ENI S.p.A. Agip Division
















DISTRIBUTION LIST Eni - Agip Division Italian Districts Eni - Agip Division Affiliated Companies Eni - Agip Division Headquarter Drilling & Completion Units STAP Archive Eni - Agip Division Headquarter Subsurface Geology Units Eni - Agip Division Headquarter Reservoir Units Eni - Agip Division Headquarter Coordination Units for Italian Activities Eni - Agip Division Headquarter Coordination Units for Foreign Activities

NOTE: The present document is available in Eni Agip Intranet ( and a CD-Rom version can also be distributed (requests will be addressed to STAP Dept. in Eni - Agip Division Headquarter) Date of issue:


B A @ ? >
Issued by M. Bassanini 28/06/99 REVISIONS PREP'D C. Lanzetta 28/06/99 CHK'D A. Galletta 28/06/99 APPR'D

The present document is CONFIDENTIAL and it is property of AGIP It shall not be shown to third parties nor shall it be used for reasons different from those owing to which it was given




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2.1. 2.2. INTRODUCTION CHARACTERISTICS OF RESERVOIR ROCKS 2.2.1. Porosity 2.2.2. Permeability 2.2.3. Relative Permeability 2.2.4. Wettabilty 2.2.5. Fluid Distribution 2.2.6. Fluid Flow In The Reservoir 2.2.7. Effects Of Reservoir Characteristics 2.2.8. Reservoir Homogeneity HYDROCARBON DATA 2.3.1. Oil Property Correlation RESERVOIR/PRODUCTION FORECAST 2.4.1. Inflow Perfomance 2.4.2. Reservoir Simulation For IPR Curves 2.4.3. IPR Selection 2.4.4. Outflow Performance 2.4.5. Flow Rate Prediction

14 14 14 14 15 16 17 18 24 27 28 28 29 31 42 44 46 55

2.3. 2.4.


3.1. 3.2. 3.3. 3.4. INTRODUCTION 3.1.1. Types of Tests DST OBJECTIVE DST STRING RESERVOIR CHARACTERISTICS 3.4.1. Pressure Build-Up Analysis 3.4.2. Basics Of DST Operations 3.4.3. Common Test Tools Description 3.4.4. Tools Utilised With Permanent Packer Systems 3.4.5. Sub-Sea Test Tools Used On Semi-Submersibles 3.4.6. Deep Water Tools 3.4.7. Downhole Pressure Recording

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3.5. WELL PRODUCTION TEST OBJECTIVES 3.5.1. Periodic Tests 3.5.2. Productivity Or Deliverability Tests 3.5.3. Transient Tests

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4.1. CASING DESIGN 4.1.1. Casing Profile 4.1.2. Casing Specifications 4.1.3. Casing Connections WELL DEVIATION SURVEYS CASING CEMENTING CONSIDERATIONS 4.3.1. Production Casing Cementing 4.3.2. Production Casing Cement Evaluation

87 87 88 89 89 90 90 91

4.2. 4.3.


5.1. FACTORS INFLUENCING COMPLETION DESIGN 5.1.1. Reservoir Considerations 5.1.2. Mechanical Considerations 5.1.3. Safety Considerations RESERVOIR-WELLBORE INTERFACE 5.2.1. Open Hole Completions 5.2.2. Uncemented Liner Completions 5.2.3. Perforated Completions 5.2.4. Multi-Zone Completions CASING-TUBING INTERFACE 5.3.1. Packer Applications 5.3.2. Packer-Tubing Interfaces 5.3.3. Annulus Circulation TUBING-WELLHEAD INTERFACE 5.4.1. Tubing Hanger Systems 5.4.2. Xmas Trees 5.4.3. Metal-To-Metal Seals FUTURE CONSIDERATIONS 5.5.1. Stimulation 5.5.2. Formation Management 5.5.3. Well Servicing Techniques OPTIMISING TUBING SIZE 5.6.1. Reservoir Pressure 5.6.2. Flowing Wellhead Pressure 5.6.3. Gas-Liquid Ratio 5.6.4. Artificial Lift

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6.1. 6.2. 6.3. DEVELOPMENT WELLS CONTRIBUTING FACTORS TO CORROSION FORMS OF CORROSION 6.3.1. Sulphide Stress Cracking (SSC) 6.3.2. Corrosion Caused By CO2 And Cl 6.3.3. Corrosion Caused By H2S, CO2 And ClCORROSION CONTROL MEASURES CORROSION INHIBITORS CORROSION RESISTANCE OF STAINLESS STEELS 6.6.1. Martensitic Stainless Steels 6.6.2. Ferritic Stainless Steels 6.6.3. Austenitic Stainless Steels 6.6.4. Precipitation Hardening Stainless Steels 6.6.5. Duplex Stainless Steel COMPANY DESIGN PROCEDURE 6.7.1. CO2 Corrosion 6.7.2. H2S Corrosion MATERIAL SELECTION 6.8.1. OCTG Specifications 6.8.2. DHE Specifications 6.8.3. Wellhead Specifications ORDERING SPECIFICATIONS

126 126 128 128 135 137 138 139 139 139 140 140 140 142 142 142 142 144 145 146 147 152

6.4. 6.5. 6.6.





7.1. 7.2. POLICIES THEORY 7.2.1. Mechanical Properties of Steel 7.2.2. Temperature 7.2.3. Tubing Movement/Stress Relationship WELL DATA. 7.3.1. Casing Profile/Geometry 7.3.2. Tubing Data 7.3.3. Bottom-hole Pressure 7.3.4. Temperatures (Static and Flowing) 7.3.5. Reservoir Fluids 7.3.6. Completion Fluid PRESSURE INDUCED FORCES 7.4.1. Piston Effect 7.4.2. Buckling Effect 7.4.3. Ballooning Effect 7.4.4. Temperature Effect EVALUATION OF TOTAL TUBING MOVEMENT

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7.6. ANCHORED TUBING 7.6.1. Tubing Permitting Limited Motion 7.6.2. Packer Setting 7.7. TUBING LOAD CONDITIONS 7.7.1. Pressure Testing 7.7.2. Acid Stimulation 7.7.3. Fracturing 7.7.4. Flowing 7.7.5. Shut-In 7.7.6. Load Condition Summary TUBING SELECTION 7.8.1. Critical Factors 7.8.2. Tubing Size And Weight 7.8.3. Anchoring Systems TUBING CONNECTIONS 7.9.1. Policy 7.9.2. Class of Service 7.9.3. Selection Criteria 7.9.4. NACE And Proximity Definitions 7.9.5. CRA Connections 7.9.6. Connection Data

170 172 174 174 174 175 175 177 177 181 181 182 182 184 185 185 185 186 189 190 190 190 191 193 195 195 196 205



7.10. TUBING STRESS CALCULATIONS 7.10.1. Calculation Methods 7.10.2. Safety Factor 7.10.3. External Pressure Limit 7.10.4. Packer Load Limits 7.10.5. Example Manual Calculation 7.10.6. Example Computation


8.1. PACKERS 8.1.1. Selection Procedure 8.1.2. Selection Criteria 8.1.3. Well Classification 8.1.4. Packer Selection For Single String Completion 8.1.5. Single Selective Completion Packers SUB-SURFACE SAFETY VALVES 8.2.1. Policy 8.2.2. Applications 8.2.3. Wireline Retrievable Safety Valves 8.2.4. Surface Controlled Sub-Surface Safety Valves 8.2.5. Valve Type/Closure Mechanism Selection

206 207 207 209 209 217 223 223 223 223 224 224


Through-Tubing Hollow Carrier Guns 9. Control/Injection Line Selection Procedure Flow Chart WIRELINE NIPPLE SELECTION 8.4. ROD PUMPS 10.3.2. Tube Specifications 8.6. HYDRAULIC PUMPING SYSTEMS 10. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 8. API And Performance Data 9.3.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 6 OF 295 ENI S. Control Lines 8.1. 10. Impact On Completion Design 10.1. Artificial Lift Considerations 250 251 253 254 254 256 259 259 260 262 262 265 265 265 268 268 270 272 .7. Perforating Procedures 240 240 241 241 243 243 243 244 244 246 247 247 Selective Nipple Configuration REVISION 0 225 225 225 226 228 230 230 231 233 236 237 238 239 8. Injection Lines 8.3. SHAPED CHARGE PERFORATING GUN TYPES Common Problems 10.2. Tapered Nipple Configuration 8.3.3.A.p. PLUNGER LIFT 10. Through-Tubing Strip Guns 9.2. ARTIFICIAL LIFT 10. Tubing Conveyed Perforating GUN PERFORMANCE 9. GAS LIFT 10. Firing Heads 9. SCREW PUMP SYSTEMS Wireline Conveyed Casing Guns CONTROL/INJECTION LINE SELECTION 8.3. Encapsulation 8.7. ELECTRICAL SUBMERISBLE PUMPS 10.6. Common Problems 10.3. SUMMARY ARTIFICIAL LIFT SELECTION CHARTS 10. 9. PERFORATING SCSSV Hydraulic Control fluid 8.1. Protectors 8. Design Considerations And Comparisons 10. ESP Performance Fittings 8. Impact On Completion Design 10.5.1. Underbalanced Perforating 9.3. Material Selection Impact On Completion Design 10.4. Impact On Completion Design Operating Conditions Summary 10.


the decision on the well architecture may subsequently be changed due to the availability of well servicing or workover techniques.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 8 OF 295 ENI S. The activities in each phase are illustrated in figure 1. 1. Agip Division STAP-M-1-P-7100 0 REVISION 1. For instance. This does not mean that the process is sequential and many decisions can be made from studies and analysis run in parallel. involving Reservoir Engineering. while providing all personnel involved in Drilling & Completion activities with common guidelines in all areas worldwide where Eni-Agip operates. Petroleum Engineering. have a large impact on costs and field profit. as it has a fundamental effect on the field final design and development. the user will resolve many of the dilemmas. The Corporate Standards in this manual define the requirements.p. The process of well preparation and installation of completions is fully described in the ‘Completions Procedures manual’. The final conceptual design will be used as the basis for the detailed design process. however. Many of the decisions made by the various disciplines are interrelated and impact on the decisions made by other disciplines. This is vital in order to obtain the optimum completion design utilising the process described in this manual. The design process consists of three phases: • • • Conceptual Detailed design Procurement. quality and costs. still enables each individual Affiliated Company the capability to operate according to local laws or particular environmental situations. at an early time. well servicing capabilities and completion life. The approach to completion design must be interdiscipline.a. Production Engineering and Drilling Engineering.1. hence profit. This.b and figure 1. raised by the interrelated decisions. These in consequence. .c.A. The conceptual design process guides the engineers through analysis and key questions to be considered. figure 1. The final aim is to improve performance and efficiency in terms of safety. methodologies and rules that enable to operate uniformly and in compliance with the Corporate Company Principles. The manual will provide the engineers within the various disciplines with a system to guide them through the process with the objectives of helping them make the key decisions and obtaining the optimum design to maximise productivity and. within the Eni-Agip Division and Affiliated Companies. During this phase. The conceptual design process begins at the field appraisal stage when a Statement Of Requirements (SOR) of the completion is produced. in the completion design process and its importance on well productivity. INTRODUCTION PURPOSE OF THE MANUAL The purpose of this manual is to guide experienced engineers of all technical disciplines. It is essential that this is an accurate statement including all the foreseen requirements.

Conceptual Completion Design Process . Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 0 REVISION As more information is gleamed from further development wells and as conditions change. This provides a system of ongoing completion optimisation to suit changing conditions. the statement of requirements need to reviewed and altered to modify the conceptual design for future wells. increased knowledge of the field and incorporate new technologies.A.A .p. Figure 1.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 9 OF 295 ENI S.

p.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 10 OF 295 ENI S.B . Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 0 REVISION Figure 1.A.Detailed Completion Design Process .

C .A.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 11 OF 295 ENI S. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 0 REVISION Figure 1.p.Procurement Process .

This. Figure 1. In conjunction with other wells. however. OBJECTIVES The fundamental objectives for a completion are: • • • • • • • 0 REVISION Achieve a desired (optimum) level of production or injection.d).2. Be as simple as possible to increase reliability. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 1. Achieve the optimum production rates reliably at the lowest capital and operating costs.Completion Design Versus Profitability . Provide adequate maintenance and surveillance programmes.A. in reality is not simple and many critical decisions are needed to balance long term and short term cash flow and sometimes compromises are made. Be as flexible as possible for future operational changes in well function. An expensive completion may derive more long term profit than a low cost completion but the initial capital costs will be higher (Refer to figure 1. effectively contribute to the whole development plan reservoir plan. These may be summarised as to safely provide maximum long term profitability.D .ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 12 OF 295 ENI S. Provide adequate safety in accordance with legislative or company requirements and industry common practices.p.

.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 13 OF 295 ENI S. optimising production. Perforating (underbalanced or overbalanced). Producing single or multiple zones. Inhibiting scale or corrosion. These main functional requirements must be built into the conceptual design and include: • • • • • • • 1. the estimate of some well performance and characteristics throughout the life of the well may be wrong and early workover or well intervention operations will impact on well profitability. well maintenance or detailed operations. This is its primary function. Preventing hydrocarbon escape if there is a surface leak. pressure monitoring and reservoir maintenance. methodologies and rules that enable to operate uniformly and in compliance with the Corporate Company Principles. CONTROL & DEROGATION The Corporate Standards in this manual define the requirements. however. however a completion must also satisfy a great many other functions required for safety. servicing. FUNCTIONS OF A COMPLETION The main function of a completion is to produce hydrocarbons to surface or deliver injection fluids to formations. Permanent downhole pressure monitoring. Protecting the casing from corrosion attack by well fluids. The final aim is to improve performance and efficiency in terms of safety.3. An inherent problem is that the Reservoir Engineering Department’s objectives do not coincide with the Completion Engineering Department’s in that Reservoir Engineering’s objectives are for the whole field performance whereas the Completion Group’s is to optimise for profit on a long term well by well basis which includes well servicing/workover. in the early stages. AMENDMENT. This. still enables each individual Affiliated Company the capability to operate according to local laws or particular environmental situations. Protecting the production casing from formation pressure.4.p. MANUAL UPDATING. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 0 REVISION On the other hand if the data available is not accurate. 1.A. Reservoir and geoscience groups often have to set plans and objectives for the field on well performance based on limited information. but are not concerned about production problems. quality and costs. while providing all personnel involved in Drilling & Completion activities with common guidelines in all areas worldwide where Eni-Agip operates.

Permeability Permeability is a measure of the ability of which fluid can move through the interconnected pore spaces of the rock. Darcy.2. developed the first relationship which described the flow through porous rock which is still used today. Most commercial reservoirs have sandstone. if the pressure across the rock is 1 atmosphere. and varies inversely with the viscosity of the fluid flowing. Many rocks such as clays. CHARACTERISTICS OF RESERVOIR ROCKS Porosity Porosity or pore space in reservoir rocks provides the container for the accumulation of oil and gas and gives the rock characteristic ability to absorb and hold fluids.p. Darcy’s Law states that the rate of flow through a given rock varies directly with permeability (measure of the continuity of inter-connected pore spaces) and the pressure applied.A . 2.2. working with water filters. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 0 REVISION 2. 2.1. shales. chalk. K= qµL A∆p Eq.1. 1cc of a 1cp viscosity fluid will flow each second 2 through a portion of rock 1cm in length and having a cross-section of 1cm .A. 2. RESERVOIR CONSIDERATIONS INTRODUCTION Oil and gas wells are expensive faucets that enable production of petroleum reservoirs or allow injection of fluids into an oil or gas reservoir. anhydrite and some highly cemented sandstones are impervious to movement of water.2. The purpose of this section is to consider the characteristics of reservoir fluids and the flow of these in the area around the wellbore to allow these parameters to be tied into the well completion design and well intervention/workover operational requirements. In a rock having a permeability of 1 Darcy. 2. 2. oil or gas even although they may be quite porous.1. a French engineer. however some reservoirs even occur fractured shale. a completion conceptual design must take into account all the well objectives to produce the optimum design to maximise profitability.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 14 OF 295 ENI S.2. limestone or dolomite rocks. As pointed out in section 1.

2. With further increases in gas saturation. If pressures to continue to decline. Flow of oil is reduced but gas saturation is too small for it to flow through the pores. md 3 Flow rate. in comparison to the ease that it would flow if there was no other fluid. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 0 REVISION In oilfield units the linear form of Darcy’s Law for flow of incompressible fluid through a rock filled with only one fluid is: q=1. In an oil-water system.3. cp Flow length. To understand this.A.p. relative permeability relationships must be considered. psi Formation volume factor. The saturation of each fluid present affects the ease of fluid movement or relative permeability. . Relative permeability represents the ease at which one fluid flows through connecting pore spaces in the presence of other fluids. If reservoir pressure is allowed to decline.127 ×10 −3 where: q k A µ L p1 p2 B 2. = = = = = = = = Flow rate. ft Viscosity. Significant oil may still occupy the pores but cannot be recovered by primary production means as the permeability to oil has dropped to zero. 2. ft Inlet pressure. This same principle governs the flow of oil in the presence of water. assume a rock filled with only with oil at high pressure where gas has not been able to come out of solution: • • • • • All available space is taken up by the oil and only oil is flowing.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 15 OF 295 ENI S. The gas-oil or water-oil relative permeability relationships of a particular reservoir rock depend on the configurations of the rock pore spaces and the wetting characteristics of the fluids and rock surfaces. stb/day Permeability. the relative permeability to oil is significantly greater when the rock is ‘water wet’. the gas rate continues to increase and less oil flows through the pores until finally only gas flows. some lighter components of the oil will evolve as gas in the pore spaces. gas saturation continues to increase and at some point (equilibrium gas saturation) gas begins to flow and the oil rate is further reduced. psi Outlet pressure.B Relative Permeability As normally two or three fluids exist in the same pore spaces in a reservoir. res bbl/stb kA(p 1 −p 2 ) BµL Eq.

For this reason.p. cp Viscosity of water. stb/day Absolute permeability. Although it is extremely difficult to determine wettability of cores due to the cutting and preparing specimens for laboratory testing which alters the wettability characteristics. md Relative permeability to oil k abs k ro A(p1 −p 2 ) B o µL Eq. it is not important as this characteristic is included in the permeability measurements.4. 2.2. res bbl/stb Formation volume factor for water. = = = = = = Relative permeability to oil Relative permeability to water Viscosity of oil. The productivity of oil in this condition is maximised. However. 2. most reservoir rocks are considered to be ‘water wet’. the ‘water cut’ or fraction of water in the total flow stream at standard conditions of temperature and pressure can be calculated by: fw = 1 k o µw Bw 1 × + + k w µo Bo Eq.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 16 OF 295 ENI S. This means that the grains of the rock matrix are coated with a film of water permitting hydrocarbons to fill the centre of the pore spaces. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 0 REVISION Where two or more fluids are present. the permeability in eq. res bbl/stb . it is important when completing or servicing the well in that any foreign substance which may come into contact with the rock may alter its wettability characteristic and reduce the relative permeability to hydrocarbon fluids and cause emulsion which may block flow.b represents the permeability of the rock to the desired fluid. cp Formation volume factor for oil.D where: ko kw µo µw Bo Bw 2. This can be achieved by multiplying absolute permeability of the rock by the relative permeability of the rock to the desired fluid. q=1.A. Wettabilty Most reservoirs were formed or laid down in water with oil moving in later from adjacent zones to replace a portion of the water. 2.C For a well producing both water and oil.127 ×10 −3 where: qo kabs kro = = = Oil flow rate.

a summarises oil. . In rock the capillary forces. work to change the normal sharp interfaces between the fluids separated by density. A well completed in the transition zone will be expected to produce both oil and water.A. therefore the water film between the water and the oil will have the same curvature. which are related to water wettability. the transition zone between the oil and gas is not as thick as the transition zone between oil and water. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 2. Fluid Distribution 0 REVISION The distribution of fluids vertically in the reservoir is very important as the relative amounts of oil. the capillary pressure in two different pore sizes will be the same. Above the transition zone. surface tension and the relative density differences between the fluids. From the point in a zone of the free water level upward to some point where water saturation becomes constant is called the ‘transition zone’. Water saturation above the transition zone is termed ‘irreducible water saturation’ or more commonly the ‘connate water saturation’. the higher will be the connate water saturation. water and gas saturation in a typical homogeneous rock example. permeability. For a given height. depending on the saturations of each fluid present at the completion level. Due to the greater density difference between gas and oil as compared to oil and water.p.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 17 OF 295 ENI S. only oil will flow in an oil-water system. Connate water is related to permeability and pore channels in lower rocks are generally smaller. hence more oil will be contained in larger pore spaces. wettability. gas and water present at a particular level determines the fluids that produced by a well completed at that level and also influence the relative rates of fluid production. The nature and thickness of the transition zones between the water and oil.5. and water and gas are influenced by several factors: uniformity. In lower permeability sands. oil and gas. Relative permeability permits both water and oil to flow within the transition zone. figure 2. the transition zones will be thicker than in higher permeability sands. These can be summarised in three statements: • • • The lower the permeability of a given sand.2.

It is produced principally by pressure inherent in gas dissolved in oil.A.Example Fluid Distribution in a Uniform Sand Reservoir (Containing Connate Water.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 18 OF 295 ENI S. in associated free gas caps. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 0 REVISION Figure 2. The wellhead pressure will be much lower due to the influence of hydrostatic pressure and tubing frictional effects. Pressure distribution around a producing oil well completed in a homogeneous zone will gradually drop from the reservoir pressure some distance from the wellbore until closer to the wellbore where it will decline quite sharply. . or in associated aquifers. Fluid Flow In The Reservoir Oil has little natural ability to produce itself into the wellbore.A .p.6.2. Pressure Distribution Around the Wellbore Pressure distribution in the reservoir and factors which influence it are of great of significance in interpreting well production trends caused by pressure characteristics. Oil and Gas Cap) 2.

This area around the wellbore is the ‘critical area’ and as much as possible should be done to prevent damage or flow restrictions in this critical area.p. most of the pressure drop in the reservoir occurs fairly close to the wellbore.E Corrections are required to account for the flow of compressible fluids and for turbulent flow velocities.00708kh(p o −p w ) r Bµ1n( o ) rw Eq.B . 2. Figure 2.Pressure Distribution Near Wellbore In Radial Flow Radial Flow Around The Wellbore Steady state radial flow of incompressible fluid is described by Darcy’s Law: q= 0. in a uniform sand. the pressure drop across the last 15ft of the formation surrounding the wellbore is about one half of the total pressure drop from the well to a point 500ft away in the reservoir. where fluids move towards the well from all directions.b. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 0 REVISION In a radial flow situation. As shown in figure 2.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 19 OF 295 ENI S.A. . Obviously flow velocities increase tremendously as fluid approaches the wellbore.

k= k 1h1 +k 2 h 2 +k 3 h 3 h1 +h 2 +h 3 Eq.F Figure 2.Units For Darcy’s Law Equation For non-homogeneous zones.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 20 OF 295 ENI S. 2. permeablities must be averaged for flow through parallel layers of differing permeabilities.D .Radial Flow In Parallel Combination of Beds .C.p.A. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 0 REVISION Figure 2. which is the usual case.

which will cause a restriction.f below.Radial Flow In Series Combination Of Beds Linear Flow Through Perforations Ideally perforating tunnels should provide be large and deep enough to prevent any restriction to flow.A. Actual test data with very high permeability sand.G Figure 2. Investigators have provided turbulence correction factors which can be applied to Darcy’s equation to permit calculation of pressure drop through perforating tunnels. the tunnels are packed with gravel to hold the formation in place.p. In cases where there may be sand problems and a gravel pack is used.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 21 OF 295 ENI S. 2. Curve A indicates that plugging with even high permeability (1 Darcy) sand gives a large pressure drop. predict. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 0 REVISION Varying permeabilities around the well in series can be averaged as follows: ro ) rw k= r r r 1n( 1 ) 1n( 2 ) 1n( 3 ) rw r1 r2 + + k1 k2 k3 1n( Eq.E . . curve C. Flow through perforating tunnels is linear rather radial and Darcy’s equation must be corrected as turbulent flow usually exists. Experiments have shown that pressure drop through gravel filled perforations compared with uncorrected linear flow Darcy’s Law calculations is substantial as shown in figure 2. proves turbulent flow results in higher pressure drop than Darcy’s Law calculations. curve B.

This is particularly detrimental as the effect close to the wellbore is greatly magnified. two factors may cause low flowing bottomhole pressures. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 0 REVISION Figure 2. completion or intervention operations. These are permeability and producing rate.F .ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 22 OF 295 ENI S.A. With low permeability or excessive rate of production. pressure drawdown will be appreciable higher than normal thus reducing flowing bottom-hole pressures and causing the well to be placed on artificial lift if higher productions rates are necessary.Pressure Drop Versus Flow Rate Through Perforation Causes Of Low Flowing Bottom-Hole Pressure In a well with uniform sand and fluid conditions.p. Low permeability is often caused by damage close to the wellbore through drilling. .

A. Damage ratio calculation is: DR= where: qt qa also: DR= = Jideal Jactual p−p wf p−p wf −∆p s Eq. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 0 REVISION The existence of damage can be calculated by well test results analysing the pressure build-up periods. 2. Non-contributing zones are likely to have been damaged. production logging techniques may provide helpful data.H Other terms which are used to quantify formation damage are Damage Ratio and Flow Efficiency.2qBµ ×s kh Eq. where transient pressure testing techniques may give questionable results concerning formation damage. The skin effect (abnormal pressure drop) or the normal radial flow pressure drop can be calculated by: ∆p s = 141.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 23 OF 295 ENI S. which are not contributing to the total flow.p. Flow profiling may highlight zones.J = = Theoretical flow rate without damage Actual flow rate observed qt qa Eq. 2.K In multi-zone completion intervals. in an otherwise productive interval. 2.I Flow efficiency: FE= = Jideal Jactual p−p wf −∆p s p−p wf Eq. 2. .

p. This does not usually present an insurmountable problem as a field of any considerable size will require a minimum number of wells to be drilled in any case to define the reservoir. the investment will have already been made. pressure declines less rapidly and gas-oil ratios increase as the gas cap expands into the up-structure well completion intervals. Gradually even the up-structure wells will water out to maximise oil recovery. . or well location. and also for later re-completions. pressure declines rapidly. Most reservoirs in actuality produce by a combination of all three mechanisms. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 2. By careful planning when enough information is gained to determine the well locations. therefore lose pressure less rapidly. these can be drilled at the appropriate spacing to maximise recovery with the least amount of wells.e.2. This is controlled by well interventions or re-completions to shut-off the water production or the well is shut-in. figure 2. primary production results from existing pressure in the reservoir. therefore if development drilling proceeds on the basis of close spacing before the drive mechanism is identified. Effects Of Reservoir Characteristics Reservoir Drive Mechanisms 0 REVISION In an oil reservoir. Water drive reservoirs pressure remains high and gas-oil ratios are lower but downstructure well intervals quickly begin to produce water.g and figure 2. Obviously many factors must be considered in developing a reservoir. Well spacing.h.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 24 OF 295 ENI S. and primary oil recovery is relatively low.7. A gas drive reservoir’s primary pressure source is the expansion of a gas cap over the oil zone. the source of pressure is principally the liberation and expansion of gas from the oil phase as pressure is reduced.A. however the main factors concentrate on the reservoir itself and the procedure used to exploit hydrocarbon recovery. There are three basic drive mechanisms: • • • Dissolved gas Gas cap Water drive. gas-oil ratio peaks rapidly and then declines rapidly. i. In a gas cap drive reservoir. show typical reservoir pressures versus production trends and gas-oil ratio production trends for the three basic drive mechanisms. labour and materials consumed in the drilling are largely non-recoverable. In a dissolved gas reservoir. A water drive reservoir’s principle pressure source is an external water hydrostatic pressure communicated to below the oil zone. establish the detailed geological picture regarding zone continuity and locate oil-water and gas-oil contacts. In a dissolved gas drive reservoir without any artificial pressure maintenance technique. Re-completing would not reduce the gas-oil ratio. The effect of the drive mechanism on the producing characteristics must be evaluated in the completion design process. is fundamental and the cost of time. to systematically recover reservoir hydrocarbons. Well intervention or recompletion to shut-off up-structure intervals may control the gas-oil ratio.

H .p. Figure 2.Gas-Oil Ratios Trends For Various Drive Mechanisms .G .ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 25 OF 295 ENI S.Reservoir Pressure Trends For Various Drive Mechanisms Figure 2.A. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 0 REVISION Many case histories are available to show problems resulting from reservoir development without having sufficient information about the stratigraphy of the reservoir.

some general statements can be made: Dissolved gas drive reservoirs: Well completions in reservoirs with low structural relief can be made in a regularly spaced pattern throughout the reservoir and. Like the dissolved gas drive reservoir. Again completion intervals should be low in the structure to permit the gas cap to grow for maximum recovery and minimum gas production. provided the rock is stratified. Due to the low recovery by the primary drive mechanism. Completion intervals should be selected high on the structure to permit long production life while oil is displaced up to the completion intervals by invading water from below. A regular spacing can also be used for dissolved gas reservoirs with high angle of dip. Gas cap drive reservoirs: Wells are generally spaced on a regular pattern where the sand is thick. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 0 REVISION With regard to drive mechanisms. some means of secondary recovery will almost certainly be required at some point in life of the reservoir and the initial well completion design should take this into account. the wells in thin sands with a high angle of dip is likely to be more efficiently controlled by having the completion irregularly spaced and low to conform to the shape of the reservoir. Such reservoirs are common where multiple this sands are found on a single structure and the oil column is only a fraction of the total productive relief. If this is recognised after drilling begins. In this scenario it would be expected that oil recovery would be greater with the minimum well investment as the oil will drain down-structure through time.A. . A water reservoir in a thin sand with high angle of dip may best be developed with irregular well spacing because of the structural characteristics. Water drive reservoirs: Wells can be spaced on a regular pattern on a thick sand and low angle of dip. can be set low in the reservoir bed. the well locations must be changed quickly to take full advantage of the situation. Significant levels of water production are unavoidable in later field life when maximising production rates. Again the completion intervals should be structurally low because of the angle of dip and the exact sub-surface location would vary with well location on the structure. Regular spacing would place many completions too near the gas-oil contact.p. dip angle is low and gas cap is completely underlayed by oil. Regular spacing of the wells may cause early water production and possible early abandonment in conjunction with reducing the drive effectiveness through excessive water production.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 26 OF 295 ENI S.

it will probably be necessary to stagger the completion intervals in various members of the reservoir to be sure that each is drained properly. Single string/single zone completions are preferred to facilitate thorough flushing for higher recovery and flexibility of re-completion to control reservoir performance.A. Vertical staggering of the completion can be effected during development to obtain proportionate depletion of the various strata.i and figure 2.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 27 OF 295 ENI S. intervals should be produced independently wherever practical (usually determined by economics). Similar assumptions can be made for carbonate and even reef type reservoirs which results in reservoirs of a highly stratified nature.j.Irregular Water Encroachment and Breakthrough . However this is only practical if the reservoir is uniform.2. This is demonstrated in figure 2. is a distinct possibility. If the reservoir is stratified. Fluids from such reservoirs will flow through the various layers at different restrictions to flow and often there are impervious beds between the layers so that fluid cannot flow between the bed to bed. Additional distribution of intervals in the various members can then be made during later well interventions on the basis of data obtained. Figure 2. as described in the previous section is to complete water drive reservoirs high and for dissolved gas drive reservoir low on the structure to obtain an adequate number of wells without excess.p. Reservoir Homogeneity 0 REVISION The general procedures. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 2. experience and operating conditions. ‘fingering’ of the free gas down from a gas cap.8. Completions with more than one zone are termed multi-zone completions and are required for long completion intervals for obtaining sufficient volumes of production. In thin beds or highly stratified beds.I . Most sandstone reservoirs were originally laid down as stratified layers of varying porosity and permeability. especially if the interval is short and production rates are high. To maximise recovery. either by shale breaks or by variations in permeability. or water from a water basin.

by means of subsurface samplers and by obtaining surface samples of separator liquid and gas. or if dry gas.p. HYDROCARBON DATA The practical approach to the study of reservoir fluid behaviour is to anticipate pressure and temperature changes in the reservoir and at surface during production. Information concerning the characteristics and behaviour of gas needed for gas reservoirs. . Two general methods are used to obtain samples of reservoir oil for laboratory examination purposes.3. and to measure. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 0 REVISION Figure 2. If retrograde condensation is involved. by laboratory tests. the changes occurring in the reservoir samples. the information is less complex. The surface samples are then recombined in the laboratory in proportions equal the gas-oil ratio measured at the separator during well testing.A. depends upon the type of gas and the nature of the problem.1.3.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 28 OF 295 ENI S. If the gas is wet with no retrograde condensation.High GOR Production by Encroachment of Gas 2. The results of these tests then provide the basic fluid data for estimates of fluid recovery by various methods of reservoir operations and also to estimate reservoir parameters through transient pressure testing. 2. Oil Property Correlation Several generalisations of oil sample data are available to permit correlations of oil properties to be made (refer to the Compant Well Test Manual for sampling techniques). it may require numerous tests and measurements.J .

or pump intake pressure. The process of this analysis is shown in figure 2. Two phase flow. The determination of the well’s performance entails analysing the following: • • • • In-flow performance Near wellbore performance and design Multiphase flow of tubing performance Artificial lift. Once the IPR is completed. the outflow performance can be determined which takes into consideration the relationship between the surface flowrate and pressure drop in the tubing. in undamaged near wellbore regions also reduce the IPR curve. The results of the outflow performance analysis are usually produced graphically depicting how bottom hole flowing pressure (BHFP). Good drilling and completion practices can or may minimise this damage allowing use of the idealised IPR curve to be used for completion design. Hence. These curves are termed tubing performance curves (TPC) and the point of intersection is the natural flowing point as demonstrated earlier in figure 2. Some completion designs to deal with reservoir conditions. friction losses and flowing temperatures. is mainly caused by the drilling and completion practices.k.A. shape and permeability of the producing zone and the properties of the produced fluids. The basic theory of this is described in this section along with some simplified IPR relationships from observed field data. will also cause reduced IPR curves which must be anticipated during the design phase. it is first necessary to determine its full potential and which way this can be fully exploited within any technical or economic constraints. Alternatively. The theoretical IPR is an idealistic assumption of flow performance without pressure drop due to skin effect in the near wellbore region and governed only by the size.p. The inflow performance relationship (IPR) provides the flow potential of the reservoir into the wellbore against the resistance to flow of the formation and near wellbore region. effective fluid density. This is characterised by a damaged IPR curve and the amount of damage or skin effect. The prediction of this relationship is complicated by the nature of multi-phase fluid flow. high rate or high GOR oil wells. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 2.k which requires continuous repetition during field life to account for changing conditions. analysis of the outflow performance requires predictions of phase behaviour.4. stimulation procedures which can provide a negative skin are desirable as this increases production. varies with flowrate against a fixed back-pressure which is normally the wellhead or separator pressure. such as gravel packs for unconsolidated sands. . Flow behaviour in the near wellbore region may cause a dramatic effect on the IPR curve which results in greatly reduced flow capability. velocity effects in gas wells. RESERVOIR/PRODUCTION FORECAST 0 REVISION To obtain the optimum performance from a well.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 29 OF 295 ENI S.

the tubing size is necessary to optimise the well performance over the life of the well and should include the potential benefits of artificial lift systems and/or stimulation to reduce near wellbore skin effects.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 30 OF 295 ENI S. . Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 0 REVISION Figure 2.K .p. or optimising.Process of Determining Optimum Well Performance Selecting.A.

low drawdowns and damaged wells. As more data becomes available.g.M . psi. In situations which allow the use of a straight line IPR. However. it has been verified that the straight line approach also provides the accuracy needed for well performance calculations in situations which exceed the theoretical basis.7psia.p.e. The use of IPRs generated from reservoir simulation models is also described as is the technique for the applications of the various techniques for predicting inflow performance. o 60 F) q p R − p wf Eq. PI defined as J by the API. is: J= where: q = Total liquid flow rate at surface under stock tank conditions (14. The linear relationship can be substantiated from theoretical arguments for a single incompressible fluid (i. an empirical expression can be validated and applied. the flow rate is directionally proportional to the drawdown.A. the constant of proportionality is termed the productivity index (PI). however for larger projects.4. ∆p=p R −p wf Eq. above the bubble point).ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 31 OF 295 ENI S. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 2.L where: ∆p pR pwf = = = Drawdown pressure. reservoir simulation is usually employed.1. the more appropriate it is to use theoretical radial flow equation.Straight Line IPR The simplest IPR equation assumes that inflow into a well is proportional to the pressure differential between the reservoir and the wellbore which is termed the ‘drawdown’. Oil Well . Inflow Perfomance 0 REVISION This section addresses the fundamental principles of inflow performance for oil and gas wells. psi Bottom-hole flowing pressure. psi Reservoir pressure. Essentially the less data which is available. 2. 2. With a straight line IPR. e.

p. J can be calculated directly from bottom-hole gauges in well test results or estimated pressures from simulation studies. J.Straight Line IPR or Productivity Index J The assumption of stable inflow performance relationship. also needs to be treated with caution as Production Engineers and Reservoir Engineers assume different basis for J. is that well is producing in pseudo-steady state or steady state flow conditions. Before this the well produces under transient conditions.N where: h ko µo Bo ro rw S’ = = = = = = Net pay thickness.75+S′     Eq.2µ o B o 1n e    rw    −0. cp Reservoir formation volume factor. Productivity Index. 2. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 0 REVISION Figure 2. as in most well tests. dimensionless (S ’= S + Dq) . md Reservoir fluid viscosity. Oil PI. result in higher estimates of productivity than when under stabilised conditions.A. J.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 32 OF 295 ENI S.L . or stabilised flow. Production Engineers relate J to gross liquid production (oil and water) whereas Reservoir Engineers relate it to oil productivity. can also be derived theoretically from Darcy’s radial flow equation: Jo = k oh  r 141. ft Total effective skin. bbl/stb Drainage radius. ft Effective oil permeability. ft Wellbore radius.

Damaged wells with positive skins have straight line IPRs with PIs less than the ideal PI. producing below the bubble point. increased gas saturation in oil wells. have natural fractures or are highly deviated.e.Effect of Damage And Fractures on a Well’s PI . Deviation from the theoretical ideal PI (i.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 33 OF 295 ENI S.M. Straight line IPRs with PIs greater than the ideal are typical of wells with negative skin such as when they have been stimulated. Figure 2. As water saturation increases. The PI is very useful for describing the potential of various wells as it combines all rock and fluid properties as well as geometrical issues in a single constant making it unnecessary to consider these properties individually. changes in radial flow geometry and non-Darcy pressure losses due to high flow velocities in gas wells. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 0 REVISION This assumes pseudo-steady state flow from a well in the centre of a circular reservoir and it is worth noting that ko is the effective permeability to oil for an oil PI.p. Ko obviously decreases and as does Jo. high rate or high GOR oil wells. fractures.A. S’ = 0) should be expected as a result of additional pressure losses in the near wellbore area due to damage.

p. decreases with increasing drawdown (slopes 1 and 2 in figure 2. stb/d  p −0.A.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 34 OF 295 ENI S. psi Bottom-hole flowing pressure. Once the BHFP falls below the bubble point pressure. There may also be some non-Darcy gas flow effects in wells producing below the bubble point. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 Oil Well .8 wf  p   R     2 Eq.2 wf p qmax  R q where: pR pwf q qmax = = = = Reservoir pressure. This means the true IPR is curved and. Figure 2.Vogel’s Two Phase Flow IPR 0 REVISION The previous straight line IPR does not hold with two phase flow (gas and liquid) in the reservoir.o). psi Liquid production. 2.Typical IPR Curve for Saturated Reservoir . gas saturation builds up around the wellbore which reduces the permeability to liquid which of course reduces well productivity at that particular drawdown compared to predicted by linear PI. stb/d Maximum liquid production rate when pwf = 0. hence the PI J.N .O Qmax is a theoretical value sometimes referred to as Absolute Open Flow (AOF) of the oil well. Vogel used a computer programme to model a variety of solution gas reservoirs and developed a generalised IPR reference curve to account for the two phase flow effects below the bubble point. He also presented an approximation using the expression: p =1−0.

A.Vogel’s IPR Reference Curve .O . The model used to develop Vogel’s reference curve did not include skin effects which would tend to straighten the IPR curve. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 0 REVISION Vogel’s equation has been validated through observed field data particularly on pumped wells with high drawdowns where pwf approaches zero. Procedures to correct for skin are available.p. Figure 2.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 35 OF 295 ENI S.

8   b  where: pb = Bubble point pressure.8 wf  p   R     2 Eq.P     Eq.S If oil and water both flow from the same zone then the Vogel equation is used for the gross flow rate:  p q o +q w =(q o +q o max )1−0.Q If water production is involved.R  p −0. As oil is normally produced from a different zone to the water. 2. When the BHFP is above the bubble point use the normal straight line equation: q o =J(p R −p wf ) and when it drops below the bubble point use the modified Vogel equation: p Jp  qo =J(p R −p wf )+ b 1−0.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 36 OF 295 ENI S. it is dependant upon whether it is produced from the same interval or others.A.8  wf  p   b     2 Eq. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 0 REVISION Where inflow relationship passes through the bubble point.2 wf p 1 . the following equations are applied: q w =J(p R −p wf )  p q o =q o max 1−0. psi  p −0. 2. 2. a straight line IPR is drawn above the bubble point and the curved IPR signifies the two phase flow below this point. This has been published by Brown.2 wf p   R      Eq.p.2 wf p   R   p −0. 2.8 wf  p   R     2     Eq. 2. For this.T . Vogel’s equation is combined with the PI to develop a general IPR equation.

Fetkovich recognised that many oil wells could be handled in the same way as gas wells using the curved IPR: q o =C p R −p wf 2 ( 2 n ) Eq.P .A. This non-Darcy flow.Combined Straight Line IPR and Vogel IPR Oil Wells .Generalised IPR Curves As described earlier. or turbulence. curvature of the IPR curve is not solely due to the reasons highlighted above but also due to rate dependent skin.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 37 OF 295 ENI S.5 to 1. This is where Darcy’s law which is good for moderate to low flow rates is affected by high velocities.p.0) . Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 0 REVISION Figure 2. is sometimes the most dominant factor especially for gravel packs and high rate gas-liquid ratio wells. 2.U where: C n = = Linear deliverability coefficient Deliverability exponent (0.

Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 0 REVISION Golan and Whitson showed how this relationship could be expressed in a similar form to Vogel’s reference curve as:  p = 1− wf q max   p R   q     2     n Eq. n should be assumed as 1. n. for two values of the exponent. If such data is not available.pwf ) will give a straight line with a slope of 1/n.Q .W . however it requires four points at widely different flow rates to maximise the benefit of this method.p. Blount and Jones presented an alternative generalised IPR equation which was an extension to the Forcheimer equation to include the non-Darcy flow effects: p R −p wf =aq+bq 2 Eq.A. n is considered as the means to account for non-Darcy flow but there is no theoretical technique for finding it as it is a function of the rate used during testing.V This equation is compared with Vogel’s reference curve in figure 2. 2. If multi-rate data is 2 2 available then a log-log plot of q versus (pR .ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 38 OF 295 ENI S. the Vogel and Fetkovich IPRs are similar. It is seen that when n = 1. 2. Figure 2.q.Vogel And Fetkovich IPR Curve Comparisons Use of this approach will provide better results than Vogel’s method. It is recommended that n be assumed to be 1 where no multi-rate data is available.

skin damage during remedial operations and reduced contribution from reduced pay through plugging back.2 wf  p R future      −0. In very high permeability wells.8 p wf   p Rfuture   2       Eq. The liberation of gas also affects the oil fluid properties. Oil Wells . mobilisation of fines. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 0 REVISION The Darcy flow coefficient. if multi-rate test data is available. etc. 2. Standing presented a method of predicting future IPR curves by the equation:  k ro     µ o B o  future =  k ro     µ o B o  present Eq.75+S     Eq.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 39 OF 295 ENI S. described earlier in Section 2. The effects of increasing water influx on the gross PI. S. which is rarely measured in the laboratory. it takes no account of completion non-Darcy effects such as inefficient perforating.pwf)/q versus q gives a straight line with a slope of b and an interception of a.2µ o B o   re ln  kh   rw    −0. Similarly. β. a. is relative to all non-rate dependent skin contributions. Again. 2. b. leads to a significant increase in skin due to scaling. both a and b can be determined using a plot of (q R . the reservoir pressure will decline against time. coefficient b can be much greater than b and perforating efficiency (shots/ft and penetration) is a very important to productivity.e.2. can also be found theoretically but requires a knowledge of the turbulence factor. where two phase flow effects are negligible) . shifting the IPR curve downwards resulting in a decline of the production rate and causing flow instability.p. The relative permeability to oil will also decrease due to increased gas saturation further shifting the curve downwards. can be determined theoretically for a well producing at pseudo-steady state flow in the middle of a circular reservoir: a= 141.X The skin term.A.Predicting Future IPRs Estimates of future IPR curves throughout the life of the reservoir are frequently required for production forecasting and planning artificial lift designs. In solution drive reservoirs.Y J * future J * present and: q future =J * future   p p R future 1−0.Z where: J* = PI at minimal drawdown (i. 2. The other non-Darcy flow coefficient.

future  p R future      m Eq. Relative permeabilities and fluid saturations are determined from special core analysis data and reservoir material balance analysis (using either analytical calculations or a reservoir simulation model). Obviously at low to moderate rates there is little turbulence and n is close to 1. 2.g. p g =C p R −p wf 2 ( 2 n ) Eq. Fluid viscosities and volume are determined from PVT correlations. The problem with this isochronal test is the time required to reach stabilised flow in tight gas sands which could be months. 2.BB This equation was developed empirically using several hundred multi-rate gas well test data and not by theory but satisfactorily describes the behaviour of the gas well tests considered. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 0 REVISION J* at present conditions is established by carrying out a well test or theoretically.Simplified Deliverability Relationship Rawlins and Schellardt developed a simplified gas well back-pressure equation which relates gas flow rate to the BHFP and is the well Known AOF equation.p. In some instances C can be calculated from reservoir parameters. Eickmeier first proposed an expression based on Fetkovich’s work. This exponent can vary between 1. A 2 2 log-log plot of (pR .ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 40 OF 295 ENI S.66 have been found in actual field studies by Eickmeir. It is.5 gives the best fit to the gas drive IPR curves by Vogel while values of 1.pwf ) versus q is conducted from which the slope gives the value of 1/n. which in modified form is: q max .A. The exponent. however in high rates this is highly improbable and makes the IPR projections almost impossible and erring on the optimistic side. An exponent of 2. therefore. If data for Standing’s equation are not available. Gas Wells . it is normal to test the well at three rates at a fixed period of time followed by a single rate until stabilisation is reached to obtain C. The constant C is also found from the log-log plot and varies as a function of flow time until it reaches a constant pseudo-steady state. .0 for laminar flow to 0. n . critical that well tests are conducted up to or above the rate of intended production. the simpler approach like Fetkovich relation for predicting qmax in Vogel’s reference curve. To obtain a value of n.AA It may be shown theoretically that exponent m could vary between 1 and 3.present  p Rpresent = q max . isochronal test) due to there being no accepted theoretical basis available. using kh and S from build-up data but is only applicable if flow is laminar (n = 1).5 for fully turbulent flow. in the equation must be estimated from one of a number of well test methods (e. it is not recommended for estimating IPRs as it lacks the theoretical basis and other rigorous equations are available. While this method is widely used throughout the industry.

Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 Gas Wells .000psi and 3. 2. 2. 2. requires knowledge of the correct turbulence factor. an equation similar to eq. there is curvature in the plot of µz against p making neither approach applicable. For most gas compositions this is valid only at pressures less than approx 2. normally pg and pwf for inflow calculations. It will be seen that the gas IPR is curved even when the non-Darcy term is 0. hence: m(p R )−m(p wf )= Aq g +Bqg where: A = 1422 T   re ln k gh   rw   TD k gh   −0. 2.A.75+S+Dqg      Eq.CC The Darcy and non-Darcy coefficients. 2.Generalised Deliverability 0 REVISION Due to the shortcomings of the back-pressure equation described above and since turbulence which is common in gas wells. eq. however the straight line plot is (pR . The non-Darcy skin is also frequently accounted for by using: m(p R )−m(p wf )=1422 q g T   re ln k gh   rw     − is not precisely correct since inherent in its derivation is an assumption that the product of µ and z is constant. as for oil wells.DD Gas viscosity.m(pwf)/q versus q to find a value of B from the slope and to check the value of A from the intercept. are determined in a similar manner as the 2 2 generalised IPR equation for an oil well.w can be used. Between 2. it must be accounted for properly and a theoretical based method is more often used in modern engineering.p. A and B.FF . 2.EE B = 1422 Here the results of the multi-rate test would be plotted as m(pg) .75+S     2 Eq.pwf )/q versus q. cp Gas deviation factor and where the integration limits are substituted with the pressure range being considered. β.000psi or if drawdown pressure changes are small which is the case in high permeability wells above 3. The non-Darcy coefficient B can also be calculated theoretically but. In this range the correct inflow equation is written in terms of pseudo-pressures: m(p)=2 where: µg z = = ∫ p dp pb µ z g p Eq.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 41 OF 295 ENI S.000psi when µz is proportional to pressure. The expression below is based on the work of Forchemier and is: p R −p wf = Aqg + Aqg 2 Eq.000psi.

predict turbulence and two phase flow effects by the use of total skin S’ inclusive of near wellbore and rate dependent skin effects. Long term effects from well interventions. 2. therefore there is a growing trend to use gas pseudo pressures for predicting gas well IPRs at all pressure conditions although the pressure squared method has a use in the field for convenience.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 42 OF 295 ENI S. WORs and GORs to obtain production targets.2. Variations between the ideal IPRs and actual IPRs which may be expected from the undrilled well locations. Outflow performance curves should be derived from an accurate computer programme as some programmes are not rigorous in the handling of two phase flow. planning and reservoir management of many fields today. If a PI is entered in rather than skin. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 where: D qg T S D kg is = = = = = Derived from well tests Gas flow rate. well radius. Typically the following should be addressed: • • Assumptions on the minimum permissible value of Pwf as dictated by the outflow performance altered by varying water-cut.4.ff) can also be directly entered into some simulators. • • • • . 2. it will be necessary to correct it for the grid block’s size and shape.p. F The sum of all non-rate dependent skin Rate dependent skin Effective gas permeability. a model needs to be set up by the reservoir engineer with input from the production engineer. To obtain the best use of simulation studies. but also to generate IPR curves for determination of how current and future well IPRs will vary across the field.A. etc.. the pseudo-pressure values are readily available. Using expected off takes. md 0 REVISION As modern test analysis use computer software. The value of D (Refer to eq. Reservoir Simulation For IPR Curves Reservoir simulation is commonly used in the development. This information is derived from well test results and is input into the models theoretical IPR equations as skin factor. mscf/d o Reservoir temperature. artificial lift or use of compression. With the use of simulation the production engineer is able not only to predict pressures. Future stimulation or any damaging effects need to be considered. workovers and movement of fines will have on near wellbore performance causing changes of skin during the life of the project.

however. water breakthrough and saturation changes on production and used for artificial lift studies. the model needs to be updated to include actual log and test results. then the model can be used to evaluate the effect of depletion.p. As the use of full field reservoir simulation requires many assumptions and simplifications are made to manage the problem. gravel packing. It is extremely important that production engineers understand that the uncertainties involved and do not give greater reliability on model studies than reasonably can be expected. stimulation. in particular check: • • • • • Confirm if non-Darcy and multi-phase flow effects have been taken into consideration. Whether rates have been modified for downtime due to maintenance. in extrapolating the shape of the IPR and determining the effects by well operations and production may have on skin. Once this achieved. Often more reliable predictions in shape of the well IPR can be achieved by engineers using single well models to study the probability of water or gas conning or to model transient well test results. pressure and mechanical data. If the reservoir pressure refers to grid block or to the drainage area.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 43 OF 295 ENI S. have been considered. When and as new well data from log and RFT/DST results becomes available. skins. e. . production rates and wellbore saturations at various time steps. workover or sales contracts. revisions can be made to the completion designs. It is also used to determine the sensitivity of production to drawdown and optimise perforating strategy. however judgement is required when using these results. therefore the predicted flow rates should not be considered as precise and the relevant reservoir engineer should be consulted to establish the accuracy. deviation. Input on skin is realistic for the period covered. Care must be exercised. They may also be able to advise on possible sudden changes in water cut or gas production due to conning or cusping.g. it should be used to update the generalised IPR to reflect the actual pay interval. saturations. etc. partial completion. After using measured IPR curves.A. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 0 REVISION The results from such field models will provide the reservoir pressure. From this. reservoir quality. etc. programmes and production forecast. Ensure that proposed completion effects on near wellbore performance.

A .Jones Pseudo-pressure equation (m(pR) .3.p.A.m(pwf) = Aq + Bq ) Omit B if only single rate data available Table 2.Jones or radial flow equation with turbulence Blount . Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 2. 2 Recommended IPR Model Linear PI or radial flow equation Vogel or Fetkovich Standing or linear PI if very damaged (S > 7) Composite Vogel and linear Water zone High rate undersaturated oil High rate saturated oil Gas wells WC > 90% q > 25stb/d/ft q > 25stb/d/ft Pwf < pb . the appropriate IPR model needs to be selected based upon the anticipated production conditions. These are summarised again in the following table: Type Of Well Undersaturated oil Saturated oil Damaged saturated oil Undersaturated oil at pR but saturated at pwf Wells producing oil and water Producing Conditions Pwf > pb Pwf < pb Pwf < pb S > +3 PR > pb Pwf < pb WC > 0 Use as above for the appropriate oil and linear PI or radial flow equation for water Linear PI or radial flow equation Blount .ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 44 OF 295 ENI S.IPR Selection Based on Reservoir Type The appropriate technique will also depend on the reservoir data that is available which is function of the development stage. IPR Selection 0 REVISION In developing representative IPRs for a field. The selection of an IPR model based on this is given in table 2.b.4.

Estimate skin and determine cause.p. Primary method for current IPRs. - Reservoir Model IPRs - Empirical IPRs Validate interpretation Validate results. Detailed design. Table 2. Evaluate completion results. Highlight damage risks. Validate results. lift/ compression) Workover planning Revised development plan Predict future IPR Predict future IPR Primary method. Primary method for post workover IPR Primary method for post workover IPR. Guestimate potential. Validate reservoir model results.B . Highlight damage risks.IPR Selection Based on Development Stage . Validate results. small field/single well Primary method. Highlight damage risks. If available. - Primary method. small field/single well Development plan Primary method. Primary method. Primary method. Define model input Primary method. Validate results.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 45 OF 295 ENI S.A. Evaluate completion methods. Extrapolate test results. Highlight damage risks. Validate results. Primary method for current IPRs. Highlight damage risks. Validate results and skin assumptions. use for future IPRs. Validate results. Identify variations geographically with time. Optimising Operations/ Workover Well performance assessment Field studies (forecasts/ artificial lift. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 0 REVISION Radial Flow Equation Technical Evaluations Prospect evaluation Exploration well results Development Planning Conceptual design. large field Conceptual design. large field Detailed design.

4. Oil Well . The black oil model assumes a constant composition for the liquid phase and accounts for mass transfer using the parameters gas-oil ratio and formation volume factor. Flowing Temperature prediction. In general the black oil model is easier to use than the compositional model.PVT Relationships With most modern software programmes there are four methods of obtaining PVT properties for oil wells which are listed in order of preference.A. The relationship between pressure and temperature drop in wells and PVT behaviour is complex. Each model uses differing methods to determine the densities and viscosities for each phase and interfacial surface tension. Refer to the following sections. Tuned black oil model empirical correlations. Outflow Performance Tubing Performance 0 REVISION Predicting fluid flow behaviour in tubing involves combining the basic fundamentals of mass momentum and energy conservation with complex mass transfer phenomena for multicomponent hydrocarbon mixtures. Untuned black oil model empirical correlations. The methods for predicting pressure and temperature drops are addressed in the following sections. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 2. Application of these concepts. the ‘black oil’ model and the ‘compositional’ model. PVT Relationships There are two PVT methods used in the prediction of mass transfer between oil and gas. Interpolate from compositional simulation data.p. Pressure drop is determined using empirical and semi-empirical correlations and carried out on computer software programmes.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 46 OF 295 ENI S.4. The variable composition model requires performing vapour-liquid equilibrium (VLE) or ‘flash’ calculations to determine the amount and composition of both the gas and liquid phases. • • • • Interpolate directly from experimental data. Pressure drop prediction. In the vast majority of cases there are sufficient data to use the tuned black oil model correlation method. results in utilising the following interrelated topics: • • • Phase behaviour. .

Some wells have produced fluids with special properties that are very sensitive to temperatures and more complex heat transfer calculations are required. Use the tuned empirical correlations for black oil model variables if the appropriate although limited experimental data are available. e. High pour point crude oil wells. but only if experimental data is not available. Some software programmes. the error has been found to be less than 15% in overall temperature drop in typical wells. Profile based on adiabatic heat transfer. PVT properties for gas and gas condensate wells must be described with the compositional model. Temperature Drop Calculation Predicting the temperature loss in the wellbore as a function of depth and time is necessary to determine PVT properties for use in calculating pressure drop. in gas wells it has amore significant effect. Profile based on conservation of energy that utilises complex wellbore heat transfer calculations.g. These are: • • • Gas condensate wells with retrograde condensate. Do not use differential separation data since it is not representative of the vaporisation that occurs in the tubing. . The linear profile is the most widely used due to the complexity of heat transfer calculations in conjunction with the lack of sufficient measured data.A. temperature profiles may be specified in five ways: • • • • • Linear profile based on measured or assumed wellhead and bottom-hole temperatures. Although the linear approach is unrealistic. Do not use untuned black oil model empirical correlations unless the data available cannot justify a more rigorous method. Wells in which hydrate formation can occur. i.PVT Relationships In software programmes.e. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 0 REVISION The approach adopted when choosing the appropriate method for each application should be: a) Use the black oil model flash vaporisation lab data if they are available. constant temperature throughout the length of the string. reservoir or production reasons.p. Profile based on a specified heat transfer coefficient. Profile based on a simplified version of the complete rigorous calculation involving correlating parameter for which there is unavailable information but with data which are available. Use black oil model parameters generated from results of compositional simulation if it has been performed for incidental reasons.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 47 OF 295 ENI S. b) c) d) Gas/Gas Condensate Wells . Black oil models parameters should never be used to predict PVT properties for gas or gas condensate systems. However.

II . f pv 2  dp   =   dL FR 2g c D is the pressure gradient caused by wall friction.A. The friction losses are the remainder of the pressure loss and are more significant in gas wells with acceleration effects being negligible except when near to atmospheric pressure. Flow patterns are governed primarily by the flow rates of each phase.GG is the pressure gradient caused by the hydrostatic head of potential energy of the multiphase liquid. therefore. the variables such as p and v in the pressure gradient equation are normally averages for the gas and liquid phases present. referred to as the ‘flow pattern’ or ‘flow regime’.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 48 OF 295 ENI S. often accounting for 90% of the pressure drop. The equation consists of three components and can be expressed as follows: dp  dp   dp   dp  =  +  +  dL  dL HYD  dL FR  dL  ACC where: pgsin θ  dp   =  gc  dL HYD Eq. In multi-phase systems.JJ Eq. 2. tubing diameter and to a lesser extent PVT properties. This slippage causes an additional accumulation of liquid in the tubing which is termed liquid hold up.p. the pressure is sensitive to the relative amounts of gas and liquid present at any location in the tubing. The amount of slippage that occurs is dependent upon the geometrical distribution of the gas and liquid in the pipe. 2. p vdv  dp  =   g c dL  dL  ACC is the pressure gradient caused by fluid acceleration. 2. 2. Eq. Gas and oil phases normally flow at different speeds which is the phenomenon referred to as slippage.HH Eq. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 Pressure Drop Calculation 0 REVISION Calculating pressure drop in tubing involve numerical integration of the steady-state pressure gradient equation over the entire tubing length. The hydrostatic head is the most predominant component of the pressure gradient in oil wells.

therefore. diameter and PVT properties. liquid hold up pressure gradient is limited by the ranges of data used in their development and no single method can be applied universally. it is seen that prediction of pressure drop in multi-phase systems is complex and has led to the development of different correlations to be used. it is obvious that the pressure at each point in the well and.A. the total pressure drop is very dependent on flow pattern. Some software programmes use all the correlations available and the more recent promising mechanical models can be added. Although many of these have been successful to some degree. The accuracy of existing correlations for predicting flow pattern. Typical pressure gradients in wells for different flow patterns are: • • • • Single phase oil Bubble flow Slug flow Mist flow = = = = 0. can be identified using flow pattern maps. it is possible for oil and gas wells to include all flow patterns in addition to single phase liquid and gas. The early developed correlations assumed the flow as homogeneous mixtures ignoring liquid hold up effects.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 49 OF 295 ENI S. More recent models developed based on flow mechanisms and conservation principles. The most common maps are empirically derived with coordinates based on dimensionless groups of variables that include volumetric flow rates.36psi/ft 0. referred to as mechanical models. as listed in the previous section.25psi/ft 0.2psi/ft Hence. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 Typical flow patterns are: • • • • • Annular flow Churn flow Slug flow Bubble flow Liquid flow. Attempts were made to compensate for these errors in the equations by single empirical derived friction factor. Flow Patterns Transition between the various flow patterns.1 . slug and churn floe predominate in oil wells. no single method has been universally been accepted. Subsequent correlations were developed to predict liquid hold up but most of these first required an empirical correlation or ‘map’ to predict the flow pattern. 0 REVISION Considering the above. Although bubble.20psi/ft 0.p. offer more potential for accurate predictions but these are not readily accepted as standard design methods as yet. .0.

3 -28.4 177.C . flow pattern and basic flow mechanisms are considered.9 116.s.p.5 33.3 12.3 217. Covier and Fogarasi (1972) Beggs and Brill (1973).9 273. RPC 1.178 1.8 41. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 Classification Of Methods 0 REVISION Published methods of multi-phase flow pressure gradients in wells can be placed into one of three general categories based on the assumptions from which the method was developed: • • • • Homogeneous flow correlations where slippage and flow pattern are not considered.000 1.404 1.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 50 OF 295 ENI S.3 159. performed using the TUFFP well databank consisting of 1775 flowing well surveys covering a broad range of production variables and pressure loss methods were also evaluated for each flow pattern. Ansari recently performed an evaluation of the most widely used correlations and his own proposed mechanistic model.2 Relative Performance Factor.A.2 78. Mechanised models where slippage. Validation and actual field data are the only means of choosing a pressure loss method but this is not available at the time of designing the completions.Evaluation of Pressure Loss Methods Using TUFFP Well Databank . Oil Well Correlations Oil well correlations for predicting pressure gradients in oil wells have been published and those most widely accepted in the Industry are: • • • • • Duns and Ros (1963) Hagedorn and Brown (1967) Orkiszewski (1967) Aziz.4 207. however any one of these may be successful in a given field. Slip flow correlations where slippage is considered but not flow pattern.597 1. Flow pattern dependent correlations where liquid hold up and flow pattern are considered..r and figure 2.198 1.6 134.9 151.8 110.9 178. these correlations predict different pressure drops for the same application.c presents the overall results below: Absolute Average Error 101.7 190.3 102.666 Method Ansari Hagbr Dunros Aziz Begbril Orkis Mukbr Average Error 9.8 Standard Deviation 163. table 2.7 Table 2.4 -20. As illustrated in figure 2.132 1.

Figure 2. The applicability of the various methods is compared in table 2.R .c is not appropriate as the best statistical results do not guarantee the best performance for a specific application.p.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 51 OF 295 ENI S.A. The choice must be made on experience.d.Comparison Lift Curves for High Gas-Oil Ratio Well . Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 0 REVISION Selecting the best prediction method from table 2.

S . Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 0 REVISION Figure 2.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 52 OF 295 ENI S.p.Comparison of Lift Curves for Low Gas-Oil Ratio Well .A.

p. Should not be used except for similar conditions. Conservative. water Hagedorn Brown (1965) and Slip Flow Good in some flow patterns Good Oil. Poor in bubble flow. Tends to under-predict pressure drop. . Optimistic.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 53 OF 295 ENI S. field Oil. water.D. water. water Oil. water. gas Air. Good where several flow patterns exist. water. Aziz et al (!972) Flow Pattern Dependent Brill Flow Pattern Variable depending on version Poor Laboratory and field Laboratory Oil. Does not predict a TPC minimum. Should be used with caution. tends to under-predict pressure drop. Liquid hold up prediction can be less than for no slip flow. Optimistic. air Slip Flow Field Oil. water Beggs (1973) and Beggs and Brill with Palmer Cornish (1976) Flow Pattern Dependent Homogeneous Fair Good in some flow patterns Good Laboratory Field (annular flow) Laboratory . air Does not predict a TCP minimum. gas Table 2.A. water. Hagedorn and Brown with Griffith Bubble and restriction on hold up Kleyweg et al Occidental mod (1983) Orkiszewski (1967) Flow Pattern Dependent Field experiment Oil. Gas Duns (1963) and Ros Flow Pattern Dependent Oil. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 0 REVISION Method Ansari 1963) (TUFFP Category Mechanistic Model Accuracy Good Data N/A Fluids N/A Application/Comments Appears a little conservative. Developed to optimise gas lift in o highly deviated wells (>70 ) in Claymore field. Developed for deviated wells but tends to over-predict. Conservative. can cause convergence problems in computing algorithm. Tends to over-predict pressure drop. Gives consistent results for all flow patterns and TCP minimum. Gas Flow Pattern Dependent Fair Some Hagedorn and Brown data. Needs to be verified through use. Developed for deviated wells but tends to significantly over-predict pressure drop. Should be avoided unless well is highly deviated.Applicability of Pressure Loss Prediction Methods Gas And Gas Condensate Correlations For gas and gas condensate wells the following methods are frequently used: • • • • Cullender and Smith Single phase gas with modified gravities Multi-phase flow correlations Gray correlation. experiment al plus field data Field experiment Air. gas. Usually not applicable for completion design. This is the preferred correlation in the absence of other data. Tends to over-predict pressure drop.

. When a multiphase mixture flows through a restriction. Effect Of Deviation Angle Nowadays most wells of interest to operators are directional or deviated wells. either the Beggs and Brill correlation or a mechanistic model would be necessary. For wells producing high gas-water or gas-condensate ratios. vertical correlations perform accurately enough for wells o greater than 45 . behaviour is very dependent on geometry and a simple Bernoulli type equation with a discharge coefficient is recommended. Effect Of Restrictions Most oil and gas wells contain some types of flow control devices in the completion which choke flow. liquid loading can also be predicted using simplified methods presented with Turner et al which are independent of pressure drop calculations. For wells with o deviations up to 45 from vertical. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 0 REVISION As with oil wells. the Gray correlation is recommended based on the work with ‘Reinicke et al’ but results should be used with caution. Flow pattern and liquid hold up is very dependent on deviation angle. it is recommended that tubing size be assessed using these methods in addition to lift curve methods and that the most conservative approach be adopted. Although any of the correlations can be used. validation with field data is the only reliable method for determining the most appropriate correlation and. In gas wells. this is never usually available at the time that the completions are designed. If this is the case. wells can quickly ‘load up’ over a few weeks if it is not correctly sized. In any study. as the difference between the predicted pressure drops is generally greater than the effect of the deviation itself. These methods have been reviewed by Lea and Tighe. similarly. critical flow occurs. differing correlations should not be used for different deviations.p. For sub-critical flow.A. The accuracy of pressure drop calculations in these circumstances using correlations developed for vertical is obviously extremely questionable. simple empirical correlations such as the Gilbert equation are sufficiently accurate. For critical flow. the phase velocities dramatically increase. accounting for deviation by simply using the sine in the hydrostatic component of the pressure gradient equation may not be adequate in these cases. The geometry of these restrictions varies from a simple reduced diameter axial flow path to a tortuous complex path. even in low liquid rates. the Gray correlation is generally recommended although the Ansari model mat prove to be even more accurate since it includes a good model for predicting pressure gradient in annular flow which is the most predominant in gas wells.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 54 OF 295 ENI S. Care is needed in the selection of tubing in that. If these reach sonic velocity.

The most common points for erosion is where there are restrictions which cause increased velocities. they must be presented in the same plot from which the intersection of the lines can be used to predict the flow rate of a well at given set of stable flow conditions (Refer to figure 2.5.T . Systematically varying the system parameters allows comparison of the incremental effects on production and these can. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 Effect Of Erosion 0 REVISION Erosion in completions occurs when there are high velocities and if there are solids particles in the flow stream.p. be forecast and analysed for cost/benefit of the completion options. Figure 2. Changing the system parameters like the tubing ID.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 55 OF 295 ENI S. will effect either or both the IPR and TPC and in consequence alters the production rate.4. Continuing in this manner provides information on which decisions can be made on optimum well configuration or optimum operating conditions. reservoir pressure. in turn. to determine the threshold velocities for erosion to occur in piping systems but the validity of this for all conditions is questionable. 2.t ). Flow Rate Prediction Following the establishment of both the IPR and TPC. The API have published a method in API RP 14E. etc. GLR.. This section describes this analysis.Combining IPR and TPC Curves .A.

or GLR. Figure 2. the start of unstable flow conditions is rarely known especially with large size tubing. slippage occurs. this is generally not a problem. As liquid velocities tend toward zero. will give an intersection well to the right of the pmin and out of the flat portion of the TCP curve.t.p. On the other hand. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 Natural Flow Point 0 REVISION The characteristic ‘J’ shape of the TPC means there can be several possible intersections with the IPR as shown in figure 2. i.v. The TCP. the well will flow at a stable rate defined as the natural flow point. occurs due to the gas and liquid phase velocities differ at low flow rates. At low flow rates. the IPR and TPC curves intersect well to the right of the minimum and. As the usual aim is to keep to the right of Pmin. as the flow rate increases. the gas escapes from the well and the hydrostatic gradient approaches the static pressure of the liquid.e.Combined IPR and TPC Curves Under Unstable Conditions . under these conditions. If the intersection is either close to or to the left of the minimum (Refer to Figure). The optimum tubing size. Because of the inaccuracies of the two phase flow correlations and the difficulty in obtaining reliable data in this region. the well will tend to head and flow at unstable conditions due to the cyclic build up of liquid and periodic slug lifting by accumulated pressure of the trapped gas. the hydrostatic component reduces due the gas lift effect while the friction component increases until the minimum is reached when the friction pressure drop exactly offsets the decrease in hydrostatic pressure drop. but without incurring excessive friction losses.U. Pmin. In figure 2.t through figure 2. the hydrostatic component in the total pressure drop predominates.A.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 56 OF 295 ENI S.

a smaller size tubing or artificial lift system should be considered. the flow will become increasingly unstable and wells with large size tubing will die quickly.v).V .A. Where the curves intersect at two rates (Refer to figure 2. the intersection point to the left is always unstable and the well will either die or progressively produce more fluid until it reaches the stable flow point. or to the left of the minimum.p. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 0 REVISION If the natural flow point is in the unstable region.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 57 OF 295 ENI S. To obtain flow at these conditions. it is necessary to kick the well off quickly. whereas small tubing may sustain unsteady flow until the IPR and TPC curves become almost tangential. Figure 2. Using smaller tubing may result in higher frictional pressure drops and if this reduces flow rates to below uneconomic levels.IPR and TPC Curves with Two Apparent Intersection Points . a tapered tubing string may be a consideration. Where the IPR and TCP curves intersect close to.

e. This results in a combined outflow performance curve termed the pump intake curve.w). the TPC is displaced as a result of the effect of the gas on the density. to consider the effect of downhole gas separation on pump outflow performance.w. From this an economic cost analysis can be produced to analyse capital and operating cost differences. By generating an outflow performance curve for each potential system.A. the displacement is dependent on the pump performance curve (i. It is necessary when carrying out this analysis. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 Artificial Lift Effects 0 REVISION A well will not flow naturally if the IPR and TPC curves do not intersect and in this case artificial lift could be used to provide the pressure differential between the curves (Refer to figure 2.Combining Pump Performance and TCP Curves .ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 58 OF 295 ENI S. pump differential versus rate) which is plotted below the well performance curves as shown in figure 2. they can be used to compare the deliverability of the various methods. An artificial lift system places an injection of energy into the flow system which displaces the TPC curve downwards. In gas lifted wells.p. In a pumping well. velocity and flow regime in the tubing above the operating gas lift valve.W. Figure 2.

x below).Artificial Lift Options for Deep Wells with 5 1/2ins Casing .4 to 1. Artificial lift is often widely used to improve flow stability and increase the production of existing producing wells.A.0stb/d/psi) provided there is no drawdown limitation.X .5std/d/psi) provided 2 7/8ins tubing is installed. it is apparent that gas lift will maximise the deliverability of good wells (PI = 2. however the operating and capital costs of equipment must be justified against the incremental increase in production rate.p. Figure 2. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 0 REVISION As shown in the example (figure 2.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 59 OF 295 ENI S. while submersible pumping gives the maximum rate from the poorer zones (PI = 0.

1. However. During a test where reservoir fluids do not flow to surface. This is usually more applicable to gas wells but can be analysed using the Odeh-Jones plot for liquids or the Thomas-Essi plot for gas. • Many designs of well testing strings are possible depending on the requirements of the test and the nature of the well and the type of flow test to be conducted but basically it consists of installing a packer tailpipe.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 60 OF 295 ENI S. WELL TESTING INTRODUCTION The main objective when drilling an exploration well is to test and evaluate the target formation. Types of Tests Drawdown A drawdown test entails flowing the well and analysing the pressure response as the reservoir pressure is reduced below its original pressure. packer and downhole test tools and a tubing or drill pipe string then introducing a low density fluid into the string in order to enable the well to flow through surface testing equipment which controls the flow rate. The normal method of investigating the reservoir is to conduct a well test. 3. This was the original definition of a drill stem test or DST. in conjunction with the build up test. Production Test Many options of string design are available depending on the requirements of the test and the nature of the well. . The drawdown data should also be analysed using type curves. This is termed drawdown.1. 3. It is not usual to conduct solely a drawdown test on an exploration well as it is impossible to maintain a constant production rate throughout the test period as the well must first cleanup. separates the fluids and measures the flow rates and pressures. There are two types of well test methods available: • Drill Stem Test (DST) Where Drillpipe/Tubing in combination with downhole tools is used as a short term test to evaluate the reservoir.p.1. analysis is still possible. it is not normal nowadays to plan a test on this basis. It is normal to conduct a build-up test after a drawdown test. Multi-Rate Drawdown A multi-rate drawdown test may be run when flow rates are unstable or there are mechanical difficulties with the surface equipment.A. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 0 REVISION 3.

The flow rate again is increased at each step. The flow and shut-in periods are of the same length. and the rate dependant skin coefficient. and in the case of gas wells the Absolute Open Flow Potential. This type of test is applicable to high rate gas well testing and is followed by a single pressure build up period. From these the permeability-height product.A. Modified Isochronal The modified isochronal test is used on tight reservoirs where it takes a long time for the shut-in pressure to stabilise. This is the simplest form of deliverability test described below. . D. is to conduct a second flow and PBU at a different rate to the first flow and PBU. There are three types of deliverability test: • • • Flow on Flow Test Isochronal Test The Modified Isochronal Test. and the near wellbore skin can be analysed. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 Build-Up 0 REVISION A build-up test requires the reservoir to be flowed to cause a drawdown then the well is closed in to allow the pressure to increase back to. The final flow period is extended to achieve a stabilised flowing pressure for defining the IPR. except the final flow period which is extended similar to the isochronal test. Usually the rate is increased at each step ensuring that stabilised flow is achievable. IPR. Deliverability A deliverability test is conducted to determine the well’s Inflow Performance Relation. D. The durations of each flow period are equal.p. On low production rate gas wells. Flow-on-Flow Conducting a flow-on-flow test entails flowing the well until the flowing pressure stabilises and then repeating this at several different rates. This calculated rate is only of importance in certain countries where government bodies set the maximum rate at which the well may be produced as a proportion of this flow rate. where there is a flow rate dependant skin. the original pressure which is termed the pressure build-up or PBU. The AOFP is the theoretical fluid rate at which the well would produce if the reservoir sand face was reduced to atmospheric pressure. This is the normal type of test conducted on an oil well and can be analysed using the classic Horner Plot or superposition. AOFP. kh.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 61 OF 295 ENI S. each rate of equal duration and separated by a pressure build-up long enough to reach the stabilised reservoir pressure. a simple form of test to evaluate the rate dependant skin coefficient. or near to. Isochronal An isochronal test consist of a similar series of flow rates as the flow-on-flow test.

The water can be filtered and treated with scale inhibitor. The difference between the initial reservoir pressure. linear with time. is the depletion. which may also be caused by the thermal shock of the cold injection water reaching the sandface. Pulse testing. The analysis of this test is similar to a pressure build-up. Surface readout pressure gauges should be used in this test. based on the maximum reservoir size. usually seawater offshore is injected to establish the formation’s injection potential and also its fracture pressure. which can be determined by conducting a step rate test. Injectivity In these tests a fluid.A. also the volume of produced fluid and the effective isothermal compressibility of the system. Interference An interference test is conducted to investigate the average reservoir properties and connectivity between two or more wells. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 Reservoir Limit 0 REVISION A reservoir limit test is an extended drawdown test which is conducted on closed reservoir systems to determine their volume.p. It is common practice to follow the extended drawdown with a pressure build-up. but is complicated by the cold water bank. The well is produced at a constant rate until an observed pressure drop. and the pressure to which it returns. biocide and oxygen scavenger. is achieved. Very high surface injection pressures may be required in order to fracture the formation. It may also be conducted on a single well to determine the vertical permeability between separate reservoir zones. A well-to-well interference test is not carried out offshore at the exploration or appraisal stage as it is more applicable to developed fields. a short term injection test will generally not provide a good measure of the long term injectivity performance.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 62 OF 295 ENI S. the pressure fall-off is measured. . to provide a measurable pressure difference on the pressure gauges. Once a well is fractured. After the injectivity test. where the flowrate at one of the wells is varied in a series of steps. if required. The reservoir volume may be estimated directly from the depletion. It is only applicable where there is no regional aquifer support. these must therefore be of the high accuracy electronic type gauges with negligible drift. is sometimes used to overcome the background reservoir pressure behaviour when it is a problem. The volume produced must be sufficient.

Testing is an expensive and high risk operation and. They should select the easiest means of obtaining data.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 63 OF 295 ENI S. analysis can provide good data to help evaluate the productivity of the zone. should only be conducted for essential data.p. DST OBJECTIVE 0 REVISION A DST is conducted to determine the productivity characteristics of one specific zone. if testing is warranted. in the most cost-effective manner. which the company needs rather than that which is nice to have. actual well production rates can be accurately predicted from DST data as it shows what the well will produce against a gradually increasing back-pressure. then actual producing rates can also be determined. extent of formation damage and if there is a requirement for stimulation. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 3. such as coring. The second premise is that.2. The objectives of an exploration well test are to: • • • • • • • • Conduct the testing in a safe and efficient manner Determine the nature of the formation fluids Measure reservoir pressure and temperature Interpret reservoir permeability-height product (kh) and skin value Obtain representative formation fluid samples for laboratory analysis Define well productivity and/or injectivity investigate formation characteristics Evaluate boundary effects. The Petroleum Engineer should discuss with the geologists and reservoir engineers about the information required and make them aware of the costs and risks involved with each method. . In many cases. The starting premise should be that testing is not required unless it is clearly justified. it should be done in the simplest possible manner.4) and. the Petroleum Engineer should not appear to be negative but work towards obtaining essential data. completion practices. therefore. Such inter-disciplinary discussions should be formalised by holding a meeting (or meetings) at which these objectives are agreed and fixed. avoiding any operations which entail higher risk. if possible. Currently.A. if the flowing pressure gradient in the tubing can be estimated. From this a Productivity Index (PI) or Inflow Performance Relationship (IPR) can be established (Refer to Section 2. By adopting this position. The test objectives must be agreed by those who will use the results and those who will conduct the test before the test programme is prepared. such as running wireline or coil tubing through the testing string.

For a 5 barefoot test. If conditions allow. The list of tools is not exhaustive.25ins ID. . but similarly. In the following description. refer to the Company ‘Well Test Manual’. temperature and the stimulation programme. In general. Some generic test strings used for testing from various installations are shown overleaf.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 64 OF 295 ENI S. However.A. if applicable. the tools should be full opening to allow production logging across perforated intervals. considering packer fluids. the bottom of the test string should be 100ft above the top perforation to allow production logging of the interval. test location and relevant planning will dictate which is the most suitable test string configuration to be used. tools which are required both in production tests and conventional tests are included.3. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 3. well tests are performed inside a 7ins production liner. using full opening test tools with a 2. The tools should be dressed with elastomers suitable for the operating environment. For more detailed information on well test strings and tooling.p. and other tools may be included. In larger production casing sizes the same tools will be used with a larger packer. DST STRING 0 REVISION The well testing objectives. conventional test tools will usually be used with a packer set inside the 9 /8ins casing. In smaller casing sizes. smaller test tools will be required. prognosed production fluids. the test string should be kept as simple as possible to reduce the risk of mechanical failure.

A.A.p.Typical Jack Up Test String With TCP Guns On Permanent Packer . Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 0 REVISION Figure 3.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 65 OF 295 ENI S.

Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 0 REVISION Figure 3.A.p.Typical Test String With TCP Guns Stabbed Through Production Packer .B .ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 66 OF 295 ENI S.

Typical Jack Up Test String With Retrievable Packer . Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 0 REVISION Figure 3.A.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 67 OF 295 ENI S.p.C .

ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 68 OF 295 ENI S.Typical Semi-Submersible Test String .D .Retrievable Packer . Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 0 REVISION Figure 3.p.A.

1. mins Shut-in reservoir pressure. 3. Can be detected if the reservoir is small and the test is conducted properly.4. Barriers/Permeability Changes/Fluid Contacts. An estimate of how far away. the DST can ‘see’. from the wellbore. Depletion. psig Flowing time.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 69 OF 295 ENI S. Measured if shut-in time is adequate. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 3. This may be better than core permeability since much greater volume is averaged.A. Pressure Build-Up Analysis Horner Equation Transient pressure analysis is based on the Horner pressure build-up equation which describes the re-pressuring of the wellbore area during the shut-in period as the formation fluids moves into the ‘pressure sink’ created by the flowing portion of the test: p ws =p i − 162.4.A where: pws t’ ∆t’ pi q µ B k h = = = = = + = = = Measured pressure in the wellbore during the build-up. Reservoir Pressure. RESERVOIR CHARACTERISTICS 0 REVISION Reservoir characteristics that may be estimated from DST analysis include: • • • • • • Average Effective Permeability. Damage ratio method permits estimation of what the well should make without damage. the DST if properly applied is an essential tool for the Completions Engineer.p. or calculated if not. 3. In summary. These reservoir anomalies affect the slope of the pressure build-up plot. stb/day Fluid viscosity. psig Rate of flow. cp Formation volume factor. Wellbore Damage. They usually require substantiating data to differentiate one from the other. reservoir bbl/stb/day Formation permeability. Also effective permeability rather than absolute permeability is obtained. mins Shut-in time. Radius Of Investigation.6qµB  t ′−∆t ′  log10   kh  ∆t ′  Eq. md Formation thickness. ft .

depends on reservoir and fluid characteristics. Most of these conditions are met on a typical DST although steady state flow is the condition which may cause most concern particularly at early shut-in time. 3. In figure 3.the slope m of the straight line is numerically the difference between the t’p  t ′ + ∆t ′   t ′ +∆t ′  p  =0 and at log10  p pressure value at log10   ∆t ′   ∆t ′ =1. Usually pws is determined at 5min intervals along the shut-in pressure curve. As a rule of thumb.0     If the points are plotted on semi-log paper. With equal flow periods on a multiple flow period DST. four points are the fewest to determine a straight line.p. t’p can be assumed to be the total of the flowing times with very little error. . figure 3.e shows an idealised Horner Plot with the pressure chart showing very simply how t’p and formation pressure pws at varied shut-in times ∆t’ are picked from the chart and related to the Horner plot. The ideal plot is where all the points align up in a straight line but is seldom found in actuality. An important issue is the time required to approach steady state or straight line conditions. and flow conditions. then a plot of pws versus log10   ∆t ′  should yield a   straight line and the slope (m) of the straight line should be: m= 162. since ‘after-flow’ or wellbore storage effects cause deviation from the straight line in the early region. m is the change in pressure over one log cycle. 3. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 0 REVISION Conditions which must be assumed during the build-up period for eq. .B The constant m is representative of a given fluid having physical properties µB flowing at a rate q through a formation having physical properties kh. this is usually done. selecting a value for t’p creates some problem mathematically. With a very short initial flow period.6qµB kh Eq. In a multi-phase flow period DST. Horner Build-Up Plot  t ′ + ∆t ′  p  Assuming these conditions are met.a to be strictly correct are: • • • • • Radial flow Homogenous formation Steady state conditions Infinite reservoir Single phase flow. Experience has formulated some certain rules of thumb to help determine the shut-in time.A.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 70 OF 295 ENI S. however little error is caused by assuming that t’p is the time of the flowing period immediately before the particular shut-in period. One of these is that generally the shut-in pressure must reach at least 65% of the static pressure.e.

p.6qµB m Eq. sometimes reasonable estimates of formation parameters could be made. can be estimated from available correlations if the gravity of the crude oil and the gas-oil ratio are determined by measurement. k. If the net thickness is not available then kh or formation capacity is determined: kh= 162. 3.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 71 OF 295 ENI S.D .C Parameters. viscosity. however. B. µ. Formation thickness.6qµB mh Eq. and formation volume.A. determined from electric log analysis. must be the net thickness of the productive zone.E . h. Figure 3. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 0 REVISION Prior to type curve matching methods. can be calculated:: k= 162. no analysis of the plot was possible unless the straight line was achieved.Idealised Horner Build-Up Plot Reservoir Parameters Obtained By Build-Up Analysis Average permeability. 3.

G where: pi pff c Φ µ rw k t’p = = = = = = = = Shut-in reservoir pressure. fraction Viscosity of reservoir pressure. them depletion may have occurred. vol/vol/psi Formation porosity. pi. cp Well bore radius. q. is: DR=    m log  φµcr 2 w −2. psi Formation pressure at flow time T.151 i ff −log  m  φµcrw   Eq.6q = m µB 0 kh is determined: µB REVISION Eq.e.E Static reservoir pressure. skin factor: kt ′  p −p  p +2. 3. is presented by the empirical equation for the dimensionless value. which compares the flow rate observed.0. transmissibility kh 162. DR. log10   ∆t ′  = 0 . md Flowing time. If the second build-up pressure was lower than st the 1 . s.0 .85  s=1.e.A. is obtained by extrapolating the Horner straight line to an ‘infinite’ shut-in time: At infinite shut-in time. Wellbore damage.p.  t ′ + ∆t ′  t ′ + ∆t ′ p  = 1. This was carried on a stage further introducing the concept of damage ratio.85    p i −p ff kt′ p Eq. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 If all the parameters are unknown. ins Effective permeability. this factor cannot be readily applied to specific formations to obtain to show the potential of the zone would be if there was no damage. mins . 3. to the theoretical flow rate without damage: DR= qt qa An another equation.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 72 OF 295 ENI S. or as shown in figure 3. both the 1 build-up and 2 build-up plots extrapolate to the same static pressure lending confidence to the analysis. psi (final flowing pressure) Fluid compressibility. for calculation of DR based on the skin factor relation of Hurst and van Everdingen.F However. ′ ∆t   st nd In figure 3. 3.

In summary. If it is seen that the rate of flow q remains constant. then the build-up slope will change by a factor of 2. This must be resolved through other geologic or reservoir information. they can be detected by a change in shape of the slope of the of the line. leaves open the question of what caused the anomaly.A. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 Reservoir And Fluid Anomaly Indications 0 REVISION Many times the Horner build-up equation does not hold up under actual case. a change in permeability. seeing a gas-liquid contact from a down-structure well is a much more likely possibility. viscosity. can cause a change in the slope of the Horner plot. A sealing barrier such as a fault or permeability pinchout can cause a change of slope m.A’ in figure 3. or existence of a barrier. If the barrier is a straight line as A . Alternatively.p. Fluid viscosities change by phase change or type of fluid.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 73 OF 295 ENI S.f .Effect of a Fault . therefore the fact that a change of slope appears on the build-up plot.F . then permeability k or fluid viscosity µ are likely suspects for change as the wave of increasing pressure travels towards the wellbore. Figure 3. Permeability may change due to natural lensing or formation damage but it is doubtful that formation damage would affect sufficient volume of formation to be detected as a change of slope on the build-up plot. If changes occur within the radius of investigation of the DST. ‘Seeing’ a gas-liquid contact from an up-structure well would be difficult due to the normally short radius of investigation through a gas column.

Another reason that a recorded initial shut-in pressure may be higher than true shut-in pressure. however there is plenty of field examples to prove that it occurs. the longer the flowing time.76×10 φµc 4 Eq. This effect is termed supercharged which may be caused by leak off of filtrate over-pressuring the formation. can be calculated:  − 3. ra.I Needless to point out.A. Obviously. if the extrapolated pressure from a second build-up is lower than the initial pressure of the first build-up. This effect needs to be diagnosed to confirm supercharging. Depletion As explained previously. a reservoir would need to be extremely small for this to occur. then depletion may be the cause.p. 3.     Eq.793r 2 a φµc   t + ∆t a =2. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 0 REVISION The distance to the anomaly. 3. whether it be a barrier. or a fluid contact. hrs Exponential integral value.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 74 OF 295 ENI S. hrs Shut-in time at the point of slope change.303ln p − E  ∆t   kt p a    where: ra Tp ∆ta -E = = = = Distance to anomaly.H Radius Of Investigation The following equation from Van Poollen may be used to estimate the radius of investigation of any particular DST in an infinite radial flow system: ri = where: ri tp = = Radius of investigation Flow time. ft Flow time. mins kt i 5. change of permeability. . the deeper the radius of investigation.

R. mscf/day o o Formation temperature. flow rate is calculated in scf/day or if in large quantities mscf/d. the square of the formation pressure. pws.Gaseous System 0 REVISION When conducting DSTs of gas zones. and the absolute temperature factor. 3.J .Typical Horner Plot . during the build-up is  t ′ + ∆t ′  p  plotted versus   ∆t ′  as shown in figure 3.G . This involves correcting for deviation of the reservoir gas from the o perfect gas law using the gas deviation factor. Z.   If the SG of the gas is known. the values of Z and µ can be found from standard testing literature. Figure 3. estimated wellbore AOFP for a gas zone are: Permeability: k= where: Z Qg Tf mg = = = = Gas deviation factor Rate of flow. R = ( F + 460) Horner build-up slope for gas well 1637 q g Tf µZ mg h Eq. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 Reservoir Parameters .Gas well Equations for permeability. For the Horner build-up plot.p.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 75 OF 295 ENI S.g.A.

0 qg p 2 i p 2 i −p 2 ff 0 REVISION Eq.M If n=0.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 76 OF 295 ENI S. 3.K (p qg p 2 i 2 ( ) n Eq.p.L 2 n i −p i ) If n=1.5 and 1.N Type Curve Methods There are several type curve methods are available for analysing early time DST data from pressure transient tests. It should be iterated that the Horner should be used whenever possible and type curves used to in picking correct straight line by indicating when wellbore storage effects have ended. 3.0Max AOF= Eq. Ramey. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 Wellbore Damage: 2 2 p −p i ff EDR = 1   m g  log t + 2.65    p   Absolute Open Flow Potential Using the single point back-pressure test method: AOF= where: n is an exponent varying between 0. Although these methods are generally used on longer term production tests. .5Max AOF= qg p i p 2 i −p 2 ff Eq.A. McKinley and Earlougher-Kersch methods have applications with McKinley being the easiest to use but the others perhaps more accurate. 3. they can be used on DST analysis to salvage some information from a test where sufficient data not available to obtain a straight line. 3.

Bevelled Mule Shoe If the test is being conducted in a liner the mule shoe makes it easier to enter the liner top.4. the mule shoe allows entry into the packer bore. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 3. figure 3. When the string is successfully installed and all pressure and function testing is completed. the tester valve is then reopened to conduct the planned flow and shut-in periods in accordance to the programme requirements to obtain other additional data and verification.DST Typical Sequence of Events 3. 1 A description of the tools used in DST test strings are outlined in the next section. a fluid is circulated into the tubing to provide an underbalance to allow the well to flow after perforating.3. The downhole tester valve is opened to flow the well to clean up perforating debris and invasive fluids from the formation.4. Common Test Tools Description Refer to the Company ‘Well Test Manual’.3).p. a DST is carried out by running test tools in a BHA on a test string in the hole (Refer to previous Section 3. Basics Of DST Operations 0 REVISION In simple terms.A.2.h shows a typical schematic of a simple single flow operational sequence. If testing with a permanent packer. The bevelled mule shoe also facilities pulling wireline tools back into the test string.H . After a suitable time (usually 1 /2 times the flow period).ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 77 OF 295 ENI S. Figure 3. the tester valve is then closed to allow the formation fluids to build-up back up to reservoir pressure which is recorded on pressure recorders or gauges. .

.p. The valve usually has a flapper type closure mechanism which opens to allow fluid bypass but closes when applying tubing pressure for testing purposes.A. it allows the test string above this tool to be recovered in the event the packer becomes stuck in the hole. It should be set by turning to the right and includes a hydraulic hold-down mechanism to prevent the tool from being pumped up the hole under the influence of differential pressure from below the packer. The DST tools can then be laid out and the upper part of the safety joint run back in the hole with fishing jar to allow more powerful jarring action. should be chosen for firing the guns Safety Joint Installed above a retrievable packer. Retrievable Test Packer The packer isolates the interval to be tested from the fluid in the annulus. to prevent pressuring up of the closed sump below the packer during packer setting. If the valve does not have a delay on closing. The valve is locked open on the first application of annulus pressure which is during the first cycling of the tester valve. This item may also be used if wireline retrievable gauges are run below the packer. It operates by manipulating the string (usually a combination of reciprocation and rotation) to unscrew and the upper part of the string retrieved. This valve should ideally contain a time delay on closing. Circulating Valve (Bypass Valve) This tool is run in conjunction with retrievable packers to allow fluid bypass while running in and pulling out of hole. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 Perforated Joint/Ported Sub 0 REVISION The perforated joint or ported sub allows wellbore fluids to enter the test string if the tubing conveyed perforating system is used. It can also be used to equalise differential pressures across packers at the end of the test. rather than the static bottom-hole pressure. a large incremental pressure. Gauge Case (Bundle Carrier) The carrier allows pressure and temperature recorders to be run below or above the packer and sense either annulus or tubing pressures and temperatures. hence reducing the risk of excessive pressure surges or swabbing.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 78 OF 295 ENI S. It is automatically closed when sufficient weight is set down on the packer. This feature is important when running tubing conveyed perforating guns which are actuated by pressure. Pipe Tester Valve A pipe tester valve is used in conjunction with a tester valve which can be run in the open position in order to allow the string to self fill as it is installed.

Downhole Tester Valve The downhole tester valve provides a seal from pressure from above and below.p. The tubing operated versions require several pressure cycles before the valve is shifted into the circulating position. Eni-Agip’s preference is the annulus operated version. This reversing sub can also be used in combination with a test valve module if a further safety valve is required. The downhole test valve allows downhole shut in of the well so that after-flow effects are minimised. but should be regarded as the minimum. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 Hydraulic Jar 0 REVISION The jar is run to aid in freeing the packer if it becomes stuck. Slip Joint These allow the tubing string to expand and contract in the longitudinal axis due to changes in temperature and pressure. Once the tool has been operated it cannot be reset. This enables the tubing to be pressure tested several times while running in hole. and therefore must only be used at the end of the test. Multiple Operation Circulating Valve This tool enables the circulation of fluids closer to the tester valve whenever necessary as it can be opened or closed on demand and is generally used to install an underbalance fluid for brining in the well. Drill Collar Drill collars are required to provide a weight to set the packer. Normally two stands of 4 /4 ins drill collars (46. It is actuated by applying a pre-set annulus pressure which shears a disc or pins allowing a mandrel to move and expose the circulating ports.A. One example of this is a system where the reversing sub is combined with two ball valves to make a single shot sampler/safety valve. delivering an impact to the stuck tools. The jar allows an overpull to be taken on the string which is then suddenly released. They are non-rotating to allow torque for setting packers or operating the safety joint. The valve is operated by pressuring up on the annulus. This tool is available in either annulus or tubing pressure operated versions. providing better pressure data. It also has a secondary function as a safety valve.8 lbs/ft) should be sufficient weight on the packer. 3 . Single Operation Reversing Sub Produced fluids may be reversed out of the test string and the well killed using this tool.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 79 OF 295 ENI S.

A control line is run to the valve through a conventional tubing hanger/spool arrangement. Sub-Surface Safety Valve A subsurface safety valve is often run for safety being placed at least 100 ft below the mud line. The tool equalises pressure between the sump and the annulus when the tester valve is closed. In addition. If the tester valve can be run in the open position then this valve is not required. they must be checked with each mating item of equipment before use. Pressure Operated Bypass Valve This allows the test string to be stabbed into the packer in an un-performed well. slick joint. . and sub-sea test tree. they are of the utmost importance as they connect every piece of equipment in the test string which have differing threads.4. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 Crossovers 0 REVISION Crossovers warrant special attention. Fluted Hanger The fluted hanger lands off and sits in the wear bushing of the wellhead and is adjustable to allow the SSTT assembly to be correctly positioned in the BOP stack so that when the SSTT is disconnected the shear rams can close above the disconnect point.4. preventing the sump from being pressured up due to the volume of the seal assembly entering the packer.4. 3. they need to be tested and fully certified. Tools Utilised With Permanent Packer Systems A permanent or permanent retrievable packer arrangement is used on a Jack-up or Land Rig test utilising a production Xmas tree. The designs can be like a modified lubricator valve or a completion type subsurface safety valve. Some versions required by other operators are installed in the string immediately below a surface test tree in the BOP stack arrangement but this does not provide safety in the ultimate catastrophic situation when there is a collision by another vessel.p. Tubing Hanger This will be spaced out to position the packer seal assembly into the packer and land off in the tubing hanger spool. The valve is very similar to the circulating valve (bypass valve) except it is closed by annulus pressure instead of weight. Sub-Sea Test Tools Used On Semi-Submersibles The sub-sea test tree (SSTT) assembly includes a fluted hanger.A. 3.5. If crossovers have to be manufactured.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 80 OF 295 ENI S.

The lubricator valve is hydraulic operated through a second umbilical line and should be either a fail closed or. a latch assembly. Lubricator Valve The lubricator valve is run one stand of tubing below the surface test tree. but open when a differential pressure is applied from above. if in an emergency disconnection. contain annulus pressure. It is usually run in conjunction with a deep water SSTT described below. This valve eliminates the need to have a long lubricator to accommodate wireline tools above the surface test tree swab valve. regaining control without killing the well.p. allowing safe killing of the well without hydraulic control if unlatched.6. it can prevent the full unloading of the contents in the landing string after closing of the SSTT. disconnection of the landing string from the test string due to an emergency situation or for bad weather. When closed it will contain pressure from both above and below 3. The SSTT is constructed in two parts.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 81 OF 295 ENI S. fail-in-position valve. Deep Water Tools Retainer Valve The retainer valve is installed immediately above the SSTT on tests in extremely deep waters to prevent large volumes of well fluids leaking into the sea in the event of a disconnect. The control umbilical is connected to the top of the latch which can. It is hydraulic operated and must be a fail-open or fail-in-position valve. When closed it will contain pressure from both above and below. the shut off of pressure in the test string and. Sub-Sea Test Tree The SSTT is a fail-safe sea floor master valve which provides two functions. The latch contains the control ports for the hydraulic actuation of the valves and the latch head. The valves hold pressure from below. in the event of a gas escape at surface. . The slick joint should be positioned to allow the two bottom sets of pipe rams to be closed on it and also allow the blind rams to close above the disconnect point of the SSTT. under most circumstances be reconnected. It also acts as a safety device when.4. the valve assembly consisting of two fail safe closed valves and. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 Slick Joint (Polished Joint) 0 REVISION The slick joint (usually 5ins OD) is installed above the fluted hanger and has a smooth (slick) outside diameter around which the BOP pipe rams can close and sustain annulus pressure for DST tool operation or.A.

ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 82 OF 295 ENI S. The problem then is to dump or ignore data points which are not relevant to data gathering. The gauges record the events from initial running of the test string to well kill and retrieval procedures although. If a programme required deepwater test tools. The fluid is vented into the annulus or an atmospheric tank to reduce the lag time and reducing closure time to seconds. they may be programmed to ‘sleep’ while the string is being installed as it wastes memory. Other gauges. This system uses hydraulic power from accumulators on the tree controlled electrically from surface (MUX). The Hydraulic Deep Water Actuator is a fast response controller for the deepwater SSTT and retainer valve. with the large memory electronic gauges on the market today. such as opening or shutting in the well. with the modern type gauges. termed ‘smart’ gauges can be programmed to collect data at moderate time intervals until they detect a quick pressure change. 3.7. However.A. Downhole Pressure Recording The complete sequence of events are recorded by bottom-hole pressure gauges and some flow data may also be recorded on surface read-out systems.4. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 Deep Water SSTT 0 REVISION As exploration moves into deeper and remote Subsea locations. . when they change to very short time intervals where this facility is required. This is overcome by use of the deepwater SSTT which has an Electro-Hydraulic control system.p. The slow actuation is due to hydraulic lag time when bleeding off the control line against friction and the hydrostatic head of the control fluid. the tool operating procedures would be included in the test programme. this is not necessary as they have sufficient memory to record at fast intervals throughout even long term tests without running out of memory. the use of dynamic positioning vessels require much faster SSTT unlatching than that available with the normal hydraulic system on an SSTT.

volume and hetrogenities. Transient pressure tests require a higher degree of sophistication and are used to determine formation damage or stimulation related to an individual well. Periodic production tests have the purpose of determining the relative quantities of oil. In short. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 3. gas and water. 3. or reservoir parameters such as permeability. etc. Similar to oil wells. aid in selections of well completion methods and design of artificial lift systems and production facilities.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 83 OF 295 ENI S. Choke size. Accuracy in measurement. gas and water produced by individual wells under normal producing conditions. they provide periodic physical well conditions where unexpected changes such as extraneous water or gas production may highlight well or reservoir problems.5.1. Productivity or deliverability tests are usually performed on initial completion. with careful recording of the conditions is essential. Results may set production allowables. sand build-up. pressure. etc. Gas production is reported as well as condensate and water. routine are less common as each well normally has individual measuring capability. or recompletion. Well production tests may be classified as follows: • • • Periodic Productivity or Deliverability Transient Pressure. results are reported as oil production rate. Engineers need to make themselves familiar with the various test procedures and know their advantages and limitations in order for them to fully utilise them to optimise the design of completions. well tests are tools which can be used to help establish the condition of production or injection wells. From the well and reservoir viewpoint. details of artificial lift system operation and all other effects on the well producing capability should be recorded.A. gas-oil ratio and water oil ratio as a percentage of water in the total liquid stream. Potential production problems should be recognised in order that they can be properly handled such as emulsions. Abnormal production declines may also indicate artificial lift problems. They serve as an aid in well and reservoir operation and meeting legal and regulatory requirements.p. WELL PRODUCTION TEST OBJECTIVES 0 REVISION The main objective of well production varies from simple determination of the amount and type of fluids produced to sophisticated transient pressure determinations of reservoir parameters and hetrogenities. security of power fluid or gas lift gas supply. It is important that the well is produced at its normal conditions as flow rate will vary the relative quantities of oil. Periodic Tests Production tests are carried out routinely to physically measure oil. On gas wells. scale build-up in perforations. Descriptions of some of these tests are described earlier in this section. tubing pressures. gas and water produced under normal producing conditions. On oil wells.5. to determine the capability of the well under various degrees of pressure drawdown. the wells must be produced at the normal rates. casing pressure. .

however include the effects of formation damage.4. This means that corrections need to made to compensate for transient flow behaviour as well as for skin effects. Productivity Or Deliverability Tests 0 REVISION This test is different from the periodic test in that the liquid flow performance can be determined empirically using measured flow rates at varying bottom-hole pressure drawdowns and they do not rely on mathematical descriptions of the flow process.2. decreases exponentially with time.1 above. Transient Tests Radial Flow Characteristics Flow from reservoirs are characterised as transient.1) and are successfully applied to non-Darcy conditions.1 or in Section 3.1 above. Gas well deliverability tests are designed to establish AOFP. 3.5. Transient flow occurs when the well is initially opened or has a significant rate change.4. Most DSTs and many production tests are conducted under transient flow conditions and consequently the observed productivity will often appear greater than that seen in long term production. pseudo-steady state or steady state flow.4. . depending on whether the pressure response initiated by opening the well had reached the drainage area boundary and on the type of boundary.4. and is a result of the pressure disturbance moving out towards the outer boundary of the drainage area.A.1 or in Section 3. they permit prediction of what a well could produce at other pressure drawdowns. This is then used to predict the PI (Refer to Section 2.5. Commonly used deliverability tests for oil wells may be classified as: • • • • Productivity Index Inflow Performance Flow-After-Flow Isochronal. These tests are described in Section 2. pwf. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 3. They do not permit calculation of formation permeability or the degree of abnormal flow restrictions (formation damage) near the wellbore. They do. Termed multi-point backpressure tests. therefore can be used as an indicator of well flow conditions or a basis for simple comparison of completion effectiveness among wells in a particular reservoir.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 84 OF 295 ENI S. During this the production conditions at the wellbore change rapidly and the BHPF. With a limited number of measurements.3.4.p. These tests are described in Section 2. they can be classified as: • • Flow-After-Flow Isochronal.

then PR will decline purely as a result of depletion and the flow is then termed pseudo-steady state. The analysis procedure is direct and simple but computations are more troublesome and are often conducted by computer software. the well is stabilised and pseudo-steady state flow equations can be used to predict the long term deliverability of a well. then PR will not alter with time and is termed steady state.1 .steady state.g. Pressure Build-Up Tests Pressure build-up tests are described earlier in Section 3.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 85 OF 295 ENI S. a series of constant rates or constant bottom-hole pressure with continually changing flow rate. They minimise wellbore storage effects and phase segregation effects so provide good results where build-up or drawdown tests would not. Transient pressure testing and calculation procedures for oil wells are particularly well covered in SPE Monograph No. Multiple rate analysis can be applied to several flow situations. e. Multiple rate tests have the advantage of providing transient test data without the need for well shut-in. However if it is a no-flow boundary. Therefore. Pressure Drawdown Testing Pressure drawdown tests have advantages over pressure build-up tests. production continues as the test is being carried out. the ‘Reservoir Limit Test’ can be used to estimate if there is sufficient hydrocarbons in place to justify additional wells in a new reservoir. .p. Each type presents certain advantages and limitations and factors which are important for reasonable results. Multiple Rate Testing Pressure build-up or drawdown tests require a constant flow rate which is sometimes difficult to achieve over a long period of time. and an estimate can be made of the reservoir volume in communication with the wellbore. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 0 REVISION When the flow reaches the outer boundary.4. Accurate flow rate and pressure measurement is essential and more critical than on buildup or drawdown tests. 5 .A.DST tests. The rate changes must be significant enough to effect the transient pressure behaviour. If the boundary is a constant pressure boundary. When the BHFP appears to be constant or declining slowly proportionally with time.Advances in Well Test Analysis. flow becomes steady state or pseudo. Transient pressure tests are classified as: • • • • • Pressure Build-up Pressure Drawdown Multiple Rate Injectivity or Fall-off Multiple Well Interference. uncontrolled variable rates.

p. A stepped rate injectivity test can be carried out to estimate fracture pressure in an injection well which is useful in tertiary flood applications to avoid accidental injection of expensive fluid into uncontrolled fractures. .ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 86 OF 295 ENI S. accurate pressure monitoring devices are required. The injectivity parallels the drawdown test and a pressure fall-off test parallels the build-up test. Using computers the data can be analysed to give a description of the variation in reservoir properties according to location. Vertical pulse testing may indicate vertical formation continuity. The responses may be very small. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 Injection Well Tests 0 REVISION Injection well transient testing is basically simple provide the mobility of the injected fluids is similar to the in-situ fluids.A. a long duration rate change in one well creates a pressure change in an observation well that is related to reservoir characteristics. therefore. A pulse test is an interference test that provides data by changing production rate in a cyclic manner to produce short term pressure pulses which are measured in the observation well(s). Interference Tests (multiple well testing) In interference testing. Calculation of reservoir characteristics is similar. Orientation and length of vertical fractures may be estimated through pulse testing and reservoir simulation techniques.

These manuals provide the policies and design procedures for both exploration and development wells. where a large size tubing mates to a similar size liner utilising a PBR or similar type system. figure 4. the popularity of the mono-bore completion. offshore. and/or artificial lift systems. 4. This gives live well interventions much more scope to conduct stimulation. through which the well will be completed and controlled throughout its life. as is obvious in deep high pressure wells. The production casing is usually: • • A full string of pipe cemented at TD.e. it is a completion design parameter. DRILLING CONSIDERATIONS These are primarily the responsibility of drilling engineering.a shows these various casing profile options. the completions engineer would always prefer the largest casing possible to provide the flexibility in well interventions. CASING DESIGN Refer to the Drilling Design and Casing Design Manuals for all casing design policies and criteria. TRSSV’s with control line) near surface or a hot string of isolated pipe. which may have required a workover in previous times.1. plugging back.1. The size of the production casing is primarily dictated to accommodate the optimum size of completion tubing and equipment.A. the production casing size may be swedged to accommodate larger tubing and completion equipment (i. production casing sizes are typically 7ins or 1 3 5 5 /2ins.1. or combination of strings. However.p. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 0 REVISION 4. The production casing is the string. etc. there is a limit to the size of production casing which can be provided. This is a design which provides the greatest flexibility to live well intervention operations as the completion is full bore allowing regular tools to be run and used in the sump area eliminating the use of through-tubing devices. workovers and re-completions with artificial lift. however the production department provide the design parameters to the drilling engineers.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 87 OF 295 ENI S. e. However today. . 9 /8ins and 7ins are the common sizes (Refer to the Casing Design Manual). In low rate and deep land wells. This larger tubing reduces friction losses. 10 /4ins. The production casing and its cement isolates the producing intervals to facilitate reservoir control. Casing Profile The surface and intermediate casings are designed to provide well control and borehole stability during the drilling operation. In high rate and offshore wells.g. The decision whether to run a liner or not primarily lies with the drilling engineer however the impact of the completion needs to thoroughly considered. straddle packing-off gassed out zones. 4. anchor the completion equipment and act as a safety barrier to the uncontrolled emission of hydrocarbons. etc. A drilled through casing and liner. If there were a choice. In highly productive wells.

2. Casing Specifications Design criteria and casing specifications are fully described in the ‘Casing Design Manual’. However. production casing or liner below the production packer or liner hanger PBR system. only a biocide and possibly corrosion inhibitor needs to be added. The crossover between the two different materials must be selected in order that there is no localised erosion. Casing exposed to H2S will have a specification in accordance to NACE MR01-75.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 88 OF 295 ENI S. it is Eni-Agip’s policy to use standard service production casing where there is a casing tubing annulus as the tubing is designed for the well environment and isolates the production casing.A . will have similar specification to the tubing in order to combat corrosion from produced fluids. .Casing Schemes and Terminology 4.p.A. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 0 REVISION Figure 4. in general. Casing above the packer is exposed to the completion or packer fluid which must be chemically dosed to prevent any corrosion although.1. Specifically with regard to metallurgy.

many operators drill ‘S’ shaped profiles with drop off through the pay zone for critical wells. 4. .p. The method of drilling horizontal wells also needs to be considered by the drilling engineer as the turning radius will be dependant upon the completion method employed. a premium thread connection should be used to reduce the risk of leakage especially if the pressure is above circa 1.250psi.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 89 OF 295 ENI S. Although the drilling of highly deviated and horizontal wells is now commonplace it should o be noted that in wells above 70 deviation.000psi. Refer to the ‘Directional Control and Surveying Procedures Manual’ and the ‘Casing Design Manual’. The main problem in casing design of producing wells over exploration wells is the increased temperature. there are problems with logging. Casing Connections 0 REVISION Where an annulus is to be used as a production conduit for gas production. gravel packing and the completion process as wireline cannot be used above this limit. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 4.1. WELL DEVIATION SURVEYS A well directional survey must be carried out to ensure the tolerances for well deviation and doglegs have not been exceeded as the installation of the completion is sensitive to angle and getting fairly large diameter tubing through casing doglegs as well as placing extreme bending loads on the tubing. An overpull is often required especially if the casing is not cemented into the previous shoe. however this does not satisfy all situations.3. Usually production casing is held in tension but this may not be adequate enough in high temperature and thermal wells to prevent buckling. For instance. injection or gas lift supply. This is due to the poor performance of the API Buttress Thread. Any anomalies found in the deviation survey needs to be communicated to the completion engineer to ensure that all potential problems are analysed and will not impede the completion of the well. the turning radius for an open hole or liner may be short but a long radius is required for gravel packing or installation of pre-packed screens.A. cementing. Some operators specify premium connections if the wellhead pressure is to be above 5.2. To help overcome these problems. Completion tools or equipment operated by different methods must be adopted.

Many operators prefer to cement up inside the previous casing shoe to provide even greater support and protection. channelling and micro-annuli may be formed which are paths through which the formation fluids can flow.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 90 OF 295 ENI S. and bonding between the cement and the formation. the list of recommendations given below will help improve the success of zonal isolation: • • • • • • Drill the hole within gauge. Use a 500ft low viscosity spacer with surfactant if required. Use cement with an API high temperature/high pressure fluid loss of less than 3 3 200cm /30 min for high permeability oil wells and 50cm /30min for gas wells. and to isolate higher weaker formations from well pressures.p. The cement also acts to support and protect the casing from buckling. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 4. if there is poor bonding between the outside of the pipe and the cement. prevent movement of formation fluids along the well path for reservoir control. however this is not possible in high rate offshore wells where temperature increase in the casing/tubing annulus on the trapped fluids causes pressure which cannot be bled off at surface. This problem can be alleviated by thorough planning.3. using a good fluids programme and adopting good operating procedures. formation properties. Dissolution of evaporites by the cement. operating conditions. fluid properties and pressures. Poor formation bonding due to lack of mud cake removal. o Cement strength loss due to high temperatures (<230 F) when using normal Portland cement.3. Failure to cement washouts. therefore is allowed to bleed off at the casing shoe. excessive movement due to pressure or temperature and external corrosion. temperatures.1. Poor cement procedure leading to gas entry or cross flow. 4. The cement column should extend well past (circa 500m) above the highest pay zone but also cover aquifers or any other potential producing zones. eccentric loading. A cement job which does not successfully flush out the drilling fluid in front of the cement and. In general. Use the highest practical displacement velocities. Cement dehydration opposite high temperature zones. . Production Casing Cementing The minimum cement column height requirements will depend upon local regulations. CASING CEMENTING CONSIDERATIONS 0 REVISION The primary function of the cement around the production casing is to isolate individual formations to provide selectivity. Condition the mud correctly. The main problems associated with primary cementing are: • • • • • • • Channelling of the cement and bypassing of mud due to pipe eccentricity and poor fluid rheology.A. A minimum lap of 100m is normal. Use a thin slurry at the front end. Thermal wells are normally cemented to surface to avoid this problem.

which uses eight helically mounted sensors to scan the cement and provides a measurement of the compressive strength which should in theory give a better detection.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 91 OF 295 ENI S. the quality of the cement should be evaluated. 0 REVISION Design the programme so as the cement has a minimum contact time of 4 mins at all points where zonal isolation is needed. Ensure quality control of the cement formulation is strict.200ft above the top of the pay zone. This is carried out by running a cement bond log (CBL-VDL) which is an acoustic device that looks for channelling. formation/liner or casing/liner annulus. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 • • • • • • 4. Generally there is ambivalence shown towards the results of cement bond evaluation logs and unless they show extremely poor conditions. However. Use batch mixing whenever possible. Production Casing Cement Evaluation To ensure that the cement programme has been successfully isolated the formation/casing.p.A. The cement column should extend 1. Pipe reciprocation should be used or otherwise rotation. A more recent tool is the Schlumberger CET.3. they tend to be ignored especially as repair of cement jobs is very difficult to conduct successfully. the tool averages the condition around the circumference of the casing and sometimes fails to detect small channels. . Centralise the casing in the pay zone.2.

environment. location. anticipated well problems and cost. it should never be forgotten that.p. . it is necessary to describe the basic architectural components of a completion. To enable this process. in principle.a The solutions adopted will vary according on the well objectives. Tubing and wellhead interface. Refer to figure 5. that satisfy the above. This means that the SOR must be established. completions should be kept as simple in design as possible to minimise the installation risks and costs. However this cannot be carried out in isolation as well servicing and workover philosophies as well as the completion installation process need to be considered.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 92 OF 295 ENI S. the conceptual designs have been developed and the optimum well performance determined. artificial lift method (if applicable). Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 0 REVISION 5. The completion structure and procedures. WELL COMPLETION DESIGN The aim of this section is now to develop the structure of the completion based on the work carried out according to the previous sections. Casing and tubing interface.A. now need to be developed. particularly: • • • Reservoir and wellbore interface. Although the tools are available to provide the most complex completions to solve severe production or mechanical problems and meet the specific objectives.

ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 93 OF 295 ENI S.A.p.A . Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 0 REVISION Figure 5.Completion Design Interface Classification Options .

Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 5. 5. or as more likely.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 94 OF 295 ENI S. cost and installation. This can be achieved by drilling a well into each zone which is extremely costly. they may be inadvertently isolated behind a liner lap or shoe track.1. The effects of partial peforating need to be considered on the well IPR.1. With zones of have significant different inflow performance characteristics. If fracture stimulation is planned the separation distance is approximately three times greater. They should be treated as a normal pay zone which will be left unperforated. Distance From Fluid Contacts The distance of producing interval from fluid contacts may influence the offtake rate and the perforating policy. etc. A guideline chart for recommended isolation depth is shown in Fig figure 5. e. FACTORS INFLUENCING COMPLETION DESIGN Reservoir Considerations Production Zone Isolation 0 REVISION Consideration of reservoir management and regulatory requirements will determine the zonal isolation in thick pay zones (<30m) or multiple-zone completions.p.g.1. Minimum Zone Separation The main cementing service companies are able to provide information on the minimum separation by good cement between zones for effective hydraulic under differential depletion conditions. by using a multiple-string completion. The effect of bridge plug setting and completion equipment lengths on zonal isolation must be considered as they may demand longer separation intervals. Secondary Targets Potential secondary or re-completion targets need to be identified and included in the SOR because if they are not considered. The downside of using multiple completions is there complexity. then it may be more economic to segregate production. Special attention must be given to layers with great in permeability variations to determine differential depletion. These aspects need to be considered as does perforating the lower sections in downdip wells in flank and bottom water drive reservoirs.A. however for the short term gain there may be increased penalties later with increased gas or water production which may need to be plugged off by a well intervention. Wells with gas cap or water drive reservoirs which need to be produced at controlled rates may also be candidates for a multiple completion.b below. between production packers. It is obviously economically attractive to perforate high permeable sections close to fluid contacts. .

Wireline guns are run and fired sequentially therefore only the first perforations can be carried out with a static underbalance. although deploying and retrieving these long lengths may impact on safety and needs use of a safe deployment method. 30 and 40ft. 10 and 15ft and through tubing guns 20. and underbalanced if desired. Casing guns standard perforating lengths are 5. To create an underbalance for other runs.B . Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 0 REVISION Figure 5. The use of tubing conveyed means that great lengths can be installed and fired simultaneously. the well needs to flowed which carries a risk of the guns being ‘blown’ up the hole.p.A.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 95 OF 295 ENI S. however one (or more sections) can be partially loaded.Guideline for Length of Cemented Interval Required for Zonal Isolation Interval Length The interval length should be determined by reservoir requirements as perforating lengths can be adjusted to suit. . This is particularly useful on perforated horizontal wells.

perforated completions should be used over open hole for well control as the casing.1.2.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 96 OF 295 ENI S. Safety Considerations Safety of the personnel and well site installation are paramount in completion design and the completion procedures. The type of production packer selected is dependent upon its application and installation method due to hole angle.1. It is essential that sufficient clearance is available to allow the completion to fit comfortably inside the casing profile.3. whether it is single trip.2.2.p. Entry into liner laps in high angles are also problematic.A. Mechanical Considerations 0 REVISION The main mechanical influence on completion design is the casing profile and deviation discussed previously in sections 4. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 5. Downhole safety valves are installed as per the En-Agip company policy given in section 8. Downhole packers in the completion string which anchor the tubing are barriers used to protect the annulus from well pressures and corrosion from well fluids although operationally they also isolate gas lift gas or pump power fluids from formation pressures in gas lift and pump completions. To this end it is important to carry out the procedures to prepare the well by cleaning it and displacing to clean completion fluids and checking the internal drift. Whenever possible and economical. is a mechanical barrier which is safer for BOP removal. once it is tested. With completions large tubing sizes. Modern compact or high performance wellheads are preferred over the traditional spool systems as the completion may be installed with out BOP removal (Refer to the ‘Drilling Design Manual’).1. Refer to section 8. this may mean running of a tapered casing string to accommodate the TRSV and control line.1 for the Eni-Agip Company policy on the use of packers.1 and 4. etc. especially when running the completion from a moving floater so consideration needs to be given to the procedure or by using an automatic mule shoe. . 5.

1. RESERVOIR-WELLBORE INTERFACE 0 REVISION There are three reservoir-wellbore interface options which can be further classified into seven major alternatives in completion architecture (Refer to figure 5. They maximise the fracture intersections and inflow potential due to the large surface area if drilling and completion damage is avoided.A. However they provide little or no selectivity in reservoir management to reduce unwanted water or gas production.2. Open Hole Completions Their use is predominately in thick carbonate or hard sandstone reservoirs that produce from fracture systems or thin permeable streaks which are difficult to identify on logs and are easily damaged by drilling and cementing operations. An open hole completions can subsequently be converted to a liner completion to overcome the selectivity problem. Slotted pipe Wire wrapped screens Open hole gravel packs Perforated completions. Often referred to as a ‘barefoot’ completions. The well is now completed with no casing set across the formation (Refer to figure 5. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 5. The decision process depends on four key issues: • • • • Is there a risk of causing damage to well productivity with a cased and perforated completion ? Is zonal selectivity required ? Is fracture stimulation required ? Is there any potential sand production ? . the method of completion entails drilling down to a depth just above the producing formation and setting the production casing.p.a): • • Open hole completions Uncemented liner completions.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 97 OF 295 ENI S. A hole is now drilled through the formation exposing it to the wellbore.2. Standard perforated Fracture Stimulation Cased hole gravel packs • 5.c).

Uncemented Liner Completions Uncemented liners are used to overcome production problems associated with open hole completions and to extend their application to other types of formations.2.A.p. The selection process depends on four key issues is the same as for open hole completions: • • • • Is there a risk of causing damage to well productivity with a cased and perforated completion ? Is zonal selectivity required ? Is fracture stimulation required ? Is there any potential sand production ? .ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 98 OF 295 ENI S. they still have the same selectivity and undesired fluid problems. Although they have some advantages over open hole.2.c).Open Hole and Uncemented Liner Interface Options 5. sand screen or is gravel packed (Refer to figure 5.C . The formation is supported by a either a slotted liner. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 0 REVISION Figure 5.

Slot width requirement which is dependent on the sand size and stability. A slot width that would retain the coarsest 10% of the sand is common practice in heavy oil wells with coarser slots for light oil wells. fluid viscosity and control objectives. Type of gravel packer and will it double as the production packer ? Slotted Liner This type of completion entails a liner with flow slots machined throughout its length installed below the production casing. or millable. a designer must also consider: • • Whether to use the more expensive and finer wire wrapped screen or slotted pipe. the following additional issues need to be considered: • • • • Loss circulation control during under-reaming and tripping. Clearance required for washover (1 . When properly installed. The location of the packer and packer tailpipe. solid type. volumes.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 99 OF 295 ENI S. It also helps in liquid lift due to the smaller flow area. A slotted liner is used where there is a risk of wellbore instability to maintain a bore through the formation which otherwise might collapse and plug off all production. it is the most effective sand control measure for weak sandstones and unconsolidated rocks. The open hole is under-reamed to remove drilling damage and to create a larger annulus for the filter sized gravel to pack against the formation wall.A.254 . . coarse sands would readily flow onto the screen forming a rubble zone. however carries more risk than a cased hole gravel pack. length of blank pipe.1. The slot widths can range between 0. and how the LCM can be subsequently removed before gravel packing. and finer slots or pre-packed screens for filtering and for uniform sized sands. External Gravel pack An open hole gravel pack is used where the sands are too fine or abrasive for a plain screen. Wire Wrapped Screen A plain wire wrapped screen is used either as a simple filter to strain out small amounts of intermittently produced sand from a relatively stable formation or as a sand retention screen where high permeability. The stability of the hole during under-reaming and the limitations this may impose on hole angle and screen length.016mm. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 0 REVISION If a slotted liner or plain screen is to be used. Is gravel packing more suitable alternative ? • • • For open hole gravel packs. Gravel pack design with regard to grain size.p.5ins on OD) and whether centralisers should be expandable. reserve volume.1. etc.

Completion fluids programme selection with regard to fluid quality and formation damage. ideally. Perforating underbalance may also improved perforation clean-up. the deliverability requirements and method of perforating. shot density. e. etc. Effective zonal isolation due to cement quality and distance between zones. Cased Hole Gravel Pack Cased hole gravel pack completions are used to control sand production in perforated completions.e. lower costs.3. The key issues in cased hole completion design are: • • • • Perforated interval selection.d).A. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 5. standard. ultra deep penetration or stimulation treatments. Type of formation and if special perforating techniques are required. casing guns. gun type. .2. Fracture Stimulation Fracture stimulation is used to increase the effective sandface area and to provide a high permeability flow path to the wellbore increasing the IPR from low permeability rocks (<25md). underbalance or overbalance.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 100 OF 295 ENI S.p. Standard Perforated Casing Completions These are used when the rock is reasonably stable and permeable. Deep penetrating perforating charges are generally used especially in hard rock. would need to be designed with the additional loading of the stimulation operation. through tubing guns or TCP. high shot density. flexibility. i. Since the gravel has an finite permeability. Unlike the open hole gravel pack. The deep penetrating charges are desired to perforate through the damage zone cause by the drilling or completing process. with the gravel forced into the perforations holding the formation sand in place. increased safety and convenience that they provide.g. a large flow area must be achieved by using ‘big hole’ charges with the maximum shot density (dependent on gun size). and perforating method. the cased hole gravel is placed between the cased hole and the sand screen. The risk in fracture stimulation is that the fractures will more than likely not be contained within the pay zone and the casing cementing programme completion equipment rating. with the shot density dependent upon the vertical permeability and layer frequency. Perforated Completions 0 REVISION This type of completions are the most common world-wide due to the selectivity. There are three subdivisions. fracture stimulation and cased hole gravel pack (Refer to figure 5.

Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 0 REVISION Figure 5.4. Multi-Zone Completions There are four main methods of completing multi-zone wells (Refer to figure 5.2. Sequential zonal production through live well intervention methods by re-completion.Perforated Casing Interface Options 5. Single string multi-zone segregated production by initial (or eventual) commingling by sequential (or alternating) production. Multi-string (dual) multi-zone segregated production using parallel strings using concentric strings. • • .p.e): • • Commingled production allowing all zones to produce together.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 101 OF 295 ENI S.A.D .

An option is to conduct a workover pulling the tubing and re-completing by moving the packer depth upwards. however there is a trade off in that flow efficiency of the deeper zones and depth access for artificial lift and well killing will be compromised. reservoir management and regulatory requirements. This preference is subject. but generally they are not economic as they are too restrictive of well capacity. . Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 Commingled Production 0 REVISION Commingled production is only allowable is limited instances where there are no reservoir management problems and regulatory rules allow. Single String Multi-Zone Production These provide easy methods of bring on other fresh zones when the first zone experiences production problems. Concentric strings may yield higher flow capability but obviously no downhole safety valve can be installed in the outer tubing. to economics. They may also be used for reservoir management. They can often double an individual wells productivity for a reasonably low cost increment.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 102 OF 295 ENI S. Either parallel strings or concentric strings can be used.p. Sequential Zonal Production Due to its simplicity and ease of installation. by allowing commingling or individual section production at different stages in the wells life in order to maximise the full potential of the reservoir. reduce excessive gas.A. the zones are depleted from the bottom upwards and temporarily suspended or abandoned sequentially and then the next higher zone completed. Triple strings and indeed quadruple string have been used in the past. In this method. Some operators use the casing tubing annulus as another flow conduit but this is subject to individual operator philosophy and regulatory rules dictating. If zones are close together. Downhole chokes or regulators can be installed to control flow from each zone when commingling to prevent cross-flow. completion designers prefer to use single string/single zone completion methods for mutli-zone situations. however. the initial completion can be installed to allow plugging and perforating of each zone by well intervention methods. Dual String Multi-Zone Production Dual string multi-zone completions are often used offshore or on stacked reservoirs where the production rate is per zone is limited by inflow performance and the previous methods described above would be uneconomic. If artificial lift is required parallel strings would normally be needed. etc.

Multi-Zone Completions .E .p.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 103 OF 295 ENI S.A. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 0 REVISION Figure 5.




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There are three main casing-tubing interface options which have six sub-divisions (Refer to figure 5.f): • Packerless completions Anchored Unanchored Tubingless. Packer Completions Shallow set Deep set. PBR Completions Liner hanger.

Packers and PBRs are required to provide a seal between the tubing and production casing or liner for the following reasons: • • • • • • • • • To isolate the casing-tubing annulus from well fluids and pressure acting as a barrier on the annulus side. To prevent heading in the annulus improving flow conditions. Prevent annulus corrosion from well fluids. To allow the annulus to be used for supplying artificial lift fluids or injection of inhibitors. To allow the annulus to be used for production (if permitted). To isolate liner laps or casing leaks. To anchor the tubing if no tubing movement is desired. To facilitate well operations through having wireline nipples in a tailpipe, e.g. well plugging, BHP gauge positioning, etc. To protect formations from damage from well intervention or workover fluids by plugging in the tailpipe.

Some onshore low pressure wells are completed without a packer or liner PBR as the risk of damage to the wellhead, hence the risk of injury to personnel and pollution of the environment, is low. This has both advantages and disadvantages. There is one barrier less on the annulus side and the casing may be exposed to corrosive well fluids and the well pressure even if it is low and some operators do not allow this practice. On the other hand, on pump completions it is useful for venting off gas. It is essential for plunger lift completions which uses annulus gas as its energy source for unloading liquids. Tubingless completions, i.e. wells which use a small diameter casing or a tubing as the production casing, offers serious well control problems as there is no downhole safety at all. These are used on low rate, low pressure wells but are not allowed by most operating companies.




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Anchored tubing completions are used on rod pumpers to keep the tubing in tension so that the reciprocation of the rods does not cause buckling on the upstroke and stretch on the downstroke unless the well is shallow and annulus clearance is small. Packer completions are the most popular due to their flexibility in the options in which they are available and their ability to be installed in an exact position at any desired depth compared to the liner PBR. The liner PBR completion offers a larger through bore than a packer option and, therefore are used in high rate wells and mono-bore completions where full bore access is gained to he formation. The liner PBR interface should not be confused with the packer PBR system which although is exactly the same in basic design, is used for packer-tubing sealing and catering for tubing movement.

Figure 5.F - Casing-Tubing Interfaces




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STAP-P-1-M-7100 5.3.1. Packer Applications 0


Packer application with regard to completion design is addressed in this section as there are some basic features which affect the completion architecture. Although there are many varieties of packers available, there are three basic types used in completion designs: • • • Permanent Retrievable Permanent Retrievable.

Eni-Agip do not have any particular policy to the type of packer system to be used in a particular situation due to the wide range of packers available and changing technology but do operate a packer qualification system to ensure that any packer used meets with specific criteria. The packer qualification system is specified in STAP-M-1-M-5010. Retrievable Packer Systems The definition of a retrievable packer is that it is installed and retrieved on the completion tubing. They have advantages in that they can be installed in high angle wells although their operating differential pressure rating, temperature rating and bore size are less than equivalent permanent packers. It is important that designers fully consider the effects of pressure and tubing stresses on these packer systems and associated packer-tubing connections. Their packing element systems are also more sensitive to well fluids as they are more complex due to their ability to be retrieved but after redressing they can be reused. Retrievable packers tend to be used for the following applications: • • • • Completions which have relative short life span. Where there is likely to be workovers requiring full bore access. Multi-zone completions for zonal segregation. In relatively mild well conditions.

Retrievable packer setting mechanisms are by: • • • • Tubing tension Tubing compression Hydraulic pressure Tubing rotation.

Tension or compression set packers are very sensitive to tubing movement and are rarely used nowadays owing to the benefits and variety of other retrievable packers available.




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The definition of a permanent packer is that it is retrieved from the well by milling. Permanent packers have high differential pressure and temperature ratings and larger bores. They have many options of both tailpipe and packer-tubing attachments to cater for a large range of applications such as: • • • • • Severe or hostile operating conditions with differential pressures > 5,000psi and o temperatures in excess of 300 F and high stresses. Long life completions. Where workovers are expected to be above the packer, hence not requiring its removal which is costly. Where workovers are expected to be above the packer and the packer tailpipe can be used for plugging the well and isolating foreign fluids from the formation. Providing large bore for high rate wells.

Permanent packer setting mechanisms are by: • • • • Wireline explosive charge setting tool. Tubing tension. Hydraulic pressure by workstring setting tool or on the completion string. Tubing rotation.

Permanent Retrievable Packer Systems Permanent retrievable packers are a hybrid of the permanent style packer designed to be retrieved on a workstring without milling. They offer similar performances as permanent packers but generally have smaller bores. All the packers above can be equipped with tailpipes to accommodate wireline downhole tools such as plugs, standing valves, BHP gauges, etc. 5.3.2. Packer-Tubing Interfaces Tubing can be interfaced with packers through three basic options: • Fixed By threaded connection to the packer mandrel as with retrievable packers. Snap latch requiring an overpull to release By an anchor latch system to a permanent packer. Free moving Seal unit in a packer bore. Seal unit in a PBR attached to the packer. Travel joint. ELTSR. Limited movement Seal unit set down in a packer bore allowing upward movement only. Closed PBR or ELTSR.




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Free movement or partial movement options are used when tubing movement must be catered for otherwise it may be over-stressed due to tubing forces found through the stress analysis (Refer to section 7). However, sometimes they suffer from premature seal failure due to being dynamic seals and if the material type has not been correctly selected for the environment and pressure differentials. To help prevent seal failure, seal units can be shear pinned in a mid open or closed position to prevent seal movement until the stresses in the tubing reach a predetermined level. The selected packer-tubing interface has a significant effect on the completion architecture especially with regard to installation procedure, well kill method, stimulation treatment and type of hanger system. The most popular packer systems are those which have ‘one trip’ installation saving extra trips by workstring or wireline to install the packer before running the completion tubing. 5.3.3. Annulus Circulation Communication between the tubing and annulus on packer type completions is consider to be beneficial to efficient well killing, maintaining a fluid barrier in the annulus, circulating kill fluid before workovers or circulating in underbalance fluids well kick off. This is the same reasons for installing kill strings in packerless completions. Circulating devices, typically sliding sleeves or sliding side doors (SSDs) installed above the top packers, are used for this purpose but they have traditionally been a weak link in design when seals material was not suited to the well conditions. This would require a workover to replace the sleeve so other devices such as SPMs are used as the seals can be recovered and replaced by wireline methods. Some operators recommend that no circulation device be used which limits the flexibility of the completion and requires a tubing punch to be used for circulation before workovers. If a circulating device is undesired but the option is to kill the well by circulation rather than bullheading, a single shot shear kill valve can be installed which is operated by annulus pressure. Annulus circulation is used for: • • • • • Displace completion fluids and Kick-Off wells. Isolation/opening of producing intervals in single selective or dual selective completions. Well killing in tight formations where bullheading might be difficult. Installation of hydraulic pumps The SSD type circulating valves are normally equipped with a landing nipple profile in the upper sub to allow installation of a straddle to stop leaks or for normal wireline nipple uses.

Retained fluid rating (Refer to section 6).p. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 5. Product specification level PSL (Refer to API spec 6A). • • 5. Wellhead specifications are laid out in API Specification 6A and are rated by: • • Maximum working pressure according to the maximum anticipated surface pressure. Direct attachment to the Xmas tree (threaded). The casing head and tubing hanger spools are now commonly replaced by compact or unitised wellheads (Refer to the ‘Drilling Design Manual’) to reduce height and improve safety as there are less BOP removals for spool installations. Operating Range.A . oF -75 to 180 -60 to 180 -40 to 180 -20 to 180 0 to 150 0 to 180 0 to 250 -20 to 250 Table 5.g. Mandrel compression hangers.4.4.1. TUBING-WELLHEAD INTERFACE 0 REVISION The wellhead carries the casing and completion loads which is transferred to the ground through the surface casing. Ram type tension hangers. tubing hanger/spool and Xmas tree. o Temperature Classification K L M P S T U PSL O Tubing Hanger Systems There are five common types of tubing hanger systems available: • • • • • Slip and seal assemblies.A. . It also isolates the top of the tubing-casing annulus. annular safety system). mates and seals with the Xmas tree and provides annulus access to all the annuli. Temperature operating range.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 109 OF 295 ENI S.API Temperature Classifications Above 250 F the working pressure is de-rated against temperature (down to o 72% of rating at 650 F. Downhole tubing hangers (e. It consists of an assembly made up of casing head spools.

e. downhole electronic gauge cables and ESP cables which are terminated by stab seals. hence subsea tree. either wireline nipple profile or a back pressure thread for land wells. subsea.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 110 OF 295 ENI S. Other considerations are DHSV control lines. . i. well plugging for tree removal needs to be considered and that is usually satisfied by having a locking profile in the hanger bores. extended necks or annular ring seals. platform or land. flow or supply. downhole chemical injection lines. On subsea wells vertical annular access is usually required for well plugging which requires mandrel type hangers with orientation to the guide base and.A. Depending on the well location. Dual hanger systems also need to be orientated to mate with the dual Xmas tree.p. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 0 REVISION The main consideration in hanger selection is whether the tubing is to be placed in compression or tension and/or the number of tubings.

ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 111 OF 295 ENI S. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 0 REVISION Figure 5.API Recommended Minimum PSL for Wellhead Equipment .p.A.G .

2 21 1/4 5000 13 5/8 5000 2.4 2.2 13 5/8 10000 9 10000 5000 5000 5000 10000 10000 21 1/4 5000 13 5/8 5000 2.1 2.2 21 1/4 5000 20 & 18 5/8 IDENTIFICATION CODE DCSO3 1. W.3 13 5/8 21 1/4 5000 13 5/8 5000 2.3 13 5/8 10000 13 5/8 10000 10000 Top flange (in) Max. nr Diam (in) Max.2 13 5/8 5000 13 5/8 10000 5.P. off-shore single and dual completion class -A and class -B (STAP -M-1-SS-5701E) AGIP CODE CASING HEAD SPOOL Ref.5 2.1 13 5/8 5000 13 5/8 5000 5.4 13 5/8 5000 5000 10000 10000 21 1/4 5000 13 5/8 5000 2.1 9 1.2 21 1/4 5000 20 & 18 5/8 STAP-P-1-M-7100 DCSO 2 1.1 13 5/8 5000 9 5000 6.1 13 5/8 5000 9 5000 6. W.P.7 6. W. nr Max.Typical outlines for on-shore.2 13 5/8 5000 13 5/8 10000 5.1 13 5/8 5000 9 5000 6. W.1 2.5 21 1/4 5000 13 5/8 21 1/4 5000 13 5/8 10000 2.2 9 13 5/8 5000 13 5/8 5000 5.P.3 13 5/8 5000 11 7 1/16 7 1/16 7 1/16 9 21 1/4 5000 13 5/8 5000 2.2 21 1/4 5000 20 & 18 5/8 (*) 24 1/2 1.Eni-Agip Standard Wellhead Equipment Chart PAGE (*) Typical wellhead configuration for deep wells (po Valley) REVISION 112 OF 295 .6 26 3/4 3000 21 1/4 5000 2.P.P. (psi) Top flange (in) Max. W. W.9 6.4 2.4 2.8 6.p.4 2.1 13 5/8 5000 13 5/8 5000 5.P.4 2.1 13 5/8 5000 13 5/8 5000 5.1 13 5/8 5000 13 5/8 5000 5.8 13 5/8 5000 13 5/8 5000 5.4 6.3 13 5/8 5000 13 3/8 & 9 5/8 DCSFSL 1 1. (psi) Btm (CSG) (in) ARPO MSCL 1 2.3 13 5/8 5000 13 3/8 & 9 5/8 MSCL 3 1. nr Btm flange (in) Max.2 13 5/8 5000 13 5/8 10000 5.5 6. W.2 21 1/4 5000 20 & 18 5/8 SCSO 1 1.1 26 3/4 3000 0 Table 5. (psi) Ref.1 2. (psi) Btm Flange (in) Max.P.P. Agip Division Ref. W.3 9 9 9 11 7 1/16 7 1/16 7 1/16 9 13 5/8 5000 13 5/8 5000 5.1 13 5/8 5000 9 5000 6.3 13 5/8 5000 13 3/8 & 9 5/8 5000 5000 5000 5000 2 7/8 3 1/2 5 2 x 2 3/8 MSCL 2 1. (psi) Top flange (in) Diam tbg (in) CASING HEAD SPOOL TUBING SPOOL TUBING HANGER CASING HEAD ENI S. (psi) Ref.6 6.4 2.4 13 5/8 13 5/8 13 5/8 21 1/4 5000 13 5/8 5000 2.5 21 1/4 5000 13 5/8 5000 2. (psi) Ref.2 21 1/4 5000 20 & 18 5/8 DCSO 1 1.2 21 1/4 5000 20 & 18 5/8 3° CASING HEAD SPOOL 10000 13 5/8 10000 1.2 21 1/4 5000 20 & 18 5/8 DCSFSL 2 1. nr Btm Flange (in) Max.B. (psi) Top flange (in) Max.2 21 1/4 5000 20 & 18 5/8 10000 5000 5000 5000 10000 10000 2 x 2 3/8 2 x 3 1/2 3 1/2 2 x 2 3/8 2 x 2 3/8 2 x 2 3/8 DCSFSL 3 1.4 2.

Typical Wellhead .A.p. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 0 REVISION 4 3 2 1 20" 13 3/8" 9 5/8" 7" WP (psi) Section 1 Section 2 Section 3 Section 4 Section 5 3K (A) 470 620 472 - 3K (B) 470 620 472 - 5K (C) 470 625 472 - 5K (D) 470 690 670 581 - 10K (E) 470 690 660 700 - 10K (F) 510 850 700 700 -- 15K (G) 510 850 700 750 15K (H) 510 850 700 750 Figure 5.H .ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 113 OF 295 ENI S.

A.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 114 OF 295 ENI S. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 0 REVISION Figure 5.p.Typical Unitised Wellhead and Xmas Tree .I .

The kill wing is often permanently connected up to the kill line to a permanent pump or to allow quick and easy connection of a portable pump. Pressure losses of the offtake system must be considered in the well deliverability analysis (Refer to Section 2. Trees for sour service or high pressure will normally have two outlets. which is often a remote hydraulic operated valve.e.000psi) Eni-Agip normally installs an additional gate valve between the tubing spool and the Xmas tree to provide double barrier protection. Chemical injection points are usually available at the tree or through the hanger system for downhole. .p. choke and flowline arrangement must be configured to meet with how the well is closed-in and opened up. 15. Today it is normal to have to justify only a single master valve as the upper master is usually an ESD hydraulically operated valve which is at risk of undue wear and tear.4. 5.A. If the tree upper master valve and production wings are fully automated.4. A swab valve is an essential element to enable safe rig up of vertical well interventions by wireline. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 5.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 115 OF 295 ENI S.3. Xmas Trees 0 REVISION The type of Xmas tree and construction are important as they have an effect on safety and cost.2. A second master valve is normally required to enable repair to any of the other tree valves with two barriers in situ (the lower master valve and the tubing hanger plug). The important pointers for the design engineer are: • • • Conventional composite flanged connection trees with a single master valve are the norm for land and low to moderate offshore wells.3).i. production and kill wing sides. • • • • • A typical Xmas tree is shown in figure 5. Policy Metal-to-metal seals shall be used in the applications outlined in the following sections. coiled tubing or snubbing services or for the BPV rod lubricator.4. the control system should be designed to close the wing valve first a few seconds before the upper master to avoid erosion or damage over a period of time to the upper master gate and seats as they are more difficult to repair. Metal-To-Metal Seals The purpose of metal-to-metal seals is to provide enhanced sealing where it is required in particular applications. In very high pressure wells (i. The production wing.

On control line connections.000 Gas Injectors Sealing WP.000 H2S Service Wells Sealing WP. psi 5. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 Application 0 REVISION The following criteria is applicable to the various conditions listed in the following tables: a) b) c) d) Between producing strings/casing/tubing hanger and tubing hanger seal flange. Between tubing hanger and tubing spool.000 >10. C and D will be used in the tables in the tables below.000 10. B.000 10.000 10. psi 5.000 10.000 A B & = NO C D ' ' ' & ' ' & & & ' ' ' Sweet Service Wells (with top hole temperature exceeding 100°C) Sealing WP. On production casing or production liner. psi 5.000 >10. Sweet Service Wells (with top hole temperature less than 100°C) ' = YES Sealing WP. psi 5.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 116 OF 295 ENI S. Oil And Gas Producers These tables apply equally to onshore and offshore wells.000 A B C D A B C D A B C D ' ' ' ' ' ' & & ' ' ' ' ' ' & ' & & ' ' ' ' & ' & & ' ' . These designations A.p.A.

due to the high cost of subsea well re-entrys. FUTURE CONSIDERATIONS Built into the conceptual stage. psi 5. The well location and type of development has a large impact on the techniques available and cost of well servicing and maintenance optimising the completion design around the potential problems and remedial techniques is a balancing act between effectiveness and cost. This means well life should be planned for the life of the field or as long as feasible (typically 7-10 years) although some unplanned problems may occur. Alternately. servicing can be conducted almost on demand. on an easily accessible land wells where servicing and workover methods are relatively much less costly. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 Water Injectors Sealing WP. Another example is on offshore subsea fields.5.A.000 10. the valve can be replaced cheaply without requiring a workover.000 10. This will have included identification of the potential reasons for well interventions or workover servicing. This may lend to the selection of a wireline retrievable type safety valve rather than a tubing retrievable type as in the event of failure. psi 5. In this case to the stand-off can be increased but there is a penalty in lower initial production rates. During this process future well servicing and maintenance will also have been planned.000 A B C 0 REVISION D ' ' & ' & & ' ' Artificial Lift Wells (both onshore and offshore wells) Sealing WP. a design life for the completion will have been established.000 A B C D ' ' &(1) ' & & ' ' (1) If H2S is present it will be a YES.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 117 OF 295 ENI S. 5.p. Well servicing or workover techniques also have an impact on the well area with regard to height and lateral space. . well servicing should be minimised as they require a floating vessel from which to deploy the re-entry system. and may be problematic on platforms where space. This will have an impact of the completion architecture and establish a philosophy. As an example of this is horizontal completions selected to maximise initial well productivity. height and weight are at a premium. where the stand-off from the water or gas zones increases the risk of producing early unwanted fluids.

the effects of the pressures causing additional stresses on the tubing and packer need to be input and catered for in the tubing design process (Refer to Section 7). Also. if there are more than one zone to a string. 5. It could also increase the tubing movement and alter the choice of tubing movement device and spacing out. If multi-zone multi-string completions are installed then the individual zones can simply be closed off by shutting in the well at surface or.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 118 OF 295 ENI S. This can be conducted by coiled tubing or snubbing services without killing the well.5. the surface pressure would demand a higher pressure rated Xmas tree than required for production only. the effects on the completion materials needs to be considered or alternatively to use coiled tubing for spotting of the acid before pumping to the formation.A.p.2. then straddles are sometimes utilised to keep pressure off the SCSSV and Xmas tree. by opening and closing isolation sleeves. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 5. cement squeezes and reperforating techniques are required.4). are more flexible but have higher initial capital cost. If the costs of upgrading the well tubulars to resist these stresses are prohibitive. .5. Excessive water or gas production due to fingering which requires continuing production from lower zones can be isolated by cement squeezing or if using a monobore type completion by installing a straddle across the interval on wireline or coiled tubing methods.1.2. and need reperforating. Where this problem has not been planned into the completion design a complete workover to re-complete may be required. etc.g. If acid stimulations are planned. A single string sequential completion may be employed where existing perforations can be isolated simply by installation of a bridge plug on wireline but often the perforations require to be squeezed off with cement (Refer to Section 5. e. producing zones are sometimes damaged by scale build up or movement of fines. The next production zone can then be perforated using through tubing perforating techniques (Refer to Section 9). If a multi-zone single string selective completion design has been installed then producing zones can be closed off or opened up by wireline techniques and hence. If the well has been planned for these operations then the completion may have been designed to accomplish these operations without pulling of the tubing in a workover operation. Stimulation 0 REVISION If future stimulation operations are required such as fracturing. Formation Management As the fluid interfaces move through time and unwanted fluids are produced. or as producing zones become depleted and require isolating before brining on other zones.

Live well interventions can be conducted by: • • • • Wireline (electric line or slickline).A. gas lift valves.) Tubing control (drifting) Calipering Swabbing BHP pressure and temperature monitoring Electronic memory logging Opening and closing of circulation devices Perforating Fishing.5. Slickline Is probably the most widely used well servicing method and is used for: • • • • • • • • • • Mechanical well clean out (tubing and sump) Installation and retrieval of flow controls (plugs. . Pumps. Workovers can be conducted by: • • • Workovers rigs Drilling rigs Hydraulic workover units. Hydraulic workover cannot be deployed from any floating installation. etc. standing valves. Snubbing. Snubbing cannot be deployed from any floating installation.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 119 OF 295 ENI S.p. Well Servicing Techniques 0 REVISION Well servicing includes live well intervention services or major workovers to pull the tubing. Braided Line Braided line is used for: • • Heavy duty wireline work (installing large heavy flow controls). Fishing (when slickline has been unsuccessful. Coiled Tubing. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 5. chokes. fishing electric line).3. A specialist subsea wireline technique has been developed for subsea well interventions without using the riser re-entry system which is much quicker and less costly.

multi-laterals) Fishing (generally when wireline has been unsuccessful).ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 120 OF 295 ENI S. multi-laterals). . Calipering Real time BHP surveys Perforating Packer setting Installing bridge plugs. Stimulation (acidising) Cementing Cleaning out tubing and sump Gas lifting Logging (stiff wireline) Installing flow controls (wireline type tools) Milling Drilling (underbalance side tracking.p.A. 0 REVISION Coiled Tubing Coiled tubing (C/T) is used for: • • • • • • • • • Snubbing Snubbing is used for: • • • • • • • Stimulation (acidising) Cementing Cleaning out tubing and sump Gas lifting Installing flow controls (wireline type tools) Milling Drilling (underbalance side tracking. Snubbing has found a revival with platform horizontal wells where it is used to work in long horizontal sections where C/T may not be capable. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 Electric Line Electric line is used for: • • • • • • Logging (PLT. etc.

If the PI was infinite. the selection process inevitably involves analysis of the gross fluid deliverability and flow stability under changing reservoir conditions to confirm that the production forecast can be met and to determine when artificial lift or compression is required. For example. typically 5-8 years. It is generally recommended to select a tubing size such that the flowing pressure.p. OPTIMISING TUBING SIZE 0 REVISION The optimum tubing size is selected to obtain the desired offtake rates at the lowest capital and operating costs. the optimum tubing size will be a compromise maximising flow rate and having steady producing 1 conditions. one increase in API tubing size would double the maximum theoretical capacity. The choice at that time will be to reduce wellhead pressure.A.000stb/d and perhaps even larger tubing could be investigated. These changes are normally declining reservoir pressure and increasing water cut which will reduce flow rates. 1 . using the IPR for well 2. however. The following sub-sections describes the various factors and there effect on TPC. therefore widening the flat uncertain portion around the minimum. The optimum size of tubing is clearly the size which will be most cost effective over a number of years. is greater than 1. Whatever the case. The net result should be higher production rates only if the IPR/TPC intercept remains to the right of the TPC minimum. However.4).05 of pressure minimum. Where high costs workovers are involved such as on subsea wells. the reduced fluid velocities experienced in larger tubing increase the hydrostatic head because of slippage. fluid velocities decrease and reduces the frictional effects. it may be possible to accelerate offtake by the early installation of artificial lift. the maximum flow rate is obtained with /2” 7 tubing but only a slight reduction in flow rate is seen if the 2 /8” tubing is selected which gives steadier and regular flow. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 5. pmin to ensure stability. This usually means at the maximum initial flow rate and maintaining it as long as possible.j shows that the 4 /2” tubing size should be selected to ensure the offtake exceeds the target of 8. the changing conditions over the life of the well must be considered when selecting tubing size. depending on the inflow capability (Refer to Section 2. If the IPR curve intersects the TPCs in the region near the minimum. Pwf.000 to 9.obviously the tubing selected for the start of production will not be the optimum size after some period of time. The example well #1 in figure 5. as tubing size increases. incurring early loss of potential production. the selection may be for an even longer period of time. at low rates. As previously mentioned. A fixed flow rate. replace the tubing with a smaller size or to implement artificial lift which will have associated costs.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 121 OF 295 ENI S.6. This trend is downwards towards cessation of flow and . This shifts the TPC minimum to a higher rate and.

ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 122 OF 295 ENI S.p.Example Tubing Sizes on Well Deliverability Figure 5. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 0 REVISION Figure 5.K.J .A.Effect of Reservoir Pressure on TPC .

6. e. This clearly shows how important the assumed wellhead pressure accuracy is in the well deliverability forecast and economics.g. Reservoir Pressure 0 REVISION As reservoir pressure declines over time. All of these reduce the natural flow rate of the well.3.p. wells being produced or closed in which use the same flowline.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 123 OF 295 ENI S.k. etc. therefore reducing the potential drawdown. the effect on productivity must be considered during the completion design stage to find the most cost effective method of maximising productivity. facility malfunctions.6. 5. where workover costs are high to complete with smaller size tubing to ensure stability through the economic life of the well.A. 5. Also high wellhead pressures reduces the amount of free gas and compresses the remaining free gas. Gas-Liquid Ratio Increasing gas-liquid ratios cause a decrease in hydrostatic head and increase in frictional pressure drop which in the early stages may actually result in increased flow rates.l shows the effect of increasing GLR. . Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 5. both which increase hydrostatic head. hence flow rates.6. Unstable flow conditions and eventually cessation will occur unless some other change in the system is made. above a critical point there will be a net increase in the overall pressure drop. as illustrated in figure 5. However. Flowing Wellhead Pressure Any flowing wellhead pressure is actually back-pressure transmitted downhole to the bottom-hole flowing pressure. it collapses towards the origin. The larger tubing sizes are more sensitive to changes in flowing wellhead pressure as the density factor dominates more than in smaller tubing. figure 5.2. leading to decreasing natural flow rates. In reservoirs where significant reductions in reservoir pressure are anticipated. Again this means that smaller tuning may need to be selected instead of the ideal larger tubing to cater for anticipated changes in wellhead pressure. build-up of wax. In these circumstances the frictional effects near surface become very dominant and can be alleviated by the use of a tapered tubing string. Changes in wellhead pressure can be attributed to slugging in the flowline.1.

This effectively shifts the TPC downwards bringing the intersection point further towards stable flowing conditions.4.Effect of Increasing GLR 5. Artificial Lift The intention of installing artificial lift is to reduce the hydrostatic head and. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 0 REVISION Figure 5.A. An example of rates which can be obtained by different artificial lift methods is illustrated in figure 5. therefore.L .p. Refer to section 10 for the applications and comparisons of the various methods of artificial lift.6. . bottom-hole pressure.m.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 124 OF 295 ENI S.

A.Examples of Artificial Lift Performance . Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 0 REVISION Figure 5.M .p.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 125 OF 295 ENI S.

They should not be produced through the casing/tubing annulus. In the presence of water. The BOP stack and wellhead components must also be suitable for sour service. 6. During the drilling phase. CORROSION A production well design should attempt to contain produced corrosive fluids within tubing. it is accepted that tubing leaks and pressured annuli are a fact of life and as such. the production casing should be cathodically protected (either cathodically or by selecting a casing grade suitable for the expected corrosion environment).p. To have a flow of current. • External corrosion Where the likelihood of external corrosion due to electrochemical activity is high and the consequences of such corrosion are serious. • Internal corrosion The well should be designed to contain any corrosive fluids (produced or injected) within the tubing string by using premium connections. However. during routine completion/workover operations or in the event of a tubing or wellhead leak.A. CONTRIBUTING FACTORS TO CORROSION Most corrosion problems which occur in oilfield production operations are due to the presence of water. consideration should be given to setting a sour service casing string before drilling into the reservoir. production casing strings are considered to be subject to corrosive environments when designing casing for a well where hydrogen sulphide (H2S) or carbon dioxide (CO2) laden reservoir fluids can be expected. if there is any likelihood of a sour corrosive influx occurring. DEVELOPMENT WELLS Casing corrosion considerations for development wells can be confined to the production casing only. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 0 REVISION 6.2. corrosion is an electrolytic process where electrical current flows during the corrosion process. Any part of the production casing that is likely to be exposed to the corrosive environment. . there must be a generating or voltage source in a completed electrical circuit. Whether it may be present in large amounts or in extremely small quantities. should be designed to withstand such an environment.1. it is necessary to the corrosion process.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 126 OF 295 ENI S. 6.

temperature decreases the solubility to raise the pH. • Temperature Like most chemical reactions.A. Oxygen usually causes pitting in steels. of the following conditions alone. Using the partial pressure of carbon dioxide as a yardstick to predict corrosion.p. The important factors governing the solubility of carbon dioxide are pressure. it forms carbonic acid. Partial pressure <3psi generally is considered non corrosive. Other serious problems which may result from H2S corrosion are hydrogen blistering and sulphide stress cracking. Pressure increases the solubility to lower the pH. temperature and composition of the water. temperature and chloride content. It should be pointed out that H2S also can be generated by introduced microorganisms. • Carbon Dioxide (CO2) When carbon dioxide dissolves in water. . but usually also results in pitting. It is not as corrosive as oxygen. The solubility of oxygen in water is a function of pressure. • Hydrogen Sulphide (H2S) Hydrogen sulphide is very soluble in water and when dissolved behaves as a weak acid and usually causes pitting. the following relationships have been found: Partial pressure >30psi usually indicates high corrosion risk. It can cause severe corrosion at very low concentrations of less than 1. Attack due to the presence of dissolved hydrogen sulphide is referred to as ‘sour’ corrosion. decreases the pH of the water and increase its corrosivity. Oxygen is less soluble in salt water than in fresh water.0ppm. Partial pressure 3-30psi may indicates high corrosion risk. or in any combination may be a contributing factor to the initiation and perpetuation of corrosion: • Oxygen (O2) Oxygen dissolved in water drastically increases its corrosivity potential. The combination of H2S and CO2 is more aggressive than H2S alone and is frequently found in oilfield environments. corrosion rates generally increase with increasing temperature.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 127 OF 295 ENI S. Corrosion primarily caused by dissolved carbon dioxide is commonly called ‘sweet’ corrosion. if any. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 0 REVISION The existence.

impingement or cavitation. . but pitting is more likely. Higher temperatures. Evaluation of the SSC problem depends on the type of well being investigated. e. The H2S comes into contact with H2O which is an + essential element in this form of corrosion by freeing the H ion. Corrosion rates usually increase with velocity as the corrosion scale is removed from the casing exposing fresh metal for further corrosion. Sulphide Stress Cracking (SSC) The SSC phenomenon is occurs usually at temperatures of below 80°C and with the presence of stress in the material. corrosion. CO2 and ClCorrosion in injection wells and the effects of pH and souring are not included. generally corrosion occurs only when the water cut becomes higher than 15% which is the ‘threshold’ or commonly defined as the ‘critical level’ and it is necessary to analyse the water cut profile throughout the producing life of the well.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 128 OF 295 ENI S.A. • Velocity of fluids within the environment Stagnant or low velocity fluids usually give low corrosion rates.g. More gas goes into solution as the pressure is increased this may in turn increase the corrosivity of the solution. In gas wells. In oil wells. 6.p.3. two separate cases need to be considered. therefore knowledge of temperature gradients is very useful in the choice of the tubular materials since differing materials can be chosen for various depths. above 80°C inhibit the SSC phenomenon. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 • 0 REVISION Pressure Pressure affects the rates of chemical reactions and corrosion reactions are no exception. gas saturation with water will produce condensate water and therefore create the conditions for SSC. the primary importance of pressure is its effect on dissolved gases. FORMS OF CORROSION The following forms of corrosion are addressed in this manual: Corrosion caused by H2S (SSC) Corrosion caused by CO2 and Cl - Corrosion caused by combinations of H2S.3. vertical and deviated wells: a) In vertical oil wells.1. 6. In oilfield systems. The procedure adopted to evaluate the corrosivity of the produced fluid and the methodology used to calculate the partial pressures of H2S and CO2 will be illustrated in the following sub-sections. High velocities and/or the presence of suspended solids or gas bubbles can lead to erosion.

is termed undersaturated. 6. Material balance method. Otherwise the basic method is used.0035 atm and SBHP >4. The following formulae are used to calculate the value of pH2S (partial pressure of H2S) in both the cases of gas (or condensate gas) wells or oil wells.e. Oil Bearing Well The problem of SSC exists when there is wetting water. i. In this case the pH2S is calculated in two ways: • • Basic method. Undersaturated Oil In an oil in which the gas remains dissolved.A. the pH2S is calculated using both methods and the higher of the two results is taken as the a reliable value.: Water cut >15% for vertical wells o Water cut >1% for horizontal or highly deviated wells (>80 ) 3 3 or if the GOR >800 Nm /m The pH2S calculation is different for undersaturated and oversaturated oil. Firstly. the potential for SSC occurring is evaluated by studying the water cut values combined with the type of well and deviation profile. even if in very small quantities. the risk of corrosion by H2S is higher since the water. is not known or the values obtained are not reliable. If the conditions specified above are verified then the pH2S can be calculated. deviations >80 ). Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 b) o REVISION 0 In highly deviated wells (i.e. If the quantity of H2S in gas at the bubble point pressure [mole fraction = Y(H2S)]. Gas Or Condensate Gas Well H2S partial pressure is calculated by: pH2S = SBHP x Y(H2S)/100 where: SBHP = Y(H2S) = = pH2S Static bottom-hole pressure [atm] Mole fraction of H2S Partial H2S pressure [atm] Eq. . deposits on the surface of the tubulars and so the problem can be likened to the gas well case where the critical threshold for the water cut drops to 1% (WC <1%).ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 129 OF 295 ENI S.5 atm. because the wellhead and bottom-hole pressures are higher than the bubble point pressure (Pb) at reservoir temperature.p.A SSC is triggered at pH2S >0.

ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 130 OF 295 ENI S. without comparison with the other method. is generally lower than the actual value under stabilised conditions. 6.C The mean molecular weight of the produced oil. The following algorithm is used to calculate the pH2S: Step 1 pH2S is calculated at the separator (pH2Ssep): pH2Ssep = (Psep x H2Ssep)/106 where: Psep H2Ssep = = Absolute mean pressure at which the separator works (from tests) in atm Mean H2S value in the separator gas (generally measured in ppm) Eq.p.000ppm) and the water cut value from is lower than 5% (this method cannot be used when the WC values are higher). PM : PM = γ × 1000 GOR γ × 1000 + × (d × 29 ) GOR 23.6 − 23.B Material Balance Method This method is used when data from production testing is available and/or when the quantity of H2S is very small (<2. The value of H2S in ppm to be used in the calculation must also be from stable flowing conditions.D where: PM Ci Mi d = = = =  n   mean molecular weight of the reservoir oil =  Ci × Mi  / 100     i =l     Mole % of the ith component of the reservoir oil Molecular weight of the ith component of the reservoir oil Density of the gas at separator conditions referred to air =1 ∑ .6 PM giac Eq. when the H2S value in the separated gas at bubble point conditions is known and is reliable or if Y(H2S).A. molar fraction in the separated gas at bubble point pressure (Pb) is higher than 2%. Note: H2S sampled in short production tests. 6. The pH2S is calculated by: pH2S = Pb x Y(H2S)/100 where: Pb = Y(H2S) = pH2S = Bubble point pressure at reservoir temperature [atm] Mole fraction in the separated gas at bubble point (from PVT data if extrapolated) Partial H2S pressure [atm] Eq. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 Basic Method 0 REVISION This method is used. 6.

There is SSC potential if pH2S >0.6) total number of moles of the liquid phase in the reservoir Henry constant for the reservoir temperature and reservoir oil (see procedure for calculating Henry constant) In general.0035 atm and STHP >18. The mapping method can be applied for temperatures at the separator of between 20°C and 200°C.p.6 = = Gas oil ratio Nm /m (from production tests) Conversion factor 3 3 6 Eq.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 131 OF 295 ENI S.6 x H2Ssep/10 ) where: GOR 23.a which represents the functions H(t) for the three types of oils: • • • Heptane PM N-propyl benzene PM Methylnaphthalene PM =100 = 120 =142 .G (γ x 1000/ PM + GOR/23. 6. 6. 6. (See Procedure for calculating Henry constant) Mean molecular weight of the produced oil Specific weight g/l of the produced oil Eq. H2S corrosion can occur at either the wellhead or bottom-hole without distinction.A. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 0 REVISION The quantity of H2S in moles/litre dissolved in the separator oil is calculated: [H2S]oil = (pH2Ssep/H1 x (γ x 1000)/ PM ) where: H1 PM γ = = = Henry constant of the produced oil at separator temperature (atm/Mole fraction).63 atm.E The quantity of H2S in the gas in equilibrium is calculated (per litre of oil): [H2S]gas = (GOR/23. Procedure For Calculating Henry Constant The value of the Henry constant is a function of the temperature measured at the separator.F The pH2S is calculated at reservoir conditions: pH2S = (([H2S]oil + [H2S]gas)/K ) x H2 where: K H2 = = Eq. Given the diagram in figure 6.

the mean value is calculated using the H(t) curve of propyl benzene and the H(t) curve of methylnaphthalene. If PM > 100. using temperature measured at the separator. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 Remarks On The H1 Calculation 0 REVISION Having calculated the molecular weight of the produced oil PM using the formula in eq.p. wellhead flowing temperature. If 100 < PM < 120. the H(t) curve of propyl benzene is used. the H1 value is interpolated linearly on the chosen curve(s). the H(t) curve of heptane is used. Comments On The H2 Calculation Having calculated the molecular weight of the reservoir oil PM res. the reference curve is chosen (given by points) to calculate the Henry constant on the basis of the following value thresholds: • • • • • • If PM > 142. H2 is measured in a similar way as H1. For this purpose the temperature values immediately before and after the temperature studied are taken into consideration. the H(t) curve of methylnaphthalene is used.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 132 OF 295 ENI S.A. If PM > 120.d. . If 120 < PM < 142 the mean value is calculated using the H(t) curve of heptane and the H(t) curve of propyl benzene. Given FTHT. 6.

A .A. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 0 REVISION 130 Henry atm/Y[H2S] 120 110 100 90 methylnaphthalene PM = 142 80 N-propylbenzene PM = 120 heptane PM = 100 70 60 50 40 30 20 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 110 120 130 140 150 160 170 180 190 200 T C° Figure 6.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 133 OF 295 ENI S. Two situations can arise: Case A FTHP < Pb FBHP > Pb Case B FTHP < Pb FBHP < Pb .p.H(t) Reference Curves Oversaturated Oil Oil is considered oversaturated when the gas in the fluid separates because the pressure of the system is lower than the bubble point pressure.

FBHP <Pb. the 2 corresponding value in reservoir conditions is assumed as being partial pressure at the wellhead. the corresponding value in reservoir conditions is assumed as being partial pressure at the wellhead. Calculation is of the partial pressure at the wellhead.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 134 OF 295 ENI S.A. The error made can be high when Pb > FBHP.e. when FTHP <Pb: The data result from the production conditions and only the basic method is used.63 atm.0035 atm and STHP >18. Calculation Of Partial Pressure At Wellhead The calculation method is that used for case A (FTHP <Pb) 2 If the percentage (ppm) of H2S in the gas under static conditions is not known. these are the worst conditions. the partial pressure is calculated as: pH2S = Y(H2S) x FBHP 1 where: Y(H2S) = Molar fraction in gas separated at FBHP and at reservoir temperature (from PVT) • The PVTs are not reliable. Basic Method pH2S = STHP x Y(H2S)/100 where: STHP = Y(H2S) = pH2S = Static tubing head pressure [atm] Mole fraction in separated gas at STHP pressure and wellhead temperature Partial H2S pressure [atm] The SSC phenomenon is triggered off at the wellhead if pH2S >0.p. Y(H2S) >0. i. 2 If the percentage (ppm) of H S in the separated gas under static conditions is not known. calculation of pH2S can be approximated on the basis of the following: • The PVTs are reliable. the material balance method can be used as in the case of undersaturated oil.2%. Calculation Of Partial Pressure In Case B: Calculation of partial pressure in the reservoir: In the reservoir the gas is already separated. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 Calculation Of Partial Pressure In Case A: 1) 2) 0 REVISION Calculation is of the partial pressure in the reservoir: In this case pH2S is calculated in the way described for undersaturated oil. 1 .

3.3.A. the possibility that corrosions exist in water cut values combined with the type of well and deviation profile is evaluated. Water cut >1% for horizontal or highly deviated wells (> 80 degrees). i.2.: • • Water cut >15% for vertical wells.e.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 135 OF 295 ENI S. then the pCO2 is then calculated. CO2 gives rise to a corrosion form which is different to those caused by the presence of H2S.1 exist. The pCO2 values calculated in this way are used to evaluate the corrosion at bottom hole and wellhead. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 6. i. pCO2 at wellhead is assumed as corresponding to reservoir conditions.p. Corrosion Caused By CO2 And Cl0 REVISION In the presence of water. As in the case of SSC. Gas Or Condensate Gas Wells The partial pressure is calculated: pCO2 = SBHP x Y(CO2)/100 where: SBHP = Y(CO2) = pCO2 = Static bottom-hole pressure [atm] Mole fraction of CO2 Partial pressure of CO2 [atm] Corrosion occurs if pCO2 >0.2 atm.2 atm. Undersaturated Oil Wells The partial pressure of CO2 is calculated: pCO2 = Pb x Y(CO2)/100 where: Pb = Y(CO2) = pCO2 = Bubble point pressure at reservoir temperature Mole fraction of CO2 in separated gas at bubble point pressure (from the PVTs) Partial pressure of CO2 [atm] Corrosion occurs if pCO2 >0.e. If the conditions described in section 6. Oil Bearing Wells The problem exists where there is wetting water. . It also occurs only if the partial pressure of CO2 exceeds a particular threshold.

pCO2 = Pb x Y(CO2)/100 where: Pb = Y(CO2) = pCO2 = Bubble point pressure at reservoir temperature Mole fraction in separated gas at bubble point pressure (from the PVTs) Partial pressure of CO2 [atm] Corrosion occurs if pCO2 >0.A.2 atm.p. Two situations may arise: Case A FTHP <Pb FBHP >Pb Case B FTHP <Pb FBHP <Pb Calculation Of Partial Pressure In Case A: Calculation of pCO2 in reservoir conditions: FBHP >Pb pCO2 is calculated in the same way as undersaturated oil wells earlier in this section. If the percentage (ppm) of CO2 in the gas under static conditions is not known. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 Oversaturated Oil 0 REVISION The oil is considered oversaturated when the gas separates in the fluid because the pressure of the system is lower than bubble point pressure. Calculation Of pCO2 At Wellhead: pCO2 = STHP x Y(CO2)/100 where: Y(CO2) = STHP = Mole fraction in separated gas at STHP3 Static tubing head pressure [atm] Corrosion occurs if pCO2 >0. the corresponding value in reservoir conditions is assumed as being partial pressure at the wellhead 3 .2 atm.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 136 OF 295 ENI S.

CO2 And ClIt is possible to encounter H2S and CO2 besides Cl . The phenomenon is diagnosed by calculating the partial pressures of H2S and CO2 and comparing them with the respective thresholds. In this case the problem is much more complex and the choice of suitable material is more delicate.2 atm.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 137 OF 295 ENI S. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 Calculation Of Partial Pressure In Case B: Calculation of pCO2 at reservoir conditions: pCO2 = FBHP x Y(CO2)/100 where: Y(CO2) = 0 REVISION Mole fraction in separated gas at pressure FBHP (from the PVTs) Calculation Of pCO2 At Wellhead: The calculation method is the same as the one used in the wellhead conditions in case A: pCO2 = STHP x Y(CO2)/100 where: Y(CO2) = Mole fraction in separated gas at STHP4 There is corrosion if pCO2 >0.A.3.3. - If the percentage (ppm) of CO2 in the gas under flowing/static conditions is not known.p. 6. Corrosion Caused By H2S. the corresponding value in reservoir conditions is assumed as being partial pressure at the wellhead. 4 .

p. Refer to table 6.A . CORROSION CONTROL MEASURES 0 REVISION Corrosion control measures may involve the use of one or more of the following: • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Cathodic protection Chemical inhibition Chemical control Oxygen scavengers Chemical sulphide scavengers pH adjustment Deposit control Coatings Non metallic materials or metallurgical Control Stress reduction Elimination of sharp bends Elimination of shock loads and vibration Improved handling procedures Corrosion allowances in design Improved welding procedures Organisation of repair operations.4. Measure Control of the environment • • • • • • • • • Means pH Temperature Pressure Chloride concentration CO2 concentration 2 H S concentration 2 H O concentration Flow rate Inhibitors Surface treatment • Plastic coating • Plating the alloying elements micro Improvement of the corrosion resistivity of the Addition of steel structure Table 6.A. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 6.a below.Counter Measures to Prevent Corrosion .ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 138 OF 295 ENI S.

The most important characteristic that distinguishes these steels from other grades is their response to heat treatment. however it is occasionally used for production casing or tubing below the packer depth. although some chromium content may be as high as 18%. The martensitic stainless steels are included in the ‘400’ series of stainless steels. CORROSION RESISTANCE OF STAINLESS STEELS Stainless steel is usually used in applications for production tubing. The main reason for the development of stainless steel is its resistance to corrosion. To be classed as a stainless steel. and sulphur are added in small amounts for other properties in some grades. Stainless steels are strongly magnetic whatever the heat treatment condition. standard batch. cooling waters. silicon. an iron alloy usually must contain at least 12% chromium in volume. The most common types contain around 12% chromium.5. selenium. Martensitic Stainless Steels The martensitic stainless steels contain chromium as their principal alloying element. the microstructure of these steels is martensitic. The corrosion resistance of stainless steels is due to the ability of the chromium to passivate the surface of the alloy. Corrosion inhibitors are commonly added in small amounts to acids. molybdenum.p. The carbon content ranges from 0. As their name indicates. There are many techniques used to apply corrosion inhibitors in oil and gas wells: • • • • • • 6.08% to 1. Stainless steels may be divided into four distinct classes on the basis of their chemical content. The most commonly used of the martensitic stainless steels is AISI Type 410. metallurgical structure and mechanical properties these are: 6. steam or other environments.weighted liquids Capsules Sticks. decreases the rate of attack by the environmental on a metal.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 139 OF 295 ENI S. extended batch) Continuous treatment Squeeze treatment Atomised inhibitor squeeze .10% and other elements such as nickel.1.6. a corrosion inhibitor is a substance which. The only grade of oilfield tubular used in this category is 13Cr.A. when added to an environment. Batch treatment (tubing displacement. CORROSION INHIBITORS 0 REVISION An inhibitor is a substance which retards or slows down a chemical reaction. columbium.6. The martensitic stainless steels are hardened by the same heat treatment procedures used to harden carbon and alloy steels. . Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 6. Thus. either continuously or intermittently to prevent serious corrosion.

Ferrite is simply body cantered cubic iron or an alloy based on this structure. which contain various amounts of chromium and nickel.6. Ferritic Stainless Steels 0 REVISION The second class of stainless steels.6. Their micro-structure consists essentially of austenite which is face cantered cubic iron or an iron alloy based on this structure. stainless steel. Refer to figure 6. The microstructure of the ferritic stainless steels consists of ferrite. Most can be formed and machined before the final heat treatment and the finished product being hardened. and may range up to as high as 25% chromium and 20% nickel.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 140 OF 295 ENI S.4. the principal types being 405. 430. Austenitic stainless steels generally have the highest corrosion resistance of any of the stainless steels. the most common being 304. the steels can be hardened to varying strength levels. which are also strongly magnetic. Precipitation in alloys is analogous to precipitation as rain or snow. and the carbon content is generally lower. These are most commonly used for component parts in downhole and surface tools and not as oilfield tubulars. They are not able to be hardened by heat treatment although they are hardenable to some extent by cold working and are generally non-magnetic.A. but their strength is lower than martensitic and ferritic stainless steels. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 6.p. 6. They combine the high strength of the martensitic stainless steels with the good corrosion resistance properties of the austenitic stainless steels. Austenitic stainless steels are grouped in the ‘300’ series. These steels are widely used in the oilfield for fittings and control lines. chromium and nickel. 6. They contain a minimum of 18% chromium and 8% nickel. . and 347 stabilised for welding and corrosion resistance.2. Austenitic Stainless Steels The austenitic stainless steels have two principal alloying elements. with other elements added for particular reasons.3. is the ferritic stainless steels. 316 high Cr and Ni which may include Mo. The chromium content ranges between 13% to 27% but are not able to be hardened by heat treatment.6. Precipitation Hardening Stainless Steels The most recent development in stainless steel is a general class known as ‘precipitation hardened stainless steels’. The distinguishing characteristic of the precipitation hardened stainless steel is that through specific heat treatments at relatively low temperatures. and there is a wide variety of compositions available. but due to its low strength is not used for well tubulars. Most were developed as proprietary alloys. which are similar to the martensitic stainless steels in that they have chromium as the principal alloying element. Others commonly used are 303 free machining. Ferritic stainless steels are also part of the ‘400’ series.b for the various compositions of stainless steels. The chromium contents of ferritic stainless steels is normally higher than that of the martensitic. and 436. They are used principally for their temperature properties.

Stainless Steel Compositions .B.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 141 OF 295 ENI S.p.A. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 0 REVISION Figure 6.

the presence of CO2 may lead to corrosion on those parts coming in contact with CO2 which normally means the production tubing and part of the production casing below the packer.7.1. COMPANY DESIGN PROCEDURE CO2 Corrosion In producing wells.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 142 OF 295 ENI S. there is a large gap between the 13Cr and Duplex Stainless Steels used as tubulars for their good anti-corrosion properties.7.c and figure 6. ferritic-austenitic (duplex) stainless steel consists of between 40-70% ferrite and has a typical composition of 22% Cr-5.d for partial pressure limits.6. where there is H2S. Generally. The resulting steel has properties that are normally found in both phases: the ferrite promotes increased yield strength and resistance to chloride and hydrogen sulphide corrosion cracking. while the austenite phase improves workability and weldability. Inhibitor injection. This gap is attempted to be filled with ‘Super 13Cr’ tubing being developed. . consideration should be given to limit casing and wellhead yield strength according to API 5CT and ‘NACE’ standard MR-01-75. Refer to figure 6. Duplex Stainless Steel 0 REVISION In general.7.p. wells producing CO2 partial pressure higher than 20psi requires inhibition to limit corrosion.5. 6. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 6. if using carbon steel casing. resistant to corrosion. Casing and tubing material will be selected according to the amount of H2S and other corrosive media present.14% N.5% Ni-3% Mo-0. Corrosion may be limited by: • • The selection of high alloy chromium steels. H2S Corrosion In wells.A. 6. As a general note.2. This material is used extensively for tubulars used in severe CO2 and H2S conditions. 6.

A.C . Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 0 REVISION Figure 6.Sour Gas Systems Figure 6.D .Sour Multiphase Systems .ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 143 OF 295 ENI S.p.

8. These give the rules used by Eni-Agip sectioned on the basis of the conditions as listed above and the use in the well. Materials are sub-divided into three categories. .e and figure 6. MATERIAL SELECTION 0 REVISION The choice of material is based on the application of engineering diagrams supplied by manufacturers of tubing and. In the partial pressures of H2S and CO2 are below the critical thresholds established in the previous section. otherwise the following combinations of conditions may exist: • • • • Solely H2S in oil wells Solely H2S in gas or gas condensate wells Solely CO2 and Cl Both H2S and CO2. refer to figure 6. hence the use of the modified SMI has been adopted.f. DHE materials and wellhead materials. The tables regarding the choice of materials are shown below. The choice of materials proposed is conservatively as recent develop materials such as 13%Cr and Super Duplex class have not been considered because experiments on these materials are not completed. all materials in class C-steel/L-A-steel can be used. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 6.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 144 OF 295 ENI S.p. OCTG.A.

2< pCO2S max <100e pH2S max >1 FBHT <150 C o Material Cl* <50.000 Cl* <50. C90-1.8.1 0.000 13% Cr 22% Cr 25% Cr-SA Alternately 25% Cr OCTG Materials For Corrosion By CO2 .005 0.000 Cl* >50.1.1 0.0035< pH2S max <0. C90-1.1 0.2< pCO2S max <100e 0. T95-1 L80-Mod. T95-1 L80-Mod.0035< pH2S max < 0.b below. K55.000 Cl* <50.005< pH2S max <0.2< pCO2S max <100e 0.005< pH2S max <0.B .1 FBHT >80 C o o 60 C< FBHT >80 C o FBHT >80 C o REVISION 0 Material J55.2< pCO2S max <100e 0.000 Cl* <50.OCTG Materials for Sour Service .0035< pH2S max < 0.0035< pH2S max <0. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 6. OCTG Specifications Refer to table 6.0035< pH2S max < 0. 25% Cr Incoloy 825 28% Cr Incoloy 825 Incoloy 825 Incoloy 825 Table 6. C90-1.000 Cl* <50.005< pH2S max <0. K55.1 0. C95 L80 Alternately L80-Mod. K55.1< pH2S max <1 0. OCTG Materials For Corrosion By H2S Only In Oil Wells Conditions 0.0035< pH2S max <0.1< pH2S max <1 0.000 22% Cr.1 FBHT >80 C o FBHT <80 C o Material J55. N80.005 0.2< pCO2S max <100 0.0035< pH2S max < 0.1 pH2S max < 0.005 0. P110 J55.1 0. T95-1 L80-Mod.005 0.000 Cl* >50.1< pH2S max <1 0.0035< pH2S max < 0. C90-1. C95.2< pCO2S max <100e 0. T95-1 OCTG Materials For Corrosion By H2S Only In Gas Wells Conditions 0. C90-1. T95-1 Alternately L80-Mod. N80 L80 L80 Mod.000 13% Cr-80KSI Max 22% Cr CW 25% Cr CW 22% Cr 25% Cr 25% Cr 25% Cr CW 25% Cr 25% Cr CW 28% Cr 22% Cr SA 25% Cr SA 28% Cr 28% Cr Alternately 22% Cr 25% Cr FBHT <200 C 150 C< FBHT <200 C 200 C< FBHT <250 C 200 C< FBHT <250 C FBHT <250 C FBHT <250 C 200 C< FBHT <250 C FBHT <200 C FBHT <250 C FBHT <200 C o o o o o o o o o o o o o o Cl* >50.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 145 OF 295 ENI S.A.0035< pH2S max < 0.p.2< pCO2S max <100e 0.2< pCO2S max <100e 0. N80-2.2< pCO2S max <100e pH2S max <0. C90-1.2< pCO2S max <100e 0.1 pCO2S max <100e 0. T95-1 OCTG Materials For Corrosion By CO2 And Cl* Conditions 0. H2S And Cl* Conditions 0.000 Cl* <50.2< pCO2S max <100e 0.2< pCO2S max <100e 0.000 Cl* <50.2< pCO2S max <100 FBHT <150 C o o 150 C< FBHT <200 C o o 200 C< FBHT <250 C o Material Cl* <50.000 Cl* <20.005 0.2< pCO2S max <100 0.

Inconel 718 Incoloy 825 Inconel 718 Incoloy 825 Inconel 718 Incoloy 825 Table 6.005 pCO2S max <100e pH2S max < 0.1 pH2S max > 0.A.000 Cl* <50.8.1 pH2S max < 0.1 pCO2S max <100e pH2S max <1 pCO2S max <100e pH2S max <1 pCO2S max <100e pH2S max <1 FBHT <100 C 100 C< FBHT <150 C 150 C< FBHT <250 C 200 C< FBHT <250 C o o o o o o o Material Cl* <50. DHE Specifications Refer to table 6.000 Cl* >50.000 Cl* <50.005 pCO2S max <100e pH2S max <0. Materials For DHE Corrosion By H2S Only In Oil Wells Conditions pH2S max < 0.1 pCO2S max <100e pH2S max <0.000 Inconel 718 Incoloy 825 Inconel 718 Incoloy 825 Inconel 718 Incoloy 825 Inconel 718 Incoloy 825 22% Cr. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 6.000 Cl* <50.000 Cl* <50.000 Cl* <50.005 pCO2S max <100e pH2S max < 0.C.DHE Material for Sour Service .ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 146 OF 295 ENI S.1 FBHT >80 C o FBHT >80 C o FBHT <65 C o FBHT <65 C o REVISION 0 Material AISI-41XX-110KSI-MAX AISI-41XX-80KSI-MAX AISI-41XX-HRC-22-MAX AISI-41XX-HRC-22-MAX Alternately Materials For DHE Corrosion By H2S Only In Gas Wells Conditions pH2S max < 0.000 Cl* >50.000 28% Cr Alternately Inconel 718 Incoloy 825 Materials For DHE Corrosion By CO2 .000 Cl* >50.000 FBHT <250 C FBHT <250 C o o Cl* <50.p.1 pH2S max < 0.005 pCO2S max <100e pH2S max <0.c below. H2S And Cl* Conditions pCO2S max <100e pH2S max < 0.000 Cl* <50.1 FBHT >80 C FBHT <80 C o o Material AISI-41XX-80KSI-MAX AISI-41XX-HRC-22-MAX AISI-41XX-HRC-22-MAX Alternately Materials For DHE Corrosion By CO2 And Cl* Conditions pCO2S max <100 pCO2S max <100 pCO2S max <100 FBHT <100 C o o 100 C< FBHT <150 C o o 150 C< FBHT <250 C o Material Cl* <50.000 9% Cr-1Moly 13%-Cr-80KSIMAX 22% Cr 25% Cr 25% Cr Inconel 718 Incoloy 825 22% Cr CW 25% Cr CW 25% Cr CW 25% Cr 28% Cr 22% Cr SA 25% Cr SA 25% Cr SA 28% Cr 28% Cr Alter Or 22% Cr 25% Cr Inconel 718 Incoloy 825 Inconel 718 Incoloy 825 100 C< FBHT <150 C 150 C< FBHT <250 C 200 C< FBHT <250 C 200 C< FBHT <250 C FBHT <200 C o o o o o o o o o Cl* >50.005 pCO2S max <100e pH2S max < 0.1 pH2S max < 0.005 pCO2S max <100e pH2S max <0.2.

035 pH2S-MAX < 0. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 6.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 147 OF 295 ENI S.A.2 < pCO2-Max < 100e FTHT < 150e Cl < 50000 pCO2-Max <100e 150<FTHT< 200e Cl < 50000 - Manual Master-Valve Steam Body Bonnet Flanges 13%-Cr80ksi-Max F6NM AISI-4135-IC Inconel-625 Inconel-718 Gate & Seats 13%-Cr80ksi-Max Steam Monel-K500 17-4-PH Inconel-718 Body Bonnet Flanges 13%-Cr-80ksiMax F6NM AISI-4135-IC Inconel-625 Gate & Seats 13%-Cr-80ksiMax Monel-K500 17-4-PH Inconel -718 Inconel -718 .8.035 Tubing Hanger AISI-4140 HRC-22MAX AISI-4140 Tbg Head Adapter AISI-4135 HRC-22MAX AISI-4135 Tubing Spool AISI-4135 HRC-22MAX AISI-4135 Cross AISI-4135 HRC-22MAX AISI-4135 Top Adapter AISI-4135 HRC-22MAX AISI-4135 Casing Spool AISI-4135 HRC-22MAX AISI-4135 REVISION 0 Stud ASTMA193-B7M ASTMA193-B7M Nut ASTMA194-2M ASTMA194-2H Automatic-Master-Valve Conditions pH2S-MAX> 0.< 50000 - Tubing Hanger 13%-Cr80ksi-Max F6NM Monel-K500 Inconel-718 Tbg Head Adapter 13%-Cr80ksi-Max F6NM AISI-4135-IC Inconel-625 Tubing Spool AISI-4135 Cross 13%-Cr80ksi-Max F6NM AISI-4135IC Inconel 625 MonelK500 Top Adapter 13%-Cr80ksi-Max F6NM AISI-4135-IC Inconel -625 Monel-K500 Casing Spool Carbon-Steel AISI-41XX AISI-4135 Stud ASTMA193-B7 ASTMA193-B7 Nut ASTMA194-2H ASTMA194-2H AISI-4135 Automatic-Master-Valve Conditions 0.p.3.035 Body Bonnet Flanges AISI-4135HRC-22-MAX AISI-4135 Gate & Seats AISI-4140HRC-22-MAX AISI-4140 Steam AISI-4140HRC-22-MAX AISI-4140 Manual Master-Valve Body Bonnet Flanges AISI-4135HRC-22-MAX AISI-4135 Gate & Seats AISI-4140HRC-22-MAX AISI-4140 Steam AISI-4140 HRC-22-MAX AISI-4140 Wellhead Materials For Corrosion Caused By CO2 and ClConditions 0. Wellhead Materials For Corrosion Caused By H2S Conditions pH2S-MAX > 0. Wellhead Specifications Refer to below.035 pH2S-MAX < 0.2<pCO2 Max 100 FTHT < 150 Cl < 50000 pCO2-Max < 100 150 <FTHT <200 Cl.

2 FTHT < 150 Cl < 50000 pCO2-Max < 100 pH2S-Max <0.8 - Inconel718 AISI-4135IC Inconel625 AISI-4135 HRC-22Max AISI-4135.2 FTHT < 150 Cl < 50000 F6NM MonelK500 F6NM AISI-4135HRC-22Max F6NM F6NM AISI-4135 ASTMHRC-22-Max A193-B7M ASTMA194-2M ASTMA194-2M pCO2-Max < 100 pH2S-Max < 0.AISI-4135.8 Cl > Water 50000 pCO2-Max <100 pH2S-Max e > 0.AISI-4135IC IC Inconel625 MonelK500 Inconel625 MonelK500 AISI-4135 HRC-22MAX MonelK500 pCO2-Max < 100 pH2S-Max <0.AISI-4135 IC IC HRC-22-Max Inconel625 Inconel718 Inconel625 Inconel718 Inconel718 Inconel718 . Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 0 REVISION Wellhead Materials For Corrosion Caused By H2S.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 148 OF 295 ENI S.A.005 FTHT < 150 Cl < 50000 - Tubing Hanger F6NM Tbg Head Adapter 13%-Cr 80ksi-Max F6NM Tubing Spool AISI-4135 HRC-22Max Cross 13%-Cr80ksi-Max F6NM Top Adapter 13%-Cr 80ksi-Max F6NM Casing Spool Stud Nut ASTMA194-2M AISI-4135 ASTMHRC-22-Max A193-B7M pCO2-Max < 100 pH2S-Max < 0.8 FTHT< 150 Cl < 50000 - F6NM MonelK500 F6NM AISI-4135HRC-22MAX F6NM F6NM AISI-4135HRC-22MAX ASTMA193-B7M ASTMA194-2M MonelK500 ASTMA194-2M Inconel718 AISI-4135IC Inconel625 AISI-4135 HRC-22MAX AISI-4135.p. CO2 and Cl Condition pCO2 -Max < 100 pH2S-Max < 0.

ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 149 OF 295 ENI S.Wellhead Material for Sour Service .Max < 100 pH2S.Max < 0.I.C. Inconel-625 F6NM Inconel-718 Monel-K500 pCO2.Max < 100 pH2S. Inconel-625 F6NM Inconel-718 Monel-K500 AISI-4135-I.A.Max < 0.C.p.8 Cl Water 50000 pCO2.Max < 100 AISI-4135. pH2S.C.Max < 0.Max < 100 pH2S.8 FTHT< 150 Cl <50000 - F6NM 13%-Cr-80 KSIMax Stellite-6 Monel-K500 F6NM 13%-Cr80KSI.Max e > 0.Max Stellite--6 Monel-K500 AISI-4135-I.Max Steam 17-4-PH F6NM pCO2 -Max < 100 13%-Cr-80KSIMax pH S.Max < 2 0.D.8 - Inconel-718 Inconel-718 AISI-4135-I.2 FTHT < 150 Cl < 50000 pCO2. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 0 REVISION Automatic-Master-Valve Conditions Body Bonnet Flanges Gate & Seats 13%-Cr-80 KSIMax Steam 17-4-PH F6NM Manual Master-Valve Body Bonnet Flanges 13%-Cr-80KSIMax F6NM Gate & Seats 13%-Cr80KSI.005 FTHT < 150 Cl < 50000 F6NM pCO2. Inconel-625 Inconel-718 Inconel-718 Inconel-625 Table 6.C.

825 FBHT <= 250 C Cl.<= 50000 ppm 13% Cr 150 > FBHT <= 200 C Cl.< 50000 ppm 25 % Cr-CW 200 < FBHT <= 250 Cl.STEEL J 55 N 80 P 110 FBHT >80 C J55 K55 N80-1 C95 P110-1 (only oil) or L80 mod C90 T1 LOW ALLOY STEEL L 80 mod C 90 T1 C 95 T1 10-3 65 < FBHT<= 80C J 55 K 55 N80-1 or L 80 mod C90 T1 T 95 T1 10-4 10-4 10-3 10-2 10-1 1 10 100 pH2S (atm) Figure 6.> 50000 ppm 28 % Cr or INCOLOY.> 50000 ppm 22 % Cr.C 90 T1 T 95 T1 10-2 C.OCTG Material Selection Diagram .825 10 FBHT <= 200 C Cl-<=50000 ppm 22 % Cr-SA or 25 % Cr-SA 28 % Cr INCOLOY. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 0 REVISION 100 pCO2 (atm) FBHT <= 150 C and Cl.CW 25 % Cr -CW 150 < FBHT <= 200 C Cl.A.> 50000 ppm 28 % Cr INCOLOY.<= 20000 ppm 25% Cr-CW FBHT<=250 C and Cl.<= 50000 ppm 25 % Cr-SA or 28 % Cr INCOLOY.< 50000 ppm 22 % Cr 25 % Cr 200 < FBHT <= 250 C Cl.<= 50000 ppm 25% Cr-CW 200<FBHT<=250 C and Cl.E .p.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 150 OF 295 ENI S.> 50000 ppm 25 % Cr-CW (*) 1 10-1 FBHT < = 65 C L 80 or L 80 mod.<= 50000 ppm 13 % Cr 80 Ksi max or 22 % Cr 25 % Cr FBHT <= 200 C Cl.825 FBHT < 200 C 28 % Cr or INCOLOY-825 (*) FBHT<= 150 C Cl.825 FBHT<= 250 C Cl.<= 50000 ppm 22% Cr 200<FBHT<=250 C 25% Cr-SA or 25% Cr FBHT<= 250 C and Cl.

<= 50000 ppm 13 % Cr 80 ksi max 150 > FBHT<= 250 C 25% Cr-CW or 25% Cr INCONEL 718 INCOLOY 825 200 < FBHT<= 250 C Cl.> 50000 ppm 25 % Cr-CW INCONEL 718 INCOLOY 825 10-4 10-4 10-3 10-2 10-1 1 10 100 pH2S (atm) Figure 6.<= 50000 ppm 25 % Cr-SA 28 % Cr INCOLOY 825 INCONEL 718 FBHT<= 250 C Cl.> 50000 ppm 22 % Cr-CW 25 % Cr-CW INCONEL 718 INCOLOY 825 AISI 41XX 22 HRC max 10-3 200 > FBHT <= 250 C Cl.p.<= 50000 ppm 25 % Cr or INCONEL 718 INCOLOY 825 FBHT <= 200 C Cl-<=50000 ppm 22 % Cr-SA 25 % Cr-SA 28 % Cr INCOLOY 825 INCONEL 718 200 < FBHT <= 250 C Cl.> 50000 ppm 28 % Cr or INCONEL 718 INCOLOY 825 1 200 < FBHT <= 250 C Cl.<= 50000 ppm 9 Cr 1 Mo 100 < FBHT <= 150 C Cl.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 151 OF 295 ENI S.> 50000 ppm 28 % Cr INCOLOY.A.825 INCONEL 718 FBHT < 200 C 28 % Cr or INCOLOY 825 INCONEL 718 (*) 150 < FBHT <= 200 C Cl.<= 50000 ppm 22 % Cr 25 % Cr INCONEL 718 INCOLOY 825 10 (*) 200 < FBHT<=250 C Cl.DHE Material Selection Diagram .> 50000 ppm 25 % Cr INCONEL 718 INCOLOY 825 10-1 FBHT < = 65 C AISI 41XX 22 HRC max 10-2 C-STEEL or AISI 41XX 65 < FBHT <=80 C C-STEEL 80 Ksi max AISI 41XX FBHT > 80 C C-STEEL 110 Ksi max AISI 41XX 100 < FBHT <= 200 C Cl. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 0 REVISION 100 pCO2 (atm) FBHT <= 100 C Cl.F .

the following specifications should be included.g.p. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 6.A. e. 6) 7) Note: The casing should also meet the following criteria: • • The steel used in the manufacture of the casing should have been quenched and tempered. All sour service casing should be inspected using non-destructive testing or impact tests only. Three copies of the report providing the ladle analysis of each heat used in the manufacture of the goods shipped. all markings must be paint stencilled or hot die stamped. in addition to those given in the above table. ORDERING SPECIFICATIONS 0 REVISION When ordering tubulars for sour service. together with all the check analyses performed. . Recommendations for casing to be used for sour service must be specified according to the API 5CT for restricted yield strength casings.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 152 OF 295 ENI S. Cold die stamping is prohibited. The pipe must be tested to the alternative test pressure (see API Bulletins 5A and 5AC).9. P105 or P110 tubulars are not acceptable for orders for J55 or K55 casing. Three copies of a report showing the physical properties of the goods supplied and the results of hardness tests (Refer to step 3 above) must be submitted. must be submitted. 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) Downgraded grade N80. normalising and tempering). as per API Specification 5CT. Shell modified API thread compound must be used. The couplings must have the same heat treatment as the pipe body. (This treatment is superior to tubulars heated/treated by other methods.

it is necessary to calculate the variations in length for the stresses applied under load conditions. the SFs may be reduced. a higher grade of pipe. THEORY During completion tubing design process.25 applies to the ratio of the calculated stress in a string to the minimum yield strength of the selected tubing in carbon steels.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 153 OF 295 ENI S. refer to the criteria in section 7. A safety factor (SF) of 1. Currently Eni-Agip Division and Affiliates recommended programme is the Enertech WS-Tube programme to the latest version. Movement can only occur if the tubing is free to move. TUBING DESIGN POLICIES All completion tubing strings will have tubing movement calculations conducted to ascertain the maximum load applied to the string and/or completion tubing movement to be catered for in the completion design. . 7. Tubing size shall be determined by the reservoir engineers using IPR curves and Nodal analysis (Refer to section 5. the calculation should be run again substituting.10 Stress Calculations. it is first necessary to understand the properties of steels used in the manufacture of tubing.1. If the tubing is not free to move and is anchored to a packer then stress will be subjected to the tubing string and packer.A. A safety factor (SF) of 1. 7. Tubing movement upwards (contraction) is assumed to be negative and downwards (lengthening) is positive. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 0 REVISION 7. All tubing strings should be designed for stress. Under some special conditions. either a heavier weight or.10.2. When these have been determined it will confirm the suitability of the selected tubing. Tubing movement occurs due to only two reasons: • • Temperature changes Change in pressure induced forces.6). If the stress SF is less than these limits. preferably using an appropriate up to date computer programme. To fully understand these effects.35 applies to the ratio of the calculated stress in a string to the minimum yield strength of the selected tubing of CRA materials. This relationship is fully explained in section 7.2.p.

Tests of materials may be conducted in many different ways. In this. both are explained in figure 7.p. A typical curve for steel is shown in figure 7. deformation. compression and shear. and if fracture occurs with little or no plastic deformation. i. These failures are failures of the material. some deformation may be sustained without permanent deformation.2. and other causes. Mechanical Properties of Steel 0 REVISION Failure of a material or of a structural part may occur by fracture (e. sometimes called Young's Modulus.e. is the modulus of elasticity E. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 7. the elastic deformation is approximately a straight line as called for by Hooke's Law.A.A . Figure 7.Stress-Strain Curve for Tubing Steel .ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 154 OF 295 ENI S. deformation takes place before any final fracture occurs. The action of a material under the gradually increasing extension in the tension test is usually represented by plotting apparent stress (the total load divided by the original cross-sectional area of the test piece) as ordinates against the apparent strain (elongation between two gauge points marked on the test piece divided by the original gauge length) as abscissae. or permanent.b. With all solid materials. Buckling may cause failure of the part without any fracture of the material. This gives rise to Poisson’s Ratio. yield. it is classed as a ductile material. but the tension test is the most common and is qualitatively characteristic of all the other types of tests. such as by torsion. or the ratio of stress to strain within the elastic range.a. the elastic deformation is accompanied by varying amounts of plastic.g. Beyond the elastic limit. the shattering of glass).. and the slope of this line. the material is classed as brittle. If a material sustains large amounts of plastic deformation before final fracture. wear. corrosion. As load is applied. the material behaves elastically.1.

If the stress is released in the region between the elastic limit and the yield strength.a. permanent or plastic strain occurs. Figure 7. leaving a permanent set.Deformation Constants for Tubing Steel . the material will contract along a line generally nearly straight and parallel to the original elastic line.p. see figure 7. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 0 REVISION Beyond the elastic limit.B .ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 155 OF 295 ENI S.A.

The denominations of the different grades are based on the minimum yield strength. and under certain conditions of temperature. it is customary to measure a yield strength.000 psi. For steels used in the manufacturing of tubular goods.p. Careful practice qualifies this by designating it the proportional elastic limit. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 0 REVISION In steels. yield strength 40.000 psi. it is customary to designate the end of the straight portion of the curve (by definition the proportional limit) as the elastic limit. and in the case of the yield point even maximum requirements (except for H-40). minimum requirements are laid down for the mechanical properties.A. yield strength 55.9.5% to 0.min. This loss of area weakens the specimen so that the curve reaches a maximum and then falls off until final fracture occurs. a curious phenomenon occurs after the elastic limit. the yielding phenomenon is less prominent and is correspondingly harder to measure.g. 5CT which is a combination of former specs. The stress at the maximum point is called the tensile strength or the ultimate strength of the material and is its most often quoted property.: H-40 . e. J-55 .2% is widely accepted in the industry). The mechanical and chemical properties of casing. .000 psi. In the harder and stronger steels. 5AX and 5AQ . Instead of determining the stress up to which there is no permanent set. yield strength 80. The maximum stress reached in this region is called the upper yield point and the lower part of the yielding region the lower yield point.min. Similar arbitrary rules are followed with regard to the elastic limit in commercial practice. The lines indicating equivalent hardness of 22 and 23 Rc indicates the tolerances for use of the materials in H2S conditions according to NACE which is fully described in section 7. 5AC. 5A. This is arbitrarily defined as the stress at which the material has a specified permanent set (the value of 0. Others are shown in figure 7. L-80 . Depending on the type or grade.c. but at the same time the cross-sectional area of the specimen becomes less as it is drawn out. As extension continues beyond yielding. This gives rise to a dip in the general curve followed by a period of deformation at approximately constant load. In materials that do not exhibit a marked yield point.6% of the gauge length.Casing and Tubing requirements. as required by definition.4.min. API specifies the yield strength as the tensile strength required to produce a total elongation of 0.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 156 OF 295 ENI S. known as yielding. tubing and drill pipe are laid down in API specification of further specs. the material becomes stronger causing a rise of the curve.

C .Strengths of Various Grades of Steel .A. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 0 REVISION Figure 7.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 157 OF 295 ENI S.p.

e.3ft = total 9ft. a TSR or travel joint (Refer to figure 7. . All metals have a particular expansion rate which is termed the ‘Coefficient of thermal expansion’. i. a 20ft device should be selected as a 10ft device would not provide enough contingency for error.d below). If the tubing is free to move then the calculations will determine the maximum expansion or contraction which needs to be catered for by the utilisation of a tubing movement compensation system such as a packer and seal unit. a) Free Movement The tubing is free to move fully upwards or downwards using the packer bore with a seal assembly.2 will expand or contract due to changes in temperature or pressure induced forces.2. with a calculated movement of + 6ft and . 10ft. All subsequent changes in temperature or pressure induced forces are calculated form this initial condition. This may increase or decrease the stress already exerted to the tubing when it was installed. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 7. or latched to. Calculations must be conducted to establish the full tubing movement in order that the length of tubing movement device can be determined. as seen in the previous section 7. the packer -6 Further explanation of these three modes are explained below. Temperature 0 REVISION Temperature changes cause expansion and contraction in metals which is a significant factor in tubing strings. The co-efficient of liner expansion for tubular steels is usually 6. a PBR. an object will expand or contract through temperature change by the Co-efficient of thermal expansion for the type of material. then the tubing is unable to move as it can in the free movement scenario and.2. There are three methods in which tubing is connected to the packer: a) b) c) Tubing is fully free to move either way.3. For a given volume. 7. a PBR. e. ELTSR or a travel joint depending on which type of packer system is utilised. The tubing is positioned where it is fully free to move upwards but its downward movement is restricted and stress applied to the packer. which is the ‘initial’ tubing condition. The tubing is connected to the packer by being threaded to.g.2.p.9 x 10 in/in/F°. 20ft and 30ft.A. changes in tubing stress will be exerted. The movement determined by calculation should be used to select a device which accommodates this movement with a margin of error.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 158 OF 295 ENI S. in this case. If the tubing is attached to a packer. unless the movement was subsequently restricted as described in the next section. Tubing Movement/Stress Relationship Steel tubing. These devices are usually available in 10ft stroke lengths or multiples of 10ft.2.

otherwise permanent deformation will occur.f).A. This additional stress will be calculated during the tubing movement calculations and must not exceed the stress limit for the tubing.Anchored Tubing .e).Free Moving Figure 7.Limited Movement Figure 7. it will result in increased tensional and compressive forces. Figure 7. This may be acceptable when temperature and pressure changes are not excessive. correspondingly to the packer. Similarly. etc. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 b) Limited Downward Movement 0 REVISION In this case the tubing is fully free to move upwards but is restricted in its downward movement (Refer to figure 7.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 159 OF 295 ENI S. c) Anchored Tubing In this case the tubing is anchored to the packer by being threaded to it (as in the case when using retrievable packers) or by using an anchoring device such as an Anchor Latch. the calculations will determine that the tubing stress limit is not exceeded.E . Ratchet Latch. hence increased stress in the tubing.p.F . When the tubing is anchored to the packer and movement is eliminated. (Refer to figure 7.D . This restricted downward movement results in further stress applied to the bottom of the tubing and.

Each casing or liner weight and corresponding length of section must be known to enable calculation. temperature data may be found from previous well test results. Casing design profile Casing programme contingency profile Tubing size from optimisation analysis Pressure gradient Temperature gradient Reservoir fluids specific gravities Completion fluid specific gravities Production/injection or stimulation forecast. The average temperature of each section of tubing and casing must be known or determined to input into the calculations.3.2. straight pull or torque can be applied to the tubing downhole at the packer depth overcoming any frictional drag. 7.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 160 OF 295 ENI S.1). The tubing movement/stress calculations will then determine the tubing weight or any change in grade required to meet with the applied SF for stress. WELL DATA. selection of a tubing are: • • • • • • • • 7. hence. Casing Profile/Geometry The planned casing design and contingency plans are required as they affect the tubing movement calculations (Refer to 4. Bottom-hole Pressure Accurate initial and prognosed future formation pressures both static and dynamic are fundamental to tubing movement/stress calculations. determined by nodal analysis conducted by the reservoir engineers.1. The tubing grade is selected in accordance to the criteria listed in section 6 to combat the effects of any corrosion from the well conditions. weight and grade is confirmed then the appropriate rated completion components can be specified in order that the purchasing department can prepare tender documents. Similar to the pressure data. 0 REVISION The well data and parameters required (or already determined) to produce an accurate tubing movement/stress analysis and.A.3. 7.3.3. Once the tubing size.3. Deviation tables are also required. Tubing Data The optimum tubing size.3. .4.p. Temperatures (Static and Flowing) Accurate well temperature data are vital in tubing movement/stress analysis as the temperature effect is usually the effect which causes the greatest tubing movement. is required and is the basis of all the calculations. either. 7. The well deviation is also important to determine the type of packer/tubing seal device and/or tubing movement device to ensure that. These pressures can be obtained from previous well exploration test data or appraisal well test reports.1. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 7.

7. the constituents of the produced reservoir fluids will initially determine the material required for the tubing. Ballooning effect. Carbon Dioxide and Chloride levels. It should be selected to provide an overbalance at the top of the reservoir. PRESSURE INDUCED FORCES When a well is completed. All subsequent conditions are calculated from this initial condition. 7. therefore it is essential that a detailed corrosion study is completed to enable the choice of materials and/or inhibition procedures.4. Completion Fluid The completion fluid.p. Buckling effect. usually a brine. Particular importance should be paid to Hydrogen Sulphide.3. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 7. however if this choice is not economic and some corrosion inhibition process was suitable then this would be a fallback position. In the presence of water and under certain temperature conditions.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 161 OF 295 ENI S. it should be suitably dosed with corrosion inhibitors and oxygen scavenger to prevent corrosion to the exposed tubulars and elastomers. These effects are: a) b) c) Piston effect. Future parameters must also be considered as water may rise and the GOR will change. either with a tubing seal unit in a packer bore or a tubing movement device.A. It also must be selected for its stability over long time periods and not suffer from dehydration or deterioration. The information required to make a considered selection may be obtained from the ADIS (Advanced Drilling Information System) database (which holds all the data regarding the drilling of the well). this is referred to as the initial condition. Reservoir Fluids 0 REVISION As described earlier.6. well tests carried out earlier and other sources which may be useful in the decision making process. the material chosen should combat the effects of corrosion. This is subject to any corrosion inhibition methods which may be implemented. is chosen for its compatibility with the formation and its fluids so as not to cause any formation damage.5. If justified economically. . therefore the materials should be chosen to last the planned life of the completion.3. it will have completion fluid in both the tubing and the annulus. As the completion fluid (sometimes referred to as the packer fluid) will be left in the annulus. These are three pressure induced effects which produce forces that moves the tubing. these corrosive agents can cause serious problems. Each of these effects are addressed in this section.

This will alter the tensile load on the top and bottom of the tubing. and tubing smaller than the packer bore.A Substituting for F. If there is an alteration from this initial condition causing a change in pressure forces across the packer seal unit then a piston effect is caused.p. The change in length due to these alterations is calculated from Hooks Law: Where E is the modulus of elasticity (sometimes referred to as a Young’s Modulus formula). 7.h illustrate this piston force for two cases.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 162 OF 295 ENI S. when run in a well must first withstand the load of its own weight which may be a significant factor especially in deep wells. The formula in each case is the same: ∆L1 = − L F EAs Eq. the equation becomes: ∆L1 = − where: L EAs [(Ap − A1) ∆P1 − (Ap − Ao ) ∆Po] Eq. 7. Piston Effect 0 REVISION Tubing. The tubing is run into a completion fluid with equivalent fluid density inside and outside the tubing which results in a reduction of the load due to buoyancy. The force (F) change is caused by the change in piston force from the initial conditions created by a change in pressure in the annulus or tubing at the packer.7 and figure 7. tubing larger than the packer bore. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 7.B L E As Ap Ai Ao ∆Pi ∆Po = = = = = = = = Length of the tubing string to the packer depth (ins) Young’s Modulus of Elasticity (psi) 2 Cross sectional area of tubing (ins ) 2 Area of the packer bore (ins ) 2 Area of the tubing ID (ins ) 2 Area of the tubing OD (ins ) Change in tubing pressure at the packer (psi) Change in annulus pressure at the packer (psi) .1. 7.4. This tensile load is greatest in the joint immediately below the tubing hanger.A.

The neutral point can be calculated from the following: n= where: W Wi Wo = = = F w Ws + Wi . 7. Buckling Effect Figure 7.i). The exact point between the buckled and straight sections is the ‘neutral point’ (Refer to figure 7.G . some of the tubing will be buckled and the rest straight.Wo Ai x Weight of fluid inside the tubing Ao x Weight of fluid outside the tubing Eq.i has a variable pitch as the compressive force is progressively lowered by the weight of the pipe hanging below.H .2. Unless the tubing string is short or the compressive force is exceedingly high.Packer Bore Smaller Than Tubing OD Helical buckling is initiated by compressive force acting on the bottom of the tubing and is the formation of helical spirals in the tubing string.Packer Bore Larger Than Tubing OD 7. The helix shown in figure 7. The buckling effect is greater when pressure differential is applied across the pipe.A.p. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 0 REVISION Ao Ai Ao Ai r r Po Po Ap Pi Ap Pi Figure 7.4.C .ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 163 OF 295 ENI S.

I . Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 0 REVISION Figure 7.A.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 164 OF 295 ENI S.Neutral Point When the neutral point is within the tubing length (and so the helix can fully develop).p. 7.D I= π (D 4 − d 4 ) 64 . the length reduction due to helical buckling (Refer to figure 7.i) can be calculated by the following formula: F2 r2 ∆L2 = − 8EI w where: Eq.




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F Figure 7.J - Helical Buckling If the tubing is very short (as happens for example on selective type completions between two packer’s) all the string may be affected by buckling and there is no neutral point. In this case, the length reduction due to the buckling effect is dependant upon the entire length of the string and can be calculated by the following formula:


∆L2 = −

F 2 r 2  Lw  Lw   F  2 − F  8 EIw   

Eq. 7.E

As seen, the formulae for both piston effect and helicoidal buckling above has so far used F, i.e. the change in the piston force acting on the bottom of the tubing. However, in order to complete the understanding of the effects which lead to variations in length due to buckling, we must also consider the effect caused by pressure differential across a pipe. If the internal pressure in a pipe is greater than the external pressure, the tube remains straight only if it has an axially symmetric cross-section with no deformation to change its shape. This configuration is unstable and any distortion can lead immediately to a stable equilibrium condition which is helicoidal buckling. Helicoidal buckling is caused by the effect of the pressure which acts on the lateral surface of the pipe wall as the convex surface of the bend in a greater force is larger than the concave surface (Refer to figure 7.k). The internal pressure will therefore exert a greater force on the convex side of the helix, than that exerted on the concave section of the same bend. The resulting force will, therefore, create the helicoidal buckling configuration. The same occurs when the stable external pressure is greater than the internal pressure also resulting in helical buckling.




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Moreover, the effect of the external pressure on the tubing lateral surfaces is equivalent to a tensile force applied at the tubing bottom of:

F f = Ai Pi

Eq. 7.F



= − Ao Po

Eq. 7.G







Internal pressure

External pressure

Figure 7.K - Pressure Induced Helical Buckling Effect From this it can be concluded that the effect of the internal pressure on the tubing lateral surfaces is equivalent to a compressive force applied at the bottom of the tubing. Therefore the tubing will be buckled by the piston force and by the sum of Ff and Ff . The fictitious force Ff is obtained from the sum of the three elements:

Ff = Ff + Ff


+ Fa

Eq. 7.H

by substitution:
F f = A p (Pi − Po )

Eq. 7.I

If Ff is greater than zero it will cause helical buckling and hence, if it is less than zero there is no deformation. It is however important to relate that the only force actually applied at the bottom of the tubing is the piston force, while the fictitious force is used only to calculate the buckling effect.




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It should be remembered that, to calculate the variations in length, the variations of the forces compared to initial conditions must be calculated. Therefore, to sum up: in the ∆L1 (Hooke’s law), the variation of the piston force Fa must be used; in the ∆L2 (buckling), the variation of the fictitious force Ff must be used when this is positive, otherwise, being a tensile force, it cannot buckle the string and ∆L2 = 0. The theory above was developed considering Pi = Po in the initial conditions, it thus follows that the Ff is equal to zero and that the variation of fictitious force ∆Ff is therefore equal to the final fictitious force. 7.4.3. Ballooning Effect The third element which changes the length of a string, due to the changes to internal and external pressure, is caused by ballooning. This effect occurs when ∆P = Pi - Po is positive and tends to swell the tubing which, contracts axially or shortens (Refer to figure 7.m). On the other hand, when ∆P = Pi - Po is negative, the tubing is squeezed and, expands axially or elongates. This is termed reverse ballooning (Refer to figure 7.l). The normally used simplified formula to calculate the ballooning or reverse ballooning effect is: • •

∆L3 = −

2ν ∆Pim − R 2 ∆Pom L E R2 −1

Eq. 7.J

In this the average internal and external pressure variations are defined by the formulae:

    +  Pi ( final ) − Pi (initial )   Pi ( final ) − Pi (initial )    tophole   bottomhole ∆Pim = 2
Eq. 7.K

    +  Po ( final ) − Po (initial )   Po ( final ) − Po (initial )    tophole   bottomhole ∆Pom = 2
Eq. 7.L Again this is developed from Hooke’s law using Young’s Modulus of elasticity (already used in the piston and buckling effect) and Poisson’ ratio. Poisson’s ratio v as earlier expressed is:


∆t / t ∆L / L




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Figure 7.L - Reverse Ballooning 7.4.4. Temperature Effect

Figure 7.M - Ballooning

The final effect considered when calculating tubing length variations, is the temperature effect which usually induces the largest movement. During a well operation, e.g. stimulation, the temperature of the tubing may be much less than that in, either, the initial or flow rate conditions. During well stimulations, significant quantities of fluids are pumped through the tubing at ambient surface temperature which may change the temperature of the tubing by several degrees. The formula used to calculate the change of length due to temperature effect is:

∆L4 = α ∆TM L
Eq. 7.M where the average temperature variation in the string can be calculated as follows:

∆TM =



− Tinitial )tophole + (T final − Tinitial )bottomhole 2

Eq. 7.N




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In the formula α represents the material’s coefficient of thermal expansion. For steel this value is: α = 6.9 x 10-6 in/in/°F. figure 7.n shows typical geothermal temperature gradients during both stimulation and production conditions. It can be seen that the temperature variations to which the tubing is subjected may cause considerable changes to its length.




300 T (°F)





7500 D (feet)
Figure 7.N - Typical Geothermal Gradients 7.5. EVALUATION OF TOTAL TUBING MOVEMENT The sum of the length changes obtained from the changes in pressure induced forces and temperature effects, gives the total shift of the bottom end of the string at the packer depth where it is free to move in the packer-bore. This sum is calculated:

∆Ltot = ∆L1 + ∆L2 + ∆L3 + ∆L4
Eq. 7.O With free moving packer/tubing seals systems, the calculations are made for the selection of an appropriate length of seal assembly, PBR or ELTSR with anchored packer/tubing systems, this same calculation can be made to select the length of tubing movement devices such as telescopic or expansion joints. However, if no movement is converted to stress in the tubing, the resultant is stress on the packer (Refer to section 7.6).

P However. . Moreover.p where it is presumed that the tubing can move away from its anchored condition while maintaining the seal with the packer and that the tubing undergoes only ∆L4 contraction caused by the temperature effect.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 170 OF 295 ENI S. Subsequently. Since no force is applied at the end of the tubing which could cause buckling.p. To understand this concept better. preventing any movement of the string when well conditions vary (figure 7. ANCHORED TUBING 0 REVISION In some completions the tubing is firmly fixed to the packer. the load on the tubing can be calculated to check if the completion components have sufficient strength.O . In this situation the tubing-packer forces generated by the presence of the anchoring must be determined so as to be able to confirm if the tubing-packer anchoring system and the packer have sufficient strength to safely withstand all the forces exerted. it is sufficient to impose a ∆L4 elongation by applying a force FP which is obtained from Hooke’s law: ∆L = − FL EAs ⇒ FP = − ∆L4 EAs L Eq. it is possible to use a graphical approach.Tubing Anchored To Packer The tubing-packer force can be calculated by initially assuming that the tubing is free to move in the packer seal-bore and it is possible to calculate the final total length change of the tubing under pressure and temperature variations of all conditions. all the movement is linear and to restore to the tubing’s real anchored position. the force needed to re-anchor the tubing to the packer can be determined. 7. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 7. once this force is known.o). in general the problem of identifying the tubing/packer reaction is not linear due to the helical buckling effect and so. Figure 7.6. consider figure 7.A.

P . on the curve.Graphical Representation Of Movement . shown in figure 7.p. transferred between the tubing and packer. Indeed. This can be plotted using the following formulae: ∆L = − ∆L = − FL EAs FL F 2 r 2 − EAs 8 EIw ( for F < 0 ) ( for F > 0 ) Eq.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 171 OF 295 ENI S.p is determined by the size of tubing. is then identified. the tubing representative point in the well when it is subjected to the fictitious force. if a force of Ff.Q The second step is to identify. ∆Lf).A. was applied at the end of the tubing. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 0 REVISION The first step is to plot the characteristic strength/length variation of the system. on the material.q the Fp force.∆Lf) and the diagram obtained has a total length variation of ∆LP = -∆ltot. so to position the tubing in the packer after contracting the string must be elongated accordingly. 7. As shown in figure 7. the cause of the buckling would be eliminated and the neutral point would return to the bottom in the tubing. The origin of the axis moves to the point found in this way (Ff . This curve. even when this is negative.q this condition is identified by intersection point (Ff. On the curve given in figure 7. radial distance between the tubing OD and casing ID and on the fluids in the well. ∆L4 Fp ∆L ∆L4 Fp F Figure 7.

1. .ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 172 OF 295 ENI S.Graphical Representation of Force 7. some of the weight of the string is set down on the packer. Tubing Permitting Limited Motion Another method which may be used in some types of completions is that the tubing is fully or partially limited in downhole movement. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 0 REVISION ∆Lp Fp ∆L Fp ∆Lf ∆Lp F Ff Figure 7.A. In this method.6. after the packer is set.p. putting the tubing into compression or slackened-off (Refer to figure 7.r).Q .

R where: Fso = slack-off force released on the packer.R . ∆Pso. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 0 REVISION Figure 7. With this type of anchoring it is. ∆Ltot.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 173 OF 295 ENI S. therefore.p. on the other hand. possible to limit the movements of the tubing with respect to the packer and consequently the length of the packer seal-assembly. the total length variation calculated as the sum of the above described effects. any elongation of the string would be prevented. The ∆Lso value is determined using the following formula: 2 Fso L Fso r 2 ∆Lso = − − E As 8 E I w Eq. for example.Limited Downward Movement The shortening of the string caused by this. makes it possible to limit the length variations of the string.e. . compressing the string and thus causing part of the length variation which would occur in any case at a later stage due to the effects described above. causing a force on the packer which would be equal to that of the slack-off amount. In practice. i. during an injection operation. The same considerations can be made if ∆Ltot < 0 during the operation while.g. applying slack-off is the same as moving the packer upwards by ∆Lso. If an anchored type constraint is considered then the tubing-packer force with respect to the anchored tubing can be reduced. in an injection operation.A. 7. is decreased by ∆Lso. e. therefore.

This in turn places stress in the tubing after the packer is set and the pressure is bled off.p.1. During the time taken to install the tubing. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 7. A manual or computer programme is then used to calculate and then ascertain whether the given tubing is able to withstand the maximum load with an acceptable safety level.2. This stress needs to be taken into account to determine the total stress applied to the tubing. 7. These pressures may be applied more than once during the installation operation.7. therefore the only load applied is the pressure induced forces of piston effect buckling and ballooning.6. temperature and mechanical loads for each condition imposed. . it is essential to identify exactly what operations will be carried out in future to determine the consequent loads and thus the associated load conditions. The operations normally carried out on a well for which the string control is necessary are illustrated below. This may be of particular concern when using large bore tubing movement devices as the forces generated by the test pressure are greater than packer tubing seal arrangements. However. the designed test pressures should be equal to or greater than any other subsequent pressures applied to the completion so the magnitude is high. TUBING LOAD CONDITIONS The load conditions of the tubing string during the well’s life causes stresses through the pressure. or by installing a plug with wireline.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 174 OF 295 ENI S. These should be seen only as an example of load conditions as each case must be addressed individually as planned operations may vary. when selecting the type of tubing for a completion.A. Hydraulic packers are set by plugging the tubing below the packer either by dropping a setting ball onto a shear out ball seat. The formulae for determine this tubing length change are: ∆Fa L EAs 2ν ∆Pim ∆L3 = − L E R2 −1 ∆L1 = − where: (Hooke’s law) (ballooning) ∆Fa = − Ai ∆Pi and ∆Pim=∆Pi 7. to analyse the characteristics of each operation in order to be able to identify the heavier loads which may be imposed. Packer Setting 0 REVISION A particular problem arises in tubing tied to packer completions when using hydraulic set packers. This involves applying predetermined test pressures to both the tubing and annulus. in any case. It is important. it changes the length of the tubing during the setting process. as pressure is applied to the tubing to set the packer. Pressure Testing The very first load condition experienced during and after the installation of the completion string is pressure testing.7. the completion will have warmed up to ambient well conditions. It is therefore obvious why.

7. figure 7. From the point of view of the stresses exerted on the tubing string. in order to exceed the fracturing gradient. the maximum allowable pressure for some well head equipment may be reached. Other data are often needed for more complex calculations.s). To carry out fracturing.A. This operation is carried out by pumping a predetermined quantity of acid down the tubing to the formation at set pressures and flow rates. At times during these early stages. is carried out at high flow rates even though of short duration. the pressure and temperature trends can be plotted as shown by the previous example of the acid stimulation (figure 7. according to the classical Lubinsky theory. It may be necessary in some cases. With regard to the stresses on the string similar to acid stimulations. to reduce the loads on the tubing by preheating the acid in order to limit the thermal expansion and pressurising the annulus to reduce the tubing ballooning effect. it is important to assess the drop in temperature caused by the injection of colder fluid which. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 7. the maximum pressure able to be applied at the well head must be considered in order to determine the rate of acid which can be applied.7.2.s shows the pressure and temperature trends required to be known so as to ensure stress control of the string. This equipment must therefore be protected using special isolating tools or protection sleeves. To check the string design is suitable. in Eni-Agip Division and Affiliates case are in-house software which allows reproduction of the correct temperature trend. and decreasing the bottom hole pressure thus reducing the load. the formation must be pressurised until one (or more) fractures are created.p.3. These fractures reach from the well bore deep into reservoir and allows better drainage. selecting the end of the operation as the final conditions but with a well head pressure equal to the maximum estimated. using computer programmes. Fracturing Fracturing involves the propagation of fractures in the formation for the improvement of productivity of hydrocarbons.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 175 OF 295 ENI S. This entails obtaining in advance the injection parameters from various injectivity tests with increasing flow rates. especially during the early injection stage. The pressures which can be attained. This may lead to greater cooling down of the tubing with reduced pressures. are higher than that during acid jobs. The calculated flow rate is applied during the operation and the pressure trend (which usually decreases when the fracture is created due to the reduction of load losses in the formation) is monitored. Acid Stimulation 0 REVISION Acid jobs are carried out to remove formation damage caused during drilling by the invasion of fluids and cuttings or to stimulate the formation by improving permeability. together with the temperature variations caused by the injection of colder fluid. . It is important to monitor the pressure and temperature trends during the operation as the acid rate will probably increase due to the effect of the acid on the formation. which. Friction reducers may also be used to increase flow at the same wellhead pressure.7.

Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 0 REVISION If during the initial stages of the operation. a significant break-down is forecast (by a marked reduction of pressure when the fracture is opened up in the formation).p.A.Pressure and Temperature Trends During Fracturing .ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 176 OF 295 ENI S. and the second with marked temperature variations and lower pressures. The latter condition may be too conservative.FINAL CSG 2500 FINAL TBG 5000 7500 D (feet) 0 0 5000 FINAL CSG 10000 FINAL TBG 15000 P (psi) 2500 5000 INITIAL TBG INITIAL CSG 7500 D (feet) Figure 7.S . 0 0 100 200 300 T (°F) INITIAL CSG AND TBG . therefore two conditions should be checked. the first with high pressures without temperature variations.

u shows typical pressure and temperature trends after a shut-in. or at least approximate. The resulting compressive forces may lead to the buckling phenomena and even cause the tubing to exceed its elastic limit.5. making it necessary to ensure a collapse control of some sections. 7.4.g. the string undergoes temperature increases which cause elongation in the string. Flowing 0 REVISION In this case it is not an operation carried out on the well but the normal flowing load conditions to which the string is being subjected. Different production situations will occur which cause changing load conditions. it is necessary to interrupt production for maintenance or in order to take some data measurements. external pressure may be greater than internal pressure. at the moment of shut-in. e. As shown in the diagrams of figure 7. the pressure and temperature profiles during the life of the well. The situation is now similar to that during production but with well head pressures which are greater and hence increase the stresses on the string. Shut-In Once a well is in production. .ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 177 OF 295 ENI S.7. This load condition is considered critical as. Compared to the initial condition. temperature differences between the beginning and end of the productive life or the need to increase or decrease the flow rate for reasons external to the well.A.t and figure 7.p. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 7. the temperature of the string does not vary greatly due to the thermal inertia of the well.7. which give the pressure and temperature bottom hole trends as a function of the depth at production start up and when the reservoir is depleted. This shut-in operation involves closing the well during which the well head pressure increases because the reservoir pressure rises to static condition. pressuring up the fluids in the tubing. figure 7.u. It is therefore very important to establish.

FINAL CSG 7500 D (feet) Figure 7.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 178 OF 295 ENI S. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 0 REVISION 0 0 100 200 300 T (°F) 2500 FINAL TBG 5000 INITIAL CSG E TBG .T .A.p.FINAL CSG 7500 D (feet) 0 0 5000 10000 15000 P (psi) 2500 FINAL TBG INITIAL TBG 5000 INITIAL CSG .Pressure and Temperature Trends in Normal Production Conditions .

p. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 0 REVISION Figure 7.A.Pressure and Temperature Trends in Depleted Reservoir Production Conditions 0 0 100 200 300 T (°F) 2500 FINAL TBG 5000 INITIAL CSG E TBG .U .FINAL CSG 7500 D (feet) .ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 179 OF 295 ENI S.FINAL CSG 7500 D (feet) 0 0 5000 FINAL TBG 10000 15000 P (psi) 2500 INITIAL TBG 5000 INITIAL CSG .

p. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 0 REVISION 0 0 100 200 300 T (°F) 2500 FINAL TBG 5000 INITIAL CSG AND TBG .CSG FINAL 7500 D (feet) 0 0 5000 10000 15000 P (psi) FINAL TBG 2500 INITIAL TBG 5000 INITIAL CSG .ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 180 OF 295 ENI S.Pressure and Temperature Trends After Shut-In .V .FINAL CSG 7500 D (feet) Figure 7.A.

is reached. and knowing the completion configuration. A draft design is considered based on the expected well conditions and then this design is checked to obtain the safety factor(s). Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 7. i. By using an iterative method. As shown in the examples above. If the string is tapered or has one. . or more. intermediate packers. during the stage considered most critical as regards the loads applied.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 181 OF 295 ENI S. TUBING SELECTION The tubing string selection procedure and subsequent stress analysis is fundamental to the completion design process as it is during these two stages. the correct safety factor for all the calculated load conditions expected during the life of the well. A typical example is that of wells with the presence of corrosive agents where either strings and down hole equipment can be made in Corrosion Resistant Alloy (CRA) or carbon steel with inhibitors injected downhole can be used. it is important to be able to plot the pressure and temperature trends of the casing and tubing on the two pressure/depth and temperature/ depth diagrams for the moment before the packer is set (initial conditions) and at the end of this operation (final condition) or. The Eni-Agip Division and Affiliates approach to choosing the tubing string is similar to that followed when designing any other mechanical part.A. 7. the relative loads on the sections of the string can be calculated. can be obtained. by choosing and verifying the various possibilities. generally this is greatest in the section above the packer and below the well head.7. in any case. Since the economic factor plays a primary role of importance when selecting a completion. avoiding future workovers or if it is more economical to use carbon steel with an inhibition system and scheduled workovers. In both cases the problem of completing the well is solved but it is necessary to verify both cost and whether it is better to use on CRA. that the optimum solution is found through a sequence of approximations.6.e. which may differ depending on the local environmental conditions and on some parameters discussed below.p. it will be necessary during the control stage to know the pressure and temperature data of all the packers and of the tubing cross-section variations and is good practice to plot these data on diagrams. Load Condition Summary 0 REVISION The operations described above were chosen because they are the most common and show which aspects of an operation must be known in order to determine which loads will have to be considered to verify string design. Alterations are then made to the draft completion until the ideal safety factor.8. it is necessary to assess all the various possible solutions. Using the above diagrams.

it is best to base the choice on an appropriate corrosion study which takes into account many other parameters. is often sufficient though these only reach a maximum grade of T95 (95 ksi yield) therefore do not always meet with stress requirements in high pressures and great depth. using the engineering diagrams supplied by manufacturers. In this case. When CRA steels are used (which must be cold worked in order to obtain the required mechanical characteristics).) must fit inside the production casing and/or liner.1. Note: It is vital that any detrimental impact caused by the casing programme is discussed with the drilling engineers to solve any problems. especially when the severity of the conditions suggest the use of expensive CRA materials (Refer to section 6). landing nipples. to complete a well with the presence of corrosive agents (H2S and/or CO2) the use carbon steel with controlled hardness and/or martensitic steel. The inside and outside diameter of the tubing. is the choice of the size. Critical Factors 0 REVISION The main factors driving the choice of the string are described below. With regard to corrosion studies.8. frequency of workovers. economics. etc. or for a quicker choice. thickness of the corrosion product. e.A. Given that the dimensions of the tubing and components of the string (safety valves. In general. chlorides and water from production tests and to enter these data into an expert system.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 182 OF 295 ENI S. the possibility of anisotropies must be checked into as they generally imply a lower compressive yield load than tensile yield load and corresponding reductions for their use at high temperatures. whether this entails changes to either the casing programme or the completion design. it is then possible to identify the optimum mechanical solutions. However. outlined below.2. . Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 7. the exact quantities of H2S. wall thickness and grade of tubing which is optimum to requirements. it will be necessary to take into consideration their mechanical properties to ensure that a suitable factor can be verified in the subsequent stress analysis stage. the ideal material is determined by the results of corrosion studies carried out prior to the tubing design stage.p. Materials The choice of material for the tubing string depends mainly on the well environment. The presence of residual tension may induce stress corrosion and over-stressing problems which must also be taken into consideration. Tubing Size And Weight One of the main elements of the completion string design process. Taking into consideration the well conditions. etc. in terms of all the mechanical stresses and corrosivity of the fluids. it is essential to establish the size in order to find out if it impacts on the casing design.g. the length of each section needs to be determined at this point. 7.8. Indeed. Once the choice of materials has been identified. it is always necessary to determine. and if the string has more than one size of tubing as in a tapered string. this method does not provide a solution to using carbon steel in conjunction with an inhibition system. CO2.

e. i. or gas condensate wells. the safety factor under these loads against the yield strength are calculated. limit the choices.p. by grinding. API standards for carbon steels define a 12.) applied to the selected string. the new string (maximum thickness. which provides a better safety factor under similar conditions. In the case of a very expensive super austenitic steel string for example.A. Once this calculation has been made. The strings of these wells. it is necessary to calculate the velocities in the string during production. As explained in the following section.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 183 OF 295 ENI S. faster wall thickness reduction. The most important value to be decided on the selected tubing is its mechanical strength. which take into account the type of fluid. production. carried out to remove tong marks. This rate must be lower than the rate at which erosion occurs. maximum weight) and the workover stage (minimum thickness. These studies can generally be completed quickly using Eni-Agip Division and Affiliates software which directly provides the diameters of tubing for the expected flow rates and projected rates. It is prudent in such cases to reduce through tubing interventions which knock off the corrosion exposing fresh material and. When choosing the thickness of the tubing forming the string. mechanical strength and practical feasibility. Wells in which hydrocarbons containing corrosive agents are produced are sometimes completed using carbon steel and it is accepted that a certain amount of the material will be lost through corrosion during the life of the well. minimum weight) must both be taken into consideration when calculating the string’s stress resistance. Another reduction of thickness which must be taken into account on used tubing. it may be necessary to increase the weight or grade because the string is too weak. it is useful to consider the thickness tolerance adopted by the manufacturer of the selected tubing. which generally will be equipped with a corrosion inhibitor injection system. Once the projected size of the tubing is established for the required flow rate then in gas. These threshold velocities can be found in API RP 14E. should therefore have added thickness so as to have sufficient material to last until the scheduled workover. The two cases. hence. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 0 REVISION The first indications of tubing size obtained is from tubing inflow performance analysis. . This value for CRA tubing’s is often only 10%. may be due to repairs. bottom hole pressures and other parameters. surface pressures. The above factors can often lead to a variety of solutions. so it is necessary to evaluate each one in order to obtain the most suitable solution in terms of cost. etc.5% eccentricity tolerance which means one point on the tubing’s circumference probably has less thickness. Calculation of the tubing inflow performance is very complicated and time consuming in most cases and is not covered in this manual. the loads resulting from the various load conditions (acid jobs. such as cost. In some particular situations non-traditional solutions must be chosen as some parameters. it may be more appropriate to choose more structurally efficient solutions which use a tapered string with different diameters thus reducing the amount of material needed and therefore the cost.

Another important problem of free tubing.3. Free Movement Limited Downward Movement Attached Figure 7.W . due to the use of static seals.e. This system does. however. which shows the three most common types of packer/tubing systems. . is systems to screw the tubing to the packer using a threaded connection on retrievable packer systems or to a tubing anchor (which allows the packer to be released when necessary) on permanent packer systems.8. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 7. This type of anchoring provides the solution to seal life.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 184 OF 295 ENI S. This will extend seal life. with high pressures and temperatures the movements of the lower end of the tubing may reach several feet in magnitude and hence very long seal units would need to be used in the packer which brings related assembly and protection problems during running in. Anchoring Systems 0 REVISION As illustrated earlier. In very deep wells. have some disadvantages which are often unacceptable such as dynamic seals. using a NoGo locator shoulder fitted above the seal assembly where it is positioned to prevent the elongation of the string while leaving it free to shorten. the operations carried out during the life of a well cause movement of the tubing string which can depend on the type of tubing/packer seal system used between the bottom of the tubing and the packer. From figure 7. In preference. The best solution. it is clear from this that the least severe system is where the tubing seal assembly is free to move in the packer bore. the free moving system is the first choice and if the loads it creates do not allow for a suitable safety factor during well operations are other systems considered.w. but leads to greater stressing of the tubing string. This will reduce movement of the packer seal assembly by eliminating downward movement and upward movement would only occur in certain limited lead conditions (stimulations or fracturing).Tubing/Packer Systems The second preference is where downward tubing movement is restricted i. is the continuous movement of the seal elastomers which may become damaged due to wear or from the debris deposited in the annulus above the packer.p. will generate different loads in the string will be generated.A.

. I and II. The connections to be used shall be qualified according to the requirements as set in the Eni-Agip Division and Affiliates procedure ‘Connection Procedure Evaluation’.9. They are : Coupled Connections AMS 28 ( manufacturer Dalmine) Vam ACE ( manufacturer Vallourec and Sumitomo) Integral Connections Eni-Agip Division and Affiliates A-DMS (Dual Metal Seal) Other connections like Hydril CS.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 185 OF 295 ENI S. Policy • • The use of premium connections for tubing is mandatory. Application Level I applies to the most severe service conditions. especially when the annulus is to be used for gas lift or an underbalance fluid is used as a completion fluid. termed Application Levels (AL).2. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 7.1. 7. 7. TUBING CONNECTIONS 0 REVISION The Eni-Agip Division and Affiliates policy for tubing connections is that ‘the use of premium connections is mandatory’.p. Class of Service According to the specification STAP M-1-M 5006 ‘Connection Procedure Evaluation’. In conjunction Eni-Agip Division and Affiliates also recommended that a premium connection be used for production casings and production liners. They may be used for all service condition where an Application Level II connection is required.9.9.A. To date three tubing connections have been qualified for the most severe conditions ALI. PJD Dalmine and Antares MS have not yet been subjected to the complete qualification programme as per STAP M-1-M. The use of premium connections for production casing is advised but not mandatory. They have however been used successfully for years with good results.5006 or API 5C5. there are two service classes.

4000 psi Differential WP 4000 . Work string or well testing string: Integral AL1 connection shall be used Horizontal wells with Build up ≥ 20°/100 feet: Integral AL1 connection should be used Wells with TVD ≥ 4500m: Integral AL1 connection shall be used Producing Oil And Gas Wells (TVD < 4500m) Criteria NACE Close Proximity Differential WP 0 . AL I no yes AL II AL I AL I no no AL II AL II (*) AL I Requirement yes yes AL I AL I AL I yes no AL II AL I AL I Table 7.A.A .8000 psi Table 7.Connection Specification Storage/Injection Gas Wells (TVD < 4500m) Criteria Differential WP 0 .ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 186 OF 295 ENI S. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 7. Selection Criteria 0 REVISION The following are the selection criteria for connections used in different types of wells and operating conditions.8000 psi Differential WP over 8000 psi (*) For Gas Injection wells.4000 psi Differential WP 4000 .3.Connection Specification Requirement AL I AL II .9.p.B .

8000 psi Table 7.4000 psi Differential WP 4000 .ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 187 OF 295 ENI S.Connection Specification A flow chart reaffirming the above is shown in figure 7. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 Water Injection Wells (TVD < 4500m) Criteria Differential WP 0 .A.4 explains the NACE and Close Proximity definitions.x.p. 0 REVISION Requirement AL II AL II Differential working pressure is the maximum differential pressure (internal and/or external) to which the production string is subjected during the life of the well.C . Note: Section 7.9. .

A. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 0 REVISION Figure 7.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 188 OF 295 ENI S.Connection Application Level Selection Flow Chart .X .p.

a public road. or other similar area that one can expect to be populated. The following list of criteria can be used for determining this potential risk.4. Well is located in or near inland navigable waters Well is located in or near surface domestic water supplies. Public area shall mean a dwelling.4546) (mole fraction H2S) (Q)] 0. NACE And Proximity Definitions NACE Requirement 0 REVISION This applies to the partial pressure of hydrogen sulphide (H2S) in the produced fluid as defined by NACE Standard MR 01-75.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 189 OF 295 ENI S. etc. Well is located within 150ft.p. of a public road (lease road excluded). 500ppm ROE of H2S is greater than 50ft. state. Public road shall mean any federal. 100ppm Radius of Exposure (ROE) of H2S is greater than 50ft. hospital. school. government building. city limits.A. from the wellhead and includes any part of a public area except a public road. place of business. village. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 7. Close Proximity A proximity assessment should be prepared to consider the potential impact of an uncontrolled well flow condition on the life of personnel and the environment around the wellhead. It will be necessary to meet any other local regulatory requirements.589) (mole fraction H2S) (Q)] 0.6258 . city. • • • • • • • Well is located in any environmentally sensitive area such as parks. town. These conditions are recommended minimum considerations. all or any portion of a park. Well is located within 50ft. county or municipal street or road owned or maintained for public access or use. school bus stop. wildlife preserve. from the wellhead and includes any part of a public area including a public road.9. Well is located within 350ft of any dwelling.6258 For determining the location of the 500ppm radius of exposure: X = [(0. Other criteria for consideration should be included when necessary. Texas Railroad Commission Rules The following information is taken from Texas Railroad Commission Rule 36: For determining the location of the 100ppm radius of exposure: X = [(1. of an open flame or fired equipment. church. Well is located in state waters.

Fp. i. and consequently. Computer programmes are very useful in this phase as it is possible to make repeated calculations quickly with different parameters. a 100ppm radius of exposure equal to 3.65psia and 60 F. After these calculations are made.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 190 OF 295 ENI S. This requires special surface treatment in the connection’s pin and box. CRA Connections For steels with a high chrome content (>13%). it is possible to calculate the forces acting on the packer. whichever is the larger.8. the fictitious and piston forces in the string sections.6. At this point of the process all the possible elements needed for the design verification are available. . the escape rate shall be determined by using the current adjusted open-flow rate of offset wells. hence protection. The anti-galling treatments (e.9. information about the load conditions. The volume used as the escape rate in determining the radius of exposure shall be that specified below. The string or load conditions or the tubing strength must therefore be altered until the calculation produces an appropriate safety factor (SF).g.e.10. or the field average current adjusted openflow rate. Using the calculation theory illustrated previously. During the verification stage it may be seen that the loads on the string are unacceptably high.p. Connection Data Data on tubing connections are available from API specifications and tables in industry handbooks. TUBING STRESS CALCULATIONS The final stage of the completion string design is the calculation of stress in areas under the highest loads. Mole fraction of hydrogen sulphide in the gaseous mixture which could escape. the type of tubing and materials to be used to meet the requirements outlined in section 6. it is possible to determine how close the stresses are to the material’s yield strength. 7. Bakertron or copper plating) is always applied to the couplings to ensure the utmost coating.A.000ft shall be assumed. 7. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 where: X = Radius of exposure in feet Q= H2S = 0 REVISION Maximum volume determined to be available for escape in cubic feet per day. 7. as is applicable: For the new wells in developed areas.5. When a well is in an area where insufficient data exists to calculate a radius of exposure. The escape rate used in determining the radius of exposure shall be corrected to standard o conditions of 14. but where hydrogen sulphide may be expected.9. there is a tendency to gall during make up.

Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 7.D .ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 191 OF 295 ENI S. the forces at the well head coincide with those at the packer depth if L = 0.p.10.1. The asterix distinguishes the forces calculated in a completion with the string anchored to the packer verses those calculated for a string free to move in the seal bore. the sections where the string design must be verified are indicated by x-x at the well head and y-y at the downhole just above the packer.y. Section Y-Y (Packer) Tubing-Packer Mode Free tubing Tubing permitting limited motion and anchored Piston Forces Fictitious Forces Fa Ff Fa* = Fa + F p Table 7. have intermediate packers or other discontinuities.Forces at X-X F f tp = F f − wL F f*tp = F f* − wL As can be seen. instead of ‘L’ of the previous formulae. Therefore.A. as an example.E . the type of completion shown in figure 7. For other types of completions. . the tables below summarise the forces acting on the sections of the string which will be used for the design verifications. to calculate forces on intermediate sections between the well head and packer depth.Forces at Y-Y F f* = F f + F p Section X-X (Well Head) Tubing-Packer Mode Free tubing Tubing permitting limited motion and anchored Piston Forces Fictitious Forces Fa tp = Fa − w s L Fa*tp = Fa* − w s L Table 7. With reference to figure 7. string design must be verified at all the appropriate sections where there are variations in diameter. Calculation Methods 0 REVISION Taking. it is sufficient to use an intermediate length ‘l’ ( L > l > 0 ) measured from the packer.y.

.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 192 OF 295 ENI S. σb is calculated only if the section of the string to be verified is buckled.A. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 0 REVISION X X Y Y Figure 7.Example Completion #1 The piston forces obtained in this way are used to calculate the axial stress which is given by the expression: σa = Fa As The fictitious force is used to calculate the axial stress caused by the tubing bending when helically buckled. it is given by the expression: σb = Dr Ff 4I therefore.Y .p.

both calculations must be made to determine the higher of the two values while. therefore. The Eni-Agip Division and Affiliates policy is to apply different types of material due to their different mechanical behaviours and resistance to corrosion. i. 7. In this case the equivalent force will be the greater of the two. calculated using the expression below. Po and Pi are available.p.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 193 OF 295 ENI S. if the section to be calculated is buckled.10.25 . Safety Factor A completion string’s safety factor is defined as the ratio between the yield stress and the maximum value of the stress obtained as described above. σb.A. which gives the equivalent stresses in the outside and inside wall of the considered tubing section. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 0 REVISION Now all the factors needed to determine the equivalent stress σa. the stress which. even if only slightly.1 which gives the SF values to be used by Eni-Agip Division and Affiliates. It. To calculate the SF the yield limit values of the material are taken into consideration so that there is no permanent corkscrewing of the string which could jeopardise.e. allows comparison of the stresses due to the different effects in a particular section of the string against the material yield stress rating. 2   P − P   P − R Po σ o = 3 i 2 o  +  i 2 +σa ±σb    R −1   R −1   2 2  P − R 2 Po  R 2 (Pi − Po ) σ σ i = 3 + i 2 +σa ± b  2  R −1 R  R −1   2     2 As stated above. if there is no buckling σb = 0 and the greater stress is that in the inside wall. provides a quick reference parameter to evaluate the magnitude of the stresses present in the tubing compared to the maximum acceptable. Carbon and CRA Steels up to 13%Cr The acceptable SF for these types of materials is: 1.2. by applying suitable criterion (for the materials used in the oil industry the most appropriate is Von Mises). its functionality. the equivalent stress is σeq = σi The higher of the stress values determined above will make it possible to obtain the SF of the string for the load conditions and the section considered: SF = σ sn σ eq The SF must be greater than the minimum dictated by policy and listed in section 7.

economic decision not to use the next grade of tubing etc. from both the viewpoint of stress corrosion and mechanical strength. the cold worked materials retain residual stress so.p.g.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 194 OF 295 ENI S. (e. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 0 REVISION In each individual case the string design and stress analysis engineer may evaluate whether the acceptable SF can be lowered to 1. It is.A. therefore. The different SF’s between the carbon and CRA steels can be attributed to the different behaviour of these materials for stress values above the yield point.). the SF should be slightly higher. Furthermore. the SF is calculated using the yield point but also the collapse rating of the string.Stress/Strain Diagrams COLD WORKED CARBON STEEL σ σ σsn r σ σr σsn σr = breaking point σsn = yield point ε = elongation ε ε . super-austenitic and Incoloy is: 1. apart from the yielding the cold worked materials reach breaking point soon after the yield point while the carbon steels maintain a greater plastic deformation margin before the breaking point. Cold Worked (CW) CRA Steels The acceptable SF for these types of materials which include duplex. As can be seen. Figure 7. As stated previously. for some particular operations and for specific well conditions. the engineer may evaluate whether. low pressure oil wells. figure 7.Z .z shows the stress/strain diagrams for the above two types of materials. This is a dangerous situation which occurs at the breaking point.15 for some particular operations and for specific well conditions. clear that a higher SF for Cold Worked materials is required in order to maintain the same safety factor relevant to the breaking points for the two types of materials.20. the acceptable SF can be lowered to 1.35 Similarly.

tension tubing. from which it is possible to make a comparison with the yield load. conditions may occur making it necessary to limit the external pressure on the string. For example. referred to. Any other SFs. If an axial force is applied to the pipe as well as external pressure. which require substantial differential operating pressures. . By evaluating the magnitude of this force and considering other factors such as the possibility of future recovery. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 0 REVISION The SF discussed up to this point is valid. As can be seen. the type of formula is chosen then the maximum withstandable pressure calculated. to the section’s elastic limit which occurs in thin-walled pipes. Calculation of external pressure is carried out using the formulae supplied by API Bulletin 5C3 which identifies four types of collapse at external pressure in relation to the D/t ratio and the Yp yield stress of the material. In order to use the API Bul 5C3 formulae. the Yp value for use for calculations is adjusted using a special formula. causes a state of monoaxial stress. If the force exerted by the tubing on the packer (Fp = set-down. In fact the causes of collapse can range from material yield as in the case of pipes with a low D/t ratio. it is possible to check whether well conditions come within the limits set by the packer rating.3. Another example is downhole pumps for artificial lifting and are operated by the power fluid pumped down the annulus. it is possible to calculate this value under various well conditions. this diagram can be used to ascertain the suitability of the condition.4. takes into consideration all the stress components to determine the σeq.10. if applied individually. Po<Pi below).10. in a state of monoaxial stresses. Fp = tension. once D/t and Yp are known. when the pressure in the annulus increases compared to that in the tubing. if negative. the most suitable type of packer in relation to the completion type. due to the depletion in reservoir pressure. the tensile strength in this case is positive. By using diagrams supplied by the manufacturer. External Pressure Limit During the productive life of a well. One example is a well at the end of its productive life with less pressure in the tubing than in the annulus. Packer Load Limits If the Fp force value transmitted by the string to the packer is known.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 195 OF 295 ENI S. 7. it would be incorrect to use the SF for tension alone because during the life of the well it will be subjected to a combination of stresses. However. therefore. are known.p.aa. if referred to only as in the condition of triaxial stress which. 7. A typical diagram for packer force limits is shown in figure 7. In order to comply with the specifications of the supplier. greater tensile loads can be applied and vice versa.A. cannot be compared in any way to those described in this manual because they take into consideration only one mode of loading. can be determined. is positive) and the differential pressure above and below the packer (Po>Pi above.

81in R = 1. the analysis of the possible packer/tubing configurations available in this set-up is free tubing to packer and fully anchored. (below) Figure 7.000ft = 120.5lb/ft : 7 2 Ai = 4. Data: Tubing 2 /8in 6.25in 2 Ap = 8. we can consider the single completion in the well shown in figure 7.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 196 OF 295 ENI S.61in σsn = 80.p.Typical Packer Force Limit Diagram 7. During a cement squeeze operation.000psi ID = 6.094in r = 1. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 0 REVISION 400 (tension) 300 200 (Thousands) FORCE 100 0 Safety zone (set-down) -100 -200 -20 -10 0 10 20 (Thousands) (above) PRESSURE DIFF.49in 2 As = 1. This allows calculation of the variations in length and thereafter the anchoring force in the packer.542lb/in 4 I = 1. Example Manual Calculation As an example of applying the method detailed above.178 ws = 0.10.68in 2 Ao = 6.AA .000in Casing 7in 32lb/ft: Packer bore: Length of string: .3in L = 10.61in Dpb =

cc (15lb/gal corresponds to a specific gravity of 0. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 Initial Conditions 0 REVISION Initially both the tubing and the annulus are filled with 30° API oil.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 197 OF 295 ENI S. to a pressure gradient of 0. X X Y Y Figure 7.0317lb/in and.38 psi/ft. therefore.000psi and the casing at 1.BB .Example Completion #2 . figure 7. It should be noted that 30° API corresponds to a 3 specific gravity of 0. This operation causes the string to cool to 160°F at the bottom hole and creates the pressure and temperature trend 3 shown in figure 7. while the temperature is 60°F at the well head and 200°F at the bottom shows the pressure and temperature variations against depth. obtained by pressurising the tubing at 5.7795psi/ft).A.000psi. Final Conditions Final conditions are cement displacement with a specific gravity of 15lb/gal.0649lb/in and to a pressure gradient of 0.

Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 0 REVISION O P (psi) O 60 T (°F) GEOTERMICO CSG e TBG 10000 3800 10000 200 D (feet) D (feet) FINAL CONDITIONS O 1000 5000 P (psi) O 60 T (°F) TBG SQUEEZE CSG 10000 4800 12795 10000 160 D (feet) D (feet) Figure 7.9 lb .ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 198 OF 295 ENI S.p.CC .3 − 6.68) − 1000 (8.49) = 30751.A.Initial and Final Condition (Example #2) Calculation Method a) Calculation of variations in length The variation in the piston force between initial and final conditions is expressed by: ∆Fa = ∆Pi (Ap − Ai ) − ∆Po (Ap − Ao ) = 8995 (8.3 − 4.

The variation in length ∆L2.3 x (12795 − 4800 ) = 66358.A. ∆L 2 = − =− F2 r 2 8Elw 2 −(1.2057 lb/in w = ws + w fi − w fo = 0. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 0 REVISION so the variation in length according to Hooke’s Law (piston force) is given by: L1 = − Fa L 30751.20567 = 0. is calculated using the first of the two formulae in section 7.68 x 0.64 = −46. is given by: F f = A p (Pi − Po ) = 8.3037 − 0.p.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 199 OF 295 ENI S.5 ) 8×30000000×1.640 = 103685.542 + 0.0317 = 0. then the string is buckled. not all the string is buckled.640 lb/in The neutral point from the bottom hole is therefore: n= Ff w 66358. w.81 = − 67.5 = 0.0649 = 0.3037 lb/in w fo = Ao γ fo = 6.49 x 0.16 . fully immersed in fluids.2.96 in The fictitious force.4.6×10.16 in As this distance is less than the length of the string. is calculated in the following way: w fi = Ai γ fi = 4. so it is necessary to determine the position of the neutral point in order to calculate the ∆L2. The weight of string.5 lb As this value is positive.9 x 120000 =− E As 30000000 x 1. which is initially zero because Pi = Po.61×66358.

4. is therefore given by ∆Ltot = ∆L1 + ∆L2 + ∆L3 + ∆L4 1 = − 165.4. .3: ∆Pim = (5000 − 0) + (12795 − 3800 ) 2 = 6997.178)2 − 1 = − 34.178) x 1000 x x 120000 30000000 (1. is used to calculate the average variation in temperature along the string: ∆TM = (60 − 60 ) + (160 − 200) 2 = − 20 °F The variation in length is therefore: ∆L4 = α ∆TM L = − 16.A.56 in. the average variations in pressure along the string can be calculated using the formulae in section 7.4.5 − (1.5 psi ∆Pom = (1000 − 0 ) + (4800 − 3800) 2 = 1000 psi Therefore.p.4 in.73 in.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 200 OF 295 ENI S.9 x 10 − 6 x (− 20 ) x 120000 The variation in total length of the tubing. the formula in section 7.3 6997. the variation in length caused by ballooning is as follows: ∆L3 = − 2ν E x ∆P − R2 x ∆P im om xL 2 R −1 2 =− 2 x 0. = 6. As regards the variation in length due to temperature. if the tubing can freely move in the packer-bore. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 0 REVISION As regards the variation in length due to ballooning.

61 x 0. may sometimes be unacceptable.68 in.p.4 in. During initial conditions. n= from the bottom of the string. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 b) Tubing Permitting Limited Motion 0 REVISION The variation in length calculated above.0317 = 0. The slack-off operation modifies the variations in length the string will undergo during the subsequent cement squeeze stage as shown below.73) = − 115. oil is the fluid inside the tubing and so: w fi = Ai γ fi = 4.73 in.61 x 20000) 20000 x 120000 =− − 30000000 x 1. Assuming that the slack-off force off loaded on the packer is 20. 2 The variation in the length of the string during the cement squeeze job. it makes it possible to use the formula in section 7. as it would create seal assembly lengths which are not practicable for the planned type of completion. One method for containing these elongations is to use a tubing permitting limited motion.485 = 41266.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 201 OF 295 ENI S. this value is lower than that calculated for a free tubing. As can be seen.A.1483 − 0.6 in order to obtain: 2 Fso L Fso r 2 ∆Lso = − − E As 8 E I w (1. when there is a tubing permitting limited motion is given by: ∆Lso = ∆Ltot − ∆L so tot = − 165.000lb.485 = − 49.20575 = 0. the neutral point is located as: Fso w 20000 = 0. . as it off-loads weight on the packer after it is set (slack-off) and compresses the string.1483 lbs/in w = w s + w fi − w fo = 0.68 x 0.41 − (− 49. As this value is less than the total length of the string.81 8 x 30000000 x 1.542 + 0.48 lbs/in.

When the data of the example are replaced.5 95403727 [in] for F<0 [in] for F >0 .A.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 202 OF 295 ENI S. are: Fa* = Fa + F p = 629 in. d) Tubing Stress Control If we consider a tubing anchored to the packer during a cement squeeze operation. it is possible to identify the point where the origin of the axes has moved to. This value may still be unacceptable so it is necessary to use anchoring in both directions.68 in.68 in .000lbs and the packer is forced upwards by the same amount.6. Figure 8.5 F F2 − 452. calculated according to section 7. As figure 7. From this point. = Pi (A p − Ai ) − P0 (A p − Ao ) + F p F f* = F f + F p = 29358 lb . thus so setting the elongation ∆Lp =-∆Ltot =115. In this case as slack-off after setting the packer is present it is necessary to determine the force required to position the end of the tubing in the packer (Fp). Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 c) Anchored tubing 0 REVISION If we assume a condition obtained with a tubing which only permits limited motion. movement in the direction of elongation by a ∆Lp value is made in order to locate the point which is distant from the curve by a Fp value.p. the fictitious and piston forces. so the string is subject to stress at its lower end which is equal to 37.5lbs). Fp = 37000lbs. If the diagram is plotted with the value of the fictitious force calculated previously ( shows.6 shows the diagram obtained using the formulae which supplies the force/elongation characteristic for tension and compression. the formulae below are obtained (the diagram can be quickly plotted by entering any F values and calculating the corresponding ∆L): ∆L = − ∆L = − F 452. giving so ∆Ltot = -115. with a slack-off of 20.000lbs.

F f* tp = F f* − w x L = 29358 − 0.DD . Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 0 REVISION In the section above the packer (figure 7.A.Anchored Tubing (Example #2) accorciamenti [in] .bb).p. the forces at the well head are: Fa*tp = Fa* − w s x L = 629 − 6.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 203 OF 295 ENI S.5 x 10000 = − 64371 in. 50 20 trazione [lbx1000] 40 60 allungamenti [in] 100 allungamenti [in] 80 100 compressione [lbx1000] -40 -20 -50 Fp -100 -150 ∆Lp -200 Ff 20 40 compressione [lbx1000] Figure 7.64 x 120000 = − 47442 in.

the result is σeq = σi. σb = 0 and the greatest amount of stress is generated on the inner wall of the tubing: σa = Fa*tp As − 64371 = 1.p.81 = − 35564 psi . along with Pi = 12795 psi e Po = 4800 psi. the values below are obtained using the formulae in section 7. if we consider the highest value found as equivalent force.875 x 1.61 x 29358 = 4 x 1. therefore.33 Well Head * As Ff tp < 0 the string at the well head is not buckled. values. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 Bottom Hole The piston force generates an axial stress equal to: 0 REVISION Fa* σa = As 629 = 1.81 = 347 psi the deformation due to buckling generates an axial stress equal to: σb = Dr * Ff 4I 2.10: σo = 51688psi σi = 60223psi .61 = 21095 psi If we replace the σa e σb.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 204 OF 295 ENI S.A. we can obtain the following bottom hole safety factor: SF = = σ sn σ eq 80000 60223 = 1.

Examples done with the Vertubing programme.000psi.10: σi = 36117 psi therefore as σeq = σi. have been deliberately omitted as this programme is no longer used by Eni-Agip Division and Affiliates. please refer to the notes in Appendix D and the user’s manual available in the Company’s library. Example Computation As an example we have included two cases of string calculations.A. . therefore: SF = 1.10.p. The first example is the same as that dealt with by Lubinsky. 7. For a description of the programme’s general functions. .33 This value is acceptable because the lower limit for a carbon steel string is 1.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 205 OF 295 ENI S. carried out using the Wellcat programme supplied by Enertech. The second is a case history. analysed during completion studies for the Villafortuna-Trecate field. the well head safety factor is: SF = = σ sn σ eq 80000 36117 = 2.21 The safety factor for the cement squeeze operation results as the lowest of obtained values. the value below is obtained using the formula in section 7. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 0 REVISION If we replace the σa value obtained and as pi = 5.25. Particular attention should be paid to data entry and presentation of results in order to obtain knowledge of how the programme handles these two cases. Therefore only a brief description has been given in Appendix D. For further information please refer to the user’s manual.000psi and po = 1.6.

3. operating diagrams for the packers supplied by the manufacturer of the particular packer and to the pressure ratings for retrievable packers.a below.1.Packer Types . The proposed criteria for the choice only take into consideration general technical aspects and do not cover the individual characteristics of particular models or tools.A.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 206 OF 295 ENI S. For this reason regarding permanent packers. reference is made to the operating ‘Envelopes’.1.e.A . SUB-SURFACE EQUIPMENT PACKERS The types of packer systems and applications have already been described in section 5. This section defines the series of criteria for choosing packer characteristics to apply to single and selective completions. 8. while still reflecting the needs which lead to selection of the most commonly used models. Once the packer type and model have been defined. i.p. the next stage is establish its performance to meet with all the expected operating conditions (applied force and pressure differences). Type Of Packer Permanent Setting Method Mechanical Hydraulic Setting Tool • Hydraulic setting tool • Electric line N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A Sealbore Features • Std/Large/Dual • Std/Large/Dual Std/Dual Std/Large/Dual Std/Dual Permanent/ Retrievable Retrievable Mechanical Hydraulic Hydraulic Hydrostatic Weight Table 8. The packers considered are listed in table 8. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 0 REVISION 8.

off-shore under water) Pressures and temperatures Type of well (production.A. This section illustrates the flow diagrams. gas) Deviation (max. injection) Type of fluid produced (oil. setting depth. identifying the standard procedures for each stage (Refer to figure 8.p.). 8. Selection Procedure Packer selection has three stages: 1) 2) 3) 0 REVISION Selection of type of packer Selection of setting mechanism Selection of main packer accessories including the tubing-packer connection In stage 3.5 which describes the iterative process of tubing weight/grade/stress calculations. etc. the most important being: • • • • • Location (on-shore/ off-shore platforms.2. . The selection process includes the following categories of data: General Well Data This includes data which effects the configuration of the well to be completed. deviation angle). Completion Data This includes the following parameters such as: • • • Type and density of the completion fluid Perforation of the casing using tubing-conveyed or wireline techniques Use of a production liner.1. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 8. refer to section 7. stress analysis is carried out to check the completion string (packer and tubing) under the stress to which they are exposed. in particular: a) removal of the tubing by itself b) • • removal of the tubing and packer simultaneously Planned frequency of de-compression operations Potential damage to the formation caused by the workover fluid.1. Selection Criteria Various representations can be used to describe the categories of criteria.a.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 207 OF 295 ENI S. These data also include type of packer chosen and setting. unplanned) Type of de-compression operations. Operational Data The following operational data are required: • • Stimulations (planned.1.

Selection Process Diagram .A.A .ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 208 OF 295 ENI S. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 0 REVISION Figure 8.p.

Highly critical wells: • • • • • • Deep depths > 4500m. Temperatures below 100 °C. Well Classification 0 REVISION An important parameter for defining the characteristics of a packer is the ‘degree of difficulty of the well to be completed’.000m. High pressures.b).ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 209 OF 295 ENI S. with priority be given to the former.3.A.4. 4) Non-critical well • • Depth of less than 3. If the well has high corrosive. If the well is critical or non-critical. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 8.500m. Platform well having the risk of failure due to the potential collision from a vessel with the structure. 8. SBHT > 130°C. SBHP > 700 atm.000psi. To this end four classes of well have been identified which are used to analyse the various problems involved in the selection of the packer: 1) High corrosive wells • 2) The fluids have high corrosive problems.000 and 4. (Refer to figure 8. The depths indicated are true vertical depths. select a permanent packer. ITHP above 3.p. . Subsea well-head well. Packer Selection For Single String Completion Type Of Packer Procedure The choice is mainly linked to the type of well: 1) 2) 3) In the case of a highly critical well. Gas injection well with pressures. select a permanent/retrievable or permanent packer.1. High temperatures.1. 3) Critical Well • • Temperatures between 100 and 130°C Depths between 3.

000psi.B .p.b: (A) High frequency of tubing pullout. (E) The workover fluid damages the formation. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 0 REVISION Figure 8. (B) High frequency of tubing-packer pullout. (G) Gas injection well with injection pressure > 3.Type of Packer for Critical and Non-Critical Wells Explanation of figure 8.A. (D) Measured well depth ≥ 3000 m. .6 kg/l) with probable solid deposits on the packer. (F) The packer fluid is a high density mud (> 1. (C) Use of TCP drilling techniques.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 210 OF 295 ENI S.

A. .C .ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 211 OF 295 ENI S. the priority is indicated by a number (‘1’ corresponds to a higher priority than ‘2’).Packer Setting Method for Critical and Non-Critical Wells For a mechanical type permanent packer. The completion fluid = mud with density > 1. Gas a production liner with inclination > 30°. or requests due to the completion fluid characteristics). on its depth. If the well is critical or not critical. choose hydraulic setting. high frequency of extraction corresponds to a completion life of less than five years.6 kg/l. in particular.c). For example. in the choice is made on the basis of point (D) then there are no particular constraints (no workovers. with a maximum deviation angle > 50°. Packer Setting Method Permanent and Permanent/Retrievable Packers The selection is dependent mainly on the well characteristics: 1) 2) 3) If the well is corrosive or very critical. the setting is defined by the conditions detailed in (A). The same procedure will also be used later for packers of the type used in a selective type completion. (Refer to figure 8. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 0 REVISION At points A and B. Reference (A) is only true if one of the following conditions are relevant: • • • • SBHT > 150 °C (= 270 °F). The safety factor of using a retrievable packer or not depends on the criticality of the well and. Is a deviated well. Figure 8. The rectangle ‘Choose’ indicates the choice between the two alternatives.p.

4) Check (E): • Completion fluid and damage to the formation 5) Check (F): • The packer fluid is a high density mud (> 1. The vertical depth of the packer setting is > 2.000m (this is true to definitive and not test completions).Retrievable Packer Setting Method 1) Check (A) is only true if one of the following conditions are relevant: • • • • 2) The well is deviated with a maximum deviation angle of > 20°. The bottom-hole temperature (SBHT) is > 60 °C.p. .d: Figure 8.6 kg/l) with the probability that it leaves solid deposits on the packer.A. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 Retrievable Packer Setting Method 0 REVISION The method of setting used for retrievable packers is made. Check (B): • Using TCP shooting techniques. following the diagram in figure 8. 3) Check (C): • There is high frequency of tubing pullout (life of the completion < 5 years). Stimulations are planned.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 212 OF 295 ENI S.D.

defines the type of anchoring on the basis of the conditions for (A). Permanent And Permanent/Retrievable Packers Setting Method There are principally two aspects to analyse: • • The choice of the tubing-packer connection. the anchor will be a ratchet type or.A. Highly Critical Well: Anchored Completion For a highly critical well.p. At present the stress analysis procedure is developed using the “Veritas “ software package . a dynamic seal is used (Refer to figure 8. The main consideration is the required setting pressure (lower for hydrostatic packers) which influences the wellhead pressure rating. fixed. the corresponding setting procedure will have to be adopted (see permanent packers above). or hydrostatic. If the stress analysis results are negative: • • If a shear release is needed.g. a permanent/retrievable packer will be utilised and consequently. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 0 REVISION The decision of whether to use a hydraulic. If these are outwith the capacity of the retrievable packer. the approach is the same as that for an anchored tubing-packer. The conditions at the moment of packer setting decides whether to use a retrievable packer.d). If during the application of the stress analyses of the string gives negative results. in particular the choice is made between a shear release or anchor seal assembly. alternatively. Tubing-packer connections seal assembly elements will be of the moulded seal type when subjected to alternating pressure cycles. The type of anchor to be used can be defined during this first stage for an anchored completion (without shear release): • If the packer is set mechanically. To integrate this choice with the stress analysis procedures.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 213 OF 295 ENI S. The maximum force is determined using stress analysis (to take into account the tolerance of the nominal shear value ± 5 to 10%). The shear value is checked for the stress conditions at the wellhead section during the packer release stage. a configuration which fulfils the stress analysis requirements must be considered for the packer-tubing connection5. e. The shear ring value is generally set by increasing the maximum force applied to the packer by 25%. set is left to the engineer. gas injection wells where the IBHP is greater than the packer fluid pressure and SBHP is lower than the packer fluid pressure. an anchor seal assembly is used. 5 If the failure of the stress analysis is due to the tension caused by the tubing-packer connection. If anchor is needed.Veritas is the UNIX version of the VERTBG package. .

ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 214 OF 295 ENI S. Figure 8.3).Dynamic Seal Check (A) .F .1.Anchored Completion Option Check (A): Deviated well: • if it is an injection well it cannot be critical (see section 8. In this case a dynamic seal is used (Refer to figure 8.p.f). Highly Critical Well: Dynamic Seal This stage considers an anchored completion which fails the stress analysis calculation because of problems associated with the tubing-packer connection. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 0 REVISION Figure 8. an anchor will be used and the check will be carried out again. For an anchor with shear release: • If the stress analysis upon releasing is negative.A.E .

The well is not an injection well. This is the case with the following conditions: • • • No stimulations are planned. Non-Critical Well The easiest solution in these cases is to choose a Standard Seal Locator.G . in general.p. The packer is not set hydraulically. the procedure illustrated in figure 8. This is only possible with hydraulically packers.A. Reference will be made to this later and also for cases which are different to those described in highly critical wells above.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 215 OF 295 ENI S. following any failure of the stress analysis. Figure 8. the stress analysis results are corrected using factors other than the seal element. run on the tubing. Critical. when using dynamic seals. no other rules are apply as. If these conditions do not apply. The procedure illustrated in figure 8. Seal Element .Critical and Non-Critical Wells. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 • Check (B): • 0 REVISION The packer fluid is a high density mud (> 1.f gives a general description of the criteria behind the choice of dynamic seal to be adopted.6 kg/l) which may leave solid deposits on the packer. Here.e.g is followed. i. The packer is one trip installation.

deviated well with max. It is better to use a completion with a shear element which is more easily releasable. In the case of a deviated well. Again in figure 8. expected life of the completion < 5 years.6 kg/l) which may leave solid deposits on the packer. deviation angle > 20. . Retrievable Packer Tubing-Packer Connections The choice of the tubing-packer connection for retrievable packers (hydraulic and set down weight) is made on the basis of that in figure 8. besides the choice of tubing-packer connection.p. the need to use the packing setting procedure specified.A. (B): • (C): • (D): • the packer is set mechanically. anchored completion is not recommended.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 216 OF 295 ENI S. In these cases. a permanent/retrievable packer is the priority or a permanent should be used and consequently the associated setting procedure and seal assembly selected. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 Check (A): • 0 REVISION the packer fluid is a high density mud (> 1.h. Particular conditions raise questions over which type of retrievable packer to use. or a dynamic seal whenever feasible. No additional adaptation of the seal element is foreseen as a consequence of any stress analysis. the outlet conditions included in the rectangle indicate.g.

Tubing-Packer Connections for Retrievable Packers 8.A. The solutions given are for a case with only 2 zones and if a third zone is to be taken into consideration it is assumed that the selection made for the upper zone of the two zone scenario applies. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 0 REVISION Figure 8. Packer Selection The first case classifies the well on the basis of depth characteristics (≥ 4. .p. Single Selective Completion Packers The criteria illustrated here are valid for selective completions with 2 or 3 producing zones.H .5.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 217 OF 295 ENI S.1.000m) but more on the basis of its complexity.

p. are not applicable. If the conditions as of figure 8. as for example in figure 8.i.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 218 OF 295 ENI S. governed by the order of priority specified along with the choices. these cases are classified by well depth: .I .A.i. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 0 REVISION Figure 8. however. the engineer has a certain degree of freedom of choice but is.Single Selective Packer For Complex Wells if several different configurations are available.

p. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 0 REVISION Figure 8.000m .K .Selective Single Well with Depths Between 3.Selective Single Well with Depths Between 1.J .A.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 219 OF 295 ENI S.000 and 4.000m Figure 8.500 and 3.

then it should be selected.500m in a well not considered complex.i through figure 8.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 220 OF 295 ENI S. in the case of multiple choices. . and a retrievable packer is one in the list of possible choices. Application of the criteria illustrated in figure 8.Selective Single Well with Depths Less Than 1. it is strongly recommend that a retrievable type packer be used.l is common with the only exception. being that the order of priority for the lower zone can be changed by applying the following rules: • • If workovers are planned with removal of the tubing and packer. then the permanent/retrievable should be selected over of the retrievable.500m In the case of depths less than 1.p. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 0 REVISION Figure 8. and a permanent or permanent/retrievable packer are in the list of possible choices.L . If the completion fluid is a mud with deposition problems.A.

if the completion fluid is a brine. All packers are Retrievable Refer to figure 8. Mechanical setting is preferred for the reference packer and the setting should be by electric line when the distance between the packers is < 500 m. If the reference packer is set by a workstring.A. lower). hydraulic setting should be used for this type of packer. i. choose hydraulic setting for all the packers or else mechanical setting. It is recommended in any case to re-check the completion after having made the modifications.l. Generally. if the setting distance between the packers is > 500m (check with the packer manufacturer).l where all packers are retrievable. it is treated with the same criteria used for the upper zone. the results of the stress analysis specifically identifies the packers with releasing problems. in these cases the reference packer is permanent and the other packers are the retrievable or permanent/retrievable type. intermediate.j.e.p. the zones are be treated separately. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 Packer Setting Method 0 REVISION The type of setting method proposed depends on the following factors: • • Type of packer Setting distance between the packers. modifications are be made only to those packers which have the problems.i with all permanent packers. three zones are assumed (upper. Tubing-Packer Connection Selection The criteria continues by classifying the packers by type and setting with the zones treated separately. hydraulic type setting should be used or else the packers can be set mechanically. It is essential to check with manufacturers that the distance between the packers is sufficient for the packers to be set.k and figure 8. . Due to this.4. Lower Permanent Packer With Upper Retrievable: Refer to figure 8. The setting criteria of a mechanical permanent packer (on a workstring. With these type of packers.1. In cases where there is no specific mention of an Intermediate zone.k and figure 8. a depth control procedure is necessary to verify the depth of the packer setting to ensure positioning of the blast joint across the upper zone which is open to production.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 221 OF 295 ENI S. In some cases. Permanent Stacked Packers: Refer to figure 8. figure 8. or wireline) are those already defined for the single completion described in section 8.

for the intermediate packer. Lower or Intermediate Packer There are three possible ways of treating the lower zones: 1) All the packers are of the permanent or permanent/retrievable types with hydraulic setting. Initially an anchor with shear release should be selected.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 222 OF 295 ENI S. In the case of failure of the stress analysis. In the case of failure in the stress analysis a dynamic seal with telescopic joint will be used. In the case of failure of the stress analysis on this packer. a telescopic joint should be used when there is failure in the stress analysis. A dynamic seal should be used. The lower zone packer is a retrievable.A.1. a longer locator with seal bore extension should be used. in particular. 2) 3) For the intermediate zone in the case of three zones. an anchor or retrievable type packer will be used. . a standard length locator.p. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 Upper packer 0 REVISION The rules described for the single completion are applied to the upper packer (Refer to 8. a dynamic seal will be used (anchor with PBR or telescopic joint). For the intermediate zone in the three zone case.4). The lower zone packer is a permanent with mechanical setting.

. the valve may fail to close. 8. flow erosion of the valve internals may alter the closure settings. The use of these valves should be avoided as they are set up to operate on predetermined conditions representing a major leak at surface.1.p. Both types are generally referred to as ‘storm chokes’. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 8. sub-surface controlled sub-surface safety valves (SSCSSV) otherwise known as direct acting valves or surface controlled sub-surface safety valves (SCSSV). shall only be sanctioned by the Eni-Agip Division and Affiliates Head Office. either. Wireline Retrievable Safety Valves Wireline retrievable valves may be. The policy defined shall be applied to all Eni-Agip Division and Affiliates completion designs world-wide.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 223 OF 295 ENI S.A. e. The choice of SSSV for a particular development will depend on: • • • • Well location Fluid properties Required flow area Well intervention capabilities. but under some circumstances. Applications The applications for SSSV’s are given in section 8. SSCSSV’s are either pressure differential or ambient pressure operated valves.2.2. SUB-SURFACE SAFETY VALVES 0 REVISION This section provides the Eni-Agip Division and Affiliates policy and guidelines for the application and selection of Sub-Surface Safety Valves (SSSV).3.g.2. Any variation to this policy and selection procedures herein. when there is a leak of insufficient rate. a flowline rupture. 8. Surface controlled sub-surface safety valves (SCSSV’s) shall be used accordingly to the criteria listed below in section 8. A derivative of the storm choke is the injection valve which is held open by water or gas injection and closes when injection ceases. In conjunction.2.5. This will determine whether the selected SSSV is Wireline Retrievable (WRSV) or Tubing Retrievable (TRSV). Policy All Eni-Agip Division and Affiliates completions shall incorporate a SSSV in the completion string to provide safety in the event of an uncontrolled well flow.2.

• All wells.b specifies when SCSSV’s shall be used.2.4. • Electrical submersible pump.A. • All isolated wells. The guidelines given in section 8. Removal of the pressure allows the valves to close. These valve systems are fail safe and are preferred to SSCSSV’s. Hydraulic pressure opens and then retains the valve open. Valve Type/Closure Mechanism Selection This section gives recommendations on the choice of valve with the corresponding type of closure mechanism. tubing and only annulus if used for gas venting.2. • All new offshore development. Gas producer Gas storage Gas injection Water injection Artificial lift H2S in produced fluids Table 8. wireline retrievable or annulus safety valve systems. • All wells. • All wells. • All wells.B . • All wells onshore which can sustain natural flow.Criteria For Use of SCSSV's 8. Note: All valves with ball type closure mechanisms are not recommended for use as they are less reliable than flapper valves.5 indicate in which applications WRSV’s and TRSV’s should be used.2. Well Type Oil Producer Criteria • All new offshore development. Surface Controlled Sub-Surface Safety Valves 0 REVISION These are designed for tubing retrievable. • All old wells in above categories which are to be recompleted.5. • All old wells being recompleted. • All wells on gas lift. The following table 8.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 224 OF 295 ENI S. . Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 8.p. They are controlled normally by surface applied hydraulic pressure through a control line clamped to the outside of the tubing string. tubing and annulus.

8.3.C . • Gas lift wells. are also installed with the tubing string. 8.3. • All waste wells. • ESP wells with gas venting.A. • Wells with shut-in surface.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 225 OF 295 ENI S. The line length required in this case. • Jet pump wells.3. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 0 REVISION Type of Valve Tubing Retrievable Flapper Valve • • • • Applications Offshore platform wells.2. Subsea wells.SSSV Closure Mechanism Applications Gas or water injection wells may have either a tubing retrievable or wireline retrievable SCSSV. • As on insert valve for tubing retrievable SCSSV’s. 8. In this case. Control Lines Tube used as ‘control line’ to operate downhole safety valves are installed along with the production string. . CONTROL/INJECTION LINE SELECTION The purpose of this sub-section is to define the basic criteria for the selection and the use of small diameter tubes for SCSSV control line and injection line applications. Set in the next lowest wireline nipple. the length of line required is generally relatively short. These two different cases will be considered separately below. Injection Lines Tube used as ‘injection lines’ to inject chemical products such as corrosion or scale inhibitors down hole or as deep as possible in the well. Wireline Retrievable Surface Controlled Flapper Valve Storm Chokes Annular Safety Systems Wireline Retrievable Injection Valves Table 8. SCSSV’s are usually set at shallow depths and. will be considerably longer. • As a backup to the WRSV above when there is a control line failure. therefore. Wells with the presence of H2S or CO2.1. under the pump.p. Wells with surface flowing temperature greater than 130°C.

the raw material comes in the form of extruded hollows. The standard size for both applications. Welded tubes are considered the norm as opposed to seamless which are considerably more expensive and limited in length (usually a max. Welded tubes can be produced in extra long coils more than 3200 ft by butt welding lengths of tubings together. Both types of lines comply with ASTM specification A269 ‘Seamless and Welded Austenitic Stainless Steel Tubing for General Service’ and ASTM-B751 specification ‘General requirement for Ni and Ni alloy Seamless and Welded Tube’. Control Line Working Pressures A down hole safety valve is usually set at a relatively shallow depth.A. The working pressure (WP) is defined as follows: WP = Safety Valve WP + Valve Opening Pressure Safety Valve WP is as specified by the manufacturer. is the pressure required to overcome the closing force of the spring plus resistance due to friction effects.3. ranging about 30m to 50m from well head for on-shore installations or from sub sea level in case of off-shore activity. They are usually available in a full range of materials and sizes. control and injection line.d for the selection of the size which most suits the requirements.3. The cycles of cold drawing with a floating plug drawing method is preferred and annealing operations performed to reach the desired dimensions and produce a weld zone homogeneous with the rest of the tube material.000psi depending on the manufacturer. the raw material comes in strips which are first rolled into tube form which is fed through a welding head to perform a fusion weld. which are then reduced to the desired diameter and wall thickness by a cold drawing operation.065” wall thickness.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 226 OF 295 ENI S. is /4” OD and the wall thickness chosen from among the following sizes according to the pressure requirements: • • • 1 1 1 /4” OD x 0. refer to table 8. For this reason the configuration of the control line is not effected by the well deviation. Once the working pressure has been defined as explained in the following paragraph. Usually it ranges between 1.p. therefore in most cases external encapsulation it is not recommended. . Tube Specifications Size 0 REVISION Small diameter tubes for control or injection line applications are manufactured either as seamless or seam-welded and sunk. Valve Opening Pressure. of 1000 ft in length). In the seamless tube manufacturing process. provided by the manufacturer. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 8.500 to 2.035” wall thickness /4” OD x 0. In the case of welded tube process.049” wall thickness 1 /4” OD x 0.

8. combining radial and tangential stress to determine an equivalent resultant using the Von Mises Theory of Distortion Energy:  OD  2  Ys   − 1  ID     P= 4  OD  3x  +1  ID  Eq.A. Working pressure is defined as follows: WP = BHSP + Pfr − Phd Eq. 8.Phd Bottom hole static pressure. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 Chemical Injection Line Working Pressures 0 REVISION Chemical injection lines are run to injection mandrels which are installed as close as possible to the bottom of the tubing. therefore the flow profile can be assumed to be laminar. (Refer to table 8.n). Injection rates referred to in this application are always low.B Variables are defined as: P Ys Ys WP OD ID = = = = = = computed pressure (psi) ultimate tensile strength to compute ‘Burst Pressure’ (psi) yield strength (2% offset) to compute ‘Test Pressure’ (psi) 80% of test pressure (psi) outside diameter (in) inside diameter (in) .f and they are rated to temperatures between -20 and 100°F. figure 8. Injection rates to choose the correct diameter and evaluate friction losses. Values obtained are based on the Lamè’s formula for thick section pipes using internal pressure only and stress defined at the internal diameter face.n shows the graphs of pressure losses per 100m versus flow rate plotted for various internal diameters and various values of fluid viscosity. therefore total vertical depth.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 227 OF 295 ENI S. Total pressure required to inject chemicals through the line.A where: WP = BHSP= Pfr = Phd = BHSP + Pfr . Injection fluid characteristics such as density and viscosity. Hydrostatic pressure of injection fluid.p. The pressures given in the table are computed with ultimate and yield tensile strength values given in table 8. The definition of working pressure is based on the following considerations: • • • • Well configuration.d). Once the working pressure has been defined as explained below. Friction losses (see figure 8. Once the friction losses for laminar flow have been calculated then the diameter size can be determined accordingly. the selection of the tubing size to meet with requirements can be made.

006 12.255 7.967 7.268 31.4.049 0.065 0.983 21.831 12.013 Monel K400 0.965 42.809 3. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 0 REVISION Type of alloy AISI 316 L OD (inch) 0.Theoretical Working.112 7. Compatibility of packer or completion fluid with the selected material must be confirmed by means of condition specific laboratory testing.142 8.D .250 0.035 0.025 Test (psi) 6.831 12.049 WP (psi) 5.898 11.515 18.866 4. Material Selection Among the stainless steels and nickel alloys available.515 22.112 7. Bursting and Testing Procedures (for welded stainless steel tubing at between -20°F to 100°F) 8.965 12.518 21.954 15.010 Burst (psi) 18.375 Wall (inch) 0.250 0.757 15.035 0.375 0.035 0.e together with their relative characteristics.f shows the mechanical properties of these materials in the annealed condition.375 Incoloy 825 0.035 0.908 30. table 8.459 9.605 7.035 0.642 30.089 5.250 0.763 12.965 12.250 0.375 Table 8.646 24.786 17.006 9.355 26.646 24. the most commonly used for control or injection line applications are listed in table 8.252 37.375 0.333 5.651 5.250 0.035 0.035 0.004 5.459 9.049 0.A.438 15.457 15. .3.118 8.250 0.333 5.250 0.323 12.049 0.049 0.049 0.250 0.011 4.914 30.250 0.972 9.250 0.049 0.375 0.250 0.375 Inconel 625 0.659 8.375 0.250 0.065 0.780 17.709 52.416 6.p.065 0.328 7.049 0.065 0.084 21.390 8.427 10.780 17.854 21.914 30.564 6.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 228 OF 295 ENI S.035 0.

000 35. based on pressure ratings and working environment.2% Offset (psi) 25. Is a Nickel-base alloy with a higher percentage of molybdenum to give the highest resistance to chloride attack.000 Yield Strength at 0. In accordance with ASTM specification B165. Tensile Strength (psi) 70.000 28.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 229 OF 295 ENI S.000 60.E .F .000 Type of Alloy AISI 316 L Monel K400 Incoloy 825 Inconel 625 Table 8. Is an austenitic nickel-base alloy with good resistance to pitting in chloride solutions and to stress corrosion has improved resistance to corrosion by many acids.Stainless Steels and Nickel Alloys Most Commonly Used Once the type of material to be used has been defined. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 0 REVISION Type of Alloy AISI 316 L Main Characteristics Is an austenitic stainless steel with reduced carbon content. Has good resistance to grain boundary attack and improved resistance to pitting and crevice attack. In accordance with ASTM specification B704.A.000 120.p. In accordance with ASTM specification B423.000 70. the corrosion department should be consulted to confirm compatibility with the packer fluids. It is susceptible to chloride stress cracking when the presence of stress is combined with a packer fluid containing chlorides.000 85.Nominal Mechanical Properties in Annealed Conditions (For temperatures between -20 to 100°F) . Is a nickel-copper alloy resistant to corrosion and stress corrosion over a wide range of conditions. Control or Injection line made of the above material shall comply with the following ASTM specifications: AISI 316L Monel K400 Incoloy 825 Inconel 625 In accordance with ASTM specification A269 (TP316L). Monel K400 Incoloy 825 Inconel 625 Table 8.




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STAP-P-1-M-7100 8.3.5. Fittings 0


Connections for either SCSSV control lines or chemical injection lines shall be performed as follows: In case of pressure rating < 5000 psi, line connections shall be of the ‘Swagelok’ type. • In case of pressure rating > 5000 psi, line connections shall be of the ‘Autoclave’ type as recommended by API Spec. 6A (Wellhead & Christmas Tree Equipment) at the paragraph ‘Equipment specification requirement’ under ‘test and gauge connections’. It is suggested to avoid, as far as possible, any intermediate connections to reduce potential leak paths. 8.3.6. Protectors Control line protectors are designed to support and avoid (bare or encapsulated) crushing at where it is most exposed, e.g. where it crosses large offsets like couplings, downhole safety valves or gas lift mandrels. Protectors shall be designed for small annular clearances allowing sufficient annulus flow area. They should be of the “one piece” type without loose parts and designed so as to be quickly installed and removed. ‘Across coupling tubing protectors’ are recommended for use with both SCSSV control and injection lines applications. For control lines used on SCSSV’s installed at shallow depth (less than 250m), other types of protectors may be used. In general, ‘steel banding’ or ‘banding straps’, ‘rubber based’ and ‘mid joint protectors’ shall be avoided at all costs. The following technical requirements will identify protector performance: • • • • • Material shall be of all metal construction. No structural welding shall be allowed. Lab corrosion tests shall be run to verify compatibility with annular environment. Capable of firmly supporting bare or encapsulated lines when performing completions and recovery during workover allowing control line and protector reuse. Force indicated in ‘l’ or ‘tons’ that the protector will support against axial displacement without failing or damaging the supported line. Force stated in ‘lb’ or ‘Kg’ that protector will resist as a direct pull on supported line without any slippage. Maximum load expressed in ‘lb’ or ‘kg’ that protector will withstand when contacting the casing wall without damage. •




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STAP-P-1-M-7100 8.3.7. Encapsulation 0


Encapsulation of this line is recommended only for chemical injection lines applications. Encapsulation increases crush resistance during installation, protects line against abrasion, pinching and improves clamping profile. Several encapsulation materials are available, covering a wide range of environmental conditions. table 8.g indicates the compatibility of the main encapsulation materials with the most commonly used packer/completion fluids. In some cases, braided wire is placed alongside the injection line and bonded together by the encapsulation material, to further enhance resistance and strength avoiding any rolling and twisting tendencies (Refer to table 8.h). The following laboratory tests are suggested to confirm the lines mechanical characteristics and compatibility of the encapsulation material with the packer fluid used: • • • • • • Immersion test of the encapsulated line in downhole conditions for a defined period of time. No evidence of a change in physical appearance should be observable. Gas impregnation tests at various temperatures, pressures and with various gasses for a fixed period of time. No evidence of cracking, blistering or embrittlement should be observable. Combined brine/sour gas exposure tests according to the operating conditions, as above. Combined crude oil/sour gas exposure tests according to operating conditions as above. Abrasion resistance test to compare the resistance against abrasion between bare and encapsulated lines. Crush resistance test by loading the tube laterally, across the diameter, simulating various loading levels, until tube collapse is evident. Encapsulated line results should be compared to bare line tests.

The following table 8.g shows the main properties of the most common types of encapsulation material available. The choice of material, is mainly based on type of packer fluid, well deviation and working temperatures to be experienced and shall be confirmed by laboratory tests for compatibility.




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STAP-P-1-M-7100 0


Encapsulation Material Nylon

Main properties Compatible with diesel packer fluids containing high gas percentages. Nylon should not be used with completion fluids that contain calcium chlorides, calcium bromides or zinc bromides at high temperatures. Its maximum temperature rating is 250°F. Compatible with most packer fluids with the exception of diesel or fluid at high gas concentration. Maximum operating temperature rating is 275°F - 300°F. Chemically resistant to almost all downhole fluids. Excellent mechanical strength and abrasion resistance. Compatible with high gas content environments. Recommended for highly deviated wells. Maximum operating temperature is 400°F. Chemically resistant to almost all downhole fluids. Excellent mechanical strength and abrasion resistance. Compatible with high gas content environments. Recommended for highly deviated wells. Maximum operating temperature is 212°F. Chemically resistant to almost all downhole fluids. Excellent mechanical strength and abrasion resistance. Compatible with high gas content environments. Recommended for highly deviated wells. Maximum operating temperature is 302°F.



Rislan II

Foraflon PVDF

Table 8.G - Compatibility and Characteristics of Encapsulation Materials Halar (fluoropolymers) is a registered trademark of Ausimont USA Santoprene (thermoplastics rubber) is a registered trademark of Monsanto Rilsan II (polyamide thermoplastic) Foraflon PVDF (polyvinylidine fluoride thermoplastic material) Samples of different types of encapsulated tubes have been tested under compressive, laterally applied, loading simulating possible damage arising during installation to determine the tube crushing resistance and extend of polymer damage, (see Table below).




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STAP-P-1-M-7100 0


Sample Size

Applied load in metric tons (no damage detected) 2.45 2.65 7.0

100mm - 1/4” OD x 0.049” Alloy 825 bare line 100mm - 1/4” OD x 0.049” Alloy 625 bare line 100mm - 1/4” OD x 0.049” Alloy 825 encapsulated with Foraflon: size 15mm x 12mm

Applied load in metric tons (line partially crushed, fluid flow not interrupted) 3.5 3.8 9.0

Table 8.H - Crush Resistance Test For Encapsulated Injection Lines 8.3.8. SCSSV Hydraulic Control fluid The criteria in this section is for SCSSV control line applications only. Today hydraulic fluids are almost exclusively based on mineral oils. Other types of synthetic based oils, are employed only when operating temperatures are very low and special thermal standby properties are required. Most of the synthetic based oils used are of the flash fire resistant category as they have a very low pour floc point combined with a good performance at higher temperatures. With regard to subsea completions, the control fluid is the same fluid as used for the Xmas tree controls. table 8.i shows the main properties of the recommended oils for control line applications. 8.13 and figure 8.n below shows typical friction losses of control line fluids.

Injected fluid viscosity = 5cP
100 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Q injection - liters/hr

Fri c. los ses psi /10 0m

O.D = 0,25 inches

w.t.= 0,035 w.t.= 0,049 w.t.= 0,065

Figure 8.M - Fluid Friction Loss with 5cP Fluid




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STAP-P-1-M-7100 0


Injected fluid viscosity = 1cP
20 18 16 Fric. losses psi/100m 14 12 10 8 6 4 2 0 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 O.D = 0,25 inches

w.t.=0,035 w.t.=0,049 w.t.=0,065

Q injection - liters/hr

Figure 8.N - Fluid Friction Loss with 1cP Fluid The above graphs are based on the following formula:

Pf =

Q x L xµ 612.95 Di 4
Eq. 8.C


Pf = Friction losses (kPa) Di = Internal diameter (inches) L = Length (meters) µ = Viscosity (cP) Q = Flow rate (lt / min)
kPa X 0.145 = psi

00065 (kg/l) / °C For standard applications Agip Arnica 32 is recommended as it has better theological properties than OSO 32. testing and running procedure must be carefully programmed and hydraulic fluid may have to be flushed through a filtration unit. if required (usually 5 micron absolute). .A.Properties of Recommended SCSSV Hydraulic Oils * cSt x Density = cp **Density variation = 0.4 5.865 - 30 5. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 0 REVISION Oil Name/Properties Viscosity at 40° C cSt Viscosity at 100° C cSt Viscosity index Pour Point °C Flash point °C Density at 15° kg/l Floc point °C Agip Arnica 32 (Petroleum based) Agip OSO 32 (Paraffinic based) Agip Betula S 32 (Synthetic based) 32 6. Agip Betula 32 should be employed only when operating temperatures are very low as in Siberia where temperatures may reach -50°C.875 - 29. In order to avoid plugging of the control line while running in hole.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 235 OF 295 ENI S.3 110 -30 204 0.4 163 -39 202 0.841 -60 Table 8.p.1 98 -55 206 0.I .

O .3.p. Control/Injection Line Selection Procedure Flow Chart 0 REVISION Figure 8.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 236 OF 295 ENI S. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 8.A.9.Control/Injection Line Selection Flow Chart .

Tapered: • Baker F top no-go (AF-HF-VF) and R bottom no-go (AR-HR-VR). SCSSV or wellhead). Data on all of these nipples can be found in the manufacturer’s current catalogue. RN The choice of the type of nipple is subject to the working pressure which characterises the completion (e.4. The principal physical characteristics of a nipple are: • • • Seal bore diameter No-go diameter. and include the following models: Selective: • Halliburton (previously Otis) X.000 psi). X and XN nipples are used for working pressure < 10. if applicable Lock mandrel OD (LMOD).A.000 and 15. Do not rely on data produced elsewhere or use old catalogues as changes to the nipple systems may have been made resulting in incompatibility.p. .000 psi) HF.000 psi. the choice depends on the working pressure of the string configuration AF. XN. AR (WP < 10. R. while R and RN types are used on all higher pressures. VR (WP > 15.000 psi) VF.g. The aim of this section is to determine the type (selective or tapered) and configuration of the diameters in order to optimise access to the sump and prevent friction pressure drop.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 237 OF 295 ENI S. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 8. This must take into consideration all the diameter constraints imposed by the casing profile and completion characteristics. Like the case in selective nipples. HR (WP between 10. The nipples are selected based on those most commonly used by the company. WIRELINE NIPPLE SELECTION 0 REVISION The nipples required for completion purposes are based on the results of the previous design stages.

and the only one used.4. 4) The data obtained are then used to match the nipple.050ins for tubing OD < 3. For the lower nipples.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 238 OF 295 ENI S. the previous conditions are re-applied.1. an approximation of 1/100ins for SB is acceptable.313ins 0. is always a Baker type F and is chosen with the maximum diameter available for the size of the completion tubing below the hanger.070ins otherwise.050ins No-go dimension (NGD) = 0. decreasing the NGD to adjust the calculations.A.050ins for tubing OD < 5ins 0.RC SB = LMOD .p. .313ins = 0. The following physical dimensional values are required: • • Running clearance (RC) = 0.080ins otherwise The first nipple.RB > NGD + RC) then: LMOD = RA . generally in the tubing hanger. Tapered Nipple Configuration 0 REVISION The configuration of the nipples begins at the top of the string and moves downwards towards the bottom or packer tailpipe. The bottom restriction (RB) is determined by the ID of the SCSSV tubing-retrievable. To select the nipples to be as compatible as possible with the available options in the suppliers catalogues. At this stage a hypothesis of seal bore diameter of the nipple (SB) is determined by analysing the following conditions: If RB is not defined.042ins for tubing OD < 3. or: RB > RA or (RA . the minimum top and bottom restriction dimensions are determined by the following procedure: 1) The top restriction (RA) is the minimum upper diameter of the nipple. chosen from one of the following: • • • • • 2) ID of the packer Drift of the tubing ID of the safety valve Vertical access of the wellhead Sealbore diameter (top) or no-go ID (bottom) of the upper nipple.060ins for tubing OD < 5ins = 0. The minimum values which can be reached by the NGD are: • • • 0. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 8.NGD 3) In other cases.

F) is obtained from the previous selection.g.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 239 OF 295 ENI S. 2) The type of nipple (e.e. it is then possible to use an R type nipple if the following conditions exist: • • The nipple in question is not required for the installation of a W/L retrievable backup SCSSV The subsequent nipple must be type F with the following characteristics: SB(F) < SB(R) LMOD(F) + 0.A. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 0 REVISION 1) In the event of achieving a good match. the nipple is compared with the data from the catalogue. a tapered nipple will be used. i. the maximum diameter nipple which is compatible with the rated pressure of the Christmas tree is selected. the previous size is selected but only for a maximum of three nipples in series. 8.2. If F is chosen.050 < no-go ID(R). Selective Nipple Configuration Criteria similar to those detailed in the tapered nipple procedure are used to choose the tubing hanger nipple. . If there is no nipple with the characteristics required. For the subsequent nipples. there are two options: • • Produce a new nipple size Select the maximum nipple diameter from the catalogue < SB. It is a rule that if the spacing between two successive nipples is < 30m.p.4. After this it is necessary to reduce the diameter again.

therefore perforation damage is an extremely important aspect. The important issues for the completion engineer are the charge selection to meet with the conditions and provide the maximum perforating efficiency. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 0 REVISION 9. The detonator is triggered by electrical heating when deployed on wireline systems or by a firing pin in mechanically or hydraulically operated firing head systems employed on tubing conveyed perforating (TCP) systems.2. cement and into formation in such a manner so as not to inhibit the inflow capacity of the reservoir.a). The explosives for use in most shaped charges up to 300 F is RDX (cyclonite) and above this temperature and depending on time exposed to the temperature. HMX. The performance of each is available from the suppliers. which has been proven to significantly help to achieve a post-perforating flow rate to effectively flush out gun debris and remove the crushed zone which surrounds every perforating tunnel.A. To optimise perforating efficiency. PERFORATING The objective of perforating a well is to establish communication between the wellbore and the formation by making holes through the casing. it is not solely down to the perforating technique but relies extensively on the planning and execution of the well completion which includes selection of the perforated interval. however the perforated volume in the pay is relatively small compared to open hole (+/. If this is not effective.1. gun selection. To this end it is necessary to obtain an adequate shot density with a sufficiently deep enough penetration to pass through the drilling damage and maximise flow through each tunnel. SHAPED CHARGE PERFORATING The principle of shaped charge perforating is available in any service providers sales and technical literature (Refer to figure 9. applied pressure differential or underbalance. One of the important aspects is the underbalance. increased perforating skin can reduce production rates. well clean-up.3 and offers selectivity.p. The detonating cord. fluid selection. which couples all the charges to the detonator in the firing head. o . and perforating orientation.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 240 OF 295 ENI S. 9. PS. HNS or PYX is used. must match the explosive selected. The advantages of perforated casing wells is already described in section 5.25%).

. high mechanical and electrical reliability.2. speed and accurate positioning using CCL/Gamma Ray. minimal casing damage. therefore no underbalance can normally be applied although in large size monobore type completions some sizes can be run similar to through-tubing guns using an underbalance. highest temperature and pressure rating. Wireline Conveyed Casing Guns These types of guns are generally run in the well before installing the tubing. variable shot densities of 1-12spf. Wireline Conveyed Casing Guns Through-tubing Hollow Carrier Guns Through-tubing Strip Guns Tubing Conveyed Perforating Guns. minimal debris. instant shot detection. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 0 REVISION Figure 9.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 241 OF 295 ENI S.A. multi-phasing. low cost.1. high charge performance.Perforation Process 9. The advantage of casing guns over the other wireline guns are.A.p. GUN TYPES There are four main types of perforating guns: • • • • 9.2.

A.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 242 OF 295 ENI S.p. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 0 REVISION Figure 9.Types of Guns .B .

then the guns detonated by either: • • • • A bar dropped from surface Hydraulic pressure applied from surface then subsequently reduced to the planned underbalance pressure during a time delay. .2. Tubing Conveyed Perforating TCP guns are a variant of the casing gun which can be run on tubing. The charges have higher performance and are much cheaper than throughtubing carriers guns.3. 9. hence have o lower charge sizes and. They also provide 0 or 180 phasing. they must have a safety release connection so they can be left in the well. they may be deployed and hung-off in position before installation of the completion string. Due to the potential of becoming stuck through strip deformation. Due to the stand-off from the casing which these guns may have. than all other guns.A. run on the bottom of the completion packer or run through the tubing on coiled tubing.p.4. Alternately they can be run in long lengths for overbalance perforating before completion string installation. They only offer 0 or o 1 7 180 phasing with a max. Another version available. allowing much longer lengths to be installed. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 9. By being able to be run through the tubing. Through-Tubing Hollow Carrier Guns 0 REVISION These are smaller versions of casing guns which can be run through tubing. is where a differential is applied between the annulus and the sump via porting through the test packer. Normally the completion is displaced to an underbalance fluid. casing damage and have less o o mechanical and electrical reliability.2. therefore performance. Through-Tubing Strip Guns These are semi-expendable type guns and consist of a metal strip into which the charges are mounted. In completion operations. underbalance perforating can possibly be adopted but only for the first shot. 9. they are usually fitted with decentralising/orientation devices. A new version called the ‘pivot gun’ has even larger charges for deep penetration which pivot out from a vertical controlled OD to the firing position. Impact by a wireline deployed tool.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 243 OF 295 ENI S. Subsequent runs would need the well to be flowed to cause a differential pressure. Hydrostatic pressure reduction.000ft are possible (and especially useful for horizontal wells) and perforating under exceedingly high drawdowns is possible with no risk to the guns being blown up the hole.2. therefore. however they also cause more debris. of 4spf on the 2 /8” OD gun and 6spf on the 2 /8” OD gun.2. normally used on well tests. They have a particular application for perforating through DST strings and reperforating completed wells. Lengths of over 1.

the thickness of casing and cement or if multiple casings are to be perforated also has an impact on the gun performance. which includes performance data produced by the suppliers. This provides under two specific tests: • • Entrance hole size and penetration length into a 5ft diameter concrete target.A. GUN PERFORMANCE API And Performance Data For most completion applications. higher grade charges may also be required. however the performance in actual use may differ due to differences in rock strength. gun stand-off. can be used as a qualitative comparison of charge performance. API RP 43. 9.3. 9. charge alignment.1.p. Section II is normally used for comparisons. moisture contamination. The variations for these reasons is non-linear and depends on the type of charge. Due to the longer exposure time because of the deployment.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 244 OF 295 ENI S. It is necessary for engineers to obtain as much accurate data from the suppliers and use Eni-Agip historic data in order to be able to make the best choice of gun. Ageing of explosives. overburden stress and wellbore pressure and temperatures. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 The main problems associated with TCP are: • • • • 0 REVISION Gun positioning is more difficult The sump needs to be drilled deeper to accommodate the gun length if it is dropped after firing A misfire is extremely expensive Shot detection is more unreliable. . penetration and flow efficiency in a Berea sandstone target at elevated temperatures and an estimated 800psi effective stress. The performances are listed in two sections I and II.3. Entrance hole. The API tests are also unreliable as the targets have had differing strengths and porosities and there is no consistent quality control standard for production of the charges.

Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 Guidelines Gravel Pack Completions 0 REVISION Due to the problem of flow restriction discussed earlier in section 2. Shot Density Shot density in homogeneous. Underbalanced Perforating With Through-Tubing Guns If TCP costs cannot be justified and if formation perforated skin factor is acceptable.p. This in conjunction with correct gravel pack procedures is essential for to prevent high skin factors. On the first run a high overbalance can be used but on subsequent runs the only means of producing a differential is to flow the well at a rate governed not to blow the gun up the hole. If perforating with through-tubing guns. o Minimum 90 phasing. Shot density to achieve adequate flow area.1. Shot phasing.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 245 OF 295 ENI S. the important factors are: • • • • • Hole diameter to achieve adequate flow area. Debris removal. A shot density greater than this is required where: • • • • Vertical permeability is low. A gravel pack is be conducted. underbalanced perforation can be carried out with through tubing systems. this will require multiple runs. This is affected by the gun weight. High shot density over 8spf. . bypass area and expected flow rate. Penetration. The use of these relatively smaller guns require contact with the casing wall. High Underbalanced TCP Perforating High drawdowns over 500psi for production wells require.4. There is a risk of sand production. type of fluid. isotropic formations should be a minimum of 8spf but must exceed the frequency of shale laminations. There is a risk of high velocities and hence turbulence.A. orientation at o o o 90 with 180 phased guns or in line with the contact point if 0 phased. if possible: • • • • TCP methods Deep penetrating charges.

A.3. 180 or less. In unconsolidated sands. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 Penetration 0 REVISION In general. formation fluids and must also be clean to prevent formation damage. Gun Stand-Off Gun stand-off should be minimised for improved performance. As a general rule stand-off should never be more than 50mm. (Refer to the Figures below). Underbalanced Perforating To optimise the perforating clean up. o o o o Overbalanced Perforating If a well is to be perforated overbalanced. the intention is to cause perforation enlargement to remove the crushed zone without collapsing the cavity or sanding in the guns.p.2.90 . the guns may be limited to the charge size which can physically be installed which will impact penetration. Between 8mm and 12mm if fracturing is to be carried out and where ball sealers are to be used. The optimum clean up period is subjective and opinions range from 1gall to 5gall per perforation. Between 15mm and 25mm in gravel packed completions. 120 . an underbalance should be used. 60 is preferable. However. 9. If the smallest charges are being used then the stand-off should not be more than 25mm. The best method of clean up is to flow the well continually for several hours after perforating at normal offtake rates. high density shots are preferred then TCP and casing guns should be used. These guidelines should be used to select the appropriate drawdown for consolidated completions. Phasing Providing the stand-off is less than 50mm. This requires that less drawdown is exerted during the well clean up. then strict control over the fluid used to ensure it is compatible with the reservoir formation. the deeper the shot the better. but at the least it should exceed the drilling damage area by 75mm. . especially at high pressures. to obtain high shot density. If low phase angle. King et al developed a recommended minimum level of drawdown based on a number of field studies where TCP perforating had been employed.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 246 OF 295 ENI S. Hole Size The hole size obtained is a function of the casing grade and should be as follows: • • • Between 6mm and 12mm for natural completions. If o fracturing is to be carried out then 90 and lower will help initiate fractures.

Firing Heads 0 REVISION As described earlier. There are other side-by-side systems available which provide a tubing installed pressure activated firer with a secondary receptacle for a wireline installed firer.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 247 OF 295 ENI S. Protecting the firing head from test pressure is a dangerous procedure as a plug may leak will also cause premature detonation. there are a number of different firing heads for various applications. gun recovery would be very costly.3. for if there is a firing head fault. Using wireline installed firing heads provides some redundancy in that the first head can be retrieved and a second head deployed.3. in TCP systems there are a wide variety including pressure operated. Perforating Procedures Refer to the ‘Completion Procedures Manual. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 9. . This provides full safety during gun deployment. However. Two very important considerations are safety during installation of TCP systems and redundancy in the event of a fault occurring in the primary firing system.p.A. 9. . it is undesirable to have a gun actuation pressure higher than the test pressure as a leak may occur while trying to trigger the guns. bar drop. Obviously. Wireline perforating systems are normally electrically trigger by passing an electrical signal down the cable to the guns. Safety The use of tubing installed hydraulic actuated systems has the problem of how to conduct pressure integrity tests on the completion with sufficient margin between the gun activation pressure and the highest test pressure applied. It is good practice to use a bar drop firing mechanism (deployed on wireline if possible as dropping the bar from surface may damage sensitive completion items) or wireline installed firing heads which can be installed after the completion is set and tested. etc.3. wireline activated. Redundancy This is an important aspect.4.

Recommended Underbalance for Perforating Gas Zones in Stable Sandstones .C .Recommended Underbalance for Perforating Gas Zones in Stable Sandstones Figure 9.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 248 OF 295 ENI S.p.D .A. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 0 REVISION Figure 9.

A. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 0 REVISION Figure 9.Recommended Underbalance for Perforating Shallow Unconsolidated Gas Sands Figure 9.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 249 OF 295 ENI S.E .p.Recommended Underbalance for Perforating Shallow Unconsolidated Oil Sands .F .

then minimisation of the FBHP is critical to low PI. Offset the effects of increasing water production. Reservoir development optimisations studies are necessary to determine the relative technical and economic benefits of the options and the timing of the investments. etc. Energy can also be introduced by reservoir pressure maintenance.6. artificial lift from the outset is necessary to achieve the production and economic targets. System life is difficult to predict as it is a function of operating conditions. To summarise the reasons for the installation of artificial lift are to: • • • • • Reduce the effects of declining bottom-hole pressures. e. Kick off high GLR wells that die when shut-in. their applications. Some systems are able to cope better with production problems than others which will obviously affect the choice. limitations and comparisons. such as casing size. In other cases.4. Consideration of future artificial lift requirements must be taken during the planning stage. ESP life can vary between days and five years depending on temperature. Meet with targeted high offtake rates. such as: • • • • • • • • Casing ID Casing connection in on gas lift Size and positioning of liners Provision of a sump for rod pumpers Pre-positioning of gas lift mandrels for gas lift and ASV system Pre-installation of conduits for hydraulic pumps Parallel bore for plunger lift etc. Overcome high friction effects of heavy viscous or waxy crudes. low pressure wells. . design considerations.A. liner top setting.g. Selection of the method is also based upon operating costs and workover frequency costs.p. the artificial lift injects energy into the system. both pressure maintenance and artificial lift are used which defers the installation. These early decisions can save much expense later. In some fields. In simple terms. solids production. The application of artificial lift simply displaces the TPC curve downwards so that a lower bottom-hole flowing pressure is achieved. Just as tubing size is critical to high PI wells. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 0 REVISION 10. ARTIFICIAL LIFT The benefits and most commonly used artificial lift were described previously in section 5. GLR and lack of particular experience with the system. The selection of the most appropriate artificial lift system involves a number of factors but mainly on specific well performance.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 250 OF 295 ENI S. Section 10.7 lists all the systems.

There is an optimum GLR to produce stabilised flow for a particular tubing size and a minimum BHFP. Qi. This continues in sequence for all other valves until reaching the operating valve where the casing pressure will drop below the initial kick-off pressure. .A. the gas moves down to the next valve unloading the casing fluid and as the reaches the second valve and lightens the fluid gradient from that point. In continuous gas lift. GAS LIFT 0 REVISION The continuous gas lift method adds gas into the producing fluids which reduces the hydrostatic head and. which is used to produce low volumes of liquid (<350stb/d) from wells with low BHFP (<0. hence the back-pressure on the formation. it is desirable to position the lower gas injection point as deep as possible in the well.1. the injection is optimised to maximise production. As GLR requirements are subject to diminishing returns. the first unloading valve closes so that all the gas passes through the second valve. or either the near optimum GLR which provides a BHFP within 20-50psi of the minimum. Production is determined by: • • • • reservoir pressure PI water cut gas injection rate Once the well reaches a stabilised rate.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 251 OF 295 ENI S.a. also shown in figure 10. Due to the low liquid production. The lift gas is normally pumped into the annulus and into the tubing through gas lift valves installed in Side Pocket Mandrels (SPMs). dried if necessary and then delivered to the well (Refer to figure 10.3. As described in section 2.a). The injection gas is supplied in a closed loop system in which it is taken from the separators and then compressed.1psi/ft). As can be seen the gas is injected down the annulus and into the tubing through the topmost valve lightening the fluid column in accordance with the total GLR curve shown.p. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 10. however this is limited by: • • • • available gas lift pressure the flowing tubing pressure at the intended offtake rate the depth of the packer and deepest gas lift mandrel the differential required to close the upper valves closed (+/-20psi) and to ensure that injection at the operating GLV is stable (between 50 and 500psi) figure 10. As the fluid gradient changes. it must be produced in slugs by intermittently gas injection through a motorised valve. most gas lift systems are based on available gas supply volumes. Another less common application is Intermittent Gas Lift. During this process the well BHP will drop to the point where the well will flow.4. A standing valve is sometimes necessary to prevent the gas from flowing into the formation. Occasionally the gas is pumped into the tubing and the production taken up the annulus or in the annular space in a concentric completion. increasing GLR initially decreases the bottom-hole pressure on the TPC.b illustrates the fundamental principle of a gas lift design and operation.

Total GLR = Producing GLR + Injection GLR </= optimum GLR.Typical Gas Lift System .A.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 252 OF 295 ENI S. q. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 From this it is seen: • • • 0 REVISION Liquid rate.A . is dependent on the IPR and attainable BHFP.p. IGLR = Qi/q Figure 10.

Modern gas lift systems usually now use SPMs with wireline GLVs to reduce servicing costs. applies more pressure on the annulus casing. This increased pressure. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 0 REVISION Figure 10.A. these are not reliable and as the annuli contain quite a considerable inventory of gas. All mandrel depths are taken of the design as TVDs and these must be converted to MD.B . hence gas tight or premium connections are generally selected.1.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 253 OF 295 ENI S. As the mandrels at deeper depths become increasingly closer.p. much higher gas supply pressures have been used to enable deeper valves to be reached or reduce the number of mandrels and valves required. Impact On Completion Design In recent times. the spacing of them is much more critical. .1. an annulus safety system is installed for platform safety. however.Example Gas lift design 10. Although gas lift valves incorporate check valves to prevent back flow. This may again impact on the casing design. SPMs have relatively large ODs and this needs to be considered in the casing design.

2.1. the installation should be designed to facilitate downhole separation of free gas and vented up the annulus which is necessary when the gas volume exceeds the pump operating limit (typically +/-10% of the total fluid volume).ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 254 OF 295 ENI S.000scf/stb. 10. Their main limitation is gas production but improved downhole separators and procedures can now handle GORs up to 1. On offshore installations.p.500 rpm at 60 Hertz and 2.A. They are particularly popular for high rate undersaturated oil wells. Operationally. ESPs performance is best at stable conditions within +/-25% of the optimum rate.2. high water cut wells and water supply wells. The construction of the ESP is a multi-staged centrifugal connected through a short shaft to the downhole electric motor. Each stage consists of a rotating impeller and stationary diffuser. TDH=Ns Hs where: NS HS = = number of stages head per stage Eq. To prevent sand production it is sometimes necessary to install a gravel pack or pre-packed screen for pump protection. If possible. Due to these high speeds and pump construction it is obvious that sand production is very detrimental and that emulsions are easily formed. 10. the problems are usually inefficiency through upper gas lift valve or tubing leaks. The differential pressure or total dynamic head (TDH) developed by the pump is a function of the pump flow rate which is relative to the head developed by each stage and obtainable from manufacturers publishing’s. 3. gas production up the annulus may be a significant problem. The ESP delivery capacity will vary according to: • • • • Well IPR Reservoir pressure Surface back-pressure Electrical supply frequency figure 10. Common Problems 0 REVISION The worst problem that can arise is that the pressure losses in the gas injection system and slugging have been underestimated and that the valve spacing is too far apart.A The pump characteristics are based on constant rotational speed which is dependent on the AC supply frequency. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 10. motor controller and a wellhead pack-off for the cable. .c shows the most common types of ESP installations and the pump components. Versions with variable frequency drives (VFD) are available or the use of surface chokes can be used to increase the band of rate (50-190%) but incur higher capital and operating costs.915 at 50 Hertz. ELECTRICAL SUBMERISBLE PUMPS ESPs greatest application is in moving large volume of low GOR (<100scf/stb) fluids. Surface equipment usually includes a three phase transformer.

most pump installations are on the end of tubing and positioned above the perforations or open hole.Typical ESP Installations .A. Figure 10. The motor is situated at the bottom of the assembly so that the well flow around the motor will dissipate the heat generated. If the pump has to be positioned below the interval.C. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 0 REVISION As can be seen from the schematic. Bottom discharge pumps are used in powered dump flood wells.p. a shroud is used to draw the produced fluid down past the motor.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 255 OF 295 ENI S.

Both of these suffer from some problems such as cable failures with the cable suspension method and well control issues with the C/T mounted method (i. On coiled tubing with the cable through the coil which is terminated with a special wellhead arrangement. stb/d Power.750 4. ESP sizes and capacities are shown in table 10. HP TDH.000 4.000 500-3. ft 4 /2 5 /2 7 8 /8 10 /4 13 /8 3 3 5 1 1 3.000-10. 10. ins Rate.900 200-5.750 8. An example this to optimise the number of stages for a maximum pump HP is shown in figure 10. .375 N/A N/A 100-1. Pre-select the maximum pump horsepower.e. Casing Size.J .1.437 7.000-26. This often carried out by plotting the pressure traverses above and below the pump (Refer to figure 10.000 3.d). Small casing or liners will obviously limit the pump size selection.500 Table 10.000 5.000-5. or number of stages.000 24.000 5.500 5.000-12.j below.000-12.625 11. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 Other less common deployment methods are: • • 0 REVISION Suspended on the cable and latched into a downhole receptacle. and determine the attainable pump rate with: • • a fixed IPR and various tubing sizes a fixed tubing size and various IPR options 2) In this approach the pump performance curve is often plotted below the system performance curves.000 50-125 100-300 200-650 400-850 500-1020 500-1030 5.2. ins Motor OD.000-100.000 5.000 12. downhole safety systems if the well can flow naturally). A recent development with the later is in Norway where downhole safety is satisfied by the installation of shear seal capability below the coiled tubing hanger.000 1.000-12.000 2.625 6.000-33. ESP Performance It is normal procedure to select the largest pump that will fit into the production casing (especially if this was catered for in the planning stage).p. ins Pump OD.A.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 256 OF 295 ENI S.ESP Capacity Ranges Two approaches are commonly used to evaluate an ESP system: 1) Pre-select the production target and corresponding BHFP and determine the TDH and pump size and depth required to meet this rate.e.375 4.000-16.250 3.

ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 257 OF 295 ENI S.Example ESP Design for a Pre-selected Rate . Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 0 REVISION Figure 10.A.p.D .

E.p. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 0 REVISION Figure 10.A.Example ESP Design for a Pre-selected HP .ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 258 OF 295 ENI S.

vice versa.p. When re-completing a ESP well the pump should be moved slightly from the original position to help minimise any casing corrosion due to eddy currents. Too much free gas and no enlarged intakes stages. Impact On Completion Design 0 REVISION The key to an efficient ESP design is heat removal and insulation material selection for the actual operating temperatures and environment.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 259 OF 295 ENI S. The clearance between the pump and the casing should be small enough that a flow velocity of a minimum of 1ft/sec is achieved. Centralisation and crush resistant clamps should be installed across doglegs. ESP systems are becoming evermore reliable. especially when temperatures are in the o region of 250 F. The completion design is also affected if downhole separation is required in conjunction with downhole safety. Casing design is obviously has a large impact on the completion design or in the case of an ESP completion. Scaling up of the impellers.2. 10.3. The pump should be set in a straight section of casing to avoid bending and the cable needs to firmly attached to the tubing for support by cable clamps (two per joint). Common Problems The biggest problem with ESP completions is short running time before failure with the cost impact for re-completion. Tubing hanger and penetration systems for packers have been well developed now for fast easy installation with the testing of the connections carried beforehand in the workshop. However.A. The most common problems are due to: • • • • • • • • Bad installation procedures. Also consideration must be given to the optimum tubing size and cable dimensions to ensure they can be accommodated in the casing. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 10.2. If properly planned an ESP completion only requires one onsite termination. a shroud must be used to provide this rate. Too many frequent start ups when there is no soft start facilities. Poor voltage supply stability. Centralisation of the pump is also critical. Sand production. In large casings. Inadequate system analysis leading to the system operating outside the range. . Unsuitable cable insulation material for the conditions.2.

maintaining a clean solids free power fluid and the high capital and operating costs. deviation or severe operating environments. In effect the piston pump is equivalent to the rod pump except that the pump drive is subsurface but can produce up to 8. depth. hence providing lower servicing costs. Jet Pump The jet pump uses no moving parts and imparts momentum into the fluid using the venturi effect with a jet. Piston Pump The piston pump is a reciprocating pump operated with a drive piston which automatically shuttles backwards and forwards exhausting the spent power fluid into the returns. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 10.000ft although high surface power fluid pressures are required below 12. The annulus is sometimes required for gas venting and in this case a dual string is required. The two simplest and common systems are the Jet Pump and the Piston Pump which are interchangeable in most instances which provides great flexibility in coping with changeable well conditions. Optimisation is generally through using supplier’s computer software. HYDRAULIC PUMPING SYSTEMS 0 REVISION Hydraulic pumping systems are attractive alternative to ESP systems where there is high temperatures. It is also popular where there is insufficient gas for a gas lift system and is a viable alternative to rod pumps for deep (>8. The downside is the requirement for two reasonably large conduits to minimise fluid pressure losses.k below. The size of the these can be varied to pump volumes of 1 100-15. or restricted offtake target wells. the pump is not as sensitive to damage and lower quality power fluids can be used and can be used in higher GOR wells up to 3. dual tubing strings can be used either parallel or concentric.000stb/d. However pump efficiency is low at 33-66% and large production rates can only be achieved in high rate installations.000ft) wells. The conduits for the power fluid and returns can be the annulus with a single tubing. throat and diffuser. As there is no moving parts. There is a large selection of pump sizes/stroke length available for a wide range of operating conditions. supply pressure and rate.000stb/d although it is normally used to produce <2. Pump performance is a complex function of GOR.000stb/d with 4 /2” tubing. it is recommended to submerge the pump by at least 20% of the TDH so is better suited to respectfully productive.p.000stb/d although free pump systems are limited to 8.000ft. . pump intake pressure. There is flexibility in the system as pump rates are controlled by controlling the power fluid supply rate.000-18. The maximum attainable performance have been summarised in table 10.000scf/stb. The pumps can be installed and retrieved by wireline or pumping method using swab cups.3.A.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 260 OF 295 ENI S. Their application is commonly for deviated wells between 8. however this exposes the annulus to potential corrosion so. To prevent cavitation. A preliminary calculation of the pump intake or output curve can be made by hand. if this is a problem.




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Head Ratio 0.45 0.25 0.17 0.10

Flow Ratio 0.5 1.0 1.5 2.0

Table 10.K- Jet Pump Maximum Performance In table 10.k above: Head Ratio = pump output pressure − pump inlet pressure downhole power fluid pressure − pump output pressure reservoir production rate Flow Ratio = power fluid rate

Often the maximum power fluid supply pressure and rate is fixed by surface equipment rating, e.g. p<5,000psi, qPF <4,500stb/d. When calculating bottom hole pressures, the completion configuration and power fluid rate to the production to obtain the total discharge rate. The pump intake curve (PIC) can then be generated using table 10.k above plotted against well IPR (Refer to figure 10.f).

Figure 10.F- Example Jet Pump Design Curve




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The hydraulic turbine pump developed by Weir Pumps is an alternative to the ESP for producing very large volumes of fluid, 2,000-100,000stb/d. It has the same principle of operation as the ESP but the motor is replaced by a hydraulic turbine which rotate the shaft at 5,000-10,000rpm. This provides higher lift capacities (head and volume) per stage, therefore the units are much shorter approximately 10% of the ESP. The operating range is much greater as the pump can be controlled by varying the supply pressure giving 10-100% rate and 20-50% TDH at reduced rates. Their reliability is still suspect due to the high rotating speed and metallurgy problems. 10.3.1. Impact On Completion Design The casing size is obviously important here to accommodate the pump size and perhaps two tubing strings. Sometimes concentric completions are preferred or the annulus is used but consideration must be given to potential corrosion due to oxygen in the power fluid. Like the piston pump solids free power fluid is essential. Like the ESP, gas venting may be necessary which would require a third conduit (generally the annulus). Occasionally the DHSV is controlled by pressure from the pump. 10.4. ROD PUMPS The most common pumping system on low rate land wells is the rod or beam pumping. It is usually limited to shallow wells (<8,000ft) producing less than 500stb/d although they can produce up to 2,000stb/d. The system consists of three elements, the downhole pump assembly, the sucker rod and the surface pumping unit. The annulus is usually left open and used to vent any free gas that is separated downhole. Tubing is used as the production conduit and contains the rods preventing wear and corrosion to the annulus. The tubing is usually anchored to the casing and pulled into tension to reduce tubing movement, buckling and, hence rod wear. There are two versions of bottom-hole pump, the tubing retrievable barrel and the rod retrievable barrel. The tubing pump requires the tubing to be pulled to retrieve the barrel and the rod pump barrel is retrieved when pulling the rods. The tubing pump has the largest capacity but is more costly to repair than the rod pump which is the most common. The pump displacement, PD, is defined by the plunger stroke, SP, and the pump speed, N, the plunger diameter, D and the amount of liquid fillage and/or slippage past the plunger, EP = 0.7 to 9.5. PD = Ct x Sp x N x D x Ep Eq. 10.B where: EP Ct = = Pump efficiency 2 Correction factor 0.1166 for oilfield units, (in, spm, in , stb/d)




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Figure 10.G- Typical Rod Pumping System




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As the rod suffers from stretch and dynamic forces, SP will not be the same as the stroke at surface, S, therefore load-displacement plot forms the basis for pump design and analysis. The fluid load, Fo, carried by the rods on the upstroke is dependent on the net lift, H, which is the vertical distance from the operating fluid level (OFL) in the annulus to surface plus the equivalent head of any surface back-pressure. It also depends on fluid SG or density. API recommends ignoring the area of the rods when calculating this load: Fo = Ct x SG x D x H where: Ct = 0.340 in oilfield units (SG, in , ft, lbs)
2 2

This load can be estimated from dynamometer surveys, which measure the rod load versus displacement at the surface and serves the most effective means of diagnosing pump problems. As the loads on the polished rod includes fluid load, dynamic forces and rod weight, the rod weights may be relatively large in deep wells and in these cases a tapered rod string is preferred where the rod diameter is larger with increasing load. Buoyancy varies throughout the cycle but it is generally taken on the downstroke when the travelling valve is open. Acceleration and friction are also factors in dynamic loading with the peak polished rod load on the upstroke will be significantly higher than the sum of the rod and fluid loads. Similarly, on the downstroke, the minimum will be less than the buoyant weight of the rods. Pump stroke efficiency is a function of pump speed and rod loading. The dynamics also cause the rods to oscillate harmonically like a stiff spring. Typical pumping speeds are 8 to 15spm which amounts to 4.2 to 7.9 million cycles per year, therefore the rod design must focus on minimising fatigue failures which is exacerbated by corrosion in the operating environment. The surface pump unit is usually a beam type although other concepts have been developed. The surface prime mover and gearbox have been developed over the years to cater for the rod pump to reduce failures. System design is very complex and is an iterative process normally carried out by computer software. API have produced a programme to generate a set of design curves published in API RP11L and provided some general results in Bulletins 11L3 and 11L4 which are a useful starting point for design. However, in 11L4, API used 100% efficiency and pump rates which are higher than those generally found in the field, therefore, it is advisable to enter a curve which is 100 to 200% of the intended target for scoping out the required o equipment capacity. It is also not reliable for heavy oil wells (<20 API) unless correction factors are applied for fluid vicosities and lack of rod weight on the downstroke. Rod fall problems often cut restrict pump rates to 1.5 to 2.5spm which lead the use of long stroke pumps. Sand problems are often a problem with high viscous crudes which increase wear of the pump parts.




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If free gas is expected then a packer should not be installed to allow the gas to vent up the annulus if it is planned to convert a completion to rod pump lift within a few years unless required for zonal isolation. If a well has to be pumped which is below the bubble point, it is advised to set the pump below the producing interval to aid gas separation, maximise drawdown and minimise perforation blocking by fill. If a well is fractured, the pump must be set above the perforations as frac sand can damage the pump. The casing geometry must be sufficient enough to enable the gas to percolate through the fluid column against the down-flow. 10.5. SCREW PUMP SYSTEMS Screw or progressive cavity pump is a rotary positive displacement pump consisting of a rubber stator and stainless steel rotor. The rotary drive to the downhole pump is through sucker rods from a prime mover through a gearbox. They rates of between 5 to 500stb/d, although in some circumstances capacities of 1,500stb/d is possible, on heavy oil wells or viscous emulsions where conventional rod pumps are hindered by rod fall. They have an advantage in that they can handle some sand production and less costly. The production rate is proportional to the rotary speed and are determined from manufacturers charts, generally between 50-100rpm in heavy oil and 500rpm in light oils. The selection of the material for the rubber stator is the key for operational life in the well environment. 10.6. PLUNGER LIFT Plunger lift are used on high GLR wells that produce liquids at relatively low rates (<500stb/d). The tubing/casing annulus is used to store gas energy provided to the tubing when the well is opened up. This energy is used to drive the plunger up to surface carrying a small slug of liquid. After production of the following tail gas when the liquid begins to kill the well the plunger is dropped again and the cycle repeated. It is particularly useful for de-watering gas wells. Operating requirements are: • • • GLR >500scf/stb PI <1stb/d/psi Plunger velocity 700 to 1,000ft/min

Efficiency of this system decreases with depth and PI but increases with tubing size. It is essential that the completion tubing is parallel and drifted to ensure correct operation of the plunger.

H. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 0 REVISION Figure 10.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 266 OF 295 ENI S.A.p.Typical Screw Pump Installation .

p.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 267 OF 295 ENI S.A.Typical Plunger Lift Installation .I . Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 0 REVISION Figure 10.

Downhole Equipment Reasonably good rod design and operating practices needed. Tubing needs to be sized correctly.A.L . normally requires a high injection gas volume/bbl fluid. to avoid excessive engine wear. Good to excellent. can alter stroke speed. Pumps usually run at a fixed speed. May be higher with lower GLR. operating and repair practices needed rods and pump.Design Considerations and Overall Comparisons (pg1) . Method sensitive to rate changes. Miscellaneous problems Stuffing box leakage may be messy and a potential hazard. length. Fair to good. May have limited service in some areas. pumps. Requires computer design programme for sizing. No moving parts in pump. A highly reliable compressor with 95+% run time required. Because this a newer method. Good selection. only low cost well equipment if no compressor required. seats. central systems reduce cost per well but is more complicated. Requires a highly reliable electric power system. Poor. Moderate cost for well equipment (valves and mandrels). produced or seawater) acceptable. Low wells for wells requiring high GLRs. Poor. Fair increases for wells that require small injection GLRs. Good design and operating practices needed. Good for high rate wells but decreases significantly for <1. Continuous Gas Lift Low well equipment costs but lines and compression costs may be high. Central compression system reduces cost per well. Power fluid rate and speed of downhole pump.000 BFPD. plunger size and run time to control production rate. Cost increases with higher horsepower. Low increase with depth and larger rates. Fair. efficiency typically is 40%. Selection of throat and nozzle sizes extend range of volume and capacity. Some problems with sticking plungers. Power water (fresh.7. Time cycling normally avoided. More tolerant of power fluid solids. Good design plus good operating practices essential. maintaining steady gas show often causes injection gas measurement and operating problems. Can adjust ingestion time and frequency. Costs increase as horsepower rises.000 BID. Consider chamber or high PI and low BHP wells. Good even when small supplementary gas is added. field knowledge and experience are limited. Excellent. Gas must be dehydrated properly to avoid gas freezing. Must add surfactant to a water power fluid for lubrication. Can vary power fluid rate and pressure adjusts the production rate and lift capacity. Anti-pollution stuffing boxes are available. Need 15ppm of 15µm particle size max.p. VSD provides more flexibility but added costs. Efficiencies range from 3040% with GLR >100. requires powerful conductor. Reported system efficiency 5070%. not as good as rod pumping owing to GLR. May have problems with selection of appropriate stator elastomer. Hydraulic Jet Pumping Competitive with rod pump. Efficiency (output hydraulic HP divided by input HP) Excellent. Operating practices have to be tailored to each well for optimisation. friction and pump wear. Heavily influenced by power fluid plus production gradient. Typically total system efficiency is about 50% for high rate well but for <1. Flexibility Excellent. Numerous pump sizes and pump/engine ratios adapt to production and depth needs. Free pump and choose powerful option. 200ppm of 25µm particle size acceptable. Choice of wireline retrievable or conventional valves. Long service life and simple repair procedures. Very low.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 268 OF 295 ENI S. Plunger hangup or sticking may be a major problem. Power fluid solids control essential.1. tolerant to moderate solids in power fluid. Typical lift efficiency is 1050% improved with plungers. Fair to poor.7. etc. Good valve design and spacing essential. Hydraulic unit provides additional flexibility but at added cost. Dilutents may be added if required. Typical efficiencies at 20% but range from 5-30%. Good to excellent. Maximum efficiency only 30%. Data bank of rod and pump failures beneficial. Must size pump properly. Good. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 10. must adjust injection time and cycles frequently. SUMMARY ARTIFICIAL LIFT SELECTION CHARTS 0 REVISION 10. Full pump fillage efficiency typically about 50-60% feasible if well is not over-pumped. Requires proper cable in addition to motor. More operating data needed. Excellent total system efficiency. Proper design plus good operating practices essential. Multiple well. Good for low volume wells. Typically operating efficiencies of 10-20%. Table 10. Relatively low capital cost if commercial electric power available. No input energy required because it uses the well. Design Considerations And Comparisons Consideration Rod Pumping Screw Pumping ESP Hydraulic Piston Pumping Varies but often competitive with rod pumps. May exceed rod pumps for ideal cases. Labour intensive to keep time tuned otherwise poor performance. Unload to bottom with gas lift valves. can alter speed. Requires careful sizing. Gas injection rate varied to change rates. Triplex plunger leakage control required. Excellent for flowing wells. Intermittent Gas Lift Same as continuous flow gas lift. Plunger Lift Capital Cost Low to moderate increase with depth and larger units.

Used on <1% of US lifted wells. high GOR and significant sand production. Essentially a low liquid rate. Used on <2% of US lifted wells. Key is to inject as deeply as possible with optimum GLR. Usage/ Outlook Excellent. Good. Excellent if compression system is properly designed and maintained. Often used as a default artificial lift system. An adequate volume. procedures to design. Must avoid operating in cavitation range of jet pump throat. if HP is high. Fair to poor. GOR try higher volume wells requiring flexible operation. Fair.000BFPD rates. Some trade in value. Good. System approach needed. Limited to relatively shallow wells with low rates.M . Used on less than 0. Compression costs vary on fuel cost and compressor maintenance.. good value for wellsite system that crane can move easily. Excellent for ideal gas lift cases. Plunger Lift Operating Costs Very low for shallow to medium depth (<7. Some trade in value. Requires attention. Excellent if there is an adequate supply of ingestion gas and adequate low pressure storage volume for injection gas. wide rate range suitable for relatively deep. usually results in test and treatment problems. high temperature deviated oil wells.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 269 OF 295 ENI S. are controlled. installation and operating specifications Each well needs an individual system. Fairly simple to design but requires good rate data. Good. high rate artificial lift system for wells with high bottom-hole pressures. Potentially low but short run life on stator or rotor frequently reported. etc. Problems or changing well conditions reduce downhole pump reliability. high volume. Ample gas volume and/or pressure needed for successful operation. Can be used for extending flow life or improving efficiency. Intermittent Gas Lift Same as continuous flow gas lift. typically used. corrosive fluids. High pulling costs result from short run life. Used primarily on gas well dewatering. Usually very low. Typically each well is an individual producer using a common electric system. Often used as a default artificial lift method in lieu of sucker rod pumps. install and operates following API specifications and recommended practices. System (total) Straightforward and basic. testing and operation. energy costs are high. easily moved and good market for used equipment. Fair market for triplex pumps. Most like a flowing well. Used on <1% of US lifted wells.p. Reliability Excellent. poor for problem areas. Each well needs an individual system. Low pump maintenance cost typical with properly sized throat and nose. Requires adjusting and plunger maintenance. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 0 REVISION Consideration Rod Pumping Screw Pumping ESP Hydraulic Piston Pumping Often higher than rod pump even for free systems. high pressure. Normally over-pumping and lack of experience decreases run time. Continuous Gas Lift Well costs low. Hydraulic Jet Pumping High cost owing to HP requirement. dry non-corrosive and clean gas supply source is needed throughout the entire life. System must be designed for the unstable gas flow rates. Short run life increases total operating costs. Used on about 85% of US artificial lift wells.Design Considerations and Overall Comparisons (Pg2) . Fair. Run time efficiency >95% if good operating practices are adopted and corrosion. Downhole jet often requires trial and error to arrive at best/optimum jet. Same as continuous flow gas lift. mostly offshore. Computer programme typically used for design. Good with a correctly designed and operated system. wax asphaltenes. Free pump easily retrieved for servicing. Limited proven design. API specifications and design/operatin g recommended practices should be followed. Low back-pressure beneficial. Very sensitive to operating temperatures and electrical malfunctions.A. Varies. Simple manual or computer design. Good if well production is stable. Requires excellent operating practices. Easily moved. Central plant more complex.400BFPD). Table 10. Sometimes used to test wells that will not flow offshore. Best suited for <200oF and >1. Poor open market value. Salvage Value Excellent. Individual well unit very flexible but extra cost. The normal standard artificial lift method. Good data needed for valve design and spacing. More problems if pressures >4. Easily moved and some current market for used equipment Fair. Other repair costs are high. Simple to design. Some trade in value. Free pump easily retrieved for onsite repair or replacement. related to pump intake pressure. Simple to install and operate. An excellent high rate artificial lift system. Varies. System will tolerate wide depth ranges.5% of US lifted wells. deviations. Also a default for low bottom-hole pressure wells on continuous gas lift. System not forgiving. Used on <1% of US lifted wells. flexible. Some market for good used compressors and some trade in value for mandrels and valves. Follow API recommended practices in design. Good with proper throat and nose sizing for the operating conditions. Most often used on high water cut wells. high GLR lift method. Same as continuous flow gas lift. Basic operating procedures needed for downhole pump and wellsite unit. install and operate.500ft) and locations with low production (. solids. Fair market for triplex pump. Poor open market values. Flexible operation.000psig. Frequent downtime results from operational problems. high temperatures. Used on about 10% of US lifted wells. Individual well or system.

turbines or motors can be used for compression. Requires surface treating and high pressure pumping equipment. requires a good power source without spikes or interruptions.5 and 5. Special low profile units are available.5ins) mat result in excessive friction losses and limits production rate. Good when used with chamber. Prime mover flexibility Good. Typically for 1.5ins casing with 2ins nominal tubing normally limits rates to <1.000ft. REVISION 0 Intermittent Gas Lift Small casing (4. Noise Level Fair.000ft with low GLR. Prime mover can be electric motor. Intake Capability Excellent. Same as piston pump. PIP of <250psi feasible at 10. Wellsite power fluid units can be sound proofed.000ft. Annulus must have adequate gas storage volume. has an injection depth of about 10.e. Small casing suitable for this low volume lift. Good with the surface prime mover causing the only noise. Usually limited to motor HP or temperature. Fair. Bottomhole pressure and production log surveys easily obtained.p. Excellent.5ins casing.000stb/d use >7ins casing and >3. Excellent.5ins casing depending on depth and rate. rods of structure may limit rate at depth. Reduced performance inside 5. Typically moderate rate is limited to about 100psi/1. Obtrusiveness Size and operation are drawbacks in populated and farming areas.000ft.000ft. Poor. Transformer may cause problems in urban areas. PIP >250psi for 10.000ft. Free gas reduces efficiency and service life. Same as continuous flow. limited by power fluid pressure (5.5ins tubing needed. Small casing (4. Good but depends on good well test and pressure charts. Same as piston pump. Fair but complicated by standing valve and fallback. Good low well noise. Same as piston pump. gas or diesel fired engines or motors. Not possible to use dynamometers and pump-off cards.000stb/d. Good to excellent.000ft well. etc.440psi lift system and lift system and 1.000stb/d with 2. possibly 5.5 and 5. both engines or motors can be used. Surveillance Fair. Good low profile surface equipment.000 GLR. >350psig to 5. Excellent with low noise. 1. Fair when used without chambers. Effectively about 500stb/d at 7. Good. Good. Can be analysed easily. fluid levels. moderately high for urban areas.000ft. Good low profile but requires transformer bank. Low.5ins) normally is not a problem for this relatively low volume lift.7. engines. can be easily analysed based on well test. Low volume. Same as continuous flow. Fair but not as good as rod pumping.500ft and 150stb/d at 15. Analysis improved by use of dynamometers and computers. Low. Small casing size (4. None normally required.2. >250psi pump intake pressure). Low at well but noisy at compressor. both engines or motors can be used easily. limited to relatively shallow depths.5ins) may limit free gas separation. if little free gas (i. high lift head pumps operating at depths to 17. Same as continuous flow. bottomhole pressures <150psi at 10. Same as piston pump. Casing size will limit use of large motor and pumps. Continuous Gas Lift The use of 4. Usually limited by fallback. Good. analysis can be based on production and fluid levels only. Motors are more reliable and flexible. Normally no problem for 4. Typical design targets 25% submergence. Higher voltages can reduce I2R losses Fair based on electrical checks but special equipment needed otherwise. Fair to good wellhead equipment has low profile. Fair. Good. Often preferred in urban areas if production rate is high. Typically <10.000ft well may be >1.000ft. Controlled by system injection pressure and fluid rates.000psig. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 10. Thus the backpressure on 10. For rates >5. Intake pressure <100psig usually results in frequent pump repairs. Avoid 4.A. Plunger Lift Casing size limits (restricts tubing size) Problems only in high rate wells requiring large plunger pumps. Poor restricted by the gradient of the gas lifted fluid.5 and 5. Downhole pump performance can be analysed from surface power fluid rate and pressure. Practical depth of 20. Excellent. Table 10. Practical depth about 10. speed and producing rate. high GLR wells. Poor if must handle >5% free gas.5ins casing and larger but gas separation may be limited. Poor to fair.000ft. Excellent. Safety precautions must be taken for high pressure gas lines. Optimisation and computer control being tried. <100psi provided adequate displacement and gas venting.N .000ft Hydraulic Jet Pumping Small casing size often limits producing rate owing to high (unacceptable) friction losses.Operating Conditions Summary .. Good to fair.5ins nominal tubing. Depth limits Good. Operating Conditions Summary Consideration Rod Pumping Screw Pumping ESP Hydraulic Piston Pumping Larger casing required for parallel free or closed systems. Bottom-hole pressure obtained with free pumps. Typically about 50 to 100psig.000psi) or HP. few wells >10. <25psig feasible provided adequate displacement and gas venting. Good low profile but must provide for compressor. Larger casing may be required if dual strings run.000ft injected depth.5 and 5.000ft for low rate.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 270 OF 295 ENI S. similar limits as reciprocating pump.

Good. Does not appear applicable owing to intake pressure requirement higher than pump-off. High water cut and high rate wells may require a free water knock-out. is possible but not normally used. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 0 REVISION Consideration Rod Pumping Screw Pumping ESP Hydraulic Piston Pumping Fair. Hydraulic Jet Pumping Same as piston pump. Labour intensive Plunger Lift Testing Good. Usually controlled only by displacement checks.Operating Conditions Summary (Pg2) . A pressure recorder must be used to monitor intake pressures. Well testing is simple with few problems.O . Gas measurement errors are common. Continuous Gas Lift Fair. Time cycle and pump-off controller’s application Excellent if well can be pumpedoff. Good. Intermittent Gas Lift Poor. Well testing with standard individual well units presents few problems. same as rod pumping.. Cycle must be periodically adjusted. Avoid shutdown in high viscosity/sand producers. Table 10. Measurement of both input and outflow gas is a problem. Not applicable. Well testing with a central system is more complex requiring accurate power fluid measurement. Poor. Not applicable.A. Well testing complicated by injection gas volume/rate. Three stage production tests can be conducted by adjusting production step rates. Poor.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 271 OF 295 ENI S. Intermittent flow can cause operating problems with separators.p. Well testing is simple with few problems using standard available equipment and procedures. Well testing is simple with few problems. Formation GLR obtained by subtracting injected gas from total produced gas. Poor. Poor. Soft start and improved seals and protectors recommended. Pumpoff control not developed. Well testing complicated by injection gas volume/rate. Good.

REVISION 0 Intermittent Gas Lift Same as continuous flow. Same as continuous flow gas lift. Circulate heat to downhole pump to minimise build-up. Excellent and is the most common method if adequate injection gas available. Requires long radius wellbore bends to get through. Paraffin handling capacity Fair to good. Continuous Gas Lift Good. Excellent. Feasible operation in horizontal wells. Good mechanical cutting sometimes required. Dual inside 5ins casing currently not in favour. Steps must be taken to avoid corrosion in injection gas lines.A. Must design for unit size. Requires deck space for treatment tanks and pumps. short pump can pass through doglegs up to 24o/100ft in 2ins nominal tubing. Gas is a problem for lower zone. Fair. Feasible operation in highly deviated wells. Possible to unseat pump and circulate hot fluids. batch inhibition possible. Fair. Batch treatment inhibitor used down annulus feasible. Same as piston pump except it can possibly handle higher GLRs but at reduced efficiency. Fair.Artificial Lift Considerations (Pg1) . Excellent if tubing can be run in the well. Possible running and pulling problems. Fair. Same as piston pump. Larger casing would be needed. Good to excellent. Few problems. Use a gas anchor. Good. No none installations. Good to fair. Same as continuous flow. Parallel 2x2ins nominal tubing inside 7ins casing and 3x3ins tubing inside 95/8ins casing feasible.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 272 OF 295 ENI S. Fair to good.. Currently very few known installations. Excellent.p. Free pump retrieved without pulling tubing. Excellent. Increased mechanical problems. Poor for free gas >5% through pump. May have some special application offshore. Water power fluid can be used. Same as continuous flow Excellent. Injection gas may aggravate existing problem. Mechanical cutting and inhibition possible. Same as continuous flow. Some success in pumping 15o/100ft using rod guides. Three string nonvented applications have been achieved with complete isolation of production and power fluid from each zone. Excellent as it cuts paraffin and removes small deposits. however a pulling unit is needed. Fair. Inhibitor mixed with power fluid mixes with produced fluids at entry of jet pump throat. Vent free gas if possible. Pump will normally pass through the tubing. Parallel 2x2ins low rate dual feasible inside 7ins casing. Poor if must pump >50% free gas. Limited experience in horizontal wells. Poor if it must pump any free gas. Artificial Lift Considerations Consideration Rod Pumping Screw Pumping ESP Hydraulic Piston Pumping Good to excellent. Free pumps can be surfaced on a schedule. Concentric fixed pump or parallel free permits gas venting with suitable downhole gas separator below pump intake. weight and pulling unit space. Hot water/oil treating and/or use of scrapers possible but they increase operating problems and costs. Batch or continuous inhibition treatment can be circulated with power fluid for effective control. Excellent for correct application. Fair. No known installations. Table 10.3. Same condition as hydraulic piston pump. Produced water or seawater may be used as a power fluid with wellsite type system or power fluid separation before production treating system. Tubing may require treatment. Offshore application Poor. Normal production cycle must be interrupted to batch treat the well. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 10. Power oil a fire and safety problem. Rod scrapers not used. Must provide electrical power and service pulling unit. mechanical cutting.P . Fair. Good. Poor. Dual application No known installations. Good. Plunger Lift Corrosion/ scale handling ability Good to excellent. Gas handling ability Good if can vent and use natural gas anchor with properly designed pump. Heading causes operating problems. Hydraulic Jet Pumping Good to excellent. Dual gas lift is common but good operating of dual lift is complicated and inefficient resulting in reduced rates. Excellent. increased load and wear problems. Use of standing valves risky. Soluble plugs available. Batch treat down annulus is feasible. Similar to piston pump. Poor in wells needing sand control. Produced gas reduces need for injection gas. Casing free pump limited to low GLRs. High angle deviated holes (>70o) and horizontal wells are being produced. Few wireline problems up to 70o deviation for wireline retrievable valves. Batch inhibition treatment only to intake unless shroud is used. Rotary gas separators helpful if solids not produced. Increased load and wear problems.7. Hot water/oil treatments. Inhibitor in the injection gas and/or batch inhibiting down tubing feasible. Free gas reduces efficiency but helps lift. frequently for both corrosion and scale control. Poor to fair. Most wells are deviated and typically produce sand. Limited to low GLRs and moderate rates. Good. Crooked/ deviated holes Fair.

Limited by number of cycles. Fair. Excellent for high water cut lift even with high viscosity oil. Typically lower limit is 200stb/d for 2ins tubing without heading. Excellent and possible to operate to 500oF with special materials. Typically 100 to 300stb/d from 4.000ft with 240 HP. Also produced fluids must have low solids <200ppm of 15µm particles for reasonable life.000stb/d from 4. Fair but standing valve may cause problems. Fair but limited by stator elastomer.000stb/d from 2. Limited by efficiency and economic limit. Up to 15. Feasible if low rates. low GORs and shallow depths but no known installations. >200stb/d from 4. Higher rates may required dilutent to lower viscosity.000stb/d from 5. Excellent. Poor.000 to 10. Depending on reservoir pressure and PI with 4ins nominal tubing. Sand can stick plunger. Potential solution is to use ‘core flow’ with 20% water.50cP viscosity or water power fluid reduces friction losses. Typically 0. tubular size and HP. Lower efficiency and high operating costs for <400stb/d. Fair to good. Fair. max. Jet pumps are operating with 3% sand in produced fluids.000ft.1% sand with special pumps. or below 20cP viscosity. In 5.000ft and 200stb/d from 5. Fair. Excellent for high viscosity fluids with no stator/rotor problems. Poor to fair for low viscosity <10cP production. Typically 3. Improved performance for high viscosity >200cP cases. Good.p. Plunger Lift Slim-hole completions (27/8ins production casing string) Feasible for low rates <100stb/d and low GOR <250. Rod fall problems for high rates. Same as continuous flow.000ft and 1.Q . 550oF.000ft and 1. Good to excellent. rates of 5.000stb/d with adequate flowing bottomhole pressure. Standard materials up to 300oF+ and to 500oF+ feasible with special materials. Excellent. Limited by tubular and HP. Intermittent Gas Lift Same as continuous flow.000ft. Limited by heading and slippage.000stb/d from 4. Same as continuous flow.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 273 OF 295 ENI S. Limited to about <250oF for standard and <325oF with special motors and cables.5 to 4stb/cycle with up to 48 cycles/d Excellent for low flow rates of 1 to 2stb/d with high GLRs. Power fluid can be used to dilute low gravity production.000ft.Artificial Lift Considerations (Pg2) .000stb/d from 1. Fair but restricted to shallow depths using large plungers . Limit is inflow and surface problems. Increases HP and reduces head. Excellent. Temperature limitation Excellent and currently used in thermal operations.000stb/d from 10. >75stb/d from 12. High viscosity fluid handling capability Good for <200cP fluids and low rates 400stb/d. Use fresh water injection for salt build-up formations.000ft with <250psi pump intake pressure. High volume lift capacity Poor. Good. Possibly 200stb/d from 10.500psi system.000ft possible. Solids/sand handling ability Poor. Table 10. Need to know temperatures to design bellows charged valves. Restricted to relatively small rates. Avoid unstable flow range. Typically are used with 1. Good. Limited by cycle volume and number of possible injection cycles. Possibly 2. Good in >8o API production with <500cP possible. rate about 4.1% sand for inflow and outflow problems. Decreases to <10% sand for water producers. Fair. Improved wear resistant materials available at premium cost. Excellent.000ft feasible with 1. Requires <200ppm solids. Excellent.000ft. Excellent. Production with up to 800cP possible.440psi injection gas and GLR of 1. No known installations. Excellent.000stb/d from 10. Poor. Suitable for low rates and low GLRs. At present normally below 250oF.5ins and 700stb/d for 3.5ins casing can produce 4. Most commonly used method for wells producing <100stb/d. Fair. Excellent for <100stb/d shallow wells that do not pump-off. Low volume lift capabilities Excellent. limited by needed HP and can be restricted by casing size. Restricted by tubing size and injection gas rate and depth. Not as good as rod pumping.000ft. Hydraulic Jet Pumping Same as piston pump. Excellent up to 50% sand with high viscosity >200cP crude. Similar to casing lift but must have adequate formation gas. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 0 REVISION Consideration Rod Pumping Screw Pumping ESP Hydraulic Piston Pumping Possible but may have high friction losses or gas problems. Power fluid to jet pump can tolerate 200ppm of 25µm particle size. Tandem motors can be used but will increase costs.000ft with 3.5ins nominal tubing. limited to about 200cP. Power oil of oil >24o API and . Typically about 200stb/d from 10. Generally poor. Poor. May be able to handle up to 0. Same as continuous flow Normally not applicable. Continuous Gas Lift Feasible but can be troublesome and inefficient.000. Typically a maximum of about 350oF. 400stb/d for 2. however it wipes tubing clean.A.5ins tubing. Fresh water treatment for salt formations. Typical limit is 0. Requires <10ppm solids power fluid for good run life. Few problems for >16 o API.

e. it should not be classified as a barrier. APPLICATION The use of non-kill weight packer fluid will be considered in the following situations: • • • When a brine with a gradient lower than the formation gradient has already been used as completion fluid. with regard to double barrier protection is mechanically obtained by means of the wellhead. therefore.e. through tubing perforation after packer setting. . The use of non-kill weight packer fluid has been thoroughly evaluated and is permitted for the wells which have pressure gradients above 1. high density oil mud. When it is necessary to replace a completion fluid containing solids in suspension. however tubing leaks and deterioration of the fluid cannot be guaranteed. some completion types such as High Rate liners using a liner PBR may be some considerable distance from the formation. the tubulars (tubing and casing) and packer system and. 11. BARRIER PRINCIPLES Eni-Agip Division and Affiliates has determined that a packer fluid.e.1. i.2. 11.30kg/Lt/10m. regardless of the density. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 0 REVISION 11. This being the case. does not require the presence of an overbalance fluid.30kg/Lt/10m where it is still considered good practice to use overbalance completion fluids. USE OF UNDERBALANCE COMPLETION FLUIDS POLICY The purpose of this section is to provide the basic criteria when ‘non-kill weight packer fluids’ can be used in completion design.3. The re-use of the completion fluid is envisaged when it is opportune or cost effective. Over and above this.p. i. therefore is not a practical barrier. A hydrostatic overbalance fluid can only be considered a barrier on a long term basis if it is fully maintained. The main reasons are: • The integrity of the annulus. • • 11. i. This policy does not refer to gradients below 1. cannot be considered as a barrier.A. high pressure and high temperature (HP/HT) wells.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 274 OF 295 ENI S.

However. in order to identify and evaluate the operative risks associated with downhole equipment functionality.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 275 OF 295 ENI S. prior to commencing a well test using non-kill weight packer fluid. Completions Similar to above. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 11. that the completion design will keep the formation pressure off the production casing. if an underbalance completion fluid is to be used.4. The worst possible case being immediately above the packer. RISK ASSESSMENT 0 REVISION 11. a risk analysis evaluation (HAZOP) must be carried out by the District Drilling & Completion Engineering Department.4. . Well Testing For exploration wells.A. a risk assessment should be carried out to ensure. the casing design must be able to withstand full well pressure in conjunction with the completion fluid hydrostatic pressure at respective depth. 11. as contingency against a tubing/packer envelope leak.4.p.1.2.

workover and well testing operations are available and must be filled in and returned to head office for distribution to the relevant responsible departments as soon as possible as per instructions. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 0 REVISION APPENDIX A . completion. Feed-back reports for drilling. . it is essential that ENI .ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 276 OF 295 ENI S.A.Agip Division and Affiliates obtain feed-back from the field.p. To this end a feed-back reporting system is in use which satisfies this requirement.REPORT FORMS To enable the contents of this completion manual and other operating procedures manuals to be improved. As the first section is generic to all the forms it is only shown in ARPO 01 instructions. The forms relevant to completion operations are: • • • • • • • • • • ARPO 01 ARPO 02 ARPO 06 ARPO 07 ARPO 08 ARPO 09 ARPO 11 ARPO 12 ARPO 13 ARPO 20 Initial Activity Report Daily Report Waste Disposal Management Report Perforating Report Gravel Pack Report Matrix Stimulation/Hydraulic fracturing Report Wireline Report Pressure/Temperature Survey Report Well Problem Report Well Situation Report Behind each report form are instructions on how to fill in the forms.

p. Ground Level[m] Water Depth [m] Rotary Table Elev.L . Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 A.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 277 OF 295 ENI S. Fluids Cementation Waste treatment Operating Time Moving Positioning Anchorage Rig-up Delay Lost-time Accidents Company Contract N° Type of Service Company Contract N° Jack-up leg Penetration [gg:hh] [hh:min] [hh:min] [hh:min] [hh:min] [hh:min] Rig Anchorage Leg N° Air gap [m] Penetration [m] N° Supply Vessel for Positioning Name Horse Power Bollard pull [t] Anchor Bow N° 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 Note: Angle Type & Manufacturer Weight [t] Mooring Line Length Cable [m] Chain [m] Piggy Back Weight N° [t] Length [m] Mooring Line Chain Ø [mm] Cable Length [m] Ø [mm] Tension Operative [Tested] [t] Tension [t] Total Time [hh:min] Supervisor Superintendent . INITIAL ACTIVITY REPORT (ARPO 01) 0 REVISION District/Affiliate Company DATE: Permit/Concession N° General Data On shore Latitude: Longitude Reference Rig Name Rig Type Contractor Rig Heading [°] Offset FROM the proposed location Distance [m] Direction [°] Off shore INITIAL ACTIVITY REPORT ARPO 01 Well Code Depth Above S. Rig RKB .1.1st Flange Cellar Pit Depth [m] Length [m] Width [m]: Manufacturer Type Liner avaible [in] Major Contractors WELL NAME FIELD NAME Cost center Joint venture AGIP: % % % Type of Operation % % % Program TD (Measured) Program TD (Vertical) Rig Pump [m] [m] Type of Service Mud Logging D. & C.A.[m] First Flange[m] Top housing [m] Reference Rig Ref.

ClSalt pH/ES MBT Solid Oil/water Ratio. [psi] Lithology Shows From (hr) To (hr) Op.p. vel. R.O.P.L Partial Progr.2. Supervisor: .p.A.V. hours Ø Description Part.O.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 278 OF 295 ENI S.V. (24:00) T.B.1st flange / Top Housing BOP Stack Diverter Annular Annular Upper Rams Middle Rams Middle Rams Middle Rams Lower Rams Last Test Type Ø ARPO 02 [m] [m] [m] WELL NAME FIELD NAME Cost center Well Code Report N° Permit / Concession N° M. L Progr.[t] Flow Rate Pressure Ann. Losses [kg/l] [s/l] [cP] [g/100cm2] / [cc/30"] [cc/30"] [kg/cm2] [°C] [g/l] [g/l] [kg/m3] [%] [%] Bit Data Manuf. Stock Quantity UM Supply vessel Total Cost O G D O L R I B O G D O L R Daily Progr. [psi] Reduce Pump Strockes Pressure Pump N° Liner [in] Strokes Press. Type Serial No. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 A.P. Gel 10"/10' Water Loss HP/HT Press.P. Hrs. Progressive Rot. DAILY REPORT (ARPO 02) 0 REVISION DAILY REPORT Drilling District/Affiliate Company DATE: Rig Name Type of Rig Contractor Well Ø nom.[in] Top [m] Bottom [m] Top of Cmt [m] Last Survey [°] LOT . Temp. Jet vel. IADC Diam. W.D. Nozzle/TFA From [m] To [m] Drilled [m] Rot.IFT [kg/l] 1 2 at m at m 3 Last casing Next Casing RT Elevation Ground Lelel / Water Depth RT . HHP Bit HSI I [m 3] [m 3] B N° Run N° N° Run N° Bottom Hole Assembly N° __________ Rot. Sand pm/pom pf mf Daily Losses Progr. Code OPERATION DESCRIPTION Operation at 07:00 Mud type Density Viscosity P.M. hrs Back reaming Hrs Personnel Agip Rig Others Total Agip Rig Other Total [m] [m] [m] [hh:mm] [m / h] [hh:mm] [hh:mm] Injured of w. (24:00) Total Drilled Rotating Hrs R.D. Y.

WASTE DISPOSAL MANAGEMENT REPORT (ARPO 06) 0 REVISION WASTE DISPOSAL Management Report District/Affiliate Company DATE: Report N° From [m] To [m] Phase size [in] Water consumption Usage Mixing Mud Others Total Readings / Truck Mud Volume [m ] Mixed Lost Dumped Transported IN Trans orted OUT Waste Disposal Water base cuttings Oil base cuttings Dried Water base cuttings Dried oil base cuttings Water base mud Oil base mud transported IN Oil base mud transported OUT Drill potable water Dehidrated water base mud Dehidrated oil base mud Sewage water Transported Brine Period [t] [t] [t] [t] [t] [t] [t] [t] [t] [t] [t] [t] Cumulative 3 WELL NAME FIELD NAME ARPO-06 Cost center Depth (m) Interval Drilled (m) 3 Drilled Volume [m ] Cumulative volume [m ] Phase /Period [m ] Fresh water Recycled Total Fresh water 3 3 Mud Type Density (kg/l) Cl. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 A.A.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 279 OF 295 ENI S.concentration (g/l ) Cumulative [m ] Recycled Total 3 Fresh water [m ] Phase Cumulative Service Mud Company Waste Disposal Transportation 3 Recycled [m ] Company Contract N° 3 Remarks Remarks Supervisor Superintendent .3.p.

3.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 280 OF 295 ENI S.1 Flange Workover Rig RKB . T.D. [m] T.Sea Level Workover Rig RKB .1 Flange [°] [m] Workover Rig RKB . Gun Ø Charge Type S.Sea Bottom Thickness [lb/ft] Measured Depth Top [m] Bottom [m] st st Final Completion Report [date] Final Workover Report [date] Reference Logs: Recorded on: Vertical Depth Top [m] Bottom [m] Cement Top M. [m] Steel Grade Service Company Perforation System Wireline TCP Thru Tubing Data Gun Type Overbalance Underbalance Differential Pressure [kg/cm ] Gun Specific.P. Max.F 2 Completion fluid Fluid in front of Perforation Fluid Losses after Perforation Measured Depth Top [m] Bottom [m] Vertical Depth Top [m] Density Density [kg/l] [kg/l] [m3] Pool Remarks Bottom [m] Note: Supervisor Superintendent . Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 A.V.D.A.D. inclination at Formation name: Lithology PERFORATING REPORT ARPO-07 WELL NAME FIELD NAME Cost center Pool: [m] Rotary Table Measurement [m] Drilling Rig RKB .p.V.D. PERFORATING REPORT (ARPO 07) 0 REVISION District/Affiliate Company DATE: Well location Onshore Offshore Total Depth Well Type Vertical Deviated Horizontal Well Situation Liner Casing Casing Tubing Packer Tubing shoe Size [Ø] M.

ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 281 OF 295 ENI S.A.4.p. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 A. GRAVEL PACK REPORT (ARPO 08) 0 REVISION Cannot Load File form supplied Eni-Agip Excel .

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Injected Circulated N° Fluid Ref. Starting Time Pumping Rate [bbl/1'] [m ] 3 Fluid Type Fluid Schedule Fluid Composition Density [kg/l] Mixed Volume [m3 ] Volume Progr.p. Proppant Initial Entering in Formation Concentr.: Formation name: Pool: Lithology: Completion Data Bottom hole gauge [Y / N] Type Wellhead type Packer type Packer fluid Density Fluid in well at operation beginning String O. casing / liner Ø Shoe M. 0 REVISION MATRIX STIMULATION/HYDRAULIC FRACTURE REPORT (APRO 09) MATRIX STIMULATION HYDRAULIC FRACTURING District/Affiliate Company DATE: Well Location Onshore Offshore Well Type Vertical Deviated Horizontal Treatment Type Matrix stimulation Acid Solvent Other Hydraulic Fracturing Foam Water base Oil base Other Acid Fracturing Acid Gelled acid Acid + Gel Other Main Frac Treatment Proppant type: API Mesh Size Amount of Propant [t] 3 Total Frac Fluid Vol.5.D. [m] Top liner [m] Reservoir Parameters Reservoir fluid Density [Kg/l] 2 Gradient [Kg/cm /10 m.D. [psi] Injection Index [bbl/day/psi] Casing Press. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 A. [in] String capacity [l] Packer .Top perforation Volume [l] Treatment Data Service Company HHP avaible Initial Shut-in pressure [psi] Annulus pressure [psi] Pressure test [psi] Max. net perf.V. interval Slotted liner From [m] To [m] ARPO . [m] Open hole Ø Prod. [psi] Final Press. Volume [m ] 3 Pumping Parameter Progr.Vol.D.D. [m ] General Data M. [psi] Notes Notes / Remarks: Supervisor Superintendent . [lb/gal] Press.A. injection rate [bpm] Max. [m] T.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 282 OF 295 ENI S. injection pressure [psi] Pumping time [min] Pumping time [min] Equipment Coiled Tubing [Y / N] Ø Stimulation vessel / Other equipment Operation Description Fluid Ref.] Fracturing gradient [calculated] Fracturing gradient [tested] Porosity % SBHT [°C] 2 SBHP [kg/cm ] at m at m Open hole Perfor.09 WELL NAME FIELD NAME Cost center Interval to be Treated Tot.

D.6.A. Tbg Spool Top Flange Ø Flowing Flange Ø Kill Line Flange Ø BPV Type Psi Psi Psi Ø Wellhead Pressure Check [Kg/cm2] CHP / / / P P P THP Annulus Annulus Annulus POOL Perforated Zones [Kg/cm 2] [Kg/cm 2] [Kg/cm 2] [Kg/cm 2] Open Hole To [m] From [m] Note Operation Description Situation After the Job NO TOOLS IN HOLE TSV Note BPV SCSSV PLUG OTHER TOOLS Actual Bottom Hole: Max Size Run in Hole Ø Supervisor Superintendent @m . @ m. @ m.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 283 OF 295 ENI S.11 WELL NAME FIELD NAME Cost center SINGLE COMPLETION DUAL COMPLETION General Data RKB Elevation @ m. Weight [lb/ft] Weight [lb/ft] SELECTIVE SHORT STRING LONG STRING Well Code Flanges Base Flange @ m.p. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 A. String Previous Bottom Hole Request Operation @ m. @ m. WIRELINE REPORT (ARPO 11) 0 REVISION WIRE LINE REPORT District/Affiliate Company DATE: ARPO . @ m. Tubing Size OD Tubing Size OD Tubing Shoe Ø Packer data Minimum I.

0 REVISION PRESSURE/TEMPERATURE SURVEY REPORT (ARPO 12) Cannot Load File form supplied Eni-Agip Excel .7.A.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 284 OF 295 ENI S. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 A.p.

Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 A. Of . WELL PROBLEM REPORT (ARPO 13) 0 REVISION District/Affiliate Company WELL PROBLEM REPORT DATE: ARPO -13 Top [m] Bottom [m] FIELD NAME WELL NAME Cost center Start date End date Problem Code Well Situation Open hole Last casing Well problem Description Ø Measured Depth Top [m] Bottom [m] Vertical Depth Top [m] Bottom [m] KOP [m] Type Mud in hole Max inclination [°] @m DROP OFF [m] Dens.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 285 OF 295 ENI S.8.[kg/l]: Solutions Applied: Results Obtained: Solutions Applied: Results Obtained: Solutions Applied: Results Obtained: Solutions Applied: Results Obtained: Supervisor Supervisor Supervisor Remarks at District level: Superintendent Lost Time Remarks at HQ level hh:mm Loss value [in currency] Pag.p.A.

p. WELL SITUATION REPORT (ARPO 20) 0 REVISION WELL SITUATION (COMPLETION TALLY) District/Affiliate Company DATE: ARPO 20 / E FIELD NAME WELL NAME Cost center SINGLE COMPLETION Joint n° m Progr. m SHORT STRING Note Joint n° m LONG STRING Progr. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 A.: of: . m Note Remarks: Supervisor Superintendent pag.A.9. m DUAL COMPLETION Note Joint n° m Progr.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 286 OF 295 ENI S.

NOMENCLATURE FOR TUBING CALCULATIONS Ai Ao Ap As D d Dpb E F Fa * Fa Fa tp * Fa tp Ff * Ff I Ff II Ff Ff tp * Ff tp Fp Fso I L n Pi /pi Po /po R r t Tfinal Tinitial w ws wfi wfo α γfi γfo ∆Fa ∆Ff ∆L ∆L1 ∆L2 ∆L3 ∆L4 = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = Area inside tubing Area outside tubing Packer-bore area Resistant tubing area (Ao .ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 287 OF 295 ENI S.p.Ai) External diameter of tubing Internal diameter of tubing Packer-bore diameter 7 Young’s module (3⋅10 psi for steel) Generic force applied to the tubing end Piston force at the packer depth Piston force above the packer with anchored tubing Piston force at well head conditions Piston force at well head conditions with anchored tubing Fictitious force Fictitious force above the packer with anchored tubing Fictitious force due to the effect of internal pressure Fictitious force due to the effect of external pressure Fictitious force at well head conditions Fictitious force at well head conditions with anchored tubing Tubing-packer force Slack-off force Moment of inertia of the resistant tubing section Tubing length Distance between the lower end of the tubing and the neutral point Pressure inside the tubing at packer depth / well head Pressure outside the tubing at packer depth / well head Ratio between the external and internal diameters of the tubing Tubing-casing radial distance (Douter casing -D)/2 Tubing wall thickness Final temperature of tubing Initial temperature of tubing Linear weight of the tubing immersed in fluid Linear weight of the tubing in air Linear weight of fluid inside the tubing Linear weight of fluid outside the tubing -6 Coefficient of thermal expansion (6.A.9⋅ 10 in/in/°F for steel) Specific gravity of fluid inside the tubing Specific gravity of fluid outside the tubing Variation in the piston force Variation in the fictitious force Generic variation in the tubing length Variation in length due to Hooke’s Law Variation in length due to buckling Variation in length due to ballooning Variation in length due to thermal effects . Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 0 REVISION APPENDIX B .

ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 288 OF 295 ENI S.3 for steel) Axial stress in the tubing section Axial stress in the tubing section due to buckling Equivalent axial stress Equivalent axial stress on the inner wall of the tubing Equivalent axial stress on the outer wall of the tubing Material yield axial stress σsn . Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 ∆Lp ∆Lf ∆lso ∆ltot ∆Pi ∆pim ∆pom ∆TM ν σa σb σeq σi σo σsn Yp = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = 0 REVISION Total variation in length prevented by the packer Variation in length generated by fictitious force Variation in length generated by slack-off force Total variation in length of the tubing (= .∆Lp) Variation in pressure inside the tubing Average variation in pressure inside the tubing Average variation in pressure outside the tubing Average variation in tubing temperature Poisson’s coefficient (0.p.A.

A.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 289 OF 295 ENI S.High Temperature International Drilling Contractor Inside Diameter . Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 0 REVISION APPENDIX C .p.ABBREVIATIONS API BHA BHP BHT BOP BPD BPM BPV BSW BUR C/L CBL CCL CET CGR CRA C/T DC DE DHSV D&CM DP DST E/L ECD ECP EMW ESD ESP ETA FBHP FBHT FTHP FTHT GLR GOC GOR GP GPM GPS GR HAZOP HP/HT IADC ID American Petroleum Institute Bottom Hole Assembly Bottom Hole Pressure Bottom hole temperature Blow Out Preventer Barrel Per Day Barrels Per Minute Back Pressure Valve Base Sediment & Water Build Up Rate Control Line Cement Bond Log Casing Collar Locator Cement Evaluation Tool Condensate Gas Ratio Corrosion Resistant Alloy Coiled Tubing Drill Collar Diatomaceous Earth Down Hole Safety Valve Drilling & Completion Manager Drill Pipe Drill Stem Test Electric Line Equivalent Circulation Density External Casing Packer Equivalent Mud Weight Electric Shut-Down System Electrical Submersible Pump Expected Arrival Time Flowing Bottom Hole Pressure Flowing Bottom Hole Temperature Flowing Tubing Head Pressure Flowing Tubing Head Temperature Gas Liquid Ratio Gas Oil Contact Gas Oil Ratio Gravel Pack Gallon (US) per Minute Global Positioning System Gamma Ray Hazard and Operability High Pressure .

p.A.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 290 OF 295 ENI S. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 IPR JAM KOP LAT LCM LMRP LOT LWD MAASP MD MLH MLS MMS MODU MPI MSL MSS MWD NACE NDT NSG NTU OBM OD OIM ORP OWC P&A PBR PDC PDM PGB PI PLT POB PPB ppg ppm PVT Q Q/AQ RFT RKB ROE ROP ROU ROV Inflow Performance Relationship Joint Make-up Torque Analyser Kick Off Point Lowest Astronomical Tide Lost Circulation Materials Low Marine Riser Package Leak Off Test Log While Drilling Max Allowable Annular Surface Pressure Measured Depth Mud Line Hanger Mud Line Suspension Magnetic Multi Shot Mobile Offshore Drilling Unit Magnetic Particle Inspection Mean Sea Level Magnetic Single Shot Measurement While Drilling National Association of Corrosion Engineers Non Destructive Test North Seeking Gyro Nephelometric Turbidity Unit Oil Base Mud Outside Diameter Offshore Installation Manager Origin Reference Point Oil Water Contact Plugged & Abandoned Polished Bore Receptacle Polycrystalline Diamond Cutter Positive Displacement Motor Permanent Guide Base Productivity Index Production Logging Tool Personnel On Board Pounds per Barrel Pounds per Gallon Part Per Million Pressure Volume Temperature Flow Rate Quality Assurance. Quality Control Repeat Formation Test Rotary Kelly Bushing Radius of Exposure Rate Of Penetration Radios Of Uncertainty Remote Operated Vehicle 0 REVISION .

A.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 291 OF 295 ENI S.p. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 RPM RT S/N SAFE SBHP SBHT SCC SCSSV SDE SF SG SICP SIDPP SPM SSC SSD SSSV STHP STHT TCP TD TOC TOL TRSV TVD UHF VBR VDL VHF VSP W/L WBM WC WHP WHSIP WOB WOC WOW WP YP Revolutions Per Minute Rotary Table Serial Number Slapper Activated Firing Equipment Static Bottom Hole Pressure Static Bottom Hole Temperature Stress Corrosion Cracking Surface Controlled Subsurface Safety Valve Senior Drilling Engineer Safety Factor Specific Gravity Shut-in Casing Pressure Shut-in Drill Pipe Pressure Stroke per Minute Sulfide Stress Cracking Sliding Sleeve Door Valve Sub Surface Safety Valve Static Tubing Head Pressure Static Tubing Head Temperature Tubing Conveyed Perforations Total Depth Top of Cement Top of Liner Tubing Retrievable Safety Valve True Vertical Depth Ultra High Frequency Variable Bore Rams (BOP) Variable Density Log Very High Frequency Velocity Seismic Profile Wire Line Water Base Mud Water Cut Well Head Pressure Well Head Shut-in Pressure Weight On Bit Wait On Cement Wait On Weather Working Pressure Yield Point 0 REVISION .

126 Golan. 36th Annual Fall Meeting of SPE. 1978. H D and Brill. NY (1986) STAP Number STAP P-1-M-6100 STAP M-1-M 5006 . L G and Glaze. Arthur Lubinsky: ‘Helical Buckling of Tubing Sealed in Packers’.p. C H: Well Performance. 607617 Blount.P ‘ Wasserbewegung Durch Boden’ (1901) 45. W. 1977 Bruist.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 292 OF 295 ENI S. Ponwell Publishing Company. Forces and Stresses Associated With Combination Tubing Strings Sealed in Packers’. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 0 REVISION APPENDIX D . K. K E : The Technology Of Artificial Lift Methods. MS Thesis. Hammerlind: ‘Basic Fluid and Pressure Forces on Oilwell Tubulars’. October 1. H JR and Ros. 38-48 Beggs. J. October 8-11. Covier. J R : ‘ How To Accurately Predict Future Well Productivities’ ( May 1968) 99-106 Fetkovich. Other References: Ansari. 1977. E M. 3 edition (Dec 1981) API RP 14E Fourth Edition: ‘Recommended Practice for Design and Installation of Offshore Production Platform Piping System’. April 15.E: ‘Flowing and Gas-Lift Well Performance’ API Drill and Prod Pract (1954). Boston. and Line Pipe Properties’. 1984. API RP 14E ‘Recommended Practices For Design And Installation Of Offshore Production rd Platform Piping Systems. October 1-4. 1961. GW and Fogarasi. The University Of Tulsa (1988) API BUL 5C3 Sixth Edition: ‘Formulas and Calculations for Casing Tubing Drill Pipe. J P : ‘ A study of two-phase flow in inclined pipes’ (May 1973). Journal of Petroleum Technology. Jones. R C JR and Kersch K M : ‘ Analysis of short-time transient test data by typecurve matching’ (July 1974) 793 Eickmeier. 53th annual Fall Technical Conference and Exhibition. OK. International Human Resource Development Corporation. M : ‘ Pressure drop in wells producing oil and gas’ (July Sept 1972).BIBLIOGRAPHY Document: Drilling Design Manual Connection Procedures Manuals. D. A ‘ A Comprehensive Mechanistic Model For Multiphase Flow In Wells’. 1994.A. 451 Earlougher. P . J. M and Whiston. Dallas. O H : ‘Use of short term multirate flow tests to predict performance of wells having turbulence’ (1976) Brown. M J : ‘ The Isochronal Testing Oil Wells’ (1973) Forcheimer. February. Aziz. Hammerlind: ‘Movement. Tulsa. Houston. Duns. 1781-1788 (in german) Gilbert. E HY : ‘ Better performance of Gulf Coast wells’( 1974) D. Vols 1 And 4. N C J : ‘ Vertical flow of gas and liquid mixtures in wells’ (1963).

D R : ‘ Pressure build up in wells’ (1951) Hurst. Beggs: ‘Production Optimisation Using NODAL Analysis’. K E: ‘ Experimental study of pressure gradients occurring during continuous two-phase flow in small diameter vertical conduits’ ( April 1965) 475-484 Hagedorn and Brown (1967) Horner. Tulsa. 1991. M D ‘ A field study of underbalance pressure necessary to obtain clean perforations using tubing-conveyed perforating’ ( June 1986) 662 Lea. H E : ‘ Vertical Flow Correlation-Gas Wells’ API Man 14BM. A E : ‘ Analysis And Predictions Of Minimum Flow Rate For The Continuous Removal Of Liquid From Gas Wells’ (Nov 1969) Van Everdingen. G : ‘ Comparison Of Measured And Predicted Pressure Drops In Tubing For High-Water-Cut Gas Wells’ (Aug 1987) 165-177 Saucier. 829838 Ramey. J : ‘ Predicting Two-Phase Pressure Drops In Vertical Pipes’ (June 1967).ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 293 OF 295 ENI S. J V : ‘ Inflow Performance Relationships For Solution Gas Drive Wells’. No 37 Vogel. H J JR : ‘ Short-Time Well Test Data Interpretation In The Presence Of Skin Effect And Wellbore Storage. J F JR and Tighe. E E and Warren D A JR : ‘ Drill stem test analysis utilising McKinley system of after flow dominated pressure build up’ (Oct. K M. F : ‘ The Skin Effect And Its Influence On The Productive Capacity Of A Well’ (Oct 1953) Van Poollen. R E : ‘ Gas Well Operations With Liquid Production’ ( 1983) Milner.p. M B : ‘ Concerning The Calculation Of Inflow Performance Of Wells Producing From Solution Gas Drive Reservoirs’ (Sept 1971) 1141-1142 Texas Railroad Commission Rule 36 Turner. R G. Remer. 38-40 H. SSCSSV Sizing Computer Program. H K : ‘ Radius-Of-Drainage And Stabilisation Time Equations’ (Sept 1964) Vol 62. M A : ‘ Back-Pressure Data On Natural Gas Wells And Their Application To Production Practices’ US Bureau Of Mines. R J : ‘ Gravel pack design consideration’ (Feb 1974) Standing. Hagedoorn. M G and Duckler. 1972) Orkiszewski. W : ‘ Establishment of skin effect and its impediment to fluid flow into a wellbore’ (Oct 1953) King. Hubard. (Jan 1968) 83-93 . (1936) Reinicke. API 14B. G E. D. Anderson. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 0 REVISION Gray. A R and Bingham.A. OGCI. (Jan 1970) 97 Rawlins. A R and Brown. R J and Hueni. E L and Schellhardt.

The programme’s architecture defines a rigid sequence for data entry. possible to take into account the reduction in the performance of some CRA type steels. however.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 294 OF 295 ENI S. The programme also enabled users to find an optimal solution by means of the iterative process using a number of approximations and producing results which were more reliable. caused by temperature increases. The programme is supported by VAX/VMS computer systems and is currently available at Head Office and in the Districts on the Company computer network. It is not. without any graphic display.p. . This application was based on a previous version designed by a company named ‘Tubmov’ which was run on Hewlett Packard 41CV computers. with a string and a high number of packer’s as well (multiple zone completions) and takes into account the fact that packer setting can be mechanical or hydraulic. which would enable users to design the string starting from an existing material. The application does not enable the user to independently assess dynamic situations such as with production or injection operations.TUBING MOVEMENT/STRESS COMPUTER PROGRAMMES E.A. The programme is generally considered to be reliable because the results of three years use have consistently matched actual well applications. ‘VERTUBING’ PROGRAMME The need to fast computing to carry out tubing movement/stress calculations led AGIP to produce the ‘Vertubing’ programme in 1989. It is necessary to calculate load losses during the relative operation and obtain the resulting fictitious hydrostatic gradient which then lets the user obtain the correct pressures for the various string sections.1. The programme does not incorporate a library or collection of data on commonly used tubing material. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 0 REVISION APPENDIX E . It is also possible to check stress tubing’s with varying diameters (tapered string) and to consider materials with anisotropic characteristics. The application carries out all functions for tubing control in vertical or deviated wells. which results in extremely accurate results. ‘Vertubing’ produces the results as numerical files. The ‘Vertubing’ programme provided a calculation tool which significantly reduced times for engineers involved in string calculations.

is due to this application’s limitations in terms of obtaining the trend of temperatures the string is subject to during various well operations. The WT-Circ and WT-Prod modules let the user evaluate the temperatures during standard production and circulation operations and the WS-Tube module lets the user calculate tubing movement and stress. It is also possible to calibrate the average coefficients for thermal exchange and specific heat. while the resulting stresses the casing is subject to are calculated using the WS-Casing module.2. dual completions with a maximum of two packer’s and dual selective completions. selective completions with a maximum of five packers. The programme is now used in the company for completion string design and at present available in PC. once the temperature profile and lithology of the formations are known. The ‘Wellcat’ programme was initially tested with the most typical cases (discussed in publications) and appropriate comparisons were made with data previously obtained using the ‘Vertubing’ programme with reasonable results. ranging from drilling. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 E. printed or exported as graphic files. Orkiszewski. which can be read. As ‘Vertubing’ had to be integrated with software in ENI-Agip Division and Affiliates expert system (Welcome) it seemed more appropriate to use a modern design programme such as ‘Wellcat’. The programme also assesses the installation of a hanger in the completion as well as hydraulic or mechanical packer setting. VAX Mainframe and UNIX versions. The most interesting feature of the programme is its capability to evaluate temperatures during and after well operations. It is possible to evaluate the reduction in material rating due to temperature and any anistropy of materials.A. ‘Wellcat’ produces results in ASCII format. The calculation of load losses and the hydraulic conditions can be carried out using different correlations which are valid for two-stage flow (Beggs & Brill. The brief description below only describes the parts of the application concerning tubing. while the Govier-Aziz formula is used for single stage fluids. Gray. ‘Wellcat’ can be used for single completions.p. During testing the results were compared to actual field data and a good match was obtained. . Hagedorn & Brown.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 295 OF 295 ENI S. During processing it is also possible to display and print a simple drawing of the well and the completion. The programme incorporates five modules. The WT-Drill module lets the user evaluate the temperatures and pressures during drilling and the casing installation stages. to completion and other various well operations. and the inability to analyse dual completions. The need to use an in-house company programme which was more complex compared to ‘Vertubing’. ‘WELLCAT’ PROGRAMME 0 REVISION Eni-Agip Division and Affiliates recently acquired Enertech’s (1994) ‘Wellcat’ programme which is an application integrating the most specialised software. Duns & Ross).