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ENI S.p.A. Agip Division
TYPE OF ACTIVITY'
REFER TO SECTION N.
TITLE COMPLETION DESIGN MANUAL
DISTRIBUTION LIST Eni - Agip Division Italian Districts Eni - Agip Division Affiliated Companies Eni - Agip Division Headquarter Drilling & Completion Units STAP Archive Eni - Agip Division Headquarter Subsurface Geology Units Eni - Agip Division Headquarter Reservoir Units Eni - Agip Division Headquarter Coordination Units for Italian Activities Eni - Agip Division Headquarter Coordination Units for Foreign Activities
NOTE: The present document is available in Eni Agip Intranet (http://wwwarpo.in.agip.it) and a CD-Rom version can also be distributed (requests will be addressed to STAP Dept. in Eni - Agip Division Headquarter) Date of issue:
B A @ ? >
Issued by M. Bassanini 28/06/99 REVISIONS PREP'D C. Lanzetta 28/06/99 CHK'D A. Galletta 28/06/99 APPR'D
The present document is CONFIDENTIAL and it is property of AGIP It shall not be shown to third parties nor shall it be used for reasons different from those owing to which it was given
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1.1. 1.2. 1.3. 1.4. PURPOSE OF THE MANUAL OBJECTIVES FUNCTIONS OF A COMPLETION MANUAL UPDATING, AMENDMENT, CONTROL & DEROGATION
8 12 13 13
2.1. 2.2. INTRODUCTION CHARACTERISTICS OF RESERVOIR ROCKS 2.2.1. Porosity 2.2.2. Permeability 2.2.3. Relative Permeability 2.2.4. Wettabilty 2.2.5. Fluid Distribution 2.2.6. Fluid Flow In The Reservoir 2.2.7. Effects Of Reservoir Characteristics 2.2.8. Reservoir Homogeneity HYDROCARBON DATA 2.3.1. Oil Property Correlation RESERVOIR/PRODUCTION FORECAST 2.4.1. Inflow Perfomance 2.4.2. Reservoir Simulation For IPR Curves 2.4.3. IPR Selection 2.4.4. Outflow Performance 2.4.5. Flow Rate Prediction
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3.1. 3.2. 3.3. 3.4. INTRODUCTION 3.1.1. Types of Tests DST OBJECTIVE DST STRING RESERVOIR CHARACTERISTICS 3.4.1. Pressure Build-Up Analysis 3.4.2. Basics Of DST Operations 3.4.3. Common Test Tools Description 3.4.4. Tools Utilised With Permanent Packer Systems 3.4.5. Sub-Sea Test Tools Used On Semi-Submersibles 3.4.6. Deep Water Tools 3.4.7. Downhole Pressure Recording
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3.5. WELL PRODUCTION TEST OBJECTIVES 3.5.1. Periodic Tests 3.5.2. Productivity Or Deliverability Tests 3.5.3. Transient Tests
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4.1. CASING DESIGN 4.1.1. Casing Profile 4.1.2. Casing Specifications 4.1.3. Casing Connections WELL DEVIATION SURVEYS CASING CEMENTING CONSIDERATIONS 4.3.1. Production Casing Cementing 4.3.2. Production Casing Cement Evaluation
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WELL COMPLETION DESIGN
5.1. FACTORS INFLUENCING COMPLETION DESIGN 5.1.1. Reservoir Considerations 5.1.2. Mechanical Considerations 5.1.3. Safety Considerations RESERVOIR-WELLBORE INTERFACE 5.2.1. Open Hole Completions 5.2.2. Uncemented Liner Completions 5.2.3. Perforated Completions 5.2.4. Multi-Zone Completions CASING-TUBING INTERFACE 5.3.1. Packer Applications 5.3.2. Packer-Tubing Interfaces 5.3.3. Annulus Circulation TUBING-WELLHEAD INTERFACE 5.4.1. Tubing Hanger Systems 5.4.2. Xmas Trees 5.4.3. Metal-To-Metal Seals FUTURE CONSIDERATIONS 5.5.1. Stimulation 5.5.2. Formation Management 5.5.3. Well Servicing Techniques OPTIMISING TUBING SIZE 5.6.1. Reservoir Pressure 5.6.2. Flowing Wellhead Pressure 5.6.3. Gas-Liquid Ratio 5.6.4. Artificial Lift
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6.1. 6.2. 6.3. DEVELOPMENT WELLS CONTRIBUTING FACTORS TO CORROSION FORMS OF CORROSION 6.3.1. Sulphide Stress Cracking (SSC) 6.3.2. Corrosion Caused By CO2 And Cl 6.3.3. Corrosion Caused By H2S, CO2 And ClCORROSION CONTROL MEASURES CORROSION INHIBITORS CORROSION RESISTANCE OF STAINLESS STEELS 6.6.1. Martensitic Stainless Steels 6.6.2. Ferritic Stainless Steels 6.6.3. Austenitic Stainless Steels 6.6.4. Precipitation Hardening Stainless Steels 6.6.5. Duplex Stainless Steel COMPANY DESIGN PROCEDURE 6.7.1. CO2 Corrosion 6.7.2. H2S Corrosion MATERIAL SELECTION 6.8.1. OCTG Specifications 6.8.2. DHE Specifications 6.8.3. Wellhead Specifications ORDERING SPECIFICATIONS
126 126 128 128 135 137 138 139 139 139 140 140 140 142 142 142 142 144 145 146 147 152
6.4. 6.5. 6.6.
7.1. 7.2. POLICIES THEORY 7.2.1. Mechanical Properties of Steel 7.2.2. Temperature 7.2.3. Tubing Movement/Stress Relationship WELL DATA. 7.3.1. Casing Profile/Geometry 7.3.2. Tubing Data 7.3.3. Bottom-hole Pressure 7.3.4. Temperatures (Static and Flowing) 7.3.5. Reservoir Fluids 7.3.6. Completion Fluid PRESSURE INDUCED FORCES 7.4.1. Piston Effect 7.4.2. Buckling Effect 7.4.3. Ballooning Effect 7.4.4. Temperature Effect EVALUATION OF TOTAL TUBING MOVEMENT
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7.6. ANCHORED TUBING 7.6.1. Tubing Permitting Limited Motion 7.6.2. Packer Setting 7.7. TUBING LOAD CONDITIONS 7.7.1. Pressure Testing 7.7.2. Acid Stimulation 7.7.3. Fracturing 7.7.4. Flowing 7.7.5. Shut-In 7.7.6. Load Condition Summary TUBING SELECTION 7.8.1. Critical Factors 7.8.2. Tubing Size And Weight 7.8.3. Anchoring Systems TUBING CONNECTIONS 7.9.1. Policy 7.9.2. Class of Service 7.9.3. Selection Criteria 7.9.4. NACE And Proximity Definitions 7.9.5. CRA Connections 7.9.6. Connection Data
170 172 174 174 174 175 175 177 177 181 181 182 182 184 185 185 185 186 189 190 190 190 191 193 195 195 196 205
7.10. TUBING STRESS CALCULATIONS 7.10.1. Calculation Methods 7.10.2. Safety Factor 7.10.3. External Pressure Limit 7.10.4. Packer Load Limits 7.10.5. Example Manual Calculation 7.10.6. Example Computation
8.1. PACKERS 8.1.1. Selection Procedure 8.1.2. Selection Criteria 8.1.3. Well Classification 8.1.4. Packer Selection For Single String Completion 8.1.5. Single Selective Completion Packers SUB-SURFACE SAFETY VALVES 8.2.1. Policy 8.2.2. Applications 8.2.3. Wireline Retrievable Safety Valves 8.2.4. Surface Controlled Sub-Surface Safety Valves 8.2.5. Valve Type/Closure Mechanism Selection
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Perforating Procedures 240 240 241 241 243 243 243 244 244 246 247 247 9.4.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 6 OF 295 ENI S.3.7.1. Underbalanced Perforating 9.3. ARTIFICIAL LIFT 10.7. GAS LIFT 10. ROD PUMPS 10. Selective Nipple Configuration REVISION 0 225 225 225 226 228 230 230 231 233 236 237 238 239 8.3. PLUNGER LIFT 10. Design Considerations And Comparisons 10. SCSSV Hydraulic Control fluid 8.3.9. Operating Conditions Summary 10.1. SUMMARY ARTIFICIAL LIFT SELECTION CHARTS 10.3.7.2.220.127.116.11.4. Impact On Completion Design 10.3. 10.p. SCREW PUMP SYSTEMS 10.6. Common Problems 10. Protectors 8. Fittings 8. Control/Injection Line Selection Procedure Flow Chart WIRELINE NIPPLE SELECTION 8. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 8.2.A. Wireline Conveyed Casing Guns 9. 9. Tubing Conveyed Perforating GUN PERFORMANCE 9.1. ESP Performance 10. Tapered Nipple Configuration 8.7.2. Impact On Completion Design 10.1.7.3. 9. Injection Lines 8. PERFORATING 9.8.1. CONTROL/INJECTION LINE SELECTION 8.3. API And Performance Data 9. Encapsulation 8. Through-Tubing Hollow Carrier Guns 18.104.22.168.4.5.3. Artificial Lift Considerations 250 251 253 254 254 256 259 259 260 262 262 265 265 265 268 268 270 272 .2. Control Lines 8.3. Firing Heads 9.3.3. HYDRAULIC PUMPING SYSTEMS 10.1.2.3.22.214.171.124.126.96.36.199.188.8.131.52.2. Impact On Completion Design 10.4. Impact On Completion Design 10.3. ELECTRICAL SUBMERISBLE PUMPS 10.3.5.4.3.2.2. Through-Tubing Strip Guns 9.4. Material Selection 8. Tube Specifications 8.4. SHAPED CHARGE PERFORATING GUN TYPES 184.108.40.206. Common Problems 10.2.
5.BIBLIOGRAPHY APPENDIX E .3. A. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 0 REVISION 220.127.116.11. A. USE OF UNDERBALANCE COMPLETION FLUIDS 11.NOMENCLATURE FOR TUBING CALCULATIONS APPENDIX C .4.2.TUBING MOVEMENT/STRESS COMPUTER PROGRAMMES 287 289 292 294 .1.p.9. A.ABBREVIATIONS APPENDIX D . A.4.1.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 7 OF 295 ENI S. Well Testing 11. A. BARRIER PRINCIPLES 11. RISK ASSESSMENT 11. A. A. POLICY 11. Completions 274 274 274 274 275 275 275 APPENDIX A .7.3. A. INITIAL ACTIVITY REPORT (ARPO 01) DAILY REPORT (ARPO 02) WASTE DISPOSAL MANAGEMENT REPORT (ARPO 06) PERFORATING REPORT (ARPO 07) GRAVEL PACK REPORT (ARPO 08) MATRIX STIMULATION/HYDRAULIC FRACTURE REPORT (APRO 09) WIRELINE REPORT (ARPO 11) PRESSURE/TEMPERATURE SURVEY REPORT (ARPO 12) WELL PROBLEM REPORT (ARPO 13) WELL SITUATION REPORT (ARPO 20) 276 277 278 279 280 281 282 283 284 285 286 APPENDIX B . APPLICATION 11. A.A.4.REPORT FORMS A.18.104.22.168.
well servicing capabilities and completion life. It is essential that this is an accurate statement including all the foreseen requirements.b and figure 1. while providing all personnel involved in Drilling & Completion activities with common guidelines in all areas worldwide where Eni-Agip operates. quality and costs.c. The manual will provide the engineers within the various disciplines with a system to guide them through the process with the objectives of helping them make the key decisions and obtaining the optimum design to maximise productivity and. .A. The Corporate Standards in this manual define the requirements. The process of well preparation and installation of completions is fully described in the ‘Completions Procedures manual’. INTRODUCTION PURPOSE OF THE MANUAL The purpose of this manual is to guide experienced engineers of all technical disciplines. These in consequence. This is vital in order to obtain the optimum completion design utilising the process described in this manual. The conceptual design process begins at the field appraisal stage when a Statement Of Requirements (SOR) of the completion is produced. The design process consists of three phases: • • • Conceptual Detailed design Procurement. hence profit. involving Reservoir Engineering. 1. The final conceptual design will be used as the basis for the detailed design process. the decision on the well architecture may subsequently be changed due to the availability of well servicing or workover techniques. raised by the interrelated decisions.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 8 OF 295 ENI S. This does not mean that the process is sequential and many decisions can be made from studies and analysis run in parallel. The conceptual design process guides the engineers through analysis and key questions to be considered. however.1. figure 1. During this phase. methodologies and rules that enable to operate uniformly and in compliance with the Corporate Company Principles. within the Eni-Agip Division and Affiliated Companies. The activities in each phase are illustrated in figure 1. The final aim is to improve performance and efficiency in terms of safety. the user will resolve many of the dilemmas. The approach to completion design must be interdiscipline. This. at an early time. Production Engineering and Drilling Engineering. Many of the decisions made by the various disciplines are interrelated and impact on the decisions made by other disciplines. still enables each individual Affiliated Company the capability to operate according to local laws or particular environmental situations. Petroleum Engineering. in the completion design process and its importance on well productivity.p. as it has a fundamental effect on the field final design and development. For instance. Agip Division STAP-M-1-P-7100 0 REVISION 1.a. have a large impact on costs and field profit.
Figure 1.p. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 0 REVISION As more information is gleamed from further development wells and as conditions change. This provides a system of ongoing completion optimisation to suit changing conditions.Conceptual Completion Design Process .A . increased knowledge of the field and incorporate new technologies.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 9 OF 295 ENI S. the statement of requirements need to reviewed and altered to modify the conceptual design for future wells.A.
p. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 0 REVISION Figure 1.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 10 OF 295 ENI S.B .Detailed Completion Design Process .A.
p.Procurement Process .ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 11 OF 295 ENI S.C .A. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 0 REVISION Figure 1.
This. Provide adequate maintenance and surveillance programmes. in reality is not simple and many critical decisions are needed to balance long term and short term cash flow and sometimes compromises are made. effectively contribute to the whole development plan reservoir plan. OBJECTIVES The fundamental objectives for a completion are: • • • • • • • 0 REVISION Achieve a desired (optimum) level of production or injection. Provide adequate safety in accordance with legislative or company requirements and industry common practices.Completion Design Versus Profitability . An expensive completion may derive more long term profit than a low cost completion but the initial capital costs will be higher (Refer to figure 1. however.D . In conjunction with other wells.p.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 12 OF 295 ENI S. Be as flexible as possible for future operational changes in well function. Achieve the optimum production rates reliably at the lowest capital and operating costs.2. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 1.A. These may be summarised as to safely provide maximum long term profitability.d). Figure 1. Be as simple as possible to increase reliability.
the estimate of some well performance and characteristics throughout the life of the well may be wrong and early workover or well intervention operations will impact on well profitability. This is its primary function. quality and costs. methodologies and rules that enable to operate uniformly and in compliance with the Corporate Company Principles. Permanent downhole pressure monitoring. Reservoir and geoscience groups often have to set plans and objectives for the field on well performance based on limited information. CONTROL & DEROGATION The Corporate Standards in this manual define the requirements. AMENDMENT. in the early stages. Protecting the production casing from formation pressure. An inherent problem is that the Reservoir Engineering Department’s objectives do not coincide with the Completion Engineering Department’s in that Reservoir Engineering’s objectives are for the whole field performance whereas the Completion Group’s is to optimise for profit on a long term well by well basis which includes well servicing/workover.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 13 OF 295 ENI S.A. This.p.3. Preventing hydrocarbon escape if there is a surface leak. however a completion must also satisfy a great many other functions required for safety.4. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 0 REVISION On the other hand if the data available is not accurate. while providing all personnel involved in Drilling & Completion activities with common guidelines in all areas worldwide where Eni-Agip operates. FUNCTIONS OF A COMPLETION The main function of a completion is to produce hydrocarbons to surface or deliver injection fluids to formations. pressure monitoring and reservoir maintenance. well maintenance or detailed operations. however. Perforating (underbalanced or overbalanced). Producing single or multiple zones. servicing. . still enables each individual Affiliated Company the capability to operate according to local laws or particular environmental situations. but are not concerned about production problems. These main functional requirements must be built into the conceptual design and include: • • • • • • • 1. MANUAL UPDATING. 1. The final aim is to improve performance and efficiency in terms of safety. Inhibiting scale or corrosion. optimising production. Protecting the casing from corrosion attack by well fluids.
a completion conceptual design must take into account all the well objectives to produce the optimum design to maximise profitability.A. In a rock having a permeability of 1 Darcy. K= qµL A∆p Eq. working with water filters. The purpose of this section is to consider the characteristics of reservoir fluids and the flow of these in the area around the wellbore to allow these parameters to be tied into the well completion design and well intervention/workover operational requirements.2. 2. CHARACTERISTICS OF RESERVOIR ROCKS Porosity Porosity or pore space in reservoir rocks provides the container for the accumulation of oil and gas and gives the rock characteristic ability to absorb and hold fluids. oil or gas even although they may be quite porous.2. however some reservoirs even occur fractured shale.2. Permeability Permeability is a measure of the ability of which fluid can move through the interconnected pore spaces of the rock.1. As pointed out in section 1. 2. a French engineer.p.A . 2. Most commercial reservoirs have sandstone. 1cc of a 1cp viscosity fluid will flow each second 2 through a portion of rock 1cm in length and having a cross-section of 1cm . RESERVOIR CONSIDERATIONS INTRODUCTION Oil and gas wells are expensive faucets that enable production of petroleum reservoirs or allow injection of fluids into an oil or gas reservoir. 2. anhydrite and some highly cemented sandstones are impervious to movement of water. 2.1. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 0 REVISION 2. Darcy’s Law states that the rate of flow through a given rock varies directly with permeability (measure of the continuity of inter-connected pore spaces) and the pressure applied. Darcy.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 14 OF 295 ENI S. limestone or dolomite rocks. chalk. if the pressure across the rock is 1 atmosphere.1. shales. developed the first relationship which described the flow through porous rock which is still used today. and varies inversely with the viscosity of the fluid flowing.2. Many rocks such as clays.
If reservoir pressure is allowed to decline. psi Formation volume factor. The saturation of each fluid present affects the ease of fluid movement or relative permeability.A. gas saturation continues to increase and at some point (equilibrium gas saturation) gas begins to flow and the oil rate is further reduced. If pressures to continue to decline.127 ×10 −3 where: q k A µ L p1 p2 B 2. md 3 Flow rate. cp Flow length.3. To understand this. ft Viscosity. = = = = = = = = Flow rate.p. the gas rate continues to increase and less oil flows through the pores until finally only gas flows. Relative permeability represents the ease at which one fluid flows through connecting pore spaces in the presence of other fluids. In an oil-water system. The gas-oil or water-oil relative permeability relationships of a particular reservoir rock depend on the configurations of the rock pore spaces and the wetting characteristics of the fluids and rock surfaces. Flow of oil is reduced but gas saturation is too small for it to flow through the pores. ft Inlet pressure. psi Outlet pressure. res bbl/stb kA(p 1 −p 2 ) BµL Eq. stb/day Permeability.B Relative Permeability As normally two or three fluids exist in the same pore spaces in a reservoir.2. . With further increases in gas saturation. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 0 REVISION In oilfield units the linear form of Darcy’s Law for flow of incompressible fluid through a rock filled with only one fluid is: q=1. assume a rock filled with only with oil at high pressure where gas has not been able to come out of solution: • • • • • All available space is taken up by the oil and only oil is flowing.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 15 OF 295 ENI S. This same principle governs the flow of oil in the presence of water. relative permeability relationships must be considered. the relative permeability to oil is significantly greater when the rock is ‘water wet’. in comparison to the ease that it would flow if there was no other fluid. some lighter components of the oil will evolve as gas in the pore spaces. Significant oil may still occupy the pores but cannot be recovered by primary production means as the permeability to oil has dropped to zero. 2.
4. However.D where: ko kw µo µw Bo Bw 2. md Relative permeability to oil k abs k ro A(p1 −p 2 ) B o µL Eq.p. 2. stb/day Absolute permeability.127 ×10 −3 where: qo kabs kro = = = Oil flow rate. 2.2. it is important when completing or servicing the well in that any foreign substance which may come into contact with the rock may alter its wettability characteristic and reduce the relative permeability to hydrocarbon fluids and cause emulsion which may block flow.C For a well producing both water and oil. cp Formation volume factor for oil. cp Viscosity of water. The productivity of oil in this condition is maximised. res bbl/stb . q=1. res bbl/stb Formation volume factor for water. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 0 REVISION Where two or more fluids are present. Although it is extremely difficult to determine wettability of cores due to the cutting and preparing specimens for laboratory testing which alters the wettability characteristics. the ‘water cut’ or fraction of water in the total flow stream at standard conditions of temperature and pressure can be calculated by: fw = 1 k o µw Bw 1 × + + k w µo Bo Eq. Wettabilty Most reservoirs were formed or laid down in water with oil moving in later from adjacent zones to replace a portion of the water.b represents the permeability of the rock to the desired fluid. This can be achieved by multiplying absolute permeability of the rock by the relative permeability of the rock to the desired fluid.A. This means that the grains of the rock matrix are coated with a film of water permitting hydrocarbons to fill the centre of the pore spaces. 2. the permeability in eq.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 16 OF 295 ENI S. For this reason. it is not important as this characteristic is included in the permeability measurements. most reservoir rocks are considered to be ‘water wet’. = = = = = = Relative permeability to oil Relative permeability to water Viscosity of oil.
therefore the water film between the water and the oil will have the same curvature. water and gas saturation in a typical homogeneous rock example.p. These can be summarised in three statements: • • • The lower the permeability of a given sand. only oil will flow in an oil-water system. gas and water present at a particular level determines the fluids that produced by a well completed at that level and also influence the relative rates of fluid production. figure 2. Connate water is related to permeability and pore channels in lower rocks are generally smaller. In rock the capillary forces. and water and gas are influenced by several factors: uniformity. . Due to the greater density difference between gas and oil as compared to oil and water. In lower permeability sands. the higher will be the connate water saturation.5.A. depending on the saturations of each fluid present at the completion level.a summarises oil. The nature and thickness of the transition zones between the water and oil.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 17 OF 295 ENI S. A well completed in the transition zone will be expected to produce both oil and water. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 2. hence more oil will be contained in larger pore spaces. wettability. oil and gas. surface tension and the relative density differences between the fluids. Water saturation above the transition zone is termed ‘irreducible water saturation’ or more commonly the ‘connate water saturation’. the transition zones will be thicker than in higher permeability sands. Above the transition zone. From the point in a zone of the free water level upward to some point where water saturation becomes constant is called the ‘transition zone’.2. which are related to water wettability. Fluid Distribution 0 REVISION The distribution of fluids vertically in the reservoir is very important as the relative amounts of oil. the transition zone between the oil and gas is not as thick as the transition zone between oil and water. the capillary pressure in two different pore sizes will be the same. permeability. Relative permeability permits both water and oil to flow within the transition zone. work to change the normal sharp interfaces between the fluids separated by density. For a given height.
p. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 0 REVISION Figure 2. Pressure Distribution Around the Wellbore Pressure distribution in the reservoir and factors which influence it are of great of significance in interpreting well production trends caused by pressure characteristics.A.2.6. in associated free gas caps. Pressure distribution around a producing oil well completed in a homogeneous zone will gradually drop from the reservoir pressure some distance from the wellbore until closer to the wellbore where it will decline quite sharply. or in associated aquifers. Oil and Gas Cap) 2. Fluid Flow In The Reservoir Oil has little natural ability to produce itself into the wellbore. It is produced principally by pressure inherent in gas dissolved in oil.A .ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 18 OF 295 ENI S.Example Fluid Distribution in a Uniform Sand Reservoir (Containing Connate Water. The wellhead pressure will be much lower due to the influence of hydrostatic pressure and tubing frictional effects. .
B .Pressure Distribution Near Wellbore In Radial Flow Radial Flow Around The Wellbore Steady state radial flow of incompressible fluid is described by Darcy’s Law: q= 0. This area around the wellbore is the ‘critical area’ and as much as possible should be done to prevent damage or flow restrictions in this critical area. 2. the pressure drop across the last 15ft of the formation surrounding the wellbore is about one half of the total pressure drop from the well to a point 500ft away in the reservoir. Figure 2. in a uniform sand.A.00708kh(p o −p w ) r Bµ1n( o ) rw Eq. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 0 REVISION In a radial flow situation. where fluids move towards the well from all directions. most of the pressure drop in the reservoir occurs fairly close to the wellbore. As shown in figure 2. . Obviously flow velocities increase tremendously as fluid approaches the wellbore.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 19 OF 295 ENI S.p.b.E Corrections are required to account for the flow of compressible fluids and for turbulent flow velocities.
Units For Darcy’s Law Equation For non-homogeneous zones. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 0 REVISION Figure 2. 2.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 20 OF 295 ENI S.Radial Flow In Parallel Combination of Beds .F Figure 2.p. which is the usual case. k= k 1h1 +k 2 h 2 +k 3 h 3 h1 +h 2 +h 3 Eq.D . permeablities must be averaged for flow through parallel layers of differing permeabilities.A.C.
Flow through perforating tunnels is linear rather radial and Darcy’s equation must be corrected as turbulent flow usually exists. the tunnels are packed with gravel to hold the formation in place. . curve B. which will cause a restriction. curve C.A. 2.G Figure 2. Investigators have provided turbulence correction factors which can be applied to Darcy’s equation to permit calculation of pressure drop through perforating tunnels. Actual test data with very high permeability sand. Experiments have shown that pressure drop through gravel filled perforations compared with uncorrected linear flow Darcy’s Law calculations is substantial as shown in figure 2.Radial Flow In Series Combination Of Beds Linear Flow Through Perforations Ideally perforating tunnels should provide be large and deep enough to prevent any restriction to flow. In cases where there may be sand problems and a gravel pack is used.f below. Curve A indicates that plugging with even high permeability (1 Darcy) sand gives a large pressure drop.p.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 21 OF 295 ENI S. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 0 REVISION Varying permeabilities around the well in series can be averaged as follows: ro ) rw k= r r r 1n( 1 ) 1n( 2 ) 1n( 3 ) rw r1 r2 + + k1 k2 k3 1n( Eq.E . proves turbulent flow results in higher pressure drop than Darcy’s Law calculations. predict.
completion or intervention operations. These are permeability and producing rate. . two factors may cause low flowing bottomhole pressures. pressure drawdown will be appreciable higher than normal thus reducing flowing bottom-hole pressures and causing the well to be placed on artificial lift if higher productions rates are necessary.p. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 0 REVISION Figure 2. With low permeability or excessive rate of production. This is particularly detrimental as the effect close to the wellbore is greatly magnified.Pressure Drop Versus Flow Rate Through Perforation Causes Of Low Flowing Bottom-Hole Pressure In a well with uniform sand and fluid conditions.A.F .ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 22 OF 295 ENI S. Low permeability is often caused by damage close to the wellbore through drilling.
Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 0 REVISION The existence of damage can be calculated by well test results analysing the pressure build-up periods. which are not contributing to the total flow. The skin effect (abnormal pressure drop) or the normal radial flow pressure drop can be calculated by: ∆p s = 141. 2. Damage ratio calculation is: DR= where: qt qa also: DR= = Jideal Jactual p−p wf p−p wf −∆p s Eq. production logging techniques may provide helpful data.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 23 OF 295 ENI S.H Other terms which are used to quantify formation damage are Damage Ratio and Flow Efficiency. Flow profiling may highlight zones. 2. Non-contributing zones are likely to have been damaged. where transient pressure testing techniques may give questionable results concerning formation damage.A.K In multi-zone completion intervals.p. 2.I Flow efficiency: FE= = Jideal Jactual p−p wf −∆p s p−p wf Eq. 2.J = = Theoretical flow rate without damage Actual flow rate observed qt qa Eq. in an otherwise productive interval. .2qBµ ×s kh Eq.
In a dissolved gas drive reservoir without any artificial pressure maintenance technique. therefore if development drilling proceeds on the basis of close spacing before the drive mechanism is identified. is fundamental and the cost of time. i. figure 2. The effect of the drive mechanism on the producing characteristics must be evaluated in the completion design process. Gradually even the up-structure wells will water out to maximise oil recovery. . Effects Of Reservoir Characteristics Reservoir Drive Mechanisms 0 REVISION In an oil reservoir. pressure declines less rapidly and gas-oil ratios increase as the gas cap expands into the up-structure well completion intervals. A gas drive reservoir’s primary pressure source is the expansion of a gas cap over the oil zone.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 24 OF 295 ENI S. the investment will have already been made. these can be drilled at the appropriate spacing to maximise recovery with the least amount of wells. primary production results from existing pressure in the reservoir. show typical reservoir pressures versus production trends and gas-oil ratio production trends for the three basic drive mechanisms. In a dissolved gas reservoir.g and figure 2. and also for later re-completions.A. therefore lose pressure less rapidly. and primary oil recovery is relatively low.h. Obviously many factors must be considered in developing a reservoir. Well intervention or recompletion to shut-off up-structure intervals may control the gas-oil ratio. Well spacing. Most reservoirs in actuality produce by a combination of all three mechanisms. A water drive reservoir’s principle pressure source is an external water hydrostatic pressure communicated to below the oil zone. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 2. labour and materials consumed in the drilling are largely non-recoverable. to systematically recover reservoir hydrocarbons. Re-completing would not reduce the gas-oil ratio.2.7. In a gas cap drive reservoir.e. pressure declines rapidly. This is controlled by well interventions or re-completions to shut-off the water production or the well is shut-in. the source of pressure is principally the liberation and expansion of gas from the oil phase as pressure is reduced. however the main factors concentrate on the reservoir itself and the procedure used to exploit hydrocarbon recovery.p. or well location. There are three basic drive mechanisms: • • • Dissolved gas Gas cap Water drive. Water drive reservoirs pressure remains high and gas-oil ratios are lower but downstructure well intervals quickly begin to produce water. This does not usually present an insurmountable problem as a field of any considerable size will require a minimum number of wells to be drilled in any case to define the reservoir. establish the detailed geological picture regarding zone continuity and locate oil-water and gas-oil contacts. gas-oil ratio peaks rapidly and then declines rapidly. By careful planning when enough information is gained to determine the well locations.
G .H .A. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 0 REVISION Many case histories are available to show problems resulting from reservoir development without having sufficient information about the stratigraphy of the reservoir. Figure 2.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 25 OF 295 ENI S.Gas-Oil Ratios Trends For Various Drive Mechanisms .p.Reservoir Pressure Trends For Various Drive Mechanisms Figure 2.
In this scenario it would be expected that oil recovery would be greater with the minimum well investment as the oil will drain down-structure through time. Due to the low recovery by the primary drive mechanism. . the well locations must be changed quickly to take full advantage of the situation. Such reservoirs are common where multiple this sands are found on a single structure and the oil column is only a fraction of the total productive relief. Completion intervals should be selected high on the structure to permit long production life while oil is displaced up to the completion intervals by invading water from below. can be set low in the reservoir bed. some means of secondary recovery will almost certainly be required at some point in life of the reservoir and the initial well completion design should take this into account. Significant levels of water production are unavoidable in later field life when maximising production rates. Water drive reservoirs: Wells can be spaced on a regular pattern on a thick sand and low angle of dip. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 0 REVISION With regard to drive mechanisms. If this is recognised after drilling begins. Gas cap drive reservoirs: Wells are generally spaced on a regular pattern where the sand is thick.p. A regular spacing can also be used for dissolved gas reservoirs with high angle of dip. Regular spacing would place many completions too near the gas-oil contact. provided the rock is stratified. Like the dissolved gas drive reservoir. Again completion intervals should be low in the structure to permit the gas cap to grow for maximum recovery and minimum gas production. some general statements can be made: Dissolved gas drive reservoirs: Well completions in reservoirs with low structural relief can be made in a regularly spaced pattern throughout the reservoir and.A. dip angle is low and gas cap is completely underlayed by oil.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 26 OF 295 ENI S. A water reservoir in a thin sand with high angle of dip may best be developed with irregular well spacing because of the structural characteristics. Regular spacing of the wells may cause early water production and possible early abandonment in conjunction with reducing the drive effectiveness through excessive water production. the wells in thin sands with a high angle of dip is likely to be more efficiently controlled by having the completion irregularly spaced and low to conform to the shape of the reservoir. Again the completion intervals should be structurally low because of the angle of dip and the exact sub-surface location would vary with well location on the structure.
i and figure 2. Figure 2. If the reservoir is stratified. Reservoir Homogeneity 0 REVISION The general procedures. Completions with more than one zone are termed multi-zone completions and are required for long completion intervals for obtaining sufficient volumes of production. is a distinct possibility.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 27 OF 295 ENI S. experience and operating conditions. Fluids from such reservoirs will flow through the various layers at different restrictions to flow and often there are impervious beds between the layers so that fluid cannot flow between the bed to bed. either by shale breaks or by variations in permeability. as described in the previous section is to complete water drive reservoirs high and for dissolved gas drive reservoir low on the structure to obtain an adequate number of wells without excess.8.A.p. ‘fingering’ of the free gas down from a gas cap. or water from a water basin. Similar assumptions can be made for carbonate and even reef type reservoirs which results in reservoirs of a highly stratified nature. especially if the interval is short and production rates are high. Most sandstone reservoirs were originally laid down as stratified layers of varying porosity and permeability.j. This is demonstrated in figure 2. Single string/single zone completions are preferred to facilitate thorough flushing for higher recovery and flexibility of re-completion to control reservoir performance. To maximise recovery. it will probably be necessary to stagger the completion intervals in various members of the reservoir to be sure that each is drained properly. Vertical staggering of the completion can be effected during development to obtain proportionate depletion of the various strata. intervals should be produced independently wherever practical (usually determined by economics). However this is only practical if the reservoir is uniform. Additional distribution of intervals in the various members can then be made during later well interventions on the basis of data obtained.I .Irregular Water Encroachment and Breakthrough . In thin beds or highly stratified beds.2. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 2.
If retrograde condensation is involved.3. the changes occurring in the reservoir samples.1. by laboratory tests. HYDROCARBON DATA The practical approach to the study of reservoir fluid behaviour is to anticipate pressure and temperature changes in the reservoir and at surface during production. or if dry gas. the information is less complex.p. If the gas is wet with no retrograde condensation. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 0 REVISION Figure 2.A. Oil Property Correlation Several generalisations of oil sample data are available to permit correlations of oil properties to be made (refer to the Compant Well Test Manual for sampling techniques). it may require numerous tests and measurements.J . Information concerning the characteristics and behaviour of gas needed for gas reservoirs. Two general methods are used to obtain samples of reservoir oil for laboratory examination purposes. The results of these tests then provide the basic fluid data for estimates of fluid recovery by various methods of reservoir operations and also to estimate reservoir parameters through transient pressure testing.3. and to measure. by means of subsurface samplers and by obtaining surface samples of separator liquid and gas.High GOR Production by Encroachment of Gas 2.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 28 OF 295 ENI S. . The surface samples are then recombined in the laboratory in proportions equal the gas-oil ratio measured at the separator during well testing. 2. depends upon the type of gas and the nature of the problem.
The process of this analysis is shown in figure 2. Flow behaviour in the near wellbore region may cause a dramatic effect on the IPR curve which results in greatly reduced flow capability. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 2. it is first necessary to determine its full potential and which way this can be fully exploited within any technical or economic constraints.k which requires continuous repetition during field life to account for changing conditions. shape and permeability of the producing zone and the properties of the produced fluids. the outflow performance can be determined which takes into consideration the relationship between the surface flowrate and pressure drop in the tubing.A. analysis of the outflow performance requires predictions of phase behaviour. These curves are termed tubing performance curves (TPC) and the point of intersection is the natural flowing point as demonstrated earlier in figure 2. Hence. velocity effects in gas wells. Alternatively. in undamaged near wellbore regions also reduce the IPR curve. varies with flowrate against a fixed back-pressure which is normally the wellhead or separator pressure. or pump intake pressure. stimulation procedures which can provide a negative skin are desirable as this increases production.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 29 OF 295 ENI S. RESERVOIR/PRODUCTION FORECAST 0 REVISION To obtain the optimum performance from a well. This is characterised by a damaged IPR curve and the amount of damage or skin effect. friction losses and flowing temperatures. The results of the outflow performance analysis are usually produced graphically depicting how bottom hole flowing pressure (BHFP). Once the IPR is completed. effective fluid density. is mainly caused by the drilling and completion practices.p. The prediction of this relationship is complicated by the nature of multi-phase fluid flow. will also cause reduced IPR curves which must be anticipated during the design phase. Two phase flow. such as gravel packs for unconsolidated sands.4. The determination of the well’s performance entails analysing the following: • • • • In-flow performance Near wellbore performance and design Multiphase flow of tubing performance Artificial lift. high rate or high GOR oil wells.k. The theoretical IPR is an idealistic assumption of flow performance without pressure drop due to skin effect in the near wellbore region and governed only by the size. The basic theory of this is described in this section along with some simplified IPR relationships from observed field data. Good drilling and completion practices can or may minimise this damage allowing use of the idealised IPR curve to be used for completion design. . Some completion designs to deal with reservoir conditions. The inflow performance relationship (IPR) provides the flow potential of the reservoir into the wellbore against the resistance to flow of the formation and near wellbore region.
K .A.p. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 0 REVISION Figure 2. the tubing size is necessary to optimise the well performance over the life of the well and should include the potential benefits of artificial lift systems and/or stimulation to reduce near wellbore skin effects.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 30 OF 295 ENI S. or optimising. .Process of Determining Optimum Well Performance Selecting.
7psia. In situations which allow the use of a straight line IPR. With a straight line IPR. the constant of proportionality is termed the productivity index (PI). Inflow Perfomance 0 REVISION This section addresses the fundamental principles of inflow performance for oil and gas wells. above the bubble point). However. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 2. e.Straight Line IPR The simplest IPR equation assumes that inflow into a well is proportional to the pressure differential between the reservoir and the wellbore which is termed the ‘drawdown’. Oil Well . reservoir simulation is usually employed. As more data becomes available.A. it has been verified that the straight line approach also provides the accuracy needed for well performance calculations in situations which exceed the theoretical basis. however for larger projects.p. 2.L where: ∆p pR pwf = = = Drawdown pressure.g.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 31 OF 295 ENI S. the more appropriate it is to use theoretical radial flow equation. psi Bottom-hole flowing pressure. is: J= where: q = Total liquid flow rate at surface under stock tank conditions (14. Essentially the less data which is available. an empirical expression can be validated and applied. psi Reservoir pressure. ∆p=p R −p wf Eq.4.e. psi. the flow rate is directionally proportional to the drawdown.M . o 60 F) q p R − p wf Eq.1. low drawdowns and damaged wells. PI defined as J by the API. 2. The use of IPRs generated from reservoir simulation models is also described as is the technique for the applications of the various techniques for predicting inflow performance. The linear relationship can be substantiated from theoretical arguments for a single incompressible fluid (i.
ft Effective oil permeability. J. bbl/stb Drainage radius.75+S′ Eq. dimensionless (S ’= S + Dq) . J can be calculated directly from bottom-hole gauges in well test results or estimated pressures from simulation studies. cp Reservoir formation volume factor. J.A. also needs to be treated with caution as Production Engineers and Reservoir Engineers assume different basis for J. Before this the well produces under transient conditions.2µ o B o 1n e rw −0. 2. as in most well tests.Straight Line IPR or Productivity Index J The assumption of stable inflow performance relationship. ft Total effective skin. is that well is producing in pseudo-steady state or steady state flow conditions. Productivity Index. or stabilised flow.L . ft Wellbore radius.N where: h ko µo Bo ro rw S’ = = = = = = Net pay thickness. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 0 REVISION Figure 2. result in higher estimates of productivity than when under stabilised conditions.p.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 32 OF 295 ENI S. Production Engineers relate J to gross liquid production (oil and water) whereas Reservoir Engineers relate it to oil productivity. can also be derived theoretically from Darcy’s radial flow equation: Jo = k oh r 141. md Reservoir fluid viscosity. Oil PI.
p. producing below the bubble point. Straight line IPRs with PIs greater than the ideal are typical of wells with negative skin such as when they have been stimulated. Deviation from the theoretical ideal PI (i. Figure 2. S’ = 0) should be expected as a result of additional pressure losses in the near wellbore area due to damage.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 33 OF 295 ENI S.A. Ko obviously decreases and as does Jo. increased gas saturation in oil wells. Damaged wells with positive skins have straight line IPRs with PIs less than the ideal PI. As water saturation increases. fractures. high rate or high GOR oil wells.M.e. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 0 REVISION This assumes pseudo-steady state flow from a well in the centre of a circular reservoir and it is worth noting that ko is the effective permeability to oil for an oil PI. have natural fractures or are highly deviated. changes in radial flow geometry and non-Darcy pressure losses due to high flow velocities in gas wells.Effect of Damage And Fractures on a Well’s PI . The PI is very useful for describing the potential of various wells as it combines all rock and fluid properties as well as geometrical issues in a single constant making it unnecessary to consider these properties individually.
8 wf p R 2 Eq. Figure 2. Vogel used a computer programme to model a variety of solution gas reservoirs and developed a generalised IPR reference curve to account for the two phase flow effects below the bubble point. psi Bottom-hole flowing pressure. 2. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 Oil Well . stb/d Maximum liquid production rate when pwf = 0.O Qmax is a theoretical value sometimes referred to as Absolute Open Flow (AOF) of the oil well. gas saturation builds up around the wellbore which reduces the permeability to liquid which of course reduces well productivity at that particular drawdown compared to predicted by linear PI. hence the PI J.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 34 OF 295 ENI S. There may also be some non-Darcy gas flow effects in wells producing below the bubble point. decreases with increasing drawdown (slopes 1 and 2 in figure 2. He also presented an approximation using the expression: p =1−0. Once the BHFP falls below the bubble point pressure.2 wf p qmax R q where: pR pwf q qmax = = = = Reservoir pressure. stb/d p −0.Typical IPR Curve for Saturated Reservoir . This means the true IPR is curved and.o).N .A. psi Liquid production.Vogel’s Two Phase Flow IPR 0 REVISION The previous straight line IPR does not hold with two phase flow (gas and liquid) in the reservoir.p.
p.Vogel’s IPR Reference Curve .ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 35 OF 295 ENI S.A.O . Procedures to correct for skin are available. The model used to develop Vogel’s reference curve did not include skin effects which would tend to straighten the IPR curve. Figure 2. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 0 REVISION Vogel’s equation has been validated through observed field data particularly on pumped wells with high drawdowns where pwf approaches zero.
As oil is normally produced from a different zone to the water.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 36 OF 295 ENI S.8 wf p R 2 Eq. 2. 2. When the BHFP is above the bubble point use the normal straight line equation: q o =J(p R −p wf ) and when it drops below the bubble point use the modified Vogel equation: p Jp qo =J(p R −p wf )+ b 1−0. the following equations are applied: q w =J(p R −p wf ) p q o =q o max 1−0. 2. it is dependant upon whether it is produced from the same interval or others. psi p −0.P Eq.2 wf p R p −0.8 b where: pb = Bubble point pressure. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 0 REVISION Where inflow relationship passes through the bubble point. Vogel’s equation is combined with the PI to develop a general IPR equation. 2.A.T . For this.8 wf p R 2 Eq. a straight line IPR is drawn above the bubble point and the curved IPR signifies the two phase flow below this point.2 wf p 1 .2 wf p R Eq. This has been published by Brown.Q If water production is involved.p. 2.8 wf p b 2 Eq.R p −0.S If oil and water both flow from the same zone then the Vogel equation is used for the gross flow rate: p q o +q w =(q o +q o max )1−0.
This is where Darcy’s law which is good for moderate to low flow rates is affected by high velocities. Fetkovich recognised that many oil wells could be handled in the same way as gas wells using the curved IPR: q o =C p R −p wf 2 ( 2 n ) Eq.p.Combined Straight Line IPR and Vogel IPR Oil Wells . or turbulence.Generalised IPR Curves As described earlier.U where: C n = = Linear deliverability coefficient Deliverability exponent (0. This non-Darcy flow.0) .A. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 0 REVISION Figure 2. curvature of the IPR curve is not solely due to the reasons highlighted above but also due to rate dependent skin.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 37 OF 295 ENI S.P . is sometimes the most dominant factor especially for gravel packs and high rate gas-liquid ratio wells.5 to 1. 2.
however it requires four points at widely different flow rates to maximise the benefit of this method.A.V This equation is compared with Vogel’s reference curve in figure 2.Vogel And Fetkovich IPR Curve Comparisons Use of this approach will provide better results than Vogel’s method. n is considered as the means to account for non-Darcy flow but there is no theoretical technique for finding it as it is a function of the rate used during testing. n.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 38 OF 295 ENI S. n should be assumed as 1. It is seen that when n = 1.p.Q . 2.pwf ) will give a straight line with a slope of 1/n. for two values of the exponent. It is recommended that n be assumed to be 1 where no multi-rate data is available. Figure 2. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 0 REVISION Golan and Whitson showed how this relationship could be expressed in a similar form to Vogel’s reference curve as: p = 1− wf q max p R q 2 n Eq.W .q. 2. Blount and Jones presented an alternative generalised IPR equation which was an extension to the Forcheimer equation to include the non-Darcy flow effects: p R −p wf =aq+bq 2 Eq. If such data is not available. If multi-rate data is 2 2 available then a log-log plot of q versus (pR . the Vogel and Fetkovich IPRs are similar.
it takes no account of completion non-Darcy effects such as inefficient perforating. mobilisation of fines. which is rarely measured in the laboratory. coefficient b can be much greater than b and perforating efficiency (shots/ft and penetration) is a very important to productivity.Z where: J* = PI at minimal drawdown (i. can also be found theoretically but requires a knowledge of the turbulence factor.8 p wf p Rfuture 2 Eq. Standing presented a method of predicting future IPR curves by the equation: k ro µ o B o future = k ro µ o B o present Eq. Again. The other non-Darcy flow coefficient. the reservoir pressure will decline against time. b.X The skin term. described earlier in Section 2. where two phase flow effects are negligible) .2 wf p R future −0. etc. is relative to all non-rate dependent skin contributions. both a and b can be determined using a plot of (q R .pwf)/q versus q gives a straight line with a slope of b and an interception of a.Predicting Future IPRs Estimates of future IPR curves throughout the life of the reservoir are frequently required for production forecasting and planning artificial lift designs. Similarly. can be determined theoretically for a well producing at pseudo-steady state flow in the middle of a circular reservoir: a= 141.2µ o B o re ln kh rw −0. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 0 REVISION The Darcy flow coefficient.Y J * future J * present and: q future =J * future p p R future 1−0. a. leads to a significant increase in skin due to scaling. The liberation of gas also affects the oil fluid properties. The relative permeability to oil will also decrease due to increased gas saturation further shifting the curve downwards. The effects of increasing water influx on the gross PI.2. shifting the IPR curve downwards resulting in a decline of the production rate and causing flow instability. β. skin damage during remedial operations and reduced contribution from reduced pay through plugging back. Oil Wells . S.p.A.75+S Eq. In solution drive reservoirs. 2. if multi-rate test data is available.e. 2.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 39 OF 295 ENI S. 2. In very high permeability wells.
Fluid viscosities and volume are determined from PVT correlations. however in high rates this is highly improbable and makes the IPR projections almost impossible and erring on the optimistic side. the simpler approach like Fetkovich relation for predicting qmax in Vogel’s reference curve. A 2 2 log-log plot of (pR .66 have been found in actual field studies by Eickmeir. therefore.BB This equation was developed empirically using several hundred multi-rate gas well test data and not by theory but satisfactorily describes the behaviour of the gas well tests considered. it is normal to test the well at three rates at a fixed period of time followed by a single rate until stabilisation is reached to obtain C. . The exponent. p g =C p R −p wf 2 ( 2 n ) Eq.present p Rpresent = q max . The constant C is also found from the log-log plot and varies as a function of flow time until it reaches a constant pseudo-steady state.Simplified Deliverability Relationship Rawlins and Schellardt developed a simplified gas well back-pressure equation which relates gas flow rate to the BHFP and is the well Known AOF equation. If data for Standing’s equation are not available. Relative permeabilities and fluid saturations are determined from special core analysis data and reservoir material balance analysis (using either analytical calculations or a reservoir simulation model).future p R future m Eq. using kh and S from build-up data but is only applicable if flow is laminar (n = 1).A. While this method is widely used throughout the industry. This exponent can vary between 1.5 for fully turbulent flow.p.0 for laminar flow to 0. Eickmeier first proposed an expression based on Fetkovich’s work.AA It may be shown theoretically that exponent m could vary between 1 and 3. critical that well tests are conducted up to or above the rate of intended production.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 40 OF 295 ENI S. The problem with this isochronal test is the time required to reach stabilised flow in tight gas sands which could be months.5 gives the best fit to the gas drive IPR curves by Vogel while values of 1. It is. Gas Wells . which in modified form is: q max . An exponent of 2. in the equation must be estimated from one of a number of well test methods (e.pwf ) versus q is conducted from which the slope gives the value of 1/n. To obtain a value of n. In some instances C can be calculated from reservoir parameters. 2. isochronal test) due to there being no accepted theoretical basis available. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 0 REVISION J* at present conditions is established by carrying out a well test or theoretically. Obviously at low to moderate rates there is little turbulence and n is close to 1. 2. n . it is not recommended for estimating IPRs as it lacks the theoretical basis and other rigorous equations are available.g.
75+S+Dqg Eq.75+S 2 Eq.cc is not precisely correct since inherent in its derivation is an assumption that the product of µ and z is constant. 2. For most gas compositions this is valid only at pressures less than approx 2. It will be seen that the gas IPR is curved even when the non-Darcy term is 0.CC The Darcy and non-Darcy coefficients.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 41 OF 295 ENI S. The non-Darcy skin is also frequently accounted for by using: m(p R )−m(p wf )=1422 q g T re ln k gh rw −0. normally pg and pwf for inflow calculations. 2. are determined in a similar manner as the 2 2 generalised IPR equation for an oil well. eq. cp Gas deviation factor and where the integration limits are substituted with the pressure range being considered.A. 2. 2. requires knowledge of the correct turbulence factor. hence: m(p R )−m(p wf )= Aq g +Bqg where: A = 1422 T re ln k gh rw TD k gh −0. it must be accounted for properly and a theoretical based method is more often used in modern engineering. however the straight line plot is (pR .w can be used.p.000psi when µz is proportional to pressure. β.000psi or if drawdown pressure changes are small which is the case in high permeability wells above 3.000psi and 3. 2. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 Gas Wells . In this range the correct inflow equation is written in terms of pseudo-pressures: m(p)=2 where: µg z = = ∫ p dp pb µ z g p Eq.Generalised Deliverability 0 REVISION Due to the shortcomings of the back-pressure equation described above and since turbulence which is common in gas wells.pwf )/q versus q. there is curvature in the plot of µz against p making neither approach applicable. as for oil wells.EE B = 1422 Here the results of the multi-rate test would be plotted as m(pg) .m(pwf)/q versus q to find a value of B from the slope and to check the value of A from the intercept. Between 2. A and B. 2. The expression below is based on the work of Forchemier and is: p R −p wf = Aqg + Aqg 2 Eq.FF . The non-Darcy coefficient B can also be calculated theoretically but.DD Gas viscosity. an equation similar to eq.000psi.
the pseudo-pressure values are readily available. Variations between the ideal IPRs and actual IPRs which may be expected from the undrilled well locations.2. Future stimulation or any damaging effects need to be considered. artificial lift or use of compression.A. WORs and GORs to obtain production targets. mscf/d o Reservoir temperature. Outflow performance curves should be derived from an accurate computer programme as some programmes are not rigorous in the handling of two phase flow.. it will be necessary to correct it for the grid block’s size and shape. Using expected off takes. predict turbulence and two phase flow effects by the use of total skin S’ inclusive of near wellbore and rate dependent skin effects.4. therefore there is a growing trend to use gas pseudo pressures for predicting gas well IPRs at all pressure conditions although the pressure squared method has a use in the field for convenience. With the use of simulation the production engineer is able not only to predict pressures. planning and reservoir management of many fields today. workovers and movement of fines will have on near wellbore performance causing changes of skin during the life of the project. a model needs to be set up by the reservoir engineer with input from the production engineer. Typically the following should be addressed: • • Assumptions on the minimum permissible value of Pwf as dictated by the outflow performance altered by varying water-cut. This information is derived from well test results and is input into the models theoretical IPR equations as skin factor. etc. Long term effects from well interventions.ff) can also be directly entered into some simulators. 2. well radius. Reservoir Simulation For IPR Curves Reservoir simulation is commonly used in the development. If a PI is entered in rather than skin. • • • • .p. 2. F The sum of all non-rate dependent skin Rate dependent skin Effective gas permeability. md 0 REVISION As modern test analysis use computer software. To obtain the best use of simulation studies. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 where: D qg T S D kg is = = = = = Derived from well tests Gas flow rate. but also to generate IPR curves for determination of how current and future well IPRs will vary across the field. The value of D (Refer to eq.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 42 OF 295 ENI S.
deviation. skins. It is extremely important that production engineers understand that the uncertainties involved and do not give greater reliability on model studies than reasonably can be expected.p. saturations.g. in particular check: • • • • • Confirm if non-Darcy and multi-phase flow effects have been taken into consideration. It is also used to determine the sensitivity of production to drawdown and optimise perforating strategy. however. pressure and mechanical data. Care must be exercised. therefore the predicted flow rates should not be considered as precise and the relevant reservoir engineer should be consulted to establish the accuracy. programmes and production forecast. When and as new well data from log and RFT/DST results becomes available. revisions can be made to the completion designs. have been considered. After using measured IPR curves. . e. stimulation. Often more reliable predictions in shape of the well IPR can be achieved by engineers using single well models to study the probability of water or gas conning or to model transient well test results. etc. gravel packing. If the reservoir pressure refers to grid block or to the drainage area. They may also be able to advise on possible sudden changes in water cut or gas production due to conning or cusping. in extrapolating the shape of the IPR and determining the effects by well operations and production may have on skin.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 43 OF 295 ENI S.A. partial completion. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 0 REVISION The results from such field models will provide the reservoir pressure. then the model can be used to evaluate the effect of depletion. reservoir quality. Input on skin is realistic for the period covered. water breakthrough and saturation changes on production and used for artificial lift studies. Ensure that proposed completion effects on near wellbore performance. etc. workover or sales contracts. Once this achieved. however judgement is required when using these results. As the use of full field reservoir simulation requires many assumptions and simplifications are made to manage the problem. From this. production rates and wellbore saturations at various time steps. the model needs to be updated to include actual log and test results. it should be used to update the generalised IPR to reflect the actual pay interval. Whether rates have been modified for downtime due to maintenance.
IPR Selection 0 REVISION In developing representative IPRs for a field.IPR Selection Based on Reservoir Type The appropriate technique will also depend on the reservoir data that is available which is function of the development stage.m(pwf) = Aq + Bq ) Omit B if only single rate data available Table 2.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 44 OF 295 ENI S. 2 Recommended IPR Model Linear PI or radial flow equation Vogel or Fetkovich Standing or linear PI if very damaged (S > 7) Composite Vogel and linear Water zone High rate undersaturated oil High rate saturated oil Gas wells WC > 90% q > 25stb/d/ft q > 25stb/d/ft Pwf < pb .4. the appropriate IPR model needs to be selected based upon the anticipated production conditions. The selection of an IPR model based on this is given in table 2.Jones Pseudo-pressure equation (m(pR) .p.A .A. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 2.3.b.Jones or radial flow equation with turbulence Blount . These are summarised again in the following table: Type Of Well Undersaturated oil Saturated oil Damaged saturated oil Undersaturated oil at pR but saturated at pwf Wells producing oil and water Producing Conditions Pwf > pb Pwf < pb Pwf < pb S > +3 PR > pb Pwf < pb WC > 0 Use as above for the appropriate oil and linear PI or radial flow equation for water Linear PI or radial flow equation Blount .
Validate results. Primary method. Primary method for post workover IPR Primary method for post workover IPR. Highlight damage risks. Define model input Primary method. large field Detailed design. Highlight damage risks. Optimising Operations/ Workover Well performance assessment Field studies (forecasts/ artificial lift. use for future IPRs. Estimate skin and determine cause. lift/ compression) Workover planning Revised development plan Predict future IPR Predict future IPR Primary method.IPR Selection Based on Development Stage .p. Evaluate completion results. Guestimate potential. Validate reservoir model results. Primary method for current IPRs. Evaluate completion methods. Primary method for current IPRs. Table 2. Highlight damage risks. Validate results. Primary method. small field/single well Development plan Primary method. Validate results and skin assumptions.A. large field Conceptual design. Extrapolate test results. If available. Validate results. Identify variations geographically with time.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 45 OF 295 ENI S. Validate results. - Reservoir Model IPRs - Empirical IPRs Validate interpretation Validate results. Detailed design. Highlight damage risks. Validate results. Highlight damage risks. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 0 REVISION Radial Flow Equation Technical Evaluations Prospect evaluation Exploration well results Development Planning Conceptual design. - Primary method. small field/single well Primary method.B .
Oil Well . . In the vast majority of cases there are sufficient data to use the tuned black oil model correlation method.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 46 OF 295 ENI S. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 2. • • • • Interpolate directly from experimental data. The methods for predicting pressure and temperature drops are addressed in the following sections. the ‘black oil’ model and the ‘compositional’ model.4.A. Application of these concepts. The black oil model assumes a constant composition for the liquid phase and accounts for mass transfer using the parameters gas-oil ratio and formation volume factor. Refer to the following sections. Pressure drop is determined using empirical and semi-empirical correlations and carried out on computer software programmes. The variable composition model requires performing vapour-liquid equilibrium (VLE) or ‘flash’ calculations to determine the amount and composition of both the gas and liquid phases. Interpolate from compositional simulation data. Flowing Temperature prediction.4. PVT Relationships There are two PVT methods used in the prediction of mass transfer between oil and gas. The relationship between pressure and temperature drop in wells and PVT behaviour is complex. Outflow Performance Tubing Performance 0 REVISION Predicting fluid flow behaviour in tubing involves combining the basic fundamentals of mass momentum and energy conservation with complex mass transfer phenomena for multicomponent hydrocarbon mixtures.p. results in utilising the following interrelated topics: • • • Phase behaviour. Each model uses differing methods to determine the densities and viscosities for each phase and interfacial surface tension.PVT Relationships With most modern software programmes there are four methods of obtaining PVT properties for oil wells which are listed in order of preference. Tuned black oil model empirical correlations. Pressure drop prediction. Untuned black oil model empirical correlations. In general the black oil model is easier to use than the compositional model.
Temperature Drop Calculation Predicting the temperature loss in the wellbore as a function of depth and time is necessary to determine PVT properties for use in calculating pressure drop. High pour point crude oil wells. These are: • • • Gas condensate wells with retrograde condensate.g. Some wells have produced fluids with special properties that are very sensitive to temperatures and more complex heat transfer calculations are required. Wells in which hydrate formation can occur. Profile based on a simplified version of the complete rigorous calculation involving correlating parameter for which there is unavailable information but with data which are available. e. However. Do not use untuned black oil model empirical correlations unless the data available cannot justify a more rigorous method. Use black oil model parameters generated from results of compositional simulation if it has been performed for incidental reasons. Profile based on adiabatic heat transfer. PVT properties for gas and gas condensate wells must be described with the compositional model.e.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 47 OF 295 ENI S. Profile based on a specified heat transfer coefficient. Although the linear approach is unrealistic. Some software programmes.A. but only if experimental data is not available. constant temperature throughout the length of the string. Profile based on conservation of energy that utilises complex wellbore heat transfer calculations. The linear profile is the most widely used due to the complexity of heat transfer calculations in conjunction with the lack of sufficient measured data.p. b) c) d) Gas/Gas Condensate Wells . . reservoir or production reasons. temperature profiles may be specified in five ways: • • • • • Linear profile based on measured or assumed wellhead and bottom-hole temperatures. Black oil models parameters should never be used to predict PVT properties for gas or gas condensate systems.PVT Relationships In software programmes. Do not use differential separation data since it is not representative of the vaporisation that occurs in the tubing. in gas wells it has amore significant effect. i. the error has been found to be less than 15% in overall temperature drop in typical wells. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 0 REVISION The approach adopted when choosing the appropriate method for each application should be: a) Use the black oil model flash vaporisation lab data if they are available. Use the tuned empirical correlations for black oil model variables if the appropriate although limited experimental data are available.
p. This slippage causes an additional accumulation of liquid in the tubing which is termed liquid hold up. f pv 2 dp = dL FR 2g c D is the pressure gradient caused by wall friction. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 Pressure Drop Calculation 0 REVISION Calculating pressure drop in tubing involve numerical integration of the steady-state pressure gradient equation over the entire tubing length. 2. The equation consists of three components and can be expressed as follows: dp dp dp dp = + + dL dL HYD dL FR dL ACC where: pgsin θ dp = gc dL HYD Eq.HH Eq. therefore. 2.A. Eq. The friction losses are the remainder of the pressure loss and are more significant in gas wells with acceleration effects being negligible except when near to atmospheric pressure. 2. In multi-phase systems. tubing diameter and to a lesser extent PVT properties. the variables such as p and v in the pressure gradient equation are normally averages for the gas and liquid phases present. Gas and oil phases normally flow at different speeds which is the phenomenon referred to as slippage. p vdv dp = g c dL dL ACC is the pressure gradient caused by fluid acceleration.GG is the pressure gradient caused by the hydrostatic head of potential energy of the multiphase liquid. often accounting for 90% of the pressure drop.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 48 OF 295 ENI S. referred to as the ‘flow pattern’ or ‘flow regime’.JJ Eq. The amount of slippage that occurs is dependent upon the geometrical distribution of the gas and liquid in the pipe. The hydrostatic head is the most predominant component of the pressure gradient in oil wells. 2.II . Flow patterns are governed primarily by the flow rates of each phase. the pressure is sensitive to the relative amounts of gas and liquid present at any location in the tubing.
0 REVISION Considering the above. the total pressure drop is very dependent on flow pattern.A. slug and churn floe predominate in oil wells. offer more potential for accurate predictions but these are not readily accepted as standard design methods as yet. Although many of these have been successful to some degree. it is seen that prediction of pressure drop in multi-phase systems is complex and has led to the development of different correlations to be used. liquid hold up pressure gradient is limited by the ranges of data used in their development and no single method can be applied universally. The early developed correlations assumed the flow as homogeneous mixtures ignoring liquid hold up effects. Subsequent correlations were developed to predict liquid hold up but most of these first required an empirical correlation or ‘map’ to predict the flow pattern. therefore.20psi/ft 0. no single method has been universally been accepted.25psi/ft 0.1 . Although bubble. . as listed in the previous section. it is obvious that the pressure at each point in the well and.0. Some software programmes use all the correlations available and the more recent promising mechanical models can be added. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 Typical flow patterns are: • • • • • Annular flow Churn flow Slug flow Bubble flow Liquid flow. Typical pressure gradients in wells for different flow patterns are: • • • • Single phase oil Bubble flow Slug flow Mist flow = = = = 0.p.2psi/ft Hence.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 49 OF 295 ENI S. Attempts were made to compensate for these errors in the equations by single empirical derived friction factor. can be identified using flow pattern maps. it is possible for oil and gas wells to include all flow patterns in addition to single phase liquid and gas. The most common maps are empirically derived with coordinates based on dimensionless groups of variables that include volumetric flow rates.36psi/ft 0. referred to as mechanical models. More recent models developed based on flow mechanisms and conservation principles. diameter and PVT properties. The accuracy of existing correlations for predicting flow pattern. Flow Patterns Transition between the various flow patterns.
C .597 1.7 190.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 50 OF 295 ENI S.9 116.7 Table 2.8 41. however any one of these may be successful in a given field.2 78. table 2..p. RPC 1.6 134.c presents the overall results below: Absolute Average Error 101.3 102. Validation and actual field data are the only means of choosing a pressure loss method but this is not available at the time of designing the completions.178 1. flow pattern and basic flow mechanisms are considered.3 -28. Flow pattern dependent correlations where liquid hold up and flow pattern are considered.8 110. As illustrated in figure 2.Evaluation of Pressure Loss Methods Using TUFFP Well Databank .3 217.9 178. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 Classification Of Methods 0 REVISION Published methods of multi-phase flow pressure gradients in wells can be placed into one of three general categories based on the assumptions from which the method was developed: • • • • Homogeneous flow correlations where slippage and flow pattern are not considered.2 Relative Performance Factor.5 33.4 177.3 12.000 1. performed using the TUFFP well databank consisting of 1775 flowing well surveys covering a broad range of production variables and pressure loss methods were also evaluated for each flow pattern. Mechanised models where slippage.r and figure 2.8 Standard Deviation 163.9 151.3 159.198 1. Ansari recently performed an evaluation of the most widely used correlations and his own proposed mechanistic model.s.4 -20. Slip flow correlations where slippage is considered but not flow pattern.404 1.666 Method Ansari Hagbr Dunros Aziz Begbril Orkis Mukbr Average Error 9.4 207. these correlations predict different pressure drops for the same application. Oil Well Correlations Oil well correlations for predicting pressure gradients in oil wells have been published and those most widely accepted in the Industry are: • • • • • Duns and Ros (1963) Hagedorn and Brown (1967) Orkiszewski (1967) Aziz.132 1.A. Covier and Fogarasi (1972) Beggs and Brill (1973).9 273.
ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 51 OF 295 ENI S.A. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 0 REVISION Selecting the best prediction method from table 2.c is not appropriate as the best statistical results do not guarantee the best performance for a specific application.p.d. The choice must be made on experience.Comparison Lift Curves for High Gas-Oil Ratio Well .R . Figure 2. The applicability of the various methods is compared in table 2.
Comparison of Lift Curves for Low Gas-Oil Ratio Well . Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 0 REVISION Figure 2.p.A.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 52 OF 295 ENI S.S .
Usually not applicable for completion design. Gives consistent results for all flow patterns and TCP minimum. Tends to under-predict pressure drop. experiment al plus field data Field experiment Air. Optimistic. . gas. Tends to over-predict pressure drop. Should not be used except for similar conditions. This is the preferred correlation in the absence of other data. Hagedorn and Brown with Griffith Bubble and restriction on hold up Kleyweg et al Occidental mod (1983) Orkiszewski (1967) Flow Pattern Dependent Field experiment Oil. water. Developed for deviated wells but tends to over-predict. gas Air. Liquid hold up prediction can be less than for no slip flow. water. water. Conservative.Applicability of Pressure Loss Prediction Methods Gas And Gas Condensate Correlations For gas and gas condensate wells the following methods are frequently used: • • • • Cullender and Smith Single phase gas with modified gravities Multi-phase flow correlations Gray correlation. water Beggs (1973) and Beggs and Brill with Palmer Cornish (1976) Flow Pattern Dependent Homogeneous Fair Good in some flow patterns Good Laboratory Field (annular flow) Laboratory . Poor in bubble flow. tends to under-predict pressure drop. Developed to optimise gas lift in o highly deviated wells (>70 ) in Claymore field. Gas Duns (1963) and Ros Flow Pattern Dependent Oil. field Oil. air Does not predict a TCP minimum. water Oil. Optimistic. Needs to be verified through use. Developed for deviated wells but tends to significantly over-predict pressure drop. water. Should be avoided unless well is highly deviated. Aziz et al (!972) Flow Pattern Dependent Brill Flow Pattern Variable depending on version Poor Laboratory and field Laboratory Oil. water.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 53 OF 295 ENI S. can cause convergence problems in computing algorithm. Gas Flow Pattern Dependent Fair Some Hagedorn and Brown data. Does not predict a TPC minimum. Should be used with caution. Tends to over-predict pressure drop. Good where several flow patterns exist. Conservative.D.A. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 0 REVISION Method Ansari 1963) (TUFFP Category Mechanistic Model Accuracy Good Data N/A Fluids N/A Application/Comments Appears a little conservative. gas Table 2. air Slip Flow Field Oil.p. water Hagedorn Brown (1965) and Slip Flow Good in some flow patterns Good Oil.
For sub-critical flow. as the difference between the predicted pressure drops is generally greater than the effect of the deviation itself. Care is needed in the selection of tubing in that. similarly. critical flow occurs. Flow pattern and liquid hold up is very dependent on deviation angle. either the Beggs and Brill correlation or a mechanistic model would be necessary. validation with field data is the only reliable method for determining the most appropriate correlation and.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 54 OF 295 ENI S. simple empirical correlations such as the Gilbert equation are sufficiently accurate. accounting for deviation by simply using the sine in the hydrostatic component of the pressure gradient equation may not be adequate in these cases. Although any of the correlations can be used. If this is the case. When a multiphase mixture flows through a restriction. vertical correlations perform accurately enough for wells o greater than 45 . even in low liquid rates. Effect Of Restrictions Most oil and gas wells contain some types of flow control devices in the completion which choke flow. the phase velocities dramatically increase. In any study. this is never usually available at the time that the completions are designed. behaviour is very dependent on geometry and a simple Bernoulli type equation with a discharge coefficient is recommended. liquid loading can also be predicted using simplified methods presented with Turner et al which are independent of pressure drop calculations. If these reach sonic velocity. it is recommended that tubing size be assessed using these methods in addition to lift curve methods and that the most conservative approach be adopted. wells can quickly ‘load up’ over a few weeks if it is not correctly sized. the Gray correlation is generally recommended although the Ansari model mat prove to be even more accurate since it includes a good model for predicting pressure gradient in annular flow which is the most predominant in gas wells.p. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 0 REVISION As with oil wells. . The geometry of these restrictions varies from a simple reduced diameter axial flow path to a tortuous complex path.A. The accuracy of pressure drop calculations in these circumstances using correlations developed for vertical is obviously extremely questionable. For critical flow. In gas wells. For wells producing high gas-water or gas-condensate ratios. Effect Of Deviation Angle Nowadays most wells of interest to operators are directional or deviated wells. For wells with o deviations up to 45 from vertical. differing correlations should not be used for different deviations. These methods have been reviewed by Lea and Tighe. the Gray correlation is recommended based on the work with ‘Reinicke et al’ but results should be used with caution.
This section describes this analysis.t ). Continuing in this manner provides information on which decisions can be made on optimum well configuration or optimum operating conditions.p. Figure 2.T . Flow Rate Prediction Following the establishment of both the IPR and TPC. Systematically varying the system parameters allows comparison of the incremental effects on production and these can. GLR. The most common points for erosion is where there are restrictions which cause increased velocities. they must be presented in the same plot from which the intersection of the lines can be used to predict the flow rate of a well at given set of stable flow conditions (Refer to figure 2. be forecast and analysed for cost/benefit of the completion options..A. 2. to determine the threshold velocities for erosion to occur in piping systems but the validity of this for all conditions is questionable. reservoir pressure.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 55 OF 295 ENI S.Combining IPR and TPC Curves . in turn.5. The API have published a method in API RP 14E. etc. will effect either or both the IPR and TPC and in consequence alters the production rate. Changing the system parameters like the tubing ID. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 Effect Of Erosion 0 REVISION Erosion in completions occurs when there are high velocities and if there are solids particles in the flow stream.4.
Figure 2.U. Pmin. On the other hand.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 56 OF 295 ENI S. At low flow rates. As the usual aim is to keep to the right of Pmin.v. the hydrostatic component in the total pressure drop predominates. Because of the inaccuracies of the two phase flow correlations and the difficulty in obtaining reliable data in this region.t. or GLR. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 Natural Flow Point 0 REVISION The characteristic ‘J’ shape of the TPC means there can be several possible intersections with the IPR as shown in figure 2. under these conditions. the well will flow at a stable rate defined as the natural flow point.Combined IPR and TPC Curves Under Unstable Conditions . the start of unstable flow conditions is rarely known especially with large size tubing. In figure 2. but without incurring excessive friction losses. this is generally not a problem. will give an intersection well to the right of the pmin and out of the flat portion of the TCP curve. The TCP. the gas escapes from the well and the hydrostatic gradient approaches the static pressure of the liquid.A.e.p. If the intersection is either close to or to the left of the minimum (Refer to Figure).t through figure 2. occurs due to the gas and liquid phase velocities differ at low flow rates. i. As liquid velocities tend toward zero. the well will tend to head and flow at unstable conditions due to the cyclic build up of liquid and periodic slug lifting by accumulated pressure of the trapped gas. the IPR and TPC curves intersect well to the right of the minimum and. The optimum tubing size. slippage occurs. as the flow rate increases. the hydrostatic component reduces due the gas lift effect while the friction component increases until the minimum is reached when the friction pressure drop exactly offsets the decrease in hydrostatic pressure drop.
Where the curves intersect at two rates (Refer to figure 2. the flow will become increasingly unstable and wells with large size tubing will die quickly. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 0 REVISION If the natural flow point is in the unstable region. it is necessary to kick the well off quickly.IPR and TPC Curves with Two Apparent Intersection Points .v). whereas small tubing may sustain unsteady flow until the IPR and TPC curves become almost tangential. the intersection point to the left is always unstable and the well will either die or progressively produce more fluid until it reaches the stable flow point.V . Figure 2. Using smaller tubing may result in higher frictional pressure drops and if this reduces flow rates to below uneconomic levels. a smaller size tubing or artificial lift system should be considered. or to the left of the minimum.A. Where the IPR and TCP curves intersect close to. a tapered tubing string may be a consideration. To obtain flow at these conditions.p.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 57 OF 295 ENI S.
the TPC is displaced as a result of the effect of the gas on the density.e. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 Artificial Lift Effects 0 REVISION A well will not flow naturally if the IPR and TPC curves do not intersect and in this case artificial lift could be used to provide the pressure differential between the curves (Refer to figure 2. In a pumping well. An artificial lift system places an injection of energy into the flow system which displaces the TPC curve downwards. Figure 2. the displacement is dependent on the pump performance curve (i.Combining Pump Performance and TCP Curves .W.w.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 58 OF 295 ENI S. to consider the effect of downhole gas separation on pump outflow performance.A. It is necessary when carrying out this analysis. This results in a combined outflow performance curve termed the pump intake curve. By generating an outflow performance curve for each potential system. pump differential versus rate) which is plotted below the well performance curves as shown in figure 2. In gas lifted wells.w). From this an economic cost analysis can be produced to analyse capital and operating cost differences. velocity and flow regime in the tubing above the operating gas lift valve. they can be used to compare the deliverability of the various methods.p.
while submersible pumping gives the maximum rate from the poorer zones (PI = 0.A.p. it is apparent that gas lift will maximise the deliverability of good wells (PI = 2.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 59 OF 295 ENI S.4 to 1. Figure 2.x below). Artificial lift is often widely used to improve flow stability and increase the production of existing producing wells. however the operating and capital costs of equipment must be justified against the incremental increase in production rate. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 0 REVISION As shown in the example (figure 2.0stb/d/psi) provided there is no drawdown limitation.X .5std/d/psi) provided 2 7/8ins tubing is installed.Artificial Lift Options for Deep Wells with 5 1/2ins Casing .
It is normal to conduct a build-up test after a drawdown test. However. packer and downhole test tools and a tubing or drill pipe string then introducing a low density fluid into the string in order to enable the well to flow through surface testing equipment which controls the flow rate. 3. Production Test Many options of string design are available depending on the requirements of the test and the nature of the well. .A. The normal method of investigating the reservoir is to conduct a well test. There are two types of well test methods available: • Drill Stem Test (DST) Where Drillpipe/Tubing in combination with downhole tools is used as a short term test to evaluate the reservoir. analysis is still possible. Types of Tests Drawdown A drawdown test entails flowing the well and analysing the pressure response as the reservoir pressure is reduced below its original pressure. During a test where reservoir fluids do not flow to surface. in conjunction with the build up test. This was the original definition of a drill stem test or DST. This is usually more applicable to gas wells but can be analysed using the Odeh-Jones plot for liquids or the Thomas-Essi plot for gas. 3. This is termed drawdown.1.1.p. separates the fluids and measures the flow rates and pressures. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 0 REVISION 3. it is not normal nowadays to plan a test on this basis. • Many designs of well testing strings are possible depending on the requirements of the test and the nature of the well and the type of flow test to be conducted but basically it consists of installing a packer tailpipe. It is not usual to conduct solely a drawdown test on an exploration well as it is impossible to maintain a constant production rate throughout the test period as the well must first cleanup. WELL TESTING INTRODUCTION The main objective when drilling an exploration well is to test and evaluate the target formation. The drawdown data should also be analysed using type curves.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 60 OF 295 ENI S.1. Multi-Rate Drawdown A multi-rate drawdown test may be run when flow rates are unstable or there are mechanical difficulties with the surface equipment.
This calculated rate is only of importance in certain countries where government bodies set the maximum rate at which the well may be produced as a proportion of this flow rate. There are three types of deliverability test: • • • Flow on Flow Test Isochronal Test The Modified Isochronal Test. This is the simplest form of deliverability test described below. a simple form of test to evaluate the rate dependant skin coefficient. The AOFP is the theoretical fluid rate at which the well would produce if the reservoir sand face was reduced to atmospheric pressure. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 Build-Up 0 REVISION A build-up test requires the reservoir to be flowed to cause a drawdown then the well is closed in to allow the pressure to increase back to. From these the permeability-height product.A. D. IPR. The durations of each flow period are equal. Modified Isochronal The modified isochronal test is used on tight reservoirs where it takes a long time for the shut-in pressure to stabilise. On low production rate gas wells. Usually the rate is increased at each step ensuring that stabilised flow is achievable. each rate of equal duration and separated by a pressure build-up long enough to reach the stabilised reservoir pressure. kh. Flow-on-Flow Conducting a flow-on-flow test entails flowing the well until the flowing pressure stabilises and then repeating this at several different rates. or near to. and the near wellbore skin can be analysed. This type of test is applicable to high rate gas well testing and is followed by a single pressure build up period. Isochronal An isochronal test consist of a similar series of flow rates as the flow-on-flow test. and the rate dependant skin coefficient.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 61 OF 295 ENI S. AOFP.p. is to conduct a second flow and PBU at a different rate to the first flow and PBU. Deliverability A deliverability test is conducted to determine the well’s Inflow Performance Relation. and in the case of gas wells the Absolute Open Flow Potential. D. The flow and shut-in periods are of the same length. where there is a flow rate dependant skin. . the original pressure which is termed the pressure build-up or PBU. The final flow period is extended to achieve a stabilised flowing pressure for defining the IPR. The flow rate again is increased at each step. except the final flow period which is extended similar to the isochronal test. This is the normal type of test conducted on an oil well and can be analysed using the classic Horner Plot or superposition.
The volume produced must be sufficient. which can be determined by conducting a step rate test. It is only applicable where there is no regional aquifer support. The water can be filtered and treated with scale inhibitor. but is complicated by the cold water bank. After the injectivity test. a short term injection test will generally not provide a good measure of the long term injectivity performance. It is common practice to follow the extended drawdown with a pressure build-up. the pressure fall-off is measured. is achieved. . It may also be conducted on a single well to determine the vertical permeability between separate reservoir zones. and the pressure to which it returns. also the volume of produced fluid and the effective isothermal compressibility of the system. is sometimes used to overcome the background reservoir pressure behaviour when it is a problem. which may also be caused by the thermal shock of the cold injection water reaching the sandface. usually seawater offshore is injected to establish the formation’s injection potential and also its fracture pressure.p. A well-to-well interference test is not carried out offshore at the exploration or appraisal stage as it is more applicable to developed fields. Interference An interference test is conducted to investigate the average reservoir properties and connectivity between two or more wells. The reservoir volume may be estimated directly from the depletion. Surface readout pressure gauges should be used in this test.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 62 OF 295 ENI S. Pulse testing. these must therefore be of the high accuracy electronic type gauges with negligible drift. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 Reservoir Limit 0 REVISION A reservoir limit test is an extended drawdown test which is conducted on closed reservoir systems to determine their volume. Very high surface injection pressures may be required in order to fracture the formation. The difference between the initial reservoir pressure. The well is produced at a constant rate until an observed pressure drop. biocide and oxygen scavenger. The analysis of this test is similar to a pressure build-up. Injectivity In these tests a fluid. if required. Once a well is fractured. linear with time. is the depletion. to provide a measurable pressure difference on the pressure gauges. based on the maximum reservoir size. where the flowrate at one of the wells is varied in a series of steps.A.
Testing is an expensive and high risk operation and. From this a Productivity Index (PI) or Inflow Performance Relationship (IPR) can be established (Refer to Section 2. In many cases. it should be done in the simplest possible manner. completion practices. avoiding any operations which entail higher risk. . Currently. if the flowing pressure gradient in the tubing can be estimated. The Petroleum Engineer should discuss with the geologists and reservoir engineers about the information required and make them aware of the costs and risks involved with each method.2. in the most cost-effective manner. actual well production rates can be accurately predicted from DST data as it shows what the well will produce against a gradually increasing back-pressure. which the company needs rather than that which is nice to have. DST OBJECTIVE 0 REVISION A DST is conducted to determine the productivity characteristics of one specific zone.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 63 OF 295 ENI S. such as coring. if possible. therefore. The starting premise should be that testing is not required unless it is clearly justified.4) and. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 3. the Petroleum Engineer should not appear to be negative but work towards obtaining essential data.A. They should select the easiest means of obtaining data. if testing is warranted. should only be conducted for essential data. Such inter-disciplinary discussions should be formalised by holding a meeting (or meetings) at which these objectives are agreed and fixed. extent of formation damage and if there is a requirement for stimulation. The objectives of an exploration well test are to: • • • • • • • • Conduct the testing in a safe and efficient manner Determine the nature of the formation fluids Measure reservoir pressure and temperature Interpret reservoir permeability-height product (kh) and skin value Obtain representative formation fluid samples for laboratory analysis Define well productivity and/or injectivity investigate formation characteristics Evaluate boundary effects. The second premise is that. analysis can provide good data to help evaluate the productivity of the zone. By adopting this position. then actual producing rates can also be determined. such as running wireline or coil tubing through the testing string.p. The test objectives must be agreed by those who will use the results and those who will conduct the test before the test programme is prepared.
the test string should be kept as simple as possible to reduce the risk of mechanical failure. In larger production casing sizes the same tools will be used with a larger packer. In smaller casing sizes. the bottom of the test string should be 100ft above the top perforation to allow production logging of the interval. However.A. Some generic test strings used for testing from various installations are shown overleaf. In the following description.25ins ID. refer to the Company ‘Well Test Manual’. and other tools may be included. . Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 3. If conditions allow. well tests are performed inside a 7ins production liner. using full opening test tools with a 2. DST STRING 0 REVISION The well testing objectives. but similarly. In general. tools which are required both in production tests and conventional tests are included. if applicable.3. prognosed production fluids. The list of tools is not exhaustive. The tools should be dressed with elastomers suitable for the operating environment. test location and relevant planning will dictate which is the most suitable test string configuration to be used.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 64 OF 295 ENI S.p. For a 5 barefoot test. For more detailed information on well test strings and tooling. temperature and the stimulation programme. the tools should be full opening to allow production logging across perforated intervals. smaller test tools will be required. considering packer fluids. conventional test tools will usually be used with a packer set inside the 9 /8ins casing.
Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 0 REVISION Figure 3.A.A.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 65 OF 295 ENI S.p.Typical Jack Up Test String With TCP Guns On Permanent Packer .
ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 66 OF 295 ENI S.B .Typical Test String With TCP Guns Stabbed Through Production Packer . Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 0 REVISION Figure 3.p.A.
ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 67 OF 295 ENI S.A.p.Typical Jack Up Test String With Retrievable Packer .C . Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 0 REVISION Figure 3.
Typical Semi-Submersible Test String .A.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 68 OF 295 ENI S.p.Retrievable Packer .D . Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 0 REVISION Figure 3.
Reservoir Pressure.p.4. Pressure Build-Up Analysis Horner Equation Transient pressure analysis is based on the Horner pressure build-up equation which describes the re-pressuring of the wellbore area during the shut-in period as the formation fluids moves into the ‘pressure sink’ created by the flowing portion of the test: p ws =p i − 162. Measured if shut-in time is adequate. the DST if properly applied is an essential tool for the Completions Engineer. md Formation thickness. 3.A. 3. Depletion. Damage ratio method permits estimation of what the well should make without damage. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 3.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 69 OF 295 ENI S. mins Shut-in reservoir pressure. In summary. RESERVOIR CHARACTERISTICS 0 REVISION Reservoir characteristics that may be estimated from DST analysis include: • • • • • • Average Effective Permeability.A where: pws t’ ∆t’ pi q µ B k h = = = = = + = = = Measured pressure in the wellbore during the build-up. or calculated if not. mins Shut-in time. Also effective permeability rather than absolute permeability is obtained. This may be better than core permeability since much greater volume is averaged. These reservoir anomalies affect the slope of the pressure build-up plot.4. psig Rate of flow. the DST can ‘see’. Radius Of Investigation. reservoir bbl/stb/day Formation permeability. ft .6qµB t ′−∆t ′ log10 kh ∆t ′ Eq. stb/day Fluid viscosity. Can be detected if the reservoir is small and the test is conducted properly. They usually require substantiating data to differentiate one from the other. Barriers/Permeability Changes/Fluid Contacts. An estimate of how far away. psig Flowing time.1. from the wellbore. cp Formation volume factor. Wellbore Damage.
. however little error is caused by assuming that t’p is the time of the flowing period immediately before the particular shut-in period. Horner Build-Up Plot t ′ + ∆t ′ p Assuming these conditions are met.the slope m of the straight line is numerically the difference between the t’p t ′ + ∆t ′ t ′ +∆t ′ p =0 and at log10 p pressure value at log10 ∆t ′ ∆t ′ =1. since ‘after-flow’ or wellbore storage effects cause deviation from the straight line in the early region.a to be strictly correct are: • • • • • Radial flow Homogenous formation Steady state conditions Infinite reservoir Single phase flow. As a rule of thumb. With a very short initial flow period. Usually pws is determined at 5min intervals along the shut-in pressure curve. then a plot of pws versus log10 ∆t ′ should yield a straight line and the slope (m) of the straight line should be: m= 162.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 70 OF 295 ENI S.A. Most of these conditions are met on a typical DST although steady state flow is the condition which may cause most concern particularly at early shut-in time. this is usually done.6qµB kh Eq. four points are the fewest to determine a straight line. With equal flow periods on a multiple flow period DST. Experience has formulated some certain rules of thumb to help determine the shut-in time. The ideal plot is where all the points align up in a straight line but is seldom found in actuality. t’p can be assumed to be the total of the flowing times with very little error. One of these is that generally the shut-in pressure must reach at least 65% of the static pressure. An important issue is the time required to approach steady state or straight line conditions.0 If the points are plotted on semi-log paper. In figure 3. m is the change in pressure over one log cycle. selecting a value for t’p creates some problem mathematically.p.e shows an idealised Horner Plot with the pressure chart showing very simply how t’p and formation pressure pws at varied shut-in times ∆t’ are picked from the chart and related to the Horner plot. 3. depends on reservoir and fluid characteristics. and flow conditions. figure 3. 3.B The constant m is representative of a given fluid having physical properties µB flowing at a rate q through a formation having physical properties kh. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 0 REVISION Conditions which must be assumed during the build-up period for eq. . In a multi-phase flow period DST.e.
D . determined from electric log analysis. Figure 3. 3. must be the net thickness of the productive zone.6qµB mh Eq. µ. sometimes reasonable estimates of formation parameters could be made.A. h.C Parameters. viscosity.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 71 OF 295 ENI S.p.6qµB m Eq. k. can be calculated:: k= 162. 3. and formation volume.E . no analysis of the plot was possible unless the straight line was achieved. can be estimated from available correlations if the gravity of the crude oil and the gas-oil ratio are determined by measurement. If the net thickness is not available then kh or formation capacity is determined: kh= 162. however. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 0 REVISION Prior to type curve matching methods. B.Idealised Horner Build-Up Plot Reservoir Parameters Obtained By Build-Up Analysis Average permeability. Formation thickness.
s.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 72 OF 295 ENI S. ′ ∆t st nd In figure 3.151 i ff −log m φµcrw Eq. psi (final flowing pressure) Fluid compressibility. or as shown in figure 3. transmissibility kh 162. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 If all the parameters are unknown. both the 1 build-up and 2 build-up plots extrapolate to the same static pressure lending confidence to the analysis. cp Well bore radius. to the theoretical flow rate without damage: DR= qt qa An another equation.G where: pi pff c Φ µ rw k t’p = = = = = = = = Shut-in reservoir pressure. DR. pi.6q = m µB 0 kh is determined: µB REVISION Eq. skin factor: kt ′ p −p p +2. Wellbore damage. vol/vol/psi Formation porosity. 3. md Flowing time.A. this factor cannot be readily applied to specific formations to obtain to show the potential of the zone would be if there was no damage. t ′ + ∆t ′ t ′ + ∆t ′ p = 1. fraction Viscosity of reservoir pressure. is obtained by extrapolating the Horner straight line to an ‘infinite’ shut-in time: At infinite shut-in time. 3.e. psi Formation pressure at flow time T. ins Effective permeability. q.85 p i −p ff kt′ p Eq. 3. is: DR= m log φµcr 2 w −2.85 s=1. which compares the flow rate observed. them depletion may have occurred.p. for calculation of DR based on the skin factor relation of Hurst and van Everdingen.E Static reservoir pressure.0. log10 ∆t ′ = 0 . mins .0 .e. is presented by the empirical equation for the dimensionless value. This was carried on a stage further introducing the concept of damage ratio. If the second build-up pressure was lower than st the 1 .F However.
ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 73 OF 295 ENI S. If the barrier is a straight line as A . then the build-up slope will change by a factor of 2.Effect of a Fault . seeing a gas-liquid contact from a down-structure well is a much more likely possibility. Figure 3. a change in permeability. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 Reservoir And Fluid Anomaly Indications 0 REVISION Many times the Horner build-up equation does not hold up under actual case. ‘Seeing’ a gas-liquid contact from an up-structure well would be difficult due to the normally short radius of investigation through a gas column. or existence of a barrier. If it is seen that the rate of flow q remains constant. therefore the fact that a change of slope appears on the build-up plot. can cause a change in the slope of the Horner plot.A. A sealing barrier such as a fault or permeability pinchout can cause a change of slope m.A’ in figure 3. Alternatively.p. If changes occur within the radius of investigation of the DST.F .f . Fluid viscosities change by phase change or type of fluid. This must be resolved through other geologic or reservoir information. they can be detected by a change in shape of the slope of the of the line. leaves open the question of what caused the anomaly. viscosity. Permeability may change due to natural lensing or formation damage but it is doubtful that formation damage would affect sufficient volume of formation to be detected as a change of slope on the build-up plot. In summary. then permeability k or fluid viscosity µ are likely suspects for change as the wave of increasing pressure travels towards the wellbore.
the deeper the radius of investigation.793r 2 a φµc t + ∆t a =2. however there is plenty of field examples to prove that it occurs. Depletion As explained previously. . This effect is termed supercharged which may be caused by leak off of filtrate over-pressuring the formation. Eq. hrs Exponential integral value.I Needless to point out. Obviously.A. mins kt i 5.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 74 OF 295 ENI S. Another reason that a recorded initial shut-in pressure may be higher than true shut-in pressure. 3. the longer the flowing time.76×10 φµc 4 Eq. a reservoir would need to be extremely small for this to occur. change of permeability. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 0 REVISION The distance to the anomaly.p. This effect needs to be diagnosed to confirm supercharging. if the extrapolated pressure from a second build-up is lower than the initial pressure of the first build-up. 3.H Radius Of Investigation The following equation from Van Poollen may be used to estimate the radius of investigation of any particular DST in an infinite radial flow system: ri = where: ri tp = = Radius of investigation Flow time. ft Flow time. can be calculated: − 3. whether it be a barrier. then depletion may be the cause.303ln p − E ∆t kt p a where: ra Tp ∆ta -E = = = = Distance to anomaly. hrs Shut-in time at the point of slope change. ra. or a fluid contact.
Figure 3. R = ( F + 460) Horner build-up slope for gas well 1637 q g Tf µZ mg h Eq. flow rate is calculated in scf/day or if in large quantities mscf/d.p. during the build-up is t ′ + ∆t ′ p plotted versus ∆t ′ as shown in figure 3. 3.Gas well Equations for permeability. estimated wellbore AOFP for a gas zone are: Permeability: k= where: Z Qg Tf mg = = = = Gas deviation factor Rate of flow.g.Typical Horner Plot . R.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 75 OF 295 ENI S. mscf/day o o Formation temperature.G . Z. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 Reservoir Parameters . the square of the formation pressure. the values of Z and µ can be found from standard testing literature. and the absolute temperature factor. pws. This involves correcting for deviation of the reservoir gas from the o perfect gas law using the gas deviation factor. If the SG of the gas is known.Gaseous System 0 REVISION When conducting DSTs of gas zones.A. For the Horner build-up plot.J .
5Max AOF= qg p i p 2 i −p 2 ff Eq. they can be used on DST analysis to salvage some information from a test where sufficient data not available to obtain a straight line.L 2 n i −p i ) If n=1. 3.M If n=0.K (p qg p 2 i 2 ( ) n Eq. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 Wellbore Damage: 2 2 p −p i ff EDR = 1 m g log t + 2. Ramey. 3.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 76 OF 295 ENI S. 3. .0 qg p 2 i p 2 i −p 2 ff 0 REVISION Eq. 3.N Type Curve Methods There are several type curve methods are available for analysing early time DST data from pressure transient tests.5 and 1. Although these methods are generally used on longer term production tests.p.A.65 p Absolute Open Flow Potential Using the single point back-pressure test method: AOF= where: n is an exponent varying between 0. McKinley and Earlougher-Kersch methods have applications with McKinley being the easiest to use but the others perhaps more accurate.0Max AOF= Eq. It should be iterated that the Horner should be used whenever possible and type curves used to in picking correct straight line by indicating when wellbore storage effects have ended.
h shows a typical schematic of a simple single flow operational sequence.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 77 OF 295 ENI S. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 3. the tester valve is then reopened to conduct the planned flow and shut-in periods in accordance to the programme requirements to obtain other additional data and verification. After a suitable time (usually 1 /2 times the flow period).A.H . the tester valve is then closed to allow the formation fluids to build-up back up to reservoir pressure which is recorded on pressure recorders or gauges. the mule shoe allows entry into the packer bore.4. a DST is carried out by running test tools in a BHA on a test string in the hole (Refer to previous Section 3.3). If testing with a permanent packer. Common Test Tools Description Refer to the Company ‘Well Test Manual’. 1 A description of the tools used in DST test strings are outlined in the next section. figure 3. a fluid is circulated into the tubing to provide an underbalance to allow the well to flow after perforating. Basics Of DST Operations 0 REVISION In simple terms. Bevelled Mule Shoe If the test is being conducted in a liner the mule shoe makes it easier to enter the liner top.3. Figure 3.p. The downhole tester valve is opened to flow the well to clean up perforating debris and invasive fluids from the formation. The bevelled mule shoe also facilities pulling wireline tools back into the test string.2.DST Typical Sequence of Events 3.4. When the string is successfully installed and all pressure and function testing is completed. .
A. This item may also be used if wireline retrievable gauges are run below the packer. This feature is important when running tubing conveyed perforating guns which are actuated by pressure. Circulating Valve (Bypass Valve) This tool is run in conjunction with retrievable packers to allow fluid bypass while running in and pulling out of hole. This valve should ideally contain a time delay on closing. It should be set by turning to the right and includes a hydraulic hold-down mechanism to prevent the tool from being pumped up the hole under the influence of differential pressure from below the packer. to prevent pressuring up of the closed sump below the packer during packer setting. . Gauge Case (Bundle Carrier) The carrier allows pressure and temperature recorders to be run below or above the packer and sense either annulus or tubing pressures and temperatures.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 78 OF 295 ENI S. It is automatically closed when sufficient weight is set down on the packer. It can also be used to equalise differential pressures across packers at the end of the test. rather than the static bottom-hole pressure. The valve is locked open on the first application of annulus pressure which is during the first cycling of the tester valve. If the valve does not have a delay on closing. a large incremental pressure. It operates by manipulating the string (usually a combination of reciprocation and rotation) to unscrew and the upper part of the string retrieved. it allows the test string above this tool to be recovered in the event the packer becomes stuck in the hole. hence reducing the risk of excessive pressure surges or swabbing.p. Pipe Tester Valve A pipe tester valve is used in conjunction with a tester valve which can be run in the open position in order to allow the string to self fill as it is installed. Retrievable Test Packer The packer isolates the interval to be tested from the fluid in the annulus. The DST tools can then be laid out and the upper part of the safety joint run back in the hole with fishing jar to allow more powerful jarring action. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 Perforated Joint/Ported Sub 0 REVISION The perforated joint or ported sub allows wellbore fluids to enter the test string if the tubing conveyed perforating system is used. The valve usually has a flapper type closure mechanism which opens to allow fluid bypass but closes when applying tubing pressure for testing purposes. should be chosen for firing the guns Safety Joint Installed above a retrievable packer.
This enables the tubing to be pressure tested several times while running in hole. Downhole Tester Valve The downhole tester valve provides a seal from pressure from above and below. It is actuated by applying a pre-set annulus pressure which shears a disc or pins allowing a mandrel to move and expose the circulating ports. but should be regarded as the minimum. They are non-rotating to allow torque for setting packers or operating the safety joint.p. The valve is operated by pressuring up on the annulus. 3 . One example of this is a system where the reversing sub is combined with two ball valves to make a single shot sampler/safety valve. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 Hydraulic Jar 0 REVISION The jar is run to aid in freeing the packer if it becomes stuck. providing better pressure data. Multiple Operation Circulating Valve This tool enables the circulation of fluids closer to the tester valve whenever necessary as it can be opened or closed on demand and is generally used to install an underbalance fluid for brining in the well. This reversing sub can also be used in combination with a test valve module if a further safety valve is required.A. Normally two stands of 4 /4 ins drill collars (46. The tubing operated versions require several pressure cycles before the valve is shifted into the circulating position. Single Operation Reversing Sub Produced fluids may be reversed out of the test string and the well killed using this tool. This tool is available in either annulus or tubing pressure operated versions. Eni-Agip’s preference is the annulus operated version. The downhole test valve allows downhole shut in of the well so that after-flow effects are minimised. delivering an impact to the stuck tools. Drill Collar Drill collars are required to provide a weight to set the packer. Slip Joint These allow the tubing string to expand and contract in the longitudinal axis due to changes in temperature and pressure. The jar allows an overpull to be taken on the string which is then suddenly released. and therefore must only be used at the end of the test. Once the tool has been operated it cannot be reset.8 lbs/ft) should be sufficient weight on the packer. It also has a secondary function as a safety valve.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 79 OF 295 ENI S.
Pressure Operated Bypass Valve This allows the test string to be stabbed into the packer in an un-performed well. Sub-Surface Safety Valve A subsurface safety valve is often run for safety being placed at least 100 ft below the mud line. Some versions required by other operators are installed in the string immediately below a surface test tree in the BOP stack arrangement but this does not provide safety in the ultimate catastrophic situation when there is a collision by another vessel.4. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 Crossovers 0 REVISION Crossovers warrant special attention. they need to be tested and fully certified. Tools Utilised With Permanent Packer Systems A permanent or permanent retrievable packer arrangement is used on a Jack-up or Land Rig test utilising a production Xmas tree. they must be checked with each mating item of equipment before use. Tubing Hanger This will be spaced out to position the packer seal assembly into the packer and land off in the tubing hanger spool.A. The valve is very similar to the circulating valve (bypass valve) except it is closed by annulus pressure instead of weight. In addition.5. 3.4. preventing the sump from being pressured up due to the volume of the seal assembly entering the packer. Fluted Hanger The fluted hanger lands off and sits in the wear bushing of the wellhead and is adjustable to allow the SSTT assembly to be correctly positioned in the BOP stack so that when the SSTT is disconnected the shear rams can close above the disconnect point. The tool equalises pressure between the sump and the annulus when the tester valve is closed. The designs can be like a modified lubricator valve or a completion type subsurface safety valve. they are of the utmost importance as they connect every piece of equipment in the test string which have differing threads.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 80 OF 295 ENI S. slick joint. and sub-sea test tree.4.p. If the tester valve can be run in the open position then this valve is not required. . A control line is run to the valve through a conventional tubing hanger/spool arrangement. Sub-Sea Test Tools Used On Semi-Submersibles The sub-sea test tree (SSTT) assembly includes a fluted hanger. 3. If crossovers have to be manufactured.
Deep Water Tools Retainer Valve The retainer valve is installed immediately above the SSTT on tests in extremely deep waters to prevent large volumes of well fluids leaking into the sea in the event of a disconnect. regaining control without killing the well. This valve eliminates the need to have a long lubricator to accommodate wireline tools above the surface test tree swab valve.4. The valves hold pressure from below. The lubricator valve is hydraulic operated through a second umbilical line and should be either a fail closed or. . fail-in-position valve. under most circumstances be reconnected.p.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 81 OF 295 ENI S. but open when a differential pressure is applied from above. disconnection of the landing string from the test string due to an emergency situation or for bad weather. It is usually run in conjunction with a deep water SSTT described below. the shut off of pressure in the test string and. Lubricator Valve The lubricator valve is run one stand of tubing below the surface test tree. a latch assembly. When closed it will contain pressure from both above and below. It also acts as a safety device when. When closed it will contain pressure from both above and below 3.6. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 Slick Joint (Polished Joint) 0 REVISION The slick joint (usually 5ins OD) is installed above the fluted hanger and has a smooth (slick) outside diameter around which the BOP pipe rams can close and sustain annulus pressure for DST tool operation or. contain annulus pressure. it can prevent the full unloading of the contents in the landing string after closing of the SSTT.A. The slick joint should be positioned to allow the two bottom sets of pipe rams to be closed on it and also allow the blind rams to close above the disconnect point of the SSTT. if in an emergency disconnection. The latch contains the control ports for the hydraulic actuation of the valves and the latch head. the valve assembly consisting of two fail safe closed valves and. allowing safe killing of the well without hydraulic control if unlatched. The SSTT is constructed in two parts. It is hydraulic operated and must be a fail-open or fail-in-position valve. The control umbilical is connected to the top of the latch which can. Sub-Sea Test Tree The SSTT is a fail-safe sea floor master valve which provides two functions. in the event of a gas escape at surface.
when they change to very short time intervals where this facility is required. the tool operating procedures would be included in the test programme. The Hydraulic Deep Water Actuator is a fast response controller for the deepwater SSTT and retainer valve.p. The problem then is to dump or ignore data points which are not relevant to data gathering. Downhole Pressure Recording The complete sequence of events are recorded by bottom-hole pressure gauges and some flow data may also be recorded on surface read-out systems. with the modern type gauges. Other gauges. 3. such as opening or shutting in the well. the use of dynamic positioning vessels require much faster SSTT unlatching than that available with the normal hydraulic system on an SSTT.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 82 OF 295 ENI S. . with the large memory electronic gauges on the market today. The gauges record the events from initial running of the test string to well kill and retrieval procedures although. termed ‘smart’ gauges can be programmed to collect data at moderate time intervals until they detect a quick pressure change. they may be programmed to ‘sleep’ while the string is being installed as it wastes memory. this is not necessary as they have sufficient memory to record at fast intervals throughout even long term tests without running out of memory. If a programme required deepwater test tools.4. However. The fluid is vented into the annulus or an atmospheric tank to reduce the lag time and reducing closure time to seconds. This system uses hydraulic power from accumulators on the tree controlled electrically from surface (MUX). Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 Deep Water SSTT 0 REVISION As exploration moves into deeper and remote Subsea locations. This is overcome by use of the deepwater SSTT which has an Electro-Hydraulic control system. The slow actuation is due to hydraulic lag time when bleeding off the control line against friction and the hydrostatic head of the control fluid.7.A.
the wells must be produced at the normal rates. results are reported as oil production rate. . Well production tests may be classified as follows: • • • Periodic Productivity or Deliverability Transient Pressure. scale build-up in perforations.p.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 83 OF 295 ENI S. From the well and reservoir viewpoint. etc. details of artificial lift system operation and all other effects on the well producing capability should be recorded. Transient pressure tests require a higher degree of sophistication and are used to determine formation damage or stimulation related to an individual well. or recompletion. WELL PRODUCTION TEST OBJECTIVES 0 REVISION The main objective of well production varies from simple determination of the amount and type of fluids produced to sophisticated transient pressure determinations of reservoir parameters and hetrogenities. Results may set production allowables. Engineers need to make themselves familiar with the various test procedures and know their advantages and limitations in order for them to fully utilise them to optimise the design of completions. In short. with careful recording of the conditions is essential. sand build-up. gas-oil ratio and water oil ratio as a percentage of water in the total liquid stream. It is important that the well is produced at its normal conditions as flow rate will vary the relative quantities of oil. casing pressure. Abnormal production declines may also indicate artificial lift problems. gas and water produced by individual wells under normal producing conditions. etc. Similar to oil wells. volume and hetrogenities. pressure. Productivity or deliverability tests are usually performed on initial completion. On gas wells. or reservoir parameters such as permeability. routine are less common as each well normally has individual measuring capability. Periodic production tests have the purpose of determining the relative quantities of oil. 3.5. they provide periodic physical well conditions where unexpected changes such as extraneous water or gas production may highlight well or reservoir problems. Gas production is reported as well as condensate and water. security of power fluid or gas lift gas supply. Potential production problems should be recognised in order that they can be properly handled such as emulsions. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 3. well tests are tools which can be used to help establish the condition of production or injection wells. Accuracy in measurement. On oil wells.1. gas and water. to determine the capability of the well under various degrees of pressure drawdown. gas and water produced under normal producing conditions. tubing pressures. Choke size.A.5. Descriptions of some of these tests are described earlier in this section. They serve as an aid in well and reservoir operation and meeting legal and regulatory requirements. Periodic Tests Production tests are carried out routinely to physically measure oil. aid in selections of well completion methods and design of artificial lift systems and production facilities.
5.p. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 3. Transient Tests Radial Flow Characteristics Flow from reservoirs are characterised as transient.A.3. pwf. they permit prediction of what a well could produce at other pressure drawdowns.1 or in Section 3. These tests are described in Section 2.2.4. This is then used to predict the PI (Refer to Section 2.5. During this the production conditions at the wellbore change rapidly and the BHPF.4.4. they can be classified as: • • Flow-After-Flow Isochronal. 3. Transient flow occurs when the well is initially opened or has a significant rate change. depending on whether the pressure response initiated by opening the well had reached the drainage area boundary and on the type of boundary. decreases exponentially with time. however include the effects of formation damage.1 above. Most DSTs and many production tests are conducted under transient flow conditions and consequently the observed productivity will often appear greater than that seen in long term production. This means that corrections need to made to compensate for transient flow behaviour as well as for skin effects. Productivity Or Deliverability Tests 0 REVISION This test is different from the periodic test in that the liquid flow performance can be determined empirically using measured flow rates at varying bottom-hole pressure drawdowns and they do not rely on mathematical descriptions of the flow process. Gas well deliverability tests are designed to establish AOFP.1) and are successfully applied to non-Darcy conditions. These tests are described in Section 2.4. Termed multi-point backpressure tests.1 or in Section 3. therefore can be used as an indicator of well flow conditions or a basis for simple comparison of completion effectiveness among wells in a particular reservoir. With a limited number of measurements. and is a result of the pressure disturbance moving out towards the outer boundary of the drainage area.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 84 OF 295 ENI S. Commonly used deliverability tests for oil wells may be classified as: • • • • Productivity Index Inflow Performance Flow-After-Flow Isochronal. They do. . They do not permit calculation of formation permeability or the degree of abnormal flow restrictions (formation damage) near the wellbore.4. pseudo-steady state or steady state flow.1 above.
They minimise wellbore storage effects and phase segregation effects so provide good results where build-up or drawdown tests would not.DST tests. production continues as the test is being carried out. Each type presents certain advantages and limitations and factors which are important for reasonable results.steady state. Accurate flow rate and pressure measurement is essential and more critical than on buildup or drawdown tests.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 85 OF 295 ENI S. Transient pressure testing and calculation procedures for oil wells are particularly well covered in SPE Monograph No. If the boundary is a constant pressure boundary. flow becomes steady state or pseudo. 5 .Advances in Well Test Analysis. then PR will decline purely as a result of depletion and the flow is then termed pseudo-steady state. then PR will not alter with time and is termed steady state. a series of constant rates or constant bottom-hole pressure with continually changing flow rate. The analysis procedure is direct and simple but computations are more troublesome and are often conducted by computer software. When the BHFP appears to be constant or declining slowly proportionally with time.g. and an estimate can be made of the reservoir volume in communication with the wellbore. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 0 REVISION When the flow reaches the outer boundary.p. However if it is a no-flow boundary. the well is stabilised and pseudo-steady state flow equations can be used to predict the long term deliverability of a well. Therefore. the ‘Reservoir Limit Test’ can be used to estimate if there is sufficient hydrocarbons in place to justify additional wells in a new reservoir. e. Multiple rate analysis can be applied to several flow situations.1 . Multiple rate tests have the advantage of providing transient test data without the need for well shut-in. Pressure Build-Up Tests Pressure build-up tests are described earlier in Section 3.A. The rate changes must be significant enough to effect the transient pressure behaviour. uncontrolled variable rates. Pressure Drawdown Testing Pressure drawdown tests have advantages over pressure build-up tests.4. Multiple Rate Testing Pressure build-up or drawdown tests require a constant flow rate which is sometimes difficult to achieve over a long period of time. . Transient pressure tests are classified as: • • • • • Pressure Build-up Pressure Drawdown Multiple Rate Injectivity or Fall-off Multiple Well Interference.
. therefore. A stepped rate injectivity test can be carried out to estimate fracture pressure in an injection well which is useful in tertiary flood applications to avoid accidental injection of expensive fluid into uncontrolled fractures. The injectivity parallels the drawdown test and a pressure fall-off test parallels the build-up test. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 Injection Well Tests 0 REVISION Injection well transient testing is basically simple provide the mobility of the injected fluids is similar to the in-situ fluids. Calculation of reservoir characteristics is similar. accurate pressure monitoring devices are required. Vertical pulse testing may indicate vertical formation continuity. a long duration rate change in one well creates a pressure change in an observation well that is related to reservoir characteristics. Using computers the data can be analysed to give a description of the variation in reservoir properties according to location. The responses may be very small.p.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 86 OF 295 ENI S.A. Orientation and length of vertical fractures may be estimated through pulse testing and reservoir simulation techniques. A pulse test is an interference test that provides data by changing production rate in a cyclic manner to produce short term pressure pulses which are measured in the observation well(s). Interference Tests (multiple well testing) In interference testing.
This is a design which provides the greatest flexibility to live well intervention operations as the completion is full bore allowing regular tools to be run and used in the sump area eliminating the use of through-tubing devices. In highly productive wells. through which the well will be completed and controlled throughout its life. or combination of strings. This larger tubing reduces friction losses. The production casing and its cement isolates the producing intervals to facilitate reservoir control. A drilled through casing and liner. This gives live well interventions much more scope to conduct stimulation. there is a limit to the size of production casing which can be provided. etc.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 87 OF 295 ENI S. e. DRILLING CONSIDERATIONS These are primarily the responsibility of drilling engineering. as is obvious in deep high pressure wells. However today. offshore. the completions engineer would always prefer the largest casing possible to provide the flexibility in well interventions.p. figure 4. . 4. etc.1. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 0 REVISION 4. plugging back. Casing Profile The surface and intermediate casings are designed to provide well control and borehole stability during the drilling operation. the production casing size may be swedged to accommodate larger tubing and completion equipment (i. If there were a choice. anchor the completion equipment and act as a safety barrier to the uncontrolled emission of hydrocarbons. production casing sizes are typically 7ins or 1 3 5 5 /2ins.1.e. the popularity of the mono-bore completion. it is a completion design parameter. which may have required a workover in previous times. CASING DESIGN Refer to the Drilling Design and Casing Design Manuals for all casing design policies and criteria. TRSSV’s with control line) near surface or a hot string of isolated pipe. 9 /8ins and 7ins are the common sizes (Refer to the Casing Design Manual). In high rate and offshore wells. where a large size tubing mates to a similar size liner utilising a PBR or similar type system. These manuals provide the policies and design procedures for both exploration and development wells. however the production department provide the design parameters to the drilling engineers. In low rate and deep land wells.A.1. workovers and re-completions with artificial lift.a shows these various casing profile options. However. straddle packing-off gassed out zones. 4. The decision whether to run a liner or not primarily lies with the drilling engineer however the impact of the completion needs to thoroughly considered.g. The production casing is usually: • • A full string of pipe cemented at TD. The size of the production casing is primarily dictated to accommodate the optimum size of completion tubing and equipment. The production casing is the string. 10 /4ins. and/or artificial lift systems.
A .1. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 0 REVISION Figure 4. will have similar specification to the tubing in order to combat corrosion from produced fluids. However.A. production casing or liner below the production packer or liner hanger PBR system. Casing exposed to H2S will have a specification in accordance to NACE MR01-75. Casing Specifications Design criteria and casing specifications are fully described in the ‘Casing Design Manual’.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 88 OF 295 ENI S.Casing Schemes and Terminology 4. in general.p. Specifically with regard to metallurgy.2. it is Eni-Agip’s policy to use standard service production casing where there is a casing tubing annulus as the tubing is designed for the well environment and isolates the production casing. The crossover between the two different materials must be selected in order that there is no localised erosion. Casing above the packer is exposed to the completion or packer fluid which must be chemically dosed to prevent any corrosion although. only a biocide and possibly corrosion inhibitor needs to be added. .
Usually production casing is held in tension but this may not be adequate enough in high temperature and thermal wells to prevent buckling. Casing Connections 0 REVISION Where an annulus is to be used as a production conduit for gas production. Completion tools or equipment operated by different methods must be adopted.250psi. the turning radius for an open hole or liner may be short but a long radius is required for gravel packing or installation of pre-packed screens.A. Some operators specify premium connections if the wellhead pressure is to be above 5.2. An overpull is often required especially if the casing is not cemented into the previous shoe. Although the drilling of highly deviated and horizontal wells is now commonplace it should o be noted that in wells above 70 deviation.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 89 OF 295 ENI S. For instance. Any anomalies found in the deviation survey needs to be communicated to the completion engineer to ensure that all potential problems are analysed and will not impede the completion of the well. many operators drill ‘S’ shaped profiles with drop off through the pay zone for critical wells. WELL DEVIATION SURVEYS A well directional survey must be carried out to ensure the tolerances for well deviation and doglegs have not been exceeded as the installation of the completion is sensitive to angle and getting fairly large diameter tubing through casing doglegs as well as placing extreme bending loads on the tubing. This is due to the poor performance of the API Buttress Thread. To help overcome these problems.3. injection or gas lift supply.p.000psi. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 4. cementing. gravel packing and the completion process as wireline cannot be used above this limit. The main problem in casing design of producing wells over exploration wells is the increased temperature. there are problems with logging. . 4. Refer to the ‘Directional Control and Surveying Procedures Manual’ and the ‘Casing Design Manual’. however this does not satisfy all situations. The method of drilling horizontal wells also needs to be considered by the drilling engineer as the turning radius will be dependant upon the completion method employed.1. a premium thread connection should be used to reduce the risk of leakage especially if the pressure is above circa 1.
o Cement strength loss due to high temperatures (<230 F) when using normal Portland cement.A. excessive movement due to pressure or temperature and external corrosion. In general. 4. fluid properties and pressures. temperatures. channelling and micro-annuli may be formed which are paths through which the formation fluids can flow. The main problems associated with primary cementing are: • • • • • • • Channelling of the cement and bypassing of mud due to pipe eccentricity and poor fluid rheology. Dissolution of evaporites by the cement. A cement job which does not successfully flush out the drilling fluid in front of the cement and. Poor cement procedure leading to gas entry or cross flow.1. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 4. and to isolate higher weaker formations from well pressures. Thermal wells are normally cemented to surface to avoid this problem.3. The cement column should extend well past (circa 500m) above the highest pay zone but also cover aquifers or any other potential producing zones. Poor formation bonding due to lack of mud cake removal. prevent movement of formation fluids along the well path for reservoir control. Production Casing Cementing The minimum cement column height requirements will depend upon local regulations. Use the highest practical displacement velocities. Condition the mud correctly. however this is not possible in high rate offshore wells where temperature increase in the casing/tubing annulus on the trapped fluids causes pressure which cannot be bled off at surface. Use cement with an API high temperature/high pressure fluid loss of less than 3 3 200cm /30 min for high permeability oil wells and 50cm /30min for gas wells.p. Failure to cement washouts. using a good fluids programme and adopting good operating procedures. A minimum lap of 100m is normal. The cement also acts to support and protect the casing from buckling.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 90 OF 295 ENI S. Use a 500ft low viscosity spacer with surfactant if required. This problem can be alleviated by thorough planning. formation properties. . Cement dehydration opposite high temperature zones. the list of recommendations given below will help improve the success of zonal isolation: • • • • • • Drill the hole within gauge. operating conditions.3. and bonding between the cement and the formation. Use a thin slurry at the front end. CASING CEMENTING CONSIDERATIONS 0 REVISION The primary function of the cement around the production casing is to isolate individual formations to provide selectivity. if there is poor bonding between the outside of the pipe and the cement. therefore is allowed to bleed off at the casing shoe. Many operators prefer to cement up inside the previous casing shoe to provide even greater support and protection. eccentric loading.
0 REVISION Design the programme so as the cement has a minimum contact time of 4 mins at all points where zonal isolation is needed. Pipe reciprocation should be used or otherwise rotation. The cement column should extend 1. Use batch mixing whenever possible.200ft above the top of the pay zone. Generally there is ambivalence shown towards the results of cement bond evaluation logs and unless they show extremely poor conditions.A. which uses eight helically mounted sensors to scan the cement and provides a measurement of the compressive strength which should in theory give a better detection. . they tend to be ignored especially as repair of cement jobs is very difficult to conduct successfully. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 • • • • • • 4.2.3. Ensure quality control of the cement formulation is strict. However.p. This is carried out by running a cement bond log (CBL-VDL) which is an acoustic device that looks for channelling. Centralise the casing in the pay zone. formation/liner or casing/liner annulus. the tool averages the condition around the circumference of the casing and sometimes fails to detect small channels. the quality of the cement should be evaluated.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 91 OF 295 ENI S. Production Casing Cement Evaluation To ensure that the cement programme has been successfully isolated the formation/casing. A more recent tool is the Schlumberger CET.
it should never be forgotten that. anticipated well problems and cost. To enable this process. now need to be developed. particularly: • • • Reservoir and wellbore interface.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 92 OF 295 ENI S. This means that the SOR must be established. the conceptual designs have been developed and the optimum well performance determined. Casing and tubing interface. environment. However this cannot be carried out in isolation as well servicing and workover philosophies as well as the completion installation process need to be considered. artificial lift method (if applicable). that satisfy the above. it is necessary to describe the basic architectural components of a completion. completions should be kept as simple in design as possible to minimise the installation risks and costs.A. Tubing and wellhead interface. . The completion structure and procedures.p. Refer to figure 5. Although the tools are available to provide the most complex completions to solve severe production or mechanical problems and meet the specific objectives. WELL COMPLETION DESIGN The aim of this section is now to develop the structure of the completion based on the work carried out according to the previous sections. in principle.a The solutions adopted will vary according on the well objectives. location. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 0 REVISION 5.
Completion Design Interface Classification Options . Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 0 REVISION Figure 5.A .ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 93 OF 295 ENI S.p.A.
1.1.1. Secondary Targets Potential secondary or re-completion targets need to be identified and included in the SOR because if they are not considered. The effects of partial peforating need to be considered on the well IPR. Minimum Zone Separation The main cementing service companies are able to provide information on the minimum separation by good cement between zones for effective hydraulic under differential depletion conditions. The downside of using multiple completions is there complexity.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 94 OF 295 ENI S. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 5. they may be inadvertently isolated behind a liner lap or shoe track. If fracture stimulation is planned the separation distance is approximately three times greater. Special attention must be given to layers with great in permeability variations to determine differential depletion. They should be treated as a normal pay zone which will be left unperforated.b below. Wells with gas cap or water drive reservoirs which need to be produced at controlled rates may also be candidates for a multiple completion.g. Distance From Fluid Contacts The distance of producing interval from fluid contacts may influence the offtake rate and the perforating policy. etc. by using a multiple-string completion.A. This can be achieved by drilling a well into each zone which is extremely costly. These aspects need to be considered as does perforating the lower sections in downdip wells in flank and bottom water drive reservoirs. FACTORS INFLUENCING COMPLETION DESIGN Reservoir Considerations Production Zone Isolation 0 REVISION Consideration of reservoir management and regulatory requirements will determine the zonal isolation in thick pay zones (<30m) or multiple-zone completions. between production packers. however for the short term gain there may be increased penalties later with increased gas or water production which may need to be plugged off by a well intervention. It is obviously economically attractive to perforate high permeable sections close to fluid contacts. A guideline chart for recommended isolation depth is shown in Fig figure 5. . The effect of bridge plug setting and completion equipment lengths on zonal isolation must be considered as they may demand longer separation intervals. then it may be more economic to segregate production. e. cost and installation. 5.p. or as more likely. With zones of have significant different inflow performance characteristics.
. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 0 REVISION Figure 5. Casing guns standard perforating lengths are 5. The use of tubing conveyed means that great lengths can be installed and fired simultaneously. and underbalanced if desired. 30 and 40ft. To create an underbalance for other runs.B .Guideline for Length of Cemented Interval Required for Zonal Isolation Interval Length The interval length should be determined by reservoir requirements as perforating lengths can be adjusted to suit. Wireline guns are run and fired sequentially therefore only the first perforations can be carried out with a static underbalance. although deploying and retrieving these long lengths may impact on safety and needs use of a safe deployment method. however one (or more sections) can be partially loaded.A.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 95 OF 295 ENI S. This is particularly useful on perforated horizontal wells. 10 and 15ft and through tubing guns 20.p. the well needs to flowed which carries a risk of the guns being ‘blown’ up the hole.
1 and 4. The type of production packer selected is dependent upon its application and installation method due to hole angle. etc.A.1. whether it is single trip. 5. Safety Considerations Safety of the personnel and well site installation are paramount in completion design and the completion procedures.p.2. Entry into liner laps in high angles are also problematic. . Whenever possible and economical. is a mechanical barrier which is safer for BOP removal.2. Downhole safety valves are installed as per the En-Agip company policy given in section 8. especially when running the completion from a moving floater so consideration needs to be given to the procedure or by using an automatic mule shoe. To this end it is important to carry out the procedures to prepare the well by cleaning it and displacing to clean completion fluids and checking the internal drift. Downhole packers in the completion string which anchor the tubing are barriers used to protect the annulus from well pressures and corrosion from well fluids although operationally they also isolate gas lift gas or pump power fluids from formation pressures in gas lift and pump completions. With completions large tubing sizes. Refer to section 8. Mechanical Considerations 0 REVISION The main mechanical influence on completion design is the casing profile and deviation discussed previously in sections 4.3. this may mean running of a tapered casing string to accommodate the TRSV and control line.1 for the Eni-Agip Company policy on the use of packers.2. Modern compact or high performance wellheads are preferred over the traditional spool systems as the completion may be installed with out BOP removal (Refer to the ‘Drilling Design Manual’).ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 96 OF 295 ENI S.1. It is essential that sufficient clearance is available to allow the completion to fit comfortably inside the casing profile.1. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 5. once it is tested. perforated completions should be used over open hole for well control as the casing.
c). Standard perforated Fracture Stimulation Cased hole gravel packs • 5. A hole is now drilled through the formation exposing it to the wellbore.p.2.A. Slotted pipe Wire wrapped screens Open hole gravel packs Perforated completions. They maximise the fracture intersections and inflow potential due to the large surface area if drilling and completion damage is avoided. An open hole completions can subsequently be converted to a liner completion to overcome the selectivity problem. Often referred to as a ‘barefoot’ completions. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 5.2. The well is now completed with no casing set across the formation (Refer to figure 5.1. RESERVOIR-WELLBORE INTERFACE 0 REVISION There are three reservoir-wellbore interface options which can be further classified into seven major alternatives in completion architecture (Refer to figure 5.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 97 OF 295 ENI S.a): • • Open hole completions Uncemented liner completions. the method of completion entails drilling down to a depth just above the producing formation and setting the production casing. However they provide little or no selectivity in reservoir management to reduce unwanted water or gas production. Open Hole Completions Their use is predominately in thick carbonate or hard sandstone reservoirs that produce from fracture systems or thin permeable streaks which are difficult to identify on logs and are easily damaged by drilling and cementing operations. The decision process depends on four key issues: • • • • Is there a risk of causing damage to well productivity with a cased and perforated completion ? Is zonal selectivity required ? Is fracture stimulation required ? Is there any potential sand production ? .
C .c). Uncemented Liner Completions Uncemented liners are used to overcome production problems associated with open hole completions and to extend their application to other types of formations. The formation is supported by a either a slotted liner.2. sand screen or is gravel packed (Refer to figure 5. The selection process depends on four key issues is the same as for open hole completions: • • • • Is there a risk of causing damage to well productivity with a cased and perforated completion ? Is zonal selectivity required ? Is fracture stimulation required ? Is there any potential sand production ? . they still have the same selectivity and undesired fluid problems.A.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 98 OF 295 ENI S.Open Hole and Uncemented Liner Interface Options 5.2. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 0 REVISION Figure 5. Although they have some advantages over open hole.p.
Type of gravel packer and will it double as the production packer ? Slotted Liner This type of completion entails a liner with flow slots machined throughout its length installed below the production casing. Gravel pack design with regard to grain size.1. length of blank pipe. The stability of the hole during under-reaming and the limitations this may impose on hole angle and screen length. or millable.5ins on OD) and whether centralisers should be expandable. When properly installed. it is the most effective sand control measure for weak sandstones and unconsolidated rocks. It also helps in liquid lift due to the smaller flow area. volumes.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 99 OF 295 ENI S. The open hole is under-reamed to remove drilling damage and to create a larger annulus for the filter sized gravel to pack against the formation wall. External Gravel pack An open hole gravel pack is used where the sands are too fine or abrasive for a plain screen. solid type. and finer slots or pre-packed screens for filtering and for uniform sized sands. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 0 REVISION If a slotted liner or plain screen is to be used. and how the LCM can be subsequently removed before gravel packing. etc. Clearance required for washover (1 . Is gravel packing more suitable alternative ? • • • For open hole gravel packs.016mm. The location of the packer and packer tailpipe. however carries more risk than a cased hole gravel pack. a designer must also consider: • • Whether to use the more expensive and finer wire wrapped screen or slotted pipe. reserve volume. . Slot width requirement which is dependent on the sand size and stability.p. Wire Wrapped Screen A plain wire wrapped screen is used either as a simple filter to strain out small amounts of intermittently produced sand from a relatively stable formation or as a sand retention screen where high permeability. The slot widths can range between 0.A. coarse sands would readily flow onto the screen forming a rubble zone.254 . A slot width that would retain the coarsest 10% of the sand is common practice in heavy oil wells with coarser slots for light oil wells. A slotted liner is used where there is a risk of wellbore instability to maintain a bore through the formation which otherwise might collapse and plug off all production.1. fluid viscosity and control objectives. the following additional issues need to be considered: • • • • Loss circulation control during under-reaming and tripping.
casing guns. ultra deep penetration or stimulation treatments. Deep penetrating perforating charges are generally used especially in hard rock. a large flow area must be achieved by using ‘big hole’ charges with the maximum shot density (dependent on gun size). Since the gravel has an finite permeability. . and perforating method. with the shot density dependent upon the vertical permeability and layer frequency. Fracture Stimulation Fracture stimulation is used to increase the effective sandface area and to provide a high permeability flow path to the wellbore increasing the IPR from low permeability rocks (<25md). Completion fluids programme selection with regard to fluid quality and formation damage. The deep penetrating charges are desired to perforate through the damage zone cause by the drilling or completing process. gun type.d). Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 5. standard. The key issues in cased hole completion design are: • • • • Perforated interval selection. the cased hole gravel is placed between the cased hole and the sand screen. e. etc. the deliverability requirements and method of perforating.p.A. through tubing guns or TCP. ideally. increased safety and convenience that they provide.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 100 OF 295 ENI S. shot density. Perforating underbalance may also improved perforation clean-up. flexibility. underbalance or overbalance. high shot density. Type of formation and if special perforating techniques are required. with the gravel forced into the perforations holding the formation sand in place. Cased Hole Gravel Pack Cased hole gravel pack completions are used to control sand production in perforated completions. i.e. Standard Perforated Casing Completions These are used when the rock is reasonably stable and permeable. Perforated Completions 0 REVISION This type of completions are the most common world-wide due to the selectivity.g. Effective zonal isolation due to cement quality and distance between zones. The risk in fracture stimulation is that the fractures will more than likely not be contained within the pay zone and the casing cementing programme completion equipment rating.3. fracture stimulation and cased hole gravel pack (Refer to figure 5. There are three subdivisions.2. would need to be designed with the additional loading of the stimulation operation. Unlike the open hole gravel pack. lower costs.
Multi-Zone Completions There are four main methods of completing multi-zone wells (Refer to figure 5.p.e): • • Commingled production allowing all zones to produce together.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 101 OF 295 ENI S. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 0 REVISION Figure 5. Multi-string (dual) multi-zone segregated production using parallel strings using concentric strings.D . Single string multi-zone segregated production by initial (or eventual) commingling by sequential (or alternating) production.2.Perforated Casing Interface Options 5.4. • • . Sequential zonal production through live well intervention methods by re-completion.A.
Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 Commingled Production 0 REVISION Commingled production is only allowable is limited instances where there are no reservoir management problems and regulatory rules allow. Either parallel strings or concentric strings can be used. however there is a trade off in that flow efficiency of the deeper zones and depth access for artificial lift and well killing will be compromised. They can often double an individual wells productivity for a reasonably low cost increment. Single String Multi-Zone Production These provide easy methods of bring on other fresh zones when the first zone experiences production problems. They may also be used for reservoir management. Some operators use the casing tubing annulus as another flow conduit but this is subject to individual operator philosophy and regulatory rules dictating.p. however. Concentric strings may yield higher flow capability but obviously no downhole safety valve can be installed in the outer tubing. the zones are depleted from the bottom upwards and temporarily suspended or abandoned sequentially and then the next higher zone completed. to economics. but generally they are not economic as they are too restrictive of well capacity. reservoir management and regulatory requirements. If zones are close together. . the initial completion can be installed to allow plugging and perforating of each zone by well intervention methods. etc. If artificial lift is required parallel strings would normally be needed. Triple strings and indeed quadruple string have been used in the past.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 102 OF 295 ENI S. by allowing commingling or individual section production at different stages in the wells life in order to maximise the full potential of the reservoir. In this method. An option is to conduct a workover pulling the tubing and re-completing by moving the packer depth upwards. completion designers prefer to use single string/single zone completion methods for mutli-zone situations. Sequential Zonal Production Due to its simplicity and ease of installation. This preference is subject. reduce excessive gas. Downhole chokes or regulators can be installed to control flow from each zone when commingling to prevent cross-flow.A. Dual String Multi-Zone Production Dual string multi-zone completions are often used offshore or on stacked reservoirs where the production rate is per zone is limited by inflow performance and the previous methods described above would be uneconomic.
A.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 103 OF 295 ENI S. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 0 REVISION Figure 5.Multi-Zone Completions .p.E .
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STAP-P-1-M-7100 5.3. CASING-TUBING INTERFACE 0
There are three main casing-tubing interface options which have six sub-divisions (Refer to figure 5.f): • Packerless completions Anchored Unanchored Tubingless. Packer Completions Shallow set Deep set. PBR Completions Liner hanger.
Packers and PBRs are required to provide a seal between the tubing and production casing or liner for the following reasons: • • • • • • • • • To isolate the casing-tubing annulus from well fluids and pressure acting as a barrier on the annulus side. To prevent heading in the annulus improving flow conditions. Prevent annulus corrosion from well fluids. To allow the annulus to be used for supplying artificial lift fluids or injection of inhibitors. To allow the annulus to be used for production (if permitted). To isolate liner laps or casing leaks. To anchor the tubing if no tubing movement is desired. To facilitate well operations through having wireline nipples in a tailpipe, e.g. well plugging, BHP gauge positioning, etc. To protect formations from damage from well intervention or workover fluids by plugging in the tailpipe.
Some onshore low pressure wells are completed without a packer or liner PBR as the risk of damage to the wellhead, hence the risk of injury to personnel and pollution of the environment, is low. This has both advantages and disadvantages. There is one barrier less on the annulus side and the casing may be exposed to corrosive well fluids and the well pressure even if it is low and some operators do not allow this practice. On the other hand, on pump completions it is useful for venting off gas. It is essential for plunger lift completions which uses annulus gas as its energy source for unloading liquids. Tubingless completions, i.e. wells which use a small diameter casing or a tubing as the production casing, offers serious well control problems as there is no downhole safety at all. These are used on low rate, low pressure wells but are not allowed by most operating companies.
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Anchored tubing completions are used on rod pumpers to keep the tubing in tension so that the reciprocation of the rods does not cause buckling on the upstroke and stretch on the downstroke unless the well is shallow and annulus clearance is small. Packer completions are the most popular due to their flexibility in the options in which they are available and their ability to be installed in an exact position at any desired depth compared to the liner PBR. The liner PBR completion offers a larger through bore than a packer option and, therefore are used in high rate wells and mono-bore completions where full bore access is gained to he formation. The liner PBR interface should not be confused with the packer PBR system which although is exactly the same in basic design, is used for packer-tubing sealing and catering for tubing movement.
Figure 5.F - Casing-Tubing Interfaces
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STAP-P-1-M-7100 5.3.1. Packer Applications 0
Packer application with regard to completion design is addressed in this section as there are some basic features which affect the completion architecture. Although there are many varieties of packers available, there are three basic types used in completion designs: • • • Permanent Retrievable Permanent Retrievable.
Eni-Agip do not have any particular policy to the type of packer system to be used in a particular situation due to the wide range of packers available and changing technology but do operate a packer qualification system to ensure that any packer used meets with specific criteria. The packer qualification system is specified in STAP-M-1-M-5010. Retrievable Packer Systems The definition of a retrievable packer is that it is installed and retrieved on the completion tubing. They have advantages in that they can be installed in high angle wells although their operating differential pressure rating, temperature rating and bore size are less than equivalent permanent packers. It is important that designers fully consider the effects of pressure and tubing stresses on these packer systems and associated packer-tubing connections. Their packing element systems are also more sensitive to well fluids as they are more complex due to their ability to be retrieved but after redressing they can be reused. Retrievable packers tend to be used for the following applications: • • • • Completions which have relative short life span. Where there is likely to be workovers requiring full bore access. Multi-zone completions for zonal segregation. In relatively mild well conditions.
Retrievable packer setting mechanisms are by: • • • • Tubing tension Tubing compression Hydraulic pressure Tubing rotation.
Tension or compression set packers are very sensitive to tubing movement and are rarely used nowadays owing to the benefits and variety of other retrievable packers available.
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STAP-P-1-M-7100 Permanent Packer Systems 0
The definition of a permanent packer is that it is retrieved from the well by milling. Permanent packers have high differential pressure and temperature ratings and larger bores. They have many options of both tailpipe and packer-tubing attachments to cater for a large range of applications such as: • • • • • Severe or hostile operating conditions with differential pressures > 5,000psi and o temperatures in excess of 300 F and high stresses. Long life completions. Where workovers are expected to be above the packer, hence not requiring its removal which is costly. Where workovers are expected to be above the packer and the packer tailpipe can be used for plugging the well and isolating foreign fluids from the formation. Providing large bore for high rate wells.
Permanent packer setting mechanisms are by: • • • • Wireline explosive charge setting tool. Tubing tension. Hydraulic pressure by workstring setting tool or on the completion string. Tubing rotation.
Permanent Retrievable Packer Systems Permanent retrievable packers are a hybrid of the permanent style packer designed to be retrieved on a workstring without milling. They offer similar performances as permanent packers but generally have smaller bores. All the packers above can be equipped with tailpipes to accommodate wireline downhole tools such as plugs, standing valves, BHP gauges, etc. 5.3.2. Packer-Tubing Interfaces Tubing can be interfaced with packers through three basic options: • Fixed By threaded connection to the packer mandrel as with retrievable packers. Snap latch requiring an overpull to release By an anchor latch system to a permanent packer. Free moving Seal unit in a packer bore. Seal unit in a PBR attached to the packer. Travel joint. ELTSR. Limited movement Seal unit set down in a packer bore allowing upward movement only. Closed PBR or ELTSR.
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Free movement or partial movement options are used when tubing movement must be catered for otherwise it may be over-stressed due to tubing forces found through the stress analysis (Refer to section 7). However, sometimes they suffer from premature seal failure due to being dynamic seals and if the material type has not been correctly selected for the environment and pressure differentials. To help prevent seal failure, seal units can be shear pinned in a mid open or closed position to prevent seal movement until the stresses in the tubing reach a predetermined level. The selected packer-tubing interface has a significant effect on the completion architecture especially with regard to installation procedure, well kill method, stimulation treatment and type of hanger system. The most popular packer systems are those which have ‘one trip’ installation saving extra trips by workstring or wireline to install the packer before running the completion tubing. 5.3.3. Annulus Circulation Communication between the tubing and annulus on packer type completions is consider to be beneficial to efficient well killing, maintaining a fluid barrier in the annulus, circulating kill fluid before workovers or circulating in underbalance fluids well kick off. This is the same reasons for installing kill strings in packerless completions. Circulating devices, typically sliding sleeves or sliding side doors (SSDs) installed above the top packers, are used for this purpose but they have traditionally been a weak link in design when seals material was not suited to the well conditions. This would require a workover to replace the sleeve so other devices such as SPMs are used as the seals can be recovered and replaced by wireline methods. Some operators recommend that no circulation device be used which limits the flexibility of the completion and requires a tubing punch to be used for circulation before workovers. If a circulating device is undesired but the option is to kill the well by circulation rather than bullheading, a single shot shear kill valve can be installed which is operated by annulus pressure. Annulus circulation is used for: • • • • • Displace completion fluids and Kick-Off wells. Isolation/opening of producing intervals in single selective or dual selective completions. Well killing in tight formations where bullheading might be difficult. Installation of hydraulic pumps The SSD type circulating valves are normally equipped with a landing nipple profile in the upper sub to allow installation of a straddle to stop leaks or for normal wireline nipple uses.
Product specification level PSL (Refer to API spec 6A). .API Temperature Classifications Above 250 F the working pressure is de-rated against temperature (down to o 72% of rating at 650 F. Temperature operating range. Mandrel compression hangers. Ram type tension hangers.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 109 OF 295 ENI S.p. annular safety system). tubing hanger/spool and Xmas tree. o Temperature Classification K L M P S T U PSL O Tubing Hanger Systems There are five common types of tubing hanger systems available: • • • • • Slip and seal assemblies.4. Wellhead specifications are laid out in API Specification 6A and are rated by: • • Maximum working pressure according to the maximum anticipated surface pressure.g. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 5.A. It consists of an assembly made up of casing head spools. Downhole tubing hangers (e.4.1. TUBING-WELLHEAD INTERFACE 0 REVISION The wellhead carries the casing and completion loads which is transferred to the ground through the surface casing. The casing head and tubing hanger spools are now commonly replaced by compact or unitised wellheads (Refer to the ‘Drilling Design Manual’) to reduce height and improve safety as there are less BOP removals for spool installations. oF -75 to 180 -60 to 180 -40 to 180 -20 to 180 0 to 150 0 to 180 0 to 250 -20 to 250 Table 5.A . Operating Range. Direct attachment to the Xmas tree (threaded). Retained fluid rating (Refer to section 6). mates and seals with the Xmas tree and provides annulus access to all the annuli. It also isolates the top of the tubing-casing annulus. • • 5.
extended necks or annular ring seals. Depending on the well location. . Dual hanger systems also need to be orientated to mate with the dual Xmas tree. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 0 REVISION The main consideration in hanger selection is whether the tubing is to be placed in compression or tension and/or the number of tubings. downhole chemical injection lines. i.A. Other considerations are DHSV control lines. downhole electronic gauge cables and ESP cables which are terminated by stab seals. well plugging for tree removal needs to be considered and that is usually satisfied by having a locking profile in the hanger bores.p.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 110 OF 295 ENI S. flow or supply. subsea.e. On subsea wells vertical annular access is usually required for well plugging which requires mandrel type hangers with orientation to the guide base and. hence subsea tree. either wireline nipple profile or a back pressure thread for land wells. platform or land.
API Recommended Minimum PSL for Wellhead Equipment .p.A. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 0 REVISION Figure 5.G .ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 111 OF 295 ENI S.
6 26 3/4 3000 21 1/4 5000 2.P. (psi) Top flange (in) Max.4 13 5/8 5000 5000 10000 10000 21 1/4 5000 13 5/8 5000 2.2 21 1/4 5000 20 & 18 5/8 10000 5000 5000 5000 10000 10000 2 x 2 3/8 2 x 3 1/2 3 1/2 2 x 2 3/8 2 x 2 3/8 2 x 2 3/8 DCSFSL 3 1.p.A. (psi) Top flange (in) Diam tbg (in) CASING HEAD SPOOL TUBING SPOOL TUBING HANGER CASING HEAD ENI S.P.Eni-Agip Standard Wellhead Equipment Chart PAGE (*) Typical wellhead configuration for deep wells (po Valley) REVISION 112 OF 295 . (psi) Btm (CSG) (in) ARPO MSCL 1 2.1 13 5/8 5000 9 5000 6. nr Diam (in) Max. off-shore single and dual completion class -A and class -B (STAP -M-1-SS-5701E) AGIP CODE CASING HEAD SPOOL Ref.Typical outlines for on-shore.1 13 5/8 5000 13 5/8 5000 5.4 2. (psi) Ref.nr Top flange (in) Max.8 6. W.2 13 5/8 10000 9 10000 5000 5000 5000 10000 10000 21 1/4 5000 13 5/8 5000 2. nr Max.3 13 5/8 5000 13 3/8 & 9 5/8 DCSFSL 1 1.1 13 5/8 5000 13 5/8 5000 5.2 21 1/4 5000 13 5/8 5000 2.3 13 5/8 5000 11 7 1/16 7 1/16 7 1/16 9 21 1/4 5000 13 5/8 5000 2. W. W.3 13 5/8 5000 13 3/8 & 9 5/8 MSCL 3 1.P.1 13 5/8 5000 13 5/8 5000 5.P.2 13 5/8 5000 13 5/8 10000 5.4 2.P.5 21 1/4 5000 13 5/8 5000 2.1 13 5/8 5000 9 5000 6.5 21 1/4 5000 13 5/8 21 1/4 5000 13 5/8 10000 2.7 6.4 2.9 6.2 21 1/4 5000 20 & 18 5/8 DCSFSL 2 1.B.P. W.1 2.2 13 5/8 5000 13 5/8 10000 5.3 13 5/8 5000 13 3/8 & 9 5/8 5000 5000 5000 5000 2 7/8 3 1/2 5 2 x 2 3/8 MSCL 2 1.P.P.1 2. (psi) Ref.2 13 5/8 5000 13 5/8 10000 5.4 6. W.1 13 5/8 5000 13 5/8 5000 5. (psi) Btm Flange (in) Max. W. W.2 21 1/4 5000 20 & 18 5/8 IDENTIFICATION CODE DCSO3 1. W.2 21 1/4 5000 20 & 18 5/8 STAP-P-1-M-7100 DCSO 2 1.8 13 5/8 5000 13 5/8 5000 5.3 9 9 9 11 7 1/16 7 1/16 7 1/16 9 13 5/8 5000 13 5/8 5000 5. (psi) Ref.3 13 5/8 10000 13 5/8 10000 10000 2.5 2. nr Btm Flange (in) Max. (psi) Top flange (in) Max.2 21 1/4 5000 20 & 18 5/8 (*) 24 1/2 1.4 2.4 13 5/8 13 5/8 13 5/8 21 1/4 5000 13 5/8 5000 2.2 21 1/4 5000 20 & 18 5/8 3° CASING HEAD SPOOL 10000 13 5/8 10000 1.4 2.1 13 5/8 5000 9 5000 6.2 9 13 5/8 5000 13 5/8 5000 5.5 6.4 2.6 6. Agip Division Ref.3 13 5/8 21 1/4 5000 13 5/8 5000 2.1 9 1.1 2. nr Btm flange (in) Max.1 13 5/8 5000 9 5000 6.4 2.2 21 1/4 5000 20 & 18 5/8 DCSO 1 1.1 26 3/4 3000 0 Table 5.2 21 1/4 5000 20 & 18 5/8 SCSO 1 1.
H .Typical Wellhead .ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 113 OF 295 ENI S.p.A. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 0 REVISION 4 3 2 1 20" 13 3/8" 9 5/8" 7" WP (psi) Section 1 Section 2 Section 3 Section 4 Section 5 3K (A) 470 620 472 - 3K (B) 470 620 472 - 5K (C) 470 625 472 - 5K (D) 470 690 670 581 - 10K (E) 470 690 660 700 - 10K (F) 510 850 700 700 -- 15K (G) 510 850 700 750 15K (H) 510 850 700 750 Figure 5.
Typical Unitised Wellhead and Xmas Tree . Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 0 REVISION Figure 5.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 114 OF 295 ENI S.I .p.A.
A second master valve is normally required to enable repair to any of the other tree valves with two barriers in situ (the lower master valve and the tubing hanger plug). The production wing.i.000psi) Eni-Agip normally installs an additional gate valve between the tubing spool and the Xmas tree to provide double barrier protection. Pressure losses of the offtake system must be considered in the well deliverability analysis (Refer to Section 2.4. 5. • • • • • A typical Xmas tree is shown in figure 5. The important pointers for the design engineer are: • • • Conventional composite flanged connection trees with a single master valve are the norm for land and low to moderate offshore wells.e. Metal-To-Metal Seals The purpose of metal-to-metal seals is to provide enhanced sealing where it is required in particular applications. production and kill wing sides.4.4.2. choke and flowline arrangement must be configured to meet with how the well is closed-in and opened up.A.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 115 OF 295 ENI S. which is often a remote hydraulic operated valve. The kill wing is often permanently connected up to the kill line to a permanent pump or to allow quick and easy connection of a portable pump. Policy Metal-to-metal seals shall be used in the applications outlined in the following sections. If the tree upper master valve and production wings are fully automated.3). A swab valve is an essential element to enable safe rig up of vertical well interventions by wireline. coiled tubing or snubbing services or for the BPV rod lubricator. the control system should be designed to close the wing valve first a few seconds before the upper master to avoid erosion or damage over a period of time to the upper master gate and seats as they are more difficult to repair.3. Chemical injection points are usually available at the tree or through the hanger system for downhole. 15. Xmas Trees 0 REVISION The type of Xmas tree and construction are important as they have an effect on safety and cost. .p. In very high pressure wells (i. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 5. Today it is normal to have to justify only a single master valve as the upper master is usually an ESD hydraulically operated valve which is at risk of undue wear and tear. Trees for sour service or high pressure will normally have two outlets.
000 10.000 >10. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 Application 0 REVISION The following criteria is applicable to the various conditions listed in the following tables: a) b) c) d) Between producing strings/casing/tubing hanger and tubing hanger seal flange.000 10.000 A B C D A B C D A B C D ' ' ' ' ' ' & & ' ' ' ' ' ' & ' & & ' ' ' ' & ' & & ' ' .000 Gas Injectors Sealing WP. On control line connections. Between tubing hanger and tubing spool. psi 5. psi 5. These designations A. C and D will be used in the tables in the tables below.000 A B & = NO C D ' ' ' & ' ' & & & ' ' ' Sweet Service Wells (with top hole temperature exceeding 100°C) Sealing WP. psi 5.p.000 H2S Service Wells Sealing WP. Sweet Service Wells (with top hole temperature less than 100°C) ' = YES Sealing WP.000 10.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 116 OF 295 ENI S. B. psi 5. On production casing or production liner.000 >10.A.000 10. Oil And Gas Producers These tables apply equally to onshore and offshore wells.
on an easily accessible land wells where servicing and workover methods are relatively much less costly.p. servicing can be conducted almost on demand. During this process future well servicing and maintenance will also have been planned. and may be problematic on platforms where space. Another example is on offshore subsea fields.000 10. the valve can be replaced cheaply without requiring a workover. a design life for the completion will have been established. As an example of this is horizontal completions selected to maximise initial well productivity. well servicing should be minimised as they require a floating vessel from which to deploy the re-entry system. where the stand-off from the water or gas zones increases the risk of producing early unwanted fluids.000 A B C D ' ' &(1) ' & & ' ' (1) If H2S is present it will be a YES. due to the high cost of subsea well re-entrys. In this case to the stand-off can be increased but there is a penalty in lower initial production rates.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 117 OF 295 ENI S. Well servicing or workover techniques also have an impact on the well area with regard to height and lateral space.5. FUTURE CONSIDERATIONS Built into the conceptual stage. psi 5. . height and weight are at a premium.000 A B C 0 REVISION D ' ' & ' & & ' ' Artificial Lift Wells (both onshore and offshore wells) Sealing WP. Alternately. This may lend to the selection of a wireline retrievable type safety valve rather than a tubing retrievable type as in the event of failure.000 10. psi 5. This will have included identification of the potential reasons for well interventions or workover servicing. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 Water Injectors Sealing WP. This will have an impact of the completion architecture and establish a philosophy. 5. The well location and type of development has a large impact on the techniques available and cost of well servicing and maintenance optimising the completion design around the potential problems and remedial techniques is a balancing act between effectiveness and cost. This means well life should be planned for the life of the field or as long as feasible (typically 7-10 years) although some unplanned problems may occur.A.
.p. the effects on the completion materials needs to be considered or alternatively to use coiled tubing for spotting of the acid before pumping to the formation.4). Formation Management As the fluid interfaces move through time and unwanted fluids are produced. If multi-zone multi-string completions are installed then the individual zones can simply be closed off by shutting in the well at surface or. cement squeezes and reperforating techniques are required. 5. if there are more than one zone to a string. This can be conducted by coiled tubing or snubbing services without killing the well. by opening and closing isolation sleeves.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 118 OF 295 ENI S.A. the surface pressure would demand a higher pressure rated Xmas tree than required for production only. If the costs of upgrading the well tubulars to resist these stresses are prohibitive. and need reperforating. Stimulation 0 REVISION If future stimulation operations are required such as fracturing. the effects of the pressures causing additional stresses on the tubing and packer need to be input and catered for in the tubing design process (Refer to Section 7). or as producing zones become depleted and require isolating before brining on other zones. producing zones are sometimes damaged by scale build up or movement of fines. e.2.5. etc. then straddles are sometimes utilised to keep pressure off the SCSSV and Xmas tree. It could also increase the tubing movement and alter the choice of tubing movement device and spacing out. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 5. Excessive water or gas production due to fingering which requires continuing production from lower zones can be isolated by cement squeezing or if using a monobore type completion by installing a straddle across the interval on wireline or coiled tubing methods. Where this problem has not been planned into the completion design a complete workover to re-complete may be required. If a multi-zone single string selective completion design has been installed then producing zones can be closed off or opened up by wireline techniques and hence.5. If the well has been planned for these operations then the completion may have been designed to accomplish these operations without pulling of the tubing in a workover operation. are more flexible but have higher initial capital cost. A single string sequential completion may be employed where existing perforations can be isolated simply by installation of a bridge plug on wireline but often the perforations require to be squeezed off with cement (Refer to Section 5.1.g.2. The next production zone can then be perforated using through tubing perforating techniques (Refer to Section 9). Also. If acid stimulations are planned.
Hydraulic workover cannot be deployed from any floating installation. Braided Line Braided line is used for: • • Heavy duty wireline work (installing large heavy flow controls).p.) Tubing control (drifting) Calipering Swabbing BHP pressure and temperature monitoring Electronic memory logging Opening and closing of circulation devices Perforating Fishing.3. fishing electric line). Live well interventions can be conducted by: • • • • Wireline (electric line or slickline). Snubbing. .5. standing valves. Snubbing cannot be deployed from any floating installation. chokes. Fishing (when slickline has been unsuccessful. Slickline Is probably the most widely used well servicing method and is used for: • • • • • • • • • • Mechanical well clean out (tubing and sump) Installation and retrieval of flow controls (plugs. etc. Coiled Tubing.A. Well Servicing Techniques 0 REVISION Well servicing includes live well intervention services or major workovers to pull the tubing.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 119 OF 295 ENI S. Workovers can be conducted by: • • • Workovers rigs Drilling rigs Hydraulic workover units. gas lift valves. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 5. Pumps. A specialist subsea wireline technique has been developed for subsea well interventions without using the riser re-entry system which is much quicker and less costly.
A. etc. multi-laterals) Fishing (generally when wireline has been unsuccessful). . 0 REVISION Coiled Tubing Coiled tubing (C/T) is used for: • • • • • • • • • Snubbing Snubbing is used for: • • • • • • • Stimulation (acidising) Cementing Cleaning out tubing and sump Gas lifting Installing flow controls (wireline type tools) Milling Drilling (underbalance side tracking. Stimulation (acidising) Cementing Cleaning out tubing and sump Gas lifting Logging (stiff wireline) Installing flow controls (wireline type tools) Milling Drilling (underbalance side tracking. Snubbing has found a revival with platform horizontal wells where it is used to work in long horizontal sections where C/T may not be capable. Calipering Real time BHP surveys Perforating Packer setting Installing bridge plugs. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 Electric Line Electric line is used for: • • • • • • Logging (PLT.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 120 OF 295 ENI S. multi-laterals).p.
it may be possible to accelerate offtake by the early installation of artificial lift. using the IPR for well 2. This usually means at the maximum initial flow rate and maintaining it as long as possible. However. If the PI was infinite. If the IPR curve intersects the TPCs in the region near the minimum. These changes are normally declining reservoir pressure and increasing water cut which will reduce flow rates. This trend is downwards towards cessation of flow and .A.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 121 OF 295 ENI S. the reduced fluid velocities experienced in larger tubing increase the hydrostatic head because of slippage. The choice at that time will be to reduce wellhead pressure. as tubing size increases. 1 . depending on the inflow capability (Refer to Section 2. however. fluid velocities decrease and reduces the frictional effects.j shows that the 4 /2” tubing size should be selected to ensure the offtake exceeds the target of 8. This shifts the TPC minimum to a higher rate and.6.000stb/d and perhaps even larger tubing could be investigated. As previously mentioned. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 5. one increase in API tubing size would double the maximum theoretical capacity. Pwf.000 to 9. Where high costs workovers are involved such as on subsea wells. the maximum flow rate is obtained with /2” 7 tubing but only a slight reduction in flow rate is seen if the 2 /8” tubing is selected which gives steadier and regular flow. the selection process inevitably involves analysis of the gross fluid deliverability and flow stability under changing reservoir conditions to confirm that the production forecast can be met and to determine when artificial lift or compression is required. It is generally recommended to select a tubing size such that the flowing pressure. The net result should be higher production rates only if the IPR/TPC intercept remains to the right of the TPC minimum. at low rates. Whatever the case. incurring early loss of potential production.05 of pressure minimum. OPTIMISING TUBING SIZE 0 REVISION The optimum tubing size is selected to obtain the desired offtake rates at the lowest capital and operating costs. the changing conditions over the life of the well must be considered when selecting tubing size. The following sub-sections describes the various factors and there effect on TPC.4). is greater than 1. typically 5-8 years. The optimum size of tubing is clearly the size which will be most cost effective over a number of years. pmin to ensure stability.obviously the tubing selected for the start of production will not be the optimum size after some period of time. therefore widening the flat uncertain portion around the minimum. replace the tubing with a smaller size or to implement artificial lift which will have associated costs. The example well #1 in figure 5. the optimum tubing size will be a compromise maximising flow rate and having steady producing 1 conditions.p. A fixed flow rate. the selection may be for an even longer period of time. For example.
Effect of Reservoir Pressure on TPC .A.p. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 0 REVISION Figure 5.Example Tubing Sizes on Well Deliverability Figure 5.K.J .ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 122 OF 295 ENI S.
g. 5.6. Changes in wellhead pressure can be attributed to slugging in the flowline. figure 5. it collapses towards the origin. Reservoir Pressure 0 REVISION As reservoir pressure declines over time.A. etc.2. In these circumstances the frictional effects near surface become very dominant and can be alleviated by the use of a tapered tubing string. e.p. leading to decreasing natural flow rates. Again this means that smaller tuning may need to be selected instead of the ideal larger tubing to cater for anticipated changes in wellhead pressure.6.k. In reservoirs where significant reductions in reservoir pressure are anticipated.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 123 OF 295 ENI S. Also high wellhead pressures reduces the amount of free gas and compresses the remaining free gas. Gas-Liquid Ratio Increasing gas-liquid ratios cause a decrease in hydrostatic head and increase in frictional pressure drop which in the early stages may actually result in increased flow rates. above a critical point there will be a net increase in the overall pressure drop.1. 5. Unstable flow conditions and eventually cessation will occur unless some other change in the system is made. build-up of wax. Flowing Wellhead Pressure Any flowing wellhead pressure is actually back-pressure transmitted downhole to the bottom-hole flowing pressure. wells being produced or closed in which use the same flowline.6. hence flow rates. The larger tubing sizes are more sensitive to changes in flowing wellhead pressure as the density factor dominates more than in smaller tubing. facility malfunctions. both which increase hydrostatic head. as illustrated in figure 5.l shows the effect of increasing GLR.3. where workover costs are high to complete with smaller size tubing to ensure stability through the economic life of the well. . Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 5. However. All of these reduce the natural flow rate of the well. therefore reducing the potential drawdown. the effect on productivity must be considered during the completion design stage to find the most cost effective method of maximising productivity. This clearly shows how important the assumed wellhead pressure accuracy is in the well deliverability forecast and economics.
.L . Artificial Lift The intention of installing artificial lift is to reduce the hydrostatic head and.6. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 0 REVISION Figure 5.Effect of Increasing GLR 5.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 124 OF 295 ENI S.A. therefore.4. This effectively shifts the TPC downwards bringing the intersection point further towards stable flowing conditions. An example of rates which can be obtained by different artificial lift methods is illustrated in figure 5.p. bottom-hole pressure. Refer to section 10 for the applications and comparisons of the various methods of artificial lift.m.
Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 0 REVISION Figure 5.A.Examples of Artificial Lift Performance .p.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 125 OF 295 ENI S.M .
it is accepted that tubing leaks and pressured annuli are a fact of life and as such. if there is any likelihood of a sour corrosive influx occurring. . 6. In the presence of water. CONTRIBUTING FACTORS TO CORROSION Most corrosion problems which occur in oilfield production operations are due to the presence of water. • Internal corrosion The well should be designed to contain any corrosive fluids (produced or injected) within the tubing string by using premium connections.2. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 0 REVISION 6. it is necessary to the corrosion process. • External corrosion Where the likelihood of external corrosion due to electrochemical activity is high and the consequences of such corrosion are serious. 6. should be designed to withstand such an environment. However. corrosion is an electrolytic process where electrical current flows during the corrosion process. there must be a generating or voltage source in a completed electrical circuit. Any part of the production casing that is likely to be exposed to the corrosive environment. Whether it may be present in large amounts or in extremely small quantities. They should not be produced through the casing/tubing annulus. CORROSION A production well design should attempt to contain produced corrosive fluids within tubing.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 126 OF 295 ENI S.1. production casing strings are considered to be subject to corrosive environments when designing casing for a well where hydrogen sulphide (H2S) or carbon dioxide (CO2) laden reservoir fluids can be expected. During the drilling phase. DEVELOPMENT WELLS Casing corrosion considerations for development wells can be confined to the production casing only.A. during routine completion/workover operations or in the event of a tubing or wellhead leak. consideration should be given to setting a sour service casing string before drilling into the reservoir. the production casing should be cathodically protected (either cathodically or by selecting a casing grade suitable for the expected corrosion environment). To have a flow of current.p. The BOP stack and wellhead components must also be suitable for sour service.
• Temperature Like most chemical reactions. temperature and chloride content. decreases the pH of the water and increase its corrosivity. It can cause severe corrosion at very low concentrations of less than 1. Partial pressure 3-30psi may indicates high corrosion risk. Partial pressure <3psi generally is considered non corrosive. or in any combination may be a contributing factor to the initiation and perpetuation of corrosion: • Oxygen (O2) Oxygen dissolved in water drastically increases its corrosivity potential. corrosion rates generally increase with increasing temperature. It is not as corrosive as oxygen. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 0 REVISION The existence. temperature decreases the solubility to raise the pH. of the following conditions alone. Attack due to the presence of dissolved hydrogen sulphide is referred to as ‘sour’ corrosion. Oxygen usually causes pitting in steels. temperature and composition of the water.p. Using the partial pressure of carbon dioxide as a yardstick to predict corrosion. Pressure increases the solubility to lower the pH. The solubility of oxygen in water is a function of pressure. The combination of H2S and CO2 is more aggressive than H2S alone and is frequently found in oilfield environments. The important factors governing the solubility of carbon dioxide are pressure. Oxygen is less soluble in salt water than in fresh water. if any. Other serious problems which may result from H2S corrosion are hydrogen blistering and sulphide stress cracking.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 127 OF 295 ENI S. • Hydrogen Sulphide (H2S) Hydrogen sulphide is very soluble in water and when dissolved behaves as a weak acid and usually causes pitting. • Carbon Dioxide (CO2) When carbon dioxide dissolves in water. .0ppm. but usually also results in pitting. Corrosion primarily caused by dissolved carbon dioxide is commonly called ‘sweet’ corrosion. the following relationships have been found: Partial pressure >30psi usually indicates high corrosion risk. It should be pointed out that H2S also can be generated by introduced microorganisms. it forms carbonic acid.A.
CO2 and ClCorrosion in injection wells and the effects of pH and souring are not included. High velocities and/or the presence of suspended solids or gas bubbles can lead to erosion.A. vertical and deviated wells: a) In vertical oil wells. two separate cases need to be considered.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 128 OF 295 ENI S. The H2S comes into contact with H2O which is an + essential element in this form of corrosion by freeing the H ion.3. The procedure adopted to evaluate the corrosivity of the produced fluid and the methodology used to calculate the partial pressures of H2S and CO2 will be illustrated in the following sub-sections. but pitting is more likely. In oilfield systems. e.3. FORMS OF CORROSION The following forms of corrosion are addressed in this manual: Corrosion caused by H2S (SSC) Corrosion caused by CO2 and Cl - Corrosion caused by combinations of H2S. Evaluation of the SSC problem depends on the type of well being investigated. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 • 0 REVISION Pressure Pressure affects the rates of chemical reactions and corrosion reactions are no exception.g. 6.1. More gas goes into solution as the pressure is increased this may in turn increase the corrosivity of the solution. above 80°C inhibit the SSC phenomenon. In gas wells. In oil wells.p. 6. the primary importance of pressure is its effect on dissolved gases. therefore knowledge of temperature gradients is very useful in the choice of the tubular materials since differing materials can be chosen for various depths. Corrosion rates usually increase with velocity as the corrosion scale is removed from the casing exposing fresh metal for further corrosion. impingement or cavitation. Higher temperatures. generally corrosion occurs only when the water cut becomes higher than 15% which is the ‘threshold’ or commonly defined as the ‘critical level’ and it is necessary to analyse the water cut profile throughout the producing life of the well. Sulphide Stress Cracking (SSC) The SSC phenomenon is occurs usually at temperatures of below 80°C and with the presence of stress in the material. gas saturation with water will produce condensate water and therefore create the conditions for SSC. • Velocity of fluids within the environment Stagnant or low velocity fluids usually give low corrosion rates. corrosion. .
A. because the wellhead and bottom-hole pressures are higher than the bubble point pressure (Pb) at reservoir temperature. If the quantity of H2S in gas at the bubble point pressure [mole fraction = Y(H2S)]. deposits on the surface of the tubulars and so the problem can be likened to the gas well case where the critical threshold for the water cut drops to 1% (WC <1%). 6.e.e.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 129 OF 295 ENI S. the pH2S is calculated using both methods and the higher of the two results is taken as the a reliable value.A SSC is triggered at pH2S >0. Undersaturated Oil In an oil in which the gas remains dissolved. the risk of corrosion by H2S is higher since the water. Material balance method.: Water cut >15% for vertical wells o Water cut >1% for horizontal or highly deviated wells (>80 ) 3 3 or if the GOR >800 Nm /m The pH2S calculation is different for undersaturated and oversaturated oil. If the conditions specified above are verified then the pH2S can be calculated. deviations >80 ). Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 b) o REVISION 0 In highly deviated wells (i. is termed undersaturated. Gas Or Condensate Gas Well H2S partial pressure is calculated by: pH2S = SBHP x Y(H2S)/100 where: SBHP = Y(H2S) = = pH2S Static bottom-hole pressure [atm] Mole fraction of H2S Partial H2S pressure [atm] Eq. Oil Bearing Well The problem of SSC exists when there is wetting water. In this case the pH2S is calculated in two ways: • • Basic method. is not known or the values obtained are not reliable. the potential for SSC occurring is evaluated by studying the water cut values combined with the type of well and deviation profile.5 atm. Firstly. Otherwise the basic method is used. even if in very small quantities.0035 atm and SBHP >4. i.p. . The following formulae are used to calculate the value of pH2S (partial pressure of H2S) in both the cases of gas (or condensate gas) wells or oil wells.
6. Note: H2S sampled in short production tests. is generally lower than the actual value under stabilised conditions.D where: PM Ci Mi d = = = = n mean molecular weight of the reservoir oil = Ci × Mi / 100 i =l Mole % of the ith component of the reservoir oil Molecular weight of the ith component of the reservoir oil Density of the gas at separator conditions referred to air =1 ∑ . The pH2S is calculated by: pH2S = Pb x Y(H2S)/100 where: Pb = Y(H2S) = pH2S = Bubble point pressure at reservoir temperature [atm] Mole fraction in the separated gas at bubble point (from PVT data if extrapolated) Partial H2S pressure [atm] Eq. 6.B Material Balance Method This method is used when data from production testing is available and/or when the quantity of H2S is very small (<2.000ppm) and the water cut value from is lower than 5% (this method cannot be used when the WC values are higher). molar fraction in the separated gas at bubble point pressure (Pb) is higher than 2%. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 Basic Method 0 REVISION This method is used. The value of H2S in ppm to be used in the calculation must also be from stable flowing conditions. without comparison with the other method. PM : PM = γ × 1000 GOR γ × 1000 + × (d × 29 ) GOR 23.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 130 OF 295 ENI S.6 − 23. when the H2S value in the separated gas at bubble point conditions is known and is reliable or if Y(H2S). The following algorithm is used to calculate the pH2S: Step 1 pH2S is calculated at the separator (pH2Ssep): pH2Ssep = (Psep x H2Ssep)/106 where: Psep H2Ssep = = Absolute mean pressure at which the separator works (from tests) in atm Mean H2S value in the separator gas (generally measured in ppm) Eq.6 PM giac Eq.A. 6.C The mean molecular weight of the produced oil.p.
Given the diagram in figure 6. Procedure For Calculating Henry Constant The value of the Henry constant is a function of the temperature measured at the separator. (See Procedure for calculating Henry constant) Mean molecular weight of the produced oil Specific weight g/l of the produced oil Eq.6) total number of moles of the liquid phase in the reservoir Henry constant for the reservoir temperature and reservoir oil (see procedure for calculating Henry constant) In general. H2S corrosion can occur at either the wellhead or bottom-hole without distinction.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 131 OF 295 ENI S. 6.a which represents the functions H(t) for the three types of oils: • • • Heptane PM N-propyl benzene PM Methylnaphthalene PM =100 = 120 =142 .63 atm.A.G (γ x 1000/ PM + GOR/23. 6.p. 6.6 = = Gas oil ratio Nm /m (from production tests) Conversion factor 3 3 6 Eq.E The quantity of H2S in the gas in equilibrium is calculated (per litre of oil): [H2S]gas = (GOR/23.6 x H2Ssep/10 ) where: GOR 23. There is SSC potential if pH2S >0. The mapping method can be applied for temperatures at the separator of between 20°C and 200°C.F The pH2S is calculated at reservoir conditions: pH2S = (([H2S]oil + [H2S]gas)/K ) x H2 where: K H2 = = Eq. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 0 REVISION The quantity of H2S in moles/litre dissolved in the separator oil is calculated: [H2S]oil = (pH2Ssep/H1 x (γ x 1000)/ PM ) where: H1 PM γ = = = Henry constant of the produced oil at separator temperature (atm/Mole fraction).0035 atm and STHP >18.
the H1 value is interpolated linearly on the chosen curve(s).d.p. the H(t) curve of methylnaphthalene is used. If 100 < PM < 120. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 Remarks On The H1 Calculation 0 REVISION Having calculated the molecular weight of the produced oil PM using the formula in eq. the reference curve is chosen (given by points) to calculate the Henry constant on the basis of the following value thresholds: • • • • • • If PM > 142. If PM > 120. If 120 < PM < 142 the mean value is calculated using the H(t) curve of heptane and the H(t) curve of propyl benzene.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 132 OF 295 ENI S. . the mean value is calculated using the H(t) curve of propyl benzene and the H(t) curve of methylnaphthalene. 6. using temperature measured at the separator. Given FTHT. wellhead flowing temperature. the H(t) curve of propyl benzene is used.A. For this purpose the temperature values immediately before and after the temperature studied are taken into consideration. H2 is measured in a similar way as H1. Comments On The H2 Calculation Having calculated the molecular weight of the reservoir oil PM res. the H(t) curve of heptane is used. If PM > 100.
Two situations can arise: Case A FTHP < Pb FBHP > Pb Case B FTHP < Pb FBHP < Pb .H(t) Reference Curves Oversaturated Oil Oil is considered oversaturated when the gas in the fluid separates because the pressure of the system is lower than the bubble point pressure. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 0 REVISION 130 Henry atm/Y[H2S] 120 110 100 90 methylnaphthalene PM = 142 80 N-propylbenzene PM = 120 heptane PM = 100 70 60 50 40 30 20 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 110 120 130 140 150 160 170 180 190 200 T C° Figure 6.A.A .p.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 133 OF 295 ENI S.
the corresponding value in reservoir conditions is assumed as being partial pressure at the wellhead.63 atm.p. when FTHP <Pb: The data result from the production conditions and only the basic method is used. calculation of pH2S can be approximated on the basis of the following: • The PVTs are reliable. i. Calculation is of the partial pressure at the wellhead. the material balance method can be used as in the case of undersaturated oil. Y(H2S) >0.A. FBHP <Pb. Calculation Of Partial Pressure In Case B: Calculation of partial pressure in the reservoir: In the reservoir the gas is already separated. 1 .ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 134 OF 295 ENI S. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 Calculation Of Partial Pressure In Case A: 1) 2) 0 REVISION Calculation is of the partial pressure in the reservoir: In this case pH2S is calculated in the way described for undersaturated oil. The error made can be high when Pb > FBHP. Basic Method pH2S = STHP x Y(H2S)/100 where: STHP = Y(H2S) = pH2S = Static tubing head pressure [atm] Mole fraction in separated gas at STHP pressure and wellhead temperature Partial H2S pressure [atm] The SSC phenomenon is triggered off at the wellhead if pH2S >0. these are the worst conditions. 2 If the percentage (ppm) of H S in the separated gas under static conditions is not known.0035 atm and STHP >18. the partial pressure is calculated as: pH2S = Y(H2S) x FBHP 1 where: Y(H2S) = Molar fraction in gas separated at FBHP and at reservoir temperature (from PVT) • The PVTs are not reliable. the 2 corresponding value in reservoir conditions is assumed as being partial pressure at the wellhead.2%.e. Calculation Of Partial Pressure At Wellhead The calculation method is that used for case A (FTHP <Pb) 2 If the percentage (ppm) of H2S in the gas under static conditions is not known.
Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 6.1 exist. i. the possibility that corrosions exist in water cut values combined with the type of well and deviation profile is evaluated. . Corrosion Caused By CO2 And Cl0 REVISION In the presence of water. i.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 135 OF 295 ENI S. As in the case of SSC.3.A. Water cut >1% for horizontal or highly deviated wells (> 80 degrees).e.: • • Water cut >15% for vertical wells. It also occurs only if the partial pressure of CO2 exceeds a particular threshold.2 atm. CO2 gives rise to a corrosion form which is different to those caused by the presence of H2S. Gas Or Condensate Gas Wells The partial pressure is calculated: pCO2 = SBHP x Y(CO2)/100 where: SBHP = Y(CO2) = pCO2 = Static bottom-hole pressure [atm] Mole fraction of CO2 Partial pressure of CO2 [atm] Corrosion occurs if pCO2 >0.3.p. If the conditions described in section 6. Undersaturated Oil Wells The partial pressure of CO2 is calculated: pCO2 = Pb x Y(CO2)/100 where: Pb = Y(CO2) = pCO2 = Bubble point pressure at reservoir temperature Mole fraction of CO2 in separated gas at bubble point pressure (from the PVTs) Partial pressure of CO2 [atm] Corrosion occurs if pCO2 >0.2. Oil Bearing Wells The problem exists where there is wetting water. pCO2 at wellhead is assumed as corresponding to reservoir conditions. The pCO2 values calculated in this way are used to evaluate the corrosion at bottom hole and wellhead.e.2 atm. then the pCO2 is then calculated.
Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 Oversaturated Oil 0 REVISION The oil is considered oversaturated when the gas separates in the fluid because the pressure of the system is lower than bubble point pressure.2 atm.2 atm.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 136 OF 295 ENI S. the corresponding value in reservoir conditions is assumed as being partial pressure at the wellhead 3 . Two situations may arise: Case A FTHP <Pb FBHP >Pb Case B FTHP <Pb FBHP <Pb Calculation Of Partial Pressure In Case A: Calculation of pCO2 in reservoir conditions: FBHP >Pb pCO2 is calculated in the same way as undersaturated oil wells earlier in this section.A.p. If the percentage (ppm) of CO2 in the gas under static conditions is not known. pCO2 = Pb x Y(CO2)/100 where: Pb = Y(CO2) = pCO2 = Bubble point pressure at reservoir temperature Mole fraction in separated gas at bubble point pressure (from the PVTs) Partial pressure of CO2 [atm] Corrosion occurs if pCO2 >0. Calculation Of pCO2 At Wellhead: pCO2 = STHP x Y(CO2)/100 where: Y(CO2) = STHP = Mole fraction in separated gas at STHP3 Static tubing head pressure [atm] Corrosion occurs if pCO2 >0.
p.2 atm. 4 .ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 137 OF 295 ENI S. CO2 And ClIt is possible to encounter H2S and CO2 besides Cl . - If the percentage (ppm) of CO2 in the gas under flowing/static conditions is not known. the corresponding value in reservoir conditions is assumed as being partial pressure at the wellhead. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 Calculation Of Partial Pressure In Case B: Calculation of pCO2 at reservoir conditions: pCO2 = FBHP x Y(CO2)/100 where: Y(CO2) = 0 REVISION Mole fraction in separated gas at pressure FBHP (from the PVTs) Calculation Of pCO2 At Wellhead: The calculation method is the same as the one used in the wellhead conditions in case A: pCO2 = STHP x Y(CO2)/100 where: Y(CO2) = Mole fraction in separated gas at STHP4 There is corrosion if pCO2 >0.3.3. 6. The phenomenon is diagnosed by calculating the partial pressures of H2S and CO2 and comparing them with the respective thresholds. In this case the problem is much more complex and the choice of suitable material is more delicate. Corrosion Caused By H2S.A.
A.Counter Measures to Prevent Corrosion .4.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 138 OF 295 ENI S.p.A . Refer to table 6. Measure Control of the environment • • • • • • • • • Means pH Temperature Pressure Chloride concentration CO2 concentration 2 H S concentration 2 H O concentration Flow rate Inhibitors Surface treatment • Plastic coating • Plating the alloying elements micro Improvement of the corrosion resistivity of the Addition of steel structure Table 6.a below. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 6. CORROSION CONTROL MEASURES 0 REVISION Corrosion control measures may involve the use of one or more of the following: • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Cathodic protection Chemical inhibition Chemical control Oxygen scavengers Chemical sulphide scavengers pH adjustment Deposit control Coatings Non metallic materials or metallurgical Control Stress reduction Elimination of sharp bends Elimination of shock loads and vibration Improved handling procedures Corrosion allowances in design Improved welding procedures Organisation of repair operations.
10% and other elements such as nickel. however it is occasionally used for production casing or tubing below the packer depth. columbium. when added to an environment. extended batch) Continuous treatment Squeeze treatment Atomised inhibitor squeeze . There are many techniques used to apply corrosion inhibitors in oil and gas wells: • • • • • • 6. decreases the rate of attack by the environmental on a metal. the microstructure of these steels is martensitic.6. To be classed as a stainless steel. The corrosion resistance of stainless steels is due to the ability of the chromium to passivate the surface of the alloy. The most commonly used of the martensitic stainless steels is AISI Type 410. Stainless steels are strongly magnetic whatever the heat treatment condition.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 139 OF 295 ENI S. As their name indicates. CORROSION INHIBITORS 0 REVISION An inhibitor is a substance which retards or slows down a chemical reaction. . The martensitic stainless steels are hardened by the same heat treatment procedures used to harden carbon and alloy steels. an iron alloy usually must contain at least 12% chromium in volume. selenium. although some chromium content may be as high as 18%. either continuously or intermittently to prevent serious corrosion. Corrosion inhibitors are commonly added in small amounts to acids. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 6. CORROSION RESISTANCE OF STAINLESS STEELS Stainless steel is usually used in applications for production tubing. Stainless steels may be divided into four distinct classes on the basis of their chemical content. metallurgical structure and mechanical properties these are: 6. molybdenum.6.08% to 1.1. The main reason for the development of stainless steel is its resistance to corrosion. silicon. steam or other environments. and sulphur are added in small amounts for other properties in some grades. The carbon content ranges from 0. Martensitic Stainless Steels The martensitic stainless steels contain chromium as their principal alloying element.p.5. Thus.A.weighted liquids Capsules Sticks. The most important characteristic that distinguishes these steels from other grades is their response to heat treatment. The most common types contain around 12% chromium. Batch treatment (tubing displacement. The only grade of oilfield tubular used in this category is 13Cr. cooling waters. The martensitic stainless steels are included in the ‘400’ series of stainless steels. standard batch. a corrosion inhibitor is a substance which.
They are used principally for their temperature properties. 6. The microstructure of the ferritic stainless steels consists of ferrite. Most can be formed and machined before the final heat treatment and the finished product being hardened. Others commonly used are 303 free machining. The chromium content ranges between 13% to 27% but are not able to be hardened by heat treatment.6. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 6. the steels can be hardened to varying strength levels.6. These are most commonly used for component parts in downhole and surface tools and not as oilfield tubulars. but their strength is lower than martensitic and ferritic stainless steels. Ferritic Stainless Steels 0 REVISION The second class of stainless steels.4. Precipitation in alloys is analogous to precipitation as rain or snow. stainless steel. which contain various amounts of chromium and nickel. Austenitic stainless steels generally have the highest corrosion resistance of any of the stainless steels. Refer to figure 6. Austenitic stainless steels are grouped in the ‘300’ series. which are also strongly magnetic. The chromium contents of ferritic stainless steels is normally higher than that of the martensitic. Austenitic Stainless Steels The austenitic stainless steels have two principal alloying elements. and may range up to as high as 25% chromium and 20% nickel. Precipitation Hardening Stainless Steels The most recent development in stainless steel is a general class known as ‘precipitation hardened stainless steels’. and 436. and 347 stabilised for welding and corrosion resistance. They are not able to be hardened by heat treatment although they are hardenable to some extent by cold working and are generally non-magnetic.3.b for the various compositions of stainless steels. They combine the high strength of the martensitic stainless steels with the good corrosion resistance properties of the austenitic stainless steels.p. and the carbon content is generally lower. Ferritic stainless steels are also part of the ‘400’ series. These steels are widely used in the oilfield for fittings and control lines.6. the principal types being 405. is the ferritic stainless steels. 6. Ferrite is simply body cantered cubic iron or an alloy based on this structure.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 140 OF 295 ENI S. 430. with other elements added for particular reasons. . chromium and nickel. but due to its low strength is not used for well tubulars. and there is a wide variety of compositions available. Most were developed as proprietary alloys. The distinguishing characteristic of the precipitation hardened stainless steel is that through specific heat treatments at relatively low temperatures. 316 high Cr and Ni which may include Mo. the most common being 304. Their micro-structure consists essentially of austenite which is face cantered cubic iron or an iron alloy based on this structure.2. which are similar to the martensitic stainless steels in that they have chromium as the principal alloying element.A. They contain a minimum of 18% chromium and 8% nickel.
A. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 0 REVISION Figure 6.Stainless Steel Compositions .ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 141 OF 295 ENI S.p.B.
Inhibitor injection. resistant to corrosion. This gap is attempted to be filled with ‘Super 13Cr’ tubing being developed. wells producing CO2 partial pressure higher than 20psi requires inhibition to limit corrosion.7. if using carbon steel casing. .A. This material is used extensively for tubulars used in severe CO2 and H2S conditions. there is a large gap between the 13Cr and Duplex Stainless Steels used as tubulars for their good anti-corrosion properties.6. ferritic-austenitic (duplex) stainless steel consists of between 40-70% ferrite and has a typical composition of 22% Cr-5.5% Ni-3% Mo-0. COMPANY DESIGN PROCEDURE CO2 Corrosion In producing wells. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 6.14% N.d for partial pressure limits. 6. while the austenite phase improves workability and weldability.7. Generally. Corrosion may be limited by: • • The selection of high alloy chromium steels. Refer to figure 6.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 142 OF 295 ENI S. Duplex Stainless Steel 0 REVISION In general.c and figure 6.1. As a general note.p. 6. the presence of CO2 may lead to corrosion on those parts coming in contact with CO2 which normally means the production tubing and part of the production casing below the packer. consideration should be given to limit casing and wellhead yield strength according to API 5CT and ‘NACE’ standard MR-01-75. 6. The resulting steel has properties that are normally found in both phases: the ferrite promotes increased yield strength and resistance to chloride and hydrogen sulphide corrosion cracking.5. where there is H2S.7. H2S Corrosion In wells. Casing and tubing material will be selected according to the amount of H2S and other corrosive media present.2.
Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 0 REVISION Figure 6.Sour Multiphase Systems .D .ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 143 OF 295 ENI S.Sour Gas Systems Figure 6.A.C .p.
OCTG.A. all materials in class C-steel/L-A-steel can be used.8. . The tables regarding the choice of materials are shown below.f. These give the rules used by Eni-Agip sectioned on the basis of the conditions as listed above and the use in the well. hence the use of the modified SMI has been adopted. refer to figure 6.e and figure 6.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 144 OF 295 ENI S.p. Materials are sub-divided into three categories. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 6. DHE materials and wellhead materials. The choice of materials proposed is conservatively as recent develop materials such as 13%Cr and Super Duplex class have not been considered because experiments on these materials are not completed. otherwise the following combinations of conditions may exist: • • • • Solely H2S in oil wells Solely H2S in gas or gas condensate wells Solely CO2 and Cl Both H2S and CO2. MATERIAL SELECTION 0 REVISION The choice of material is based on the application of engineering diagrams supplied by manufacturers of tubing and. In the partial pressures of H2S and CO2 are below the critical thresholds established in the previous section.
C90-1. C90-1. K55. N80.2< pCO2S max <100 0.2< pCO2S max <100e 0.0035< pH2S max < 0.1 0.000 22% Cr.1 FBHT >80 C o FBHT <80 C o Material J55. C95.005 0.0035< pH2S max < 0.2< pCO2S max <100e 0. T95-1 L80-Mod.0035< pH2S max < 0.2< pCO2S max <100e 0.2< pCO2S max <100e 0.2< pCO2S max <100 FBHT <150 C o o 150 C< FBHT <200 C o o 200 C< FBHT <250 C o Material Cl* <50.000 13% Cr 22% Cr 25% Cr-SA Alternately 25% Cr OCTG Materials For Corrosion By CO2 .2< pCO2S max <100e 0.005< pH2S max <0.000 Cl* <50. T95-1 L80-Mod.0035< pH2S max < 0.2< pCO2S max <100e 0.005 0.A. K55. C95 L80 Alternately L80-Mod. T95-1 OCTG Materials For Corrosion By CO2 And Cl* Conditions 0.1< pH2S max <1 0.1 FBHT >80 C o o 60 C< FBHT >80 C o FBHT >80 C o REVISION 0 Material J55. C90-1. N80-2.000 Cl* >50.8. H2S And Cl* Conditions 0.0035< pH2S max < 0.000 Cl* <50.p. N80 L80 L80 Mod.2< pCO2S max <100 0.000 13% Cr-80KSI Max 22% Cr CW 25% Cr CW 22% Cr 25% Cr 25% Cr 25% Cr CW 25% Cr 25% Cr CW 28% Cr 22% Cr SA 25% Cr SA 28% Cr 28% Cr Alternately 22% Cr 25% Cr FBHT <200 C 150 C< FBHT <200 C 200 C< FBHT <250 C 200 C< FBHT <250 C FBHT <250 C FBHT <250 C 200 C< FBHT <250 C FBHT <200 C FBHT <250 C FBHT <200 C o o o o o o o o o o o o o o Cl* >50.2< pCO2S max <100e 0.1< pH2S max <1 0. C90-1. 25% Cr Incoloy 825 28% Cr Incoloy 825 Incoloy 825 Incoloy 825 Table 6.2< pCO2S max <100e pH2S max <0. T95-1 Alternately L80-Mod.000 Cl* <50. T95-1 OCTG Materials For Corrosion By H2S Only In Gas Wells Conditions 0. P110 J55.1 pCO2S max <100e 0. C90-1.0035< pH2S max < 0.1 0.000 Cl* <20.005 0. C90-1.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 145 OF 295 ENI S.1 0.1< pH2S max <1 0.OCTG Materials for Sour Service .1 0.000 Cl* <50.1.000 Cl* <50.2< pCO2S max <100e pH2S max >1 FBHT <150 C o Material Cl* <50. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 6.1 pH2S max < 0.000 Cl* <50.2< pCO2S max <100e 0. K55.005 0.000 Cl* >50. T95-1 L80-Mod.0035< pH2S max <0.2< pCO2S max <100e 0.005< pH2S max <0.005 0. OCTG Materials For Corrosion By H2S Only In Oil Wells Conditions 0.b below.1 0.0035< pH2S max <0.B . OCTG Specifications Refer to table 6.005< pH2S max <0.0035< pH2S max <0.
1 pCO2S max <100e pH2S max <0. H2S And Cl* Conditions pCO2S max <100e pH2S max < 0.000 Cl* >50.005 pCO2S max <100e pH2S max <0. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 6.C.000 28% Cr Alternately Inconel 718 Incoloy 825 Materials For DHE Corrosion By CO2 .ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 146 OF 295 ENI S.005 pCO2S max <100e pH2S max < 0.1 pH2S max < 0.1 pH2S max > 0.000 Cl* <50.000 9% Cr-1Moly 13%-Cr-80KSIMAX 22% Cr 25% Cr 25% Cr Inconel 718 Incoloy 825 22% Cr CW 25% Cr CW 25% Cr CW 25% Cr 28% Cr 22% Cr SA 25% Cr SA 25% Cr SA 28% Cr 28% Cr Alter Or 22% Cr 25% Cr Inconel 718 Incoloy 825 Inconel 718 Incoloy 825 100 C< FBHT <150 C 150 C< FBHT <250 C 200 C< FBHT <250 C 200 C< FBHT <250 C FBHT <200 C o o o o o o o o o Cl* >50.000 FBHT <250 C FBHT <250 C o o Cl* <50.000 Cl* <50.1 pH2S max < 0.000 Inconel 718 Incoloy 825 Inconel 718 Incoloy 825 Inconel 718 Incoloy 825 Inconel 718 Incoloy 825 22% Cr. Inconel 718 Incoloy 825 Inconel 718 Incoloy 825 Inconel 718 Incoloy 825 Table 6.A.000 Cl* <50.005 pCO2S max <100e pH2S max < 0. Materials For DHE Corrosion By H2S Only In Oil Wells Conditions pH2S max < 0.1 FBHT >80 C o FBHT >80 C o FBHT <65 C o FBHT <65 C o REVISION 0 Material AISI-41XX-110KSI-MAX AISI-41XX-80KSI-MAX AISI-41XX-HRC-22-MAX AISI-41XX-HRC-22-MAX Alternately Materials For DHE Corrosion By H2S Only In Gas Wells Conditions pH2S max < 0.c below.000 Cl* >50.005 pCO2S max <100e pH2S max < 0.000 Cl* <50.000 Cl* >50. DHE Specifications Refer to table 6.8.005 pCO2S max <100e pH2S max <0.1 FBHT >80 C FBHT <80 C o o Material AISI-41XX-80KSI-MAX AISI-41XX-HRC-22-MAX AISI-41XX-HRC-22-MAX Alternately Materials For DHE Corrosion By CO2 And Cl* Conditions pCO2S max <100 pCO2S max <100 pCO2S max <100 FBHT <100 C o o 100 C< FBHT <150 C o o 150 C< FBHT <250 C o Material Cl* <50.2.000 Cl* <50.p.1 pH2S max < 0.DHE Material for Sour Service .005 pCO2S max <100e pH2S max <0.000 Cl* <50.1 pCO2S max <100e pH2S max <1 pCO2S max <100e pH2S max <1 pCO2S max <100e pH2S max <1 FBHT <100 C 100 C< FBHT <150 C 150 C< FBHT <250 C 200 C< FBHT <250 C o o o o o o o Material Cl* <50.
2 < pCO2-Max < 100e FTHT < 150e Cl < 50000 pCO2-Max <100e 150<FTHT< 200e Cl < 50000 - Manual Master-Valve Steam Body Bonnet Flanges 13%-Cr80ksi-Max F6NM AISI-4135-IC Inconel-625 Inconel-718 Gate & Seats 13%-Cr80ksi-Max Steam Monel-K500 17-4-PH Inconel-718 Body Bonnet Flanges 13%-Cr-80ksiMax F6NM AISI-4135-IC Inconel-625 Gate & Seats 13%-Cr-80ksiMax Monel-K500 17-4-PH Inconel -718 Inconel -718 .ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 147 OF 295 ENI S.p.3.035 pH2S-MAX < 0. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 6.8. Wellhead Materials For Corrosion Caused By H2S Conditions pH2S-MAX > 0.A.035 pH2S-MAX < 0. Wellhead Specifications Refer to below.035 Tubing Hanger AISI-4140 HRC-22MAX AISI-4140 Tbg Head Adapter AISI-4135 HRC-22MAX AISI-4135 Tubing Spool AISI-4135 HRC-22MAX AISI-4135 Cross AISI-4135 HRC-22MAX AISI-4135 Top Adapter AISI-4135 HRC-22MAX AISI-4135 Casing Spool AISI-4135 HRC-22MAX AISI-4135 REVISION 0 Stud ASTMA193-B7M ASTMA193-B7M Nut ASTMA194-2M ASTMA194-2H Automatic-Master-Valve Conditions pH2S-MAX> 0.035 Body Bonnet Flanges AISI-4135HRC-22-MAX AISI-4135 Gate & Seats AISI-4140HRC-22-MAX AISI-4140 Steam AISI-4140HRC-22-MAX AISI-4140 Manual Master-Valve Body Bonnet Flanges AISI-4135HRC-22-MAX AISI-4135 Gate & Seats AISI-4140HRC-22-MAX AISI-4140 Steam AISI-4140 HRC-22-MAX AISI-4140 Wellhead Materials For Corrosion Caused By CO2 and ClConditions 0.< 50000 - Tubing Hanger 13%-Cr80ksi-Max F6NM Monel-K500 Inconel-718 Tbg Head Adapter 13%-Cr80ksi-Max F6NM AISI-4135-IC Inconel-625 Tubing Spool AISI-4135 Cross 13%-Cr80ksi-Max F6NM AISI-4135IC Inconel 625 MonelK500 Top Adapter 13%-Cr80ksi-Max F6NM AISI-4135-IC Inconel -625 Monel-K500 Casing Spool Carbon-Steel AISI-41XX AISI-4135 Stud ASTMA193-B7 ASTMA193-B7 Nut ASTMA194-2H ASTMA194-2H AISI-4135 Automatic-Master-Valve Conditions 0.2<pCO2 Max 100 FTHT < 150 Cl < 50000 pCO2-Max < 100 150 <FTHT <200 Cl.
A. CO2 and Cl Condition pCO2 -Max < 100 pH2S-Max < 0.2 FTHT < 150 Cl < 50000 pCO2-Max < 100 pH2S-Max <0.005 FTHT < 150 Cl < 50000 - Tubing Hanger F6NM Tbg Head Adapter 13%-Cr 80ksi-Max F6NM Tubing Spool AISI-4135 HRC-22Max Cross 13%-Cr80ksi-Max F6NM Top Adapter 13%-Cr 80ksi-Max F6NM Casing Spool Stud Nut ASTMA194-2M AISI-4135 ASTMHRC-22-Max A193-B7M pCO2-Max < 100 pH2S-Max < 0. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 0 REVISION Wellhead Materials For Corrosion Caused By H2S.AISI-4135 IC IC HRC-22-Max Inconel625 Inconel718 Inconel625 Inconel718 Inconel718 Inconel718 .8 - Inconel718 AISI-4135IC Inconel625 AISI-4135 HRC-22Max AISI-4135.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 148 OF 295 ENI S.AISI-4135.2 FTHT < 150 Cl < 50000 F6NM MonelK500 F6NM AISI-4135HRC-22Max F6NM F6NM AISI-4135 ASTMHRC-22-Max A193-B7M ASTMA194-2M ASTMA194-2M pCO2-Max < 100 pH2S-Max < 0.p.8 Cl > Water 50000 pCO2-Max <100 pH2S-Max e > 0.AISI-4135IC IC Inconel625 MonelK500 Inconel625 MonelK500 AISI-4135 HRC-22MAX MonelK500 pCO2-Max < 100 pH2S-Max <0.8 FTHT< 150 Cl < 50000 - F6NM MonelK500 F6NM AISI-4135HRC-22MAX F6NM F6NM AISI-4135HRC-22MAX ASTMA193-B7M ASTMA194-2M MonelK500 ASTMA194-2M Inconel718 AISI-4135IC Inconel625 AISI-4135 HRC-22MAX AISI-4135.
pH2S.Max < 100 AISI-4135.2 FTHT < 150 Cl < 50000 pCO2.p.Max < 100 pH2S.D. Inconel-625 F6NM Inconel-718 Monel-K500 pCO2.C.Max < 0.Max < 100 pH2S.Max Steam 17-4-PH F6NM pCO2 -Max < 100 13%-Cr-80KSIMax pH S.Max < 0.8 - Inconel-718 Inconel-718 AISI-4135-I.Max < 0.Wellhead Material for Sour Service .I.A.Max < 2 0. Inconel-625 Inconel-718 Inconel-718 Inconel-625 Table 6.Max Stellite--6 Monel-K500 AISI-4135-I.005 FTHT < 150 Cl < 50000 F6NM pCO2.Max e > 0. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 0 REVISION Automatic-Master-Valve Conditions Body Bonnet Flanges Gate & Seats 13%-Cr-80 KSIMax Steam 17-4-PH F6NM Manual Master-Valve Body Bonnet Flanges 13%-Cr-80KSIMax F6NM Gate & Seats 13%-Cr80KSI.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 149 OF 295 ENI S.C.8 FTHT< 150 Cl <50000 - F6NM 13%-Cr-80 KSIMax Stellite-6 Monel-K500 F6NM 13%-Cr80KSI.C. Inconel-625 F6NM Inconel-718 Monel-K500 AISI-4135-I.C.8 Cl Water 50000 pCO2.Max < 100 pH2S.
<= 20000 ppm 25% Cr-CW FBHT<=250 C and Cl.<= 50000 ppm 13% Cr 150 > FBHT <= 200 C Cl.> 50000 ppm 22 % Cr.> 50000 ppm 25 % Cr-CW (*) 1 10-1 FBHT < = 65 C L 80 or L 80 mod.OCTG Material Selection Diagram .C 90 T1 T 95 T1 10-2 C. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 0 REVISION 100 pCO2 (atm) FBHT <= 150 C and Cl.825 FBHT<= 250 C Cl.STEEL J 55 N 80 P 110 FBHT >80 C J55 K55 N80-1 C95 P110-1 (only oil) or L80 mod C90 T1 LOW ALLOY STEEL L 80 mod C 90 T1 C 95 T1 10-3 65 < FBHT<= 80C J 55 K 55 N80-1 or L 80 mod C90 T1 T 95 T1 10-4 10-4 10-3 10-2 10-1 1 10 100 pH2S (atm) Figure 6.825 FBHT < 200 C 28 % Cr or INCOLOY-825 (*) FBHT<= 150 C Cl.< 50000 ppm 22 % Cr 25 % Cr 200 < FBHT <= 250 C Cl.CW 25 % Cr -CW 150 < FBHT <= 200 C Cl.> 50000 ppm 28 % Cr INCOLOY.825 10 FBHT <= 200 C Cl-<=50000 ppm 22 % Cr-SA or 25 % Cr-SA 28 % Cr INCOLOY.825 FBHT <= 250 C Cl.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 150 OF 295 ENI S.p.<= 50000 ppm 13 % Cr 80 Ksi max or 22 % Cr 25 % Cr FBHT <= 200 C Cl.<= 50000 ppm 25% Cr-CW 200<FBHT<=250 C and Cl.<= 50000 ppm 25 % Cr-SA or 28 % Cr INCOLOY.E .A.< 50000 ppm 25 % Cr-CW 200 < FBHT <= 250 Cl.> 50000 ppm 28 % Cr or INCOLOY.<= 50000 ppm 22% Cr 200<FBHT<=250 C 25% Cr-SA or 25% Cr FBHT<= 250 C and Cl.
<= 50000 ppm 22 % Cr 25 % Cr INCONEL 718 INCOLOY 825 10 (*) 200 < FBHT<=250 C Cl.> 50000 ppm 28 % Cr INCOLOY.<= 50000 ppm 13 % Cr 80 ksi max 150 > FBHT<= 250 C 25% Cr-CW or 25% Cr INCONEL 718 INCOLOY 825 200 < FBHT<= 250 C Cl.<= 50000 ppm 9 Cr 1 Mo 100 < FBHT <= 150 C Cl.> 50000 ppm 22 % Cr-CW 25 % Cr-CW INCONEL 718 INCOLOY 825 AISI 41XX 22 HRC max 10-3 200 > FBHT <= 250 C Cl.F .<= 50000 ppm 25 % Cr-SA 28 % Cr INCOLOY 825 INCONEL 718 FBHT<= 250 C Cl.> 50000 ppm 25 % Cr INCONEL 718 INCOLOY 825 10-1 FBHT < = 65 C AISI 41XX 22 HRC max 10-2 C-STEEL or AISI 41XX 65 < FBHT <=80 C C-STEEL 80 Ksi max AISI 41XX FBHT > 80 C C-STEEL 110 Ksi max AISI 41XX 100 < FBHT <= 200 C Cl.p.DHE Material Selection Diagram .> 50000 ppm 28 % Cr or INCONEL 718 INCOLOY 825 1 200 < FBHT <= 250 C Cl. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 0 REVISION 100 pCO2 (atm) FBHT <= 100 C Cl.<= 50000 ppm 25 % Cr or INCONEL 718 INCOLOY 825 FBHT <= 200 C Cl-<=50000 ppm 22 % Cr-SA 25 % Cr-SA 28 % Cr INCOLOY 825 INCONEL 718 200 < FBHT <= 250 C Cl.A.> 50000 ppm 25 % Cr-CW INCONEL 718 INCOLOY 825 10-4 10-4 10-3 10-2 10-1 1 10 100 pH2S (atm) Figure 6.825 INCONEL 718 FBHT < 200 C 28 % Cr or INCOLOY 825 INCONEL 718 (*) 150 < FBHT <= 200 C Cl.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 151 OF 295 ENI S.
the following specifications should be included. normalising and tempering). 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) Downgraded grade N80. . All sour service casing should be inspected using non-destructive testing or impact tests only. Recommendations for casing to be used for sour service must be specified according to the API 5CT for restricted yield strength casings.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 152 OF 295 ENI S. as per API Specification 5CT.g. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 6. ORDERING SPECIFICATIONS 0 REVISION When ordering tubulars for sour service. all markings must be paint stencilled or hot die stamped. P105 or P110 tubulars are not acceptable for orders for J55 or K55 casing. Three copies of the report providing the ladle analysis of each heat used in the manufacture of the goods shipped. Shell modified API thread compound must be used.p. must be submitted.9. 6) 7) Note: The casing should also meet the following criteria: • • The steel used in the manufacture of the casing should have been quenched and tempered. together with all the check analyses performed. in addition to those given in the above table. Three copies of a report showing the physical properties of the goods supplied and the results of hardness tests (Refer to step 3 above) must be submitted. (This treatment is superior to tubulars heated/treated by other methods. Cold die stamping is prohibited. The pipe must be tested to the alternative test pressure (see API Bulletins 5A and 5AC). e.A. The couplings must have the same heat treatment as the pipe body.
Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 0 REVISION 7. To fully understand these effects.35 applies to the ratio of the calculated stress in a string to the minimum yield strength of the selected tubing of CRA materials. a higher grade of pipe. either a heavier weight or. Tubing size shall be determined by the reservoir engineers using IPR curves and Nodal analysis (Refer to section 5.2. 7.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 153 OF 295 ENI S. Movement can only occur if the tubing is free to move. 7. If the tubing is not free to move and is anchored to a packer then stress will be subjected to the tubing string and packer.6). it is necessary to calculate the variations in length for the stresses applied under load conditions. A safety factor (SF) of 1.p.1. If the stress SF is less than these limits. A safety factor (SF) of 1. Currently Eni-Agip Division and Affiliates recommended programme is the Enertech WS-Tube programme to the latest version. it is first necessary to understand the properties of steels used in the manufacture of tubing. Tubing movement upwards (contraction) is assumed to be negative and downwards (lengthening) is positive. Tubing movement occurs due to only two reasons: • • Temperature changes Change in pressure induced forces. This relationship is fully explained in section 7. When these have been determined it will confirm the suitability of the selected tubing. preferably using an appropriate up to date computer programme. refer to the criteria in section 7.2.A. .10. Under some special conditions. the SFs may be reduced.25 applies to the ratio of the calculated stress in a string to the minimum yield strength of the selected tubing in carbon steels. THEORY During completion tubing design process. the calculation should be run again substituting. TUBING DESIGN POLICIES All completion tubing strings will have tubing movement calculations conducted to ascertain the maximum load applied to the string and/or completion tubing movement to be catered for in the completion design. All tubing strings should be designed for stress.10 Stress Calculations.
1. A typical curve for steel is shown in figure 7. Figure 7. In this. compression and shear. the material is classed as brittle.e. sometimes called Young's Modulus.b. the elastic deformation is accompanied by varying amounts of plastic. i. it is classed as a ductile material. or permanent. some deformation may be sustained without permanent deformation. Buckling may cause failure of the part without any fracture of the material. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 7. and if fracture occurs with little or no plastic deformation. the shattering of glass). These failures are failures of the material. Tests of materials may be conducted in many different ways.a.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 154 OF 295 ENI S.Stress-Strain Curve for Tubing Steel ..A . Mechanical Properties of Steel 0 REVISION Failure of a material or of a structural part may occur by fracture (e. or the ratio of stress to strain within the elastic range. corrosion. is the modulus of elasticity E. such as by torsion.A.g. deformation. If a material sustains large amounts of plastic deformation before final fracture. The action of a material under the gradually increasing extension in the tension test is usually represented by plotting apparent stress (the total load divided by the original cross-sectional area of the test piece) as ordinates against the apparent strain (elongation between two gauge points marked on the test piece divided by the original gauge length) as abscissae.2. This gives rise to Poisson’s Ratio. With all solid materials. both are explained in figure 7. the material behaves elastically. yield. the elastic deformation is approximately a straight line as called for by Hooke's Law. and other causes. Beyond the elastic limit. As load is applied.p. wear. but the tension test is the most common and is qualitatively characteristic of all the other types of tests. deformation takes place before any final fracture occurs. and the slope of this line.
Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 0 REVISION Beyond the elastic limit.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 155 OF 295 ENI S. permanent or plastic strain occurs. If the stress is released in the region between the elastic limit and the yield strength.a.Deformation Constants for Tubing Steel .B .p. leaving a permanent set. the material will contract along a line generally nearly straight and parallel to the original elastic line. Figure 7. see figure 7.A.
Similar arbitrary rules are followed with regard to the elastic limit in commercial practice.A. 5AX and 5AQ .000 psi. The mechanical and chemical properties of casing. the yielding phenomenon is less prominent and is correspondingly harder to measure.min. as required by definition.min. The lines indicating equivalent hardness of 22 and 23 Rc indicates the tolerances for use of the materials in H2S conditions according to NACE which is fully described in section 7. Instead of determining the stress up to which there is no permanent set. Careful practice qualifies this by designating it the proportional elastic limit. but at the same time the cross-sectional area of the specimen becomes less as it is drawn out.p. yield strength 40.min.Casing and Tubing requirements. 5CT which is a combination of former specs.000 psi. This loss of area weakens the specimen so that the curve reaches a maximum and then falls off until final fracture occurs. a curious phenomenon occurs after the elastic limit. This is arbitrarily defined as the stress at which the material has a specified permanent set (the value of 0. L-80 . In the harder and stronger steels.5% to 0. Others are shown in figure 7. known as yielding. J-55 . yield strength 80. This gives rise to a dip in the general curve followed by a period of deformation at approximately constant load. 5A. it is customary to designate the end of the straight portion of the curve (by definition the proportional limit) as the elastic limit. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 0 REVISION In steels.c.g.000 psi. yield strength 55. API specifies the yield strength as the tensile strength required to produce a total elongation of 0. minimum requirements are laid down for the mechanical properties.2% is widely accepted in the industry).ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 156 OF 295 ENI S.6% of the gauge length. . e. the material becomes stronger causing a rise of the curve. tubing and drill pipe are laid down in API specification of further specs. For steels used in the manufacturing of tubular goods. 5AC. The stress at the maximum point is called the tensile strength or the ultimate strength of the material and is its most often quoted property. The denominations of the different grades are based on the minimum yield strength. and in the case of the yield point even maximum requirements (except for H-40). it is customary to measure a yield strength.: H-40 . Depending on the type or grade.9. The maximum stress reached in this region is called the upper yield point and the lower part of the yielding region the lower yield point. As extension continues beyond yielding.4. In materials that do not exhibit a marked yield point. and under certain conditions of temperature.
A.p.C . Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 0 REVISION Figure 7.Strengths of Various Grades of Steel .ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 157 OF 295 ENI S.
If the tubing is attached to a packer. Calculations must be conducted to establish the full tubing movement in order that the length of tubing movement device can be determined. 20ft and 30ft. The tubing is connected to the packer by being threaded to. For a given volume. There are three methods in which tubing is connected to the packer: a) b) c) Tubing is fully free to move either way.p. These devices are usually available in 10ft stroke lengths or multiples of 10ft. ELTSR or a travel joint depending on which type of packer system is utilised. . a 20ft device should be selected as a 10ft device would not provide enough contingency for error. the packer -6 Further explanation of these three modes are explained below.g. Tubing Movement/Stress Relationship Steel tubing. Temperature 0 REVISION Temperature changes cause expansion and contraction in metals which is a significant factor in tubing strings. i. All metals have a particular expansion rate which is termed the ‘Coefficient of thermal expansion’. a PBR. in this case.2. The co-efficient of liner expansion for tubular steels is usually 6. a TSR or travel joint (Refer to figure 7. then the tubing is unable to move as it can in the free movement scenario and. 10ft.d below). 7.3ft = total 9ft.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 158 OF 295 ENI S. which is the ‘initial’ tubing condition. with a calculated movement of + 6ft and . This may increase or decrease the stress already exerted to the tubing when it was installed. a) Free Movement The tubing is free to move fully upwards or downwards using the packer bore with a seal assembly. changes in tubing stress will be exerted. e.9 x 10 in/in/F°. a PBR.A.e.2.2.2 will expand or contract due to changes in temperature or pressure induced forces. The movement determined by calculation should be used to select a device which accommodates this movement with a margin of error. All subsequent changes in temperature or pressure induced forces are calculated form this initial condition. unless the movement was subsequently restricted as described in the next section.3. If the tubing is free to move then the calculations will determine the maximum expansion or contraction which needs to be catered for by the utilisation of a tubing movement compensation system such as a packer and seal unit. an object will expand or contract through temperature change by the Co-efficient of thermal expansion for the type of material. or latched to. The tubing is positioned where it is fully free to move upwards but its downward movement is restricted and stress applied to the packer.2. as seen in the previous section 7. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 7.
When the tubing is anchored to the packer and movement is eliminated. c) Anchored Tubing In this case the tubing is anchored to the packer by being threaded to it (as in the case when using retrievable packers) or by using an anchoring device such as an Anchor Latch. the calculations will determine that the tubing stress limit is not exceeded. it will result in increased tensional and compressive forces. Similarly.e). Figure 7.Limited Movement Figure 7.E . etc. hence increased stress in the tubing.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 159 OF 295 ENI S.Anchored Tubing . Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 b) Limited Downward Movement 0 REVISION In this case the tubing is fully free to move upwards but is restricted in its downward movement (Refer to figure 7.Free Moving Figure 7.f). correspondingly to the packer.A.D . Ratchet Latch.F . otherwise permanent deformation will occur. This restricted downward movement results in further stress applied to the bottom of the tubing and. This may be acceptable when temperature and pressure changes are not excessive. (Refer to figure 7.p. This additional stress will be calculated during the tubing movement calculations and must not exceed the stress limit for the tubing.
3. 7.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 160 OF 295 ENI S. Each casing or liner weight and corresponding length of section must be known to enable calculation. . WELL DATA. Similar to the pressure data.2. Tubing Data The optimum tubing size.4. either.3.3. Temperatures (Static and Flowing) Accurate well temperature data are vital in tubing movement/stress analysis as the temperature effect is usually the effect which causes the greatest tubing movement. selection of a tubing are: • • • • • • • • 7. temperature data may be found from previous well test results. straight pull or torque can be applied to the tubing downhole at the packer depth overcoming any frictional drag. determined by nodal analysis conducted by the reservoir engineers. The average temperature of each section of tubing and casing must be known or determined to input into the calculations.3. These pressures can be obtained from previous well exploration test data or appraisal well test reports. The well deviation is also important to determine the type of packer/tubing seal device and/or tubing movement device to ensure that. Casing Profile/Geometry The planned casing design and contingency plans are required as they affect the tubing movement calculations (Refer to 4. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 7. Casing design profile Casing programme contingency profile Tubing size from optimisation analysis Pressure gradient Temperature gradient Reservoir fluids specific gravities Completion fluid specific gravities Production/injection or stimulation forecast. The tubing movement/stress calculations will then determine the tubing weight or any change in grade required to meet with the applied SF for stress. is required and is the basis of all the calculations. Deviation tables are also required.1.A.p. 0 REVISION The well data and parameters required (or already determined) to produce an accurate tubing movement/stress analysis and. The tubing grade is selected in accordance to the criteria listed in section 6 to combat the effects of any corrosion from the well conditions. hence.3. 7.1). 7.3. weight and grade is confirmed then the appropriate rated completion components can be specified in order that the purchasing department can prepare tender documents. Bottom-hole Pressure Accurate initial and prognosed future formation pressures both static and dynamic are fundamental to tubing movement/stress calculations.1. Once the tubing size.
All subsequent conditions are calculated from this initial condition. it should be suitably dosed with corrosion inhibitors and oxygen scavenger to prevent corrosion to the exposed tubulars and elastomers. Ballooning effect. the constituents of the produced reservoir fluids will initially determine the material required for the tubing. As the completion fluid (sometimes referred to as the packer fluid) will be left in the annulus. In the presence of water and under certain temperature conditions. Future parameters must also be considered as water may rise and the GOR will change. PRESSURE INDUCED FORCES When a well is completed. It also must be selected for its stability over long time periods and not suffer from dehydration or deterioration. Buckling effect.4. 7. The information required to make a considered selection may be obtained from the ADIS (Advanced Drilling Information System) database (which holds all the data regarding the drilling of the well). These effects are: a) b) c) Piston effect. therefore the materials should be chosen to last the planned life of the completion. either with a tubing seal unit in a packer bore or a tubing movement device. If justified economically. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 7.3. this is referred to as the initial condition. Reservoir Fluids 0 REVISION As described earlier. these corrosive agents can cause serious problems. well tests carried out earlier and other sources which may be useful in the decision making process.3. Completion Fluid The completion fluid. it will have completion fluid in both the tubing and the annulus. however if this choice is not economic and some corrosion inhibition process was suitable then this would be a fallback position.5. is chosen for its compatibility with the formation and its fluids so as not to cause any formation damage.6. . the material chosen should combat the effects of corrosion. These are three pressure induced effects which produce forces that moves the tubing. 7. Carbon Dioxide and Chloride levels. This is subject to any corrosion inhibition methods which may be implemented. Particular importance should be paid to Hydrogen Sulphide.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 161 OF 295 ENI S.p. Each of these effects are addressed in this section.A. therefore it is essential that a detailed corrosion study is completed to enable the choice of materials and/or inhibition procedures. usually a brine. It should be selected to provide an overbalance at the top of the reservoir.
The tubing is run into a completion fluid with equivalent fluid density inside and outside the tubing which results in a reduction of the load due to buoyancy.p.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 162 OF 295 ENI S.4.A. Piston Effect 0 REVISION Tubing. and tubing smaller than the packer bore. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 7. The change in length due to these alterations is calculated from Hooks Law: Where E is the modulus of elasticity (sometimes referred to as a Young’s Modulus formula). The force (F) change is caused by the change in piston force from the initial conditions created by a change in pressure in the annulus or tubing at the packer. This will alter the tensile load on the top and bottom of the tubing. If there is an alteration from this initial condition causing a change in pressure forces across the packer seal unit then a piston effect is caused.B L E As Ap Ai Ao ∆Pi ∆Po = = = = = = = = Length of the tubing string to the packer depth (ins) Young’s Modulus of Elasticity (psi) 2 Cross sectional area of tubing (ins ) 2 Area of the packer bore (ins ) 2 Area of the tubing ID (ins ) 2 Area of the tubing OD (ins ) Change in tubing pressure at the packer (psi) Change in annulus pressure at the packer (psi) . This tensile load is greatest in the joint immediately below the tubing hanger.1. the equation becomes: ∆L1 = − where: L EAs [(Ap − A1) ∆P1 − (Ap − Ao ) ∆Po] Eq. 7. tubing larger than the packer bore.A Substituting for F. 7. 7.7 and figure 7. The formula in each case is the same: ∆L1 = − L F EAs Eq. when run in a well must first withstand the load of its own weight which may be a significant factor especially in deep wells.h illustrate this piston force for two cases.
some of the tubing will be buckled and the rest straight.2. The buckling effect is greater when pressure differential is applied across the pipe.G . The neutral point can be calculated from the following: n= where: W Wi Wo = = = F w Ws + Wi . Buckling Effect Figure 7. The exact point between the buckled and straight sections is the ‘neutral point’ (Refer to figure 7. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 0 REVISION Ao Ai Ao Ai r r Po Po Ap Pi Ap Pi Figure 7. 7. The helix shown in figure 7.Packer Bore Larger Than Tubing OD 7.Wo Ai x Weight of fluid inside the tubing Ao x Weight of fluid outside the tubing Eq.Packer Bore Smaller Than Tubing OD Helical buckling is initiated by compressive force acting on the bottom of the tubing and is the formation of helical spirals in the tubing string.H .i has a variable pitch as the compressive force is progressively lowered by the weight of the pipe hanging below.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 163 OF 295 ENI S.i).4. Unless the tubing string is short or the compressive force is exceedingly high.C .p.A.
7.Neutral Point When the neutral point is within the tubing length (and so the helix can fully develop).D I= π (D 4 − d 4 ) 64 .p. the length reduction due to helical buckling (Refer to figure 7.A.i) can be calculated by the following formula: F2 r2 ∆L2 = − 8EI w where: Eq. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 0 REVISION Figure 7.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 164 OF 295 ENI S.I .
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F Figure 7.J - Helical Buckling If the tubing is very short (as happens for example on selective type completions between two packer’s) all the string may be affected by buckling and there is no neutral point. In this case, the length reduction due to the buckling effect is dependant upon the entire length of the string and can be calculated by the following formula:
∆L2 = −
F 2 r 2 Lw Lw F 2 − F 8 EIw
As seen, the formulae for both piston effect and helicoidal buckling above has so far used F, i.e. the change in the piston force acting on the bottom of the tubing. However, in order to complete the understanding of the effects which lead to variations in length due to buckling, we must also consider the effect caused by pressure differential across a pipe. If the internal pressure in a pipe is greater than the external pressure, the tube remains straight only if it has an axially symmetric cross-section with no deformation to change its shape. This configuration is unstable and any distortion can lead immediately to a stable equilibrium condition which is helicoidal buckling. Helicoidal buckling is caused by the effect of the pressure which acts on the lateral surface of the pipe wall as the convex surface of the bend in a greater force is larger than the concave surface (Refer to figure 7.k). The internal pressure will therefore exert a greater force on the convex side of the helix, than that exerted on the concave section of the same bend. The resulting force will, therefore, create the helicoidal buckling configuration. The same occurs when the stable external pressure is greater than the internal pressure also resulting in helical buckling.
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Moreover, the effect of the external pressure on the tubing lateral surfaces is equivalent to a tensile force applied at the tubing bottom of:
F f = Ai Pi
= − Ao Po
Figure 7.K - Pressure Induced Helical Buckling Effect From this it can be concluded that the effect of the internal pressure on the tubing lateral surfaces is equivalent to a compressive force applied at the bottom of the tubing. Therefore the tubing will be buckled by the piston force and by the sum of Ff and Ff . The fictitious force Ff is obtained from the sum of the three elements:
Ff = Ff + Ff
F f = A p (Pi − Po )
If Ff is greater than zero it will cause helical buckling and hence, if it is less than zero there is no deformation. It is however important to relate that the only force actually applied at the bottom of the tubing is the piston force, while the fictitious force is used only to calculate the buckling effect.
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It should be remembered that, to calculate the variations in length, the variations of the forces compared to initial conditions must be calculated. Therefore, to sum up: in the ∆L1 (Hooke’s law), the variation of the piston force Fa must be used; in the ∆L2 (buckling), the variation of the fictitious force Ff must be used when this is positive, otherwise, being a tensile force, it cannot buckle the string and ∆L2 = 0. The theory above was developed considering Pi = Po in the initial conditions, it thus follows that the Ff is equal to zero and that the variation of fictitious force ∆Ff is therefore equal to the final fictitious force. 7.4.3. Ballooning Effect The third element which changes the length of a string, due to the changes to internal and external pressure, is caused by ballooning. This effect occurs when ∆P = Pi - Po is positive and tends to swell the tubing which, contracts axially or shortens (Refer to figure 7.m). On the other hand, when ∆P = Pi - Po is negative, the tubing is squeezed and, expands axially or elongates. This is termed reverse ballooning (Refer to figure 7.l). The normally used simplified formula to calculate the ballooning or reverse ballooning effect is: • •
∆L3 = −
2ν ∆Pim − R 2 ∆Pom L E R2 −1
In this the average internal and external pressure variations are defined by the formulae:
+ Pi ( final ) − Pi (initial ) Pi ( final ) − Pi (initial ) tophole bottomhole ∆Pim = 2
+ Po ( final ) − Po (initial ) Po ( final ) − Po (initial ) tophole bottomhole ∆Pom = 2
Eq. 7.L Again this is developed from Hooke’s law using Young’s Modulus of elasticity (already used in the piston and buckling effect) and Poisson’ ratio. Poisson’s ratio v as earlier expressed is:
∆t / t ∆L / L
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Figure 7.L - Reverse Ballooning 7.4.4. Temperature Effect
Figure 7.M - Ballooning
The final effect considered when calculating tubing length variations, is the temperature effect which usually induces the largest movement. During a well operation, e.g. stimulation, the temperature of the tubing may be much less than that in, either, the initial or flow rate conditions. During well stimulations, significant quantities of fluids are pumped through the tubing at ambient surface temperature which may change the temperature of the tubing by several degrees. The formula used to calculate the change of length due to temperature effect is:
∆L4 = α ∆TM L
Eq. 7.M where the average temperature variation in the string can be calculated as follows:
− Tinitial )tophole + (T final − Tinitial )bottomhole 2
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In the formula α represents the material’s coefficient of thermal expansion. For steel this value is: α = 6.9 x 10-6 in/in/°F. figure 7.n shows typical geothermal temperature gradients during both stimulation and production conditions. It can be seen that the temperature variations to which the tubing is subjected may cause considerable changes to its length.
300 T (°F)
7500 D (feet)
Figure 7.N - Typical Geothermal Gradients 7.5. EVALUATION OF TOTAL TUBING MOVEMENT The sum of the length changes obtained from the changes in pressure induced forces and temperature effects, gives the total shift of the bottom end of the string at the packer depth where it is free to move in the packer-bore. This sum is calculated:
∆Ltot = ∆L1 + ∆L2 + ∆L3 + ∆L4
Eq. 7.O With free moving packer/tubing seals systems, the calculations are made for the selection of an appropriate length of seal assembly, PBR or ELTSR with anchored packer/tubing systems, this same calculation can be made to select the length of tubing movement devices such as telescopic or expansion joints. However, if no movement is converted to stress in the tubing, the resultant is stress on the packer (Refer to section 7.6).
Since no force is applied at the end of the tubing which could cause buckling. To understand this concept better. ANCHORED TUBING 0 REVISION In some completions the tubing is firmly fixed to the packer. it is possible to use a graphical approach. Figure 7.6. Subsequently. the load on the tubing can be calculated to check if the completion components have sufficient strength. preventing any movement of the string when well conditions vary (figure 7.P However.o). In this situation the tubing-packer forces generated by the presence of the anchoring must be determined so as to be able to confirm if the tubing-packer anchoring system and the packer have sufficient strength to safely withstand all the forces exerted. Moreover. in general the problem of identifying the tubing/packer reaction is not linear due to the helical buckling effect and so. it is sufficient to impose a ∆L4 elongation by applying a force FP which is obtained from Hooke’s law: ∆L = − FL EAs ⇒ FP = − ∆L4 EAs L Eq.A. 7. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 7. once this force is known. the force needed to re-anchor the tubing to the packer can be determined.p where it is presumed that the tubing can move away from its anchored condition while maintaining the seal with the packer and that the tubing undergoes only ∆L4 contraction caused by the temperature effect. .p.Tubing Anchored To Packer The tubing-packer force can be calculated by initially assuming that the tubing is free to move in the packer seal-bore and it is possible to calculate the final total length change of the tubing under pressure and temperature variations of all conditions.O . all the movement is linear and to restore to the tubing’s real anchored position.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 170 OF 295 ENI S. consider figure 7.
A. was applied at the end of the tubing. even when this is negative. Indeed. This can be plotted using the following formulae: ∆L = − ∆L = − FL EAs FL F 2 r 2 − EAs 8 EIw ( for F < 0 ) ( for F > 0 ) Eq. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 0 REVISION The first step is to plot the characteristic strength/length variation of the system. the cause of the buckling would be eliminated and the neutral point would return to the bottom in the tubing. ∆L4 Fp ∆L ∆L4 Fp F Figure 7.p is determined by the size of tubing.p. The origin of the axis moves to the point found in this way (Ff .ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 171 OF 295 ENI S. As shown in figure 7. if a force of Ff. on the material. 7.q this condition is identified by intersection point (Ff. so to position the tubing in the packer after contracting the string must be elongated accordingly. On the curve given in figure 7.P . radial distance between the tubing OD and casing ID and on the fluids in the well.Q The second step is to identify. shown in figure 7. This curve. the tubing representative point in the well when it is subjected to the fictitious force. on the curve.∆Lf) and the diagram obtained has a total length variation of ∆LP = -∆ltot.Graphical Representation Of Movement . is then identified. transferred between the tubing and packer. ∆Lf).q the Fp force.
Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 0 REVISION ∆Lp Fp ∆L Fp ∆Lf ∆Lp F Ff Figure 7. some of the weight of the string is set down on the packer. Tubing Permitting Limited Motion Another method which may be used in some types of completions is that the tubing is fully or partially limited in downhole movement. . after the packer is set.r).6.Q .A.1.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 172 OF 295 ENI S.Graphical Representation of Force 7. putting the tubing into compression or slackened-off (Refer to figure 7.p. In this method.
If an anchored type constraint is considered then the tubing-packer force with respect to the anchored tubing can be reduced. for example. possible to limit the movements of the tubing with respect to the packer and consequently the length of the packer seal-assembly. . ∆Ltot. therefore. 7. e. therefore. during an injection operation. causing a force on the packer which would be equal to that of the slack-off amount. in an injection operation. on the other hand.R where: Fso = slack-off force released on the packer.Limited Downward Movement The shortening of the string caused by this. the total length variation calculated as the sum of the above described effects. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 0 REVISION Figure 7. makes it possible to limit the length variations of the string. With this type of anchoring it is.g. ∆Pso.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 173 OF 295 ENI S. The ∆Lso value is determined using the following formula: 2 Fso L Fso r 2 ∆Lso = − − E As 8 E I w Eq. any elongation of the string would be prevented.p. i. compressing the string and thus causing part of the length variation which would occur in any case at a later stage due to the effects described above.A. is decreased by ∆Lso. The same considerations can be made if ∆Ltot < 0 during the operation while.R . applying slack-off is the same as moving the packer upwards by ∆Lso.e. In practice.
therefore the only load applied is the pressure induced forces of piston effect buckling and ballooning.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 174 OF 295 ENI S. These pressures may be applied more than once during the installation operation.6.2. when selecting the type of tubing for a completion. This stress needs to be taken into account to determine the total stress applied to the tubing. Hydraulic packers are set by plugging the tubing below the packer either by dropping a setting ball onto a shear out ball seat. temperature and mechanical loads for each condition imposed.7.A. as pressure is applied to the tubing to set the packer. Packer Setting 0 REVISION A particular problem arises in tubing tied to packer completions when using hydraulic set packers.p. The formulae for determine this tubing length change are: ∆Fa L EAs 2ν ∆Pim ∆L3 = − L E R2 −1 ∆L1 = − where: (Hooke’s law) (ballooning) ∆Fa = − Ai ∆Pi and ∆Pim=∆Pi 7.1. However. TUBING LOAD CONDITIONS The load conditions of the tubing string during the well’s life causes stresses through the pressure. A manual or computer programme is then used to calculate and then ascertain whether the given tubing is able to withstand the maximum load with an acceptable safety level. This in turn places stress in the tubing after the packer is set and the pressure is bled off. This involves applying predetermined test pressures to both the tubing and annulus. During the time taken to install the tubing. the completion will have warmed up to ambient well conditions. . 7. It is important. in any case. or by installing a plug with wireline. it is essential to identify exactly what operations will be carried out in future to determine the consequent loads and thus the associated load conditions. It is therefore obvious why. Pressure Testing The very first load condition experienced during and after the installation of the completion string is pressure testing. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 7. These should be seen only as an example of load conditions as each case must be addressed individually as planned operations may vary. to analyse the characteristics of each operation in order to be able to identify the heavier loads which may be imposed. The operations normally carried out on a well for which the string control is necessary are illustrated below. This may be of particular concern when using large bore tubing movement devices as the forces generated by the test pressure are greater than packer tubing seal arrangements. the designed test pressures should be equal to or greater than any other subsequent pressures applied to the completion so the magnitude is high. it changes the length of the tubing during the setting process.7.
Friction reducers may also be used to increase flow at the same wellhead pressure. according to the classical Lubinsky theory. The calculated flow rate is applied during the operation and the pressure trend (which usually decreases when the fracture is created due to the reduction of load losses in the formation) is monitored. At times during these early stages. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 7. in order to exceed the fracturing gradient.7. to reduce the loads on the tubing by preheating the acid in order to limit the thermal expansion and pressurising the annulus to reduce the tubing ballooning effect. the formation must be pressurised until one (or more) fractures are created.s shows the pressure and temperature trends required to be known so as to ensure stress control of the string. This may lead to greater cooling down of the tubing with reduced pressures. are higher than that during acid jobs. This equipment must therefore be protected using special isolating tools or protection sleeves. it is important to assess the drop in temperature caused by the injection of colder fluid which. 7. using computer programmes. It is important to monitor the pressure and temperature trends during the operation as the acid rate will probably increase due to the effect of the acid on the formation. the maximum allowable pressure for some well head equipment may be reached.A. It may be necessary in some cases. This entails obtaining in advance the injection parameters from various injectivity tests with increasing flow rates. selecting the end of the operation as the final conditions but with a well head pressure equal to the maximum estimated. . This operation is carried out by pumping a predetermined quantity of acid down the tubing to the formation at set pressures and flow rates. Other data are often needed for more complex calculations. the pressure and temperature trends can be plotted as shown by the previous example of the acid stimulation (figure 7. These fractures reach from the well bore deep into reservoir and allows better drainage. With regard to the stresses on the string similar to acid stimulations. From the point of view of the stresses exerted on the tubing string. together with the temperature variations caused by the injection of colder fluid. To check the string design is suitable.2. Fracturing Fracturing involves the propagation of fractures in the formation for the improvement of productivity of hydrocarbons. which. the maximum pressure able to be applied at the well head must be considered in order to determine the rate of acid which can be applied. figure 7. Acid Stimulation 0 REVISION Acid jobs are carried out to remove formation damage caused during drilling by the invasion of fluids and cuttings or to stimulate the formation by improving permeability.p.s). The pressures which can be attained. in Eni-Agip Division and Affiliates case are in-house software which allows reproduction of the correct temperature trend.7.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 175 OF 295 ENI S. especially during the early injection stage. and decreasing the bottom hole pressure thus reducing the load. is carried out at high flow rates even though of short duration. To carry out fracturing.3.
A. 0 0 100 200 300 T (°F) INITIAL CSG AND TBG . Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 0 REVISION If during the initial stages of the operation. and the second with marked temperature variations and lower pressures. The latter condition may be too conservative.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 176 OF 295 ENI S. therefore two conditions should be checked.Pressure and Temperature Trends During Fracturing .S .p.FINAL CSG 2500 FINAL TBG 5000 7500 D (feet) 0 0 5000 FINAL CSG 10000 FINAL TBG 15000 P (psi) 2500 5000 INITIAL TBG INITIAL CSG 7500 D (feet) Figure 7. the first with high pressures without temperature variations. a significant break-down is forecast (by a marked reduction of pressure when the fracture is opened up in the formation).
A. or at least approximate.7. making it necessary to ensure a collapse control of some sections. it is necessary to interrupt production for maintenance or in order to take some data measurements. external pressure may be greater than internal pressure. Flowing 0 REVISION In this case it is not an operation carried out on the well but the normal flowing load conditions to which the string is being subjected. the string undergoes temperature increases which cause elongation in the string.4.t and figure 7. The situation is now similar to that during production but with well head pressures which are greater and hence increase the stresses on the string.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 177 OF 295 ENI S. the temperature of the string does not vary greatly due to the thermal inertia of the well. 7. This shut-in operation involves closing the well during which the well head pressure increases because the reservoir pressure rises to static condition.u. As shown in the diagrams of figure 7. which give the pressure and temperature bottom hole trends as a function of the depth at production start up and when the reservoir is depleted. temperature differences between the beginning and end of the productive life or the need to increase or decrease the flow rate for reasons external to the well. at the moment of shut-in. Shut-In Once a well is in production. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 7. pressuring up the fluids in the tubing. The resulting compressive forces may lead to the buckling phenomena and even cause the tubing to exceed its elastic limit. e.5.p.u shows typical pressure and temperature trends after a shut-in. It is therefore very important to establish. the pressure and temperature profiles during the life of the well.7. figure 7. . Compared to the initial condition. This load condition is considered critical as.g. Different production situations will occur which cause changing load conditions.
A.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 178 OF 295 ENI S. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 0 REVISION 0 0 100 200 300 T (°F) 2500 FINAL TBG 5000 INITIAL CSG E TBG .FINAL CSG 7500 D (feet) Figure 7.p.Pressure and Temperature Trends in Normal Production Conditions .T .FINAL CSG 7500 D (feet) 0 0 5000 10000 15000 P (psi) 2500 FINAL TBG INITIAL TBG 5000 INITIAL CSG .
FINAL CSG 7500 D (feet) . Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 0 REVISION Figure 7.A.p.Pressure and Temperature Trends in Depleted Reservoir Production Conditions 0 0 100 200 300 T (°F) 2500 FINAL TBG 5000 INITIAL CSG E TBG .FINAL CSG 7500 D (feet) 0 0 5000 FINAL TBG 10000 15000 P (psi) 2500 INITIAL TBG 5000 INITIAL CSG .ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 179 OF 295 ENI S.U .
V .A.Pressure and Temperature Trends After Shut-In .p.FINAL CSG 7500 D (feet) Figure 7.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 180 OF 295 ENI S.CSG FINAL 7500 D (feet) 0 0 5000 10000 15000 P (psi) FINAL TBG 2500 INITIAL TBG 5000 INITIAL CSG . Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 0 REVISION 0 0 100 200 300 T (°F) 2500 FINAL TBG 5000 INITIAL CSG AND TBG .
A draft design is considered based on the expected well conditions and then this design is checked to obtain the safety factor(s). it is important to be able to plot the pressure and temperature trends of the casing and tubing on the two pressure/depth and temperature/ depth diagrams for the moment before the packer is set (initial conditions) and at the end of this operation (final condition) or. which may differ depending on the local environmental conditions and on some parameters discussed below. it will be necessary during the control stage to know the pressure and temperature data of all the packers and of the tubing cross-section variations and is good practice to plot these data on diagrams. If the string is tapered or has one. and knowing the completion configuration.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 181 OF 295 ENI S. Alterations are then made to the draft completion until the ideal safety factor. 7. or more.6.7. it is necessary to assess all the various possible solutions. In both cases the problem of completing the well is solved but it is necessary to verify both cost and whether it is better to use on CRA. TUBING SELECTION The tubing string selection procedure and subsequent stress analysis is fundamental to the completion design process as it is during these two stages.p. intermediate packers. by choosing and verifying the various possibilities. can be obtained. during the stage considered most critical as regards the loads applied. that the optimum solution is found through a sequence of approximations. A typical example is that of wells with the presence of corrosive agents where either strings and down hole equipment can be made in Corrosion Resistant Alloy (CRA) or carbon steel with inhibitors injected downhole can be used. generally this is greatest in the section above the packer and below the well head. the relative loads on the sections of the string can be calculated.e. the correct safety factor for all the calculated load conditions expected during the life of the well. i. is reached. As shown in the examples above. . Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 7. The Eni-Agip Division and Affiliates approach to choosing the tubing string is similar to that followed when designing any other mechanical part. avoiding future workovers or if it is more economical to use carbon steel with an inhibition system and scheduled workovers.A. in any case. Load Condition Summary 0 REVISION The operations described above were chosen because they are the most common and show which aspects of an operation must be known in order to determine which loads will have to be considered to verify string design. Using the above diagrams. Since the economic factor plays a primary role of importance when selecting a completion.8. By using an iterative method.
to complete a well with the presence of corrosive agents (H2S and/or CO2) the use carbon steel with controlled hardness and/or martensitic steel. etc. The inside and outside diameter of the tubing. is the choice of the size.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 182 OF 295 ENI S.1. Given that the dimensions of the tubing and components of the string (safety valves.) must fit inside the production casing and/or liner. . etc. it will be necessary to take into consideration their mechanical properties to ensure that a suitable factor can be verified in the subsequent stress analysis stage. chlorides and water from production tests and to enter these data into an expert system. thickness of the corrosion product. especially when the severity of the conditions suggest the use of expensive CRA materials (Refer to section 6). the ideal material is determined by the results of corrosion studies carried out prior to the tubing design stage. frequency of workovers.A. When CRA steels are used (which must be cold worked in order to obtain the required mechanical characteristics). Tubing Size And Weight One of the main elements of the completion string design process. the length of each section needs to be determined at this point. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 7. However. Indeed. e.g. 7.p. it is then possible to identify the optimum mechanical solutions.2. Critical Factors 0 REVISION The main factors driving the choice of the string are described below. landing nipples. the exact quantities of H2S.8. CO2. using the engineering diagrams supplied by manufacturers. Once the choice of materials has been identified. and if the string has more than one size of tubing as in a tapered string. Note: It is vital that any detrimental impact caused by the casing programme is discussed with the drilling engineers to solve any problems. it is best to base the choice on an appropriate corrosion study which takes into account many other parameters. or for a quicker choice. it is essential to establish the size in order to find out if it impacts on the casing design. With regard to corrosion studies.8. economics. outlined below. wall thickness and grade of tubing which is optimum to requirements. In this case. The presence of residual tension may induce stress corrosion and over-stressing problems which must also be taken into consideration. in terms of all the mechanical stresses and corrosivity of the fluids. Taking into consideration the well conditions. this method does not provide a solution to using carbon steel in conjunction with an inhibition system. it is always necessary to determine. the possibility of anisotropies must be checked into as they generally imply a lower compressive yield load than tensile yield load and corresponding reductions for their use at high temperatures. whether this entails changes to either the casing programme or the completion design. Materials The choice of material for the tubing string depends mainly on the well environment. is often sufficient though these only reach a maximum grade of T95 (95 ksi yield) therefore do not always meet with stress requirements in high pressures and great depth. In general.
the loads resulting from the various load conditions (acid jobs. Once the projected size of the tubing is established for the required flow rate then in gas.e. API standards for carbon steels define a 12. maximum weight) and the workover stage (minimum thickness. which generally will be equipped with a corrosion inhibitor injection system. When choosing the thickness of the tubing forming the string. The two cases. minimum weight) must both be taken into consideration when calculating the string’s stress resistance. it is necessary to calculate the velocities in the string during production. mechanical strength and practical feasibility. production. This value for CRA tubing’s is often only 10%. This rate must be lower than the rate at which erosion occurs. the safety factor under these loads against the yield strength are calculated. The above factors can often lead to a variety of solutions. faster wall thickness reduction. These studies can generally be completed quickly using Eni-Agip Division and Affiliates software which directly provides the diameters of tubing for the expected flow rates and projected rates. by grinding. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 0 REVISION The first indications of tubing size obtained is from tubing inflow performance analysis. it is useful to consider the thickness tolerance adopted by the manufacturer of the selected tubing. surface pressures. Calculation of the tubing inflow performance is very complicated and time consuming in most cases and is not covered in this manual.5% eccentricity tolerance which means one point on the tubing’s circumference probably has less thickness.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 183 OF 295 ENI S. the new string (maximum thickness.p. In the case of a very expensive super austenitic steel string for example. It is prudent in such cases to reduce through tubing interventions which knock off the corrosion exposing fresh material and. may be due to repairs. it may be necessary to increase the weight or grade because the string is too weak. These threshold velocities can be found in API RP 14E. Wells in which hydrocarbons containing corrosive agents are produced are sometimes completed using carbon steel and it is accepted that a certain amount of the material will be lost through corrosion during the life of the well. In some particular situations non-traditional solutions must be chosen as some parameters. should therefore have added thickness so as to have sufficient material to last until the scheduled workover. i. . carried out to remove tong marks. it may be more appropriate to choose more structurally efficient solutions which use a tapered string with different diameters thus reducing the amount of material needed and therefore the cost. so it is necessary to evaluate each one in order to obtain the most suitable solution in terms of cost. hence. Once this calculation has been made. The strings of these wells. etc. such as cost. The most important value to be decided on the selected tubing is its mechanical strength. or gas condensate wells.) applied to the selected string. bottom hole pressures and other parameters. limit the choices. which provides a better safety factor under similar conditions. which take into account the type of fluid. Another reduction of thickness which must be taken into account on used tubing. As explained in the following section.A.
due to the use of static seals. This will extend seal life. is systems to screw the tubing to the packer using a threaded connection on retrievable packer systems or to a tubing anchor (which allows the packer to be released when necessary) on permanent packer systems. Anchoring Systems 0 REVISION As illustrated earlier. using a NoGo locator shoulder fitted above the seal assembly where it is positioned to prevent the elongation of the string while leaving it free to shorten. it is clear from this that the least severe system is where the tubing seal assembly is free to move in the packer bore.3.8. but leads to greater stressing of the tubing string.A. . however. From figure 7.e. In very deep wells. have some disadvantages which are often unacceptable such as dynamic seals. This type of anchoring provides the solution to seal life. The best solution. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 7. This will reduce movement of the packer seal assembly by eliminating downward movement and upward movement would only occur in certain limited lead conditions (stimulations or fracturing). which shows the three most common types of packer/tubing systems. will generate different loads in the string will be generated. the operations carried out during the life of a well cause movement of the tubing string which can depend on the type of tubing/packer seal system used between the bottom of the tubing and the packer. This system does.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 184 OF 295 ENI S. is the continuous movement of the seal elastomers which may become damaged due to wear or from the debris deposited in the annulus above the packer. with high pressures and temperatures the movements of the lower end of the tubing may reach several feet in magnitude and hence very long seal units would need to be used in the packer which brings related assembly and protection problems during running in. Another important problem of free tubing. In preference.W .p. Free Movement Limited Downward Movement Attached Figure 7.Tubing/Packer Systems The second preference is where downward tubing movement is restricted i.w. the free moving system is the first choice and if the loads it creates do not allow for a suitable safety factor during well operations are other systems considered.
They may be used for all service condition where an Application Level II connection is required. The use of premium connections for production casing is advised but not mandatory. Application Level I applies to the most severe service conditions.p.9. PJD Dalmine and Antares MS have not yet been subjected to the complete qualification programme as per STAP M-1-M.9.9. 7. I and II.5006 or API 5C5. To date three tubing connections have been qualified for the most severe conditions ALI.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 185 OF 295 ENI S. Policy • • The use of premium connections for tubing is mandatory. termed Application Levels (AL).2.A. They have however been used successfully for years with good results. They are : Coupled Connections AMS 28 ( manufacturer Dalmine) Vam ACE ( manufacturer Vallourec and Sumitomo) Integral Connections Eni-Agip Division and Affiliates A-DMS (Dual Metal Seal) Other connections like Hydril CS.1. . there are two service classes. especially when the annulus is to be used for gas lift or an underbalance fluid is used as a completion fluid. In conjunction Eni-Agip Division and Affiliates also recommended that a premium connection be used for production casings and production liners. 7. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 7. TUBING CONNECTIONS 0 REVISION The Eni-Agip Division and Affiliates policy for tubing connections is that ‘the use of premium connections is mandatory’. Class of Service According to the specification STAP M-1-M 5006 ‘Connection Procedure Evaluation’. The connections to be used shall be qualified according to the requirements as set in the Eni-Agip Division and Affiliates procedure ‘Connection Procedure Evaluation’.
4000 psi Differential WP 4000 .3. Selection Criteria 0 REVISION The following are the selection criteria for connections used in different types of wells and operating conditions.Connection Specification Requirement AL I AL II .8000 psi Table 7.Connection Specification Storage/Injection Gas Wells (TVD < 4500m) Criteria Differential WP 0 . Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 7.A .9.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 186 OF 295 ENI S.4000 psi Differential WP 4000 . AL I no yes AL II AL I AL I no no AL II AL II (*) AL I Requirement yes yes AL I AL I AL I yes no AL II AL I AL I Table 7.B .p. Work string or well testing string: Integral AL1 connection shall be used Horizontal wells with Build up ≥ 20°/100 feet: Integral AL1 connection should be used Wells with TVD ≥ 4500m: Integral AL1 connection shall be used Producing Oil And Gas Wells (TVD < 4500m) Criteria NACE Close Proximity Differential WP 0 .8000 psi Differential WP over 8000 psi (*) For Gas Injection wells.A.
x.p.A. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 Water Injection Wells (TVD < 4500m) Criteria Differential WP 0 .4000 psi Differential WP 4000 .4 explains the NACE and Close Proximity definitions.8000 psi Table 7.9. Note: Section 7.Connection Specification A flow chart reaffirming the above is shown in figure 7.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 187 OF 295 ENI S. 0 REVISION Requirement AL II AL II Differential working pressure is the maximum differential pressure (internal and/or external) to which the production string is subjected during the life of the well. .C .
ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 188 OF 295 ENI S.Connection Application Level Selection Flow Chart . Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 0 REVISION Figure 7.p.A.X .
Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 7. These conditions are recommended minimum considerations. village.A.589) (mole fraction H2S) (Q)] 0.4. city. The following list of criteria can be used for determining this potential risk.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 189 OF 295 ENI S. Well is located in or near inland navigable waters Well is located in or near surface domestic water supplies.6258 . church. city limits. place of business. school. Public road shall mean any federal. from the wellhead and includes any part of a public area including a public road.6258 For determining the location of the 500ppm radius of exposure: X = [(0. etc. • • • • • • • Well is located in any environmentally sensitive area such as parks. Well is located in state waters. state. Public area shall mean a dwelling. Well is located within 50ft. or other similar area that one can expect to be populated. Well is located within 150ft. wildlife preserve. NACE And Proximity Definitions NACE Requirement 0 REVISION This applies to the partial pressure of hydrogen sulphide (H2S) in the produced fluid as defined by NACE Standard MR 01-75. Well is located within 350ft of any dwelling.p. Other criteria for consideration should be included when necessary. Texas Railroad Commission Rules The following information is taken from Texas Railroad Commission Rule 36: For determining the location of the 100ppm radius of exposure: X = [(1. school bus stop. 500ppm ROE of H2S is greater than 50ft. hospital. county or municipal street or road owned or maintained for public access or use.4546) (mole fraction H2S) (Q)] 0. of a public road (lease road excluded). town. all or any portion of a park. Close Proximity A proximity assessment should be prepared to consider the potential impact of an uncontrolled well flow condition on the life of personnel and the environment around the wellhead. 100ppm Radius of Exposure (ROE) of H2S is greater than 50ft.9. a public road. government building. from the wellhead and includes any part of a public area except a public road. It will be necessary to meet any other local regulatory requirements. of an open flame or fired equipment.
Mole fraction of hydrogen sulphide in the gaseous mixture which could escape. and consequently. The anti-galling treatments (e. it is possible to calculate the forces acting on the packer. the escape rate shall be determined by using the current adjusted open-flow rate of offset wells. there is a tendency to gall during make up. the fictitious and piston forces in the string sections.g.6. When a well is in an area where insufficient data exists to calculate a radius of exposure.A.5.10. Computer programmes are very useful in this phase as it is possible to make repeated calculations quickly with different parameters. CRA Connections For steels with a high chrome content (>13%). The escape rate used in determining the radius of exposure shall be corrected to standard o conditions of 14.9. or the field average current adjusted openflow rate. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 where: X = Radius of exposure in feet Q= H2S = 0 REVISION Maximum volume determined to be available for escape in cubic feet per day.65psia and 60 F. information about the load conditions. Connection Data Data on tubing connections are available from API specifications and tables in industry handbooks. as is applicable: For the new wells in developed areas. 7. TUBING STRESS CALCULATIONS The final stage of the completion string design is the calculation of stress in areas under the highest loads.9. After these calculations are made. .000ft shall be assumed.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 190 OF 295 ENI S. the type of tubing and materials to be used to meet the requirements outlined in section 6.8. During the verification stage it may be seen that the loads on the string are unacceptably high. hence protection.e. 7. i. but where hydrogen sulphide may be expected. The volume used as the escape rate in determining the radius of exposure shall be that specified below. At this point of the process all the possible elements needed for the design verification are available. This requires special surface treatment in the connection’s pin and box. 7. a 100ppm radius of exposure equal to 3. Bakertron or copper plating) is always applied to the couplings to ensure the utmost coating. Fp. Using the calculation theory illustrated previously.p. it is possible to determine how close the stresses are to the material’s yield strength. The string or load conditions or the tubing strength must therefore be altered until the calculation produces an appropriate safety factor (SF). whichever is the larger.
1. Calculation Methods 0 REVISION Taking. Therefore. the tables below summarise the forces acting on the sections of the string which will be used for the design verifications. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 7. to calculate forces on intermediate sections between the well head and packer depth. The asterix distinguishes the forces calculated in a completion with the string anchored to the packer verses those calculated for a string free to move in the seal bore. . string design must be verified at all the appropriate sections where there are variations in diameter. the type of completion shown in figure 7. Section Y-Y (Packer) Tubing-Packer Mode Free tubing Tubing permitting limited motion and anchored Piston Forces Fictitious Forces Fa Ff Fa* = Fa + F p Table 7. the sections where the string design must be verified are indicated by x-x at the well head and y-y at the downhole just above the packer. the forces at the well head coincide with those at the packer depth if L = 0.y. as an example.Forces at X-X F f tp = F f − wL F f*tp = F f* − wL As can be seen. instead of ‘L’ of the previous formulae.10.y.Forces at Y-Y F f* = F f + F p Section X-X (Well Head) Tubing-Packer Mode Free tubing Tubing permitting limited motion and anchored Piston Forces Fictitious Forces Fa tp = Fa − w s L Fa*tp = Fa* − w s L Table 7. have intermediate packers or other discontinuities.E . For other types of completions.D .p. it is sufficient to use an intermediate length ‘l’ ( L > l > 0 ) measured from the packer.A. With reference to figure 7.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 191 OF 295 ENI S.
A. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 0 REVISION X X Y Y Figure 7.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 192 OF 295 ENI S.p. σb is calculated only if the section of the string to be verified is buckled. .Example Completion #1 The piston forces obtained in this way are used to calculate the axial stress which is given by the expression: σa = Fa As The fictitious force is used to calculate the axial stress caused by the tubing bending when helically buckled. it is given by the expression: σb = Dr Ff 4I therefore.Y .
1 which gives the SF values to be used by Eni-Agip Division and Affiliates. 7. the equivalent stress is σeq = σi The higher of the stress values determined above will make it possible to obtain the SF of the string for the load conditions and the section considered: SF = σ sn σ eq The SF must be greater than the minimum dictated by policy and listed in section 7. σb. which gives the equivalent stresses in the outside and inside wall of the considered tubing section. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 0 REVISION Now all the factors needed to determine the equivalent stress σa. if the section to be calculated is buckled.10.e. In this case the equivalent force will be the greater of the two.2. It. both calculations must be made to determine the higher of the two values while.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 193 OF 295 ENI S. by applying suitable criterion (for the materials used in the oil industry the most appropriate is Von Mises). i. calculated using the expression below. the stress which. allows comparison of the stresses due to the different effects in a particular section of the string against the material yield stress rating.A. The Eni-Agip Division and Affiliates policy is to apply different types of material due to their different mechanical behaviours and resistance to corrosion.p. Carbon and CRA Steels up to 13%Cr The acceptable SF for these types of materials is: 1. even if only slightly. provides a quick reference parameter to evaluate the magnitude of the stresses present in the tubing compared to the maximum acceptable.25 . 2 P − P P − R Po σ o = 3 i 2 o + i 2 +σa ±σb R −1 R −1 2 2 P − R 2 Po R 2 (Pi − Po ) σ σ i = 3 + i 2 +σa ± b 2 R −1 R R −1 2 2 As stated above. its functionality. To calculate the SF the yield limit values of the material are taken into consideration so that there is no permanent corkscrewing of the string which could jeopardise. Po and Pi are available. Safety Factor A completion string’s safety factor is defined as the ratio between the yield stress and the maximum value of the stress obtained as described above. if there is no buckling σb = 0 and the greater stress is that in the inside wall. therefore.
Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 0 REVISION In each individual case the string design and stress analysis engineer may evaluate whether the acceptable SF can be lowered to 1. therefore.). clear that a higher SF for Cold Worked materials is required in order to maintain the same safety factor relevant to the breaking points for the two types of materials. This is a dangerous situation which occurs at the breaking point.g.35 Similarly. apart from the yielding the cold worked materials reach breaking point soon after the yield point while the carbon steels maintain a greater plastic deformation margin before the breaking point. Furthermore. the engineer may evaluate whether. the acceptable SF can be lowered to 1. figure 7. As stated previously. super-austenitic and Incoloy is: 1. for some particular operations and for specific well conditions.Stress/Strain Diagrams COLD WORKED CARBON STEEL σ σ σsn r σ σr σsn σr = breaking point σsn = yield point ε = elongation ε ε . the cold worked materials retain residual stress so.z shows the stress/strain diagrams for the above two types of materials. the SF should be slightly higher. Figure 7. from both the viewpoint of stress corrosion and mechanical strength.20. The different SF’s between the carbon and CRA steels can be attributed to the different behaviour of these materials for stress values above the yield point.15 for some particular operations and for specific well conditions. economic decision not to use the next grade of tubing etc. the SF is calculated using the yield point but also the collapse rating of the string. (e. low pressure oil wells. As can be seen. Cold Worked (CW) CRA Steels The acceptable SF for these types of materials which include duplex.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 194 OF 295 ENI S.Z .A. It is.p.
In order to use the API Bul 5C3 formulae. it would be incorrect to use the SF for tension alone because during the life of the well it will be subjected to a combination of stresses. Fp = tension. Calculation of external pressure is carried out using the formulae supplied by API Bulletin 5C3 which identifies four types of collapse at external pressure in relation to the D/t ratio and the Yp yield stress of the material. which require substantial differential operating pressures. it is possible to calculate this value under various well conditions. from which it is possible to make a comparison with the yield load. if negative.p. External Pressure Limit During the productive life of a well. can be determined. the most suitable type of packer in relation to the completion type.3. the tensile strength in this case is positive. once D/t and Yp are known. is positive) and the differential pressure above and below the packer (Po>Pi above. Any other SFs.A.aa. Po<Pi below).ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 195 OF 295 ENI S. referred to. . the type of formula is chosen then the maximum withstandable pressure calculated. the Yp value for use for calculations is adjusted using a special formula. In order to comply with the specifications of the supplier. cannot be compared in any way to those described in this manual because they take into consideration only one mode of loading. Packer Load Limits If the Fp force value transmitted by the string to the packer is known. tension tubing. to the section’s elastic limit which occurs in thin-walled pipes. due to the depletion in reservoir pressure. it is possible to check whether well conditions come within the limits set by the packer rating. if referred to only as in the condition of triaxial stress which. this diagram can be used to ascertain the suitability of the condition. when the pressure in the annulus increases compared to that in the tubing. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 0 REVISION The SF discussed up to this point is valid. As can be seen. are known. in a state of monoaxial stresses. takes into consideration all the stress components to determine the σeq. 7. In fact the causes of collapse can range from material yield as in the case of pipes with a low D/t ratio. conditions may occur making it necessary to limit the external pressure on the string. If an axial force is applied to the pipe as well as external pressure.10. For example. However. A typical diagram for packer force limits is shown in figure 7. By using diagrams supplied by the manufacturer.10. 7. if applied individually. One example is a well at the end of its productive life with less pressure in the tubing than in the annulus.4. Another example is downhole pumps for artificial lifting and are operated by the power fluid pumped down the annulus. If the force exerted by the tubing on the packer (Fp = set-down. therefore. greater tensile loads can be applied and vice versa. By evaluating the magnitude of this force and considering other factors such as the possibility of future recovery. causes a state of monoaxial stress.
49in 2 As = 1. This allows calculation of the variations in length and thereafter the anchoring force in the packer. Example Manual Calculation As an example of applying the method detailed above.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 196 OF 295 ENI S.A.61in Dpb = 3. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 0 REVISION 400 (tension) 300 200 (Thousands) FORCE 100 0 Safety zone (set-down) -100 -200 -20 -10 0 10 20 (Thousands) (above) PRESSURE DIFF.68in 2 Ao = 6.25in 2 Ap = 8.000ft = 120. the analysis of the possible packer/tubing configurations available in this set-up is free tubing to packer and fully anchored.61in σsn = 80. Data: Tubing 2 /8in 6.Typical Packer Force Limit Diagram 7.5lb/ft : 7 2 Ai = 4.542lb/in 4 I = 1.10. we can consider the single completion in the well shown in figure 7. During a cement squeeze operation.178 ws = 0.bb.000psi ID = 6.81in R = 1.p.5. (below) Figure 7.AA .3in L = 10.094in r = 1.000in Casing 7in 32lb/ft: Packer bore: Length of string: .
cc (15lb/gal corresponds to a specific gravity of 0.Example Completion #2 .7795psi/ft). Final Conditions Final conditions are cement displacement with a specific gravity of 15lb/gal. obtained by pressurising the tubing at 5.cc shows the pressure and temperature variations against depth.BB .A. This operation causes the string to cool to 160°F at the bottom hole and creates the pressure and temperature trend 3 shown in figure 7. to a pressure gradient of 0.000psi and the casing at 1.0317lb/in and. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 Initial Conditions 0 REVISION Initially both the tubing and the annulus are filled with 30° API oil.0649lb/in and to a pressure gradient of 0.000psi. figure 7.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 197 OF 295 ENI S. therefore.p.38 psi/ft. while the temperature is 60°F at the well head and 200°F at the bottom hole. X X Y Y Figure 7. It should be noted that 30° API corresponds to a 3 specific gravity of 0.
9 lb .3 − 4.3 − 6.49) = 30751.Initial and Final Condition (Example #2) Calculation Method a) Calculation of variations in length The variation in the piston force between initial and final conditions is expressed by: ∆Fa = ∆Pi (Ap − Ai ) − ∆Po (Ap − Ao ) = 8995 (8.A. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 0 REVISION O P (psi) O 60 T (°F) GEOTERMICO CSG e TBG 10000 3800 10000 200 D (feet) D (feet) FINAL CONDITIONS O 1000 5000 P (psi) O 60 T (°F) TBG SQUEEZE CSG 10000 4800 12795 10000 160 D (feet) D (feet) Figure 7.p.68) − 1000 (8.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 198 OF 295 ENI S.CC .
61×66358.20567 = 0. is given by: F f = A p (Pi − Po ) = 8.2.542 + 0. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 0 REVISION so the variation in length according to Hooke’s Law (piston force) is given by: L1 = − Fa L 30751.5 = 0.49 x 0.0317 = 0. then the string is buckled.p. which is initially zero because Pi = Po.6×10.640 lb/in The neutral point from the bottom hole is therefore: n= Ff w 66358.64 = −46. fully immersed in fluids.16 in As this distance is less than the length of the string.16 . is calculated using the first of the two formulae in section 7.A. w.9 x 120000 =− E As 30000000 x 1.0649 = 0.3 x (12795 − 4800 ) = 66358.81 = − 67.3037 lb/in w fo = Ao γ fo = 6.5 lb As this value is positive.5 ) 8×30000000×1.2057 lb/in w = ws + w fi − w fo = 0.4.96 in The fictitious force. The weight of string.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 199 OF 295 ENI S.3037 − 0.68 x 0. ∆L 2 = − =− F2 r 2 8Elw 2 −(1. not all the string is buckled.640 = 103685. is calculated in the following way: w fi = Ai γ fi = 4. The variation in length ∆L2. so it is necessary to determine the position of the neutral point in order to calculate the ∆L2.
p.4.4 in.4. the variation in length caused by ballooning is as follows: ∆L3 = − 2ν E x ∆P − R2 x ∆P im om xL 2 R −1 2 =− 2 x 0.9 x 10 − 6 x (− 20 ) x 120000 The variation in total length of the tubing. As regards the variation in length due to temperature. is therefore given by ∆Ltot = ∆L1 + ∆L2 + ∆L3 + ∆L4 1 = − 165.5 psi ∆Pom = (1000 − 0 ) + (4800 − 3800) 2 = 1000 psi Therefore.56 in.178) x 1000 x x 120000 30000000 (1. the formula in section 7.178)2 − 1 = − 34. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 0 REVISION As regards the variation in length due to ballooning.3 6997.A.3: ∆Pim = (5000 − 0) + (12795 − 3800 ) 2 = 6997. . if the tubing can freely move in the packer-bore.4.5 − (1. the average variations in pressure along the string can be calculated using the formulae in section 7.73 in. = 6. is used to calculate the average variation in temperature along the string: ∆TM = (60 − 60 ) + (160 − 200) 2 = − 20 °F The variation in length is therefore: ∆L4 = α ∆TM L = − 16.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 200 OF 295 ENI S.
000lb. During initial conditions. may sometimes be unacceptable. this value is lower than that calculated for a free tubing.68 in.0317 = 0. it makes it possible to use the formula in section 7.6 in order to obtain: 2 Fso L Fso r 2 ∆Lso = − − E As 8 E I w (1. As this value is less than the total length of the string. Assuming that the slack-off force off loaded on the packer is 20. As can be seen. oil is the fluid inside the tubing and so: w fi = Ai γ fi = 4. One method for containing these elongations is to use a tubing permitting limited motion.485 = 41266. when there is a tubing permitting limited motion is given by: ∆Lso = ∆Ltot − ∆L so tot = − 165.73 in.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 201 OF 295 ENI S. the neutral point is located as: Fso w 20000 = 0.81 8 x 30000000 x 1. as it off-loads weight on the packer after it is set (slack-off) and compresses the string.542 + 0. .1483 lbs/in w = w s + w fi − w fo = 0. 2 The variation in the length of the string during the cement squeeze job. The slack-off operation modifies the variations in length the string will undergo during the subsequent cement squeeze stage as shown below.68 x 0.73) = − 115. n= from the bottom of the string.A.61 x 0.48 lbs/in.41 − (− 49. as it would create seal assembly lengths which are not practicable for the planned type of completion.4 in.p.61 x 20000) 20000 x 120000 =− − 30000000 x 1.485 = − 49.20575 = 0. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 b) Tubing Permitting Limited Motion 0 REVISION The variation in length calculated above.1483 − 0.
ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 202 OF 295 ENI S. the fictitious and piston forces. thus so setting the elongation ∆Lp =-∆Ltot =115.A.68 in.cc shows. giving so ∆Ltot = -115. When the data of the example are replaced.5lbs). Fp = 37000lbs. From this point. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 c) Anchored tubing 0 REVISION If we assume a condition obtained with a tubing which only permits limited motion.000lbs and the packer is forced upwards by the same amount.68 in . = Pi (A p − Ai ) − P0 (A p − Ao ) + F p F f* = F f + F p = 29358 lb . calculated according to section 7. This value may still be unacceptable so it is necessary to use anchoring in both directions. are: Fa* = Fa + F p = 629 in. Figure 8.6. so the string is subject to stress at its lower end which is equal to 37. In this case as slack-off after setting the packer is present it is necessary to determine the force required to position the end of the tubing in the packer (Fp). the formulae below are obtained (the diagram can be quickly plotted by entering any F values and calculating the corresponding ∆L): ∆L = − ∆L = − F 452. If the diagram is plotted with the value of the fictitious force calculated previously (66358. As figure 7. with a slack-off of 20.5 F F2 − 452. d) Tubing Stress Control If we consider a tubing anchored to the packer during a cement squeeze operation. it is possible to identify the point where the origin of the axes has moved to.6 shows the diagram obtained using the formulae which supplies the force/elongation characteristic for tension and compression.000lbs.5 95403727 [in] for F<0 [in] for F >0 .p. movement in the direction of elongation by a ∆Lp value is made in order to locate the point which is distant from the curve by a Fp value.
50 20 trazione [lbx1000] 40 60 allungamenti [in] 100 allungamenti [in] 80 100 compressione [lbx1000] -40 -20 -50 Fp -100 -150 ∆Lp -200 Ff 20 40 compressione [lbx1000] Figure 7.A.p.bb). F f* tp = F f* − w x L = 29358 − 0.64 x 120000 = − 47442 in.Anchored Tubing (Example #2) accorciamenti [in] .ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 203 OF 295 ENI S. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 0 REVISION In the section above the packer (figure 7.5 x 10000 = − 64371 in.DD . the forces at the well head are: Fa*tp = Fa* − w s x L = 629 − 6.
σb = 0 and the greatest amount of stress is generated on the inner wall of the tubing: σa = Fa*tp As − 64371 = 1. if we consider the highest value found as equivalent force.p.875 x 1. the values below are obtained using the formulae in section 7.81 = − 35564 psi . Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 Bottom Hole The piston force generates an axial stress equal to: 0 REVISION Fa* σa = As 629 = 1.10: σo = 51688psi σi = 60223psi .61 x 29358 = 4 x 1. therefore. along with Pi = 12795 psi e Po = 4800 psi.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 204 OF 295 ENI S.A.81 = 347 psi the deformation due to buckling generates an axial stress equal to: σb = Dr * Ff 4I 2.61 = 21095 psi If we replace the σa e σb. the result is σeq = σi. we can obtain the following bottom hole safety factor: SF = = σ sn σ eq 80000 60223 = 1.33 Well Head * As Ff tp < 0 the string at the well head is not buckled. values.
ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 205 OF 295 ENI S. have been deliberately omitted as this programme is no longer used by Eni-Agip Division and Affiliates.33 This value is acceptable because the lower limit for a carbon steel string is 1. For a description of the programme’s general functions. The second is a case history. Examples done with the Vertubing programme. 7. The first example is the same as that dealt with by Lubinsky. carried out using the Wellcat programme supplied by Enertech. Example Computation As an example we have included two cases of string calculations.000psi and po = 1. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 0 REVISION If we replace the σa value obtained and as pi = 5.10. For further information please refer to the user’s manual.10: σi = 36117 psi therefore as σeq = σi.p. the well head safety factor is: SF = = σ sn σ eq 80000 36117 = 2. please refer to the notes in Appendix D and the user’s manual available in the Company’s library. therefore: SF = 1.A.000psi.6. the value below is obtained using the formula in section 7. Particular attention should be paid to data entry and presentation of results in order to obtain knowledge of how the programme handles these two cases. . Therefore only a brief description has been given in Appendix D.25. analysed during completion studies for the Villafortuna-Trecate field. .21 The safety factor for the cement squeeze operation results as the lowest of obtained values.
ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 206 OF 295 ENI S.Packer Types .a below.p. Type Of Packer Permanent Setting Method Mechanical Hydraulic Setting Tool • Hydraulic setting tool • Electric line N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A Sealbore Features • Std/Large/Dual • Std/Large/Dual Std/Dual Std/Large/Dual Std/Dual Permanent/ Retrievable Retrievable Mechanical Hydraulic Hydraulic Hydrostatic Weight Table 8. SUB-SURFACE EQUIPMENT PACKERS The types of packer systems and applications have already been described in section 5. operating diagrams for the packers supplied by the manufacturer of the particular packer and to the pressure ratings for retrievable packers. reference is made to the operating ‘Envelopes’. 8.A .3. Once the packer type and model have been defined.1.1. For this reason regarding permanent packers. the next stage is establish its performance to meet with all the expected operating conditions (applied force and pressure differences). The packers considered are listed in table 8.A. i. This section defines the series of criteria for choosing packer characteristics to apply to single and selective completions. The proposed criteria for the choice only take into consideration general technical aspects and do not cover the individual characteristics of particular models or tools. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 0 REVISION 8.e. while still reflecting the needs which lead to selection of the most commonly used models.
ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 207 OF 295 ENI S. . 8. unplanned) Type of de-compression operations.1. setting depth. Completion Data This includes the following parameters such as: • • • Type and density of the completion fluid Perforation of the casing using tubing-conveyed or wireline techniques Use of a production liner. gas) Deviation (max. Selection Procedure Packer selection has three stages: 1) 2) 3) 0 REVISION Selection of type of packer Selection of setting mechanism Selection of main packer accessories including the tubing-packer connection In stage 3. stress analysis is carried out to check the completion string (packer and tubing) under the stress to which they are exposed. deviation angle).p.2.). refer to section 7. etc.A. the most important being: • • • • • Location (on-shore/ off-shore platforms. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 8. in particular: a) removal of the tubing by itself b) • • removal of the tubing and packer simultaneously Planned frequency of de-compression operations Potential damage to the formation caused by the workover fluid. off-shore under water) Pressures and temperatures Type of well (production. Operational Data The following operational data are required: • • Stimulations (planned.1. injection) Type of fluid produced (oil. These data also include type of packer chosen and setting. This section illustrates the flow diagrams. Selection Criteria Various representations can be used to describe the categories of criteria. identifying the standard procedures for each stage (Refer to figure 8.a.1.5 which describes the iterative process of tubing weight/grade/stress calculations. The selection process includes the following categories of data: General Well Data This includes data which effects the configuration of the well to be completed.
A .A.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 208 OF 295 ENI S.p.Selection Process Diagram . Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 0 REVISION Figure 8.
SBHP > 700 atm. The depths indicated are true vertical depths.3.b).000psi. Well Classification 0 REVISION An important parameter for defining the characteristics of a packer is the ‘degree of difficulty of the well to be completed’. 4) Non-critical well • • Depth of less than 3. 8. SBHT > 130°C. . ITHP above 3. If the well is critical or non-critical. High temperatures.p.500m. select a permanent/retrievable or permanent packer. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 8. To this end four classes of well have been identified which are used to analyse the various problems involved in the selection of the packer: 1) High corrosive wells • 2) The fluids have high corrosive problems. select a permanent packer. Temperatures below 100 °C. Packer Selection For Single String Completion Type Of Packer Procedure The choice is mainly linked to the type of well: 1) 2) 3) In the case of a highly critical well.4.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 209 OF 295 ENI S.1. with priority be given to the former. 3) Critical Well • • Temperatures between 100 and 130°C Depths between 3. Gas injection well with pressures. Highly critical wells: • • • • • • Deep depths > 4500m. (Refer to figure 8.A. Subsea well-head well.1. If the well has high corrosive. High pressures.000 and 4.000m. Platform well having the risk of failure due to the potential collision from a vessel with the structure.
(E) The workover fluid damages the formation. (D) Measured well depth ≥ 3000 m.000psi.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 210 OF 295 ENI S.B .6 kg/l) with probable solid deposits on the packer. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 0 REVISION Figure 8. (C) Use of TCP drilling techniques. (F) The packer fluid is a high density mud (> 1.Type of Packer for Critical and Non-Critical Wells Explanation of figure 8. (G) Gas injection well with injection pressure > 3. (B) High frequency of tubing-packer pullout.A.p. .b: (A) High frequency of tubing pullout.
The same procedure will also be used later for packers of the type used in a selective type completion.6 kg/l. Figure 8. Is a deviated well. .ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 211 OF 295 ENI S. Packer Setting Method Permanent and Permanent/Retrievable Packers The selection is dependent mainly on the well characteristics: 1) 2) 3) If the well is corrosive or very critical. For example.C .Packer Setting Method for Critical and Non-Critical Wells For a mechanical type permanent packer. with a maximum deviation angle > 50°. the setting is defined by the conditions detailed in (A). Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 0 REVISION At points A and B.p.c). Gas a production liner with inclination > 30°. or requests due to the completion fluid characteristics). in the choice is made on the basis of point (D) then there are no particular constraints (no workovers. If the well is critical or not critical. high frequency of extraction corresponds to a completion life of less than five years. choose hydraulic setting. the priority is indicated by a number (‘1’ corresponds to a higher priority than ‘2’). The rectangle ‘Choose’ indicates the choice between the two alternatives. The completion fluid = mud with density > 1. in particular.A. Reference (A) is only true if one of the following conditions are relevant: • • • • SBHT > 150 °C (= 270 °F). (Refer to figure 8. The safety factor of using a retrievable packer or not depends on the criticality of the well and. on its depth.
Stimulations are planned.d: Figure 8.000m (this is true to definitive and not test completions).p. The bottom-hole temperature (SBHT) is > 60 °C. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 Retrievable Packer Setting Method 0 REVISION The method of setting used for retrievable packers is made.D.6 kg/l) with the probability that it leaves solid deposits on the packer. following the diagram in figure 8. .A. 4) Check (E): • Completion fluid and damage to the formation 5) Check (F): • The packer fluid is a high density mud (> 1. The vertical depth of the packer setting is > 2. Check (B): • Using TCP shooting techniques.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 212 OF 295 ENI S. 3) Check (C): • There is high frequency of tubing pullout (life of the completion < 5 years).Retrievable Packer Setting Method 1) Check (A) is only true if one of the following conditions are relevant: • • • • 2) The well is deviated with a maximum deviation angle of > 20°.
If anchor is needed. Permanent And Permanent/Retrievable Packers Setting Method There are principally two aspects to analyse: • • The choice of the tubing-packer connection. or hydrostatic.A.d). set is left to the engineer. If during the application of the stress analyses of the string gives negative results. Highly Critical Well: Anchored Completion For a highly critical well. To integrate this choice with the stress analysis procedures. the anchor will be a ratchet type or. .g. a dynamic seal is used (Refer to figure 8. The conditions at the moment of packer setting decides whether to use a retrievable packer. If the stress analysis results are negative: • • If a shear release is needed. If these are outwith the capacity of the retrievable packer. defines the type of anchoring on the basis of the conditions for (A). alternatively. The type of anchor to be used can be defined during this first stage for an anchored completion (without shear release): • If the packer is set mechanically. the corresponding setting procedure will have to be adopted (see permanent packers above). a configuration which fulfils the stress analysis requirements must be considered for the packer-tubing connection5. in particular the choice is made between a shear release or anchor seal assembly. the approach is the same as that for an anchored tubing-packer. an anchor seal assembly is used.p. The shear ring value is generally set by increasing the maximum force applied to the packer by 25%. Tubing-packer connections seal assembly elements will be of the moulded seal type when subjected to alternating pressure cycles. a permanent/retrievable packer will be utilised and consequently. gas injection wells where the IBHP is greater than the packer fluid pressure and SBHP is lower than the packer fluid pressure. The maximum force is determined using stress analysis (to take into account the tolerance of the nominal shear value ± 5 to 10%).Veritas is the UNIX version of the VERTBG package. 5 If the failure of the stress analysis is due to the tension caused by the tubing-packer connection. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 0 REVISION The decision of whether to use a hydraulic. The shear value is checked for the stress conditions at the wellhead section during the packer release stage.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 213 OF 295 ENI S. fixed. At present the stress analysis procedure is developed using the “Veritas “ software package . The main consideration is the required setting pressure (lower for hydrostatic packers) which influences the wellhead pressure rating. e.
an anchor will be used and the check will be carried out again.A. For an anchor with shear release: • If the stress analysis upon releasing is negative.3).Anchored Completion Option Check (A): Deviated well: • if it is an injection well it cannot be critical (see section 8. Figure 8.p. In this case a dynamic seal is used (Refer to figure 8.F .1.E .ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 214 OF 295 ENI S. Highly Critical Well: Dynamic Seal This stage considers an anchored completion which fails the stress analysis calculation because of problems associated with the tubing-packer connection.f). Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 0 REVISION Figure 8.Dynamic Seal Check (A) .
The procedure illustrated in figure 8.e. following any failure of the stress analysis. Reference will be made to this later and also for cases which are different to those described in highly critical wells above. Seal Element . This is only possible with hydraulically packers. in general. i. the stress analysis results are corrected using factors other than the seal element. This is the case with the following conditions: • • • No stimulations are planned.p. Critical.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 215 OF 295 ENI S. run on the tubing. when using dynamic seals.G .Critical and Non-Critical Wells. The well is not an injection well. the procedure illustrated in figure 8. Non-Critical Well The easiest solution in these cases is to choose a Standard Seal Locator. If these conditions do not apply. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 • Check (B): • 0 REVISION The packer fluid is a high density mud (> 1.g is followed. Here.f gives a general description of the criteria behind the choice of dynamic seal to be adopted.A. The packer is not set hydraulically. Figure 8. no other rules are apply as.6 kg/l) which may leave solid deposits on the packer. The packer is one trip installation.
6 kg/l) which may leave solid deposits on the packer. the need to use the packing setting procedure specified.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 216 OF 295 ENI S. .g. expected life of the completion < 5 years. Again in figure 8. Retrievable Packer Tubing-Packer Connections The choice of the tubing-packer connection for retrievable packers (hydraulic and set down weight) is made on the basis of that in figure 8. In the case of a deviated well. In these cases. deviated well with max.h. deviation angle > 20. besides the choice of tubing-packer connection.p. It is better to use a completion with a shear element which is more easily releasable. or a dynamic seal whenever feasible. (B): • (C): • (D): • the packer is set mechanically. the outlet conditions included in the rectangle indicate. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 Check (A): • 0 REVISION the packer fluid is a high density mud (> 1.A. No additional adaptation of the seal element is foreseen as a consequence of any stress analysis. anchored completion is not recommended. a permanent/retrievable packer is the priority or a permanent should be used and consequently the associated setting procedure and seal assembly selected. Particular conditions raise questions over which type of retrievable packer to use.
Tubing-Packer Connections for Retrievable Packers 8.H .p.1.5. The solutions given are for a case with only 2 zones and if a third zone is to be taken into consideration it is assumed that the selection made for the upper zone of the two zone scenario applies. .ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 217 OF 295 ENI S. Single Selective Completion Packers The criteria illustrated here are valid for selective completions with 2 or 3 producing zones. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 0 REVISION Figure 8. Packer Selection The first case classifies the well on the basis of depth characteristics (≥ 4.A.000m) but more on the basis of its complexity.
ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 218 OF 295 ENI S. are not applicable.A. however.Single Selective Packer For Complex Wells if several different configurations are available.p. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 0 REVISION Figure 8. If the conditions as of figure 8.I . governed by the order of priority specified along with the choices.i. these cases are classified by well depth: . the engineer has a certain degree of freedom of choice but is.i. as for example in figure 8.
000m .Selective Single Well with Depths Between 3.A.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 219 OF 295 ENI S.000 and 4. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 0 REVISION Figure 8.p.J .K .000m Figure 8.Selective Single Well with Depths Between 1.500 and 3.
p. Application of the criteria illustrated in figure 8. and a retrievable packer is one in the list of possible choices. in the case of multiple choices.A. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 0 REVISION Figure 8.500m in a well not considered complex.i through figure 8. then the permanent/retrievable should be selected over of the retrievable.500m In the case of depths less than 1.l is common with the only exception. being that the order of priority for the lower zone can be changed by applying the following rules: • • If workovers are planned with removal of the tubing and packer.L . it is strongly recommend that a retrievable type packer be used. and a permanent or permanent/retrievable packer are in the list of possible choices. If the completion fluid is a mud with deposition problems. then it should be selected.Selective Single Well with Depths Less Than 1. .ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 220 OF 295 ENI S.
k and figure 8. if the completion fluid is a brine. Due to this. It is recommended in any case to re-check the completion after having made the modifications. intermediate. hydraulic type setting should be used or else the packers can be set mechanically. With these type of packers.i with all permanent packers. Mechanical setting is preferred for the reference packer and the setting should be by electric line when the distance between the packers is < 500 m. if the setting distance between the packers is > 500m (check with the packer manufacturer). i. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 Packer Setting Method 0 REVISION The type of setting method proposed depends on the following factors: • • Type of packer Setting distance between the packers. .k and figure 8. modifications are be made only to those packers which have the problems.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 221 OF 295 ENI S.j. All packers are Retrievable Refer to figure 8. hydraulic setting should be used for this type of packer.1. three zones are assumed (upper. In some cases.A. or wireline) are those already defined for the single completion described in section 8.l where all packers are retrievable. Tubing-Packer Connection Selection The criteria continues by classifying the packers by type and setting with the zones treated separately. In cases where there is no specific mention of an Intermediate zone. If the reference packer is set by a workstring. Permanent Stacked Packers: Refer to figure 8. lower).l. Lower Permanent Packer With Upper Retrievable: Refer to figure 8. a depth control procedure is necessary to verify the depth of the packer setting to ensure positioning of the blast joint across the upper zone which is open to production. The setting criteria of a mechanical permanent packer (on a workstring. Generally. it is treated with the same criteria used for the upper zone. It is essential to check with manufacturers that the distance between the packers is sufficient for the packers to be set. figure 8.4. in these cases the reference packer is permanent and the other packers are the retrievable or permanent/retrievable type.p. choose hydraulic setting for all the packers or else mechanical setting. the results of the stress analysis specifically identifies the packers with releasing problems.e. the zones are be treated separately.
a telescopic joint should be used when there is failure in the stress analysis. a dynamic seal will be used (anchor with PBR or telescopic joint). In the case of failure of the stress analysis on this packer. 2) 3) For the intermediate zone in the case of three zones. For the intermediate zone in the three zone case.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 222 OF 295 ENI S. a longer locator with seal bore extension should be used. Initially an anchor with shear release should be selected.4). Lower or Intermediate Packer There are three possible ways of treating the lower zones: 1) All the packers are of the permanent or permanent/retrievable types with hydraulic setting. a standard length locator.A. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 Upper packer 0 REVISION The rules described for the single completion are applied to the upper packer (Refer to 8. an anchor or retrievable type packer will be used.1. In the case of failure of the stress analysis. A dynamic seal should be used. The lower zone packer is a permanent with mechanical setting. The lower zone packer is a retrievable. . for the intermediate packer. In the case of failure in the stress analysis a dynamic seal with telescopic joint will be used. in particular.p.
A derivative of the storm choke is the injection valve which is held open by water or gas injection and closes when injection ceases.3. .2. either. the valve may fail to close. sub-surface controlled sub-surface safety valves (SSCSSV) otherwise known as direct acting valves or surface controlled sub-surface safety valves (SCSSV). Both types are generally referred to as ‘storm chokes’. e. 8.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 223 OF 295 ENI S.2. Wireline Retrievable Safety Valves Wireline retrievable valves may be. SUB-SURFACE SAFETY VALVES 0 REVISION This section provides the Eni-Agip Division and Affiliates policy and guidelines for the application and selection of Sub-Surface Safety Valves (SSSV).2. Any variation to this policy and selection procedures herein. but under some circumstances. flow erosion of the valve internals may alter the closure settings. Surface controlled sub-surface safety valves (SCSSV’s) shall be used accordingly to the criteria listed below in section 8. when there is a leak of insufficient rate.p. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 8.2. This will determine whether the selected SSSV is Wireline Retrievable (WRSV) or Tubing Retrievable (TRSV). The use of these valves should be avoided as they are set up to operate on predetermined conditions representing a major leak at surface.2. Applications The applications for SSSV’s are given in section 8.5. 8.2. In conjunction. 8.A.1.4.g. shall only be sanctioned by the Eni-Agip Division and Affiliates Head Office. The choice of SSSV for a particular development will depend on: • • • • Well location Fluid properties Required flow area Well intervention capabilities. The policy defined shall be applied to all Eni-Agip Division and Affiliates completion designs world-wide. a flowline rupture. Policy All Eni-Agip Division and Affiliates completions shall incorporate a SSSV in the completion string to provide safety in the event of an uncontrolled well flow. SSCSSV’s are either pressure differential or ambient pressure operated valves.2.
2. The following table 8. • All wells onshore which can sustain natural flow. Gas producer Gas storage Gas injection Water injection Artificial lift H2S in produced fluids Table 8. • All new offshore development. Valve Type/Closure Mechanism Selection This section gives recommendations on the choice of valve with the corresponding type of closure mechanism. tubing and annulus.2. wireline retrievable or annulus safety valve systems.Criteria For Use of SCSSV's 8.4.2. . • Electrical submersible pump.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 224 OF 295 ENI S. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 8. • All old wells in above categories which are to be recompleted. • All wells. • All wells. Removal of the pressure allows the valves to close. tubing and only annulus if used for gas venting. • All wells.p. Surface Controlled Sub-Surface Safety Valves 0 REVISION These are designed for tubing retrievable.b specifies when SCSSV’s shall be used.5 indicate in which applications WRSV’s and TRSV’s should be used.B . The guidelines given in section 8.5. Well Type Oil Producer Criteria • All new offshore development.A. They are controlled normally by surface applied hydraulic pressure through a control line clamped to the outside of the tubing string. Hydraulic pressure opens and then retains the valve open. • All old wells being recompleted. • All isolated wells. • All wells. Note: All valves with ball type closure mechanisms are not recommended for use as they are less reliable than flapper valves. • All wells on gas lift. These valve systems are fail safe and are preferred to SSCSSV’s.
will be considerably longer.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 225 OF 295 ENI S. Control Lines Tube used as ‘control line’ to operate downhole safety valves are installed along with the production string. Wells with the presence of H2S or CO2.A. . 8. Set in the next lowest wireline nipple. CONTROL/INJECTION LINE SELECTION The purpose of this sub-section is to define the basic criteria for the selection and the use of small diameter tubes for SCSSV control line and injection line applications. SCSSV’s are usually set at shallow depths and.1.3. • All waste wells. 8. are also installed with the tubing string. • ESP wells with gas venting. • As a backup to the WRSV above when there is a control line failure. • Wells with shut-in surface. under the pump. • Jet pump wells.SSSV Closure Mechanism Applications Gas or water injection wells may have either a tubing retrievable or wireline retrievable SCSSV. Subsea wells. Injection Lines Tube used as ‘injection lines’ to inject chemical products such as corrosion or scale inhibitors down hole or as deep as possible in the well. 8. the length of line required is generally relatively short.3. Wells with surface flowing temperature greater than 130°C. Wireline Retrievable Surface Controlled Flapper Valve Storm Chokes Annular Safety Systems Wireline Retrievable Injection Valves Table 8. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 0 REVISION Type of Valve Tubing Retrievable Flapper Valve • • • • Applications Offshore platform wells.2. • Gas lift wells. • As on insert valve for tubing retrievable SCSSV’s.p.3. In this case. These two different cases will be considered separately below.C . The line length required in this case. therefore.
Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 8. Valve Opening Pressure.500 to 2.p. Control Line Working Pressures A down hole safety valve is usually set at a relatively shallow depth. refer to table 8.3. ranging about 30m to 50m from well head for on-shore installations or from sub sea level in case of off-shore activity. which are then reduced to the desired diameter and wall thickness by a cold drawing operation. Welded tubes can be produced in extra long coils more than 3200 ft by butt welding lengths of tubings together. Both types of lines comply with ASTM specification A269 ‘Seamless and Welded Austenitic Stainless Steel Tubing for General Service’ and ASTM-B751 specification ‘General requirement for Ni and Ni alloy Seamless and Welded Tube’.049” wall thickness 1 /4” OD x 0. Once the working pressure has been defined as explained in the following paragraph. Tube Specifications Size 0 REVISION Small diameter tubes for control or injection line applications are manufactured either as seamless or seam-welded and sunk.035” wall thickness /4” OD x 0. Usually it ranges between 1. is the pressure required to overcome the closing force of the spring plus resistance due to friction effects. For this reason the configuration of the control line is not effected by the well deviation. the raw material comes in the form of extruded hollows.3. of 1000 ft in length). is /4” OD and the wall thickness chosen from among the following sizes according to the pressure requirements: • • • 1 1 1 /4” OD x 0. . In the case of welded tube process. They are usually available in a full range of materials and sizes.065” wall thickness.A.d for the selection of the size which most suits the requirements. provided by the manufacturer.000psi depending on the manufacturer.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 226 OF 295 ENI S. The standard size for both applications. control and injection line. The cycles of cold drawing with a floating plug drawing method is preferred and annealing operations performed to reach the desired dimensions and produce a weld zone homogeneous with the rest of the tube material. the raw material comes in strips which are first rolled into tube form which is fed through a welding head to perform a fusion weld. Welded tubes are considered the norm as opposed to seamless which are considerably more expensive and limited in length (usually a max. The working pressure (WP) is defined as follows: WP = Safety Valve WP + Valve Opening Pressure Safety Valve WP is as specified by the manufacturer. therefore in most cases external encapsulation it is not recommended. In the seamless tube manufacturing process.
Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 Chemical Injection Line Working Pressures 0 REVISION Chemical injection lines are run to injection mandrels which are installed as close as possible to the bottom of the tubing. The definition of working pressure is based on the following considerations: • • • • Well configuration. therefore total vertical depth. Friction losses (see figure 8. combining radial and tangential stress to determine an equivalent resultant using the Von Mises Theory of Distortion Energy: OD 2 Ys − 1 ID P= 4 OD 3x +1 ID Eq.A where: WP = BHSP= Pfr = Phd = BHSP + Pfr .n shows the graphs of pressure losses per 100m versus flow rate plotted for various internal diameters and various values of fluid viscosity. Once the working pressure has been defined as explained below.d). Once the friction losses for laminar flow have been calculated then the diameter size can be determined accordingly.Phd Bottom hole static pressure. Hydrostatic pressure of injection fluid. Values obtained are based on the Lamè’s formula for thick section pipes using internal pressure only and stress defined at the internal diameter face.n).A. Injection rates to choose the correct diameter and evaluate friction losses. therefore the flow profile can be assumed to be laminar. Injection rates referred to in this application are always low.B Variables are defined as: P Ys Ys WP OD ID = = = = = = computed pressure (psi) ultimate tensile strength to compute ‘Burst Pressure’ (psi) yield strength (2% offset) to compute ‘Test Pressure’ (psi) 80% of test pressure (psi) outside diameter (in) inside diameter (in) .ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 227 OF 295 ENI S. (Refer to table 8. Working pressure is defined as follows: WP = BHSP + Pfr − Phd Eq. figure 8.f and they are rated to temperatures between -20 and 100°F. Total pressure required to inject chemicals through the line. The pressures given in the table are computed with ultimate and yield tensile strength values given in table 8.p. 8. the selection of the tubing size to meet with requirements can be made. 8. Injection fluid characteristics such as density and viscosity.
375 Table 8.p.866 4.518 21.375 Inconel 625 0.e together with their relative characteristics.854 21.250 0.035 0.035 0.268 31.515 22.323 12.438 15.809 3.459 9.035 0.250 0.049 0.049 0.112 7.250 0.375 Incoloy 825 0.252 37.A.954 15.255 7.112 7.375 0.D .659 8.250 0.780 17.646 24. Material Selection Among the stainless steels and nickel alloys available.972 9.Theoretical Working.427 10.049 0.049 0.328 7.065 0.965 12.375 0. the most commonly used for control or injection line applications are listed in table 8.333 5.709 52.375 0.908 30.831 12.250 0.898 11.010 Burst (psi) 18.646 24.035 0.3.914 30.457 15.333 5.065 0.049 0.967 7.390 8.831 12.250 0.250 0.049 0.4.006 12.006 9.250 0.250 0.786 17.089 5.965 12.459 9.049 0.914 30.f shows the mechanical properties of these materials in the annealed condition.084 21.004 5.515 18.035 0.250 0.035 0.025 Test (psi) 6.757 15.965 42.065 0.118 8.983 21.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 228 OF 295 ENI S.049 WP (psi) 5.250 0.355 26. table 8.375 Wall (inch) 0. .035 0.250 0. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 0 REVISION Type of alloy AISI 316 L OD (inch) 0. Bursting and Testing Procedures (for welded stainless steel tubing at between -20°F to 100°F) 8.780 17. Compatibility of packer or completion fluid with the selected material must be confirmed by means of condition specific laboratory testing.416 6.763 12.642 30.564 6.142 8.035 0.375 0.605 7.011 4.013 Monel K400 0.651 5.065 0.
In accordance with ASTM specification B423.000 70. In accordance with ASTM specification B165.000 120.Nominal Mechanical Properties in Annealed Conditions (For temperatures between -20 to 100°F) .2% Offset (psi) 25. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 0 REVISION Type of Alloy AISI 316 L Main Characteristics Is an austenitic stainless steel with reduced carbon content. Is a nickel-copper alloy resistant to corrosion and stress corrosion over a wide range of conditions.000 Type of Alloy AISI 316 L Monel K400 Incoloy 825 Inconel 625 Table 8.000 35.A.000 85. It is susceptible to chloride stress cracking when the presence of stress is combined with a packer fluid containing chlorides.E .Stainless Steels and Nickel Alloys Most Commonly Used Once the type of material to be used has been defined. Tensile Strength (psi) 70. based on pressure ratings and working environment. Monel K400 Incoloy 825 Inconel 625 Table 8. Is a Nickel-base alloy with a higher percentage of molybdenum to give the highest resistance to chloride attack. Is an austenitic nickel-base alloy with good resistance to pitting in chloride solutions and to stress corrosion has improved resistance to corrosion by many acids.000 28.F .000 60.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 229 OF 295 ENI S. Has good resistance to grain boundary attack and improved resistance to pitting and crevice attack.000 Yield Strength at 0.p. Control or Injection line made of the above material shall comply with the following ASTM specifications: AISI 316L Monel K400 Incoloy 825 Inconel 625 In accordance with ASTM specification A269 (TP316L). In accordance with ASTM specification B704. the corrosion department should be consulted to confirm compatibility with the packer fluids.
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STAP-P-1-M-7100 8.3.5. Fittings 0
Connections for either SCSSV control lines or chemical injection lines shall be performed as follows: In case of pressure rating < 5000 psi, line connections shall be of the ‘Swagelok’ type. • In case of pressure rating > 5000 psi, line connections shall be of the ‘Autoclave’ type as recommended by API Spec. 6A (Wellhead & Christmas Tree Equipment) at the paragraph ‘Equipment specification requirement’ under ‘test and gauge connections’. It is suggested to avoid, as far as possible, any intermediate connections to reduce potential leak paths. 8.3.6. Protectors Control line protectors are designed to support and avoid (bare or encapsulated) crushing at where it is most exposed, e.g. where it crosses large offsets like couplings, downhole safety valves or gas lift mandrels. Protectors shall be designed for small annular clearances allowing sufficient annulus flow area. They should be of the “one piece” type without loose parts and designed so as to be quickly installed and removed. ‘Across coupling tubing protectors’ are recommended for use with both SCSSV control and injection lines applications. For control lines used on SCSSV’s installed at shallow depth (less than 250m), other types of protectors may be used. In general, ‘steel banding’ or ‘banding straps’, ‘rubber based’ and ‘mid joint protectors’ shall be avoided at all costs. The following technical requirements will identify protector performance: • • • • • Material shall be of all metal construction. No structural welding shall be allowed. Lab corrosion tests shall be run to verify compatibility with annular environment. Capable of firmly supporting bare or encapsulated lines when performing completions and recovery during workover allowing control line and protector reuse. Force indicated in ‘l’ or ‘tons’ that the protector will support against axial displacement without failing or damaging the supported line. Force stated in ‘lb’ or ‘Kg’ that protector will resist as a direct pull on supported line without any slippage. Maximum load expressed in ‘lb’ or ‘kg’ that protector will withstand when contacting the casing wall without damage. •
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STAP-P-1-M-7100 8.3.7. Encapsulation 0
Encapsulation of this line is recommended only for chemical injection lines applications. Encapsulation increases crush resistance during installation, protects line against abrasion, pinching and improves clamping profile. Several encapsulation materials are available, covering a wide range of environmental conditions. table 8.g indicates the compatibility of the main encapsulation materials with the most commonly used packer/completion fluids. In some cases, braided wire is placed alongside the injection line and bonded together by the encapsulation material, to further enhance resistance and strength avoiding any rolling and twisting tendencies (Refer to table 8.h). The following laboratory tests are suggested to confirm the lines mechanical characteristics and compatibility of the encapsulation material with the packer fluid used: • • • • • • Immersion test of the encapsulated line in downhole conditions for a defined period of time. No evidence of a change in physical appearance should be observable. Gas impregnation tests at various temperatures, pressures and with various gasses for a fixed period of time. No evidence of cracking, blistering or embrittlement should be observable. Combined brine/sour gas exposure tests according to the operating conditions, as above. Combined crude oil/sour gas exposure tests according to operating conditions as above. Abrasion resistance test to compare the resistance against abrasion between bare and encapsulated lines. Crush resistance test by loading the tube laterally, across the diameter, simulating various loading levels, until tube collapse is evident. Encapsulated line results should be compared to bare line tests.
The following table 8.g shows the main properties of the most common types of encapsulation material available. The choice of material, is mainly based on type of packer fluid, well deviation and working temperatures to be experienced and shall be confirmed by laboratory tests for compatibility.
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Encapsulation Material Nylon
Main properties Compatible with diesel packer fluids containing high gas percentages. Nylon should not be used with completion fluids that contain calcium chlorides, calcium bromides or zinc bromides at high temperatures. Its maximum temperature rating is 250°F. Compatible with most packer fluids with the exception of diesel or fluid at high gas concentration. Maximum operating temperature rating is 275°F - 300°F. Chemically resistant to almost all downhole fluids. Excellent mechanical strength and abrasion resistance. Compatible with high gas content environments. Recommended for highly deviated wells. Maximum operating temperature is 400°F. Chemically resistant to almost all downhole fluids. Excellent mechanical strength and abrasion resistance. Compatible with high gas content environments. Recommended for highly deviated wells. Maximum operating temperature is 212°F. Chemically resistant to almost all downhole fluids. Excellent mechanical strength and abrasion resistance. Compatible with high gas content environments. Recommended for highly deviated wells. Maximum operating temperature is 302°F.
Table 8.G - Compatibility and Characteristics of Encapsulation Materials Halar (fluoropolymers) is a registered trademark of Ausimont USA Santoprene (thermoplastics rubber) is a registered trademark of Monsanto Rilsan II (polyamide thermoplastic) Foraflon PVDF (polyvinylidine fluoride thermoplastic material) Samples of different types of encapsulated tubes have been tested under compressive, laterally applied, loading simulating possible damage arising during installation to determine the tube crushing resistance and extend of polymer damage, (see Table below).
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Applied load in metric tons (no damage detected) 2.45 2.65 7.0
100mm - 1/4” OD x 0.049” Alloy 825 bare line 100mm - 1/4” OD x 0.049” Alloy 625 bare line 100mm - 1/4” OD x 0.049” Alloy 825 encapsulated with Foraflon: size 15mm x 12mm
Applied load in metric tons (line partially crushed, fluid flow not interrupted) 3.5 3.8 9.0
Table 8.H - Crush Resistance Test For Encapsulated Injection Lines 8.3.8. SCSSV Hydraulic Control fluid The criteria in this section is for SCSSV control line applications only. Today hydraulic fluids are almost exclusively based on mineral oils. Other types of synthetic based oils, are employed only when operating temperatures are very low and special thermal standby properties are required. Most of the synthetic based oils used are of the flash fire resistant category as they have a very low pour floc point combined with a good performance at higher temperatures. With regard to subsea completions, the control fluid is the same fluid as used for the Xmas tree controls. table 8.i shows the main properties of the recommended oils for control line applications. 8.13 and figure 8.n below shows typical friction losses of control line fluids.
Injected fluid viscosity = 5cP
100 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Q injection - liters/hr
Fri c. los ses psi /10 0m
O.D = 0,25 inches
w.t.= 0,035 w.t.= 0,049 w.t.= 0,065
Figure 8.M - Fluid Friction Loss with 5cP Fluid
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Injected fluid viscosity = 1cP
20 18 16 Fric. losses psi/100m 14 12 10 8 6 4 2 0 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 O.D = 0,25 inches
w.t.=0,035 w.t.=0,049 w.t.=0,065
Q injection - liters/hr
Figure 8.N - Fluid Friction Loss with 1cP Fluid The above graphs are based on the following formula:
Q x L xµ 612.95 Di 4
Pf = Friction losses (kPa) Di = Internal diameter (inches) L = Length (meters) µ = Viscosity (cP) Q = Flow rate (lt / min)
kPa X 0.145 = psi
I .00065 (kg/l) / °C For standard applications Agip Arnica 32 is recommended as it has better theological properties than OSO 32.4 5. testing and running procedure must be carefully programmed and hydraulic fluid may have to be flushed through a filtration unit.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 235 OF 295 ENI S.865 - 30 5.875 - 29. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 0 REVISION Oil Name/Properties Viscosity at 40° C cSt Viscosity at 100° C cSt Viscosity index Pour Point °C Flash point °C Density at 15° kg/l Floc point °C Agip Arnica 32 (Petroleum based) Agip OSO 32 (Paraffinic based) Agip Betula S 32 (Synthetic based) 32 6.p. In order to avoid plugging of the control line while running in hole. .4 163 -39 202 0.841 -60 Table 8.A. if required (usually 5 micron absolute).3 110 -30 204 0.Properties of Recommended SCSSV Hydraulic Oils * cSt x Density = cp **Density variation = 0.1 98 -55 206 0. Agip Betula 32 should be employed only when operating temperatures are very low as in Siberia where temperatures may reach -50°C.
A.O . Control/Injection Line Selection Procedure Flow Chart 0 REVISION Figure 8.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 236 OF 295 ENI S. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 8.3.Control/Injection Line Selection Flow Chart .p.9.
R. if applicable Lock mandrel OD (LMOD). This must take into consideration all the diameter constraints imposed by the casing profile and completion characteristics.000 and 15. The aim of this section is to determine the type (selective or tapered) and configuration of the diameters in order to optimise access to the sump and prevent friction pressure drop. Do not rely on data produced elsewhere or use old catalogues as changes to the nipple systems may have been made resulting in incompatibility. The principal physical characteristics of a nipple are: • • • Seal bore diameter No-go diameter. SCSSV or wellhead).4. Tapered: • Baker F top no-go (AF-HF-VF) and R bottom no-go (AR-HR-VR). AR (WP < 10. HR (WP between 10. VR (WP > 15. Data on all of these nipples can be found in the manufacturer’s current catalogue.p.000 psi) HF. the choice depends on the working pressure of the string configuration AF.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 237 OF 295 ENI S. WIRELINE NIPPLE SELECTION 0 REVISION The nipples required for completion purposes are based on the results of the previous design stages. The nipples are selected based on those most commonly used by the company. and include the following models: Selective: • Halliburton (previously Otis) X. XN.g. Like the case in selective nipples. .000 psi). while R and RN types are used on all higher pressures.A. RN The choice of the type of nipple is subject to the working pressure which characterises the completion (e.000 psi) VF.000 psi. X and XN nipples are used for working pressure < 10. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 8.
080ins otherwise The first nipple. the minimum top and bottom restriction dimensions are determined by the following procedure: 1) The top restriction (RA) is the minimum upper diameter of the nipple.A. For the lower nipples.RC SB = LMOD . Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 8. or: RB > RA or (RA .070ins otherwise.313ins = 0. is always a Baker type F and is chosen with the maximum diameter available for the size of the completion tubing below the hanger. and the only one used.RB > NGD + RC) then: LMOD = RA .042ins for tubing OD < 3. the previous conditions are re-applied.050ins No-go dimension (NGD) = 0. To select the nipples to be as compatible as possible with the available options in the suppliers catalogues. generally in the tubing hanger.050ins for tubing OD < 5ins 0.p. The following physical dimensional values are required: • • Running clearance (RC) = 0.4. The minimum values which can be reached by the NGD are: • • • 0. chosen from one of the following: • • • • • 2) ID of the packer Drift of the tubing ID of the safety valve Vertical access of the wellhead Sealbore diameter (top) or no-go ID (bottom) of the upper nipple. The bottom restriction (RB) is determined by the ID of the SCSSV tubing-retrievable. decreasing the NGD to adjust the calculations.050ins for tubing OD < 3.1.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 238 OF 295 ENI S.313ins 0. .NGD 3) In other cases. At this stage a hypothesis of seal bore diameter of the nipple (SB) is determined by analysing the following conditions: If RB is not defined. an approximation of 1/100ins for SB is acceptable. Tapered Nipple Configuration 0 REVISION The configuration of the nipples begins at the top of the string and moves downwards towards the bottom or packer tailpipe.060ins for tubing OD < 5ins = 0. 4) The data obtained are then used to match the nipple.
After this it is necessary to reduce the diameter again.2. Selective Nipple Configuration Criteria similar to those detailed in the tapered nipple procedure are used to choose the tubing hanger nipple. If F is chosen.050 < no-go ID(R). 2) The type of nipple (e. If there is no nipple with the characteristics required. the maximum diameter nipple which is compatible with the rated pressure of the Christmas tree is selected. the previous size is selected but only for a maximum of three nipples in series.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 239 OF 295 ENI S. there are two options: • • Produce a new nipple size Select the maximum nipple diameter from the catalogue < SB. .p. F) is obtained from the previous selection. It is a rule that if the spacing between two successive nipples is < 30m. 8. a tapered nipple will be used. it is then possible to use an R type nipple if the following conditions exist: • • The nipple in question is not required for the installation of a W/L retrievable backup SCSSV The subsequent nipple must be type F with the following characteristics: SB(F) < SB(R) LMOD(F) + 0.A. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 0 REVISION 1) In the event of achieving a good match. For the subsequent nipples.e.g. i. the nipple is compared with the data from the catalogue.4.
cement and into formation in such a manner so as not to inhibit the inflow capacity of the reservoir. HMX. well clean-up. The detonator is triggered by electrical heating when deployed on wireline systems or by a firing pin in mechanically or hydraulically operated firing head systems employed on tubing conveyed perforating (TCP) systems. HNS or PYX is used. increased perforating skin can reduce production rates. One of the important aspects is the underbalance. must match the explosive selected. The important issues for the completion engineer are the charge selection to meet with the conditions and provide the maximum perforating efficiency. therefore perforation damage is an extremely important aspect. SHAPED CHARGE PERFORATING The principle of shaped charge perforating is available in any service providers sales and technical literature (Refer to figure 9.2. The performance of each is available from the suppliers.1.A. gun selection.25%). o . it is not solely down to the perforating technique but relies extensively on the planning and execution of the well completion which includes selection of the perforated interval. The detonating cord. PS. 9. If this is not effective. however the perforated volume in the pay is relatively small compared to open hole (+/. which couples all the charges to the detonator in the firing head. PERFORATING The objective of perforating a well is to establish communication between the wellbore and the formation by making holes through the casing. which has been proven to significantly help to achieve a post-perforating flow rate to effectively flush out gun debris and remove the crushed zone which surrounds every perforating tunnel. The advantages of perforated casing wells is already described in section 5. The explosives for use in most shaped charges up to 300 F is RDX (cyclonite) and above this temperature and depending on time exposed to the temperature.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 240 OF 295 ENI S. To optimise perforating efficiency.p. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 0 REVISION 9.3 and offers selectivity. and perforating orientation. applied pressure differential or underbalance. fluid selection.a). To this end it is necessary to obtain an adequate shot density with a sufficiently deep enough penetration to pass through the drilling damage and maximise flow through each tunnel.
therefore no underbalance can normally be applied although in large size monobore type completions some sizes can be run similar to through-tubing guns using an underbalance. instant shot detection. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 0 REVISION Figure 9. GUN TYPES There are four main types of perforating guns: • • • • 9.1. .A. The advantage of casing guns over the other wireline guns are.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 241 OF 295 ENI S. variable shot densities of 1-12spf.2.Perforation Process 9. minimal casing damage.p. Wireline Conveyed Casing Guns These types of guns are generally run in the well before installing the tubing.A.2. high mechanical and electrical reliability. multi-phasing. high charge performance. low cost. speed and accurate positioning using CCL/Gamma Ray. minimal debris. highest temperature and pressure rating. Wireline Conveyed Casing Guns Through-tubing Hollow Carrier Guns Through-tubing Strip Guns Tubing Conveyed Perforating Guns.
Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 0 REVISION Figure 9.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 242 OF 295 ENI S.A.p.B .Types of Guns .
Another version available.2. is where a differential is applied between the annulus and the sump via porting through the test packer. The charges have higher performance and are much cheaper than throughtubing carriers guns. Hydrostatic pressure reduction. In completion operations. Alternately they can be run in long lengths for overbalance perforating before completion string installation. run on the bottom of the completion packer or run through the tubing on coiled tubing. 9. Normally the completion is displaced to an underbalance fluid. . therefore. A new version called the ‘pivot gun’ has even larger charges for deep penetration which pivot out from a vertical controlled OD to the firing position. Through-Tubing Strip Guns These are semi-expendable type guns and consist of a metal strip into which the charges are mounted. Through-Tubing Hollow Carrier Guns 0 REVISION These are smaller versions of casing guns which can be run through tubing. they may be deployed and hung-off in position before installation of the completion string. they are usually fitted with decentralising/orientation devices. Due to the potential of becoming stuck through strip deformation. they must have a safety release connection so they can be left in the well.4. Impact by a wireline deployed tool. Subsequent runs would need the well to be flowed to cause a differential pressure. underbalance perforating can possibly be adopted but only for the first shot.000ft are possible (and especially useful for horizontal wells) and perforating under exceedingly high drawdowns is possible with no risk to the guns being blown up the hole.p. therefore performance. normally used on well tests. 9. Tubing Conveyed Perforating TCP guns are a variant of the casing gun which can be run on tubing. They only offer 0 or o 1 7 180 phasing with a max. allowing much longer lengths to be installed.A. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 9. By being able to be run through the tubing. Due to the stand-off from the casing which these guns may have. hence have o lower charge sizes and.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 243 OF 295 ENI S.2. of 4spf on the 2 /8” OD gun and 6spf on the 2 /8” OD gun. then the guns detonated by either: • • • • A bar dropped from surface Hydraulic pressure applied from surface then subsequently reduced to the planned underbalance pressure during a time delay. than all other guns. They also provide 0 or 180 phasing.2. They have a particular application for perforating through DST strings and reperforating completed wells. Lengths of over 1.3.2. casing damage and have less o o mechanical and electrical reliability. however they also cause more debris.
moisture contamination. This provides under two specific tests: • • Entrance hole size and penetration length into a 5ft diameter concrete target. API RP 43.3. however the performance in actual use may differ due to differences in rock strength. can be used as a qualitative comparison of charge performance. 9.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 244 OF 295 ENI S.A. Ageing of explosives. 9.p. which includes performance data produced by the suppliers.1. GUN PERFORMANCE API And Performance Data For most completion applications. The performances are listed in two sections I and II. overburden stress and wellbore pressure and temperatures. Section II is normally used for comparisons. Due to the longer exposure time because of the deployment. gun stand-off. penetration and flow efficiency in a Berea sandstone target at elevated temperatures and an estimated 800psi effective stress. The API tests are also unreliable as the targets have had differing strengths and porosities and there is no consistent quality control standard for production of the charges. higher grade charges may also be required. Entrance hole. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 The main problems associated with TCP are: • • • • 0 REVISION Gun positioning is more difficult The sump needs to be drilled deeper to accommodate the gun length if it is dropped after firing A misfire is extremely expensive Shot detection is more unreliable. The variations for these reasons is non-linear and depends on the type of charge. It is necessary for engineers to obtain as much accurate data from the suppliers and use Eni-Agip historic data in order to be able to make the best choice of gun. . charge alignment. the thickness of casing and cement or if multiple casings are to be perforated also has an impact on the gun performance.3.
Shot phasing.4. High shot density over 8spf. There is a risk of high velocities and hence turbulence. Penetration.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 245 OF 295 ENI S.1. isotropic formations should be a minimum of 8spf but must exceed the frequency of shale laminations. If perforating with through-tubing guns. A gravel pack is be conducted. o Minimum 90 phasing. if possible: • • • • TCP methods Deep penetrating charges. Shot Density Shot density in homogeneous. This is affected by the gun weight.p.A. underbalanced perforation can be carried out with through tubing systems. High Underbalanced TCP Perforating High drawdowns over 500psi for production wells require. There is a risk of sand production. Underbalanced Perforating With Through-Tubing Guns If TCP costs cannot be justified and if formation perforated skin factor is acceptable. the important factors are: • • • • • Hole diameter to achieve adequate flow area. type of fluid. This in conjunction with correct gravel pack procedures is essential for to prevent high skin factors. orientation at o o o 90 with 180 phased guns or in line with the contact point if 0 phased. The use of these relatively smaller guns require contact with the casing wall. Debris removal. . Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 Guidelines Gravel Pack Completions 0 REVISION Due to the problem of flow restriction discussed earlier in section 2. On the first run a high overbalance can be used but on subsequent runs the only means of producing a differential is to flow the well at a rate governed not to blow the gun up the hole. Shot density to achieve adequate flow area. A shot density greater than this is required where: • • • • Vertical permeability is low. this will require multiple runs. bypass area and expected flow rate.
. 180 or less.3. As a general rule stand-off should never be more than 50mm. the guns may be limited to the charge size which can physically be installed which will impact penetration.A. but at the least it should exceed the drilling damage area by 75mm. o o o o Overbalanced Perforating If a well is to be perforated overbalanced. high density shots are preferred then TCP and casing guns should be used. The optimum clean up period is subjective and opinions range from 1gall to 5gall per perforation. If low phase angle. the deeper the shot the better. 9. These guidelines should be used to select the appropriate drawdown for consolidated completions. (Refer to the Figures below). 60 is preferable. Between 15mm and 25mm in gravel packed completions.90 . Between 8mm and 12mm if fracturing is to be carried out and where ball sealers are to be used.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 246 OF 295 ENI S.p. If o fracturing is to be carried out then 90 and lower will help initiate fractures. Gun Stand-Off Gun stand-off should be minimised for improved performance. 120 .2. Hole Size The hole size obtained is a function of the casing grade and should be as follows: • • • Between 6mm and 12mm for natural completions. especially at high pressures. the intention is to cause perforation enlargement to remove the crushed zone without collapsing the cavity or sanding in the guns. In unconsolidated sands. The best method of clean up is to flow the well continually for several hours after perforating at normal offtake rates. Phasing Providing the stand-off is less than 50mm. formation fluids and must also be clean to prevent formation damage. However. then strict control over the fluid used to ensure it is compatible with the reservoir formation. If the smallest charges are being used then the stand-off should not be more than 25mm. King et al developed a recommended minimum level of drawdown based on a number of field studies where TCP perforating had been employed. This requires that less drawdown is exerted during the well clean up. to obtain high shot density. an underbalance should be used. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 Penetration 0 REVISION In general. Underbalanced Perforating To optimise the perforating clean up.
3. However.A. Safety The use of tubing installed hydraulic actuated systems has the problem of how to conduct pressure integrity tests on the completion with sufficient margin between the gun activation pressure and the highest test pressure applied.3. This provides full safety during gun deployment. wireline activated. Protecting the firing head from test pressure is a dangerous procedure as a plug may leak will also cause premature detonation. Two very important considerations are safety during installation of TCP systems and redundancy in the event of a fault occurring in the primary firing system. there are a number of different firing heads for various applications. bar drop. There are other side-by-side systems available which provide a tubing installed pressure activated firer with a secondary receptacle for a wireline installed firer. etc. .3. Perforating Procedures Refer to the ‘Completion Procedures Manual. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 9. Redundancy This is an important aspect. gun recovery would be very costly. It is good practice to use a bar drop firing mechanism (deployed on wireline if possible as dropping the bar from surface may damage sensitive completion items) or wireline installed firing heads which can be installed after the completion is set and tested. Wireline perforating systems are normally electrically trigger by passing an electrical signal down the cable to the guns. Obviously. in TCP systems there are a wide variety including pressure operated. Using wireline installed firing heads provides some redundancy in that the first head can be retrieved and a second head deployed. . it is undesirable to have a gun actuation pressure higher than the test pressure as a leak may occur while trying to trigger the guns. Firing Heads 0 REVISION As described earlier.4.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 247 OF 295 ENI S. 9. for if there is a firing head fault.p.
Recommended Underbalance for Perforating Gas Zones in Stable Sandstones .p.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 248 OF 295 ENI S.D .Recommended Underbalance for Perforating Gas Zones in Stable Sandstones Figure 9.A. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 0 REVISION Figure 9.C .
ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 249 OF 295 ENI S.Recommended Underbalance for Perforating Shallow Unconsolidated Gas Sands Figure 9.Recommended Underbalance for Perforating Shallow Unconsolidated Oil Sands .E .A.F .p. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 0 REVISION Figure 9.
Section 10. liner top setting. Offset the effects of increasing water production. such as: • • • • • • • • Casing ID Casing connection in on gas lift Size and positioning of liners Provision of a sump for rod pumpers Pre-positioning of gas lift mandrels for gas lift and ASV system Pre-installation of conduits for hydraulic pumps Parallel bore for plunger lift etc. such as casing size. ARTIFICIAL LIFT The benefits and most commonly used artificial lift were described previously in section 5. Some systems are able to cope better with production problems than others which will obviously affect the choice.4.A.p. System life is difficult to predict as it is a function of operating conditions. Kick off high GLR wells that die when shut-in. . Overcome high friction effects of heavy viscous or waxy crudes. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 0 REVISION 10. ESP life can vary between days and five years depending on temperature. To summarise the reasons for the installation of artificial lift are to: • • • • • Reduce the effects of declining bottom-hole pressures. GLR and lack of particular experience with the system. etc. limitations and comparisons.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 250 OF 295 ENI S. In some fields.7 lists all the systems. their applications. artificial lift from the outset is necessary to achieve the production and economic targets. design considerations. Meet with targeted high offtake rates. then minimisation of the FBHP is critical to low PI. low pressure wells. Selection of the method is also based upon operating costs and workover frequency costs. both pressure maintenance and artificial lift are used which defers the installation. The application of artificial lift simply displaces the TPC curve downwards so that a lower bottom-hole flowing pressure is achieved.6. the artificial lift injects energy into the system. In simple terms. Reservoir development optimisations studies are necessary to determine the relative technical and economic benefits of the options and the timing of the investments. Energy can also be introduced by reservoir pressure maintenance.g. The selection of the most appropriate artificial lift system involves a number of factors but mainly on specific well performance. Just as tubing size is critical to high PI wells. solids production. In other cases. Consideration of future artificial lift requirements must be taken during the planning stage. These early decisions can save much expense later. e.
the first unloading valve closes so that all the gas passes through the second valve. The injection gas is supplied in a closed loop system in which it is taken from the separators and then compressed. In continuous gas lift. the gas moves down to the next valve unloading the casing fluid and as the reaches the second valve and lightens the fluid gradient from that point. The lift gas is normally pumped into the annulus and into the tubing through gas lift valves installed in Side Pocket Mandrels (SPMs). Another less common application is Intermittent Gas Lift.1psi/ft). which is used to produce low volumes of liquid (<350stb/d) from wells with low BHFP (<0.b illustrates the fundamental principle of a gas lift design and operation. dried if necessary and then delivered to the well (Refer to figure 10. There is an optimum GLR to produce stabilised flow for a particular tubing size and a minimum BHFP. Qi. As GLR requirements are subject to diminishing returns. A standing valve is sometimes necessary to prevent the gas from flowing into the formation. it must be produced in slugs by intermittently gas injection through a motorised valve. most gas lift systems are based on available gas supply volumes.a.4.A. GAS LIFT 0 REVISION The continuous gas lift method adds gas into the producing fluids which reduces the hydrostatic head and. increasing GLR initially decreases the bottom-hole pressure on the TPC.3. or either the near optimum GLR which provides a BHFP within 20-50psi of the minimum. . This continues in sequence for all other valves until reaching the operating valve where the casing pressure will drop below the initial kick-off pressure.p. the injection is optimised to maximise production. As can be seen the gas is injected down the annulus and into the tubing through the topmost valve lightening the fluid column in accordance with the total GLR curve shown.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 251 OF 295 ENI S. also shown in figure 10. Due to the low liquid production. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 10. however this is limited by: • • • • available gas lift pressure the flowing tubing pressure at the intended offtake rate the depth of the packer and deepest gas lift mandrel the differential required to close the upper valves closed (+/-20psi) and to ensure that injection at the operating GLV is stable (between 50 and 500psi) figure 10. During this process the well BHP will drop to the point where the well will flow. Production is determined by: • • • • reservoir pressure PI water cut gas injection rate Once the well reaches a stabilised rate. hence the back-pressure on the formation.a). As the fluid gradient changes. it is desirable to position the lower gas injection point as deep as possible in the well.1. As described in section 2. Occasionally the gas is pumped into the tubing and the production taken up the annulus or in the annular space in a concentric completion.
is dependent on the IPR and attainable BHFP.p. IGLR = Qi/q Figure 10.A.A . Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 From this it is seen: • • • 0 REVISION Liquid rate. q.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 252 OF 295 ENI S. Total GLR = Producing GLR + Injection GLR </= optimum GLR.Typical Gas Lift System .
. Modern gas lift systems usually now use SPMs with wireline GLVs to reduce servicing costs. an annulus safety system is installed for platform safety. hence gas tight or premium connections are generally selected. Impact On Completion Design In recent times.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 253 OF 295 ENI S. Although gas lift valves incorporate check valves to prevent back flow.1.B . applies more pressure on the annulus casing. SPMs have relatively large ODs and this needs to be considered in the casing design. This increased pressure.Example Gas lift design 10.1. the spacing of them is much more critical. however.A.p. All mandrel depths are taken of the design as TVDs and these must be converted to MD. much higher gas supply pressures have been used to enable deeper valves to be reached or reduce the number of mandrels and valves required. As the mandrels at deeper depths become increasingly closer. these are not reliable and as the annuli contain quite a considerable inventory of gas. This may again impact on the casing design. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 0 REVISION Figure 10.
If possible.500 rpm at 60 Hertz and 2.1.915 at 50 Hertz. 3. Surface equipment usually includes a three phase transformer.A The pump characteristics are based on constant rotational speed which is dependent on the AC supply frequency. To prevent sand production it is sometimes necessary to install a gravel pack or pre-packed screen for pump protection.p. high water cut wells and water supply wells.000scf/stb. Operationally. Common Problems 0 REVISION The worst problem that can arise is that the pressure losses in the gas injection system and slugging have been underestimated and that the valve spacing is too far apart. 10. Versions with variable frequency drives (VFD) are available or the use of surface chokes can be used to increase the band of rate (50-190%) but incur higher capital and operating costs. motor controller and a wellhead pack-off for the cable.2.A. ESPs performance is best at stable conditions within +/-25% of the optimum rate. TDH=Ns Hs where: NS HS = = number of stages head per stage Eq.c shows the most common types of ESP installations and the pump components. 10. They are particularly popular for high rate undersaturated oil wells. Each stage consists of a rotating impeller and stationary diffuser. . gas production up the annulus may be a significant problem. ELECTRICAL SUBMERISBLE PUMPS ESPs greatest application is in moving large volume of low GOR (<100scf/stb) fluids.2. The construction of the ESP is a multi-staged centrifugal connected through a short shaft to the downhole electric motor.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 254 OF 295 ENI S. The ESP delivery capacity will vary according to: • • • • Well IPR Reservoir pressure Surface back-pressure Electrical supply frequency figure 10. On offshore installations. The differential pressure or total dynamic head (TDH) developed by the pump is a function of the pump flow rate which is relative to the head developed by each stage and obtainable from manufacturers publishing’s. the installation should be designed to facilitate downhole separation of free gas and vented up the annulus which is necessary when the gas volume exceeds the pump operating limit (typically +/-10% of the total fluid volume). Due to these high speeds and pump construction it is obvious that sand production is very detrimental and that emulsions are easily formed. Their main limitation is gas production but improved downhole separators and procedures can now handle GORs up to 1. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 10. the problems are usually inefficiency through upper gas lift valve or tubing leaks.
C. Figure 10.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 255 OF 295 ENI S. The motor is situated at the bottom of the assembly so that the well flow around the motor will dissipate the heat generated.Typical ESP Installations .p. most pump installations are on the end of tubing and positioned above the perforations or open hole. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 0 REVISION As can be seen from the schematic.A. a shroud is used to draw the produced fluid down past the motor. Bottom discharge pumps are used in powered dump flood wells. If the pump has to be positioned below the interval.
500 5.375 N/A N/A 100-1.250 3. Small casing or liners will obviously limit the pump size selection. This often carried out by plotting the pressure traverses above and below the pump (Refer to figure 10.500 Table 10.000 4.000-12.d).437 7.900 200-5.e.375 4. or number of stages.2.000 5. Both of these suffer from some problems such as cable failures with the cable suspension method and well control issues with the C/T mounted method (i.000-12. and determine the attainable pump rate with: • • a fixed IPR and various tubing sizes a fixed tubing size and various IPR options 2) In this approach the pump performance curve is often plotted below the system performance curves.000 5. 10. HP TDH.1.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 256 OF 295 ENI S. ins Rate. ft 4 /2 5 /2 7 8 /8 10 /4 13 /8 3 3 5 1 1 3.000 500-3.000 5. ESP sizes and capacities are shown in table 10.750 4.000-33.000-16. stb/d Power.750 8. Casing Size.ESP Capacity Ranges Two approaches are commonly used to evaluate an ESP system: 1) Pre-select the production target and corresponding BHFP and determine the TDH and pump size and depth required to meet this rate.000 50-125 100-300 200-650 400-850 500-1020 500-1030 5. ins Pump OD.p.000-5. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 Other less common deployment methods are: • • 0 REVISION Suspended on the cable and latched into a downhole receptacle.j below.000-26.000 1. An example this to optimise the number of stages for a maximum pump HP is shown in figure 10.000 3. . ins Motor OD.625 11.J . downhole safety systems if the well can flow naturally).000 24. On coiled tubing with the cable through the coil which is terminated with a special wellhead arrangement.000-100.000 12.000 2.000-10. ESP Performance It is normal procedure to select the largest pump that will fit into the production casing (especially if this was catered for in the planning stage).000-12.e. Pre-select the maximum pump horsepower. A recent development with the later is in Norway where downhole safety is satisfied by the installation of shear seal capability below the coiled tubing hanger.625 6.A.
ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 257 OF 295 ENI S. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 0 REVISION Figure 10.A.D .Example ESP Design for a Pre-selected Rate .p.
E.Example ESP Design for a Pre-selected HP .A.p. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 0 REVISION Figure 10.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 258 OF 295 ENI S.
Centralisation of the pump is also critical. The completion design is also affected if downhole separation is required in conjunction with downhole safety. Centralisation and crush resistant clamps should be installed across doglegs. Sand production. When re-completing a ESP well the pump should be moved slightly from the original position to help minimise any casing corrosion due to eddy currents. vice versa.2. Poor voltage supply stability.A. However.p. Casing design is obviously has a large impact on the completion design or in the case of an ESP completion. Also consideration must be given to the optimum tubing size and cable dimensions to ensure they can be accommodated in the casing. Impact On Completion Design 0 REVISION The key to an efficient ESP design is heat removal and insulation material selection for the actual operating temperatures and environment. Too much free gas and no enlarged intakes stages. The pump should be set in a straight section of casing to avoid bending and the cable needs to firmly attached to the tubing for support by cable clamps (two per joint). . Too many frequent start ups when there is no soft start facilities. 10. Scaling up of the impellers.3. If properly planned an ESP completion only requires one onsite termination.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 259 OF 295 ENI S. The clearance between the pump and the casing should be small enough that a flow velocity of a minimum of 1ft/sec is achieved. especially when temperatures are in the o region of 250 F. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 10. Common Problems The biggest problem with ESP completions is short running time before failure with the cost impact for re-completion.2.2. ESP systems are becoming evermore reliable. Inadequate system analysis leading to the system operating outside the range. Tubing hanger and penetration systems for packers have been well developed now for fast easy installation with the testing of the connections carried beforehand in the workshop. In large casings. The most common problems are due to: • • • • • • • • Bad installation procedures. a shroud must be used to provide this rate. Unsuitable cable insulation material for the conditions.
The two simplest and common systems are the Jet Pump and the Piston Pump which are interchangeable in most instances which provides great flexibility in coping with changeable well conditions. As there is no moving parts.000stb/d with 4 /2” tubing. throat and diffuser.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 260 OF 295 ENI S. Pump performance is a complex function of GOR. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 10. Their application is commonly for deviated wells between 8. the pump is not as sensitive to damage and lower quality power fluids can be used and can be used in higher GOR wells up to 3. A preliminary calculation of the pump intake or output curve can be made by hand. Piston Pump The piston pump is a reciprocating pump operated with a drive piston which automatically shuttles backwards and forwards exhausting the spent power fluid into the returns.k below. if this is a problem. it is recommended to submerge the pump by at least 20% of the TDH so is better suited to respectfully productive.000stb/d although it is normally used to produce <2. HYDRAULIC PUMPING SYSTEMS 0 REVISION Hydraulic pumping systems are attractive alternative to ESP systems where there is high temperatures. There is a large selection of pump sizes/stroke length available for a wide range of operating conditions.000ft. It is also popular where there is insufficient gas for a gas lift system and is a viable alternative to rod pumps for deep (>8.000stb/d although free pump systems are limited to 8. The annulus is sometimes required for gas venting and in this case a dual string is required.3. Optimisation is generally through using supplier’s computer software. The pumps can be installed and retrieved by wireline or pumping method using swab cups.000stb/d. however this exposes the annulus to potential corrosion so.000ft although high surface power fluid pressures are required below 12. Jet Pump The jet pump uses no moving parts and imparts momentum into the fluid using the venturi effect with a jet. The downside is the requirement for two reasonably large conduits to minimise fluid pressure losses.A. maintaining a clean solids free power fluid and the high capital and operating costs. However pump efficiency is low at 33-66% and large production rates can only be achieved in high rate installations. There is flexibility in the system as pump rates are controlled by controlling the power fluid supply rate. The conduits for the power fluid and returns can be the annulus with a single tubing. depth. hence providing lower servicing costs. deviation or severe operating environments.000ft) wells. or restricted offtake target wells.p. To prevent cavitation.000-18. The maximum attainable performance have been summarised in table 10.000scf/stb. dual tubing strings can be used either parallel or concentric. supply pressure and rate. The size of the these can be varied to pump volumes of 1 100-15. pump intake pressure. In effect the piston pump is equivalent to the rod pump except that the pump drive is subsurface but can produce up to 8. .
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Head Ratio 0.45 0.25 0.17 0.10
Flow Ratio 0.5 1.0 1.5 2.0
Table 10.K- Jet Pump Maximum Performance In table 10.k above: Head Ratio = pump output pressure − pump inlet pressure downhole power fluid pressure − pump output pressure reservoir production rate Flow Ratio = power fluid rate
Often the maximum power fluid supply pressure and rate is fixed by surface equipment rating, e.g. p<5,000psi, qPF <4,500stb/d. When calculating bottom hole pressures, the completion configuration and power fluid rate to the production to obtain the total discharge rate. The pump intake curve (PIC) can then be generated using table 10.k above plotted against well IPR (Refer to figure 10.f).
Figure 10.F- Example Jet Pump Design Curve
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STAP-P-1-M-7100 Turbine Pumps 0
The hydraulic turbine pump developed by Weir Pumps is an alternative to the ESP for producing very large volumes of fluid, 2,000-100,000stb/d. It has the same principle of operation as the ESP but the motor is replaced by a hydraulic turbine which rotate the shaft at 5,000-10,000rpm. This provides higher lift capacities (head and volume) per stage, therefore the units are much shorter approximately 10% of the ESP. The operating range is much greater as the pump can be controlled by varying the supply pressure giving 10-100% rate and 20-50% TDH at reduced rates. Their reliability is still suspect due to the high rotating speed and metallurgy problems. 10.3.1. Impact On Completion Design The casing size is obviously important here to accommodate the pump size and perhaps two tubing strings. Sometimes concentric completions are preferred or the annulus is used but consideration must be given to potential corrosion due to oxygen in the power fluid. Like the piston pump solids free power fluid is essential. Like the ESP, gas venting may be necessary which would require a third conduit (generally the annulus). Occasionally the DHSV is controlled by pressure from the pump. 10.4. ROD PUMPS The most common pumping system on low rate land wells is the rod or beam pumping. It is usually limited to shallow wells (<8,000ft) producing less than 500stb/d although they can produce up to 2,000stb/d. The system consists of three elements, the downhole pump assembly, the sucker rod and the surface pumping unit. The annulus is usually left open and used to vent any free gas that is separated downhole. Tubing is used as the production conduit and contains the rods preventing wear and corrosion to the annulus. The tubing is usually anchored to the casing and pulled into tension to reduce tubing movement, buckling and, hence rod wear. There are two versions of bottom-hole pump, the tubing retrievable barrel and the rod retrievable barrel. The tubing pump requires the tubing to be pulled to retrieve the barrel and the rod pump barrel is retrieved when pulling the rods. The tubing pump has the largest capacity but is more costly to repair than the rod pump which is the most common. The pump displacement, PD, is defined by the plunger stroke, SP, and the pump speed, N, the plunger diameter, D and the amount of liquid fillage and/or slippage past the plunger, EP = 0.7 to 9.5. PD = Ct x Sp x N x D x Ep Eq. 10.B where: EP Ct = = Pump efficiency 2 Correction factor 0.1166 for oilfield units, (in, spm, in , stb/d)
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Figure 10.G- Typical Rod Pumping System
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As the rod suffers from stretch and dynamic forces, SP will not be the same as the stroke at surface, S, therefore load-displacement plot forms the basis for pump design and analysis. The fluid load, Fo, carried by the rods on the upstroke is dependent on the net lift, H, which is the vertical distance from the operating fluid level (OFL) in the annulus to surface plus the equivalent head of any surface back-pressure. It also depends on fluid SG or density. API recommends ignoring the area of the rods when calculating this load: Fo = Ct x SG x D x H where: Ct = 0.340 in oilfield units (SG, in , ft, lbs)
This load can be estimated from dynamometer surveys, which measure the rod load versus displacement at the surface and serves the most effective means of diagnosing pump problems. As the loads on the polished rod includes fluid load, dynamic forces and rod weight, the rod weights may be relatively large in deep wells and in these cases a tapered rod string is preferred where the rod diameter is larger with increasing load. Buoyancy varies throughout the cycle but it is generally taken on the downstroke when the travelling valve is open. Acceleration and friction are also factors in dynamic loading with the peak polished rod load on the upstroke will be significantly higher than the sum of the rod and fluid loads. Similarly, on the downstroke, the minimum will be less than the buoyant weight of the rods. Pump stroke efficiency is a function of pump speed and rod loading. The dynamics also cause the rods to oscillate harmonically like a stiff spring. Typical pumping speeds are 8 to 15spm which amounts to 4.2 to 7.9 million cycles per year, therefore the rod design must focus on minimising fatigue failures which is exacerbated by corrosion in the operating environment. The surface pump unit is usually a beam type although other concepts have been developed. The surface prime mover and gearbox have been developed over the years to cater for the rod pump to reduce failures. System design is very complex and is an iterative process normally carried out by computer software. API have produced a programme to generate a set of design curves published in API RP11L and provided some general results in Bulletins 11L3 and 11L4 which are a useful starting point for design. However, in 11L4, API used 100% efficiency and pump rates which are higher than those generally found in the field, therefore, it is advisable to enter a curve which is 100 to 200% of the intended target for scoping out the required o equipment capacity. It is also not reliable for heavy oil wells (<20 API) unless correction factors are applied for fluid vicosities and lack of rod weight on the downstroke. Rod fall problems often cut restrict pump rates to 1.5 to 2.5spm which lead the use of long stroke pumps. Sand problems are often a problem with high viscous crudes which increase wear of the pump parts.
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ENI S.p.A. Agip Division
STAP-P-1-M-7100 10.4.1. Impact On Completion Design 0
If free gas is expected then a packer should not be installed to allow the gas to vent up the annulus if it is planned to convert a completion to rod pump lift within a few years unless required for zonal isolation. If a well has to be pumped which is below the bubble point, it is advised to set the pump below the producing interval to aid gas separation, maximise drawdown and minimise perforation blocking by fill. If a well is fractured, the pump must be set above the perforations as frac sand can damage the pump. The casing geometry must be sufficient enough to enable the gas to percolate through the fluid column against the down-flow. 10.5. SCREW PUMP SYSTEMS Screw or progressive cavity pump is a rotary positive displacement pump consisting of a rubber stator and stainless steel rotor. The rotary drive to the downhole pump is through sucker rods from a prime mover through a gearbox. They rates of between 5 to 500stb/d, although in some circumstances capacities of 1,500stb/d is possible, on heavy oil wells or viscous emulsions where conventional rod pumps are hindered by rod fall. They have an advantage in that they can handle some sand production and less costly. The production rate is proportional to the rotary speed and are determined from manufacturers charts, generally between 50-100rpm in heavy oil and 500rpm in light oils. The selection of the material for the rubber stator is the key for operational life in the well environment. 10.6. PLUNGER LIFT Plunger lift are used on high GLR wells that produce liquids at relatively low rates (<500stb/d). The tubing/casing annulus is used to store gas energy provided to the tubing when the well is opened up. This energy is used to drive the plunger up to surface carrying a small slug of liquid. After production of the following tail gas when the liquid begins to kill the well the plunger is dropped again and the cycle repeated. It is particularly useful for de-watering gas wells. Operating requirements are: • • • GLR >500scf/stb PI <1stb/d/psi Plunger velocity 700 to 1,000ft/min
Efficiency of this system decreases with depth and PI but increases with tubing size. It is essential that the completion tubing is parallel and drifted to ensure correct operation of the plunger.
Typical Screw Pump Installation .ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 266 OF 295 ENI S.p.H. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 0 REVISION Figure 10.A.
p.Typical Plunger Lift Installation .ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 267 OF 295 ENI S. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 0 REVISION Figure 10.A.I .
Consider chamber or high PI and low BHP wells. Fair to good. Fair to poor. Long service life and simple repair procedures. Low increase with depth and larger rates. A highly reliable compressor with 95+% run time required. Hydraulic unit provides additional flexibility but at added cost.A. must adjust injection time and cycles frequently. More operating data needed. Good. Good for high rate wells but decreases significantly for <1. maintaining steady gas show often causes injection gas measurement and operating problems. Requires computer design programme for sizing. Excellent. Intermittent Gas Lift Same as continuous flow gas lift. Typically operating efficiencies of 10-20%. etc. to avoid excessive engine wear. Labour intensive to keep time tuned otherwise poor performance. field knowledge and experience are limited. Dilutents may be added if required. Moderate cost for well equipment (valves and mandrels). Can adjust ingestion time and frequency. Typical efficiencies at 20% but range from 5-30%.000 BFPD. produced or seawater) acceptable. Free pump and choose powerful option. Choice of wireline retrievable or conventional valves. friction and pump wear. Efficiencies range from 3040% with GLR >100. Low wells for wells requiring high GLRs. Good for low volume wells. efficiency typically is 40%. Typical lift efficiency is 1050% improved with plungers. Relatively low capital cost if commercial electric power available. Costs increase as horsepower rises. SUMMARY ARTIFICIAL LIFT SELECTION CHARTS 0 REVISION 10. No input energy required because it uses the well. Fair increases for wells that require small injection GLRs. plunger size and run time to control production rate. May be higher with lower GLR. May have problems with selection of appropriate stator elastomer. Poor. Must size pump properly. Good selection. Some problems with sticking plungers. Tubing needs to be sized correctly.p. Method sensitive to rate changes. requires powerful conductor. Excellent total system efficiency. Requires proper cable in addition to motor. 200ppm of 25µm particle size acceptable.7. Numerous pump sizes and pump/engine ratios adapt to production and depth needs. Good design plus good operating practices essential. Proper design plus good operating practices essential. only low cost well equipment if no compressor required. Typically total system efficiency is about 50% for high rate well but for <1. Triplex plunger leakage control required. Maximum efficiency only 30%. Plunger Lift Capital Cost Low to moderate increase with depth and larger units. Continuous Gas Lift Low well equipment costs but lines and compression costs may be high. Full pump fillage efficiency typically about 50-60% feasible if well is not over-pumped. Data bank of rod and pump failures beneficial. Power fluid solids control essential. Requires a highly reliable electric power system. not as good as rod pumping owing to GLR. Heavily influenced by power fluid plus production gradient. May have limited service in some areas. pumps. Central compression system reduces cost per well. Gas injection rate varied to change rates. Good to excellent.Design Considerations and Overall Comparisons (pg1) . Multiple well. Need 15ppm of 15µm particle size max. Miscellaneous problems Stuffing box leakage may be messy and a potential hazard. No moving parts in pump.7. Good design and operating practices needed. VSD provides more flexibility but added costs. Fair. Because this a newer method. Selection of throat and nozzle sizes extend range of volume and capacity.1. Reported system efficiency 5070%. Operating practices have to be tailored to each well for optimisation. seats. Flexibility Excellent. May exceed rod pumps for ideal cases. length.000 BID. Hydraulic Jet Pumping Competitive with rod pump.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 268 OF 295 ENI S. Table 10. Time cycling normally avoided. Unload to bottom with gas lift valves. Very low. Plunger hangup or sticking may be a major problem. can alter stroke speed. Power fluid rate and speed of downhole pump. Must add surfactant to a water power fluid for lubrication. Pumps usually run at a fixed speed. operating and repair practices needed rods and pump. Can vary power fluid rate and pressure adjusts the production rate and lift capacity. Cost increases with higher horsepower. Power water (fresh. Anti-pollution stuffing boxes are available. Requires careful sizing. Excellent for flowing wells. tolerant to moderate solids in power fluid. Good even when small supplementary gas is added. Downhole Equipment Reasonably good rod design and operating practices needed.L . Efficiency (output hydraulic HP divided by input HP) Excellent. Design Considerations And Comparisons Consideration Rod Pumping Screw Pumping ESP Hydraulic Piston Pumping Varies but often competitive with rod pumps. central systems reduce cost per well but is more complicated. Good valve design and spacing essential. More tolerant of power fluid solids. normally requires a high injection gas volume/bbl fluid. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 10. Gas must be dehydrated properly to avoid gas freezing. Poor. Good to excellent. can alter speed.
Good with a correctly designed and operated system. good value for wellsite system that crane can move easily. The normal standard artificial lift method. high GOR and significant sand production. procedures to design. Very sensitive to operating temperatures and electrical malfunctions. installation and operating specifications Each well needs an individual system. solids. Basic operating procedures needed for downhole pump and wellsite unit. Requires excellent operating practices. high pressure.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 269 OF 295 ENI S. Some trade in value. corrosive fluids. Easily moved. System must be designed for the unstable gas flow rates. Simple to install and operate. Good. Fair market for triplex pumps. wax asphaltenes. System not forgiving. Poor open market values. Requires adjusting and plunger maintenance. Varies. typically used. Fair to poor.000BFPD rates. Other repair costs are high. Usage/ Outlook Excellent. Used primarily on gas well dewatering. high temperature deviated oil wells. Essentially a low liquid rate. Free pump easily retrieved for onsite repair or replacement. Some market for good used compressors and some trade in value for mandrels and valves. Normally over-pumping and lack of experience decreases run time. Frequent downtime results from operational problems.p. etc. Some trade in value. Problems or changing well conditions reduce downhole pump reliability. Excellent if compression system is properly designed and maintained. high GLR lift method. Hydraulic Jet Pumping High cost owing to HP requirement. Table 10. Each well needs an individual system. Plunger Lift Operating Costs Very low for shallow to medium depth (<7. Downhole jet often requires trial and error to arrive at best/optimum jet. poor for problem areas. An excellent high rate artificial lift system. Continuous Gas Lift Well costs low.000psig. GOR try higher volume wells requiring flexible operation. Good. Low back-pressure beneficial. Central plant more complex. Used on <2% of US lifted wells.400BFPD). related to pump intake pressure. Salvage Value Excellent. Simple manual or computer design. Potentially low but short run life on stator or rotor frequently reported. install and operate. Varies. usually results in test and treatment problems. easily moved and good market for used equipment. Can be used for extending flow life or improving efficiency.5% of US lifted wells. Intermittent Gas Lift Same as continuous flow gas lift. Fair. Short run life increases total operating costs. Used on less than 0. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 0 REVISION Consideration Rod Pumping Screw Pumping ESP Hydraulic Piston Pumping Often higher than rod pump even for free systems. Often used as a default artificial lift system. System will tolerate wide depth ranges. Key is to inject as deeply as possible with optimum GLR. Most like a flowing well. energy costs are high. High pulling costs result from short run life. Most often used on high water cut wells. Computer programme typically used for design. Fair market for triplex pump. Easily moved and some current market for used equipment Fair. flexible. Good data needed for valve design and spacing. install and operates following API specifications and recommended practices. dry non-corrosive and clean gas supply source is needed throughout the entire life. Ample gas volume and/or pressure needed for successful operation. Reliability Excellent. System (total) Straightforward and basic. Used on <1% of US lifted wells. Usually very low.. Good with proper throat and nose sizing for the operating conditions. Some trade in value. Best suited for <200oF and >1. high volume. Same as continuous flow gas lift. An adequate volume.500ft) and locations with low production (. API specifications and design/operatin g recommended practices should be followed.M . Limited to relatively shallow wells with low rates. are controlled. Individual well or system. Excellent for ideal gas lift cases. wide rate range suitable for relatively deep. More problems if pressures >4. Good. high rate artificial lift system for wells with high bottom-hole pressures. Sometimes used to test wells that will not flow offshore.Design Considerations and Overall Comparisons (Pg2) . Same as continuous flow gas lift. Typically each well is an individual producer using a common electric system. mostly offshore. Used on <1% of US lifted wells. Individual well unit very flexible but extra cost. Excellent if there is an adequate supply of ingestion gas and adequate low pressure storage volume for injection gas. Simple to design. Requires attention. Low pump maintenance cost typical with properly sized throat and nose. Used on about 10% of US lifted wells. Often used as a default artificial lift method in lieu of sucker rod pumps. Used on about 85% of US artificial lift wells.A. testing and operation. if HP is high. Used on <1% of US lifted wells. Free pump easily retrieved for servicing. Also a default for low bottom-hole pressure wells on continuous gas lift. Poor open market value. high temperatures. Good if well production is stable. Fairly simple to design but requires good rate data. Compression costs vary on fuel cost and compressor maintenance. Must avoid operating in cavitation range of jet pump throat. System approach needed. Flexible operation. Run time efficiency >95% if good operating practices are adopted and corrosion. Limited proven design. deviations. Fair. Follow API recommended practices in design.
Operating Conditions Summary Consideration Rod Pumping Screw Pumping ESP Hydraulic Piston Pumping Larger casing required for parallel free or closed systems. Same as continuous flow. Fair. moderately high for urban areas.5ins) mat result in excessive friction losses and limits production rate.5ins casing.000stb/d with 2.500ft and 150stb/d at 15.000ft for low rate.000psig. Usually limited by fallback. Fair but complicated by standing valve and fallback. Excellent.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 270 OF 295 ENI S. For rates >5. Practical depth of 20. Controlled by system injection pressure and fluid rates. Low at well but noisy at compressor. Obtrusiveness Size and operation are drawbacks in populated and farming areas.5ins nominal tubing. can be easily analysed based on well test.5 and 5.000ft.Operating Conditions Summary .000ft Hydraulic Jet Pumping Small casing size often limits producing rate owing to high (unacceptable) friction losses. Normally no problem for 4. Intake Capability Excellent. Free gas reduces efficiency and service life. Low. Good. Larger casing may be required if dual strings run. fluid levels. Good low well noise. Typically about 50 to 100psig.5ins tubing needed.000ft injected depth. Thus the backpressure on 10. Safety precautions must be taken for high pressure gas lines. rods of structure may limit rate at depth.5 and 5.N . high lift head pumps operating at depths to 17. Often preferred in urban areas if production rate is high. Good to excellent. limited by power fluid pressure (5. speed and producing rate.000ft. Same as piston pump.000ft with low GLR. Excellent. Poor. has an injection depth of about 10.e. analysis can be based on production and fluid levels only. Same as continuous flow. Good but depends on good well test and pressure charts. Poor restricted by the gradient of the gas lifted fluid. Good low profile but must provide for compressor. Small casing size (4. Analysis improved by use of dynamometers and computers. Bottom-hole pressure obtained with free pumps. Bottomhole pressure and production log surveys easily obtained. Same as piston pump.000 GLR. both engines or motors can be used. Surveillance Fair. Good. Prime mover flexibility Good. both engines or motors can be used easily. Usually limited to motor HP or temperature.000ft.440psi lift system and lift system and 1. >350psig to 5. gas or diesel fired engines or motors. Good when used with chamber.000stb/d.p.000ft.5 and 5. Good low profile but requires transformer bank.5ins casing depending on depth and rate.A.5ins) may limit free gas separation. >250psi pump intake pressure). Plunger Lift Casing size limits (restricts tubing size) Problems only in high rate wells requiring large plunger pumps. Same as continuous flow. Not possible to use dynamometers and pump-off cards. Good. Intake pressure <100psig usually results in frequent pump repairs. Excellent. Low. Same as piston pump. Casing size will limit use of large motor and pumps. Low volume. Practical depth about 10. None normally required. Small casing suitable for this low volume lift. Motors are more reliable and flexible. limited to relatively shallow depths. Noise Level Fair.000stb/d use >7ins casing and >3. Fair to good wellhead equipment has low profile. 1. Reduced performance inside 5. Poor to fair. Fair when used without chambers. Poor if must handle >5% free gas. Fair but not as good as rod pumping. Good. Downhole pump performance can be analysed from surface power fluid rate and pressure. Typical design targets 25% submergence. Excellent. Fair.5ins casing and larger but gas separation may be limited.000ft well.2.7.5ins) normally is not a problem for this relatively low volume lift. bottomhole pressures <150psi at 10.000psi) or HP.. Prime mover can be electric motor. requires a good power source without spikes or interruptions. <25psig feasible provided adequate displacement and gas venting.5 and 5. Excellent with low noise.000ft well may be >1. Optimisation and computer control being tried. Effectively about 500stb/d at 7. REVISION 0 Intermittent Gas Lift Small casing (4. Good to fair. etc. <100psi provided adequate displacement and gas venting. similar limits as reciprocating pump. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 10. Continuous Gas Lift The use of 4. Higher voltages can reduce I2R losses Fair based on electrical checks but special equipment needed otherwise. Table 10.000ft. PIP >250psi for 10. Requires surface treating and high pressure pumping equipment. Typically for 1. Depth limits Good. if little free gas (i. high GLR wells. Typically moderate rate is limited to about 100psi/1. possibly 5. Typically <10.000ft. Special low profile units are available.000ft. Avoid 4. Can be analysed easily. Annulus must have adequate gas storage volume. turbines or motors can be used for compression. Same as piston pump. Wellsite power fluid units can be sound proofed. Small casing (4.5ins casing with 2ins nominal tubing normally limits rates to <1. PIP of <250psi feasible at 10. engines.000ft. Good low profile surface equipment. Transformer may cause problems in urban areas. Good with the surface prime mover causing the only noise. few wells >10.
Good. Not applicable.p. Well testing with standard individual well units presents few problems. Gas measurement errors are common.O . Formation GLR obtained by subtracting injected gas from total produced gas. is possible but not normally used. Labour intensive Plunger Lift Testing Good.Operating Conditions Summary (Pg2) . Intermittent Gas Lift Poor. same as rod pumping. Well testing complicated by injection gas volume/rate. Usually controlled only by displacement checks. High water cut and high rate wells may require a free water knock-out. Hydraulic Jet Pumping Same as piston pump. Does not appear applicable owing to intake pressure requirement higher than pump-off.. Continuous Gas Lift Fair. Poor. Intermittent flow can cause operating problems with separators. Good.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 271 OF 295 ENI S. Soft start and improved seals and protectors recommended. Well testing with a central system is more complex requiring accurate power fluid measurement. Three stage production tests can be conducted by adjusting production step rates. Poor. Well testing is simple with few problems. Cycle must be periodically adjusted. Well testing complicated by injection gas volume/rate. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 0 REVISION Consideration Rod Pumping Screw Pumping ESP Hydraulic Piston Pumping Fair. Good. Not applicable. Well testing is simple with few problems. Avoid shutdown in high viscosity/sand producers. Poor. Pumpoff control not developed. Time cycle and pump-off controller’s application Excellent if well can be pumpedoff. Table 10. A pressure recorder must be used to monitor intake pressures. Poor. Measurement of both input and outflow gas is a problem.A. Well testing is simple with few problems using standard available equipment and procedures.
Fair. Fair. Free gas reduces efficiency but helps lift. Excellent. however a pulling unit is needed. mechanical cutting. Few wireline problems up to 70o deviation for wireline retrievable valves. Similar to piston pump. Same as continuous flow. Some success in pumping 15o/100ft using rod guides. Dual inside 5ins casing currently not in favour. Increased mechanical problems. Must provide electrical power and service pulling unit. Feasible operation in horizontal wells. Power oil a fire and safety problem. Produced water or seawater may be used as a power fluid with wellsite type system or power fluid separation before production treating system. Produced gas reduces need for injection gas. Feasible operation in highly deviated wells. Excellent and is the most common method if adequate injection gas available. Good. Fair to good. Excellent. Injection gas may aggravate existing problem. Good. Parallel 2x2ins nominal tubing inside 7ins casing and 3x3ins tubing inside 95/8ins casing feasible. Hot water/oil treatments. Plunger Lift Corrosion/ scale handling ability Good to excellent. Batch treatment inhibitor used down annulus feasible. Poor in wells needing sand control. Good to fair. Free pump retrieved without pulling tubing. Same as continuous flow gas lift. Rotary gas separators helpful if solids not produced. Steps must be taken to avoid corrosion in injection gas lines. Requires deck space for treatment tanks and pumps. Batch or continuous inhibition treatment can be circulated with power fluid for effective control. Larger casing would be needed. Must design for unit size. Hot water/oil treating and/or use of scrapers possible but they increase operating problems and costs. Excellent as it cuts paraffin and removes small deposits. Fair. No none installations. Artificial Lift Considerations Consideration Rod Pumping Screw Pumping ESP Hydraulic Piston Pumping Good to excellent. Excellent if tubing can be run in the well. Soluble plugs available. Poor to fair. Few problems. Poor. Poor for free gas >5% through pump. Parallel 2x2ins low rate dual feasible inside 7ins casing. Requires long radius wellbore bends to get through. Limited experience in horizontal wells. Circulate heat to downhole pump to minimise build-up.p. Dual gas lift is common but good operating of dual lift is complicated and inefficient resulting in reduced rates. Batch treat down annulus is feasible. Same as continuous flow Excellent. increased load and wear problems. Excellent for correct application. Vent free gas if possible. Fair. Good mechanical cutting sometimes required. Heading causes operating problems. Water power fluid can be used. Normal production cycle must be interrupted to batch treat the well. Good. Fair. Rod scrapers not used. Crooked/ deviated holes Fair. Table 10. Batch inhibition treatment only to intake unless shroud is used. Pump will normally pass through the tubing.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 272 OF 295 ENI S. Same condition as hydraulic piston pump. Tubing may require treatment. Continuous Gas Lift Good..A. Same as piston pump. No known installations.7. Possible running and pulling problems. Most wells are deviated and typically produce sand. Fair. Excellent. Hydraulic Jet Pumping Good to excellent. Mechanical cutting and inhibition possible. Same as piston pump except it can possibly handle higher GLRs but at reduced efficiency. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 10. Currently very few known installations. Good to excellent. Three string nonvented applications have been achieved with complete isolation of production and power fluid from each zone. Same as continuous flow. Inhibitor mixed with power fluid mixes with produced fluids at entry of jet pump throat. Offshore application Poor. Gas is a problem for lower zone. Fair. Limited to low GLRs and moderate rates. Possible to unseat pump and circulate hot fluids. Excellent. Paraffin handling capacity Fair to good. Use of standing valves risky. Use a gas anchor. Increased load and wear problems. batch inhibition possible.3. REVISION 0 Intermittent Gas Lift Same as continuous flow. May have some special application offshore. frequently for both corrosion and scale control. Dual application No known installations. Poor if it must pump any free gas. Gas handling ability Good if can vent and use natural gas anchor with properly designed pump. Good. High angle deviated holes (>70o) and horizontal wells are being produced. Poor if must pump >50% free gas. weight and pulling unit space. Concentric fixed pump or parallel free permits gas venting with suitable downhole gas separator below pump intake. short pump can pass through doglegs up to 24o/100ft in 2ins nominal tubing. Inhibitor in the injection gas and/or batch inhibiting down tubing feasible.P .Artificial Lift Considerations (Pg1) . Casing free pump limited to low GLRs. Free pumps can be surfaced on a schedule.
max. Fair to good. Power oil of oil >24o API and . Lower efficiency and high operating costs for <400stb/d. Increases HP and reduces head. Tandem motors can be used but will increase costs.000ft.000ft and 1.5ins nominal tubing. Potential solution is to use ‘core flow’ with 20% water. Table 10.000ft.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 273 OF 295 ENI S. Fair but standing valve may cause problems. Good to excellent. Good. Also produced fluids must have low solids <200ppm of 15µm particles for reasonable life. Same as continuous flow. Good. Excellent for high viscosity fluids with no stator/rotor problems.p. Sand can stick plunger. Use fresh water injection for salt build-up formations. Limited to about <250oF for standard and <325oF with special motors and cables.5ins casing can produce 4. Fair but restricted to shallow depths using large plungers . Production with up to 800cP possible. Typically lower limit is 200stb/d for 2ins tubing without heading. rate about 4. 400stb/d for 2. Typically a maximum of about 350oF. May be able to handle up to 0. rates of 5.440psi injection gas and GLR of 1. limited by needed HP and can be restricted by casing size. No known installations. Fair. Same as continuous flow. Suitable for low rates and low GLRs. Limit is inflow and surface problems. Standard materials up to 300oF+ and to 500oF+ feasible with special materials.50cP viscosity or water power fluid reduces friction losses. Higher rates may required dilutent to lower viscosity. High viscosity fluid handling capability Good for <200cP fluids and low rates 400stb/d. Requires <10ppm solids power fluid for good run life. >200stb/d from 4.000ft and 1.000ft. Limited by cycle volume and number of possible injection cycles. Few problems for >16 o API. At present normally below 250oF. Typical limit is 0. Excellent.000stb/d from 10.000. Typically about 200stb/d from 10.000ft.000stb/d from 4. Excellent up to 50% sand with high viscosity >200cP crude. High volume lift capacity Poor.Artificial Lift Considerations (Pg2) .000stb/d from 2. Possibly 2. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 0 REVISION Consideration Rod Pumping Screw Pumping ESP Hydraulic Piston Pumping Possible but may have high friction losses or gas problems.000stb/d with adequate flowing bottomhole pressure. In 5. >75stb/d from 12. Same as continuous flow Normally not applicable. Requires <200ppm solids.000stb/d from 5. Restricted to relatively small rates. Excellent. Up to 15. low GORs and shallow depths but no known installations. Jet pumps are operating with 3% sand in produced fluids.000stb/d from 1.000ft with 3. 550oF. Possibly 200stb/d from 10. Fair. Fair. Limited by tubular and HP. Fair. Fair. Intermittent Gas Lift Same as continuous flow. Typically 0. Rod fall problems for high rates. Similar to casing lift but must have adequate formation gas.000ft with 240 HP. Not as good as rod pumping.000 to 10. Most commonly used method for wells producing <100stb/d. Excellent for <100stb/d shallow wells that do not pump-off.000ft possible. Limited by number of cycles. Fresh water treatment for salt formations. Good. Improved wear resistant materials available at premium cost. Generally poor. Low volume lift capabilities Excellent. Excellent for high water cut lift even with high viscosity oil. Excellent and possible to operate to 500oF with special materials.5ins tubing. Hydraulic Jet Pumping Same as piston pump.000ft.5ins and 700stb/d for 3. or below 20cP viscosity. Poor.A. Excellent.000ft feasible with 1. Good in >8o API production with <500cP possible. Plunger Lift Slim-hole completions (27/8ins production casing string) Feasible for low rates <100stb/d and low GOR <250. Poor to fair for low viscosity <10cP production. however it wipes tubing clean.1% sand for inflow and outflow problems.000ft and 200stb/d from 5. tubular size and HP. Solids/sand handling ability Poor. Temperature limitation Excellent and currently used in thermal operations.000stb/d from 4. Restricted by tubing size and injection gas rate and depth.000stb/d from 10. Continuous Gas Lift Feasible but can be troublesome and inefficient.500psi system. Excellent.Q . Excellent. Typically 3. Poor. Fair but limited by stator elastomer. Poor. Excellent. Depending on reservoir pressure and PI with 4ins nominal tubing. Excellent.000ft with <250psi pump intake pressure. Power fluid to jet pump can tolerate 200ppm of 25µm particle size. Feasible if low rates.1% sand with special pumps. Typically are used with 1. Improved performance for high viscosity >200cP cases. limited to about 200cP. Need to know temperatures to design bellows charged valves. Limited by efficiency and economic limit. Limited by heading and slippage.5 to 4stb/cycle with up to 48 cycles/d Excellent for low flow rates of 1 to 2stb/d with high GLRs. Decreases to <10% sand for water producers. Typically 100 to 300stb/d from 4. Avoid unstable flow range. Power fluid can be used to dilute low gravity production.
• • 11. This being the case. therefore. 11. through tubing perforation after packer setting. A hydrostatic overbalance fluid can only be considered a barrier on a long term basis if it is fully maintained.p.3. regardless of the density. high density oil mud. i. This policy does not refer to gradients below 1.e. 11.1. USE OF UNDERBALANCE COMPLETION FLUIDS POLICY The purpose of this section is to provide the basic criteria when ‘non-kill weight packer fluids’ can be used in completion design. with regard to double barrier protection is mechanically obtained by means of the wellhead.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 274 OF 295 ENI S. the tubulars (tubing and casing) and packer system and. Over and above this.e. i. cannot be considered as a barrier.e.A. BARRIER PRINCIPLES Eni-Agip Division and Affiliates has determined that a packer fluid. some completion types such as High Rate liners using a liner PBR may be some considerable distance from the formation. The re-use of the completion fluid is envisaged when it is opportune or cost effective. however tubing leaks and deterioration of the fluid cannot be guaranteed. The main reasons are: • The integrity of the annulus. therefore is not a practical barrier. i.2. does not require the presence of an overbalance fluid. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 0 REVISION 11. . APPLICATION The use of non-kill weight packer fluid will be considered in the following situations: • • • When a brine with a gradient lower than the formation gradient has already been used as completion fluid. When it is necessary to replace a completion fluid containing solids in suspension.30kg/Lt/10m where it is still considered good practice to use overbalance completion fluids.30kg/Lt/10m. it should not be classified as a barrier. high pressure and high temperature (HP/HT) wells. The use of non-kill weight packer fluid has been thoroughly evaluated and is permitted for the wells which have pressure gradients above 1.
However. if an underbalance completion fluid is to be used.2. prior to commencing a well test using non-kill weight packer fluid.4. the casing design must be able to withstand full well pressure in conjunction with the completion fluid hydrostatic pressure at respective depth. as contingency against a tubing/packer envelope leak. in order to identify and evaluate the operative risks associated with downhole equipment functionality. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 11. The worst possible case being immediately above the packer.1. . a risk analysis evaluation (HAZOP) must be carried out by the District Drilling & Completion Engineering Department.4. a risk assessment should be carried out to ensure.p.4.A. that the completion design will keep the formation pressure off the production casing. Well Testing For exploration wells. 11.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 275 OF 295 ENI S. Completions Similar to above. RISK ASSESSMENT 0 REVISION 11.
As the first section is generic to all the forms it is only shown in ARPO 01 instructions. . it is essential that ENI .Agip Division and Affiliates obtain feed-back from the field. The forms relevant to completion operations are: • • • • • • • • • • ARPO 01 ARPO 02 ARPO 06 ARPO 07 ARPO 08 ARPO 09 ARPO 11 ARPO 12 ARPO 13 ARPO 20 Initial Activity Report Daily Report Waste Disposal Management Report Perforating Report Gravel Pack Report Matrix Stimulation/Hydraulic fracturing Report Wireline Report Pressure/Temperature Survey Report Well Problem Report Well Situation Report Behind each report form are instructions on how to fill in the forms.REPORT FORMS To enable the contents of this completion manual and other operating procedures manuals to be improved.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 276 OF 295 ENI S. completion.A. To this end a feed-back reporting system is in use which satisfies this requirement. Feed-back reports for drilling. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 0 REVISION APPENDIX A . workover and well testing operations are available and must be filled in and returned to head office for distribution to the relevant responsible departments as soon as possible as per instructions.p.
p. Rig RKB .L . INITIAL ACTIVITY REPORT (ARPO 01) 0 REVISION District/Affiliate Company DATE: Permit/Concession N° General Data On shore Latitude: Longitude Reference Rig Name Rig Type Contractor Rig Heading [°] Offset FROM the proposed location Distance [m] Direction [°] Off shore INITIAL ACTIVITY REPORT ARPO 01 Well Code Depth Above S. & C.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 277 OF 295 ENI S. Fluids Cementation Waste treatment Operating Time Moving Positioning Anchorage Rig-up Delay Lost-time Accidents Company Contract N° Type of Service Company Contract N° Jack-up leg Penetration [gg:hh] [hh:min] [hh:min] [hh:min] [hh:min] [hh:min] Rig Anchorage Leg N° Air gap [m] Penetration [m] N° Supply Vessel for Positioning Name Horse Power Bollard pull [t] Anchor Bow N° 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 Note: Angle Type & Manufacturer Weight [t] Mooring Line Length Cable [m] Chain [m] Piggy Back Weight N° [t] Length [m] Mooring Line Chain Ø [mm] Cable Length [m] Ø [mm] Tension Operative [Tested] [t] Tension [t] Total Time [hh:min] Supervisor Superintendent . Ground Level[m] Water Depth [m] Rotary Table Elev. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 A.1st Flange Cellar Pit Depth [m] Length [m] Width [m]: Manufacturer Type Liner avaible [in] Major Contractors WELL NAME FIELD NAME Cost center Joint venture AGIP: % % % Type of Operation % % % Program TD (Measured) Program TD (Vertical) Rig Pump [m] [m] Type of Service Mud Logging D.1.[m] First Flange[m] Top housing [m] Reference Rig Ref.A.
R. HHP Bit HSI I [m 3] [m 3] B N° Run N° N° Run N° Bottom Hole Assembly N° __________ Rot. (24:00) Total Drilled Rotating Hrs R. vel. W.D. Hrs. Progressive Rot. Losses [kg/l] [s/l] [cP] [g/100cm2] / [cc/30"] [cc/30"] [kg/cm2] [°C] [g/l] [g/l] [kg/m3] [%] [%] Bit Data Manuf.L Partial Progr. ClSalt pH/ES MBT Solid Oil/water Ratio. Stock Quantity UM Supply vessel Total Cost O G D O L R I B O G D O L R Daily Progr. hrs Back reaming Hrs Personnel Agip Rig Others Total Agip Rig Other Total [m] [m] [m] [hh:mm] [m / h] [hh:mm] [hh:mm] Injured of w.IFT [kg/l] 1 2 at m at m 3 Last casing Next Casing RT Elevation Ground Lelel / Water Depth RT . DAILY REPORT (ARPO 02) 0 REVISION DAILY REPORT Drilling District/Affiliate Company DATE: Rig Name Type of Rig Contractor Well Ø nom. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 A.P.p.V. Supervisor: . L Progr. Jet vel.O.P. (24:00) T. Temp.V.O.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 278 OF 295 ENI S. Gel 10"/10' Water Loss HP/HT Press. IADC Diam.[in] Top [m] Bottom [m] Top of Cmt [m] Last Survey [°] LOT .2.1st flange / Top Housing BOP Stack Diverter Annular Annular Upper Rams Middle Rams Middle Rams Middle Rams Lower Rams Last Test Type Ø ARPO 02 [m] [m] [m] WELL NAME FIELD NAME Cost center Well Code Report N° Permit / Concession N° M. Nozzle/TFA From [m] To [m] Drilled [m] Rot.[t] Flow Rate Pressure Ann. [psi] Lithology Shows From (hr) To (hr) Op.P.M. Sand pm/pom pf mf Daily Losses Progr. Type Serial No.B. hours Ø Description Part.D. [psi] Reduce Pump Strockes Pressure Pump N° Liner [in] Strokes Press.p. Code OPERATION DESCRIPTION Operation at 07:00 Mud type Density Viscosity P. Y.A.
p.concentration (g/l ) Cumulative [m ] Recycled Total 3 Fresh water [m ] Phase Cumulative Service Mud Company Waste Disposal Transportation 3 Recycled [m ] Company Contract N° 3 Remarks Remarks Supervisor Superintendent .ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 279 OF 295 ENI S. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 A.3. WASTE DISPOSAL MANAGEMENT REPORT (ARPO 06) 0 REVISION WASTE DISPOSAL Management Report District/Affiliate Company DATE: Report N° From [m] To [m] Phase size [in] Water consumption Usage Mixing Mud Others Total Readings / Truck Mud Volume [m ] Mixed Lost Dumped Transported IN Trans orted OUT Waste Disposal Water base cuttings Oil base cuttings Dried Water base cuttings Dried oil base cuttings Water base mud Oil base mud transported IN Oil base mud transported OUT Drill potable water Dehidrated water base mud Dehidrated oil base mud Sewage water Transported Brine Period [t] [t] [t] [t] [t] [t] [t] [t] [t] [t] [t] [t] Cumulative 3 WELL NAME FIELD NAME ARPO-06 Cost center Depth (m) Interval Drilled (m) 3 Drilled Volume [m ] Cumulative volume [m ] Phase /Period [m ] Fresh water Recycled Total Fresh water 3 3 Mud Type Density (kg/l) Cl.A.
Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 A.1 Flange [°] [m] Workover Rig RKB .3. PERFORATING REPORT (ARPO 07) 0 REVISION District/Affiliate Company DATE: Well location Onshore Offshore Total Depth Well Type Vertical Deviated Horizontal Well Situation Liner Casing Casing Tubing Packer Tubing shoe Size [Ø] M.P. Gun Ø Charge Type S.p. [m] T. T.A. Max.1 Flange Workover Rig RKB .D. inclination at Formation name: Lithology PERFORATING REPORT ARPO-07 WELL NAME FIELD NAME Cost center Pool: [m] Rotary Table Measurement [m] Drilling Rig RKB .V.F 2 Completion fluid Fluid in front of Perforation Fluid Losses after Perforation Measured Depth Top [m] Bottom [m] Vertical Depth Top [m] Density Density [kg/l] [kg/l] [m3] Pool Remarks Bottom [m] Note: Supervisor Superintendent .D.Sea Level Workover Rig RKB .Sea Bottom Thickness [lb/ft] Measured Depth Top [m] Bottom [m] st st Final Completion Report [date] Final Workover Report [date] Reference Logs: Recorded on: Vertical Depth Top [m] Bottom [m] Cement Top M.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 280 OF 295 ENI S. [m] Steel Grade Service Company Perforation System Wireline TCP Thru Tubing Data Gun Type Overbalance Underbalance Differential Pressure [kg/cm ] Gun Specific.D.V.D.
GRAVEL PACK REPORT (ARPO 08) 0 REVISION Cannot Load File form supplied Eni-Agip Excel . Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 A.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 281 OF 295 ENI S.4.A.p.
Vol.D. Starting Time Pumping Rate [bbl/1'] [m ] 3 Fluid Type Fluid Schedule Fluid Composition Density [kg/l] Mixed Volume [m3 ] Volume Progr.A.p. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 A. [lb/gal] Press.V. [psi] Notes Notes / Remarks: Supervisor Superintendent .ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 282 OF 295 ENI S.D.D. [m] Top liner [m] Reservoir Parameters Reservoir fluid Density [Kg/l] 2 Gradient [Kg/cm /10 m. casing / liner Ø Shoe M. [psi] Injection Index [bbl/day/psi] Casing Press. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Injected Circulated N° Fluid Ref. Volume [m ] 3 Pumping Parameter Progr.D.Top perforation Volume [l] Treatment Data Service Company HHP avaible Initial Shut-in pressure [psi] Annulus pressure [psi] Pressure test [psi] Max. interval Slotted liner From [m] To [m] ARPO . injection rate [bpm] Max. net perf. Proppant Initial Entering in Formation Concentr. [m ] General Data M. 0 REVISION MATRIX STIMULATION/HYDRAULIC FRACTURE REPORT (APRO 09) MATRIX STIMULATION HYDRAULIC FRACTURING District/Affiliate Company DATE: Well Location Onshore Offshore Well Type Vertical Deviated Horizontal Treatment Type Matrix stimulation Acid Solvent Other Hydraulic Fracturing Foam Water base Oil base Other Acid Fracturing Acid Gelled acid Acid + Gel Other Main Frac Treatment Proppant type: API Mesh Size Amount of Propant [t] 3 Total Frac Fluid Vol. [m] Open hole Ø Prod. [psi] Final Press.: Formation name: Pool: Lithology: Completion Data Bottom hole gauge [Y / N] Type Wellhead type Packer type Packer fluid Density Fluid in well at operation beginning String O.09 WELL NAME FIELD NAME Cost center Interval to be Treated Tot. injection pressure [psi] Pumping time [min] Pumping time [min] Equipment Coiled Tubing [Y / N] Ø Stimulation vessel / Other equipment Operation Description Fluid Ref. [in] String capacity [l] Packer .5.] Fracturing gradient [calculated] Fracturing gradient [tested] Porosity % SBHT [°C] 2 SBHP [kg/cm ] at m at m Open hole Perfor. [m] T.
@ m. Tubing Size OD Tubing Size OD Tubing Shoe Ø Packer data Minimum I.D.11 WELL NAME FIELD NAME Cost center SINGLE COMPLETION DUAL COMPLETION General Data RKB Elevation @ m.p.6. WIRELINE REPORT (ARPO 11) 0 REVISION WIRE LINE REPORT District/Affiliate Company DATE: ARPO . @ m. String Previous Bottom Hole Request Operation @ m.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 283 OF 295 ENI S. Tbg Spool Top Flange Ø Flowing Flange Ø Kill Line Flange Ø BPV Type Psi Psi Psi Ø Wellhead Pressure Check [Kg/cm2] CHP / / / P P P THP Annulus Annulus Annulus POOL Perforated Zones [Kg/cm 2] [Kg/cm 2] [Kg/cm 2] [Kg/cm 2] Open Hole To [m] From [m] Note Operation Description Situation After the Job NO TOOLS IN HOLE TSV Note BPV SCSSV PLUG OTHER TOOLS Actual Bottom Hole: Max Size Run in Hole Ø Supervisor Superintendent @m . @ m.A. @ m. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 A. Weight [lb/ft] Weight [lb/ft] SELECTIVE SHORT STRING LONG STRING Well Code Flanges Base Flange @ m.
Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 A.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 284 OF 295 ENI S. 0 REVISION PRESSURE/TEMPERATURE SURVEY REPORT (ARPO 12) Cannot Load File form supplied Eni-Agip Excel .p.7.A.
ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 285 OF 295 ENI S. Of .p.A.8. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 A.[kg/l]: Solutions Applied: Results Obtained: Solutions Applied: Results Obtained: Solutions Applied: Results Obtained: Solutions Applied: Results Obtained: Supervisor Supervisor Supervisor Remarks at District level: Superintendent Lost Time Remarks at HQ level hh:mm Loss value [in currency] Pag. WELL PROBLEM REPORT (ARPO 13) 0 REVISION District/Affiliate Company WELL PROBLEM REPORT DATE: ARPO -13 Top [m] Bottom [m] FIELD NAME WELL NAME Cost center Start date End date Problem Code Well Situation Open hole Last casing Well problem Description Ø Measured Depth Top [m] Bottom [m] Vertical Depth Top [m] Bottom [m] KOP [m] Type Mud in hole Max inclination [°] @m DROP OFF [m] Dens.
: of: .p. m Note Remarks: Supervisor Superintendent pag.9. WELL SITUATION REPORT (ARPO 20) 0 REVISION WELL SITUATION (COMPLETION TALLY) District/Affiliate Company DATE: ARPO 20 / E FIELD NAME WELL NAME Cost center SINGLE COMPLETION Joint n° m Progr. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 A.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 286 OF 295 ENI S. m DUAL COMPLETION Note Joint n° m Progr.A. m SHORT STRING Note Joint n° m LONG STRING Progr.
NOMENCLATURE FOR TUBING CALCULATIONS Ai Ao Ap As D d Dpb E F Fa * Fa Fa tp * Fa tp Ff * Ff I Ff II Ff Ff tp * Ff tp Fp Fso I L n Pi /pi Po /po R r t Tfinal Tinitial w ws wfi wfo α γfi γfo ∆Fa ∆Ff ∆L ∆L1 ∆L2 ∆L3 ∆L4 = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = Area inside tubing Area outside tubing Packer-bore area Resistant tubing area (Ao .ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 287 OF 295 ENI S.p.Ai) External diameter of tubing Internal diameter of tubing Packer-bore diameter 7 Young’s module (3⋅10 psi for steel) Generic force applied to the tubing end Piston force at the packer depth Piston force above the packer with anchored tubing Piston force at well head conditions Piston force at well head conditions with anchored tubing Fictitious force Fictitious force above the packer with anchored tubing Fictitious force due to the effect of internal pressure Fictitious force due to the effect of external pressure Fictitious force at well head conditions Fictitious force at well head conditions with anchored tubing Tubing-packer force Slack-off force Moment of inertia of the resistant tubing section Tubing length Distance between the lower end of the tubing and the neutral point Pressure inside the tubing at packer depth / well head Pressure outside the tubing at packer depth / well head Ratio between the external and internal diameters of the tubing Tubing-casing radial distance (Douter casing -D)/2 Tubing wall thickness Final temperature of tubing Initial temperature of tubing Linear weight of the tubing immersed in fluid Linear weight of the tubing in air Linear weight of fluid inside the tubing Linear weight of fluid outside the tubing -6 Coefficient of thermal expansion (6.A.9⋅ 10 in/in/°F for steel) Specific gravity of fluid inside the tubing Specific gravity of fluid outside the tubing Variation in the piston force Variation in the fictitious force Generic variation in the tubing length Variation in length due to Hooke’s Law Variation in length due to buckling Variation in length due to ballooning Variation in length due to thermal effects . Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 0 REVISION APPENDIX B .
ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 288 OF 295 ENI S.3 for steel) Axial stress in the tubing section Axial stress in the tubing section due to buckling Equivalent axial stress Equivalent axial stress on the inner wall of the tubing Equivalent axial stress on the outer wall of the tubing Material yield axial stress σsn .∆Lp) Variation in pressure inside the tubing Average variation in pressure inside the tubing Average variation in pressure outside the tubing Average variation in tubing temperature Poisson’s coefficient (0. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 ∆Lp ∆Lf ∆lso ∆ltot ∆Pi ∆pim ∆pom ∆TM ν σa σb σeq σi σo σsn Yp = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = 0 REVISION Total variation in length prevented by the packer Variation in length generated by fictitious force Variation in length generated by slack-off force Total variation in length of the tubing (= .A.p.
Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 0 REVISION APPENDIX C .A.High Temperature International Drilling Contractor Inside Diameter .ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 289 OF 295 ENI S.p.ABBREVIATIONS API BHA BHP BHT BOP BPD BPM BPV BSW BUR C/L CBL CCL CET CGR CRA C/T DC DE DHSV D&CM DP DST E/L ECD ECP EMW ESD ESP ETA FBHP FBHT FTHP FTHT GLR GOC GOR GP GPM GPS GR HAZOP HP/HT IADC ID American Petroleum Institute Bottom Hole Assembly Bottom Hole Pressure Bottom hole temperature Blow Out Preventer Barrel Per Day Barrels Per Minute Back Pressure Valve Base Sediment & Water Build Up Rate Control Line Cement Bond Log Casing Collar Locator Cement Evaluation Tool Condensate Gas Ratio Corrosion Resistant Alloy Coiled Tubing Drill Collar Diatomaceous Earth Down Hole Safety Valve Drilling & Completion Manager Drill Pipe Drill Stem Test Electric Line Equivalent Circulation Density External Casing Packer Equivalent Mud Weight Electric Shut-Down System Electrical Submersible Pump Expected Arrival Time Flowing Bottom Hole Pressure Flowing Bottom Hole Temperature Flowing Tubing Head Pressure Flowing Tubing Head Temperature Gas Liquid Ratio Gas Oil Contact Gas Oil Ratio Gravel Pack Gallon (US) per Minute Global Positioning System Gamma Ray Hazard and Operability High Pressure .
p.A.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 290 OF 295 ENI S. Quality Control Repeat Formation Test Rotary Kelly Bushing Radius of Exposure Rate Of Penetration Radios Of Uncertainty Remote Operated Vehicle 0 REVISION . Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 IPR JAM KOP LAT LCM LMRP LOT LWD MAASP MD MLH MLS MMS MODU MPI MSL MSS MWD NACE NDT NSG NTU OBM OD OIM ORP OWC P&A PBR PDC PDM PGB PI PLT POB PPB ppg ppm PVT Q Q/AQ RFT RKB ROE ROP ROU ROV Inflow Performance Relationship Joint Make-up Torque Analyser Kick Off Point Lowest Astronomical Tide Lost Circulation Materials Low Marine Riser Package Leak Off Test Log While Drilling Max Allowable Annular Surface Pressure Measured Depth Mud Line Hanger Mud Line Suspension Magnetic Multi Shot Mobile Offshore Drilling Unit Magnetic Particle Inspection Mean Sea Level Magnetic Single Shot Measurement While Drilling National Association of Corrosion Engineers Non Destructive Test North Seeking Gyro Nephelometric Turbidity Unit Oil Base Mud Outside Diameter Offshore Installation Manager Origin Reference Point Oil Water Contact Plugged & Abandoned Polished Bore Receptacle Polycrystalline Diamond Cutter Positive Displacement Motor Permanent Guide Base Productivity Index Production Logging Tool Personnel On Board Pounds per Barrel Pounds per Gallon Part Per Million Pressure Volume Temperature Flow Rate Quality Assurance.
A.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 291 OF 295 ENI S. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 RPM RT S/N SAFE SBHP SBHT SCC SCSSV SDE SF SG SICP SIDPP SPM SSC SSD SSSV STHP STHT TCP TD TOC TOL TRSV TVD UHF VBR VDL VHF VSP W/L WBM WC WHP WHSIP WOB WOC WOW WP YP Revolutions Per Minute Rotary Table Serial Number Slapper Activated Firing Equipment Static Bottom Hole Pressure Static Bottom Hole Temperature Stress Corrosion Cracking Surface Controlled Subsurface Safety Valve Senior Drilling Engineer Safety Factor Specific Gravity Shut-in Casing Pressure Shut-in Drill Pipe Pressure Stroke per Minute Sulfide Stress Cracking Sliding Sleeve Door Valve Sub Surface Safety Valve Static Tubing Head Pressure Static Tubing Head Temperature Tubing Conveyed Perforations Total Depth Top of Cement Top of Liner Tubing Retrievable Safety Valve True Vertical Depth Ultra High Frequency Variable Bore Rams (BOP) Variable Density Log Very High Frequency Velocity Seismic Profile Wire Line Water Base Mud Water Cut Well Head Pressure Well Head Shut-in Pressure Weight On Bit Wait On Cement Wait On Weather Working Pressure Yield Point 0 REVISION .p.
O H : ‘Use of short term multirate flow tests to predict performance of wells having turbulence’ (1976) Brown. 1978. October 1. L G and Glaze.p.P ‘ Wasserbewegung Durch Boden’ (1901) 45. 1994. M J : ‘ The Isochronal Testing Oil Wells’ (1973) Forcheimer. E M. J. Hammerlind: ‘Basic Fluid and Pressure Forces on Oilwell Tubulars’. 36th Annual Fall Meeting of SPE. The University Of Tulsa (1988) API BUL 5C3 Sixth Edition: ‘Formulas and Calculations for Casing Tubing Drill Pipe. J. 607617 Blount. D. Hammerlind: ‘Movement. October 8-11. OK. Arthur Lubinsky: ‘Helical Buckling of Tubing Sealed in Packers’. 53th annual Fall Technical Conference and Exhibition. International Human Resource Development Corporation. Houston. M : ‘ Pressure drop in wells producing oil and gas’ (July Sept 1972). 1977.BIBLIOGRAPHY Document: Drilling Design Manual Connection Procedures Manuals. Dallas. W. NY (1986) STAP Number STAP P-1-M-6100 STAP M-1-M 5006 . C H: Well Performance.A. Vols 1 And 4. 1781-1788 (in german) Gilbert. E HY : ‘ Better performance of Gulf Coast wells’( 1974) D. MS Thesis. Duns. H D and Brill. October 1-4.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 292 OF 295 ENI S. Boston. J P : ‘ A study of two-phase flow in inclined pipes’ (May 1973). P . 3 edition (Dec 1981) API RP 14E Fourth Edition: ‘Recommended Practice for Design and Installation of Offshore Production Platform Piping System’.E: ‘Flowing and Gas-Lift Well Performance’ API Drill and Prod Pract (1954). J R : ‘ How To Accurately Predict Future Well Productivities’ ( May 1968) 99-106 Fetkovich. K E : The Technology Of Artificial Lift Methods. M and Whiston. A ‘ A Comprehensive Mechanistic Model For Multiphase Flow In Wells’. 38-48 Beggs. GW and Fogarasi. 451 Earlougher. 1961. Covier. 126 Golan. February. April 15. Forces and Stresses Associated With Combination Tubing Strings Sealed in Packers’. Jones. Other References: Ansari. R C JR and Kersch K M : ‘ Analysis of short-time transient test data by typecurve matching’ (July 1974) 793 Eickmeier. Journal of Petroleum Technology. and Line Pipe Properties’. Tulsa. Aziz. H JR and Ros. N C J : ‘ Vertical flow of gas and liquid mixtures in wells’ (1963). 1977 Bruist. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 0 REVISION APPENDIX D . Ponwell Publishing Company. API RP 14E ‘Recommended Practices For Design And Installation Of Offshore Production rd Platform Piping Systems. 1984. K.
M A : ‘ Back-Pressure Data On Natural Gas Wells And Their Application To Production Practices’ US Bureau Of Mines. E L and Schellhardt. K M. G : ‘ Comparison Of Measured And Predicted Pressure Drops In Tubing For High-Water-Cut Gas Wells’ (Aug 1987) 165-177 Saucier. D. Hagedoorn. Hubard. R G. W : ‘ Establishment of skin effect and its impediment to fluid flow into a wellbore’ (Oct 1953) King. E E and Warren D A JR : ‘ Drill stem test analysis utilising McKinley system of after flow dominated pressure build up’ (Oct. Tulsa. J : ‘ Predicting Two-Phase Pressure Drops In Vertical Pipes’ (June 1967). M D ‘ A field study of underbalance pressure necessary to obtain clean perforations using tubing-conveyed perforating’ ( June 1986) 662 Lea. A E : ‘ Analysis And Predictions Of Minimum Flow Rate For The Continuous Removal Of Liquid From Gas Wells’ (Nov 1969) Van Everdingen.A. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 0 REVISION Gray. R J : ‘ Gravel pack design consideration’ (Feb 1974) Standing. M G and Duckler. 829838 Ramey. 1972) Orkiszewski. K E: ‘ Experimental study of pressure gradients occurring during continuous two-phase flow in small diameter vertical conduits’ ( April 1965) 475-484 Hagedorn and Brown (1967) Horner. M B : ‘ Concerning The Calculation Of Inflow Performance Of Wells Producing From Solution Gas Drive Reservoirs’ (Sept 1971) 1141-1142 Texas Railroad Commission Rule 36 Turner. OGCI. 38-40 H. (1936) Reinicke. J V : ‘ Inflow Performance Relationships For Solution Gas Drive Wells’. H K : ‘ Radius-Of-Drainage And Stabilisation Time Equations’ (Sept 1964) Vol 62. H J JR : ‘ Short-Time Well Test Data Interpretation In The Presence Of Skin Effect And Wellbore Storage. R E : ‘ Gas Well Operations With Liquid Production’ ( 1983) Milner. (Jan 1968) 83-93 . (Jan 1970) 97 Rawlins. A R and Bingham. SSCSSV Sizing Computer Program. Remer. F : ‘ The Skin Effect And Its Influence On The Productive Capacity Of A Well’ (Oct 1953) Van Poollen. No 37 Vogel. 1991.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 293 OF 295 ENI S. A R and Brown. J F JR and Tighe. H E : ‘ Vertical Flow Correlation-Gas Wells’ API Man 14BM. G E. D R : ‘ Pressure build up in wells’ (1951) Hurst.p. API 14B. R J and Hueni. Anderson. Beggs: ‘Production Optimisation Using NODAL Analysis’.
The application carries out all functions for tubing control in vertical or deviated wells. It is not. The programme does not incorporate a library or collection of data on commonly used tubing material.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 294 OF 295 ENI S. which results in extremely accurate results. This application was based on a previous version designed by a company named ‘Tubmov’ which was run on Hewlett Packard 41CV computers. with a string and a high number of packer’s as well (multiple zone completions) and takes into account the fact that packer setting can be mechanical or hydraulic. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 0 REVISION APPENDIX E . caused by temperature increases.A. It is also possible to check stress tubing’s with varying diameters (tapered string) and to consider materials with anisotropic characteristics. The programme also enabled users to find an optimal solution by means of the iterative process using a number of approximations and producing results which were more reliable. It is necessary to calculate load losses during the relative operation and obtain the resulting fictitious hydrostatic gradient which then lets the user obtain the correct pressures for the various string sections. ‘VERTUBING’ PROGRAMME The need to fast computing to carry out tubing movement/stress calculations led AGIP to produce the ‘Vertubing’ programme in 1989. however. ‘Vertubing’ produces the results as numerical files. The application does not enable the user to independently assess dynamic situations such as with production or injection operations.p. which would enable users to design the string starting from an existing material. without any graphic display. The programme’s architecture defines a rigid sequence for data entry.TUBING MOVEMENT/STRESS COMPUTER PROGRAMMES E. The programme is generally considered to be reliable because the results of three years use have consistently matched actual well applications. . possible to take into account the reduction in the performance of some CRA type steels.1. The ‘Vertubing’ programme provided a calculation tool which significantly reduced times for engineers involved in string calculations. The programme is supported by VAX/VMS computer systems and is currently available at Head Office and in the Districts on the Company computer network.
printed or exported as graphic files. Gray. ‘WELLCAT’ PROGRAMME 0 REVISION Eni-Agip Division and Affiliates recently acquired Enertech’s (1994) ‘Wellcat’ programme which is an application integrating the most specialised software. The programme also assesses the installation of a hanger in the completion as well as hydraulic or mechanical packer setting. Duns & Ross). As ‘Vertubing’ had to be integrated with software in ENI-Agip Division and Affiliates expert system (Welcome) it seemed more appropriate to use a modern design programme such as ‘Wellcat’. During processing it is also possible to display and print a simple drawing of the well and the completion.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 295 OF 295 ENI S. and the inability to analyse dual completions. ‘Wellcat’ produces results in ASCII format.p. VAX Mainframe and UNIX versions. It is possible to evaluate the reduction in material rating due to temperature and any anistropy of materials. The WT-Circ and WT-Prod modules let the user evaluate the temperatures during standard production and circulation operations and the WS-Tube module lets the user calculate tubing movement and stress.2. dual completions with a maximum of two packer’s and dual selective completions. Hagedorn & Brown. while the Govier-Aziz formula is used for single stage fluids. Orkiszewski. which can be read. During testing the results were compared to actual field data and a good match was obtained. selective completions with a maximum of five packers. ranging from drilling. . The brief description below only describes the parts of the application concerning tubing. ‘Wellcat’ can be used for single completions. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 E. The programme incorporates five modules. while the resulting stresses the casing is subject to are calculated using the WS-Casing module. It is also possible to calibrate the average coefficients for thermal exchange and specific heat. is due to this application’s limitations in terms of obtaining the trend of temperatures the string is subject to during various well operations. The ‘Wellcat’ programme was initially tested with the most typical cases (discussed in publications) and appropriate comparisons were made with data previously obtained using the ‘Vertubing’ programme with reasonable results. The calculation of load losses and the hydraulic conditions can be carried out using different correlations which are valid for two-stage flow (Beggs & Brill. The most interesting feature of the programme is its capability to evaluate temperatures during and after well operations. The need to use an in-house company programme which was more complex compared to ‘Vertubing’.A. The programme is now used in the company for completion string design and at present available in PC. once the temperature profile and lithology of the formations are known. to completion and other various well operations. The WT-Drill module lets the user evaluate the temperatures and pressures during drilling and the casing installation stages.
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