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ENI S.p.A. Agip Division
TYPE OF ACTIVITY'
REFER TO SECTION N.
TITLE COMPLETION DESIGN MANUAL
DISTRIBUTION LIST Eni - Agip Division Italian Districts Eni - Agip Division Affiliated Companies Eni - Agip Division Headquarter Drilling & Completion Units STAP Archive Eni - Agip Division Headquarter Subsurface Geology Units Eni - Agip Division Headquarter Reservoir Units Eni - Agip Division Headquarter Coordination Units for Italian Activities Eni - Agip Division Headquarter Coordination Units for Foreign Activities
NOTE: The present document is available in Eni Agip Intranet (http://wwwarpo.in.agip.it) and a CD-Rom version can also be distributed (requests will be addressed to STAP Dept. in Eni - Agip Division Headquarter) Date of issue:
B A @ ? >
Issued by M. Bassanini 28/06/99 REVISIONS PREP'D C. Lanzetta 28/06/99 CHK'D A. Galletta 28/06/99 APPR'D
The present document is CONFIDENTIAL and it is property of AGIP It shall not be shown to third parties nor shall it be used for reasons different from those owing to which it was given
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1.1. 1.2. 1.3. 1.4. PURPOSE OF THE MANUAL OBJECTIVES FUNCTIONS OF A COMPLETION MANUAL UPDATING, AMENDMENT, CONTROL & DEROGATION
8 12 13 13
2.1. 2.2. INTRODUCTION CHARACTERISTICS OF RESERVOIR ROCKS 2.2.1. Porosity 2.2.2. Permeability 2.2.3. Relative Permeability 2.2.4. Wettabilty 2.2.5. Fluid Distribution 2.2.6. Fluid Flow In The Reservoir 2.2.7. Effects Of Reservoir Characteristics 2.2.8. Reservoir Homogeneity HYDROCARBON DATA 2.3.1. Oil Property Correlation RESERVOIR/PRODUCTION FORECAST 2.4.1. Inflow Perfomance 2.4.2. Reservoir Simulation For IPR Curves 2.4.3. IPR Selection 2.4.4. Outflow Performance 2.4.5. Flow Rate Prediction
14 14 14 14 15 16 17 18 24 27 28 28 29 31 42 44 46 55
3.1. 3.2. 3.3. 3.4. INTRODUCTION 3.1.1. Types of Tests DST OBJECTIVE DST STRING RESERVOIR CHARACTERISTICS 3.4.1. Pressure Build-Up Analysis 3.4.2. Basics Of DST Operations 3.4.3. Common Test Tools Description 3.4.4. Tools Utilised With Permanent Packer Systems 3.4.5. Sub-Sea Test Tools Used On Semi-Submersibles 3.4.6. Deep Water Tools 3.4.7. Downhole Pressure Recording
60 60 63 64 69 69 77 77 80 80 81 82
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3.5. WELL PRODUCTION TEST OBJECTIVES 3.5.1. Periodic Tests 3.5.2. Productivity Or Deliverability Tests 3.5.3. Transient Tests
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4.1. CASING DESIGN 4.1.1. Casing Profile 4.1.2. Casing Specifications 4.1.3. Casing Connections WELL DEVIATION SURVEYS CASING CEMENTING CONSIDERATIONS 4.3.1. Production Casing Cementing 4.3.2. Production Casing Cement Evaluation
87 87 88 89 89 90 90 91
WELL COMPLETION DESIGN
5.1. FACTORS INFLUENCING COMPLETION DESIGN 5.1.1. Reservoir Considerations 5.1.2. Mechanical Considerations 5.1.3. Safety Considerations RESERVOIR-WELLBORE INTERFACE 5.2.1. Open Hole Completions 5.2.2. Uncemented Liner Completions 5.2.3. Perforated Completions 5.2.4. Multi-Zone Completions CASING-TUBING INTERFACE 5.3.1. Packer Applications 5.3.2. Packer-Tubing Interfaces 5.3.3. Annulus Circulation TUBING-WELLHEAD INTERFACE 5.4.1. Tubing Hanger Systems 5.4.2. Xmas Trees 5.4.3. Metal-To-Metal Seals FUTURE CONSIDERATIONS 5.5.1. Stimulation 5.5.2. Formation Management 5.5.3. Well Servicing Techniques OPTIMISING TUBING SIZE 5.6.1. Reservoir Pressure 5.6.2. Flowing Wellhead Pressure 5.6.3. Gas-Liquid Ratio 5.6.4. Artificial Lift
94 94 96 96 97 97 98 100 101 104 106 107 108 109 109 115 115 117 118 118 119 121 123 123 123 124
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6.1. 6.2. 6.3. DEVELOPMENT WELLS CONTRIBUTING FACTORS TO CORROSION FORMS OF CORROSION 6.3.1. Sulphide Stress Cracking (SSC) 6.3.2. Corrosion Caused By CO2 And Cl 6.3.3. Corrosion Caused By H2S, CO2 And ClCORROSION CONTROL MEASURES CORROSION INHIBITORS CORROSION RESISTANCE OF STAINLESS STEELS 6.6.1. Martensitic Stainless Steels 6.6.2. Ferritic Stainless Steels 6.6.3. Austenitic Stainless Steels 6.6.4. Precipitation Hardening Stainless Steels 6.6.5. Duplex Stainless Steel COMPANY DESIGN PROCEDURE 6.7.1. CO2 Corrosion 6.7.2. H2S Corrosion MATERIAL SELECTION 6.8.1. OCTG Specifications 6.8.2. DHE Specifications 6.8.3. Wellhead Specifications ORDERING SPECIFICATIONS
126 126 128 128 135 137 138 139 139 139 140 140 140 142 142 142 142 144 145 146 147 152
6.4. 6.5. 6.6.
7.1. 7.2. POLICIES THEORY 7.2.1. Mechanical Properties of Steel 7.2.2. Temperature 7.2.3. Tubing Movement/Stress Relationship WELL DATA. 7.3.1. Casing Profile/Geometry 7.3.2. Tubing Data 7.3.3. Bottom-hole Pressure 7.3.4. Temperatures (Static and Flowing) 7.3.5. Reservoir Fluids 7.3.6. Completion Fluid PRESSURE INDUCED FORCES 7.4.1. Piston Effect 7.4.2. Buckling Effect 7.4.3. Ballooning Effect 7.4.4. Temperature Effect EVALUATION OF TOTAL TUBING MOVEMENT
153 153 154 158 158 160 160 160 160 160 161 161 161 162 163 167 168 169
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7.6. ANCHORED TUBING 7.6.1. Tubing Permitting Limited Motion 7.6.2. Packer Setting 7.7. TUBING LOAD CONDITIONS 7.7.1. Pressure Testing 7.7.2. Acid Stimulation 7.7.3. Fracturing 7.7.4. Flowing 7.7.5. Shut-In 7.7.6. Load Condition Summary TUBING SELECTION 7.8.1. Critical Factors 7.8.2. Tubing Size And Weight 7.8.3. Anchoring Systems TUBING CONNECTIONS 7.9.1. Policy 7.9.2. Class of Service 7.9.3. Selection Criteria 7.9.4. NACE And Proximity Definitions 7.9.5. CRA Connections 7.9.6. Connection Data
170 172 174 174 174 175 175 177 177 181 181 182 182 184 185 185 185 186 189 190 190 190 191 193 195 195 196 205
7.10. TUBING STRESS CALCULATIONS 7.10.1. Calculation Methods 7.10.2. Safety Factor 7.10.3. External Pressure Limit 7.10.4. Packer Load Limits 7.10.5. Example Manual Calculation 7.10.6. Example Computation
8.1. PACKERS 8.1.1. Selection Procedure 8.1.2. Selection Criteria 8.1.3. Well Classification 8.1.4. Packer Selection For Single String Completion 8.1.5. Single Selective Completion Packers SUB-SURFACE SAFETY VALVES 8.2.1. Policy 8.2.2. Applications 8.2.3. Wireline Retrievable Safety Valves 8.2.4. Surface Controlled Sub-Surface Safety Valves 8.2.5. Valve Type/Closure Mechanism Selection
206 207 207 209 209 217 223 223 223 223 224 224
Impact On Completion Design 10.1. Material Selection 8. Control/Injection Line Selection Procedure Flow Chart WIRELINE NIPPLE SELECTION 8. 9.3.A.1.3. Tube Specifications 8.1.2. Fittings 8. Artificial Lift Considerations 250 251 253 254 254 256 259 259 260 262 262 265 265 265 268 268 270 272 .2. PLUNGER LIFT 10.2. ELECTRICAL SUBMERISBLE PUMPS 10.7.1.2.7.4. ARTIFICIAL LIFT 10.2. Through-Tubing Hollow Carrier Guns 9. SUMMARY ARTIFICIAL LIFT SELECTION CHARTS 10.3.2.2.2.3.3. ESP Performance 10. Through-Tubing Strip Guns 9. SHAPED CHARGE PERFORATING GUN TYPES 188.8.131.52.184.108.40.206. Underbalanced Perforating 9. GAS LIFT 10.1.3.4.3.2.7. HYDRAULIC PUMPING SYSTEMS 10.3. API And Performance Data 220.127.116.11. SCREW PUMP SYSTEMS 10. SCSSV Hydraulic Control fluid 8.2.2. 9. Firing Heads 9. Selective Nipple Configuration REVISION 0 225 225 225 226 228 230 230 231 233 236 237 238 239 8. CONTROL/INJECTION LINE SELECTION 8.4.1. Common Problems 10. Control Lines 8.2. Operating Conditions Summary 10.p. Tapered Nipple Configuration 8. Encapsulation 8.3. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 8. Impact On Completion Design 10.7. Impact On Completion Design 10. PERFORATING 9.9. Injection Lines 18.104.22.168. Common Problems 10.6. Tubing Conveyed Perforating GUN PERFORMANCE 9. ROD PUMPS 10.3.3. 10.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 6 OF 295 ENI S. Design Considerations And Comparisons 10. Impact On Completion Design 10.3.1.4.3. Protectors 22.214.171.124.5. Perforating Procedures 240 240 241 241 243 243 243 244 244 246 247 247 126.96.36.199.188.8.131.52.3.1.2. Wireline Conveyed Casing Guns 9.4.
POLICY 11. A.2.3. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 0 REVISION 11. APPLICATION 11. A.REPORT FORMS A.ABBREVIATIONS APPENDIX D .4.TUBING MOVEMENT/STRESS COMPUTER PROGRAMMES 287 289 292 294 . A. INITIAL ACTIVITY REPORT (ARPO 01) DAILY REPORT (ARPO 02) WASTE DISPOSAL MANAGEMENT REPORT (ARPO 06) PERFORATING REPORT (ARPO 07) GRAVEL PACK REPORT (ARPO 08) MATRIX STIMULATION/HYDRAULIC FRACTURE REPORT (APRO 09) WIRELINE REPORT (ARPO 11) PRESSURE/TEMPERATURE SURVEY REPORT (ARPO 12) WELL PROBLEM REPORT (ARPO 13) WELL SITUATION REPORT (ARPO 20) 276 277 278 279 280 281 282 283 284 285 286 APPENDIX B .1. USE OF UNDERBALANCE COMPLETION FLUIDS 11.9. Completions 274 274 274 274 275 275 275 APPENDIX A .4. A. RISK ASSESSMENT 11.5.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 7 OF 295 ENI S.p.3. A. A.7. Well Testing 11.4. A.2.NOMENCLATURE FOR TUBING CALCULATIONS APPENDIX C .3.BIBLIOGRAPHY APPENDIX E .4. A. BARRIER PRINCIPLES 11.8.1.A.1. A.6.2.
The conceptual design process begins at the field appraisal stage when a Statement Of Requirements (SOR) of the completion is produced. quality and costs. . methodologies and rules that enable to operate uniformly and in compliance with the Corporate Company Principles. The final aim is to improve performance and efficiency in terms of safety. in the completion design process and its importance on well productivity. It is essential that this is an accurate statement including all the foreseen requirements. Petroleum Engineering.1. For instance. Production Engineering and Drilling Engineering. 1. hence profit.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 8 OF 295 ENI S. have a large impact on costs and field profit. at an early time. Many of the decisions made by the various disciplines are interrelated and impact on the decisions made by other disciplines.c. figure 1. still enables each individual Affiliated Company the capability to operate according to local laws or particular environmental situations. This does not mean that the process is sequential and many decisions can be made from studies and analysis run in parallel. within the Eni-Agip Division and Affiliated Companies. The process of well preparation and installation of completions is fully described in the ‘Completions Procedures manual’.b and figure 1. INTRODUCTION PURPOSE OF THE MANUAL The purpose of this manual is to guide experienced engineers of all technical disciplines. This. The final conceptual design will be used as the basis for the detailed design process. The approach to completion design must be interdiscipline. The activities in each phase are illustrated in figure 1. as it has a fundamental effect on the field final design and development. however. These in consequence. involving Reservoir Engineering. This is vital in order to obtain the optimum completion design utilising the process described in this manual. well servicing capabilities and completion life. the decision on the well architecture may subsequently be changed due to the availability of well servicing or workover techniques. while providing all personnel involved in Drilling & Completion activities with common guidelines in all areas worldwide where Eni-Agip operates. The design process consists of three phases: • • • Conceptual Detailed design Procurement.p. the user will resolve many of the dilemmas. The conceptual design process guides the engineers through analysis and key questions to be considered. During this phase.a.A. The Corporate Standards in this manual define the requirements. The manual will provide the engineers within the various disciplines with a system to guide them through the process with the objectives of helping them make the key decisions and obtaining the optimum design to maximise productivity and. raised by the interrelated decisions. Agip Division STAP-M-1-P-7100 0 REVISION 1.
increased knowledge of the field and incorporate new technologies.A .A.Conceptual Completion Design Process . Figure 1.p.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 9 OF 295 ENI S. the statement of requirements need to reviewed and altered to modify the conceptual design for future wells. This provides a system of ongoing completion optimisation to suit changing conditions. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 0 REVISION As more information is gleamed from further development wells and as conditions change.
B .p.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 10 OF 295 ENI S.A.Detailed Completion Design Process . Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 0 REVISION Figure 1.
Procurement Process .A. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 0 REVISION Figure 1.C .ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 11 OF 295 ENI S.p.
however. An expensive completion may derive more long term profit than a low cost completion but the initial capital costs will be higher (Refer to figure 1.2. Be as simple as possible to increase reliability. This.d).A.D . Be as flexible as possible for future operational changes in well function. Achieve the optimum production rates reliably at the lowest capital and operating costs.p. in reality is not simple and many critical decisions are needed to balance long term and short term cash flow and sometimes compromises are made. Figure 1.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 12 OF 295 ENI S. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 1. OBJECTIVES The fundamental objectives for a completion are: • • • • • • • 0 REVISION Achieve a desired (optimum) level of production or injection.Completion Design Versus Profitability . In conjunction with other wells. Provide adequate maintenance and surveillance programmes. These may be summarised as to safely provide maximum long term profitability. Provide adequate safety in accordance with legislative or company requirements and industry common practices. effectively contribute to the whole development plan reservoir plan.
Protecting the production casing from formation pressure. Perforating (underbalanced or overbalanced). optimising production. methodologies and rules that enable to operate uniformly and in compliance with the Corporate Company Principles. however. AMENDMENT.p. This. servicing. Permanent downhole pressure monitoring.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 13 OF 295 ENI S. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 0 REVISION On the other hand if the data available is not accurate. Inhibiting scale or corrosion. well maintenance or detailed operations. Protecting the casing from corrosion attack by well fluids.A. . CONTROL & DEROGATION The Corporate Standards in this manual define the requirements. These main functional requirements must be built into the conceptual design and include: • • • • • • • 1. Producing single or multiple zones. Reservoir and geoscience groups often have to set plans and objectives for the field on well performance based on limited information.4. pressure monitoring and reservoir maintenance. while providing all personnel involved in Drilling & Completion activities with common guidelines in all areas worldwide where Eni-Agip operates. FUNCTIONS OF A COMPLETION The main function of a completion is to produce hydrocarbons to surface or deliver injection fluids to formations. but are not concerned about production problems. The final aim is to improve performance and efficiency in terms of safety. Preventing hydrocarbon escape if there is a surface leak. An inherent problem is that the Reservoir Engineering Department’s objectives do not coincide with the Completion Engineering Department’s in that Reservoir Engineering’s objectives are for the whole field performance whereas the Completion Group’s is to optimise for profit on a long term well by well basis which includes well servicing/workover. This is its primary function. the estimate of some well performance and characteristics throughout the life of the well may be wrong and early workover or well intervention operations will impact on well profitability. however a completion must also satisfy a great many other functions required for safety. still enables each individual Affiliated Company the capability to operate according to local laws or particular environmental situations. quality and costs. in the early stages.3. MANUAL UPDATING. 1.
K= qµL A∆p Eq. a completion conceptual design must take into account all the well objectives to produce the optimum design to maximise profitability.2.p. shales.1. anhydrite and some highly cemented sandstones are impervious to movement of water. working with water filters.2. 2. oil or gas even although they may be quite porous. Darcy’s Law states that the rate of flow through a given rock varies directly with permeability (measure of the continuity of inter-connected pore spaces) and the pressure applied. developed the first relationship which described the flow through porous rock which is still used today. however some reservoirs even occur fractured shale. Permeability Permeability is a measure of the ability of which fluid can move through the interconnected pore spaces of the rock. Most commercial reservoirs have sandstone. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 0 REVISION 2. 2. if the pressure across the rock is 1 atmosphere. Many rocks such as clays. CHARACTERISTICS OF RESERVOIR ROCKS Porosity Porosity or pore space in reservoir rocks provides the container for the accumulation of oil and gas and gives the rock characteristic ability to absorb and hold fluids.1. limestone or dolomite rocks. RESERVOIR CONSIDERATIONS INTRODUCTION Oil and gas wells are expensive faucets that enable production of petroleum reservoirs or allow injection of fluids into an oil or gas reservoir. As pointed out in section 1.2.2.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 14 OF 295 ENI S. 2. chalk.A. 2. 1cc of a 1cp viscosity fluid will flow each second 2 through a portion of rock 1cm in length and having a cross-section of 1cm . In a rock having a permeability of 1 Darcy. The purpose of this section is to consider the characteristics of reservoir fluids and the flow of these in the area around the wellbore to allow these parameters to be tied into the well completion design and well intervention/workover operational requirements. 2.1. a French engineer.A . Darcy. and varies inversely with the viscosity of the fluid flowing.
some lighter components of the oil will evolve as gas in the pore spaces. 2. res bbl/stb kA(p 1 −p 2 ) BµL Eq. Significant oil may still occupy the pores but cannot be recovered by primary production means as the permeability to oil has dropped to zero. ft Inlet pressure. . Flow of oil is reduced but gas saturation is too small for it to flow through the pores. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 0 REVISION In oilfield units the linear form of Darcy’s Law for flow of incompressible fluid through a rock filled with only one fluid is: q=1. To understand this. the gas rate continues to increase and less oil flows through the pores until finally only gas flows. the relative permeability to oil is significantly greater when the rock is ‘water wet’.127 ×10 −3 where: q k A µ L p1 p2 B 2.A. The gas-oil or water-oil relative permeability relationships of a particular reservoir rock depend on the configurations of the rock pore spaces and the wetting characteristics of the fluids and rock surfaces. If reservoir pressure is allowed to decline. stb/day Permeability. in comparison to the ease that it would flow if there was no other fluid. cp Flow length.p. psi Formation volume factor. ft Viscosity. This same principle governs the flow of oil in the presence of water.2. md 3 Flow rate. With further increases in gas saturation.3. If pressures to continue to decline.B Relative Permeability As normally two or three fluids exist in the same pore spaces in a reservoir. In an oil-water system. The saturation of each fluid present affects the ease of fluid movement or relative permeability. Relative permeability represents the ease at which one fluid flows through connecting pore spaces in the presence of other fluids. assume a rock filled with only with oil at high pressure where gas has not been able to come out of solution: • • • • • All available space is taken up by the oil and only oil is flowing. psi Outlet pressure. gas saturation continues to increase and at some point (equilibrium gas saturation) gas begins to flow and the oil rate is further reduced. = = = = = = = = Flow rate.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 15 OF 295 ENI S. relative permeability relationships must be considered.
cp Viscosity of water.b represents the permeability of the rock to the desired fluid.A.p. most reservoir rocks are considered to be ‘water wet’. 2. it is not important as this characteristic is included in the permeability measurements.127 ×10 −3 where: qo kabs kro = = = Oil flow rate. 2. q=1.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 16 OF 295 ENI S. 2. Wettabilty Most reservoirs were formed or laid down in water with oil moving in later from adjacent zones to replace a portion of the water.4. For this reason.D where: ko kw µo µw Bo Bw 2. This can be achieved by multiplying absolute permeability of the rock by the relative permeability of the rock to the desired fluid. cp Formation volume factor for oil. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 0 REVISION Where two or more fluids are present. the ‘water cut’ or fraction of water in the total flow stream at standard conditions of temperature and pressure can be calculated by: fw = 1 k o µw Bw 1 × + + k w µo Bo Eq. Although it is extremely difficult to determine wettability of cores due to the cutting and preparing specimens for laboratory testing which alters the wettability characteristics. The productivity of oil in this condition is maximised. = = = = = = Relative permeability to oil Relative permeability to water Viscosity of oil. md Relative permeability to oil k abs k ro A(p1 −p 2 ) B o µL Eq. res bbl/stb . it is important when completing or servicing the well in that any foreign substance which may come into contact with the rock may alter its wettability characteristic and reduce the relative permeability to hydrocarbon fluids and cause emulsion which may block flow. This means that the grains of the rock matrix are coated with a film of water permitting hydrocarbons to fill the centre of the pore spaces. However.2. the permeability in eq. stb/day Absolute permeability.C For a well producing both water and oil. res bbl/stb Formation volume factor for water.
the capillary pressure in two different pore sizes will be the same. wettability. Water saturation above the transition zone is termed ‘irreducible water saturation’ or more commonly the ‘connate water saturation’. therefore the water film between the water and the oil will have the same curvature. figure 2.A. only oil will flow in an oil-water system.5. the transition zones will be thicker than in higher permeability sands. A well completed in the transition zone will be expected to produce both oil and water. the transition zone between the oil and gas is not as thick as the transition zone between oil and water.p. These can be summarised in three statements: • • • The lower the permeability of a given sand. oil and gas. and water and gas are influenced by several factors: uniformity. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 2. the higher will be the connate water saturation. Connate water is related to permeability and pore channels in lower rocks are generally smaller. For a given height. In lower permeability sands. which are related to water wettability. The nature and thickness of the transition zones between the water and oil. Above the transition zone. water and gas saturation in a typical homogeneous rock example. From the point in a zone of the free water level upward to some point where water saturation becomes constant is called the ‘transition zone’.2.a summarises oil. . Relative permeability permits both water and oil to flow within the transition zone.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 17 OF 295 ENI S. depending on the saturations of each fluid present at the completion level. hence more oil will be contained in larger pore spaces. surface tension and the relative density differences between the fluids. permeability. In rock the capillary forces. gas and water present at a particular level determines the fluids that produced by a well completed at that level and also influence the relative rates of fluid production. work to change the normal sharp interfaces between the fluids separated by density. Due to the greater density difference between gas and oil as compared to oil and water. Fluid Distribution 0 REVISION The distribution of fluids vertically in the reservoir is very important as the relative amounts of oil.
Example Fluid Distribution in a Uniform Sand Reservoir (Containing Connate Water. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 0 REVISION Figure 2. Pressure Distribution Around the Wellbore Pressure distribution in the reservoir and factors which influence it are of great of significance in interpreting well production trends caused by pressure characteristics.A. .p.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 18 OF 295 ENI S. It is produced principally by pressure inherent in gas dissolved in oil.A . Oil and Gas Cap) 2.2.6. The wellhead pressure will be much lower due to the influence of hydrostatic pressure and tubing frictional effects. Fluid Flow In The Reservoir Oil has little natural ability to produce itself into the wellbore. in associated free gas caps. or in associated aquifers. Pressure distribution around a producing oil well completed in a homogeneous zone will gradually drop from the reservoir pressure some distance from the wellbore until closer to the wellbore where it will decline quite sharply.
Pressure Distribution Near Wellbore In Radial Flow Radial Flow Around The Wellbore Steady state radial flow of incompressible fluid is described by Darcy’s Law: q= 0. 2. .B . where fluids move towards the well from all directions. Obviously flow velocities increase tremendously as fluid approaches the wellbore.00708kh(p o −p w ) r Bµ1n( o ) rw Eq. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 0 REVISION In a radial flow situation.A. in a uniform sand. the pressure drop across the last 15ft of the formation surrounding the wellbore is about one half of the total pressure drop from the well to a point 500ft away in the reservoir.E Corrections are required to account for the flow of compressible fluids and for turbulent flow velocities.b. most of the pressure drop in the reservoir occurs fairly close to the wellbore. This area around the wellbore is the ‘critical area’ and as much as possible should be done to prevent damage or flow restrictions in this critical area. As shown in figure 2. Figure 2.p.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 19 OF 295 ENI S.
ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 20 OF 295 ENI S.F Figure 2. 2.p.A.Units For Darcy’s Law Equation For non-homogeneous zones. which is the usual case.Radial Flow In Parallel Combination of Beds .C. k= k 1h1 +k 2 h 2 +k 3 h 3 h1 +h 2 +h 3 Eq. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 0 REVISION Figure 2.D . permeablities must be averaged for flow through parallel layers of differing permeabilities.
predict.p. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 0 REVISION Varying permeabilities around the well in series can be averaged as follows: ro ) rw k= r r r 1n( 1 ) 1n( 2 ) 1n( 3 ) rw r1 r2 + + k1 k2 k3 1n( Eq.E .Radial Flow In Series Combination Of Beds Linear Flow Through Perforations Ideally perforating tunnels should provide be large and deep enough to prevent any restriction to flow. Actual test data with very high permeability sand.G Figure 2. . proves turbulent flow results in higher pressure drop than Darcy’s Law calculations.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 21 OF 295 ENI S. curve B.A. In cases where there may be sand problems and a gravel pack is used. the tunnels are packed with gravel to hold the formation in place. Flow through perforating tunnels is linear rather radial and Darcy’s equation must be corrected as turbulent flow usually exists. 2. Investigators have provided turbulence correction factors which can be applied to Darcy’s equation to permit calculation of pressure drop through perforating tunnels. Experiments have shown that pressure drop through gravel filled perforations compared with uncorrected linear flow Darcy’s Law calculations is substantial as shown in figure 2.f below. Curve A indicates that plugging with even high permeability (1 Darcy) sand gives a large pressure drop. which will cause a restriction. curve C.
This is particularly detrimental as the effect close to the wellbore is greatly magnified. . two factors may cause low flowing bottomhole pressures.A. pressure drawdown will be appreciable higher than normal thus reducing flowing bottom-hole pressures and causing the well to be placed on artificial lift if higher productions rates are necessary. completion or intervention operations.p.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 22 OF 295 ENI S. With low permeability or excessive rate of production. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 0 REVISION Figure 2.F .Pressure Drop Versus Flow Rate Through Perforation Causes Of Low Flowing Bottom-Hole Pressure In a well with uniform sand and fluid conditions. These are permeability and producing rate. Low permeability is often caused by damage close to the wellbore through drilling.
where transient pressure testing techniques may give questionable results concerning formation damage. in an otherwise productive interval.A.p.I Flow efficiency: FE= = Jideal Jactual p−p wf −∆p s p−p wf Eq. Flow profiling may highlight zones.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 23 OF 295 ENI S.2qBµ ×s kh Eq. Non-contributing zones are likely to have been damaged. 2. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 0 REVISION The existence of damage can be calculated by well test results analysing the pressure build-up periods.J = = Theoretical flow rate without damage Actual flow rate observed qt qa Eq. production logging techniques may provide helpful data. 2. 2.K In multi-zone completion intervals. Damage ratio calculation is: DR= where: qt qa also: DR= = Jideal Jactual p−p wf p−p wf −∆p s Eq. The skin effect (abnormal pressure drop) or the normal radial flow pressure drop can be calculated by: ∆p s = 141. 2.H Other terms which are used to quantify formation damage are Damage Ratio and Flow Efficiency. which are not contributing to the total flow. .
. therefore if development drilling proceeds on the basis of close spacing before the drive mechanism is identified. primary production results from existing pressure in the reservoir. establish the detailed geological picture regarding zone continuity and locate oil-water and gas-oil contacts. labour and materials consumed in the drilling are largely non-recoverable. the investment will have already been made. In a dissolved gas reservoir. A gas drive reservoir’s primary pressure source is the expansion of a gas cap over the oil zone. Well intervention or recompletion to shut-off up-structure intervals may control the gas-oil ratio. to systematically recover reservoir hydrocarbons. Obviously many factors must be considered in developing a reservoir.h. This does not usually present an insurmountable problem as a field of any considerable size will require a minimum number of wells to be drilled in any case to define the reservoir. however the main factors concentrate on the reservoir itself and the procedure used to exploit hydrocarbon recovery.g and figure 2. Well spacing. show typical reservoir pressures versus production trends and gas-oil ratio production trends for the three basic drive mechanisms.A. therefore lose pressure less rapidly. is fundamental and the cost of time. i. and primary oil recovery is relatively low.2.e. figure 2.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 24 OF 295 ENI S. Gradually even the up-structure wells will water out to maximise oil recovery. pressure declines less rapidly and gas-oil ratios increase as the gas cap expands into the up-structure well completion intervals. The effect of the drive mechanism on the producing characteristics must be evaluated in the completion design process.p. A water drive reservoir’s principle pressure source is an external water hydrostatic pressure communicated to below the oil zone. pressure declines rapidly. In a dissolved gas drive reservoir without any artificial pressure maintenance technique. or well location.7. This is controlled by well interventions or re-completions to shut-off the water production or the well is shut-in. these can be drilled at the appropriate spacing to maximise recovery with the least amount of wells. Water drive reservoirs pressure remains high and gas-oil ratios are lower but downstructure well intervals quickly begin to produce water. Effects Of Reservoir Characteristics Reservoir Drive Mechanisms 0 REVISION In an oil reservoir. There are three basic drive mechanisms: • • • Dissolved gas Gas cap Water drive. Most reservoirs in actuality produce by a combination of all three mechanisms. Re-completing would not reduce the gas-oil ratio. By careful planning when enough information is gained to determine the well locations. In a gas cap drive reservoir. gas-oil ratio peaks rapidly and then declines rapidly. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 2. and also for later re-completions. the source of pressure is principally the liberation and expansion of gas from the oil phase as pressure is reduced.
Reservoir Pressure Trends For Various Drive Mechanisms Figure 2.H .G .ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 25 OF 295 ENI S.p.A. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 0 REVISION Many case histories are available to show problems resulting from reservoir development without having sufficient information about the stratigraphy of the reservoir.Gas-Oil Ratios Trends For Various Drive Mechanisms . Figure 2.
Regular spacing of the wells may cause early water production and possible early abandonment in conjunction with reducing the drive effectiveness through excessive water production. Due to the low recovery by the primary drive mechanism. the well locations must be changed quickly to take full advantage of the situation. A water reservoir in a thin sand with high angle of dip may best be developed with irregular well spacing because of the structural characteristics. dip angle is low and gas cap is completely underlayed by oil. Again the completion intervals should be structurally low because of the angle of dip and the exact sub-surface location would vary with well location on the structure.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 26 OF 295 ENI S. Water drive reservoirs: Wells can be spaced on a regular pattern on a thick sand and low angle of dip. A regular spacing can also be used for dissolved gas reservoirs with high angle of dip. Significant levels of water production are unavoidable in later field life when maximising production rates. provided the rock is stratified. Gas cap drive reservoirs: Wells are generally spaced on a regular pattern where the sand is thick. Such reservoirs are common where multiple this sands are found on a single structure and the oil column is only a fraction of the total productive relief. Regular spacing would place many completions too near the gas-oil contact. the wells in thin sands with a high angle of dip is likely to be more efficiently controlled by having the completion irregularly spaced and low to conform to the shape of the reservoir. . some means of secondary recovery will almost certainly be required at some point in life of the reservoir and the initial well completion design should take this into account. can be set low in the reservoir bed. In this scenario it would be expected that oil recovery would be greater with the minimum well investment as the oil will drain down-structure through time. If this is recognised after drilling begins. Like the dissolved gas drive reservoir. some general statements can be made: Dissolved gas drive reservoirs: Well completions in reservoirs with low structural relief can be made in a regularly spaced pattern throughout the reservoir and.A. Completion intervals should be selected high on the structure to permit long production life while oil is displaced up to the completion intervals by invading water from below. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 0 REVISION With regard to drive mechanisms.p. Again completion intervals should be low in the structure to permit the gas cap to grow for maximum recovery and minimum gas production.
Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 2. especially if the interval is short and production rates are high. In thin beds or highly stratified beds. Most sandstone reservoirs were originally laid down as stratified layers of varying porosity and permeability. If the reservoir is stratified. Fluids from such reservoirs will flow through the various layers at different restrictions to flow and often there are impervious beds between the layers so that fluid cannot flow between the bed to bed. is a distinct possibility. Similar assumptions can be made for carbonate and even reef type reservoirs which results in reservoirs of a highly stratified nature. Vertical staggering of the completion can be effected during development to obtain proportionate depletion of the various strata.8.i and figure 2. experience and operating conditions.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 27 OF 295 ENI S.2. Figure 2. Reservoir Homogeneity 0 REVISION The general procedures. intervals should be produced independently wherever practical (usually determined by economics). ‘fingering’ of the free gas down from a gas cap.p.j. or water from a water basin. it will probably be necessary to stagger the completion intervals in various members of the reservoir to be sure that each is drained properly.I . However this is only practical if the reservoir is uniform.Irregular Water Encroachment and Breakthrough . This is demonstrated in figure 2. Single string/single zone completions are preferred to facilitate thorough flushing for higher recovery and flexibility of re-completion to control reservoir performance. as described in the previous section is to complete water drive reservoirs high and for dissolved gas drive reservoir low on the structure to obtain an adequate number of wells without excess. either by shale breaks or by variations in permeability.A. Completions with more than one zone are termed multi-zone completions and are required for long completion intervals for obtaining sufficient volumes of production. To maximise recovery. Additional distribution of intervals in the various members can then be made during later well interventions on the basis of data obtained.
ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 28 OF 295 ENI S. Information concerning the characteristics and behaviour of gas needed for gas reservoirs. by means of subsurface samplers and by obtaining surface samples of separator liquid and gas. The surface samples are then recombined in the laboratory in proportions equal the gas-oil ratio measured at the separator during well testing.High GOR Production by Encroachment of Gas 2.A. 2. HYDROCARBON DATA The practical approach to the study of reservoir fluid behaviour is to anticipate pressure and temperature changes in the reservoir and at surface during production.1. the information is less complex. depends upon the type of gas and the nature of the problem. the changes occurring in the reservoir samples. it may require numerous tests and measurements. and to measure.J . The results of these tests then provide the basic fluid data for estimates of fluid recovery by various methods of reservoir operations and also to estimate reservoir parameters through transient pressure testing. . Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 0 REVISION Figure 2. Oil Property Correlation Several generalisations of oil sample data are available to permit correlations of oil properties to be made (refer to the Compant Well Test Manual for sampling techniques). Two general methods are used to obtain samples of reservoir oil for laboratory examination purposes. If retrograde condensation is involved.3.p. or if dry gas. If the gas is wet with no retrograde condensation.3. by laboratory tests.
These curves are termed tubing performance curves (TPC) and the point of intersection is the natural flowing point as demonstrated earlier in figure 2. the outflow performance can be determined which takes into consideration the relationship between the surface flowrate and pressure drop in the tubing. will also cause reduced IPR curves which must be anticipated during the design phase. velocity effects in gas wells. Hence. Flow behaviour in the near wellbore region may cause a dramatic effect on the IPR curve which results in greatly reduced flow capability. varies with flowrate against a fixed back-pressure which is normally the wellhead or separator pressure. Some completion designs to deal with reservoir conditions. or pump intake pressure. The determination of the well’s performance entails analysing the following: • • • • In-flow performance Near wellbore performance and design Multiphase flow of tubing performance Artificial lift. The process of this analysis is shown in figure 2. shape and permeability of the producing zone and the properties of the produced fluids. Once the IPR is completed. high rate or high GOR oil wells.p.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 29 OF 295 ENI S. This is characterised by a damaged IPR curve and the amount of damage or skin effect. Alternatively. stimulation procedures which can provide a negative skin are desirable as this increases production.4. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 2. effective fluid density. . analysis of the outflow performance requires predictions of phase behaviour. such as gravel packs for unconsolidated sands.k. The prediction of this relationship is complicated by the nature of multi-phase fluid flow. The inflow performance relationship (IPR) provides the flow potential of the reservoir into the wellbore against the resistance to flow of the formation and near wellbore region. The basic theory of this is described in this section along with some simplified IPR relationships from observed field data. Two phase flow. Good drilling and completion practices can or may minimise this damage allowing use of the idealised IPR curve to be used for completion design. in undamaged near wellbore regions also reduce the IPR curve. it is first necessary to determine its full potential and which way this can be fully exploited within any technical or economic constraints.k which requires continuous repetition during field life to account for changing conditions. is mainly caused by the drilling and completion practices.A. The theoretical IPR is an idealistic assumption of flow performance without pressure drop due to skin effect in the near wellbore region and governed only by the size. The results of the outflow performance analysis are usually produced graphically depicting how bottom hole flowing pressure (BHFP). RESERVOIR/PRODUCTION FORECAST 0 REVISION To obtain the optimum performance from a well. friction losses and flowing temperatures.
or optimising.A.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 30 OF 295 ENI S.Process of Determining Optimum Well Performance Selecting. the tubing size is necessary to optimise the well performance over the life of the well and should include the potential benefits of artificial lift systems and/or stimulation to reduce near wellbore skin effects.p. . Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 0 REVISION Figure 2.K .
the constant of proportionality is termed the productivity index (PI). above the bubble point). reservoir simulation is usually employed. an empirical expression can be validated and applied. PI defined as J by the API. o 60 F) q p R − p wf Eq.7psia.e.L where: ∆p pR pwf = = = Drawdown pressure. However.M . it has been verified that the straight line approach also provides the accuracy needed for well performance calculations in situations which exceed the theoretical basis. the more appropriate it is to use theoretical radial flow equation.1. low drawdowns and damaged wells. As more data becomes available. psi Bottom-hole flowing pressure.Straight Line IPR The simplest IPR equation assumes that inflow into a well is proportional to the pressure differential between the reservoir and the wellbore which is termed the ‘drawdown’.p.A. e. 2. In situations which allow the use of a straight line IPR. ∆p=p R −p wf Eq. is: J= where: q = Total liquid flow rate at surface under stock tank conditions (14. the flow rate is directionally proportional to the drawdown. Oil Well . 2. psi Reservoir pressure. With a straight line IPR. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 2.4.g. The use of IPRs generated from reservoir simulation models is also described as is the technique for the applications of the various techniques for predicting inflow performance. psi.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 31 OF 295 ENI S. Essentially the less data which is available. Inflow Perfomance 0 REVISION This section addresses the fundamental principles of inflow performance for oil and gas wells. however for larger projects. The linear relationship can be substantiated from theoretical arguments for a single incompressible fluid (i.
A. bbl/stb Drainage radius. ft Effective oil permeability. result in higher estimates of productivity than when under stabilised conditions. dimensionless (S ’= S + Dq) . also needs to be treated with caution as Production Engineers and Reservoir Engineers assume different basis for J.2µ o B o 1n e rw −0. 2.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 32 OF 295 ENI S. Before this the well produces under transient conditions.Straight Line IPR or Productivity Index J The assumption of stable inflow performance relationship.L . md Reservoir fluid viscosity. or stabilised flow.N where: h ko µo Bo ro rw S’ = = = = = = Net pay thickness. J. J. Oil PI. cp Reservoir formation volume factor. ft Wellbore radius. as in most well tests. is that well is producing in pseudo-steady state or steady state flow conditions. Production Engineers relate J to gross liquid production (oil and water) whereas Reservoir Engineers relate it to oil productivity. J can be calculated directly from bottom-hole gauges in well test results or estimated pressures from simulation studies.p. Productivity Index. ft Total effective skin. can also be derived theoretically from Darcy’s radial flow equation: Jo = k oh r 141. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 0 REVISION Figure 2.75+S′ Eq.
ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 33 OF 295 ENI S. Figure 2. The PI is very useful for describing the potential of various wells as it combines all rock and fluid properties as well as geometrical issues in a single constant making it unnecessary to consider these properties individually. Damaged wells with positive skins have straight line IPRs with PIs less than the ideal PI. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 0 REVISION This assumes pseudo-steady state flow from a well in the centre of a circular reservoir and it is worth noting that ko is the effective permeability to oil for an oil PI. have natural fractures or are highly deviated.Effect of Damage And Fractures on a Well’s PI .p.M. S’ = 0) should be expected as a result of additional pressure losses in the near wellbore area due to damage.e. As water saturation increases. fractures. producing below the bubble point.A. Deviation from the theoretical ideal PI (i. high rate or high GOR oil wells. changes in radial flow geometry and non-Darcy pressure losses due to high flow velocities in gas wells. Straight line IPRs with PIs greater than the ideal are typical of wells with negative skin such as when they have been stimulated. Ko obviously decreases and as does Jo. increased gas saturation in oil wells.
2 wf p qmax R q where: pR pwf q qmax = = = = Reservoir pressure.8 wf p R 2 Eq. gas saturation builds up around the wellbore which reduces the permeability to liquid which of course reduces well productivity at that particular drawdown compared to predicted by linear PI. Once the BHFP falls below the bubble point pressure. stb/d Maximum liquid production rate when pwf = 0.N . Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 Oil Well .Typical IPR Curve for Saturated Reservoir .A. Vogel used a computer programme to model a variety of solution gas reservoirs and developed a generalised IPR reference curve to account for the two phase flow effects below the bubble point. There may also be some non-Darcy gas flow effects in wells producing below the bubble point. psi Bottom-hole flowing pressure.o). hence the PI J.Vogel’s Two Phase Flow IPR 0 REVISION The previous straight line IPR does not hold with two phase flow (gas and liquid) in the reservoir.p.O Qmax is a theoretical value sometimes referred to as Absolute Open Flow (AOF) of the oil well.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 34 OF 295 ENI S. He also presented an approximation using the expression: p =1−0. This means the true IPR is curved and. psi Liquid production. 2. decreases with increasing drawdown (slopes 1 and 2 in figure 2. stb/d p −0. Figure 2.
ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 35 OF 295 ENI S.Vogel’s IPR Reference Curve .p. Procedures to correct for skin are available. The model used to develop Vogel’s reference curve did not include skin effects which would tend to straighten the IPR curve. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 0 REVISION Vogel’s equation has been validated through observed field data particularly on pumped wells with high drawdowns where pwf approaches zero.O .A. Figure 2.
2 wf p 1 . the following equations are applied: q w =J(p R −p wf ) p q o =q o max 1−0. psi p −0. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 0 REVISION Where inflow relationship passes through the bubble point.8 wf p b 2 Eq.p.P Eq. 2.8 wf p R 2 Eq.T . 2. As oil is normally produced from a different zone to the water. a straight line IPR is drawn above the bubble point and the curved IPR signifies the two phase flow below this point. Vogel’s equation is combined with the PI to develop a general IPR equation.A.2 wf p R p −0. 2.8 wf p R 2 Eq. 2. When the BHFP is above the bubble point use the normal straight line equation: q o =J(p R −p wf ) and when it drops below the bubble point use the modified Vogel equation: p Jp qo =J(p R −p wf )+ b 1−0.R p −0.S If oil and water both flow from the same zone then the Vogel equation is used for the gross flow rate: p q o +q w =(q o +q o max )1−0.2 wf p R Eq. 2. This has been published by Brown.Q If water production is involved.8 b where: pb = Bubble point pressure. For this.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 36 OF 295 ENI S. it is dependant upon whether it is produced from the same interval or others.
Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 0 REVISION Figure 2. 2. This is where Darcy’s law which is good for moderate to low flow rates is affected by high velocities. Fetkovich recognised that many oil wells could be handled in the same way as gas wells using the curved IPR: q o =C p R −p wf 2 ( 2 n ) Eq. or turbulence.P .0) .U where: C n = = Linear deliverability coefficient Deliverability exponent (0. This non-Darcy flow.Combined Straight Line IPR and Vogel IPR Oil Wells .Generalised IPR Curves As described earlier. curvature of the IPR curve is not solely due to the reasons highlighted above but also due to rate dependent skin.5 to 1.p. is sometimes the most dominant factor especially for gravel packs and high rate gas-liquid ratio wells.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 37 OF 295 ENI S.A.
Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 0 REVISION Golan and Whitson showed how this relationship could be expressed in a similar form to Vogel’s reference curve as: p = 1− wf q max p R q 2 n Eq. Blount and Jones presented an alternative generalised IPR equation which was an extension to the Forcheimer equation to include the non-Darcy flow effects: p R −p wf =aq+bq 2 Eq.W . If multi-rate data is 2 2 available then a log-log plot of q versus (pR .q.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 38 OF 295 ENI S. for two values of the exponent. however it requires four points at widely different flow rates to maximise the benefit of this method. If such data is not available. n should be assumed as 1. 2. n is considered as the means to account for non-Darcy flow but there is no theoretical technique for finding it as it is a function of the rate used during testing.Q .A. the Vogel and Fetkovich IPRs are similar. n. 2.Vogel And Fetkovich IPR Curve Comparisons Use of this approach will provide better results than Vogel’s method. It is seen that when n = 1.V This equation is compared with Vogel’s reference curve in figure 2. It is recommended that n be assumed to be 1 where no multi-rate data is available.pwf ) will give a straight line with a slope of 1/n.p. Figure 2.
The other non-Darcy flow coefficient.p.2. the reservoir pressure will decline against time. The effects of increasing water influx on the gross PI. leads to a significant increase in skin due to scaling. where two phase flow effects are negligible) .Z where: J* = PI at minimal drawdown (i. it takes no account of completion non-Darcy effects such as inefficient perforating.2µ o B o re ln kh rw −0. etc. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 0 REVISION The Darcy flow coefficient. b.2 wf p R future −0. shifting the IPR curve downwards resulting in a decline of the production rate and causing flow instability. is relative to all non-rate dependent skin contributions. 2.Y J * future J * present and: q future =J * future p p R future 1−0. In solution drive reservoirs.X The skin term. Similarly. can be determined theoretically for a well producing at pseudo-steady state flow in the middle of a circular reservoir: a= 141.8 p wf p Rfuture 2 Eq. 2. described earlier in Section 2. can also be found theoretically but requires a knowledge of the turbulence factor. Standing presented a method of predicting future IPR curves by the equation: k ro µ o B o future = k ro µ o B o present Eq.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 39 OF 295 ENI S. both a and b can be determined using a plot of (q R . mobilisation of fines. a. if multi-rate test data is available. Again.A.e. The relative permeability to oil will also decrease due to increased gas saturation further shifting the curve downwards. skin damage during remedial operations and reduced contribution from reduced pay through plugging back. Oil Wells . β. which is rarely measured in the laboratory. S. In very high permeability wells. coefficient b can be much greater than b and perforating efficiency (shots/ft and penetration) is a very important to productivity.Predicting Future IPRs Estimates of future IPR curves throughout the life of the reservoir are frequently required for production forecasting and planning artificial lift designs. 2. The liberation of gas also affects the oil fluid properties.pwf)/q versus q gives a straight line with a slope of b and an interception of a.75+S Eq.
To obtain a value of n. 2. Eickmeier first proposed an expression based on Fetkovich’s work. n . it is normal to test the well at three rates at a fixed period of time followed by a single rate until stabilisation is reached to obtain C. If data for Standing’s equation are not available.future p R future m Eq. An exponent of 2. The problem with this isochronal test is the time required to reach stabilised flow in tight gas sands which could be months. Obviously at low to moderate rates there is little turbulence and n is close to 1.pwf ) versus q is conducted from which the slope gives the value of 1/n. using kh and S from build-up data but is only applicable if flow is laminar (n = 1). critical that well tests are conducted up to or above the rate of intended production. isochronal test) due to there being no accepted theoretical basis available. in the equation must be estimated from one of a number of well test methods (e.A.BB This equation was developed empirically using several hundred multi-rate gas well test data and not by theory but satisfactorily describes the behaviour of the gas well tests considered. In some instances C can be calculated from reservoir parameters. A 2 2 log-log plot of (pR . however in high rates this is highly improbable and makes the IPR projections almost impossible and erring on the optimistic side. the simpler approach like Fetkovich relation for predicting qmax in Vogel’s reference curve. therefore. While this method is widely used throughout the industry. Fluid viscosities and volume are determined from PVT correlations. 2. This exponent can vary between 1. p g =C p R −p wf 2 ( 2 n ) Eq.0 for laminar flow to 0. .p.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 40 OF 295 ENI S. which in modified form is: q max .5 for fully turbulent flow. The exponent.g.66 have been found in actual field studies by Eickmeir. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 0 REVISION J* at present conditions is established by carrying out a well test or theoretically. Gas Wells . It is.AA It may be shown theoretically that exponent m could vary between 1 and 3.present p Rpresent = q max . The constant C is also found from the log-log plot and varies as a function of flow time until it reaches a constant pseudo-steady state. it is not recommended for estimating IPRs as it lacks the theoretical basis and other rigorous equations are available.5 gives the best fit to the gas drive IPR curves by Vogel while values of 1.Simplified Deliverability Relationship Rawlins and Schellardt developed a simplified gas well back-pressure equation which relates gas flow rate to the BHFP and is the well Known AOF equation. Relative permeabilities and fluid saturations are determined from special core analysis data and reservoir material balance analysis (using either analytical calculations or a reservoir simulation model).
For most gas compositions this is valid only at pressures less than approx 2. 2.pwf )/q versus q. are determined in a similar manner as the 2 2 generalised IPR equation for an oil well. A and B. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 Gas Wells . The non-Darcy skin is also frequently accounted for by using: m(p R )−m(p wf )=1422 q g T re ln k gh rw −0. there is curvature in the plot of µz against p making neither approach applicable. 2.Generalised Deliverability 0 REVISION Due to the shortcomings of the back-pressure equation described above and since turbulence which is common in gas wells. however the straight line plot is (pR .DD Gas viscosity.cc is not precisely correct since inherent in its derivation is an assumption that the product of µ and z is constant.m(pwf)/q versus q to find a value of B from the slope and to check the value of A from the intercept.p.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 41 OF 295 ENI S. 2.000psi. cp Gas deviation factor and where the integration limits are substituted with the pressure range being considered. 2. The non-Darcy coefficient B can also be calculated theoretically but. Between 2. as for oil wells.000psi and 3. an equation similar to eq. 2. The expression below is based on the work of Forchemier and is: p R −p wf = Aqg + Aqg 2 Eq. normally pg and pwf for inflow calculations.000psi when µz is proportional to pressure. eq. In this range the correct inflow equation is written in terms of pseudo-pressures: m(p)=2 where: µg z = = ∫ p dp pb µ z g p Eq.EE B = 1422 Here the results of the multi-rate test would be plotted as m(pg) .75+S 2 Eq.CC The Darcy and non-Darcy coefficients. It will be seen that the gas IPR is curved even when the non-Darcy term is 0.FF .w can be used. requires knowledge of the correct turbulence factor.75+S+Dqg Eq.000psi or if drawdown pressure changes are small which is the case in high permeability wells above 3. hence: m(p R )−m(p wf )= Aq g +Bqg where: A = 1422 T re ln k gh rw TD k gh −0.A. 2. it must be accounted for properly and a theoretical based method is more often used in modern engineering. β.
• • • • . the pseudo-pressure values are readily available. F The sum of all non-rate dependent skin Rate dependent skin Effective gas permeability. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 where: D qg T S D kg is = = = = = Derived from well tests Gas flow rate. Long term effects from well interventions.A. but also to generate IPR curves for determination of how current and future well IPRs will vary across the field. therefore there is a growing trend to use gas pseudo pressures for predicting gas well IPRs at all pressure conditions although the pressure squared method has a use in the field for convenience. Variations between the ideal IPRs and actual IPRs which may be expected from the undrilled well locations. The value of D (Refer to eq.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 42 OF 295 ENI S.4. md 0 REVISION As modern test analysis use computer software.2. workovers and movement of fines will have on near wellbore performance causing changes of skin during the life of the project. This information is derived from well test results and is input into the models theoretical IPR equations as skin factor. If a PI is entered in rather than skin. 2. predict turbulence and two phase flow effects by the use of total skin S’ inclusive of near wellbore and rate dependent skin effects. artificial lift or use of compression.. a model needs to be set up by the reservoir engineer with input from the production engineer. To obtain the best use of simulation studies.p.ff) can also be directly entered into some simulators. 2. well radius. WORs and GORs to obtain production targets. mscf/d o Reservoir temperature. Reservoir Simulation For IPR Curves Reservoir simulation is commonly used in the development. Outflow performance curves should be derived from an accurate computer programme as some programmes are not rigorous in the handling of two phase flow. etc. With the use of simulation the production engineer is able not only to predict pressures. Future stimulation or any damaging effects need to be considered. Using expected off takes. it will be necessary to correct it for the grid block’s size and shape. planning and reservoir management of many fields today. Typically the following should be addressed: • • Assumptions on the minimum permissible value of Pwf as dictated by the outflow performance altered by varying water-cut.
partial completion.g. water breakthrough and saturation changes on production and used for artificial lift studies. etc. the model needs to be updated to include actual log and test results. e. skins. Input on skin is realistic for the period covered. revisions can be made to the completion designs. programmes and production forecast. gravel packing. They may also be able to advise on possible sudden changes in water cut or gas production due to conning or cusping. When and as new well data from log and RFT/DST results becomes available. have been considered. stimulation. reservoir quality. From this.p. After using measured IPR curves. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 0 REVISION The results from such field models will provide the reservoir pressure. deviation. It is also used to determine the sensitivity of production to drawdown and optimise perforating strategy. It is extremely important that production engineers understand that the uncertainties involved and do not give greater reliability on model studies than reasonably can be expected. production rates and wellbore saturations at various time steps. however judgement is required when using these results. workover or sales contracts. in particular check: • • • • • Confirm if non-Darcy and multi-phase flow effects have been taken into consideration.A. it should be used to update the generalised IPR to reflect the actual pay interval. .ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 43 OF 295 ENI S. As the use of full field reservoir simulation requires many assumptions and simplifications are made to manage the problem. pressure and mechanical data. If the reservoir pressure refers to grid block or to the drainage area. Whether rates have been modified for downtime due to maintenance. Ensure that proposed completion effects on near wellbore performance. however. saturations. etc. then the model can be used to evaluate the effect of depletion. Often more reliable predictions in shape of the well IPR can be achieved by engineers using single well models to study the probability of water or gas conning or to model transient well test results. Care must be exercised. therefore the predicted flow rates should not be considered as precise and the relevant reservoir engineer should be consulted to establish the accuracy. in extrapolating the shape of the IPR and determining the effects by well operations and production may have on skin. Once this achieved.
Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 2.b.Jones Pseudo-pressure equation (m(pR) .4.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 44 OF 295 ENI S. IPR Selection 0 REVISION In developing representative IPRs for a field. the appropriate IPR model needs to be selected based upon the anticipated production conditions.IPR Selection Based on Reservoir Type The appropriate technique will also depend on the reservoir data that is available which is function of the development stage. The selection of an IPR model based on this is given in table 2.Jones or radial flow equation with turbulence Blount .A.3. 2 Recommended IPR Model Linear PI or radial flow equation Vogel or Fetkovich Standing or linear PI if very damaged (S > 7) Composite Vogel and linear Water zone High rate undersaturated oil High rate saturated oil Gas wells WC > 90% q > 25stb/d/ft q > 25stb/d/ft Pwf < pb .m(pwf) = Aq + Bq ) Omit B if only single rate data available Table 2. These are summarised again in the following table: Type Of Well Undersaturated oil Saturated oil Damaged saturated oil Undersaturated oil at pR but saturated at pwf Wells producing oil and water Producing Conditions Pwf > pb Pwf < pb Pwf < pb S > +3 PR > pb Pwf < pb WC > 0 Use as above for the appropriate oil and linear PI or radial flow equation for water Linear PI or radial flow equation Blount .p.A .
Validate results.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 45 OF 295 ENI S. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 0 REVISION Radial Flow Equation Technical Evaluations Prospect evaluation Exploration well results Development Planning Conceptual design. Table 2. large field Conceptual design. Validate results. Guestimate potential. use for future IPRs. Validate results. Define model input Primary method. Evaluate completion results. lift/ compression) Workover planning Revised development plan Predict future IPR Predict future IPR Primary method. Highlight damage risks. Highlight damage risks. Evaluate completion methods. Extrapolate test results. Validate results. Highlight damage risks.IPR Selection Based on Development Stage . large field Detailed design. Validate reservoir model results. Optimising Operations/ Workover Well performance assessment Field studies (forecasts/ artificial lift. Primary method for current IPRs.A. Validate results and skin assumptions. Highlight damage risks. Highlight damage risks. If available. - Reservoir Model IPRs - Empirical IPRs Validate interpretation Validate results.p. Primary method for post workover IPR Primary method for post workover IPR. small field/single well Development plan Primary method. - Primary method. Primary method. Validate results. Identify variations geographically with time. small field/single well Primary method. Primary method.B . Detailed design. Estimate skin and determine cause. Primary method for current IPRs.
results in utilising the following interrelated topics: • • • Phase behaviour. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 2. In the vast majority of cases there are sufficient data to use the tuned black oil model correlation method. Application of these concepts. Outflow Performance Tubing Performance 0 REVISION Predicting fluid flow behaviour in tubing involves combining the basic fundamentals of mass momentum and energy conservation with complex mass transfer phenomena for multicomponent hydrocarbon mixtures.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 46 OF 295 ENI S. the ‘black oil’ model and the ‘compositional’ model.A. Flowing Temperature prediction. The relationship between pressure and temperature drop in wells and PVT behaviour is complex. The variable composition model requires performing vapour-liquid equilibrium (VLE) or ‘flash’ calculations to determine the amount and composition of both the gas and liquid phases.4. Untuned black oil model empirical correlations. Interpolate from compositional simulation data. • • • • Interpolate directly from experimental data. In general the black oil model is easier to use than the compositional model. Refer to the following sections. Oil Well .p.4. Each model uses differing methods to determine the densities and viscosities for each phase and interfacial surface tension. The black oil model assumes a constant composition for the liquid phase and accounts for mass transfer using the parameters gas-oil ratio and formation volume factor. The methods for predicting pressure and temperature drops are addressed in the following sections. PVT Relationships There are two PVT methods used in the prediction of mass transfer between oil and gas.PVT Relationships With most modern software programmes there are four methods of obtaining PVT properties for oil wells which are listed in order of preference. Pressure drop prediction. . Pressure drop is determined using empirical and semi-empirical correlations and carried out on computer software programmes. Tuned black oil model empirical correlations.
Wells in which hydrate formation can occur. reservoir or production reasons.PVT Relationships In software programmes. in gas wells it has amore significant effect. temperature profiles may be specified in five ways: • • • • • Linear profile based on measured or assumed wellhead and bottom-hole temperatures. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 0 REVISION The approach adopted when choosing the appropriate method for each application should be: a) Use the black oil model flash vaporisation lab data if they are available. However. Use the tuned empirical correlations for black oil model variables if the appropriate although limited experimental data are available.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 47 OF 295 ENI S. Use black oil model parameters generated from results of compositional simulation if it has been performed for incidental reasons. Profile based on a specified heat transfer coefficient. e. Profile based on a simplified version of the complete rigorous calculation involving correlating parameter for which there is unavailable information but with data which are available. Do not use untuned black oil model empirical correlations unless the data available cannot justify a more rigorous method. Profile based on adiabatic heat transfer. Profile based on conservation of energy that utilises complex wellbore heat transfer calculations. .e. The linear profile is the most widely used due to the complexity of heat transfer calculations in conjunction with the lack of sufficient measured data. PVT properties for gas and gas condensate wells must be described with the compositional model. the error has been found to be less than 15% in overall temperature drop in typical wells. Black oil models parameters should never be used to predict PVT properties for gas or gas condensate systems.A. b) c) d) Gas/Gas Condensate Wells .g. Although the linear approach is unrealistic. Some wells have produced fluids with special properties that are very sensitive to temperatures and more complex heat transfer calculations are required. Do not use differential separation data since it is not representative of the vaporisation that occurs in the tubing. constant temperature throughout the length of the string. i.p. but only if experimental data is not available. These are: • • • Gas condensate wells with retrograde condensate. Temperature Drop Calculation Predicting the temperature loss in the wellbore as a function of depth and time is necessary to determine PVT properties for use in calculating pressure drop. Some software programmes. High pour point crude oil wells.
A. the variables such as p and v in the pressure gradient equation are normally averages for the gas and liquid phases present. f pv 2 dp = dL FR 2g c D is the pressure gradient caused by wall friction. 2.JJ Eq.GG is the pressure gradient caused by the hydrostatic head of potential energy of the multiphase liquid. therefore. Eq. tubing diameter and to a lesser extent PVT properties. Gas and oil phases normally flow at different speeds which is the phenomenon referred to as slippage.p. The friction losses are the remainder of the pressure loss and are more significant in gas wells with acceleration effects being negligible except when near to atmospheric pressure. In multi-phase systems. 2.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 48 OF 295 ENI S. 2. often accounting for 90% of the pressure drop. The equation consists of three components and can be expressed as follows: dp dp dp dp = + + dL dL HYD dL FR dL ACC where: pgsin θ dp = gc dL HYD Eq. Flow patterns are governed primarily by the flow rates of each phase. This slippage causes an additional accumulation of liquid in the tubing which is termed liquid hold up. The amount of slippage that occurs is dependent upon the geometrical distribution of the gas and liquid in the pipe.II . referred to as the ‘flow pattern’ or ‘flow regime’. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 Pressure Drop Calculation 0 REVISION Calculating pressure drop in tubing involve numerical integration of the steady-state pressure gradient equation over the entire tubing length.HH Eq. The hydrostatic head is the most predominant component of the pressure gradient in oil wells. 2. the pressure is sensitive to the relative amounts of gas and liquid present at any location in the tubing. p vdv dp = g c dL dL ACC is the pressure gradient caused by fluid acceleration.
can be identified using flow pattern maps.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 49 OF 295 ENI S. therefore.25psi/ft 0. Some software programmes use all the correlations available and the more recent promising mechanical models can be added. it is seen that prediction of pressure drop in multi-phase systems is complex and has led to the development of different correlations to be used. liquid hold up pressure gradient is limited by the ranges of data used in their development and no single method can be applied universally. Although bubble. no single method has been universally been accepted. The accuracy of existing correlations for predicting flow pattern.1 .36psi/ft 0.p.20psi/ft 0. The most common maps are empirically derived with coordinates based on dimensionless groups of variables that include volumetric flow rates. Typical pressure gradients in wells for different flow patterns are: • • • • Single phase oil Bubble flow Slug flow Mist flow = = = = 0. 0 REVISION Considering the above. referred to as mechanical models. More recent models developed based on flow mechanisms and conservation principles. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 Typical flow patterns are: • • • • • Annular flow Churn flow Slug flow Bubble flow Liquid flow. it is possible for oil and gas wells to include all flow patterns in addition to single phase liquid and gas.A. The early developed correlations assumed the flow as homogeneous mixtures ignoring liquid hold up effects. Although many of these have been successful to some degree.2psi/ft Hence. . Flow Patterns Transition between the various flow patterns. offer more potential for accurate predictions but these are not readily accepted as standard design methods as yet. Subsequent correlations were developed to predict liquid hold up but most of these first required an empirical correlation or ‘map’ to predict the flow pattern. it is obvious that the pressure at each point in the well and. as listed in the previous section. slug and churn floe predominate in oil wells. diameter and PVT properties. the total pressure drop is very dependent on flow pattern.0. Attempts were made to compensate for these errors in the equations by single empirical derived friction factor.
9 273.597 1. Mechanised models where slippage.8 41.3 159.000 1.6 134.2 Relative Performance Factor..c presents the overall results below: Absolute Average Error 101.3 102.r and figure 2.8 110. Oil Well Correlations Oil well correlations for predicting pressure gradients in oil wells have been published and those most widely accepted in the Industry are: • • • • • Duns and Ros (1963) Hagedorn and Brown (1967) Orkiszewski (1967) Aziz. table 2.7 Table 2.3 12. Slip flow correlations where slippage is considered but not flow pattern.9 116.C .3 -28.A.7 190. performed using the TUFFP well databank consisting of 1775 flowing well surveys covering a broad range of production variables and pressure loss methods were also evaluated for each flow pattern. Covier and Fogarasi (1972) Beggs and Brill (1973). RPC 1.2 78.Evaluation of Pressure Loss Methods Using TUFFP Well Databank . Flow pattern dependent correlations where liquid hold up and flow pattern are considered.4 207.404 1.178 1.3 217.198 1.4 177.s. Ansari recently performed an evaluation of the most widely used correlations and his own proposed mechanistic model. these correlations predict different pressure drops for the same application. however any one of these may be successful in a given field.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 50 OF 295 ENI S.5 33.4 -20.132 1. flow pattern and basic flow mechanisms are considered.p.9 178. Validation and actual field data are the only means of choosing a pressure loss method but this is not available at the time of designing the completions. As illustrated in figure 2.666 Method Ansari Hagbr Dunros Aziz Begbril Orkis Mukbr Average Error 9. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 Classification Of Methods 0 REVISION Published methods of multi-phase flow pressure gradients in wells can be placed into one of three general categories based on the assumptions from which the method was developed: • • • • Homogeneous flow correlations where slippage and flow pattern are not considered.8 Standard Deviation 163.9 151.
The applicability of the various methods is compared in table 2.Comparison Lift Curves for High Gas-Oil Ratio Well .A. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 0 REVISION Selecting the best prediction method from table 2. Figure 2.p.R .d.c is not appropriate as the best statistical results do not guarantee the best performance for a specific application. The choice must be made on experience.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 51 OF 295 ENI S.
p.S .ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 52 OF 295 ENI S. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 0 REVISION Figure 2.A.Comparison of Lift Curves for Low Gas-Oil Ratio Well .
water. Developed to optimise gas lift in o highly deviated wells (>70 ) in Claymore field. Gives consistent results for all flow patterns and TCP minimum. water. This is the preferred correlation in the absence of other data. air Slip Flow Field Oil. water. gas Air. Conservative. Needs to be verified through use. Good where several flow patterns exist. gas. Optimistic. Tends to over-predict pressure drop. Should be used with caution. air Does not predict a TCP minimum. Tends to under-predict pressure drop. water Hagedorn Brown (1965) and Slip Flow Good in some flow patterns Good Oil. Does not predict a TPC minimum. water. water Beggs (1973) and Beggs and Brill with Palmer Cornish (1976) Flow Pattern Dependent Homogeneous Fair Good in some flow patterns Good Laboratory Field (annular flow) Laboratory . water Oil. Conservative. experiment al plus field data Field experiment Air. Liquid hold up prediction can be less than for no slip flow. Hagedorn and Brown with Griffith Bubble and restriction on hold up Kleyweg et al Occidental mod (1983) Orkiszewski (1967) Flow Pattern Dependent Field experiment Oil. Gas Duns (1963) and Ros Flow Pattern Dependent Oil.Applicability of Pressure Loss Prediction Methods Gas And Gas Condensate Correlations For gas and gas condensate wells the following methods are frequently used: • • • • Cullender and Smith Single phase gas with modified gravities Multi-phase flow correlations Gray correlation. Aziz et al (!972) Flow Pattern Dependent Brill Flow Pattern Variable depending on version Poor Laboratory and field Laboratory Oil.A. tends to under-predict pressure drop. Poor in bubble flow. Gas Flow Pattern Dependent Fair Some Hagedorn and Brown data. can cause convergence problems in computing algorithm. Should be avoided unless well is highly deviated. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 0 REVISION Method Ansari 1963) (TUFFP Category Mechanistic Model Accuracy Good Data N/A Fluids N/A Application/Comments Appears a little conservative. gas Table 2. Optimistic. Usually not applicable for completion design. Tends to over-predict pressure drop.D. field Oil. water. Developed for deviated wells but tends to over-predict.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 53 OF 295 ENI S. Should not be used except for similar conditions. .p. Developed for deviated wells but tends to significantly over-predict pressure drop.
the Gray correlation is generally recommended although the Ansari model mat prove to be even more accurate since it includes a good model for predicting pressure gradient in annular flow which is the most predominant in gas wells. this is never usually available at the time that the completions are designed. accounting for deviation by simply using the sine in the hydrostatic component of the pressure gradient equation may not be adequate in these cases. even in low liquid rates. In gas wells. If these reach sonic velocity. it is recommended that tubing size be assessed using these methods in addition to lift curve methods and that the most conservative approach be adopted. wells can quickly ‘load up’ over a few weeks if it is not correctly sized.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 54 OF 295 ENI S. For sub-critical flow. Care is needed in the selection of tubing in that. For wells producing high gas-water or gas-condensate ratios. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 0 REVISION As with oil wells. Although any of the correlations can be used. the Gray correlation is recommended based on the work with ‘Reinicke et al’ but results should be used with caution. simple empirical correlations such as the Gilbert equation are sufficiently accurate. The geometry of these restrictions varies from a simple reduced diameter axial flow path to a tortuous complex path. as the difference between the predicted pressure drops is generally greater than the effect of the deviation itself. either the Beggs and Brill correlation or a mechanistic model would be necessary. . In any study. For critical flow. critical flow occurs. differing correlations should not be used for different deviations.A. Effect Of Deviation Angle Nowadays most wells of interest to operators are directional or deviated wells. liquid loading can also be predicted using simplified methods presented with Turner et al which are independent of pressure drop calculations. When a multiphase mixture flows through a restriction. If this is the case. Flow pattern and liquid hold up is very dependent on deviation angle. the phase velocities dramatically increase. vertical correlations perform accurately enough for wells o greater than 45 . The accuracy of pressure drop calculations in these circumstances using correlations developed for vertical is obviously extremely questionable. Effect Of Restrictions Most oil and gas wells contain some types of flow control devices in the completion which choke flow. validation with field data is the only reliable method for determining the most appropriate correlation and. behaviour is very dependent on geometry and a simple Bernoulli type equation with a discharge coefficient is recommended.p. These methods have been reviewed by Lea and Tighe. similarly. For wells with o deviations up to 45 from vertical.
The most common points for erosion is where there are restrictions which cause increased velocities. Systematically varying the system parameters allows comparison of the incremental effects on production and these can.5.. Flow Rate Prediction Following the establishment of both the IPR and TPC.t ).p. Continuing in this manner provides information on which decisions can be made on optimum well configuration or optimum operating conditions. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 Effect Of Erosion 0 REVISION Erosion in completions occurs when there are high velocities and if there are solids particles in the flow stream. Figure 2.A.Combining IPR and TPC Curves .4. etc. in turn. Changing the system parameters like the tubing ID. to determine the threshold velocities for erosion to occur in piping systems but the validity of this for all conditions is questionable. 2.T . they must be presented in the same plot from which the intersection of the lines can be used to predict the flow rate of a well at given set of stable flow conditions (Refer to figure 2. The API have published a method in API RP 14E. be forecast and analysed for cost/benefit of the completion options. will effect either or both the IPR and TPC and in consequence alters the production rate. reservoir pressure. GLR. This section describes this analysis.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 55 OF 295 ENI S.
Figure 2.v. On the other hand.p. slippage occurs. The TCP.t through figure 2. the well will flow at a stable rate defined as the natural flow point. The optimum tubing size.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 56 OF 295 ENI S.t.A. the IPR and TPC curves intersect well to the right of the minimum and. As liquid velocities tend toward zero. i. At low flow rates. occurs due to the gas and liquid phase velocities differ at low flow rates. the hydrostatic component in the total pressure drop predominates.U. but without incurring excessive friction losses. will give an intersection well to the right of the pmin and out of the flat portion of the TCP curve. If the intersection is either close to or to the left of the minimum (Refer to Figure).Combined IPR and TPC Curves Under Unstable Conditions . In figure 2. under these conditions.e. this is generally not a problem. the start of unstable flow conditions is rarely known especially with large size tubing. as the flow rate increases. Pmin. the well will tend to head and flow at unstable conditions due to the cyclic build up of liquid and periodic slug lifting by accumulated pressure of the trapped gas. Because of the inaccuracies of the two phase flow correlations and the difficulty in obtaining reliable data in this region. the gas escapes from the well and the hydrostatic gradient approaches the static pressure of the liquid. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 Natural Flow Point 0 REVISION The characteristic ‘J’ shape of the TPC means there can be several possible intersections with the IPR as shown in figure 2. As the usual aim is to keep to the right of Pmin. or GLR. the hydrostatic component reduces due the gas lift effect while the friction component increases until the minimum is reached when the friction pressure drop exactly offsets the decrease in hydrostatic pressure drop.
a smaller size tubing or artificial lift system should be considered. Using smaller tubing may result in higher frictional pressure drops and if this reduces flow rates to below uneconomic levels. it is necessary to kick the well off quickly.p. Figure 2. or to the left of the minimum. the intersection point to the left is always unstable and the well will either die or progressively produce more fluid until it reaches the stable flow point. a tapered tubing string may be a consideration.A. the flow will become increasingly unstable and wells with large size tubing will die quickly.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 57 OF 295 ENI S.v). Where the curves intersect at two rates (Refer to figure 2. To obtain flow at these conditions. whereas small tubing may sustain unsteady flow until the IPR and TPC curves become almost tangential.V . Where the IPR and TCP curves intersect close to. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 0 REVISION If the natural flow point is in the unstable region.IPR and TPC Curves with Two Apparent Intersection Points .
they can be used to compare the deliverability of the various methods.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 58 OF 295 ENI S.e. Figure 2. the TPC is displaced as a result of the effect of the gas on the density. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 Artificial Lift Effects 0 REVISION A well will not flow naturally if the IPR and TPC curves do not intersect and in this case artificial lift could be used to provide the pressure differential between the curves (Refer to figure 2.Combining Pump Performance and TCP Curves .A. In gas lifted wells. By generating an outflow performance curve for each potential system. In a pumping well. the displacement is dependent on the pump performance curve (i. to consider the effect of downhole gas separation on pump outflow performance. pump differential versus rate) which is plotted below the well performance curves as shown in figure 2. velocity and flow regime in the tubing above the operating gas lift valve. It is necessary when carrying out this analysis. From this an economic cost analysis can be produced to analyse capital and operating cost differences.W.w.p. An artificial lift system places an injection of energy into the flow system which displaces the TPC curve downwards.w). This results in a combined outflow performance curve termed the pump intake curve.
x below). it is apparent that gas lift will maximise the deliverability of good wells (PI = 2. Artificial lift is often widely used to improve flow stability and increase the production of existing producing wells. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 0 REVISION As shown in the example (figure 2.0stb/d/psi) provided there is no drawdown limitation. Figure 2.Artificial Lift Options for Deep Wells with 5 1/2ins Casing . while submersible pumping gives the maximum rate from the poorer zones (PI = 0.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 59 OF 295 ENI S. however the operating and capital costs of equipment must be justified against the incremental increase in production rate.4 to 1.5std/d/psi) provided 2 7/8ins tubing is installed.A.X .p.
analysis is still possible. Multi-Rate Drawdown A multi-rate drawdown test may be run when flow rates are unstable or there are mechanical difficulties with the surface equipment. 3. It is normal to conduct a build-up test after a drawdown test.p. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 0 REVISION 3. Types of Tests Drawdown A drawdown test entails flowing the well and analysing the pressure response as the reservoir pressure is reduced below its original pressure. This was the original definition of a drill stem test or DST. WELL TESTING INTRODUCTION The main objective when drilling an exploration well is to test and evaluate the target formation.1.1. Production Test Many options of string design are available depending on the requirements of the test and the nature of the well. 3. However. • Many designs of well testing strings are possible depending on the requirements of the test and the nature of the well and the type of flow test to be conducted but basically it consists of installing a packer tailpipe. During a test where reservoir fluids do not flow to surface. The drawdown data should also be analysed using type curves. This is termed drawdown. . packer and downhole test tools and a tubing or drill pipe string then introducing a low density fluid into the string in order to enable the well to flow through surface testing equipment which controls the flow rate. in conjunction with the build up test. it is not normal nowadays to plan a test on this basis.A. It is not usual to conduct solely a drawdown test on an exploration well as it is impossible to maintain a constant production rate throughout the test period as the well must first cleanup. separates the fluids and measures the flow rates and pressures. The normal method of investigating the reservoir is to conduct a well test.1. This is usually more applicable to gas wells but can be analysed using the Odeh-Jones plot for liquids or the Thomas-Essi plot for gas. There are two types of well test methods available: • Drill Stem Test (DST) Where Drillpipe/Tubing in combination with downhole tools is used as a short term test to evaluate the reservoir.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 60 OF 295 ENI S.
Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 Build-Up 0 REVISION A build-up test requires the reservoir to be flowed to cause a drawdown then the well is closed in to allow the pressure to increase back to. kh. is to conduct a second flow and PBU at a different rate to the first flow and PBU. IPR. The flow and shut-in periods are of the same length. and the rate dependant skin coefficient. Usually the rate is increased at each step ensuring that stabilised flow is achievable. Isochronal An isochronal test consist of a similar series of flow rates as the flow-on-flow test. The AOFP is the theoretical fluid rate at which the well would produce if the reservoir sand face was reduced to atmospheric pressure. This calculated rate is only of importance in certain countries where government bodies set the maximum rate at which the well may be produced as a proportion of this flow rate. or near to. Flow-on-Flow Conducting a flow-on-flow test entails flowing the well until the flowing pressure stabilises and then repeating this at several different rates. Deliverability A deliverability test is conducted to determine the well’s Inflow Performance Relation. From these the permeability-height product. each rate of equal duration and separated by a pressure build-up long enough to reach the stabilised reservoir pressure. . The durations of each flow period are equal. and the near wellbore skin can be analysed.A. the original pressure which is termed the pressure build-up or PBU.p. The flow rate again is increased at each step. There are three types of deliverability test: • • • Flow on Flow Test Isochronal Test The Modified Isochronal Test. Modified Isochronal The modified isochronal test is used on tight reservoirs where it takes a long time for the shut-in pressure to stabilise. This type of test is applicable to high rate gas well testing and is followed by a single pressure build up period. D. a simple form of test to evaluate the rate dependant skin coefficient. where there is a flow rate dependant skin. This is the normal type of test conducted on an oil well and can be analysed using the classic Horner Plot or superposition. and in the case of gas wells the Absolute Open Flow Potential.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 61 OF 295 ENI S. On low production rate gas wells. except the final flow period which is extended similar to the isochronal test. AOFP. This is the simplest form of deliverability test described below. The final flow period is extended to achieve a stabilised flowing pressure for defining the IPR. D.
is sometimes used to overcome the background reservoir pressure behaviour when it is a problem. also the volume of produced fluid and the effective isothermal compressibility of the system. The water can be filtered and treated with scale inhibitor. The analysis of this test is similar to a pressure build-up. based on the maximum reservoir size. It is only applicable where there is no regional aquifer support. After the injectivity test. linear with time. a short term injection test will generally not provide a good measure of the long term injectivity performance. and the pressure to which it returns. The well is produced at a constant rate until an observed pressure drop. Injectivity In these tests a fluid. Pulse testing. The reservoir volume may be estimated directly from the depletion. is the depletion. where the flowrate at one of the wells is varied in a series of steps. if required.p. is achieved. Interference An interference test is conducted to investigate the average reservoir properties and connectivity between two or more wells. the pressure fall-off is measured.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 62 OF 295 ENI S. these must therefore be of the high accuracy electronic type gauges with negligible drift. Surface readout pressure gauges should be used in this test. Very high surface injection pressures may be required in order to fracture the formation.A. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 Reservoir Limit 0 REVISION A reservoir limit test is an extended drawdown test which is conducted on closed reservoir systems to determine their volume. A well-to-well interference test is not carried out offshore at the exploration or appraisal stage as it is more applicable to developed fields. usually seawater offshore is injected to establish the formation’s injection potential and also its fracture pressure. which may also be caused by the thermal shock of the cold injection water reaching the sandface. Once a well is fractured. The difference between the initial reservoir pressure. . It is common practice to follow the extended drawdown with a pressure build-up. biocide and oxygen scavenger. which can be determined by conducting a step rate test. to provide a measurable pressure difference on the pressure gauges. The volume produced must be sufficient. It may also be conducted on a single well to determine the vertical permeability between separate reservoir zones. but is complicated by the cold water bank.
analysis can provide good data to help evaluate the productivity of the zone. it should be done in the simplest possible manner. In many cases.2. The Petroleum Engineer should discuss with the geologists and reservoir engineers about the information required and make them aware of the costs and risks involved with each method. . The second premise is that. extent of formation damage and if there is a requirement for stimulation. if testing is warranted. if possible. DST OBJECTIVE 0 REVISION A DST is conducted to determine the productivity characteristics of one specific zone. if the flowing pressure gradient in the tubing can be estimated. should only be conducted for essential data. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 3.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 63 OF 295 ENI S. such as running wireline or coil tubing through the testing string. which the company needs rather than that which is nice to have.4) and.p. The test objectives must be agreed by those who will use the results and those who will conduct the test before the test programme is prepared. therefore. actual well production rates can be accurately predicted from DST data as it shows what the well will produce against a gradually increasing back-pressure. the Petroleum Engineer should not appear to be negative but work towards obtaining essential data. They should select the easiest means of obtaining data. From this a Productivity Index (PI) or Inflow Performance Relationship (IPR) can be established (Refer to Section 2. The objectives of an exploration well test are to: • • • • • • • • Conduct the testing in a safe and efficient manner Determine the nature of the formation fluids Measure reservoir pressure and temperature Interpret reservoir permeability-height product (kh) and skin value Obtain representative formation fluid samples for laboratory analysis Define well productivity and/or injectivity investigate formation characteristics Evaluate boundary effects.A. Testing is an expensive and high risk operation and. By adopting this position. such as coring. Currently. completion practices. then actual producing rates can also be determined. avoiding any operations which entail higher risk. Such inter-disciplinary discussions should be formalised by holding a meeting (or meetings) at which these objectives are agreed and fixed. in the most cost-effective manner. The starting premise should be that testing is not required unless it is clearly justified.
In the following description. The tools should be dressed with elastomers suitable for the operating environment. tools which are required both in production tests and conventional tests are included. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 3. but similarly. the bottom of the test string should be 100ft above the top perforation to allow production logging of the interval. test location and relevant planning will dictate which is the most suitable test string configuration to be used.p.A.25ins ID. well tests are performed inside a 7ins production liner. If conditions allow. Some generic test strings used for testing from various installations are shown overleaf. refer to the Company ‘Well Test Manual’.3. considering packer fluids. if applicable. In general. the test string should be kept as simple as possible to reduce the risk of mechanical failure. conventional test tools will usually be used with a packer set inside the 9 /8ins casing. . the tools should be full opening to allow production logging across perforated intervals. temperature and the stimulation programme. smaller test tools will be required. In larger production casing sizes the same tools will be used with a larger packer. DST STRING 0 REVISION The well testing objectives. The list of tools is not exhaustive. prognosed production fluids. using full opening test tools with a 2. However. For more detailed information on well test strings and tooling. In smaller casing sizes. For a 5 barefoot test. and other tools may be included.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 64 OF 295 ENI S.
Typical Jack Up Test String With TCP Guns On Permanent Packer .A.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 65 OF 295 ENI S. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 0 REVISION Figure 3.p.A.
Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 0 REVISION Figure 3.p.B .ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 66 OF 295 ENI S.A.Typical Test String With TCP Guns Stabbed Through Production Packer .
ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 67 OF 295 ENI S.A.Typical Jack Up Test String With Retrievable Packer . Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 0 REVISION Figure 3.p.C .
D .Typical Semi-Submersible Test String .A.Retrievable Packer .p.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 68 OF 295 ENI S. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 0 REVISION Figure 3.
ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 69 OF 295 ENI S. Barriers/Permeability Changes/Fluid Contacts. Reservoir Pressure. Wellbore Damage. psig Flowing time. Damage ratio method permits estimation of what the well should make without damage. RESERVOIR CHARACTERISTICS 0 REVISION Reservoir characteristics that may be estimated from DST analysis include: • • • • • • Average Effective Permeability. These reservoir anomalies affect the slope of the pressure build-up plot. stb/day Fluid viscosity. Also effective permeability rather than absolute permeability is obtained. or calculated if not.p. An estimate of how far away.4. 3.A where: pws t’ ∆t’ pi q µ B k h = = = = = + = = = Measured pressure in the wellbore during the build-up. 3. reservoir bbl/stb/day Formation permeability. They usually require substantiating data to differentiate one from the other. cp Formation volume factor.A. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 3. mins Shut-in time. Can be detected if the reservoir is small and the test is conducted properly. the DST if properly applied is an essential tool for the Completions Engineer.4.6qµB t ′−∆t ′ log10 kh ∆t ′ Eq. the DST can ‘see’. from the wellbore. This may be better than core permeability since much greater volume is averaged. ft . md Formation thickness. Pressure Build-Up Analysis Horner Equation Transient pressure analysis is based on the Horner pressure build-up equation which describes the re-pressuring of the wellbore area during the shut-in period as the formation fluids moves into the ‘pressure sink’ created by the flowing portion of the test: p ws =p i − 162.1. Depletion. psig Rate of flow. Radius Of Investigation. In summary. mins Shut-in reservoir pressure. Measured if shut-in time is adequate.
figure 3.B The constant m is representative of a given fluid having physical properties µB flowing at a rate q through a formation having physical properties kh. Experience has formulated some certain rules of thumb to help determine the shut-in time.e. since ‘after-flow’ or wellbore storage effects cause deviation from the straight line in the early region. In a multi-phase flow period DST. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 0 REVISION Conditions which must be assumed during the build-up period for eq. Horner Build-Up Plot t ′ + ∆t ′ p Assuming these conditions are met. t’p can be assumed to be the total of the flowing times with very little error.A. The ideal plot is where all the points align up in a straight line but is seldom found in actuality. then a plot of pws versus log10 ∆t ′ should yield a straight line and the slope (m) of the straight line should be: m= 162. .e shows an idealised Horner Plot with the pressure chart showing very simply how t’p and formation pressure pws at varied shut-in times ∆t’ are picked from the chart and related to the Horner plot. With equal flow periods on a multiple flow period DST.the slope m of the straight line is numerically the difference between the t’p t ′ + ∆t ′ t ′ +∆t ′ p =0 and at log10 p pressure value at log10 ∆t ′ ∆t ′ =1. depends on reservoir and fluid characteristics. In figure 3. As a rule of thumb. however little error is caused by assuming that t’p is the time of the flowing period immediately before the particular shut-in period. 3.a to be strictly correct are: • • • • • Radial flow Homogenous formation Steady state conditions Infinite reservoir Single phase flow. One of these is that generally the shut-in pressure must reach at least 65% of the static pressure. selecting a value for t’p creates some problem mathematically.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 70 OF 295 ENI S. four points are the fewest to determine a straight line. . An important issue is the time required to approach steady state or straight line conditions. and flow conditions.0 If the points are plotted on semi-log paper. m is the change in pressure over one log cycle. 3. this is usually done.p. With a very short initial flow period. Usually pws is determined at 5min intervals along the shut-in pressure curve. Most of these conditions are met on a typical DST although steady state flow is the condition which may cause most concern particularly at early shut-in time.6qµB kh Eq.
If the net thickness is not available then kh or formation capacity is determined: kh= 162. and formation volume. can be calculated:: k= 162. Figure 3. can be estimated from available correlations if the gravity of the crude oil and the gas-oil ratio are determined by measurement. 3.D . must be the net thickness of the productive zone.6qµB mh Eq. determined from electric log analysis. Formation thickness.Idealised Horner Build-Up Plot Reservoir Parameters Obtained By Build-Up Analysis Average permeability. k.C Parameters. however.A. h. viscosity. µ.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 71 OF 295 ENI S.E . no analysis of the plot was possible unless the straight line was achieved. B. sometimes reasonable estimates of formation parameters could be made. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 0 REVISION Prior to type curve matching methods.p.6qµB m Eq. 3.
Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 If all the parameters are unknown. this factor cannot be readily applied to specific formations to obtain to show the potential of the zone would be if there was no damage. pi. s. Wellbore damage. both the 1 build-up and 2 build-up plots extrapolate to the same static pressure lending confidence to the analysis. psi (final flowing pressure) Fluid compressibility.p. t ′ + ∆t ′ t ′ + ∆t ′ p = 1. mins . psi Formation pressure at flow time T. transmissibility kh 162.E Static reservoir pressure.F However.e. ′ ∆t st nd In figure 3. log10 ∆t ′ = 0 . is presented by the empirical equation for the dimensionless value.0. to the theoretical flow rate without damage: DR= qt qa An another equation. This was carried on a stage further introducing the concept of damage ratio.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 72 OF 295 ENI S.85 p i −p ff kt′ p Eq. fraction Viscosity of reservoir pressure.G where: pi pff c Φ µ rw k t’p = = = = = = = = Shut-in reservoir pressure. ins Effective permeability. 3.151 i ff −log m φµcrw Eq. or as shown in figure 3. md Flowing time. 3. q.6q = m µB 0 kh is determined: µB REVISION Eq. for calculation of DR based on the skin factor relation of Hurst and van Everdingen.85 s=1. cp Well bore radius. 3. vol/vol/psi Formation porosity. If the second build-up pressure was lower than st the 1 .A.0 . them depletion may have occurred. is: DR= m log φµcr 2 w −2.e. skin factor: kt ′ p −p p +2. which compares the flow rate observed. is obtained by extrapolating the Horner straight line to an ‘infinite’ shut-in time: At infinite shut-in time. DR.
they can be detected by a change in shape of the slope of the of the line. viscosity. Figure 3. If it is seen that the rate of flow q remains constant. If the barrier is a straight line as A .A’ in figure 3. If changes occur within the radius of investigation of the DST. This must be resolved through other geologic or reservoir information.A.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 73 OF 295 ENI S. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 Reservoir And Fluid Anomaly Indications 0 REVISION Many times the Horner build-up equation does not hold up under actual case. can cause a change in the slope of the Horner plot. therefore the fact that a change of slope appears on the build-up plot. a change in permeability.F . Fluid viscosities change by phase change or type of fluid.f . then the build-up slope will change by a factor of 2. seeing a gas-liquid contact from a down-structure well is a much more likely possibility. leaves open the question of what caused the anomaly.p. Permeability may change due to natural lensing or formation damage but it is doubtful that formation damage would affect sufficient volume of formation to be detected as a change of slope on the build-up plot.Effect of a Fault . ‘Seeing’ a gas-liquid contact from an up-structure well would be difficult due to the normally short radius of investigation through a gas column. A sealing barrier such as a fault or permeability pinchout can cause a change of slope m. Alternatively. then permeability k or fluid viscosity µ are likely suspects for change as the wave of increasing pressure travels towards the wellbore. or existence of a barrier. In summary.
hrs Exponential integral value. can be calculated: − 3. or a fluid contact. if the extrapolated pressure from a second build-up is lower than the initial pressure of the first build-up. however there is plenty of field examples to prove that it occurs. then depletion may be the cause. 3.76×10 φµc 4 Eq.A. Obviously. . a reservoir would need to be extremely small for this to occur.H Radius Of Investigation The following equation from Van Poollen may be used to estimate the radius of investigation of any particular DST in an infinite radial flow system: ri = where: ri tp = = Radius of investigation Flow time. the deeper the radius of investigation. This effect is termed supercharged which may be caused by leak off of filtrate over-pressuring the formation. hrs Shut-in time at the point of slope change. whether it be a barrier. ra. Depletion As explained previously. mins kt i 5. the longer the flowing time. Another reason that a recorded initial shut-in pressure may be higher than true shut-in pressure. ft Flow time.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 74 OF 295 ENI S.p. This effect needs to be diagnosed to confirm supercharging. 3.I Needless to point out. change of permeability.303ln p − E ∆t kt p a where: ra Tp ∆ta -E = = = = Distance to anomaly. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 0 REVISION The distance to the anomaly. Eq.793r 2 a φµc t + ∆t a =2.
For the Horner build-up plot.A. the values of Z and µ can be found from standard testing literature. during the build-up is t ′ + ∆t ′ p plotted versus ∆t ′ as shown in figure 3. 3. estimated wellbore AOFP for a gas zone are: Permeability: k= where: Z Qg Tf mg = = = = Gas deviation factor Rate of flow. R = ( F + 460) Horner build-up slope for gas well 1637 q g Tf µZ mg h Eq.J . R. the square of the formation pressure. Z. and the absolute temperature factor.Gas well Equations for permeability. If the SG of the gas is known.Typical Horner Plot . Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 Reservoir Parameters .Gaseous System 0 REVISION When conducting DSTs of gas zones.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 75 OF 295 ENI S. Figure 3.g. mscf/day o o Formation temperature. pws.p. flow rate is calculated in scf/day or if in large quantities mscf/d.G . This involves correcting for deviation of the reservoir gas from the o perfect gas law using the gas deviation factor.
65 p Absolute Open Flow Potential Using the single point back-pressure test method: AOF= where: n is an exponent varying between 0.0Max AOF= Eq. 3.A. McKinley and Earlougher-Kersch methods have applications with McKinley being the easiest to use but the others perhaps more accurate. Ramey. It should be iterated that the Horner should be used whenever possible and type curves used to in picking correct straight line by indicating when wellbore storage effects have ended.5Max AOF= qg p i p 2 i −p 2 ff Eq.5 and 1. 3. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 Wellbore Damage: 2 2 p −p i ff EDR = 1 m g log t + 2. . 3. Although these methods are generally used on longer term production tests.p. 3.M If n=0.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 76 OF 295 ENI S.K (p qg p 2 i 2 ( ) n Eq.N Type Curve Methods There are several type curve methods are available for analysing early time DST data from pressure transient tests.L 2 n i −p i ) If n=1.0 qg p 2 i p 2 i −p 2 ff 0 REVISION Eq. they can be used on DST analysis to salvage some information from a test where sufficient data not available to obtain a straight line.
H . the tester valve is then closed to allow the formation fluids to build-up back up to reservoir pressure which is recorded on pressure recorders or gauges. the tester valve is then reopened to conduct the planned flow and shut-in periods in accordance to the programme requirements to obtain other additional data and verification.p.3. . a fluid is circulated into the tubing to provide an underbalance to allow the well to flow after perforating.DST Typical Sequence of Events 3.4. When the string is successfully installed and all pressure and function testing is completed. Figure 3.4. After a suitable time (usually 1 /2 times the flow period).2. The downhole tester valve is opened to flow the well to clean up perforating debris and invasive fluids from the formation.3).A. The bevelled mule shoe also facilities pulling wireline tools back into the test string. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 3. Basics Of DST Operations 0 REVISION In simple terms. the mule shoe allows entry into the packer bore. a DST is carried out by running test tools in a BHA on a test string in the hole (Refer to previous Section 3. Bevelled Mule Shoe If the test is being conducted in a liner the mule shoe makes it easier to enter the liner top. If testing with a permanent packer. 1 A description of the tools used in DST test strings are outlined in the next section. figure 3. Common Test Tools Description Refer to the Company ‘Well Test Manual’.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 77 OF 295 ENI S.h shows a typical schematic of a simple single flow operational sequence.
This valve should ideally contain a time delay on closing.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 78 OF 295 ENI S. The valve usually has a flapper type closure mechanism which opens to allow fluid bypass but closes when applying tubing pressure for testing purposes. The DST tools can then be laid out and the upper part of the safety joint run back in the hole with fishing jar to allow more powerful jarring action.p. should be chosen for firing the guns Safety Joint Installed above a retrievable packer. it allows the test string above this tool to be recovered in the event the packer becomes stuck in the hole. This item may also be used if wireline retrievable gauges are run below the packer. This feature is important when running tubing conveyed perforating guns which are actuated by pressure. It is automatically closed when sufficient weight is set down on the packer. The valve is locked open on the first application of annulus pressure which is during the first cycling of the tester valve. hence reducing the risk of excessive pressure surges or swabbing. Gauge Case (Bundle Carrier) The carrier allows pressure and temperature recorders to be run below or above the packer and sense either annulus or tubing pressures and temperatures. rather than the static bottom-hole pressure. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 Perforated Joint/Ported Sub 0 REVISION The perforated joint or ported sub allows wellbore fluids to enter the test string if the tubing conveyed perforating system is used. Retrievable Test Packer The packer isolates the interval to be tested from the fluid in the annulus. to prevent pressuring up of the closed sump below the packer during packer setting. . Circulating Valve (Bypass Valve) This tool is run in conjunction with retrievable packers to allow fluid bypass while running in and pulling out of hole.A. It operates by manipulating the string (usually a combination of reciprocation and rotation) to unscrew and the upper part of the string retrieved. It should be set by turning to the right and includes a hydraulic hold-down mechanism to prevent the tool from being pumped up the hole under the influence of differential pressure from below the packer. a large incremental pressure. Pipe Tester Valve A pipe tester valve is used in conjunction with a tester valve which can be run in the open position in order to allow the string to self fill as it is installed. If the valve does not have a delay on closing. It can also be used to equalise differential pressures across packers at the end of the test.
Eni-Agip’s preference is the annulus operated version. delivering an impact to the stuck tools. They are non-rotating to allow torque for setting packers or operating the safety joint. Downhole Tester Valve The downhole tester valve provides a seal from pressure from above and below. 3 . It is actuated by applying a pre-set annulus pressure which shears a disc or pins allowing a mandrel to move and expose the circulating ports. It also has a secondary function as a safety valve. One example of this is a system where the reversing sub is combined with two ball valves to make a single shot sampler/safety valve.A. Single Operation Reversing Sub Produced fluids may be reversed out of the test string and the well killed using this tool.p.8 lbs/ft) should be sufficient weight on the packer. Normally two stands of 4 /4 ins drill collars (46. This tool is available in either annulus or tubing pressure operated versions. This enables the tubing to be pressure tested several times while running in hole. The valve is operated by pressuring up on the annulus. Once the tool has been operated it cannot be reset. The jar allows an overpull to be taken on the string which is then suddenly released. The tubing operated versions require several pressure cycles before the valve is shifted into the circulating position.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 79 OF 295 ENI S. and therefore must only be used at the end of the test. Multiple Operation Circulating Valve This tool enables the circulation of fluids closer to the tester valve whenever necessary as it can be opened or closed on demand and is generally used to install an underbalance fluid for brining in the well. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 Hydraulic Jar 0 REVISION The jar is run to aid in freeing the packer if it becomes stuck. providing better pressure data. This reversing sub can also be used in combination with a test valve module if a further safety valve is required. Slip Joint These allow the tubing string to expand and contract in the longitudinal axis due to changes in temperature and pressure. but should be regarded as the minimum. The downhole test valve allows downhole shut in of the well so that after-flow effects are minimised. Drill Collar Drill collars are required to provide a weight to set the packer.
Tools Utilised With Permanent Packer Systems A permanent or permanent retrievable packer arrangement is used on a Jack-up or Land Rig test utilising a production Xmas tree. A control line is run to the valve through a conventional tubing hanger/spool arrangement. preventing the sump from being pressured up due to the volume of the seal assembly entering the packer. If the tester valve can be run in the open position then this valve is not required. 3. Fluted Hanger The fluted hanger lands off and sits in the wear bushing of the wellhead and is adjustable to allow the SSTT assembly to be correctly positioned in the BOP stack so that when the SSTT is disconnected the shear rams can close above the disconnect point. In addition.4. they need to be tested and fully certified.4. The valve is very similar to the circulating valve (bypass valve) except it is closed by annulus pressure instead of weight. The designs can be like a modified lubricator valve or a completion type subsurface safety valve. Sub-Sea Test Tools Used On Semi-Submersibles The sub-sea test tree (SSTT) assembly includes a fluted hanger. they must be checked with each mating item of equipment before use. If crossovers have to be manufactured.A. The tool equalises pressure between the sump and the annulus when the tester valve is closed.5.p. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 Crossovers 0 REVISION Crossovers warrant special attention. Pressure Operated Bypass Valve This allows the test string to be stabbed into the packer in an un-performed well. 3. they are of the utmost importance as they connect every piece of equipment in the test string which have differing threads. slick joint. Some versions required by other operators are installed in the string immediately below a surface test tree in the BOP stack arrangement but this does not provide safety in the ultimate catastrophic situation when there is a collision by another vessel. Tubing Hanger This will be spaced out to position the packer seal assembly into the packer and land off in the tubing hanger spool. Sub-Surface Safety Valve A subsurface safety valve is often run for safety being placed at least 100 ft below the mud line. and sub-sea test tree.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 80 OF 295 ENI S.4. .
allowing safe killing of the well without hydraulic control if unlatched. contain annulus pressure. This valve eliminates the need to have a long lubricator to accommodate wireline tools above the surface test tree swab valve.6. The lubricator valve is hydraulic operated through a second umbilical line and should be either a fail closed or. Lubricator Valve The lubricator valve is run one stand of tubing below the surface test tree.p.4. if in an emergency disconnection. It is hydraulic operated and must be a fail-open or fail-in-position valve. the shut off of pressure in the test string and. Deep Water Tools Retainer Valve The retainer valve is installed immediately above the SSTT on tests in extremely deep waters to prevent large volumes of well fluids leaking into the sea in the event of a disconnect. It also acts as a safety device when. the valve assembly consisting of two fail safe closed valves and. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 Slick Joint (Polished Joint) 0 REVISION The slick joint (usually 5ins OD) is installed above the fluted hanger and has a smooth (slick) outside diameter around which the BOP pipe rams can close and sustain annulus pressure for DST tool operation or. When closed it will contain pressure from both above and below. but open when a differential pressure is applied from above. fail-in-position valve. When closed it will contain pressure from both above and below 3. it can prevent the full unloading of the contents in the landing string after closing of the SSTT. The SSTT is constructed in two parts. The latch contains the control ports for the hydraulic actuation of the valves and the latch head. The valves hold pressure from below. a latch assembly.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 81 OF 295 ENI S. Sub-Sea Test Tree The SSTT is a fail-safe sea floor master valve which provides two functions. . regaining control without killing the well. in the event of a gas escape at surface. disconnection of the landing string from the test string due to an emergency situation or for bad weather.A. It is usually run in conjunction with a deep water SSTT described below. The slick joint should be positioned to allow the two bottom sets of pipe rams to be closed on it and also allow the blind rams to close above the disconnect point of the SSTT. under most circumstances be reconnected. The control umbilical is connected to the top of the latch which can.
The slow actuation is due to hydraulic lag time when bleeding off the control line against friction and the hydrostatic head of the control fluid. they may be programmed to ‘sleep’ while the string is being installed as it wastes memory. 3. If a programme required deepwater test tools. when they change to very short time intervals where this facility is required.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 82 OF 295 ENI S. the use of dynamic positioning vessels require much faster SSTT unlatching than that available with the normal hydraulic system on an SSTT. with the modern type gauges.4. The Hydraulic Deep Water Actuator is a fast response controller for the deepwater SSTT and retainer valve. The fluid is vented into the annulus or an atmospheric tank to reduce the lag time and reducing closure time to seconds. with the large memory electronic gauges on the market today. termed ‘smart’ gauges can be programmed to collect data at moderate time intervals until they detect a quick pressure change. . This system uses hydraulic power from accumulators on the tree controlled electrically from surface (MUX). Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 Deep Water SSTT 0 REVISION As exploration moves into deeper and remote Subsea locations.A. However. this is not necessary as they have sufficient memory to record at fast intervals throughout even long term tests without running out of memory. Other gauges. The gauges record the events from initial running of the test string to well kill and retrieval procedures although. such as opening or shutting in the well. The problem then is to dump or ignore data points which are not relevant to data gathering. This is overcome by use of the deepwater SSTT which has an Electro-Hydraulic control system. Downhole Pressure Recording The complete sequence of events are recorded by bottom-hole pressure gauges and some flow data may also be recorded on surface read-out systems.p.7. the tool operating procedures would be included in the test programme.
routine are less common as each well normally has individual measuring capability. Choke size. tubing pressures. Transient pressure tests require a higher degree of sophistication and are used to determine formation damage or stimulation related to an individual well. security of power fluid or gas lift gas supply. On oil wells.A. aid in selections of well completion methods and design of artificial lift systems and production facilities. Well production tests may be classified as follows: • • • Periodic Productivity or Deliverability Transient Pressure. Potential production problems should be recognised in order that they can be properly handled such as emulsions. Gas production is reported as well as condensate and water. scale build-up in perforations. to determine the capability of the well under various degrees of pressure drawdown. Descriptions of some of these tests are described earlier in this section. with careful recording of the conditions is essential. . Periodic production tests have the purpose of determining the relative quantities of oil. volume and hetrogenities. details of artificial lift system operation and all other effects on the well producing capability should be recorded. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 3. they provide periodic physical well conditions where unexpected changes such as extraneous water or gas production may highlight well or reservoir problems. or recompletion. Results may set production allowables. Engineers need to make themselves familiar with the various test procedures and know their advantages and limitations in order for them to fully utilise them to optimise the design of completions.1. sand build-up. gas and water produced under normal producing conditions. It is important that the well is produced at its normal conditions as flow rate will vary the relative quantities of oil. the wells must be produced at the normal rates. Productivity or deliverability tests are usually performed on initial completion. gas and water.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 83 OF 295 ENI S.5. 3. results are reported as oil production rate. or reservoir parameters such as permeability. WELL PRODUCTION TEST OBJECTIVES 0 REVISION The main objective of well production varies from simple determination of the amount and type of fluids produced to sophisticated transient pressure determinations of reservoir parameters and hetrogenities. Abnormal production declines may also indicate artificial lift problems. They serve as an aid in well and reservoir operation and meeting legal and regulatory requirements. On gas wells. Periodic Tests Production tests are carried out routinely to physically measure oil. Similar to oil wells. pressure. etc. well tests are tools which can be used to help establish the condition of production or injection wells. From the well and reservoir viewpoint.p. Accuracy in measurement. casing pressure. gas and water produced by individual wells under normal producing conditions.5. gas-oil ratio and water oil ratio as a percentage of water in the total liquid stream. etc. In short.
and is a result of the pressure disturbance moving out towards the outer boundary of the drainage area. Productivity Or Deliverability Tests 0 REVISION This test is different from the periodic test in that the liquid flow performance can be determined empirically using measured flow rates at varying bottom-hole pressure drawdowns and they do not rely on mathematical descriptions of the flow process. therefore can be used as an indicator of well flow conditions or a basis for simple comparison of completion effectiveness among wells in a particular reservoir.3.1 above. . Gas well deliverability tests are designed to establish AOFP. they permit prediction of what a well could produce at other pressure drawdowns. decreases exponentially with time. Transient flow occurs when the well is initially opened or has a significant rate change. pwf.4. This is then used to predict the PI (Refer to Section 2.4. During this the production conditions at the wellbore change rapidly and the BHPF.5.5. they can be classified as: • • Flow-After-Flow Isochronal. Most DSTs and many production tests are conducted under transient flow conditions and consequently the observed productivity will often appear greater than that seen in long term production. Commonly used deliverability tests for oil wells may be classified as: • • • • Productivity Index Inflow Performance Flow-After-Flow Isochronal.A.4.4.1 or in Section 3. Termed multi-point backpressure tests.1 or in Section 3. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 3. With a limited number of measurements. Transient Tests Radial Flow Characteristics Flow from reservoirs are characterised as transient. They do not permit calculation of formation permeability or the degree of abnormal flow restrictions (formation damage) near the wellbore. These tests are described in Section 2.p.4. 3.2. pseudo-steady state or steady state flow. They do. These tests are described in Section 2. This means that corrections need to made to compensate for transient flow behaviour as well as for skin effects. depending on whether the pressure response initiated by opening the well had reached the drainage area boundary and on the type of boundary.1) and are successfully applied to non-Darcy conditions. however include the effects of formation damage.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 84 OF 295 ENI S.1 above.
and an estimate can be made of the reservoir volume in communication with the wellbore. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 0 REVISION When the flow reaches the outer boundary.g.Advances in Well Test Analysis.1 . However if it is a no-flow boundary. then PR will decline purely as a result of depletion and the flow is then termed pseudo-steady state.p. Pressure Drawdown Testing Pressure drawdown tests have advantages over pressure build-up tests.steady state. the well is stabilised and pseudo-steady state flow equations can be used to predict the long term deliverability of a well. Multiple rate analysis can be applied to several flow situations. Transient pressure tests are classified as: • • • • • Pressure Build-up Pressure Drawdown Multiple Rate Injectivity or Fall-off Multiple Well Interference. Transient pressure testing and calculation procedures for oil wells are particularly well covered in SPE Monograph No.A. the ‘Reservoir Limit Test’ can be used to estimate if there is sufficient hydrocarbons in place to justify additional wells in a new reservoir. Multiple rate tests have the advantage of providing transient test data without the need for well shut-in. The rate changes must be significant enough to effect the transient pressure behaviour.4. 5 . production continues as the test is being carried out.DST tests. Therefore. They minimise wellbore storage effects and phase segregation effects so provide good results where build-up or drawdown tests would not. then PR will not alter with time and is termed steady state. Accurate flow rate and pressure measurement is essential and more critical than on buildup or drawdown tests.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 85 OF 295 ENI S. uncontrolled variable rates. a series of constant rates or constant bottom-hole pressure with continually changing flow rate. If the boundary is a constant pressure boundary. Pressure Build-Up Tests Pressure build-up tests are described earlier in Section 3. Multiple Rate Testing Pressure build-up or drawdown tests require a constant flow rate which is sometimes difficult to achieve over a long period of time. . The analysis procedure is direct and simple but computations are more troublesome and are often conducted by computer software. When the BHFP appears to be constant or declining slowly proportionally with time. Each type presents certain advantages and limitations and factors which are important for reasonable results. flow becomes steady state or pseudo. e.
. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 Injection Well Tests 0 REVISION Injection well transient testing is basically simple provide the mobility of the injected fluids is similar to the in-situ fluids. The injectivity parallels the drawdown test and a pressure fall-off test parallels the build-up test.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 86 OF 295 ENI S.p. therefore. Orientation and length of vertical fractures may be estimated through pulse testing and reservoir simulation techniques. The responses may be very small. A pulse test is an interference test that provides data by changing production rate in a cyclic manner to produce short term pressure pulses which are measured in the observation well(s). Interference Tests (multiple well testing) In interference testing. accurate pressure monitoring devices are required. Calculation of reservoir characteristics is similar. Using computers the data can be analysed to give a description of the variation in reservoir properties according to location. Vertical pulse testing may indicate vertical formation continuity. A stepped rate injectivity test can be carried out to estimate fracture pressure in an injection well which is useful in tertiary flood applications to avoid accidental injection of expensive fluid into uncontrolled fractures. a long duration rate change in one well creates a pressure change in an observation well that is related to reservoir characteristics.A.
This is a design which provides the greatest flexibility to live well intervention operations as the completion is full bore allowing regular tools to be run and used in the sump area eliminating the use of through-tubing devices. This larger tubing reduces friction losses.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 87 OF 295 ENI S. the popularity of the mono-bore completion. plugging back. The size of the production casing is primarily dictated to accommodate the optimum size of completion tubing and equipment. production casing sizes are typically 7ins or 1 3 5 5 /2ins. DRILLING CONSIDERATIONS These are primarily the responsibility of drilling engineering. A drilled through casing and liner.a shows these various casing profile options. . In low rate and deep land wells. offshore.A.p. The production casing is usually: • • A full string of pipe cemented at TD.g.1. The production casing is the string. If there were a choice. it is a completion design parameter. 4. through which the well will be completed and controlled throughout its life. 10 /4ins. anchor the completion equipment and act as a safety barrier to the uncontrolled emission of hydrocarbons. the production casing size may be swedged to accommodate larger tubing and completion equipment (i. as is obvious in deep high pressure wells. These manuals provide the policies and design procedures for both exploration and development wells. figure 4. etc. In highly productive wells. etc. where a large size tubing mates to a similar size liner utilising a PBR or similar type system. However today. there is a limit to the size of production casing which can be provided. 4. The decision whether to run a liner or not primarily lies with the drilling engineer however the impact of the completion needs to thoroughly considered. CASING DESIGN Refer to the Drilling Design and Casing Design Manuals for all casing design policies and criteria. the completions engineer would always prefer the largest casing possible to provide the flexibility in well interventions. Casing Profile The surface and intermediate casings are designed to provide well control and borehole stability during the drilling operation.1. In high rate and offshore wells. and/or artificial lift systems. however the production department provide the design parameters to the drilling engineers. e.e. or combination of strings. The production casing and its cement isolates the producing intervals to facilitate reservoir control.1. However. which may have required a workover in previous times. This gives live well interventions much more scope to conduct stimulation. 9 /8ins and 7ins are the common sizes (Refer to the Casing Design Manual). workovers and re-completions with artificial lift. TRSSV’s with control line) near surface or a hot string of isolated pipe. straddle packing-off gassed out zones. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 0 REVISION 4.
Casing Specifications Design criteria and casing specifications are fully described in the ‘Casing Design Manual’.Casing Schemes and Terminology 4.2.p. Casing exposed to H2S will have a specification in accordance to NACE MR01-75. The crossover between the two different materials must be selected in order that there is no localised erosion. Casing above the packer is exposed to the completion or packer fluid which must be chemically dosed to prevent any corrosion although. . in general.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 88 OF 295 ENI S. production casing or liner below the production packer or liner hanger PBR system. will have similar specification to the tubing in order to combat corrosion from produced fluids.A. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 0 REVISION Figure 4. it is Eni-Agip’s policy to use standard service production casing where there is a casing tubing annulus as the tubing is designed for the well environment and isolates the production casing. Specifically with regard to metallurgy. only a biocide and possibly corrosion inhibitor needs to be added.A .1. However.
The method of drilling horizontal wells also needs to be considered by the drilling engineer as the turning radius will be dependant upon the completion method employed. WELL DEVIATION SURVEYS A well directional survey must be carried out to ensure the tolerances for well deviation and doglegs have not been exceeded as the installation of the completion is sensitive to angle and getting fairly large diameter tubing through casing doglegs as well as placing extreme bending loads on the tubing.p. gravel packing and the completion process as wireline cannot be used above this limit. Casing Connections 0 REVISION Where an annulus is to be used as a production conduit for gas production. This is due to the poor performance of the API Buttress Thread. To help overcome these problems. however this does not satisfy all situations.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 89 OF 295 ENI S. For instance. . Any anomalies found in the deviation survey needs to be communicated to the completion engineer to ensure that all potential problems are analysed and will not impede the completion of the well. many operators drill ‘S’ shaped profiles with drop off through the pay zone for critical wells.000psi. Completion tools or equipment operated by different methods must be adopted. the turning radius for an open hole or liner may be short but a long radius is required for gravel packing or installation of pre-packed screens.2. Some operators specify premium connections if the wellhead pressure is to be above 5.3. 4.A. An overpull is often required especially if the casing is not cemented into the previous shoe.250psi.1. injection or gas lift supply. Refer to the ‘Directional Control and Surveying Procedures Manual’ and the ‘Casing Design Manual’. a premium thread connection should be used to reduce the risk of leakage especially if the pressure is above circa 1. Although the drilling of highly deviated and horizontal wells is now commonplace it should o be noted that in wells above 70 deviation. Usually production casing is held in tension but this may not be adequate enough in high temperature and thermal wells to prevent buckling. there are problems with logging. cementing. The main problem in casing design of producing wells over exploration wells is the increased temperature. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 4.
fluid properties and pressures. A minimum lap of 100m is normal. Dissolution of evaporites by the cement. 4. channelling and micro-annuli may be formed which are paths through which the formation fluids can flow. o Cement strength loss due to high temperatures (<230 F) when using normal Portland cement.3.1. Cement dehydration opposite high temperature zones. formation properties. excessive movement due to pressure or temperature and external corrosion.A. Many operators prefer to cement up inside the previous casing shoe to provide even greater support and protection. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 4. Poor formation bonding due to lack of mud cake removal. if there is poor bonding between the outside of the pipe and the cement. This problem can be alleviated by thorough planning.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 90 OF 295 ENI S. A cement job which does not successfully flush out the drilling fluid in front of the cement and. Poor cement procedure leading to gas entry or cross flow. and bonding between the cement and the formation. and to isolate higher weaker formations from well pressures. the list of recommendations given below will help improve the success of zonal isolation: • • • • • • Drill the hole within gauge. however this is not possible in high rate offshore wells where temperature increase in the casing/tubing annulus on the trapped fluids causes pressure which cannot be bled off at surface. Condition the mud correctly. CASING CEMENTING CONSIDERATIONS 0 REVISION The primary function of the cement around the production casing is to isolate individual formations to provide selectivity. Production Casing Cementing The minimum cement column height requirements will depend upon local regulations. The cement column should extend well past (circa 500m) above the highest pay zone but also cover aquifers or any other potential producing zones.3.p. . temperatures. eccentric loading. Thermal wells are normally cemented to surface to avoid this problem. In general. therefore is allowed to bleed off at the casing shoe. The main problems associated with primary cementing are: • • • • • • • Channelling of the cement and bypassing of mud due to pipe eccentricity and poor fluid rheology. The cement also acts to support and protect the casing from buckling. using a good fluids programme and adopting good operating procedures. Use the highest practical displacement velocities. Use cement with an API high temperature/high pressure fluid loss of less than 3 3 200cm /30 min for high permeability oil wells and 50cm /30min for gas wells. Failure to cement washouts. Use a 500ft low viscosity spacer with surfactant if required. Use a thin slurry at the front end. prevent movement of formation fluids along the well path for reservoir control. operating conditions.
Pipe reciprocation should be used or otherwise rotation. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 • • • • • • 4. This is carried out by running a cement bond log (CBL-VDL) which is an acoustic device that looks for channelling. the tool averages the condition around the circumference of the casing and sometimes fails to detect small channels. which uses eight helically mounted sensors to scan the cement and provides a measurement of the compressive strength which should in theory give a better detection. The cement column should extend 1.200ft above the top of the pay zone. . Centralise the casing in the pay zone.3. Ensure quality control of the cement formulation is strict. formation/liner or casing/liner annulus. the quality of the cement should be evaluated. 0 REVISION Design the programme so as the cement has a minimum contact time of 4 mins at all points where zonal isolation is needed.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 91 OF 295 ENI S. Generally there is ambivalence shown towards the results of cement bond evaluation logs and unless they show extremely poor conditions.p.2.A. Production Casing Cement Evaluation To ensure that the cement programme has been successfully isolated the formation/casing. they tend to be ignored especially as repair of cement jobs is very difficult to conduct successfully. However. A more recent tool is the Schlumberger CET. Use batch mixing whenever possible.
particularly: • • • Reservoir and wellbore interface. it is necessary to describe the basic architectural components of a completion. Casing and tubing interface. WELL COMPLETION DESIGN The aim of this section is now to develop the structure of the completion based on the work carried out according to the previous sections.p. The completion structure and procedures.A. Refer to figure 5. that satisfy the above. it should never be forgotten that. location. . in principle.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 92 OF 295 ENI S. completions should be kept as simple in design as possible to minimise the installation risks and costs. anticipated well problems and cost. the conceptual designs have been developed and the optimum well performance determined. now need to be developed. This means that the SOR must be established. Tubing and wellhead interface. To enable this process. environment. Although the tools are available to provide the most complex completions to solve severe production or mechanical problems and meet the specific objectives. However this cannot be carried out in isolation as well servicing and workover philosophies as well as the completion installation process need to be considered.a The solutions adopted will vary according on the well objectives. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 0 REVISION 5. artificial lift method (if applicable).
A.A .ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 93 OF 295 ENI S.p.Completion Design Interface Classification Options . Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 0 REVISION Figure 5.
1. etc. FACTORS INFLUENCING COMPLETION DESIGN Reservoir Considerations Production Zone Isolation 0 REVISION Consideration of reservoir management and regulatory requirements will determine the zonal isolation in thick pay zones (<30m) or multiple-zone completions. Special attention must be given to layers with great in permeability variations to determine differential depletion. e. The effects of partial peforating need to be considered on the well IPR. however for the short term gain there may be increased penalties later with increased gas or water production which may need to be plugged off by a well intervention. With zones of have significant different inflow performance characteristics.b below. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 5. The effect of bridge plug setting and completion equipment lengths on zonal isolation must be considered as they may demand longer separation intervals.1. 5. by using a multiple-string completion. They should be treated as a normal pay zone which will be left unperforated.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 94 OF 295 ENI S. It is obviously economically attractive to perforate high permeable sections close to fluid contacts. Wells with gas cap or water drive reservoirs which need to be produced at controlled rates may also be candidates for a multiple completion. or as more likely. The downside of using multiple completions is there complexity. This can be achieved by drilling a well into each zone which is extremely costly.g. they may be inadvertently isolated behind a liner lap or shoe track.A. between production packers. Minimum Zone Separation The main cementing service companies are able to provide information on the minimum separation by good cement between zones for effective hydraulic under differential depletion conditions. then it may be more economic to segregate production. cost and installation. Secondary Targets Potential secondary or re-completion targets need to be identified and included in the SOR because if they are not considered. .p. A guideline chart for recommended isolation depth is shown in Fig figure 5. These aspects need to be considered as does perforating the lower sections in downdip wells in flank and bottom water drive reservoirs. If fracture stimulation is planned the separation distance is approximately three times greater. Distance From Fluid Contacts The distance of producing interval from fluid contacts may influence the offtake rate and the perforating policy.1.
Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 0 REVISION Figure 5. and underbalanced if desired. To create an underbalance for other runs. 10 and 15ft and through tubing guns 20.Guideline for Length of Cemented Interval Required for Zonal Isolation Interval Length The interval length should be determined by reservoir requirements as perforating lengths can be adjusted to suit.B .ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 95 OF 295 ENI S. Casing guns standard perforating lengths are 5. The use of tubing conveyed means that great lengths can be installed and fired simultaneously. the well needs to flowed which carries a risk of the guns being ‘blown’ up the hole. . Wireline guns are run and fired sequentially therefore only the first perforations can be carried out with a static underbalance. although deploying and retrieving these long lengths may impact on safety and needs use of a safe deployment method. 30 and 40ft. however one (or more sections) can be partially loaded.A.p. This is particularly useful on perforated horizontal wells.
Safety Considerations Safety of the personnel and well site installation are paramount in completion design and the completion procedures. Downhole packers in the completion string which anchor the tubing are barriers used to protect the annulus from well pressures and corrosion from well fluids although operationally they also isolate gas lift gas or pump power fluids from formation pressures in gas lift and pump completions.1. perforated completions should be used over open hole for well control as the casing. is a mechanical barrier which is safer for BOP removal.2. Entry into liner laps in high angles are also problematic. The type of production packer selected is dependent upon its application and installation method due to hole angle.1 for the Eni-Agip Company policy on the use of packers. To this end it is important to carry out the procedures to prepare the well by cleaning it and displacing to clean completion fluids and checking the internal drift.p.2. It is essential that sufficient clearance is available to allow the completion to fit comfortably inside the casing profile. Whenever possible and economical. this may mean running of a tapered casing string to accommodate the TRSV and control line. Refer to section 8.1.3. whether it is single trip.A.2. Mechanical Considerations 0 REVISION The main mechanical influence on completion design is the casing profile and deviation discussed previously in sections 4. Downhole safety valves are installed as per the En-Agip company policy given in section 8. etc.1 and 4. . With completions large tubing sizes. once it is tested. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 5.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 96 OF 295 ENI S. Modern compact or high performance wellheads are preferred over the traditional spool systems as the completion may be installed with out BOP removal (Refer to the ‘Drilling Design Manual’). 5.1. especially when running the completion from a moving floater so consideration needs to be given to the procedure or by using an automatic mule shoe.
c). Open Hole Completions Their use is predominately in thick carbonate or hard sandstone reservoirs that produce from fracture systems or thin permeable streaks which are difficult to identify on logs and are easily damaged by drilling and cementing operations. An open hole completions can subsequently be converted to a liner completion to overcome the selectivity problem.A. They maximise the fracture intersections and inflow potential due to the large surface area if drilling and completion damage is avoided. Slotted pipe Wire wrapped screens Open hole gravel packs Perforated completions. However they provide little or no selectivity in reservoir management to reduce unwanted water or gas production. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 5.2.a): • • Open hole completions Uncemented liner completions.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 97 OF 295 ENI S. The decision process depends on four key issues: • • • • Is there a risk of causing damage to well productivity with a cased and perforated completion ? Is zonal selectivity required ? Is fracture stimulation required ? Is there any potential sand production ? . A hole is now drilled through the formation exposing it to the wellbore. The well is now completed with no casing set across the formation (Refer to figure 5.p. the method of completion entails drilling down to a depth just above the producing formation and setting the production casing.1. Standard perforated Fracture Stimulation Cased hole gravel packs • 5. Often referred to as a ‘barefoot’ completions.2. RESERVOIR-WELLBORE INTERFACE 0 REVISION There are three reservoir-wellbore interface options which can be further classified into seven major alternatives in completion architecture (Refer to figure 5.
sand screen or is gravel packed (Refer to figure 5.C .2. The formation is supported by a either a slotted liner. Although they have some advantages over open hole. they still have the same selectivity and undesired fluid problems. The selection process depends on four key issues is the same as for open hole completions: • • • • Is there a risk of causing damage to well productivity with a cased and perforated completion ? Is zonal selectivity required ? Is fracture stimulation required ? Is there any potential sand production ? .c).ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 98 OF 295 ENI S.p.Open Hole and Uncemented Liner Interface Options 5. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 0 REVISION Figure 5.2. Uncemented Liner Completions Uncemented liners are used to overcome production problems associated with open hole completions and to extend their application to other types of formations.A.
1.016mm. External Gravel pack An open hole gravel pack is used where the sands are too fine or abrasive for a plain screen. A slot width that would retain the coarsest 10% of the sand is common practice in heavy oil wells with coarser slots for light oil wells. The location of the packer and packer tailpipe. length of blank pipe. volumes. etc.1. fluid viscosity and control objectives.5ins on OD) and whether centralisers should be expandable.p. Is gravel packing more suitable alternative ? • • • For open hole gravel packs. reserve volume. or millable. and how the LCM can be subsequently removed before gravel packing. however carries more risk than a cased hole gravel pack. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 0 REVISION If a slotted liner or plain screen is to be used.A. Slot width requirement which is dependent on the sand size and stability. The slot widths can range between 0. coarse sands would readily flow onto the screen forming a rubble zone. . Clearance required for washover (1 . and finer slots or pre-packed screens for filtering and for uniform sized sands. The open hole is under-reamed to remove drilling damage and to create a larger annulus for the filter sized gravel to pack against the formation wall. The stability of the hole during under-reaming and the limitations this may impose on hole angle and screen length. Type of gravel packer and will it double as the production packer ? Slotted Liner This type of completion entails a liner with flow slots machined throughout its length installed below the production casing. A slotted liner is used where there is a risk of wellbore instability to maintain a bore through the formation which otherwise might collapse and plug off all production.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 99 OF 295 ENI S. solid type. Wire Wrapped Screen A plain wire wrapped screen is used either as a simple filter to strain out small amounts of intermittently produced sand from a relatively stable formation or as a sand retention screen where high permeability. It also helps in liquid lift due to the smaller flow area. the following additional issues need to be considered: • • • • Loss circulation control during under-reaming and tripping. When properly installed. Gravel pack design with regard to grain size. it is the most effective sand control measure for weak sandstones and unconsolidated rocks. a designer must also consider: • • Whether to use the more expensive and finer wire wrapped screen or slotted pipe.254 .
Standard Perforated Casing Completions These are used when the rock is reasonably stable and permeable.2. through tubing guns or TCP. casing guns.3. a large flow area must be achieved by using ‘big hole’ charges with the maximum shot density (dependent on gun size).ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 100 OF 295 ENI S. shot density. e. high shot density. Perforating underbalance may also improved perforation clean-up. the deliverability requirements and method of perforating. etc. with the gravel forced into the perforations holding the formation sand in place.A. Type of formation and if special perforating techniques are required.e. Perforated Completions 0 REVISION This type of completions are the most common world-wide due to the selectivity. There are three subdivisions. Since the gravel has an finite permeability. ultra deep penetration or stimulation treatments. Cased Hole Gravel Pack Cased hole gravel pack completions are used to control sand production in perforated completions.d). with the shot density dependent upon the vertical permeability and layer frequency. . flexibility. the cased hole gravel is placed between the cased hole and the sand screen. The key issues in cased hole completion design are: • • • • Perforated interval selection. Unlike the open hole gravel pack. i. Effective zonal isolation due to cement quality and distance between zones. increased safety and convenience that they provide. underbalance or overbalance. gun type. fracture stimulation and cased hole gravel pack (Refer to figure 5. The risk in fracture stimulation is that the fractures will more than likely not be contained within the pay zone and the casing cementing programme completion equipment rating. ideally.g. standard. Fracture Stimulation Fracture stimulation is used to increase the effective sandface area and to provide a high permeability flow path to the wellbore increasing the IPR from low permeability rocks (<25md). Completion fluids programme selection with regard to fluid quality and formation damage. The deep penetrating charges are desired to perforate through the damage zone cause by the drilling or completing process.p. lower costs. would need to be designed with the additional loading of the stimulation operation. and perforating method. Deep penetrating perforating charges are generally used especially in hard rock. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 5.
p. Multi-Zone Completions There are four main methods of completing multi-zone wells (Refer to figure 5.Perforated Casing Interface Options 5.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 101 OF 295 ENI S.e): • • Commingled production allowing all zones to produce together. Sequential zonal production through live well intervention methods by re-completion.D .A. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 0 REVISION Figure 5.2. Single string multi-zone segregated production by initial (or eventual) commingling by sequential (or alternating) production.4. • • . Multi-string (dual) multi-zone segregated production using parallel strings using concentric strings.
p. etc. Some operators use the casing tubing annulus as another flow conduit but this is subject to individual operator philosophy and regulatory rules dictating. to economics. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 Commingled Production 0 REVISION Commingled production is only allowable is limited instances where there are no reservoir management problems and regulatory rules allow. An option is to conduct a workover pulling the tubing and re-completing by moving the packer depth upwards. In this method. Downhole chokes or regulators can be installed to control flow from each zone when commingling to prevent cross-flow. If zones are close together. reservoir management and regulatory requirements. the zones are depleted from the bottom upwards and temporarily suspended or abandoned sequentially and then the next higher zone completed. Either parallel strings or concentric strings can be used. but generally they are not economic as they are too restrictive of well capacity. completion designers prefer to use single string/single zone completion methods for mutli-zone situations. however. Concentric strings may yield higher flow capability but obviously no downhole safety valve can be installed in the outer tubing. If artificial lift is required parallel strings would normally be needed. Single String Multi-Zone Production These provide easy methods of bring on other fresh zones when the first zone experiences production problems. Dual String Multi-Zone Production Dual string multi-zone completions are often used offshore or on stacked reservoirs where the production rate is per zone is limited by inflow performance and the previous methods described above would be uneconomic. This preference is subject. . however there is a trade off in that flow efficiency of the deeper zones and depth access for artificial lift and well killing will be compromised. They may also be used for reservoir management. the initial completion can be installed to allow plugging and perforating of each zone by well intervention methods. Triple strings and indeed quadruple string have been used in the past.A.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 102 OF 295 ENI S. Sequential Zonal Production Due to its simplicity and ease of installation. They can often double an individual wells productivity for a reasonably low cost increment. by allowing commingling or individual section production at different stages in the wells life in order to maximise the full potential of the reservoir. reduce excessive gas.
Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 0 REVISION Figure 5.p.E .A.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 103 OF 295 ENI S.Multi-Zone Completions .
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STAP-P-1-M-7100 5.3. CASING-TUBING INTERFACE 0
There are three main casing-tubing interface options which have six sub-divisions (Refer to figure 5.f): • Packerless completions Anchored Unanchored Tubingless. Packer Completions Shallow set Deep set. PBR Completions Liner hanger.
Packers and PBRs are required to provide a seal between the tubing and production casing or liner for the following reasons: • • • • • • • • • To isolate the casing-tubing annulus from well fluids and pressure acting as a barrier on the annulus side. To prevent heading in the annulus improving flow conditions. Prevent annulus corrosion from well fluids. To allow the annulus to be used for supplying artificial lift fluids or injection of inhibitors. To allow the annulus to be used for production (if permitted). To isolate liner laps or casing leaks. To anchor the tubing if no tubing movement is desired. To facilitate well operations through having wireline nipples in a tailpipe, e.g. well plugging, BHP gauge positioning, etc. To protect formations from damage from well intervention or workover fluids by plugging in the tailpipe.
Some onshore low pressure wells are completed without a packer or liner PBR as the risk of damage to the wellhead, hence the risk of injury to personnel and pollution of the environment, is low. This has both advantages and disadvantages. There is one barrier less on the annulus side and the casing may be exposed to corrosive well fluids and the well pressure even if it is low and some operators do not allow this practice. On the other hand, on pump completions it is useful for venting off gas. It is essential for plunger lift completions which uses annulus gas as its energy source for unloading liquids. Tubingless completions, i.e. wells which use a small diameter casing or a tubing as the production casing, offers serious well control problems as there is no downhole safety at all. These are used on low rate, low pressure wells but are not allowed by most operating companies.
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Anchored tubing completions are used on rod pumpers to keep the tubing in tension so that the reciprocation of the rods does not cause buckling on the upstroke and stretch on the downstroke unless the well is shallow and annulus clearance is small. Packer completions are the most popular due to their flexibility in the options in which they are available and their ability to be installed in an exact position at any desired depth compared to the liner PBR. The liner PBR completion offers a larger through bore than a packer option and, therefore are used in high rate wells and mono-bore completions where full bore access is gained to he formation. The liner PBR interface should not be confused with the packer PBR system which although is exactly the same in basic design, is used for packer-tubing sealing and catering for tubing movement.
Figure 5.F - Casing-Tubing Interfaces
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STAP-P-1-M-7100 5.3.1. Packer Applications 0
Packer application with regard to completion design is addressed in this section as there are some basic features which affect the completion architecture. Although there are many varieties of packers available, there are three basic types used in completion designs: • • • Permanent Retrievable Permanent Retrievable.
Eni-Agip do not have any particular policy to the type of packer system to be used in a particular situation due to the wide range of packers available and changing technology but do operate a packer qualification system to ensure that any packer used meets with specific criteria. The packer qualification system is specified in STAP-M-1-M-5010. Retrievable Packer Systems The definition of a retrievable packer is that it is installed and retrieved on the completion tubing. They have advantages in that they can be installed in high angle wells although their operating differential pressure rating, temperature rating and bore size are less than equivalent permanent packers. It is important that designers fully consider the effects of pressure and tubing stresses on these packer systems and associated packer-tubing connections. Their packing element systems are also more sensitive to well fluids as they are more complex due to their ability to be retrieved but after redressing they can be reused. Retrievable packers tend to be used for the following applications: • • • • Completions which have relative short life span. Where there is likely to be workovers requiring full bore access. Multi-zone completions for zonal segregation. In relatively mild well conditions.
Retrievable packer setting mechanisms are by: • • • • Tubing tension Tubing compression Hydraulic pressure Tubing rotation.
Tension or compression set packers are very sensitive to tubing movement and are rarely used nowadays owing to the benefits and variety of other retrievable packers available.
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STAP-P-1-M-7100 Permanent Packer Systems 0
The definition of a permanent packer is that it is retrieved from the well by milling. Permanent packers have high differential pressure and temperature ratings and larger bores. They have many options of both tailpipe and packer-tubing attachments to cater for a large range of applications such as: • • • • • Severe or hostile operating conditions with differential pressures > 5,000psi and o temperatures in excess of 300 F and high stresses. Long life completions. Where workovers are expected to be above the packer, hence not requiring its removal which is costly. Where workovers are expected to be above the packer and the packer tailpipe can be used for plugging the well and isolating foreign fluids from the formation. Providing large bore for high rate wells.
Permanent packer setting mechanisms are by: • • • • Wireline explosive charge setting tool. Tubing tension. Hydraulic pressure by workstring setting tool or on the completion string. Tubing rotation.
Permanent Retrievable Packer Systems Permanent retrievable packers are a hybrid of the permanent style packer designed to be retrieved on a workstring without milling. They offer similar performances as permanent packers but generally have smaller bores. All the packers above can be equipped with tailpipes to accommodate wireline downhole tools such as plugs, standing valves, BHP gauges, etc. 5.3.2. Packer-Tubing Interfaces Tubing can be interfaced with packers through three basic options: • Fixed By threaded connection to the packer mandrel as with retrievable packers. Snap latch requiring an overpull to release By an anchor latch system to a permanent packer. Free moving Seal unit in a packer bore. Seal unit in a PBR attached to the packer. Travel joint. ELTSR. Limited movement Seal unit set down in a packer bore allowing upward movement only. Closed PBR or ELTSR.
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Free movement or partial movement options are used when tubing movement must be catered for otherwise it may be over-stressed due to tubing forces found through the stress analysis (Refer to section 7). However, sometimes they suffer from premature seal failure due to being dynamic seals and if the material type has not been correctly selected for the environment and pressure differentials. To help prevent seal failure, seal units can be shear pinned in a mid open or closed position to prevent seal movement until the stresses in the tubing reach a predetermined level. The selected packer-tubing interface has a significant effect on the completion architecture especially with regard to installation procedure, well kill method, stimulation treatment and type of hanger system. The most popular packer systems are those which have ‘one trip’ installation saving extra trips by workstring or wireline to install the packer before running the completion tubing. 5.3.3. Annulus Circulation Communication between the tubing and annulus on packer type completions is consider to be beneficial to efficient well killing, maintaining a fluid barrier in the annulus, circulating kill fluid before workovers or circulating in underbalance fluids well kick off. This is the same reasons for installing kill strings in packerless completions. Circulating devices, typically sliding sleeves or sliding side doors (SSDs) installed above the top packers, are used for this purpose but they have traditionally been a weak link in design when seals material was not suited to the well conditions. This would require a workover to replace the sleeve so other devices such as SPMs are used as the seals can be recovered and replaced by wireline methods. Some operators recommend that no circulation device be used which limits the flexibility of the completion and requires a tubing punch to be used for circulation before workovers. If a circulating device is undesired but the option is to kill the well by circulation rather than bullheading, a single shot shear kill valve can be installed which is operated by annulus pressure. Annulus circulation is used for: • • • • • Displace completion fluids and Kick-Off wells. Isolation/opening of producing intervals in single selective or dual selective completions. Well killing in tight formations where bullheading might be difficult. Installation of hydraulic pumps The SSD type circulating valves are normally equipped with a landing nipple profile in the upper sub to allow installation of a straddle to stop leaks or for normal wireline nipple uses.
A . Mandrel compression hangers. Ram type tension hangers. . Temperature operating range. Direct attachment to the Xmas tree (threaded).p. Operating Range.4.g. It consists of an assembly made up of casing head spools.API Temperature Classifications Above 250 F the working pressure is de-rated against temperature (down to o 72% of rating at 650 F.A. annular safety system). Downhole tubing hangers (e. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 5. mates and seals with the Xmas tree and provides annulus access to all the annuli. Wellhead specifications are laid out in API Specification 6A and are rated by: • • Maximum working pressure according to the maximum anticipated surface pressure. TUBING-WELLHEAD INTERFACE 0 REVISION The wellhead carries the casing and completion loads which is transferred to the ground through the surface casing. tubing hanger/spool and Xmas tree. oF -75 to 180 -60 to 180 -40 to 180 -20 to 180 0 to 150 0 to 180 0 to 250 -20 to 250 Table 5. o Temperature Classification K L M P S T U PSL O Tubing Hanger Systems There are five common types of tubing hanger systems available: • • • • • Slip and seal assemblies.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 109 OF 295 ENI S.4. Retained fluid rating (Refer to section 6). Product specification level PSL (Refer to API spec 6A). It also isolates the top of the tubing-casing annulus. The casing head and tubing hanger spools are now commonly replaced by compact or unitised wellheads (Refer to the ‘Drilling Design Manual’) to reduce height and improve safety as there are less BOP removals for spool installations. • • 5.1.
platform or land. Depending on the well location. subsea. downhole chemical injection lines. hence subsea tree. .ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 110 OF 295 ENI S. either wireline nipple profile or a back pressure thread for land wells.A. downhole electronic gauge cables and ESP cables which are terminated by stab seals.e.p. extended necks or annular ring seals. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 0 REVISION The main consideration in hanger selection is whether the tubing is to be placed in compression or tension and/or the number of tubings. On subsea wells vertical annular access is usually required for well plugging which requires mandrel type hangers with orientation to the guide base and. Other considerations are DHSV control lines. well plugging for tree removal needs to be considered and that is usually satisfied by having a locking profile in the hanger bores. i. Dual hanger systems also need to be orientated to mate with the dual Xmas tree. flow or supply.
A.G .p. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 0 REVISION Figure 5.API Recommended Minimum PSL for Wellhead Equipment .ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 111 OF 295 ENI S.
4 2. W.1 13 5/8 5000 9 5000 6. (psi) Btm Flange (in) Max.5 6.P.4 13 5/8 5000 5000 10000 10000 21 1/4 5000 13 5/8 5000 2.1 13 5/8 5000 13 5/8 5000 5.4 2.3 13 5/8 21 1/4 5000 13 5/8 5000 2.5 21 1/4 5000 13 5/8 21 1/4 5000 13 5/8 10000 2.A.4 2.2 21 1/4 5000 13 5/8 5000 2.2 21 1/4 5000 20 & 18 5/8 IDENTIFICATION CODE DCSO3 1.2 21 1/4 5000 20 & 18 5/8 10000 5000 5000 5000 10000 10000 2 x 2 3/8 2 x 3 1/2 3 1/2 2 x 2 3/8 2 x 2 3/8 2 x 2 3/8 DCSFSL 3 1.2 9 13 5/8 5000 13 5/8 5000 5.1 13 5/8 5000 13 5/8 5000 5. W.1 2.Eni-Agip Standard Wellhead Equipment Chart PAGE (*) Typical wellhead configuration for deep wells (po Valley) REVISION 112 OF 295 .Typical outlines for on-shore.1 13 5/8 5000 9 5000 6.1 13 5/8 5000 9 5000 6.1 13 5/8 5000 9 5000 6.2 21 1/4 5000 20 & 18 5/8 SCSO 1 1.P.P. W. W.7 6. (psi) Ref.3 13 5/8 10000 13 5/8 10000 10000 2.4 2. (psi) Ref.8 6.1 2. (psi) Top flange (in) Max. nr Diam (in) Max.4 13 5/8 13 5/8 13 5/8 21 1/4 5000 13 5/8 5000 2.1 2.2 13 5/8 5000 13 5/8 10000 5. nr Btm Flange (in) Max.2 21 1/4 5000 20 & 18 5/8 DCSO 1 1.5 2.4 2.1 13 5/8 5000 13 5/8 5000 5.1 26 3/4 3000 0 Table 5. W.2 21 1/4 5000 20 & 18 5/8 STAP-P-1-M-7100 DCSO 2 1.2 21 1/4 5000 20 & 18 5/8 (*) 24 1/2 1.nr Top flange (in) Max. W. (psi) Top flange (in) Diam tbg (in) CASING HEAD SPOOL TUBING SPOOL TUBING HANGER CASING HEAD ENI S.6 6.8 13 5/8 5000 13 5/8 5000 5. off-shore single and dual completion class -A and class -B (STAP -M-1-SS-5701E) AGIP CODE CASING HEAD SPOOL Ref. Agip Division Ref. W.3 13 5/8 5000 13 3/8 & 9 5/8 DCSFSL 1 1.2 13 5/8 5000 13 5/8 10000 5.2 21 1/4 5000 20 & 18 5/8 DCSFSL 2 1.2 21 1/4 5000 20 & 18 5/8 3° CASING HEAD SPOOL 10000 13 5/8 10000 1.6 26 3/4 3000 21 1/4 5000 2.2 13 5/8 5000 13 5/8 10000 5.4 6.B. (psi) Ref.2 13 5/8 10000 9 10000 5000 5000 5000 10000 10000 21 1/4 5000 13 5/8 5000 2.1 13 5/8 5000 13 5/8 5000 5.3 13 5/8 5000 11 7 1/16 7 1/16 7 1/16 9 21 1/4 5000 13 5/8 5000 2.5 21 1/4 5000 13 5/8 5000 2.P.9 6.p. (psi) Btm (CSG) (in) ARPO MSCL 1 2.4 2. nr Btm flange (in) Max.4 2.P.P.P. nr Max.3 13 5/8 5000 13 3/8 & 9 5/8 5000 5000 5000 5000 2 7/8 3 1/2 5 2 x 2 3/8 MSCL 2 1.1 9 1.3 13 5/8 5000 13 3/8 & 9 5/8 MSCL 3 1.P.3 9 9 9 11 7 1/16 7 1/16 7 1/16 9 13 5/8 5000 13 5/8 5000 5. (psi) Top flange (in) Max. W.
H .ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 113 OF 295 ENI S.Typical Wellhead .A. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 0 REVISION 4 3 2 1 20" 13 3/8" 9 5/8" 7" WP (psi) Section 1 Section 2 Section 3 Section 4 Section 5 3K (A) 470 620 472 - 3K (B) 470 620 472 - 5K (C) 470 625 472 - 5K (D) 470 690 670 581 - 10K (E) 470 690 660 700 - 10K (F) 510 850 700 700 -- 15K (G) 510 850 700 750 15K (H) 510 850 700 750 Figure 5.p.
Typical Unitised Wellhead and Xmas Tree .ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 114 OF 295 ENI S. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 0 REVISION Figure 5.p.I .A.
Pressure losses of the offtake system must be considered in the well deliverability analysis (Refer to Section 2. A swab valve is an essential element to enable safe rig up of vertical well interventions by wireline.3. In very high pressure wells (i. Trees for sour service or high pressure will normally have two outlets.i. • • • • • A typical Xmas tree is shown in figure 5.4. 5. production and kill wing sides. coiled tubing or snubbing services or for the BPV rod lubricator.4. Today it is normal to have to justify only a single master valve as the upper master is usually an ESD hydraulically operated valve which is at risk of undue wear and tear. the control system should be designed to close the wing valve first a few seconds before the upper master to avoid erosion or damage over a period of time to the upper master gate and seats as they are more difficult to repair.A. Xmas Trees 0 REVISION The type of Xmas tree and construction are important as they have an effect on safety and cost. The production wing. If the tree upper master valve and production wings are fully automated. A second master valve is normally required to enable repair to any of the other tree valves with two barriers in situ (the lower master valve and the tubing hanger plug).4. Metal-To-Metal Seals The purpose of metal-to-metal seals is to provide enhanced sealing where it is required in particular applications. 15.2.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 115 OF 295 ENI S. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 5.e. which is often a remote hydraulic operated valve. . The important pointers for the design engineer are: • • • Conventional composite flanged connection trees with a single master valve are the norm for land and low to moderate offshore wells.000psi) Eni-Agip normally installs an additional gate valve between the tubing spool and the Xmas tree to provide double barrier protection. Policy Metal-to-metal seals shall be used in the applications outlined in the following sections.3). The kill wing is often permanently connected up to the kill line to a permanent pump or to allow quick and easy connection of a portable pump.p. Chemical injection points are usually available at the tree or through the hanger system for downhole. choke and flowline arrangement must be configured to meet with how the well is closed-in and opened up.
000 A B & = NO C D ' ' ' & ' ' & & & ' ' ' Sweet Service Wells (with top hole temperature exceeding 100°C) Sealing WP.A.000 Gas Injectors Sealing WP. psi 5.p. psi 5. Between tubing hanger and tubing spool. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 Application 0 REVISION The following criteria is applicable to the various conditions listed in the following tables: a) b) c) d) Between producing strings/casing/tubing hanger and tubing hanger seal flange.000 10. Sweet Service Wells (with top hole temperature less than 100°C) ' = YES Sealing WP. psi 5.000 >10.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 116 OF 295 ENI S.000 >10. Oil And Gas Producers These tables apply equally to onshore and offshore wells.000 A B C D A B C D A B C D ' ' ' ' ' ' & & ' ' ' ' ' ' & ' & & ' ' ' ' & ' & & ' ' .000 10.000 10. These designations A. On control line connections.000 10. C and D will be used in the tables in the tables below.000 H2S Service Wells Sealing WP. On production casing or production liner. B. psi 5.
In this case to the stand-off can be increased but there is a penalty in lower initial production rates. where the stand-off from the water or gas zones increases the risk of producing early unwanted fluids. This means well life should be planned for the life of the field or as long as feasible (typically 7-10 years) although some unplanned problems may occur.000 A B C D ' ' &(1) ' & & ' ' (1) If H2S is present it will be a YES.5. This will have an impact of the completion architecture and establish a philosophy.000 10. psi 5. Another example is on offshore subsea fields. on an easily accessible land wells where servicing and workover methods are relatively much less costly. FUTURE CONSIDERATIONS Built into the conceptual stage. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 Water Injectors Sealing WP. . This may lend to the selection of a wireline retrievable type safety valve rather than a tubing retrievable type as in the event of failure. due to the high cost of subsea well re-entrys.A. 5. and may be problematic on platforms where space. The well location and type of development has a large impact on the techniques available and cost of well servicing and maintenance optimising the completion design around the potential problems and remedial techniques is a balancing act between effectiveness and cost. As an example of this is horizontal completions selected to maximise initial well productivity. height and weight are at a premium.000 A B C 0 REVISION D ' ' & ' & & ' ' Artificial Lift Wells (both onshore and offshore wells) Sealing WP. well servicing should be minimised as they require a floating vessel from which to deploy the re-entry system. Well servicing or workover techniques also have an impact on the well area with regard to height and lateral space. Alternately.000 10. a design life for the completion will have been established. This will have included identification of the potential reasons for well interventions or workover servicing. psi 5.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 117 OF 295 ENI S. During this process future well servicing and maintenance will also have been planned. the valve can be replaced cheaply without requiring a workover.p. servicing can be conducted almost on demand.
Also. A single string sequential completion may be employed where existing perforations can be isolated simply by installation of a bridge plug on wireline but often the perforations require to be squeezed off with cement (Refer to Section 5. the effects on the completion materials needs to be considered or alternatively to use coiled tubing for spotting of the acid before pumping to the formation. are more flexible but have higher initial capital cost.4). If the well has been planned for these operations then the completion may have been designed to accomplish these operations without pulling of the tubing in a workover operation. the effects of the pressures causing additional stresses on the tubing and packer need to be input and catered for in the tubing design process (Refer to Section 7).2.5. If acid stimulations are planned. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 5. or as producing zones become depleted and require isolating before brining on other zones. producing zones are sometimes damaged by scale build up or movement of fines. If multi-zone multi-string completions are installed then the individual zones can simply be closed off by shutting in the well at surface or. by opening and closing isolation sleeves.1. e. If the costs of upgrading the well tubulars to resist these stresses are prohibitive. This can be conducted by coiled tubing or snubbing services without killing the well. and need reperforating. If a multi-zone single string selective completion design has been installed then producing zones can be closed off or opened up by wireline techniques and hence. if there are more than one zone to a string.5. . cement squeezes and reperforating techniques are required.A. It could also increase the tubing movement and alter the choice of tubing movement device and spacing out. Stimulation 0 REVISION If future stimulation operations are required such as fracturing. The next production zone can then be perforated using through tubing perforating techniques (Refer to Section 9). Where this problem has not been planned into the completion design a complete workover to re-complete may be required.p. then straddles are sometimes utilised to keep pressure off the SCSSV and Xmas tree.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 118 OF 295 ENI S. etc. Excessive water or gas production due to fingering which requires continuing production from lower zones can be isolated by cement squeezing or if using a monobore type completion by installing a straddle across the interval on wireline or coiled tubing methods.g. 5. Formation Management As the fluid interfaces move through time and unwanted fluids are produced. the surface pressure would demand a higher pressure rated Xmas tree than required for production only.2.
Coiled Tubing. etc. Snubbing. fishing electric line). Pumps. chokes. Braided Line Braided line is used for: • • Heavy duty wireline work (installing large heavy flow controls). Well Servicing Techniques 0 REVISION Well servicing includes live well intervention services or major workovers to pull the tubing. Snubbing cannot be deployed from any floating installation. gas lift valves.) Tubing control (drifting) Calipering Swabbing BHP pressure and temperature monitoring Electronic memory logging Opening and closing of circulation devices Perforating Fishing. standing valves. Slickline Is probably the most widely used well servicing method and is used for: • • • • • • • • • • Mechanical well clean out (tubing and sump) Installation and retrieval of flow controls (plugs. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 5. Live well interventions can be conducted by: • • • • Wireline (electric line or slickline).A.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 119 OF 295 ENI S. Fishing (when slickline has been unsuccessful.p.3. Hydraulic workover cannot be deployed from any floating installation. A specialist subsea wireline technique has been developed for subsea well interventions without using the riser re-entry system which is much quicker and less costly. . Workovers can be conducted by: • • • Workovers rigs Drilling rigs Hydraulic workover units.5.
etc.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 120 OF 295 ENI S.p. Calipering Real time BHP surveys Perforating Packer setting Installing bridge plugs. multi-laterals). Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 Electric Line Electric line is used for: • • • • • • Logging (PLT. Snubbing has found a revival with platform horizontal wells where it is used to work in long horizontal sections where C/T may not be capable. multi-laterals) Fishing (generally when wireline has been unsuccessful). Stimulation (acidising) Cementing Cleaning out tubing and sump Gas lifting Logging (stiff wireline) Installing flow controls (wireline type tools) Milling Drilling (underbalance side tracking. . 0 REVISION Coiled Tubing Coiled tubing (C/T) is used for: • • • • • • • • • Snubbing Snubbing is used for: • • • • • • • Stimulation (acidising) Cementing Cleaning out tubing and sump Gas lifting Installing flow controls (wireline type tools) Milling Drilling (underbalance side tracking.A.
000 to 9. It is generally recommended to select a tubing size such that the flowing pressure. 1 . These changes are normally declining reservoir pressure and increasing water cut which will reduce flow rates. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 5. the changing conditions over the life of the well must be considered when selecting tubing size. fluid velocities decrease and reduces the frictional effects. This shifts the TPC minimum to a higher rate and. If the PI was infinite. one increase in API tubing size would double the maximum theoretical capacity.p. Where high costs workovers are involved such as on subsea wells.6.j shows that the 4 /2” tubing size should be selected to ensure the offtake exceeds the target of 8. A fixed flow rate. therefore widening the flat uncertain portion around the minimum. Whatever the case. at low rates.05 of pressure minimum. the selection process inevitably involves analysis of the gross fluid deliverability and flow stability under changing reservoir conditions to confirm that the production forecast can be met and to determine when artificial lift or compression is required. This trend is downwards towards cessation of flow and . the selection may be for an even longer period of time. depending on the inflow capability (Refer to Section 2. pmin to ensure stability.4). The example well #1 in figure 5. typically 5-8 years. OPTIMISING TUBING SIZE 0 REVISION The optimum tubing size is selected to obtain the desired offtake rates at the lowest capital and operating costs. This usually means at the maximum initial flow rate and maintaining it as long as possible. using the IPR for well 2. If the IPR curve intersects the TPCs in the region near the minimum.obviously the tubing selected for the start of production will not be the optimum size after some period of time. the reduced fluid velocities experienced in larger tubing increase the hydrostatic head because of slippage. For example. incurring early loss of potential production. however.A. replace the tubing with a smaller size or to implement artificial lift which will have associated costs. As previously mentioned. as tubing size increases. However. The optimum size of tubing is clearly the size which will be most cost effective over a number of years.000stb/d and perhaps even larger tubing could be investigated. The net result should be higher production rates only if the IPR/TPC intercept remains to the right of the TPC minimum. the maximum flow rate is obtained with /2” 7 tubing but only a slight reduction in flow rate is seen if the 2 /8” tubing is selected which gives steadier and regular flow. is greater than 1. it may be possible to accelerate offtake by the early installation of artificial lift.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 121 OF 295 ENI S. the optimum tubing size will be a compromise maximising flow rate and having steady producing 1 conditions. The following sub-sections describes the various factors and there effect on TPC. The choice at that time will be to reduce wellhead pressure. Pwf.
Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 0 REVISION Figure 5.p.Effect of Reservoir Pressure on TPC .Example Tubing Sizes on Well Deliverability Figure 5.K.A.J .ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 122 OF 295 ENI S.
g. Reservoir Pressure 0 REVISION As reservoir pressure declines over time. In these circumstances the frictional effects near surface become very dominant and can be alleviated by the use of a tapered tubing string. it collapses towards the origin. therefore reducing the potential drawdown. wells being produced or closed in which use the same flowline. above a critical point there will be a net increase in the overall pressure drop. etc. 5. However. This clearly shows how important the assumed wellhead pressure accuracy is in the well deliverability forecast and economics.6. The larger tubing sizes are more sensitive to changes in flowing wellhead pressure as the density factor dominates more than in smaller tubing.3.2. In reservoirs where significant reductions in reservoir pressure are anticipated.6.1. All of these reduce the natural flow rate of the well. . Flowing Wellhead Pressure Any flowing wellhead pressure is actually back-pressure transmitted downhole to the bottom-hole flowing pressure. as illustrated in figure 5.A. Changes in wellhead pressure can be attributed to slugging in the flowline. Also high wellhead pressures reduces the amount of free gas and compresses the remaining free gas.l shows the effect of increasing GLR. facility malfunctions. where workover costs are high to complete with smaller size tubing to ensure stability through the economic life of the well. Again this means that smaller tuning may need to be selected instead of the ideal larger tubing to cater for anticipated changes in wellhead pressure. e.k. build-up of wax. hence flow rates. figure 5. Gas-Liquid Ratio Increasing gas-liquid ratios cause a decrease in hydrostatic head and increase in frictional pressure drop which in the early stages may actually result in increased flow rates. the effect on productivity must be considered during the completion design stage to find the most cost effective method of maximising productivity. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 5.6. both which increase hydrostatic head.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 123 OF 295 ENI S. 5. leading to decreasing natural flow rates. Unstable flow conditions and eventually cessation will occur unless some other change in the system is made.p.
An example of rates which can be obtained by different artificial lift methods is illustrated in figure 5.6.A. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 0 REVISION Figure 5. bottom-hole pressure. Artificial Lift The intention of installing artificial lift is to reduce the hydrostatic head and.m. .ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 124 OF 295 ENI S.p.4. This effectively shifts the TPC downwards bringing the intersection point further towards stable flowing conditions.L . therefore.Effect of Increasing GLR 5. Refer to section 10 for the applications and comparisons of the various methods of artificial lift.
M .A.Examples of Artificial Lift Performance .ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 125 OF 295 ENI S. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 0 REVISION Figure 5.p.
ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 126 OF 295 ENI S. • External corrosion Where the likelihood of external corrosion due to electrochemical activity is high and the consequences of such corrosion are serious. there must be a generating or voltage source in a completed electrical circuit.1. if there is any likelihood of a sour corrosive influx occurring. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 0 REVISION 6. the production casing should be cathodically protected (either cathodically or by selecting a casing grade suitable for the expected corrosion environment).p. corrosion is an electrolytic process where electrical current flows during the corrosion process.A.2. In the presence of water. should be designed to withstand such an environment. it is necessary to the corrosion process. DEVELOPMENT WELLS Casing corrosion considerations for development wells can be confined to the production casing only. CONTRIBUTING FACTORS TO CORROSION Most corrosion problems which occur in oilfield production operations are due to the presence of water. during routine completion/workover operations or in the event of a tubing or wellhead leak. production casing strings are considered to be subject to corrosive environments when designing casing for a well where hydrogen sulphide (H2S) or carbon dioxide (CO2) laden reservoir fluids can be expected. consideration should be given to setting a sour service casing string before drilling into the reservoir. Any part of the production casing that is likely to be exposed to the corrosive environment. 6. 6. • Internal corrosion The well should be designed to contain any corrosive fluids (produced or injected) within the tubing string by using premium connections. To have a flow of current. During the drilling phase. They should not be produced through the casing/tubing annulus. The BOP stack and wellhead components must also be suitable for sour service. Whether it may be present in large amounts or in extremely small quantities. . it is accepted that tubing leaks and pressured annuli are a fact of life and as such. CORROSION A production well design should attempt to contain produced corrosive fluids within tubing. However.
• Hydrogen Sulphide (H2S) Hydrogen sulphide is very soluble in water and when dissolved behaves as a weak acid and usually causes pitting. It is not as corrosive as oxygen. Partial pressure <3psi generally is considered non corrosive. it forms carbonic acid. Attack due to the presence of dissolved hydrogen sulphide is referred to as ‘sour’ corrosion. It should be pointed out that H2S also can be generated by introduced microorganisms. if any. corrosion rates generally increase with increasing temperature.A. Using the partial pressure of carbon dioxide as a yardstick to predict corrosion. or in any combination may be a contributing factor to the initiation and perpetuation of corrosion: • Oxygen (O2) Oxygen dissolved in water drastically increases its corrosivity potential. Corrosion primarily caused by dissolved carbon dioxide is commonly called ‘sweet’ corrosion. the following relationships have been found: Partial pressure >30psi usually indicates high corrosion risk. temperature and chloride content.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 127 OF 295 ENI S.0ppm. The combination of H2S and CO2 is more aggressive than H2S alone and is frequently found in oilfield environments. • Temperature Like most chemical reactions. Partial pressure 3-30psi may indicates high corrosion risk. of the following conditions alone. decreases the pH of the water and increase its corrosivity. Pressure increases the solubility to lower the pH. Oxygen is less soluble in salt water than in fresh water.p. The important factors governing the solubility of carbon dioxide are pressure. but usually also results in pitting. • Carbon Dioxide (CO2) When carbon dioxide dissolves in water. . Other serious problems which may result from H2S corrosion are hydrogen blistering and sulphide stress cracking. The solubility of oxygen in water is a function of pressure. Oxygen usually causes pitting in steels. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 0 REVISION The existence. It can cause severe corrosion at very low concentrations of less than 1. temperature decreases the solubility to raise the pH. temperature and composition of the water.
6.3. Corrosion rates usually increase with velocity as the corrosion scale is removed from the casing exposing fresh metal for further corrosion. In oilfield systems. Evaluation of the SSC problem depends on the type of well being investigated. In oil wells. therefore knowledge of temperature gradients is very useful in the choice of the tubular materials since differing materials can be chosen for various depths. e.3. gas saturation with water will produce condensate water and therefore create the conditions for SSC. The H2S comes into contact with H2O which is an + essential element in this form of corrosion by freeing the H ion. Higher temperatures.g. two separate cases need to be considered. FORMS OF CORROSION The following forms of corrosion are addressed in this manual: Corrosion caused by H2S (SSC) Corrosion caused by CO2 and Cl - Corrosion caused by combinations of H2S. vertical and deviated wells: a) In vertical oil wells. impingement or cavitation.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 128 OF 295 ENI S. corrosion.1. 6. but pitting is more likely. The procedure adopted to evaluate the corrosivity of the produced fluid and the methodology used to calculate the partial pressures of H2S and CO2 will be illustrated in the following sub-sections. generally corrosion occurs only when the water cut becomes higher than 15% which is the ‘threshold’ or commonly defined as the ‘critical level’ and it is necessary to analyse the water cut profile throughout the producing life of the well. In gas wells. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 • 0 REVISION Pressure Pressure affects the rates of chemical reactions and corrosion reactions are no exception. CO2 and ClCorrosion in injection wells and the effects of pH and souring are not included. High velocities and/or the presence of suspended solids or gas bubbles can lead to erosion. .p. the primary importance of pressure is its effect on dissolved gases. • Velocity of fluids within the environment Stagnant or low velocity fluids usually give low corrosion rates. above 80°C inhibit the SSC phenomenon.A. More gas goes into solution as the pressure is increased this may in turn increase the corrosivity of the solution. Sulphide Stress Cracking (SSC) The SSC phenomenon is occurs usually at temperatures of below 80°C and with the presence of stress in the material.
: Water cut >15% for vertical wells o Water cut >1% for horizontal or highly deviated wells (>80 ) 3 3 or if the GOR >800 Nm /m The pH2S calculation is different for undersaturated and oversaturated oil. In this case the pH2S is calculated in two ways: • • Basic method.5 atm. The following formulae are used to calculate the value of pH2S (partial pressure of H2S) in both the cases of gas (or condensate gas) wells or oil wells.e. Oil Bearing Well The problem of SSC exists when there is wetting water. If the conditions specified above are verified then the pH2S can be calculated. is termed undersaturated. Firstly. . the risk of corrosion by H2S is higher since the water.0035 atm and SBHP >4. Otherwise the basic method is used. the pH2S is calculated using both methods and the higher of the two results is taken as the a reliable value.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 129 OF 295 ENI S. because the wellhead and bottom-hole pressures are higher than the bubble point pressure (Pb) at reservoir temperature. the potential for SSC occurring is evaluated by studying the water cut values combined with the type of well and deviation profile. Gas Or Condensate Gas Well H2S partial pressure is calculated by: pH2S = SBHP x Y(H2S)/100 where: SBHP = Y(H2S) = = pH2S Static bottom-hole pressure [atm] Mole fraction of H2S Partial H2S pressure [atm] Eq. i. even if in very small quantities. deviations >80 ). Material balance method. If the quantity of H2S in gas at the bubble point pressure [mole fraction = Y(H2S)].p.A SSC is triggered at pH2S >0.e. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 b) o REVISION 0 In highly deviated wells (i.A. is not known or the values obtained are not reliable. Undersaturated Oil In an oil in which the gas remains dissolved. 6. deposits on the surface of the tubulars and so the problem can be likened to the gas well case where the critical threshold for the water cut drops to 1% (WC <1%).
6. The following algorithm is used to calculate the pH2S: Step 1 pH2S is calculated at the separator (pH2Ssep): pH2Ssep = (Psep x H2Ssep)/106 where: Psep H2Ssep = = Absolute mean pressure at which the separator works (from tests) in atm Mean H2S value in the separator gas (generally measured in ppm) Eq. is generally lower than the actual value under stabilised conditions.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 130 OF 295 ENI S. Note: H2S sampled in short production tests. when the H2S value in the separated gas at bubble point conditions is known and is reliable or if Y(H2S). molar fraction in the separated gas at bubble point pressure (Pb) is higher than 2%. 6. The pH2S is calculated by: pH2S = Pb x Y(H2S)/100 where: Pb = Y(H2S) = pH2S = Bubble point pressure at reservoir temperature [atm] Mole fraction in the separated gas at bubble point (from PVT data if extrapolated) Partial H2S pressure [atm] Eq. 6. The value of H2S in ppm to be used in the calculation must also be from stable flowing conditions.A. PM : PM = γ × 1000 GOR γ × 1000 + × (d × 29 ) GOR 23.C The mean molecular weight of the produced oil.D where: PM Ci Mi d = = = = n mean molecular weight of the reservoir oil = Ci × Mi / 100 i =l Mole % of the ith component of the reservoir oil Molecular weight of the ith component of the reservoir oil Density of the gas at separator conditions referred to air =1 ∑ .B Material Balance Method This method is used when data from production testing is available and/or when the quantity of H2S is very small (<2.6 − 23. without comparison with the other method. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 Basic Method 0 REVISION This method is used.000ppm) and the water cut value from is lower than 5% (this method cannot be used when the WC values are higher).6 PM giac Eq.p.
6) total number of moles of the liquid phase in the reservoir Henry constant for the reservoir temperature and reservoir oil (see procedure for calculating Henry constant) In general. 6. Procedure For Calculating Henry Constant The value of the Henry constant is a function of the temperature measured at the separator. The mapping method can be applied for temperatures at the separator of between 20°C and 200°C.E The quantity of H2S in the gas in equilibrium is calculated (per litre of oil): [H2S]gas = (GOR/23.63 atm. (See Procedure for calculating Henry constant) Mean molecular weight of the produced oil Specific weight g/l of the produced oil Eq. 6.a which represents the functions H(t) for the three types of oils: • • • Heptane PM N-propyl benzene PM Methylnaphthalene PM =100 = 120 =142 .G (γ x 1000/ PM + GOR/23. There is SSC potential if pH2S >0. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 0 REVISION The quantity of H2S in moles/litre dissolved in the separator oil is calculated: [H2S]oil = (pH2Ssep/H1 x (γ x 1000)/ PM ) where: H1 PM γ = = = Henry constant of the produced oil at separator temperature (atm/Mole fraction).6 x H2Ssep/10 ) where: GOR 23. 6.F The pH2S is calculated at reservoir conditions: pH2S = (([H2S]oil + [H2S]gas)/K ) x H2 where: K H2 = = Eq.p.6 = = Gas oil ratio Nm /m (from production tests) Conversion factor 3 3 6 Eq.0035 atm and STHP >18. H2S corrosion can occur at either the wellhead or bottom-hole without distinction. Given the diagram in figure 6.A.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 131 OF 295 ENI S.
If PM > 100. the reference curve is chosen (given by points) to calculate the Henry constant on the basis of the following value thresholds: • • • • • • If PM > 142. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 Remarks On The H1 Calculation 0 REVISION Having calculated the molecular weight of the produced oil PM using the formula in eq. the mean value is calculated using the H(t) curve of propyl benzene and the H(t) curve of methylnaphthalene. the H(t) curve of propyl benzene is used. 6. For this purpose the temperature values immediately before and after the temperature studied are taken into consideration. If PM > 120. If 120 < PM < 142 the mean value is calculated using the H(t) curve of heptane and the H(t) curve of propyl benzene. . the H(t) curve of methylnaphthalene is used. the H(t) curve of heptane is used.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 132 OF 295 ENI S.d. Comments On The H2 Calculation Having calculated the molecular weight of the reservoir oil PM res. If 100 < PM < 120. wellhead flowing temperature. the H1 value is interpolated linearly on the chosen curve(s).p. H2 is measured in a similar way as H1.A. using temperature measured at the separator. Given FTHT.
ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 133 OF 295 ENI S.p. Two situations can arise: Case A FTHP < Pb FBHP > Pb Case B FTHP < Pb FBHP < Pb . Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 0 REVISION 130 Henry atm/Y[H2S] 120 110 100 90 methylnaphthalene PM = 142 80 N-propylbenzene PM = 120 heptane PM = 100 70 60 50 40 30 20 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 110 120 130 140 150 160 170 180 190 200 T C° Figure 6.A.A .H(t) Reference Curves Oversaturated Oil Oil is considered oversaturated when the gas in the fluid separates because the pressure of the system is lower than the bubble point pressure.
Basic Method pH2S = STHP x Y(H2S)/100 where: STHP = Y(H2S) = pH2S = Static tubing head pressure [atm] Mole fraction in separated gas at STHP pressure and wellhead temperature Partial H2S pressure [atm] The SSC phenomenon is triggered off at the wellhead if pH2S >0. i. calculation of pH2S can be approximated on the basis of the following: • The PVTs are reliable. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 Calculation Of Partial Pressure In Case A: 1) 2) 0 REVISION Calculation is of the partial pressure in the reservoir: In this case pH2S is calculated in the way described for undersaturated oil.0035 atm and STHP >18. the material balance method can be used as in the case of undersaturated oil.e.63 atm. Y(H2S) >0. FBHP <Pb. these are the worst conditions. when FTHP <Pb: The data result from the production conditions and only the basic method is used.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 134 OF 295 ENI S. the corresponding value in reservoir conditions is assumed as being partial pressure at the wellhead.p. Calculation Of Partial Pressure At Wellhead The calculation method is that used for case A (FTHP <Pb) 2 If the percentage (ppm) of H2S in the gas under static conditions is not known.A. Calculation is of the partial pressure at the wellhead. the 2 corresponding value in reservoir conditions is assumed as being partial pressure at the wellhead. 2 If the percentage (ppm) of H S in the separated gas under static conditions is not known. the partial pressure is calculated as: pH2S = Y(H2S) x FBHP 1 where: Y(H2S) = Molar fraction in gas separated at FBHP and at reservoir temperature (from PVT) • The PVTs are not reliable. 1 . Calculation Of Partial Pressure In Case B: Calculation of partial pressure in the reservoir: In the reservoir the gas is already separated.2%. The error made can be high when Pb > FBHP.
3.2. Undersaturated Oil Wells The partial pressure of CO2 is calculated: pCO2 = Pb x Y(CO2)/100 where: Pb = Y(CO2) = pCO2 = Bubble point pressure at reservoir temperature Mole fraction of CO2 in separated gas at bubble point pressure (from the PVTs) Partial pressure of CO2 [atm] Corrosion occurs if pCO2 >0. pCO2 at wellhead is assumed as corresponding to reservoir conditions. It also occurs only if the partial pressure of CO2 exceeds a particular threshold. the possibility that corrosions exist in water cut values combined with the type of well and deviation profile is evaluated. As in the case of SSC. The pCO2 values calculated in this way are used to evaluate the corrosion at bottom hole and wellhead. If the conditions described in section 6.2 atm. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 6.p.2 atm. Gas Or Condensate Gas Wells The partial pressure is calculated: pCO2 = SBHP x Y(CO2)/100 where: SBHP = Y(CO2) = pCO2 = Static bottom-hole pressure [atm] Mole fraction of CO2 Partial pressure of CO2 [atm] Corrosion occurs if pCO2 >0. .A.3. Corrosion Caused By CO2 And Cl0 REVISION In the presence of water. i. CO2 gives rise to a corrosion form which is different to those caused by the presence of H2S. Oil Bearing Wells The problem exists where there is wetting water.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 135 OF 295 ENI S.: • • Water cut >15% for vertical wells.e.e.1 exist. Water cut >1% for horizontal or highly deviated wells (> 80 degrees). then the pCO2 is then calculated. i.
Two situations may arise: Case A FTHP <Pb FBHP >Pb Case B FTHP <Pb FBHP <Pb Calculation Of Partial Pressure In Case A: Calculation of pCO2 in reservoir conditions: FBHP >Pb pCO2 is calculated in the same way as undersaturated oil wells earlier in this section.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 136 OF 295 ENI S. Calculation Of pCO2 At Wellhead: pCO2 = STHP x Y(CO2)/100 where: Y(CO2) = STHP = Mole fraction in separated gas at STHP3 Static tubing head pressure [atm] Corrosion occurs if pCO2 >0. the corresponding value in reservoir conditions is assumed as being partial pressure at the wellhead 3 .2 atm. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 Oversaturated Oil 0 REVISION The oil is considered oversaturated when the gas separates in the fluid because the pressure of the system is lower than bubble point pressure.A.2 atm. If the percentage (ppm) of CO2 in the gas under static conditions is not known.p. pCO2 = Pb x Y(CO2)/100 where: Pb = Y(CO2) = pCO2 = Bubble point pressure at reservoir temperature Mole fraction in separated gas at bubble point pressure (from the PVTs) Partial pressure of CO2 [atm] Corrosion occurs if pCO2 >0.
- If the percentage (ppm) of CO2 in the gas under flowing/static conditions is not known.p. In this case the problem is much more complex and the choice of suitable material is more delicate. 6.3. 4 . CO2 And ClIt is possible to encounter H2S and CO2 besides Cl .2 atm. the corresponding value in reservoir conditions is assumed as being partial pressure at the wellhead. The phenomenon is diagnosed by calculating the partial pressures of H2S and CO2 and comparing them with the respective thresholds.3. Corrosion Caused By H2S. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 Calculation Of Partial Pressure In Case B: Calculation of pCO2 at reservoir conditions: pCO2 = FBHP x Y(CO2)/100 where: Y(CO2) = 0 REVISION Mole fraction in separated gas at pressure FBHP (from the PVTs) Calculation Of pCO2 At Wellhead: The calculation method is the same as the one used in the wellhead conditions in case A: pCO2 = STHP x Y(CO2)/100 where: Y(CO2) = Mole fraction in separated gas at STHP4 There is corrosion if pCO2 >0.A.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 137 OF 295 ENI S.
Refer to table 6. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 6.Counter Measures to Prevent Corrosion .p. CORROSION CONTROL MEASURES 0 REVISION Corrosion control measures may involve the use of one or more of the following: • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Cathodic protection Chemical inhibition Chemical control Oxygen scavengers Chemical sulphide scavengers pH adjustment Deposit control Coatings Non metallic materials or metallurgical Control Stress reduction Elimination of sharp bends Elimination of shock loads and vibration Improved handling procedures Corrosion allowances in design Improved welding procedures Organisation of repair operations.4.a below. Measure Control of the environment • • • • • • • • • Means pH Temperature Pressure Chloride concentration CO2 concentration 2 H S concentration 2 H O concentration Flow rate Inhibitors Surface treatment • Plastic coating • Plating the alloying elements micro Improvement of the corrosion resistivity of the Addition of steel structure Table 6.A .ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 138 OF 295 ENI S.A.
Thus. selenium.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 139 OF 295 ENI S. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 6. The carbon content ranges from 0. and sulphur are added in small amounts for other properties in some grades. a corrosion inhibitor is a substance which. Stainless steels may be divided into four distinct classes on the basis of their chemical content. There are many techniques used to apply corrosion inhibitors in oil and gas wells: • • • • • • 6. To be classed as a stainless steel. the microstructure of these steels is martensitic.10% and other elements such as nickel.6. when added to an environment. Martensitic Stainless Steels The martensitic stainless steels contain chromium as their principal alloying element. however it is occasionally used for production casing or tubing below the packer depth. CORROSION INHIBITORS 0 REVISION An inhibitor is a substance which retards or slows down a chemical reaction. cooling waters. Stainless steels are strongly magnetic whatever the heat treatment condition. either continuously or intermittently to prevent serious corrosion.A. . The martensitic stainless steels are hardened by the same heat treatment procedures used to harden carbon and alloy steels. although some chromium content may be as high as 18%. metallurgical structure and mechanical properties these are: 6. steam or other environments. The most commonly used of the martensitic stainless steels is AISI Type 410. The martensitic stainless steels are included in the ‘400’ series of stainless steels. extended batch) Continuous treatment Squeeze treatment Atomised inhibitor squeeze .p. As their name indicates.weighted liquids Capsules Sticks. an iron alloy usually must contain at least 12% chromium in volume. Batch treatment (tubing displacement. The most important characteristic that distinguishes these steels from other grades is their response to heat treatment. columbium.1. CORROSION RESISTANCE OF STAINLESS STEELS Stainless steel is usually used in applications for production tubing. standard batch. The main reason for the development of stainless steel is its resistance to corrosion. decreases the rate of attack by the environmental on a metal. Corrosion inhibitors are commonly added in small amounts to acids. silicon.6. The most common types contain around 12% chromium.08% to 1. The only grade of oilfield tubular used in this category is 13Cr. molybdenum. The corrosion resistance of stainless steels is due to the ability of the chromium to passivate the surface of the alloy.5.
Precipitation in alloys is analogous to precipitation as rain or snow. Ferritic stainless steels are also part of the ‘400’ series. Ferrite is simply body cantered cubic iron or an alloy based on this structure.4. They combine the high strength of the martensitic stainless steels with the good corrosion resistance properties of the austenitic stainless steels. They are not able to be hardened by heat treatment although they are hardenable to some extent by cold working and are generally non-magnetic. Austenitic stainless steels are grouped in the ‘300’ series. the most common being 304. with other elements added for particular reasons. Most were developed as proprietary alloys.6. which are also strongly magnetic. but their strength is lower than martensitic and ferritic stainless steels. and 347 stabilised for welding and corrosion resistance. is the ferritic stainless steels. The microstructure of the ferritic stainless steels consists of ferrite. the steels can be hardened to varying strength levels. Ferritic Stainless Steels 0 REVISION The second class of stainless steels. The chromium contents of ferritic stainless steels is normally higher than that of the martensitic. Refer to figure 6. 316 high Cr and Ni which may include Mo. 6. 6.6. Austenitic stainless steels generally have the highest corrosion resistance of any of the stainless steels. Others commonly used are 303 free machining.A.6.3. the principal types being 405. The chromium content ranges between 13% to 27% but are not able to be hardened by heat treatment.b for the various compositions of stainless steels. chromium and nickel. and 436. Their micro-structure consists essentially of austenite which is face cantered cubic iron or an iron alloy based on this structure. stainless steel. These steels are widely used in the oilfield for fittings and control lines. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 6. Most can be formed and machined before the final heat treatment and the finished product being hardened. They are used principally for their temperature properties. and the carbon content is generally lower. 430. These are most commonly used for component parts in downhole and surface tools and not as oilfield tubulars.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 140 OF 295 ENI S. The distinguishing characteristic of the precipitation hardened stainless steel is that through specific heat treatments at relatively low temperatures. and may range up to as high as 25% chromium and 20% nickel.p. Precipitation Hardening Stainless Steels The most recent development in stainless steel is a general class known as ‘precipitation hardened stainless steels’. .2. but due to its low strength is not used for well tubulars. which are similar to the martensitic stainless steels in that they have chromium as the principal alloying element. and there is a wide variety of compositions available. Austenitic Stainless Steels The austenitic stainless steels have two principal alloying elements. which contain various amounts of chromium and nickel. They contain a minimum of 18% chromium and 8% nickel.
p.B.A. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 0 REVISION Figure 6.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 141 OF 295 ENI S.Stainless Steel Compositions .
1. As a general note. This gap is attempted to be filled with ‘Super 13Cr’ tubing being developed. 6. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 6. there is a large gap between the 13Cr and Duplex Stainless Steels used as tubulars for their good anti-corrosion properties. The resulting steel has properties that are normally found in both phases: the ferrite promotes increased yield strength and resistance to chloride and hydrogen sulphide corrosion cracking. COMPANY DESIGN PROCEDURE CO2 Corrosion In producing wells.6.c and figure 6. This material is used extensively for tubulars used in severe CO2 and H2S conditions. resistant to corrosion. 6. . Casing and tubing material will be selected according to the amount of H2S and other corrosive media present. Corrosion may be limited by: • • The selection of high alloy chromium steels.7.7.5% Ni-3% Mo-0.5. ferritic-austenitic (duplex) stainless steel consists of between 40-70% ferrite and has a typical composition of 22% Cr-5. 6.2. while the austenite phase improves workability and weldability. the presence of CO2 may lead to corrosion on those parts coming in contact with CO2 which normally means the production tubing and part of the production casing below the packer.7. where there is H2S. Inhibitor injection. Duplex Stainless Steel 0 REVISION In general.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 142 OF 295 ENI S. Generally.A. consideration should be given to limit casing and wellhead yield strength according to API 5CT and ‘NACE’ standard MR-01-75.14% N. if using carbon steel casing. Refer to figure 6.p.d for partial pressure limits. wells producing CO2 partial pressure higher than 20psi requires inhibition to limit corrosion. H2S Corrosion In wells.
Sour Gas Systems Figure 6.p.D .Sour Multiphase Systems .ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 143 OF 295 ENI S. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 0 REVISION Figure 6.C .A.
Materials are sub-divided into three categories. . OCTG. DHE materials and wellhead materials. otherwise the following combinations of conditions may exist: • • • • Solely H2S in oil wells Solely H2S in gas or gas condensate wells Solely CO2 and Cl Both H2S and CO2. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 6. hence the use of the modified SMI has been adopted. In the partial pressures of H2S and CO2 are below the critical thresholds established in the previous section.8. refer to figure 6.f.A. MATERIAL SELECTION 0 REVISION The choice of material is based on the application of engineering diagrams supplied by manufacturers of tubing and. The choice of materials proposed is conservatively as recent develop materials such as 13%Cr and Super Duplex class have not been considered because experiments on these materials are not completed. The tables regarding the choice of materials are shown below. all materials in class C-steel/L-A-steel can be used.p. These give the rules used by Eni-Agip sectioned on the basis of the conditions as listed above and the use in the well.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 144 OF 295 ENI S.e and figure 6.
000 Cl* <50.1 0.0035< pH2S max <0.0035< pH2S max <0. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 6.0035< pH2S max <0.005 0.2< pCO2S max <100e pH2S max <0. N80.1 0.2< pCO2S max <100e 0. C90-1.B .1< pH2S max <1 0.0035< pH2S max < 0.2< pCO2S max <100 0.OCTG Materials for Sour Service .000 22% Cr. P110 J55.005< pH2S max <0. T95-1 Alternately L80-Mod.000 Cl* >50. K55.0035< pH2S max < 0. C90-1.000 13% Cr-80KSI Max 22% Cr CW 25% Cr CW 22% Cr 25% Cr 25% Cr 25% Cr CW 25% Cr 25% Cr CW 28% Cr 22% Cr SA 25% Cr SA 28% Cr 28% Cr Alternately 22% Cr 25% Cr FBHT <200 C 150 C< FBHT <200 C 200 C< FBHT <250 C 200 C< FBHT <250 C FBHT <250 C FBHT <250 C 200 C< FBHT <250 C FBHT <200 C FBHT <250 C FBHT <200 C o o o o o o o o o o o o o o Cl* >50.1 FBHT >80 C o FBHT <80 C o Material J55.000 Cl* <50.2< pCO2S max <100 FBHT <150 C o o 150 C< FBHT <200 C o o 200 C< FBHT <250 C o Material Cl* <50.000 Cl* <50. T95-1 OCTG Materials For Corrosion By CO2 And Cl* Conditions 0. C90-1.000 Cl* <50.0035< pH2S max < 0. N80 L80 L80 Mod. OCTG Materials For Corrosion By H2S Only In Oil Wells Conditions 0.000 Cl* <50.0035< pH2S max < 0. C90-1. T95-1 L80-Mod.1 0.2< pCO2S max <100e 0. H2S And Cl* Conditions 0.000 Cl* >50. K55.2< pCO2S max <100e 0.0035< pH2S max < 0. T95-1 OCTG Materials For Corrosion By H2S Only In Gas Wells Conditions 0.1 pH2S max < 0.005< pH2S max <0.2< pCO2S max <100e 0.1 FBHT >80 C o o 60 C< FBHT >80 C o FBHT >80 C o REVISION 0 Material J55.000 Cl* <50.1 0.000 Cl* <20.1< pH2S max <1 0.005 0.2< pCO2S max <100e 0. T95-1 L80-Mod.1 0. OCTG Specifications Refer to table 6. T95-1 L80-Mod.1.2< pCO2S max <100 0.005 0.1< pH2S max <1 0. C90-1. C95. C95 L80 Alternately L80-Mod.A. K55. N80-2.2< pCO2S max <100e pH2S max >1 FBHT <150 C o Material Cl* <50.005< pH2S max <0.2< pCO2S max <100e 0.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 145 OF 295 ENI S.b below. 25% Cr Incoloy 825 28% Cr Incoloy 825 Incoloy 825 Incoloy 825 Table 6.0035< pH2S max < 0.2< pCO2S max <100e 0.8.005 0. C90-1.2< pCO2S max <100e 0.000 13% Cr 22% Cr 25% Cr-SA Alternately 25% Cr OCTG Materials For Corrosion By CO2 .p.1 pCO2S max <100e 0.005 0.2< pCO2S max <100e 0.
A.000 Cl* <50.000 FBHT <250 C FBHT <250 C o o Cl* <50.2.1 pCO2S max <100e pH2S max <0.000 Cl* <50.000 Inconel 718 Incoloy 825 Inconel 718 Incoloy 825 Inconel 718 Incoloy 825 Inconel 718 Incoloy 825 22% Cr.p.000 Cl* <50.000 9% Cr-1Moly 13%-Cr-80KSIMAX 22% Cr 25% Cr 25% Cr Inconel 718 Incoloy 825 22% Cr CW 25% Cr CW 25% Cr CW 25% Cr 28% Cr 22% Cr SA 25% Cr SA 25% Cr SA 28% Cr 28% Cr Alter Or 22% Cr 25% Cr Inconel 718 Incoloy 825 Inconel 718 Incoloy 825 100 C< FBHT <150 C 150 C< FBHT <250 C 200 C< FBHT <250 C 200 C< FBHT <250 C FBHT <200 C o o o o o o o o o Cl* >50.DHE Material for Sour Service .000 Cl* >50. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 6.005 pCO2S max <100e pH2S max < 0.1 pH2S max < 0.c below.C. Inconel 718 Incoloy 825 Inconel 718 Incoloy 825 Inconel 718 Incoloy 825 Table 6.1 pH2S max > 0. Materials For DHE Corrosion By H2S Only In Oil Wells Conditions pH2S max < 0.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 146 OF 295 ENI S.005 pCO2S max <100e pH2S max < 0.8.1 FBHT >80 C FBHT <80 C o o Material AISI-41XX-80KSI-MAX AISI-41XX-HRC-22-MAX AISI-41XX-HRC-22-MAX Alternately Materials For DHE Corrosion By CO2 And Cl* Conditions pCO2S max <100 pCO2S max <100 pCO2S max <100 FBHT <100 C o o 100 C< FBHT <150 C o o 150 C< FBHT <250 C o Material Cl* <50. DHE Specifications Refer to table 6.1 pH2S max < 0.1 pH2S max < 0.000 Cl* >50. H2S And Cl* Conditions pCO2S max <100e pH2S max < 0.000 28% Cr Alternately Inconel 718 Incoloy 825 Materials For DHE Corrosion By CO2 .005 pCO2S max <100e pH2S max <0.1 pCO2S max <100e pH2S max <1 pCO2S max <100e pH2S max <1 pCO2S max <100e pH2S max <1 FBHT <100 C 100 C< FBHT <150 C 150 C< FBHT <250 C 200 C< FBHT <250 C o o o o o o o Material Cl* <50.005 pCO2S max <100e pH2S max <0.005 pCO2S max <100e pH2S max <0.000 Cl* <50.005 pCO2S max <100e pH2S max < 0.000 Cl* <50.1 FBHT >80 C o FBHT >80 C o FBHT <65 C o FBHT <65 C o REVISION 0 Material AISI-41XX-110KSI-MAX AISI-41XX-80KSI-MAX AISI-41XX-HRC-22-MAX AISI-41XX-HRC-22-MAX Alternately Materials For DHE Corrosion By H2S Only In Gas Wells Conditions pH2S max < 0.000 Cl* >50.000 Cl* <50.
Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 6.035 pH2S-MAX < 0. Wellhead Specifications Refer to below.A.2<pCO2 Max 100 FTHT < 150 Cl < 50000 pCO2-Max < 100 150 <FTHT <200 Cl.035 pH2S-MAX < 0.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 147 OF 295 ENI S.035 Body Bonnet Flanges AISI-4135HRC-22-MAX AISI-4135 Gate & Seats AISI-4140HRC-22-MAX AISI-4140 Steam AISI-4140HRC-22-MAX AISI-4140 Manual Master-Valve Body Bonnet Flanges AISI-4135HRC-22-MAX AISI-4135 Gate & Seats AISI-4140HRC-22-MAX AISI-4140 Steam AISI-4140 HRC-22-MAX AISI-4140 Wellhead Materials For Corrosion Caused By CO2 and ClConditions 0.8.035 Tubing Hanger AISI-4140 HRC-22MAX AISI-4140 Tbg Head Adapter AISI-4135 HRC-22MAX AISI-4135 Tubing Spool AISI-4135 HRC-22MAX AISI-4135 Cross AISI-4135 HRC-22MAX AISI-4135 Top Adapter AISI-4135 HRC-22MAX AISI-4135 Casing Spool AISI-4135 HRC-22MAX AISI-4135 REVISION 0 Stud ASTMA193-B7M ASTMA193-B7M Nut ASTMA194-2M ASTMA194-2H Automatic-Master-Valve Conditions pH2S-MAX> 0. Wellhead Materials For Corrosion Caused By H2S Conditions pH2S-MAX > 0.3.< 50000 - Tubing Hanger 13%-Cr80ksi-Max F6NM Monel-K500 Inconel-718 Tbg Head Adapter 13%-Cr80ksi-Max F6NM AISI-4135-IC Inconel-625 Tubing Spool AISI-4135 Cross 13%-Cr80ksi-Max F6NM AISI-4135IC Inconel 625 MonelK500 Top Adapter 13%-Cr80ksi-Max F6NM AISI-4135-IC Inconel -625 Monel-K500 Casing Spool Carbon-Steel AISI-41XX AISI-4135 Stud ASTMA193-B7 ASTMA193-B7 Nut ASTMA194-2H ASTMA194-2H AISI-4135 Automatic-Master-Valve Conditions 0.2 < pCO2-Max < 100e FTHT < 150e Cl < 50000 pCO2-Max <100e 150<FTHT< 200e Cl < 50000 - Manual Master-Valve Steam Body Bonnet Flanges 13%-Cr80ksi-Max F6NM AISI-4135-IC Inconel-625 Inconel-718 Gate & Seats 13%-Cr80ksi-Max Steam Monel-K500 17-4-PH Inconel-718 Body Bonnet Flanges 13%-Cr-80ksiMax F6NM AISI-4135-IC Inconel-625 Gate & Seats 13%-Cr-80ksiMax Monel-K500 17-4-PH Inconel -718 Inconel -718 .p.
AISI-4135.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 148 OF 295 ENI S.2 FTHT < 150 Cl < 50000 pCO2-Max < 100 pH2S-Max <0.A.8 - Inconel718 AISI-4135IC Inconel625 AISI-4135 HRC-22Max AISI-4135.p.2 FTHT < 150 Cl < 50000 F6NM MonelK500 F6NM AISI-4135HRC-22Max F6NM F6NM AISI-4135 ASTMHRC-22-Max A193-B7M ASTMA194-2M ASTMA194-2M pCO2-Max < 100 pH2S-Max < 0.8 FTHT< 150 Cl < 50000 - F6NM MonelK500 F6NM AISI-4135HRC-22MAX F6NM F6NM AISI-4135HRC-22MAX ASTMA193-B7M ASTMA194-2M MonelK500 ASTMA194-2M Inconel718 AISI-4135IC Inconel625 AISI-4135 HRC-22MAX AISI-4135. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 0 REVISION Wellhead Materials For Corrosion Caused By H2S.005 FTHT < 150 Cl < 50000 - Tubing Hanger F6NM Tbg Head Adapter 13%-Cr 80ksi-Max F6NM Tubing Spool AISI-4135 HRC-22Max Cross 13%-Cr80ksi-Max F6NM Top Adapter 13%-Cr 80ksi-Max F6NM Casing Spool Stud Nut ASTMA194-2M AISI-4135 ASTMHRC-22-Max A193-B7M pCO2-Max < 100 pH2S-Max < 0.AISI-4135 IC IC HRC-22-Max Inconel625 Inconel718 Inconel625 Inconel718 Inconel718 Inconel718 . CO2 and Cl Condition pCO2 -Max < 100 pH2S-Max < 0.8 Cl > Water 50000 pCO2-Max <100 pH2S-Max e > 0.AISI-4135IC IC Inconel625 MonelK500 Inconel625 MonelK500 AISI-4135 HRC-22MAX MonelK500 pCO2-Max < 100 pH2S-Max <0.
Inconel-625 F6NM Inconel-718 Monel-K500 pCO2.D.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 149 OF 295 ENI S.Wellhead Material for Sour Service . pH2S.I.Max Stellite--6 Monel-K500 AISI-4135-I.Max < 0. Inconel-625 F6NM Inconel-718 Monel-K500 AISI-4135-I.8 FTHT< 150 Cl <50000 - F6NM 13%-Cr-80 KSIMax Stellite-6 Monel-K500 F6NM 13%-Cr80KSI.Max < 0.Max < 100 pH2S.p.C.C.A.8 Cl Water 50000 pCO2. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 0 REVISION Automatic-Master-Valve Conditions Body Bonnet Flanges Gate & Seats 13%-Cr-80 KSIMax Steam 17-4-PH F6NM Manual Master-Valve Body Bonnet Flanges 13%-Cr-80KSIMax F6NM Gate & Seats 13%-Cr80KSI.Max < 0.2 FTHT < 150 Cl < 50000 pCO2.005 FTHT < 150 Cl < 50000 F6NM pCO2.C.Max < 100 AISI-4135.C.Max < 100 pH2S.Max Steam 17-4-PH F6NM pCO2 -Max < 100 13%-Cr-80KSIMax pH S. Inconel-625 Inconel-718 Inconel-718 Inconel-625 Table 6.Max e > 0.Max < 2 0.8 - Inconel-718 Inconel-718 AISI-4135-I.Max < 100 pH2S.
825 FBHT<= 250 C Cl.C 90 T1 T 95 T1 10-2 C.<= 50000 ppm 13 % Cr 80 Ksi max or 22 % Cr 25 % Cr FBHT <= 200 C Cl.<= 20000 ppm 25% Cr-CW FBHT<=250 C and Cl.< 50000 ppm 22 % Cr 25 % Cr 200 < FBHT <= 250 C Cl.> 50000 ppm 28 % Cr or INCOLOY.<= 50000 ppm 22% Cr 200<FBHT<=250 C 25% Cr-SA or 25% Cr FBHT<= 250 C and Cl.825 FBHT <= 250 C Cl.<= 50000 ppm 13% Cr 150 > FBHT <= 200 C Cl.< 50000 ppm 25 % Cr-CW 200 < FBHT <= 250 Cl.CW 25 % Cr -CW 150 < FBHT <= 200 C Cl.p. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 0 REVISION 100 pCO2 (atm) FBHT <= 150 C and Cl.<= 50000 ppm 25% Cr-CW 200<FBHT<=250 C and Cl.> 50000 ppm 25 % Cr-CW (*) 1 10-1 FBHT < = 65 C L 80 or L 80 mod.825 10 FBHT <= 200 C Cl-<=50000 ppm 22 % Cr-SA or 25 % Cr-SA 28 % Cr INCOLOY.STEEL J 55 N 80 P 110 FBHT >80 C J55 K55 N80-1 C95 P110-1 (only oil) or L80 mod C90 T1 LOW ALLOY STEEL L 80 mod C 90 T1 C 95 T1 10-3 65 < FBHT<= 80C J 55 K 55 N80-1 or L 80 mod C90 T1 T 95 T1 10-4 10-4 10-3 10-2 10-1 1 10 100 pH2S (atm) Figure 6.<= 50000 ppm 25 % Cr-SA or 28 % Cr INCOLOY.825 FBHT < 200 C 28 % Cr or INCOLOY-825 (*) FBHT<= 150 C Cl.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 150 OF 295 ENI S.E .> 50000 ppm 22 % Cr.> 50000 ppm 28 % Cr INCOLOY.OCTG Material Selection Diagram .A.
> 50000 ppm 25 % Cr INCONEL 718 INCOLOY 825 10-1 FBHT < = 65 C AISI 41XX 22 HRC max 10-2 C-STEEL or AISI 41XX 65 < FBHT <=80 C C-STEEL 80 Ksi max AISI 41XX FBHT > 80 C C-STEEL 110 Ksi max AISI 41XX 100 < FBHT <= 200 C Cl.DHE Material Selection Diagram .<= 50000 ppm 25 % Cr-SA 28 % Cr INCOLOY 825 INCONEL 718 FBHT<= 250 C Cl.825 INCONEL 718 FBHT < 200 C 28 % Cr or INCOLOY 825 INCONEL 718 (*) 150 < FBHT <= 200 C Cl.<= 50000 ppm 9 Cr 1 Mo 100 < FBHT <= 150 C Cl.<= 50000 ppm 22 % Cr 25 % Cr INCONEL 718 INCOLOY 825 10 (*) 200 < FBHT<=250 C Cl.A.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 151 OF 295 ENI S.p.> 50000 ppm 28 % Cr or INCONEL 718 INCOLOY 825 1 200 < FBHT <= 250 C Cl.<= 50000 ppm 13 % Cr 80 ksi max 150 > FBHT<= 250 C 25% Cr-CW or 25% Cr INCONEL 718 INCOLOY 825 200 < FBHT<= 250 C Cl.<= 50000 ppm 25 % Cr or INCONEL 718 INCOLOY 825 FBHT <= 200 C Cl-<=50000 ppm 22 % Cr-SA 25 % Cr-SA 28 % Cr INCOLOY 825 INCONEL 718 200 < FBHT <= 250 C Cl.> 50000 ppm 22 % Cr-CW 25 % Cr-CW INCONEL 718 INCOLOY 825 AISI 41XX 22 HRC max 10-3 200 > FBHT <= 250 C Cl.F .> 50000 ppm 28 % Cr INCOLOY. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 0 REVISION 100 pCO2 (atm) FBHT <= 100 C Cl.> 50000 ppm 25 % Cr-CW INCONEL 718 INCOLOY 825 10-4 10-4 10-3 10-2 10-1 1 10 100 pH2S (atm) Figure 6.
the following specifications should be included. Shell modified API thread compound must be used.9. . 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) Downgraded grade N80. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 6. The pipe must be tested to the alternative test pressure (see API Bulletins 5A and 5AC). All sour service casing should be inspected using non-destructive testing or impact tests only. all markings must be paint stencilled or hot die stamped.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 152 OF 295 ENI S. in addition to those given in the above table.p. Cold die stamping is prohibited. ORDERING SPECIFICATIONS 0 REVISION When ordering tubulars for sour service. 6) 7) Note: The casing should also meet the following criteria: • • The steel used in the manufacture of the casing should have been quenched and tempered. P105 or P110 tubulars are not acceptable for orders for J55 or K55 casing. Three copies of the report providing the ladle analysis of each heat used in the manufacture of the goods shipped. together with all the check analyses performed. normalising and tempering).A. as per API Specification 5CT. Recommendations for casing to be used for sour service must be specified according to the API 5CT for restricted yield strength casings.g. The couplings must have the same heat treatment as the pipe body. Three copies of a report showing the physical properties of the goods supplied and the results of hardness tests (Refer to step 3 above) must be submitted. must be submitted. (This treatment is superior to tubulars heated/treated by other methods. e.
35 applies to the ratio of the calculated stress in a string to the minimum yield strength of the selected tubing of CRA materials.10 Stress Calculations. the SFs may be reduced. A safety factor (SF) of 1. Movement can only occur if the tubing is free to move. Currently Eni-Agip Division and Affiliates recommended programme is the Enertech WS-Tube programme to the latest version.25 applies to the ratio of the calculated stress in a string to the minimum yield strength of the selected tubing in carbon steels. To fully understand these effects. This relationship is fully explained in section 7. Tubing size shall be determined by the reservoir engineers using IPR curves and Nodal analysis (Refer to section 5. the calculation should be run again substituting. Under some special conditions.6). a higher grade of pipe. A safety factor (SF) of 1. refer to the criteria in section 7. When these have been determined it will confirm the suitability of the selected tubing. preferably using an appropriate up to date computer programme.2.p. it is necessary to calculate the variations in length for the stresses applied under load conditions. it is first necessary to understand the properties of steels used in the manufacture of tubing.10.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 153 OF 295 ENI S. 7. . Tubing movement upwards (contraction) is assumed to be negative and downwards (lengthening) is positive. TUBING DESIGN POLICIES All completion tubing strings will have tubing movement calculations conducted to ascertain the maximum load applied to the string and/or completion tubing movement to be catered for in the completion design. 7. If the stress SF is less than these limits.2.A. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 0 REVISION 7.1. All tubing strings should be designed for stress. THEORY During completion tubing design process. Tubing movement occurs due to only two reasons: • • Temperature changes Change in pressure induced forces. If the tubing is not free to move and is anchored to a packer then stress will be subjected to the tubing string and packer. either a heavier weight or.
deformation takes place before any final fracture occurs. corrosion. the shattering of glass). i.p.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 154 OF 295 ENI S. the material behaves elastically. These failures are failures of the material.b. With all solid materials. Tests of materials may be conducted in many different ways. the elastic deformation is approximately a straight line as called for by Hooke's Law.Stress-Strain Curve for Tubing Steel . Figure 7. is the modulus of elasticity E. and other causes. or the ratio of stress to strain within the elastic range. deformation. the material is classed as brittle.a. both are explained in figure 7. Mechanical Properties of Steel 0 REVISION Failure of a material or of a structural part may occur by fracture (e. sometimes called Young's Modulus.2.. Beyond the elastic limit. compression and shear.A. but the tension test is the most common and is qualitatively characteristic of all the other types of tests. and if fracture occurs with little or no plastic deformation. wear. the elastic deformation is accompanied by varying amounts of plastic. As load is applied.1. A typical curve for steel is shown in figure 7. yield. The action of a material under the gradually increasing extension in the tension test is usually represented by plotting apparent stress (the total load divided by the original cross-sectional area of the test piece) as ordinates against the apparent strain (elongation between two gauge points marked on the test piece divided by the original gauge length) as abscissae. some deformation may be sustained without permanent deformation. If a material sustains large amounts of plastic deformation before final fracture. This gives rise to Poisson’s Ratio.A . such as by torsion. it is classed as a ductile material. Buckling may cause failure of the part without any fracture of the material.e.g. In this. or permanent. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 7. and the slope of this line.
Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 0 REVISION Beyond the elastic limit.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 155 OF 295 ENI S. the material will contract along a line generally nearly straight and parallel to the original elastic line.Deformation Constants for Tubing Steel .A.a. see figure 7. leaving a permanent set. If the stress is released in the region between the elastic limit and the yield strength. Figure 7.B .p. permanent or plastic strain occurs.
min.000 psi. The lines indicating equivalent hardness of 22 and 23 Rc indicates the tolerances for use of the materials in H2S conditions according to NACE which is fully described in section 7. In the harder and stronger steels. as required by definition. the yielding phenomenon is less prominent and is correspondingly harder to measure.6% of the gauge length.4. but at the same time the cross-sectional area of the specimen becomes less as it is drawn out. Careful practice qualifies this by designating it the proportional elastic limit. Depending on the type or grade. The denominations of the different grades are based on the minimum yield strength. L-80 .Casing and Tubing requirements.min. 5CT which is a combination of former specs. and under certain conditions of temperature. . it is customary to measure a yield strength. the material becomes stronger causing a rise of the curve.000 psi. tubing and drill pipe are laid down in API specification of further specs.min.9. yield strength 55. a curious phenomenon occurs after the elastic limit. Similar arbitrary rules are followed with regard to the elastic limit in commercial practice. Instead of determining the stress up to which there is no permanent set. This gives rise to a dip in the general curve followed by a period of deformation at approximately constant load. 5A.2% is widely accepted in the industry). e. API specifies the yield strength as the tensile strength required to produce a total elongation of 0.c.p. and in the case of the yield point even maximum requirements (except for H-40). known as yielding. yield strength 40. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 0 REVISION In steels.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 156 OF 295 ENI S. Others are shown in figure 7. This loss of area weakens the specimen so that the curve reaches a maximum and then falls off until final fracture occurs. J-55 . In materials that do not exhibit a marked yield point. The mechanical and chemical properties of casing. yield strength 80. 5AC.A. This is arbitrarily defined as the stress at which the material has a specified permanent set (the value of 0. minimum requirements are laid down for the mechanical properties. The stress at the maximum point is called the tensile strength or the ultimate strength of the material and is its most often quoted property. For steels used in the manufacturing of tubular goods. 5AX and 5AQ .000 psi.: H-40 . it is customary to designate the end of the straight portion of the curve (by definition the proportional limit) as the elastic limit. As extension continues beyond yielding.5% to 0. The maximum stress reached in this region is called the upper yield point and the lower part of the yielding region the lower yield point.g.
p.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 157 OF 295 ENI S.Strengths of Various Grades of Steel . Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 0 REVISION Figure 7.C .A.
2. a 20ft device should be selected as a 10ft device would not provide enough contingency for error. a) Free Movement The tubing is free to move fully upwards or downwards using the packer bore with a seal assembly. a TSR or travel joint (Refer to figure 7. as seen in the previous section 7. 20ft and 30ft.2. i. a PBR. This may increase or decrease the stress already exerted to the tubing when it was installed. All subsequent changes in temperature or pressure induced forces are calculated form this initial condition. which is the ‘initial’ tubing condition.e.2 will expand or contract due to changes in temperature or pressure induced forces. in this case. Temperature 0 REVISION Temperature changes cause expansion and contraction in metals which is a significant factor in tubing strings.9 x 10 in/in/F°. a PBR. Tubing Movement/Stress Relationship Steel tubing. 10ft.3ft = total 9ft. or latched to. The co-efficient of liner expansion for tubular steels is usually 6. If the tubing is free to move then the calculations will determine the maximum expansion or contraction which needs to be catered for by the utilisation of a tubing movement compensation system such as a packer and seal unit.2. For a given volume. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 7. the packer -6 Further explanation of these three modes are explained below. Calculations must be conducted to establish the full tubing movement in order that the length of tubing movement device can be determined. with a calculated movement of + 6ft and . The movement determined by calculation should be used to select a device which accommodates this movement with a margin of error. These devices are usually available in 10ft stroke lengths or multiples of 10ft.A. All metals have a particular expansion rate which is termed the ‘Coefficient of thermal expansion’. unless the movement was subsequently restricted as described in the next section. e.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 158 OF 295 ENI S. If the tubing is attached to a packer. The tubing is positioned where it is fully free to move upwards but its downward movement is restricted and stress applied to the packer. 7.3. .p. The tubing is connected to the packer by being threaded to.g. ELTSR or a travel joint depending on which type of packer system is utilised. changes in tubing stress will be exerted.2. then the tubing is unable to move as it can in the free movement scenario and. an object will expand or contract through temperature change by the Co-efficient of thermal expansion for the type of material.d below). There are three methods in which tubing is connected to the packer: a) b) c) Tubing is fully free to move either way.
Limited Movement Figure 7. This restricted downward movement results in further stress applied to the bottom of the tubing and.F .p. This may be acceptable when temperature and pressure changes are not excessive. (Refer to figure 7. When the tubing is anchored to the packer and movement is eliminated. etc.A. Figure 7. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 b) Limited Downward Movement 0 REVISION In this case the tubing is fully free to move upwards but is restricted in its downward movement (Refer to figure 7. hence increased stress in the tubing.f).Anchored Tubing . Similarly.e).D .Free Moving Figure 7.E . Ratchet Latch.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 159 OF 295 ENI S. it will result in increased tensional and compressive forces. correspondingly to the packer. the calculations will determine that the tubing stress limit is not exceeded. otherwise permanent deformation will occur. This additional stress will be calculated during the tubing movement calculations and must not exceed the stress limit for the tubing. c) Anchored Tubing In this case the tubing is anchored to the packer by being threaded to it (as in the case when using retrievable packers) or by using an anchoring device such as an Anchor Latch.
either. 7. hence. selection of a tubing are: • • • • • • • • 7. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 7. . Each casing or liner weight and corresponding length of section must be known to enable calculation.3. Tubing Data The optimum tubing size. Deviation tables are also required.1. Bottom-hole Pressure Accurate initial and prognosed future formation pressures both static and dynamic are fundamental to tubing movement/stress calculations. These pressures can be obtained from previous well exploration test data or appraisal well test reports. 0 REVISION The well data and parameters required (or already determined) to produce an accurate tubing movement/stress analysis and.p. straight pull or torque can be applied to the tubing downhole at the packer depth overcoming any frictional drag. WELL DATA. Temperatures (Static and Flowing) Accurate well temperature data are vital in tubing movement/stress analysis as the temperature effect is usually the effect which causes the greatest tubing movement. The average temperature of each section of tubing and casing must be known or determined to input into the calculations. Casing Profile/Geometry The planned casing design and contingency plans are required as they affect the tubing movement calculations (Refer to 4. The tubing movement/stress calculations will then determine the tubing weight or any change in grade required to meet with the applied SF for stress. weight and grade is confirmed then the appropriate rated completion components can be specified in order that the purchasing department can prepare tender documents.4. 7.3. 7. determined by nodal analysis conducted by the reservoir engineers.3.3. is required and is the basis of all the calculations.3.A. The well deviation is also important to determine the type of packer/tubing seal device and/or tubing movement device to ensure that.2. Similar to the pressure data.3.1. Once the tubing size.1).ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 160 OF 295 ENI S. The tubing grade is selected in accordance to the criteria listed in section 6 to combat the effects of any corrosion from the well conditions. temperature data may be found from previous well test results. Casing design profile Casing programme contingency profile Tubing size from optimisation analysis Pressure gradient Temperature gradient Reservoir fluids specific gravities Completion fluid specific gravities Production/injection or stimulation forecast.
If justified economically. these corrosive agents can cause serious problems. Reservoir Fluids 0 REVISION As described earlier. Completion Fluid The completion fluid. All subsequent conditions are calculated from this initial condition.4.3. Carbon Dioxide and Chloride levels. Ballooning effect.3. As the completion fluid (sometimes referred to as the packer fluid) will be left in the annulus. This is subject to any corrosion inhibition methods which may be implemented. therefore the materials should be chosen to last the planned life of the completion.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 161 OF 295 ENI S. the constituents of the produced reservoir fluids will initially determine the material required for the tubing. .A. The information required to make a considered selection may be obtained from the ADIS (Advanced Drilling Information System) database (which holds all the data regarding the drilling of the well). Particular importance should be paid to Hydrogen Sulphide. These are three pressure induced effects which produce forces that moves the tubing. it will have completion fluid in both the tubing and the annulus. this is referred to as the initial condition. It should be selected to provide an overbalance at the top of the reservoir. In the presence of water and under certain temperature conditions. well tests carried out earlier and other sources which may be useful in the decision making process. 7. Each of these effects are addressed in this section. is chosen for its compatibility with the formation and its fluids so as not to cause any formation damage.5. These effects are: a) b) c) Piston effect. Buckling effect. 7. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 7.p.6. Future parameters must also be considered as water may rise and the GOR will change. it should be suitably dosed with corrosion inhibitors and oxygen scavenger to prevent corrosion to the exposed tubulars and elastomers. therefore it is essential that a detailed corrosion study is completed to enable the choice of materials and/or inhibition procedures. either with a tubing seal unit in a packer bore or a tubing movement device. PRESSURE INDUCED FORCES When a well is completed. the material chosen should combat the effects of corrosion. It also must be selected for its stability over long time periods and not suffer from dehydration or deterioration. usually a brine. however if this choice is not economic and some corrosion inhibition process was suitable then this would be a fallback position.
If there is an alteration from this initial condition causing a change in pressure forces across the packer seal unit then a piston effect is caused. 7. The force (F) change is caused by the change in piston force from the initial conditions created by a change in pressure in the annulus or tubing at the packer.7 and figure 7. tubing larger than the packer bore.A Substituting for F. This will alter the tensile load on the top and bottom of the tubing.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 162 OF 295 ENI S. The formula in each case is the same: ∆L1 = − L F EAs Eq.B L E As Ap Ai Ao ∆Pi ∆Po = = = = = = = = Length of the tubing string to the packer depth (ins) Young’s Modulus of Elasticity (psi) 2 Cross sectional area of tubing (ins ) 2 Area of the packer bore (ins ) 2 Area of the tubing ID (ins ) 2 Area of the tubing OD (ins ) Change in tubing pressure at the packer (psi) Change in annulus pressure at the packer (psi) .A. 7. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 7. The change in length due to these alterations is calculated from Hooks Law: Where E is the modulus of elasticity (sometimes referred to as a Young’s Modulus formula).4. 7. the equation becomes: ∆L1 = − where: L EAs [(Ap − A1) ∆P1 − (Ap − Ao ) ∆Po] Eq. and tubing smaller than the packer bore. when run in a well must first withstand the load of its own weight which may be a significant factor especially in deep wells. Piston Effect 0 REVISION Tubing.h illustrate this piston force for two cases.p. The tubing is run into a completion fluid with equivalent fluid density inside and outside the tubing which results in a reduction of the load due to buoyancy.1. This tensile load is greatest in the joint immediately below the tubing hanger.
2.Packer Bore Smaller Than Tubing OD Helical buckling is initiated by compressive force acting on the bottom of the tubing and is the formation of helical spirals in the tubing string. 7.C . The helix shown in figure 7. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 0 REVISION Ao Ai Ao Ai r r Po Po Ap Pi Ap Pi Figure 7.A. Unless the tubing string is short or the compressive force is exceedingly high.p.i).Wo Ai x Weight of fluid inside the tubing Ao x Weight of fluid outside the tubing Eq.G . Buckling Effect Figure 7.4.H . The buckling effect is greater when pressure differential is applied across the pipe. some of the tubing will be buckled and the rest straight.Packer Bore Larger Than Tubing OD 7.i has a variable pitch as the compressive force is progressively lowered by the weight of the pipe hanging below. The exact point between the buckled and straight sections is the ‘neutral point’ (Refer to figure 7. The neutral point can be calculated from the following: n= where: W Wi Wo = = = F w Ws + Wi .ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 163 OF 295 ENI S.
ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 164 OF 295 ENI S.I .i) can be calculated by the following formula: F2 r2 ∆L2 = − 8EI w where: Eq.p. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 0 REVISION Figure 7.Neutral Point When the neutral point is within the tubing length (and so the helix can fully develop). the length reduction due to helical buckling (Refer to figure 7.D I= π (D 4 − d 4 ) 64 .A. 7.
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F Figure 7.J - Helical Buckling If the tubing is very short (as happens for example on selective type completions between two packer’s) all the string may be affected by buckling and there is no neutral point. In this case, the length reduction due to the buckling effect is dependant upon the entire length of the string and can be calculated by the following formula:
∆L2 = −
F 2 r 2 Lw Lw F 2 − F 8 EIw
As seen, the formulae for both piston effect and helicoidal buckling above has so far used F, i.e. the change in the piston force acting on the bottom of the tubing. However, in order to complete the understanding of the effects which lead to variations in length due to buckling, we must also consider the effect caused by pressure differential across a pipe. If the internal pressure in a pipe is greater than the external pressure, the tube remains straight only if it has an axially symmetric cross-section with no deformation to change its shape. This configuration is unstable and any distortion can lead immediately to a stable equilibrium condition which is helicoidal buckling. Helicoidal buckling is caused by the effect of the pressure which acts on the lateral surface of the pipe wall as the convex surface of the bend in a greater force is larger than the concave surface (Refer to figure 7.k). The internal pressure will therefore exert a greater force on the convex side of the helix, than that exerted on the concave section of the same bend. The resulting force will, therefore, create the helicoidal buckling configuration. The same occurs when the stable external pressure is greater than the internal pressure also resulting in helical buckling.
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Moreover, the effect of the external pressure on the tubing lateral surfaces is equivalent to a tensile force applied at the tubing bottom of:
F f = Ai Pi
= − Ao Po
Figure 7.K - Pressure Induced Helical Buckling Effect From this it can be concluded that the effect of the internal pressure on the tubing lateral surfaces is equivalent to a compressive force applied at the bottom of the tubing. Therefore the tubing will be buckled by the piston force and by the sum of Ff and Ff . The fictitious force Ff is obtained from the sum of the three elements:
Ff = Ff + Ff
F f = A p (Pi − Po )
If Ff is greater than zero it will cause helical buckling and hence, if it is less than zero there is no deformation. It is however important to relate that the only force actually applied at the bottom of the tubing is the piston force, while the fictitious force is used only to calculate the buckling effect.
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It should be remembered that, to calculate the variations in length, the variations of the forces compared to initial conditions must be calculated. Therefore, to sum up: in the ∆L1 (Hooke’s law), the variation of the piston force Fa must be used; in the ∆L2 (buckling), the variation of the fictitious force Ff must be used when this is positive, otherwise, being a tensile force, it cannot buckle the string and ∆L2 = 0. The theory above was developed considering Pi = Po in the initial conditions, it thus follows that the Ff is equal to zero and that the variation of fictitious force ∆Ff is therefore equal to the final fictitious force. 7.4.3. Ballooning Effect The third element which changes the length of a string, due to the changes to internal and external pressure, is caused by ballooning. This effect occurs when ∆P = Pi - Po is positive and tends to swell the tubing which, contracts axially or shortens (Refer to figure 7.m). On the other hand, when ∆P = Pi - Po is negative, the tubing is squeezed and, expands axially or elongates. This is termed reverse ballooning (Refer to figure 7.l). The normally used simplified formula to calculate the ballooning or reverse ballooning effect is: • •
∆L3 = −
2ν ∆Pim − R 2 ∆Pom L E R2 −1
In this the average internal and external pressure variations are defined by the formulae:
+ Pi ( final ) − Pi (initial ) Pi ( final ) − Pi (initial ) tophole bottomhole ∆Pim = 2
+ Po ( final ) − Po (initial ) Po ( final ) − Po (initial ) tophole bottomhole ∆Pom = 2
Eq. 7.L Again this is developed from Hooke’s law using Young’s Modulus of elasticity (already used in the piston and buckling effect) and Poisson’ ratio. Poisson’s ratio v as earlier expressed is:
∆t / t ∆L / L
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Figure 7.L - Reverse Ballooning 7.4.4. Temperature Effect
Figure 7.M - Ballooning
The final effect considered when calculating tubing length variations, is the temperature effect which usually induces the largest movement. During a well operation, e.g. stimulation, the temperature of the tubing may be much less than that in, either, the initial or flow rate conditions. During well stimulations, significant quantities of fluids are pumped through the tubing at ambient surface temperature which may change the temperature of the tubing by several degrees. The formula used to calculate the change of length due to temperature effect is:
∆L4 = α ∆TM L
Eq. 7.M where the average temperature variation in the string can be calculated as follows:
− Tinitial )tophole + (T final − Tinitial )bottomhole 2
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In the formula α represents the material’s coefficient of thermal expansion. For steel this value is: α = 6.9 x 10-6 in/in/°F. figure 7.n shows typical geothermal temperature gradients during both stimulation and production conditions. It can be seen that the temperature variations to which the tubing is subjected may cause considerable changes to its length.
300 T (°F)
7500 D (feet)
Figure 7.N - Typical Geothermal Gradients 7.5. EVALUATION OF TOTAL TUBING MOVEMENT The sum of the length changes obtained from the changes in pressure induced forces and temperature effects, gives the total shift of the bottom end of the string at the packer depth where it is free to move in the packer-bore. This sum is calculated:
∆Ltot = ∆L1 + ∆L2 + ∆L3 + ∆L4
Eq. 7.O With free moving packer/tubing seals systems, the calculations are made for the selection of an appropriate length of seal assembly, PBR or ELTSR with anchored packer/tubing systems, this same calculation can be made to select the length of tubing movement devices such as telescopic or expansion joints. However, if no movement is converted to stress in the tubing, the resultant is stress on the packer (Refer to section 7.6).
all the movement is linear and to restore to the tubing’s real anchored position. To understand this concept better. it is possible to use a graphical approach. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 7.o). In this situation the tubing-packer forces generated by the presence of the anchoring must be determined so as to be able to confirm if the tubing-packer anchoring system and the packer have sufficient strength to safely withstand all the forces exerted. Figure 7. the force needed to re-anchor the tubing to the packer can be determined. once this force is known.O .ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 170 OF 295 ENI S.P However. it is sufficient to impose a ∆L4 elongation by applying a force FP which is obtained from Hooke’s law: ∆L = − FL EAs ⇒ FP = − ∆L4 EAs L Eq. Since no force is applied at the end of the tubing which could cause buckling.Tubing Anchored To Packer The tubing-packer force can be calculated by initially assuming that the tubing is free to move in the packer seal-bore and it is possible to calculate the final total length change of the tubing under pressure and temperature variations of all conditions. Subsequently.A. consider figure 7.p where it is presumed that the tubing can move away from its anchored condition while maintaining the seal with the packer and that the tubing undergoes only ∆L4 contraction caused by the temperature effect.p. 7. the load on the tubing can be calculated to check if the completion components have sufficient strength. in general the problem of identifying the tubing/packer reaction is not linear due to the helical buckling effect and so. . preventing any movement of the string when well conditions vary (figure 7.6. Moreover. ANCHORED TUBING 0 REVISION In some completions the tubing is firmly fixed to the packer.
7. the tubing representative point in the well when it is subjected to the fictitious force.q the Fp force. This curve. so to position the tubing in the packer after contracting the string must be elongated accordingly.Q The second step is to identify. radial distance between the tubing OD and casing ID and on the fluids in the well. if a force of Ff.∆Lf) and the diagram obtained has a total length variation of ∆LP = -∆ltot.p is determined by the size of tubing. ∆L4 Fp ∆L ∆L4 Fp F Figure 7. transferred between the tubing and packer. ∆Lf).q this condition is identified by intersection point (Ff. shown in figure 7. As shown in figure 7.Graphical Representation Of Movement . on the material. was applied at the end of the tubing. The origin of the axis moves to the point found in this way (Ff . This can be plotted using the following formulae: ∆L = − ∆L = − FL EAs FL F 2 r 2 − EAs 8 EIw ( for F < 0 ) ( for F > 0 ) Eq. even when this is negative. is then identified.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 171 OF 295 ENI S. Indeed.P . the cause of the buckling would be eliminated and the neutral point would return to the bottom in the tubing.p. on the curve.A. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 0 REVISION The first step is to plot the characteristic strength/length variation of the system. On the curve given in figure 7.
p.Graphical Representation of Force 7. after the packer is set. some of the weight of the string is set down on the packer. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 0 REVISION ∆Lp Fp ∆L Fp ∆Lf ∆Lp F Ff Figure 7.6.1.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 172 OF 295 ENI S.r). In this method. . putting the tubing into compression or slackened-off (Refer to figure 7.A.Q . Tubing Permitting Limited Motion Another method which may be used in some types of completions is that the tubing is fully or partially limited in downhole movement.
Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 0 REVISION Figure 7. causing a force on the packer which would be equal to that of the slack-off amount. ∆Pso.R where: Fso = slack-off force released on the packer. i.Limited Downward Movement The shortening of the string caused by this. any elongation of the string would be prevented. the total length variation calculated as the sum of the above described effects.R .e. makes it possible to limit the length variations of the string. compressing the string and thus causing part of the length variation which would occur in any case at a later stage due to the effects described above. on the other hand. . e. applying slack-off is the same as moving the packer upwards by ∆Lso. With this type of anchoring it is. The same considerations can be made if ∆Ltot < 0 during the operation while.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 173 OF 295 ENI S. in an injection operation. therefore.p. therefore. during an injection operation. 7. The ∆Lso value is determined using the following formula: 2 Fso L Fso r 2 ∆Lso = − − E As 8 E I w Eq. is decreased by ∆Lso.A. If an anchored type constraint is considered then the tubing-packer force with respect to the anchored tubing can be reduced. for example. In practice. possible to limit the movements of the tubing with respect to the packer and consequently the length of the packer seal-assembly. ∆Ltot.g.
p. The operations normally carried out on a well for which the string control is necessary are illustrated below. temperature and mechanical loads for each condition imposed. Hydraulic packers are set by plugging the tubing below the packer either by dropping a setting ball onto a shear out ball seat. the designed test pressures should be equal to or greater than any other subsequent pressures applied to the completion so the magnitude is high. TUBING LOAD CONDITIONS The load conditions of the tubing string during the well’s life causes stresses through the pressure. This stress needs to be taken into account to determine the total stress applied to the tubing. the completion will have warmed up to ambient well conditions. However. This involves applying predetermined test pressures to both the tubing and annulus.7. It is important.6. when selecting the type of tubing for a completion. This may be of particular concern when using large bore tubing movement devices as the forces generated by the test pressure are greater than packer tubing seal arrangements. to analyse the characteristics of each operation in order to be able to identify the heavier loads which may be imposed. it is essential to identify exactly what operations will be carried out in future to determine the consequent loads and thus the associated load conditions. therefore the only load applied is the pressure induced forces of piston effect buckling and ballooning. it changes the length of the tubing during the setting process.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 174 OF 295 ENI S. These pressures may be applied more than once during the installation operation. 7.1. During the time taken to install the tubing. in any case.7. These should be seen only as an example of load conditions as each case must be addressed individually as planned operations may vary. It is therefore obvious why. This in turn places stress in the tubing after the packer is set and the pressure is bled off. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 7. as pressure is applied to the tubing to set the packer. Packer Setting 0 REVISION A particular problem arises in tubing tied to packer completions when using hydraulic set packers. Pressure Testing The very first load condition experienced during and after the installation of the completion string is pressure testing. or by installing a plug with wireline. The formulae for determine this tubing length change are: ∆Fa L EAs 2ν ∆Pim ∆L3 = − L E R2 −1 ∆L1 = − where: (Hooke’s law) (ballooning) ∆Fa = − Ai ∆Pi and ∆Pim=∆Pi 7. A manual or computer programme is then used to calculate and then ascertain whether the given tubing is able to withstand the maximum load with an acceptable safety level.A. .2.
it is important to assess the drop in temperature caused by the injection of colder fluid which. The pressures which can be attained. the pressure and temperature trends can be plotted as shown by the previous example of the acid stimulation (figure 7. in Eni-Agip Division and Affiliates case are in-house software which allows reproduction of the correct temperature trend.2. in order to exceed the fracturing gradient. With regard to the stresses on the string similar to acid stimulations.s). and decreasing the bottom hole pressure thus reducing the load. is carried out at high flow rates even though of short duration. are higher than that during acid jobs. Fracturing Fracturing involves the propagation of fractures in the formation for the improvement of productivity of hydrocarbons. the formation must be pressurised until one (or more) fractures are created. selecting the end of the operation as the final conditions but with a well head pressure equal to the maximum estimated. 7. according to the classical Lubinsky theory.p. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 7.s shows the pressure and temperature trends required to be known so as to ensure stress control of the string. This may lead to greater cooling down of the tubing with reduced pressures. This equipment must therefore be protected using special isolating tools or protection sleeves. From the point of view of the stresses exerted on the tubing string. It may be necessary in some cases.3. Acid Stimulation 0 REVISION Acid jobs are carried out to remove formation damage caused during drilling by the invasion of fluids and cuttings or to stimulate the formation by improving permeability. This operation is carried out by pumping a predetermined quantity of acid down the tubing to the formation at set pressures and flow rates. The calculated flow rate is applied during the operation and the pressure trend (which usually decreases when the fracture is created due to the reduction of load losses in the formation) is monitored. Friction reducers may also be used to increase flow at the same wellhead pressure.A. This entails obtaining in advance the injection parameters from various injectivity tests with increasing flow rates.7. These fractures reach from the well bore deep into reservoir and allows better drainage. especially during the early injection stage. together with the temperature variations caused by the injection of colder fluid. To carry out fracturing. which. To check the string design is suitable.7. using computer programmes. Other data are often needed for more complex calculations. to reduce the loads on the tubing by preheating the acid in order to limit the thermal expansion and pressurising the annulus to reduce the tubing ballooning effect. the maximum allowable pressure for some well head equipment may be reached. . It is important to monitor the pressure and temperature trends during the operation as the acid rate will probably increase due to the effect of the acid on the formation. figure 7. the maximum pressure able to be applied at the well head must be considered in order to determine the rate of acid which can be applied. At times during these early stages.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 175 OF 295 ENI S.
FINAL CSG 2500 FINAL TBG 5000 7500 D (feet) 0 0 5000 FINAL CSG 10000 FINAL TBG 15000 P (psi) 2500 5000 INITIAL TBG INITIAL CSG 7500 D (feet) Figure 7. 0 0 100 200 300 T (°F) INITIAL CSG AND TBG . Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 0 REVISION If during the initial stages of the operation.p.S .A. a significant break-down is forecast (by a marked reduction of pressure when the fracture is opened up in the formation). the first with high pressures without temperature variations. The latter condition may be too conservative.Pressure and Temperature Trends During Fracturing .ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 176 OF 295 ENI S. and the second with marked temperature variations and lower pressures. therefore two conditions should be checked.
or at least approximate. As shown in the diagrams of figure 7. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 7. it is necessary to interrupt production for maintenance or in order to take some data measurements. e. This shut-in operation involves closing the well during which the well head pressure increases because the reservoir pressure rises to static condition. 7.7. the string undergoes temperature increases which cause elongation in the string.u shows typical pressure and temperature trends after a shut-in.p. external pressure may be greater than internal pressure. at the moment of shut-in. Compared to the initial condition. Flowing 0 REVISION In this case it is not an operation carried out on the well but the normal flowing load conditions to which the string is being subjected. which give the pressure and temperature bottom hole trends as a function of the depth at production start up and when the reservoir is depleted. The resulting compressive forces may lead to the buckling phenomena and even cause the tubing to exceed its elastic limit.u.7. figure 7.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 177 OF 295 ENI S. temperature differences between the beginning and end of the productive life or the need to increase or decrease the flow rate for reasons external to the well. This load condition is considered critical as. Shut-In Once a well is in production. It is therefore very important to establish. the temperature of the string does not vary greatly due to the thermal inertia of the well. making it necessary to ensure a collapse control of some sections. pressuring up the fluids in the tubing. the pressure and temperature profiles during the life of the well.g.t and figure 7. The situation is now similar to that during production but with well head pressures which are greater and hence increase the stresses on the string.5. Different production situations will occur which cause changing load conditions. .4.A.
ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 178 OF 295 ENI S.T .FINAL CSG 7500 D (feet) 0 0 5000 10000 15000 P (psi) 2500 FINAL TBG INITIAL TBG 5000 INITIAL CSG .p. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 0 REVISION 0 0 100 200 300 T (°F) 2500 FINAL TBG 5000 INITIAL CSG E TBG .A.FINAL CSG 7500 D (feet) Figure 7.Pressure and Temperature Trends in Normal Production Conditions .
FINAL CSG 7500 D (feet) .Pressure and Temperature Trends in Depleted Reservoir Production Conditions 0 0 100 200 300 T (°F) 2500 FINAL TBG 5000 INITIAL CSG E TBG .U . Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 0 REVISION Figure 7.FINAL CSG 7500 D (feet) 0 0 5000 FINAL TBG 10000 15000 P (psi) 2500 INITIAL TBG 5000 INITIAL CSG .p.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 179 OF 295 ENI S.A.
ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 180 OF 295 ENI S.CSG FINAL 7500 D (feet) 0 0 5000 10000 15000 P (psi) FINAL TBG 2500 INITIAL TBG 5000 INITIAL CSG .Pressure and Temperature Trends After Shut-In .p. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 0 REVISION 0 0 100 200 300 T (°F) 2500 FINAL TBG 5000 INITIAL CSG AND TBG .V .A.FINAL CSG 7500 D (feet) Figure 7.
6. In both cases the problem of completing the well is solved but it is necessary to verify both cost and whether it is better to use on CRA.8. TUBING SELECTION The tubing string selection procedure and subsequent stress analysis is fundamental to the completion design process as it is during these two stages. Load Condition Summary 0 REVISION The operations described above were chosen because they are the most common and show which aspects of an operation must be known in order to determine which loads will have to be considered to verify string design. If the string is tapered or has one. Since the economic factor plays a primary role of importance when selecting a completion. avoiding future workovers or if it is more economical to use carbon steel with an inhibition system and scheduled workovers. A typical example is that of wells with the presence of corrosive agents where either strings and down hole equipment can be made in Corrosion Resistant Alloy (CRA) or carbon steel with inhibitors injected downhole can be used.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 181 OF 295 ENI S. which may differ depending on the local environmental conditions and on some parameters discussed below. in any case. it is necessary to assess all the various possible solutions.A. Alterations are then made to the draft completion until the ideal safety factor. and knowing the completion configuration. can be obtained.p. is reached. The Eni-Agip Division and Affiliates approach to choosing the tubing string is similar to that followed when designing any other mechanical part. . Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 7. 7. it is important to be able to plot the pressure and temperature trends of the casing and tubing on the two pressure/depth and temperature/ depth diagrams for the moment before the packer is set (initial conditions) and at the end of this operation (final condition) or. it will be necessary during the control stage to know the pressure and temperature data of all the packers and of the tubing cross-section variations and is good practice to plot these data on diagrams. or more. by choosing and verifying the various possibilities. Using the above diagrams. generally this is greatest in the section above the packer and below the well head. By using an iterative method. As shown in the examples above.e. i.7. intermediate packers. the relative loads on the sections of the string can be calculated. A draft design is considered based on the expected well conditions and then this design is checked to obtain the safety factor(s). during the stage considered most critical as regards the loads applied. that the optimum solution is found through a sequence of approximations. the correct safety factor for all the calculated load conditions expected during the life of the well.
ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 182 OF 295 ENI S. especially when the severity of the conditions suggest the use of expensive CRA materials (Refer to section 6). etc.8. is often sufficient though these only reach a maximum grade of T95 (95 ksi yield) therefore do not always meet with stress requirements in high pressures and great depth.1.g. or for a quicker choice. frequency of workovers. However. Taking into consideration the well conditions. chlorides and water from production tests and to enter these data into an expert system. it is then possible to identify the optimum mechanical solutions. the possibility of anisotropies must be checked into as they generally imply a lower compressive yield load than tensile yield load and corresponding reductions for their use at high temperatures. whether this entails changes to either the casing programme or the completion design. etc.) must fit inside the production casing and/or liner. Critical Factors 0 REVISION The main factors driving the choice of the string are described below. it is best to base the choice on an appropriate corrosion study which takes into account many other parameters. this method does not provide a solution to using carbon steel in conjunction with an inhibition system. it will be necessary to take into consideration their mechanical properties to ensure that a suitable factor can be verified in the subsequent stress analysis stage. Note: It is vital that any detrimental impact caused by the casing programme is discussed with the drilling engineers to solve any problems. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 7.2. With regard to corrosion studies.A. landing nipples. e. Given that the dimensions of the tubing and components of the string (safety valves. the exact quantities of H2S. economics. to complete a well with the presence of corrosive agents (H2S and/or CO2) the use carbon steel with controlled hardness and/or martensitic steel. Materials The choice of material for the tubing string depends mainly on the well environment. outlined below. When CRA steels are used (which must be cold worked in order to obtain the required mechanical characteristics). it is always necessary to determine. the length of each section needs to be determined at this point. thickness of the corrosion product. In general.p. In this case. is the choice of the size. it is essential to establish the size in order to find out if it impacts on the casing design. the ideal material is determined by the results of corrosion studies carried out prior to the tubing design stage. . Tubing Size And Weight One of the main elements of the completion string design process. Indeed. and if the string has more than one size of tubing as in a tapered string. The presence of residual tension may induce stress corrosion and over-stressing problems which must also be taken into consideration.8. CO2. using the engineering diagrams supplied by manufacturers. wall thickness and grade of tubing which is optimum to requirements. The inside and outside diameter of the tubing. Once the choice of materials has been identified. 7. in terms of all the mechanical stresses and corrosivity of the fluids.
As explained in the following section. In the case of a very expensive super austenitic steel string for example. In some particular situations non-traditional solutions must be chosen as some parameters. This rate must be lower than the rate at which erosion occurs. surface pressures. mechanical strength and practical feasibility. Another reduction of thickness which must be taken into account on used tubing. carried out to remove tong marks.) applied to the selected string. . hence.e. API standards for carbon steels define a 12. it is necessary to calculate the velocities in the string during production. These studies can generally be completed quickly using Eni-Agip Division and Affiliates software which directly provides the diameters of tubing for the expected flow rates and projected rates. the loads resulting from the various load conditions (acid jobs. production. it may be necessary to increase the weight or grade because the string is too weak.A. The most important value to be decided on the selected tubing is its mechanical strength. or gas condensate wells. faster wall thickness reduction. the new string (maximum thickness. limit the choices. The two cases. the safety factor under these loads against the yield strength are calculated. it is useful to consider the thickness tolerance adopted by the manufacturer of the selected tubing. which provides a better safety factor under similar conditions.p. which generally will be equipped with a corrosion inhibitor injection system. Wells in which hydrocarbons containing corrosive agents are produced are sometimes completed using carbon steel and it is accepted that a certain amount of the material will be lost through corrosion during the life of the well. Once this calculation has been made. so it is necessary to evaluate each one in order to obtain the most suitable solution in terms of cost. it may be more appropriate to choose more structurally efficient solutions which use a tapered string with different diameters thus reducing the amount of material needed and therefore the cost. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 0 REVISION The first indications of tubing size obtained is from tubing inflow performance analysis. The above factors can often lead to a variety of solutions.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 183 OF 295 ENI S. should therefore have added thickness so as to have sufficient material to last until the scheduled workover. etc. by grinding. may be due to repairs. bottom hole pressures and other parameters. Calculation of the tubing inflow performance is very complicated and time consuming in most cases and is not covered in this manual. such as cost. which take into account the type of fluid. These threshold velocities can be found in API RP 14E. i. The strings of these wells. It is prudent in such cases to reduce through tubing interventions which knock off the corrosion exposing fresh material and. This value for CRA tubing’s is often only 10%. minimum weight) must both be taken into consideration when calculating the string’s stress resistance. maximum weight) and the workover stage (minimum thickness. Once the projected size of the tubing is established for the required flow rate then in gas. When choosing the thickness of the tubing forming the string.5% eccentricity tolerance which means one point on the tubing’s circumference probably has less thickness.
using a NoGo locator shoulder fitted above the seal assembly where it is positioned to prevent the elongation of the string while leaving it free to shorten.Tubing/Packer Systems The second preference is where downward tubing movement is restricted i. however. This will reduce movement of the packer seal assembly by eliminating downward movement and upward movement would only occur in certain limited lead conditions (stimulations or fracturing).e. the free moving system is the first choice and if the loads it creates do not allow for a suitable safety factor during well operations are other systems considered. will generate different loads in the string will be generated. This system does. is the continuous movement of the seal elastomers which may become damaged due to wear or from the debris deposited in the annulus above the packer.A. . it is clear from this that the least severe system is where the tubing seal assembly is free to move in the packer bore. the operations carried out during the life of a well cause movement of the tubing string which can depend on the type of tubing/packer seal system used between the bottom of the tubing and the packer. which shows the three most common types of packer/tubing systems. From figure 7.w.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 184 OF 295 ENI S.3. have some disadvantages which are often unacceptable such as dynamic seals. This will extend seal life. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 7. but leads to greater stressing of the tubing string. Anchoring Systems 0 REVISION As illustrated earlier. This type of anchoring provides the solution to seal life. is systems to screw the tubing to the packer using a threaded connection on retrievable packer systems or to a tubing anchor (which allows the packer to be released when necessary) on permanent packer systems. due to the use of static seals. Free Movement Limited Downward Movement Attached Figure 7. The best solution.W .8. In very deep wells. with high pressures and temperatures the movements of the lower end of the tubing may reach several feet in magnitude and hence very long seal units would need to be used in the packer which brings related assembly and protection problems during running in. Another important problem of free tubing. In preference.p.
They have however been used successfully for years with good results.p. Application Level I applies to the most severe service conditions. The connections to be used shall be qualified according to the requirements as set in the Eni-Agip Division and Affiliates procedure ‘Connection Procedure Evaluation’.9. To date three tubing connections have been qualified for the most severe conditions ALI. . The use of premium connections for production casing is advised but not mandatory.9. 7. In conjunction Eni-Agip Division and Affiliates also recommended that a premium connection be used for production casings and production liners. there are two service classes.A. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 7. Class of Service According to the specification STAP M-1-M 5006 ‘Connection Procedure Evaluation’.2. PJD Dalmine and Antares MS have not yet been subjected to the complete qualification programme as per STAP M-1-M. I and II.9.1. 7.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 185 OF 295 ENI S. TUBING CONNECTIONS 0 REVISION The Eni-Agip Division and Affiliates policy for tubing connections is that ‘the use of premium connections is mandatory’. termed Application Levels (AL). Policy • • The use of premium connections for tubing is mandatory. especially when the annulus is to be used for gas lift or an underbalance fluid is used as a completion fluid. They are : Coupled Connections AMS 28 ( manufacturer Dalmine) Vam ACE ( manufacturer Vallourec and Sumitomo) Integral Connections Eni-Agip Division and Affiliates A-DMS (Dual Metal Seal) Other connections like Hydril CS. They may be used for all service condition where an Application Level II connection is required.5006 or API 5C5.
ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 186 OF 295 ENI S.4000 psi Differential WP 4000 .A . AL I no yes AL II AL I AL I no no AL II AL II (*) AL I Requirement yes yes AL I AL I AL I yes no AL II AL I AL I Table 7. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 7.8000 psi Table 7.Connection Specification Requirement AL I AL II .B .A. Selection Criteria 0 REVISION The following are the selection criteria for connections used in different types of wells and operating conditions.3.8000 psi Differential WP over 8000 psi (*) For Gas Injection wells.p. Work string or well testing string: Integral AL1 connection shall be used Horizontal wells with Build up ≥ 20°/100 feet: Integral AL1 connection should be used Wells with TVD ≥ 4500m: Integral AL1 connection shall be used Producing Oil And Gas Wells (TVD < 4500m) Criteria NACE Close Proximity Differential WP 0 .9.4000 psi Differential WP 4000 .Connection Specification Storage/Injection Gas Wells (TVD < 4500m) Criteria Differential WP 0 .
ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 187 OF 295 ENI S.A.4000 psi Differential WP 4000 .9.x. 0 REVISION Requirement AL II AL II Differential working pressure is the maximum differential pressure (internal and/or external) to which the production string is subjected during the life of the well. . Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 Water Injection Wells (TVD < 4500m) Criteria Differential WP 0 .Connection Specification A flow chart reaffirming the above is shown in figure 7.4 explains the NACE and Close Proximity definitions.C .p. Note: Section 7.8000 psi Table 7.
Connection Application Level Selection Flow Chart .p. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 0 REVISION Figure 7.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 188 OF 295 ENI S.A.X .
Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 7. all or any portion of a park. of an open flame or fired equipment. from the wellhead and includes any part of a public area except a public road. state. government building. county or municipal street or road owned or maintained for public access or use.589) (mole fraction H2S) (Q)] 0. 500ppm ROE of H2S is greater than 50ft.6258 . NACE And Proximity Definitions NACE Requirement 0 REVISION This applies to the partial pressure of hydrogen sulphide (H2S) in the produced fluid as defined by NACE Standard MR 01-75. of a public road (lease road excluded).p. The following list of criteria can be used for determining this potential risk.6258 For determining the location of the 500ppm radius of exposure: X = [(0. • • • • • • • Well is located in any environmentally sensitive area such as parks. Well is located within 350ft of any dwelling. town. hospital. Other criteria for consideration should be included when necessary. Public road shall mean any federal.9. These conditions are recommended minimum considerations.4546) (mole fraction H2S) (Q)] 0. wildlife preserve. a public road. Well is located in state waters. city limits. school bus stop. school. from the wellhead and includes any part of a public area including a public road. 100ppm Radius of Exposure (ROE) of H2S is greater than 50ft.A. city. village. Close Proximity A proximity assessment should be prepared to consider the potential impact of an uncontrolled well flow condition on the life of personnel and the environment around the wellhead. or other similar area that one can expect to be populated. Well is located within 150ft. etc. Well is located within 50ft. Texas Railroad Commission Rules The following information is taken from Texas Railroad Commission Rule 36: For determining the location of the 100ppm radius of exposure: X = [(1. It will be necessary to meet any other local regulatory requirements.4. church. Public area shall mean a dwelling.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 189 OF 295 ENI S. place of business. Well is located in or near inland navigable waters Well is located in or near surface domestic water supplies.
At this point of the process all the possible elements needed for the design verification are available. a 100ppm radius of exposure equal to 3. but where hydrogen sulphide may be expected. The anti-galling treatments (e.A.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 190 OF 295 ENI S. there is a tendency to gall during make up.000ft shall be assumed.e. Computer programmes are very useful in this phase as it is possible to make repeated calculations quickly with different parameters. Connection Data Data on tubing connections are available from API specifications and tables in industry handbooks. Using the calculation theory illustrated previously. Fp. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 where: X = Radius of exposure in feet Q= H2S = 0 REVISION Maximum volume determined to be available for escape in cubic feet per day. When a well is in an area where insufficient data exists to calculate a radius of exposure.p. and consequently.6.5. information about the load conditions. 7. Mole fraction of hydrogen sulphide in the gaseous mixture which could escape. it is possible to determine how close the stresses are to the material’s yield strength.9. hence protection. The escape rate used in determining the radius of exposure shall be corrected to standard o conditions of 14. whichever is the larger. the escape rate shall be determined by using the current adjusted open-flow rate of offset wells. The string or load conditions or the tubing strength must therefore be altered until the calculation produces an appropriate safety factor (SF). After these calculations are made. TUBING STRESS CALCULATIONS The final stage of the completion string design is the calculation of stress in areas under the highest loads. the type of tubing and materials to be used to meet the requirements outlined in section 6. 7. 7. or the field average current adjusted openflow rate. This requires special surface treatment in the connection’s pin and box.10. Bakertron or copper plating) is always applied to the couplings to ensure the utmost coating. as is applicable: For the new wells in developed areas.9. i. The volume used as the escape rate in determining the radius of exposure shall be that specified below. it is possible to calculate the forces acting on the packer. the fictitious and piston forces in the string sections.g.65psia and 60 F. CRA Connections For steels with a high chrome content (>13%). .8. During the verification stage it may be seen that the loads on the string are unacceptably high.
Calculation Methods 0 REVISION Taking. the tables below summarise the forces acting on the sections of the string which will be used for the design verifications.1.y. For other types of completions.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 191 OF 295 ENI S.p. it is sufficient to use an intermediate length ‘l’ ( L > l > 0 ) measured from the packer. .y.A.E . the sections where the string design must be verified are indicated by x-x at the well head and y-y at the downhole just above the packer.Forces at X-X F f tp = F f − wL F f*tp = F f* − wL As can be seen.D . string design must be verified at all the appropriate sections where there are variations in diameter. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 7. instead of ‘L’ of the previous formulae. With reference to figure 7.10.Forces at Y-Y F f* = F f + F p Section X-X (Well Head) Tubing-Packer Mode Free tubing Tubing permitting limited motion and anchored Piston Forces Fictitious Forces Fa tp = Fa − w s L Fa*tp = Fa* − w s L Table 7. the type of completion shown in figure 7. have intermediate packers or other discontinuities. Therefore. The asterix distinguishes the forces calculated in a completion with the string anchored to the packer verses those calculated for a string free to move in the seal bore. Section Y-Y (Packer) Tubing-Packer Mode Free tubing Tubing permitting limited motion and anchored Piston Forces Fictitious Forces Fa Ff Fa* = Fa + F p Table 7. as an example. to calculate forces on intermediate sections between the well head and packer depth. the forces at the well head coincide with those at the packer depth if L = 0.
Y .p. σb is calculated only if the section of the string to be verified is buckled.Example Completion #1 The piston forces obtained in this way are used to calculate the axial stress which is given by the expression: σa = Fa As The fictitious force is used to calculate the axial stress caused by the tubing bending when helically buckled. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 0 REVISION X X Y Y Figure 7.A. it is given by the expression: σb = Dr Ff 4I therefore. .ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 192 OF 295 ENI S.
the equivalent stress is σeq = σi The higher of the stress values determined above will make it possible to obtain the SF of the string for the load conditions and the section considered: SF = σ sn σ eq The SF must be greater than the minimum dictated by policy and listed in section 7.25 . The Eni-Agip Division and Affiliates policy is to apply different types of material due to their different mechanical behaviours and resistance to corrosion. σb.e. even if only slightly. calculated using the expression below. if the section to be calculated is buckled. 7.A.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 193 OF 295 ENI S. It. Po and Pi are available. both calculations must be made to determine the higher of the two values while. 2 P − P P − R Po σ o = 3 i 2 o + i 2 +σa ±σb R −1 R −1 2 2 P − R 2 Po R 2 (Pi − Po ) σ σ i = 3 + i 2 +σa ± b 2 R −1 R R −1 2 2 As stated above. Carbon and CRA Steels up to 13%Cr The acceptable SF for these types of materials is: 1.1 which gives the SF values to be used by Eni-Agip Division and Affiliates. i.p. allows comparison of the stresses due to the different effects in a particular section of the string against the material yield stress rating. if there is no buckling σb = 0 and the greater stress is that in the inside wall. provides a quick reference parameter to evaluate the magnitude of the stresses present in the tubing compared to the maximum acceptable.2.10. Safety Factor A completion string’s safety factor is defined as the ratio between the yield stress and the maximum value of the stress obtained as described above. its functionality. To calculate the SF the yield limit values of the material are taken into consideration so that there is no permanent corkscrewing of the string which could jeopardise. therefore. the stress which. by applying suitable criterion (for the materials used in the oil industry the most appropriate is Von Mises). Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 0 REVISION Now all the factors needed to determine the equivalent stress σa. which gives the equivalent stresses in the outside and inside wall of the considered tubing section. In this case the equivalent force will be the greater of the two.
the engineer may evaluate whether. super-austenitic and Incoloy is: 1. economic decision not to use the next grade of tubing etc. Furthermore. therefore. for some particular operations and for specific well conditions. the cold worked materials retain residual stress so.Z .15 for some particular operations and for specific well conditions. Figure 7. the SF is calculated using the yield point but also the collapse rating of the string.g.p. low pressure oil wells. apart from the yielding the cold worked materials reach breaking point soon after the yield point while the carbon steels maintain a greater plastic deformation margin before the breaking point. from both the viewpoint of stress corrosion and mechanical strength. This is a dangerous situation which occurs at the breaking point.35 Similarly.).A. The different SF’s between the carbon and CRA steels can be attributed to the different behaviour of these materials for stress values above the yield point.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 194 OF 295 ENI S. As can be seen. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 0 REVISION In each individual case the string design and stress analysis engineer may evaluate whether the acceptable SF can be lowered to 1. figure 7.20. It is. (e.Stress/Strain Diagrams COLD WORKED CARBON STEEL σ σ σsn r σ σr σsn σr = breaking point σsn = yield point ε = elongation ε ε . the acceptable SF can be lowered to 1. the SF should be slightly higher. clear that a higher SF for Cold Worked materials is required in order to maintain the same safety factor relevant to the breaking points for the two types of materials.z shows the stress/strain diagrams for the above two types of materials. Cold Worked (CW) CRA Steels The acceptable SF for these types of materials which include duplex. As stated previously.
10. due to the depletion in reservoir pressure.10. when the pressure in the annulus increases compared to that in the tubing. from which it is possible to make a comparison with the yield load. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 0 REVISION The SF discussed up to this point is valid. if applied individually. tension tubing.A. to the section’s elastic limit which occurs in thin-walled pipes. In order to use the API Bul 5C3 formulae. Packer Load Limits If the Fp force value transmitted by the string to the packer is known. it is possible to check whether well conditions come within the limits set by the packer rating. Fp = tension. If an axial force is applied to the pipe as well as external pressure. the tensile strength in this case is positive. One example is a well at the end of its productive life with less pressure in the tubing than in the annulus. this diagram can be used to ascertain the suitability of the condition. can be determined.4. causes a state of monoaxial stress. the Yp value for use for calculations is adjusted using a special formula. 7. In fact the causes of collapse can range from material yield as in the case of pipes with a low D/t ratio. As can be seen. Po<Pi below). In order to comply with the specifications of the supplier. . Any other SFs. if referred to only as in the condition of triaxial stress which. is positive) and the differential pressure above and below the packer (Po>Pi above. referred to. cannot be compared in any way to those described in this manual because they take into consideration only one mode of loading. 7. Another example is downhole pumps for artificial lifting and are operated by the power fluid pumped down the annulus.3.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 195 OF 295 ENI S. it would be incorrect to use the SF for tension alone because during the life of the well it will be subjected to a combination of stresses. However. If the force exerted by the tubing on the packer (Fp = set-down. greater tensile loads can be applied and vice versa. conditions may occur making it necessary to limit the external pressure on the string. if negative. it is possible to calculate this value under various well conditions. A typical diagram for packer force limits is shown in figure 7. are known. in a state of monoaxial stresses. once D/t and Yp are known. External Pressure Limit During the productive life of a well. therefore. the type of formula is chosen then the maximum withstandable pressure calculated. the most suitable type of packer in relation to the completion type. By using diagrams supplied by the manufacturer. For example. By evaluating the magnitude of this force and considering other factors such as the possibility of future recovery. takes into consideration all the stress components to determine the σeq.aa.p. which require substantial differential operating pressures. Calculation of external pressure is carried out using the formulae supplied by API Bulletin 5C3 which identifies four types of collapse at external pressure in relation to the D/t ratio and the Yp yield stress of the material.
ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 196 OF 295 ENI S.61in σsn = 80.81in R = 1.000ft = 120. During a cement squeeze operation.5. (below) Figure 7.68in 2 Ao = 6.Typical Packer Force Limit Diagram 7.p.094in r = 1.000in Casing 7in 32lb/ft: Packer bore: Length of string: . Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 0 REVISION 400 (tension) 300 200 (Thousands) FORCE 100 0 Safety zone (set-down) -100 -200 -20 -10 0 10 20 (Thousands) (above) PRESSURE DIFF.25in 2 Ap = 8.49in 2 As = 1.3in L = 10.178 ws = 0.A. Data: Tubing 2 /8in 6.000psi ID = 6. the analysis of the possible packer/tubing configurations available in this set-up is free tubing to packer and fully anchored. This allows calculation of the variations in length and thereafter the anchoring force in the packer.bb. Example Manual Calculation As an example of applying the method detailed above. we can consider the single completion in the well shown in figure 7.542lb/in 4 I = 1.61in Dpb = 3.10.AA .5lb/ft : 7 2 Ai = 4.
p.cc (15lb/gal corresponds to a specific gravity of 0.BB .Example Completion #2 . therefore.000psi and the casing at 1. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 Initial Conditions 0 REVISION Initially both the tubing and the annulus are filled with 30° API oil.0649lb/in and to a pressure gradient of 0. obtained by pressurising the tubing at 5. while the temperature is 60°F at the well head and 200°F at the bottom hole.0317lb/in and.A. It should be noted that 30° API corresponds to a 3 specific gravity of 0. to a pressure gradient of 0.38 psi/ft.000psi.7795psi/ft). X X Y Y Figure 7.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 197 OF 295 ENI S. figure 7. This operation causes the string to cool to 160°F at the bottom hole and creates the pressure and temperature trend 3 shown in figure 7. Final Conditions Final conditions are cement displacement with a specific gravity of 15lb/gal.cc shows the pressure and temperature variations against depth.
68) − 1000 (8.CC .ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 198 OF 295 ENI S.p. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 0 REVISION O P (psi) O 60 T (°F) GEOTERMICO CSG e TBG 10000 3800 10000 200 D (feet) D (feet) FINAL CONDITIONS O 1000 5000 P (psi) O 60 T (°F) TBG SQUEEZE CSG 10000 4800 12795 10000 160 D (feet) D (feet) Figure 7.Initial and Final Condition (Example #2) Calculation Method a) Calculation of variations in length The variation in the piston force between initial and final conditions is expressed by: ∆Fa = ∆Pi (Ap − Ai ) − ∆Po (Ap − Ao ) = 8995 (8.A.3 − 4.3 − 6.9 lb .49) = 30751.
0649 = 0.96 in The fictitious force. not all the string is buckled.3037 − 0.3 x (12795 − 4800 ) = 66358.3037 lb/in w fo = Ao γ fo = 6.2057 lb/in w = ws + w fi − w fo = 0.68 x 0.49 x 0.5 ) 8×30000000×1.64 = −46.81 = − 67. then the string is buckled.20567 = 0.640 lb/in The neutral point from the bottom hole is therefore: n= Ff w 66358.4. w.542 + 0.5 lb As this value is positive. fully immersed in fluids.5 = 0. is calculated in the following way: w fi = Ai γ fi = 4.61×66358.6×10. is given by: F f = A p (Pi − Po ) = 8.2. ∆L 2 = − =− F2 r 2 8Elw 2 −(1.p. is calculated using the first of the two formulae in section 7. which is initially zero because Pi = Po.16 in As this distance is less than the length of the string. The variation in length ∆L2.A.16 .9 x 120000 =− E As 30000000 x 1. The weight of string.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 199 OF 295 ENI S.640 = 103685.0317 = 0. so it is necessary to determine the position of the neutral point in order to calculate the ∆L2. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 0 REVISION so the variation in length according to Hooke’s Law (piston force) is given by: L1 = − Fa L 30751.
4.4.p.5 − (1.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 200 OF 295 ENI S.73 in. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 0 REVISION As regards the variation in length due to ballooning. if the tubing can freely move in the packer-bore. = 6.5 psi ∆Pom = (1000 − 0 ) + (4800 − 3800) 2 = 1000 psi Therefore. the average variations in pressure along the string can be calculated using the formulae in section 7.A.178) x 1000 x x 120000 30000000 (1.3 6997.4 in.178)2 − 1 = − 34. is therefore given by ∆Ltot = ∆L1 + ∆L2 + ∆L3 + ∆L4 1 = − 165.4. the variation in length caused by ballooning is as follows: ∆L3 = − 2ν E x ∆P − R2 x ∆P im om xL 2 R −1 2 =− 2 x 0. the formula in section 7.56 in.3: ∆Pim = (5000 − 0) + (12795 − 3800 ) 2 = 6997.9 x 10 − 6 x (− 20 ) x 120000 The variation in total length of the tubing. As regards the variation in length due to temperature. is used to calculate the average variation in temperature along the string: ∆TM = (60 − 60 ) + (160 − 200) 2 = − 20 °F The variation in length is therefore: ∆L4 = α ∆TM L = − 16. .
A. as it off-loads weight on the packer after it is set (slack-off) and compresses the string.73) = − 115. One method for containing these elongations is to use a tubing permitting limited motion. the neutral point is located as: Fso w 20000 = 0. when there is a tubing permitting limited motion is given by: ∆Lso = ∆Ltot − ∆L so tot = − 165.000lb.485 = − 49.41 − (− 49. As this value is less than the total length of the string. oil is the fluid inside the tubing and so: w fi = Ai γ fi = 4.81 8 x 30000000 x 1. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 b) Tubing Permitting Limited Motion 0 REVISION The variation in length calculated above.1483 lbs/in w = w s + w fi − w fo = 0.485 = 41266. as it would create seal assembly lengths which are not practicable for the planned type of completion. As can be seen. may sometimes be unacceptable.0317 = 0.61 x 20000) 20000 x 120000 =− − 30000000 x 1. 2 The variation in the length of the string during the cement squeeze job. it makes it possible to use the formula in section 7.542 + 0. . The slack-off operation modifies the variations in length the string will undergo during the subsequent cement squeeze stage as shown below.48 lbs/in. During initial conditions. Assuming that the slack-off force off loaded on the packer is 20.p.68 in.6 in order to obtain: 2 Fso L Fso r 2 ∆Lso = − − E As 8 E I w (1.4 in. this value is lower than that calculated for a free tubing.1483 − 0.20575 = 0.68 x 0.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 201 OF 295 ENI S.61 x 0. n= from the bottom of the string.73 in.
it is possible to identify the point where the origin of the axes has moved to.000lbs. are: Fa* = Fa + F p = 629 in. In this case as slack-off after setting the packer is present it is necessary to determine the force required to position the end of the tubing in the packer (Fp). thus so setting the elongation ∆Lp =-∆Ltot =115.000lbs and the packer is forced upwards by the same amount.68 in .5 F F2 − 452.6.5 95403727 [in] for F<0 [in] for F >0 . Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 c) Anchored tubing 0 REVISION If we assume a condition obtained with a tubing which only permits limited motion. As figure 7. with a slack-off of 20. When the data of the example are replaced.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 202 OF 295 ENI S. calculated according to section 7.6 shows the diagram obtained using the formulae which supplies the force/elongation characteristic for tension and compression. From this point.5lbs).A.cc shows.p. movement in the direction of elongation by a ∆Lp value is made in order to locate the point which is distant from the curve by a Fp value. If the diagram is plotted with the value of the fictitious force calculated previously (66358. the formulae below are obtained (the diagram can be quickly plotted by entering any F values and calculating the corresponding ∆L): ∆L = − ∆L = − F 452. giving so ∆Ltot = -115. Figure 8. = Pi (A p − Ai ) − P0 (A p − Ao ) + F p F f* = F f + F p = 29358 lb . This value may still be unacceptable so it is necessary to use anchoring in both directions. Fp = 37000lbs.68 in. d) Tubing Stress Control If we consider a tubing anchored to the packer during a cement squeeze operation. so the string is subject to stress at its lower end which is equal to 37. the fictitious and piston forces.
DD . F f* tp = F f* − w x L = 29358 − 0.p.Anchored Tubing (Example #2) accorciamenti [in] .64 x 120000 = − 47442 in.bb). 50 20 trazione [lbx1000] 40 60 allungamenti [in] 100 allungamenti [in] 80 100 compressione [lbx1000] -40 -20 -50 Fp -100 -150 ∆Lp -200 Ff 20 40 compressione [lbx1000] Figure 7.A. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 0 REVISION In the section above the packer (figure 7. the forces at the well head are: Fa*tp = Fa* − w s x L = 629 − 6.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 203 OF 295 ENI S.5 x 10000 = − 64371 in.
p. therefore. values.81 = 347 psi the deformation due to buckling generates an axial stress equal to: σb = Dr * Ff 4I 2. the result is σeq = σi.33 Well Head * As Ff tp < 0 the string at the well head is not buckled. if we consider the highest value found as equivalent force. along with Pi = 12795 psi e Po = 4800 psi.10: σo = 51688psi σi = 60223psi .ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 204 OF 295 ENI S.81 = − 35564 psi . the values below are obtained using the formulae in section 7.875 x 1.A. we can obtain the following bottom hole safety factor: SF = = σ sn σ eq 80000 60223 = 1.61 = 21095 psi If we replace the σa e σb. σb = 0 and the greatest amount of stress is generated on the inner wall of the tubing: σa = Fa*tp As − 64371 = 1.61 x 29358 = 4 x 1. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 Bottom Hole The piston force generates an axial stress equal to: 0 REVISION Fa* σa = As 629 = 1.
Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 0 REVISION If we replace the σa value obtained and as pi = 5. the well head safety factor is: SF = = σ sn σ eq 80000 36117 = 2.6.000psi and po = 1. analysed during completion studies for the Villafortuna-Trecate field.A.25.33 This value is acceptable because the lower limit for a carbon steel string is 1. The first example is the same as that dealt with by Lubinsky. carried out using the Wellcat programme supplied by Enertech. .21 The safety factor for the cement squeeze operation results as the lowest of obtained values. Particular attention should be paid to data entry and presentation of results in order to obtain knowledge of how the programme handles these two cases. Therefore only a brief description has been given in Appendix D. Example Computation As an example we have included two cases of string calculations.p. therefore: SF = 1. Examples done with the Vertubing programme. . have been deliberately omitted as this programme is no longer used by Eni-Agip Division and Affiliates. The second is a case history.000psi. For a description of the programme’s general functions.10. 7. please refer to the notes in Appendix D and the user’s manual available in the Company’s library.10: σi = 36117 psi therefore as σeq = σi. For further information please refer to the user’s manual.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 205 OF 295 ENI S. the value below is obtained using the formula in section 7.
The packers considered are listed in table 8. Once the packer type and model have been defined.a below.A. 8. while still reflecting the needs which lead to selection of the most commonly used models.Packer Types . SUB-SURFACE EQUIPMENT PACKERS The types of packer systems and applications have already been described in section 5.p. operating diagrams for the packers supplied by the manufacturer of the particular packer and to the pressure ratings for retrievable packers. Type Of Packer Permanent Setting Method Mechanical Hydraulic Setting Tool • Hydraulic setting tool • Electric line N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A Sealbore Features • Std/Large/Dual • Std/Large/Dual Std/Dual Std/Large/Dual Std/Dual Permanent/ Retrievable Retrievable Mechanical Hydraulic Hydraulic Hydrostatic Weight Table 8.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 206 OF 295 ENI S. the next stage is establish its performance to meet with all the expected operating conditions (applied force and pressure differences).1.e.1.3. i. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 0 REVISION 8. For this reason regarding permanent packers. The proposed criteria for the choice only take into consideration general technical aspects and do not cover the individual characteristics of particular models or tools. This section defines the series of criteria for choosing packer characteristics to apply to single and selective completions. reference is made to the operating ‘Envelopes’.A .
This section illustrates the flow diagrams. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 8. unplanned) Type of de-compression operations.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 207 OF 295 ENI S. identifying the standard procedures for each stage (Refer to figure 8. in particular: a) removal of the tubing by itself b) • • removal of the tubing and packer simultaneously Planned frequency of de-compression operations Potential damage to the formation caused by the workover fluid. Selection Criteria Various representations can be used to describe the categories of criteria.5 which describes the iterative process of tubing weight/grade/stress calculations. off-shore under water) Pressures and temperatures Type of well (production. 8. etc. . stress analysis is carried out to check the completion string (packer and tubing) under the stress to which they are exposed.1.1. Completion Data This includes the following parameters such as: • • • Type and density of the completion fluid Perforation of the casing using tubing-conveyed or wireline techniques Use of a production liner.). Selection Procedure Packer selection has three stages: 1) 2) 3) 0 REVISION Selection of type of packer Selection of setting mechanism Selection of main packer accessories including the tubing-packer connection In stage 3. injection) Type of fluid produced (oil.a.A.1. deviation angle). These data also include type of packer chosen and setting. the most important being: • • • • • Location (on-shore/ off-shore platforms.p. setting depth. refer to section 7. gas) Deviation (max. Operational Data The following operational data are required: • • Stimulations (planned. The selection process includes the following categories of data: General Well Data This includes data which effects the configuration of the well to be completed.2.
Selection Process Diagram .p.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 208 OF 295 ENI S. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 0 REVISION Figure 8.A.A .
The depths indicated are true vertical depths. High pressures.p.A.1. . Packer Selection For Single String Completion Type Of Packer Procedure The choice is mainly linked to the type of well: 1) 2) 3) In the case of a highly critical well. with priority be given to the former. SBHP > 700 atm. 4) Non-critical well • • Depth of less than 3. select a permanent packer. Well Classification 0 REVISION An important parameter for defining the characteristics of a packer is the ‘degree of difficulty of the well to be completed’. Temperatures below 100 °C.4. If the well is critical or non-critical. 3) Critical Well • • Temperatures between 100 and 130°C Depths between 3.000 and 4.000m.1. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 8. select a permanent/retrievable or permanent packer. ITHP above 3. Subsea well-head well. (Refer to figure 8. Gas injection well with pressures.000psi. Platform well having the risk of failure due to the potential collision from a vessel with the structure. Highly critical wells: • • • • • • Deep depths > 4500m.b). 8.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 209 OF 295 ENI S.500m. SBHT > 130°C.3. If the well has high corrosive. To this end four classes of well have been identified which are used to analyse the various problems involved in the selection of the packer: 1) High corrosive wells • 2) The fluids have high corrosive problems. High temperatures.
(F) The packer fluid is a high density mud (> 1. . (D) Measured well depth ≥ 3000 m.b: (A) High frequency of tubing pullout. (G) Gas injection well with injection pressure > 3. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 0 REVISION Figure 8. (B) High frequency of tubing-packer pullout. (C) Use of TCP drilling techniques.B .Type of Packer for Critical and Non-Critical Wells Explanation of figure 8.6 kg/l) with probable solid deposits on the packer. (E) The workover fluid damages the formation.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 210 OF 295 ENI S.A.p.000psi.
on its depth. Gas a production liner with inclination > 30°. with a maximum deviation angle > 50°. Reference (A) is only true if one of the following conditions are relevant: • • • • SBHT > 150 °C (= 270 °F). The same procedure will also be used later for packers of the type used in a selective type completion. in particular.C . or requests due to the completion fluid characteristics). the priority is indicated by a number (‘1’ corresponds to a higher priority than ‘2’). choose hydraulic setting.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 211 OF 295 ENI S.Packer Setting Method for Critical and Non-Critical Wells For a mechanical type permanent packer. Packer Setting Method Permanent and Permanent/Retrievable Packers The selection is dependent mainly on the well characteristics: 1) 2) 3) If the well is corrosive or very critical.c). Is a deviated well. in the choice is made on the basis of point (D) then there are no particular constraints (no workovers. For example. high frequency of extraction corresponds to a completion life of less than five years. The rectangle ‘Choose’ indicates the choice between the two alternatives.6 kg/l. the setting is defined by the conditions detailed in (A). If the well is critical or not critical. The completion fluid = mud with density > 1. The safety factor of using a retrievable packer or not depends on the criticality of the well and. . Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 0 REVISION At points A and B.p.A. Figure 8. (Refer to figure 8.
Check (B): • Using TCP shooting techniques.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 212 OF 295 ENI S.A.D. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 Retrievable Packer Setting Method 0 REVISION The method of setting used for retrievable packers is made.d: Figure 8. 3) Check (C): • There is high frequency of tubing pullout (life of the completion < 5 years). 4) Check (E): • Completion fluid and damage to the formation 5) Check (F): • The packer fluid is a high density mud (> 1. The vertical depth of the packer setting is > 2.p.000m (this is true to definitive and not test completions). Stimulations are planned. following the diagram in figure 8.6 kg/l) with the probability that it leaves solid deposits on the packer.Retrievable Packer Setting Method 1) Check (A) is only true if one of the following conditions are relevant: • • • • 2) The well is deviated with a maximum deviation angle of > 20°. The bottom-hole temperature (SBHT) is > 60 °C. .
At present the stress analysis procedure is developed using the “Veritas “ software package . an anchor seal assembly is used. The main consideration is the required setting pressure (lower for hydrostatic packers) which influences the wellhead pressure rating. The shear value is checked for the stress conditions at the wellhead section during the packer release stage. e. a permanent/retrievable packer will be utilised and consequently. gas injection wells where the IBHP is greater than the packer fluid pressure and SBHP is lower than the packer fluid pressure. fixed.Veritas is the UNIX version of the VERTBG package. If the stress analysis results are negative: • • If a shear release is needed. The shear ring value is generally set by increasing the maximum force applied to the packer by 25%. alternatively. If these are outwith the capacity of the retrievable packer. Highly Critical Well: Anchored Completion For a highly critical well. If anchor is needed. defines the type of anchoring on the basis of the conditions for (A). 5 If the failure of the stress analysis is due to the tension caused by the tubing-packer connection. Permanent And Permanent/Retrievable Packers Setting Method There are principally two aspects to analyse: • • The choice of the tubing-packer connection. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 0 REVISION The decision of whether to use a hydraulic. The conditions at the moment of packer setting decides whether to use a retrievable packer. set is left to the engineer.A.d). To integrate this choice with the stress analysis procedures. The maximum force is determined using stress analysis (to take into account the tolerance of the nominal shear value ± 5 to 10%). or hydrostatic. If during the application of the stress analyses of the string gives negative results. . the corresponding setting procedure will have to be adopted (see permanent packers above). Tubing-packer connections seal assembly elements will be of the moulded seal type when subjected to alternating pressure cycles.g. a dynamic seal is used (Refer to figure 8. in particular the choice is made between a shear release or anchor seal assembly. a configuration which fulfils the stress analysis requirements must be considered for the packer-tubing connection5. The type of anchor to be used can be defined during this first stage for an anchored completion (without shear release): • If the packer is set mechanically. the approach is the same as that for an anchored tubing-packer.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 213 OF 295 ENI S.p. the anchor will be a ratchet type or.
Anchored Completion Option Check (A): Deviated well: • if it is an injection well it cannot be critical (see section 8. Highly Critical Well: Dynamic Seal This stage considers an anchored completion which fails the stress analysis calculation because of problems associated with the tubing-packer connection. For an anchor with shear release: • If the stress analysis upon releasing is negative. Figure 8.A.Dynamic Seal Check (A) .3). Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 0 REVISION Figure 8.F .E .f). an anchor will be used and the check will be carried out again. In this case a dynamic seal is used (Refer to figure 8.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 214 OF 295 ENI S.1.p.
This is only possible with hydraulically packers. Critical. run on the tubing.6 kg/l) which may leave solid deposits on the packer.f gives a general description of the criteria behind the choice of dynamic seal to be adopted. the stress analysis results are corrected using factors other than the seal element.e. Non-Critical Well The easiest solution in these cases is to choose a Standard Seal Locator. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 • Check (B): • 0 REVISION The packer fluid is a high density mud (> 1. no other rules are apply as. Here. The well is not an injection well. when using dynamic seals. Seal Element .Critical and Non-Critical Wells. the procedure illustrated in figure 8. The procedure illustrated in figure 8.g is followed.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 215 OF 295 ENI S. following any failure of the stress analysis. Figure 8.p. The packer is one trip installation. The packer is not set hydraulically. Reference will be made to this later and also for cases which are different to those described in highly critical wells above.G . This is the case with the following conditions: • • • No stimulations are planned. If these conditions do not apply.A. i. in general.
g.p. a permanent/retrievable packer is the priority or a permanent should be used and consequently the associated setting procedure and seal assembly selected. Again in figure 8. (B): • (C): • (D): • the packer is set mechanically. In these cases. No additional adaptation of the seal element is foreseen as a consequence of any stress analysis. the outlet conditions included in the rectangle indicate. or a dynamic seal whenever feasible. In the case of a deviated well. anchored completion is not recommended.6 kg/l) which may leave solid deposits on the packer. besides the choice of tubing-packer connection. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 Check (A): • 0 REVISION the packer fluid is a high density mud (> 1. Retrievable Packer Tubing-Packer Connections The choice of the tubing-packer connection for retrievable packers (hydraulic and set down weight) is made on the basis of that in figure 8. deviated well with max.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 216 OF 295 ENI S. deviation angle > 20. the need to use the packing setting procedure specified. Particular conditions raise questions over which type of retrievable packer to use. It is better to use a completion with a shear element which is more easily releasable.A.h. . expected life of the completion < 5 years.
A. .1.000m) but more on the basis of its complexity. The solutions given are for a case with only 2 zones and if a third zone is to be taken into consideration it is assumed that the selection made for the upper zone of the two zone scenario applies. Packer Selection The first case classifies the well on the basis of depth characteristics (≥ 4.5.Tubing-Packer Connections for Retrievable Packers 8.p. Single Selective Completion Packers The criteria illustrated here are valid for selective completions with 2 or 3 producing zones.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 217 OF 295 ENI S.H . Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 0 REVISION Figure 8.
however.A.p. the engineer has a certain degree of freedom of choice but is. these cases are classified by well depth: . governed by the order of priority specified along with the choices.I .Single Selective Packer For Complex Wells if several different configurations are available. If the conditions as of figure 8. are not applicable.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 218 OF 295 ENI S. as for example in figure 8. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 0 REVISION Figure 8.i.i.
Selective Single Well with Depths Between 1.Selective Single Well with Depths Between 3.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 219 OF 295 ENI S.000 and 4.A.000m Figure 8.000m . Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 0 REVISION Figure 8.K .J .500 and 3.p.
l is common with the only exception. and a retrievable packer is one in the list of possible choices.L .i through figure 8. it is strongly recommend that a retrievable type packer be used. then it should be selected. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 0 REVISION Figure 8.A. Application of the criteria illustrated in figure 8. then the permanent/retrievable should be selected over of the retrievable.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 220 OF 295 ENI S. in the case of multiple choices. .p.Selective Single Well with Depths Less Than 1. being that the order of priority for the lower zone can be changed by applying the following rules: • • If workovers are planned with removal of the tubing and packer. and a permanent or permanent/retrievable packer are in the list of possible choices.500m in a well not considered complex. If the completion fluid is a mud with deposition problems.500m In the case of depths less than 1.
k and figure 8.p. intermediate. hydraulic type setting should be used or else the packers can be set mechanically. the results of the stress analysis specifically identifies the packers with releasing problems. In cases where there is no specific mention of an Intermediate zone. in these cases the reference packer is permanent and the other packers are the retrievable or permanent/retrievable type. lower). Generally. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 Packer Setting Method 0 REVISION The type of setting method proposed depends on the following factors: • • Type of packer Setting distance between the packers. It is essential to check with manufacturers that the distance between the packers is sufficient for the packers to be set. If the reference packer is set by a workstring. if the setting distance between the packers is > 500m (check with the packer manufacturer).1. It is recommended in any case to re-check the completion after having made the modifications.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 221 OF 295 ENI S.A. Permanent Stacked Packers: Refer to figure 8. or wireline) are those already defined for the single completion described in section 8. The setting criteria of a mechanical permanent packer (on a workstring. modifications are be made only to those packers which have the problems. a depth control procedure is necessary to verify the depth of the packer setting to ensure positioning of the blast joint across the upper zone which is open to production.e.l.k and figure 8. the zones are be treated separately.i with all permanent packers. . With these type of packers. i. choose hydraulic setting for all the packers or else mechanical setting. Tubing-Packer Connection Selection The criteria continues by classifying the packers by type and setting with the zones treated separately. three zones are assumed (upper. it is treated with the same criteria used for the upper zone.4. All packers are Retrievable Refer to figure 8. Lower Permanent Packer With Upper Retrievable: Refer to figure 8. Due to this. if the completion fluid is a brine.j. Mechanical setting is preferred for the reference packer and the setting should be by electric line when the distance between the packers is < 500 m. figure 8. In some cases.l where all packers are retrievable. hydraulic setting should be used for this type of packer.
A dynamic seal should be used.4). In the case of failure of the stress analysis on this packer. 2) 3) For the intermediate zone in the case of three zones.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 222 OF 295 ENI S. The lower zone packer is a permanent with mechanical setting. Lower or Intermediate Packer There are three possible ways of treating the lower zones: 1) All the packers are of the permanent or permanent/retrievable types with hydraulic setting. For the intermediate zone in the three zone case. In the case of failure of the stress analysis. a longer locator with seal bore extension should be used.A. Initially an anchor with shear release should be selected. a dynamic seal will be used (anchor with PBR or telescopic joint). a standard length locator. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 Upper packer 0 REVISION The rules described for the single completion are applied to the upper packer (Refer to 8.p. in particular. . for the intermediate packer. In the case of failure in the stress analysis a dynamic seal with telescopic joint will be used. The lower zone packer is a retrievable. an anchor or retrievable type packer will be used.1. a telescopic joint should be used when there is failure in the stress analysis.
Surface controlled sub-surface safety valves (SCSSV’s) shall be used accordingly to the criteria listed below in section 8. This will determine whether the selected SSSV is Wireline Retrievable (WRSV) or Tubing Retrievable (TRSV). The use of these valves should be avoided as they are set up to operate on predetermined conditions representing a major leak at surface.2.5.2. 8. SUB-SURFACE SAFETY VALVES 0 REVISION This section provides the Eni-Agip Division and Affiliates policy and guidelines for the application and selection of Sub-Surface Safety Valves (SSSV). Both types are generally referred to as ‘storm chokes’. Policy All Eni-Agip Division and Affiliates completions shall incorporate a SSSV in the completion string to provide safety in the event of an uncontrolled well flow. flow erosion of the valve internals may alter the closure settings. a flowline rupture.p. e.3.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 223 OF 295 ENI S.2. but under some circumstances. Wireline Retrievable Safety Valves Wireline retrievable valves may be. SSCSSV’s are either pressure differential or ambient pressure operated valves. A derivative of the storm choke is the injection valve which is held open by water or gas injection and closes when injection ceases.4. In conjunction.2. either. sub-surface controlled sub-surface safety valves (SSCSSV) otherwise known as direct acting valves or surface controlled sub-surface safety valves (SCSSV). Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 8.A.2. .2. when there is a leak of insufficient rate. 8. Any variation to this policy and selection procedures herein. The choice of SSSV for a particular development will depend on: • • • • Well location Fluid properties Required flow area Well intervention capabilities.2. shall only be sanctioned by the Eni-Agip Division and Affiliates Head Office. Applications The applications for SSSV’s are given in section 8. The policy defined shall be applied to all Eni-Agip Division and Affiliates completion designs world-wide. the valve may fail to close. 8.g.1.
tubing and annulus. • All wells on gas lift. • Electrical submersible pump.2. Gas producer Gas storage Gas injection Water injection Artificial lift H2S in produced fluids Table 8.2.Criteria For Use of SCSSV's 8. • All wells. The following table 8. • All new offshore development.5 indicate in which applications WRSV’s and TRSV’s should be used.2. Valve Type/Closure Mechanism Selection This section gives recommendations on the choice of valve with the corresponding type of closure mechanism. • All wells. wireline retrievable or annulus safety valve systems.5. • All wells.4. . Well Type Oil Producer Criteria • All new offshore development. • All isolated wells.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 224 OF 295 ENI S. They are controlled normally by surface applied hydraulic pressure through a control line clamped to the outside of the tubing string.b specifies when SCSSV’s shall be used. Note: All valves with ball type closure mechanisms are not recommended for use as they are less reliable than flapper valves. Hydraulic pressure opens and then retains the valve open. • All old wells being recompleted.A. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 8. • All wells onshore which can sustain natural flow. The guidelines given in section 8.p. These valve systems are fail safe and are preferred to SSCSSV’s. Removal of the pressure allows the valves to close. Surface Controlled Sub-Surface Safety Valves 0 REVISION These are designed for tubing retrievable. • All wells.B . • All old wells in above categories which are to be recompleted. tubing and only annulus if used for gas venting.
• All waste wells. In this case. will be considerably longer. the length of line required is generally relatively short.p. Set in the next lowest wireline nipple. Wells with surface flowing temperature greater than 130°C.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 225 OF 295 ENI S. 8.C . 8. • ESP wells with gas venting. are also installed with the tubing string.3. • Wells with shut-in surface. • Gas lift wells. Injection Lines Tube used as ‘injection lines’ to inject chemical products such as corrosion or scale inhibitors down hole or as deep as possible in the well. therefore.3. SCSSV’s are usually set at shallow depths and.3. • Jet pump wells. Control Lines Tube used as ‘control line’ to operate downhole safety valves are installed along with the production string. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 0 REVISION Type of Valve Tubing Retrievable Flapper Valve • • • • Applications Offshore platform wells. 8. These two different cases will be considered separately below. under the pump. The line length required in this case.A. . Subsea wells. CONTROL/INJECTION LINE SELECTION The purpose of this sub-section is to define the basic criteria for the selection and the use of small diameter tubes for SCSSV control line and injection line applications.1.SSSV Closure Mechanism Applications Gas or water injection wells may have either a tubing retrievable or wireline retrievable SCSSV. • As on insert valve for tubing retrievable SCSSV’s.2. Wells with the presence of H2S or CO2. Wireline Retrievable Surface Controlled Flapper Valve Storm Chokes Annular Safety Systems Wireline Retrievable Injection Valves Table 8. • As a backup to the WRSV above when there is a control line failure.
The cycles of cold drawing with a floating plug drawing method is preferred and annealing operations performed to reach the desired dimensions and produce a weld zone homogeneous with the rest of the tube material. Valve Opening Pressure. The standard size for both applications.049” wall thickness 1 /4” OD x 0. They are usually available in a full range of materials and sizes. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 8.035” wall thickness /4” OD x 0. is the pressure required to overcome the closing force of the spring plus resistance due to friction effects. the raw material comes in the form of extruded hollows. the raw material comes in strips which are first rolled into tube form which is fed through a welding head to perform a fusion weld.065” wall thickness. of 1000 ft in length). which are then reduced to the desired diameter and wall thickness by a cold drawing operation. Tube Specifications Size 0 REVISION Small diameter tubes for control or injection line applications are manufactured either as seamless or seam-welded and sunk.000psi depending on the manufacturer. Both types of lines comply with ASTM specification A269 ‘Seamless and Welded Austenitic Stainless Steel Tubing for General Service’ and ASTM-B751 specification ‘General requirement for Ni and Ni alloy Seamless and Welded Tube’. For this reason the configuration of the control line is not effected by the well deviation. Once the working pressure has been defined as explained in the following paragraph. The working pressure (WP) is defined as follows: WP = Safety Valve WP + Valve Opening Pressure Safety Valve WP is as specified by the manufacturer. refer to table 8.A.p. . Welded tubes are considered the norm as opposed to seamless which are considerably more expensive and limited in length (usually a max. Control Line Working Pressures A down hole safety valve is usually set at a relatively shallow depth. Welded tubes can be produced in extra long coils more than 3200 ft by butt welding lengths of tubings together.d for the selection of the size which most suits the requirements. In the case of welded tube process. In the seamless tube manufacturing process. is /4” OD and the wall thickness chosen from among the following sizes according to the pressure requirements: • • • 1 1 1 /4” OD x 0.500 to 2. ranging about 30m to 50m from well head for on-shore installations or from sub sea level in case of off-shore activity.3. provided by the manufacturer.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 226 OF 295 ENI S. therefore in most cases external encapsulation it is not recommended. control and injection line.3. Usually it ranges between 1.
Phd Bottom hole static pressure. Hydrostatic pressure of injection fluid. Working pressure is defined as follows: WP = BHSP + Pfr − Phd Eq. Friction losses (see figure 8. the selection of the tubing size to meet with requirements can be made. figure 8. The definition of working pressure is based on the following considerations: • • • • Well configuration. 8.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 227 OF 295 ENI S. The pressures given in the table are computed with ultimate and yield tensile strength values given in table 8. therefore the flow profile can be assumed to be laminar. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 Chemical Injection Line Working Pressures 0 REVISION Chemical injection lines are run to injection mandrels which are installed as close as possible to the bottom of the tubing. 8.B Variables are defined as: P Ys Ys WP OD ID = = = = = = computed pressure (psi) ultimate tensile strength to compute ‘Burst Pressure’ (psi) yield strength (2% offset) to compute ‘Test Pressure’ (psi) 80% of test pressure (psi) outside diameter (in) inside diameter (in) .f and they are rated to temperatures between -20 and 100°F. (Refer to table 8.A where: WP = BHSP= Pfr = Phd = BHSP + Pfr . Injection rates referred to in this application are always low. Injection rates to choose the correct diameter and evaluate friction losses. Injection fluid characteristics such as density and viscosity. therefore total vertical depth.d).n shows the graphs of pressure losses per 100m versus flow rate plotted for various internal diameters and various values of fluid viscosity. Total pressure required to inject chemicals through the line. Once the working pressure has been defined as explained below.n).p. Once the friction losses for laminar flow have been calculated then the diameter size can be determined accordingly. combining radial and tangential stress to determine an equivalent resultant using the Von Mises Theory of Distortion Energy: OD 2 Ys − 1 ID P= 4 OD 3x +1 ID Eq.A. Values obtained are based on the Lamè’s formula for thick section pipes using internal pressure only and stress defined at the internal diameter face.
605 7.328 7.252 37.A.250 0.112 7.831 12.416 6.255 7.089 5.375 0.250 0.333 5.967 7.112 7.p.035 0.355 26.375 Wall (inch) 0.035 0.646 24.049 0.4.049 0.763 12.f shows the mechanical properties of these materials in the annealed condition.564 6.065 0.854 21.375 Incoloy 825 0.010 Burst (psi) 18.965 12.375 Table 8.515 18.035 0.709 52.035 0.375 0. Bursting and Testing Procedures (for welded stainless steel tubing at between -20°F to 100°F) 8.049 WP (psi) 5.914 30.965 12.831 12.459 9.250 0.065 0.049 0.518 21.006 12.250 0.780 17.914 30.375 0.049 0.515 22.011 4.250 0.642 30.954 15.659 8.004 5.250 0.651 5.3.898 11.268 31. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 0 REVISION Type of alloy AISI 316 L OD (inch) 0. table 8.049 0.035 0.250 0.049 0.786 17.375 Inconel 625 0.866 4.250 0.646 24. Material Selection Among the stainless steels and nickel alloys available.e together with their relative characteristics.390 8.Theoretical Working.965 42.065 0.118 8.809 3. Compatibility of packer or completion fluid with the selected material must be confirmed by means of condition specific laboratory testing. .ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 228 OF 295 ENI S.049 0.427 10.D .457 15.983 21.250 0.250 0.757 15.013 Monel K400 0.375 0.438 15.250 0.323 12.035 0.333 5.250 0.142 8.035 0.084 21.780 17.025 Test (psi) 6.065 0.035 0.459 9.972 9.908 30. the most commonly used for control or injection line applications are listed in table 8.006 9.
Is an austenitic nickel-base alloy with good resistance to pitting in chloride solutions and to stress corrosion has improved resistance to corrosion by many acids.000 Type of Alloy AISI 316 L Monel K400 Incoloy 825 Inconel 625 Table 8.000 120.A.000 28.000 60.000 35. Control or Injection line made of the above material shall comply with the following ASTM specifications: AISI 316L Monel K400 Incoloy 825 Inconel 625 In accordance with ASTM specification A269 (TP316L). In accordance with ASTM specification B704. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 0 REVISION Type of Alloy AISI 316 L Main Characteristics Is an austenitic stainless steel with reduced carbon content.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 229 OF 295 ENI S.F . Is a nickel-copper alloy resistant to corrosion and stress corrosion over a wide range of conditions. In accordance with ASTM specification B165.000 Yield Strength at 0. It is susceptible to chloride stress cracking when the presence of stress is combined with a packer fluid containing chlorides. based on pressure ratings and working environment.p.000 70. Monel K400 Incoloy 825 Inconel 625 Table 8. Tensile Strength (psi) 70.E .000 85. Has good resistance to grain boundary attack and improved resistance to pitting and crevice attack.Stainless Steels and Nickel Alloys Most Commonly Used Once the type of material to be used has been defined. Is a Nickel-base alloy with a higher percentage of molybdenum to give the highest resistance to chloride attack. the corrosion department should be consulted to confirm compatibility with the packer fluids. In accordance with ASTM specification B423.Nominal Mechanical Properties in Annealed Conditions (For temperatures between -20 to 100°F) .2% Offset (psi) 25.
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STAP-P-1-M-7100 8.3.5. Fittings 0
Connections for either SCSSV control lines or chemical injection lines shall be performed as follows: In case of pressure rating < 5000 psi, line connections shall be of the ‘Swagelok’ type. • In case of pressure rating > 5000 psi, line connections shall be of the ‘Autoclave’ type as recommended by API Spec. 6A (Wellhead & Christmas Tree Equipment) at the paragraph ‘Equipment specification requirement’ under ‘test and gauge connections’. It is suggested to avoid, as far as possible, any intermediate connections to reduce potential leak paths. 8.3.6. Protectors Control line protectors are designed to support and avoid (bare or encapsulated) crushing at where it is most exposed, e.g. where it crosses large offsets like couplings, downhole safety valves or gas lift mandrels. Protectors shall be designed for small annular clearances allowing sufficient annulus flow area. They should be of the “one piece” type without loose parts and designed so as to be quickly installed and removed. ‘Across coupling tubing protectors’ are recommended for use with both SCSSV control and injection lines applications. For control lines used on SCSSV’s installed at shallow depth (less than 250m), other types of protectors may be used. In general, ‘steel banding’ or ‘banding straps’, ‘rubber based’ and ‘mid joint protectors’ shall be avoided at all costs. The following technical requirements will identify protector performance: • • • • • Material shall be of all metal construction. No structural welding shall be allowed. Lab corrosion tests shall be run to verify compatibility with annular environment. Capable of firmly supporting bare or encapsulated lines when performing completions and recovery during workover allowing control line and protector reuse. Force indicated in ‘l’ or ‘tons’ that the protector will support against axial displacement without failing or damaging the supported line. Force stated in ‘lb’ or ‘Kg’ that protector will resist as a direct pull on supported line without any slippage. Maximum load expressed in ‘lb’ or ‘kg’ that protector will withstand when contacting the casing wall without damage. •
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STAP-P-1-M-7100 8.3.7. Encapsulation 0
Encapsulation of this line is recommended only for chemical injection lines applications. Encapsulation increases crush resistance during installation, protects line against abrasion, pinching and improves clamping profile. Several encapsulation materials are available, covering a wide range of environmental conditions. table 8.g indicates the compatibility of the main encapsulation materials with the most commonly used packer/completion fluids. In some cases, braided wire is placed alongside the injection line and bonded together by the encapsulation material, to further enhance resistance and strength avoiding any rolling and twisting tendencies (Refer to table 8.h). The following laboratory tests are suggested to confirm the lines mechanical characteristics and compatibility of the encapsulation material with the packer fluid used: • • • • • • Immersion test of the encapsulated line in downhole conditions for a defined period of time. No evidence of a change in physical appearance should be observable. Gas impregnation tests at various temperatures, pressures and with various gasses for a fixed period of time. No evidence of cracking, blistering or embrittlement should be observable. Combined brine/sour gas exposure tests according to the operating conditions, as above. Combined crude oil/sour gas exposure tests according to operating conditions as above. Abrasion resistance test to compare the resistance against abrasion between bare and encapsulated lines. Crush resistance test by loading the tube laterally, across the diameter, simulating various loading levels, until tube collapse is evident. Encapsulated line results should be compared to bare line tests.
The following table 8.g shows the main properties of the most common types of encapsulation material available. The choice of material, is mainly based on type of packer fluid, well deviation and working temperatures to be experienced and shall be confirmed by laboratory tests for compatibility.
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Encapsulation Material Nylon
Main properties Compatible with diesel packer fluids containing high gas percentages. Nylon should not be used with completion fluids that contain calcium chlorides, calcium bromides or zinc bromides at high temperatures. Its maximum temperature rating is 250°F. Compatible with most packer fluids with the exception of diesel or fluid at high gas concentration. Maximum operating temperature rating is 275°F - 300°F. Chemically resistant to almost all downhole fluids. Excellent mechanical strength and abrasion resistance. Compatible with high gas content environments. Recommended for highly deviated wells. Maximum operating temperature is 400°F. Chemically resistant to almost all downhole fluids. Excellent mechanical strength and abrasion resistance. Compatible with high gas content environments. Recommended for highly deviated wells. Maximum operating temperature is 212°F. Chemically resistant to almost all downhole fluids. Excellent mechanical strength and abrasion resistance. Compatible with high gas content environments. Recommended for highly deviated wells. Maximum operating temperature is 302°F.
Table 8.G - Compatibility and Characteristics of Encapsulation Materials Halar (fluoropolymers) is a registered trademark of Ausimont USA Santoprene (thermoplastics rubber) is a registered trademark of Monsanto Rilsan II (polyamide thermoplastic) Foraflon PVDF (polyvinylidine fluoride thermoplastic material) Samples of different types of encapsulated tubes have been tested under compressive, laterally applied, loading simulating possible damage arising during installation to determine the tube crushing resistance and extend of polymer damage, (see Table below).
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Applied load in metric tons (no damage detected) 2.45 2.65 7.0
100mm - 1/4” OD x 0.049” Alloy 825 bare line 100mm - 1/4” OD x 0.049” Alloy 625 bare line 100mm - 1/4” OD x 0.049” Alloy 825 encapsulated with Foraflon: size 15mm x 12mm
Applied load in metric tons (line partially crushed, fluid flow not interrupted) 3.5 3.8 9.0
Table 8.H - Crush Resistance Test For Encapsulated Injection Lines 8.3.8. SCSSV Hydraulic Control fluid The criteria in this section is for SCSSV control line applications only. Today hydraulic fluids are almost exclusively based on mineral oils. Other types of synthetic based oils, are employed only when operating temperatures are very low and special thermal standby properties are required. Most of the synthetic based oils used are of the flash fire resistant category as they have a very low pour floc point combined with a good performance at higher temperatures. With regard to subsea completions, the control fluid is the same fluid as used for the Xmas tree controls. table 8.i shows the main properties of the recommended oils for control line applications. 8.13 and figure 8.n below shows typical friction losses of control line fluids.
Injected fluid viscosity = 5cP
100 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Q injection - liters/hr
Fri c. los ses psi /10 0m
O.D = 0,25 inches
w.t.= 0,035 w.t.= 0,049 w.t.= 0,065
Figure 8.M - Fluid Friction Loss with 5cP Fluid
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Injected fluid viscosity = 1cP
20 18 16 Fric. losses psi/100m 14 12 10 8 6 4 2 0 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 O.D = 0,25 inches
w.t.=0,035 w.t.=0,049 w.t.=0,065
Q injection - liters/hr
Figure 8.N - Fluid Friction Loss with 1cP Fluid The above graphs are based on the following formula:
Q x L xµ 612.95 Di 4
Pf = Friction losses (kPa) Di = Internal diameter (inches) L = Length (meters) µ = Viscosity (cP) Q = Flow rate (lt / min)
kPa X 0.145 = psi
p. if required (usually 5 micron absolute). .3 110 -30 204 0.4 163 -39 202 0.4 5.A.00065 (kg/l) / °C For standard applications Agip Arnica 32 is recommended as it has better theological properties than OSO 32.865 - 30 5.I .875 - 29.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 235 OF 295 ENI S.Properties of Recommended SCSSV Hydraulic Oils * cSt x Density = cp **Density variation = 0. In order to avoid plugging of the control line while running in hole.1 98 -55 206 0. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 0 REVISION Oil Name/Properties Viscosity at 40° C cSt Viscosity at 100° C cSt Viscosity index Pour Point °C Flash point °C Density at 15° kg/l Floc point °C Agip Arnica 32 (Petroleum based) Agip OSO 32 (Paraffinic based) Agip Betula S 32 (Synthetic based) 32 6.841 -60 Table 8. testing and running procedure must be carefully programmed and hydraulic fluid may have to be flushed through a filtration unit. Agip Betula 32 should be employed only when operating temperatures are very low as in Siberia where temperatures may reach -50°C.
A.9.O . Control/Injection Line Selection Procedure Flow Chart 0 REVISION Figure 8. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 8.p.3.Control/Injection Line Selection Flow Chart .ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 236 OF 295 ENI S.
WIRELINE NIPPLE SELECTION 0 REVISION The nipples required for completion purposes are based on the results of the previous design stages. Do not rely on data produced elsewhere or use old catalogues as changes to the nipple systems may have been made resulting in incompatibility.000 psi) HF. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 8. XN. The nipples are selected based on those most commonly used by the company. while R and RN types are used on all higher pressures.000 psi.4. VR (WP > 15. R. the choice depends on the working pressure of the string configuration AF.p. . AR (WP < 10. if applicable Lock mandrel OD (LMOD).g. X and XN nipples are used for working pressure < 10. HR (WP between 10. RN The choice of the type of nipple is subject to the working pressure which characterises the completion (e. The aim of this section is to determine the type (selective or tapered) and configuration of the diameters in order to optimise access to the sump and prevent friction pressure drop. and include the following models: Selective: • Halliburton (previously Otis) X. Data on all of these nipples can be found in the manufacturer’s current catalogue.000 psi) VF. Like the case in selective nipples. This must take into consideration all the diameter constraints imposed by the casing profile and completion characteristics. SCSSV or wellhead).000 psi).ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 237 OF 295 ENI S. The principal physical characteristics of a nipple are: • • • Seal bore diameter No-go diameter. Tapered: • Baker F top no-go (AF-HF-VF) and R bottom no-go (AR-HR-VR).000 and 15.A.
At this stage a hypothesis of seal bore diameter of the nipple (SB) is determined by analysing the following conditions: If RB is not defined.p. generally in the tubing hanger.050ins for tubing OD < 3. and the only one used.313ins = 0. the minimum top and bottom restriction dimensions are determined by the following procedure: 1) The top restriction (RA) is the minimum upper diameter of the nipple.1.313ins 0. or: RB > RA or (RA . is always a Baker type F and is chosen with the maximum diameter available for the size of the completion tubing below the hanger.080ins otherwise The first nipple.042ins for tubing OD < 3.RB > NGD + RC) then: LMOD = RA .NGD 3) In other cases. chosen from one of the following: • • • • • 2) ID of the packer Drift of the tubing ID of the safety valve Vertical access of the wellhead Sealbore diameter (top) or no-go ID (bottom) of the upper nipple. 4) The data obtained are then used to match the nipple.050ins No-go dimension (NGD) = 0. decreasing the NGD to adjust the calculations.060ins for tubing OD < 5ins = 0. To select the nipples to be as compatible as possible with the available options in the suppliers catalogues. The minimum values which can be reached by the NGD are: • • • 0. The bottom restriction (RB) is determined by the ID of the SCSSV tubing-retrievable.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 238 OF 295 ENI S. For the lower nipples. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 8.070ins otherwise.A.RC SB = LMOD . . the previous conditions are re-applied. an approximation of 1/100ins for SB is acceptable.050ins for tubing OD < 5ins 0. The following physical dimensional values are required: • • Running clearance (RC) = 0. Tapered Nipple Configuration 0 REVISION The configuration of the nipples begins at the top of the string and moves downwards towards the bottom or packer tailpipe.4.
050 < no-go ID(R). After this it is necessary to reduce the diameter again. 8. i. there are two options: • • Produce a new nipple size Select the maximum nipple diameter from the catalogue < SB.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 239 OF 295 ENI S. 2) The type of nipple (e. For the subsequent nipples. If there is no nipple with the characteristics required.e. a tapered nipple will be used. If F is chosen. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 0 REVISION 1) In the event of achieving a good match. the previous size is selected but only for a maximum of three nipples in series. it is then possible to use an R type nipple if the following conditions exist: • • The nipple in question is not required for the installation of a W/L retrievable backup SCSSV The subsequent nipple must be type F with the following characteristics: SB(F) < SB(R) LMOD(F) + 0.4.g. It is a rule that if the spacing between two successive nipples is < 30m. the maximum diameter nipple which is compatible with the rated pressure of the Christmas tree is selected.A.p.2. Selective Nipple Configuration Criteria similar to those detailed in the tapered nipple procedure are used to choose the tubing hanger nipple. F) is obtained from the previous selection. the nipple is compared with the data from the catalogue. .
25%). To optimise perforating efficiency. however the perforated volume in the pay is relatively small compared to open hole (+/. The detonating cord. and perforating orientation. The explosives for use in most shaped charges up to 300 F is RDX (cyclonite) and above this temperature and depending on time exposed to the temperature. therefore perforation damage is an extremely important aspect. The advantages of perforated casing wells is already described in section 5. The important issues for the completion engineer are the charge selection to meet with the conditions and provide the maximum perforating efficiency. must match the explosive selected. HNS or PYX is used. gun selection.1. 9. applied pressure differential or underbalance. To this end it is necessary to obtain an adequate shot density with a sufficiently deep enough penetration to pass through the drilling damage and maximise flow through each tunnel.a). fluid selection.2. PS. The detonator is triggered by electrical heating when deployed on wireline systems or by a firing pin in mechanically or hydraulically operated firing head systems employed on tubing conveyed perforating (TCP) systems. cement and into formation in such a manner so as not to inhibit the inflow capacity of the reservoir.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 240 OF 295 ENI S. SHAPED CHARGE PERFORATING The principle of shaped charge perforating is available in any service providers sales and technical literature (Refer to figure 9. increased perforating skin can reduce production rates. it is not solely down to the perforating technique but relies extensively on the planning and execution of the well completion which includes selection of the perforated interval. The performance of each is available from the suppliers. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 0 REVISION 9. which couples all the charges to the detonator in the firing head. If this is not effective. which has been proven to significantly help to achieve a post-perforating flow rate to effectively flush out gun debris and remove the crushed zone which surrounds every perforating tunnel.p. One of the important aspects is the underbalance.A. o . PERFORATING The objective of perforating a well is to establish communication between the wellbore and the formation by making holes through the casing. well clean-up. HMX.3 and offers selectivity.
speed and accurate positioning using CCL/Gamma Ray.p. Wireline Conveyed Casing Guns Through-tubing Hollow Carrier Guns Through-tubing Strip Guns Tubing Conveyed Perforating Guns. . GUN TYPES There are four main types of perforating guns: • • • • 9. low cost.1.2. minimal debris. The advantage of casing guns over the other wireline guns are. Wireline Conveyed Casing Guns These types of guns are generally run in the well before installing the tubing. therefore no underbalance can normally be applied although in large size monobore type completions some sizes can be run similar to through-tubing guns using an underbalance. variable shot densities of 1-12spf. highest temperature and pressure rating.2.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 241 OF 295 ENI S. high mechanical and electrical reliability.A.Perforation Process 9. minimal casing damage. multi-phasing.A. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 0 REVISION Figure 9. high charge performance. instant shot detection.
Types of Guns .p. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 0 REVISION Figure 9.A.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 242 OF 295 ENI S.B .
Another version available.A.000ft are possible (and especially useful for horizontal wells) and perforating under exceedingly high drawdowns is possible with no risk to the guns being blown up the hole. therefore. The charges have higher performance and are much cheaper than throughtubing carriers guns. Tubing Conveyed Perforating TCP guns are a variant of the casing gun which can be run on tubing. of 4spf on the 2 /8” OD gun and 6spf on the 2 /8” OD gun. Due to the potential of becoming stuck through strip deformation. Hydrostatic pressure reduction.3.4. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 9.2. Alternately they can be run in long lengths for overbalance perforating before completion string installation. normally used on well tests. however they also cause more debris. They only offer 0 or o 1 7 180 phasing with a max. allowing much longer lengths to be installed. Through-Tubing Strip Guns These are semi-expendable type guns and consist of a metal strip into which the charges are mounted. Due to the stand-off from the casing which these guns may have. they must have a safety release connection so they can be left in the well. Lengths of over 1. They also provide 0 or 180 phasing. They have a particular application for perforating through DST strings and reperforating completed wells. Impact by a wireline deployed tool. they may be deployed and hung-off in position before installation of the completion string. casing damage and have less o o mechanical and electrical reliability. is where a differential is applied between the annulus and the sump via porting through the test packer. Normally the completion is displaced to an underbalance fluid. Through-Tubing Hollow Carrier Guns 0 REVISION These are smaller versions of casing guns which can be run through tubing.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 243 OF 295 ENI S. A new version called the ‘pivot gun’ has even larger charges for deep penetration which pivot out from a vertical controlled OD to the firing position. 9. By being able to be run through the tubing. underbalance perforating can possibly be adopted but only for the first shot. therefore performance. hence have o lower charge sizes and.2. In completion operations.p.2. than all other guns. 9. then the guns detonated by either: • • • • A bar dropped from surface Hydraulic pressure applied from surface then subsequently reduced to the planned underbalance pressure during a time delay.2. . they are usually fitted with decentralising/orientation devices. run on the bottom of the completion packer or run through the tubing on coiled tubing. Subsequent runs would need the well to be flowed to cause a differential pressure.
The variations for these reasons is non-linear and depends on the type of charge.3.3. higher grade charges may also be required. moisture contamination. 9. however the performance in actual use may differ due to differences in rock strength. gun stand-off. charge alignment. This provides under two specific tests: • • Entrance hole size and penetration length into a 5ft diameter concrete target. .1. The API tests are also unreliable as the targets have had differing strengths and porosities and there is no consistent quality control standard for production of the charges. Section II is normally used for comparisons.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 244 OF 295 ENI S. Ageing of explosives. penetration and flow efficiency in a Berea sandstone target at elevated temperatures and an estimated 800psi effective stress. GUN PERFORMANCE API And Performance Data For most completion applications.p. It is necessary for engineers to obtain as much accurate data from the suppliers and use Eni-Agip historic data in order to be able to make the best choice of gun. The performances are listed in two sections I and II. Entrance hole. can be used as a qualitative comparison of charge performance. the thickness of casing and cement or if multiple casings are to be perforated also has an impact on the gun performance. Due to the longer exposure time because of the deployment. 9. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 The main problems associated with TCP are: • • • • 0 REVISION Gun positioning is more difficult The sump needs to be drilled deeper to accommodate the gun length if it is dropped after firing A misfire is extremely expensive Shot detection is more unreliable. which includes performance data produced by the suppliers. API RP 43.A. overburden stress and wellbore pressure and temperatures.
There is a risk of high velocities and hence turbulence. isotropic formations should be a minimum of 8spf but must exceed the frequency of shale laminations. Shot phasing. Penetration. o Minimum 90 phasing.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 245 OF 295 ENI S. This in conjunction with correct gravel pack procedures is essential for to prevent high skin factors. High shot density over 8spf. . Underbalanced Perforating With Through-Tubing Guns If TCP costs cannot be justified and if formation perforated skin factor is acceptable. bypass area and expected flow rate. On the first run a high overbalance can be used but on subsequent runs the only means of producing a differential is to flow the well at a rate governed not to blow the gun up the hole. if possible: • • • • TCP methods Deep penetrating charges. orientation at o o o 90 with 180 phased guns or in line with the contact point if 0 phased. A gravel pack is be conducted. the important factors are: • • • • • Hole diameter to achieve adequate flow area. this will require multiple runs. This is affected by the gun weight. The use of these relatively smaller guns require contact with the casing wall. A shot density greater than this is required where: • • • • Vertical permeability is low. Debris removal. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 Guidelines Gravel Pack Completions 0 REVISION Due to the problem of flow restriction discussed earlier in section 2.p.1.4. There is a risk of sand production. High Underbalanced TCP Perforating High drawdowns over 500psi for production wells require. Shot density to achieve adequate flow area. Shot Density Shot density in homogeneous. type of fluid. underbalanced perforation can be carried out with through tubing systems. If perforating with through-tubing guns.A.
9. formation fluids and must also be clean to prevent formation damage. Between 15mm and 25mm in gravel packed completions. 120 . then strict control over the fluid used to ensure it is compatible with the reservoir formation. Gun Stand-Off Gun stand-off should be minimised for improved performance. Hole Size The hole size obtained is a function of the casing grade and should be as follows: • • • Between 6mm and 12mm for natural completions. the guns may be limited to the charge size which can physically be installed which will impact penetration. King et al developed a recommended minimum level of drawdown based on a number of field studies where TCP perforating had been employed. As a general rule stand-off should never be more than 50mm. but at the least it should exceed the drilling damage area by 75mm. Underbalanced Perforating To optimise the perforating clean up.90 . (Refer to the Figures below). This requires that less drawdown is exerted during the well clean up. especially at high pressures. In unconsolidated sands. The optimum clean up period is subjective and opinions range from 1gall to 5gall per perforation. o o o o Overbalanced Perforating If a well is to be perforated overbalanced.A. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 Penetration 0 REVISION In general.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 246 OF 295 ENI S.2. high density shots are preferred then TCP and casing guns should be used.3.p. If low phase angle. the intention is to cause perforation enlargement to remove the crushed zone without collapsing the cavity or sanding in the guns. These guidelines should be used to select the appropriate drawdown for consolidated completions. . the deeper the shot the better. If o fracturing is to be carried out then 90 and lower will help initiate fractures. 180 or less. to obtain high shot density. The best method of clean up is to flow the well continually for several hours after perforating at normal offtake rates. 60 is preferable. Between 8mm and 12mm if fracturing is to be carried out and where ball sealers are to be used. Phasing Providing the stand-off is less than 50mm. an underbalance should be used. However. If the smallest charges are being used then the stand-off should not be more than 25mm.
. However. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 9. Using wireline installed firing heads provides some redundancy in that the first head can be retrieved and a second head deployed. for if there is a firing head fault.4. Obviously.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 247 OF 295 ENI S. Firing Heads 0 REVISION As described earlier. Protecting the firing head from test pressure is a dangerous procedure as a plug may leak will also cause premature detonation.3. Two very important considerations are safety during installation of TCP systems and redundancy in the event of a fault occurring in the primary firing system. etc. There are other side-by-side systems available which provide a tubing installed pressure activated firer with a secondary receptacle for a wireline installed firer.A. Safety The use of tubing installed hydraulic actuated systems has the problem of how to conduct pressure integrity tests on the completion with sufficient margin between the gun activation pressure and the highest test pressure applied.3. It is good practice to use a bar drop firing mechanism (deployed on wireline if possible as dropping the bar from surface may damage sensitive completion items) or wireline installed firing heads which can be installed after the completion is set and tested. bar drop. in TCP systems there are a wide variety including pressure operated. 9. This provides full safety during gun deployment. there are a number of different firing heads for various applications. Wireline perforating systems are normally electrically trigger by passing an electrical signal down the cable to the guns. it is undesirable to have a gun actuation pressure higher than the test pressure as a leak may occur while trying to trigger the guns.3. gun recovery would be very costly. . Perforating Procedures Refer to the ‘Completion Procedures Manual. Redundancy This is an important aspect.p. wireline activated.
Recommended Underbalance for Perforating Gas Zones in Stable Sandstones Figure 9.A.p. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 0 REVISION Figure 9.D .ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 248 OF 295 ENI S.C .Recommended Underbalance for Perforating Gas Zones in Stable Sandstones .
E .Recommended Underbalance for Perforating Shallow Unconsolidated Oil Sands .F .p.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 249 OF 295 ENI S. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 0 REVISION Figure 9.Recommended Underbalance for Perforating Shallow Unconsolidated Gas Sands Figure 9.A.
These early decisions can save much expense later. Offset the effects of increasing water production. their applications. e. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 0 REVISION 10. then minimisation of the FBHP is critical to low PI. ESP life can vary between days and five years depending on temperature. such as: • • • • • • • • Casing ID Casing connection in on gas lift Size and positioning of liners Provision of a sump for rod pumpers Pre-positioning of gas lift mandrels for gas lift and ASV system Pre-installation of conduits for hydraulic pumps Parallel bore for plunger lift etc. In other cases. solids production. liner top setting. Overcome high friction effects of heavy viscous or waxy crudes.g. Kick off high GLR wells that die when shut-in. Consideration of future artificial lift requirements must be taken during the planning stage.A. Meet with targeted high offtake rates. ARTIFICIAL LIFT The benefits and most commonly used artificial lift were described previously in section 5.p. artificial lift from the outset is necessary to achieve the production and economic targets. The application of artificial lift simply displaces the TPC curve downwards so that a lower bottom-hole flowing pressure is achieved. both pressure maintenance and artificial lift are used which defers the installation. etc. System life is difficult to predict as it is a function of operating conditions. . Reservoir development optimisations studies are necessary to determine the relative technical and economic benefits of the options and the timing of the investments. The selection of the most appropriate artificial lift system involves a number of factors but mainly on specific well performance.6. design considerations.7 lists all the systems.4. Energy can also be introduced by reservoir pressure maintenance. Section 10. Some systems are able to cope better with production problems than others which will obviously affect the choice. limitations and comparisons. In simple terms. GLR and lack of particular experience with the system. To summarise the reasons for the installation of artificial lift are to: • • • • • Reduce the effects of declining bottom-hole pressures. Just as tubing size is critical to high PI wells. low pressure wells. Selection of the method is also based upon operating costs and workover frequency costs. such as casing size. the artificial lift injects energy into the system. In some fields.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 250 OF 295 ENI S.
This continues in sequence for all other valves until reaching the operating valve where the casing pressure will drop below the initial kick-off pressure. the gas moves down to the next valve unloading the casing fluid and as the reaches the second valve and lightens the fluid gradient from that point.3.p. . or either the near optimum GLR which provides a BHFP within 20-50psi of the minimum. As described in section 2. As GLR requirements are subject to diminishing returns.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 251 OF 295 ENI S. Production is determined by: • • • • reservoir pressure PI water cut gas injection rate Once the well reaches a stabilised rate. most gas lift systems are based on available gas supply volumes. it must be produced in slugs by intermittently gas injection through a motorised valve.1. the first unloading valve closes so that all the gas passes through the second valve.1psi/ft). the injection is optimised to maximise production.A. Occasionally the gas is pumped into the tubing and the production taken up the annulus or in the annular space in a concentric completion. A standing valve is sometimes necessary to prevent the gas from flowing into the formation. Another less common application is Intermittent Gas Lift. however this is limited by: • • • • available gas lift pressure the flowing tubing pressure at the intended offtake rate the depth of the packer and deepest gas lift mandrel the differential required to close the upper valves closed (+/-20psi) and to ensure that injection at the operating GLV is stable (between 50 and 500psi) figure 10.b illustrates the fundamental principle of a gas lift design and operation. As the fluid gradient changes. which is used to produce low volumes of liquid (<350stb/d) from wells with low BHFP (<0. In continuous gas lift. dried if necessary and then delivered to the well (Refer to figure 10. There is an optimum GLR to produce stabilised flow for a particular tubing size and a minimum BHFP. As can be seen the gas is injected down the annulus and into the tubing through the topmost valve lightening the fluid column in accordance with the total GLR curve shown. The injection gas is supplied in a closed loop system in which it is taken from the separators and then compressed. GAS LIFT 0 REVISION The continuous gas lift method adds gas into the producing fluids which reduces the hydrostatic head and. During this process the well BHP will drop to the point where the well will flow. also shown in figure 10.4. The lift gas is normally pumped into the annulus and into the tubing through gas lift valves installed in Side Pocket Mandrels (SPMs). Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 10. Due to the low liquid production. hence the back-pressure on the formation. increasing GLR initially decreases the bottom-hole pressure on the TPC.a. Qi.a). it is desirable to position the lower gas injection point as deep as possible in the well.
q.p. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 From this it is seen: • • • 0 REVISION Liquid rate.A. IGLR = Qi/q Figure 10. Total GLR = Producing GLR + Injection GLR </= optimum GLR.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 252 OF 295 ENI S. is dependent on the IPR and attainable BHFP.A .Typical Gas Lift System .
As the mandrels at deeper depths become increasingly closer.p. hence gas tight or premium connections are generally selected. SPMs have relatively large ODs and this needs to be considered in the casing design. much higher gas supply pressures have been used to enable deeper valves to be reached or reduce the number of mandrels and valves required. Modern gas lift systems usually now use SPMs with wireline GLVs to reduce servicing costs. these are not reliable and as the annuli contain quite a considerable inventory of gas.1. however.A. All mandrel depths are taken of the design as TVDs and these must be converted to MD.1. . Impact On Completion Design In recent times. This may again impact on the casing design. the spacing of them is much more critical. an annulus safety system is installed for platform safety. This increased pressure.Example Gas lift design 10.B . applies more pressure on the annulus casing.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 253 OF 295 ENI S. Although gas lift valves incorporate check valves to prevent back flow. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 0 REVISION Figure 10.
To prevent sand production it is sometimes necessary to install a gravel pack or pre-packed screen for pump protection. ESPs performance is best at stable conditions within +/-25% of the optimum rate. The ESP delivery capacity will vary according to: • • • • Well IPR Reservoir pressure Surface back-pressure Electrical supply frequency figure 10.A.1. Operationally. gas production up the annulus may be a significant problem.p. high water cut wells and water supply wells. If possible.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 254 OF 295 ENI S.000scf/stb. Versions with variable frequency drives (VFD) are available or the use of surface chokes can be used to increase the band of rate (50-190%) but incur higher capital and operating costs. motor controller and a wellhead pack-off for the cable.c shows the most common types of ESP installations and the pump components. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 10. Common Problems 0 REVISION The worst problem that can arise is that the pressure losses in the gas injection system and slugging have been underestimated and that the valve spacing is too far apart.2. They are particularly popular for high rate undersaturated oil wells. The construction of the ESP is a multi-staged centrifugal connected through a short shaft to the downhole electric motor. 10. the problems are usually inefficiency through upper gas lift valve or tubing leaks. The differential pressure or total dynamic head (TDH) developed by the pump is a function of the pump flow rate which is relative to the head developed by each stage and obtainable from manufacturers publishing’s. Their main limitation is gas production but improved downhole separators and procedures can now handle GORs up to 1. On offshore installations. Each stage consists of a rotating impeller and stationary diffuser.A The pump characteristics are based on constant rotational speed which is dependent on the AC supply frequency.915 at 50 Hertz. 3. TDH=Ns Hs where: NS HS = = number of stages head per stage Eq. 10. the installation should be designed to facilitate downhole separation of free gas and vented up the annulus which is necessary when the gas volume exceeds the pump operating limit (typically +/-10% of the total fluid volume). ELECTRICAL SUBMERISBLE PUMPS ESPs greatest application is in moving large volume of low GOR (<100scf/stb) fluids. Surface equipment usually includes a three phase transformer. .500 rpm at 60 Hertz and 2.2. Due to these high speeds and pump construction it is obvious that sand production is very detrimental and that emulsions are easily formed.
C. most pump installations are on the end of tubing and positioned above the perforations or open hole.A. a shroud is used to draw the produced fluid down past the motor. If the pump has to be positioned below the interval.Typical ESP Installations .ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 255 OF 295 ENI S.p. The motor is situated at the bottom of the assembly so that the well flow around the motor will dissipate the heat generated. Figure 10. Bottom discharge pumps are used in powered dump flood wells. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 0 REVISION As can be seen from the schematic.
downhole safety systems if the well can flow naturally). An example this to optimise the number of stages for a maximum pump HP is shown in figure 10. Both of these suffer from some problems such as cable failures with the cable suspension method and well control issues with the C/T mounted method (i.000-10.750 4.000 3.625 11.000 50-125 100-300 200-650 400-850 500-1020 500-1030 5.000 5. stb/d Power. ESP sizes and capacities are shown in table 10.000 5.000-12. and determine the attainable pump rate with: • • a fixed IPR and various tubing sizes a fixed tubing size and various IPR options 2) In this approach the pump performance curve is often plotted below the system performance curves.000 4.ESP Capacity Ranges Two approaches are commonly used to evaluate an ESP system: 1) Pre-select the production target and corresponding BHFP and determine the TDH and pump size and depth required to meet this rate. Casing Size.000-5. This often carried out by plotting the pressure traverses above and below the pump (Refer to figure 10.750 8.000 5.000-16.000 12. Small casing or liners will obviously limit the pump size selection.d).000 1.437 7. ins Rate.000-100.e. . Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 Other less common deployment methods are: • • 0 REVISION Suspended on the cable and latched into a downhole receptacle.000 24.625 6.250 3.500 Table 10.900 200-5.p.375 4.000-33.000-12.000-12.000-26. ESP Performance It is normal procedure to select the largest pump that will fit into the production casing (especially if this was catered for in the planning stage). On coiled tubing with the cable through the coil which is terminated with a special wellhead arrangement.000 500-3.A.375 N/A N/A 100-1.j below. Pre-select the maximum pump horsepower. ins Motor OD.500 5.e. ins Pump OD. ft 4 /2 5 /2 7 8 /8 10 /4 13 /8 3 3 5 1 1 3.2.1. HP TDH.J .ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 256 OF 295 ENI S.000 2. 10. or number of stages. A recent development with the later is in Norway where downhole safety is satisfied by the installation of shear seal capability below the coiled tubing hanger.
Example ESP Design for a Pre-selected Rate .p. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 0 REVISION Figure 10.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 257 OF 295 ENI S.A.D .
Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 0 REVISION Figure 10.E.A.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 258 OF 295 ENI S.p.Example ESP Design for a Pre-selected HP .
If properly planned an ESP completion only requires one onsite termination. 10.A. Too many frequent start ups when there is no soft start facilities. Also consideration must be given to the optimum tubing size and cable dimensions to ensure they can be accommodated in the casing. The most common problems are due to: • • • • • • • • Bad installation procedures. The completion design is also affected if downhole separation is required in conjunction with downhole safety. However.2. Centralisation of the pump is also critical. especially when temperatures are in the o region of 250 F. Casing design is obviously has a large impact on the completion design or in the case of an ESP completion. .2. vice versa.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 259 OF 295 ENI S. In large casings. a shroud must be used to provide this rate. Sand production. Inadequate system analysis leading to the system operating outside the range. The pump should be set in a straight section of casing to avoid bending and the cable needs to firmly attached to the tubing for support by cable clamps (two per joint). When re-completing a ESP well the pump should be moved slightly from the original position to help minimise any casing corrosion due to eddy currents. Tubing hanger and penetration systems for packers have been well developed now for fast easy installation with the testing of the connections carried beforehand in the workshop. Poor voltage supply stability. Common Problems The biggest problem with ESP completions is short running time before failure with the cost impact for re-completion. Unsuitable cable insulation material for the conditions.p. ESP systems are becoming evermore reliable. Centralisation and crush resistant clamps should be installed across doglegs.3.2. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 10. The clearance between the pump and the casing should be small enough that a flow velocity of a minimum of 1ft/sec is achieved. Impact On Completion Design 0 REVISION The key to an efficient ESP design is heat removal and insulation material selection for the actual operating temperatures and environment. Too much free gas and no enlarged intakes stages. Scaling up of the impellers.
the pump is not as sensitive to damage and lower quality power fluids can be used and can be used in higher GOR wells up to 3.000stb/d although free pump systems are limited to 8.000scf/stb. dual tubing strings can be used either parallel or concentric.A. There is a large selection of pump sizes/stroke length available for a wide range of operating conditions.000stb/d with 4 /2” tubing.000ft) wells. however this exposes the annulus to potential corrosion so. There is flexibility in the system as pump rates are controlled by controlling the power fluid supply rate. it is recommended to submerge the pump by at least 20% of the TDH so is better suited to respectfully productive. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 10. To prevent cavitation. However pump efficiency is low at 33-66% and large production rates can only be achieved in high rate installations. or restricted offtake target wells.p. The conduits for the power fluid and returns can be the annulus with a single tubing. Their application is commonly for deviated wells between 8. Piston Pump The piston pump is a reciprocating pump operated with a drive piston which automatically shuttles backwards and forwards exhausting the spent power fluid into the returns.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 260 OF 295 ENI S. The downside is the requirement for two reasonably large conduits to minimise fluid pressure losses. maintaining a clean solids free power fluid and the high capital and operating costs. A preliminary calculation of the pump intake or output curve can be made by hand.000ft although high surface power fluid pressures are required below 12. Pump performance is a complex function of GOR. The pumps can be installed and retrieved by wireline or pumping method using swab cups. deviation or severe operating environments. In effect the piston pump is equivalent to the rod pump except that the pump drive is subsurface but can produce up to 8. The two simplest and common systems are the Jet Pump and the Piston Pump which are interchangeable in most instances which provides great flexibility in coping with changeable well conditions.k below. It is also popular where there is insufficient gas for a gas lift system and is a viable alternative to rod pumps for deep (>8. The maximum attainable performance have been summarised in table 10. if this is a problem. throat and diffuser. HYDRAULIC PUMPING SYSTEMS 0 REVISION Hydraulic pumping systems are attractive alternative to ESP systems where there is high temperatures.000stb/d although it is normally used to produce <2.000stb/d. Optimisation is generally through using supplier’s computer software. The size of the these can be varied to pump volumes of 1 100-15. The annulus is sometimes required for gas venting and in this case a dual string is required. Jet Pump The jet pump uses no moving parts and imparts momentum into the fluid using the venturi effect with a jet. hence providing lower servicing costs. As there is no moving parts. .000ft. supply pressure and rate. depth. pump intake pressure.3.000-18.
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Head Ratio 0.45 0.25 0.17 0.10
Flow Ratio 0.5 1.0 1.5 2.0
Table 10.K- Jet Pump Maximum Performance In table 10.k above: Head Ratio = pump output pressure − pump inlet pressure downhole power fluid pressure − pump output pressure reservoir production rate Flow Ratio = power fluid rate
Often the maximum power fluid supply pressure and rate is fixed by surface equipment rating, e.g. p<5,000psi, qPF <4,500stb/d. When calculating bottom hole pressures, the completion configuration and power fluid rate to the production to obtain the total discharge rate. The pump intake curve (PIC) can then be generated using table 10.k above plotted against well IPR (Refer to figure 10.f).
Figure 10.F- Example Jet Pump Design Curve
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STAP-P-1-M-7100 Turbine Pumps 0
The hydraulic turbine pump developed by Weir Pumps is an alternative to the ESP for producing very large volumes of fluid, 2,000-100,000stb/d. It has the same principle of operation as the ESP but the motor is replaced by a hydraulic turbine which rotate the shaft at 5,000-10,000rpm. This provides higher lift capacities (head and volume) per stage, therefore the units are much shorter approximately 10% of the ESP. The operating range is much greater as the pump can be controlled by varying the supply pressure giving 10-100% rate and 20-50% TDH at reduced rates. Their reliability is still suspect due to the high rotating speed and metallurgy problems. 10.3.1. Impact On Completion Design The casing size is obviously important here to accommodate the pump size and perhaps two tubing strings. Sometimes concentric completions are preferred or the annulus is used but consideration must be given to potential corrosion due to oxygen in the power fluid. Like the piston pump solids free power fluid is essential. Like the ESP, gas venting may be necessary which would require a third conduit (generally the annulus). Occasionally the DHSV is controlled by pressure from the pump. 10.4. ROD PUMPS The most common pumping system on low rate land wells is the rod or beam pumping. It is usually limited to shallow wells (<8,000ft) producing less than 500stb/d although they can produce up to 2,000stb/d. The system consists of three elements, the downhole pump assembly, the sucker rod and the surface pumping unit. The annulus is usually left open and used to vent any free gas that is separated downhole. Tubing is used as the production conduit and contains the rods preventing wear and corrosion to the annulus. The tubing is usually anchored to the casing and pulled into tension to reduce tubing movement, buckling and, hence rod wear. There are two versions of bottom-hole pump, the tubing retrievable barrel and the rod retrievable barrel. The tubing pump requires the tubing to be pulled to retrieve the barrel and the rod pump barrel is retrieved when pulling the rods. The tubing pump has the largest capacity but is more costly to repair than the rod pump which is the most common. The pump displacement, PD, is defined by the plunger stroke, SP, and the pump speed, N, the plunger diameter, D and the amount of liquid fillage and/or slippage past the plunger, EP = 0.7 to 9.5. PD = Ct x Sp x N x D x Ep Eq. 10.B where: EP Ct = = Pump efficiency 2 Correction factor 0.1166 for oilfield units, (in, spm, in , stb/d)
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Figure 10.G- Typical Rod Pumping System
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As the rod suffers from stretch and dynamic forces, SP will not be the same as the stroke at surface, S, therefore load-displacement plot forms the basis for pump design and analysis. The fluid load, Fo, carried by the rods on the upstroke is dependent on the net lift, H, which is the vertical distance from the operating fluid level (OFL) in the annulus to surface plus the equivalent head of any surface back-pressure. It also depends on fluid SG or density. API recommends ignoring the area of the rods when calculating this load: Fo = Ct x SG x D x H where: Ct = 0.340 in oilfield units (SG, in , ft, lbs)
This load can be estimated from dynamometer surveys, which measure the rod load versus displacement at the surface and serves the most effective means of diagnosing pump problems. As the loads on the polished rod includes fluid load, dynamic forces and rod weight, the rod weights may be relatively large in deep wells and in these cases a tapered rod string is preferred where the rod diameter is larger with increasing load. Buoyancy varies throughout the cycle but it is generally taken on the downstroke when the travelling valve is open. Acceleration and friction are also factors in dynamic loading with the peak polished rod load on the upstroke will be significantly higher than the sum of the rod and fluid loads. Similarly, on the downstroke, the minimum will be less than the buoyant weight of the rods. Pump stroke efficiency is a function of pump speed and rod loading. The dynamics also cause the rods to oscillate harmonically like a stiff spring. Typical pumping speeds are 8 to 15spm which amounts to 4.2 to 7.9 million cycles per year, therefore the rod design must focus on minimising fatigue failures which is exacerbated by corrosion in the operating environment. The surface pump unit is usually a beam type although other concepts have been developed. The surface prime mover and gearbox have been developed over the years to cater for the rod pump to reduce failures. System design is very complex and is an iterative process normally carried out by computer software. API have produced a programme to generate a set of design curves published in API RP11L and provided some general results in Bulletins 11L3 and 11L4 which are a useful starting point for design. However, in 11L4, API used 100% efficiency and pump rates which are higher than those generally found in the field, therefore, it is advisable to enter a curve which is 100 to 200% of the intended target for scoping out the required o equipment capacity. It is also not reliable for heavy oil wells (<20 API) unless correction factors are applied for fluid vicosities and lack of rod weight on the downstroke. Rod fall problems often cut restrict pump rates to 1.5 to 2.5spm which lead the use of long stroke pumps. Sand problems are often a problem with high viscous crudes which increase wear of the pump parts.
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ENI S.p.A. Agip Division
STAP-P-1-M-7100 10.4.1. Impact On Completion Design 0
If free gas is expected then a packer should not be installed to allow the gas to vent up the annulus if it is planned to convert a completion to rod pump lift within a few years unless required for zonal isolation. If a well has to be pumped which is below the bubble point, it is advised to set the pump below the producing interval to aid gas separation, maximise drawdown and minimise perforation blocking by fill. If a well is fractured, the pump must be set above the perforations as frac sand can damage the pump. The casing geometry must be sufficient enough to enable the gas to percolate through the fluid column against the down-flow. 10.5. SCREW PUMP SYSTEMS Screw or progressive cavity pump is a rotary positive displacement pump consisting of a rubber stator and stainless steel rotor. The rotary drive to the downhole pump is through sucker rods from a prime mover through a gearbox. They rates of between 5 to 500stb/d, although in some circumstances capacities of 1,500stb/d is possible, on heavy oil wells or viscous emulsions where conventional rod pumps are hindered by rod fall. They have an advantage in that they can handle some sand production and less costly. The production rate is proportional to the rotary speed and are determined from manufacturers charts, generally between 50-100rpm in heavy oil and 500rpm in light oils. The selection of the material for the rubber stator is the key for operational life in the well environment. 10.6. PLUNGER LIFT Plunger lift are used on high GLR wells that produce liquids at relatively low rates (<500stb/d). The tubing/casing annulus is used to store gas energy provided to the tubing when the well is opened up. This energy is used to drive the plunger up to surface carrying a small slug of liquid. After production of the following tail gas when the liquid begins to kill the well the plunger is dropped again and the cycle repeated. It is particularly useful for de-watering gas wells. Operating requirements are: • • • GLR >500scf/stb PI <1stb/d/psi Plunger velocity 700 to 1,000ft/min
Efficiency of this system decreases with depth and PI but increases with tubing size. It is essential that the completion tubing is parallel and drifted to ensure correct operation of the plunger.
A.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 266 OF 295 ENI S.p.Typical Screw Pump Installation . Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 0 REVISION Figure 10.H.
p.A.Typical Plunger Lift Installation .I .ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 267 OF 295 ENI S. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 0 REVISION Figure 10.
can alter speed. Because this a newer method. Numerous pump sizes and pump/engine ratios adapt to production and depth needs. May be higher with lower GLR. Good valve design and spacing essential. May have problems with selection of appropriate stator elastomer. Requires careful sizing. Good. Fair to good. VSD provides more flexibility but added costs. Power water (fresh. produced or seawater) acceptable. Selection of throat and nozzle sizes extend range of volume and capacity. Multiple well. Operating practices have to be tailored to each well for optimisation. Good to excellent. Labour intensive to keep time tuned otherwise poor performance. Costs increase as horsepower rises. tolerant to moderate solids in power fluid. Requires computer design programme for sizing.7. Can adjust ingestion time and frequency. Gas must be dehydrated properly to avoid gas freezing.Design Considerations and Overall Comparisons (pg1) . No moving parts in pump. only low cost well equipment if no compressor required. operating and repair practices needed rods and pump. Continuous Gas Lift Low well equipment costs but lines and compression costs may be high. May have limited service in some areas. can alter stroke speed. Full pump fillage efficiency typically about 50-60% feasible if well is not over-pumped. plunger size and run time to control production rate. Typically operating efficiencies of 10-20%. Low increase with depth and larger rates.7. More tolerant of power fluid solids. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 10. Method sensitive to rate changes. friction and pump wear. Plunger hangup or sticking may be a major problem. Hydraulic Jet Pumping Competitive with rod pump. Downhole Equipment Reasonably good rod design and operating practices needed. Good selection.000 BFPD. length. Pumps usually run at a fixed speed. Reported system efficiency 5070%. Relatively low capital cost if commercial electric power available. Need 15ppm of 15µm particle size max. Consider chamber or high PI and low BHP wells. Free pump and choose powerful option. Typically total system efficiency is about 50% for high rate well but for <1. efficiency typically is 40%. field knowledge and experience are limited. Plunger Lift Capital Cost Low to moderate increase with depth and larger units. A highly reliable compressor with 95+% run time required. Anti-pollution stuffing boxes are available. No input energy required because it uses the well. Intermittent Gas Lift Same as continuous flow gas lift.A. Tubing needs to be sized correctly. pumps. Can vary power fluid rate and pressure adjusts the production rate and lift capacity. Excellent for flowing wells. Good for high rate wells but decreases significantly for <1. Triplex plunger leakage control required.1. Low wells for wells requiring high GLRs. Good for low volume wells. requires powerful conductor.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 268 OF 295 ENI S. Power fluid rate and speed of downhole pump. Dilutents may be added if required. Excellent total system efficiency. Flexibility Excellent.p. Data bank of rod and pump failures beneficial. Unload to bottom with gas lift valves. Good even when small supplementary gas is added. Heavily influenced by power fluid plus production gradient. Typical efficiencies at 20% but range from 5-30%. SUMMARY ARTIFICIAL LIFT SELECTION CHARTS 0 REVISION 10. Maximum efficiency only 30%. Design Considerations And Comparisons Consideration Rod Pumping Screw Pumping ESP Hydraulic Piston Pumping Varies but often competitive with rod pumps.000 BID. must adjust injection time and cycles frequently. More operating data needed. Requires proper cable in addition to motor. May exceed rod pumps for ideal cases. Fair. 200ppm of 25µm particle size acceptable. Hydraulic unit provides additional flexibility but at added cost. Long service life and simple repair procedures. Some problems with sticking plungers. Good design plus good operating practices essential.L . Poor. to avoid excessive engine wear. Efficiencies range from 3040% with GLR >100. Must size pump properly. seats. Gas injection rate varied to change rates. Good to excellent. Choice of wireline retrievable or conventional valves. Requires a highly reliable electric power system. Table 10. Good design and operating practices needed. Fair to poor. Miscellaneous problems Stuffing box leakage may be messy and a potential hazard. Proper design plus good operating practices essential. Excellent. Time cycling normally avoided. central systems reduce cost per well but is more complicated. not as good as rod pumping owing to GLR. Cost increases with higher horsepower. Very low. etc. Fair increases for wells that require small injection GLRs. normally requires a high injection gas volume/bbl fluid. Central compression system reduces cost per well. Poor. Efficiency (output hydraulic HP divided by input HP) Excellent. Typical lift efficiency is 1050% improved with plungers. Must add surfactant to a water power fluid for lubrication. Moderate cost for well equipment (valves and mandrels). maintaining steady gas show often causes injection gas measurement and operating problems. Power fluid solids control essential.
Excellent if compression system is properly designed and maintained.400BFPD). installation and operating specifications Each well needs an individual system. Easily moved. procedures to design. mostly offshore. Potentially low but short run life on stator or rotor frequently reported. wide rate range suitable for relatively deep.A. Some trade in value. deviations. corrosive fluids.. related to pump intake pressure. Central plant more complex. Used on <1% of US lifted wells. Some market for good used compressors and some trade in value for mandrels and valves. Key is to inject as deeply as possible with optimum GLR. Excellent if there is an adequate supply of ingestion gas and adequate low pressure storage volume for injection gas. System approach needed. Normally over-pumping and lack of experience decreases run time. Follow API recommended practices in design. Computer programme typically used for design. Simple to install and operate. easily moved and good market for used equipment. Low back-pressure beneficial. System must be designed for the unstable gas flow rates. energy costs are high. Requires adjusting and plunger maintenance. high rate artificial lift system for wells with high bottom-hole pressures. Intermittent Gas Lift Same as continuous flow gas lift.000BFPD rates. Simple manual or computer design. Fair to poor. Usually very low. Fair. Individual well unit very flexible but extra cost. poor for problem areas. Free pump easily retrieved for servicing. Good with a correctly designed and operated system. Hydraulic Jet Pumping High cost owing to HP requirement. Varies. Frequent downtime results from operational problems. Ample gas volume and/or pressure needed for successful operation. Often used as a default artificial lift system.p. Compression costs vary on fuel cost and compressor maintenance. Short run life increases total operating costs. Essentially a low liquid rate. flexible. Easily moved and some current market for used equipment Fair.5% of US lifted wells.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 269 OF 295 ENI S. Used on less than 0. high GLR lift method.500ft) and locations with low production (. Very sensitive to operating temperatures and electrical malfunctions. Flexible operation. Good with proper throat and nose sizing for the operating conditions. testing and operation. Often used as a default artificial lift method in lieu of sucker rod pumps. Table 10. Can be used for extending flow life or improving efficiency. Poor open market values. Requires excellent operating practices. Poor open market value. Also a default for low bottom-hole pressure wells on continuous gas lift. Good. Most like a flowing well. High pulling costs result from short run life. GOR try higher volume wells requiring flexible operation. Limited to relatively shallow wells with low rates. high temperature deviated oil wells. high temperatures. Problems or changing well conditions reduce downhole pump reliability.M . System not forgiving. Simple to design. Salvage Value Excellent. An excellent high rate artificial lift system. An adequate volume. API specifications and design/operatin g recommended practices should be followed. Good data needed for valve design and spacing. Must avoid operating in cavitation range of jet pump throat. System will tolerate wide depth ranges. Each well needs an individual system. Reliability Excellent.000psig. dry non-corrosive and clean gas supply source is needed throughout the entire life. Sometimes used to test wells that will not flow offshore. Same as continuous flow gas lift. etc. Used on <1% of US lifted wells. Used on <1% of US lifted wells. Free pump easily retrieved for onsite repair or replacement. Good. Good if well production is stable. Requires attention. Used on about 85% of US artificial lift wells. Usage/ Outlook Excellent. Good. Typically each well is an individual producer using a common electric system. are controlled. Same as continuous flow gas lift. wax asphaltenes. usually results in test and treatment problems. Used primarily on gas well dewatering. Downhole jet often requires trial and error to arrive at best/optimum jet. Low pump maintenance cost typical with properly sized throat and nose. More problems if pressures >4. Excellent for ideal gas lift cases. install and operates following API specifications and recommended practices. high GOR and significant sand production. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 0 REVISION Consideration Rod Pumping Screw Pumping ESP Hydraulic Piston Pumping Often higher than rod pump even for free systems. if HP is high. good value for wellsite system that crane can move easily. Some trade in value. high pressure. typically used. Continuous Gas Lift Well costs low. Limited proven design. Fairly simple to design but requires good rate data. Fair market for triplex pump. Other repair costs are high. Most often used on high water cut wells. The normal standard artificial lift method. Fair. install and operate. Used on <2% of US lifted wells. Fair market for triplex pumps. Some trade in value. Run time efficiency >95% if good operating practices are adopted and corrosion. Basic operating procedures needed for downhole pump and wellsite unit. Plunger Lift Operating Costs Very low for shallow to medium depth (<7. solids. Used on about 10% of US lifted wells.Design Considerations and Overall Comparisons (Pg2) . Individual well or system. System (total) Straightforward and basic. high volume. Varies. Best suited for <200oF and >1.
limited to relatively shallow depths.000ft. Good.5ins) normally is not a problem for this relatively low volume lift. Same as piston pump.000psig. requires a good power source without spikes or interruptions. Continuous Gas Lift The use of 4. Good with the surface prime mover causing the only noise..5 and 5. Excellent. Controlled by system injection pressure and fluid rates. Small casing size (4. few wells >10.440psi lift system and lift system and 1. Optimisation and computer control being tried.5 and 5. Bottom-hole pressure obtained with free pumps. Avoid 4.000ft. rods of structure may limit rate at depth.000stb/d with 2. Typical design targets 25% submergence. both engines or motors can be used easily. Fair but complicated by standing valve and fallback.2. Typically about 50 to 100psig. Not possible to use dynamometers and pump-off cards.5ins casing and larger but gas separation may be limited. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 10. Fair to good wellhead equipment has low profile. For rates >5. gas or diesel fired engines or motors. Prime mover flexibility Good. Excellent with low noise. speed and producing rate.5ins casing. Typically moderate rate is limited to about 100psi/1.000psi) or HP. if little free gas (i.5ins casing with 2ins nominal tubing normally limits rates to <1.000ft well. Good. fluid levels. Good to excellent. Operating Conditions Summary Consideration Rod Pumping Screw Pumping ESP Hydraulic Piston Pumping Larger casing required for parallel free or closed systems. Practical depth of 20. Usually limited to motor HP or temperature. Typically <10.000ft.000ft injected depth.000 GLR. Same as piston pump. Same as continuous flow. Casing size will limit use of large motor and pumps.500ft and 150stb/d at 15. Effectively about 500stb/d at 7.000ft for low rate. Same as continuous flow. similar limits as reciprocating pump. Noise Level Fair. Often preferred in urban areas if production rate is high.p. Same as piston pump.A. Safety precautions must be taken for high pressure gas lines. Fair when used without chambers. Annulus must have adequate gas storage volume. Usually limited by fallback. Low. Can be analysed easily. possibly 5.Operating Conditions Summary . Good when used with chamber. turbines or motors can be used for compression. Higher voltages can reduce I2R losses Fair based on electrical checks but special equipment needed otherwise. Same as continuous flow. Downhole pump performance can be analysed from surface power fluid rate and pressure.000ft.000ft. Surveillance Fair.N . Prime mover can be electric motor. Table 10.5ins nominal tubing. Normally no problem for 4. both engines or motors can be used. Good low profile surface equipment. Good but depends on good well test and pressure charts. Low. <100psi provided adequate displacement and gas venting. Analysis improved by use of dynamometers and computers. has an injection depth of about 10. Requires surface treating and high pressure pumping equipment. Special low profile units are available. etc.5ins) may limit free gas separation. Excellent. PIP of <250psi feasible at 10.5 and 5. Small casing (4. Larger casing may be required if dual strings run.000ft with low GLR. Good to fair. Low at well but noisy at compressor. Good low profile but requires transformer bank. Fair. >350psig to 5. Plunger Lift Casing size limits (restricts tubing size) Problems only in high rate wells requiring large plunger pumps. Free gas reduces efficiency and service life.e. Depth limits Good. moderately high for urban areas. Intake pressure <100psig usually results in frequent pump repairs.5ins) mat result in excessive friction losses and limits production rate. engines. Obtrusiveness Size and operation are drawbacks in populated and farming areas. Excellent. <25psig feasible provided adequate displacement and gas venting. Practical depth about 10. Low volume. high GLR wells.000stb/d. Reduced performance inside 5. Poor if must handle >5% free gas. can be easily analysed based on well test. Poor to fair. None normally required. high lift head pumps operating at depths to 17. Fair. Typically for 1. Intake Capability Excellent. Excellent. bottomhole pressures <150psi at 10.7. >250psi pump intake pressure). Good low profile but must provide for compressor.000ft Hydraulic Jet Pumping Small casing size often limits producing rate owing to high (unacceptable) friction losses.000ft well may be >1. limited by power fluid pressure (5. Good.5 and 5. REVISION 0 Intermittent Gas Lift Small casing (4.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 270 OF 295 ENI S. PIP >250psi for 10.000stb/d use >7ins casing and >3.000ft. Poor restricted by the gradient of the gas lifted fluid.000ft. Fair but not as good as rod pumping. analysis can be based on production and fluid levels only.5ins casing depending on depth and rate. Good low well noise. Good. Thus the backpressure on 10. 1. Motors are more reliable and flexible. Transformer may cause problems in urban areas.000ft. Poor. Same as piston pump. Small casing suitable for this low volume lift.5ins tubing needed. Bottomhole pressure and production log surveys easily obtained. Wellsite power fluid units can be sound proofed.
Well testing complicated by injection gas volume/rate.O . Well testing is simple with few problems. High water cut and high rate wells may require a free water knock-out. Poor. Poor. Usually controlled only by displacement checks. Well testing with a central system is more complex requiring accurate power fluid measurement. Measurement of both input and outflow gas is a problem. Well testing is simple with few problems using standard available equipment and procedures.p. Well testing is simple with few problems. Well testing with standard individual well units presents few problems. Does not appear applicable owing to intake pressure requirement higher than pump-off. Pumpoff control not developed. Cycle must be periodically adjusted. Time cycle and pump-off controller’s application Excellent if well can be pumpedoff.. Poor. Three stage production tests can be conducted by adjusting production step rates. Table 10. same as rod pumping. Good.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 271 OF 295 ENI S.A. Good.Operating Conditions Summary (Pg2) . Not applicable. is possible but not normally used. Not applicable. Labour intensive Plunger Lift Testing Good. Avoid shutdown in high viscosity/sand producers. Formation GLR obtained by subtracting injected gas from total produced gas. Poor. Continuous Gas Lift Fair. Gas measurement errors are common. Good. Hydraulic Jet Pumping Same as piston pump. A pressure recorder must be used to monitor intake pressures. Well testing complicated by injection gas volume/rate. Intermittent Gas Lift Poor. Soft start and improved seals and protectors recommended. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 0 REVISION Consideration Rod Pumping Screw Pumping ESP Hydraulic Piston Pumping Fair. Intermittent flow can cause operating problems with separators.
Few problems. Poor for free gas >5% through pump. Good mechanical cutting sometimes required. Currently very few known installations. Good. Free gas reduces efficiency but helps lift.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 272 OF 295 ENI S. Paraffin handling capacity Fair to good. Good. Limited to low GLRs and moderate rates. Mechanical cutting and inhibition possible. Same as continuous flow Excellent.7. Batch or continuous inhibition treatment can be circulated with power fluid for effective control. High angle deviated holes (>70o) and horizontal wells are being produced. Feasible operation in horizontal wells. Heading causes operating problems. Parallel 2x2ins low rate dual feasible inside 7ins casing. Inhibitor in the injection gas and/or batch inhibiting down tubing feasible. Good.A. Same as piston pump except it can possibly handle higher GLRs but at reduced efficiency. Excellent as it cuts paraffin and removes small deposits. Similar to piston pump. Larger casing would be needed. Excellent. Poor if it must pump any free gas. Same as continuous flow gas lift. Hot water/oil treatments. No none installations. No known installations. Inhibitor mixed with power fluid mixes with produced fluids at entry of jet pump throat. Casing free pump limited to low GLRs. Crooked/ deviated holes Fair. Fair. Must provide electrical power and service pulling unit. Produced gas reduces need for injection gas. Possible running and pulling problems. mechanical cutting. Parallel 2x2ins nominal tubing inside 7ins casing and 3x3ins tubing inside 95/8ins casing feasible. REVISION 0 Intermittent Gas Lift Same as continuous flow. Good. Offshore application Poor. Poor if must pump >50% free gas. Same as continuous flow. Fair. Fair. Normal production cycle must be interrupted to batch treat the well.Artificial Lift Considerations (Pg1) . Three string nonvented applications have been achieved with complete isolation of production and power fluid from each zone. Artificial Lift Considerations Consideration Rod Pumping Screw Pumping ESP Hydraulic Piston Pumping Good to excellent. Fair to good. Produced water or seawater may be used as a power fluid with wellsite type system or power fluid separation before production treating system. Increased mechanical problems. batch inhibition possible. Excellent. Steps must be taken to avoid corrosion in injection gas lines. Possible to unseat pump and circulate hot fluids. Gas is a problem for lower zone. short pump can pass through doglegs up to 24o/100ft in 2ins nominal tubing. Batch treatment inhibitor used down annulus feasible. Injection gas may aggravate existing problem. May have some special application offshore. Plunger Lift Corrosion/ scale handling ability Good to excellent.P . Excellent and is the most common method if adequate injection gas available. Good to fair. Free pumps can be surfaced on a schedule. Requires deck space for treatment tanks and pumps. Excellent for correct application. Rod scrapers not used. Free pump retrieved without pulling tubing. Circulate heat to downhole pump to minimise build-up. Increased load and wear problems. Fair. Same condition as hydraulic piston pump. Continuous Gas Lift Good..3. Vent free gas if possible. Poor. Concentric fixed pump or parallel free permits gas venting with suitable downhole gas separator below pump intake. Fair. Poor in wells needing sand control. Feasible operation in highly deviated wells. weight and pulling unit space. Batch treat down annulus is feasible. Most wells are deviated and typically produce sand. Requires long radius wellbore bends to get through. Use of standing valves risky. however a pulling unit is needed. increased load and wear problems. frequently for both corrosion and scale control. Good to excellent. Some success in pumping 15o/100ft using rod guides. Tubing may require treatment. Hot water/oil treating and/or use of scrapers possible but they increase operating problems and costs. Poor to fair. Use a gas anchor. Pump will normally pass through the tubing. Power oil a fire and safety problem. Gas handling ability Good if can vent and use natural gas anchor with properly designed pump. Limited experience in horizontal wells. Rotary gas separators helpful if solids not produced. Table 10. Excellent. Excellent. Dual application No known installations. Must design for unit size. Water power fluid can be used. Hydraulic Jet Pumping Good to excellent. Dual gas lift is common but good operating of dual lift is complicated and inefficient resulting in reduced rates. Fair. Batch inhibition treatment only to intake unless shroud is used. Dual inside 5ins casing currently not in favour. Same as piston pump. Excellent if tubing can be run in the well. Few wireline problems up to 70o deviation for wireline retrievable valves. Fair. Soluble plugs available.p. Same as continuous flow. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 10.
Typically 100 to 300stb/d from 4. Excellent. Possibly 2. Good. rate about 4. Requires <10ppm solids power fluid for good run life. Potential solution is to use ‘core flow’ with 20% water. Power fluid to jet pump can tolerate 200ppm of 25µm particle size. Power oil of oil >24o API and . Excellent for high viscosity fluids with no stator/rotor problems. Good in >8o API production with <500cP possible.5ins nominal tubing. Low volume lift capabilities Excellent. Limited by tubular and HP. Poor. Depending on reservoir pressure and PI with 4ins nominal tubing. Restricted to relatively small rates. Fair to good. Power fluid can be used to dilute low gravity production. Jet pumps are operating with 3% sand in produced fluids.000 to 10. Restricted by tubing size and injection gas rate and depth. Poor. Up to 15.1% sand for inflow and outflow problems. Typically 0. 550oF. Limited by efficiency and economic limit. Table 10.000ft with 240 HP.000ft.000ft with <250psi pump intake pressure. Need to know temperatures to design bellows charged valves. Fair.000ft. Excellent and possible to operate to 500oF with special materials.440psi injection gas and GLR of 1. 400stb/d for 2. Standard materials up to 300oF+ and to 500oF+ feasible with special materials.Q .000stb/d from 10. Fair but standing valve may cause problems. low GORs and shallow depths but no known installations. May be able to handle up to 0.A. Continuous Gas Lift Feasible but can be troublesome and inefficient. Fair. Hydraulic Jet Pumping Same as piston pump. Typically 3. Decreases to <10% sand for water producers. No known installations. Not as good as rod pumping.000ft and 1.000ft and 200stb/d from 5.000stb/d from 1. Sand can stick plunger. Few problems for >16 o API. Rod fall problems for high rates. Fair. High volume lift capacity Poor.000stb/d from 4. Requires <200ppm solids. Excellent.000ft feasible with 1. limited to about 200cP. Feasible if low rates.5ins tubing. Limited by heading and slippage.Artificial Lift Considerations (Pg2) . Same as continuous flow.000ft with 3. >75stb/d from 12. Excellent for high water cut lift even with high viscosity oil. Similar to casing lift but must have adequate formation gas. Fair. however it wipes tubing clean. At present normally below 250oF. tubular size and HP. Fresh water treatment for salt formations. Lower efficiency and high operating costs for <400stb/d.000. or below 20cP viscosity.5ins and 700stb/d for 3. Also produced fluids must have low solids <200ppm of 15µm particles for reasonable life. Plunger Lift Slim-hole completions (27/8ins production casing string) Feasible for low rates <100stb/d and low GOR <250.000ft possible.000ft.000ft. Poor. Excellent. Possibly 200stb/d from 10. Typically a maximum of about 350oF. Fair. Excellent for <100stb/d shallow wells that do not pump-off. Suitable for low rates and low GLRs. Increases HP and reduces head. max. Fair but limited by stator elastomer.5ins casing can produce 4. rates of 5. Excellent. High viscosity fluid handling capability Good for <200cP fluids and low rates 400stb/d. Limited to about <250oF for standard and <325oF with special motors and cables. Excellent up to 50% sand with high viscosity >200cP crude.500psi system. Fair but restricted to shallow depths using large plungers . Good to excellent. Use fresh water injection for salt build-up formations.000stb/d from 4. Poor to fair for low viscosity <10cP production.000stb/d from 10. Excellent. Higher rates may required dilutent to lower viscosity. limited by needed HP and can be restricted by casing size. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 0 REVISION Consideration Rod Pumping Screw Pumping ESP Hydraulic Piston Pumping Possible but may have high friction losses or gas problems.5 to 4stb/cycle with up to 48 cycles/d Excellent for low flow rates of 1 to 2stb/d with high GLRs.50cP viscosity or water power fluid reduces friction losses. Excellent. Same as continuous flow. Good. Same as continuous flow Normally not applicable. In 5.1% sand with special pumps.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 273 OF 295 ENI S. Temperature limitation Excellent and currently used in thermal operations. Avoid unstable flow range. Limited by cycle volume and number of possible injection cycles.000stb/d with adequate flowing bottomhole pressure. Improved performance for high viscosity >200cP cases.p. Generally poor.000stb/d from 2. Typically are used with 1. Typical limit is 0. Excellent. Improved wear resistant materials available at premium cost. Tandem motors can be used but will increase costs.000stb/d from 5.000ft and 1. Typically lower limit is 200stb/d for 2ins tubing without heading. Limited by number of cycles. Production with up to 800cP possible. Limit is inflow and surface problems. Typically about 200stb/d from 10. Most commonly used method for wells producing <100stb/d. Solids/sand handling ability Poor. Intermittent Gas Lift Same as continuous flow.000ft. >200stb/d from 4. Good.
with regard to double barrier protection is mechanically obtained by means of the wellhead.3. regardless of the density. therefore is not a practical barrier. through tubing perforation after packer setting. does not require the presence of an overbalance fluid. therefore. some completion types such as High Rate liners using a liner PBR may be some considerable distance from the formation. however tubing leaks and deterioration of the fluid cannot be guaranteed. Over and above this. The use of non-kill weight packer fluid has been thoroughly evaluated and is permitted for the wells which have pressure gradients above 1.e.30kg/Lt/10m where it is still considered good practice to use overbalance completion fluids. it should not be classified as a barrier. 11.e.30kg/Lt/10m.A. USE OF UNDERBALANCE COMPLETION FLUIDS POLICY The purpose of this section is to provide the basic criteria when ‘non-kill weight packer fluids’ can be used in completion design. A hydrostatic overbalance fluid can only be considered a barrier on a long term basis if it is fully maintained. BARRIER PRINCIPLES Eni-Agip Division and Affiliates has determined that a packer fluid. The main reasons are: • The integrity of the annulus. cannot be considered as a barrier. i. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 0 REVISION 11. high density oil mud.2. . high pressure and high temperature (HP/HT) wells. 11.1. i. i. the tubulars (tubing and casing) and packer system and. APPLICATION The use of non-kill weight packer fluid will be considered in the following situations: • • • When a brine with a gradient lower than the formation gradient has already been used as completion fluid.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 274 OF 295 ENI S.e. This policy does not refer to gradients below 1. The re-use of the completion fluid is envisaged when it is opportune or cost effective. • • 11. When it is necessary to replace a completion fluid containing solids in suspension. This being the case.p.
Completions Similar to above.2. prior to commencing a well test using non-kill weight packer fluid. However.p. The worst possible case being immediately above the packer.4. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 11.4. Well Testing For exploration wells. RISK ASSESSMENT 0 REVISION 11.1. a risk assessment should be carried out to ensure. the casing design must be able to withstand full well pressure in conjunction with the completion fluid hydrostatic pressure at respective depth. that the completion design will keep the formation pressure off the production casing. . a risk analysis evaluation (HAZOP) must be carried out by the District Drilling & Completion Engineering Department. 11.4.A.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 275 OF 295 ENI S. if an underbalance completion fluid is to be used. as contingency against a tubing/packer envelope leak. in order to identify and evaluate the operative risks associated with downhole equipment functionality.
. To this end a feed-back reporting system is in use which satisfies this requirement. it is essential that ENI . workover and well testing operations are available and must be filled in and returned to head office for distribution to the relevant responsible departments as soon as possible as per instructions.p.REPORT FORMS To enable the contents of this completion manual and other operating procedures manuals to be improved. Feed-back reports for drilling. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 0 REVISION APPENDIX A . The forms relevant to completion operations are: • • • • • • • • • • ARPO 01 ARPO 02 ARPO 06 ARPO 07 ARPO 08 ARPO 09 ARPO 11 ARPO 12 ARPO 13 ARPO 20 Initial Activity Report Daily Report Waste Disposal Management Report Perforating Report Gravel Pack Report Matrix Stimulation/Hydraulic fracturing Report Wireline Report Pressure/Temperature Survey Report Well Problem Report Well Situation Report Behind each report form are instructions on how to fill in the forms. completion. As the first section is generic to all the forms it is only shown in ARPO 01 instructions.A.Agip Division and Affiliates obtain feed-back from the field.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 276 OF 295 ENI S.
Rig RKB .p.A.1st Flange Cellar Pit Depth [m] Length [m] Width [m]: Manufacturer Type Liner avaible [in] Major Contractors WELL NAME FIELD NAME Cost center Joint venture AGIP: % % % Type of Operation % % % Program TD (Measured) Program TD (Vertical) Rig Pump [m] [m] Type of Service Mud Logging D. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 A.1. INITIAL ACTIVITY REPORT (ARPO 01) 0 REVISION District/Affiliate Company DATE: Permit/Concession N° General Data On shore Latitude: Longitude Reference Rig Name Rig Type Contractor Rig Heading [°] Offset FROM the proposed location Distance [m] Direction [°] Off shore INITIAL ACTIVITY REPORT ARPO 01 Well Code Depth Above S.L . & C. Fluids Cementation Waste treatment Operating Time Moving Positioning Anchorage Rig-up Delay Lost-time Accidents Company Contract N° Type of Service Company Contract N° Jack-up leg Penetration [gg:hh] [hh:min] [hh:min] [hh:min] [hh:min] [hh:min] Rig Anchorage Leg N° Air gap [m] Penetration [m] N° Supply Vessel for Positioning Name Horse Power Bollard pull [t] Anchor Bow N° 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 Note: Angle Type & Manufacturer Weight [t] Mooring Line Length Cable [m] Chain [m] Piggy Back Weight N° [t] Length [m] Mooring Line Chain Ø [mm] Cable Length [m] Ø [mm] Tension Operative [Tested] [t] Tension [t] Total Time [hh:min] Supervisor Superintendent .ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 277 OF 295 ENI S. Ground Level[m] Water Depth [m] Rotary Table Elev.[m] First Flange[m] Top housing [m] Reference Rig Ref.
Code OPERATION DESCRIPTION Operation at 07:00 Mud type Density Viscosity P. Jet vel. (24:00) Total Drilled Rotating Hrs R.p. Progressive Rot. Y. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 A.P. W. [psi] Lithology Shows From (hr) To (hr) Op. HHP Bit HSI I [m 3] [m 3] B N° Run N° N° Run N° Bottom Hole Assembly N° __________ Rot. Losses [kg/l] [s/l] [cP] [g/100cm2] / [cc/30"] [cc/30"] [kg/cm2] [°C] [g/l] [g/l] [kg/m3] [%] [%] Bit Data Manuf.IFT [kg/l] 1 2 at m at m 3 Last casing Next Casing RT Elevation Ground Lelel / Water Depth RT . L Progr. ClSalt pH/ES MBT Solid Oil/water Ratio.p. hrs Back reaming Hrs Personnel Agip Rig Others Total Agip Rig Other Total [m] [m] [m] [hh:mm] [m / h] [hh:mm] [hh:mm] Injured of w.V.L Partial Progr.P.P. [psi] Reduce Pump Strockes Pressure Pump N° Liner [in] Strokes Press. Stock Quantity UM Supply vessel Total Cost O G D O L R I B O G D O L R Daily Progr. Sand pm/pom pf mf Daily Losses Progr.V.1st flange / Top Housing BOP Stack Diverter Annular Annular Upper Rams Middle Rams Middle Rams Middle Rams Lower Rams Last Test Type Ø ARPO 02 [m] [m] [m] WELL NAME FIELD NAME Cost center Well Code Report N° Permit / Concession N° M. R. Gel 10"/10' Water Loss HP/HT Press. DAILY REPORT (ARPO 02) 0 REVISION DAILY REPORT Drilling District/Affiliate Company DATE: Rig Name Type of Rig Contractor Well Ø nom.O. vel.2.M. Temp.[in] Top [m] Bottom [m] Top of Cmt [m] Last Survey [°] LOT . (24:00) T.A. Type Serial No.D. IADC Diam.D.O. hours Ø Description Part.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 278 OF 295 ENI S. Hrs.[t] Flow Rate Pressure Ann. Supervisor: .B. Nozzle/TFA From [m] To [m] Drilled [m] Rot.
concentration (g/l ) Cumulative [m ] Recycled Total 3 Fresh water [m ] Phase Cumulative Service Mud Company Waste Disposal Transportation 3 Recycled [m ] Company Contract N° 3 Remarks Remarks Supervisor Superintendent .A.p. WASTE DISPOSAL MANAGEMENT REPORT (ARPO 06) 0 REVISION WASTE DISPOSAL Management Report District/Affiliate Company DATE: Report N° From [m] To [m] Phase size [in] Water consumption Usage Mixing Mud Others Total Readings / Truck Mud Volume [m ] Mixed Lost Dumped Transported IN Trans orted OUT Waste Disposal Water base cuttings Oil base cuttings Dried Water base cuttings Dried oil base cuttings Water base mud Oil base mud transported IN Oil base mud transported OUT Drill potable water Dehidrated water base mud Dehidrated oil base mud Sewage water Transported Brine Period [t] [t] [t] [t] [t] [t] [t] [t] [t] [t] [t] [t] Cumulative 3 WELL NAME FIELD NAME ARPO-06 Cost center Depth (m) Interval Drilled (m) 3 Drilled Volume [m ] Cumulative volume [m ] Phase /Period [m ] Fresh water Recycled Total Fresh water 3 3 Mud Type Density (kg/l) Cl.3. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 A.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 279 OF 295 ENI S.
Sea Level Workover Rig RKB . inclination at Formation name: Lithology PERFORATING REPORT ARPO-07 WELL NAME FIELD NAME Cost center Pool: [m] Rotary Table Measurement [m] Drilling Rig RKB . PERFORATING REPORT (ARPO 07) 0 REVISION District/Affiliate Company DATE: Well location Onshore Offshore Total Depth Well Type Vertical Deviated Horizontal Well Situation Liner Casing Casing Tubing Packer Tubing shoe Size [Ø] M.D.F 2 Completion fluid Fluid in front of Perforation Fluid Losses after Perforation Measured Depth Top [m] Bottom [m] Vertical Depth Top [m] Density Density [kg/l] [kg/l] [m3] Pool Remarks Bottom [m] Note: Supervisor Superintendent .1 Flange [°] [m] Workover Rig RKB . Max.3.V. [m] T. Gun Ø Charge Type S.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 280 OF 295 ENI S. [m] Steel Grade Service Company Perforation System Wireline TCP Thru Tubing Data Gun Type Overbalance Underbalance Differential Pressure [kg/cm ] Gun Specific.D.D.p.A.V.1 Flange Workover Rig RKB . T.D.P. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 A.Sea Bottom Thickness [lb/ft] Measured Depth Top [m] Bottom [m] st st Final Completion Report [date] Final Workover Report [date] Reference Logs: Recorded on: Vertical Depth Top [m] Bottom [m] Cement Top M.
Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 A.p.A.4. GRAVEL PACK REPORT (ARPO 08) 0 REVISION Cannot Load File form supplied Eni-Agip Excel .ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 281 OF 295 ENI S.
[m] Open hole Ø Prod.p. net perf. Starting Time Pumping Rate [bbl/1'] [m ] 3 Fluid Type Fluid Schedule Fluid Composition Density [kg/l] Mixed Volume [m3 ] Volume Progr.D.Vol.A. casing / liner Ø Shoe M. [lb/gal] Press.D. injection rate [bpm] Max.D. interval Slotted liner From [m] To [m] ARPO . Proppant Initial Entering in Formation Concentr. [psi] Notes Notes / Remarks: Supervisor Superintendent . injection pressure [psi] Pumping time [min] Pumping time [min] Equipment Coiled Tubing [Y / N] Ø Stimulation vessel / Other equipment Operation Description Fluid Ref. [psi] Injection Index [bbl/day/psi] Casing Press.D. [in] String capacity [l] Packer . [m] Top liner [m] Reservoir Parameters Reservoir fluid Density [Kg/l] 2 Gradient [Kg/cm /10 m. Volume [m ] 3 Pumping Parameter Progr. [m] T.] Fracturing gradient [calculated] Fracturing gradient [tested] Porosity % SBHT [°C] 2 SBHP [kg/cm ] at m at m Open hole Perfor.5. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Injected Circulated N° Fluid Ref.Top perforation Volume [l] Treatment Data Service Company HHP avaible Initial Shut-in pressure [psi] Annulus pressure [psi] Pressure test [psi] Max.: Formation name: Pool: Lithology: Completion Data Bottom hole gauge [Y / N] Type Wellhead type Packer type Packer fluid Density Fluid in well at operation beginning String O. [m ] General Data M. [psi] Final Press.09 WELL NAME FIELD NAME Cost center Interval to be Treated Tot.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 282 OF 295 ENI S. 0 REVISION MATRIX STIMULATION/HYDRAULIC FRACTURE REPORT (APRO 09) MATRIX STIMULATION HYDRAULIC FRACTURING District/Affiliate Company DATE: Well Location Onshore Offshore Well Type Vertical Deviated Horizontal Treatment Type Matrix stimulation Acid Solvent Other Hydraulic Fracturing Foam Water base Oil base Other Acid Fracturing Acid Gelled acid Acid + Gel Other Main Frac Treatment Proppant type: API Mesh Size Amount of Propant [t] 3 Total Frac Fluid Vol. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 A.V.
11 WELL NAME FIELD NAME Cost center SINGLE COMPLETION DUAL COMPLETION General Data RKB Elevation @ m. @ m. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 A. Weight [lb/ft] Weight [lb/ft] SELECTIVE SHORT STRING LONG STRING Well Code Flanges Base Flange @ m. @ m. @ m.D.6. Tbg Spool Top Flange Ø Flowing Flange Ø Kill Line Flange Ø BPV Type Psi Psi Psi Ø Wellhead Pressure Check [Kg/cm2] CHP / / / P P P THP Annulus Annulus Annulus POOL Perforated Zones [Kg/cm 2] [Kg/cm 2] [Kg/cm 2] [Kg/cm 2] Open Hole To [m] From [m] Note Operation Description Situation After the Job NO TOOLS IN HOLE TSV Note BPV SCSSV PLUG OTHER TOOLS Actual Bottom Hole: Max Size Run in Hole Ø Supervisor Superintendent @m . WIRELINE REPORT (ARPO 11) 0 REVISION WIRE LINE REPORT District/Affiliate Company DATE: ARPO .p. String Previous Bottom Hole Request Operation @ m.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 283 OF 295 ENI S. Tubing Size OD Tubing Size OD Tubing Shoe Ø Packer data Minimum I.A. @ m.
A.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 284 OF 295 ENI S. 0 REVISION PRESSURE/TEMPERATURE SURVEY REPORT (ARPO 12) Cannot Load File form supplied Eni-Agip Excel . Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 A.7.p.
Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 A.[kg/l]: Solutions Applied: Results Obtained: Solutions Applied: Results Obtained: Solutions Applied: Results Obtained: Solutions Applied: Results Obtained: Supervisor Supervisor Supervisor Remarks at District level: Superintendent Lost Time Remarks at HQ level hh:mm Loss value [in currency] Pag.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 285 OF 295 ENI S. WELL PROBLEM REPORT (ARPO 13) 0 REVISION District/Affiliate Company WELL PROBLEM REPORT DATE: ARPO -13 Top [m] Bottom [m] FIELD NAME WELL NAME Cost center Start date End date Problem Code Well Situation Open hole Last casing Well problem Description Ø Measured Depth Top [m] Bottom [m] Vertical Depth Top [m] Bottom [m] KOP [m] Type Mud in hole Max inclination [°] @m DROP OFF [m] Dens.p.8.A. Of .
9. m DUAL COMPLETION Note Joint n° m Progr.p. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 A.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 286 OF 295 ENI S.A. m SHORT STRING Note Joint n° m LONG STRING Progr.: of: . m Note Remarks: Supervisor Superintendent pag. WELL SITUATION REPORT (ARPO 20) 0 REVISION WELL SITUATION (COMPLETION TALLY) District/Affiliate Company DATE: ARPO 20 / E FIELD NAME WELL NAME Cost center SINGLE COMPLETION Joint n° m Progr.
9⋅ 10 in/in/°F for steel) Specific gravity of fluid inside the tubing Specific gravity of fluid outside the tubing Variation in the piston force Variation in the fictitious force Generic variation in the tubing length Variation in length due to Hooke’s Law Variation in length due to buckling Variation in length due to ballooning Variation in length due to thermal effects . Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 0 REVISION APPENDIX B .A.Ai) External diameter of tubing Internal diameter of tubing Packer-bore diameter 7 Young’s module (3⋅10 psi for steel) Generic force applied to the tubing end Piston force at the packer depth Piston force above the packer with anchored tubing Piston force at well head conditions Piston force at well head conditions with anchored tubing Fictitious force Fictitious force above the packer with anchored tubing Fictitious force due to the effect of internal pressure Fictitious force due to the effect of external pressure Fictitious force at well head conditions Fictitious force at well head conditions with anchored tubing Tubing-packer force Slack-off force Moment of inertia of the resistant tubing section Tubing length Distance between the lower end of the tubing and the neutral point Pressure inside the tubing at packer depth / well head Pressure outside the tubing at packer depth / well head Ratio between the external and internal diameters of the tubing Tubing-casing radial distance (Douter casing -D)/2 Tubing wall thickness Final temperature of tubing Initial temperature of tubing Linear weight of the tubing immersed in fluid Linear weight of the tubing in air Linear weight of fluid inside the tubing Linear weight of fluid outside the tubing -6 Coefficient of thermal expansion (6.NOMENCLATURE FOR TUBING CALCULATIONS Ai Ao Ap As D d Dpb E F Fa * Fa Fa tp * Fa tp Ff * Ff I Ff II Ff Ff tp * Ff tp Fp Fso I L n Pi /pi Po /po R r t Tfinal Tinitial w ws wfi wfo α γfi γfo ∆Fa ∆Ff ∆L ∆L1 ∆L2 ∆L3 ∆L4 = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = Area inside tubing Area outside tubing Packer-bore area Resistant tubing area (Ao .ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 287 OF 295 ENI S.p.
ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 288 OF 295 ENI S.∆Lp) Variation in pressure inside the tubing Average variation in pressure inside the tubing Average variation in pressure outside the tubing Average variation in tubing temperature Poisson’s coefficient (0. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 ∆Lp ∆Lf ∆lso ∆ltot ∆Pi ∆pim ∆pom ∆TM ν σa σb σeq σi σo σsn Yp = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = 0 REVISION Total variation in length prevented by the packer Variation in length generated by fictitious force Variation in length generated by slack-off force Total variation in length of the tubing (= .p.A.3 for steel) Axial stress in the tubing section Axial stress in the tubing section due to buckling Equivalent axial stress Equivalent axial stress on the inner wall of the tubing Equivalent axial stress on the outer wall of the tubing Material yield axial stress σsn .
A.ABBREVIATIONS API BHA BHP BHT BOP BPD BPM BPV BSW BUR C/L CBL CCL CET CGR CRA C/T DC DE DHSV D&CM DP DST E/L ECD ECP EMW ESD ESP ETA FBHP FBHT FTHP FTHT GLR GOC GOR GP GPM GPS GR HAZOP HP/HT IADC ID American Petroleum Institute Bottom Hole Assembly Bottom Hole Pressure Bottom hole temperature Blow Out Preventer Barrel Per Day Barrels Per Minute Back Pressure Valve Base Sediment & Water Build Up Rate Control Line Cement Bond Log Casing Collar Locator Cement Evaluation Tool Condensate Gas Ratio Corrosion Resistant Alloy Coiled Tubing Drill Collar Diatomaceous Earth Down Hole Safety Valve Drilling & Completion Manager Drill Pipe Drill Stem Test Electric Line Equivalent Circulation Density External Casing Packer Equivalent Mud Weight Electric Shut-Down System Electrical Submersible Pump Expected Arrival Time Flowing Bottom Hole Pressure Flowing Bottom Hole Temperature Flowing Tubing Head Pressure Flowing Tubing Head Temperature Gas Liquid Ratio Gas Oil Contact Gas Oil Ratio Gravel Pack Gallon (US) per Minute Global Positioning System Gamma Ray Hazard and Operability High Pressure .ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 289 OF 295 ENI S.High Temperature International Drilling Contractor Inside Diameter . Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 0 REVISION APPENDIX C .p.
Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 IPR JAM KOP LAT LCM LMRP LOT LWD MAASP MD MLH MLS MMS MODU MPI MSL MSS MWD NACE NDT NSG NTU OBM OD OIM ORP OWC P&A PBR PDC PDM PGB PI PLT POB PPB ppg ppm PVT Q Q/AQ RFT RKB ROE ROP ROU ROV Inflow Performance Relationship Joint Make-up Torque Analyser Kick Off Point Lowest Astronomical Tide Lost Circulation Materials Low Marine Riser Package Leak Off Test Log While Drilling Max Allowable Annular Surface Pressure Measured Depth Mud Line Hanger Mud Line Suspension Magnetic Multi Shot Mobile Offshore Drilling Unit Magnetic Particle Inspection Mean Sea Level Magnetic Single Shot Measurement While Drilling National Association of Corrosion Engineers Non Destructive Test North Seeking Gyro Nephelometric Turbidity Unit Oil Base Mud Outside Diameter Offshore Installation Manager Origin Reference Point Oil Water Contact Plugged & Abandoned Polished Bore Receptacle Polycrystalline Diamond Cutter Positive Displacement Motor Permanent Guide Base Productivity Index Production Logging Tool Personnel On Board Pounds per Barrel Pounds per Gallon Part Per Million Pressure Volume Temperature Flow Rate Quality Assurance.p.A. Quality Control Repeat Formation Test Rotary Kelly Bushing Radius of Exposure Rate Of Penetration Radios Of Uncertainty Remote Operated Vehicle 0 REVISION .ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 290 OF 295 ENI S.
p.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 291 OF 295 ENI S.A. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 RPM RT S/N SAFE SBHP SBHT SCC SCSSV SDE SF SG SICP SIDPP SPM SSC SSD SSSV STHP STHT TCP TD TOC TOL TRSV TVD UHF VBR VDL VHF VSP W/L WBM WC WHP WHSIP WOB WOC WOW WP YP Revolutions Per Minute Rotary Table Serial Number Slapper Activated Firing Equipment Static Bottom Hole Pressure Static Bottom Hole Temperature Stress Corrosion Cracking Surface Controlled Subsurface Safety Valve Senior Drilling Engineer Safety Factor Specific Gravity Shut-in Casing Pressure Shut-in Drill Pipe Pressure Stroke per Minute Sulfide Stress Cracking Sliding Sleeve Door Valve Sub Surface Safety Valve Static Tubing Head Pressure Static Tubing Head Temperature Tubing Conveyed Perforations Total Depth Top of Cement Top of Liner Tubing Retrievable Safety Valve True Vertical Depth Ultra High Frequency Variable Bore Rams (BOP) Variable Density Log Very High Frequency Velocity Seismic Profile Wire Line Water Base Mud Water Cut Well Head Pressure Well Head Shut-in Pressure Weight On Bit Wait On Cement Wait On Weather Working Pressure Yield Point 0 REVISION .
Journal of Petroleum Technology. J R : ‘ How To Accurately Predict Future Well Productivities’ ( May 1968) 99-106 Fetkovich. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 0 REVISION APPENDIX D . Vols 1 And 4.BIBLIOGRAPHY Document: Drilling Design Manual Connection Procedures Manuals.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 292 OF 295 ENI S. 1977 Bruist. 1961. April 15. C H: Well Performance. P .p. A ‘ A Comprehensive Mechanistic Model For Multiphase Flow In Wells’. Covier. W. O H : ‘Use of short term multirate flow tests to predict performance of wells having turbulence’ (1976) Brown. Hammerlind: ‘Movement. H D and Brill. October 8-11. OK. J.E: ‘Flowing and Gas-Lift Well Performance’ API Drill and Prod Pract (1954). D. 3 edition (Dec 1981) API RP 14E Fourth Edition: ‘Recommended Practice for Design and Installation of Offshore Production Platform Piping System’.P ‘ Wasserbewegung Durch Boden’ (1901) 45. Duns. Houston. E M. Dallas. Aziz. 607617 Blount. M and Whiston. MS Thesis. Arthur Lubinsky: ‘Helical Buckling of Tubing Sealed in Packers’. 1978. 451 Earlougher. 1994. GW and Fogarasi. J P : ‘ A study of two-phase flow in inclined pipes’ (May 1973). M J : ‘ The Isochronal Testing Oil Wells’ (1973) Forcheimer.A. 53th annual Fall Technical Conference and Exhibition. M : ‘ Pressure drop in wells producing oil and gas’ (July Sept 1972). Tulsa. 1977. 126 Golan. H JR and Ros. October 1-4. Forces and Stresses Associated With Combination Tubing Strings Sealed in Packers’. The University Of Tulsa (1988) API BUL 5C3 Sixth Edition: ‘Formulas and Calculations for Casing Tubing Drill Pipe. J. N C J : ‘ Vertical flow of gas and liquid mixtures in wells’ (1963). 38-48 Beggs. Other References: Ansari. L G and Glaze. E HY : ‘ Better performance of Gulf Coast wells’( 1974) D. Boston. 1781-1788 (in german) Gilbert. October 1. Jones. 36th Annual Fall Meeting of SPE. Ponwell Publishing Company. NY (1986) STAP Number STAP P-1-M-6100 STAP M-1-M 5006 . K. and Line Pipe Properties’. K E : The Technology Of Artificial Lift Methods. International Human Resource Development Corporation. 1984. API RP 14E ‘Recommended Practices For Design And Installation Of Offshore Production rd Platform Piping Systems. February. R C JR and Kersch K M : ‘ Analysis of short-time transient test data by typecurve matching’ (July 1974) 793 Eickmeier. Hammerlind: ‘Basic Fluid and Pressure Forces on Oilwell Tubulars’.
H E : ‘ Vertical Flow Correlation-Gas Wells’ API Man 14BM. Beggs: ‘Production Optimisation Using NODAL Analysis’. R J : ‘ Gravel pack design consideration’ (Feb 1974) Standing. A E : ‘ Analysis And Predictions Of Minimum Flow Rate For The Continuous Removal Of Liquid From Gas Wells’ (Nov 1969) Van Everdingen. K E: ‘ Experimental study of pressure gradients occurring during continuous two-phase flow in small diameter vertical conduits’ ( April 1965) 475-484 Hagedorn and Brown (1967) Horner. 829838 Ramey. 38-40 H. G : ‘ Comparison Of Measured And Predicted Pressure Drops In Tubing For High-Water-Cut Gas Wells’ (Aug 1987) 165-177 Saucier. H J JR : ‘ Short-Time Well Test Data Interpretation In The Presence Of Skin Effect And Wellbore Storage. D. H K : ‘ Radius-Of-Drainage And Stabilisation Time Equations’ (Sept 1964) Vol 62. Tulsa. Hagedoorn. J : ‘ Predicting Two-Phase Pressure Drops In Vertical Pipes’ (June 1967). A R and Bingham. Anderson. F : ‘ The Skin Effect And Its Influence On The Productive Capacity Of A Well’ (Oct 1953) Van Poollen. M A : ‘ Back-Pressure Data On Natural Gas Wells And Their Application To Production Practices’ US Bureau Of Mines. A R and Brown. Remer. M B : ‘ Concerning The Calculation Of Inflow Performance Of Wells Producing From Solution Gas Drive Reservoirs’ (Sept 1971) 1141-1142 Texas Railroad Commission Rule 36 Turner. SSCSSV Sizing Computer Program. M G and Duckler. M D ‘ A field study of underbalance pressure necessary to obtain clean perforations using tubing-conveyed perforating’ ( June 1986) 662 Lea. K M.p. No 37 Vogel. (Jan 1968) 83-93 . Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 0 REVISION Gray. 1972) Orkiszewski. D R : ‘ Pressure build up in wells’ (1951) Hurst. (Jan 1970) 97 Rawlins. R J and Hueni. J V : ‘ Inflow Performance Relationships For Solution Gas Drive Wells’. R G. 1991. J F JR and Tighe. G E. API 14B. W : ‘ Establishment of skin effect and its impediment to fluid flow into a wellbore’ (Oct 1953) King. E L and Schellhardt. Hubard.A.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 293 OF 295 ENI S. OGCI. E E and Warren D A JR : ‘ Drill stem test analysis utilising McKinley system of after flow dominated pressure build up’ (Oct. (1936) Reinicke. R E : ‘ Gas Well Operations With Liquid Production’ ( 1983) Milner.
‘Vertubing’ produces the results as numerical files. however. .TUBING MOVEMENT/STRESS COMPUTER PROGRAMMES E. The programme also enabled users to find an optimal solution by means of the iterative process using a number of approximations and producing results which were more reliable. caused by temperature increases. with a string and a high number of packer’s as well (multiple zone completions) and takes into account the fact that packer setting can be mechanical or hydraulic. The programme does not incorporate a library or collection of data on commonly used tubing material. The programme’s architecture defines a rigid sequence for data entry.1.A. It is not. The application carries out all functions for tubing control in vertical or deviated wells. This application was based on a previous version designed by a company named ‘Tubmov’ which was run on Hewlett Packard 41CV computers. It is also possible to check stress tubing’s with varying diameters (tapered string) and to consider materials with anisotropic characteristics.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 294 OF 295 ENI S. The ‘Vertubing’ programme provided a calculation tool which significantly reduced times for engineers involved in string calculations. which would enable users to design the string starting from an existing material. The programme is supported by VAX/VMS computer systems and is currently available at Head Office and in the Districts on the Company computer network. which results in extremely accurate results. The programme is generally considered to be reliable because the results of three years use have consistently matched actual well applications. ‘VERTUBING’ PROGRAMME The need to fast computing to carry out tubing movement/stress calculations led AGIP to produce the ‘Vertubing’ programme in 1989.p. It is necessary to calculate load losses during the relative operation and obtain the resulting fictitious hydrostatic gradient which then lets the user obtain the correct pressures for the various string sections. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 0 REVISION APPENDIX E . The application does not enable the user to independently assess dynamic situations such as with production or injection operations. without any graphic display. possible to take into account the reduction in the performance of some CRA type steels.
Gray. The programme also assesses the installation of a hanger in the completion as well as hydraulic or mechanical packer setting. Duns & Ross). is due to this application’s limitations in terms of obtaining the trend of temperatures the string is subject to during various well operations. while the resulting stresses the casing is subject to are calculated using the WS-Casing module.p. ‘WELLCAT’ PROGRAMME 0 REVISION Eni-Agip Division and Affiliates recently acquired Enertech’s (1994) ‘Wellcat’ programme which is an application integrating the most specialised software. It is also possible to calibrate the average coefficients for thermal exchange and specific heat. The most interesting feature of the programme is its capability to evaluate temperatures during and after well operations. The programme incorporates five modules. The calculation of load losses and the hydraulic conditions can be carried out using different correlations which are valid for two-stage flow (Beggs & Brill. which can be read. selective completions with a maximum of five packers. . The WT-Circ and WT-Prod modules let the user evaluate the temperatures during standard production and circulation operations and the WS-Tube module lets the user calculate tubing movement and stress. During processing it is also possible to display and print a simple drawing of the well and the completion. It is possible to evaluate the reduction in material rating due to temperature and any anistropy of materials. ranging from drilling. As ‘Vertubing’ had to be integrated with software in ENI-Agip Division and Affiliates expert system (Welcome) it seemed more appropriate to use a modern design programme such as ‘Wellcat’. Orkiszewski. ‘Wellcat’ produces results in ASCII format. once the temperature profile and lithology of the formations are known. The brief description below only describes the parts of the application concerning tubing. Hagedorn & Brown. The WT-Drill module lets the user evaluate the temperatures and pressures during drilling and the casing installation stages. printed or exported as graphic files.2. VAX Mainframe and UNIX versions. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 E.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 295 OF 295 ENI S.A. to completion and other various well operations. dual completions with a maximum of two packer’s and dual selective completions. while the Govier-Aziz formula is used for single stage fluids. The programme is now used in the company for completion string design and at present available in PC. The ‘Wellcat’ programme was initially tested with the most typical cases (discussed in publications) and appropriate comparisons were made with data previously obtained using the ‘Vertubing’ programme with reasonable results. During testing the results were compared to actual field data and a good match was obtained. The need to use an in-house company programme which was more complex compared to ‘Vertubing’. ‘Wellcat’ can be used for single completions. and the inability to analyse dual completions.
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