougher-Kersch methods have applications with McKinley being the easiest to use but the others perhaps more accurate.A.65 p Absolute Open Flow Potential Using the single point back-pressure test method: AOF= where: n is an exponent varying between 0.0 qg p 2 i p 2 i −p 2 ff 0 REVISION Eq.K (p qg p 2 i 2 ( ) n Eq.L 2 n i −p i ) If n=1.p. It should be iterated that the Horner should be used whenever possible and type curves used to in picking correct straight line by indicating when wellbore storage effects have ended.N Type Curve Methods There are several type curve methods are available for analysing early time DST data from pressure transient tests. 3. Ramey. .ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 76 OF 295 ENI S. 3.5 and 1. 3. they can be used on DST analysis to salvage some information from a test where sufficient data not available to obtain a straight line.5Max AOF= qg p i p 2 i −p 2 ff Eq.
the tester valve is then closed to allow the formation fluids to build-up back up to reservoir pressure which is recorded on pressure recorders or gauges. a DST is carried out by running test tools in a BHA on a test string in the hole (Refer to previous Section 3.4.3). When the string is successfully installed and all pressure and function testing is completed.p. 1 A description of the tools used in DST test strings are outlined in the next section. Common Test Tools Description Refer to the Company ‘Well Test Manual’. The bevelled mule shoe also facilities pulling wireline tools back into the test string. Bevelled Mule Shoe If the test is being conducted in a liner the mule shoe makes it easier to enter the liner top.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 77 OF 295 ENI S.4. the mule shoe allows entry into the packer bore. the tester valve is then reopened to conduct the planned flow and shut-in periods in accordance to the programme requirements to obtain other additional data and verification.h shows a typical schematic of a simple single flow operational sequence. The downhole tester valve is opened to flow the well to clean up perforating debris and invasive fluids from the formation. After a suitable time (usually 1 /2 times the flow period).3. a fluid is circulated into the tubing to provide an underbalance to allow the well to flow after perforating.A. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 3. If testing with a permanent packer. Basics Of DST Operations 0 REVISION In simple terms.H .DST Typical Sequence of Events 3. .2. figure 3. Figure 3.
The valve is locked open on the first application of annulus pressure which is during the first cycling of the tester valve. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 Perforated Joint/Ported Sub 0 REVISION The perforated joint or ported sub allows wellbore fluids to enter the test string if the tubing conveyed perforating system is used. It is automatically closed when sufficient weight is set down on the packer. The valve usually has a flapper type closure mechanism which opens to allow fluid bypass but closes when applying tubing pressure for testing purposes. rather than the static bottom-hole pressure. to prevent pressuring up of the closed sump below the packer during packer setting. a large incremental pressure. This feature is important when running tubing conveyed perforating guns which are actuated by pressure. hence reducing the risk of excessive pressure surges or swabbing. This item may also be used if wireline retrievable gauges are run below the packer. Pipe Tester Valve A pipe tester valve is used in conjunction with a tester valve which can be run in the open position in order to allow the string to self fill as it is installed. This valve should ideally contain a time delay on closing. It operates by manipulating the string (usually a combination of reciprocation and rotation) to unscrew and the upper part of the string retrieved. Circulating Valve (Bypass Valve) This tool is run in conjunction with retrievable packers to allow fluid bypass while running in and pulling out of hole. The DST tools can then be laid out and the upper part of the safety joint run back in the hole with fishing jar to allow more powerful jarring action.p. Retrievable Test Packer The packer isolates the interval to be tested from the fluid in the annulus. If the valve does not have a delay on closing. Gauge Case (Bundle Carrier) The carrier allows pressure and temperature recorders to be run below or above the packer and sense either annulus or tubing pressures and temperatures. It can also be used to equalise differential pressures across packers at the end of the test.A. it allows the test string above this tool to be recovered in the event the packer becomes stuck in the hole. . It should be set by turning to the right and includes a hydraulic hold-down mechanism to prevent the tool from being pumped up the hole under the influence of differential pressure from below the packer. should be chosen for firing the guns Safety Joint Installed above a retrievable packer.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 78 OF 295 ENI S.
p. Downhole Tester Valve The downhole tester valve provides a seal from pressure from above and below. Drill Collar Drill collars are required to provide a weight to set the packer. Eni-Agip’s preference is the annulus operated version. This reversing sub can also be used in combination with a test valve module if a further safety valve is required. The tubing operated versions require several pressure cycles before the valve is shifted into the circulating position. The downhole test valve allows downhole shut in of the well so that after-flow effects are minimised. delivering an impact to the stuck tools. Normally two stands of 4 /4 ins drill collars (46. One example of this is a system where the reversing sub is combined with two ball valves to make a single shot sampler/safety valve. Slip Joint These allow the tubing string to expand and contract in the longitudinal axis due to changes in temperature and pressure. 3 . It is actuated by applying a pre-set annulus pressure which shears a disc or pins allowing a mandrel to move and expose the circulating ports. providing better pressure data. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 Hydraulic Jar 0 REVISION The jar is run to aid in freeing the packer if it becomes stuck. but should be regarded as the minimum. This tool is available in either annulus or tubing pressure operated versions.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 79 OF 295 ENI S.A. Single Operation Reversing Sub Produced fluids may be reversed out of the test string and the well killed using this tool. It also has a secondary function as a safety valve. The valve is operated by pressuring up on the annulus. Once the tool has been operated it cannot be reset. The jar allows an overpull to be taken on the string which is then suddenly released. and therefore must only be used at the end of the test. Multiple Operation Circulating Valve This tool enables the circulation of fluids closer to the tester valve whenever necessary as it can be opened or closed on demand and is generally used to install an underbalance fluid for brining in the well. They are non-rotating to allow torque for setting packers or operating the safety joint. This enables the tubing to be pressure tested several times while running in hole.8 lbs/ft) should be sufficient weight on the packer.
The tool equalises pressure between the sump and the annulus when the tester valve is closed. slick joint.4. they are of the utmost importance as they connect every piece of equipment in the test string which have differing threads. they must be checked with each mating item of equipment before use.p. 3. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 Crossovers 0 REVISION Crossovers warrant special attention. preventing the sump from being pressured up due to the volume of the seal assembly entering the packer. Fluted Hanger The fluted hanger lands off and sits in the wear bushing of the wellhead and is adjustable to allow the SSTT assembly to be correctly positioned in the BOP stack so that when the SSTT is disconnected the shear rams can close above the disconnect point.4. and sub-sea test tree. 3. If the tester valve can be run in the open position then this valve is not required. Tools Utilised With Permanent Packer Systems A permanent or permanent retrievable packer arrangement is used on a Jack-up or Land Rig test utilising a production Xmas tree. Sub-Sea Test Tools Used On Semi-Submersibles The sub-sea test tree (SSTT) assembly includes a fluted hanger. .A. If crossovers have to be manufactured. The designs can be like a modified lubricator valve or a completion type subsurface safety valve. A control line is run to the valve through a conventional tubing hanger/spool arrangement. The valve is very similar to the circulating valve (bypass valve) except it is closed by annulus pressure instead of weight. Tubing Hanger This will be spaced out to position the packer seal assembly into the packer and land off in the tubing hanger spool. Sub-Surface Safety Valve A subsurface safety valve is often run for safety being placed at least 100 ft below the mud line. Pressure Operated Bypass Valve This allows the test string to be stabbed into the packer in an un-performed well.5.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 80 OF 295 ENI S. they need to be tested and fully certified. In addition. Some versions required by other operators are installed in the string immediately below a surface test tree in the BOP stack arrangement but this does not provide safety in the ultimate catastrophic situation when there is a collision by another vessel.4.
ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 81 OF 295 ENI S. contain annulus pressure. It is hydraulic operated and must be a fail-open or fail-in-position valve.A. if in an emergency disconnection. The control umbilical is connected to the top of the latch which can. This valve eliminates the need to have a long lubricator to accommodate wireline tools above the surface test tree swab valve. Sub-Sea Test Tree The SSTT is a fail-safe sea floor master valve which provides two functions. The lubricator valve is hydraulic operated through a second umbilical line and should be either a fail closed or. under most circumstances be reconnected. Deep Water Tools Retainer Valve The retainer valve is installed immediately above the SSTT on tests in extremely deep waters to prevent large volumes of well fluids leaking into the sea in the event of a disconnect. The latch contains the control ports for the hydraulic actuation of the valves and the latch head. It is usually run in conjunction with a deep water SSTT described below. The SSTT is constructed in two parts. the shut off of pressure in the test string and. the valve assembly consisting of two fail safe closed valves and. . it can prevent the full unloading of the contents in the landing string after closing of the SSTT. When closed it will contain pressure from both above and below 3. in the event of a gas escape at surface. disconnection of the landing string from the test string due to an emergency situation or for bad weather.p. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 Slick Joint (Polished Joint) 0 REVISION The slick joint (usually 5ins OD) is installed above the fluted hanger and has a smooth (slick) outside diameter around which the BOP pipe rams can close and sustain annulus pressure for DST tool operation or. It also acts as a safety device when. The slick joint should be positioned to allow the two bottom sets of pipe rams to be closed on it and also allow the blind rams to close above the disconnect point of the SSTT. Lubricator Valve The lubricator valve is run one stand of tubing below the surface test tree.4. The valves hold pressure from below. fail-in-position valve.6. When closed it will contain pressure from both above and below. but open when a differential pressure is applied from above. regaining control without killing the well. allowing safe killing of the well without hydraulic control if unlatched. a latch assembly.
However. with the modern type gauges. Other gauges. Downhole Pressure Recording The complete sequence of events are recorded by bottom-hole pressure gauges and some flow data may also be recorded on surface read-out systems. 3.p. this is not necessary as they have sufficient memory to record at fast intervals throughout even long term tests without running out of memory. when they change to very short time intervals where this facility is required. The fluid is vented into the annulus or an atmospheric tank to reduce the lag time and reducing closure time to seconds. the tool operating procedures would be included in the test programme.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 82 OF 295 ENI S. The slow actuation is due to hydraulic lag time when bleeding off the control line against friction and the hydrostatic head of the control fluid. This system uses hydraulic power from accumulators on the tree controlled electrically from surface (MUX). termed ‘smart’ gauges can be programmed to collect data at moderate time intervals until they detect a quick pressure change. The gauges record the events from initial running of the test string to well kill and retrieval procedures although. The problem then is to dump or ignore data points which are not relevant to data gathering.4. with the large memory electronic gauges on the market today. This is overcome by use of the deepwater SSTT which has an Electro-Hydraulic control system.7.A. such as opening or shutting in the well. The Hydraulic Deep Water Actuator is a fast response controller for the deepwater SSTT and retainer valve. the use of dynamic positioning vessels require much faster SSTT unlatching than that available with the normal hydraulic system on an SSTT. If a programme required deepwater test tools. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 Deep Water SSTT 0 REVISION As exploration moves into deeper and remote Subsea locations. they may be programmed to ‘sleep’ while the string is being installed as it wastes memory. .
ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 83 OF 295 ENI S. scale build-up in perforations. with careful recording of the conditions is essential. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 3. Abnormal production declines may also indicate artificial lift problems.5. or recompletion. etc.1. gas-oil ratio and water oil ratio as a percentage of water in the total liquid stream. they provide periodic physical well conditions where unexpected changes such as extraneous water or gas production may highlight well or reservoir problems.p. Accuracy in measurement. On gas wells. Results may set production allowables. details of artificial lift system operation and all other effects on the well producing capability should be recorded. Productivity or deliverability tests are usually performed on initial completion. security of power fluid or gas lift gas supply. Periodic Tests Production tests are carried out routinely to physically measure oil. pressure. etc. On oil wells. WELL PRODUCTION TEST OBJECTIVES 0 REVISION The main objective of well production varies from simple determination of the amount and type of fluids produced to sophisticated transient pressure determinations of reservoir parameters and hetrogenities. 3. gas and water. . Periodic production tests have the purpose of determining the relative quantities of oil. results are reported as oil production rate. From the well and reservoir viewpoint. Well production tests may be classified as follows: • • • Periodic Productivity or Deliverability Transient Pressure. Transient pressure tests require a higher degree of sophistication and are used to determine formation damage or stimulation related to an individual well. to determine the capability of the well under various degrees of pressure drawdown. or reservoir parameters such as permeability. They serve as an aid in well and reservoir operation and meeting legal and regulatory requirements. Similar to oil wells. routine are less common as each well normally has individual measuring capability. sand build-up. It is important that the well is produced at its normal conditions as flow rate will vary the relative quantities of oil. gas and water produced by individual wells under normal producing conditions. gas and water produced under normal producing conditions. volume and hetrogenities. Descriptions of some of these tests are described earlier in this section. aid in selections of well completion methods and design of artificial lift systems and production facilities. tubing pressures. Gas production is reported as well as condensate and water.5. Engineers need to make themselves familiar with the various test procedures and know their advantages and limitations in order for them to fully utilise them to optimise the design of completions. well tests are tools which can be used to help establish the condition of production or injection wells. In short.A. Choke size. the wells must be produced at the normal rates. casing pressure. Potential production problems should be recognised in order that they can be properly handled such as emulsions.
1 or in Section 3. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 3.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 84 OF 295 ENI S. decreases exponentially with time.4. This means that corrections need to made to compensate for transient flow behaviour as well as for skin effects. During this the production conditions at the wellbore change rapidly and the BHPF. They do. however include the effects of formation damage. pseudo-steady state or steady state flow. depending on whether the pressure response initiated by opening the well had reached the drainage area boundary and on the type of boundary.1 above. Productivity Or Deliverability Tests 0 REVISION This test is different from the periodic test in that the liquid flow performance can be determined empirically using measured flow rates at varying bottom-hole pressure drawdowns and they do not rely on mathematical descriptions of the flow process. and is a result of the pressure disturbance moving out towards the outer boundary of the drainage area.3. Transient Tests Radial Flow Characteristics Flow from reservoirs are characterised as transient. They do not permit calculation of formation permeability or the degree of abnormal flow restrictions (formation damage) near the wellbore. . This is then used to predict the PI (Refer to Section 2.5. they permit prediction of what a well could produce at other pressure drawdowns. they can be classified as: • • Flow-After-Flow Isochronal. therefore can be used as an indicator of well flow conditions or a basis for simple comparison of completion effectiveness among wells in a particular reservoir. Commonly used deliverability tests for oil wells may be classified as: • • • • Productivity Index Inflow Performance Flow-After-Flow Isochronal. Most DSTs and many production tests are conducted under transient flow conditions and consequently the observed productivity will often appear greater than that seen in long term production.4.4.5.p.1 or in Section 3.1) and are successfully applied to non-Darcy conditions.4.1 above. These tests are described in Section 2. With a limited number of measurements. Transient flow occurs when the well is initially opened or has a significant rate change. Gas well deliverability tests are designed to establish AOFP. These tests are described in Section 2.A. pwf.4. 3. Termed multi-point backpressure tests.2.
However if it is a no-flow boundary. then PR will not alter with time and is termed steady state.Advances in Well Test Analysis. Multiple rate analysis can be applied to several flow situations.p. . and an estimate can be made of the reservoir volume in communication with the wellbore.1 . The analysis procedure is direct and simple but computations are more troublesome and are often conducted by computer software. Transient pressure tests are classified as: • • • • • Pressure Build-up Pressure Drawdown Multiple Rate Injectivity or Fall-off Multiple Well Interference.A. 5 .4.steady state. The rate changes must be significant enough to effect the transient pressure behaviour. a series of constant rates or constant bottom-hole pressure with continually changing flow rate.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 85 OF 295 ENI S. Transient pressure testing and calculation procedures for oil wells are particularly well covered in SPE Monograph No. e.DST tests. production continues as the test is being carried out. Pressure Build-Up Tests Pressure build-up tests are described earlier in Section 3. If the boundary is a constant pressure boundary. Pressure Drawdown Testing Pressure drawdown tests have advantages over pressure build-up tests. They minimise wellbore storage effects and phase segregation effects so provide good results where build-up or drawdown tests would not.g. Therefore. then PR will decline purely as a result of depletion and the flow is then termed pseudo-steady state. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 0 REVISION When the flow reaches the outer boundary. Each type presents certain advantages and limitations and factors which are important for reasonable results. When the BHFP appears to be constant or declining slowly proportionally with time. Multiple rate tests have the advantage of providing transient test data without the need for well shut-in. uncontrolled variable rates. the well is stabilised and pseudo-steady state flow equations can be used to predict the long term deliverability of a well. flow becomes steady state or pseudo. the ‘Reservoir Limit Test’ can be used to estimate if there is sufficient hydrocarbons in place to justify additional wells in a new reservoir. Accurate flow rate and pressure measurement is essential and more critical than on buildup or drawdown tests. Multiple Rate Testing Pressure build-up or drawdown tests require a constant flow rate which is sometimes difficult to achieve over a long period of time.
accurate pressure monitoring devices are required. Calculation of reservoir characteristics is similar. Vertical pulse testing may indicate vertical formation continuity. a long duration rate change in one well creates a pressure change in an observation well that is related to reservoir characteristics.p. A pulse test is an interference test that provides data by changing production rate in a cyclic manner to produce short term pressure pulses which are measured in the observation well(s). Interference Tests (multiple well testing) In interference testing. A stepped rate injectivity test can be carried out to estimate fracture pressure in an injection well which is useful in tertiary flood applications to avoid accidental injection of expensive fluid into uncontrolled fractures. The injectivity parallels the drawdown test and a pressure fall-off test parallels the build-up test.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 86 OF 295 ENI S.A. . Using computers the data can be analysed to give a description of the variation in reservoir properties according to location. Orientation and length of vertical fractures may be estimated through pulse testing and reservoir simulation techniques. therefore. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 Injection Well Tests 0 REVISION Injection well transient testing is basically simple provide the mobility of the injected fluids is similar to the in-situ fluids. The responses may be very small.
Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 0 REVISION 4. however the production department provide the design parameters to the drilling engineers. The decision whether to run a liner or not primarily lies with the drilling engineer however the impact of the completion needs to thoroughly considered.a shows these various casing profile options. In low rate and deep land wells. . However.A. This is a design which provides the greatest flexibility to live well intervention operations as the completion is full bore allowing regular tools to be run and used in the sump area eliminating the use of through-tubing devices. the popularity of the mono-bore completion. 9 /8ins and 7ins are the common sizes (Refer to the Casing Design Manual).p. there is a limit to the size of production casing which can be provided. 4. where a large size tubing mates to a similar size liner utilising a PBR or similar type system. This larger tubing reduces friction losses. However today. as is obvious in deep high pressure wells.1. plugging back. the completions engineer would always prefer the largest casing possible to provide the flexibility in well interventions. e. production casing sizes are typically 7ins or 1 3 5 5 /2ins. In high rate and offshore wells. The production casing is usually: • • A full string of pipe cemented at TD.1. anchor the completion equipment and act as a safety barrier to the uncontrolled emission of hydrocarbons. etc. workovers and re-completions with artificial lift. it is a completion design parameter.e. the production casing size may be swedged to accommodate larger tubing and completion equipment (i.g. which may have required a workover in previous times. through which the well will be completed and controlled throughout its life. figure 4.1. The production casing and its cement isolates the producing intervals to facilitate reservoir control. DRILLING CONSIDERATIONS These are primarily the responsibility of drilling engineering.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 87 OF 295 ENI S. In highly productive wells. 10 /4ins. This gives live well interventions much more scope to conduct stimulation. etc. If there were a choice. CASING DESIGN Refer to the Drilling Design and Casing Design Manuals for all casing design policies and criteria. or combination of strings. Casing Profile The surface and intermediate casings are designed to provide well control and borehole stability during the drilling operation. A drilled through casing and liner. offshore. These manuals provide the policies and design procedures for both exploration and development wells. The production casing is the string. 4. straddle packing-off gassed out zones. The size of the production casing is primarily dictated to accommodate the optimum size of completion tubing and equipment. TRSSV’s with control line) near surface or a hot string of isolated pipe. and/or artificial lift systems.
1. The crossover between the two different materials must be selected in order that there is no localised erosion. in general. it is Eni-Agip’s policy to use standard service production casing where there is a casing tubing annulus as the tubing is designed for the well environment and isolates the production casing. .p. only a biocide and possibly corrosion inhibitor needs to be added. production casing or liner below the production packer or liner hanger PBR system. However. Specifically with regard to metallurgy. Casing exposed to H2S will have a specification in accordance to NACE MR01-75.2.A .A.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 88 OF 295 ENI S. Casing Specifications Design criteria and casing specifications are fully described in the ‘Casing Design Manual’. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 0 REVISION Figure 4.Casing Schemes and Terminology 4. will have similar specification to the tubing in order to combat corrosion from produced fluids. Casing above the packer is exposed to the completion or packer fluid which must be chemically dosed to prevent any corrosion although.
Although the drilling of highly deviated and horizontal wells is now commonplace it should o be noted that in wells above 70 deviation.000psi. This is due to the poor performance of the API Buttress Thread.2. . Some operators specify premium connections if the wellhead pressure is to be above 5. Completion tools or equipment operated by different methods must be adopted. however this does not satisfy all situations. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 4.3. An overpull is often required especially if the casing is not cemented into the previous shoe. many operators drill ‘S’ shaped profiles with drop off through the pay zone for critical wells. there are problems with logging.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 89 OF 295 ENI S. Any anomalies found in the deviation survey needs to be communicated to the completion engineer to ensure that all potential problems are analysed and will not impede the completion of the well. cementing. a premium thread connection should be used to reduce the risk of leakage especially if the pressure is above circa 1. the turning radius for an open hole or liner may be short but a long radius is required for gravel packing or installation of pre-packed screens. Casing Connections 0 REVISION Where an annulus is to be used as a production conduit for gas production. Refer to the ‘Directional Control and Surveying Procedures Manual’ and the ‘Casing Design Manual’. The method of drilling horizontal wells also needs to be considered by the drilling engineer as the turning radius will be dependant upon the completion method employed.250psi.A. To help overcome these problems. For instance. The main problem in casing design of producing wells over exploration wells is the increased temperature. Usually production casing is held in tension but this may not be adequate enough in high temperature and thermal wells to prevent buckling. injection or gas lift supply. 4. gravel packing and the completion process as wireline cannot be used above this limit. WELL DEVIATION SURVEYS A well directional survey must be carried out to ensure the tolerances for well deviation and doglegs have not been exceeded as the installation of the completion is sensitive to angle and getting fairly large diameter tubing through casing doglegs as well as placing extreme bending loads on the tubing.p.1.
eccentric loading. In general.1.3. Poor formation bonding due to lack of mud cake removal. therefore is allowed to bleed off at the casing shoe. and to isolate higher weaker formations from well pressures. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 4. The cement column should extend well past (circa 500m) above the highest pay zone but also cover aquifers or any other potential producing zones. A minimum lap of 100m is normal. Use cement with an API high temperature/high pressure fluid loss of less than 3 3 200cm /30 min for high permeability oil wells and 50cm /30min for gas wells. and bonding between the cement and the formation. . Thermal wells are normally cemented to surface to avoid this problem. channelling and micro-annuli may be formed which are paths through which the formation fluids can flow. o Cement strength loss due to high temperatures (<230 F) when using normal Portland cement. Failure to cement washouts. Use a thin slurry at the front end. This problem can be alleviated by thorough planning. however this is not possible in high rate offshore wells where temperature increase in the casing/tubing annulus on the trapped fluids causes pressure which cannot be bled off at surface. Dissolution of evaporites by the cement. prevent movement of formation fluids along the well path for reservoir control. excessive movement due to pressure or temperature and external corrosion.3. temperatures. Poor cement procedure leading to gas entry or cross flow. A cement job which does not successfully flush out the drilling fluid in front of the cement and. using a good fluids programme and adopting good operating procedures. Many operators prefer to cement up inside the previous casing shoe to provide even greater support and protection. Condition the mud correctly. formation properties. CASING CEMENTING CONSIDERATIONS 0 REVISION The primary function of the cement around the production casing is to isolate individual formations to provide selectivity. operating conditions. the list of recommendations given below will help improve the success of zonal isolation: • • • • • • Drill the hole within gauge.A. if there is poor bonding between the outside of the pipe and the cement.p. fluid properties and pressures. Use the highest practical displacement velocities. The main problems associated with primary cementing are: • • • • • • • Channelling of the cement and bypassing of mud due to pipe eccentricity and poor fluid rheology. Production Casing Cementing The minimum cement column height requirements will depend upon local regulations. The cement also acts to support and protect the casing from buckling.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 90 OF 295 ENI S. Cement dehydration opposite high temperature zones. 4. Use a 500ft low viscosity spacer with surfactant if required.
Generally there is ambivalence shown towards the results of cement bond evaluation logs and unless they show extremely poor conditions.2. However. 0 REVISION Design the programme so as the cement has a minimum contact time of 4 mins at all points where zonal isolation is needed. A more recent tool is the Schlumberger CET. . This is carried out by running a cement bond log (CBL-VDL) which is an acoustic device that looks for channelling.A. they tend to be ignored especially as repair of cement jobs is very difficult to conduct successfully.200ft above the top of the pay zone.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 91 OF 295 ENI S. the tool averages the condition around the circumference of the casing and sometimes fails to detect small channels. Production Casing Cement Evaluation To ensure that the cement programme has been successfully isolated the formation/casing. Centralise the casing in the pay zone. Ensure quality control of the cement formulation is strict. The cement column should extend 1. Use batch mixing whenever possible. which uses eight helically mounted sensors to scan the cement and provides a measurement of the compressive strength which should in theory give a better detection. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 • • • • • • 4. Pipe reciprocation should be used or otherwise rotation.p. formation/liner or casing/liner annulus.3. the quality of the cement should be evaluated.
Tubing and wellhead interface.A. Although the tools are available to provide the most complex completions to solve severe production or mechanical problems and meet the specific objectives. in principle. Casing and tubing interface. location. To enable this process. the conceptual designs have been developed and the optimum well performance determined. it should never be forgotten that.a The solutions adopted will vary according on the well objectives. completions should be kept as simple in design as possible to minimise the installation risks and costs. WELL COMPLETION DESIGN The aim of this section is now to develop the structure of the completion based on the work carried out according to the previous sections.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 92 OF 295 ENI S.p. that satisfy the above. artificial lift method (if applicable). now need to be developed. anticipated well problems and cost. Refer to figure 5. . However this cannot be carried out in isolation as well servicing and workover philosophies as well as the completion installation process need to be considered. it is necessary to describe the basic architectural components of a completion. environment. This means that the SOR must be established. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 0 REVISION 5. particularly: • • • Reservoir and wellbore interface. The completion structure and procedures.
Completion Design Interface Classification Options . Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 0 REVISION Figure 5.A .ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 93 OF 295 ENI S.A.p.
Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 5. they may be inadvertently isolated behind a liner lap or shoe track. A guideline chart for recommended isolation depth is shown in Fig figure 5.b below. Distance From Fluid Contacts The distance of producing interval from fluid contacts may influence the offtake rate and the perforating policy. FACTORS INFLUENCING COMPLETION DESIGN Reservoir Considerations Production Zone Isolation 0 REVISION Consideration of reservoir management and regulatory requirements will determine the zonal isolation in thick pay zones (<30m) or multiple-zone completions. or as more likely. The downside of using multiple completions is there complexity.g. With zones of have significant different inflow performance characteristics. These aspects need to be considered as does perforating the lower sections in downdip wells in flank and bottom water drive reservoirs. The effects of partial peforating need to be considered on the well IPR. 5. They should be treated as a normal pay zone which will be left unperforated. between production packers. Minimum Zone Separation The main cementing service companies are able to provide information on the minimum separation by good cement between zones for effective hydraulic under differential depletion conditions.1.A. cost and installation.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 94 OF 295 ENI S.p. Special attention must be given to layers with great in permeability variations to determine differential depletion. Wells with gas cap or water drive reservoirs which need to be produced at controlled rates may also be candidates for a multiple completion. e. . This can be achieved by drilling a well into each zone which is extremely costly. by using a multiple-string completion. etc.1. Secondary Targets Potential secondary or re-completion targets need to be identified and included in the SOR because if they are not considered. then it may be more economic to segregate production.1. however for the short term gain there may be increased penalties later with increased gas or water production which may need to be plugged off by a well intervention. The effect of bridge plug setting and completion equipment lengths on zonal isolation must be considered as they may demand longer separation intervals. If fracture stimulation is planned the separation distance is approximately three times greater. It is obviously economically attractive to perforate high permeable sections close to fluid contacts.
and underbalanced if desired. although deploying and retrieving these long lengths may impact on safety and needs use of a safe deployment method. Casing guns standard perforating lengths are 5.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 95 OF 295 ENI S. To create an underbalance for other runs. Wireline guns are run and fired sequentially therefore only the first perforations can be carried out with a static underbalance. 30 and 40ft. 10 and 15ft and through tubing guns 20.B . The use of tubing conveyed means that great lengths can be installed and fired simultaneously. however one (or more sections) can be partially loaded. . This is particularly useful on perforated horizontal wells.A. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 0 REVISION Figure 5.Guideline for Length of Cemented Interval Required for Zonal Isolation Interval Length The interval length should be determined by reservoir requirements as perforating lengths can be adjusted to suit. the well needs to flowed which carries a risk of the guns being ‘blown’ up the hole.p.
3. Refer to section 8. 5. once it is tested. whether it is single trip. It is essential that sufficient clearance is available to allow the completion to fit comfortably inside the casing profile.1 for the Eni-Agip Company policy on the use of packers.1.1.1. Downhole safety valves are installed as per the En-Agip company policy given in section 8. Downhole packers in the completion string which anchor the tubing are barriers used to protect the annulus from well pressures and corrosion from well fluids although operationally they also isolate gas lift gas or pump power fluids from formation pressures in gas lift and pump completions. Mechanical Considerations 0 REVISION The main mechanical influence on completion design is the casing profile and deviation discussed previously in sections 4. Entry into liner laps in high angles are also problematic. Safety Considerations Safety of the personnel and well site installation are paramount in completion design and the completion procedures.p. especially when running the completion from a moving floater so consideration needs to be given to the procedure or by using an automatic mule shoe. Whenever possible and economical. this may mean running of a tapered casing string to accommodate the TRSV and control line.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 96 OF 295 ENI S.2.2. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 5.1 and 4.A. perforated completions should be used over open hole for well control as the casing. To this end it is important to carry out the procedures to prepare the well by cleaning it and displacing to clean completion fluids and checking the internal drift.2. is a mechanical barrier which is safer for BOP removal. etc. The type of production packer selected is dependent upon its application and installation method due to hole angle. With completions large tubing sizes. . Modern compact or high performance wellheads are preferred over the traditional spool systems as the completion may be installed with out BOP removal (Refer to the ‘Drilling Design Manual’).
p. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 5. However they provide little or no selectivity in reservoir management to reduce unwanted water or gas production. Often referred to as a ‘barefoot’ completions. Slotted pipe Wire wrapped screens Open hole gravel packs Perforated completions. They maximise the fracture intersections and inflow potential due to the large surface area if drilling and completion damage is avoided.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 97 OF 295 ENI S. Standard perforated Fracture Stimulation Cased hole gravel packs • 5.c).A. The decision process depends on four key issues: • • • • Is there a risk of causing damage to well productivity with a cased and perforated completion ? Is zonal selectivity required ? Is fracture stimulation required ? Is there any potential sand production ? . RESERVOIR-WELLBORE INTERFACE 0 REVISION There are three reservoir-wellbore interface options which can be further classified into seven major alternatives in completion architecture (Refer to figure 5. An open hole completions can subsequently be converted to a liner completion to overcome the selectivity problem.1.a): • • Open hole completions Uncemented liner completions.2. A hole is now drilled through the formation exposing it to the wellbore. the method of completion entails drilling down to a depth just above the producing formation and setting the production casing. Open Hole Completions Their use is predominately in thick carbonate or hard sandstone reservoirs that produce from fracture systems or thin permeable streaks which are difficult to identify on logs and are easily damaged by drilling and cementing operations. The well is now completed with no casing set across the formation (Refer to figure 5.2.
The formation is supported by a either a slotted liner. sand screen or is gravel packed (Refer to figure 5.Open Hole and Uncemented Liner Interface Options 5. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 0 REVISION Figure 5. Although they have some advantages over open hole.2.C .2.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 98 OF 295 ENI S. Uncemented Liner Completions Uncemented liners are used to overcome production problems associated with open hole completions and to extend their application to other types of formations. they still have the same selectivity and undesired fluid problems.p.c).A. The selection process depends on four key issues is the same as for open hole completions: • • • • Is there a risk of causing damage to well productivity with a cased and perforated completion ? Is zonal selectivity required ? Is fracture stimulation required ? Is there any potential sand production ? .
and finer slots or pre-packed screens for filtering and for uniform sized sands. When properly installed. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 0 REVISION If a slotted liner or plain screen is to be used. it is the most effective sand control measure for weak sandstones and unconsolidated rocks. reserve volume.1.254 . solid type. Slot width requirement which is dependent on the sand size and stability. A slotted liner is used where there is a risk of wellbore instability to maintain a bore through the formation which otherwise might collapse and plug off all production. The slot widths can range between 0. It also helps in liquid lift due to the smaller flow area. A slot width that would retain the coarsest 10% of the sand is common practice in heavy oil wells with coarser slots for light oil wells.A. External Gravel pack An open hole gravel pack is used where the sands are too fine or abrasive for a plain screen.p. Gravel pack design with regard to grain size. etc. however carries more risk than a cased hole gravel pack. the following additional issues need to be considered: • • • • Loss circulation control during under-reaming and tripping. The open hole is under-reamed to remove drilling damage and to create a larger annulus for the filter sized gravel to pack against the formation wall. or millable.1. fluid viscosity and control objectives. The stability of the hole during under-reaming and the limitations this may impose on hole angle and screen length.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 99 OF 295 ENI S. volumes. . Clearance required for washover (1 . Wire Wrapped Screen A plain wire wrapped screen is used either as a simple filter to strain out small amounts of intermittently produced sand from a relatively stable formation or as a sand retention screen where high permeability.5ins on OD) and whether centralisers should be expandable. length of blank pipe. The location of the packer and packer tailpipe. a designer must also consider: • • Whether to use the more expensive and finer wire wrapped screen or slotted pipe.016mm. Type of gravel packer and will it double as the production packer ? Slotted Liner This type of completion entails a liner with flow slots machined throughout its length installed below the production casing. coarse sands would readily flow onto the screen forming a rubble zone. Is gravel packing more suitable alternative ? • • • For open hole gravel packs. and how the LCM can be subsequently removed before gravel packing.
i. Standard Perforated Casing Completions These are used when the rock is reasonably stable and permeable. e. standard. through tubing guns or TCP. shot density.3. the cased hole gravel is placed between the cased hole and the sand screen. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 5. Unlike the open hole gravel pack. Completion fluids programme selection with regard to fluid quality and formation damage. Perforated Completions 0 REVISION This type of completions are the most common world-wide due to the selectivity. with the shot density dependent upon the vertical permeability and layer frequency. the deliverability requirements and method of perforating.2. a large flow area must be achieved by using ‘big hole’ charges with the maximum shot density (dependent on gun size).A.d). casing guns. ultra deep penetration or stimulation treatments.p.e. . increased safety and convenience that they provide. Fracture Stimulation Fracture stimulation is used to increase the effective sandface area and to provide a high permeability flow path to the wellbore increasing the IPR from low permeability rocks (<25md). ideally. Deep penetrating perforating charges are generally used especially in hard rock. Perforating underbalance may also improved perforation clean-up. etc. gun type.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 100 OF 295 ENI S. lower costs. would need to be designed with the additional loading of the stimulation operation. Since the gravel has an finite permeability. There are three subdivisions. The key issues in cased hole completion design are: • • • • Perforated interval selection. flexibility. Type of formation and if special perforating techniques are required. Cased Hole Gravel Pack Cased hole gravel pack completions are used to control sand production in perforated completions. Effective zonal isolation due to cement quality and distance between zones. and perforating method. The risk in fracture stimulation is that the fractures will more than likely not be contained within the pay zone and the casing cementing programme completion equipment rating. The deep penetrating charges are desired to perforate through the damage zone cause by the drilling or completing process. underbalance or overbalance. with the gravel forced into the perforations holding the formation sand in place.g. high shot density. fracture stimulation and cased hole gravel pack (Refer to figure 5.
4. Sequential zonal production through live well intervention methods by re-completion. Multi-string (dual) multi-zone segregated production using parallel strings using concentric strings.2. • • .Perforated Casing Interface Options 5.p.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 101 OF 295 ENI S. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 0 REVISION Figure 5. Single string multi-zone segregated production by initial (or eventual) commingling by sequential (or alternating) production.D .e): • • Commingled production allowing all zones to produce together.A. Multi-Zone Completions There are four main methods of completing multi-zone wells (Refer to figure 5.
the zones are depleted from the bottom upwards and temporarily suspended or abandoned sequentially and then the next higher zone completed. They may also be used for reservoir management. reservoir management and regulatory requirements. however. An option is to conduct a workover pulling the tubing and re-completing by moving the packer depth upwards. Concentric strings may yield higher flow capability but obviously no downhole safety valve can be installed in the outer tubing. Dual String Multi-Zone Production Dual string multi-zone completions are often used offshore or on stacked reservoirs where the production rate is per zone is limited by inflow performance and the previous methods described above would be uneconomic. completion designers prefer to use single string/single zone completion methods for mutli-zone situations. Downhole chokes or regulators can be installed to control flow from each zone when commingling to prevent cross-flow. .A. If artificial lift is required parallel strings would normally be needed.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 102 OF 295 ENI S. This preference is subject. They can often double an individual wells productivity for a reasonably low cost increment. etc. If zones are close together. however there is a trade off in that flow efficiency of the deeper zones and depth access for artificial lift and well killing will be compromised. but generally they are not economic as they are too restrictive of well capacity. Either parallel strings or concentric strings can be used. Triple strings and indeed quadruple string have been used in the past.p. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 Commingled Production 0 REVISION Commingled production is only allowable is limited instances where there are no reservoir management problems and regulatory rules allow. Some operators use the casing tubing annulus as another flow conduit but this is subject to individual operator philosophy and regulatory rules dictating. the initial completion can be installed to allow plugging and perforating of each zone by well intervention methods. Sequential Zonal Production Due to its simplicity and ease of installation. Single String Multi-Zone Production These provide easy methods of bring on other fresh zones when the first zone experiences production problems. by allowing commingling or individual section production at different stages in the wells life in order to maximise the full potential of the reservoir. In this method. reduce excessive gas. to economics.
p.E .A.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 103 OF 295 ENI S. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 0 REVISION Figure 5.Multi-Zone Completions .
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STAP-P-1-M-7100 5.3. CASING-TUBING INTERFACE 0
There are three main casing-tubing interface options which have six sub-divisions (Refer to figure 5.f): • Packerless completions Anchored Unanchored Tubingless. Packer Completions Shallow set Deep set. PBR Completions Liner hanger.
Packers and PBRs are required to provide a seal between the tubing and production casing or liner for the following reasons: • • • • • • • • • To isolate the casing-tubing annulus from well fluids and pressure acting as a barrier on the annulus side. To prevent heading in the annulus improving flow conditions. Prevent annulus corrosion from well fluids. To allow the annulus to be used for supplying artificial lift fluids or injection of inhibitors. To allow the annulus to be used for production (if permitted). To isolate liner laps or casing leaks. To anchor the tubing if no tubing movement is desired. To facilitate well operations through having wireline nipples in a tailpipe, e.g. well plugging, BHP gauge positioning, etc. To protect formations from damage from well intervention or workover fluids by plugging in the tailpipe.
Some onshore low pressure wells are completed without a packer or liner PBR as the risk of damage to the wellhead, hence the risk of injury to personnel and pollution of the environment, is low. This has both advantages and disadvantages. There is one barrier less on the annulus side and the casing may be exposed to corrosive well fluids and the well pressure even if it is low and some operators do not allow this practice. On the other hand, on pump completions it is useful for venting off gas. It is essential for plunger lift completions which uses annulus gas as its energy source for unloading liquids. Tubingless completions, i.e. wells which use a small diameter casing or a tubing as the production casing, offers serious well control problems as there is no downhole safety at all. These are used on low rate, low pressure wells but are not allowed by most operating companies.
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Anchored tubing completions are used on rod pumpers to keep the tubing in tension so that the reciprocation of the rods does not cause buckling on the upstroke and stretch on the downstroke unless the well is shallow and annulus clearance is small. Packer completions are the most popular due to their flexibility in the options in which they are available and their ability to be installed in an exact position at any desired depth compared to the liner PBR. The liner PBR completion offers a larger through bore than a packer option and, therefore are used in high rate wells and mono-bore completions where full bore access is gained to he formation. The liner PBR interface should not be confused with the packer PBR system which although is exactly the same in basic design, is used for packer-tubing sealing and catering for tubing movement.
Figure 5.F - Casing-Tubing Interfaces
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STAP-P-1-M-7100 5.3.1. Packer Applications 0
Packer application with regard to completion design is addressed in this section as there are some basic features which affect the completion architecture. Although there are many varieties of packers available, there are three basic types used in completion designs: • • • Permanent Retrievable Permanent Retrievable.
Eni-Agip do not have any particular policy to the type of packer system to be used in a particular situation due to the wide range of packers available and changing technology but do operate a packer qualification system to ensure that any packer used meets with specific criteria. The packer qualification system is specified in STAP-M-1-M-5010. Retrievable Packer Systems The definition of a retrievable packer is that it is installed and retrieved on the completion tubing. They have advantages in that they can be installed in high angle wells although their operating differential pressure rating, temperature rating and bore size are less than equivalent permanent packers. It is important that designers fully consider the effects of pressure and tubing stresses on these packer systems and associated packer-tubing connections. Their packing element systems are also more sensitive to well fluids as they are more complex due to their ability to be retrieved but after redressing they can be reused. Retrievable packers tend to be used for the following applications: • • • • Completions which have relative short life span. Where there is likely to be workovers requiring full bore access. Multi-zone completions for zonal segregation. In relatively mild well conditions.
Retrievable packer setting mechanisms are by: • • • • Tubing tension Tubing compression Hydraulic pressure Tubing rotation.
Tension or compression set packers are very sensitive to tubing movement and are rarely used nowadays owing to the benefits and variety of other retrievable packers available.
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STAP-P-1-M-7100 Permanent Packer Systems 0
The definition of a permanent packer is that it is retrieved from the well by milling. Permanent packers have high differential pressure and temperature ratings and larger bores. They have many options of both tailpipe and packer-tubing attachments to cater for a large range of applications such as: • • • • • Severe or hostile operating conditions with differential pressures > 5,000psi and o temperatures in excess of 300 F and high stresses. Long life completions. Where workovers are expected to be above the packer, hence not requiring its removal which is costly. Where workovers are expected to be above the packer and the packer tailpipe can be used for plugging the well and isolating foreign fluids from the formation. Providing large bore for high rate wells.
Permanent packer setting mechanisms are by: • • • • Wireline explosive charge setting tool. Tubing tension. Hydraulic pressure by workstring setting tool or on the completion string. Tubing rotation.
Permanent Retrievable Packer Systems Permanent retrievable packers are a hybrid of the permanent style packer designed to be retrieved on a workstring without milling. They offer similar performances as permanent packers but generally have smaller bores. All the packers above can be equipped with tailpipes to accommodate wireline downhole tools such as plugs, standing valves, BHP gauges, etc. 5.3.2. Packer-Tubing Interfaces Tubing can be interfaced with packers through three basic options: • Fixed By threaded connection to the packer mandrel as with retrievable packers. Snap latch requiring an overpull to release By an anchor latch system to a permanent packer. Free moving Seal unit in a packer bore. Seal unit in a PBR attached to the packer. Travel joint. ELTSR. Limited movement Seal unit set down in a packer bore allowing upward movement only. Closed PBR or ELTSR.
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Free movement or partial movement options are used when tubing movement must be catered for otherwise it may be over-stressed due to tubing forces found through the stress analysis (Refer to section 7). However, sometimes they suffer from premature seal failure due to being dynamic seals and if the material type has not been correctly selected for the environment and pressure differentials. To help prevent seal failure, seal units can be shear pinned in a mid open or closed position to prevent seal movement until the stresses in the tubing reach a predetermined level. The selected packer-tubing interface has a significant effect on the completion architecture especially with regard to installation procedure, well kill method, stimulation treatment and type of hanger system. The most popular packer systems are those which have ‘one trip’ installation saving extra trips by workstring or wireline to install the packer before running the completion tubing. 5.3.3. Annulus Circulation Communication between the tubing and annulus on packer type completions is consider to be beneficial to efficient well killing, maintaining a fluid barrier in the annulus, circulating kill fluid before workovers or circulating in underbalance fluids well kick off. This is the same reasons for installing kill strings in packerless completions. Circulating devices, typically sliding sleeves or sliding side doors (SSDs) installed above the top packers, are used for this purpose but they have traditionally been a weak link in design when seals material was not suited to the well conditions. This would require a workover to replace the sleeve so other devices such as SPMs are used as the seals can be recovered and replaced by wireline methods. Some operators recommend that no circulation device be used which limits the flexibility of the completion and requires a tubing punch to be used for circulation before workovers. If a circulating device is undesired but the option is to kill the well by circulation rather than bullheading, a single shot shear kill valve can be installed which is operated by annulus pressure. Annulus circulation is used for: • • • • • Displace completion fluids and Kick-Off wells. Isolation/opening of producing intervals in single selective or dual selective completions. Well killing in tight formations where bullheading might be difficult. Installation of hydraulic pumps The SSD type circulating valves are normally equipped with a landing nipple profile in the upper sub to allow installation of a straddle to stop leaks or for normal wireline nipple uses.
It also isolates the top of the tubing-casing annulus. mates and seals with the Xmas tree and provides annulus access to all the annuli. Temperature operating range. annular safety system). Retained fluid rating (Refer to section 6). Ram type tension hangers. Downhole tubing hangers (e. Direct attachment to the Xmas tree (threaded). It consists of an assembly made up of casing head spools. The casing head and tubing hanger spools are now commonly replaced by compact or unitised wellheads (Refer to the ‘Drilling Design Manual’) to reduce height and improve safety as there are less BOP removals for spool installations.4. Mandrel compression hangers. TUBING-WELLHEAD INTERFACE 0 REVISION The wellhead carries the casing and completion loads which is transferred to the ground through the surface casing.1. oF -75 to 180 -60 to 180 -40 to 180 -20 to 180 0 to 150 0 to 180 0 to 250 -20 to 250 Table 5.A.p.API Temperature Classifications Above 250 F the working pressure is de-rated against temperature (down to o 72% of rating at 650 F.4. Operating Range. . o Temperature Classification K L M P S T U PSL O Tubing Hanger Systems There are five common types of tubing hanger systems available: • • • • • Slip and seal assemblies.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 109 OF 295 ENI S. Product specification level PSL (Refer to API spec 6A). tubing hanger/spool and Xmas tree.A . Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 5. Wellhead specifications are laid out in API Specification 6A and are rated by: • • Maximum working pressure according to the maximum anticipated surface pressure.g. • • 5.
. Depending on the well location.p. either wireline nipple profile or a back pressure thread for land wells. i.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 110 OF 295 ENI S. subsea. Other considerations are DHSV control lines. Dual hanger systems also need to be orientated to mate with the dual Xmas tree. downhole electronic gauge cables and ESP cables which are terminated by stab seals. well plugging for tree removal needs to be considered and that is usually satisfied by having a locking profile in the hanger bores. downhole chemical injection lines. flow or supply. On subsea wells vertical annular access is usually required for well plugging which requires mandrel type hangers with orientation to the guide base and. extended necks or annular ring seals. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 0 REVISION The main consideration in hanger selection is whether the tubing is to be placed in compression or tension and/or the number of tubings.A. platform or land. hence subsea tree.e.
p.API Recommended Minimum PSL for Wellhead Equipment .ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 111 OF 295 ENI S. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 0 REVISION Figure 5.A.G .
4 2. W.4 6.P.9 6.1 13 5/8 5000 9 5000 6. W.6 26 3/4 3000 21 1/4 5000 2.2 21 1/4 5000 20 & 18 5/8 (*) 24 1/2 1.2 13 5/8 5000 13 5/8 10000 5. (psi) Ref.1 2.B.4 2.2 21 1/4 5000 20 & 18 5/8 10000 5000 5000 5000 10000 10000 2 x 2 3/8 2 x 3 1/2 3 1/2 2 x 2 3/8 2 x 2 3/8 2 x 2 3/8 DCSFSL 3 1.p.2 21 1/4 5000 20 & 18 5/8 DCSFSL 2 1.2 21 1/4 5000 20 & 18 5/8 IDENTIFICATION CODE DCSO3 1.7 6.1 26 3/4 3000 0 Table 5.P.5 21 1/4 5000 13 5/8 21 1/4 5000 13 5/8 10000 2.2 21 1/4 5000 20 & 18 5/8 3° CASING HEAD SPOOL 10000 13 5/8 10000 1.P.3 13 5/8 5000 11 7 1/16 7 1/16 7 1/16 9 21 1/4 5000 13 5/8 5000 2.4 13 5/8 13 5/8 13 5/8 21 1/4 5000 13 5/8 5000 2.3 9 9 9 11 7 1/16 7 1/16 7 1/16 9 13 5/8 5000 13 5/8 5000 5.3 13 5/8 5000 13 3/8 & 9 5/8 DCSFSL 1 1.A. nr Btm Flange (in) Max.5 6.4 2.2 13 5/8 5000 13 5/8 10000 5.1 13 5/8 5000 13 5/8 5000 5. W.3 13 5/8 21 1/4 5000 13 5/8 5000 2.1 13 5/8 5000 9 5000 6.2 13 5/8 5000 13 5/8 10000 5. (psi) Btm Flange (in) Max. nr Max. (psi) Ref.8 13 5/8 5000 13 5/8 5000 5. (psi) Ref.nr Top flange (in) Max.2 21 1/4 5000 20 & 18 5/8 DCSO 1 1.6 6. (psi) Top flange (in) Max.4 2.1 2. Agip Division Ref.1 13 5/8 5000 13 5/8 5000 5.3 13 5/8 5000 13 3/8 & 9 5/8 5000 5000 5000 5000 2 7/8 3 1/2 5 2 x 2 3/8 MSCL 2 1.2 21 1/4 5000 13 5/8 5000 2. W.1 2.Typical outlines for on-shore.2 21 1/4 5000 20 & 18 5/8 SCSO 1 1.5 2.Eni-Agip Standard Wellhead Equipment Chart PAGE (*) Typical wellhead configuration for deep wells (po Valley) REVISION 112 OF 295 . nr Btm flange (in) Max.2 21 1/4 5000 20 & 18 5/8 STAP-P-1-M-7100 DCSO 2 1. W. (psi) Top flange (in) Diam tbg (in) CASING HEAD SPOOL TUBING SPOOL TUBING HANGER CASING HEAD ENI S. (psi) Btm (CSG) (in) ARPO MSCL 1 2.2 9 13 5/8 5000 13 5/8 5000 5.P.8 6.3 13 5/8 5000 13 3/8 & 9 5/8 MSCL 3 1.1 9 1. off-shore single and dual completion class -A and class -B (STAP -M-1-SS-5701E) AGIP CODE CASING HEAD SPOOL Ref.P.1 13 5/8 5000 13 5/8 5000 5.4 2.3 13 5/8 10000 13 5/8 10000 10000 2.4 2. (psi) Top flange (in) Max.5 21 1/4 5000 13 5/8 5000 2.2 13 5/8 10000 9 10000 5000 5000 5000 10000 10000 21 1/4 5000 13 5/8 5000 2. W.1 13 5/8 5000 9 5000 6. W.P.P. W.4 2.P.1 13 5/8 5000 13 5/8 5000 5. nr Diam (in) Max.4 13 5/8 5000 5000 10000 10000 21 1/4 5000 13 5/8 5000 2.1 13 5/8 5000 9 5000 6.
p.A.Typical Wellhead .ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 113 OF 295 ENI S. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 0 REVISION 4 3 2 1 20" 13 3/8" 9 5/8" 7" WP (psi) Section 1 Section 2 Section 3 Section 4 Section 5 3K (A) 470 620 472 - 3K (B) 470 620 472 - 5K (C) 470 625 472 - 5K (D) 470 690 670 581 - 10K (E) 470 690 660 700 - 10K (F) 510 850 700 700 -- 15K (G) 510 850 700 750 15K (H) 510 850 700 750 Figure 5.H .
A.Typical Unitised Wellhead and Xmas Tree .p. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 0 REVISION Figure 5.I .ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 114 OF 295 ENI S.
4.000psi) Eni-Agip normally installs an additional gate valve between the tubing spool and the Xmas tree to provide double barrier protection. A second master valve is normally required to enable repair to any of the other tree valves with two barriers in situ (the lower master valve and the tubing hanger plug). Today it is normal to have to justify only a single master valve as the upper master is usually an ESD hydraulically operated valve which is at risk of undue wear and tear. Trees for sour service or high pressure will normally have two outlets. the control system should be designed to close the wing valve first a few seconds before the upper master to avoid erosion or damage over a period of time to the upper master gate and seats as they are more difficult to repair. 15. choke and flowline arrangement must be configured to meet with how the well is closed-in and opened up. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 5. Metal-To-Metal Seals The purpose of metal-to-metal seals is to provide enhanced sealing where it is required in particular applications.p.A. A swab valve is an essential element to enable safe rig up of vertical well interventions by wireline. • • • • • A typical Xmas tree is shown in figure 5.3). The kill wing is often permanently connected up to the kill line to a permanent pump or to allow quick and easy connection of a portable pump.2. 5. coiled tubing or snubbing services or for the BPV rod lubricator. Policy Metal-to-metal seals shall be used in the applications outlined in the following sections. Chemical injection points are usually available at the tree or through the hanger system for downhole.4. The important pointers for the design engineer are: • • • Conventional composite flanged connection trees with a single master valve are the norm for land and low to moderate offshore wells.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 115 OF 295 ENI S. .4. If the tree upper master valve and production wings are fully automated.3. Pressure losses of the offtake system must be considered in the well deliverability analysis (Refer to Section 2. In very high pressure wells (i. The production wing. Xmas Trees 0 REVISION The type of Xmas tree and construction are important as they have an effect on safety and cost.i. production and kill wing sides.e. which is often a remote hydraulic operated valve.
000 H2S Service Wells Sealing WP.000 10.000 10. psi 5.p. B. psi 5.000 10. These designations A.000 10. psi 5. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 Application 0 REVISION The following criteria is applicable to the various conditions listed in the following tables: a) b) c) d) Between producing strings/casing/tubing hanger and tubing hanger seal flange. psi 5.000 A B C D A B C D A B C D ' ' ' ' ' ' & & ' ' ' ' ' ' & ' & & ' ' ' ' & ' & & ' ' . Sweet Service Wells (with top hole temperature less than 100°C) ' = YES Sealing WP. Between tubing hanger and tubing spool. C and D will be used in the tables in the tables below.000 >10. On control line connections.000 >10. On production casing or production liner. Oil And Gas Producers These tables apply equally to onshore and offshore wells.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 116 OF 295 ENI S.000 A B & = NO C D ' ' ' & ' ' & & & ' ' ' Sweet Service Wells (with top hole temperature exceeding 100°C) Sealing WP.A.000 Gas Injectors Sealing WP.
where the stand-off from the water or gas zones increases the risk of producing early unwanted fluids. This will have an impact of the completion architecture and establish a philosophy.000 A B C D ' ' &(1) ' & & ' ' (1) If H2S is present it will be a YES. psi 5. This will have included identification of the potential reasons for well interventions or workover servicing. due to the high cost of subsea well re-entrys. and may be problematic on platforms where space. servicing can be conducted almost on demand. Well servicing or workover techniques also have an impact on the well area with regard to height and lateral space. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 Water Injectors Sealing WP. As an example of this is horizontal completions selected to maximise initial well productivity. Alternately. the valve can be replaced cheaply without requiring a workover.000 10. 5. well servicing should be minimised as they require a floating vessel from which to deploy the re-entry system. psi 5.A. This may lend to the selection of a wireline retrievable type safety valve rather than a tubing retrievable type as in the event of failure. height and weight are at a premium. on an easily accessible land wells where servicing and workover methods are relatively much less costly. FUTURE CONSIDERATIONS Built into the conceptual stage. Another example is on offshore subsea fields.5. a design life for the completion will have been established.p.000 A B C 0 REVISION D ' ' & ' & & ' ' Artificial Lift Wells (both onshore and offshore wells) Sealing WP. In this case to the stand-off can be increased but there is a penalty in lower initial production rates. During this process future well servicing and maintenance will also have been planned. This means well life should be planned for the life of the field or as long as feasible (typically 7-10 years) although some unplanned problems may occur.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 117 OF 295 ENI S. .000 10. The well location and type of development has a large impact on the techniques available and cost of well servicing and maintenance optimising the completion design around the potential problems and remedial techniques is a balancing act between effectiveness and cost.
5. It could also increase the tubing movement and alter the choice of tubing movement device and spacing out. etc. If a multi-zone single string selective completion design has been installed then producing zones can be closed off or opened up by wireline techniques and hence.2.4). the surface pressure would demand a higher pressure rated Xmas tree than required for production only.5.g.1. by opening and closing isolation sleeves. If acid stimulations are planned. or as producing zones become depleted and require isolating before brining on other zones.p. . the effects of the pressures causing additional stresses on the tubing and packer need to be input and catered for in the tubing design process (Refer to Section 7). This can be conducted by coiled tubing or snubbing services without killing the well. 5. then straddles are sometimes utilised to keep pressure off the SCSSV and Xmas tree. Where this problem has not been planned into the completion design a complete workover to re-complete may be required.2. and need reperforating. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 5. cement squeezes and reperforating techniques are required. Formation Management As the fluid interfaces move through time and unwanted fluids are produced. If multi-zone multi-string completions are installed then the individual zones can simply be closed off by shutting in the well at surface or. A single string sequential completion may be employed where existing perforations can be isolated simply by installation of a bridge plug on wireline but often the perforations require to be squeezed off with cement (Refer to Section 5. Stimulation 0 REVISION If future stimulation operations are required such as fracturing.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 118 OF 295 ENI S. If the costs of upgrading the well tubulars to resist these stresses are prohibitive. the effects on the completion materials needs to be considered or alternatively to use coiled tubing for spotting of the acid before pumping to the formation. The next production zone can then be perforated using through tubing perforating techniques (Refer to Section 9). Also. e. producing zones are sometimes damaged by scale build up or movement of fines. if there are more than one zone to a string. are more flexible but have higher initial capital cost. Excessive water or gas production due to fingering which requires continuing production from lower zones can be isolated by cement squeezing or if using a monobore type completion by installing a straddle across the interval on wireline or coiled tubing methods. If the well has been planned for these operations then the completion may have been designed to accomplish these operations without pulling of the tubing in a workover operation.A.
A. Well Servicing Techniques 0 REVISION Well servicing includes live well intervention services or major workovers to pull the tubing. Live well interventions can be conducted by: • • • • Wireline (electric line or slickline).p. fishing electric line).) Tubing control (drifting) Calipering Swabbing BHP pressure and temperature monitoring Electronic memory logging Opening and closing of circulation devices Perforating Fishing.5. Coiled Tubing. Pumps. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 5. Slickline Is probably the most widely used well servicing method and is used for: • • • • • • • • • • Mechanical well clean out (tubing and sump) Installation and retrieval of flow controls (plugs. Snubbing cannot be deployed from any floating installation. Workovers can be conducted by: • • • Workovers rigs Drilling rigs Hydraulic workover units.3. standing valves. . Hydraulic workover cannot be deployed from any floating installation. gas lift valves. chokes. etc. Snubbing. Braided Line Braided line is used for: • • Heavy duty wireline work (installing large heavy flow controls). Fishing (when slickline has been unsuccessful.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 119 OF 295 ENI S. A specialist subsea wireline technique has been developed for subsea well interventions without using the riser re-entry system which is much quicker and less costly.
p. Calipering Real time BHP surveys Perforating Packer setting Installing bridge plugs. Stimulation (acidising) Cementing Cleaning out tubing and sump Gas lifting Logging (stiff wireline) Installing flow controls (wireline type tools) Milling Drilling (underbalance side tracking. multi-laterals). etc.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 120 OF 295 ENI S.A. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 Electric Line Electric line is used for: • • • • • • Logging (PLT. Snubbing has found a revival with platform horizontal wells where it is used to work in long horizontal sections where C/T may not be capable. 0 REVISION Coiled Tubing Coiled tubing (C/T) is used for: • • • • • • • • • Snubbing Snubbing is used for: • • • • • • • Stimulation (acidising) Cementing Cleaning out tubing and sump Gas lifting Installing flow controls (wireline type tools) Milling Drilling (underbalance side tracking. multi-laterals) Fishing (generally when wireline has been unsuccessful). .
incurring early loss of potential production. one increase in API tubing size would double the maximum theoretical capacity.6. however. A fixed flow rate. If the PI was infinite. using the IPR for well 2. These changes are normally declining reservoir pressure and increasing water cut which will reduce flow rates. This trend is downwards towards cessation of flow and . The following sub-sections describes the various factors and there effect on TPC. 1 . Where high costs workovers are involved such as on subsea wells. This shifts the TPC minimum to a higher rate and. the selection process inevitably involves analysis of the gross fluid deliverability and flow stability under changing reservoir conditions to confirm that the production forecast can be met and to determine when artificial lift or compression is required.p.j shows that the 4 /2” tubing size should be selected to ensure the offtake exceeds the target of 8. Whatever the case. the maximum flow rate is obtained with /2” 7 tubing but only a slight reduction in flow rate is seen if the 2 /8” tubing is selected which gives steadier and regular flow. However. it may be possible to accelerate offtake by the early installation of artificial lift. If the IPR curve intersects the TPCs in the region near the minimum. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 5. the changing conditions over the life of the well must be considered when selecting tubing size. This usually means at the maximum initial flow rate and maintaining it as long as possible.05 of pressure minimum. pmin to ensure stability. the optimum tubing size will be a compromise maximising flow rate and having steady producing 1 conditions.obviously the tubing selected for the start of production will not be the optimum size after some period of time. is greater than 1. As previously mentioned. the selection may be for an even longer period of time. the reduced fluid velocities experienced in larger tubing increase the hydrostatic head because of slippage. therefore widening the flat uncertain portion around the minimum.4). For example. fluid velocities decrease and reduces the frictional effects. typically 5-8 years. OPTIMISING TUBING SIZE 0 REVISION The optimum tubing size is selected to obtain the desired offtake rates at the lowest capital and operating costs. at low rates.000 to 9. It is generally recommended to select a tubing size such that the flowing pressure.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 121 OF 295 ENI S. The net result should be higher production rates only if the IPR/TPC intercept remains to the right of the TPC minimum. Pwf. replace the tubing with a smaller size or to implement artificial lift which will have associated costs. as tubing size increases. The choice at that time will be to reduce wellhead pressure. The optimum size of tubing is clearly the size which will be most cost effective over a number of years.000stb/d and perhaps even larger tubing could be investigated.A. The example well #1 in figure 5. depending on the inflow capability (Refer to Section 2.
Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 0 REVISION Figure 5.K.J .Example Tubing Sizes on Well Deliverability Figure 5.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 122 OF 295 ENI S.A.Effect of Reservoir Pressure on TPC .p.
Unstable flow conditions and eventually cessation will occur unless some other change in the system is made. However.3.A.6.l shows the effect of increasing GLR.6.2. build-up of wax.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 123 OF 295 ENI S. figure 5. Reservoir Pressure 0 REVISION As reservoir pressure declines over time. The larger tubing sizes are more sensitive to changes in flowing wellhead pressure as the density factor dominates more than in smaller tubing. therefore reducing the potential drawdown. Gas-Liquid Ratio Increasing gas-liquid ratios cause a decrease in hydrostatic head and increase in frictional pressure drop which in the early stages may actually result in increased flow rates. 5. etc.g. Again this means that smaller tuning may need to be selected instead of the ideal larger tubing to cater for anticipated changes in wellhead pressure. e. as illustrated in figure 5. Flowing Wellhead Pressure Any flowing wellhead pressure is actually back-pressure transmitted downhole to the bottom-hole flowing pressure. hence flow rates. above a critical point there will be a net increase in the overall pressure drop. the effect on productivity must be considered during the completion design stage to find the most cost effective method of maximising productivity.p. All of these reduce the natural flow rate of the well. both which increase hydrostatic head. facility malfunctions. 5. In these circumstances the frictional effects near surface become very dominant and can be alleviated by the use of a tapered tubing string. This clearly shows how important the assumed wellhead pressure accuracy is in the well deliverability forecast and economics. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 5. Also high wellhead pressures reduces the amount of free gas and compresses the remaining free gas.1.k. Changes in wellhead pressure can be attributed to slugging in the flowline. where workover costs are high to complete with smaller size tubing to ensure stability through the economic life of the well. wells being produced or closed in which use the same flowline. leading to decreasing natural flow rates.6. it collapses towards the origin. . In reservoirs where significant reductions in reservoir pressure are anticipated.
bottom-hole pressure.4.L .m.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 124 OF 295 ENI S.p. Refer to section 10 for the applications and comparisons of the various methods of artificial lift. therefore.Effect of Increasing GLR 5. This effectively shifts the TPC downwards bringing the intersection point further towards stable flowing conditions.A. An example of rates which can be obtained by different artificial lift methods is illustrated in figure 5. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 0 REVISION Figure 5. .6. Artificial Lift The intention of installing artificial lift is to reduce the hydrostatic head and.
Examples of Artificial Lift Performance . Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 0 REVISION Figure 5.p.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 125 OF 295 ENI S.M .A.
if there is any likelihood of a sour corrosive influx occurring.A. it is accepted that tubing leaks and pressured annuli are a fact of life and as such. consideration should be given to setting a sour service casing string before drilling into the reservoir. should be designed to withstand such an environment. production casing strings are considered to be subject to corrosive environments when designing casing for a well where hydrogen sulphide (H2S) or carbon dioxide (CO2) laden reservoir fluids can be expected. corrosion is an electrolytic process where electrical current flows during the corrosion process. DEVELOPMENT WELLS Casing corrosion considerations for development wells can be confined to the production casing only. The BOP stack and wellhead components must also be suitable for sour service. 6. there must be a generating or voltage source in a completed electrical circuit. Any part of the production casing that is likely to be exposed to the corrosive environment. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 0 REVISION 6. • Internal corrosion The well should be designed to contain any corrosive fluids (produced or injected) within the tubing string by using premium connections. it is necessary to the corrosion process.2.p. • External corrosion Where the likelihood of external corrosion due to electrochemical activity is high and the consequences of such corrosion are serious.1. To have a flow of current. . the production casing should be cathodically protected (either cathodically or by selecting a casing grade suitable for the expected corrosion environment). CONTRIBUTING FACTORS TO CORROSION Most corrosion problems which occur in oilfield production operations are due to the presence of water. CORROSION A production well design should attempt to contain produced corrosive fluids within tubing. They should not be produced through the casing/tubing annulus. 6.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 126 OF 295 ENI S. However. In the presence of water. Whether it may be present in large amounts or in extremely small quantities. during routine completion/workover operations or in the event of a tubing or wellhead leak. During the drilling phase.
• Temperature Like most chemical reactions. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 0 REVISION The existence.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 127 OF 295 ENI S. The solubility of oxygen in water is a function of pressure. but usually also results in pitting. • Hydrogen Sulphide (H2S) Hydrogen sulphide is very soluble in water and when dissolved behaves as a weak acid and usually causes pitting. decreases the pH of the water and increase its corrosivity. Using the partial pressure of carbon dioxide as a yardstick to predict corrosion. Attack due to the presence of dissolved hydrogen sulphide is referred to as ‘sour’ corrosion. the following relationships have been found: Partial pressure >30psi usually indicates high corrosion risk.p. Oxygen is less soluble in salt water than in fresh water. It should be pointed out that H2S also can be generated by introduced microorganisms. temperature and chloride content. Partial pressure 3-30psi may indicates high corrosion risk. temperature decreases the solubility to raise the pH. It is not as corrosive as oxygen. Pressure increases the solubility to lower the pH.A. if any. The combination of H2S and CO2 is more aggressive than H2S alone and is frequently found in oilfield environments. corrosion rates generally increase with increasing temperature. . • Carbon Dioxide (CO2) When carbon dioxide dissolves in water.0ppm. The important factors governing the solubility of carbon dioxide are pressure. Corrosion primarily caused by dissolved carbon dioxide is commonly called ‘sweet’ corrosion. it forms carbonic acid. or in any combination may be a contributing factor to the initiation and perpetuation of corrosion: • Oxygen (O2) Oxygen dissolved in water drastically increases its corrosivity potential. Other serious problems which may result from H2S corrosion are hydrogen blistering and sulphide stress cracking. temperature and composition of the water. Oxygen usually causes pitting in steels. Partial pressure <3psi generally is considered non corrosive. It can cause severe corrosion at very low concentrations of less than 1. of the following conditions alone.
Higher temperatures. vertical and deviated wells: a) In vertical oil wells. More gas goes into solution as the pressure is increased this may in turn increase the corrosivity of the solution.1. The H2S comes into contact with H2O which is an + essential element in this form of corrosion by freeing the H ion. CO2 and ClCorrosion in injection wells and the effects of pH and souring are not included. The procedure adopted to evaluate the corrosivity of the produced fluid and the methodology used to calculate the partial pressures of H2S and CO2 will be illustrated in the following sub-sections. Evaluation of the SSC problem depends on the type of well being investigated. 6. • Velocity of fluids within the environment Stagnant or low velocity fluids usually give low corrosion rates. the primary importance of pressure is its effect on dissolved gases.g. above 80°C inhibit the SSC phenomenon. but pitting is more likely. Sulphide Stress Cracking (SSC) The SSC phenomenon is occurs usually at temperatures of below 80°C and with the presence of stress in the material. In gas wells. impingement or cavitation. corrosion. therefore knowledge of temperature gradients is very useful in the choice of the tubular materials since differing materials can be chosen for various depths. e. two separate cases need to be considered. High velocities and/or the presence of suspended solids or gas bubbles can lead to erosion.3. Corrosion rates usually increase with velocity as the corrosion scale is removed from the casing exposing fresh metal for further corrosion. In oilfield systems. FORMS OF CORROSION The following forms of corrosion are addressed in this manual: Corrosion caused by H2S (SSC) Corrosion caused by CO2 and Cl - Corrosion caused by combinations of H2S. gas saturation with water will produce condensate water and therefore create the conditions for SSC. .ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 128 OF 295 ENI S. generally corrosion occurs only when the water cut becomes higher than 15% which is the ‘threshold’ or commonly defined as the ‘critical level’ and it is necessary to analyse the water cut profile throughout the producing life of the well. In oil wells.p.3. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 • 0 REVISION Pressure Pressure affects the rates of chemical reactions and corrosion reactions are no exception.A. 6.
6.p. The following formulae are used to calculate the value of pH2S (partial pressure of H2S) in both the cases of gas (or condensate gas) wells or oil wells. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 b) o REVISION 0 In highly deviated wells (i. even if in very small quantities. Oil Bearing Well The problem of SSC exists when there is wetting water.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 129 OF 295 ENI S. is termed undersaturated. deposits on the surface of the tubulars and so the problem can be likened to the gas well case where the critical threshold for the water cut drops to 1% (WC <1%). In this case the pH2S is calculated in two ways: • • Basic method. Firstly.A SSC is triggered at pH2S >0. the pH2S is calculated using both methods and the higher of the two results is taken as the a reliable value. is not known or the values obtained are not reliable. Gas Or Condensate Gas Well H2S partial pressure is calculated by: pH2S = SBHP x Y(H2S)/100 where: SBHP = Y(H2S) = = pH2S Static bottom-hole pressure [atm] Mole fraction of H2S Partial H2S pressure [atm] Eq. because the wellhead and bottom-hole pressures are higher than the bubble point pressure (Pb) at reservoir temperature.5 atm.0035 atm and SBHP >4. Material balance method. the potential for SSC occurring is evaluated by studying the water cut values combined with the type of well and deviation profile.e. If the quantity of H2S in gas at the bubble point pressure [mole fraction = Y(H2S)]. .A. If the conditions specified above are verified then the pH2S can be calculated.e. Otherwise the basic method is used. deviations >80 ). Undersaturated Oil In an oil in which the gas remains dissolved. the risk of corrosion by H2S is higher since the water. i.: Water cut >15% for vertical wells o Water cut >1% for horizontal or highly deviated wells (>80 ) 3 3 or if the GOR >800 Nm /m The pH2S calculation is different for undersaturated and oversaturated oil.
D where: PM Ci Mi d = = = = n mean molecular weight of the reservoir oil = Ci × Mi / 100 i =l Mole % of the ith component of the reservoir oil Molecular weight of the ith component of the reservoir oil Density of the gas at separator conditions referred to air =1 ∑ .000ppm) and the water cut value from is lower than 5% (this method cannot be used when the WC values are higher). without comparison with the other method.B Material Balance Method This method is used when data from production testing is available and/or when the quantity of H2S is very small (<2. The following algorithm is used to calculate the pH2S: Step 1 pH2S is calculated at the separator (pH2Ssep): pH2Ssep = (Psep x H2Ssep)/106 where: Psep H2Ssep = = Absolute mean pressure at which the separator works (from tests) in atm Mean H2S value in the separator gas (generally measured in ppm) Eq. The pH2S is calculated by: pH2S = Pb x Y(H2S)/100 where: Pb = Y(H2S) = pH2S = Bubble point pressure at reservoir temperature [atm] Mole fraction in the separated gas at bubble point (from PVT data if extrapolated) Partial H2S pressure [atm] Eq. 6.6 − 23. 6. is generally lower than the actual value under stabilised conditions. when the H2S value in the separated gas at bubble point conditions is known and is reliable or if Y(H2S).ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 130 OF 295 ENI S. 6.p. Note: H2S sampled in short production tests.C The mean molecular weight of the produced oil. molar fraction in the separated gas at bubble point pressure (Pb) is higher than 2%. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 Basic Method 0 REVISION This method is used. The value of H2S in ppm to be used in the calculation must also be from stable flowing conditions.6 PM giac Eq.A. PM : PM = γ × 1000 GOR γ × 1000 + × (d × 29 ) GOR 23.
6. 6. 6. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 0 REVISION The quantity of H2S in moles/litre dissolved in the separator oil is calculated: [H2S]oil = (pH2Ssep/H1 x (γ x 1000)/ PM ) where: H1 PM γ = = = Henry constant of the produced oil at separator temperature (atm/Mole fraction).a which represents the functions H(t) for the three types of oils: • • • Heptane PM N-propyl benzene PM Methylnaphthalene PM =100 = 120 =142 .6) total number of moles of the liquid phase in the reservoir Henry constant for the reservoir temperature and reservoir oil (see procedure for calculating Henry constant) In general.E The quantity of H2S in the gas in equilibrium is calculated (per litre of oil): [H2S]gas = (GOR/23.6 x H2Ssep/10 ) where: GOR 23.p. Procedure For Calculating Henry Constant The value of the Henry constant is a function of the temperature measured at the separator.F The pH2S is calculated at reservoir conditions: pH2S = (([H2S]oil + [H2S]gas)/K ) x H2 where: K H2 = = Eq.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 131 OF 295 ENI S. There is SSC potential if pH2S >0. The mapping method can be applied for temperatures at the separator of between 20°C and 200°C.G (γ x 1000/ PM + GOR/23. Given the diagram in figure 6.6 = = Gas oil ratio Nm /m (from production tests) Conversion factor 3 3 6 Eq. (See Procedure for calculating Henry constant) Mean molecular weight of the produced oil Specific weight g/l of the produced oil Eq. H2S corrosion can occur at either the wellhead or bottom-hole without distinction.0035 atm and STHP >18.63 atm.A.
p. If PM > 100. 6. Comments On The H2 Calculation Having calculated the molecular weight of the reservoir oil PM res. If PM > 120.d. If 120 < PM < 142 the mean value is calculated using the H(t) curve of heptane and the H(t) curve of propyl benzene. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 Remarks On The H1 Calculation 0 REVISION Having calculated the molecular weight of the produced oil PM using the formula in eq. For this purpose the temperature values immediately before and after the temperature studied are taken into consideration.A.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 132 OF 295 ENI S. the H(t) curve of propyl benzene is used. the mean value is calculated using the H(t) curve of propyl benzene and the H(t) curve of methylnaphthalene. the H(t) curve of methylnaphthalene is used. H2 is measured in a similar way as H1. Given FTHT. the H1 value is interpolated linearly on the chosen curve(s). the reference curve is chosen (given by points) to calculate the Henry constant on the basis of the following value thresholds: • • • • • • If PM > 142. . If 100 < PM < 120. using temperature measured at the separator. the H(t) curve of heptane is used. wellhead flowing temperature.
Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 0 REVISION 130 Henry atm/Y[H2S] 120 110 100 90 methylnaphthalene PM = 142 80 N-propylbenzene PM = 120 heptane PM = 100 70 60 50 40 30 20 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 110 120 130 140 150 160 170 180 190 200 T C° Figure 6.p.H(t) Reference Curves Oversaturated Oil Oil is considered oversaturated when the gas in the fluid separates because the pressure of the system is lower than the bubble point pressure.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 133 OF 295 ENI S. Two situations can arise: Case A FTHP < Pb FBHP > Pb Case B FTHP < Pb FBHP < Pb .A .A.
when FTHP <Pb: The data result from the production conditions and only the basic method is used. i. the 2 corresponding value in reservoir conditions is assumed as being partial pressure at the wellhead. Calculation is of the partial pressure at the wellhead.63 atm. Y(H2S) >0. the partial pressure is calculated as: pH2S = Y(H2S) x FBHP 1 where: Y(H2S) = Molar fraction in gas separated at FBHP and at reservoir temperature (from PVT) • The PVTs are not reliable. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 Calculation Of Partial Pressure In Case A: 1) 2) 0 REVISION Calculation is of the partial pressure in the reservoir: In this case pH2S is calculated in the way described for undersaturated oil. Calculation Of Partial Pressure At Wellhead The calculation method is that used for case A (FTHP <Pb) 2 If the percentage (ppm) of H2S in the gas under static conditions is not known.2%. FBHP <Pb.A. Calculation Of Partial Pressure In Case B: Calculation of partial pressure in the reservoir: In the reservoir the gas is already separated. 2 If the percentage (ppm) of H S in the separated gas under static conditions is not known. these are the worst conditions. the material balance method can be used as in the case of undersaturated oil. 1 . Basic Method pH2S = STHP x Y(H2S)/100 where: STHP = Y(H2S) = pH2S = Static tubing head pressure [atm] Mole fraction in separated gas at STHP pressure and wellhead temperature Partial H2S pressure [atm] The SSC phenomenon is triggered off at the wellhead if pH2S >0. the corresponding value in reservoir conditions is assumed as being partial pressure at the wellhead.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 134 OF 295 ENI S. The error made can be high when Pb > FBHP.e.0035 atm and STHP >18. calculation of pH2S can be approximated on the basis of the following: • The PVTs are reliable.p.
A.2 atm.p. . Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 6.2 atm.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 135 OF 295 ENI S. It also occurs only if the partial pressure of CO2 exceeds a particular threshold. As in the case of SSC. i. i. then the pCO2 is then calculated.e.3. the possibility that corrosions exist in water cut values combined with the type of well and deviation profile is evaluated.e. Water cut >1% for horizontal or highly deviated wells (> 80 degrees).2.: • • Water cut >15% for vertical wells.3. pCO2 at wellhead is assumed as corresponding to reservoir conditions.1 exist. Corrosion Caused By CO2 And Cl0 REVISION In the presence of water. If the conditions described in section 6. CO2 gives rise to a corrosion form which is different to those caused by the presence of H2S. The pCO2 values calculated in this way are used to evaluate the corrosion at bottom hole and wellhead. Gas Or Condensate Gas Wells The partial pressure is calculated: pCO2 = SBHP x Y(CO2)/100 where: SBHP = Y(CO2) = pCO2 = Static bottom-hole pressure [atm] Mole fraction of CO2 Partial pressure of CO2 [atm] Corrosion occurs if pCO2 >0. Oil Bearing Wells The problem exists where there is wetting water. Undersaturated Oil Wells The partial pressure of CO2 is calculated: pCO2 = Pb x Y(CO2)/100 where: Pb = Y(CO2) = pCO2 = Bubble point pressure at reservoir temperature Mole fraction of CO2 in separated gas at bubble point pressure (from the PVTs) Partial pressure of CO2 [atm] Corrosion occurs if pCO2 >0.
2 atm. If the percentage (ppm) of CO2 in the gas under static conditions is not known. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 Oversaturated Oil 0 REVISION The oil is considered oversaturated when the gas separates in the fluid because the pressure of the system is lower than bubble point pressure.A.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 136 OF 295 ENI S. pCO2 = Pb x Y(CO2)/100 where: Pb = Y(CO2) = pCO2 = Bubble point pressure at reservoir temperature Mole fraction in separated gas at bubble point pressure (from the PVTs) Partial pressure of CO2 [atm] Corrosion occurs if pCO2 >0. Calculation Of pCO2 At Wellhead: pCO2 = STHP x Y(CO2)/100 where: Y(CO2) = STHP = Mole fraction in separated gas at STHP3 Static tubing head pressure [atm] Corrosion occurs if pCO2 >0.2 atm. the corresponding value in reservoir conditions is assumed as being partial pressure at the wellhead 3 .p. Two situations may arise: Case A FTHP <Pb FBHP >Pb Case B FTHP <Pb FBHP <Pb Calculation Of Partial Pressure In Case A: Calculation of pCO2 in reservoir conditions: FBHP >Pb pCO2 is calculated in the same way as undersaturated oil wells earlier in this section.
p.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 137 OF 295 ENI S. - If the percentage (ppm) of CO2 in the gas under flowing/static conditions is not known. The phenomenon is diagnosed by calculating the partial pressures of H2S and CO2 and comparing them with the respective thresholds. Corrosion Caused By H2S. 4 . the corresponding value in reservoir conditions is assumed as being partial pressure at the wellhead. CO2 And ClIt is possible to encounter H2S and CO2 besides Cl . In this case the problem is much more complex and the choice of suitable material is more delicate.3.3.A. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 Calculation Of Partial Pressure In Case B: Calculation of pCO2 at reservoir conditions: pCO2 = FBHP x Y(CO2)/100 where: Y(CO2) = 0 REVISION Mole fraction in separated gas at pressure FBHP (from the PVTs) Calculation Of pCO2 At Wellhead: The calculation method is the same as the one used in the wellhead conditions in case A: pCO2 = STHP x Y(CO2)/100 where: Y(CO2) = Mole fraction in separated gas at STHP4 There is corrosion if pCO2 >0.2 atm. 6.
Refer to table 6.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 138 OF 295 ENI S. Measure Control of the environment • • • • • • • • • Means pH Temperature Pressure Chloride concentration CO2 concentration 2 H S concentration 2 H O concentration Flow rate Inhibitors Surface treatment • Plastic coating • Plating the alloying elements micro Improvement of the corrosion resistivity of the Addition of steel structure Table 6.A. CORROSION CONTROL MEASURES 0 REVISION Corrosion control measures may involve the use of one or more of the following: • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Cathodic protection Chemical inhibition Chemical control Oxygen scavengers Chemical sulphide scavengers pH adjustment Deposit control Coatings Non metallic materials or metallurgical Control Stress reduction Elimination of sharp bends Elimination of shock loads and vibration Improved handling procedures Corrosion allowances in design Improved welding procedures Organisation of repair operations.p. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 6.4.a below.Counter Measures to Prevent Corrosion .A .
however it is occasionally used for production casing or tubing below the packer depth. CORROSION RESISTANCE OF STAINLESS STEELS Stainless steel is usually used in applications for production tubing. Batch treatment (tubing displacement. Stainless steels may be divided into four distinct classes on the basis of their chemical content. The most common types contain around 12% chromium.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 139 OF 295 ENI S. Corrosion inhibitors are commonly added in small amounts to acids. although some chromium content may be as high as 18%. The most important characteristic that distinguishes these steels from other grades is their response to heat treatment. selenium. Stainless steels are strongly magnetic whatever the heat treatment condition.weighted liquids Capsules Sticks. To be classed as a stainless steel. and sulphur are added in small amounts for other properties in some grades.08% to 1.p. . either continuously or intermittently to prevent serious corrosion. The only grade of oilfield tubular used in this category is 13Cr. The main reason for the development of stainless steel is its resistance to corrosion. CORROSION INHIBITORS 0 REVISION An inhibitor is a substance which retards or slows down a chemical reaction.5.6. when added to an environment. As their name indicates. metallurgical structure and mechanical properties these are: 6. an iron alloy usually must contain at least 12% chromium in volume.6. decreases the rate of attack by the environmental on a metal. steam or other environments. The most commonly used of the martensitic stainless steels is AISI Type 410. The martensitic stainless steels are included in the ‘400’ series of stainless steels. There are many techniques used to apply corrosion inhibitors in oil and gas wells: • • • • • • 6. molybdenum.A. standard batch. cooling waters. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 6. The carbon content ranges from 0.1. Thus. columbium. extended batch) Continuous treatment Squeeze treatment Atomised inhibitor squeeze . The corrosion resistance of stainless steels is due to the ability of the chromium to passivate the surface of the alloy. the microstructure of these steels is martensitic. Martensitic Stainless Steels The martensitic stainless steels contain chromium as their principal alloying element.10% and other elements such as nickel. silicon. a corrosion inhibitor is a substance which. The martensitic stainless steels are hardened by the same heat treatment procedures used to harden carbon and alloy steels.
and may range up to as high as 25% chromium and 20% nickel. which are also strongly magnetic. 6.b for the various compositions of stainless steels. These steels are widely used in the oilfield for fittings and control lines. The chromium contents of ferritic stainless steels is normally higher than that of the martensitic. Their micro-structure consists essentially of austenite which is face cantered cubic iron or an iron alloy based on this structure.6. the steels can be hardened to varying strength levels. Ferrite is simply body cantered cubic iron or an alloy based on this structure. Ferritic Stainless Steels 0 REVISION The second class of stainless steels. Austenitic Stainless Steels The austenitic stainless steels have two principal alloying elements.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 140 OF 295 ENI S.p. The microstructure of the ferritic stainless steels consists of ferrite. Austenitic stainless steels generally have the highest corrosion resistance of any of the stainless steels. Ferritic stainless steels are also part of the ‘400’ series. and 436. 430. Refer to figure 6. the most common being 304. They contain a minimum of 18% chromium and 8% nickel. is the ferritic stainless steels. stainless steel.3. . 6. Most can be formed and machined before the final heat treatment and the finished product being hardened. They combine the high strength of the martensitic stainless steels with the good corrosion resistance properties of the austenitic stainless steels. Most were developed as proprietary alloys.4. the principal types being 405. Precipitation in alloys is analogous to precipitation as rain or snow. The distinguishing characteristic of the precipitation hardened stainless steel is that through specific heat treatments at relatively low temperatures. 316 high Cr and Ni which may include Mo. but their strength is lower than martensitic and ferritic stainless steels. but due to its low strength is not used for well tubulars. and there is a wide variety of compositions available. Others commonly used are 303 free machining. Austenitic stainless steels are grouped in the ‘300’ series. They are not able to be hardened by heat treatment although they are hardenable to some extent by cold working and are generally non-magnetic. chromium and nickel.A.6.2.6. which contain various amounts of chromium and nickel. and 347 stabilised for welding and corrosion resistance. Precipitation Hardening Stainless Steels The most recent development in stainless steel is a general class known as ‘precipitation hardened stainless steels’. They are used principally for their temperature properties. which are similar to the martensitic stainless steels in that they have chromium as the principal alloying element. with other elements added for particular reasons. The chromium content ranges between 13% to 27% but are not able to be hardened by heat treatment. and the carbon content is generally lower. These are most commonly used for component parts in downhole and surface tools and not as oilfield tubulars. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 6.
Stainless Steel Compositions .p.A. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 0 REVISION Figure 6.B.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 141 OF 295 ENI S.
if using carbon steel casing. where there is H2S. there is a large gap between the 13Cr and Duplex Stainless Steels used as tubulars for their good anti-corrosion properties. wells producing CO2 partial pressure higher than 20psi requires inhibition to limit corrosion. H2S Corrosion In wells.14% N.p.7. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 6. consideration should be given to limit casing and wellhead yield strength according to API 5CT and ‘NACE’ standard MR-01-75. The resulting steel has properties that are normally found in both phases: the ferrite promotes increased yield strength and resistance to chloride and hydrogen sulphide corrosion cracking. 6.5. This gap is attempted to be filled with ‘Super 13Cr’ tubing being developed. Inhibitor injection.7. Duplex Stainless Steel 0 REVISION In general. As a general note. . COMPANY DESIGN PROCEDURE CO2 Corrosion In producing wells. 6.d for partial pressure limits. This material is used extensively for tubulars used in severe CO2 and H2S conditions.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 142 OF 295 ENI S.1.7. while the austenite phase improves workability and weldability. the presence of CO2 may lead to corrosion on those parts coming in contact with CO2 which normally means the production tubing and part of the production casing below the packer. Casing and tubing material will be selected according to the amount of H2S and other corrosive media present.c and figure 6. resistant to corrosion.6.2. 6. Corrosion may be limited by: • • The selection of high alloy chromium steels. ferritic-austenitic (duplex) stainless steel consists of between 40-70% ferrite and has a typical composition of 22% Cr-5. Refer to figure 6. Generally.5% Ni-3% Mo-0.A.
A.Sour Gas Systems Figure 6.Sour Multiphase Systems .D .p. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 0 REVISION Figure 6.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 143 OF 295 ENI S.C .
e and figure 6. OCTG. all materials in class C-steel/L-A-steel can be used. otherwise the following combinations of conditions may exist: • • • • Solely H2S in oil wells Solely H2S in gas or gas condensate wells Solely CO2 and Cl Both H2S and CO2.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 144 OF 295 ENI S. DHE materials and wellhead materials.f. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 6. Materials are sub-divided into three categories.8. These give the rules used by Eni-Agip sectioned on the basis of the conditions as listed above and the use in the well. refer to figure 6. The choice of materials proposed is conservatively as recent develop materials such as 13%Cr and Super Duplex class have not been considered because experiments on these materials are not completed. MATERIAL SELECTION 0 REVISION The choice of material is based on the application of engineering diagrams supplied by manufacturers of tubing and. The tables regarding the choice of materials are shown below. hence the use of the modified SMI has been adopted.p.A. . In the partial pressures of H2S and CO2 are below the critical thresholds established in the previous section.
000 Cl* <50.1< pH2S max <1 0.0035< pH2S max < 0. T95-1 Alternately L80-Mod. C90-1.1 0. C90-1.2< pCO2S max <100e pH2S max >1 FBHT <150 C o Material Cl* <50.OCTG Materials for Sour Service .p.0035< pH2S max < 0.2< pCO2S max <100e 0.B .000 22% Cr.0035< pH2S max < 0.1 0.0035< pH2S max <0.0035< pH2S max < 0.000 13% Cr-80KSI Max 22% Cr CW 25% Cr CW 22% Cr 25% Cr 25% Cr 25% Cr CW 25% Cr 25% Cr CW 28% Cr 22% Cr SA 25% Cr SA 28% Cr 28% Cr Alternately 22% Cr 25% Cr FBHT <200 C 150 C< FBHT <200 C 200 C< FBHT <250 C 200 C< FBHT <250 C FBHT <250 C FBHT <250 C 200 C< FBHT <250 C FBHT <200 C FBHT <250 C FBHT <200 C o o o o o o o o o o o o o o Cl* >50.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 145 OF 295 ENI S. T95-1 L80-Mod.2< pCO2S max <100 FBHT <150 C o o 150 C< FBHT <200 C o o 200 C< FBHT <250 C o Material Cl* <50.000 Cl* <50. OCTG Specifications Refer to table 6.2< pCO2S max <100e 0. N80-2.2< pCO2S max <100 0.005 0. 25% Cr Incoloy 825 28% Cr Incoloy 825 Incoloy 825 Incoloy 825 Table 6.1< pH2S max <1 0.005< pH2S max <0. N80.005 0. C90-1.000 Cl* <20. C90-1.000 Cl* >50. K55.000 Cl* <50.2< pCO2S max <100e 0. T95-1 OCTG Materials For Corrosion By CO2 And Cl* Conditions 0.1 pH2S max < 0.2< pCO2S max <100e 0. K55.1 0.1< pH2S max <1 0. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 6.0035< pH2S max <0.005 0.0035< pH2S max < 0.2< pCO2S max <100e 0. C95.000 Cl* <50. T95-1 OCTG Materials For Corrosion By H2S Only In Gas Wells Conditions 0.2< pCO2S max <100e pH2S max <0.A.1 pCO2S max <100e 0.2< pCO2S max <100e 0.8.0035< pH2S max < 0.2< pCO2S max <100e 0.000 Cl* <50. T95-1 L80-Mod.000 Cl* >50.1 0. C90-1. OCTG Materials For Corrosion By H2S Only In Oil Wells Conditions 0.005< pH2S max <0.005< pH2S max <0. P110 J55.2< pCO2S max <100 0. C90-1. K55.1 0.0035< pH2S max <0. C95 L80 Alternately L80-Mod.b below.2< pCO2S max <100e 0.1.005 0.000 Cl* <50.000 13% Cr 22% Cr 25% Cr-SA Alternately 25% Cr OCTG Materials For Corrosion By CO2 . N80 L80 L80 Mod.005 0.2< pCO2S max <100e 0.1 FBHT >80 C o o 60 C< FBHT >80 C o FBHT >80 C o REVISION 0 Material J55. T95-1 L80-Mod. H2S And Cl* Conditions 0.1 FBHT >80 C o FBHT <80 C o Material J55.
1 pH2S max < 0.005 pCO2S max <100e pH2S max <0.1 pH2S max < 0.000 Cl* <50.000 9% Cr-1Moly 13%-Cr-80KSIMAX 22% Cr 25% Cr 25% Cr Inconel 718 Incoloy 825 22% Cr CW 25% Cr CW 25% Cr CW 25% Cr 28% Cr 22% Cr SA 25% Cr SA 25% Cr SA 28% Cr 28% Cr Alter Or 22% Cr 25% Cr Inconel 718 Incoloy 825 Inconel 718 Incoloy 825 100 C< FBHT <150 C 150 C< FBHT <250 C 200 C< FBHT <250 C 200 C< FBHT <250 C FBHT <200 C o o o o o o o o o Cl* >50.1 FBHT >80 C FBHT <80 C o o Material AISI-41XX-80KSI-MAX AISI-41XX-HRC-22-MAX AISI-41XX-HRC-22-MAX Alternately Materials For DHE Corrosion By CO2 And Cl* Conditions pCO2S max <100 pCO2S max <100 pCO2S max <100 FBHT <100 C o o 100 C< FBHT <150 C o o 150 C< FBHT <250 C o Material Cl* <50.000 Cl* >50. Materials For DHE Corrosion By H2S Only In Oil Wells Conditions pH2S max < 0.000 Cl* <50.000 Cl* <50.c below.000 Inconel 718 Incoloy 825 Inconel 718 Incoloy 825 Inconel 718 Incoloy 825 Inconel 718 Incoloy 825 22% Cr.8.005 pCO2S max <100e pH2S max <0.000 Cl* <50.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 146 OF 295 ENI S.A. H2S And Cl* Conditions pCO2S max <100e pH2S max < 0.000 Cl* >50.DHE Material for Sour Service .005 pCO2S max <100e pH2S max < 0.C. Inconel 718 Incoloy 825 Inconel 718 Incoloy 825 Inconel 718 Incoloy 825 Table 6.000 28% Cr Alternately Inconel 718 Incoloy 825 Materials For DHE Corrosion By CO2 .005 pCO2S max <100e pH2S max <0.p.1 pCO2S max <100e pH2S max <1 pCO2S max <100e pH2S max <1 pCO2S max <100e pH2S max <1 FBHT <100 C 100 C< FBHT <150 C 150 C< FBHT <250 C 200 C< FBHT <250 C o o o o o o o Material Cl* <50.000 Cl* >50.1 pCO2S max <100e pH2S max <0.000 FBHT <250 C FBHT <250 C o o Cl* <50.1 FBHT >80 C o FBHT >80 C o FBHT <65 C o FBHT <65 C o REVISION 0 Material AISI-41XX-110KSI-MAX AISI-41XX-80KSI-MAX AISI-41XX-HRC-22-MAX AISI-41XX-HRC-22-MAX Alternately Materials For DHE Corrosion By H2S Only In Gas Wells Conditions pH2S max < 0.000 Cl* <50.000 Cl* <50. DHE Specifications Refer to table 6.2.1 pH2S max < 0.1 pH2S max > 0.005 pCO2S max <100e pH2S max < 0. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 6.005 pCO2S max <100e pH2S max < 0.
Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 6. Wellhead Specifications Refer to below.035 Body Bonnet Flanges AISI-4135HRC-22-MAX AISI-4135 Gate & Seats AISI-4140HRC-22-MAX AISI-4140 Steam AISI-4140HRC-22-MAX AISI-4140 Manual Master-Valve Body Bonnet Flanges AISI-4135HRC-22-MAX AISI-4135 Gate & Seats AISI-4140HRC-22-MAX AISI-4140 Steam AISI-4140 HRC-22-MAX AISI-4140 Wellhead Materials For Corrosion Caused By CO2 and ClConditions 0.2<pCO2 Max 100 FTHT < 150 Cl < 50000 pCO2-Max < 100 150 <FTHT <200 Cl.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 147 OF 295 ENI S.035 Tubing Hanger AISI-4140 HRC-22MAX AISI-4140 Tbg Head Adapter AISI-4135 HRC-22MAX AISI-4135 Tubing Spool AISI-4135 HRC-22MAX AISI-4135 Cross AISI-4135 HRC-22MAX AISI-4135 Top Adapter AISI-4135 HRC-22MAX AISI-4135 Casing Spool AISI-4135 HRC-22MAX AISI-4135 REVISION 0 Stud ASTMA193-B7M ASTMA193-B7M Nut ASTMA194-2M ASTMA194-2H Automatic-Master-Valve Conditions pH2S-MAX> 0. Wellhead Materials For Corrosion Caused By H2S Conditions pH2S-MAX > 0.035 pH2S-MAX < 0.2 < pCO2-Max < 100e FTHT < 150e Cl < 50000 pCO2-Max <100e 150<FTHT< 200e Cl < 50000 - Manual Master-Valve Steam Body Bonnet Flanges 13%-Cr80ksi-Max F6NM AISI-4135-IC Inconel-625 Inconel-718 Gate & Seats 13%-Cr80ksi-Max Steam Monel-K500 17-4-PH Inconel-718 Body Bonnet Flanges 13%-Cr-80ksiMax F6NM AISI-4135-IC Inconel-625 Gate & Seats 13%-Cr-80ksiMax Monel-K500 17-4-PH Inconel -718 Inconel -718 .p.035 pH2S-MAX < 0.A.3.8.< 50000 - Tubing Hanger 13%-Cr80ksi-Max F6NM Monel-K500 Inconel-718 Tbg Head Adapter 13%-Cr80ksi-Max F6NM AISI-4135-IC Inconel-625 Tubing Spool AISI-4135 Cross 13%-Cr80ksi-Max F6NM AISI-4135IC Inconel 625 MonelK500 Top Adapter 13%-Cr80ksi-Max F6NM AISI-4135-IC Inconel -625 Monel-K500 Casing Spool Carbon-Steel AISI-41XX AISI-4135 Stud ASTMA193-B7 ASTMA193-B7 Nut ASTMA194-2H ASTMA194-2H AISI-4135 Automatic-Master-Valve Conditions 0.
ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 148 OF 295 ENI S.8 FTHT< 150 Cl < 50000 - F6NM MonelK500 F6NM AISI-4135HRC-22MAX F6NM F6NM AISI-4135HRC-22MAX ASTMA193-B7M ASTMA194-2M MonelK500 ASTMA194-2M Inconel718 AISI-4135IC Inconel625 AISI-4135 HRC-22MAX AISI-4135.p. CO2 and Cl Condition pCO2 -Max < 100 pH2S-Max < 0.8 Cl > Water 50000 pCO2-Max <100 pH2S-Max e > 0.AISI-4135IC IC Inconel625 MonelK500 Inconel625 MonelK500 AISI-4135 HRC-22MAX MonelK500 pCO2-Max < 100 pH2S-Max <0.AISI-4135 IC IC HRC-22-Max Inconel625 Inconel718 Inconel625 Inconel718 Inconel718 Inconel718 .2 FTHT < 150 Cl < 50000 F6NM MonelK500 F6NM AISI-4135HRC-22Max F6NM F6NM AISI-4135 ASTMHRC-22-Max A193-B7M ASTMA194-2M ASTMA194-2M pCO2-Max < 100 pH2S-Max < 0.A. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 0 REVISION Wellhead Materials For Corrosion Caused By H2S.2 FTHT < 150 Cl < 50000 pCO2-Max < 100 pH2S-Max <0.8 - Inconel718 AISI-4135IC Inconel625 AISI-4135 HRC-22Max AISI-4135.AISI-4135.005 FTHT < 150 Cl < 50000 - Tubing Hanger F6NM Tbg Head Adapter 13%-Cr 80ksi-Max F6NM Tubing Spool AISI-4135 HRC-22Max Cross 13%-Cr80ksi-Max F6NM Top Adapter 13%-Cr 80ksi-Max F6NM Casing Spool Stud Nut ASTMA194-2M AISI-4135 ASTMHRC-22-Max A193-B7M pCO2-Max < 100 pH2S-Max < 0.
Inconel-625 F6NM Inconel-718 Monel-K500 pCO2. Inconel-625 F6NM Inconel-718 Monel-K500 AISI-4135-I.8 Cl Water 50000 pCO2.A.Max Stellite--6 Monel-K500 AISI-4135-I.p.8 - Inconel-718 Inconel-718 AISI-4135-I.Max < 100 pH2S.I.Max < 0.Max < 0.Wellhead Material for Sour Service .Max < 0.Max < 2 0.D.Max < 100 pH2S.8 FTHT< 150 Cl <50000 - F6NM 13%-Cr-80 KSIMax Stellite-6 Monel-K500 F6NM 13%-Cr80KSI. pH2S. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 0 REVISION Automatic-Master-Valve Conditions Body Bonnet Flanges Gate & Seats 13%-Cr-80 KSIMax Steam 17-4-PH F6NM Manual Master-Valve Body Bonnet Flanges 13%-Cr-80KSIMax F6NM Gate & Seats 13%-Cr80KSI.Max e > 0.C.Max Steam 17-4-PH F6NM pCO2 -Max < 100 13%-Cr-80KSIMax pH S. Inconel-625 Inconel-718 Inconel-718 Inconel-625 Table 6.C.C.C.2 FTHT < 150 Cl < 50000 pCO2.005 FTHT < 150 Cl < 50000 F6NM pCO2.Max < 100 AISI-4135.Max < 100 pH2S.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 149 OF 295 ENI S.
> 50000 ppm 22 % Cr.> 50000 ppm 25 % Cr-CW (*) 1 10-1 FBHT < = 65 C L 80 or L 80 mod.<= 20000 ppm 25% Cr-CW FBHT<=250 C and Cl. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 0 REVISION 100 pCO2 (atm) FBHT <= 150 C and Cl.E .C 90 T1 T 95 T1 10-2 C.p.> 50000 ppm 28 % Cr INCOLOY.< 50000 ppm 22 % Cr 25 % Cr 200 < FBHT <= 250 C Cl.825 FBHT<= 250 C Cl.825 10 FBHT <= 200 C Cl-<=50000 ppm 22 % Cr-SA or 25 % Cr-SA 28 % Cr INCOLOY.<= 50000 ppm 25% Cr-CW 200<FBHT<=250 C and Cl.A.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 150 OF 295 ENI S.<= 50000 ppm 13% Cr 150 > FBHT <= 200 C Cl.<= 50000 ppm 25 % Cr-SA or 28 % Cr INCOLOY.<= 50000 ppm 22% Cr 200<FBHT<=250 C 25% Cr-SA or 25% Cr FBHT<= 250 C and Cl.<= 50000 ppm 13 % Cr 80 Ksi max or 22 % Cr 25 % Cr FBHT <= 200 C Cl.825 FBHT <= 250 C Cl.825 FBHT < 200 C 28 % Cr or INCOLOY-825 (*) FBHT<= 150 C Cl.STEEL J 55 N 80 P 110 FBHT >80 C J55 K55 N80-1 C95 P110-1 (only oil) or L80 mod C90 T1 LOW ALLOY STEEL L 80 mod C 90 T1 C 95 T1 10-3 65 < FBHT<= 80C J 55 K 55 N80-1 or L 80 mod C90 T1 T 95 T1 10-4 10-4 10-3 10-2 10-1 1 10 100 pH2S (atm) Figure 6.OCTG Material Selection Diagram .CW 25 % Cr -CW 150 < FBHT <= 200 C Cl.> 50000 ppm 28 % Cr or INCOLOY.< 50000 ppm 25 % Cr-CW 200 < FBHT <= 250 Cl.
p.DHE Material Selection Diagram .> 50000 ppm 25 % Cr INCONEL 718 INCOLOY 825 10-1 FBHT < = 65 C AISI 41XX 22 HRC max 10-2 C-STEEL or AISI 41XX 65 < FBHT <=80 C C-STEEL 80 Ksi max AISI 41XX FBHT > 80 C C-STEEL 110 Ksi max AISI 41XX 100 < FBHT <= 200 C Cl.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 151 OF 295 ENI S.<= 50000 ppm 9 Cr 1 Mo 100 < FBHT <= 150 C Cl.<= 50000 ppm 13 % Cr 80 ksi max 150 > FBHT<= 250 C 25% Cr-CW or 25% Cr INCONEL 718 INCOLOY 825 200 < FBHT<= 250 C Cl.F .> 50000 ppm 25 % Cr-CW INCONEL 718 INCOLOY 825 10-4 10-4 10-3 10-2 10-1 1 10 100 pH2S (atm) Figure 6.> 50000 ppm 22 % Cr-CW 25 % Cr-CW INCONEL 718 INCOLOY 825 AISI 41XX 22 HRC max 10-3 200 > FBHT <= 250 C Cl.A.> 50000 ppm 28 % Cr or INCONEL 718 INCOLOY 825 1 200 < FBHT <= 250 C Cl.<= 50000 ppm 25 % Cr-SA 28 % Cr INCOLOY 825 INCONEL 718 FBHT<= 250 C Cl.<= 50000 ppm 22 % Cr 25 % Cr INCONEL 718 INCOLOY 825 10 (*) 200 < FBHT<=250 C Cl.> 50000 ppm 28 % Cr INCOLOY.825 INCONEL 718 FBHT < 200 C 28 % Cr or INCOLOY 825 INCONEL 718 (*) 150 < FBHT <= 200 C Cl.<= 50000 ppm 25 % Cr or INCONEL 718 INCOLOY 825 FBHT <= 200 C Cl-<=50000 ppm 22 % Cr-SA 25 % Cr-SA 28 % Cr INCOLOY 825 INCONEL 718 200 < FBHT <= 250 C Cl. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 0 REVISION 100 pCO2 (atm) FBHT <= 100 C Cl.
e.A.p. The couplings must have the same heat treatment as the pipe body. Three copies of the report providing the ladle analysis of each heat used in the manufacture of the goods shipped. all markings must be paint stencilled or hot die stamped. normalising and tempering).9. 6) 7) Note: The casing should also meet the following criteria: • • The steel used in the manufacture of the casing should have been quenched and tempered. in addition to those given in the above table. together with all the check analyses performed. All sour service casing should be inspected using non-destructive testing or impact tests only. .g. Recommendations for casing to be used for sour service must be specified according to the API 5CT for restricted yield strength casings. Shell modified API thread compound must be used. The pipe must be tested to the alternative test pressure (see API Bulletins 5A and 5AC). must be submitted.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 152 OF 295 ENI S. Cold die stamping is prohibited. the following specifications should be included. P105 or P110 tubulars are not acceptable for orders for J55 or K55 casing. (This treatment is superior to tubulars heated/treated by other methods. as per API Specification 5CT. Three copies of a report showing the physical properties of the goods supplied and the results of hardness tests (Refer to step 3 above) must be submitted. ORDERING SPECIFICATIONS 0 REVISION When ordering tubulars for sour service. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 6. 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) Downgraded grade N80.
2. Movement can only occur if the tubing is free to move.1. This relationship is fully explained in section 7.10. refer to the criteria in section 7. it is first necessary to understand the properties of steels used in the manufacture of tubing.25 applies to the ratio of the calculated stress in a string to the minimum yield strength of the selected tubing in carbon steels. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 0 REVISION 7. A safety factor (SF) of 1. When these have been determined it will confirm the suitability of the selected tubing.10 Stress Calculations.6).p.2. If the stress SF is less than these limits. To fully understand these effects. Tubing movement occurs due to only two reasons: • • Temperature changes Change in pressure induced forces. Currently Eni-Agip Division and Affiliates recommended programme is the Enertech WS-Tube programme to the latest version. 7. All tubing strings should be designed for stress.A. 7. the SFs may be reduced. Tubing size shall be determined by the reservoir engineers using IPR curves and Nodal analysis (Refer to section 5. preferably using an appropriate up to date computer programme.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 153 OF 295 ENI S. If the tubing is not free to move and is anchored to a packer then stress will be subjected to the tubing string and packer. THEORY During completion tubing design process. A safety factor (SF) of 1. . the calculation should be run again substituting.35 applies to the ratio of the calculated stress in a string to the minimum yield strength of the selected tubing of CRA materials. it is necessary to calculate the variations in length for the stresses applied under load conditions. Tubing movement upwards (contraction) is assumed to be negative and downwards (lengthening) is positive. TUBING DESIGN POLICIES All completion tubing strings will have tubing movement calculations conducted to ascertain the maximum load applied to the string and/or completion tubing movement to be catered for in the completion design. either a heavier weight or. Under some special conditions. a higher grade of pipe.
a. it is classed as a ductile material.e. Buckling may cause failure of the part without any fracture of the material. is the modulus of elasticity E. Beyond the elastic limit. yield. both are explained in figure 7. corrosion. and other causes. the shattering of glass).. deformation takes place before any final fracture occurs. The action of a material under the gradually increasing extension in the tension test is usually represented by plotting apparent stress (the total load divided by the original cross-sectional area of the test piece) as ordinates against the apparent strain (elongation between two gauge points marked on the test piece divided by the original gauge length) as abscissae. the material is classed as brittle. Figure 7. i.A .g.1.2. As load is applied. Tests of materials may be conducted in many different ways. such as by torsion. A typical curve for steel is shown in figure 7. the elastic deformation is accompanied by varying amounts of plastic. These failures are failures of the material.p. wear. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 7. and if fracture occurs with little or no plastic deformation. or permanent.b. compression and shear. but the tension test is the most common and is qualitatively characteristic of all the other types of tests. or the ratio of stress to strain within the elastic range. If a material sustains large amounts of plastic deformation before final fracture. deformation. some deformation may be sustained without permanent deformation.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 154 OF 295 ENI S. the material behaves elastically.A. This gives rise to Poisson’s Ratio. In this.Stress-Strain Curve for Tubing Steel . the elastic deformation is approximately a straight line as called for by Hooke's Law. With all solid materials. Mechanical Properties of Steel 0 REVISION Failure of a material or of a structural part may occur by fracture (e. and the slope of this line. sometimes called Young's Modulus.
Deformation Constants for Tubing Steel .a. Figure 7.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 155 OF 295 ENI S. leaving a permanent set. permanent or plastic strain occurs. the material will contract along a line generally nearly straight and parallel to the original elastic line. If the stress is released in the region between the elastic limit and the yield strength.A.B . Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 0 REVISION Beyond the elastic limit. see figure 7.p.
L-80 . 5AC.000 psi. This loss of area weakens the specimen so that the curve reaches a maximum and then falls off until final fracture occurs. . Others are shown in figure 7. In materials that do not exhibit a marked yield point. tubing and drill pipe are laid down in API specification of further specs. known as yielding. For steels used in the manufacturing of tubular goods. The lines indicating equivalent hardness of 22 and 23 Rc indicates the tolerances for use of the materials in H2S conditions according to NACE which is fully described in section 7. In the harder and stronger steels. it is customary to designate the end of the straight portion of the curve (by definition the proportional limit) as the elastic limit. The denominations of the different grades are based on the minimum yield strength. and in the case of the yield point even maximum requirements (except for H-40). As extension continues beyond yielding. API specifies the yield strength as the tensile strength required to produce a total elongation of 0. a curious phenomenon occurs after the elastic limit. This is arbitrarily defined as the stress at which the material has a specified permanent set (the value of 0.A. This gives rise to a dip in the general curve followed by a period of deformation at approximately constant load.000 psi.min. but at the same time the cross-sectional area of the specimen becomes less as it is drawn out. and under certain conditions of temperature. as required by definition.9.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 156 OF 295 ENI S. 5CT which is a combination of former specs. yield strength 55. 5A. minimum requirements are laid down for the mechanical properties. The maximum stress reached in this region is called the upper yield point and the lower part of the yielding region the lower yield point.000 psi.Casing and Tubing requirements. Careful practice qualifies this by designating it the proportional elastic limit.min.4.p.5% to 0. e. The stress at the maximum point is called the tensile strength or the ultimate strength of the material and is its most often quoted property. Similar arbitrary rules are followed with regard to the elastic limit in commercial practice. the yielding phenomenon is less prominent and is correspondingly harder to measure. yield strength 80.min. 5AX and 5AQ .6% of the gauge length. J-55 . Instead of determining the stress up to which there is no permanent set.2% is widely accepted in the industry). the material becomes stronger causing a rise of the curve. it is customary to measure a yield strength. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 0 REVISION In steels.g.c.: H-40 . Depending on the type or grade. yield strength 40. The mechanical and chemical properties of casing.
Strengths of Various Grades of Steel .ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 157 OF 295 ENI S.p.C . Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 0 REVISION Figure 7.A.
These devices are usually available in 10ft stroke lengths or multiples of 10ft. a 20ft device should be selected as a 10ft device would not provide enough contingency for error. i.2 will expand or contract due to changes in temperature or pressure induced forces.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 158 OF 295 ENI S. If the tubing is attached to a packer. a) Free Movement The tubing is free to move fully upwards or downwards using the packer bore with a seal assembly. 10ft. ELTSR or a travel joint depending on which type of packer system is utilised. then the tubing is unable to move as it can in the free movement scenario and. a PBR. The tubing is connected to the packer by being threaded to. Temperature 0 REVISION Temperature changes cause expansion and contraction in metals which is a significant factor in tubing strings. The movement determined by calculation should be used to select a device which accommodates this movement with a margin of error. unless the movement was subsequently restricted as described in the next section. This may increase or decrease the stress already exerted to the tubing when it was installed.e.3. For a given volume. . Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 7. an object will expand or contract through temperature change by the Co-efficient of thermal expansion for the type of material. 20ft and 30ft. There are three methods in which tubing is connected to the packer: a) b) c) Tubing is fully free to move either way. Calculations must be conducted to establish the full tubing movement in order that the length of tubing movement device can be determined. The tubing is positioned where it is fully free to move upwards but its downward movement is restricted and stress applied to the packer.3ft = total 9ft.2. as seen in the previous section 7. If the tubing is free to move then the calculations will determine the maximum expansion or contraction which needs to be catered for by the utilisation of a tubing movement compensation system such as a packer and seal unit.2. a TSR or travel joint (Refer to figure 7.9 x 10 in/in/F°. the packer -6 Further explanation of these three modes are explained below. a PBR.2. e.A.p.d below). 7. which is the ‘initial’ tubing condition. The co-efficient of liner expansion for tubular steels is usually 6. or latched to. changes in tubing stress will be exerted. in this case. All subsequent changes in temperature or pressure induced forces are calculated form this initial condition.2.g. All metals have a particular expansion rate which is termed the ‘Coefficient of thermal expansion’. Tubing Movement/Stress Relationship Steel tubing. with a calculated movement of + 6ft and .
F . (Refer to figure 7. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 b) Limited Downward Movement 0 REVISION In this case the tubing is fully free to move upwards but is restricted in its downward movement (Refer to figure 7.D . correspondingly to the packer. This additional stress will be calculated during the tubing movement calculations and must not exceed the stress limit for the tubing.Limited Movement Figure 7. Ratchet Latch.Free Moving Figure 7. c) Anchored Tubing In this case the tubing is anchored to the packer by being threaded to it (as in the case when using retrievable packers) or by using an anchoring device such as an Anchor Latch.p.e). This may be acceptable when temperature and pressure changes are not excessive. the calculations will determine that the tubing stress limit is not exceeded. This restricted downward movement results in further stress applied to the bottom of the tubing and. it will result in increased tensional and compressive forces.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 159 OF 295 ENI S. When the tubing is anchored to the packer and movement is eliminated.f). Figure 7.Anchored Tubing . otherwise permanent deformation will occur. etc. Similarly.A.E . hence increased stress in the tubing.
1. Once the tubing size. . The tubing grade is selected in accordance to the criteria listed in section 6 to combat the effects of any corrosion from the well conditions.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 160 OF 295 ENI S. either.A. determined by nodal analysis conducted by the reservoir engineers. The well deviation is also important to determine the type of packer/tubing seal device and/or tubing movement device to ensure that. Similar to the pressure data. selection of a tubing are: • • • • • • • • 7. weight and grade is confirmed then the appropriate rated completion components can be specified in order that the purchasing department can prepare tender documents. 7.1. Each casing or liner weight and corresponding length of section must be known to enable calculation. Casing Profile/Geometry The planned casing design and contingency plans are required as they affect the tubing movement calculations (Refer to 4. hence.1). The average temperature of each section of tubing and casing must be known or determined to input into the calculations. straight pull or torque can be applied to the tubing downhole at the packer depth overcoming any frictional drag.3.3. WELL DATA.3. Bottom-hole Pressure Accurate initial and prognosed future formation pressures both static and dynamic are fundamental to tubing movement/stress calculations.2. Temperatures (Static and Flowing) Accurate well temperature data are vital in tubing movement/stress analysis as the temperature effect is usually the effect which causes the greatest tubing movement.4. 0 REVISION The well data and parameters required (or already determined) to produce an accurate tubing movement/stress analysis and. 7. Casing design profile Casing programme contingency profile Tubing size from optimisation analysis Pressure gradient Temperature gradient Reservoir fluids specific gravities Completion fluid specific gravities Production/injection or stimulation forecast. The tubing movement/stress calculations will then determine the tubing weight or any change in grade required to meet with the applied SF for stress.3. 7.3.3. These pressures can be obtained from previous well exploration test data or appraisal well test reports.p. Deviation tables are also required. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 7. Tubing Data The optimum tubing size. temperature data may be found from previous well test results. is required and is the basis of all the calculations.
p. Each of these effects are addressed in this section. The information required to make a considered selection may be obtained from the ADIS (Advanced Drilling Information System) database (which holds all the data regarding the drilling of the well). well tests carried out earlier and other sources which may be useful in the decision making process. Carbon Dioxide and Chloride levels. is chosen for its compatibility with the formation and its fluids so as not to cause any formation damage. therefore the materials should be chosen to last the planned life of the completion. 7. These effects are: a) b) c) Piston effect. either with a tubing seal unit in a packer bore or a tubing movement device. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 7. . these corrosive agents can cause serious problems. Reservoir Fluids 0 REVISION As described earlier. this is referred to as the initial condition. Buckling effect. These are three pressure induced effects which produce forces that moves the tubing.3. 7. This is subject to any corrosion inhibition methods which may be implemented. Ballooning effect. the constituents of the produced reservoir fluids will initially determine the material required for the tubing. PRESSURE INDUCED FORCES When a well is completed. It also must be selected for its stability over long time periods and not suffer from dehydration or deterioration. It should be selected to provide an overbalance at the top of the reservoir. All subsequent conditions are calculated from this initial condition. Future parameters must also be considered as water may rise and the GOR will change. it will have completion fluid in both the tubing and the annulus. usually a brine. it should be suitably dosed with corrosion inhibitors and oxygen scavenger to prevent corrosion to the exposed tubulars and elastomers.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 161 OF 295 ENI S.A. Particular importance should be paid to Hydrogen Sulphide. If justified economically.4.6.5. however if this choice is not economic and some corrosion inhibition process was suitable then this would be a fallback position. the material chosen should combat the effects of corrosion. In the presence of water and under certain temperature conditions. therefore it is essential that a detailed corrosion study is completed to enable the choice of materials and/or inhibition procedures. As the completion fluid (sometimes referred to as the packer fluid) will be left in the annulus.3. Completion Fluid The completion fluid.
the equation becomes: ∆L1 = − where: L EAs [(Ap − A1) ∆P1 − (Ap − Ao ) ∆Po] Eq. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 7.p.1. This tensile load is greatest in the joint immediately below the tubing hanger. tubing larger than the packer bore. 7. 7. The change in length due to these alterations is calculated from Hooks Law: Where E is the modulus of elasticity (sometimes referred to as a Young’s Modulus formula). when run in a well must first withstand the load of its own weight which may be a significant factor especially in deep wells. 7.A Substituting for F.7 and figure 7. If there is an alteration from this initial condition causing a change in pressure forces across the packer seal unit then a piston effect is caused.4. Piston Effect 0 REVISION Tubing. This will alter the tensile load on the top and bottom of the tubing. and tubing smaller than the packer bore.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 162 OF 295 ENI S.A.B L E As Ap Ai Ao ∆Pi ∆Po = = = = = = = = Length of the tubing string to the packer depth (ins) Young’s Modulus of Elasticity (psi) 2 Cross sectional area of tubing (ins ) 2 Area of the packer bore (ins ) 2 Area of the tubing ID (ins ) 2 Area of the tubing OD (ins ) Change in tubing pressure at the packer (psi) Change in annulus pressure at the packer (psi) . The force (F) change is caused by the change in piston force from the initial conditions created by a change in pressure in the annulus or tubing at the packer. The tubing is run into a completion fluid with equivalent fluid density inside and outside the tubing which results in a reduction of the load due to buoyancy. The formula in each case is the same: ∆L1 = − L F EAs Eq.h illustrate this piston force for two cases.
Packer Bore Larger Than Tubing OD 7. Buckling Effect Figure 7. The neutral point can be calculated from the following: n= where: W Wi Wo = = = F w Ws + Wi .Wo Ai x Weight of fluid inside the tubing Ao x Weight of fluid outside the tubing Eq. some of the tubing will be buckled and the rest straight. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 0 REVISION Ao Ai Ao Ai r r Po Po Ap Pi Ap Pi Figure 7. The buckling effect is greater when pressure differential is applied across the pipe.A. The exact point between the buckled and straight sections is the ‘neutral point’ (Refer to figure 7.i). Unless the tubing string is short or the compressive force is exceedingly high.H .p.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 163 OF 295 ENI S.i has a variable pitch as the compressive force is progressively lowered by the weight of the pipe hanging below.G .C . 7. The helix shown in figure 7.4.2.Packer Bore Smaller Than Tubing OD Helical buckling is initiated by compressive force acting on the bottom of the tubing and is the formation of helical spirals in the tubing string.
the length reduction due to helical buckling (Refer to figure 7.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 164 OF 295 ENI S.Neutral Point When the neutral point is within the tubing length (and so the helix can fully develop).p.D I= π (D 4 − d 4 ) 64 .I .i) can be calculated by the following formula: F2 r2 ∆L2 = − 8EI w where: Eq. 7. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 0 REVISION Figure 7.A.
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F Figure 7.J - Helical Buckling If the tubing is very short (as happens for example on selective type completions between two packer’s) all the string may be affected by buckling and there is no neutral point. In this case, the length reduction due to the buckling effect is dependant upon the entire length of the string and can be calculated by the following formula:
∆L2 = −
F 2 r 2 Lw Lw F 2 − F 8 EIw
As seen, the formulae for both piston effect and helicoidal buckling above has so far used F, i.e. the change in the piston force acting on the bottom of the tubing. However, in order to complete the understanding of the effects which lead to variations in length due to buckling, we must also consider the effect caused by pressure differential across a pipe. If the internal pressure in a pipe is greater than the external pressure, the tube remains straight only if it has an axially symmetric cross-section with no deformation to change its shape. This configuration is unstable and any distortion can lead immediately to a stable equilibrium condition which is helicoidal buckling. Helicoidal buckling is caused by the effect of the pressure which acts on the lateral surface of the pipe wall as the convex surface of the bend in a greater force is larger than the concave surface (Refer to figure 7.k). The internal pressure will therefore exert a greater force on the convex side of the helix, than that exerted on the concave section of the same bend. The resulting force will, therefore, create the helicoidal buckling configuration. The same occurs when the stable external pressure is greater than the internal pressure also resulting in helical buckling.
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Moreover, the effect of the external pressure on the tubing lateral surfaces is equivalent to a tensile force applied at the tubing bottom of:
F f = Ai Pi
= − Ao Po
Figure 7.K - Pressure Induced Helical Buckling Effect From this it can be concluded that the effect of the internal pressure on the tubing lateral surfaces is equivalent to a compressive force applied at the bottom of the tubing. Therefore the tubing will be buckled by the piston force and by the sum of Ff and Ff . The fictitious force Ff is obtained from the sum of the three elements:
Ff = Ff + Ff
F f = A p (Pi − Po )
If Ff is greater than zero it will cause helical buckling and hence, if it is less than zero there is no deformation. It is however important to relate that the only force actually applied at the bottom of the tubing is the piston force, while the fictitious force is used only to calculate the buckling effect.
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It should be remembered that, to calculate the variations in length, the variations of the forces compared to initial conditions must be calculated. Therefore, to sum up: in the ∆L1 (Hooke’s law), the variation of the piston force Fa must be used; in the ∆L2 (buckling), the variation of the fictitious force Ff must be used when this is positive, otherwise, being a tensile force, it cannot buckle the string and ∆L2 = 0. The theory above was developed considering Pi = Po in the initial conditions, it thus follows that the Ff is equal to zero and that the variation of fictitious force ∆Ff is therefore equal to the final fictitious force. 7.4.3. Ballooning Effect The third element which changes the length of a string, due to the changes to internal and external pressure, is caused by ballooning. This effect occurs when ∆P = Pi - Po is positive and tends to swell the tubing which, contracts axially or shortens (Refer to figure 7.m). On the other hand, when ∆P = Pi - Po is negative, the tubing is squeezed and, expands axially or elongates. This is termed reverse ballooning (Refer to figure 7.l). The normally used simplified formula to calculate the ballooning or reverse ballooning effect is: • •
∆L3 = −
2ν ∆Pim − R 2 ∆Pom L E R2 −1
In this the average internal and external pressure variations are defined by the formulae:
+ Pi ( final ) − Pi (initial ) Pi ( final ) − Pi (initial ) tophole bottomhole ∆Pim = 2
+ Po ( final ) − Po (initial ) Po ( final ) − Po (initial ) tophole bottomhole ∆Pom = 2
Eq. 7.L Again this is developed from Hooke’s law using Young’s Modulus of elasticity (already used in the piston and buckling effect) and Poisson’ ratio. Poisson’s ratio v as earlier expressed is:
∆t / t ∆L / L
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Figure 7.L - Reverse Ballooning 7.4.4. Temperature Effect
Figure 7.M - Ballooning
The final effect considered when calculating tubing length variations, is the temperature effect which usually induces the largest movement. During a well operation, e.g. stimulation, the temperature of the tubing may be much less than that in, either, the initial or flow rate conditions. During well stimulations, significant quantities of fluids are pumped through the tubing at ambient surface temperature which may change the temperature of the tubing by several degrees. The formula used to calculate the change of length due to temperature effect is:
∆L4 = α ∆TM L
Eq. 7.M where the average temperature variation in the string can be calculated as follows:
− Tinitial )tophole + (T final − Tinitial )bottomhole 2
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In the formula α represents the material’s coefficient of thermal expansion. For steel this value is: α = 6.9 x 10-6 in/in/°F. figure 7.n shows typical geothermal temperature gradients during both stimulation and production conditions. It can be seen that the temperature variations to which the tubing is subjected may cause considerable changes to its length.
300 T (°F)
7500 D (feet)
Figure 7.N - Typical Geothermal Gradients 7.5. EVALUATION OF TOTAL TUBING MOVEMENT The sum of the length changes obtained from the changes in pressure induced forces and temperature effects, gives the total shift of the bottom end of the string at the packer depth where it is free to move in the packer-bore. This sum is calculated:
∆Ltot = ∆L1 + ∆L2 + ∆L3 + ∆L4
Eq. 7.O With free moving packer/tubing seals systems, the calculations are made for the selection of an appropriate length of seal assembly, PBR or ELTSR with anchored packer/tubing systems, this same calculation can be made to select the length of tubing movement devices such as telescopic or expansion joints. However, if no movement is converted to stress in the tubing, the resultant is stress on the packer (Refer to section 7.6).
6.p.p where it is presumed that the tubing can move away from its anchored condition while maintaining the seal with the packer and that the tubing undergoes only ∆L4 contraction caused by the temperature effect. Subsequently.A. Moreover. preventing any movement of the string when well conditions vary (figure 7. all the movement is linear and to restore to the tubing’s real anchored position. Since no force is applied at the end of the tubing which could cause buckling.o). consider figure 7. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 7. .O . it is possible to use a graphical approach. Figure 7. To understand this concept better.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 170 OF 295 ENI S. the force needed to re-anchor the tubing to the packer can be determined.Tubing Anchored To Packer The tubing-packer force can be calculated by initially assuming that the tubing is free to move in the packer seal-bore and it is possible to calculate the final total length change of the tubing under pressure and temperature variations of all conditions. in general the problem of identifying the tubing/packer reaction is not linear due to the helical buckling effect and so. it is sufficient to impose a ∆L4 elongation by applying a force FP which is obtained from Hooke’s law: ∆L = − FL EAs ⇒ FP = − ∆L4 EAs L Eq.P However. once this force is known. the load on the tubing can be calculated to check if the completion components have sufficient strength. In this situation the tubing-packer forces generated by the presence of the anchoring must be determined so as to be able to confirm if the tubing-packer anchoring system and the packer have sufficient strength to safely withstand all the forces exerted. ANCHORED TUBING 0 REVISION In some completions the tubing is firmly fixed to the packer. 7.
q this condition is identified by intersection point (Ff. shown in figure 7. As shown in figure 7. if a force of Ff.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 171 OF 295 ENI S. Indeed. ∆L4 Fp ∆L ∆L4 Fp F Figure 7.Q The second step is to identify. on the material. on the curve. even when this is negative.q the Fp force.P . This can be plotted using the following formulae: ∆L = − ∆L = − FL EAs FL F 2 r 2 − EAs 8 EIw ( for F < 0 ) ( for F > 0 ) Eq. was applied at the end of the tubing. is then identified. the cause of the buckling would be eliminated and the neutral point would return to the bottom in the tubing. 7.∆Lf) and the diagram obtained has a total length variation of ∆LP = -∆ltot. ∆Lf). radial distance between the tubing OD and casing ID and on the fluids in the well.p. transferred between the tubing and packer.A. This curve.Graphical Representation Of Movement . The origin of the axis moves to the point found in this way (Ff . On the curve given in figure 7. the tubing representative point in the well when it is subjected to the fictitious force. so to position the tubing in the packer after contracting the string must be elongated accordingly. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 0 REVISION The first step is to plot the characteristic strength/length variation of the system.p is determined by the size of tubing.
Q . In this method. Tubing Permitting Limited Motion Another method which may be used in some types of completions is that the tubing is fully or partially limited in downhole movement.r). some of the weight of the string is set down on the packer.Graphical Representation of Force 7. . after the packer is set. putting the tubing into compression or slackened-off (Refer to figure 7.p.6. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 0 REVISION ∆Lp Fp ∆L Fp ∆Lf ∆Lp F Ff Figure 7.A.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 172 OF 295 ENI S.1.
for example.R . any elongation of the string would be prevented. The ∆Lso value is determined using the following formula: 2 Fso L Fso r 2 ∆Lso = − − E As 8 E I w Eq. i. The same considerations can be made if ∆Ltot < 0 during the operation while.g. If an anchored type constraint is considered then the tubing-packer force with respect to the anchored tubing can be reduced. on the other hand.Limited Downward Movement The shortening of the string caused by this. during an injection operation. With this type of anchoring it is. e. the total length variation calculated as the sum of the above described effects. applying slack-off is the same as moving the packer upwards by ∆Lso. makes it possible to limit the length variations of the string.e. ∆Pso. causing a force on the packer which would be equal to that of the slack-off amount. 7.p. . in an injection operation. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 0 REVISION Figure 7. compressing the string and thus causing part of the length variation which would occur in any case at a later stage due to the effects described above. is decreased by ∆Lso. therefore. therefore.A.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 173 OF 295 ENI S. possible to limit the movements of the tubing with respect to the packer and consequently the length of the packer seal-assembly. In practice.R where: Fso = slack-off force released on the packer. ∆Ltot.
Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 7. It is therefore obvious why. or by installing a plug with wireline. 7. During the time taken to install the tubing. .7. This may be of particular concern when using large bore tubing movement devices as the forces generated by the test pressure are greater than packer tubing seal arrangements. This involves applying predetermined test pressures to both the tubing and annulus.A.2. it is essential to identify exactly what operations will be carried out in future to determine the consequent loads and thus the associated load conditions.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 174 OF 295 ENI S. in any case.p. This in turn places stress in the tubing after the packer is set and the pressure is bled off. TUBING LOAD CONDITIONS The load conditions of the tubing string during the well’s life causes stresses through the pressure.6. These should be seen only as an example of load conditions as each case must be addressed individually as planned operations may vary.1. Hydraulic packers are set by plugging the tubing below the packer either by dropping a setting ball onto a shear out ball seat. temperature and mechanical loads for each condition imposed. However. it changes the length of the tubing during the setting process. when selecting the type of tubing for a completion. as pressure is applied to the tubing to set the packer. A manual or computer programme is then used to calculate and then ascertain whether the given tubing is able to withstand the maximum load with an acceptable safety level. the designed test pressures should be equal to or greater than any other subsequent pressures applied to the completion so the magnitude is high. It is important. The operations normally carried out on a well for which the string control is necessary are illustrated below. The formulae for determine this tubing length change are: ∆Fa L EAs 2ν ∆Pim ∆L3 = − L E R2 −1 ∆L1 = − where: (Hooke’s law) (ballooning) ∆Fa = − Ai ∆Pi and ∆Pim=∆Pi 7. This stress needs to be taken into account to determine the total stress applied to the tubing. the completion will have warmed up to ambient well conditions. Pressure Testing The very first load condition experienced during and after the installation of the completion string is pressure testing. These pressures may be applied more than once during the installation operation. to analyse the characteristics of each operation in order to be able to identify the heavier loads which may be imposed. Packer Setting 0 REVISION A particular problem arises in tubing tied to packer completions when using hydraulic set packers.7. therefore the only load applied is the pressure induced forces of piston effect buckling and ballooning.
At times during these early stages. using computer programmes. in Eni-Agip Division and Affiliates case are in-house software which allows reproduction of the correct temperature trend.s). This equipment must therefore be protected using special isolating tools or protection sleeves. to reduce the loads on the tubing by preheating the acid in order to limit the thermal expansion and pressurising the annulus to reduce the tubing ballooning effect. together with the temperature variations caused by the injection of colder fluid.s shows the pressure and temperature trends required to be known so as to ensure stress control of the string. With regard to the stresses on the string similar to acid stimulations.A. the maximum allowable pressure for some well head equipment may be reached. To check the string design is suitable. especially during the early injection stage. Fracturing Fracturing involves the propagation of fractures in the formation for the improvement of productivity of hydrocarbons.7. Acid Stimulation 0 REVISION Acid jobs are carried out to remove formation damage caused during drilling by the invasion of fluids and cuttings or to stimulate the formation by improving permeability.3. and decreasing the bottom hole pressure thus reducing the load. the formation must be pressurised until one (or more) fractures are created. These fractures reach from the well bore deep into reservoir and allows better drainage.7. according to the classical Lubinsky theory. From the point of view of the stresses exerted on the tubing string. This operation is carried out by pumping a predetermined quantity of acid down the tubing to the formation at set pressures and flow rates. which. are higher than that during acid jobs. Other data are often needed for more complex calculations.2. the maximum pressure able to be applied at the well head must be considered in order to determine the rate of acid which can be applied. To carry out fracturing.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 175 OF 295 ENI S. . 7. it is important to assess the drop in temperature caused by the injection of colder fluid which. selecting the end of the operation as the final conditions but with a well head pressure equal to the maximum estimated. The calculated flow rate is applied during the operation and the pressure trend (which usually decreases when the fracture is created due to the reduction of load losses in the formation) is monitored. This may lead to greater cooling down of the tubing with reduced pressures. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 7. in order to exceed the fracturing gradient. is carried out at high flow rates even though of short duration. the pressure and temperature trends can be plotted as shown by the previous example of the acid stimulation (figure 7.p. Friction reducers may also be used to increase flow at the same wellhead pressure. It is important to monitor the pressure and temperature trends during the operation as the acid rate will probably increase due to the effect of the acid on the formation. The pressures which can be attained. figure 7. This entails obtaining in advance the injection parameters from various injectivity tests with increasing flow rates. It may be necessary in some cases.
A.FINAL CSG 2500 FINAL TBG 5000 7500 D (feet) 0 0 5000 FINAL CSG 10000 FINAL TBG 15000 P (psi) 2500 5000 INITIAL TBG INITIAL CSG 7500 D (feet) Figure 7.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 176 OF 295 ENI S. a significant break-down is forecast (by a marked reduction of pressure when the fracture is opened up in the formation). therefore two conditions should be checked.p.Pressure and Temperature Trends During Fracturing .S . the first with high pressures without temperature variations. and the second with marked temperature variations and lower pressures. The latter condition may be too conservative. 0 0 100 200 300 T (°F) INITIAL CSG AND TBG . Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 0 REVISION If during the initial stages of the operation.
5. 7.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 177 OF 295 ENI S. which give the pressure and temperature bottom hole trends as a function of the depth at production start up and when the reservoir is depleted. The situation is now similar to that during production but with well head pressures which are greater and hence increase the stresses on the string.u. temperature differences between the beginning and end of the productive life or the need to increase or decrease the flow rate for reasons external to the well. the string undergoes temperature increases which cause elongation in the string. at the moment of shut-in.7. It is therefore very important to establish. This load condition is considered critical as. The resulting compressive forces may lead to the buckling phenomena and even cause the tubing to exceed its elastic limit. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 7.4. Compared to the initial condition. e. Shut-In Once a well is in production. This shut-in operation involves closing the well during which the well head pressure increases because the reservoir pressure rises to static condition.p. the temperature of the string does not vary greatly due to the thermal inertia of the well.t and figure 7.A. making it necessary to ensure a collapse control of some sections. external pressure may be greater than internal pressure. the pressure and temperature profiles during the life of the well.u shows typical pressure and temperature trends after a shut-in. or at least approximate. pressuring up the fluids in the tubing. As shown in the diagrams of figure 7.7. figure 7. Different production situations will occur which cause changing load conditions. . Flowing 0 REVISION In this case it is not an operation carried out on the well but the normal flowing load conditions to which the string is being subjected.g. it is necessary to interrupt production for maintenance or in order to take some data measurements.
p. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 0 REVISION 0 0 100 200 300 T (°F) 2500 FINAL TBG 5000 INITIAL CSG E TBG .A.Pressure and Temperature Trends in Normal Production Conditions .ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 178 OF 295 ENI S.T .FINAL CSG 7500 D (feet) Figure 7.FINAL CSG 7500 D (feet) 0 0 5000 10000 15000 P (psi) 2500 FINAL TBG INITIAL TBG 5000 INITIAL CSG .
A.FINAL CSG 7500 D (feet) . Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 0 REVISION Figure 7.U .p.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 179 OF 295 ENI S.FINAL CSG 7500 D (feet) 0 0 5000 FINAL TBG 10000 15000 P (psi) 2500 INITIAL TBG 5000 INITIAL CSG .Pressure and Temperature Trends in Depleted Reservoir Production Conditions 0 0 100 200 300 T (°F) 2500 FINAL TBG 5000 INITIAL CSG E TBG .
A.FINAL CSG 7500 D (feet) Figure 7.CSG FINAL 7500 D (feet) 0 0 5000 10000 15000 P (psi) FINAL TBG 2500 INITIAL TBG 5000 INITIAL CSG .V .p.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 180 OF 295 ENI S.Pressure and Temperature Trends After Shut-In . Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 0 REVISION 0 0 100 200 300 T (°F) 2500 FINAL TBG 5000 INITIAL CSG AND TBG .
TUBING SELECTION The tubing string selection procedure and subsequent stress analysis is fundamental to the completion design process as it is during these two stages. the correct safety factor for all the calculated load conditions expected during the life of the well. Since the economic factor plays a primary role of importance when selecting a completion.6. it will be necessary during the control stage to know the pressure and temperature data of all the packers and of the tubing cross-section variations and is good practice to plot these data on diagrams. the relative loads on the sections of the string can be calculated.7. generally this is greatest in the section above the packer and below the well head. avoiding future workovers or if it is more economical to use carbon steel with an inhibition system and scheduled workovers.e. during the stage considered most critical as regards the loads applied. A draft design is considered based on the expected well conditions and then this design is checked to obtain the safety factor(s).ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 181 OF 295 ENI S. By using an iterative method. If the string is tapered or has one. intermediate packers. and knowing the completion configuration. can be obtained. or more. is reached.A. A typical example is that of wells with the presence of corrosive agents where either strings and down hole equipment can be made in Corrosion Resistant Alloy (CRA) or carbon steel with inhibitors injected downhole can be used. in any case. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 7. that the optimum solution is found through a sequence of approximations. Alterations are then made to the draft completion until the ideal safety factor. it is important to be able to plot the pressure and temperature trends of the casing and tubing on the two pressure/depth and temperature/ depth diagrams for the moment before the packer is set (initial conditions) and at the end of this operation (final condition) or. 7. by choosing and verifying the various possibilities. . In both cases the problem of completing the well is solved but it is necessary to verify both cost and whether it is better to use on CRA.p. which may differ depending on the local environmental conditions and on some parameters discussed below. i. it is necessary to assess all the various possible solutions. The Eni-Agip Division and Affiliates approach to choosing the tubing string is similar to that followed when designing any other mechanical part. Load Condition Summary 0 REVISION The operations described above were chosen because they are the most common and show which aspects of an operation must be known in order to determine which loads will have to be considered to verify string design.8. As shown in the examples above. Using the above diagrams.
and if the string has more than one size of tubing as in a tapered string.A. whether this entails changes to either the casing programme or the completion design. is often sufficient though these only reach a maximum grade of T95 (95 ksi yield) therefore do not always meet with stress requirements in high pressures and great depth. Indeed.g. it is best to base the choice on an appropriate corrosion study which takes into account many other parameters. Once the choice of materials has been identified. outlined below. etc. chlorides and water from production tests and to enter these data into an expert system. it will be necessary to take into consideration their mechanical properties to ensure that a suitable factor can be verified in the subsequent stress analysis stage. 7. in terms of all the mechanical stresses and corrosivity of the fluids. especially when the severity of the conditions suggest the use of expensive CRA materials (Refer to section 6). the length of each section needs to be determined at this point. . it is essential to establish the size in order to find out if it impacts on the casing design.2. CO2. e. thickness of the corrosion product.p. Materials The choice of material for the tubing string depends mainly on the well environment. Taking into consideration the well conditions. Note: It is vital that any detrimental impact caused by the casing programme is discussed with the drilling engineers to solve any problems.1. Given that the dimensions of the tubing and components of the string (safety valves. landing nipples. is the choice of the size. Critical Factors 0 REVISION The main factors driving the choice of the string are described below. it is then possible to identify the optimum mechanical solutions. However. When CRA steels are used (which must be cold worked in order to obtain the required mechanical characteristics). With regard to corrosion studies. to complete a well with the presence of corrosive agents (H2S and/or CO2) the use carbon steel with controlled hardness and/or martensitic steel. this method does not provide a solution to using carbon steel in conjunction with an inhibition system. the possibility of anisotropies must be checked into as they generally imply a lower compressive yield load than tensile yield load and corresponding reductions for their use at high temperatures. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 7. the exact quantities of H2S. the ideal material is determined by the results of corrosion studies carried out prior to the tubing design stage. it is always necessary to determine. using the engineering diagrams supplied by manufacturers. In general. etc. Tubing Size And Weight One of the main elements of the completion string design process. frequency of workovers.8. economics. wall thickness and grade of tubing which is optimum to requirements. or for a quicker choice.8. The presence of residual tension may induce stress corrosion and over-stressing problems which must also be taken into consideration. In this case. The inside and outside diameter of the tubing.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 182 OF 295 ENI S.) must fit inside the production casing and/or liner.
API standards for carbon steels define a 12. In the case of a very expensive super austenitic steel string for example. The above factors can often lead to a variety of solutions. production. it is necessary to calculate the velocities in the string during production.A. i. limit the choices. the new string (maximum thickness. When choosing the thickness of the tubing forming the string. Once this calculation has been made. etc. may be due to repairs. Calculation of the tubing inflow performance is very complicated and time consuming in most cases and is not covered in this manual. by grinding. The two cases. which generally will be equipped with a corrosion inhibitor injection system. it may be more appropriate to choose more structurally efficient solutions which use a tapered string with different diameters thus reducing the amount of material needed and therefore the cost. hence. it is useful to consider the thickness tolerance adopted by the manufacturer of the selected tubing. bottom hole pressures and other parameters. The strings of these wells. it may be necessary to increase the weight or grade because the string is too weak. carried out to remove tong marks. so it is necessary to evaluate each one in order to obtain the most suitable solution in terms of cost. which provides a better safety factor under similar conditions. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 0 REVISION The first indications of tubing size obtained is from tubing inflow performance analysis.e. surface pressures. It is prudent in such cases to reduce through tubing interventions which knock off the corrosion exposing fresh material and. The most important value to be decided on the selected tubing is its mechanical strength. the safety factor under these loads against the yield strength are calculated.5% eccentricity tolerance which means one point on the tubing’s circumference probably has less thickness. or gas condensate wells. This value for CRA tubing’s is often only 10%. which take into account the type of fluid. As explained in the following section. . These threshold velocities can be found in API RP 14E.p. the loads resulting from the various load conditions (acid jobs. Another reduction of thickness which must be taken into account on used tubing. Once the projected size of the tubing is established for the required flow rate then in gas. faster wall thickness reduction. maximum weight) and the workover stage (minimum thickness.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 183 OF 295 ENI S. These studies can generally be completed quickly using Eni-Agip Division and Affiliates software which directly provides the diameters of tubing for the expected flow rates and projected rates. should therefore have added thickness so as to have sufficient material to last until the scheduled workover. mechanical strength and practical feasibility. This rate must be lower than the rate at which erosion occurs. such as cost.) applied to the selected string. minimum weight) must both be taken into consideration when calculating the string’s stress resistance. In some particular situations non-traditional solutions must be chosen as some parameters. Wells in which hydrocarbons containing corrosive agents are produced are sometimes completed using carbon steel and it is accepted that a certain amount of the material will be lost through corrosion during the life of the well.
the free moving system is the first choice and if the loads it creates do not allow for a suitable safety factor during well operations are other systems considered. This system does. From figure 7. however. This type of anchoring provides the solution to seal life. using a NoGo locator shoulder fitted above the seal assembly where it is positioned to prevent the elongation of the string while leaving it free to shorten. the operations carried out during the life of a well cause movement of the tubing string which can depend on the type of tubing/packer seal system used between the bottom of the tubing and the packer. but leads to greater stressing of the tubing string. Another important problem of free tubing.Tubing/Packer Systems The second preference is where downward tubing movement is restricted i. In preference.3. is the continuous movement of the seal elastomers which may become damaged due to wear or from the debris deposited in the annulus above the packer. This will reduce movement of the packer seal assembly by eliminating downward movement and upward movement would only occur in certain limited lead conditions (stimulations or fracturing). it is clear from this that the least severe system is where the tubing seal assembly is free to move in the packer bore.8.W . Free Movement Limited Downward Movement Attached Figure 7. is systems to screw the tubing to the packer using a threaded connection on retrievable packer systems or to a tubing anchor (which allows the packer to be released when necessary) on permanent packer systems. due to the use of static seals.e. In very deep wells. This will extend seal life. will generate different loads in the string will be generated.p. The best solution. with high pressures and temperatures the movements of the lower end of the tubing may reach several feet in magnitude and hence very long seal units would need to be used in the packer which brings related assembly and protection problems during running in.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 184 OF 295 ENI S.A. have some disadvantages which are often unacceptable such as dynamic seals. which shows the three most common types of packer/tubing systems. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 7.w. Anchoring Systems 0 REVISION As illustrated earlier. .
7.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 185 OF 295 ENI S. The connections to be used shall be qualified according to the requirements as set in the Eni-Agip Division and Affiliates procedure ‘Connection Procedure Evaluation’. termed Application Levels (AL). especially when the annulus is to be used for gas lift or an underbalance fluid is used as a completion fluid. I and II. TUBING CONNECTIONS 0 REVISION The Eni-Agip Division and Affiliates policy for tubing connections is that ‘the use of premium connections is mandatory’. PJD Dalmine and Antares MS have not yet been subjected to the complete qualification programme as per STAP M-1-M. In conjunction Eni-Agip Division and Affiliates also recommended that a premium connection be used for production casings and production liners. Application Level I applies to the most severe service conditions.2. They have however been used successfully for years with good results. there are two service classes. Policy • • The use of premium connections for tubing is mandatory. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 220.127.116.11. 7.A.9. Class of Service According to the specification STAP M-1-M 5006 ‘Connection Procedure Evaluation’.5006 or API 5C5. They are : Coupled Connections AMS 28 ( manufacturer Dalmine) Vam ACE ( manufacturer Vallourec and Sumitomo) Integral Connections Eni-Agip Division and Affiliates A-DMS (Dual Metal Seal) Other connections like Hydril CS. They may be used for all service condition where an Application Level II connection is required.p. To date three tubing connections have been qualified for the most severe conditions ALI. The use of premium connections for production casing is advised but not mandatory. .
AL I no yes AL II AL I AL I no no AL II AL II (*) AL I Requirement yes yes AL I AL I AL I yes no AL II AL I AL I Table 7.8000 psi Table 7.4000 psi Differential WP 4000 .ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 186 OF 295 ENI S.Connection Specification Requirement AL I AL II .A.3.8000 psi Differential WP over 8000 psi (*) For Gas Injection wells.Connection Specification Storage/Injection Gas Wells (TVD < 4500m) Criteria Differential WP 0 .A .4000 psi Differential WP 4000 .9. Selection Criteria 0 REVISION The following are the selection criteria for connections used in different types of wells and operating conditions. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 7.B .p. Work string or well testing string: Integral AL1 connection shall be used Horizontal wells with Build up ≥ 20°/100 feet: Integral AL1 connection should be used Wells with TVD ≥ 4500m: Integral AL1 connection shall be used Producing Oil And Gas Wells (TVD < 4500m) Criteria NACE Close Proximity Differential WP 0 .
.C .x.9.A. Note: Section 7.Connection Specification A flow chart reaffirming the above is shown in figure 7.4 explains the NACE and Close Proximity definitions. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 Water Injection Wells (TVD < 4500m) Criteria Differential WP 0 .4000 psi Differential WP 4000 .8000 psi Table 7.p.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 187 OF 295 ENI S. 0 REVISION Requirement AL II AL II Differential working pressure is the maximum differential pressure (internal and/or external) to which the production string is subjected during the life of the well.
p. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 0 REVISION Figure 7.Connection Application Level Selection Flow Chart .A.X .ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 188 OF 295 ENI S.
of a public road (lease road excluded).ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 189 OF 295 ENI S. NACE And Proximity Definitions NACE Requirement 0 REVISION This applies to the partial pressure of hydrogen sulphide (H2S) in the produced fluid as defined by NACE Standard MR 01-75. Close Proximity A proximity assessment should be prepared to consider the potential impact of an uncontrolled well flow condition on the life of personnel and the environment around the wellhead. of an open flame or fired equipment. Texas Railroad Commission Rules The following information is taken from Texas Railroad Commission Rule 36: For determining the location of the 100ppm radius of exposure: X = [(1.9.4546) (mole fraction H2S) (Q)] 0. 500ppm ROE of H2S is greater than 50ft. government building. all or any portion of a park. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 7. Well is located within 350ft of any dwelling. 100ppm Radius of Exposure (ROE) of H2S is greater than 50ft. Well is located within 150ft. The following list of criteria can be used for determining this potential risk.A.p. Public area shall mean a dwelling. county or municipal street or road owned or maintained for public access or use. village. • • • • • • • Well is located in any environmentally sensitive area such as parks. or other similar area that one can expect to be populated. Other criteria for consideration should be included when necessary. church.6258 For determining the location of the 500ppm radius of exposure: X = [(0. etc.589) (mole fraction H2S) (Q)] 0. a public road. city. from the wellhead and includes any part of a public area including a public road. school bus stop. Well is located within 50ft. hospital. place of business.6258 . school. It will be necessary to meet any other local regulatory requirements. wildlife preserve. Well is located in state waters.4. from the wellhead and includes any part of a public area except a public road. state. Well is located in or near inland navigable waters Well is located in or near surface domestic water supplies. city limits. Public road shall mean any federal. These conditions are recommended minimum considerations. town.
10. During the verification stage it may be seen that the loads on the string are unacceptably high.000ft shall be assumed. the fictitious and piston forces in the string sections. or the field average current adjusted openflow rate. TUBING STRESS CALCULATIONS The final stage of the completion string design is the calculation of stress in areas under the highest loads. there is a tendency to gall during make up. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 where: X = Radius of exposure in feet Q= H2S = 0 REVISION Maximum volume determined to be available for escape in cubic feet per day.9. The escape rate used in determining the radius of exposure shall be corrected to standard o conditions of 14. hence protection. When a well is in an area where insufficient data exists to calculate a radius of exposure.A. as is applicable: For the new wells in developed areas. information about the load conditions. 7. Mole fraction of hydrogen sulphide in the gaseous mixture which could escape. but where hydrogen sulphide may be expected.65psia and 60 F. 7. the type of tubing and materials to be used to meet the requirements outlined in section 6.e.p. Using the calculation theory illustrated previously.9. . At this point of the process all the possible elements needed for the design verification are available. The string or load conditions or the tubing strength must therefore be altered until the calculation produces an appropriate safety factor (SF). it is possible to determine how close the stresses are to the material’s yield strength. CRA Connections For steels with a high chrome content (>13%). 7.g. Fp. i. The anti-galling treatments (e.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 190 OF 295 ENI S.6. Computer programmes are very useful in this phase as it is possible to make repeated calculations quickly with different parameters.5. a 100ppm radius of exposure equal to 3. This requires special surface treatment in the connection’s pin and box. the escape rate shall be determined by using the current adjusted open-flow rate of offset wells. After these calculations are made.8. it is possible to calculate the forces acting on the packer. Bakertron or copper plating) is always applied to the couplings to ensure the utmost coating. The volume used as the escape rate in determining the radius of exposure shall be that specified below. and consequently. Connection Data Data on tubing connections are available from API specifications and tables in industry handbooks. whichever is the larger.
A. have intermediate packers or other discontinuities. the sections where the string design must be verified are indicated by x-x at the well head and y-y at the downhole just above the packer.Forces at X-X F f tp = F f − wL F f*tp = F f* − wL As can be seen. as an example.E .y. Section Y-Y (Packer) Tubing-Packer Mode Free tubing Tubing permitting limited motion and anchored Piston Forces Fictitious Forces Fa Ff Fa* = Fa + F p Table 7. With reference to figure 7. string design must be verified at all the appropriate sections where there are variations in diameter.1.10. the tables below summarise the forces acting on the sections of the string which will be used for the design verifications. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 7. the type of completion shown in figure 7. Calculation Methods 0 REVISION Taking. For other types of completions. instead of ‘L’ of the previous formulae.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 191 OF 295 ENI S. the forces at the well head coincide with those at the packer depth if L = 0.Forces at Y-Y F f* = F f + F p Section X-X (Well Head) Tubing-Packer Mode Free tubing Tubing permitting limited motion and anchored Piston Forces Fictitious Forces Fa tp = Fa − w s L Fa*tp = Fa* − w s L Table 7. The asterix distinguishes the forces calculated in a completion with the string anchored to the packer verses those calculated for a string free to move in the seal bore.y.D . Therefore. to calculate forces on intermediate sections between the well head and packer depth. . it is sufficient to use an intermediate length ‘l’ ( L > l > 0 ) measured from the packer.p.
p. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 0 REVISION X X Y Y Figure 7.A. it is given by the expression: σb = Dr Ff 4I therefore. .ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 192 OF 295 ENI S.Y . σb is calculated only if the section of the string to be verified is buckled.Example Completion #1 The piston forces obtained in this way are used to calculate the axial stress which is given by the expression: σa = Fa As The fictitious force is used to calculate the axial stress caused by the tubing bending when helically buckled.
its functionality. therefore. It. To calculate the SF the yield limit values of the material are taken into consideration so that there is no permanent corkscrewing of the string which could jeopardise. The Eni-Agip Division and Affiliates policy is to apply different types of material due to their different mechanical behaviours and resistance to corrosion. which gives the equivalent stresses in the outside and inside wall of the considered tubing section. if the section to be calculated is buckled. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 0 REVISION Now all the factors needed to determine the equivalent stress σa.2. both calculations must be made to determine the higher of the two values while. Po and Pi are available. if there is no buckling σb = 0 and the greater stress is that in the inside wall.p. i. Carbon and CRA Steels up to 13%Cr The acceptable SF for these types of materials is: 1.A. provides a quick reference parameter to evaluate the magnitude of the stresses present in the tubing compared to the maximum acceptable. 2 P − P P − R Po σ o = 3 i 2 o + i 2 +σa ±σb R −1 R −1 2 2 P − R 2 Po R 2 (Pi − Po ) σ σ i = 3 + i 2 +σa ± b 2 R −1 R R −1 2 2 As stated above.25 . even if only slightly. the equivalent stress is σeq = σi The higher of the stress values determined above will make it possible to obtain the SF of the string for the load conditions and the section considered: SF = σ sn σ eq The SF must be greater than the minimum dictated by policy and listed in section 7. σb. In this case the equivalent force will be the greater of the two. allows comparison of the stresses due to the different effects in a particular section of the string against the material yield stress rating.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 193 OF 295 ENI S. 7.e. calculated using the expression below.1 which gives the SF values to be used by Eni-Agip Division and Affiliates. Safety Factor A completion string’s safety factor is defined as the ratio between the yield stress and the maximum value of the stress obtained as described above.10. by applying suitable criterion (for the materials used in the oil industry the most appropriate is Von Mises). the stress which.
the engineer may evaluate whether. As stated previously. The different SF’s between the carbon and CRA steels can be attributed to the different behaviour of these materials for stress values above the yield point. therefore.p. the SF should be slightly higher. apart from the yielding the cold worked materials reach breaking point soon after the yield point while the carbon steels maintain a greater plastic deformation margin before the breaking point. the acceptable SF can be lowered to 1. low pressure oil wells. Cold Worked (CW) CRA Steels The acceptable SF for these types of materials which include duplex.20.15 for some particular operations and for specific well conditions. This is a dangerous situation which occurs at the breaking point. Furthermore. Figure 7. the cold worked materials retain residual stress so. clear that a higher SF for Cold Worked materials is required in order to maintain the same safety factor relevant to the breaking points for the two types of materials. super-austenitic and Incoloy is: 1.A. As can be seen. (e. economic decision not to use the next grade of tubing etc.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 194 OF 295 ENI S. the SF is calculated using the yield point but also the collapse rating of the string.Z .).g.Stress/Strain Diagrams COLD WORKED CARBON STEEL σ σ σsn r σ σr σsn σr = breaking point σsn = yield point ε = elongation ε ε . figure 7.35 Similarly. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 0 REVISION In each individual case the string design and stress analysis engineer may evaluate whether the acceptable SF can be lowered to 1.z shows the stress/strain diagrams for the above two types of materials. from both the viewpoint of stress corrosion and mechanical strength. for some particular operations and for specific well conditions. It is.
4. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 0 REVISION The SF discussed up to this point is valid. In order to comply with the specifications of the supplier. .aa. If an axial force is applied to the pipe as well as external pressure. from which it is possible to make a comparison with the yield load. if negative.10. it is possible to calculate this value under various well conditions.p. it is possible to check whether well conditions come within the limits set by the packer rating. However. if applied individually. 7. Any other SFs. Packer Load Limits If the Fp force value transmitted by the string to the packer is known. due to the depletion in reservoir pressure. the tensile strength in this case is positive. Another example is downhole pumps for artificial lifting and are operated by the power fluid pumped down the annulus.10. causes a state of monoaxial stress. By using diagrams supplied by the manufacturer. Fp = tension. it would be incorrect to use the SF for tension alone because during the life of the well it will be subjected to a combination of stresses. when the pressure in the annulus increases compared to that in the tubing. For example.3. therefore. to the section’s elastic limit which occurs in thin-walled pipes. the Yp value for use for calculations is adjusted using a special formula. cannot be compared in any way to those described in this manual because they take into consideration only one mode of loading. tension tubing. One example is a well at the end of its productive life with less pressure in the tubing than in the annulus.A. conditions may occur making it necessary to limit the external pressure on the string. A typical diagram for packer force limits is shown in figure 7. takes into consideration all the stress components to determine the σeq. 7. in a state of monoaxial stresses. if referred to only as in the condition of triaxial stress which. which require substantial differential operating pressures. once D/t and Yp are known. Calculation of external pressure is carried out using the formulae supplied by API Bulletin 5C3 which identifies four types of collapse at external pressure in relation to the D/t ratio and the Yp yield stress of the material. External Pressure Limit During the productive life of a well.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 195 OF 295 ENI S. Po<Pi below). By evaluating the magnitude of this force and considering other factors such as the possibility of future recovery. As can be seen. can be determined. is positive) and the differential pressure above and below the packer (Po>Pi above. are known. the most suitable type of packer in relation to the completion type. greater tensile loads can be applied and vice versa. If the force exerted by the tubing on the packer (Fp = set-down. In fact the causes of collapse can range from material yield as in the case of pipes with a low D/t ratio. referred to. In order to use the API Bul 5C3 formulae. this diagram can be used to ascertain the suitability of the condition. the type of formula is chosen then the maximum withstandable pressure calculated.
178 ws = 0.p.000in Casing 7in 32lb/ft: Packer bore: Length of string: .3in L = 10. During a cement squeeze operation.61in σsn = 80.10. Example Manual Calculation As an example of applying the method detailed above.000psi ID = 6. the analysis of the possible packer/tubing configurations available in this set-up is free tubing to packer and fully anchored. we can consider the single completion in the well shown in figure 7.68in 2 Ao = 6.5.Typical Packer Force Limit Diagram 7.AA . Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 0 REVISION 400 (tension) 300 200 (Thousands) FORCE 100 0 Safety zone (set-down) -100 -200 -20 -10 0 10 20 (Thousands) (above) PRESSURE DIFF.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 196 OF 295 ENI S.000ft = 120.5lb/ft : 7 2 Ai = 4. Data: Tubing 2 /8in 6.25in 2 Ap = 8.bb.49in 2 As = 1.81in R = 1.A. (below) Figure 7.094in r = 1.542lb/in 4 I = 1. This allows calculation of the variations in length and thereafter the anchoring force in the packer.61in Dpb = 3.
cc (15lb/gal corresponds to a specific gravity of 0.Example Completion #2 .7795psi/ft).0649lb/in and to a pressure gradient of 0.000psi.p. while the temperature is 60°F at the well head and 200°F at the bottom hole.000psi and the casing at 1. to a pressure gradient of 0.cc shows the pressure and temperature variations against depth.A. Final Conditions Final conditions are cement displacement with a specific gravity of 15lb/gal.38 psi/ft. This operation causes the string to cool to 160°F at the bottom hole and creates the pressure and temperature trend 3 shown in figure 7. figure 7.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 197 OF 295 ENI S. obtained by pressurising the tubing at 5. It should be noted that 30° API corresponds to a 3 specific gravity of 0.BB . Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 Initial Conditions 0 REVISION Initially both the tubing and the annulus are filled with 30° API oil. X X Y Y Figure 7. therefore.0317lb/in and.
3 − 6.Initial and Final Condition (Example #2) Calculation Method a) Calculation of variations in length The variation in the piston force between initial and final conditions is expressed by: ∆Fa = ∆Pi (Ap − Ai ) − ∆Po (Ap − Ao ) = 8995 (8.68) − 1000 (8.9 lb . Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 0 REVISION O P (psi) O 60 T (°F) GEOTERMICO CSG e TBG 10000 3800 10000 200 D (feet) D (feet) FINAL CONDITIONS O 1000 5000 P (psi) O 60 T (°F) TBG SQUEEZE CSG 10000 4800 12795 10000 160 D (feet) D (feet) Figure 7.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 198 OF 295 ENI S.p.49) = 30751.3 − 4.CC .A.
is given by: F f = A p (Pi − Po ) = 8.A.3037 lb/in w fo = Ao γ fo = 6. not all the string is buckled.68 x 0.0649 = 0. so it is necessary to determine the position of the neutral point in order to calculate the ∆L2.3 x (12795 − 4800 ) = 66358. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 0 REVISION so the variation in length according to Hooke’s Law (piston force) is given by: L1 = − Fa L 30751.0317 = 0.96 in The fictitious force. ∆L 2 = − =− F2 r 2 8Elw 2 −(1. The weight of string.p.2057 lb/in w = ws + w fi − w fo = 0.16 in As this distance is less than the length of the string. is calculated using the first of the two formulae in section 7. fully immersed in fluids.5 ) 8×30000000×1.16 . then the string is buckled.3037 − 0.5 = 0. w.542 + 0.81 = − 67.20567 = 0. is calculated in the following way: w fi = Ai γ fi = 4.64 = −46. The variation in length ∆L2.6×10.5 lb As this value is positive.49 x 0.2.9 x 120000 =− E As 30000000 x 1. which is initially zero because Pi = Po.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 199 OF 295 ENI S.640 = 103685.4.640 lb/in The neutral point from the bottom hole is therefore: n= Ff w 66358.61×66358.
p. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 0 REVISION As regards the variation in length due to ballooning.4.5 psi ∆Pom = (1000 − 0 ) + (4800 − 3800) 2 = 1000 psi Therefore.178) x 1000 x x 120000 30000000 (1.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 200 OF 295 ENI S.9 x 10 − 6 x (− 20 ) x 120000 The variation in total length of the tubing. the formula in section 7.178)2 − 1 = − 34. the average variations in pressure along the string can be calculated using the formulae in section 7.73 in.4.4.3: ∆Pim = (5000 − 0) + (12795 − 3800 ) 2 = 6997. if the tubing can freely move in the packer-bore.A.3 6997.4 in.56 in. As regards the variation in length due to temperature. the variation in length caused by ballooning is as follows: ∆L3 = − 2ν E x ∆P − R2 x ∆P im om xL 2 R −1 2 =− 2 x 0. = 6. is used to calculate the average variation in temperature along the string: ∆TM = (60 − 60 ) + (160 − 200) 2 = − 20 °F The variation in length is therefore: ∆L4 = α ∆TM L = − 16.5 − (1. is therefore given by ∆Ltot = ∆L1 + ∆L2 + ∆L3 + ∆L4 1 = − 165. .
this value is lower than that calculated for a free tubing.81 8 x 30000000 x 1.48 lbs/in.1483 lbs/in w = w s + w fi − w fo = 0. may sometimes be unacceptable. 2 The variation in the length of the string during the cement squeeze job. The slack-off operation modifies the variations in length the string will undergo during the subsequent cement squeeze stage as shown below. oil is the fluid inside the tubing and so: w fi = Ai γ fi = 4. the neutral point is located as: Fso w 20000 = 0.542 + 0.20575 = 0.68 in. when there is a tubing permitting limited motion is given by: ∆Lso = ∆Ltot − ∆L so tot = − 165. During initial conditions.A. . n= from the bottom of the string. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 b) Tubing Permitting Limited Motion 0 REVISION The variation in length calculated above.73 in.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 201 OF 295 ENI S.73) = − 115.4 in. it makes it possible to use the formula in section 7. One method for containing these elongations is to use a tubing permitting limited motion.000lb. as it would create seal assembly lengths which are not practicable for the planned type of completion. as it off-loads weight on the packer after it is set (slack-off) and compresses the string.61 x 20000) 20000 x 120000 =− − 30000000 x 1.485 = − 49.p. As can be seen. As this value is less than the total length of the string.6 in order to obtain: 2 Fso L Fso r 2 ∆Lso = − − E As 8 E I w (1.61 x 0.68 x 0. Assuming that the slack-off force off loaded on the packer is 20.41 − (− 49.485 = 41266.1483 − 0.0317 = 0.
As figure 7.p. Fp = 37000lbs. the fictitious and piston forces.5lbs).A.5 F F2 − 452.68 in . If the diagram is plotted with the value of the fictitious force calculated previously (66358. it is possible to identify the point where the origin of the axes has moved to. the formulae below are obtained (the diagram can be quickly plotted by entering any F values and calculating the corresponding ∆L): ∆L = − ∆L = − F 452.6 shows the diagram obtained using the formulae which supplies the force/elongation characteristic for tension and compression. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 c) Anchored tubing 0 REVISION If we assume a condition obtained with a tubing which only permits limited motion.6. calculated according to section 7. are: Fa* = Fa + F p = 629 in.000lbs and the packer is forced upwards by the same amount. = Pi (A p − Ai ) − P0 (A p − Ao ) + F p F f* = F f + F p = 29358 lb . In this case as slack-off after setting the packer is present it is necessary to determine the force required to position the end of the tubing in the packer (Fp). Figure 8.000lbs. giving so ∆Ltot = -115.68 in. thus so setting the elongation ∆Lp =-∆Ltot =115. d) Tubing Stress Control If we consider a tubing anchored to the packer during a cement squeeze operation. with a slack-off of 20.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 202 OF 295 ENI S. From this point. movement in the direction of elongation by a ∆Lp value is made in order to locate the point which is distant from the curve by a Fp value. This value may still be unacceptable so it is necessary to use anchoring in both directions. so the string is subject to stress at its lower end which is equal to 37. When the data of the example are replaced.cc shows.5 95403727 [in] for F<0 [in] for F >0 .
A.p.64 x 120000 = − 47442 in. the forces at the well head are: Fa*tp = Fa* − w s x L = 629 − 6.bb).ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 203 OF 295 ENI S.Anchored Tubing (Example #2) accorciamenti [in] . F f* tp = F f* − w x L = 29358 − 0.5 x 10000 = − 64371 in. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 0 REVISION In the section above the packer (figure 7. 50 20 trazione [lbx1000] 40 60 allungamenti [in] 100 allungamenti [in] 80 100 compressione [lbx1000] -40 -20 -50 Fp -100 -150 ∆Lp -200 Ff 20 40 compressione [lbx1000] Figure 7.DD .
61 = 21095 psi If we replace the σa e σb. if we consider the highest value found as equivalent force. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 Bottom Hole The piston force generates an axial stress equal to: 0 REVISION Fa* σa = As 629 = 1.875 x 1. we can obtain the following bottom hole safety factor: SF = = σ sn σ eq 80000 60223 = 1.33 Well Head * As Ff tp < 0 the string at the well head is not buckled.61 x 29358 = 4 x 1.p. values. σb = 0 and the greatest amount of stress is generated on the inner wall of the tubing: σa = Fa*tp As − 64371 = 1. the result is σeq = σi. along with Pi = 12795 psi e Po = 4800 psi.81 = − 35564 psi .81 = 347 psi the deformation due to buckling generates an axial stress equal to: σb = Dr * Ff 4I 2.A. the values below are obtained using the formulae in section 7. therefore.10: σo = 51688psi σi = 60223psi .ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 204 OF 295 ENI S.
33 This value is acceptable because the lower limit for a carbon steel string is 1. please refer to the notes in Appendix D and the user’s manual available in the Company’s library. .000psi.A.21 The safety factor for the cement squeeze operation results as the lowest of obtained values. For further information please refer to the user’s manual. have been deliberately omitted as this programme is no longer used by Eni-Agip Division and Affiliates. analysed during completion studies for the Villafortuna-Trecate field.000psi and po = 1.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 205 OF 295 ENI S.10: σi = 36117 psi therefore as σeq = σi. For a description of the programme’s general functions. the well head safety factor is: SF = = σ sn σ eq 80000 36117 = 2.10. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 0 REVISION If we replace the σa value obtained and as pi = 5. The second is a case history. . carried out using the Wellcat programme supplied by Enertech. 7. The first example is the same as that dealt with by Lubinsky.p. Therefore only a brief description has been given in Appendix D. Particular attention should be paid to data entry and presentation of results in order to obtain knowledge of how the programme handles these two cases. Example Computation As an example we have included two cases of string calculations. therefore: SF = 1. the value below is obtained using the formula in section 7. Examples done with the Vertubing programme.25.6.
Once the packer type and model have been defined. SUB-SURFACE EQUIPMENT PACKERS The types of packer systems and applications have already been described in section 5. This section defines the series of criteria for choosing packer characteristics to apply to single and selective completions.e.A .Packer Types .A.1. while still reflecting the needs which lead to selection of the most commonly used models. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 0 REVISION 8. Type Of Packer Permanent Setting Method Mechanical Hydraulic Setting Tool • Hydraulic setting tool • Electric line N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A Sealbore Features • Std/Large/Dual • Std/Large/Dual Std/Dual Std/Large/Dual Std/Dual Permanent/ Retrievable Retrievable Mechanical Hydraulic Hydraulic Hydrostatic Weight Table 8. 8. the next stage is establish its performance to meet with all the expected operating conditions (applied force and pressure differences). The proposed criteria for the choice only take into consideration general technical aspects and do not cover the individual characteristics of particular models or tools.p.1.3.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 206 OF 295 ENI S. reference is made to the operating ‘Envelopes’. i. operating diagrams for the packers supplied by the manufacturer of the particular packer and to the pressure ratings for retrievable packers.a below. The packers considered are listed in table 8. For this reason regarding permanent packers.
etc. gas) Deviation (max. refer to section 7. in particular: a) removal of the tubing by itself b) • • removal of the tubing and packer simultaneously Planned frequency of de-compression operations Potential damage to the formation caused by the workover fluid. . the most important being: • • • • • Location (on-shore/ off-shore platforms.2. This section illustrates the flow diagrams. The selection process includes the following categories of data: General Well Data This includes data which effects the configuration of the well to be completed. unplanned) Type of de-compression operations. setting depth. Selection Procedure Packer selection has three stages: 1) 2) 3) 0 REVISION Selection of type of packer Selection of setting mechanism Selection of main packer accessories including the tubing-packer connection In stage 3.a. These data also include type of packer chosen and setting.1. 8. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 8. Operational Data The following operational data are required: • • Stimulations (planned. identifying the standard procedures for each stage (Refer to figure 8.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 207 OF 295 ENI S.p. stress analysis is carried out to check the completion string (packer and tubing) under the stress to which they are exposed.A. Completion Data This includes the following parameters such as: • • • Type and density of the completion fluid Perforation of the casing using tubing-conveyed or wireline techniques Use of a production liner.).1. Selection Criteria Various representations can be used to describe the categories of criteria.1.5 which describes the iterative process of tubing weight/grade/stress calculations. deviation angle). off-shore under water) Pressures and temperatures Type of well (production. injection) Type of fluid produced (oil.
Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 0 REVISION Figure 8.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 208 OF 295 ENI S.Selection Process Diagram .A.A .p.
select a permanent/retrievable or permanent packer. select a permanent packer. Well Classification 0 REVISION An important parameter for defining the characteristics of a packer is the ‘degree of difficulty of the well to be completed’. ITHP above 3.500m. The depths indicated are true vertical depths. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 8.p. Highly critical wells: • • • • • • Deep depths > 4500m.000m.1. High temperatures.000 and 4.4.000psi.b). If the well is critical or non-critical. SBHT > 130°C.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 209 OF 295 ENI S. . To this end four classes of well have been identified which are used to analyse the various problems involved in the selection of the packer: 1) High corrosive wells • 2) The fluids have high corrosive problems. Temperatures below 100 °C. Subsea well-head well. 3) Critical Well • • Temperatures between 100 and 130°C Depths between 3. If the well has high corrosive. (Refer to figure 8.3. with priority be given to the former.A. High pressures. Gas injection well with pressures. Packer Selection For Single String Completion Type Of Packer Procedure The choice is mainly linked to the type of well: 1) 2) 3) In the case of a highly critical well.1. 4) Non-critical well • • Depth of less than 3. 8. SBHP > 700 atm. Platform well having the risk of failure due to the potential collision from a vessel with the structure.
p.B . Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 0 REVISION Figure 8. (D) Measured well depth ≥ 3000 m.b: (A) High frequency of tubing pullout.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 210 OF 295 ENI S.000psi. (E) The workover fluid damages the formation.Type of Packer for Critical and Non-Critical Wells Explanation of figure 8.6 kg/l) with probable solid deposits on the packer. (C) Use of TCP drilling techniques. (F) The packer fluid is a high density mud (> 1. (B) High frequency of tubing-packer pullout. (G) Gas injection well with injection pressure > 3.A. .
6 kg/l. Packer Setting Method Permanent and Permanent/Retrievable Packers The selection is dependent mainly on the well characteristics: 1) 2) 3) If the well is corrosive or very critical. .p. The safety factor of using a retrievable packer or not depends on the criticality of the well and. or requests due to the completion fluid characteristics). If the well is critical or not critical. The same procedure will also be used later for packers of the type used in a selective type completion. Reference (A) is only true if one of the following conditions are relevant: • • • • SBHT > 150 °C (= 270 °F).A.c). the setting is defined by the conditions detailed in (A). in particular. (Refer to figure 8. Gas a production liner with inclination > 30°. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 0 REVISION At points A and B. For example. in the choice is made on the basis of point (D) then there are no particular constraints (no workovers. Figure 8.Packer Setting Method for Critical and Non-Critical Wells For a mechanical type permanent packer. on its depth.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 211 OF 295 ENI S. The completion fluid = mud with density > 1.C . choose hydraulic setting. The rectangle ‘Choose’ indicates the choice between the two alternatives. Is a deviated well. with a maximum deviation angle > 50°. high frequency of extraction corresponds to a completion life of less than five years. the priority is indicated by a number (‘1’ corresponds to a higher priority than ‘2’).
d: Figure 8.Retrievable Packer Setting Method 1) Check (A) is only true if one of the following conditions are relevant: • • • • 2) The well is deviated with a maximum deviation angle of > 20°.000m (this is true to definitive and not test completions). following the diagram in figure 8.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 212 OF 295 ENI S. 3) Check (C): • There is high frequency of tubing pullout (life of the completion < 5 years). . Check (B): • Using TCP shooting techniques.D. The bottom-hole temperature (SBHT) is > 60 °C. The vertical depth of the packer setting is > 2. Stimulations are planned.6 kg/l) with the probability that it leaves solid deposits on the packer.p. 4) Check (E): • Completion fluid and damage to the formation 5) Check (F): • The packer fluid is a high density mud (> 1. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 Retrievable Packer Setting Method 0 REVISION The method of setting used for retrievable packers is made.A.
g. If during the application of the stress analyses of the string gives negative results. the corresponding setting procedure will have to be adopted (see permanent packers above). The shear ring value is generally set by increasing the maximum force applied to the packer by 25%. a permanent/retrievable packer will be utilised and consequently. Highly Critical Well: Anchored Completion For a highly critical well. the anchor will be a ratchet type or. a dynamic seal is used (Refer to figure 8. fixed. Tubing-packer connections seal assembly elements will be of the moulded seal type when subjected to alternating pressure cycles. or hydrostatic. an anchor seal assembly is used. 5 If the failure of the stress analysis is due to the tension caused by the tubing-packer connection. e. gas injection wells where the IBHP is greater than the packer fluid pressure and SBHP is lower than the packer fluid pressure. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 0 REVISION The decision of whether to use a hydraulic. the approach is the same as that for an anchored tubing-packer. set is left to the engineer. If anchor is needed.p. At present the stress analysis procedure is developed using the “Veritas “ software package . defines the type of anchoring on the basis of the conditions for (A). a configuration which fulfils the stress analysis requirements must be considered for the packer-tubing connection5. To integrate this choice with the stress analysis procedures.d). If these are outwith the capacity of the retrievable packer. If the stress analysis results are negative: • • If a shear release is needed. The type of anchor to be used can be defined during this first stage for an anchored completion (without shear release): • If the packer is set mechanically. The shear value is checked for the stress conditions at the wellhead section during the packer release stage. The main consideration is the required setting pressure (lower for hydrostatic packers) which influences the wellhead pressure rating.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 213 OF 295 ENI S. in particular the choice is made between a shear release or anchor seal assembly. Permanent And Permanent/Retrievable Packers Setting Method There are principally two aspects to analyse: • • The choice of the tubing-packer connection. . The maximum force is determined using stress analysis (to take into account the tolerance of the nominal shear value ± 5 to 10%).A. alternatively.Veritas is the UNIX version of the VERTBG package. The conditions at the moment of packer setting decides whether to use a retrievable packer.
Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 0 REVISION Figure 8.1.f).F .ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 214 OF 295 ENI S.Dynamic Seal Check (A) .Anchored Completion Option Check (A): Deviated well: • if it is an injection well it cannot be critical (see section 8.p. Figure 8. Highly Critical Well: Dynamic Seal This stage considers an anchored completion which fails the stress analysis calculation because of problems associated with the tubing-packer connection.E . For an anchor with shear release: • If the stress analysis upon releasing is negative.3). an anchor will be used and the check will be carried out again.A. In this case a dynamic seal is used (Refer to figure 8.
when using dynamic seals. the procedure illustrated in figure 8.6 kg/l) which may leave solid deposits on the packer. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 • Check (B): • 0 REVISION The packer fluid is a high density mud (> 1.p. If these conditions do not apply. the stress analysis results are corrected using factors other than the seal element. in general. Figure 8. Here. This is the case with the following conditions: • • • No stimulations are planned.G . i.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 215 OF 295 ENI S.e.f gives a general description of the criteria behind the choice of dynamic seal to be adopted. The packer is not set hydraulically. Non-Critical Well The easiest solution in these cases is to choose a Standard Seal Locator. Seal Element . run on the tubing. following any failure of the stress analysis. The well is not an injection well. This is only possible with hydraulically packers. The packer is one trip installation.Critical and Non-Critical Wells. no other rules are apply as. The procedure illustrated in figure 8.g is followed.A. Reference will be made to this later and also for cases which are different to those described in highly critical wells above. Critical.
the need to use the packing setting procedure specified. the outlet conditions included in the rectangle indicate.A. It is better to use a completion with a shear element which is more easily releasable. deviated well with max. expected life of the completion < 5 years.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 216 OF 295 ENI S.p. deviation angle > 20.g. or a dynamic seal whenever feasible. In these cases.h. . Again in figure 8. anchored completion is not recommended. Retrievable Packer Tubing-Packer Connections The choice of the tubing-packer connection for retrievable packers (hydraulic and set down weight) is made on the basis of that in figure 8.6 kg/l) which may leave solid deposits on the packer. besides the choice of tubing-packer connection. a permanent/retrievable packer is the priority or a permanent should be used and consequently the associated setting procedure and seal assembly selected. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 Check (A): • 0 REVISION the packer fluid is a high density mud (> 1. No additional adaptation of the seal element is foreseen as a consequence of any stress analysis. (B): • (C): • (D): • the packer is set mechanically. In the case of a deviated well. Particular conditions raise questions over which type of retrievable packer to use.
000m) but more on the basis of its complexity.1.Tubing-Packer Connections for Retrievable Packers 8.p. Packer Selection The first case classifies the well on the basis of depth characteristics (≥ 4. Single Selective Completion Packers The criteria illustrated here are valid for selective completions with 2 or 3 producing zones.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 217 OF 295 ENI S. . The solutions given are for a case with only 2 zones and if a third zone is to be taken into consideration it is assumed that the selection made for the upper zone of the two zone scenario applies.A.H . Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 0 REVISION Figure 8.5.
as for example in figure 8. If the conditions as of figure 8.I . are not applicable. these cases are classified by well depth: . governed by the order of priority specified along with the choices.A.i.p.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 218 OF 295 ENI S. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 0 REVISION Figure 8.Single Selective Packer For Complex Wells if several different configurations are available.i. however. the engineer has a certain degree of freedom of choice but is.
500 and 3.Selective Single Well with Depths Between 1.000m Figure 8.000 and 4.p.J . Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 0 REVISION Figure 8.K .000m .Selective Single Well with Depths Between 3.A.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 219 OF 295 ENI S.
l is common with the only exception.L .500m In the case of depths less than 1. If the completion fluid is a mud with deposition problems. Application of the criteria illustrated in figure 8.p. and a retrievable packer is one in the list of possible choices.Selective Single Well with Depths Less Than 1. it is strongly recommend that a retrievable type packer be used.500m in a well not considered complex.A. then it should be selected.i through figure 8. being that the order of priority for the lower zone can be changed by applying the following rules: • • If workovers are planned with removal of the tubing and packer. and a permanent or permanent/retrievable packer are in the list of possible choices. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 0 REVISION Figure 8. in the case of multiple choices.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 220 OF 295 ENI S. . then the permanent/retrievable should be selected over of the retrievable.
Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 Packer Setting Method 0 REVISION The type of setting method proposed depends on the following factors: • • Type of packer Setting distance between the packers. in these cases the reference packer is permanent and the other packers are the retrievable or permanent/retrievable type. With these type of packers. Tubing-Packer Connection Selection The criteria continues by classifying the packers by type and setting with the zones treated separately. Mechanical setting is preferred for the reference packer and the setting should be by electric line when the distance between the packers is < 500 m.k and figure 8. In some cases. i.l. lower).j. figure 8. Generally. hydraulic setting should be used for this type of packer. All packers are Retrievable Refer to figure 8. or wireline) are those already defined for the single completion described in section 8.e. modifications are be made only to those packers which have the problems.l where all packers are retrievable. intermediate. choose hydraulic setting for all the packers or else mechanical setting. if the setting distance between the packers is > 500m (check with the packer manufacturer).1. The setting criteria of a mechanical permanent packer (on a workstring. In cases where there is no specific mention of an Intermediate zone. It is recommended in any case to re-check the completion after having made the modifications. the results of the stress analysis specifically identifies the packers with releasing problems.p. It is essential to check with manufacturers that the distance between the packers is sufficient for the packers to be set.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 221 OF 295 ENI S. Due to this. . hydraulic type setting should be used or else the packers can be set mechanically. a depth control procedure is necessary to verify the depth of the packer setting to ensure positioning of the blast joint across the upper zone which is open to production. three zones are assumed (upper. it is treated with the same criteria used for the upper zone. the zones are be treated separately.A. Permanent Stacked Packers: Refer to figure 8. Lower Permanent Packer With Upper Retrievable: Refer to figure 8.k and figure 8.4. if the completion fluid is a brine.i with all permanent packers. If the reference packer is set by a workstring.
a standard length locator. an anchor or retrievable type packer will be used. a dynamic seal will be used (anchor with PBR or telescopic joint). a telescopic joint should be used when there is failure in the stress analysis. for the intermediate packer. In the case of failure in the stress analysis a dynamic seal with telescopic joint will be used.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 222 OF 295 ENI S. in particular. Initially an anchor with shear release should be selected. The lower zone packer is a retrievable. For the intermediate zone in the three zone case. In the case of failure of the stress analysis on this packer.1. The lower zone packer is a permanent with mechanical setting. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 Upper packer 0 REVISION The rules described for the single completion are applied to the upper packer (Refer to 8. 2) 3) For the intermediate zone in the case of three zones. . A dynamic seal should be used. a longer locator with seal bore extension should be used.4). In the case of failure of the stress analysis.p.A. Lower or Intermediate Packer There are three possible ways of treating the lower zones: 1) All the packers are of the permanent or permanent/retrievable types with hydraulic setting.
p. 8. This will determine whether the selected SSSV is Wireline Retrievable (WRSV) or Tubing Retrievable (TRSV). flow erosion of the valve internals may alter the closure settings.2.A.g. .3.2.2. but under some circumstances. Both types are generally referred to as ‘storm chokes’. either.4. The policy defined shall be applied to all Eni-Agip Division and Affiliates completion designs world-wide.1.5. 8. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 8. the valve may fail to close. Surface controlled sub-surface safety valves (SCSSV’s) shall be used accordingly to the criteria listed below in section 8. SSCSSV’s are either pressure differential or ambient pressure operated valves.2. The choice of SSSV for a particular development will depend on: • • • • Well location Fluid properties Required flow area Well intervention capabilities. In conjunction. when there is a leak of insufficient rate.2. The use of these valves should be avoided as they are set up to operate on predetermined conditions representing a major leak at surface. A derivative of the storm choke is the injection valve which is held open by water or gas injection and closes when injection ceases. Any variation to this policy and selection procedures herein. 8. Wireline Retrievable Safety Valves Wireline retrievable valves may be.2. shall only be sanctioned by the Eni-Agip Division and Affiliates Head Office. Applications The applications for SSSV’s are given in section 8.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 223 OF 295 ENI S. SUB-SURFACE SAFETY VALVES 0 REVISION This section provides the Eni-Agip Division and Affiliates policy and guidelines for the application and selection of Sub-Surface Safety Valves (SSSV). e.2. sub-surface controlled sub-surface safety valves (SSCSSV) otherwise known as direct acting valves or surface controlled sub-surface safety valves (SCSSV). a flowline rupture. Policy All Eni-Agip Division and Affiliates completions shall incorporate a SSSV in the completion string to provide safety in the event of an uncontrolled well flow.
Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 8.5 indicate in which applications WRSV’s and TRSV’s should be used.b specifies when SCSSV’s shall be used. wireline retrievable or annulus safety valve systems. Well Type Oil Producer Criteria • All new offshore development.2. • All wells. • All wells.4.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 224 OF 295 ENI S. tubing and only annulus if used for gas venting. The following table 8. These valve systems are fail safe and are preferred to SSCSSV’s. • All old wells being recompleted. • All wells. • Electrical submersible pump.2. They are controlled normally by surface applied hydraulic pressure through a control line clamped to the outside of the tubing string. Note: All valves with ball type closure mechanisms are not recommended for use as they are less reliable than flapper valves.A. • All wells onshore which can sustain natural flow. Valve Type/Closure Mechanism Selection This section gives recommendations on the choice of valve with the corresponding type of closure mechanism. tubing and annulus.p. • All wells on gas lift. Removal of the pressure allows the valves to close. Hydraulic pressure opens and then retains the valve open.2. • All new offshore development. • All old wells in above categories which are to be recompleted. Surface Controlled Sub-Surface Safety Valves 0 REVISION These are designed for tubing retrievable. The guidelines given in section 8. • All isolated wells.B . Gas producer Gas storage Gas injection Water injection Artificial lift H2S in produced fluids Table 8. . • All wells.Criteria For Use of SCSSV's 8.5.
• Wells with shut-in surface. 8. 8. • As a backup to the WRSV above when there is a control line failure. therefore. • ESP wells with gas venting. SCSSV’s are usually set at shallow depths and. Control Lines Tube used as ‘control line’ to operate downhole safety valves are installed along with the production string.C .A. Wells with surface flowing temperature greater than 130°C.1.2. In this case. Injection Lines Tube used as ‘injection lines’ to inject chemical products such as corrosion or scale inhibitors down hole or as deep as possible in the well. are also installed with the tubing string.3. These two different cases will be considered separately below. Subsea wells. • All waste wells. Set in the next lowest wireline nipple. . Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 0 REVISION Type of Valve Tubing Retrievable Flapper Valve • • • • Applications Offshore platform wells.3. under the pump. 8. Wells with the presence of H2S or CO2.SSSV Closure Mechanism Applications Gas or water injection wells may have either a tubing retrievable or wireline retrievable SCSSV. • As on insert valve for tubing retrievable SCSSV’s.3.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 225 OF 295 ENI S. CONTROL/INJECTION LINE SELECTION The purpose of this sub-section is to define the basic criteria for the selection and the use of small diameter tubes for SCSSV control line and injection line applications. the length of line required is generally relatively short.p. will be considerably longer. Wireline Retrievable Surface Controlled Flapper Valve Storm Chokes Annular Safety Systems Wireline Retrievable Injection Valves Table 8. • Jet pump wells. The line length required in this case. • Gas lift wells.
therefore in most cases external encapsulation it is not recommended. provided by the manufacturer.035” wall thickness /4” OD x 0.3. The standard size for both applications. the raw material comes in the form of extruded hollows. control and injection line. ranging about 30m to 50m from well head for on-shore installations or from sub sea level in case of off-shore activity. Welded tubes are considered the norm as opposed to seamless which are considerably more expensive and limited in length (usually a max.000psi depending on the manufacturer. of 1000 ft in length).049” wall thickness 1 /4” OD x 0. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 8. They are usually available in a full range of materials and sizes. In the case of welded tube process. .500 to 2. Once the working pressure has been defined as explained in the following paragraph. For this reason the configuration of the control line is not effected by the well deviation. Welded tubes can be produced in extra long coils more than 3200 ft by butt welding lengths of tubings together. In the seamless tube manufacturing process.d for the selection of the size which most suits the requirements. Usually it ranges between 1. which are then reduced to the desired diameter and wall thickness by a cold drawing operation. the raw material comes in strips which are first rolled into tube form which is fed through a welding head to perform a fusion weld. refer to table 8. Tube Specifications Size 0 REVISION Small diameter tubes for control or injection line applications are manufactured either as seamless or seam-welded and sunk.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 226 OF 295 ENI S. is the pressure required to overcome the closing force of the spring plus resistance due to friction effects.3.A. Valve Opening Pressure. The cycles of cold drawing with a floating plug drawing method is preferred and annealing operations performed to reach the desired dimensions and produce a weld zone homogeneous with the rest of the tube material. is /4” OD and the wall thickness chosen from among the following sizes according to the pressure requirements: • • • 1 1 1 /4” OD x 0.p. The working pressure (WP) is defined as follows: WP = Safety Valve WP + Valve Opening Pressure Safety Valve WP is as specified by the manufacturer.065” wall thickness. Control Line Working Pressures A down hole safety valve is usually set at a relatively shallow depth. Both types of lines comply with ASTM specification A269 ‘Seamless and Welded Austenitic Stainless Steel Tubing for General Service’ and ASTM-B751 specification ‘General requirement for Ni and Ni alloy Seamless and Welded Tube’.
A. combining radial and tangential stress to determine an equivalent resultant using the Von Mises Theory of Distortion Energy: OD 2 Ys − 1 ID P= 4 OD 3x +1 ID Eq. Working pressure is defined as follows: WP = BHSP + Pfr − Phd Eq. therefore the flow profile can be assumed to be laminar. 8.n shows the graphs of pressure losses per 100m versus flow rate plotted for various internal diameters and various values of fluid viscosity. Hydrostatic pressure of injection fluid. Once the friction losses for laminar flow have been calculated then the diameter size can be determined accordingly. Values obtained are based on the Lamè’s formula for thick section pipes using internal pressure only and stress defined at the internal diameter face. therefore total vertical depth. The pressures given in the table are computed with ultimate and yield tensile strength values given in table 8. figure 8. Total pressure required to inject chemicals through the line. (Refer to table 8. Once the working pressure has been defined as explained below. 8. Injection rates to choose the correct diameter and evaluate friction losses.f and they are rated to temperatures between -20 and 100°F.A where: WP = BHSP= Pfr = Phd = BHSP + Pfr . Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 Chemical Injection Line Working Pressures 0 REVISION Chemical injection lines are run to injection mandrels which are installed as close as possible to the bottom of the tubing. Injection fluid characteristics such as density and viscosity.n). The definition of working pressure is based on the following considerations: • • • • Well configuration. Injection rates referred to in this application are always low.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 227 OF 295 ENI S. the selection of the tubing size to meet with requirements can be made.d). Friction losses (see figure 8.B Variables are defined as: P Ys Ys WP OD ID = = = = = = computed pressure (psi) ultimate tensile strength to compute ‘Burst Pressure’ (psi) yield strength (2% offset) to compute ‘Test Pressure’ (psi) 80% of test pressure (psi) outside diameter (in) inside diameter (in) .Phd Bottom hole static pressure.p.
786 17.035 0.049 0.914 30.065 0.914 30.035 0.831 12.375 0.438 15.854 21.333 5.049 0.605 7.908 30.112 7. table 8.375 Incoloy 825 0.255 7.035 0.518 21.e together with their relative characteristics.972 9.375 Wall (inch) 0.564 6.898 11.250 0.250 0.A.250 0.250 0.427 10.049 0.515 22.333 5.355 26.965 12.954 15.757 15. Material Selection Among the stainless steels and nickel alloys available. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 0 REVISION Type of alloy AISI 316 L OD (inch) 0.323 12.646 24.651 5.035 0.250 0.035 0.709 52.763 12.390 8.250 0.268 31.035 0.142 8.011 4.967 7.375 0.013 Monel K400 0.112 7. the most commonly used for control or injection line applications are listed in table 8.646 24.252 37.250 0.866 4.025 Test (psi) 6.375 Table 8.983 21.3.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 228 OF 295 ENI S.006 9.118 8.049 WP (psi) 5.Theoretical Working.084 21.p.250 0.D .049 0.035 0.965 12.375 0.010 Burst (psi) 18. Bursting and Testing Procedures (for welded stainless steel tubing at between -20°F to 100°F) 8.065 0.250 0.065 0.642 30.809 3. .375 0.250 0. Compatibility of packer or completion fluid with the selected material must be confirmed by means of condition specific laboratory testing.659 8.049 0.049 0.f shows the mechanical properties of these materials in the annealed condition.250 0.004 5.328 7.065 0.831 12.006 12.4.780 17.375 Inconel 625 0.416 6.035 0.459 9.780 17.250 0.089 5.965 42.459 9.457 15.049 0.515 18.
000 28.000 Type of Alloy AISI 316 L Monel K400 Incoloy 825 Inconel 625 Table 8.p.000 35.000 Yield Strength at 0.F .Stainless Steels and Nickel Alloys Most Commonly Used Once the type of material to be used has been defined.Nominal Mechanical Properties in Annealed Conditions (For temperatures between -20 to 100°F) . the corrosion department should be consulted to confirm compatibility with the packer fluids.2% Offset (psi) 25. Is a Nickel-base alloy with a higher percentage of molybdenum to give the highest resistance to chloride attack. In accordance with ASTM specification B704. Has good resistance to grain boundary attack and improved resistance to pitting and crevice attack.000 120. Tensile Strength (psi) 70. Control or Injection line made of the above material shall comply with the following ASTM specifications: AISI 316L Monel K400 Incoloy 825 Inconel 625 In accordance with ASTM specification A269 (TP316L). It is susceptible to chloride stress cracking when the presence of stress is combined with a packer fluid containing chlorides. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 0 REVISION Type of Alloy AISI 316 L Main Characteristics Is an austenitic stainless steel with reduced carbon content. In accordance with ASTM specification B165.E .A. Is a nickel-copper alloy resistant to corrosion and stress corrosion over a wide range of conditions. Monel K400 Incoloy 825 Inconel 625 Table 8.000 85. based on pressure ratings and working environment. In accordance with ASTM specification B423.000 60.000 70. Is an austenitic nickel-base alloy with good resistance to pitting in chloride solutions and to stress corrosion has improved resistance to corrosion by many acids.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 229 OF 295 ENI S.
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STAP-P-1-M-7100 8.3.5. Fittings 0
Connections for either SCSSV control lines or chemical injection lines shall be performed as follows: In case of pressure rating < 5000 psi, line connections shall be of the ‘Swagelok’ type. • In case of pressure rating > 5000 psi, line connections shall be of the ‘Autoclave’ type as recommended by API Spec. 6A (Wellhead & Christmas Tree Equipment) at the paragraph ‘Equipment specification requirement’ under ‘test and gauge connections’. It is suggested to avoid, as far as possible, any intermediate connections to reduce potential leak paths. 8.3.6. Protectors Control line protectors are designed to support and avoid (bare or encapsulated) crushing at where it is most exposed, e.g. where it crosses large offsets like couplings, downhole safety valves or gas lift mandrels. Protectors shall be designed for small annular clearances allowing sufficient annulus flow area. They should be of the “one piece” type without loose parts and designed so as to be quickly installed and removed. ‘Across coupling tubing protectors’ are recommended for use with both SCSSV control and injection lines applications. For control lines used on SCSSV’s installed at shallow depth (less than 250m), other types of protectors may be used. In general, ‘steel banding’ or ‘banding straps’, ‘rubber based’ and ‘mid joint protectors’ shall be avoided at all costs. The following technical requirements will identify protector performance: • • • • • Material shall be of all metal construction. No structural welding shall be allowed. Lab corrosion tests shall be run to verify compatibility with annular environment. Capable of firmly supporting bare or encapsulated lines when performing completions and recovery during workover allowing control line and protector reuse. Force indicated in ‘l’ or ‘tons’ that the protector will support against axial displacement without failing or damaging the supported line. Force stated in ‘lb’ or ‘Kg’ that protector will resist as a direct pull on supported line without any slippage. Maximum load expressed in ‘lb’ or ‘kg’ that protector will withstand when contacting the casing wall without damage. •
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STAP-P-1-M-7100 8.3.7. Encapsulation 0
Encapsulation of this line is recommended only for chemical injection lines applications. Encapsulation increases crush resistance during installation, protects line against abrasion, pinching and improves clamping profile. Several encapsulation materials are available, covering a wide range of environmental conditions. table 8.g indicates the compatibility of the main encapsulation materials with the most commonly used packer/completion fluids. In some cases, braided wire is placed alongside the injection line and bonded together by the encapsulation material, to further enhance resistance and strength avoiding any rolling and twisting tendencies (Refer to table 8.h). The following laboratory tests are suggested to confirm the lines mechanical characteristics and compatibility of the encapsulation material with the packer fluid used: • • • • • • Immersion test of the encapsulated line in downhole conditions for a defined period of time. No evidence of a change in physical appearance should be observable. Gas impregnation tests at various temperatures, pressures and with various gasses for a fixed period of time. No evidence of cracking, blistering or embrittlement should be observable. Combined brine/sour gas exposure tests according to the operating conditions, as above. Combined crude oil/sour gas exposure tests according to operating conditions as above. Abrasion resistance test to compare the resistance against abrasion between bare and encapsulated lines. Crush resistance test by loading the tube laterally, across the diameter, simulating various loading levels, until tube collapse is evident. Encapsulated line results should be compared to bare line tests.
The following table 8.g shows the main properties of the most common types of encapsulation material available. The choice of material, is mainly based on type of packer fluid, well deviation and working temperatures to be experienced and shall be confirmed by laboratory tests for compatibility.
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Encapsulation Material Nylon
Main properties Compatible with diesel packer fluids containing high gas percentages. Nylon should not be used with completion fluids that contain calcium chlorides, calcium bromides or zinc bromides at high temperatures. Its maximum temperature rating is 250°F. Compatible with most packer fluids with the exception of diesel or fluid at high gas concentration. Maximum operating temperature rating is 275°F - 300°F. Chemically resistant to almost all downhole fluids. Excellent mechanical strength and abrasion resistance. Compatible with high gas content environments. Recommended for highly deviated wells. Maximum operating temperature is 400°F. Chemically resistant to almost all downhole fluids. Excellent mechanical strength and abrasion resistance. Compatible with high gas content environments. Recommended for highly deviated wells. Maximum operating temperature is 212°F. Chemically resistant to almost all downhole fluids. Excellent mechanical strength and abrasion resistance. Compatible with high gas content environments. Recommended for highly deviated wells. Maximum operating temperature is 302°F.
Table 8.G - Compatibility and Characteristics of Encapsulation Materials Halar (fluoropolymers) is a registered trademark of Ausimont USA Santoprene (thermoplastics rubber) is a registered trademark of Monsanto Rilsan II (polyamide thermoplastic) Foraflon PVDF (polyvinylidine fluoride thermoplastic material) Samples of different types of encapsulated tubes have been tested under compressive, laterally applied, loading simulating possible damage arising during installation to determine the tube crushing resistance and extend of polymer damage, (see Table below).
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Applied load in metric tons (no damage detected) 2.45 2.65 7.0
100mm - 1/4” OD x 0.049” Alloy 825 bare line 100mm - 1/4” OD x 0.049” Alloy 625 bare line 100mm - 1/4” OD x 0.049” Alloy 825 encapsulated with Foraflon: size 15mm x 12mm
Applied load in metric tons (line partially crushed, fluid flow not interrupted) 3.5 3.8 9.0
Table 8.H - Crush Resistance Test For Encapsulated Injection Lines 8.3.8. SCSSV Hydraulic Control fluid The criteria in this section is for SCSSV control line applications only. Today hydraulic fluids are almost exclusively based on mineral oils. Other types of synthetic based oils, are employed only when operating temperatures are very low and special thermal standby properties are required. Most of the synthetic based oils used are of the flash fire resistant category as they have a very low pour floc point combined with a good performance at higher temperatures. With regard to subsea completions, the control fluid is the same fluid as used for the Xmas tree controls. table 8.i shows the main properties of the recommended oils for control line applications. 8.13 and figure 8.n below shows typical friction losses of control line fluids.
Injected fluid viscosity = 5cP
100 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Q injection - liters/hr
Fri c. los ses psi /10 0m
O.D = 0,25 inches
w.t.= 0,035 w.t.= 0,049 w.t.= 0,065
Figure 8.M - Fluid Friction Loss with 5cP Fluid
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Injected fluid viscosity = 1cP
20 18 16 Fric. losses psi/100m 14 12 10 8 6 4 2 0 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 O.D = 0,25 inches
w.t.=0,035 w.t.=0,049 w.t.=0,065
Q injection - liters/hr
Figure 8.N - Fluid Friction Loss with 1cP Fluid The above graphs are based on the following formula:
Q x L xµ 612.95 Di 4
Pf = Friction losses (kPa) Di = Internal diameter (inches) L = Length (meters) µ = Viscosity (cP) Q = Flow rate (lt / min)
kPa X 0.145 = psi
Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 0 REVISION Oil Name/Properties Viscosity at 40° C cSt Viscosity at 100° C cSt Viscosity index Pour Point °C Flash point °C Density at 15° kg/l Floc point °C Agip Arnica 32 (Petroleum based) Agip OSO 32 (Paraffinic based) Agip Betula S 32 (Synthetic based) 32 6.Properties of Recommended SCSSV Hydraulic Oils * cSt x Density = cp **Density variation = 0.I .4 163 -39 202 0. Agip Betula 32 should be employed only when operating temperatures are very low as in Siberia where temperatures may reach -50°C. .4 5.875 - 29. testing and running procedure must be carefully programmed and hydraulic fluid may have to be flushed through a filtration unit. In order to avoid plugging of the control line while running in hole. if required (usually 5 micron absolute).A.1 98 -55 206 0.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 235 OF 295 ENI S.865 - 30 5.00065 (kg/l) / °C For standard applications Agip Arnica 32 is recommended as it has better theological properties than OSO 32.841 -60 Table 8.3 110 -30 204 0.p.
Control/Injection Line Selection Procedure Flow Chart 0 REVISION Figure 8.A.p.3.9. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 8.Control/Injection Line Selection Flow Chart .ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 236 OF 295 ENI S.O .
ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 237 OF 295 ENI S. VR (WP > 15. Like the case in selective nipples.g. HR (WP between 10. Tapered: • Baker F top no-go (AF-HF-VF) and R bottom no-go (AR-HR-VR). . X and XN nipples are used for working pressure < 10. the choice depends on the working pressure of the string configuration AF. RN The choice of the type of nipple is subject to the working pressure which characterises the completion (e.000 psi) VF.4. The nipples are selected based on those most commonly used by the company.000 and 15. Do not rely on data produced elsewhere or use old catalogues as changes to the nipple systems may have been made resulting in incompatibility. The aim of this section is to determine the type (selective or tapered) and configuration of the diameters in order to optimise access to the sump and prevent friction pressure drop. while R and RN types are used on all higher pressures.000 psi) HF. SCSSV or wellhead).000 psi.p.A. This must take into consideration all the diameter constraints imposed by the casing profile and completion characteristics. and include the following models: Selective: • Halliburton (previously Otis) X.000 psi). Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 8. WIRELINE NIPPLE SELECTION 0 REVISION The nipples required for completion purposes are based on the results of the previous design stages. XN. Data on all of these nipples can be found in the manufacturer’s current catalogue. AR (WP < 10. if applicable Lock mandrel OD (LMOD). The principal physical characteristics of a nipple are: • • • Seal bore diameter No-go diameter. R.
At this stage a hypothesis of seal bore diameter of the nipple (SB) is determined by analysing the following conditions: If RB is not defined. The minimum values which can be reached by the NGD are: • • • 0.050ins No-go dimension (NGD) = 0. To select the nipples to be as compatible as possible with the available options in the suppliers catalogues.070ins otherwise. the previous conditions are re-applied.A. The bottom restriction (RB) is determined by the ID of the SCSSV tubing-retrievable.p. generally in the tubing hanger.042ins for tubing OD < 3.050ins for tubing OD < 5ins 0. the minimum top and bottom restriction dimensions are determined by the following procedure: 1) The top restriction (RA) is the minimum upper diameter of the nipple.1.NGD 3) In other cases. For the lower nipples.313ins 0.4. is always a Baker type F and is chosen with the maximum diameter available for the size of the completion tubing below the hanger.080ins otherwise The first nipple. The following physical dimensional values are required: • • Running clearance (RC) = 0. and the only one used. or: RB > RA or (RA . an approximation of 1/100ins for SB is acceptable.313ins = 0. chosen from one of the following: • • • • • 2) ID of the packer Drift of the tubing ID of the safety valve Vertical access of the wellhead Sealbore diameter (top) or no-go ID (bottom) of the upper nipple.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 238 OF 295 ENI S.050ins for tubing OD < 3.060ins for tubing OD < 5ins = 0.RC SB = LMOD . Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 8. .RB > NGD + RC) then: LMOD = RA . 4) The data obtained are then used to match the nipple. Tapered Nipple Configuration 0 REVISION The configuration of the nipples begins at the top of the string and moves downwards towards the bottom or packer tailpipe. decreasing the NGD to adjust the calculations.
ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 239 OF 295 ENI S. It is a rule that if the spacing between two successive nipples is < 30m. If F is chosen. After this it is necessary to reduce the diameter again. the maximum diameter nipple which is compatible with the rated pressure of the Christmas tree is selected. the previous size is selected but only for a maximum of three nipples in series. .A. Selective Nipple Configuration Criteria similar to those detailed in the tapered nipple procedure are used to choose the tubing hanger nipple.4.e. 2) The type of nipple (e.p. a tapered nipple will be used.2.g. the nipple is compared with the data from the catalogue. 8. i. it is then possible to use an R type nipple if the following conditions exist: • • The nipple in question is not required for the installation of a W/L retrievable backup SCSSV The subsequent nipple must be type F with the following characteristics: SB(F) < SB(R) LMOD(F) + 0. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 0 REVISION 1) In the event of achieving a good match. there are two options: • • Produce a new nipple size Select the maximum nipple diameter from the catalogue < SB. For the subsequent nipples. If there is no nipple with the characteristics required. F) is obtained from the previous selection.050 < no-go ID(R).
HNS or PYX is used. The advantages of perforated casing wells is already described in section 5. fluid selection.a). The performance of each is available from the suppliers. SHAPED CHARGE PERFORATING The principle of shaped charge perforating is available in any service providers sales and technical literature (Refer to figure 9. gun selection.2.1. HMX. well clean-up. increased perforating skin can reduce production rates. o . One of the important aspects is the underbalance. and perforating orientation. it is not solely down to the perforating technique but relies extensively on the planning and execution of the well completion which includes selection of the perforated interval. 9. applied pressure differential or underbalance.p. The detonator is triggered by electrical heating when deployed on wireline systems or by a firing pin in mechanically or hydraulically operated firing head systems employed on tubing conveyed perforating (TCP) systems.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 240 OF 295 ENI S. The explosives for use in most shaped charges up to 300 F is RDX (cyclonite) and above this temperature and depending on time exposed to the temperature. PS. The detonating cord. The important issues for the completion engineer are the charge selection to meet with the conditions and provide the maximum perforating efficiency. therefore perforation damage is an extremely important aspect. PERFORATING The objective of perforating a well is to establish communication between the wellbore and the formation by making holes through the casing. cement and into formation in such a manner so as not to inhibit the inflow capacity of the reservoir.3 and offers selectivity. To optimise perforating efficiency. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 0 REVISION 9. however the perforated volume in the pay is relatively small compared to open hole (+/. must match the explosive selected.25%). To this end it is necessary to obtain an adequate shot density with a sufficiently deep enough penetration to pass through the drilling damage and maximise flow through each tunnel. If this is not effective. which couples all the charges to the detonator in the firing head. which has been proven to significantly help to achieve a post-perforating flow rate to effectively flush out gun debris and remove the crushed zone which surrounds every perforating tunnel.A.
A. speed and accurate positioning using CCL/Gamma Ray. minimal debris. high mechanical and electrical reliability. The advantage of casing guns over the other wireline guns are.2. Wireline Conveyed Casing Guns Through-tubing Hollow Carrier Guns Through-tubing Strip Guns Tubing Conveyed Perforating Guns.p. instant shot detection. multi-phasing. GUN TYPES There are four main types of perforating guns: • • • • 9.2. low cost. variable shot densities of 1-12spf. minimal casing damage.A. Wireline Conveyed Casing Guns These types of guns are generally run in the well before installing the tubing. high charge performance. .1. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 0 REVISION Figure 9.Perforation Process 9. highest temperature and pressure rating. therefore no underbalance can normally be applied although in large size monobore type completions some sizes can be run similar to through-tubing guns using an underbalance.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 241 OF 295 ENI S.
Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 0 REVISION Figure 9.p.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 242 OF 295 ENI S.Types of Guns .B .A.
Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 9. they may be deployed and hung-off in position before installation of the completion string. they are usually fitted with decentralising/orientation devices. Through-Tubing Hollow Carrier Guns 0 REVISION These are smaller versions of casing guns which can be run through tubing.2. then the guns detonated by either: • • • • A bar dropped from surface Hydraulic pressure applied from surface then subsequently reduced to the planned underbalance pressure during a time delay. Through-Tubing Strip Guns These are semi-expendable type guns and consist of a metal strip into which the charges are mounted. Due to the stand-off from the casing which these guns may have. Impact by a wireline deployed tool.A. In completion operations. normally used on well tests.2.2.p. run on the bottom of the completion packer or run through the tubing on coiled tubing. however they also cause more debris. They also provide 0 or 180 phasing. The charges have higher performance and are much cheaper than throughtubing carriers guns.000ft are possible (and especially useful for horizontal wells) and perforating under exceedingly high drawdowns is possible with no risk to the guns being blown up the hole. hence have o lower charge sizes and. They have a particular application for perforating through DST strings and reperforating completed wells. . of 4spf on the 2 /8” OD gun and 6spf on the 2 /8” OD gun.4. A new version called the ‘pivot gun’ has even larger charges for deep penetration which pivot out from a vertical controlled OD to the firing position. allowing much longer lengths to be installed. therefore performance. Normally the completion is displaced to an underbalance fluid. they must have a safety release connection so they can be left in the well. Lengths of over 1. They only offer 0 or o 1 7 180 phasing with a max. is where a differential is applied between the annulus and the sump via porting through the test packer. therefore. 9. Another version available. than all other guns. Subsequent runs would need the well to be flowed to cause a differential pressure.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 243 OF 295 ENI S. 9. casing damage and have less o o mechanical and electrical reliability. By being able to be run through the tubing. underbalance perforating can possibly be adopted but only for the first shot.2. Hydrostatic pressure reduction.3. Alternately they can be run in long lengths for overbalance perforating before completion string installation. Tubing Conveyed Perforating TCP guns are a variant of the casing gun which can be run on tubing. Due to the potential of becoming stuck through strip deformation.
however the performance in actual use may differ due to differences in rock strength. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 The main problems associated with TCP are: • • • • 0 REVISION Gun positioning is more difficult The sump needs to be drilled deeper to accommodate the gun length if it is dropped after firing A misfire is extremely expensive Shot detection is more unreliable. Section II is normally used for comparisons. Ageing of explosives. This provides under two specific tests: • • Entrance hole size and penetration length into a 5ft diameter concrete target. 9. gun stand-off. overburden stress and wellbore pressure and temperatures. moisture contamination.p. The performances are listed in two sections I and II. the thickness of casing and cement or if multiple casings are to be perforated also has an impact on the gun performance. Entrance hole. It is necessary for engineers to obtain as much accurate data from the suppliers and use Eni-Agip historic data in order to be able to make the best choice of gun. can be used as a qualitative comparison of charge performance. penetration and flow efficiency in a Berea sandstone target at elevated temperatures and an estimated 800psi effective stress. The variations for these reasons is non-linear and depends on the type of charge. API RP 43.1. higher grade charges may also be required.3. charge alignment. . Due to the longer exposure time because of the deployment. GUN PERFORMANCE API And Performance Data For most completion applications. which includes performance data produced by the suppliers. The API tests are also unreliable as the targets have had differing strengths and porosities and there is no consistent quality control standard for production of the charges. 9.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 244 OF 295 ENI S.A.3.
The use of these relatively smaller guns require contact with the casing wall. Underbalanced Perforating With Through-Tubing Guns If TCP costs cannot be justified and if formation perforated skin factor is acceptable. Shot density to achieve adequate flow area. This is affected by the gun weight. There is a risk of high velocities and hence turbulence. type of fluid. underbalanced perforation can be carried out with through tubing systems. o Minimum 90 phasing. Shot Density Shot density in homogeneous. High shot density over 8spf. There is a risk of sand production.A. . bypass area and expected flow rate. If perforating with through-tubing guns. On the first run a high overbalance can be used but on subsequent runs the only means of producing a differential is to flow the well at a rate governed not to blow the gun up the hole. Debris removal. This in conjunction with correct gravel pack procedures is essential for to prevent high skin factors.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 245 OF 295 ENI S. isotropic formations should be a minimum of 8spf but must exceed the frequency of shale laminations. A gravel pack is be conducted.1.p. Shot phasing. orientation at o o o 90 with 180 phased guns or in line with the contact point if 0 phased. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 Guidelines Gravel Pack Completions 0 REVISION Due to the problem of flow restriction discussed earlier in section 2. this will require multiple runs.4. if possible: • • • • TCP methods Deep penetrating charges. A shot density greater than this is required where: • • • • Vertical permeability is low. the important factors are: • • • • • Hole diameter to achieve adequate flow area. Penetration. High Underbalanced TCP Perforating High drawdowns over 500psi for production wells require.
(Refer to the Figures below). high density shots are preferred then TCP and casing guns should be used. Between 15mm and 25mm in gravel packed completions. These guidelines should be used to select the appropriate drawdown for consolidated completions. The optimum clean up period is subjective and opinions range from 1gall to 5gall per perforation.90 . the deeper the shot the better. 180 or less. an underbalance should be used. In unconsolidated sands. formation fluids and must also be clean to prevent formation damage. Gun Stand-Off Gun stand-off should be minimised for improved performance. 120 . but at the least it should exceed the drilling damage area by 75mm. If low phase angle. Between 8mm and 12mm if fracturing is to be carried out and where ball sealers are to be used. Hole Size The hole size obtained is a function of the casing grade and should be as follows: • • • Between 6mm and 12mm for natural completions. especially at high pressures. .2.3.A. This requires that less drawdown is exerted during the well clean up. The best method of clean up is to flow the well continually for several hours after perforating at normal offtake rates. to obtain high shot density. the intention is to cause perforation enlargement to remove the crushed zone without collapsing the cavity or sanding in the guns. the guns may be limited to the charge size which can physically be installed which will impact penetration. then strict control over the fluid used to ensure it is compatible with the reservoir formation. However. 60 is preferable. o o o o Overbalanced Perforating If a well is to be perforated overbalanced. 9.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 246 OF 295 ENI S. King et al developed a recommended minimum level of drawdown based on a number of field studies where TCP perforating had been employed. If o fracturing is to be carried out then 90 and lower will help initiate fractures. If the smallest charges are being used then the stand-off should not be more than 25mm. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 Penetration 0 REVISION In general. Phasing Providing the stand-off is less than 50mm. Underbalanced Perforating To optimise the perforating clean up.p. As a general rule stand-off should never be more than 50mm.
bar drop. etc. .4. Perforating Procedures Refer to the ‘Completion Procedures Manual. There are other side-by-side systems available which provide a tubing installed pressure activated firer with a secondary receptacle for a wireline installed firer. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 9. it is undesirable to have a gun actuation pressure higher than the test pressure as a leak may occur while trying to trigger the guns. Redundancy This is an important aspect. Wireline perforating systems are normally electrically trigger by passing an electrical signal down the cable to the guns.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 247 OF 295 ENI S. It is good practice to use a bar drop firing mechanism (deployed on wireline if possible as dropping the bar from surface may damage sensitive completion items) or wireline installed firing heads which can be installed after the completion is set and tested. Firing Heads 0 REVISION As described earlier. This provides full safety during gun deployment. However.3. Using wireline installed firing heads provides some redundancy in that the first head can be retrieved and a second head deployed.3. Protecting the firing head from test pressure is a dangerous procedure as a plug may leak will also cause premature detonation. for if there is a firing head fault. Safety The use of tubing installed hydraulic actuated systems has the problem of how to conduct pressure integrity tests on the completion with sufficient margin between the gun activation pressure and the highest test pressure applied. in TCP systems there are a wide variety including pressure operated.3. gun recovery would be very costly. wireline activated.p.A. . Two very important considerations are safety during installation of TCP systems and redundancy in the event of a fault occurring in the primary firing system. 9. Obviously. there are a number of different firing heads for various applications.
ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 248 OF 295 ENI S.Recommended Underbalance for Perforating Gas Zones in Stable Sandstones .D .C .A.Recommended Underbalance for Perforating Gas Zones in Stable Sandstones Figure 9.p. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 0 REVISION Figure 9.
ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 249 OF 295 ENI S. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 0 REVISION Figure 9.F .E .A.p.Recommended Underbalance for Perforating Shallow Unconsolidated Oil Sands .Recommended Underbalance for Perforating Shallow Unconsolidated Gas Sands Figure 9.
then minimisation of the FBHP is critical to low PI. GLR and lack of particular experience with the system.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 250 OF 295 ENI S. ESP life can vary between days and five years depending on temperature. System life is difficult to predict as it is a function of operating conditions. In simple terms. Offset the effects of increasing water production.A. the artificial lift injects energy into the system.4. Overcome high friction effects of heavy viscous or waxy crudes. Meet with targeted high offtake rates. their applications. low pressure wells. The selection of the most appropriate artificial lift system involves a number of factors but mainly on specific well performance. In other cases. such as: • • • • • • • • Casing ID Casing connection in on gas lift Size and positioning of liners Provision of a sump for rod pumpers Pre-positioning of gas lift mandrels for gas lift and ASV system Pre-installation of conduits for hydraulic pumps Parallel bore for plunger lift etc. design considerations. Kick off high GLR wells that die when shut-in. Just as tubing size is critical to high PI wells. Section 10. such as casing size. etc. ARTIFICIAL LIFT The benefits and most commonly used artificial lift were described previously in section 5.7 lists all the systems. artificial lift from the outset is necessary to achieve the production and economic targets. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 0 REVISION 10. In some fields. Reservoir development optimisations studies are necessary to determine the relative technical and economic benefits of the options and the timing of the investments. e. both pressure maintenance and artificial lift are used which defers the installation. limitations and comparisons.p. liner top setting. . The application of artificial lift simply displaces the TPC curve downwards so that a lower bottom-hole flowing pressure is achieved. solids production. Consideration of future artificial lift requirements must be taken during the planning stage. Energy can also be introduced by reservoir pressure maintenance.6. Some systems are able to cope better with production problems than others which will obviously affect the choice.g. To summarise the reasons for the installation of artificial lift are to: • • • • • Reduce the effects of declining bottom-hole pressures. Selection of the method is also based upon operating costs and workover frequency costs. These early decisions can save much expense later.
A. As GLR requirements are subject to diminishing returns.3. . The lift gas is normally pumped into the annulus and into the tubing through gas lift valves installed in Side Pocket Mandrels (SPMs). A standing valve is sometimes necessary to prevent the gas from flowing into the formation. Due to the low liquid production. Occasionally the gas is pumped into the tubing and the production taken up the annulus or in the annular space in a concentric completion.a. it must be produced in slugs by intermittently gas injection through a motorised valve.a). The injection gas is supplied in a closed loop system in which it is taken from the separators and then compressed. As the fluid gradient changes. dried if necessary and then delivered to the well (Refer to figure 10. As can be seen the gas is injected down the annulus and into the tubing through the topmost valve lightening the fluid column in accordance with the total GLR curve shown. Qi. increasing GLR initially decreases the bottom-hole pressure on the TPC. or either the near optimum GLR which provides a BHFP within 20-50psi of the minimum. the first unloading valve closes so that all the gas passes through the second valve. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 10.4. also shown in figure 10. During this process the well BHP will drop to the point where the well will flow. hence the back-pressure on the formation.1.1psi/ft). There is an optimum GLR to produce stabilised flow for a particular tubing size and a minimum BHFP.b illustrates the fundamental principle of a gas lift design and operation. the injection is optimised to maximise production. As described in section 2. Another less common application is Intermittent Gas Lift.p. which is used to produce low volumes of liquid (<350stb/d) from wells with low BHFP (<0. In continuous gas lift. most gas lift systems are based on available gas supply volumes. Production is determined by: • • • • reservoir pressure PI water cut gas injection rate Once the well reaches a stabilised rate. the gas moves down to the next valve unloading the casing fluid and as the reaches the second valve and lightens the fluid gradient from that point. it is desirable to position the lower gas injection point as deep as possible in the well.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 251 OF 295 ENI S. This continues in sequence for all other valves until reaching the operating valve where the casing pressure will drop below the initial kick-off pressure. however this is limited by: • • • • available gas lift pressure the flowing tubing pressure at the intended offtake rate the depth of the packer and deepest gas lift mandrel the differential required to close the upper valves closed (+/-20psi) and to ensure that injection at the operating GLV is stable (between 50 and 500psi) figure 10. GAS LIFT 0 REVISION The continuous gas lift method adds gas into the producing fluids which reduces the hydrostatic head and.
p.A. Total GLR = Producing GLR + Injection GLR </= optimum GLR.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 252 OF 295 ENI S. q. IGLR = Qi/q Figure 10. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 From this it is seen: • • • 0 REVISION Liquid rate. is dependent on the IPR and attainable BHFP.Typical Gas Lift System .A .
much higher gas supply pressures have been used to enable deeper valves to be reached or reduce the number of mandrels and valves required.B . As the mandrels at deeper depths become increasingly closer.Example Gas lift design 10. however. All mandrel depths are taken of the design as TVDs and these must be converted to MD.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 253 OF 295 ENI S. an annulus safety system is installed for platform safety. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 0 REVISION Figure 10. . Modern gas lift systems usually now use SPMs with wireline GLVs to reduce servicing costs.1. This may again impact on the casing design.A. the spacing of them is much more critical. This increased pressure. SPMs have relatively large ODs and this needs to be considered in the casing design. Although gas lift valves incorporate check valves to prevent back flow. hence gas tight or premium connections are generally selected.1.p. these are not reliable and as the annuli contain quite a considerable inventory of gas. Impact On Completion Design In recent times. applies more pressure on the annulus casing.
On offshore installations.500 rpm at 60 Hertz and 2. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 10. Operationally. the problems are usually inefficiency through upper gas lift valve or tubing leaks. Their main limitation is gas production but improved downhole separators and procedures can now handle GORs up to 1.A The pump characteristics are based on constant rotational speed which is dependent on the AC supply frequency.2. They are particularly popular for high rate undersaturated oil wells. 3.A. Versions with variable frequency drives (VFD) are available or the use of surface chokes can be used to increase the band of rate (50-190%) but incur higher capital and operating costs. If possible.1. high water cut wells and water supply wells. . To prevent sand production it is sometimes necessary to install a gravel pack or pre-packed screen for pump protection. The construction of the ESP is a multi-staged centrifugal connected through a short shaft to the downhole electric motor.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 254 OF 295 ENI S.2. ESPs performance is best at stable conditions within +/-25% of the optimum rate.c shows the most common types of ESP installations and the pump components. Common Problems 0 REVISION The worst problem that can arise is that the pressure losses in the gas injection system and slugging have been underestimated and that the valve spacing is too far apart. Surface equipment usually includes a three phase transformer. TDH=Ns Hs where: NS HS = = number of stages head per stage Eq. 10.000scf/stb. the installation should be designed to facilitate downhole separation of free gas and vented up the annulus which is necessary when the gas volume exceeds the pump operating limit (typically +/-10% of the total fluid volume).p. Due to these high speeds and pump construction it is obvious that sand production is very detrimental and that emulsions are easily formed. The differential pressure or total dynamic head (TDH) developed by the pump is a function of the pump flow rate which is relative to the head developed by each stage and obtainable from manufacturers publishing’s.915 at 50 Hertz. The ESP delivery capacity will vary according to: • • • • Well IPR Reservoir pressure Surface back-pressure Electrical supply frequency figure 10. motor controller and a wellhead pack-off for the cable. gas production up the annulus may be a significant problem. 10. ELECTRICAL SUBMERISBLE PUMPS ESPs greatest application is in moving large volume of low GOR (<100scf/stb) fluids. Each stage consists of a rotating impeller and stationary diffuser.
p. most pump installations are on the end of tubing and positioned above the perforations or open hole. Bottom discharge pumps are used in powered dump flood wells.C.A. Figure 10. The motor is situated at the bottom of the assembly so that the well flow around the motor will dissipate the heat generated. a shroud is used to draw the produced fluid down past the motor. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 0 REVISION As can be seen from the schematic.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 255 OF 295 ENI S.Typical ESP Installations . If the pump has to be positioned below the interval.
000 4.375 N/A N/A 100-1. ins Pump OD.e. Casing Size.j below.625 11. and determine the attainable pump rate with: • • a fixed IPR and various tubing sizes a fixed tubing size and various IPR options 2) In this approach the pump performance curve is often plotted below the system performance curves.000 3. ins Rate.000-12. A recent development with the later is in Norway where downhole safety is satisfied by the installation of shear seal capability below the coiled tubing hanger.d). ESP Performance It is normal procedure to select the largest pump that will fit into the production casing (especially if this was catered for in the planning stage).750 8. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 Other less common deployment methods are: • • 0 REVISION Suspended on the cable and latched into a downhole receptacle.2.900 200-5.000 1. An example this to optimise the number of stages for a maximum pump HP is shown in figure 10.000-26.000-16.500 5.250 3.e. HP TDH. This often carried out by plotting the pressure traverses above and below the pump (Refer to figure 10. ft 4 /2 5 /2 7 8 /8 10 /4 13 /8 3 3 5 1 1 3.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 256 OF 295 ENI S. ESP sizes and capacities are shown in table 10.000 12.437 7.000 5. On coiled tubing with the cable through the coil which is terminated with a special wellhead arrangement. .000 24.J .000 2.000 500-3.ESP Capacity Ranges Two approaches are commonly used to evaluate an ESP system: 1) Pre-select the production target and corresponding BHFP and determine the TDH and pump size and depth required to meet this rate.1.500 Table 10. 10.000-12.000-10.000-5. Small casing or liners will obviously limit the pump size selection.000 5.000 5. downhole safety systems if the well can flow naturally).p.000-100.000-12. stb/d Power. ins Motor OD.625 6.000-33.A.750 4.000 50-125 100-300 200-650 400-850 500-1020 500-1030 5. or number of stages. Both of these suffer from some problems such as cable failures with the cable suspension method and well control issues with the C/T mounted method (i.375 4. Pre-select the maximum pump horsepower.
Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 0 REVISION Figure 10.D .Example ESP Design for a Pre-selected Rate .ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 257 OF 295 ENI S.A.p.
Example ESP Design for a Pre-selected HP . Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 0 REVISION Figure 10.A.E.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 258 OF 295 ENI S.p.
Impact On Completion Design 0 REVISION The key to an efficient ESP design is heat removal and insulation material selection for the actual operating temperatures and environment. If properly planned an ESP completion only requires one onsite termination. especially when temperatures are in the o region of 250 F. Too much free gas and no enlarged intakes stages. Sand production. ESP systems are becoming evermore reliable. The completion design is also affected if downhole separation is required in conjunction with downhole safety. a shroud must be used to provide this rate. Centralisation and crush resistant clamps should be installed across doglegs. Centralisation of the pump is also critical.3.2. vice versa. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 10. Casing design is obviously has a large impact on the completion design or in the case of an ESP completion. Poor voltage supply stability.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 259 OF 295 ENI S. Too many frequent start ups when there is no soft start facilities.p.2. The pump should be set in a straight section of casing to avoid bending and the cable needs to firmly attached to the tubing for support by cable clamps (two per joint). Inadequate system analysis leading to the system operating outside the range. When re-completing a ESP well the pump should be moved slightly from the original position to help minimise any casing corrosion due to eddy currents. Unsuitable cable insulation material for the conditions. Also consideration must be given to the optimum tubing size and cable dimensions to ensure they can be accommodated in the casing. The clearance between the pump and the casing should be small enough that a flow velocity of a minimum of 1ft/sec is achieved. 10. However.A. In large casings.2. Scaling up of the impellers. The most common problems are due to: • • • • • • • • Bad installation procedures. . Common Problems The biggest problem with ESP completions is short running time before failure with the cost impact for re-completion. Tubing hanger and penetration systems for packers have been well developed now for fast easy installation with the testing of the connections carried beforehand in the workshop.
pump intake pressure. however this exposes the annulus to potential corrosion so. depth. if this is a problem. dual tubing strings can be used either parallel or concentric. There is a large selection of pump sizes/stroke length available for a wide range of operating conditions. throat and diffuser.000stb/d with 4 /2” tubing. The downside is the requirement for two reasonably large conduits to minimise fluid pressure losses.000stb/d. supply pressure and rate. To prevent cavitation. it is recommended to submerge the pump by at least 20% of the TDH so is better suited to respectfully productive.k below.p. However pump efficiency is low at 33-66% and large production rates can only be achieved in high rate installations. . The conduits for the power fluid and returns can be the annulus with a single tubing. The two simplest and common systems are the Jet Pump and the Piston Pump which are interchangeable in most instances which provides great flexibility in coping with changeable well conditions.000ft. There is flexibility in the system as pump rates are controlled by controlling the power fluid supply rate.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 260 OF 295 ENI S.000scf/stb.000ft) wells. Pump performance is a complex function of GOR.000stb/d although it is normally used to produce <2.000stb/d although free pump systems are limited to 8. Jet Pump The jet pump uses no moving parts and imparts momentum into the fluid using the venturi effect with a jet. In effect the piston pump is equivalent to the rod pump except that the pump drive is subsurface but can produce up to 8.A. or restricted offtake target wells. Their application is commonly for deviated wells between 8. deviation or severe operating environments. Piston Pump The piston pump is a reciprocating pump operated with a drive piston which automatically shuttles backwards and forwards exhausting the spent power fluid into the returns. As there is no moving parts.000ft although high surface power fluid pressures are required below 12. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 10.3.000-18. The size of the these can be varied to pump volumes of 1 100-15. The annulus is sometimes required for gas venting and in this case a dual string is required. hence providing lower servicing costs. HYDRAULIC PUMPING SYSTEMS 0 REVISION Hydraulic pumping systems are attractive alternative to ESP systems where there is high temperatures. maintaining a clean solids free power fluid and the high capital and operating costs. The maximum attainable performance have been summarised in table 10. A preliminary calculation of the pump intake or output curve can be made by hand. It is also popular where there is insufficient gas for a gas lift system and is a viable alternative to rod pumps for deep (>8. The pumps can be installed and retrieved by wireline or pumping method using swab cups. the pump is not as sensitive to damage and lower quality power fluids can be used and can be used in higher GOR wells up to 3. Optimisation is generally through using supplier’s computer software.
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Head Ratio 0.45 0.25 0.17 0.10
Flow Ratio 0.5 1.0 1.5 2.0
Table 10.K- Jet Pump Maximum Performance In table 10.k above: Head Ratio = pump output pressure − pump inlet pressure downhole power fluid pressure − pump output pressure reservoir production rate Flow Ratio = power fluid rate
Often the maximum power fluid supply pressure and rate is fixed by surface equipment rating, e.g. p<5,000psi, qPF <4,500stb/d. When calculating bottom hole pressures, the completion configuration and power fluid rate to the production to obtain the total discharge rate. The pump intake curve (PIC) can then be generated using table 10.k above plotted against well IPR (Refer to figure 10.f).
Figure 10.F- Example Jet Pump Design Curve
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STAP-P-1-M-7100 Turbine Pumps 0
The hydraulic turbine pump developed by Weir Pumps is an alternative to the ESP for producing very large volumes of fluid, 2,000-100,000stb/d. It has the same principle of operation as the ESP but the motor is replaced by a hydraulic turbine which rotate the shaft at 5,000-10,000rpm. This provides higher lift capacities (head and volume) per stage, therefore the units are much shorter approximately 10% of the ESP. The operating range is much greater as the pump can be controlled by varying the supply pressure giving 10-100% rate and 20-50% TDH at reduced rates. Their reliability is still suspect due to the high rotating speed and metallurgy problems. 10.3.1. Impact On Completion Design The casing size is obviously important here to accommodate the pump size and perhaps two tubing strings. Sometimes concentric completions are preferred or the annulus is used but consideration must be given to potential corrosion due to oxygen in the power fluid. Like the piston pump solids free power fluid is essential. Like the ESP, gas venting may be necessary which would require a third conduit (generally the annulus). Occasionally the DHSV is controlled by pressure from the pump. 10.4. ROD PUMPS The most common pumping system on low rate land wells is the rod or beam pumping. It is usually limited to shallow wells (<8,000ft) producing less than 500stb/d although they can produce up to 2,000stb/d. The system consists of three elements, the downhole pump assembly, the sucker rod and the surface pumping unit. The annulus is usually left open and used to vent any free gas that is separated downhole. Tubing is used as the production conduit and contains the rods preventing wear and corrosion to the annulus. The tubing is usually anchored to the casing and pulled into tension to reduce tubing movement, buckling and, hence rod wear. There are two versions of bottom-hole pump, the tubing retrievable barrel and the rod retrievable barrel. The tubing pump requires the tubing to be pulled to retrieve the barrel and the rod pump barrel is retrieved when pulling the rods. The tubing pump has the largest capacity but is more costly to repair than the rod pump which is the most common. The pump displacement, PD, is defined by the plunger stroke, SP, and the pump speed, N, the plunger diameter, D and the amount of liquid fillage and/or slippage past the plunger, EP = 0.7 to 9.5. PD = Ct x Sp x N x D x Ep Eq. 10.B where: EP Ct = = Pump efficiency 2 Correction factor 0.1166 for oilfield units, (in, spm, in , stb/d)
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Figure 10.G- Typical Rod Pumping System
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As the rod suffers from stretch and dynamic forces, SP will not be the same as the stroke at surface, S, therefore load-displacement plot forms the basis for pump design and analysis. The fluid load, Fo, carried by the rods on the upstroke is dependent on the net lift, H, which is the vertical distance from the operating fluid level (OFL) in the annulus to surface plus the equivalent head of any surface back-pressure. It also depends on fluid SG or density. API recommends ignoring the area of the rods when calculating this load: Fo = Ct x SG x D x H where: Ct = 0.340 in oilfield units (SG, in , ft, lbs)
This load can be estimated from dynamometer surveys, which measure the rod load versus displacement at the surface and serves the most effective means of diagnosing pump problems. As the loads on the polished rod includes fluid load, dynamic forces and rod weight, the rod weights may be relatively large in deep wells and in these cases a tapered rod string is preferred where the rod diameter is larger with increasing load. Buoyancy varies throughout the cycle but it is generally taken on the downstroke when the travelling valve is open. Acceleration and friction are also factors in dynamic loading with the peak polished rod load on the upstroke will be significantly higher than the sum of the rod and fluid loads. Similarly, on the downstroke, the minimum will be less than the buoyant weight of the rods. Pump stroke efficiency is a function of pump speed and rod loading. The dynamics also cause the rods to oscillate harmonically like a stiff spring. Typical pumping speeds are 8 to 15spm which amounts to 4.2 to 7.9 million cycles per year, therefore the rod design must focus on minimising fatigue failures which is exacerbated by corrosion in the operating environment. The surface pump unit is usually a beam type although other concepts have been developed. The surface prime mover and gearbox have been developed over the years to cater for the rod pump to reduce failures. System design is very complex and is an iterative process normally carried out by computer software. API have produced a programme to generate a set of design curves published in API RP11L and provided some general results in Bulletins 11L3 and 11L4 which are a useful starting point for design. However, in 11L4, API used 100% efficiency and pump rates which are higher than those generally found in the field, therefore, it is advisable to enter a curve which is 100 to 200% of the intended target for scoping out the required o equipment capacity. It is also not reliable for heavy oil wells (<20 API) unless correction factors are applied for fluid vicosities and lack of rod weight on the downstroke. Rod fall problems often cut restrict pump rates to 1.5 to 2.5spm which lead the use of long stroke pumps. Sand problems are often a problem with high viscous crudes which increase wear of the pump parts.
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ENI S.p.A. Agip Division
STAP-P-1-M-7100 10.4.1. Impact On Completion Design 0
If free gas is expected then a packer should not be installed to allow the gas to vent up the annulus if it is planned to convert a completion to rod pump lift within a few years unless required for zonal isolation. If a well has to be pumped which is below the bubble point, it is advised to set the pump below the producing interval to aid gas separation, maximise drawdown and minimise perforation blocking by fill. If a well is fractured, the pump must be set above the perforations as frac sand can damage the pump. The casing geometry must be sufficient enough to enable the gas to percolate through the fluid column against the down-flow. 10.5. SCREW PUMP SYSTEMS Screw or progressive cavity pump is a rotary positive displacement pump consisting of a rubber stator and stainless steel rotor. The rotary drive to the downhole pump is through sucker rods from a prime mover through a gearbox. They rates of between 5 to 500stb/d, although in some circumstances capacities of 1,500stb/d is possible, on heavy oil wells or viscous emulsions where conventional rod pumps are hindered by rod fall. They have an advantage in that they can handle some sand production and less costly. The production rate is proportional to the rotary speed and are determined from manufacturers charts, generally between 50-100rpm in heavy oil and 500rpm in light oils. The selection of the material for the rubber stator is the key for operational life in the well environment. 10.6. PLUNGER LIFT Plunger lift are used on high GLR wells that produce liquids at relatively low rates (<500stb/d). The tubing/casing annulus is used to store gas energy provided to the tubing when the well is opened up. This energy is used to drive the plunger up to surface carrying a small slug of liquid. After production of the following tail gas when the liquid begins to kill the well the plunger is dropped again and the cycle repeated. It is particularly useful for de-watering gas wells. Operating requirements are: • • • GLR >500scf/stb PI <1stb/d/psi Plunger velocity 700 to 1,000ft/min
Efficiency of this system decreases with depth and PI but increases with tubing size. It is essential that the completion tubing is parallel and drifted to ensure correct operation of the plunger.
Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 0 REVISION Figure 10.p.H.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 266 OF 295 ENI S.Typical Screw Pump Installation .A.
I . Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 0 REVISION Figure 10.Typical Plunger Lift Installation .ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 267 OF 295 ENI S.A.p.
Can vary power fluid rate and pressure adjusts the production rate and lift capacity. normally requires a high injection gas volume/bbl fluid. Cost increases with higher horsepower. 200ppm of 25µm particle size acceptable. Very low. Typically operating efficiencies of 10-20%. A highly reliable compressor with 95+% run time required. Good design plus good operating practices essential. Triplex plunger leakage control required. operating and repair practices needed rods and pump. can alter stroke speed. May have problems with selection of appropriate stator elastomer. Fair to good. plunger size and run time to control production rate.7. Good. Good to excellent. Full pump fillage efficiency typically about 50-60% feasible if well is not over-pumped.7. Some problems with sticking plungers. Requires proper cable in addition to motor. Excellent total system efficiency. Method sensitive to rate changes. Design Considerations And Comparisons Consideration Rod Pumping Screw Pumping ESP Hydraulic Piston Pumping Varies but often competitive with rod pumps. Hydraulic unit provides additional flexibility but at added cost. Good even when small supplementary gas is added. maintaining steady gas show often causes injection gas measurement and operating problems. Reported system efficiency 5070%. Requires careful sizing. Consider chamber or high PI and low BHP wells. Fair to poor. central systems reduce cost per well but is more complicated. only low cost well equipment if no compressor required. must adjust injection time and cycles frequently. Relatively low capital cost if commercial electric power available. Good valve design and spacing essential. More tolerant of power fluid solids.000 BID. Flexibility Excellent. Must size pump properly. Time cycling normally avoided. Excellent for flowing wells. Table 10. friction and pump wear. Good selection. Good to excellent. Efficiencies range from 3040% with GLR >100. Typical efficiencies at 20% but range from 5-30%. Because this a newer method. Fair. Low wells for wells requiring high GLRs. More operating data needed. etc. Plunger Lift Capital Cost Low to moderate increase with depth and larger units. Excellent. No input energy required because it uses the well.A.p. Costs increase as horsepower rises. Miscellaneous problems Stuffing box leakage may be messy and a potential hazard. Multiple well. length.000 BFPD.Design Considerations and Overall Comparisons (pg1) . VSD provides more flexibility but added costs. tolerant to moderate solids in power fluid. not as good as rod pumping owing to GLR. requires powerful conductor. May have limited service in some areas. Pumps usually run at a fixed speed. Poor. Low increase with depth and larger rates. Poor. Labour intensive to keep time tuned otherwise poor performance. Selection of throat and nozzle sizes extend range of volume and capacity.L . to avoid excessive engine wear. No moving parts in pump. can alter speed. Downhole Equipment Reasonably good rod design and operating practices needed. Gas injection rate varied to change rates. Choice of wireline retrievable or conventional valves. Long service life and simple repair procedures. Plunger hangup or sticking may be a major problem. Power fluid rate and speed of downhole pump. Dilutents may be added if required. Moderate cost for well equipment (valves and mandrels). Anti-pollution stuffing boxes are available. Must add surfactant to a water power fluid for lubrication. Continuous Gas Lift Low well equipment costs but lines and compression costs may be high. Efficiency (output hydraulic HP divided by input HP) Excellent. Data bank of rod and pump failures beneficial. Intermittent Gas Lift Same as continuous flow gas lift. Operating practices have to be tailored to each well for optimisation. Free pump and choose powerful option. Heavily influenced by power fluid plus production gradient. seats. Hydraulic Jet Pumping Competitive with rod pump. Numerous pump sizes and pump/engine ratios adapt to production and depth needs. Typically total system efficiency is about 50% for high rate well but for <1. Need 15ppm of 15µm particle size max. Proper design plus good operating practices essential. Power fluid solids control essential. Power water (fresh. SUMMARY ARTIFICIAL LIFT SELECTION CHARTS 0 REVISION 10. Gas must be dehydrated properly to avoid gas freezing. efficiency typically is 40%. field knowledge and experience are limited.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 268 OF 295 ENI S. May exceed rod pumps for ideal cases. Good design and operating practices needed. Requires computer design programme for sizing. Can adjust ingestion time and frequency. Maximum efficiency only 30%. Central compression system reduces cost per well. Typical lift efficiency is 1050% improved with plungers. Good for high rate wells but decreases significantly for <1. May be higher with lower GLR. produced or seawater) acceptable. Fair increases for wells that require small injection GLRs. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 10. Unload to bottom with gas lift valves. Good for low volume wells. Tubing needs to be sized correctly.1. pumps. Requires a highly reliable electric power system.
Salvage Value Excellent. high rate artificial lift system for wells with high bottom-hole pressures. Excellent for ideal gas lift cases. related to pump intake pressure. flexible. Simple to install and operate. Fair market for triplex pumps. high temperatures. Varies. solids. An excellent high rate artificial lift system. Free pump easily retrieved for onsite repair or replacement. Good with a correctly designed and operated system. Poor open market value. corrosive fluids. Fairly simple to design but requires good rate data. testing and operation. are controlled. Most often used on high water cut wells.000BFPD rates. mostly offshore. System approach needed. Individual well or system. Basic operating procedures needed for downhole pump and wellsite unit. high GOR and significant sand production. Individual well unit very flexible but extra cost. good value for wellsite system that crane can move easily. Very sensitive to operating temperatures and electrical malfunctions. Free pump easily retrieved for servicing. Same as continuous flow gas lift. Easily moved and some current market for used equipment Fair. Good data needed for valve design and spacing. Short run life increases total operating costs. System not forgiving. install and operate.5% of US lifted wells. Used on about 10% of US lifted wells. System must be designed for the unstable gas flow rates. API specifications and design/operatin g recommended practices should be followed. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 0 REVISION Consideration Rod Pumping Screw Pumping ESP Hydraulic Piston Pumping Often higher than rod pump even for free systems. Plunger Lift Operating Costs Very low for shallow to medium depth (<7. install and operates following API specifications and recommended practices. Typically each well is an individual producer using a common electric system. Used on <2% of US lifted wells.A. Fair. System (total) Straightforward and basic. Computer programme typically used for design. An adequate volume. Good. Good. Central plant more complex. Often used as a default artificial lift method in lieu of sucker rod pumps. Essentially a low liquid rate. Low back-pressure beneficial. System will tolerate wide depth ranges. Used primarily on gas well dewatering. Used on about 85% of US artificial lift wells. Hydraulic Jet Pumping High cost owing to HP requirement. Excellent if compression system is properly designed and maintained. Used on <1% of US lifted wells. Frequent downtime results from operational problems.400BFPD). Limited to relatively shallow wells with low rates. high GLR lift method. Some market for good used compressors and some trade in value for mandrels and valves.. Low pump maintenance cost typical with properly sized throat and nose. high temperature deviated oil wells. Downhole jet often requires trial and error to arrive at best/optimum jet. Varies. Requires attention. Simple to design. Sometimes used to test wells that will not flow offshore. easily moved and good market for used equipment. high volume. etc. Simple manual or computer design. Intermittent Gas Lift Same as continuous flow gas lift. if HP is high. Good if well production is stable. Usually very low. Can be used for extending flow life or improving efficiency.500ft) and locations with low production (. Problems or changing well conditions reduce downhole pump reliability. installation and operating specifications Each well needs an individual system. Compression costs vary on fuel cost and compressor maintenance. Requires excellent operating practices. Each well needs an individual system. Used on <1% of US lifted wells. Usage/ Outlook Excellent. Easily moved. Good with proper throat and nose sizing for the operating conditions.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 269 OF 295 ENI S. typically used. Fair market for triplex pump. Used on <1% of US lifted wells. High pulling costs result from short run life. Must avoid operating in cavitation range of jet pump throat. procedures to design. high pressure. Continuous Gas Lift Well costs low. Key is to inject as deeply as possible with optimum GLR. Often used as a default artificial lift system. Other repair costs are high. Used on less than 0. Ample gas volume and/or pressure needed for successful operation. wide rate range suitable for relatively deep. Flexible operation. Requires adjusting and plunger maintenance. Some trade in value. Normally over-pumping and lack of experience decreases run time.Design Considerations and Overall Comparisons (Pg2) . Most like a flowing well. poor for problem areas. Table 10. Same as continuous flow gas lift. Fair to poor.p. Run time efficiency >95% if good operating practices are adopted and corrosion. Follow API recommended practices in design. usually results in test and treatment problems. GOR try higher volume wells requiring flexible operation. Best suited for <200oF and >1. dry non-corrosive and clean gas supply source is needed throughout the entire life. The normal standard artificial lift method. Potentially low but short run life on stator or rotor frequently reported. wax asphaltenes. Poor open market values. More problems if pressures >4.000psig. Some trade in value. Some trade in value. Limited proven design. Good. Reliability Excellent. Also a default for low bottom-hole pressure wells on continuous gas lift. Fair. Excellent if there is an adequate supply of ingestion gas and adequate low pressure storage volume for injection gas.M . deviations. energy costs are high.
Controlled by system injection pressure and fluid rates. Usually limited to motor HP or temperature. has an injection depth of about 10. Typically <10. None normally required.5ins casing with 2ins nominal tubing normally limits rates to <1. Typically for 1.000psig.p.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 270 OF 295 ENI S. turbines or motors can be used for compression.000ft Hydraulic Jet Pumping Small casing size often limits producing rate owing to high (unacceptable) friction losses.2. Good when used with chamber. Small casing size (4. Same as piston pump.5ins) may limit free gas separation. Annulus must have adequate gas storage volume. Free gas reduces efficiency and service life.5ins casing.000ft. Surveillance Fair. Continuous Gas Lift The use of 4. >350psig to 5. Poor restricted by the gradient of the gas lifted fluid.Operating Conditions Summary . analysis can be based on production and fluid levels only. Safety precautions must be taken for high pressure gas lines. Typical design targets 25% submergence. Good but depends on good well test and pressure charts.5 and 5. Typically about 50 to 100psig. Poor.000ft. Avoid 4. Thus the backpressure on 10. Effectively about 500stb/d at 7. Obtrusiveness Size and operation are drawbacks in populated and farming areas. Fair. Prime mover flexibility Good.440psi lift system and lift system and 1.000 GLR. possibly 5.000stb/d with 2. Practical depth about 10. Same as continuous flow. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 10. Poor if must handle >5% free gas. Casing size will limit use of large motor and pumps. PIP >250psi for 10. Operating Conditions Summary Consideration Rod Pumping Screw Pumping ESP Hydraulic Piston Pumping Larger casing required for parallel free or closed systems. gas or diesel fired engines or motors.000ft.000stb/d use >7ins casing and >3. Same as piston pump. Normally no problem for 4. high lift head pumps operating at depths to 17.. Transformer may cause problems in urban areas.000ft for low rate. Bottomhole pressure and production log surveys easily obtained.000ft. Excellent.A. speed and producing rate. high GLR wells. Excellent.000ft.000ft. >250psi pump intake pressure).000ft well may be >1. Excellent.5ins casing and larger but gas separation may be limited. Low.5ins tubing needed. Optimisation and computer control being tried.000ft well. can be easily analysed based on well test. etc. Fair to good wellhead equipment has low profile. Low at well but noisy at compressor. Good to excellent. Usually limited by fallback. Fair but not as good as rod pumping. Fair when used without chambers. both engines or motors can be used easily. Good. PIP of <250psi feasible at 10. Intake Capability Excellent. Good. Higher voltages can reduce I2R losses Fair based on electrical checks but special equipment needed otherwise.000ft. Small casing (4. Excellent with low noise. Fair. Downhole pump performance can be analysed from surface power fluid rate and pressure.000psi) or HP.000ft with low GLR. <25psig feasible provided adequate displacement and gas venting. Good low well noise. Same as piston pump. Can be analysed easily. <100psi provided adequate displacement and gas venting. Poor to fair. Good low profile but requires transformer bank. fluid levels. Good with the surface prime mover causing the only noise. moderately high for urban areas. Low. Not possible to use dynamometers and pump-off cards. Same as continuous flow. Low volume.e. requires a good power source without spikes or interruptions. Larger casing may be required if dual strings run. Plunger Lift Casing size limits (restricts tubing size) Problems only in high rate wells requiring large plunger pumps. similar limits as reciprocating pump. limited by power fluid pressure (5. Practical depth of 20. limited to relatively shallow depths. Noise Level Fair. Same as continuous flow. Typically moderate rate is limited to about 100psi/1.N . Good. Analysis improved by use of dynamometers and computers. Fair but complicated by standing valve and fallback. both engines or motors can be used. Table 10. Good low profile but must provide for compressor. Wellsite power fluid units can be sound proofed. bottomhole pressures <150psi at 10. Bottom-hole pressure obtained with free pumps. if little free gas (i. Special low profile units are available. REVISION 0 Intermittent Gas Lift Small casing (4.5ins casing depending on depth and rate.5 and 5. Requires surface treating and high pressure pumping equipment. Intake pressure <100psig usually results in frequent pump repairs. rods of structure may limit rate at depth. Excellent.5ins) mat result in excessive friction losses and limits production rate. few wells >10.7. Small casing suitable for this low volume lift.000ft injected depth.5ins nominal tubing. 1.500ft and 150stb/d at 15. Good. Often preferred in urban areas if production rate is high. Good to fair.5 and 5.000ft. Reduced performance inside 5.000stb/d. Prime mover can be electric motor. engines. Good low profile surface equipment.5ins) normally is not a problem for this relatively low volume lift. Same as piston pump.5 and 5. Motors are more reliable and flexible. Depth limits Good. For rates >5.
Good. A pressure recorder must be used to monitor intake pressures. Good.Operating Conditions Summary (Pg2) . Well testing complicated by injection gas volume/rate. Well testing with standard individual well units presents few problems. Well testing with a central system is more complex requiring accurate power fluid measurement. Hydraulic Jet Pumping Same as piston pump. Time cycle and pump-off controller’s application Excellent if well can be pumpedoff. Usually controlled only by displacement checks. Cycle must be periodically adjusted.A. Measurement of both input and outflow gas is a problem. Not applicable. Avoid shutdown in high viscosity/sand producers. Poor. Well testing complicated by injection gas volume/rate. Well testing is simple with few problems using standard available equipment and procedures. Poor.O . Gas measurement errors are common. High water cut and high rate wells may require a free water knock-out. Does not appear applicable owing to intake pressure requirement higher than pump-off. same as rod pumping. Well testing is simple with few problems. Soft start and improved seals and protectors recommended. Good. Formation GLR obtained by subtracting injected gas from total produced gas. Pumpoff control not developed. Table 10.. Poor. Intermittent flow can cause operating problems with separators. Three stage production tests can be conducted by adjusting production step rates.p. Intermittent Gas Lift Poor. Not applicable. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 0 REVISION Consideration Rod Pumping Screw Pumping ESP Hydraulic Piston Pumping Fair. is possible but not normally used. Continuous Gas Lift Fair. Poor. Well testing is simple with few problems. Labour intensive Plunger Lift Testing Good.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 271 OF 295 ENI S.
Excellent as it cuts paraffin and removes small deposits. Free pump retrieved without pulling tubing. Continuous Gas Lift Good. Casing free pump limited to low GLRs. Normal production cycle must be interrupted to batch treat the well. Excellent. Fair. Excellent if tubing can be run in the well. Water power fluid can be used. Gas is a problem for lower zone.P . Excellent. Steps must be taken to avoid corrosion in injection gas lines. Concentric fixed pump or parallel free permits gas venting with suitable downhole gas separator below pump intake. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 10. Good to excellent. Poor if must pump >50% free gas. Good. Fair. mechanical cutting.A. Parallel 2x2ins low rate dual feasible inside 7ins casing. REVISION 0 Intermittent Gas Lift Same as continuous flow. Poor to fair. Few problems. Fair. Increased mechanical problems. Good. Feasible operation in highly deviated wells. Few wireline problems up to 70o deviation for wireline retrievable valves. Must design for unit size. Free gas reduces efficiency but helps lift. Inhibitor mixed with power fluid mixes with produced fluids at entry of jet pump throat. Fair to good. however a pulling unit is needed. Excellent for correct application. Rotary gas separators helpful if solids not produced. Same as piston pump except it can possibly handle higher GLRs but at reduced efficiency. Limited to low GLRs and moderate rates. Hot water/oil treating and/or use of scrapers possible but they increase operating problems and costs. Offshore application Poor. Vent free gas if possible. Feasible operation in horizontal wells. High angle deviated holes (>70o) and horizontal wells are being produced. Inhibitor in the injection gas and/or batch inhibiting down tubing feasible.p.Artificial Lift Considerations (Pg1) . Excellent. Currently very few known installations. Possible to unseat pump and circulate hot fluids. Batch treat down annulus is feasible. Excellent and is the most common method if adequate injection gas available. Limited experience in horizontal wells. Mechanical cutting and inhibition possible. Soluble plugs available. Injection gas may aggravate existing problem. Produced gas reduces need for injection gas. Poor. frequently for both corrosion and scale control. Same as continuous flow Excellent. increased load and wear problems. Good to fair. weight and pulling unit space. Dual gas lift is common but good operating of dual lift is complicated and inefficient resulting in reduced rates. Good mechanical cutting sometimes required. May have some special application offshore. Heading causes operating problems.7. Crooked/ deviated holes Fair.. Batch treatment inhibitor used down annulus feasible. Fair. Plunger Lift Corrosion/ scale handling ability Good to excellent. No known installations. Possible running and pulling problems. Circulate heat to downhole pump to minimise build-up. Poor for free gas >5% through pump. No none installations. Requires long radius wellbore bends to get through. Three string nonvented applications have been achieved with complete isolation of production and power fluid from each zone. Good. Similar to piston pump. Excellent. Tubing may require treatment. Free pumps can be surfaced on a schedule. Same as continuous flow. Artificial Lift Considerations Consideration Rod Pumping Screw Pumping ESP Hydraulic Piston Pumping Good to excellent. Fair. Same as continuous flow gas lift. Batch inhibition treatment only to intake unless shroud is used. Same condition as hydraulic piston pump. Fair. Dual application No known installations. Must provide electrical power and service pulling unit. Poor in wells needing sand control. Good. Larger casing would be needed. Increased load and wear problems. Paraffin handling capacity Fair to good. Dual inside 5ins casing currently not in favour. Some success in pumping 15o/100ft using rod guides. short pump can pass through doglegs up to 24o/100ft in 2ins nominal tubing. Rod scrapers not used. Hydraulic Jet Pumping Good to excellent. Parallel 2x2ins nominal tubing inside 7ins casing and 3x3ins tubing inside 95/8ins casing feasible. Hot water/oil treatments.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 272 OF 295 ENI S. Most wells are deviated and typically produce sand. batch inhibition possible. Use a gas anchor. Same as piston pump.3. Pump will normally pass through the tubing. Gas handling ability Good if can vent and use natural gas anchor with properly designed pump. Power oil a fire and safety problem. Requires deck space for treatment tanks and pumps. Same as continuous flow. Fair. Poor if it must pump any free gas. Batch or continuous inhibition treatment can be circulated with power fluid for effective control. Use of standing valves risky. Produced water or seawater may be used as a power fluid with wellsite type system or power fluid separation before production treating system. Table 10.
Fair.1% sand with special pumps. Potential solution is to use ‘core flow’ with 20% water. Rod fall problems for high rates.000stb/d with adequate flowing bottomhole pressure.000stb/d from 10. Power fluid can be used to dilute low gravity production. max. May be able to handle up to 0. Excellent. Poor. Fair. Up to 15. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 0 REVISION Consideration Rod Pumping Screw Pumping ESP Hydraulic Piston Pumping Possible but may have high friction losses or gas problems. Fair but restricted to shallow depths using large plungers . Excellent. Same as continuous flow.000 to 10. Restricted by tubing size and injection gas rate and depth. Standard materials up to 300oF+ and to 500oF+ feasible with special materials. Possibly 2. rate about 4. Fair.000ft and 1. Possibly 200stb/d from 10. Good. Excellent up to 50% sand with high viscosity >200cP crude. Typically are used with 1. Power fluid to jet pump can tolerate 200ppm of 25µm particle size.000ft.500psi system. Solids/sand handling ability Poor. Hydraulic Jet Pumping Same as piston pump.p. Good in >8o API production with <500cP possible. Jet pumps are operating with 3% sand in produced fluids. Good. Typically about 200stb/d from 10.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 273 OF 295 ENI S. Production with up to 800cP possible. High volume lift capacity Poor. Improved performance for high viscosity >200cP cases. Temperature limitation Excellent and currently used in thermal operations. Fair to good. Limit is inflow and surface problems.5ins tubing.5ins and 700stb/d for 3. Limited by cycle volume and number of possible injection cycles.5ins casing can produce 4. Continuous Gas Lift Feasible but can be troublesome and inefficient.000ft with 240 HP. Sand can stick plunger. Restricted to relatively small rates. Good.1% sand for inflow and outflow problems. Fair but standing valve may cause problems.Artificial Lift Considerations (Pg2) . Plunger Lift Slim-hole completions (27/8ins production casing string) Feasible for low rates <100stb/d and low GOR <250.000ft. Fair. Fair.000ft with <250psi pump intake pressure. Fair but limited by stator elastomer. Typically 0. Excellent for high viscosity fluids with no stator/rotor problems. Power oil of oil >24o API and . Similar to casing lift but must have adequate formation gas. No known installations. Limited by efficiency and economic limit. Excellent.000stb/d from 10. Most commonly used method for wells producing <100stb/d. Improved wear resistant materials available at premium cost. Excellent. In 5. 550oF. Need to know temperatures to design bellows charged valves. Typically lower limit is 200stb/d for 2ins tubing without heading. Excellent. Poor. Fresh water treatment for salt formations.000stb/d from 4.Q .000stb/d from 1.000ft feasible with 1.000ft. Poor. Table 10.000stb/d from 4.000. Limited by heading and slippage. Limited by tubular and HP. Excellent and possible to operate to 500oF with special materials. Same as continuous flow. limited to about 200cP.000ft. Few problems for >16 o API. Lower efficiency and high operating costs for <400stb/d. Use fresh water injection for salt build-up formations. Limited to about <250oF for standard and <325oF with special motors and cables.000stb/d from 5.000ft. limited by needed HP and can be restricted by casing size. Requires <200ppm solids. Depending on reservoir pressure and PI with 4ins nominal tubing. Same as continuous flow Normally not applicable. Intermittent Gas Lift Same as continuous flow. Decreases to <10% sand for water producers. At present normally below 250oF. Typically 100 to 300stb/d from 4.5 to 4stb/cycle with up to 48 cycles/d Excellent for low flow rates of 1 to 2stb/d with high GLRs. Not as good as rod pumping. Feasible if low rates. Good to excellent. >75stb/d from 12. Poor to fair for low viscosity <10cP production. Avoid unstable flow range.A. Generally poor. Also produced fluids must have low solids <200ppm of 15µm particles for reasonable life. >200stb/d from 4.000ft and 200stb/d from 5. Typical limit is 0. Excellent.5ins nominal tubing. Typically a maximum of about 350oF. rates of 5. Tandem motors can be used but will increase costs. Limited by number of cycles. tubular size and HP. Suitable for low rates and low GLRs. Excellent for high water cut lift even with high viscosity oil.000ft with 3.000ft and 1. however it wipes tubing clean.000ft possible. High viscosity fluid handling capability Good for <200cP fluids and low rates 400stb/d. Higher rates may required dilutent to lower viscosity. Typically 3. or below 20cP viscosity. low GORs and shallow depths but no known installations. Increases HP and reduces head.440psi injection gas and GLR of 1.000stb/d from 2. Excellent. Excellent for <100stb/d shallow wells that do not pump-off. Low volume lift capabilities Excellent.50cP viscosity or water power fluid reduces friction losses. 400stb/d for 2. Requires <10ppm solids power fluid for good run life.
BARRIER PRINCIPLES Eni-Agip Division and Affiliates has determined that a packer fluid. therefore is not a practical barrier.p. Over and above this. it should not be classified as a barrier.e. This policy does not refer to gradients below 1.A. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 0 REVISION 11. When it is necessary to replace a completion fluid containing solids in suspension. some completion types such as High Rate liners using a liner PBR may be some considerable distance from the formation. i. USE OF UNDERBALANCE COMPLETION FLUIDS POLICY The purpose of this section is to provide the basic criteria when ‘non-kill weight packer fluids’ can be used in completion design. with regard to double barrier protection is mechanically obtained by means of the wellhead. however tubing leaks and deterioration of the fluid cannot be guaranteed. i. high pressure and high temperature (HP/HT) wells. A hydrostatic overbalance fluid can only be considered a barrier on a long term basis if it is fully maintained. .1. cannot be considered as a barrier.e. through tubing perforation after packer setting.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 274 OF 295 ENI S. This being the case.e. APPLICATION The use of non-kill weight packer fluid will be considered in the following situations: • • • When a brine with a gradient lower than the formation gradient has already been used as completion fluid.2. The main reasons are: • The integrity of the annulus. does not require the presence of an overbalance fluid. • • 11.30kg/Lt/10m where it is still considered good practice to use overbalance completion fluids. the tubulars (tubing and casing) and packer system and.3. The use of non-kill weight packer fluid has been thoroughly evaluated and is permitted for the wells which have pressure gradients above 1. 11. high density oil mud. 11. The re-use of the completion fluid is envisaged when it is opportune or cost effective. regardless of the density. i. therefore.30kg/Lt/10m.
if an underbalance completion fluid is to be used. a risk assessment should be carried out to ensure. 11. The worst possible case being immediately above the packer.4. RISK ASSESSMENT 0 REVISION 11.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 275 OF 295 ENI S. the casing design must be able to withstand full well pressure in conjunction with the completion fluid hydrostatic pressure at respective depth. in order to identify and evaluate the operative risks associated with downhole equipment functionality. that the completion design will keep the formation pressure off the production casing. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 11. However. .2. a risk analysis evaluation (HAZOP) must be carried out by the District Drilling & Completion Engineering Department.4. Well Testing For exploration wells. as contingency against a tubing/packer envelope leak.4.1. prior to commencing a well test using non-kill weight packer fluid.p. Completions Similar to above.A.
workover and well testing operations are available and must be filled in and returned to head office for distribution to the relevant responsible departments as soon as possible as per instructions. As the first section is generic to all the forms it is only shown in ARPO 01 instructions.Agip Division and Affiliates obtain feed-back from the field. Feed-back reports for drilling.A. The forms relevant to completion operations are: • • • • • • • • • • ARPO 01 ARPO 02 ARPO 06 ARPO 07 ARPO 08 ARPO 09 ARPO 11 ARPO 12 ARPO 13 ARPO 20 Initial Activity Report Daily Report Waste Disposal Management Report Perforating Report Gravel Pack Report Matrix Stimulation/Hydraulic fracturing Report Wireline Report Pressure/Temperature Survey Report Well Problem Report Well Situation Report Behind each report form are instructions on how to fill in the forms. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 0 REVISION APPENDIX A . To this end a feed-back reporting system is in use which satisfies this requirement.REPORT FORMS To enable the contents of this completion manual and other operating procedures manuals to be improved. completion.p. . it is essential that ENI .ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 276 OF 295 ENI S.
Ground Level[m] Water Depth [m] Rotary Table Elev. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 A. & C. Fluids Cementation Waste treatment Operating Time Moving Positioning Anchorage Rig-up Delay Lost-time Accidents Company Contract N° Type of Service Company Contract N° Jack-up leg Penetration [gg:hh] [hh:min] [hh:min] [hh:min] [hh:min] [hh:min] Rig Anchorage Leg N° Air gap [m] Penetration [m] N° Supply Vessel for Positioning Name Horse Power Bollard pull [t] Anchor Bow N° 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 Note: Angle Type & Manufacturer Weight [t] Mooring Line Length Cable [m] Chain [m] Piggy Back Weight N° [t] Length [m] Mooring Line Chain Ø [mm] Cable Length [m] Ø [mm] Tension Operative [Tested] [t] Tension [t] Total Time [hh:min] Supervisor Superintendent . INITIAL ACTIVITY REPORT (ARPO 01) 0 REVISION District/Affiliate Company DATE: Permit/Concession N° General Data On shore Latitude: Longitude Reference Rig Name Rig Type Contractor Rig Heading [°] Offset FROM the proposed location Distance [m] Direction [°] Off shore INITIAL ACTIVITY REPORT ARPO 01 Well Code Depth Above S.A.p.1st Flange Cellar Pit Depth [m] Length [m] Width [m]: Manufacturer Type Liner avaible [in] Major Contractors WELL NAME FIELD NAME Cost center Joint venture AGIP: % % % Type of Operation % % % Program TD (Measured) Program TD (Vertical) Rig Pump [m] [m] Type of Service Mud Logging D.[m] First Flange[m] Top housing [m] Reference Rig Ref.L .1.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 277 OF 295 ENI S. Rig RKB .
Type Serial No. W. (24:00) T.A.P. Sand pm/pom pf mf Daily Losses Progr. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 A. Losses [kg/l] [s/l] [cP] [g/100cm2] / [cc/30"] [cc/30"] [kg/cm2] [°C] [g/l] [g/l] [kg/m3] [%] [%] Bit Data Manuf.[t] Flow Rate Pressure Ann. Supervisor: . DAILY REPORT (ARPO 02) 0 REVISION DAILY REPORT Drilling District/Affiliate Company DATE: Rig Name Type of Rig Contractor Well Ø nom.L Partial Progr.1st flange / Top Housing BOP Stack Diverter Annular Annular Upper Rams Middle Rams Middle Rams Middle Rams Lower Rams Last Test Type Ø ARPO 02 [m] [m] [m] WELL NAME FIELD NAME Cost center Well Code Report N° Permit / Concession N° M.B. [psi] Reduce Pump Strockes Pressure Pump N° Liner [in] Strokes Press.2.P. hours Ø Description Part.p.P. Code OPERATION DESCRIPTION Operation at 07:00 Mud type Density Viscosity P.O. Nozzle/TFA From [m] To [m] Drilled [m] Rot. [psi] Lithology Shows From (hr) To (hr) Op.O. Hrs.V.p. Gel 10"/10' Water Loss HP/HT Press. Stock Quantity UM Supply vessel Total Cost O G D O L R I B O G D O L R Daily Progr. Progressive Rot.D. (24:00) Total Drilled Rotating Hrs R.D.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 278 OF 295 ENI S.IFT [kg/l] 1 2 at m at m 3 Last casing Next Casing RT Elevation Ground Lelel / Water Depth RT .M. ClSalt pH/ES MBT Solid Oil/water Ratio.[in] Top [m] Bottom [m] Top of Cmt [m] Last Survey [°] LOT . Jet vel.V. Y. hrs Back reaming Hrs Personnel Agip Rig Others Total Agip Rig Other Total [m] [m] [m] [hh:mm] [m / h] [hh:mm] [hh:mm] Injured of w. R. L Progr. IADC Diam. vel. HHP Bit HSI I [m 3] [m 3] B N° Run N° N° Run N° Bottom Hole Assembly N° __________ Rot. Temp.
p.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 279 OF 295 ENI S.A. WASTE DISPOSAL MANAGEMENT REPORT (ARPO 06) 0 REVISION WASTE DISPOSAL Management Report District/Affiliate Company DATE: Report N° From [m] To [m] Phase size [in] Water consumption Usage Mixing Mud Others Total Readings / Truck Mud Volume [m ] Mixed Lost Dumped Transported IN Trans orted OUT Waste Disposal Water base cuttings Oil base cuttings Dried Water base cuttings Dried oil base cuttings Water base mud Oil base mud transported IN Oil base mud transported OUT Drill potable water Dehidrated water base mud Dehidrated oil base mud Sewage water Transported Brine Period [t] [t] [t] [t] [t] [t] [t] [t] [t] [t] [t] [t] Cumulative 3 WELL NAME FIELD NAME ARPO-06 Cost center Depth (m) Interval Drilled (m) 3 Drilled Volume [m ] Cumulative volume [m ] Phase /Period [m ] Fresh water Recycled Total Fresh water 3 3 Mud Type Density (kg/l) Cl.concentration (g/l ) Cumulative [m ] Recycled Total 3 Fresh water [m ] Phase Cumulative Service Mud Company Waste Disposal Transportation 3 Recycled [m ] Company Contract N° 3 Remarks Remarks Supervisor Superintendent .3. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 A.
Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 A. Max. [m] Steel Grade Service Company Perforation System Wireline TCP Thru Tubing Data Gun Type Overbalance Underbalance Differential Pressure [kg/cm ] Gun Specific.V. [m] T.Sea Bottom Thickness [lb/ft] Measured Depth Top [m] Bottom [m] st st Final Completion Report [date] Final Workover Report [date] Reference Logs: Recorded on: Vertical Depth Top [m] Bottom [m] Cement Top M.D.1 Flange Workover Rig RKB .D.1 Flange [°] [m] Workover Rig RKB . PERFORATING REPORT (ARPO 07) 0 REVISION District/Affiliate Company DATE: Well location Onshore Offshore Total Depth Well Type Vertical Deviated Horizontal Well Situation Liner Casing Casing Tubing Packer Tubing shoe Size [Ø] M.F 2 Completion fluid Fluid in front of Perforation Fluid Losses after Perforation Measured Depth Top [m] Bottom [m] Vertical Depth Top [m] Density Density [kg/l] [kg/l] [m3] Pool Remarks Bottom [m] Note: Supervisor Superintendent . inclination at Formation name: Lithology PERFORATING REPORT ARPO-07 WELL NAME FIELD NAME Cost center Pool: [m] Rotary Table Measurement [m] Drilling Rig RKB .ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 280 OF 295 ENI S. T.3. Gun Ø Charge Type S.A.P.D.p.V.Sea Level Workover Rig RKB .D.
GRAVEL PACK REPORT (ARPO 08) 0 REVISION Cannot Load File form supplied Eni-Agip Excel .4.p.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 281 OF 295 ENI S. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 A.A.
] Fracturing gradient [calculated] Fracturing gradient [tested] Porosity % SBHT [°C] 2 SBHP [kg/cm ] at m at m Open hole Perfor.: Formation name: Pool: Lithology: Completion Data Bottom hole gauge [Y / N] Type Wellhead type Packer type Packer fluid Density Fluid in well at operation beginning String O. casing / liner Ø Shoe M. [psi] Final Press.V. net perf. 0 REVISION MATRIX STIMULATION/HYDRAULIC FRACTURE REPORT (APRO 09) MATRIX STIMULATION HYDRAULIC FRACTURING District/Affiliate Company DATE: Well Location Onshore Offshore Well Type Vertical Deviated Horizontal Treatment Type Matrix stimulation Acid Solvent Other Hydraulic Fracturing Foam Water base Oil base Other Acid Fracturing Acid Gelled acid Acid + Gel Other Main Frac Treatment Proppant type: API Mesh Size Amount of Propant [t] 3 Total Frac Fluid Vol. [psi] Injection Index [bbl/day/psi] Casing Press.p.Vol. [psi] Notes Notes / Remarks: Supervisor Superintendent . Starting Time Pumping Rate [bbl/1'] [m ] 3 Fluid Type Fluid Schedule Fluid Composition Density [kg/l] Mixed Volume [m3 ] Volume Progr. injection rate [bpm] Max. injection pressure [psi] Pumping time [min] Pumping time [min] Equipment Coiled Tubing [Y / N] Ø Stimulation vessel / Other equipment Operation Description Fluid Ref.A.D. [lb/gal] Press.D. [m] Open hole Ø Prod.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 282 OF 295 ENI S. Volume [m ] 3 Pumping Parameter Progr. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 A. interval Slotted liner From [m] To [m] ARPO . Proppant Initial Entering in Formation Concentr. [m ] General Data M. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Injected Circulated N° Fluid Ref.Top perforation Volume [l] Treatment Data Service Company HHP avaible Initial Shut-in pressure [psi] Annulus pressure [psi] Pressure test [psi] Max.D. [m] Top liner [m] Reservoir Parameters Reservoir fluid Density [Kg/l] 2 Gradient [Kg/cm /10 m.09 WELL NAME FIELD NAME Cost center Interval to be Treated Tot.5. [in] String capacity [l] Packer .D. [m] T.
Weight [lb/ft] Weight [lb/ft] SELECTIVE SHORT STRING LONG STRING Well Code Flanges Base Flange @ m. @ m.D. String Previous Bottom Hole Request Operation @ m.A.6.p. @ m. @ m. WIRELINE REPORT (ARPO 11) 0 REVISION WIRE LINE REPORT District/Affiliate Company DATE: ARPO . @ m.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 283 OF 295 ENI S. Tbg Spool Top Flange Ø Flowing Flange Ø Kill Line Flange Ø BPV Type Psi Psi Psi Ø Wellhead Pressure Check [Kg/cm2] CHP / / / P P P THP Annulus Annulus Annulus POOL Perforated Zones [Kg/cm 2] [Kg/cm 2] [Kg/cm 2] [Kg/cm 2] Open Hole To [m] From [m] Note Operation Description Situation After the Job NO TOOLS IN HOLE TSV Note BPV SCSSV PLUG OTHER TOOLS Actual Bottom Hole: Max Size Run in Hole Ø Supervisor Superintendent @m .11 WELL NAME FIELD NAME Cost center SINGLE COMPLETION DUAL COMPLETION General Data RKB Elevation @ m. Tubing Size OD Tubing Size OD Tubing Shoe Ø Packer data Minimum I. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 A.
0 REVISION PRESSURE/TEMPERATURE SURVEY REPORT (ARPO 12) Cannot Load File form supplied Eni-Agip Excel .7.A.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 284 OF 295 ENI S. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 A.p.
WELL PROBLEM REPORT (ARPO 13) 0 REVISION District/Affiliate Company WELL PROBLEM REPORT DATE: ARPO -13 Top [m] Bottom [m] FIELD NAME WELL NAME Cost center Start date End date Problem Code Well Situation Open hole Last casing Well problem Description Ø Measured Depth Top [m] Bottom [m] Vertical Depth Top [m] Bottom [m] KOP [m] Type Mud in hole Max inclination [°] @m DROP OFF [m] Dens. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 A.p.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 285 OF 295 ENI S.A.[kg/l]: Solutions Applied: Results Obtained: Solutions Applied: Results Obtained: Solutions Applied: Results Obtained: Solutions Applied: Results Obtained: Supervisor Supervisor Supervisor Remarks at District level: Superintendent Lost Time Remarks at HQ level hh:mm Loss value [in currency] Pag. Of .8.
Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 A.A. m SHORT STRING Note Joint n° m LONG STRING Progr. WELL SITUATION REPORT (ARPO 20) 0 REVISION WELL SITUATION (COMPLETION TALLY) District/Affiliate Company DATE: ARPO 20 / E FIELD NAME WELL NAME Cost center SINGLE COMPLETION Joint n° m Progr.: of: .p. m Note Remarks: Supervisor Superintendent pag.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 286 OF 295 ENI S. m DUAL COMPLETION Note Joint n° m Progr.9.
A.Ai) External diameter of tubing Internal diameter of tubing Packer-bore diameter 7 Young’s module (3⋅10 psi for steel) Generic force applied to the tubing end Piston force at the packer depth Piston force above the packer with anchored tubing Piston force at well head conditions Piston force at well head conditions with anchored tubing Fictitious force Fictitious force above the packer with anchored tubing Fictitious force due to the effect of internal pressure Fictitious force due to the effect of external pressure Fictitious force at well head conditions Fictitious force at well head conditions with anchored tubing Tubing-packer force Slack-off force Moment of inertia of the resistant tubing section Tubing length Distance between the lower end of the tubing and the neutral point Pressure inside the tubing at packer depth / well head Pressure outside the tubing at packer depth / well head Ratio between the external and internal diameters of the tubing Tubing-casing radial distance (Douter casing -D)/2 Tubing wall thickness Final temperature of tubing Initial temperature of tubing Linear weight of the tubing immersed in fluid Linear weight of the tubing in air Linear weight of fluid inside the tubing Linear weight of fluid outside the tubing -6 Coefficient of thermal expansion (6.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 287 OF 295 ENI S.p. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 0 REVISION APPENDIX B .NOMENCLATURE FOR TUBING CALCULATIONS Ai Ao Ap As D d Dpb E F Fa * Fa Fa tp * Fa tp Ff * Ff I Ff II Ff Ff tp * Ff tp Fp Fso I L n Pi /pi Po /po R r t Tfinal Tinitial w ws wfi wfo α γfi γfo ∆Fa ∆Ff ∆L ∆L1 ∆L2 ∆L3 ∆L4 = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = Area inside tubing Area outside tubing Packer-bore area Resistant tubing area (Ao .9⋅ 10 in/in/°F for steel) Specific gravity of fluid inside the tubing Specific gravity of fluid outside the tubing Variation in the piston force Variation in the fictitious force Generic variation in the tubing length Variation in length due to Hooke’s Law Variation in length due to buckling Variation in length due to ballooning Variation in length due to thermal effects .
∆Lp) Variation in pressure inside the tubing Average variation in pressure inside the tubing Average variation in pressure outside the tubing Average variation in tubing temperature Poisson’s coefficient (0.3 for steel) Axial stress in the tubing section Axial stress in the tubing section due to buckling Equivalent axial stress Equivalent axial stress on the inner wall of the tubing Equivalent axial stress on the outer wall of the tubing Material yield axial stress σsn .p.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 288 OF 295 ENI S. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 ∆Lp ∆Lf ∆lso ∆ltot ∆Pi ∆pim ∆pom ∆TM ν σa σb σeq σi σo σsn Yp = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = 0 REVISION Total variation in length prevented by the packer Variation in length generated by fictitious force Variation in length generated by slack-off force Total variation in length of the tubing (= .A.
p. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 0 REVISION APPENDIX C .A.ABBREVIATIONS API BHA BHP BHT BOP BPD BPM BPV BSW BUR C/L CBL CCL CET CGR CRA C/T DC DE DHSV D&CM DP DST E/L ECD ECP EMW ESD ESP ETA FBHP FBHT FTHP FTHT GLR GOC GOR GP GPM GPS GR HAZOP HP/HT IADC ID American Petroleum Institute Bottom Hole Assembly Bottom Hole Pressure Bottom hole temperature Blow Out Preventer Barrel Per Day Barrels Per Minute Back Pressure Valve Base Sediment & Water Build Up Rate Control Line Cement Bond Log Casing Collar Locator Cement Evaluation Tool Condensate Gas Ratio Corrosion Resistant Alloy Coiled Tubing Drill Collar Diatomaceous Earth Down Hole Safety Valve Drilling & Completion Manager Drill Pipe Drill Stem Test Electric Line Equivalent Circulation Density External Casing Packer Equivalent Mud Weight Electric Shut-Down System Electrical Submersible Pump Expected Arrival Time Flowing Bottom Hole Pressure Flowing Bottom Hole Temperature Flowing Tubing Head Pressure Flowing Tubing Head Temperature Gas Liquid Ratio Gas Oil Contact Gas Oil Ratio Gravel Pack Gallon (US) per Minute Global Positioning System Gamma Ray Hazard and Operability High Pressure .ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 289 OF 295 ENI S.High Temperature International Drilling Contractor Inside Diameter .
Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 IPR JAM KOP LAT LCM LMRP LOT LWD MAASP MD MLH MLS MMS MODU MPI MSL MSS MWD NACE NDT NSG NTU OBM OD OIM ORP OWC P&A PBR PDC PDM PGB PI PLT POB PPB ppg ppm PVT Q Q/AQ RFT RKB ROE ROP ROU ROV Inflow Performance Relationship Joint Make-up Torque Analyser Kick Off Point Lowest Astronomical Tide Lost Circulation Materials Low Marine Riser Package Leak Off Test Log While Drilling Max Allowable Annular Surface Pressure Measured Depth Mud Line Hanger Mud Line Suspension Magnetic Multi Shot Mobile Offshore Drilling Unit Magnetic Particle Inspection Mean Sea Level Magnetic Single Shot Measurement While Drilling National Association of Corrosion Engineers Non Destructive Test North Seeking Gyro Nephelometric Turbidity Unit Oil Base Mud Outside Diameter Offshore Installation Manager Origin Reference Point Oil Water Contact Plugged & Abandoned Polished Bore Receptacle Polycrystalline Diamond Cutter Positive Displacement Motor Permanent Guide Base Productivity Index Production Logging Tool Personnel On Board Pounds per Barrel Pounds per Gallon Part Per Million Pressure Volume Temperature Flow Rate Quality Assurance.A. Quality Control Repeat Formation Test Rotary Kelly Bushing Radius of Exposure Rate Of Penetration Radios Of Uncertainty Remote Operated Vehicle 0 REVISION .ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 290 OF 295 ENI S.p.
p.A. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 RPM RT S/N SAFE SBHP SBHT SCC SCSSV SDE SF SG SICP SIDPP SPM SSC SSD SSSV STHP STHT TCP TD TOC TOL TRSV TVD UHF VBR VDL VHF VSP W/L WBM WC WHP WHSIP WOB WOC WOW WP YP Revolutions Per Minute Rotary Table Serial Number Slapper Activated Firing Equipment Static Bottom Hole Pressure Static Bottom Hole Temperature Stress Corrosion Cracking Surface Controlled Subsurface Safety Valve Senior Drilling Engineer Safety Factor Specific Gravity Shut-in Casing Pressure Shut-in Drill Pipe Pressure Stroke per Minute Sulfide Stress Cracking Sliding Sleeve Door Valve Sub Surface Safety Valve Static Tubing Head Pressure Static Tubing Head Temperature Tubing Conveyed Perforations Total Depth Top of Cement Top of Liner Tubing Retrievable Safety Valve True Vertical Depth Ultra High Frequency Variable Bore Rams (BOP) Variable Density Log Very High Frequency Velocity Seismic Profile Wire Line Water Base Mud Water Cut Well Head Pressure Well Head Shut-in Pressure Weight On Bit Wait On Cement Wait On Weather Working Pressure Yield Point 0 REVISION .ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 291 OF 295 ENI S.
Vols 1 And 4. K. April 15. D. February. Hammerlind: ‘Basic Fluid and Pressure Forces on Oilwell Tubulars’. Tulsa. 607617 Blount. 1984. M : ‘ Pressure drop in wells producing oil and gas’ (July Sept 1972). E M. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 0 REVISION APPENDIX D .p. J P : ‘ A study of two-phase flow in inclined pipes’ (May 1973). 1977 Bruist. Jones. O H : ‘Use of short term multirate flow tests to predict performance of wells having turbulence’ (1976) Brown. Dallas.BIBLIOGRAPHY Document: Drilling Design Manual Connection Procedures Manuals. Journal of Petroleum Technology. International Human Resource Development Corporation. 126 Golan. 3 edition (Dec 1981) API RP 14E Fourth Edition: ‘Recommended Practice for Design and Installation of Offshore Production Platform Piping System’. Boston. Aziz. 1781-1788 (in german) Gilbert. 1978. H D and Brill. 451 Earlougher. Houston.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 292 OF 295 ENI S. October 1-4. October 1. API RP 14E ‘Recommended Practices For Design And Installation Of Offshore Production rd Platform Piping Systems. OK. Hammerlind: ‘Movement. A ‘ A Comprehensive Mechanistic Model For Multiphase Flow In Wells’.E: ‘Flowing and Gas-Lift Well Performance’ API Drill and Prod Pract (1954). E HY : ‘ Better performance of Gulf Coast wells’( 1974) D. 1994. Ponwell Publishing Company. J. J. Arthur Lubinsky: ‘Helical Buckling of Tubing Sealed in Packers’. Other References: Ansari. J R : ‘ How To Accurately Predict Future Well Productivities’ ( May 1968) 99-106 Fetkovich. Forces and Stresses Associated With Combination Tubing Strings Sealed in Packers’. 1961.P ‘ Wasserbewegung Durch Boden’ (1901) 45. 1977. NY (1986) STAP Number STAP P-1-M-6100 STAP M-1-M 5006 . 36th Annual Fall Meeting of SPE. K E : The Technology Of Artificial Lift Methods. Covier. and Line Pipe Properties’. R C JR and Kersch K M : ‘ Analysis of short-time transient test data by typecurve matching’ (July 1974) 793 Eickmeier. Duns.A. H JR and Ros. N C J : ‘ Vertical flow of gas and liquid mixtures in wells’ (1963). M and Whiston. P . October 8-11. 38-48 Beggs. MS Thesis. The University Of Tulsa (1988) API BUL 5C3 Sixth Edition: ‘Formulas and Calculations for Casing Tubing Drill Pipe. M J : ‘ The Isochronal Testing Oil Wells’ (1973) Forcheimer. GW and Fogarasi. 53th annual Fall Technical Conference and Exhibition. C H: Well Performance. L G and Glaze. W.
(Jan 1968) 83-93 . H E : ‘ Vertical Flow Correlation-Gas Wells’ API Man 14BM. API 14B. Remer. A E : ‘ Analysis And Predictions Of Minimum Flow Rate For The Continuous Removal Of Liquid From Gas Wells’ (Nov 1969) Van Everdingen. D. 38-40 H. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 0 REVISION Gray. Beggs: ‘Production Optimisation Using NODAL Analysis’. OGCI. D R : ‘ Pressure build up in wells’ (1951) Hurst. H J JR : ‘ Short-Time Well Test Data Interpretation In The Presence Of Skin Effect And Wellbore Storage. R J and Hueni. A R and Bingham. 829838 Ramey. K E: ‘ Experimental study of pressure gradients occurring during continuous two-phase flow in small diameter vertical conduits’ ( April 1965) 475-484 Hagedorn and Brown (1967) Horner. 1972) Orkiszewski. E E and Warren D A JR : ‘ Drill stem test analysis utilising McKinley system of after flow dominated pressure build up’ (Oct. R G.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 293 OF 295 ENI S. No 37 Vogel.A. (1936) Reinicke. H K : ‘ Radius-Of-Drainage And Stabilisation Time Equations’ (Sept 1964) Vol 62. 1991. R J : ‘ Gravel pack design consideration’ (Feb 1974) Standing. SSCSSV Sizing Computer Program. Tulsa. (Jan 1970) 97 Rawlins. K M. J : ‘ Predicting Two-Phase Pressure Drops In Vertical Pipes’ (June 1967). M D ‘ A field study of underbalance pressure necessary to obtain clean perforations using tubing-conveyed perforating’ ( June 1986) 662 Lea. F : ‘ The Skin Effect And Its Influence On The Productive Capacity Of A Well’ (Oct 1953) Van Poollen.p. Hagedoorn. M B : ‘ Concerning The Calculation Of Inflow Performance Of Wells Producing From Solution Gas Drive Reservoirs’ (Sept 1971) 1141-1142 Texas Railroad Commission Rule 36 Turner. J F JR and Tighe. A R and Brown. M G and Duckler. E L and Schellhardt. Anderson. G E. R E : ‘ Gas Well Operations With Liquid Production’ ( 1983) Milner. M A : ‘ Back-Pressure Data On Natural Gas Wells And Their Application To Production Practices’ US Bureau Of Mines. Hubard. W : ‘ Establishment of skin effect and its impediment to fluid flow into a wellbore’ (Oct 1953) King. G : ‘ Comparison Of Measured And Predicted Pressure Drops In Tubing For High-Water-Cut Gas Wells’ (Aug 1987) 165-177 Saucier. J V : ‘ Inflow Performance Relationships For Solution Gas Drive Wells’.
possible to take into account the reduction in the performance of some CRA type steels.1. which would enable users to design the string starting from an existing material. It is also possible to check stress tubing’s with varying diameters (tapered string) and to consider materials with anisotropic characteristics. ‘Vertubing’ produces the results as numerical files.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 294 OF 295 ENI S. It is necessary to calculate load losses during the relative operation and obtain the resulting fictitious hydrostatic gradient which then lets the user obtain the correct pressures for the various string sections. .p. The programme is generally considered to be reliable because the results of three years use have consistently matched actual well applications. This application was based on a previous version designed by a company named ‘Tubmov’ which was run on Hewlett Packard 41CV computers. The programme is supported by VAX/VMS computer systems and is currently available at Head Office and in the Districts on the Company computer network.A. The programme does not incorporate a library or collection of data on commonly used tubing material. The application carries out all functions for tubing control in vertical or deviated wells. The programme’s architecture defines a rigid sequence for data entry. The ‘Vertubing’ programme provided a calculation tool which significantly reduced times for engineers involved in string calculations. without any graphic display. The application does not enable the user to independently assess dynamic situations such as with production or injection operations. which results in extremely accurate results. ‘VERTUBING’ PROGRAMME The need to fast computing to carry out tubing movement/stress calculations led AGIP to produce the ‘Vertubing’ programme in 1989.TUBING MOVEMENT/STRESS COMPUTER PROGRAMMES E. The programme also enabled users to find an optimal solution by means of the iterative process using a number of approximations and producing results which were more reliable. however. It is not. caused by temperature increases. with a string and a high number of packer’s as well (multiple zone completions) and takes into account the fact that packer setting can be mechanical or hydraulic. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 0 REVISION APPENDIX E .
once the temperature profile and lithology of the formations are known. Orkiszewski. During processing it is also possible to display and print a simple drawing of the well and the completion. ‘Wellcat’ produces results in ASCII format. and the inability to analyse dual completions. The ‘Wellcat’ programme was initially tested with the most typical cases (discussed in publications) and appropriate comparisons were made with data previously obtained using the ‘Vertubing’ programme with reasonable results. ranging from drilling. Duns & Ross).A. During testing the results were compared to actual field data and a good match was obtained. Hagedorn & Brown. is due to this application’s limitations in terms of obtaining the trend of temperatures the string is subject to during various well operations.2. The WT-Drill module lets the user evaluate the temperatures and pressures during drilling and the casing installation stages. while the Govier-Aziz formula is used for single stage fluids. while the resulting stresses the casing is subject to are calculated using the WS-Casing module. The brief description below only describes the parts of the application concerning tubing. dual completions with a maximum of two packer’s and dual selective completions. selective completions with a maximum of five packers. The calculation of load losses and the hydraulic conditions can be carried out using different correlations which are valid for two-stage flow (Beggs & Brill. The programme is now used in the company for completion string design and at present available in PC.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 295 OF 295 ENI S. It is also possible to calibrate the average coefficients for thermal exchange and specific heat. The WT-Circ and WT-Prod modules let the user evaluate the temperatures during standard production and circulation operations and the WS-Tube module lets the user calculate tubing movement and stress. to completion and other various well operations. The programme incorporates five modules.p. The programme also assesses the installation of a hanger in the completion as well as hydraulic or mechanical packer setting. It is possible to evaluate the reduction in material rating due to temperature and any anistropy of materials. printed or exported as graphic files. ‘Wellcat’ can be used for single completions. The need to use an in-house company programme which was more complex compared to ‘Vertubing’. VAX Mainframe and UNIX versions. The most interesting feature of the programme is its capability to evaluate temperatures during and after well operations. . which can be read. As ‘Vertubing’ had to be integrated with software in ENI-Agip Division and Affiliates expert system (Welcome) it seemed more appropriate to use a modern design programme such as ‘Wellcat’. ‘WELLCAT’ PROGRAMME 0 REVISION Eni-Agip Division and Affiliates recently acquired Enertech’s (1994) ‘Wellcat’ programme which is an application integrating the most specialised software. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 E. Gray.
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