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ENI S.p.A. Agip Division
TYPE OF ACTIVITY'
REFER TO SECTION N.
TITLE COMPLETION DESIGN MANUAL
DISTRIBUTION LIST Eni - Agip Division Italian Districts Eni - Agip Division Affiliated Companies Eni - Agip Division Headquarter Drilling & Completion Units STAP Archive Eni - Agip Division Headquarter Subsurface Geology Units Eni - Agip Division Headquarter Reservoir Units Eni - Agip Division Headquarter Coordination Units for Italian Activities Eni - Agip Division Headquarter Coordination Units for Foreign Activities
NOTE: The present document is available in Eni Agip Intranet (http://wwwarpo.in.agip.it) and a CD-Rom version can also be distributed (requests will be addressed to STAP Dept. in Eni - Agip Division Headquarter) Date of issue:
B A @ ? >
Issued by M. Bassanini 28/06/99 REVISIONS PREP'D C. Lanzetta 28/06/99 CHK'D A. Galletta 28/06/99 APPR'D
The present document is CONFIDENTIAL and it is property of AGIP It shall not be shown to third parties nor shall it be used for reasons different from those owing to which it was given
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1.1. 1.2. 1.3. 1.4. PURPOSE OF THE MANUAL OBJECTIVES FUNCTIONS OF A COMPLETION MANUAL UPDATING, AMENDMENT, CONTROL & DEROGATION
8 12 13 13
2.1. 2.2. INTRODUCTION CHARACTERISTICS OF RESERVOIR ROCKS 2.2.1. Porosity 2.2.2. Permeability 2.2.3. Relative Permeability 2.2.4. Wettabilty 2.2.5. Fluid Distribution 2.2.6. Fluid Flow In The Reservoir 2.2.7. Effects Of Reservoir Characteristics 2.2.8. Reservoir Homogeneity HYDROCARBON DATA 2.3.1. Oil Property Correlation RESERVOIR/PRODUCTION FORECAST 2.4.1. Inflow Perfomance 2.4.2. Reservoir Simulation For IPR Curves 2.4.3. IPR Selection 2.4.4. Outflow Performance 2.4.5. Flow Rate Prediction
14 14 14 14 15 16 17 18 24 27 28 28 29 31 42 44 46 55
3.1. 3.2. 3.3. 3.4. INTRODUCTION 3.1.1. Types of Tests DST OBJECTIVE DST STRING RESERVOIR CHARACTERISTICS 3.4.1. Pressure Build-Up Analysis 3.4.2. Basics Of DST Operations 3.4.3. Common Test Tools Description 3.4.4. Tools Utilised With Permanent Packer Systems 3.4.5. Sub-Sea Test Tools Used On Semi-Submersibles 3.4.6. Deep Water Tools 3.4.7. Downhole Pressure Recording
60 60 63 64 69 69 77 77 80 80 81 82
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3.5. WELL PRODUCTION TEST OBJECTIVES 3.5.1. Periodic Tests 3.5.2. Productivity Or Deliverability Tests 3.5.3. Transient Tests
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4.1. CASING DESIGN 4.1.1. Casing Profile 4.1.2. Casing Specifications 4.1.3. Casing Connections WELL DEVIATION SURVEYS CASING CEMENTING CONSIDERATIONS 4.3.1. Production Casing Cementing 4.3.2. Production Casing Cement Evaluation
87 87 88 89 89 90 90 91
WELL COMPLETION DESIGN
5.1. FACTORS INFLUENCING COMPLETION DESIGN 5.1.1. Reservoir Considerations 5.1.2. Mechanical Considerations 5.1.3. Safety Considerations RESERVOIR-WELLBORE INTERFACE 5.2.1. Open Hole Completions 5.2.2. Uncemented Liner Completions 5.2.3. Perforated Completions 5.2.4. Multi-Zone Completions CASING-TUBING INTERFACE 5.3.1. Packer Applications 5.3.2. Packer-Tubing Interfaces 5.3.3. Annulus Circulation TUBING-WELLHEAD INTERFACE 5.4.1. Tubing Hanger Systems 5.4.2. Xmas Trees 5.4.3. Metal-To-Metal Seals FUTURE CONSIDERATIONS 5.5.1. Stimulation 5.5.2. Formation Management 5.5.3. Well Servicing Techniques OPTIMISING TUBING SIZE 5.6.1. Reservoir Pressure 5.6.2. Flowing Wellhead Pressure 5.6.3. Gas-Liquid Ratio 5.6.4. Artificial Lift
94 94 96 96 97 97 98 100 101 104 106 107 108 109 109 115 115 117 118 118 119 121 123 123 123 124
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6.1. 6.2. 6.3. DEVELOPMENT WELLS CONTRIBUTING FACTORS TO CORROSION FORMS OF CORROSION 6.3.1. Sulphide Stress Cracking (SSC) 6.3.2. Corrosion Caused By CO2 And Cl 6.3.3. Corrosion Caused By H2S, CO2 And ClCORROSION CONTROL MEASURES CORROSION INHIBITORS CORROSION RESISTANCE OF STAINLESS STEELS 6.6.1. Martensitic Stainless Steels 6.6.2. Ferritic Stainless Steels 6.6.3. Austenitic Stainless Steels 6.6.4. Precipitation Hardening Stainless Steels 6.6.5. Duplex Stainless Steel COMPANY DESIGN PROCEDURE 6.7.1. CO2 Corrosion 6.7.2. H2S Corrosion MATERIAL SELECTION 6.8.1. OCTG Specifications 6.8.2. DHE Specifications 6.8.3. Wellhead Specifications ORDERING SPECIFICATIONS
126 126 128 128 135 137 138 139 139 139 140 140 140 142 142 142 142 144 145 146 147 152
6.4. 6.5. 6.6.
7.1. 7.2. POLICIES THEORY 7.2.1. Mechanical Properties of Steel 7.2.2. Temperature 7.2.3. Tubing Movement/Stress Relationship WELL DATA. 7.3.1. Casing Profile/Geometry 7.3.2. Tubing Data 7.3.3. Bottom-hole Pressure 7.3.4. Temperatures (Static and Flowing) 7.3.5. Reservoir Fluids 7.3.6. Completion Fluid PRESSURE INDUCED FORCES 7.4.1. Piston Effect 7.4.2. Buckling Effect 7.4.3. Ballooning Effect 7.4.4. Temperature Effect EVALUATION OF TOTAL TUBING MOVEMENT
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7.6. ANCHORED TUBING 7.6.1. Tubing Permitting Limited Motion 7.6.2. Packer Setting 7.7. TUBING LOAD CONDITIONS 7.7.1. Pressure Testing 7.7.2. Acid Stimulation 7.7.3. Fracturing 7.7.4. Flowing 7.7.5. Shut-In 7.7.6. Load Condition Summary TUBING SELECTION 7.8.1. Critical Factors 7.8.2. Tubing Size And Weight 7.8.3. Anchoring Systems TUBING CONNECTIONS 7.9.1. Policy 7.9.2. Class of Service 7.9.3. Selection Criteria 7.9.4. NACE And Proximity Definitions 7.9.5. CRA Connections 7.9.6. Connection Data
170 172 174 174 174 175 175 177 177 181 181 182 182 184 185 185 185 186 189 190 190 190 191 193 195 195 196 205
7.10. TUBING STRESS CALCULATIONS 7.10.1. Calculation Methods 7.10.2. Safety Factor 7.10.3. External Pressure Limit 7.10.4. Packer Load Limits 7.10.5. Example Manual Calculation 7.10.6. Example Computation
8.1. PACKERS 8.1.1. Selection Procedure 8.1.2. Selection Criteria 8.1.3. Well Classification 8.1.4. Packer Selection For Single String Completion 8.1.5. Single Selective Completion Packers SUB-SURFACE SAFETY VALVES 8.2.1. Policy 8.2.2. Applications 8.2.3. Wireline Retrievable Safety Valves 8.2.4. Surface Controlled Sub-Surface Safety Valves 8.2.5. Valve Type/Closure Mechanism Selection
206 207 207 209 209 217 223 223 223 223 224 224
7. Impact On Completion Design 10.4. 9. Common Problems 10.1.6. PERFORATING 9. GAS LIFT 10.3. Artificial Lift Considerations 250 251 253 254 254 256 259 259 260 262 262 265 265 265 268 268 270 272 .2. Material Selection 8.A. API And Performance Data 9.3. Tubing Conveyed Perforating GUN PERFORMANCE 9.2.2. Tube Specifications 8. 10.3. Impact On Completion Design 10.5.1.3. Protectors 8.7. ROD PUMPS 10.1.3. ARTIFICIAL LIFT 10. Firing Heads 126.96.36.199. Impact On Completion Design 10.2. Underbalanced Perforating 9.1. Common Problems 10.7.3.2.4. Control/Injection Line Selection Procedure Flow Chart WIRELINE NIPPLE SELECTION 8.5.3. Fittings 8.4.7. Selective Nipple Configuration REVISION 0 225 225 225 226 228 230 230 231 233 236 237 238 239 8. Through-Tubing Hollow Carrier Guns 9.4. CONTROL/INJECTION LINE SELECTION 8.3. Design Considerations And Comparisons 10.2. Perforating Procedures 240 240 241 241 243 243 243 244 244 246 247 247 9. Operating Conditions Summary 10. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 8.1. ELECTRICAL SUBMERISBLE PUMPS 10.3.1. ESP Performance 10. HYDRAULIC PUMPING SYSTEMS 10.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 6 OF 295 ENI S.2.4. SUMMARY ARTIFICIAL LIFT SELECTION CHARTS 10.3. Encapsulation 8. PLUNGER LIFT 10. SCREW PUMP SYSTEMS 10.3.4.3.3.p. Wireline Conveyed Casing Guns 9.4. Control Lines 8.2.2. Through-Tubing Strip Guns 9.6.1. SHAPED CHARGE PERFORATING GUN TYPES 9.1.2. Tapered Nipple Configuration 8.9.2. Injection Lines 8. 188.8.131.52.1. Impact On Completion Design 10.2.1.3.8.1.3. SCSSV Hydraulic Control fluid 184.108.40.206.220.127.116.11.3.2.
ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 7 OF 295 ENI S. A.3. A. BARRIER PRINCIPLES 11. Completions 274 274 274 274 275 275 275 APPENDIX A . A.2.ABBREVIATIONS APPENDIX D . Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 0 REVISION 11.4.9. USE OF UNDERBALANCE COMPLETION FLUIDS 11.4. RISK ASSESSMENT 11.7. A.8. Well Testing 11. A.BIBLIOGRAPHY APPENDIX E .A.1. APPLICATION 11.TUBING MOVEMENT/STRESS COMPUTER PROGRAMMES 287 289 292 294 .4. A. POLICY 11. A.3.4.REPORT FORMS A.18.104.22.168.p. INITIAL ACTIVITY REPORT (ARPO 01) DAILY REPORT (ARPO 02) WASTE DISPOSAL MANAGEMENT REPORT (ARPO 06) PERFORATING REPORT (ARPO 07) GRAVEL PACK REPORT (ARPO 08) MATRIX STIMULATION/HYDRAULIC FRACTURE REPORT (APRO 09) WIRELINE REPORT (ARPO 11) PRESSURE/TEMPERATURE SURVEY REPORT (ARPO 12) WELL PROBLEM REPORT (ARPO 13) WELL SITUATION REPORT (ARPO 20) 276 277 278 279 280 281 282 283 284 285 286 APPENDIX B .2.6. A. A.NOMENCLATURE FOR TUBING CALCULATIONS APPENDIX C .5.
at an early time. the decision on the well architecture may subsequently be changed due to the availability of well servicing or workover techniques.a. The process of well preparation and installation of completions is fully described in the ‘Completions Procedures manual’. Production Engineering and Drilling Engineering. The final aim is to improve performance and efficiency in terms of safety. These in consequence. while providing all personnel involved in Drilling & Completion activities with common guidelines in all areas worldwide where Eni-Agip operates. still enables each individual Affiliated Company the capability to operate according to local laws or particular environmental situations. The conceptual design process begins at the field appraisal stage when a Statement Of Requirements (SOR) of the completion is produced. . figure 1. as it has a fundamental effect on the field final design and development. have a large impact on costs and field profit. This. The activities in each phase are illustrated in figure 1. Petroleum Engineering.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 8 OF 295 ENI S. The Corporate Standards in this manual define the requirements. hence profit. raised by the interrelated decisions. The design process consists of three phases: • • • Conceptual Detailed design Procurement.b and figure 1. in the completion design process and its importance on well productivity. Agip Division STAP-M-1-P-7100 0 REVISION 1. however. Many of the decisions made by the various disciplines are interrelated and impact on the decisions made by other disciplines. 1. This does not mean that the process is sequential and many decisions can be made from studies and analysis run in parallel. It is essential that this is an accurate statement including all the foreseen requirements. involving Reservoir Engineering. The final conceptual design will be used as the basis for the detailed design process.p. For instance.1. INTRODUCTION PURPOSE OF THE MANUAL The purpose of this manual is to guide experienced engineers of all technical disciplines. methodologies and rules that enable to operate uniformly and in compliance with the Corporate Company Principles. quality and costs. The approach to completion design must be interdiscipline. within the Eni-Agip Division and Affiliated Companies.c. This is vital in order to obtain the optimum completion design utilising the process described in this manual. the user will resolve many of the dilemmas. During this phase. The manual will provide the engineers within the various disciplines with a system to guide them through the process with the objectives of helping them make the key decisions and obtaining the optimum design to maximise productivity and. well servicing capabilities and completion life. The conceptual design process guides the engineers through analysis and key questions to be considered.A.
the statement of requirements need to reviewed and altered to modify the conceptual design for future wells. increased knowledge of the field and incorporate new technologies.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 9 OF 295 ENI S.Conceptual Completion Design Process .A. Figure 1. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 0 REVISION As more information is gleamed from further development wells and as conditions change.p.A . This provides a system of ongoing completion optimisation to suit changing conditions.
A.p.Detailed Completion Design Process . Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 0 REVISION Figure 1.B .ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 10 OF 295 ENI S.
C .Procurement Process .A.p.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 11 OF 295 ENI S. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 0 REVISION Figure 1.
ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 12 OF 295 ENI S. Achieve the optimum production rates reliably at the lowest capital and operating costs. Be as flexible as possible for future operational changes in well function. OBJECTIVES The fundamental objectives for a completion are: • • • • • • • 0 REVISION Achieve a desired (optimum) level of production or injection.Completion Design Versus Profitability .A.D .2. Provide adequate maintenance and surveillance programmes.p. This. however. In conjunction with other wells.d). An expensive completion may derive more long term profit than a low cost completion but the initial capital costs will be higher (Refer to figure 1. in reality is not simple and many critical decisions are needed to balance long term and short term cash flow and sometimes compromises are made. Be as simple as possible to increase reliability. Figure 1. These may be summarised as to safely provide maximum long term profitability. Provide adequate safety in accordance with legislative or company requirements and industry common practices. effectively contribute to the whole development plan reservoir plan. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 1.
ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 13 OF 295 ENI S.p. This is its primary function. however. 1. An inherent problem is that the Reservoir Engineering Department’s objectives do not coincide with the Completion Engineering Department’s in that Reservoir Engineering’s objectives are for the whole field performance whereas the Completion Group’s is to optimise for profit on a long term well by well basis which includes well servicing/workover. . Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 0 REVISION On the other hand if the data available is not accurate. while providing all personnel involved in Drilling & Completion activities with common guidelines in all areas worldwide where Eni-Agip operates. Reservoir and geoscience groups often have to set plans and objectives for the field on well performance based on limited information. These main functional requirements must be built into the conceptual design and include: • • • • • • • 1. MANUAL UPDATING.4. optimising production. Perforating (underbalanced or overbalanced). AMENDMENT. Producing single or multiple zones. This. Inhibiting scale or corrosion. The final aim is to improve performance and efficiency in terms of safety.3. Preventing hydrocarbon escape if there is a surface leak. methodologies and rules that enable to operate uniformly and in compliance with the Corporate Company Principles. but are not concerned about production problems. CONTROL & DEROGATION The Corporate Standards in this manual define the requirements.A. still enables each individual Affiliated Company the capability to operate according to local laws or particular environmental situations. Protecting the production casing from formation pressure. FUNCTIONS OF A COMPLETION The main function of a completion is to produce hydrocarbons to surface or deliver injection fluids to formations. however a completion must also satisfy a great many other functions required for safety. in the early stages. the estimate of some well performance and characteristics throughout the life of the well may be wrong and early workover or well intervention operations will impact on well profitability. Protecting the casing from corrosion attack by well fluids. quality and costs. well maintenance or detailed operations. Permanent downhole pressure monitoring. servicing. pressure monitoring and reservoir maintenance.
if the pressure across the rock is 1 atmosphere. Darcy’s Law states that the rate of flow through a given rock varies directly with permeability (measure of the continuity of inter-connected pore spaces) and the pressure applied. 2. 2. limestone or dolomite rocks. The purpose of this section is to consider the characteristics of reservoir fluids and the flow of these in the area around the wellbore to allow these parameters to be tied into the well completion design and well intervention/workover operational requirements.2. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 0 REVISION 2. a completion conceptual design must take into account all the well objectives to produce the optimum design to maximise profitability. Many rocks such as clays. 2. 2.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 14 OF 295 ENI S. Permeability Permeability is a measure of the ability of which fluid can move through the interconnected pore spaces of the rock.A . Most commercial reservoirs have sandstone. As pointed out in section 1. chalk.1. CHARACTERISTICS OF RESERVOIR ROCKS Porosity Porosity or pore space in reservoir rocks provides the container for the accumulation of oil and gas and gives the rock characteristic ability to absorb and hold fluids.1. 2. anhydrite and some highly cemented sandstones are impervious to movement of water. RESERVOIR CONSIDERATIONS INTRODUCTION Oil and gas wells are expensive faucets that enable production of petroleum reservoirs or allow injection of fluids into an oil or gas reservoir. 1cc of a 1cp viscosity fluid will flow each second 2 through a portion of rock 1cm in length and having a cross-section of 1cm .p. oil or gas even although they may be quite porous. developed the first relationship which described the flow through porous rock which is still used today. In a rock having a permeability of 1 Darcy. K= qµL A∆p Eq. shales.2.2. working with water filters. however some reservoirs even occur fractured shale. and varies inversely with the viscosity of the fluid flowing.A.2. a French engineer. Darcy.1.
2. gas saturation continues to increase and at some point (equilibrium gas saturation) gas begins to flow and the oil rate is further reduced. assume a rock filled with only with oil at high pressure where gas has not been able to come out of solution: • • • • • All available space is taken up by the oil and only oil is flowing. the relative permeability to oil is significantly greater when the rock is ‘water wet’. psi Formation volume factor. ft Inlet pressure. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 0 REVISION In oilfield units the linear form of Darcy’s Law for flow of incompressible fluid through a rock filled with only one fluid is: q=1. md 3 Flow rate. If reservoir pressure is allowed to decline. stb/day Permeability. psi Outlet pressure. cp Flow length. This same principle governs the flow of oil in the presence of water. With further increases in gas saturation. In an oil-water system. Significant oil may still occupy the pores but cannot be recovered by primary production means as the permeability to oil has dropped to zero. If pressures to continue to decline. = = = = = = = = Flow rate.2.127 ×10 −3 where: q k A µ L p1 p2 B 2.B Relative Permeability As normally two or three fluids exist in the same pore spaces in a reservoir. res bbl/stb kA(p 1 −p 2 ) BµL Eq. The gas-oil or water-oil relative permeability relationships of a particular reservoir rock depend on the configurations of the rock pore spaces and the wetting characteristics of the fluids and rock surfaces. ft Viscosity.A. Relative permeability represents the ease at which one fluid flows through connecting pore spaces in the presence of other fluids. Flow of oil is reduced but gas saturation is too small for it to flow through the pores. the gas rate continues to increase and less oil flows through the pores until finally only gas flows. The saturation of each fluid present affects the ease of fluid movement or relative permeability.p. some lighter components of the oil will evolve as gas in the pore spaces. relative permeability relationships must be considered.3. To understand this. in comparison to the ease that it would flow if there was no other fluid. .ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 15 OF 295 ENI S.
it is not important as this characteristic is included in the permeability measurements. This can be achieved by multiplying absolute permeability of the rock by the relative permeability of the rock to the desired fluid. Wettabilty Most reservoirs were formed or laid down in water with oil moving in later from adjacent zones to replace a portion of the water. However. = = = = = = Relative permeability to oil Relative permeability to water Viscosity of oil. res bbl/stb . stb/day Absolute permeability.4. it is important when completing or servicing the well in that any foreign substance which may come into contact with the rock may alter its wettability characteristic and reduce the relative permeability to hydrocarbon fluids and cause emulsion which may block flow. 2. most reservoir rocks are considered to be ‘water wet’. res bbl/stb Formation volume factor for water. This means that the grains of the rock matrix are coated with a film of water permitting hydrocarbons to fill the centre of the pore spaces. For this reason.A. the permeability in eq. The productivity of oil in this condition is maximised.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 16 OF 295 ENI S.C For a well producing both water and oil.D where: ko kw µo µw Bo Bw 2. the ‘water cut’ or fraction of water in the total flow stream at standard conditions of temperature and pressure can be calculated by: fw = 1 k o µw Bw 1 × + + k w µo Bo Eq.p. cp Viscosity of water. 2.b represents the permeability of the rock to the desired fluid. Although it is extremely difficult to determine wettability of cores due to the cutting and preparing specimens for laboratory testing which alters the wettability characteristics. 2. cp Formation volume factor for oil.127 ×10 −3 where: qo kabs kro = = = Oil flow rate.2. md Relative permeability to oil k abs k ro A(p1 −p 2 ) B o µL Eq. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 0 REVISION Where two or more fluids are present. q=1.
the capillary pressure in two different pore sizes will be the same.2. The nature and thickness of the transition zones between the water and oil. permeability. A well completed in the transition zone will be expected to produce both oil and water. surface tension and the relative density differences between the fluids. therefore the water film between the water and the oil will have the same curvature. Connate water is related to permeability and pore channels in lower rocks are generally smaller. These can be summarised in three statements: • • • The lower the permeability of a given sand.A. depending on the saturations of each fluid present at the completion level. figure 2. and water and gas are influenced by several factors: uniformity. wettability. the transition zones will be thicker than in higher permeability sands. From the point in a zone of the free water level upward to some point where water saturation becomes constant is called the ‘transition zone’. gas and water present at a particular level determines the fluids that produced by a well completed at that level and also influence the relative rates of fluid production. hence more oil will be contained in larger pore spaces. Due to the greater density difference between gas and oil as compared to oil and water. In rock the capillary forces. Water saturation above the transition zone is termed ‘irreducible water saturation’ or more commonly the ‘connate water saturation’. .a summarises oil. Above the transition zone. For a given height. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 2. In lower permeability sands.p. which are related to water wettability. work to change the normal sharp interfaces between the fluids separated by density.5. the transition zone between the oil and gas is not as thick as the transition zone between oil and water. only oil will flow in an oil-water system. oil and gas. Fluid Distribution 0 REVISION The distribution of fluids vertically in the reservoir is very important as the relative amounts of oil. the higher will be the connate water saturation.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 17 OF 295 ENI S. Relative permeability permits both water and oil to flow within the transition zone. water and gas saturation in a typical homogeneous rock example.
Pressure Distribution Around the Wellbore Pressure distribution in the reservoir and factors which influence it are of great of significance in interpreting well production trends caused by pressure characteristics. It is produced principally by pressure inherent in gas dissolved in oil.A. Pressure distribution around a producing oil well completed in a homogeneous zone will gradually drop from the reservoir pressure some distance from the wellbore until closer to the wellbore where it will decline quite sharply. Fluid Flow In The Reservoir Oil has little natural ability to produce itself into the wellbore.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 18 OF 295 ENI S. .Example Fluid Distribution in a Uniform Sand Reservoir (Containing Connate Water. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 0 REVISION Figure 2. or in associated aquifers.A .p. in associated free gas caps. Oil and Gas Cap) 2. The wellhead pressure will be much lower due to the influence of hydrostatic pressure and tubing frictional effects.2.6.
As shown in figure 2. in a uniform sand. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 0 REVISION In a radial flow situation. the pressure drop across the last 15ft of the formation surrounding the wellbore is about one half of the total pressure drop from the well to a point 500ft away in the reservoir.B .b.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 19 OF 295 ENI S. Figure 2.E Corrections are required to account for the flow of compressible fluids and for turbulent flow velocities.p.00708kh(p o −p w ) r Bµ1n( o ) rw Eq.A. This area around the wellbore is the ‘critical area’ and as much as possible should be done to prevent damage or flow restrictions in this critical area. Obviously flow velocities increase tremendously as fluid approaches the wellbore.Pressure Distribution Near Wellbore In Radial Flow Radial Flow Around The Wellbore Steady state radial flow of incompressible fluid is described by Darcy’s Law: q= 0. most of the pressure drop in the reservoir occurs fairly close to the wellbore. where fluids move towards the well from all directions. . 2.
ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 20 OF 295 ENI S. permeablities must be averaged for flow through parallel layers of differing permeabilities.F Figure 2. k= k 1h1 +k 2 h 2 +k 3 h 3 h1 +h 2 +h 3 Eq.A. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 0 REVISION Figure 2. 2.Units For Darcy’s Law Equation For non-homogeneous zones. which is the usual case.D .Radial Flow In Parallel Combination of Beds .p.C.
proves turbulent flow results in higher pressure drop than Darcy’s Law calculations. the tunnels are packed with gravel to hold the formation in place. which will cause a restriction.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 21 OF 295 ENI S. Actual test data with very high permeability sand.Radial Flow In Series Combination Of Beds Linear Flow Through Perforations Ideally perforating tunnels should provide be large and deep enough to prevent any restriction to flow.p. In cases where there may be sand problems and a gravel pack is used. Experiments have shown that pressure drop through gravel filled perforations compared with uncorrected linear flow Darcy’s Law calculations is substantial as shown in figure 2.E . curve B. predict. Investigators have provided turbulence correction factors which can be applied to Darcy’s equation to permit calculation of pressure drop through perforating tunnels. Curve A indicates that plugging with even high permeability (1 Darcy) sand gives a large pressure drop.f below. Flow through perforating tunnels is linear rather radial and Darcy’s equation must be corrected as turbulent flow usually exists.A. . curve C. 2.G Figure 2. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 0 REVISION Varying permeabilities around the well in series can be averaged as follows: ro ) rw k= r r r 1n( 1 ) 1n( 2 ) 1n( 3 ) rw r1 r2 + + k1 k2 k3 1n( Eq.
completion or intervention operations. These are permeability and producing rate. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 0 REVISION Figure 2. With low permeability or excessive rate of production.Pressure Drop Versus Flow Rate Through Perforation Causes Of Low Flowing Bottom-Hole Pressure In a well with uniform sand and fluid conditions. two factors may cause low flowing bottomhole pressures.p.A. Low permeability is often caused by damage close to the wellbore through drilling. .ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 22 OF 295 ENI S. pressure drawdown will be appreciable higher than normal thus reducing flowing bottom-hole pressures and causing the well to be placed on artificial lift if higher productions rates are necessary. This is particularly detrimental as the effect close to the wellbore is greatly magnified.F .
which are not contributing to the total flow. The skin effect (abnormal pressure drop) or the normal radial flow pressure drop can be calculated by: ∆p s = 141. where transient pressure testing techniques may give questionable results concerning formation damage.K In multi-zone completion intervals. Flow profiling may highlight zones.I Flow efficiency: FE= = Jideal Jactual p−p wf −∆p s p−p wf Eq. 2. 2. .A. production logging techniques may provide helpful data.2qBµ ×s kh Eq.H Other terms which are used to quantify formation damage are Damage Ratio and Flow Efficiency.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 23 OF 295 ENI S. 2. in an otherwise productive interval. 2. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 0 REVISION The existence of damage can be calculated by well test results analysing the pressure build-up periods. Damage ratio calculation is: DR= where: qt qa also: DR= = Jideal Jactual p−p wf p−p wf −∆p s Eq.p.J = = Theoretical flow rate without damage Actual flow rate observed qt qa Eq. Non-contributing zones are likely to have been damaged.
i. show typical reservoir pressures versus production trends and gas-oil ratio production trends for the three basic drive mechanisms.h. therefore lose pressure less rapidly. and also for later re-completions. however the main factors concentrate on the reservoir itself and the procedure used to exploit hydrocarbon recovery. Water drive reservoirs pressure remains high and gas-oil ratios are lower but downstructure well intervals quickly begin to produce water. There are three basic drive mechanisms: • • • Dissolved gas Gas cap Water drive.p. Most reservoirs in actuality produce by a combination of all three mechanisms. and primary oil recovery is relatively low. Re-completing would not reduce the gas-oil ratio. Gradually even the up-structure wells will water out to maximise oil recovery. pressure declines less rapidly and gas-oil ratios increase as the gas cap expands into the up-structure well completion intervals.e. or well location. to systematically recover reservoir hydrocarbons. This is controlled by well interventions or re-completions to shut-off the water production or the well is shut-in. therefore if development drilling proceeds on the basis of close spacing before the drive mechanism is identified. The effect of the drive mechanism on the producing characteristics must be evaluated in the completion design process. Obviously many factors must be considered in developing a reservoir. these can be drilled at the appropriate spacing to maximise recovery with the least amount of wells. is fundamental and the cost of time. pressure declines rapidly. Effects Of Reservoir Characteristics Reservoir Drive Mechanisms 0 REVISION In an oil reservoir. establish the detailed geological picture regarding zone continuity and locate oil-water and gas-oil contacts. Well spacing. .7.A. Well intervention or recompletion to shut-off up-structure intervals may control the gas-oil ratio. labour and materials consumed in the drilling are largely non-recoverable. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 2. In a dissolved gas drive reservoir without any artificial pressure maintenance technique. This does not usually present an insurmountable problem as a field of any considerable size will require a minimum number of wells to be drilled in any case to define the reservoir. By careful planning when enough information is gained to determine the well locations. the investment will have already been made.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 24 OF 295 ENI S. figure 2. the source of pressure is principally the liberation and expansion of gas from the oil phase as pressure is reduced. primary production results from existing pressure in the reservoir.g and figure 2. A water drive reservoir’s principle pressure source is an external water hydrostatic pressure communicated to below the oil zone. In a dissolved gas reservoir. gas-oil ratio peaks rapidly and then declines rapidly. A gas drive reservoir’s primary pressure source is the expansion of a gas cap over the oil zone. In a gas cap drive reservoir.2.
Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 0 REVISION Many case histories are available to show problems resulting from reservoir development without having sufficient information about the stratigraphy of the reservoir.p.Gas-Oil Ratios Trends For Various Drive Mechanisms .A.G .Reservoir Pressure Trends For Various Drive Mechanisms Figure 2. Figure 2.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 25 OF 295 ENI S.H .
Water drive reservoirs: Wells can be spaced on a regular pattern on a thick sand and low angle of dip. If this is recognised after drilling begins. Again completion intervals should be low in the structure to permit the gas cap to grow for maximum recovery and minimum gas production. Such reservoirs are common where multiple this sands are found on a single structure and the oil column is only a fraction of the total productive relief. the well locations must be changed quickly to take full advantage of the situation. Due to the low recovery by the primary drive mechanism. Completion intervals should be selected high on the structure to permit long production life while oil is displaced up to the completion intervals by invading water from below.A. Again the completion intervals should be structurally low because of the angle of dip and the exact sub-surface location would vary with well location on the structure. Like the dissolved gas drive reservoir. Regular spacing of the wells may cause early water production and possible early abandonment in conjunction with reducing the drive effectiveness through excessive water production. can be set low in the reservoir bed. the wells in thin sands with a high angle of dip is likely to be more efficiently controlled by having the completion irregularly spaced and low to conform to the shape of the reservoir. provided the rock is stratified.p. Regular spacing would place many completions too near the gas-oil contact. . some general statements can be made: Dissolved gas drive reservoirs: Well completions in reservoirs with low structural relief can be made in a regularly spaced pattern throughout the reservoir and. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 0 REVISION With regard to drive mechanisms. In this scenario it would be expected that oil recovery would be greater with the minimum well investment as the oil will drain down-structure through time.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 26 OF 295 ENI S. Significant levels of water production are unavoidable in later field life when maximising production rates. A water reservoir in a thin sand with high angle of dip may best be developed with irregular well spacing because of the structural characteristics. A regular spacing can also be used for dissolved gas reservoirs with high angle of dip. some means of secondary recovery will almost certainly be required at some point in life of the reservoir and the initial well completion design should take this into account. Gas cap drive reservoirs: Wells are generally spaced on a regular pattern where the sand is thick. dip angle is low and gas cap is completely underlayed by oil.
as described in the previous section is to complete water drive reservoirs high and for dissolved gas drive reservoir low on the structure to obtain an adequate number of wells without excess.A. Similar assumptions can be made for carbonate and even reef type reservoirs which results in reservoirs of a highly stratified nature. Fluids from such reservoirs will flow through the various layers at different restrictions to flow and often there are impervious beds between the layers so that fluid cannot flow between the bed to bed. To maximise recovery. experience and operating conditions.p. Figure 2. Vertical staggering of the completion can be effected during development to obtain proportionate depletion of the various strata. ‘fingering’ of the free gas down from a gas cap. This is demonstrated in figure 2. is a distinct possibility. However this is only practical if the reservoir is uniform. it will probably be necessary to stagger the completion intervals in various members of the reservoir to be sure that each is drained properly. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 2.I . Completions with more than one zone are termed multi-zone completions and are required for long completion intervals for obtaining sufficient volumes of production.j. especially if the interval is short and production rates are high. either by shale breaks or by variations in permeability. If the reservoir is stratified. Most sandstone reservoirs were originally laid down as stratified layers of varying porosity and permeability. or water from a water basin. In thin beds or highly stratified beds.2. intervals should be produced independently wherever practical (usually determined by economics).i and figure 2.Irregular Water Encroachment and Breakthrough . Reservoir Homogeneity 0 REVISION The general procedures. Additional distribution of intervals in the various members can then be made during later well interventions on the basis of data obtained.8. Single string/single zone completions are preferred to facilitate thorough flushing for higher recovery and flexibility of re-completion to control reservoir performance.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 27 OF 295 ENI S.
and to measure.p.High GOR Production by Encroachment of Gas 2. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 0 REVISION Figure 2. . depends upon the type of gas and the nature of the problem. The surface samples are then recombined in the laboratory in proportions equal the gas-oil ratio measured at the separator during well testing.A. 2.3. the information is less complex. it may require numerous tests and measurements.1. Oil Property Correlation Several generalisations of oil sample data are available to permit correlations of oil properties to be made (refer to the Compant Well Test Manual for sampling techniques). Information concerning the characteristics and behaviour of gas needed for gas reservoirs. If retrograde condensation is involved. by laboratory tests.3.J .ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 28 OF 295 ENI S. the changes occurring in the reservoir samples. HYDROCARBON DATA The practical approach to the study of reservoir fluid behaviour is to anticipate pressure and temperature changes in the reservoir and at surface during production. by means of subsurface samplers and by obtaining surface samples of separator liquid and gas. If the gas is wet with no retrograde condensation. The results of these tests then provide the basic fluid data for estimates of fluid recovery by various methods of reservoir operations and also to estimate reservoir parameters through transient pressure testing. Two general methods are used to obtain samples of reservoir oil for laboratory examination purposes. or if dry gas.
k which requires continuous repetition during field life to account for changing conditions. This is characterised by a damaged IPR curve and the amount of damage or skin effect. The process of this analysis is shown in figure 2. in undamaged near wellbore regions also reduce the IPR curve. stimulation procedures which can provide a negative skin are desirable as this increases production. The theoretical IPR is an idealistic assumption of flow performance without pressure drop due to skin effect in the near wellbore region and governed only by the size. friction losses and flowing temperatures. analysis of the outflow performance requires predictions of phase behaviour. velocity effects in gas wells. such as gravel packs for unconsolidated sands. Good drilling and completion practices can or may minimise this damage allowing use of the idealised IPR curve to be used for completion design. the outflow performance can be determined which takes into consideration the relationship between the surface flowrate and pressure drop in the tubing. RESERVOIR/PRODUCTION FORECAST 0 REVISION To obtain the optimum performance from a well. varies with flowrate against a fixed back-pressure which is normally the wellhead or separator pressure. The basic theory of this is described in this section along with some simplified IPR relationships from observed field data. The determination of the well’s performance entails analysing the following: • • • • In-flow performance Near wellbore performance and design Multiphase flow of tubing performance Artificial lift.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 29 OF 295 ENI S.4. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 2. Two phase flow. high rate or high GOR oil wells. Flow behaviour in the near wellbore region may cause a dramatic effect on the IPR curve which results in greatly reduced flow capability. Alternatively. is mainly caused by the drilling and completion practices. Some completion designs to deal with reservoir conditions. The results of the outflow performance analysis are usually produced graphically depicting how bottom hole flowing pressure (BHFP). or pump intake pressure. it is first necessary to determine its full potential and which way this can be fully exploited within any technical or economic constraints. The inflow performance relationship (IPR) provides the flow potential of the reservoir into the wellbore against the resistance to flow of the formation and near wellbore region. shape and permeability of the producing zone and the properties of the produced fluids. will also cause reduced IPR curves which must be anticipated during the design phase.A. Once the IPR is completed. These curves are termed tubing performance curves (TPC) and the point of intersection is the natural flowing point as demonstrated earlier in figure 2. . effective fluid density.p. Hence. The prediction of this relationship is complicated by the nature of multi-phase fluid flow.k.
K .ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 30 OF 295 ENI S. or optimising.A. .p.Process of Determining Optimum Well Performance Selecting. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 0 REVISION Figure 2. the tubing size is necessary to optimise the well performance over the life of the well and should include the potential benefits of artificial lift systems and/or stimulation to reduce near wellbore skin effects.
With a straight line IPR.7psia.A. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 2. the flow rate is directionally proportional to the drawdown. o 60 F) q p R − p wf Eq. Oil Well .1.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 31 OF 295 ENI S.4.e. In situations which allow the use of a straight line IPR. an empirical expression can be validated and applied.g. the more appropriate it is to use theoretical radial flow equation. above the bubble point). psi Bottom-hole flowing pressure. PI defined as J by the API.L where: ∆p pR pwf = = = Drawdown pressure. 2. The linear relationship can be substantiated from theoretical arguments for a single incompressible fluid (i. The use of IPRs generated from reservoir simulation models is also described as is the technique for the applications of the various techniques for predicting inflow performance. ∆p=p R −p wf Eq. the constant of proportionality is termed the productivity index (PI). reservoir simulation is usually employed. low drawdowns and damaged wells.p. psi. it has been verified that the straight line approach also provides the accuracy needed for well performance calculations in situations which exceed the theoretical basis. e. As more data becomes available. Essentially the less data which is available. is: J= where: q = Total liquid flow rate at surface under stock tank conditions (14. However. 2. Inflow Perfomance 0 REVISION This section addresses the fundamental principles of inflow performance for oil and gas wells.M . psi Reservoir pressure.Straight Line IPR The simplest IPR equation assumes that inflow into a well is proportional to the pressure differential between the reservoir and the wellbore which is termed the ‘drawdown’. however for larger projects.
ft Total effective skin. bbl/stb Drainage radius. also needs to be treated with caution as Production Engineers and Reservoir Engineers assume different basis for J. J can be calculated directly from bottom-hole gauges in well test results or estimated pressures from simulation studies. ft Wellbore radius.Straight Line IPR or Productivity Index J The assumption of stable inflow performance relationship. J. is that well is producing in pseudo-steady state or steady state flow conditions. as in most well tests.A. J.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 32 OF 295 ENI S. can also be derived theoretically from Darcy’s radial flow equation: Jo = k oh r 141. dimensionless (S ’= S + Dq) . 2. Oil PI. cp Reservoir formation volume factor. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 0 REVISION Figure 2. result in higher estimates of productivity than when under stabilised conditions. md Reservoir fluid viscosity.75+S′ Eq. Production Engineers relate J to gross liquid production (oil and water) whereas Reservoir Engineers relate it to oil productivity.p.2µ o B o 1n e rw −0.N where: h ko µo Bo ro rw S’ = = = = = = Net pay thickness. ft Effective oil permeability.L . Before this the well produces under transient conditions. Productivity Index. or stabilised flow.
A. Damaged wells with positive skins have straight line IPRs with PIs less than the ideal PI. Figure 2. S’ = 0) should be expected as a result of additional pressure losses in the near wellbore area due to damage. Deviation from the theoretical ideal PI (i.M. fractures. have natural fractures or are highly deviated.Effect of Damage And Fractures on a Well’s PI . Ko obviously decreases and as does Jo.e. increased gas saturation in oil wells. high rate or high GOR oil wells. As water saturation increases. The PI is very useful for describing the potential of various wells as it combines all rock and fluid properties as well as geometrical issues in a single constant making it unnecessary to consider these properties individually. producing below the bubble point. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 0 REVISION This assumes pseudo-steady state flow from a well in the centre of a circular reservoir and it is worth noting that ko is the effective permeability to oil for an oil PI. changes in radial flow geometry and non-Darcy pressure losses due to high flow velocities in gas wells.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 33 OF 295 ENI S.p. Straight line IPRs with PIs greater than the ideal are typical of wells with negative skin such as when they have been stimulated.
2 wf p qmax R q where: pR pwf q qmax = = = = Reservoir pressure.A. decreases with increasing drawdown (slopes 1 and 2 in figure 2. Once the BHFP falls below the bubble point pressure.Vogel’s Two Phase Flow IPR 0 REVISION The previous straight line IPR does not hold with two phase flow (gas and liquid) in the reservoir. psi Bottom-hole flowing pressure. gas saturation builds up around the wellbore which reduces the permeability to liquid which of course reduces well productivity at that particular drawdown compared to predicted by linear PI. psi Liquid production.O Qmax is a theoretical value sometimes referred to as Absolute Open Flow (AOF) of the oil well. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 Oil Well .ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 34 OF 295 ENI S. hence the PI J. stb/d p −0.8 wf p R 2 Eq. There may also be some non-Darcy gas flow effects in wells producing below the bubble point. He also presented an approximation using the expression: p =1−0.o). 2.p. Vogel used a computer programme to model a variety of solution gas reservoirs and developed a generalised IPR reference curve to account for the two phase flow effects below the bubble point.N . Figure 2. stb/d Maximum liquid production rate when pwf = 0.Typical IPR Curve for Saturated Reservoir . This means the true IPR is curved and.
A. Figure 2. The model used to develop Vogel’s reference curve did not include skin effects which would tend to straighten the IPR curve.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 35 OF 295 ENI S.Vogel’s IPR Reference Curve . Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 0 REVISION Vogel’s equation has been validated through observed field data particularly on pumped wells with high drawdowns where pwf approaches zero. Procedures to correct for skin are available.O .p.
T .ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 36 OF 295 ENI S.R p −0.P Eq. As oil is normally produced from a different zone to the water.Q If water production is involved. psi p −0. the following equations are applied: q w =J(p R −p wf ) p q o =q o max 1−0. Vogel’s equation is combined with the PI to develop a general IPR equation. When the BHFP is above the bubble point use the normal straight line equation: q o =J(p R −p wf ) and when it drops below the bubble point use the modified Vogel equation: p Jp qo =J(p R −p wf )+ b 1−0.8 wf p b 2 Eq.8 b where: pb = Bubble point pressure.2 wf p R Eq.2 wf p 1 . 2. For this. it is dependant upon whether it is produced from the same interval or others. 2. This has been published by Brown. 2.8 wf p R 2 Eq. a straight line IPR is drawn above the bubble point and the curved IPR signifies the two phase flow below this point. 2.8 wf p R 2 Eq.S If oil and water both flow from the same zone then the Vogel equation is used for the gross flow rate: p q o +q w =(q o +q o max )1−0. 2.2 wf p R p −0.A.p. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 0 REVISION Where inflow relationship passes through the bubble point.
A.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 37 OF 295 ENI S. This is where Darcy’s law which is good for moderate to low flow rates is affected by high velocities.5 to 1. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 0 REVISION Figure 2.0) .P .Generalised IPR Curves As described earlier. is sometimes the most dominant factor especially for gravel packs and high rate gas-liquid ratio wells. This non-Darcy flow. curvature of the IPR curve is not solely due to the reasons highlighted above but also due to rate dependent skin. Fetkovich recognised that many oil wells could be handled in the same way as gas wells using the curved IPR: q o =C p R −p wf 2 ( 2 n ) Eq.p.Combined Straight Line IPR and Vogel IPR Oil Wells . 2. or turbulence.U where: C n = = Linear deliverability coefficient Deliverability exponent (0.
n is considered as the means to account for non-Darcy flow but there is no theoretical technique for finding it as it is a function of the rate used during testing. If multi-rate data is 2 2 available then a log-log plot of q versus (pR .V This equation is compared with Vogel’s reference curve in figure 2. n.A. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 0 REVISION Golan and Whitson showed how this relationship could be expressed in a similar form to Vogel’s reference curve as: p = 1− wf q max p R q 2 n Eq. n should be assumed as 1.pwf ) will give a straight line with a slope of 1/n.Q . Figure 2. If such data is not available. however it requires four points at widely different flow rates to maximise the benefit of this method.p. Blount and Jones presented an alternative generalised IPR equation which was an extension to the Forcheimer equation to include the non-Darcy flow effects: p R −p wf =aq+bq 2 Eq.Vogel And Fetkovich IPR Curve Comparisons Use of this approach will provide better results than Vogel’s method. 2. for two values of the exponent. It is seen that when n = 1. It is recommended that n be assumed to be 1 where no multi-rate data is available.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 38 OF 295 ENI S. 2.W .q. the Vogel and Fetkovich IPRs are similar.
both a and b can be determined using a plot of (q R .e. 2. etc.2. In solution drive reservoirs. skin damage during remedial operations and reduced contribution from reduced pay through plugging back. the reservoir pressure will decline against time. β. The effects of increasing water influx on the gross PI.2µ o B o re ln kh rw −0.Predicting Future IPRs Estimates of future IPR curves throughout the life of the reservoir are frequently required for production forecasting and planning artificial lift designs. can be determined theoretically for a well producing at pseudo-steady state flow in the middle of a circular reservoir: a= 141. In very high permeability wells. Standing presented a method of predicting future IPR curves by the equation: k ro µ o B o future = k ro µ o B o present Eq.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 39 OF 295 ENI S. leads to a significant increase in skin due to scaling. Oil Wells . where two phase flow effects are negligible) .2 wf p R future −0.p. 2. Similarly. it takes no account of completion non-Darcy effects such as inefficient perforating. can also be found theoretically but requires a knowledge of the turbulence factor.Z where: J* = PI at minimal drawdown (i.75+S Eq. a. S. if multi-rate test data is available. The other non-Darcy flow coefficient.A. 2. b.pwf)/q versus q gives a straight line with a slope of b and an interception of a.8 p wf p Rfuture 2 Eq. shifting the IPR curve downwards resulting in a decline of the production rate and causing flow instability. mobilisation of fines.Y J * future J * present and: q future =J * future p p R future 1−0.X The skin term. Again. which is rarely measured in the laboratory. The relative permeability to oil will also decrease due to increased gas saturation further shifting the curve downwards. described earlier in Section 2. coefficient b can be much greater than b and perforating efficiency (shots/ft and penetration) is a very important to productivity. The liberation of gas also affects the oil fluid properties. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 0 REVISION The Darcy flow coefficient. is relative to all non-rate dependent skin contributions.
5 for fully turbulent flow.g. The constant C is also found from the log-log plot and varies as a function of flow time until it reaches a constant pseudo-steady state. Relative permeabilities and fluid saturations are determined from special core analysis data and reservoir material balance analysis (using either analytical calculations or a reservoir simulation model). n . p g =C p R −p wf 2 ( 2 n ) Eq. Gas Wells . critical that well tests are conducted up to or above the rate of intended production. Fluid viscosities and volume are determined from PVT correlations.A.p. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 0 REVISION J* at present conditions is established by carrying out a well test or theoretically. To obtain a value of n.66 have been found in actual field studies by Eickmeir. A 2 2 log-log plot of (pR . it is normal to test the well at three rates at a fixed period of time followed by a single rate until stabilisation is reached to obtain C. If data for Standing’s equation are not available. however in high rates this is highly improbable and makes the IPR projections almost impossible and erring on the optimistic side. 2. It is.Simplified Deliverability Relationship Rawlins and Schellardt developed a simplified gas well back-pressure equation which relates gas flow rate to the BHFP and is the well Known AOF equation. The problem with this isochronal test is the time required to reach stabilised flow in tight gas sands which could be months. While this method is widely used throughout the industry. 2. This exponent can vary between 1. isochronal test) due to there being no accepted theoretical basis available. . An exponent of 2. Eickmeier first proposed an expression based on Fetkovich’s work. the simpler approach like Fetkovich relation for predicting qmax in Vogel’s reference curve.pwf ) versus q is conducted from which the slope gives the value of 1/n.AA It may be shown theoretically that exponent m could vary between 1 and 3.future p R future m Eq. The exponent.present p Rpresent = q max . using kh and S from build-up data but is only applicable if flow is laminar (n = 1). Obviously at low to moderate rates there is little turbulence and n is close to 1.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 40 OF 295 ENI S. therefore. In some instances C can be calculated from reservoir parameters.5 gives the best fit to the gas drive IPR curves by Vogel while values of 1.0 for laminar flow to 0.BB This equation was developed empirically using several hundred multi-rate gas well test data and not by theory but satisfactorily describes the behaviour of the gas well tests considered. in the equation must be estimated from one of a number of well test methods (e. which in modified form is: q max . it is not recommended for estimating IPRs as it lacks the theoretical basis and other rigorous equations are available.
Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 Gas Wells . β. normally pg and pwf for inflow calculations. 2.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 41 OF 295 ENI S. In this range the correct inflow equation is written in terms of pseudo-pressures: m(p)=2 where: µg z = = ∫ p dp pb µ z g p Eq.w can be used. The non-Darcy skin is also frequently accounted for by using: m(p R )−m(p wf )=1422 q g T re ln k gh rw −0.000psi or if drawdown pressure changes are small which is the case in high permeability wells above 3. are determined in a similar manner as the 2 2 generalised IPR equation for an oil well. requires knowledge of the correct turbulence factor.cc is not precisely correct since inherent in its derivation is an assumption that the product of µ and z is constant. 2.A.CC The Darcy and non-Darcy coefficients. it must be accounted for properly and a theoretical based method is more often used in modern engineering. For most gas compositions this is valid only at pressures less than approx 2. eq.000psi.Generalised Deliverability 0 REVISION Due to the shortcomings of the back-pressure equation described above and since turbulence which is common in gas wells.m(pwf)/q versus q to find a value of B from the slope and to check the value of A from the intercept. A and B. 2.p.DD Gas viscosity. however the straight line plot is (pR . 2. as for oil wells. It will be seen that the gas IPR is curved even when the non-Darcy term is 0. an equation similar to eq.EE B = 1422 Here the results of the multi-rate test would be plotted as m(pg) .75+S+Dqg Eq. Between 2. 2.75+S 2 Eq. there is curvature in the plot of µz against p making neither approach applicable.000psi and 3.FF .pwf )/q versus q. 2. The non-Darcy coefficient B can also be calculated theoretically but.000psi when µz is proportional to pressure. The expression below is based on the work of Forchemier and is: p R −p wf = Aqg + Aqg 2 Eq. cp Gas deviation factor and where the integration limits are substituted with the pressure range being considered. hence: m(p R )−m(p wf )= Aq g +Bqg where: A = 1422 T re ln k gh rw TD k gh −0.
With the use of simulation the production engineer is able not only to predict pressures. • • • • . the pseudo-pressure values are readily available. well radius. To obtain the best use of simulation studies.2.. Using expected off takes. 2. This information is derived from well test results and is input into the models theoretical IPR equations as skin factor. Future stimulation or any damaging effects need to be considered. planning and reservoir management of many fields today. predict turbulence and two phase flow effects by the use of total skin S’ inclusive of near wellbore and rate dependent skin effects. a model needs to be set up by the reservoir engineer with input from the production engineer.ff) can also be directly entered into some simulators. mscf/d o Reservoir temperature. artificial lift or use of compression. Variations between the ideal IPRs and actual IPRs which may be expected from the undrilled well locations. Typically the following should be addressed: • • Assumptions on the minimum permissible value of Pwf as dictated by the outflow performance altered by varying water-cut. therefore there is a growing trend to use gas pseudo pressures for predicting gas well IPRs at all pressure conditions although the pressure squared method has a use in the field for convenience. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 where: D qg T S D kg is = = = = = Derived from well tests Gas flow rate. but also to generate IPR curves for determination of how current and future well IPRs will vary across the field. 2.p.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 42 OF 295 ENI S. Outflow performance curves should be derived from an accurate computer programme as some programmes are not rigorous in the handling of two phase flow. it will be necessary to correct it for the grid block’s size and shape.A. F The sum of all non-rate dependent skin Rate dependent skin Effective gas permeability.4. md 0 REVISION As modern test analysis use computer software. The value of D (Refer to eq. WORs and GORs to obtain production targets. Reservoir Simulation For IPR Curves Reservoir simulation is commonly used in the development. workovers and movement of fines will have on near wellbore performance causing changes of skin during the life of the project. etc. If a PI is entered in rather than skin. Long term effects from well interventions.
water breakthrough and saturation changes on production and used for artificial lift studies. etc. Input on skin is realistic for the period covered.p. gravel packing. then the model can be used to evaluate the effect of depletion. it should be used to update the generalised IPR to reflect the actual pay interval. workover or sales contracts. e. the model needs to be updated to include actual log and test results.A. have been considered. reservoir quality. Often more reliable predictions in shape of the well IPR can be achieved by engineers using single well models to study the probability of water or gas conning or to model transient well test results.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 43 OF 295 ENI S. Once this achieved. therefore the predicted flow rates should not be considered as precise and the relevant reservoir engineer should be consulted to establish the accuracy. . Whether rates have been modified for downtime due to maintenance. in extrapolating the shape of the IPR and determining the effects by well operations and production may have on skin. skins. pressure and mechanical data. They may also be able to advise on possible sudden changes in water cut or gas production due to conning or cusping. production rates and wellbore saturations at various time steps. It is extremely important that production engineers understand that the uncertainties involved and do not give greater reliability on model studies than reasonably can be expected. If the reservoir pressure refers to grid block or to the drainage area. in particular check: • • • • • Confirm if non-Darcy and multi-phase flow effects have been taken into consideration.g. revisions can be made to the completion designs. however judgement is required when using these results. deviation. After using measured IPR curves. From this. As the use of full field reservoir simulation requires many assumptions and simplifications are made to manage the problem. stimulation. programmes and production forecast. It is also used to determine the sensitivity of production to drawdown and optimise perforating strategy. When and as new well data from log and RFT/DST results becomes available. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 0 REVISION The results from such field models will provide the reservoir pressure. Care must be exercised. however. partial completion. saturations. Ensure that proposed completion effects on near wellbore performance. etc.
4. IPR Selection 0 REVISION In developing representative IPRs for a field.Jones or radial flow equation with turbulence Blount .m(pwf) = Aq + Bq ) Omit B if only single rate data available Table 2.p.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 44 OF 295 ENI S. 2 Recommended IPR Model Linear PI or radial flow equation Vogel or Fetkovich Standing or linear PI if very damaged (S > 7) Composite Vogel and linear Water zone High rate undersaturated oil High rate saturated oil Gas wells WC > 90% q > 25stb/d/ft q > 25stb/d/ft Pwf < pb .A.IPR Selection Based on Reservoir Type The appropriate technique will also depend on the reservoir data that is available which is function of the development stage. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 2.A .3.Jones Pseudo-pressure equation (m(pR) . the appropriate IPR model needs to be selected based upon the anticipated production conditions.b. These are summarised again in the following table: Type Of Well Undersaturated oil Saturated oil Damaged saturated oil Undersaturated oil at pR but saturated at pwf Wells producing oil and water Producing Conditions Pwf > pb Pwf < pb Pwf < pb S > +3 PR > pb Pwf < pb WC > 0 Use as above for the appropriate oil and linear PI or radial flow equation for water Linear PI or radial flow equation Blount . The selection of an IPR model based on this is given in table 2.
Highlight damage risks. Primary method. Evaluate completion results. small field/single well Development plan Primary method. Validate results.B . Validate reservoir model results. Highlight damage risks. Primary method. Highlight damage risks. Primary method for current IPRs. Evaluate completion methods. lift/ compression) Workover planning Revised development plan Predict future IPR Predict future IPR Primary method. Validate results. Validate results. - Reservoir Model IPRs - Empirical IPRs Validate interpretation Validate results. Validate results. Estimate skin and determine cause. Optimising Operations/ Workover Well performance assessment Field studies (forecasts/ artificial lift. use for future IPRs. Define model input Primary method. Identify variations geographically with time. - Primary method. large field Conceptual design.A. Guestimate potential. small field/single well Primary method. Highlight damage risks. Table 2. Primary method for current IPRs. If available. Extrapolate test results.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 45 OF 295 ENI S.IPR Selection Based on Development Stage . Validate results.p. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 0 REVISION Radial Flow Equation Technical Evaluations Prospect evaluation Exploration well results Development Planning Conceptual design. Highlight damage risks. Validate results and skin assumptions. Detailed design. Primary method for post workover IPR Primary method for post workover IPR. large field Detailed design.
In the vast majority of cases there are sufficient data to use the tuned black oil model correlation method. Untuned black oil model empirical correlations.4.A. The relationship between pressure and temperature drop in wells and PVT behaviour is complex. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 2. • • • • Interpolate directly from experimental data.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 46 OF 295 ENI S. The variable composition model requires performing vapour-liquid equilibrium (VLE) or ‘flash’ calculations to determine the amount and composition of both the gas and liquid phases. The black oil model assumes a constant composition for the liquid phase and accounts for mass transfer using the parameters gas-oil ratio and formation volume factor. Outflow Performance Tubing Performance 0 REVISION Predicting fluid flow behaviour in tubing involves combining the basic fundamentals of mass momentum and energy conservation with complex mass transfer phenomena for multicomponent hydrocarbon mixtures. Flowing Temperature prediction. . Pressure drop is determined using empirical and semi-empirical correlations and carried out on computer software programmes. The methods for predicting pressure and temperature drops are addressed in the following sections.p.4. the ‘black oil’ model and the ‘compositional’ model.PVT Relationships With most modern software programmes there are four methods of obtaining PVT properties for oil wells which are listed in order of preference. In general the black oil model is easier to use than the compositional model. PVT Relationships There are two PVT methods used in the prediction of mass transfer between oil and gas. results in utilising the following interrelated topics: • • • Phase behaviour. Application of these concepts. Pressure drop prediction. Tuned black oil model empirical correlations. Each model uses differing methods to determine the densities and viscosities for each phase and interfacial surface tension. Interpolate from compositional simulation data. Refer to the following sections. Oil Well .
Do not use differential separation data since it is not representative of the vaporisation that occurs in the tubing.e. Profile based on conservation of energy that utilises complex wellbore heat transfer calculations.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 47 OF 295 ENI S.A. These are: • • • Gas condensate wells with retrograde condensate. Use black oil model parameters generated from results of compositional simulation if it has been performed for incidental reasons. High pour point crude oil wells. b) c) d) Gas/Gas Condensate Wells . PVT properties for gas and gas condensate wells must be described with the compositional model.p. Do not use untuned black oil model empirical correlations unless the data available cannot justify a more rigorous method. Although the linear approach is unrealistic. Profile based on adiabatic heat transfer. temperature profiles may be specified in five ways: • • • • • Linear profile based on measured or assumed wellhead and bottom-hole temperatures. in gas wells it has amore significant effect.PVT Relationships In software programmes. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 0 REVISION The approach adopted when choosing the appropriate method for each application should be: a) Use the black oil model flash vaporisation lab data if they are available. . Black oil models parameters should never be used to predict PVT properties for gas or gas condensate systems. The linear profile is the most widely used due to the complexity of heat transfer calculations in conjunction with the lack of sufficient measured data. Temperature Drop Calculation Predicting the temperature loss in the wellbore as a function of depth and time is necessary to determine PVT properties for use in calculating pressure drop. but only if experimental data is not available. Profile based on a simplified version of the complete rigorous calculation involving correlating parameter for which there is unavailable information but with data which are available. Use the tuned empirical correlations for black oil model variables if the appropriate although limited experimental data are available. e. the error has been found to be less than 15% in overall temperature drop in typical wells.g. constant temperature throughout the length of the string. Profile based on a specified heat transfer coefficient. reservoir or production reasons. i. Wells in which hydrate formation can occur. However. Some wells have produced fluids with special properties that are very sensitive to temperatures and more complex heat transfer calculations are required. Some software programmes.
tubing diameter and to a lesser extent PVT properties.p.II . The amount of slippage that occurs is dependent upon the geometrical distribution of the gas and liquid in the pipe. Flow patterns are governed primarily by the flow rates of each phase. This slippage causes an additional accumulation of liquid in the tubing which is termed liquid hold up. referred to as the ‘flow pattern’ or ‘flow regime’. 2. Gas and oil phases normally flow at different speeds which is the phenomenon referred to as slippage. 2. The hydrostatic head is the most predominant component of the pressure gradient in oil wells. The friction losses are the remainder of the pressure loss and are more significant in gas wells with acceleration effects being negligible except when near to atmospheric pressure.JJ Eq. The equation consists of three components and can be expressed as follows: dp dp dp dp = + + dL dL HYD dL FR dL ACC where: pgsin θ dp = gc dL HYD Eq.A.GG is the pressure gradient caused by the hydrostatic head of potential energy of the multiphase liquid.HH Eq. 2. 2. f pv 2 dp = dL FR 2g c D is the pressure gradient caused by wall friction.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 48 OF 295 ENI S. the variables such as p and v in the pressure gradient equation are normally averages for the gas and liquid phases present. p vdv dp = g c dL dL ACC is the pressure gradient caused by fluid acceleration. therefore. In multi-phase systems. Eq. often accounting for 90% of the pressure drop. the pressure is sensitive to the relative amounts of gas and liquid present at any location in the tubing. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 Pressure Drop Calculation 0 REVISION Calculating pressure drop in tubing involve numerical integration of the steady-state pressure gradient equation over the entire tubing length.
25psi/ft 0. . slug and churn floe predominate in oil wells.20psi/ft 0.0. offer more potential for accurate predictions but these are not readily accepted as standard design methods as yet. no single method has been universally been accepted. Although many of these have been successful to some degree. diameter and PVT properties. the total pressure drop is very dependent on flow pattern.36psi/ft 0. referred to as mechanical models. it is obvious that the pressure at each point in the well and. liquid hold up pressure gradient is limited by the ranges of data used in their development and no single method can be applied universally.2psi/ft Hence. Flow Patterns Transition between the various flow patterns.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 49 OF 295 ENI S. More recent models developed based on flow mechanisms and conservation principles.1 .p. The early developed correlations assumed the flow as homogeneous mixtures ignoring liquid hold up effects. Typical pressure gradients in wells for different flow patterns are: • • • • Single phase oil Bubble flow Slug flow Mist flow = = = = 0. Subsequent correlations were developed to predict liquid hold up but most of these first required an empirical correlation or ‘map’ to predict the flow pattern. therefore. can be identified using flow pattern maps. as listed in the previous section. The accuracy of existing correlations for predicting flow pattern. it is possible for oil and gas wells to include all flow patterns in addition to single phase liquid and gas. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 Typical flow patterns are: • • • • • Annular flow Churn flow Slug flow Bubble flow Liquid flow. it is seen that prediction of pressure drop in multi-phase systems is complex and has led to the development of different correlations to be used. Attempts were made to compensate for these errors in the equations by single empirical derived friction factor. 0 REVISION Considering the above. Some software programmes use all the correlations available and the more recent promising mechanical models can be added.A. The most common maps are empirically derived with coordinates based on dimensionless groups of variables that include volumetric flow rates. Although bubble.
Evaluation of Pressure Loss Methods Using TUFFP Well Databank .9 151.3 217.9 178.666 Method Ansari Hagbr Dunros Aziz Begbril Orkis Mukbr Average Error 9.132 1.2 Relative Performance Factor.3 159. table 2. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 Classification Of Methods 0 REVISION Published methods of multi-phase flow pressure gradients in wells can be placed into one of three general categories based on the assumptions from which the method was developed: • • • • Homogeneous flow correlations where slippage and flow pattern are not considered.3 102.404 1.8 110. Slip flow correlations where slippage is considered but not flow pattern. Covier and Fogarasi (1972) Beggs and Brill (1973)..9 273. RPC 1.7 Table 2.7 190.597 1. Validation and actual field data are the only means of choosing a pressure loss method but this is not available at the time of designing the completions. As illustrated in figure 2.C .ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 50 OF 295 ENI S.A. these correlations predict different pressure drops for the same application.3 -28.2 78.4 -20. performed using the TUFFP well databank consisting of 1775 flowing well surveys covering a broad range of production variables and pressure loss methods were also evaluated for each flow pattern. Mechanised models where slippage.p. Ansari recently performed an evaluation of the most widely used correlations and his own proposed mechanistic model. Oil Well Correlations Oil well correlations for predicting pressure gradients in oil wells have been published and those most widely accepted in the Industry are: • • • • • Duns and Ros (1963) Hagedorn and Brown (1967) Orkiszewski (1967) Aziz.198 1.r and figure 2. flow pattern and basic flow mechanisms are considered.178 1. Flow pattern dependent correlations where liquid hold up and flow pattern are considered.9 116.c presents the overall results below: Absolute Average Error 101.5 33.4 177.4 207.3 12.6 134.000 1. however any one of these may be successful in a given field.8 41.8 Standard Deviation 163.s.
Figure 2.R . Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 0 REVISION Selecting the best prediction method from table 2.c is not appropriate as the best statistical results do not guarantee the best performance for a specific application.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 51 OF 295 ENI S.Comparison Lift Curves for High Gas-Oil Ratio Well . The choice must be made on experience.p.A. The applicability of the various methods is compared in table 2.d.
Comparison of Lift Curves for Low Gas-Oil Ratio Well .A.p. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 0 REVISION Figure 2.S .ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 52 OF 295 ENI S.
Needs to be verified through use. Hagedorn and Brown with Griffith Bubble and restriction on hold up Kleyweg et al Occidental mod (1983) Orkiszewski (1967) Flow Pattern Dependent Field experiment Oil. water. Gas Flow Pattern Dependent Fair Some Hagedorn and Brown data. field Oil. Gas Duns (1963) and Ros Flow Pattern Dependent Oil. Optimistic. air Slip Flow Field Oil.p. Should be used with caution. Developed for deviated wells but tends to over-predict. water. water Beggs (1973) and Beggs and Brill with Palmer Cornish (1976) Flow Pattern Dependent Homogeneous Fair Good in some flow patterns Good Laboratory Field (annular flow) Laboratory . air Does not predict a TCP minimum. can cause convergence problems in computing algorithm. .D. Developed to optimise gas lift in o highly deviated wells (>70 ) in Claymore field. Aziz et al (!972) Flow Pattern Dependent Brill Flow Pattern Variable depending on version Poor Laboratory and field Laboratory Oil. Optimistic. Usually not applicable for completion design. Does not predict a TPC minimum. Conservative. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 0 REVISION Method Ansari 1963) (TUFFP Category Mechanistic Model Accuracy Good Data N/A Fluids N/A Application/Comments Appears a little conservative. gas. tends to under-predict pressure drop. Gives consistent results for all flow patterns and TCP minimum. water Oil.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 53 OF 295 ENI S. Poor in bubble flow. Good where several flow patterns exist. experiment al plus field data Field experiment Air. water. water Hagedorn Brown (1965) and Slip Flow Good in some flow patterns Good Oil. water. water. Liquid hold up prediction can be less than for no slip flow.A. Should not be used except for similar conditions. Tends to over-predict pressure drop. gas Table 2. Tends to over-predict pressure drop. gas Air. This is the preferred correlation in the absence of other data. Should be avoided unless well is highly deviated. Developed for deviated wells but tends to significantly over-predict pressure drop. Conservative.Applicability of Pressure Loss Prediction Methods Gas And Gas Condensate Correlations For gas and gas condensate wells the following methods are frequently used: • • • • Cullender and Smith Single phase gas with modified gravities Multi-phase flow correlations Gray correlation. Tends to under-predict pressure drop.
the Gray correlation is generally recommended although the Ansari model mat prove to be even more accurate since it includes a good model for predicting pressure gradient in annular flow which is the most predominant in gas wells. For wells with o deviations up to 45 from vertical. validation with field data is the only reliable method for determining the most appropriate correlation and. If these reach sonic velocity. either the Beggs and Brill correlation or a mechanistic model would be necessary. Although any of the correlations can be used. If this is the case. wells can quickly ‘load up’ over a few weeks if it is not correctly sized. In gas wells.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 54 OF 295 ENI S. the Gray correlation is recommended based on the work with ‘Reinicke et al’ but results should be used with caution. Effect Of Restrictions Most oil and gas wells contain some types of flow control devices in the completion which choke flow. vertical correlations perform accurately enough for wells o greater than 45 . differing correlations should not be used for different deviations. as the difference between the predicted pressure drops is generally greater than the effect of the deviation itself. accounting for deviation by simply using the sine in the hydrostatic component of the pressure gradient equation may not be adequate in these cases. These methods have been reviewed by Lea and Tighe. . liquid loading can also be predicted using simplified methods presented with Turner et al which are independent of pressure drop calculations. this is never usually available at the time that the completions are designed. The geometry of these restrictions varies from a simple reduced diameter axial flow path to a tortuous complex path. critical flow occurs. For critical flow. the phase velocities dramatically increase. For wells producing high gas-water or gas-condensate ratios. similarly. When a multiphase mixture flows through a restriction. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 0 REVISION As with oil wells. behaviour is very dependent on geometry and a simple Bernoulli type equation with a discharge coefficient is recommended. Effect Of Deviation Angle Nowadays most wells of interest to operators are directional or deviated wells. Care is needed in the selection of tubing in that. For sub-critical flow. The accuracy of pressure drop calculations in these circumstances using correlations developed for vertical is obviously extremely questionable. even in low liquid rates. it is recommended that tubing size be assessed using these methods in addition to lift curve methods and that the most conservative approach be adopted. In any study.A. Flow pattern and liquid hold up is very dependent on deviation angle.p. simple empirical correlations such as the Gilbert equation are sufficiently accurate.
Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 Effect Of Erosion 0 REVISION Erosion in completions occurs when there are high velocities and if there are solids particles in the flow stream. The most common points for erosion is where there are restrictions which cause increased velocities.5. Continuing in this manner provides information on which decisions can be made on optimum well configuration or optimum operating conditions. they must be presented in the same plot from which the intersection of the lines can be used to predict the flow rate of a well at given set of stable flow conditions (Refer to figure 2. be forecast and analysed for cost/benefit of the completion options. The API have published a method in API RP 14E.t ). in turn. Changing the system parameters like the tubing ID.. 2.T . etc. reservoir pressure.Combining IPR and TPC Curves .A. This section describes this analysis. to determine the threshold velocities for erosion to occur in piping systems but the validity of this for all conditions is questionable.p.4. Flow Rate Prediction Following the establishment of both the IPR and TPC. GLR.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 55 OF 295 ENI S. Figure 2. Systematically varying the system parameters allows comparison of the incremental effects on production and these can. will effect either or both the IPR and TPC and in consequence alters the production rate.
but without incurring excessive friction losses. the hydrostatic component in the total pressure drop predominates.U. As the usual aim is to keep to the right of Pmin.t. The TCP.p. under these conditions. the well will flow at a stable rate defined as the natural flow point. Figure 2. i. On the other hand.v.A. as the flow rate increases. or GLR. slippage occurs. the well will tend to head and flow at unstable conditions due to the cyclic build up of liquid and periodic slug lifting by accumulated pressure of the trapped gas. this is generally not a problem. occurs due to the gas and liquid phase velocities differ at low flow rates. The optimum tubing size. the IPR and TPC curves intersect well to the right of the minimum and.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 56 OF 295 ENI S.t through figure 2. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 Natural Flow Point 0 REVISION The characteristic ‘J’ shape of the TPC means there can be several possible intersections with the IPR as shown in figure 2.e. As liquid velocities tend toward zero.Combined IPR and TPC Curves Under Unstable Conditions . In figure 2. the gas escapes from the well and the hydrostatic gradient approaches the static pressure of the liquid. will give an intersection well to the right of the pmin and out of the flat portion of the TCP curve. If the intersection is either close to or to the left of the minimum (Refer to Figure). the hydrostatic component reduces due the gas lift effect while the friction component increases until the minimum is reached when the friction pressure drop exactly offsets the decrease in hydrostatic pressure drop. the start of unstable flow conditions is rarely known especially with large size tubing. Pmin. Because of the inaccuracies of the two phase flow correlations and the difficulty in obtaining reliable data in this region. At low flow rates.
the flow will become increasingly unstable and wells with large size tubing will die quickly.A.p.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 57 OF 295 ENI S. it is necessary to kick the well off quickly. Figure 2. or to the left of the minimum. Where the curves intersect at two rates (Refer to figure 2.v). a tapered tubing string may be a consideration. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 0 REVISION If the natural flow point is in the unstable region.V .IPR and TPC Curves with Two Apparent Intersection Points . whereas small tubing may sustain unsteady flow until the IPR and TPC curves become almost tangential. Using smaller tubing may result in higher frictional pressure drops and if this reduces flow rates to below uneconomic levels. a smaller size tubing or artificial lift system should be considered. the intersection point to the left is always unstable and the well will either die or progressively produce more fluid until it reaches the stable flow point. Where the IPR and TCP curves intersect close to. To obtain flow at these conditions.
Figure 2.w).ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 58 OF 295 ENI S. It is necessary when carrying out this analysis. they can be used to compare the deliverability of the various methods.w.W. pump differential versus rate) which is plotted below the well performance curves as shown in figure 2. In gas lifted wells. An artificial lift system places an injection of energy into the flow system which displaces the TPC curve downwards. velocity and flow regime in the tubing above the operating gas lift valve. the displacement is dependent on the pump performance curve (i.A. By generating an outflow performance curve for each potential system.e.Combining Pump Performance and TCP Curves . the TPC is displaced as a result of the effect of the gas on the density.p. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 Artificial Lift Effects 0 REVISION A well will not flow naturally if the IPR and TPC curves do not intersect and in this case artificial lift could be used to provide the pressure differential between the curves (Refer to figure 2. In a pumping well. From this an economic cost analysis can be produced to analyse capital and operating cost differences. This results in a combined outflow performance curve termed the pump intake curve. to consider the effect of downhole gas separation on pump outflow performance.
0stb/d/psi) provided there is no drawdown limitation.p.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 59 OF 295 ENI S.Artificial Lift Options for Deep Wells with 5 1/2ins Casing .A. however the operating and capital costs of equipment must be justified against the incremental increase in production rate.x below). it is apparent that gas lift will maximise the deliverability of good wells (PI = 2.4 to 1. while submersible pumping gives the maximum rate from the poorer zones (PI = 0. Figure 2. Artificial lift is often widely used to improve flow stability and increase the production of existing producing wells.5std/d/psi) provided 2 7/8ins tubing is installed.X . Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 0 REVISION As shown in the example (figure 2.
Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 0 REVISION 3. The drawdown data should also be analysed using type curves.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 60 OF 295 ENI S.1. The normal method of investigating the reservoir is to conduct a well test. It is normal to conduct a build-up test after a drawdown test. 3. . 3. It is not usual to conduct solely a drawdown test on an exploration well as it is impossible to maintain a constant production rate throughout the test period as the well must first cleanup. Production Test Many options of string design are available depending on the requirements of the test and the nature of the well. WELL TESTING INTRODUCTION The main objective when drilling an exploration well is to test and evaluate the target formation. Types of Tests Drawdown A drawdown test entails flowing the well and analysing the pressure response as the reservoir pressure is reduced below its original pressure.1. This was the original definition of a drill stem test or DST. There are two types of well test methods available: • Drill Stem Test (DST) Where Drillpipe/Tubing in combination with downhole tools is used as a short term test to evaluate the reservoir. During a test where reservoir fluids do not flow to surface. it is not normal nowadays to plan a test on this basis. separates the fluids and measures the flow rates and pressures. analysis is still possible. packer and downhole test tools and a tubing or drill pipe string then introducing a low density fluid into the string in order to enable the well to flow through surface testing equipment which controls the flow rate.A.p. in conjunction with the build up test. This is usually more applicable to gas wells but can be analysed using the Odeh-Jones plot for liquids or the Thomas-Essi plot for gas. • Many designs of well testing strings are possible depending on the requirements of the test and the nature of the well and the type of flow test to be conducted but basically it consists of installing a packer tailpipe. However.1. This is termed drawdown. Multi-Rate Drawdown A multi-rate drawdown test may be run when flow rates are unstable or there are mechanical difficulties with the surface equipment.
each rate of equal duration and separated by a pressure build-up long enough to reach the stabilised reservoir pressure. where there is a flow rate dependant skin. Isochronal An isochronal test consist of a similar series of flow rates as the flow-on-flow test. and in the case of gas wells the Absolute Open Flow Potential. and the rate dependant skin coefficient. D. kh. or near to. the original pressure which is termed the pressure build-up or PBU. The final flow period is extended to achieve a stabilised flowing pressure for defining the IPR. Usually the rate is increased at each step ensuring that stabilised flow is achievable. On low production rate gas wells. AOFP. This is the normal type of test conducted on an oil well and can be analysed using the classic Horner Plot or superposition. This calculated rate is only of importance in certain countries where government bodies set the maximum rate at which the well may be produced as a proportion of this flow rate. D. is to conduct a second flow and PBU at a different rate to the first flow and PBU. Modified Isochronal The modified isochronal test is used on tight reservoirs where it takes a long time for the shut-in pressure to stabilise. Flow-on-Flow Conducting a flow-on-flow test entails flowing the well until the flowing pressure stabilises and then repeating this at several different rates.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 61 OF 295 ENI S. The flow and shut-in periods are of the same length. There are three types of deliverability test: • • • Flow on Flow Test Isochronal Test The Modified Isochronal Test. . This is the simplest form of deliverability test described below. The durations of each flow period are equal. Deliverability A deliverability test is conducted to determine the well’s Inflow Performance Relation. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 Build-Up 0 REVISION A build-up test requires the reservoir to be flowed to cause a drawdown then the well is closed in to allow the pressure to increase back to. a simple form of test to evaluate the rate dependant skin coefficient. except the final flow period which is extended similar to the isochronal test.A. IPR. The AOFP is the theoretical fluid rate at which the well would produce if the reservoir sand face was reduced to atmospheric pressure. and the near wellbore skin can be analysed.p. From these the permeability-height product. This type of test is applicable to high rate gas well testing and is followed by a single pressure build up period. The flow rate again is increased at each step.
Very high surface injection pressures may be required in order to fracture the formation. It is only applicable where there is no regional aquifer support.A. is sometimes used to overcome the background reservoir pressure behaviour when it is a problem. the pressure fall-off is measured. linear with time.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 62 OF 295 ENI S. usually seawater offshore is injected to establish the formation’s injection potential and also its fracture pressure. which can be determined by conducting a step rate test. After the injectivity test. but is complicated by the cold water bank. biocide and oxygen scavenger. The difference between the initial reservoir pressure.p. Interference An interference test is conducted to investigate the average reservoir properties and connectivity between two or more wells. to provide a measurable pressure difference on the pressure gauges. Once a well is fractured. also the volume of produced fluid and the effective isothermal compressibility of the system. if required. a short term injection test will generally not provide a good measure of the long term injectivity performance. It is common practice to follow the extended drawdown with a pressure build-up. these must therefore be of the high accuracy electronic type gauges with negligible drift. The volume produced must be sufficient. A well-to-well interference test is not carried out offshore at the exploration or appraisal stage as it is more applicable to developed fields. . is achieved. The reservoir volume may be estimated directly from the depletion. The analysis of this test is similar to a pressure build-up. and the pressure to which it returns. Pulse testing. is the depletion. Surface readout pressure gauges should be used in this test. The water can be filtered and treated with scale inhibitor. based on the maximum reservoir size. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 Reservoir Limit 0 REVISION A reservoir limit test is an extended drawdown test which is conducted on closed reservoir systems to determine their volume. where the flowrate at one of the wells is varied in a series of steps. Injectivity In these tests a fluid. The well is produced at a constant rate until an observed pressure drop. It may also be conducted on a single well to determine the vertical permeability between separate reservoir zones. which may also be caused by the thermal shock of the cold injection water reaching the sandface.
such as running wireline or coil tubing through the testing string. then actual producing rates can also be determined.p.4) and. in the most cost-effective manner. Currently.2. . if possible. therefore. They should select the easiest means of obtaining data. Testing is an expensive and high risk operation and. extent of formation damage and if there is a requirement for stimulation. avoiding any operations which entail higher risk. such as coring. should only be conducted for essential data. The second premise is that. From this a Productivity Index (PI) or Inflow Performance Relationship (IPR) can be established (Refer to Section 2. The objectives of an exploration well test are to: • • • • • • • • Conduct the testing in a safe and efficient manner Determine the nature of the formation fluids Measure reservoir pressure and temperature Interpret reservoir permeability-height product (kh) and skin value Obtain representative formation fluid samples for laboratory analysis Define well productivity and/or injectivity investigate formation characteristics Evaluate boundary effects. By adopting this position. Such inter-disciplinary discussions should be formalised by holding a meeting (or meetings) at which these objectives are agreed and fixed. if testing is warranted. the Petroleum Engineer should not appear to be negative but work towards obtaining essential data.A. analysis can provide good data to help evaluate the productivity of the zone. In many cases. actual well production rates can be accurately predicted from DST data as it shows what the well will produce against a gradually increasing back-pressure. completion practices. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 3. it should be done in the simplest possible manner. The Petroleum Engineer should discuss with the geologists and reservoir engineers about the information required and make them aware of the costs and risks involved with each method. The starting premise should be that testing is not required unless it is clearly justified. which the company needs rather than that which is nice to have. The test objectives must be agreed by those who will use the results and those who will conduct the test before the test programme is prepared. DST OBJECTIVE 0 REVISION A DST is conducted to determine the productivity characteristics of one specific zone.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 63 OF 295 ENI S. if the flowing pressure gradient in the tubing can be estimated.
25ins ID. if applicable.p. However. . using full opening test tools with a 2. The tools should be dressed with elastomers suitable for the operating environment.3. well tests are performed inside a 7ins production liner. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 3. In the following description.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 64 OF 295 ENI S. but similarly. refer to the Company ‘Well Test Manual’. In general. the tools should be full opening to allow production logging across perforated intervals. In smaller casing sizes. In larger production casing sizes the same tools will be used with a larger packer. prognosed production fluids. and other tools may be included. tools which are required both in production tests and conventional tests are included. For more detailed information on well test strings and tooling. If conditions allow. DST STRING 0 REVISION The well testing objectives. Some generic test strings used for testing from various installations are shown overleaf.A. the bottom of the test string should be 100ft above the top perforation to allow production logging of the interval. conventional test tools will usually be used with a packer set inside the 9 /8ins casing. The list of tools is not exhaustive. test location and relevant planning will dictate which is the most suitable test string configuration to be used. the test string should be kept as simple as possible to reduce the risk of mechanical failure. temperature and the stimulation programme. considering packer fluids. For a 5 barefoot test. smaller test tools will be required.
p.A.A.Typical Jack Up Test String With TCP Guns On Permanent Packer .ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 65 OF 295 ENI S. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 0 REVISION Figure 3.
A.p. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 0 REVISION Figure 3.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 66 OF 295 ENI S.B .Typical Test String With TCP Guns Stabbed Through Production Packer .
A.p.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 67 OF 295 ENI S.C . Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 0 REVISION Figure 3.Typical Jack Up Test String With Retrievable Packer .
p.D . Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 0 REVISION Figure 3.Retrievable Packer .A.Typical Semi-Submersible Test String .ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 68 OF 295 ENI S.
Barriers/Permeability Changes/Fluid Contacts. Damage ratio method permits estimation of what the well should make without damage. the DST can ‘see’. These reservoir anomalies affect the slope of the pressure build-up plot. This may be better than core permeability since much greater volume is averaged. from the wellbore. Reservoir Pressure.6qµB t ′−∆t ′ log10 kh ∆t ′ Eq.A.4. Can be detected if the reservoir is small and the test is conducted properly. An estimate of how far away.p. mins Shut-in time. Depletion. md Formation thickness. cp Formation volume factor. RESERVOIR CHARACTERISTICS 0 REVISION Reservoir characteristics that may be estimated from DST analysis include: • • • • • • Average Effective Permeability.1. stb/day Fluid viscosity. Also effective permeability rather than absolute permeability is obtained.A where: pws t’ ∆t’ pi q µ B k h = = = = = + = = = Measured pressure in the wellbore during the build-up. Measured if shut-in time is adequate. Radius Of Investigation. 3.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 69 OF 295 ENI S. In summary.4. or calculated if not. 3. reservoir bbl/stb/day Formation permeability. ft . psig Flowing time. They usually require substantiating data to differentiate one from the other. Pressure Build-Up Analysis Horner Equation Transient pressure analysis is based on the Horner pressure build-up equation which describes the re-pressuring of the wellbore area during the shut-in period as the formation fluids moves into the ‘pressure sink’ created by the flowing portion of the test: p ws =p i − 162. Wellbore Damage. mins Shut-in reservoir pressure. psig Rate of flow. the DST if properly applied is an essential tool for the Completions Engineer. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 3.
Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 0 REVISION Conditions which must be assumed during the build-up period for eq. With a very short initial flow period. figure 3. An important issue is the time required to approach steady state or straight line conditions. With equal flow periods on a multiple flow period DST. since ‘after-flow’ or wellbore storage effects cause deviation from the straight line in the early region. 3. depends on reservoir and fluid characteristics. Most of these conditions are met on a typical DST although steady state flow is the condition which may cause most concern particularly at early shut-in time. Usually pws is determined at 5min intervals along the shut-in pressure curve.6qµB kh Eq.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 70 OF 295 ENI S. this is usually done. then a plot of pws versus log10 ∆t ′ should yield a straight line and the slope (m) of the straight line should be: m= 162. however little error is caused by assuming that t’p is the time of the flowing period immediately before the particular shut-in period. t’p can be assumed to be the total of the flowing times with very little error. four points are the fewest to determine a straight line.e. In figure 3. In a multi-phase flow period DST. Horner Build-Up Plot t ′ + ∆t ′ p Assuming these conditions are met.0 If the points are plotted on semi-log paper. m is the change in pressure over one log cycle. and flow conditions. .the slope m of the straight line is numerically the difference between the t’p t ′ + ∆t ′ t ′ +∆t ′ p =0 and at log10 p pressure value at log10 ∆t ′ ∆t ′ =1. As a rule of thumb. Experience has formulated some certain rules of thumb to help determine the shut-in time.p. 3.e shows an idealised Horner Plot with the pressure chart showing very simply how t’p and formation pressure pws at varied shut-in times ∆t’ are picked from the chart and related to the Horner plot. selecting a value for t’p creates some problem mathematically. One of these is that generally the shut-in pressure must reach at least 65% of the static pressure.a to be strictly correct are: • • • • • Radial flow Homogenous formation Steady state conditions Infinite reservoir Single phase flow.A. .B The constant m is representative of a given fluid having physical properties µB flowing at a rate q through a formation having physical properties kh. The ideal plot is where all the points align up in a straight line but is seldom found in actuality.
sometimes reasonable estimates of formation parameters could be made. Figure 3. k.Idealised Horner Build-Up Plot Reservoir Parameters Obtained By Build-Up Analysis Average permeability. viscosity. can be calculated:: k= 162.6qµB m Eq.C Parameters. µ. Formation thickness. h.A. 3.6qµB mh Eq. must be the net thickness of the productive zone.D . however.E . and formation volume. 3. no analysis of the plot was possible unless the straight line was achieved. B. determined from electric log analysis.p. can be estimated from available correlations if the gravity of the crude oil and the gas-oil ratio are determined by measurement.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 71 OF 295 ENI S. If the net thickness is not available then kh or formation capacity is determined: kh= 162. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 0 REVISION Prior to type curve matching methods.
vol/vol/psi Formation porosity.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 72 OF 295 ENI S. log10 ∆t ′ = 0 . to the theoretical flow rate without damage: DR= qt qa An another equation.e. If the second build-up pressure was lower than st the 1 . 3. which compares the flow rate observed. both the 1 build-up and 2 build-up plots extrapolate to the same static pressure lending confidence to the analysis.E Static reservoir pressure. q. t ′ + ∆t ′ t ′ + ∆t ′ p = 1.151 i ff −log m φµcrw Eq. transmissibility kh 162. skin factor: kt ′ p −p p +2.e. s. psi (final flowing pressure) Fluid compressibility.85 p i −p ff kt′ p Eq. 3. fraction Viscosity of reservoir pressure. cp Well bore radius. is obtained by extrapolating the Horner straight line to an ‘infinite’ shut-in time: At infinite shut-in time. ′ ∆t st nd In figure 3. ins Effective permeability.6q = m µB 0 kh is determined: µB REVISION Eq. mins . is: DR= m log φµcr 2 w −2. for calculation of DR based on the skin factor relation of Hurst and van Everdingen. them depletion may have occurred. is presented by the empirical equation for the dimensionless value.0 .G where: pi pff c Φ µ rw k t’p = = = = = = = = Shut-in reservoir pressure. This was carried on a stage further introducing the concept of damage ratio. pi. 3.A. md Flowing time.85 s=1. or as shown in figure 3. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 If all the parameters are unknown. DR.0.F However. this factor cannot be readily applied to specific formations to obtain to show the potential of the zone would be if there was no damage.p. Wellbore damage. psi Formation pressure at flow time T.
leaves open the question of what caused the anomaly.p. In summary. Alternatively. Fluid viscosities change by phase change or type of fluid. Permeability may change due to natural lensing or formation damage but it is doubtful that formation damage would affect sufficient volume of formation to be detected as a change of slope on the build-up plot. can cause a change in the slope of the Horner plot. a change in permeability. If the barrier is a straight line as A . If changes occur within the radius of investigation of the DST.f .Effect of a Fault .F . A sealing barrier such as a fault or permeability pinchout can cause a change of slope m. Figure 3. or existence of a barrier. they can be detected by a change in shape of the slope of the of the line. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 Reservoir And Fluid Anomaly Indications 0 REVISION Many times the Horner build-up equation does not hold up under actual case. therefore the fact that a change of slope appears on the build-up plot. viscosity. then permeability k or fluid viscosity µ are likely suspects for change as the wave of increasing pressure travels towards the wellbore. If it is seen that the rate of flow q remains constant.A’ in figure 3.A. This must be resolved through other geologic or reservoir information. then the build-up slope will change by a factor of 2. ‘Seeing’ a gas-liquid contact from an up-structure well would be difficult due to the normally short radius of investigation through a gas column.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 73 OF 295 ENI S. seeing a gas-liquid contact from a down-structure well is a much more likely possibility.
This effect is termed supercharged which may be caused by leak off of filtrate over-pressuring the formation. ra.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 74 OF 295 ENI S. change of permeability. hrs Exponential integral value. the deeper the radius of investigation. hrs Shut-in time at the point of slope change.I Needless to point out. Depletion As explained previously. whether it be a barrier. a reservoir would need to be extremely small for this to occur. . This effect needs to be diagnosed to confirm supercharging.76×10 φµc 4 Eq.303ln p − E ∆t kt p a where: ra Tp ∆ta -E = = = = Distance to anomaly. can be calculated: − 3. however there is plenty of field examples to prove that it occurs. Another reason that a recorded initial shut-in pressure may be higher than true shut-in pressure.H Radius Of Investigation The following equation from Van Poollen may be used to estimate the radius of investigation of any particular DST in an infinite radial flow system: ri = where: ri tp = = Radius of investigation Flow time. Eq.p. Obviously. or a fluid contact. if the extrapolated pressure from a second build-up is lower than the initial pressure of the first build-up. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 0 REVISION The distance to the anomaly. the longer the flowing time. mins kt i 5. 3. 3. ft Flow time. then depletion may be the cause.793r 2 a φµc t + ∆t a =2.A.
Typical Horner Plot . the values of Z and µ can be found from standard testing literature. This involves correcting for deviation of the reservoir gas from the o perfect gas law using the gas deviation factor. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 Reservoir Parameters . mscf/day o o Formation temperature. and the absolute temperature factor. Figure 3. estimated wellbore AOFP for a gas zone are: Permeability: k= where: Z Qg Tf mg = = = = Gas deviation factor Rate of flow. R.G .p.J . during the build-up is t ′ + ∆t ′ p plotted versus ∆t ′ as shown in figure 3. R = ( F + 460) Horner build-up slope for gas well 1637 q g Tf µZ mg h Eq.Gaseous System 0 REVISION When conducting DSTs of gas zones.A. For the Horner build-up plot. pws. 3. flow rate is calculated in scf/day or if in large quantities mscf/d. If the SG of the gas is known.g.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 75 OF 295 ENI S.Gas well Equations for permeability. the square of the formation pressure. Z.
0 qg p 2 i p 2 i −p 2 ff 0 REVISION Eq.5Max AOF= qg p i p 2 i −p 2 ff Eq. they can be used on DST analysis to salvage some information from a test where sufficient data not available to obtain a straight line. It should be iterated that the Horner should be used whenever possible and type curves used to in picking correct straight line by indicating when wellbore storage effects have ended. . 3.L 2 n i −p i ) If n=1. Although these methods are generally used on longer term production tests.A.N Type Curve Methods There are several type curve methods are available for analysing early time DST data from pressure transient tests. McKinley and Earlougher-Kersch methods have applications with McKinley being the easiest to use but the others perhaps more accurate. Ramey.K (p qg p 2 i 2 ( ) n Eq.M If n=0.5 and 1.65 p Absolute Open Flow Potential Using the single point back-pressure test method: AOF= where: n is an exponent varying between 0. 3.0Max AOF= Eq. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 Wellbore Damage: 2 2 p −p i ff EDR = 1 m g log t + 2. 3.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 76 OF 295 ENI S.p. 3.
the tester valve is then closed to allow the formation fluids to build-up back up to reservoir pressure which is recorded on pressure recorders or gauges. After a suitable time (usually 1 /2 times the flow period). a fluid is circulated into the tubing to provide an underbalance to allow the well to flow after perforating.4.3. If testing with a permanent packer.4. Figure 3.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 77 OF 295 ENI S. The downhole tester valve is opened to flow the well to clean up perforating debris and invasive fluids from the formation. the tester valve is then reopened to conduct the planned flow and shut-in periods in accordance to the programme requirements to obtain other additional data and verification.2. Bevelled Mule Shoe If the test is being conducted in a liner the mule shoe makes it easier to enter the liner top.DST Typical Sequence of Events 3.h shows a typical schematic of a simple single flow operational sequence. .A. When the string is successfully installed and all pressure and function testing is completed.3).H . Basics Of DST Operations 0 REVISION In simple terms. 1 A description of the tools used in DST test strings are outlined in the next section. a DST is carried out by running test tools in a BHA on a test string in the hole (Refer to previous Section 3.p. the mule shoe allows entry into the packer bore. Common Test Tools Description Refer to the Company ‘Well Test Manual’. figure 3. The bevelled mule shoe also facilities pulling wireline tools back into the test string. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 3.
This item may also be used if wireline retrievable gauges are run below the packer. It is automatically closed when sufficient weight is set down on the packer.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 78 OF 295 ENI S. should be chosen for firing the guns Safety Joint Installed above a retrievable packer. If the valve does not have a delay on closing. rather than the static bottom-hole pressure. It can also be used to equalise differential pressures across packers at the end of the test. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 Perforated Joint/Ported Sub 0 REVISION The perforated joint or ported sub allows wellbore fluids to enter the test string if the tubing conveyed perforating system is used. Gauge Case (Bundle Carrier) The carrier allows pressure and temperature recorders to be run below or above the packer and sense either annulus or tubing pressures and temperatures. it allows the test string above this tool to be recovered in the event the packer becomes stuck in the hole. Pipe Tester Valve A pipe tester valve is used in conjunction with a tester valve which can be run in the open position in order to allow the string to self fill as it is installed. This feature is important when running tubing conveyed perforating guns which are actuated by pressure.p. The valve usually has a flapper type closure mechanism which opens to allow fluid bypass but closes when applying tubing pressure for testing purposes.A. The DST tools can then be laid out and the upper part of the safety joint run back in the hole with fishing jar to allow more powerful jarring action. Circulating Valve (Bypass Valve) This tool is run in conjunction with retrievable packers to allow fluid bypass while running in and pulling out of hole. It should be set by turning to the right and includes a hydraulic hold-down mechanism to prevent the tool from being pumped up the hole under the influence of differential pressure from below the packer. hence reducing the risk of excessive pressure surges or swabbing. a large incremental pressure. It operates by manipulating the string (usually a combination of reciprocation and rotation) to unscrew and the upper part of the string retrieved. to prevent pressuring up of the closed sump below the packer during packer setting. This valve should ideally contain a time delay on closing. . The valve is locked open on the first application of annulus pressure which is during the first cycling of the tester valve. Retrievable Test Packer The packer isolates the interval to be tested from the fluid in the annulus.
Drill Collar Drill collars are required to provide a weight to set the packer.A. It is actuated by applying a pre-set annulus pressure which shears a disc or pins allowing a mandrel to move and expose the circulating ports. The jar allows an overpull to be taken on the string which is then suddenly released.8 lbs/ft) should be sufficient weight on the packer.p. One example of this is a system where the reversing sub is combined with two ball valves to make a single shot sampler/safety valve. The downhole test valve allows downhole shut in of the well so that after-flow effects are minimised. Normally two stands of 4 /4 ins drill collars (46. Single Operation Reversing Sub Produced fluids may be reversed out of the test string and the well killed using this tool.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 79 OF 295 ENI S. providing better pressure data. This reversing sub can also be used in combination with a test valve module if a further safety valve is required. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 Hydraulic Jar 0 REVISION The jar is run to aid in freeing the packer if it becomes stuck. They are non-rotating to allow torque for setting packers or operating the safety joint. and therefore must only be used at the end of the test. Eni-Agip’s preference is the annulus operated version. Downhole Tester Valve The downhole tester valve provides a seal from pressure from above and below. 3 . Slip Joint These allow the tubing string to expand and contract in the longitudinal axis due to changes in temperature and pressure. The valve is operated by pressuring up on the annulus. Multiple Operation Circulating Valve This tool enables the circulation of fluids closer to the tester valve whenever necessary as it can be opened or closed on demand and is generally used to install an underbalance fluid for brining in the well. but should be regarded as the minimum. Once the tool has been operated it cannot be reset. delivering an impact to the stuck tools. This enables the tubing to be pressure tested several times while running in hole. The tubing operated versions require several pressure cycles before the valve is shifted into the circulating position. It also has a secondary function as a safety valve. This tool is available in either annulus or tubing pressure operated versions.
3. 3. The tool equalises pressure between the sump and the annulus when the tester valve is closed. In addition. If the tester valve can be run in the open position then this valve is not required. they must be checked with each mating item of equipment before use. Sub-Surface Safety Valve A subsurface safety valve is often run for safety being placed at least 100 ft below the mud line. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 Crossovers 0 REVISION Crossovers warrant special attention. The valve is very similar to the circulating valve (bypass valve) except it is closed by annulus pressure instead of weight. slick joint. Pressure Operated Bypass Valve This allows the test string to be stabbed into the packer in an un-performed well. Tools Utilised With Permanent Packer Systems A permanent or permanent retrievable packer arrangement is used on a Jack-up or Land Rig test utilising a production Xmas tree.p. and sub-sea test tree.5. they are of the utmost importance as they connect every piece of equipment in the test string which have differing threads. The designs can be like a modified lubricator valve or a completion type subsurface safety valve.A. Fluted Hanger The fluted hanger lands off and sits in the wear bushing of the wellhead and is adjustable to allow the SSTT assembly to be correctly positioned in the BOP stack so that when the SSTT is disconnected the shear rams can close above the disconnect point. Tubing Hanger This will be spaced out to position the packer seal assembly into the packer and land off in the tubing hanger spool.4. Sub-Sea Test Tools Used On Semi-Submersibles The sub-sea test tree (SSTT) assembly includes a fluted hanger.4. A control line is run to the valve through a conventional tubing hanger/spool arrangement. preventing the sump from being pressured up due to the volume of the seal assembly entering the packer.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 80 OF 295 ENI S. If crossovers have to be manufactured.4. they need to be tested and fully certified. Some versions required by other operators are installed in the string immediately below a surface test tree in the BOP stack arrangement but this does not provide safety in the ultimate catastrophic situation when there is a collision by another vessel. .
contain annulus pressure. When closed it will contain pressure from both above and below 3. The valves hold pressure from below. Sub-Sea Test Tree The SSTT is a fail-safe sea floor master valve which provides two functions. under most circumstances be reconnected.p. in the event of a gas escape at surface. This valve eliminates the need to have a long lubricator to accommodate wireline tools above the surface test tree swab valve.4. The control umbilical is connected to the top of the latch which can. it can prevent the full unloading of the contents in the landing string after closing of the SSTT. Lubricator Valve The lubricator valve is run one stand of tubing below the surface test tree. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 Slick Joint (Polished Joint) 0 REVISION The slick joint (usually 5ins OD) is installed above the fluted hanger and has a smooth (slick) outside diameter around which the BOP pipe rams can close and sustain annulus pressure for DST tool operation or. regaining control without killing the well. The SSTT is constructed in two parts. It is usually run in conjunction with a deep water SSTT described below. The latch contains the control ports for the hydraulic actuation of the valves and the latch head. but open when a differential pressure is applied from above. disconnection of the landing string from the test string due to an emergency situation or for bad weather. the shut off of pressure in the test string and. Deep Water Tools Retainer Valve The retainer valve is installed immediately above the SSTT on tests in extremely deep waters to prevent large volumes of well fluids leaking into the sea in the event of a disconnect. When closed it will contain pressure from both above and below. the valve assembly consisting of two fail safe closed valves and. . It is hydraulic operated and must be a fail-open or fail-in-position valve. a latch assembly. It also acts as a safety device when. if in an emergency disconnection. allowing safe killing of the well without hydraulic control if unlatched.A. The lubricator valve is hydraulic operated through a second umbilical line and should be either a fail closed or. fail-in-position valve.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 81 OF 295 ENI S.6. The slick joint should be positioned to allow the two bottom sets of pipe rams to be closed on it and also allow the blind rams to close above the disconnect point of the SSTT.
such as opening or shutting in the well. the tool operating procedures would be included in the test programme. The fluid is vented into the annulus or an atmospheric tank to reduce the lag time and reducing closure time to seconds. However. 3. when they change to very short time intervals where this facility is required. This system uses hydraulic power from accumulators on the tree controlled electrically from surface (MUX). this is not necessary as they have sufficient memory to record at fast intervals throughout even long term tests without running out of memory. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 Deep Water SSTT 0 REVISION As exploration moves into deeper and remote Subsea locations. The problem then is to dump or ignore data points which are not relevant to data gathering.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 82 OF 295 ENI S. The gauges record the events from initial running of the test string to well kill and retrieval procedures although. The Hydraulic Deep Water Actuator is a fast response controller for the deepwater SSTT and retainer valve. with the modern type gauges. Other gauges.4. Downhole Pressure Recording The complete sequence of events are recorded by bottom-hole pressure gauges and some flow data may also be recorded on surface read-out systems. the use of dynamic positioning vessels require much faster SSTT unlatching than that available with the normal hydraulic system on an SSTT. with the large memory electronic gauges on the market today.p. If a programme required deepwater test tools. they may be programmed to ‘sleep’ while the string is being installed as it wastes memory. termed ‘smart’ gauges can be programmed to collect data at moderate time intervals until they detect a quick pressure change. This is overcome by use of the deepwater SSTT which has an Electro-Hydraulic control system.A. The slow actuation is due to hydraulic lag time when bleeding off the control line against friction and the hydrostatic head of the control fluid. .7.
volume and hetrogenities. Choke size.1. Accuracy in measurement. It is important that the well is produced at its normal conditions as flow rate will vary the relative quantities of oil. they provide periodic physical well conditions where unexpected changes such as extraneous water or gas production may highlight well or reservoir problems. etc. the wells must be produced at the normal rates. security of power fluid or gas lift gas supply. gas-oil ratio and water oil ratio as a percentage of water in the total liquid stream. or reservoir parameters such as permeability. Well production tests may be classified as follows: • • • Periodic Productivity or Deliverability Transient Pressure. Transient pressure tests require a higher degree of sophistication and are used to determine formation damage or stimulation related to an individual well. tubing pressures. WELL PRODUCTION TEST OBJECTIVES 0 REVISION The main objective of well production varies from simple determination of the amount and type of fluids produced to sophisticated transient pressure determinations of reservoir parameters and hetrogenities. or recompletion. Periodic production tests have the purpose of determining the relative quantities of oil. to determine the capability of the well under various degrees of pressure drawdown. Periodic Tests Production tests are carried out routinely to physically measure oil. Gas production is reported as well as condensate and water. details of artificial lift system operation and all other effects on the well producing capability should be recorded. sand build-up. Potential production problems should be recognised in order that they can be properly handled such as emulsions. gas and water. Similar to oil wells. From the well and reservoir viewpoint. In short.p. 3. On oil wells. Descriptions of some of these tests are described earlier in this section. Abnormal production declines may also indicate artificial lift problems. with careful recording of the conditions is essential.5. They serve as an aid in well and reservoir operation and meeting legal and regulatory requirements. gas and water produced by individual wells under normal producing conditions. routine are less common as each well normally has individual measuring capability. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 3. Engineers need to make themselves familiar with the various test procedures and know their advantages and limitations in order for them to fully utilise them to optimise the design of completions. well tests are tools which can be used to help establish the condition of production or injection wells. On gas wells. gas and water produced under normal producing conditions.A.5. pressure. Results may set production allowables. results are reported as oil production rate.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 83 OF 295 ENI S. Productivity or deliverability tests are usually performed on initial completion. aid in selections of well completion methods and design of artificial lift systems and production facilities. scale build-up in perforations. casing pressure. etc. .
They do not permit calculation of formation permeability or the degree of abnormal flow restrictions (formation damage) near the wellbore. they permit prediction of what a well could produce at other pressure drawdowns.4.5. These tests are described in Section 2.5.A. This means that corrections need to made to compensate for transient flow behaviour as well as for skin effects. depending on whether the pressure response initiated by opening the well had reached the drainage area boundary and on the type of boundary.1 or in Section 3. pwf. decreases exponentially with time.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 84 OF 295 ENI S.p. 3. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 3.1 above.3.1) and are successfully applied to non-Darcy conditions.2. therefore can be used as an indicator of well flow conditions or a basis for simple comparison of completion effectiveness among wells in a particular reservoir. Most DSTs and many production tests are conducted under transient flow conditions and consequently the observed productivity will often appear greater than that seen in long term production. Commonly used deliverability tests for oil wells may be classified as: • • • • Productivity Index Inflow Performance Flow-After-Flow Isochronal. Termed multi-point backpressure tests. With a limited number of measurements. however include the effects of formation damage. they can be classified as: • • Flow-After-Flow Isochronal. Transient flow occurs when the well is initially opened or has a significant rate change.4. and is a result of the pressure disturbance moving out towards the outer boundary of the drainage area. Productivity Or Deliverability Tests 0 REVISION This test is different from the periodic test in that the liquid flow performance can be determined empirically using measured flow rates at varying bottom-hole pressure drawdowns and they do not rely on mathematical descriptions of the flow process.4. Transient Tests Radial Flow Characteristics Flow from reservoirs are characterised as transient.4. Gas well deliverability tests are designed to establish AOFP.1 above.4.1 or in Section 3. pseudo-steady state or steady state flow. These tests are described in Section 2. During this the production conditions at the wellbore change rapidly and the BHPF. . This is then used to predict the PI (Refer to Section 2. They do.
When the BHFP appears to be constant or declining slowly proportionally with time. If the boundary is a constant pressure boundary. Multiple Rate Testing Pressure build-up or drawdown tests require a constant flow rate which is sometimes difficult to achieve over a long period of time.Advances in Well Test Analysis. Multiple rate tests have the advantage of providing transient test data without the need for well shut-in. Transient pressure tests are classified as: • • • • • Pressure Build-up Pressure Drawdown Multiple Rate Injectivity or Fall-off Multiple Well Interference. then PR will not alter with time and is termed steady state. e. the well is stabilised and pseudo-steady state flow equations can be used to predict the long term deliverability of a well.steady state.1 . Accurate flow rate and pressure measurement is essential and more critical than on buildup or drawdown tests. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 0 REVISION When the flow reaches the outer boundary. a series of constant rates or constant bottom-hole pressure with continually changing flow rate.DST tests. Multiple rate analysis can be applied to several flow situations. Each type presents certain advantages and limitations and factors which are important for reasonable results. .A. They minimise wellbore storage effects and phase segregation effects so provide good results where build-up or drawdown tests would not. flow becomes steady state or pseudo. then PR will decline purely as a result of depletion and the flow is then termed pseudo-steady state. the ‘Reservoir Limit Test’ can be used to estimate if there is sufficient hydrocarbons in place to justify additional wells in a new reservoir. Pressure Drawdown Testing Pressure drawdown tests have advantages over pressure build-up tests.g. uncontrolled variable rates. and an estimate can be made of the reservoir volume in communication with the wellbore.4. 5 . Therefore. production continues as the test is being carried out. Pressure Build-Up Tests Pressure build-up tests are described earlier in Section 3. The analysis procedure is direct and simple but computations are more troublesome and are often conducted by computer software. However if it is a no-flow boundary. The rate changes must be significant enough to effect the transient pressure behaviour.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 85 OF 295 ENI S.p. Transient pressure testing and calculation procedures for oil wells are particularly well covered in SPE Monograph No.
Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 Injection Well Tests 0 REVISION Injection well transient testing is basically simple provide the mobility of the injected fluids is similar to the in-situ fluids. . The injectivity parallels the drawdown test and a pressure fall-off test parallels the build-up test. Interference Tests (multiple well testing) In interference testing. A stepped rate injectivity test can be carried out to estimate fracture pressure in an injection well which is useful in tertiary flood applications to avoid accidental injection of expensive fluid into uncontrolled fractures. A pulse test is an interference test that provides data by changing production rate in a cyclic manner to produce short term pressure pulses which are measured in the observation well(s).ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 86 OF 295 ENI S. therefore. Orientation and length of vertical fractures may be estimated through pulse testing and reservoir simulation techniques. a long duration rate change in one well creates a pressure change in an observation well that is related to reservoir characteristics. accurate pressure monitoring devices are required.p. Vertical pulse testing may indicate vertical formation continuity.A. Calculation of reservoir characteristics is similar. Using computers the data can be analysed to give a description of the variation in reservoir properties according to location. The responses may be very small.
A drilled through casing and liner.1. straddle packing-off gassed out zones. e. 9 /8ins and 7ins are the common sizes (Refer to the Casing Design Manual). figure 4.1. The size of the production casing is primarily dictated to accommodate the optimum size of completion tubing and equipment. or combination of strings. there is a limit to the size of production casing which can be provided. In highly productive wells. as is obvious in deep high pressure wells. 4. The production casing is the string.e. through which the well will be completed and controlled throughout its life. it is a completion design parameter. However. If there were a choice. 4. The decision whether to run a liner or not primarily lies with the drilling engineer however the impact of the completion needs to thoroughly considered. CASING DESIGN Refer to the Drilling Design and Casing Design Manuals for all casing design policies and criteria. The production casing and its cement isolates the producing intervals to facilitate reservoir control. workovers and re-completions with artificial lift. Casing Profile The surface and intermediate casings are designed to provide well control and borehole stability during the drilling operation. the production casing size may be swedged to accommodate larger tubing and completion equipment (i. However today. . In high rate and offshore wells. production casing sizes are typically 7ins or 1 3 5 5 /2ins. This is a design which provides the greatest flexibility to live well intervention operations as the completion is full bore allowing regular tools to be run and used in the sump area eliminating the use of through-tubing devices. where a large size tubing mates to a similar size liner utilising a PBR or similar type system.1. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 0 REVISION 4. This gives live well interventions much more scope to conduct stimulation. the completions engineer would always prefer the largest casing possible to provide the flexibility in well interventions. etc. which may have required a workover in previous times. These manuals provide the policies and design procedures for both exploration and development wells. and/or artificial lift systems. offshore. DRILLING CONSIDERATIONS These are primarily the responsibility of drilling engineering. anchor the completion equipment and act as a safety barrier to the uncontrolled emission of hydrocarbons. however the production department provide the design parameters to the drilling engineers.a shows these various casing profile options.p. plugging back. TRSSV’s with control line) near surface or a hot string of isolated pipe. The production casing is usually: • • A full string of pipe cemented at TD. the popularity of the mono-bore completion.g. 10 /4ins.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 87 OF 295 ENI S.A. etc. In low rate and deep land wells. This larger tubing reduces friction losses.
Casing Schemes and Terminology 4. Casing exposed to H2S will have a specification in accordance to NACE MR01-75. Specifically with regard to metallurgy.A . Casing Specifications Design criteria and casing specifications are fully described in the ‘Casing Design Manual’.p. will have similar specification to the tubing in order to combat corrosion from produced fluids. However. production casing or liner below the production packer or liner hanger PBR system. . in general.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 88 OF 295 ENI S.1. Casing above the packer is exposed to the completion or packer fluid which must be chemically dosed to prevent any corrosion although.A. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 0 REVISION Figure 4. only a biocide and possibly corrosion inhibitor needs to be added. it is Eni-Agip’s policy to use standard service production casing where there is a casing tubing annulus as the tubing is designed for the well environment and isolates the production casing. The crossover between the two different materials must be selected in order that there is no localised erosion.2.
WELL DEVIATION SURVEYS A well directional survey must be carried out to ensure the tolerances for well deviation and doglegs have not been exceeded as the installation of the completion is sensitive to angle and getting fairly large diameter tubing through casing doglegs as well as placing extreme bending loads on the tubing. many operators drill ‘S’ shaped profiles with drop off through the pay zone for critical wells. a premium thread connection should be used to reduce the risk of leakage especially if the pressure is above circa 1. 4. cementing. Any anomalies found in the deviation survey needs to be communicated to the completion engineer to ensure that all potential problems are analysed and will not impede the completion of the well. gravel packing and the completion process as wireline cannot be used above this limit. To help overcome these problems.250psi.3.A. Completion tools or equipment operated by different methods must be adopted. . Casing Connections 0 REVISION Where an annulus is to be used as a production conduit for gas production.2.p. For instance. The method of drilling horizontal wells also needs to be considered by the drilling engineer as the turning radius will be dependant upon the completion method employed. however this does not satisfy all situations. there are problems with logging.000psi. the turning radius for an open hole or liner may be short but a long radius is required for gravel packing or installation of pre-packed screens.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 89 OF 295 ENI S.1. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 4. injection or gas lift supply. An overpull is often required especially if the casing is not cemented into the previous shoe. Some operators specify premium connections if the wellhead pressure is to be above 5. This is due to the poor performance of the API Buttress Thread. Refer to the ‘Directional Control and Surveying Procedures Manual’ and the ‘Casing Design Manual’. Usually production casing is held in tension but this may not be adequate enough in high temperature and thermal wells to prevent buckling. Although the drilling of highly deviated and horizontal wells is now commonplace it should o be noted that in wells above 70 deviation. The main problem in casing design of producing wells over exploration wells is the increased temperature.
The main problems associated with primary cementing are: • • • • • • • Channelling of the cement and bypassing of mud due to pipe eccentricity and poor fluid rheology. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 4. 4. Dissolution of evaporites by the cement.3. and bonding between the cement and the formation. In general. therefore is allowed to bleed off at the casing shoe.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 90 OF 295 ENI S. prevent movement of formation fluids along the well path for reservoir control. channelling and micro-annuli may be formed which are paths through which the formation fluids can flow. and to isolate higher weaker formations from well pressures. Cement dehydration opposite high temperature zones. The cement also acts to support and protect the casing from buckling.1. temperatures. formation properties.p.A. Use a thin slurry at the front end. using a good fluids programme and adopting good operating procedures. fluid properties and pressures. Use the highest practical displacement velocities. Use cement with an API high temperature/high pressure fluid loss of less than 3 3 200cm /30 min for high permeability oil wells and 50cm /30min for gas wells. Poor formation bonding due to lack of mud cake removal. operating conditions. however this is not possible in high rate offshore wells where temperature increase in the casing/tubing annulus on the trapped fluids causes pressure which cannot be bled off at surface. o Cement strength loss due to high temperatures (<230 F) when using normal Portland cement. excessive movement due to pressure or temperature and external corrosion.3. Failure to cement washouts. eccentric loading. Use a 500ft low viscosity spacer with surfactant if required. Condition the mud correctly. Thermal wells are normally cemented to surface to avoid this problem. if there is poor bonding between the outside of the pipe and the cement. This problem can be alleviated by thorough planning. CASING CEMENTING CONSIDERATIONS 0 REVISION The primary function of the cement around the production casing is to isolate individual formations to provide selectivity. . Production Casing Cementing The minimum cement column height requirements will depend upon local regulations. The cement column should extend well past (circa 500m) above the highest pay zone but also cover aquifers or any other potential producing zones. Poor cement procedure leading to gas entry or cross flow. A minimum lap of 100m is normal. Many operators prefer to cement up inside the previous casing shoe to provide even greater support and protection. A cement job which does not successfully flush out the drilling fluid in front of the cement and. the list of recommendations given below will help improve the success of zonal isolation: • • • • • • Drill the hole within gauge.
formation/liner or casing/liner annulus. they tend to be ignored especially as repair of cement jobs is very difficult to conduct successfully. The cement column should extend 1. the quality of the cement should be evaluated. However. Centralise the casing in the pay zone. 0 REVISION Design the programme so as the cement has a minimum contact time of 4 mins at all points where zonal isolation is needed. Pipe reciprocation should be used or otherwise rotation. A more recent tool is the Schlumberger CET. . Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 • • • • • • 4.200ft above the top of the pay zone.3. Production Casing Cement Evaluation To ensure that the cement programme has been successfully isolated the formation/casing.A. which uses eight helically mounted sensors to scan the cement and provides a measurement of the compressive strength which should in theory give a better detection. Use batch mixing whenever possible. This is carried out by running a cement bond log (CBL-VDL) which is an acoustic device that looks for channelling.p. Generally there is ambivalence shown towards the results of cement bond evaluation logs and unless they show extremely poor conditions. Ensure quality control of the cement formulation is strict. the tool averages the condition around the circumference of the casing and sometimes fails to detect small channels.2.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 91 OF 295 ENI S.
To enable this process. The completion structure and procedures. Refer to figure 5. particularly: • • • Reservoir and wellbore interface. location. However this cannot be carried out in isolation as well servicing and workover philosophies as well as the completion installation process need to be considered. This means that the SOR must be established. Although the tools are available to provide the most complex completions to solve severe production or mechanical problems and meet the specific objectives. WELL COMPLETION DESIGN The aim of this section is now to develop the structure of the completion based on the work carried out according to the previous sections. anticipated well problems and cost. Casing and tubing interface. it is necessary to describe the basic architectural components of a completion. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 0 REVISION 5. . it should never be forgotten that.A. environment. Tubing and wellhead interface. the conceptual designs have been developed and the optimum well performance determined.a The solutions adopted will vary according on the well objectives. now need to be developed. completions should be kept as simple in design as possible to minimise the installation risks and costs. in principle.p.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 92 OF 295 ENI S. that satisfy the above. artificial lift method (if applicable).
Completion Design Interface Classification Options .ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 93 OF 295 ENI S.p.A.A . Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 0 REVISION Figure 5.
These aspects need to be considered as does perforating the lower sections in downdip wells in flank and bottom water drive reservoirs.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 94 OF 295 ENI S.1. by using a multiple-string completion.A. If fracture stimulation is planned the separation distance is approximately three times greater. etc. FACTORS INFLUENCING COMPLETION DESIGN Reservoir Considerations Production Zone Isolation 0 REVISION Consideration of reservoir management and regulatory requirements will determine the zonal isolation in thick pay zones (<30m) or multiple-zone completions.1. With zones of have significant different inflow performance characteristics. They should be treated as a normal pay zone which will be left unperforated. This can be achieved by drilling a well into each zone which is extremely costly. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 5.p. between production packers. . they may be inadvertently isolated behind a liner lap or shoe track. Minimum Zone Separation The main cementing service companies are able to provide information on the minimum separation by good cement between zones for effective hydraulic under differential depletion conditions. 5. Secondary Targets Potential secondary or re-completion targets need to be identified and included in the SOR because if they are not considered. A guideline chart for recommended isolation depth is shown in Fig figure 5. The effect of bridge plug setting and completion equipment lengths on zonal isolation must be considered as they may demand longer separation intervals. then it may be more economic to segregate production.g. The effects of partial peforating need to be considered on the well IPR.b below. cost and installation.1. however for the short term gain there may be increased penalties later with increased gas or water production which may need to be plugged off by a well intervention. or as more likely. The downside of using multiple completions is there complexity. It is obviously economically attractive to perforate high permeable sections close to fluid contacts. Special attention must be given to layers with great in permeability variations to determine differential depletion. e. Wells with gas cap or water drive reservoirs which need to be produced at controlled rates may also be candidates for a multiple completion. Distance From Fluid Contacts The distance of producing interval from fluid contacts may influence the offtake rate and the perforating policy.
ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 95 OF 295 ENI S. To create an underbalance for other runs. however one (or more sections) can be partially loaded. 30 and 40ft.A. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 0 REVISION Figure 5. although deploying and retrieving these long lengths may impact on safety and needs use of a safe deployment method. .p. The use of tubing conveyed means that great lengths can be installed and fired simultaneously.B . and underbalanced if desired. Wireline guns are run and fired sequentially therefore only the first perforations can be carried out with a static underbalance. Casing guns standard perforating lengths are 5.Guideline for Length of Cemented Interval Required for Zonal Isolation Interval Length The interval length should be determined by reservoir requirements as perforating lengths can be adjusted to suit. 10 and 15ft and through tubing guns 20. This is particularly useful on perforated horizontal wells. the well needs to flowed which carries a risk of the guns being ‘blown’ up the hole.
Downhole safety valves are installed as per the En-Agip company policy given in section 8. whether it is single trip. this may mean running of a tapered casing string to accommodate the TRSV and control line. Modern compact or high performance wellheads are preferred over the traditional spool systems as the completion may be installed with out BOP removal (Refer to the ‘Drilling Design Manual’). 5.1 for the Eni-Agip Company policy on the use of packers. Entry into liner laps in high angles are also problematic.1. To this end it is important to carry out the procedures to prepare the well by cleaning it and displacing to clean completion fluids and checking the internal drift.2. once it is tested. is a mechanical barrier which is safer for BOP removal. Downhole packers in the completion string which anchor the tubing are barriers used to protect the annulus from well pressures and corrosion from well fluids although operationally they also isolate gas lift gas or pump power fluids from formation pressures in gas lift and pump completions. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 5.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 96 OF 295 ENI S.p. Refer to section 8. With completions large tubing sizes. Safety Considerations Safety of the personnel and well site installation are paramount in completion design and the completion procedures.A. It is essential that sufficient clearance is available to allow the completion to fit comfortably inside the casing profile.1. perforated completions should be used over open hole for well control as the casing.1 and 4.1. especially when running the completion from a moving floater so consideration needs to be given to the procedure or by using an automatic mule shoe.3.2.2. The type of production packer selected is dependent upon its application and installation method due to hole angle. . Mechanical Considerations 0 REVISION The main mechanical influence on completion design is the casing profile and deviation discussed previously in sections 4. Whenever possible and economical. etc.
Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 5. Slotted pipe Wire wrapped screens Open hole gravel packs Perforated completions.a): • • Open hole completions Uncemented liner completions. RESERVOIR-WELLBORE INTERFACE 0 REVISION There are three reservoir-wellbore interface options which can be further classified into seven major alternatives in completion architecture (Refer to figure 5. The well is now completed with no casing set across the formation (Refer to figure 5. Open Hole Completions Their use is predominately in thick carbonate or hard sandstone reservoirs that produce from fracture systems or thin permeable streaks which are difficult to identify on logs and are easily damaged by drilling and cementing operations. the method of completion entails drilling down to a depth just above the producing formation and setting the production casing.A. They maximise the fracture intersections and inflow potential due to the large surface area if drilling and completion damage is avoided. Standard perforated Fracture Stimulation Cased hole gravel packs • 5.1.2. An open hole completions can subsequently be converted to a liner completion to overcome the selectivity problem.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 97 OF 295 ENI S. However they provide little or no selectivity in reservoir management to reduce unwanted water or gas production. A hole is now drilled through the formation exposing it to the wellbore.2.p. The decision process depends on four key issues: • • • • Is there a risk of causing damage to well productivity with a cased and perforated completion ? Is zonal selectivity required ? Is fracture stimulation required ? Is there any potential sand production ? .c). Often referred to as a ‘barefoot’ completions.
The formation is supported by a either a slotted liner. sand screen or is gravel packed (Refer to figure 5.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 98 OF 295 ENI S. The selection process depends on four key issues is the same as for open hole completions: • • • • Is there a risk of causing damage to well productivity with a cased and perforated completion ? Is zonal selectivity required ? Is fracture stimulation required ? Is there any potential sand production ? . Uncemented Liner Completions Uncemented liners are used to overcome production problems associated with open hole completions and to extend their application to other types of formations.C .p.c).A. they still have the same selectivity and undesired fluid problems.Open Hole and Uncemented Liner Interface Options 5. Although they have some advantages over open hole.2. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 0 REVISION Figure 5.2.
a designer must also consider: • • Whether to use the more expensive and finer wire wrapped screen or slotted pipe. It also helps in liquid lift due to the smaller flow area. Gravel pack design with regard to grain size. it is the most effective sand control measure for weak sandstones and unconsolidated rocks. The slot widths can range between 0. volumes. The stability of the hole during under-reaming and the limitations this may impose on hole angle and screen length. Clearance required for washover (1 . External Gravel pack An open hole gravel pack is used where the sands are too fine or abrasive for a plain screen. coarse sands would readily flow onto the screen forming a rubble zone. .016mm. Is gravel packing more suitable alternative ? • • • For open hole gravel packs.A. however carries more risk than a cased hole gravel pack. Slot width requirement which is dependent on the sand size and stability.1.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 99 OF 295 ENI S. solid type. Wire Wrapped Screen A plain wire wrapped screen is used either as a simple filter to strain out small amounts of intermittently produced sand from a relatively stable formation or as a sand retention screen where high permeability. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 0 REVISION If a slotted liner or plain screen is to be used. fluid viscosity and control objectives. reserve volume. and how the LCM can be subsequently removed before gravel packing.p. length of blank pipe. When properly installed. The open hole is under-reamed to remove drilling damage and to create a larger annulus for the filter sized gravel to pack against the formation wall. and finer slots or pre-packed screens for filtering and for uniform sized sands.254 . The location of the packer and packer tailpipe. Type of gravel packer and will it double as the production packer ? Slotted Liner This type of completion entails a liner with flow slots machined throughout its length installed below the production casing.5ins on OD) and whether centralisers should be expandable. the following additional issues need to be considered: • • • • Loss circulation control during under-reaming and tripping. or millable. etc. A slot width that would retain the coarsest 10% of the sand is common practice in heavy oil wells with coarser slots for light oil wells. A slotted liner is used where there is a risk of wellbore instability to maintain a bore through the formation which otherwise might collapse and plug off all production.1.
flexibility. shot density. with the shot density dependent upon the vertical permeability and layer frequency. with the gravel forced into the perforations holding the formation sand in place.e. the cased hole gravel is placed between the cased hole and the sand screen. ultra deep penetration or stimulation treatments. a large flow area must be achieved by using ‘big hole’ charges with the maximum shot density (dependent on gun size). ideally. Standard Perforated Casing Completions These are used when the rock is reasonably stable and permeable. Deep penetrating perforating charges are generally used especially in hard rock. Cased Hole Gravel Pack Cased hole gravel pack completions are used to control sand production in perforated completions. Completion fluids programme selection with regard to fluid quality and formation damage. would need to be designed with the additional loading of the stimulation operation. underbalance or overbalance.g. high shot density. There are three subdivisions. Since the gravel has an finite permeability. The key issues in cased hole completion design are: • • • • Perforated interval selection.A. and perforating method. fracture stimulation and cased hole gravel pack (Refer to figure 5.2. through tubing guns or TCP. Effective zonal isolation due to cement quality and distance between zones. i. gun type. The risk in fracture stimulation is that the fractures will more than likely not be contained within the pay zone and the casing cementing programme completion equipment rating. Fracture Stimulation Fracture stimulation is used to increase the effective sandface area and to provide a high permeability flow path to the wellbore increasing the IPR from low permeability rocks (<25md). e. increased safety and convenience that they provide. Perforated Completions 0 REVISION This type of completions are the most common world-wide due to the selectivity. . lower costs. Unlike the open hole gravel pack.3. etc.d).p. the deliverability requirements and method of perforating. Type of formation and if special perforating techniques are required. casing guns.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 100 OF 295 ENI S. standard. The deep penetrating charges are desired to perforate through the damage zone cause by the drilling or completing process. Perforating underbalance may also improved perforation clean-up. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 5.
2.e): • • Commingled production allowing all zones to produce together. • • .4.Perforated Casing Interface Options 5. Sequential zonal production through live well intervention methods by re-completion. Single string multi-zone segregated production by initial (or eventual) commingling by sequential (or alternating) production.A. Multi-Zone Completions There are four main methods of completing multi-zone wells (Refer to figure 5.D . Multi-string (dual) multi-zone segregated production using parallel strings using concentric strings.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 101 OF 295 ENI S. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 0 REVISION Figure 5.p.
by allowing commingling or individual section production at different stages in the wells life in order to maximise the full potential of the reservoir. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 Commingled Production 0 REVISION Commingled production is only allowable is limited instances where there are no reservoir management problems and regulatory rules allow. An option is to conduct a workover pulling the tubing and re-completing by moving the packer depth upwards. . If zones are close together. reservoir management and regulatory requirements. the zones are depleted from the bottom upwards and temporarily suspended or abandoned sequentially and then the next higher zone completed. This preference is subject. to economics. Dual String Multi-Zone Production Dual string multi-zone completions are often used offshore or on stacked reservoirs where the production rate is per zone is limited by inflow performance and the previous methods described above would be uneconomic. In this method. the initial completion can be installed to allow plugging and perforating of each zone by well intervention methods.p. completion designers prefer to use single string/single zone completion methods for mutli-zone situations. They can often double an individual wells productivity for a reasonably low cost increment. but generally they are not economic as they are too restrictive of well capacity. Some operators use the casing tubing annulus as another flow conduit but this is subject to individual operator philosophy and regulatory rules dictating.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 102 OF 295 ENI S.A. Single String Multi-Zone Production These provide easy methods of bring on other fresh zones when the first zone experiences production problems. however there is a trade off in that flow efficiency of the deeper zones and depth access for artificial lift and well killing will be compromised. etc. Sequential Zonal Production Due to its simplicity and ease of installation. Either parallel strings or concentric strings can be used. Concentric strings may yield higher flow capability but obviously no downhole safety valve can be installed in the outer tubing. reduce excessive gas. Triple strings and indeed quadruple string have been used in the past. If artificial lift is required parallel strings would normally be needed. They may also be used for reservoir management. however. Downhole chokes or regulators can be installed to control flow from each zone when commingling to prevent cross-flow.
p.Multi-Zone Completions .E . Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 0 REVISION Figure 5.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 103 OF 295 ENI S.A.
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STAP-P-1-M-7100 5.3. CASING-TUBING INTERFACE 0
There are three main casing-tubing interface options which have six sub-divisions (Refer to figure 5.f): • Packerless completions Anchored Unanchored Tubingless. Packer Completions Shallow set Deep set. PBR Completions Liner hanger.
Packers and PBRs are required to provide a seal between the tubing and production casing or liner for the following reasons: • • • • • • • • • To isolate the casing-tubing annulus from well fluids and pressure acting as a barrier on the annulus side. To prevent heading in the annulus improving flow conditions. Prevent annulus corrosion from well fluids. To allow the annulus to be used for supplying artificial lift fluids or injection of inhibitors. To allow the annulus to be used for production (if permitted). To isolate liner laps or casing leaks. To anchor the tubing if no tubing movement is desired. To facilitate well operations through having wireline nipples in a tailpipe, e.g. well plugging, BHP gauge positioning, etc. To protect formations from damage from well intervention or workover fluids by plugging in the tailpipe.
Some onshore low pressure wells are completed without a packer or liner PBR as the risk of damage to the wellhead, hence the risk of injury to personnel and pollution of the environment, is low. This has both advantages and disadvantages. There is one barrier less on the annulus side and the casing may be exposed to corrosive well fluids and the well pressure even if it is low and some operators do not allow this practice. On the other hand, on pump completions it is useful for venting off gas. It is essential for plunger lift completions which uses annulus gas as its energy source for unloading liquids. Tubingless completions, i.e. wells which use a small diameter casing or a tubing as the production casing, offers serious well control problems as there is no downhole safety at all. These are used on low rate, low pressure wells but are not allowed by most operating companies.
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Anchored tubing completions are used on rod pumpers to keep the tubing in tension so that the reciprocation of the rods does not cause buckling on the upstroke and stretch on the downstroke unless the well is shallow and annulus clearance is small. Packer completions are the most popular due to their flexibility in the options in which they are available and their ability to be installed in an exact position at any desired depth compared to the liner PBR. The liner PBR completion offers a larger through bore than a packer option and, therefore are used in high rate wells and mono-bore completions where full bore access is gained to he formation. The liner PBR interface should not be confused with the packer PBR system which although is exactly the same in basic design, is used for packer-tubing sealing and catering for tubing movement.
Figure 5.F - Casing-Tubing Interfaces
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STAP-P-1-M-7100 5.3.1. Packer Applications 0
Packer application with regard to completion design is addressed in this section as there are some basic features which affect the completion architecture. Although there are many varieties of packers available, there are three basic types used in completion designs: • • • Permanent Retrievable Permanent Retrievable.
Eni-Agip do not have any particular policy to the type of packer system to be used in a particular situation due to the wide range of packers available and changing technology but do operate a packer qualification system to ensure that any packer used meets with specific criteria. The packer qualification system is specified in STAP-M-1-M-5010. Retrievable Packer Systems The definition of a retrievable packer is that it is installed and retrieved on the completion tubing. They have advantages in that they can be installed in high angle wells although their operating differential pressure rating, temperature rating and bore size are less than equivalent permanent packers. It is important that designers fully consider the effects of pressure and tubing stresses on these packer systems and associated packer-tubing connections. Their packing element systems are also more sensitive to well fluids as they are more complex due to their ability to be retrieved but after redressing they can be reused. Retrievable packers tend to be used for the following applications: • • • • Completions which have relative short life span. Where there is likely to be workovers requiring full bore access. Multi-zone completions for zonal segregation. In relatively mild well conditions.
Retrievable packer setting mechanisms are by: • • • • Tubing tension Tubing compression Hydraulic pressure Tubing rotation.
Tension or compression set packers are very sensitive to tubing movement and are rarely used nowadays owing to the benefits and variety of other retrievable packers available.
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STAP-P-1-M-7100 Permanent Packer Systems 0
The definition of a permanent packer is that it is retrieved from the well by milling. Permanent packers have high differential pressure and temperature ratings and larger bores. They have many options of both tailpipe and packer-tubing attachments to cater for a large range of applications such as: • • • • • Severe or hostile operating conditions with differential pressures > 5,000psi and o temperatures in excess of 300 F and high stresses. Long life completions. Where workovers are expected to be above the packer, hence not requiring its removal which is costly. Where workovers are expected to be above the packer and the packer tailpipe can be used for plugging the well and isolating foreign fluids from the formation. Providing large bore for high rate wells.
Permanent packer setting mechanisms are by: • • • • Wireline explosive charge setting tool. Tubing tension. Hydraulic pressure by workstring setting tool or on the completion string. Tubing rotation.
Permanent Retrievable Packer Systems Permanent retrievable packers are a hybrid of the permanent style packer designed to be retrieved on a workstring without milling. They offer similar performances as permanent packers but generally have smaller bores. All the packers above can be equipped with tailpipes to accommodate wireline downhole tools such as plugs, standing valves, BHP gauges, etc. 5.3.2. Packer-Tubing Interfaces Tubing can be interfaced with packers through three basic options: • Fixed By threaded connection to the packer mandrel as with retrievable packers. Snap latch requiring an overpull to release By an anchor latch system to a permanent packer. Free moving Seal unit in a packer bore. Seal unit in a PBR attached to the packer. Travel joint. ELTSR. Limited movement Seal unit set down in a packer bore allowing upward movement only. Closed PBR or ELTSR.
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Free movement or partial movement options are used when tubing movement must be catered for otherwise it may be over-stressed due to tubing forces found through the stress analysis (Refer to section 7). However, sometimes they suffer from premature seal failure due to being dynamic seals and if the material type has not been correctly selected for the environment and pressure differentials. To help prevent seal failure, seal units can be shear pinned in a mid open or closed position to prevent seal movement until the stresses in the tubing reach a predetermined level. The selected packer-tubing interface has a significant effect on the completion architecture especially with regard to installation procedure, well kill method, stimulation treatment and type of hanger system. The most popular packer systems are those which have ‘one trip’ installation saving extra trips by workstring or wireline to install the packer before running the completion tubing. 5.3.3. Annulus Circulation Communication between the tubing and annulus on packer type completions is consider to be beneficial to efficient well killing, maintaining a fluid barrier in the annulus, circulating kill fluid before workovers or circulating in underbalance fluids well kick off. This is the same reasons for installing kill strings in packerless completions. Circulating devices, typically sliding sleeves or sliding side doors (SSDs) installed above the top packers, are used for this purpose but they have traditionally been a weak link in design when seals material was not suited to the well conditions. This would require a workover to replace the sleeve so other devices such as SPMs are used as the seals can be recovered and replaced by wireline methods. Some operators recommend that no circulation device be used which limits the flexibility of the completion and requires a tubing punch to be used for circulation before workovers. If a circulating device is undesired but the option is to kill the well by circulation rather than bullheading, a single shot shear kill valve can be installed which is operated by annulus pressure. Annulus circulation is used for: • • • • • Displace completion fluids and Kick-Off wells. Isolation/opening of producing intervals in single selective or dual selective completions. Well killing in tight formations where bullheading might be difficult. Installation of hydraulic pumps The SSD type circulating valves are normally equipped with a landing nipple profile in the upper sub to allow installation of a straddle to stop leaks or for normal wireline nipple uses.
Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 5.p. Retained fluid rating (Refer to section 6). • • 5. Downhole tubing hangers (e. It also isolates the top of the tubing-casing annulus. Ram type tension hangers. . Product specification level PSL (Refer to API spec 6A). TUBING-WELLHEAD INTERFACE 0 REVISION The wellhead carries the casing and completion loads which is transferred to the ground through the surface casing.A. Wellhead specifications are laid out in API Specification 6A and are rated by: • • Maximum working pressure according to the maximum anticipated surface pressure. o Temperature Classification K L M P S T U PSL O Tubing Hanger Systems There are five common types of tubing hanger systems available: • • • • • Slip and seal assemblies.g.4. annular safety system).1.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 109 OF 295 ENI S. The casing head and tubing hanger spools are now commonly replaced by compact or unitised wellheads (Refer to the ‘Drilling Design Manual’) to reduce height and improve safety as there are less BOP removals for spool installations.API Temperature Classifications Above 250 F the working pressure is de-rated against temperature (down to o 72% of rating at 650 F. Operating Range. Mandrel compression hangers. It consists of an assembly made up of casing head spools. Temperature operating range. mates and seals with the Xmas tree and provides annulus access to all the annuli. tubing hanger/spool and Xmas tree. oF -75 to 180 -60 to 180 -40 to 180 -20 to 180 0 to 150 0 to 180 0 to 250 -20 to 250 Table 5. Direct attachment to the Xmas tree (threaded).4.A .
flow or supply. either wireline nipple profile or a back pressure thread for land wells. . Dual hanger systems also need to be orientated to mate with the dual Xmas tree.e. downhole chemical injection lines. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 0 REVISION The main consideration in hanger selection is whether the tubing is to be placed in compression or tension and/or the number of tubings. Other considerations are DHSV control lines. downhole electronic gauge cables and ESP cables which are terminated by stab seals. platform or land. Depending on the well location.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 110 OF 295 ENI S. extended necks or annular ring seals. subsea. i.A.p. hence subsea tree. On subsea wells vertical annular access is usually required for well plugging which requires mandrel type hangers with orientation to the guide base and. well plugging for tree removal needs to be considered and that is usually satisfied by having a locking profile in the hanger bores.
A.G .ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 111 OF 295 ENI S.p.API Recommended Minimum PSL for Wellhead Equipment . Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 0 REVISION Figure 5.
5 6.1 2.P.1 13 5/8 5000 13 5/8 5000 5. Agip Division Ref. (psi) Top flange (in) Max.P.4 6.6 26 3/4 3000 21 1/4 5000 2.3 9 9 9 11 7 1/16 7 1/16 7 1/16 9 13 5/8 5000 13 5/8 5000 5.P.1 2.3 13 5/8 5000 11 7 1/16 7 1/16 7 1/16 9 21 1/4 5000 13 5/8 5000 2.P.1 2. (psi) Ref.6 6. nr Btm flange (in) Max.2 21 1/4 5000 20 & 18 5/8 IDENTIFICATION CODE DCSO3 1. W.4 2.2 21 1/4 5000 20 & 18 5/8 STAP-P-1-M-7100 DCSO 2 1.4 13 5/8 5000 5000 10000 10000 21 1/4 5000 13 5/8 5000 2.9 6.1 13 5/8 5000 9 5000 6.3 13 5/8 10000 13 5/8 10000 10000 2. (psi) Ref.5 21 1/4 5000 13 5/8 21 1/4 5000 13 5/8 10000 2.3 13 5/8 5000 13 3/8 & 9 5/8 5000 5000 5000 5000 2 7/8 3 1/2 5 2 x 2 3/8 MSCL 2 1.4 2.B.2 21 1/4 5000 20 & 18 5/8 DCSFSL 2 1. (psi) Top flange (in) Max.2 21 1/4 5000 20 & 18 5/8 DCSO 1 1.3 13 5/8 21 1/4 5000 13 5/8 5000 2.2 21 1/4 5000 20 & 18 5/8 (*) 24 1/2 1. off-shore single and dual completion class -A and class -B (STAP -M-1-SS-5701E) AGIP CODE CASING HEAD SPOOL Ref.p. (psi) Btm (CSG) (in) ARPO MSCL 1 2.8 6. W.4 2.5 21 1/4 5000 13 5/8 5000 2.1 13 5/8 5000 9 5000 6. W.2 13 5/8 10000 9 10000 5000 5000 5000 10000 10000 21 1/4 5000 13 5/8 5000 2.8 13 5/8 5000 13 5/8 5000 5.4 2.1 13 5/8 5000 13 5/8 5000 5. (psi) Btm Flange (in) Max. (psi) Top flange (in) Diam tbg (in) CASING HEAD SPOOL TUBING SPOOL TUBING HANGER CASING HEAD ENI S.A.3 13 5/8 5000 13 3/8 & 9 5/8 MSCL 3 1. W.nr Top flange (in) Max. W.4 2.2 21 1/4 5000 20 & 18 5/8 3° CASING HEAD SPOOL 10000 13 5/8 10000 1.1 26 3/4 3000 0 Table 5.Eni-Agip Standard Wellhead Equipment Chart PAGE (*) Typical wellhead configuration for deep wells (po Valley) REVISION 112 OF 295 .Typical outlines for on-shore.2 9 13 5/8 5000 13 5/8 5000 5.1 13 5/8 5000 9 5000 6.4 2. nr Max. W.1 13 5/8 5000 13 5/8 5000 5.2 13 5/8 5000 13 5/8 10000 5.P. W.2 13 5/8 5000 13 5/8 10000 5. nr Diam (in) Max.2 13 5/8 5000 13 5/8 10000 5.7 6.P.4 13 5/8 13 5/8 13 5/8 21 1/4 5000 13 5/8 5000 2.4 2.2 21 1/4 5000 20 & 18 5/8 SCSO 1 1.2 21 1/4 5000 20 & 18 5/8 10000 5000 5000 5000 10000 10000 2 x 2 3/8 2 x 3 1/2 3 1/2 2 x 2 3/8 2 x 2 3/8 2 x 2 3/8 DCSFSL 3 1. nr Btm Flange (in) Max. W.P.1 13 5/8 5000 9 5000 6.2 21 1/4 5000 13 5/8 5000 2. (psi) Ref.3 13 5/8 5000 13 3/8 & 9 5/8 DCSFSL 1 1.P.5 2.1 13 5/8 5000 13 5/8 5000 5.1 9 1.
Typical Wellhead .ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 113 OF 295 ENI S. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 0 REVISION 4 3 2 1 20" 13 3/8" 9 5/8" 7" WP (psi) Section 1 Section 2 Section 3 Section 4 Section 5 3K (A) 470 620 472 - 3K (B) 470 620 472 - 5K (C) 470 625 472 - 5K (D) 470 690 670 581 - 10K (E) 470 690 660 700 - 10K (F) 510 850 700 700 -- 15K (G) 510 850 700 750 15K (H) 510 850 700 750 Figure 5.p.A.H .
Typical Unitised Wellhead and Xmas Tree .I .p.A. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 0 REVISION Figure 5.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 114 OF 295 ENI S.
In very high pressure wells (i. Policy Metal-to-metal seals shall be used in the applications outlined in the following sections. Trees for sour service or high pressure will normally have two outlets. production and kill wing sides. coiled tubing or snubbing services or for the BPV rod lubricator. the control system should be designed to close the wing valve first a few seconds before the upper master to avoid erosion or damage over a period of time to the upper master gate and seats as they are more difficult to repair.4. A swab valve is an essential element to enable safe rig up of vertical well interventions by wireline. Chemical injection points are usually available at the tree or through the hanger system for downhole.4. The production wing. .i. Xmas Trees 0 REVISION The type of Xmas tree and construction are important as they have an effect on safety and cost. The important pointers for the design engineer are: • • • Conventional composite flanged connection trees with a single master valve are the norm for land and low to moderate offshore wells. which is often a remote hydraulic operated valve. Pressure losses of the offtake system must be considered in the well deliverability analysis (Refer to Section 2. 5. A second master valve is normally required to enable repair to any of the other tree valves with two barriers in situ (the lower master valve and the tubing hanger plug).000psi) Eni-Agip normally installs an additional gate valve between the tubing spool and the Xmas tree to provide double barrier protection.A.3). Metal-To-Metal Seals The purpose of metal-to-metal seals is to provide enhanced sealing where it is required in particular applications.p. • • • • • A typical Xmas tree is shown in figure 5.4. Today it is normal to have to justify only a single master valve as the upper master is usually an ESD hydraulically operated valve which is at risk of undue wear and tear.3.2. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 5. If the tree upper master valve and production wings are fully automated. 15.e.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 115 OF 295 ENI S. The kill wing is often permanently connected up to the kill line to a permanent pump or to allow quick and easy connection of a portable pump. choke and flowline arrangement must be configured to meet with how the well is closed-in and opened up.
000 A B C D A B C D A B C D ' ' ' ' ' ' & & ' ' ' ' ' ' & ' & & ' ' ' ' & ' & & ' ' . C and D will be used in the tables in the tables below.000 >10. On control line connections. These designations A.000 10. psi 5. Sweet Service Wells (with top hole temperature less than 100°C) ' = YES Sealing WP. Between tubing hanger and tubing spool.000 A B & = NO C D ' ' ' & ' ' & & & ' ' ' Sweet Service Wells (with top hole temperature exceeding 100°C) Sealing WP.A. psi 5. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 Application 0 REVISION The following criteria is applicable to the various conditions listed in the following tables: a) b) c) d) Between producing strings/casing/tubing hanger and tubing hanger seal flange.000 10.000 Gas Injectors Sealing WP. psi 5.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 116 OF 295 ENI S.000 >10.000 10. On production casing or production liner.000 H2S Service Wells Sealing WP.p.000 10. B. Oil And Gas Producers These tables apply equally to onshore and offshore wells. psi 5.
a design life for the completion will have been established. As an example of this is horizontal completions selected to maximise initial well productivity. Well servicing or workover techniques also have an impact on the well area with regard to height and lateral space. psi 5.000 A B C 0 REVISION D ' ' & ' & & ' ' Artificial Lift Wells (both onshore and offshore wells) Sealing WP. This means well life should be planned for the life of the field or as long as feasible (typically 7-10 years) although some unplanned problems may occur.A. This may lend to the selection of a wireline retrievable type safety valve rather than a tubing retrievable type as in the event of failure.5. During this process future well servicing and maintenance will also have been planned. 5.000 10. the valve can be replaced cheaply without requiring a workover. Another example is on offshore subsea fields. servicing can be conducted almost on demand. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 Water Injectors Sealing WP. This will have included identification of the potential reasons for well interventions or workover servicing.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 117 OF 295 ENI S. and may be problematic on platforms where space. FUTURE CONSIDERATIONS Built into the conceptual stage. .000 A B C D ' ' &(1) ' & & ' ' (1) If H2S is present it will be a YES. In this case to the stand-off can be increased but there is a penalty in lower initial production rates.p. on an easily accessible land wells where servicing and workover methods are relatively much less costly. This will have an impact of the completion architecture and establish a philosophy. due to the high cost of subsea well re-entrys. where the stand-off from the water or gas zones increases the risk of producing early unwanted fluids. height and weight are at a premium. Alternately.000 10. psi 5. The well location and type of development has a large impact on the techniques available and cost of well servicing and maintenance optimising the completion design around the potential problems and remedial techniques is a balancing act between effectiveness and cost. well servicing should be minimised as they require a floating vessel from which to deploy the re-entry system.
the effects on the completion materials needs to be considered or alternatively to use coiled tubing for spotting of the acid before pumping to the formation.p. Also. Formation Management As the fluid interfaces move through time and unwanted fluids are produced. etc. the surface pressure would demand a higher pressure rated Xmas tree than required for production only. The next production zone can then be perforated using through tubing perforating techniques (Refer to Section 9). the effects of the pressures causing additional stresses on the tubing and packer need to be input and catered for in the tubing design process (Refer to Section 7).4).2. by opening and closing isolation sleeves.1. Excessive water or gas production due to fingering which requires continuing production from lower zones can be isolated by cement squeezing or if using a monobore type completion by installing a straddle across the interval on wireline or coiled tubing methods. This can be conducted by coiled tubing or snubbing services without killing the well.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 118 OF 295 ENI S. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 5. Where this problem has not been planned into the completion design a complete workover to re-complete may be required. A single string sequential completion may be employed where existing perforations can be isolated simply by installation of a bridge plug on wireline but often the perforations require to be squeezed off with cement (Refer to Section 5. If a multi-zone single string selective completion design has been installed then producing zones can be closed off or opened up by wireline techniques and hence. cement squeezes and reperforating techniques are required. and need reperforating.2. It could also increase the tubing movement and alter the choice of tubing movement device and spacing out. are more flexible but have higher initial capital cost. if there are more than one zone to a string.5. e. If the costs of upgrading the well tubulars to resist these stresses are prohibitive.A. If acid stimulations are planned. 5.5. Stimulation 0 REVISION If future stimulation operations are required such as fracturing. then straddles are sometimes utilised to keep pressure off the SCSSV and Xmas tree.g. If multi-zone multi-string completions are installed then the individual zones can simply be closed off by shutting in the well at surface or. If the well has been planned for these operations then the completion may have been designed to accomplish these operations without pulling of the tubing in a workover operation. or as producing zones become depleted and require isolating before brining on other zones. producing zones are sometimes damaged by scale build up or movement of fines. .
standing valves. . gas lift valves. Snubbing cannot be deployed from any floating installation.A. Hydraulic workover cannot be deployed from any floating installation.5. Pumps. Slickline Is probably the most widely used well servicing method and is used for: • • • • • • • • • • Mechanical well clean out (tubing and sump) Installation and retrieval of flow controls (plugs. Braided Line Braided line is used for: • • Heavy duty wireline work (installing large heavy flow controls). Workovers can be conducted by: • • • Workovers rigs Drilling rigs Hydraulic workover units. Well Servicing Techniques 0 REVISION Well servicing includes live well intervention services or major workovers to pull the tubing. A specialist subsea wireline technique has been developed for subsea well interventions without using the riser re-entry system which is much quicker and less costly. Live well interventions can be conducted by: • • • • Wireline (electric line or slickline). Snubbing. fishing electric line). Coiled Tubing.3. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 5.) Tubing control (drifting) Calipering Swabbing BHP pressure and temperature monitoring Electronic memory logging Opening and closing of circulation devices Perforating Fishing. Fishing (when slickline has been unsuccessful. chokes. etc.p.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 119 OF 295 ENI S.
multi-laterals).p. Calipering Real time BHP surveys Perforating Packer setting Installing bridge plugs. 0 REVISION Coiled Tubing Coiled tubing (C/T) is used for: • • • • • • • • • Snubbing Snubbing is used for: • • • • • • • Stimulation (acidising) Cementing Cleaning out tubing and sump Gas lifting Installing flow controls (wireline type tools) Milling Drilling (underbalance side tracking.A. Snubbing has found a revival with platform horizontal wells where it is used to work in long horizontal sections where C/T may not be capable. etc. Stimulation (acidising) Cementing Cleaning out tubing and sump Gas lifting Logging (stiff wireline) Installing flow controls (wireline type tools) Milling Drilling (underbalance side tracking. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 Electric Line Electric line is used for: • • • • • • Logging (PLT.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 120 OF 295 ENI S. multi-laterals) Fishing (generally when wireline has been unsuccessful). .
The example well #1 in figure 5. As previously mentioned. the maximum flow rate is obtained with /2” 7 tubing but only a slight reduction in flow rate is seen if the 2 /8” tubing is selected which gives steadier and regular flow. the optimum tubing size will be a compromise maximising flow rate and having steady producing 1 conditions.6.p. A fixed flow rate. depending on the inflow capability (Refer to Section 2. 1 . Where high costs workovers are involved such as on subsea wells. is greater than 1. This shifts the TPC minimum to a higher rate and. incurring early loss of potential production. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 5. the selection may be for an even longer period of time. The net result should be higher production rates only if the IPR/TPC intercept remains to the right of the TPC minimum. replace the tubing with a smaller size or to implement artificial lift which will have associated costs.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 121 OF 295 ENI S. therefore widening the flat uncertain portion around the minimum. fluid velocities decrease and reduces the frictional effects. Whatever the case. it may be possible to accelerate offtake by the early installation of artificial lift. If the IPR curve intersects the TPCs in the region near the minimum. however. pmin to ensure stability. The following sub-sections describes the various factors and there effect on TPC. the changing conditions over the life of the well must be considered when selecting tubing size. If the PI was infinite.000 to 9.000stb/d and perhaps even larger tubing could be investigated. The choice at that time will be to reduce wellhead pressure. as tubing size increases.05 of pressure minimum. Pwf.j shows that the 4 /2” tubing size should be selected to ensure the offtake exceeds the target of 8.obviously the tubing selected for the start of production will not be the optimum size after some period of time.A. For example. using the IPR for well 2. at low rates. It is generally recommended to select a tubing size such that the flowing pressure. one increase in API tubing size would double the maximum theoretical capacity. This usually means at the maximum initial flow rate and maintaining it as long as possible. The optimum size of tubing is clearly the size which will be most cost effective over a number of years. OPTIMISING TUBING SIZE 0 REVISION The optimum tubing size is selected to obtain the desired offtake rates at the lowest capital and operating costs. However. This trend is downwards towards cessation of flow and . These changes are normally declining reservoir pressure and increasing water cut which will reduce flow rates.4). typically 5-8 years. the selection process inevitably involves analysis of the gross fluid deliverability and flow stability under changing reservoir conditions to confirm that the production forecast can be met and to determine when artificial lift or compression is required. the reduced fluid velocities experienced in larger tubing increase the hydrostatic head because of slippage.
Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 0 REVISION Figure 5.Example Tubing Sizes on Well Deliverability Figure 5.K.p.A.J .ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 122 OF 295 ENI S.Effect of Reservoir Pressure on TPC .
Also high wellhead pressures reduces the amount of free gas and compresses the remaining free gas. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 5.1. 5.2. as illustrated in figure 5.p.6. build-up of wax. figure 5. leading to decreasing natural flow rates. 5. facility malfunctions.3. Gas-Liquid Ratio Increasing gas-liquid ratios cause a decrease in hydrostatic head and increase in frictional pressure drop which in the early stages may actually result in increased flow rates. wells being produced or closed in which use the same flowline. the effect on productivity must be considered during the completion design stage to find the most cost effective method of maximising productivity.l shows the effect of increasing GLR.A. Unstable flow conditions and eventually cessation will occur unless some other change in the system is made. hence flow rates. The larger tubing sizes are more sensitive to changes in flowing wellhead pressure as the density factor dominates more than in smaller tubing.6. Again this means that smaller tuning may need to be selected instead of the ideal larger tubing to cater for anticipated changes in wellhead pressure. it collapses towards the origin.g. Flowing Wellhead Pressure Any flowing wellhead pressure is actually back-pressure transmitted downhole to the bottom-hole flowing pressure.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 123 OF 295 ENI S. above a critical point there will be a net increase in the overall pressure drop. Changes in wellhead pressure can be attributed to slugging in the flowline. etc. In reservoirs where significant reductions in reservoir pressure are anticipated. both which increase hydrostatic head. Reservoir Pressure 0 REVISION As reservoir pressure declines over time. e. . However.k. This clearly shows how important the assumed wellhead pressure accuracy is in the well deliverability forecast and economics. where workover costs are high to complete with smaller size tubing to ensure stability through the economic life of the well.6. All of these reduce the natural flow rate of the well. therefore reducing the potential drawdown. In these circumstances the frictional effects near surface become very dominant and can be alleviated by the use of a tapered tubing string.
.6. This effectively shifts the TPC downwards bringing the intersection point further towards stable flowing conditions. An example of rates which can be obtained by different artificial lift methods is illustrated in figure 5.L . bottom-hole pressure.A.4.m.Effect of Increasing GLR 5. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 0 REVISION Figure 5. Refer to section 10 for the applications and comparisons of the various methods of artificial lift.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 124 OF 295 ENI S. Artificial Lift The intention of installing artificial lift is to reduce the hydrostatic head and. therefore.p.
Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 0 REVISION Figure 5.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 125 OF 295 ENI S.p.Examples of Artificial Lift Performance .A.M .
The BOP stack and wellhead components must also be suitable for sour service. To have a flow of current.2. corrosion is an electrolytic process where electrical current flows during the corrosion process. 6. should be designed to withstand such an environment. the production casing should be cathodically protected (either cathodically or by selecting a casing grade suitable for the expected corrosion environment). consideration should be given to setting a sour service casing string before drilling into the reservoir. CONTRIBUTING FACTORS TO CORROSION Most corrosion problems which occur in oilfield production operations are due to the presence of water. Any part of the production casing that is likely to be exposed to the corrosive environment. DEVELOPMENT WELLS Casing corrosion considerations for development wells can be confined to the production casing only. it is accepted that tubing leaks and pressured annuli are a fact of life and as such. They should not be produced through the casing/tubing annulus. it is necessary to the corrosion process. • External corrosion Where the likelihood of external corrosion due to electrochemical activity is high and the consequences of such corrosion are serious. However. .p. CORROSION A production well design should attempt to contain produced corrosive fluids within tubing. production casing strings are considered to be subject to corrosive environments when designing casing for a well where hydrogen sulphide (H2S) or carbon dioxide (CO2) laden reservoir fluids can be expected. Whether it may be present in large amounts or in extremely small quantities. During the drilling phase. In the presence of water.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 126 OF 295 ENI S.1. if there is any likelihood of a sour corrosive influx occurring. • Internal corrosion The well should be designed to contain any corrosive fluids (produced or injected) within the tubing string by using premium connections. 6. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 0 REVISION 6. there must be a generating or voltage source in a completed electrical circuit. during routine completion/workover operations or in the event of a tubing or wellhead leak.A.
if any. It should be pointed out that H2S also can be generated by introduced microorganisms. Partial pressure <3psi generally is considered non corrosive. The important factors governing the solubility of carbon dioxide are pressure.A. of the following conditions alone. Using the partial pressure of carbon dioxide as a yardstick to predict corrosion. The combination of H2S and CO2 is more aggressive than H2S alone and is frequently found in oilfield environments. temperature decreases the solubility to raise the pH. • Temperature Like most chemical reactions.p. It is not as corrosive as oxygen. . Corrosion primarily caused by dissolved carbon dioxide is commonly called ‘sweet’ corrosion. • Carbon Dioxide (CO2) When carbon dioxide dissolves in water. but usually also results in pitting. Other serious problems which may result from H2S corrosion are hydrogen blistering and sulphide stress cracking. It can cause severe corrosion at very low concentrations of less than 1. it forms carbonic acid. or in any combination may be a contributing factor to the initiation and perpetuation of corrosion: • Oxygen (O2) Oxygen dissolved in water drastically increases its corrosivity potential. temperature and chloride content. Oxygen usually causes pitting in steels. decreases the pH of the water and increase its corrosivity. temperature and composition of the water. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 0 REVISION The existence.0ppm. Attack due to the presence of dissolved hydrogen sulphide is referred to as ‘sour’ corrosion. The solubility of oxygen in water is a function of pressure.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 127 OF 295 ENI S. Oxygen is less soluble in salt water than in fresh water. the following relationships have been found: Partial pressure >30psi usually indicates high corrosion risk. Partial pressure 3-30psi may indicates high corrosion risk. • Hydrogen Sulphide (H2S) Hydrogen sulphide is very soluble in water and when dissolved behaves as a weak acid and usually causes pitting. corrosion rates generally increase with increasing temperature. Pressure increases the solubility to lower the pH.
vertical and deviated wells: a) In vertical oil wells. More gas goes into solution as the pressure is increased this may in turn increase the corrosivity of the solution.1.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 128 OF 295 ENI S. • Velocity of fluids within the environment Stagnant or low velocity fluids usually give low corrosion rates. the primary importance of pressure is its effect on dissolved gases. In oilfield systems. In gas wells. two separate cases need to be considered. e. corrosion. gas saturation with water will produce condensate water and therefore create the conditions for SSC. Evaluation of the SSC problem depends on the type of well being investigated. In oil wells. but pitting is more likely. 6. High velocities and/or the presence of suspended solids or gas bubbles can lead to erosion.3. generally corrosion occurs only when the water cut becomes higher than 15% which is the ‘threshold’ or commonly defined as the ‘critical level’ and it is necessary to analyse the water cut profile throughout the producing life of the well. impingement or cavitation. The H2S comes into contact with H2O which is an + essential element in this form of corrosion by freeing the H ion. 6. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 • 0 REVISION Pressure Pressure affects the rates of chemical reactions and corrosion reactions are no exception.A. The procedure adopted to evaluate the corrosivity of the produced fluid and the methodology used to calculate the partial pressures of H2S and CO2 will be illustrated in the following sub-sections.g.p. CO2 and ClCorrosion in injection wells and the effects of pH and souring are not included. above 80°C inhibit the SSC phenomenon. therefore knowledge of temperature gradients is very useful in the choice of the tubular materials since differing materials can be chosen for various depths. Higher temperatures. FORMS OF CORROSION The following forms of corrosion are addressed in this manual: Corrosion caused by H2S (SSC) Corrosion caused by CO2 and Cl - Corrosion caused by combinations of H2S. . Corrosion rates usually increase with velocity as the corrosion scale is removed from the casing exposing fresh metal for further corrosion.3. Sulphide Stress Cracking (SSC) The SSC phenomenon is occurs usually at temperatures of below 80°C and with the presence of stress in the material.
In this case the pH2S is calculated in two ways: • • Basic method. i. 6. is termed undersaturated.e. If the quantity of H2S in gas at the bubble point pressure [mole fraction = Y(H2S)]. If the conditions specified above are verified then the pH2S can be calculated. deposits on the surface of the tubulars and so the problem can be likened to the gas well case where the critical threshold for the water cut drops to 1% (WC <1%). Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 b) o REVISION 0 In highly deviated wells (i. even if in very small quantities.0035 atm and SBHP >4.5 atm. Oil Bearing Well The problem of SSC exists when there is wetting water. The following formulae are used to calculate the value of pH2S (partial pressure of H2S) in both the cases of gas (or condensate gas) wells or oil wells. Firstly. deviations >80 ).A SSC is triggered at pH2S >0.A. Otherwise the basic method is used. . because the wellhead and bottom-hole pressures are higher than the bubble point pressure (Pb) at reservoir temperature.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 129 OF 295 ENI S. is not known or the values obtained are not reliable.e.: Water cut >15% for vertical wells o Water cut >1% for horizontal or highly deviated wells (>80 ) 3 3 or if the GOR >800 Nm /m The pH2S calculation is different for undersaturated and oversaturated oil.p. Undersaturated Oil In an oil in which the gas remains dissolved. Material balance method. the potential for SSC occurring is evaluated by studying the water cut values combined with the type of well and deviation profile. the pH2S is calculated using both methods and the higher of the two results is taken as the a reliable value. the risk of corrosion by H2S is higher since the water. Gas Or Condensate Gas Well H2S partial pressure is calculated by: pH2S = SBHP x Y(H2S)/100 where: SBHP = Y(H2S) = = pH2S Static bottom-hole pressure [atm] Mole fraction of H2S Partial H2S pressure [atm] Eq.
is generally lower than the actual value under stabilised conditions. Note: H2S sampled in short production tests.B Material Balance Method This method is used when data from production testing is available and/or when the quantity of H2S is very small (<2. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 Basic Method 0 REVISION This method is used.6 PM giac Eq. without comparison with the other method. molar fraction in the separated gas at bubble point pressure (Pb) is higher than 2%. 6.D where: PM Ci Mi d = = = = n mean molecular weight of the reservoir oil = Ci × Mi / 100 i =l Mole % of the ith component of the reservoir oil Molecular weight of the ith component of the reservoir oil Density of the gas at separator conditions referred to air =1 ∑ .C The mean molecular weight of the produced oil.A. The following algorithm is used to calculate the pH2S: Step 1 pH2S is calculated at the separator (pH2Ssep): pH2Ssep = (Psep x H2Ssep)/106 where: Psep H2Ssep = = Absolute mean pressure at which the separator works (from tests) in atm Mean H2S value in the separator gas (generally measured in ppm) Eq. The pH2S is calculated by: pH2S = Pb x Y(H2S)/100 where: Pb = Y(H2S) = pH2S = Bubble point pressure at reservoir temperature [atm] Mole fraction in the separated gas at bubble point (from PVT data if extrapolated) Partial H2S pressure [atm] Eq.6 − 23. 6. PM : PM = γ × 1000 GOR γ × 1000 + × (d × 29 ) GOR 23.000ppm) and the water cut value from is lower than 5% (this method cannot be used when the WC values are higher). when the H2S value in the separated gas at bubble point conditions is known and is reliable or if Y(H2S). 6.p. The value of H2S in ppm to be used in the calculation must also be from stable flowing conditions.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 130 OF 295 ENI S.
H2S corrosion can occur at either the wellhead or bottom-hole without distinction.6 = = Gas oil ratio Nm /m (from production tests) Conversion factor 3 3 6 Eq. Procedure For Calculating Henry Constant The value of the Henry constant is a function of the temperature measured at the separator.F The pH2S is calculated at reservoir conditions: pH2S = (([H2S]oil + [H2S]gas)/K ) x H2 where: K H2 = = Eq.E The quantity of H2S in the gas in equilibrium is calculated (per litre of oil): [H2S]gas = (GOR/23.6 x H2Ssep/10 ) where: GOR 23.G (γ x 1000/ PM + GOR/23.A.p. (See Procedure for calculating Henry constant) Mean molecular weight of the produced oil Specific weight g/l of the produced oil Eq. 6.6) total number of moles of the liquid phase in the reservoir Henry constant for the reservoir temperature and reservoir oil (see procedure for calculating Henry constant) In general. Given the diagram in figure 6.0035 atm and STHP >18.a which represents the functions H(t) for the three types of oils: • • • Heptane PM N-propyl benzene PM Methylnaphthalene PM =100 = 120 =142 . Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 0 REVISION The quantity of H2S in moles/litre dissolved in the separator oil is calculated: [H2S]oil = (pH2Ssep/H1 x (γ x 1000)/ PM ) where: H1 PM γ = = = Henry constant of the produced oil at separator temperature (atm/Mole fraction).ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 131 OF 295 ENI S. 6. The mapping method can be applied for temperatures at the separator of between 20°C and 200°C. 6.63 atm. There is SSC potential if pH2S >0.
the mean value is calculated using the H(t) curve of propyl benzene and the H(t) curve of methylnaphthalene. the reference curve is chosen (given by points) to calculate the Henry constant on the basis of the following value thresholds: • • • • • • If PM > 142. H2 is measured in a similar way as H1. If 120 < PM < 142 the mean value is calculated using the H(t) curve of heptane and the H(t) curve of propyl benzene. Comments On The H2 Calculation Having calculated the molecular weight of the reservoir oil PM res.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 132 OF 295 ENI S. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 Remarks On The H1 Calculation 0 REVISION Having calculated the molecular weight of the produced oil PM using the formula in eq. 6. the H(t) curve of methylnaphthalene is used.A. If PM > 100. the H1 value is interpolated linearly on the chosen curve(s).p. Given FTHT.d. the H(t) curve of propyl benzene is used. If PM > 120. using temperature measured at the separator. If 100 < PM < 120. . wellhead flowing temperature. the H(t) curve of heptane is used. For this purpose the temperature values immediately before and after the temperature studied are taken into consideration.
A .p.A.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 133 OF 295 ENI S. Two situations can arise: Case A FTHP < Pb FBHP > Pb Case B FTHP < Pb FBHP < Pb .H(t) Reference Curves Oversaturated Oil Oil is considered oversaturated when the gas in the fluid separates because the pressure of the system is lower than the bubble point pressure. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 0 REVISION 130 Henry atm/Y[H2S] 120 110 100 90 methylnaphthalene PM = 142 80 N-propylbenzene PM = 120 heptane PM = 100 70 60 50 40 30 20 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 110 120 130 140 150 160 170 180 190 200 T C° Figure 6.
the corresponding value in reservoir conditions is assumed as being partial pressure at the wellhead. the partial pressure is calculated as: pH2S = Y(H2S) x FBHP 1 where: Y(H2S) = Molar fraction in gas separated at FBHP and at reservoir temperature (from PVT) • The PVTs are not reliable. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 Calculation Of Partial Pressure In Case A: 1) 2) 0 REVISION Calculation is of the partial pressure in the reservoir: In this case pH2S is calculated in the way described for undersaturated oil.e. Calculation Of Partial Pressure In Case B: Calculation of partial pressure in the reservoir: In the reservoir the gas is already separated. Calculation is of the partial pressure at the wellhead. i.A.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 134 OF 295 ENI S. Basic Method pH2S = STHP x Y(H2S)/100 where: STHP = Y(H2S) = pH2S = Static tubing head pressure [atm] Mole fraction in separated gas at STHP pressure and wellhead temperature Partial H2S pressure [atm] The SSC phenomenon is triggered off at the wellhead if pH2S >0.63 atm. FBHP <Pb. these are the worst conditions.2%. 1 . when FTHP <Pb: The data result from the production conditions and only the basic method is used.0035 atm and STHP >18. Y(H2S) >0. Calculation Of Partial Pressure At Wellhead The calculation method is that used for case A (FTHP <Pb) 2 If the percentage (ppm) of H2S in the gas under static conditions is not known. 2 If the percentage (ppm) of H S in the separated gas under static conditions is not known. the material balance method can be used as in the case of undersaturated oil. the 2 corresponding value in reservoir conditions is assumed as being partial pressure at the wellhead. The error made can be high when Pb > FBHP.p. calculation of pH2S can be approximated on the basis of the following: • The PVTs are reliable.
3.p. If the conditions described in section 6. As in the case of SSC.2 atm.A. i. CO2 gives rise to a corrosion form which is different to those caused by the presence of H2S. the possibility that corrosions exist in water cut values combined with the type of well and deviation profile is evaluated.2 atm. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 6. pCO2 at wellhead is assumed as corresponding to reservoir conditions.: • • Water cut >15% for vertical wells.e. Water cut >1% for horizontal or highly deviated wells (> 80 degrees). It also occurs only if the partial pressure of CO2 exceeds a particular threshold.2. then the pCO2 is then calculated. Corrosion Caused By CO2 And Cl0 REVISION In the presence of water.e.3. Undersaturated Oil Wells The partial pressure of CO2 is calculated: pCO2 = Pb x Y(CO2)/100 where: Pb = Y(CO2) = pCO2 = Bubble point pressure at reservoir temperature Mole fraction of CO2 in separated gas at bubble point pressure (from the PVTs) Partial pressure of CO2 [atm] Corrosion occurs if pCO2 >0. .ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 135 OF 295 ENI S. The pCO2 values calculated in this way are used to evaluate the corrosion at bottom hole and wellhead. i.1 exist. Gas Or Condensate Gas Wells The partial pressure is calculated: pCO2 = SBHP x Y(CO2)/100 where: SBHP = Y(CO2) = pCO2 = Static bottom-hole pressure [atm] Mole fraction of CO2 Partial pressure of CO2 [atm] Corrosion occurs if pCO2 >0. Oil Bearing Wells The problem exists where there is wetting water.
2 atm. the corresponding value in reservoir conditions is assumed as being partial pressure at the wellhead 3 . pCO2 = Pb x Y(CO2)/100 where: Pb = Y(CO2) = pCO2 = Bubble point pressure at reservoir temperature Mole fraction in separated gas at bubble point pressure (from the PVTs) Partial pressure of CO2 [atm] Corrosion occurs if pCO2 >0.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 136 OF 295 ENI S. Two situations may arise: Case A FTHP <Pb FBHP >Pb Case B FTHP <Pb FBHP <Pb Calculation Of Partial Pressure In Case A: Calculation of pCO2 in reservoir conditions: FBHP >Pb pCO2 is calculated in the same way as undersaturated oil wells earlier in this section. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 Oversaturated Oil 0 REVISION The oil is considered oversaturated when the gas separates in the fluid because the pressure of the system is lower than bubble point pressure.A. If the percentage (ppm) of CO2 in the gas under static conditions is not known.p. Calculation Of pCO2 At Wellhead: pCO2 = STHP x Y(CO2)/100 where: Y(CO2) = STHP = Mole fraction in separated gas at STHP3 Static tubing head pressure [atm] Corrosion occurs if pCO2 >0.2 atm.
In this case the problem is much more complex and the choice of suitable material is more delicate. 6. 4 . - If the percentage (ppm) of CO2 in the gas under flowing/static conditions is not known.3. Corrosion Caused By H2S. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 Calculation Of Partial Pressure In Case B: Calculation of pCO2 at reservoir conditions: pCO2 = FBHP x Y(CO2)/100 where: Y(CO2) = 0 REVISION Mole fraction in separated gas at pressure FBHP (from the PVTs) Calculation Of pCO2 At Wellhead: The calculation method is the same as the one used in the wellhead conditions in case A: pCO2 = STHP x Y(CO2)/100 where: Y(CO2) = Mole fraction in separated gas at STHP4 There is corrosion if pCO2 >0. CO2 And ClIt is possible to encounter H2S and CO2 besides Cl .2 atm.3.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 137 OF 295 ENI S. the corresponding value in reservoir conditions is assumed as being partial pressure at the wellhead.p. The phenomenon is diagnosed by calculating the partial pressures of H2S and CO2 and comparing them with the respective thresholds.A.
a below. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 6.A. Refer to table 6. CORROSION CONTROL MEASURES 0 REVISION Corrosion control measures may involve the use of one or more of the following: • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Cathodic protection Chemical inhibition Chemical control Oxygen scavengers Chemical sulphide scavengers pH adjustment Deposit control Coatings Non metallic materials or metallurgical Control Stress reduction Elimination of sharp bends Elimination of shock loads and vibration Improved handling procedures Corrosion allowances in design Improved welding procedures Organisation of repair operations.A . Measure Control of the environment • • • • • • • • • Means pH Temperature Pressure Chloride concentration CO2 concentration 2 H S concentration 2 H O concentration Flow rate Inhibitors Surface treatment • Plastic coating • Plating the alloying elements micro Improvement of the corrosion resistivity of the Addition of steel structure Table 6.4.p.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 138 OF 295 ENI S.Counter Measures to Prevent Corrosion .
extended batch) Continuous treatment Squeeze treatment Atomised inhibitor squeeze . the microstructure of these steels is martensitic.A. The most common types contain around 12% chromium. The most commonly used of the martensitic stainless steels is AISI Type 410.5.10% and other elements such as nickel. Stainless steels are strongly magnetic whatever the heat treatment condition. either continuously or intermittently to prevent serious corrosion. however it is occasionally used for production casing or tubing below the packer depth. The most important characteristic that distinguishes these steels from other grades is their response to heat treatment. Corrosion inhibitors are commonly added in small amounts to acids.1. Batch treatment (tubing displacement. The carbon content ranges from 0.weighted liquids Capsules Sticks. an iron alloy usually must contain at least 12% chromium in volume. There are many techniques used to apply corrosion inhibitors in oil and gas wells: • • • • • • 6. cooling waters. Martensitic Stainless Steels The martensitic stainless steels contain chromium as their principal alloying element. although some chromium content may be as high as 18%. The martensitic stainless steels are included in the ‘400’ series of stainless steels. The main reason for the development of stainless steel is its resistance to corrosion. when added to an environment.08% to 1. As their name indicates. The corrosion resistance of stainless steels is due to the ability of the chromium to passivate the surface of the alloy. Stainless steels may be divided into four distinct classes on the basis of their chemical content. molybdenum. silicon. To be classed as a stainless steel. columbium. standard batch.p. metallurgical structure and mechanical properties these are: 6. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 6. steam or other environments. selenium. CORROSION INHIBITORS 0 REVISION An inhibitor is a substance which retards or slows down a chemical reaction.6. a corrosion inhibitor is a substance which. Thus. CORROSION RESISTANCE OF STAINLESS STEELS Stainless steel is usually used in applications for production tubing. The martensitic stainless steels are hardened by the same heat treatment procedures used to harden carbon and alloy steels. and sulphur are added in small amounts for other properties in some grades. The only grade of oilfield tubular used in this category is 13Cr. .ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 139 OF 295 ENI S.6. decreases the rate of attack by the environmental on a metal.
These steels are widely used in the oilfield for fittings and control lines. which are similar to the martensitic stainless steels in that they have chromium as the principal alloying element. Austenitic stainless steels are grouped in the ‘300’ series. and there is a wide variety of compositions available. Ferritic stainless steels are also part of the ‘400’ series. Refer to figure 6. chromium and nickel. The chromium contents of ferritic stainless steels is normally higher than that of the martensitic. They are not able to be hardened by heat treatment although they are hardenable to some extent by cold working and are generally non-magnetic. 430.3. Most can be formed and machined before the final heat treatment and the finished product being hardened. Ferrite is simply body cantered cubic iron or an alloy based on this structure. Their micro-structure consists essentially of austenite which is face cantered cubic iron or an iron alloy based on this structure.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 140 OF 295 ENI S. and 347 stabilised for welding and corrosion resistance. They combine the high strength of the martensitic stainless steels with the good corrosion resistance properties of the austenitic stainless steels.4. 6.6. . with other elements added for particular reasons. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 6. the most common being 304. Most were developed as proprietary alloys. the principal types being 405. but due to its low strength is not used for well tubulars.6. and 436. and the carbon content is generally lower. Others commonly used are 303 free machining.b for the various compositions of stainless steels. Precipitation in alloys is analogous to precipitation as rain or snow. but their strength is lower than martensitic and ferritic stainless steels. 316 high Cr and Ni which may include Mo. 6. They contain a minimum of 18% chromium and 8% nickel. The chromium content ranges between 13% to 27% but are not able to be hardened by heat treatment.2. which are also strongly magnetic. is the ferritic stainless steels. Austenitic Stainless Steels The austenitic stainless steels have two principal alloying elements. Austenitic stainless steels generally have the highest corrosion resistance of any of the stainless steels. Precipitation Hardening Stainless Steels The most recent development in stainless steel is a general class known as ‘precipitation hardened stainless steels’. which contain various amounts of chromium and nickel. The microstructure of the ferritic stainless steels consists of ferrite. Ferritic Stainless Steels 0 REVISION The second class of stainless steels. and may range up to as high as 25% chromium and 20% nickel.6. stainless steel. They are used principally for their temperature properties. The distinguishing characteristic of the precipitation hardened stainless steel is that through specific heat treatments at relatively low temperatures. the steels can be hardened to varying strength levels.p.A. These are most commonly used for component parts in downhole and surface tools and not as oilfield tubulars.
Stainless Steel Compositions . Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 0 REVISION Figure 6.B.p.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 141 OF 295 ENI S.A.
Generally.5. 6. This material is used extensively for tubulars used in severe CO2 and H2S conditions.c and figure 6.d for partial pressure limits. As a general note. there is a large gap between the 13Cr and Duplex Stainless Steels used as tubulars for their good anti-corrosion properties. 6. H2S Corrosion In wells. consideration should be given to limit casing and wellhead yield strength according to API 5CT and ‘NACE’ standard MR-01-75. Inhibitor injection. . the presence of CO2 may lead to corrosion on those parts coming in contact with CO2 which normally means the production tubing and part of the production casing below the packer.7. resistant to corrosion. Duplex Stainless Steel 0 REVISION In general.A.5% Ni-3% Mo-0.2. Corrosion may be limited by: • • The selection of high alloy chromium steels. where there is H2S. The resulting steel has properties that are normally found in both phases: the ferrite promotes increased yield strength and resistance to chloride and hydrogen sulphide corrosion cracking.7.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 142 OF 295 ENI S. 6. wells producing CO2 partial pressure higher than 20psi requires inhibition to limit corrosion. ferritic-austenitic (duplex) stainless steel consists of between 40-70% ferrite and has a typical composition of 22% Cr-5. if using carbon steel casing.7.p. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 6. COMPANY DESIGN PROCEDURE CO2 Corrosion In producing wells.6. Refer to figure 6. while the austenite phase improves workability and weldability. This gap is attempted to be filled with ‘Super 13Cr’ tubing being developed.1. Casing and tubing material will be selected according to the amount of H2S and other corrosive media present.14% N.
Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 0 REVISION Figure 6.A.D .Sour Multiphase Systems .p.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 143 OF 295 ENI S.C .Sour Gas Systems Figure 6.
Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 6. OCTG. MATERIAL SELECTION 0 REVISION The choice of material is based on the application of engineering diagrams supplied by manufacturers of tubing and.f.e and figure 6. . These give the rules used by Eni-Agip sectioned on the basis of the conditions as listed above and the use in the well. otherwise the following combinations of conditions may exist: • • • • Solely H2S in oil wells Solely H2S in gas or gas condensate wells Solely CO2 and Cl Both H2S and CO2. all materials in class C-steel/L-A-steel can be used.A. The tables regarding the choice of materials are shown below. The choice of materials proposed is conservatively as recent develop materials such as 13%Cr and Super Duplex class have not been considered because experiments on these materials are not completed. In the partial pressures of H2S and CO2 are below the critical thresholds established in the previous section.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 144 OF 295 ENI S.8. DHE materials and wellhead materials. refer to figure 6. hence the use of the modified SMI has been adopted.p. Materials are sub-divided into three categories.
000 Cl* <50. K55.p. 25% Cr Incoloy 825 28% Cr Incoloy 825 Incoloy 825 Incoloy 825 Table 6.1< pH2S max <1 0.2< pCO2S max <100e 0.OCTG Materials for Sour Service . K55.1 FBHT >80 C o o 60 C< FBHT >80 C o FBHT >80 C o REVISION 0 Material J55.1 0.005 0.005< pH2S max <0.005 0.0035< pH2S max <0.0035< pH2S max < 0.2< pCO2S max <100e 0.2< pCO2S max <100e 0.1.000 13% Cr 22% Cr 25% Cr-SA Alternately 25% Cr OCTG Materials For Corrosion By CO2 .005< pH2S max <0. C90-1.0035< pH2S max <0.005 0.2< pCO2S max <100 0.1 FBHT >80 C o FBHT <80 C o Material J55.2< pCO2S max <100e pH2S max >1 FBHT <150 C o Material Cl* <50.8.0035< pH2S max < 0. C95. C90-1.2< pCO2S max <100e 0. T95-1 Alternately L80-Mod.1< pH2S max <1 0.005 0. P110 J55.000 Cl* <20.1 0.B . N80 L80 L80 Mod.000 Cl* <50. T95-1 L80-Mod. C95 L80 Alternately L80-Mod. T95-1 OCTG Materials For Corrosion By H2S Only In Gas Wells Conditions 0.1< pH2S max <1 0. OCTG Specifications Refer to table 6.2< pCO2S max <100 FBHT <150 C o o 150 C< FBHT <200 C o o 200 C< FBHT <250 C o Material Cl* <50.005< pH2S max <0.2< pCO2S max <100e 0.005 0.0035< pH2S max < 0.000 Cl* <50.1 0.1 0.000 Cl* <50.000 Cl* <50.2< pCO2S max <100 0. C90-1.1 pH2S max < 0. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 6.2< pCO2S max <100e 0. T95-1 L80-Mod. C90-1.0035< pH2S max < 0. H2S And Cl* Conditions 0.2< pCO2S max <100e pH2S max <0.A.000 22% Cr.0035< pH2S max < 0. C90-1. T95-1 OCTG Materials For Corrosion By CO2 And Cl* Conditions 0.000 Cl* >50.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 145 OF 295 ENI S.000 Cl* <50. C90-1.000 Cl* >50.000 13% Cr-80KSI Max 22% Cr CW 25% Cr CW 22% Cr 25% Cr 25% Cr 25% Cr CW 25% Cr 25% Cr CW 28% Cr 22% Cr SA 25% Cr SA 28% Cr 28% Cr Alternately 22% Cr 25% Cr FBHT <200 C 150 C< FBHT <200 C 200 C< FBHT <250 C 200 C< FBHT <250 C FBHT <250 C FBHT <250 C 200 C< FBHT <250 C FBHT <200 C FBHT <250 C FBHT <200 C o o o o o o o o o o o o o o Cl* >50. N80.2< pCO2S max <100e 0. T95-1 L80-Mod. K55. N80-2.b below.2< pCO2S max <100e 0.1 pCO2S max <100e 0.0035< pH2S max < 0. OCTG Materials For Corrosion By H2S Only In Oil Wells Conditions 0.2< pCO2S max <100e 0.0035< pH2S max <0.1 0.
000 FBHT <250 C FBHT <250 C o o Cl* <50. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 6.000 Cl* <50.A. H2S And Cl* Conditions pCO2S max <100e pH2S max < 0. Inconel 718 Incoloy 825 Inconel 718 Incoloy 825 Inconel 718 Incoloy 825 Table 6.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 146 OF 295 ENI S.005 pCO2S max <100e pH2S max < 0.DHE Material for Sour Service .000 Cl* >50.000 Cl* <50. DHE Specifications Refer to table 6. Materials For DHE Corrosion By H2S Only In Oil Wells Conditions pH2S max < 0.005 pCO2S max <100e pH2S max <0.000 9% Cr-1Moly 13%-Cr-80KSIMAX 22% Cr 25% Cr 25% Cr Inconel 718 Incoloy 825 22% Cr CW 25% Cr CW 25% Cr CW 25% Cr 28% Cr 22% Cr SA 25% Cr SA 25% Cr SA 28% Cr 28% Cr Alter Or 22% Cr 25% Cr Inconel 718 Incoloy 825 Inconel 718 Incoloy 825 100 C< FBHT <150 C 150 C< FBHT <250 C 200 C< FBHT <250 C 200 C< FBHT <250 C FBHT <200 C o o o o o o o o o Cl* >50.C.000 Cl* <50.000 Cl* <50.1 pH2S max < 0.1 pH2S max < 0.005 pCO2S max <100e pH2S max < 0.c below.1 pH2S max < 0.1 FBHT >80 C FBHT <80 C o o Material AISI-41XX-80KSI-MAX AISI-41XX-HRC-22-MAX AISI-41XX-HRC-22-MAX Alternately Materials For DHE Corrosion By CO2 And Cl* Conditions pCO2S max <100 pCO2S max <100 pCO2S max <100 FBHT <100 C o o 100 C< FBHT <150 C o o 150 C< FBHT <250 C o Material Cl* <50.005 pCO2S max <100e pH2S max <0.005 pCO2S max <100e pH2S max <0.000 Cl* >50.000 Cl* >50.000 Inconel 718 Incoloy 825 Inconel 718 Incoloy 825 Inconel 718 Incoloy 825 Inconel 718 Incoloy 825 22% Cr.005 pCO2S max <100e pH2S max < 0.000 28% Cr Alternately Inconel 718 Incoloy 825 Materials For DHE Corrosion By CO2 .2.8.1 pCO2S max <100e pH2S max <0.1 pH2S max > 0.1 FBHT >80 C o FBHT >80 C o FBHT <65 C o FBHT <65 C o REVISION 0 Material AISI-41XX-110KSI-MAX AISI-41XX-80KSI-MAX AISI-41XX-HRC-22-MAX AISI-41XX-HRC-22-MAX Alternately Materials For DHE Corrosion By H2S Only In Gas Wells Conditions pH2S max < 0.000 Cl* <50.1 pCO2S max <100e pH2S max <1 pCO2S max <100e pH2S max <1 pCO2S max <100e pH2S max <1 FBHT <100 C 100 C< FBHT <150 C 150 C< FBHT <250 C 200 C< FBHT <250 C o o o o o o o Material Cl* <50.000 Cl* <50.p.
Wellhead Materials For Corrosion Caused By H2S Conditions pH2S-MAX > 0.8.035 pH2S-MAX < 0.2<pCO2 Max 100 FTHT < 150 Cl < 50000 pCO2-Max < 100 150 <FTHT <200 Cl.035 pH2S-MAX < 0.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 147 OF 295 ENI S.035 Body Bonnet Flanges AISI-4135HRC-22-MAX AISI-4135 Gate & Seats AISI-4140HRC-22-MAX AISI-4140 Steam AISI-4140HRC-22-MAX AISI-4140 Manual Master-Valve Body Bonnet Flanges AISI-4135HRC-22-MAX AISI-4135 Gate & Seats AISI-4140HRC-22-MAX AISI-4140 Steam AISI-4140 HRC-22-MAX AISI-4140 Wellhead Materials For Corrosion Caused By CO2 and ClConditions 0.3.p.2 < pCO2-Max < 100e FTHT < 150e Cl < 50000 pCO2-Max <100e 150<FTHT< 200e Cl < 50000 - Manual Master-Valve Steam Body Bonnet Flanges 13%-Cr80ksi-Max F6NM AISI-4135-IC Inconel-625 Inconel-718 Gate & Seats 13%-Cr80ksi-Max Steam Monel-K500 17-4-PH Inconel-718 Body Bonnet Flanges 13%-Cr-80ksiMax F6NM AISI-4135-IC Inconel-625 Gate & Seats 13%-Cr-80ksiMax Monel-K500 17-4-PH Inconel -718 Inconel -718 . Wellhead Specifications Refer to below.A.035 Tubing Hanger AISI-4140 HRC-22MAX AISI-4140 Tbg Head Adapter AISI-4135 HRC-22MAX AISI-4135 Tubing Spool AISI-4135 HRC-22MAX AISI-4135 Cross AISI-4135 HRC-22MAX AISI-4135 Top Adapter AISI-4135 HRC-22MAX AISI-4135 Casing Spool AISI-4135 HRC-22MAX AISI-4135 REVISION 0 Stud ASTMA193-B7M ASTMA193-B7M Nut ASTMA194-2M ASTMA194-2H Automatic-Master-Valve Conditions pH2S-MAX> 0. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 6.< 50000 - Tubing Hanger 13%-Cr80ksi-Max F6NM Monel-K500 Inconel-718 Tbg Head Adapter 13%-Cr80ksi-Max F6NM AISI-4135-IC Inconel-625 Tubing Spool AISI-4135 Cross 13%-Cr80ksi-Max F6NM AISI-4135IC Inconel 625 MonelK500 Top Adapter 13%-Cr80ksi-Max F6NM AISI-4135-IC Inconel -625 Monel-K500 Casing Spool Carbon-Steel AISI-41XX AISI-4135 Stud ASTMA193-B7 ASTMA193-B7 Nut ASTMA194-2H ASTMA194-2H AISI-4135 Automatic-Master-Valve Conditions 0.
A.005 FTHT < 150 Cl < 50000 - Tubing Hanger F6NM Tbg Head Adapter 13%-Cr 80ksi-Max F6NM Tubing Spool AISI-4135 HRC-22Max Cross 13%-Cr80ksi-Max F6NM Top Adapter 13%-Cr 80ksi-Max F6NM Casing Spool Stud Nut ASTMA194-2M AISI-4135 ASTMHRC-22-Max A193-B7M pCO2-Max < 100 pH2S-Max < 0.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 148 OF 295 ENI S. CO2 and Cl Condition pCO2 -Max < 100 pH2S-Max < 0.AISI-4135 IC IC HRC-22-Max Inconel625 Inconel718 Inconel625 Inconel718 Inconel718 Inconel718 .2 FTHT < 150 Cl < 50000 pCO2-Max < 100 pH2S-Max <0.2 FTHT < 150 Cl < 50000 F6NM MonelK500 F6NM AISI-4135HRC-22Max F6NM F6NM AISI-4135 ASTMHRC-22-Max A193-B7M ASTMA194-2M ASTMA194-2M pCO2-Max < 100 pH2S-Max < 0.8 - Inconel718 AISI-4135IC Inconel625 AISI-4135 HRC-22Max AISI-4135.AISI-4135.8 Cl > Water 50000 pCO2-Max <100 pH2S-Max e > 0. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 0 REVISION Wellhead Materials For Corrosion Caused By H2S.8 FTHT< 150 Cl < 50000 - F6NM MonelK500 F6NM AISI-4135HRC-22MAX F6NM F6NM AISI-4135HRC-22MAX ASTMA193-B7M ASTMA194-2M MonelK500 ASTMA194-2M Inconel718 AISI-4135IC Inconel625 AISI-4135 HRC-22MAX AISI-4135.p.AISI-4135IC IC Inconel625 MonelK500 Inconel625 MonelK500 AISI-4135 HRC-22MAX MonelK500 pCO2-Max < 100 pH2S-Max <0.
Max < 100 pH2S.8 Cl Water 50000 pCO2.C.D.2 FTHT < 150 Cl < 50000 pCO2.005 FTHT < 150 Cl < 50000 F6NM pCO2.p.I.C. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 0 REVISION Automatic-Master-Valve Conditions Body Bonnet Flanges Gate & Seats 13%-Cr-80 KSIMax Steam 17-4-PH F6NM Manual Master-Valve Body Bonnet Flanges 13%-Cr-80KSIMax F6NM Gate & Seats 13%-Cr80KSI.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 149 OF 295 ENI S. Inconel-625 F6NM Inconel-718 Monel-K500 AISI-4135-I.Max < 100 pH2S.Max < 100 pH2S. pH2S.Max < 2 0.Max < 0.Max < 100 AISI-4135.C.Max < 0.Max Steam 17-4-PH F6NM pCO2 -Max < 100 13%-Cr-80KSIMax pH S.8 FTHT< 150 Cl <50000 - F6NM 13%-Cr-80 KSIMax Stellite-6 Monel-K500 F6NM 13%-Cr80KSI.Max < 0. Inconel-625 F6NM Inconel-718 Monel-K500 pCO2.Wellhead Material for Sour Service .Max e > 0. Inconel-625 Inconel-718 Inconel-718 Inconel-625 Table 6.8 - Inconel-718 Inconel-718 AISI-4135-I.C.Max Stellite--6 Monel-K500 AISI-4135-I.A.
< 50000 ppm 25 % Cr-CW 200 < FBHT <= 250 Cl.p.<= 50000 ppm 13% Cr 150 > FBHT <= 200 C Cl.CW 25 % Cr -CW 150 < FBHT <= 200 C Cl.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 150 OF 295 ENI S.825 FBHT<= 250 C Cl.<= 50000 ppm 25 % Cr-SA or 28 % Cr INCOLOY.<= 50000 ppm 22% Cr 200<FBHT<=250 C 25% Cr-SA or 25% Cr FBHT<= 250 C and Cl.C 90 T1 T 95 T1 10-2 C.825 FBHT < 200 C 28 % Cr or INCOLOY-825 (*) FBHT<= 150 C Cl.<= 20000 ppm 25% Cr-CW FBHT<=250 C and Cl.> 50000 ppm 28 % Cr INCOLOY.> 50000 ppm 22 % Cr.STEEL J 55 N 80 P 110 FBHT >80 C J55 K55 N80-1 C95 P110-1 (only oil) or L80 mod C90 T1 LOW ALLOY STEEL L 80 mod C 90 T1 C 95 T1 10-3 65 < FBHT<= 80C J 55 K 55 N80-1 or L 80 mod C90 T1 T 95 T1 10-4 10-4 10-3 10-2 10-1 1 10 100 pH2S (atm) Figure 6.E .A.OCTG Material Selection Diagram .> 50000 ppm 25 % Cr-CW (*) 1 10-1 FBHT < = 65 C L 80 or L 80 mod.<= 50000 ppm 25% Cr-CW 200<FBHT<=250 C and Cl.825 FBHT <= 250 C Cl.> 50000 ppm 28 % Cr or INCOLOY.825 10 FBHT <= 200 C Cl-<=50000 ppm 22 % Cr-SA or 25 % Cr-SA 28 % Cr INCOLOY. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 0 REVISION 100 pCO2 (atm) FBHT <= 150 C and Cl.<= 50000 ppm 13 % Cr 80 Ksi max or 22 % Cr 25 % Cr FBHT <= 200 C Cl.< 50000 ppm 22 % Cr 25 % Cr 200 < FBHT <= 250 C Cl.
825 INCONEL 718 FBHT < 200 C 28 % Cr or INCOLOY 825 INCONEL 718 (*) 150 < FBHT <= 200 C Cl.A.F .<= 50000 ppm 9 Cr 1 Mo 100 < FBHT <= 150 C Cl.> 50000 ppm 25 % Cr INCONEL 718 INCOLOY 825 10-1 FBHT < = 65 C AISI 41XX 22 HRC max 10-2 C-STEEL or AISI 41XX 65 < FBHT <=80 C C-STEEL 80 Ksi max AISI 41XX FBHT > 80 C C-STEEL 110 Ksi max AISI 41XX 100 < FBHT <= 200 C Cl.> 50000 ppm 22 % Cr-CW 25 % Cr-CW INCONEL 718 INCOLOY 825 AISI 41XX 22 HRC max 10-3 200 > FBHT <= 250 C Cl.> 50000 ppm 28 % Cr INCOLOY.p.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 151 OF 295 ENI S.<= 50000 ppm 25 % Cr or INCONEL 718 INCOLOY 825 FBHT <= 200 C Cl-<=50000 ppm 22 % Cr-SA 25 % Cr-SA 28 % Cr INCOLOY 825 INCONEL 718 200 < FBHT <= 250 C Cl.> 50000 ppm 28 % Cr or INCONEL 718 INCOLOY 825 1 200 < FBHT <= 250 C Cl.<= 50000 ppm 22 % Cr 25 % Cr INCONEL 718 INCOLOY 825 10 (*) 200 < FBHT<=250 C Cl.> 50000 ppm 25 % Cr-CW INCONEL 718 INCOLOY 825 10-4 10-4 10-3 10-2 10-1 1 10 100 pH2S (atm) Figure 6.DHE Material Selection Diagram .<= 50000 ppm 25 % Cr-SA 28 % Cr INCOLOY 825 INCONEL 718 FBHT<= 250 C Cl. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 0 REVISION 100 pCO2 (atm) FBHT <= 100 C Cl.<= 50000 ppm 13 % Cr 80 ksi max 150 > FBHT<= 250 C 25% Cr-CW or 25% Cr INCONEL 718 INCOLOY 825 200 < FBHT<= 250 C Cl.
P105 or P110 tubulars are not acceptable for orders for J55 or K55 casing.p. The pipe must be tested to the alternative test pressure (see API Bulletins 5A and 5AC). Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 6. normalising and tempering). (This treatment is superior to tubulars heated/treated by other methods. in addition to those given in the above table. 6) 7) Note: The casing should also meet the following criteria: • • The steel used in the manufacture of the casing should have been quenched and tempered. . Three copies of a report showing the physical properties of the goods supplied and the results of hardness tests (Refer to step 3 above) must be submitted. All sour service casing should be inspected using non-destructive testing or impact tests only. Shell modified API thread compound must be used. 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) Downgraded grade N80. The couplings must have the same heat treatment as the pipe body. together with all the check analyses performed. the following specifications should be included.g.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 152 OF 295 ENI S. Recommendations for casing to be used for sour service must be specified according to the API 5CT for restricted yield strength casings. as per API Specification 5CT. Three copies of the report providing the ladle analysis of each heat used in the manufacture of the goods shipped. all markings must be paint stencilled or hot die stamped.9. must be submitted. e. Cold die stamping is prohibited.A. ORDERING SPECIFICATIONS 0 REVISION When ordering tubulars for sour service.
preferably using an appropriate up to date computer programme. Tubing movement occurs due to only two reasons: • • Temperature changes Change in pressure induced forces. THEORY During completion tubing design process. To fully understand these effects.p.6). This relationship is fully explained in section 7. Currently Eni-Agip Division and Affiliates recommended programme is the Enertech WS-Tube programme to the latest version. it is necessary to calculate the variations in length for the stresses applied under load conditions. the SFs may be reduced. Tubing size shall be determined by the reservoir engineers using IPR curves and Nodal analysis (Refer to section 5. If the stress SF is less than these limits. .25 applies to the ratio of the calculated stress in a string to the minimum yield strength of the selected tubing in carbon steels. refer to the criteria in section 7. If the tubing is not free to move and is anchored to a packer then stress will be subjected to the tubing string and packer.A. it is first necessary to understand the properties of steels used in the manufacture of tubing.35 applies to the ratio of the calculated stress in a string to the minimum yield strength of the selected tubing of CRA materials. 7. Movement can only occur if the tubing is free to move.10.10 Stress Calculations.2. All tubing strings should be designed for stress.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 153 OF 295 ENI S. TUBING DESIGN POLICIES All completion tubing strings will have tubing movement calculations conducted to ascertain the maximum load applied to the string and/or completion tubing movement to be catered for in the completion design. Under some special conditions. A safety factor (SF) of 1.1. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 0 REVISION 7. 7. the calculation should be run again substituting. Tubing movement upwards (contraction) is assumed to be negative and downwards (lengthening) is positive. either a heavier weight or. a higher grade of pipe. When these have been determined it will confirm the suitability of the selected tubing.2. A safety factor (SF) of 1.
corrosion.A. compression and shear. and if fracture occurs with little or no plastic deformation. yield. the shattering of glass).p.1.b.2. and the slope of this line.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 154 OF 295 ENI S. In this. both are explained in figure 7. the material behaves elastically. deformation. The action of a material under the gradually increasing extension in the tension test is usually represented by plotting apparent stress (the total load divided by the original cross-sectional area of the test piece) as ordinates against the apparent strain (elongation between two gauge points marked on the test piece divided by the original gauge length) as abscissae. These failures are failures of the material. A typical curve for steel is shown in figure 7. sometimes called Young's Modulus. but the tension test is the most common and is qualitatively characteristic of all the other types of tests. As load is applied.a. Buckling may cause failure of the part without any fracture of the material. wear. deformation takes place before any final fracture occurs.A . or the ratio of stress to strain within the elastic range. Tests of materials may be conducted in many different ways. With all solid materials.. and other causes. such as by torsion.Stress-Strain Curve for Tubing Steel . Figure 7. some deformation may be sustained without permanent deformation. i. Mechanical Properties of Steel 0 REVISION Failure of a material or of a structural part may occur by fracture (e. it is classed as a ductile material. This gives rise to Poisson’s Ratio. or permanent. the elastic deformation is approximately a straight line as called for by Hooke's Law. the material is classed as brittle.g.e. is the modulus of elasticity E. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 7. Beyond the elastic limit. If a material sustains large amounts of plastic deformation before final fracture. the elastic deformation is accompanied by varying amounts of plastic.
permanent or plastic strain occurs. see figure 7. leaving a permanent set. Figure 7.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 155 OF 295 ENI S.p.a. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 0 REVISION Beyond the elastic limit.Deformation Constants for Tubing Steel .A. If the stress is released in the region between the elastic limit and the yield strength.B . the material will contract along a line generally nearly straight and parallel to the original elastic line.
Depending on the type or grade.6% of the gauge length. Similar arbitrary rules are followed with regard to the elastic limit in commercial practice. The mechanical and chemical properties of casing. e. and in the case of the yield point even maximum requirements (except for H-40). 5AC. This gives rise to a dip in the general curve followed by a period of deformation at approximately constant load.min.c. The denominations of the different grades are based on the minimum yield strength. tubing and drill pipe are laid down in API specification of further specs. Instead of determining the stress up to which there is no permanent set.000 psi.000 psi. it is customary to designate the end of the straight portion of the curve (by definition the proportional limit) as the elastic limit. the material becomes stronger causing a rise of the curve. 5AX and 5AQ . yield strength 40.2% is widely accepted in the industry).g. 5A. API specifies the yield strength as the tensile strength required to produce a total elongation of 0. but at the same time the cross-sectional area of the specimen becomes less as it is drawn out.: H-40 .4.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 156 OF 295 ENI S. it is customary to measure a yield strength. the yielding phenomenon is less prominent and is correspondingly harder to measure. As extension continues beyond yielding. The lines indicating equivalent hardness of 22 and 23 Rc indicates the tolerances for use of the materials in H2S conditions according to NACE which is fully described in section 7. yield strength 80. known as yielding.min. The maximum stress reached in this region is called the upper yield point and the lower part of the yielding region the lower yield point. L-80 . Others are shown in figure 7. The stress at the maximum point is called the tensile strength or the ultimate strength of the material and is its most often quoted property.5% to 0. For steels used in the manufacturing of tubular goods.9. yield strength 55. 5CT which is a combination of former specs. In materials that do not exhibit a marked yield point. This loss of area weakens the specimen so that the curve reaches a maximum and then falls off until final fracture occurs.000 psi.A. and under certain conditions of temperature. Careful practice qualifies this by designating it the proportional elastic limit. J-55 .Casing and Tubing requirements.min. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 0 REVISION In steels. minimum requirements are laid down for the mechanical properties. as required by definition.p. In the harder and stronger steels. This is arbitrarily defined as the stress at which the material has a specified permanent set (the value of 0. . a curious phenomenon occurs after the elastic limit.
Strengths of Various Grades of Steel .p. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 0 REVISION Figure 7.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 157 OF 295 ENI S.C .A.
in this case. There are three methods in which tubing is connected to the packer: a) b) c) Tubing is fully free to move either way.2 will expand or contract due to changes in temperature or pressure induced forces. then the tubing is unable to move as it can in the free movement scenario and. If the tubing is attached to a packer.3ft = total 9ft.p.A. i. If the tubing is free to move then the calculations will determine the maximum expansion or contraction which needs to be catered for by the utilisation of a tubing movement compensation system such as a packer and seal unit. an object will expand or contract through temperature change by the Co-efficient of thermal expansion for the type of material. e. a PBR. which is the ‘initial’ tubing condition. with a calculated movement of + 6ft and . The tubing is connected to the packer by being threaded to. These devices are usually available in 10ft stroke lengths or multiples of 10ft.2. a PBR. a TSR or travel joint (Refer to figure 7. 20ft and 30ft. All subsequent changes in temperature or pressure induced forces are calculated form this initial condition. The movement determined by calculation should be used to select a device which accommodates this movement with a margin of error. For a given volume.2. Calculations must be conducted to establish the full tubing movement in order that the length of tubing movement device can be determined.g. unless the movement was subsequently restricted as described in the next section. changes in tubing stress will be exerted.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 158 OF 295 ENI S. a) Free Movement The tubing is free to move fully upwards or downwards using the packer bore with a seal assembly. All metals have a particular expansion rate which is termed the ‘Coefficient of thermal expansion’. 7.e.3.d below). ELTSR or a travel joint depending on which type of packer system is utilised. the packer -6 Further explanation of these three modes are explained below.2. 10ft.9 x 10 in/in/F°. Tubing Movement/Stress Relationship Steel tubing.2. Temperature 0 REVISION Temperature changes cause expansion and contraction in metals which is a significant factor in tubing strings. or latched to. The tubing is positioned where it is fully free to move upwards but its downward movement is restricted and stress applied to the packer. The co-efficient of liner expansion for tubular steels is usually 6. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 7. as seen in the previous section 7. a 20ft device should be selected as a 10ft device would not provide enough contingency for error. . This may increase or decrease the stress already exerted to the tubing when it was installed.
it will result in increased tensional and compressive forces. This additional stress will be calculated during the tubing movement calculations and must not exceed the stress limit for the tubing.e). c) Anchored Tubing In this case the tubing is anchored to the packer by being threaded to it (as in the case when using retrievable packers) or by using an anchoring device such as an Anchor Latch.E .Limited Movement Figure 7. (Refer to figure 7.F .A. the calculations will determine that the tubing stress limit is not exceeded. This may be acceptable when temperature and pressure changes are not excessive. This restricted downward movement results in further stress applied to the bottom of the tubing and.Anchored Tubing .p. Ratchet Latch.D . etc. correspondingly to the packer. Figure 7. otherwise permanent deformation will occur. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 b) Limited Downward Movement 0 REVISION In this case the tubing is fully free to move upwards but is restricted in its downward movement (Refer to figure 7. Similarly. When the tubing is anchored to the packer and movement is eliminated.f). hence increased stress in the tubing.Free Moving Figure 7.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 159 OF 295 ENI S.
3.1). Temperatures (Static and Flowing) Accurate well temperature data are vital in tubing movement/stress analysis as the temperature effect is usually the effect which causes the greatest tubing movement.3. The average temperature of each section of tubing and casing must be known or determined to input into the calculations. WELL DATA.3.1. hence. Deviation tables are also required. The tubing grade is selected in accordance to the criteria listed in section 6 to combat the effects of any corrosion from the well conditions. 0 REVISION The well data and parameters required (or already determined) to produce an accurate tubing movement/stress analysis and. straight pull or torque can be applied to the tubing downhole at the packer depth overcoming any frictional drag. Tubing Data The optimum tubing size.3. The tubing movement/stress calculations will then determine the tubing weight or any change in grade required to meet with the applied SF for stress. . 7. weight and grade is confirmed then the appropriate rated completion components can be specified in order that the purchasing department can prepare tender documents. Casing Profile/Geometry The planned casing design and contingency plans are required as they affect the tubing movement calculations (Refer to 4.3. Each casing or liner weight and corresponding length of section must be known to enable calculation. determined by nodal analysis conducted by the reservoir engineers. Once the tubing size. 7. The well deviation is also important to determine the type of packer/tubing seal device and/or tubing movement device to ensure that. These pressures can be obtained from previous well exploration test data or appraisal well test reports. 7.1. Casing design profile Casing programme contingency profile Tubing size from optimisation analysis Pressure gradient Temperature gradient Reservoir fluids specific gravities Completion fluid specific gravities Production/injection or stimulation forecast.3.A. selection of a tubing are: • • • • • • • • 7. Bottom-hole Pressure Accurate initial and prognosed future formation pressures both static and dynamic are fundamental to tubing movement/stress calculations.p. either.4. temperature data may be found from previous well test results. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 7.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 160 OF 295 ENI S.2. is required and is the basis of all the calculations. Similar to the pressure data.
. Completion Fluid The completion fluid.3. It should be selected to provide an overbalance at the top of the reservoir. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 7. this is referred to as the initial condition.3. however if this choice is not economic and some corrosion inhibition process was suitable then this would be a fallback position. it will have completion fluid in both the tubing and the annulus. PRESSURE INDUCED FORCES When a well is completed.A. The information required to make a considered selection may be obtained from the ADIS (Advanced Drilling Information System) database (which holds all the data regarding the drilling of the well). Ballooning effect. these corrosive agents can cause serious problems. All subsequent conditions are calculated from this initial condition. Carbon Dioxide and Chloride levels. These are three pressure induced effects which produce forces that moves the tubing.p. If justified economically. therefore it is essential that a detailed corrosion study is completed to enable the choice of materials and/or inhibition procedures. Each of these effects are addressed in this section. usually a brine. the material chosen should combat the effects of corrosion. 7. well tests carried out earlier and other sources which may be useful in the decision making process. Particular importance should be paid to Hydrogen Sulphide. As the completion fluid (sometimes referred to as the packer fluid) will be left in the annulus. Reservoir Fluids 0 REVISION As described earlier. either with a tubing seal unit in a packer bore or a tubing movement device. the constituents of the produced reservoir fluids will initially determine the material required for the tubing. Future parameters must also be considered as water may rise and the GOR will change. It also must be selected for its stability over long time periods and not suffer from dehydration or deterioration.5. 7.4.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 161 OF 295 ENI S. Buckling effect. it should be suitably dosed with corrosion inhibitors and oxygen scavenger to prevent corrosion to the exposed tubulars and elastomers. is chosen for its compatibility with the formation and its fluids so as not to cause any formation damage. In the presence of water and under certain temperature conditions.6. therefore the materials should be chosen to last the planned life of the completion. This is subject to any corrosion inhibition methods which may be implemented. These effects are: a) b) c) Piston effect.
This tensile load is greatest in the joint immediately below the tubing hanger. when run in a well must first withstand the load of its own weight which may be a significant factor especially in deep wells. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 7. The change in length due to these alterations is calculated from Hooks Law: Where E is the modulus of elasticity (sometimes referred to as a Young’s Modulus formula).A Substituting for F. the equation becomes: ∆L1 = − where: L EAs [(Ap − A1) ∆P1 − (Ap − Ao ) ∆Po] Eq.1. 7. tubing larger than the packer bore.h illustrate this piston force for two cases.4. 7. If there is an alteration from this initial condition causing a change in pressure forces across the packer seal unit then a piston effect is caused. Piston Effect 0 REVISION Tubing.7 and figure 7. The tubing is run into a completion fluid with equivalent fluid density inside and outside the tubing which results in a reduction of the load due to buoyancy.p. The formula in each case is the same: ∆L1 = − L F EAs Eq.A. and tubing smaller than the packer bore. This will alter the tensile load on the top and bottom of the tubing. The force (F) change is caused by the change in piston force from the initial conditions created by a change in pressure in the annulus or tubing at the packer. 7.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 162 OF 295 ENI S.B L E As Ap Ai Ao ∆Pi ∆Po = = = = = = = = Length of the tubing string to the packer depth (ins) Young’s Modulus of Elasticity (psi) 2 Cross sectional area of tubing (ins ) 2 Area of the packer bore (ins ) 2 Area of the tubing ID (ins ) 2 Area of the tubing OD (ins ) Change in tubing pressure at the packer (psi) Change in annulus pressure at the packer (psi) .
ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 163 OF 295 ENI S.Packer Bore Smaller Than Tubing OD Helical buckling is initiated by compressive force acting on the bottom of the tubing and is the formation of helical spirals in the tubing string.p. The helix shown in figure 7.2.i has a variable pitch as the compressive force is progressively lowered by the weight of the pipe hanging below. The exact point between the buckled and straight sections is the ‘neutral point’ (Refer to figure 7. Buckling Effect Figure 7. The neutral point can be calculated from the following: n= where: W Wi Wo = = = F w Ws + Wi .Packer Bore Larger Than Tubing OD 7.A. some of the tubing will be buckled and the rest straight. The buckling effect is greater when pressure differential is applied across the pipe. 7.i).Wo Ai x Weight of fluid inside the tubing Ao x Weight of fluid outside the tubing Eq.4. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 0 REVISION Ao Ai Ao Ai r r Po Po Ap Pi Ap Pi Figure 7.H .C .G . Unless the tubing string is short or the compressive force is exceedingly high.
A.i) can be calculated by the following formula: F2 r2 ∆L2 = − 8EI w where: Eq.D I= π (D 4 − d 4 ) 64 .I .ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 164 OF 295 ENI S. the length reduction due to helical buckling (Refer to figure 7. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 0 REVISION Figure 7.p.Neutral Point When the neutral point is within the tubing length (and so the helix can fully develop). 7.
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F Figure 7.J - Helical Buckling If the tubing is very short (as happens for example on selective type completions between two packer’s) all the string may be affected by buckling and there is no neutral point. In this case, the length reduction due to the buckling effect is dependant upon the entire length of the string and can be calculated by the following formula:
∆L2 = −
F 2 r 2 Lw Lw F 2 − F 8 EIw
As seen, the formulae for both piston effect and helicoidal buckling above has so far used F, i.e. the change in the piston force acting on the bottom of the tubing. However, in order to complete the understanding of the effects which lead to variations in length due to buckling, we must also consider the effect caused by pressure differential across a pipe. If the internal pressure in a pipe is greater than the external pressure, the tube remains straight only if it has an axially symmetric cross-section with no deformation to change its shape. This configuration is unstable and any distortion can lead immediately to a stable equilibrium condition which is helicoidal buckling. Helicoidal buckling is caused by the effect of the pressure which acts on the lateral surface of the pipe wall as the convex surface of the bend in a greater force is larger than the concave surface (Refer to figure 7.k). The internal pressure will therefore exert a greater force on the convex side of the helix, than that exerted on the concave section of the same bend. The resulting force will, therefore, create the helicoidal buckling configuration. The same occurs when the stable external pressure is greater than the internal pressure also resulting in helical buckling.
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Moreover, the effect of the external pressure on the tubing lateral surfaces is equivalent to a tensile force applied at the tubing bottom of:
F f = Ai Pi
= − Ao Po
Figure 7.K - Pressure Induced Helical Buckling Effect From this it can be concluded that the effect of the internal pressure on the tubing lateral surfaces is equivalent to a compressive force applied at the bottom of the tubing. Therefore the tubing will be buckled by the piston force and by the sum of Ff and Ff . The fictitious force Ff is obtained from the sum of the three elements:
Ff = Ff + Ff
F f = A p (Pi − Po )
If Ff is greater than zero it will cause helical buckling and hence, if it is less than zero there is no deformation. It is however important to relate that the only force actually applied at the bottom of the tubing is the piston force, while the fictitious force is used only to calculate the buckling effect.
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It should be remembered that, to calculate the variations in length, the variations of the forces compared to initial conditions must be calculated. Therefore, to sum up: in the ∆L1 (Hooke’s law), the variation of the piston force Fa must be used; in the ∆L2 (buckling), the variation of the fictitious force Ff must be used when this is positive, otherwise, being a tensile force, it cannot buckle the string and ∆L2 = 0. The theory above was developed considering Pi = Po in the initial conditions, it thus follows that the Ff is equal to zero and that the variation of fictitious force ∆Ff is therefore equal to the final fictitious force. 7.4.3. Ballooning Effect The third element which changes the length of a string, due to the changes to internal and external pressure, is caused by ballooning. This effect occurs when ∆P = Pi - Po is positive and tends to swell the tubing which, contracts axially or shortens (Refer to figure 7.m). On the other hand, when ∆P = Pi - Po is negative, the tubing is squeezed and, expands axially or elongates. This is termed reverse ballooning (Refer to figure 7.l). The normally used simplified formula to calculate the ballooning or reverse ballooning effect is: • •
∆L3 = −
2ν ∆Pim − R 2 ∆Pom L E R2 −1
In this the average internal and external pressure variations are defined by the formulae:
+ Pi ( final ) − Pi (initial ) Pi ( final ) − Pi (initial ) tophole bottomhole ∆Pim = 2
+ Po ( final ) − Po (initial ) Po ( final ) − Po (initial ) tophole bottomhole ∆Pom = 2
Eq. 7.L Again this is developed from Hooke’s law using Young’s Modulus of elasticity (already used in the piston and buckling effect) and Poisson’ ratio. Poisson’s ratio v as earlier expressed is:
∆t / t ∆L / L
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Figure 7.L - Reverse Ballooning 7.4.4. Temperature Effect
Figure 7.M - Ballooning
The final effect considered when calculating tubing length variations, is the temperature effect which usually induces the largest movement. During a well operation, e.g. stimulation, the temperature of the tubing may be much less than that in, either, the initial or flow rate conditions. During well stimulations, significant quantities of fluids are pumped through the tubing at ambient surface temperature which may change the temperature of the tubing by several degrees. The formula used to calculate the change of length due to temperature effect is:
∆L4 = α ∆TM L
Eq. 7.M where the average temperature variation in the string can be calculated as follows:
− Tinitial )tophole + (T final − Tinitial )bottomhole 2
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In the formula α represents the material’s coefficient of thermal expansion. For steel this value is: α = 6.9 x 10-6 in/in/°F. figure 7.n shows typical geothermal temperature gradients during both stimulation and production conditions. It can be seen that the temperature variations to which the tubing is subjected may cause considerable changes to its length.
300 T (°F)
7500 D (feet)
Figure 7.N - Typical Geothermal Gradients 7.5. EVALUATION OF TOTAL TUBING MOVEMENT The sum of the length changes obtained from the changes in pressure induced forces and temperature effects, gives the total shift of the bottom end of the string at the packer depth where it is free to move in the packer-bore. This sum is calculated:
∆Ltot = ∆L1 + ∆L2 + ∆L3 + ∆L4
Eq. 7.O With free moving packer/tubing seals systems, the calculations are made for the selection of an appropriate length of seal assembly, PBR or ELTSR with anchored packer/tubing systems, this same calculation can be made to select the length of tubing movement devices such as telescopic or expansion joints. However, if no movement is converted to stress in the tubing, the resultant is stress on the packer (Refer to section 7.6).
once this force is known. it is possible to use a graphical approach.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 170 OF 295 ENI S. ANCHORED TUBING 0 REVISION In some completions the tubing is firmly fixed to the packer.A. In this situation the tubing-packer forces generated by the presence of the anchoring must be determined so as to be able to confirm if the tubing-packer anchoring system and the packer have sufficient strength to safely withstand all the forces exerted.p where it is presumed that the tubing can move away from its anchored condition while maintaining the seal with the packer and that the tubing undergoes only ∆L4 contraction caused by the temperature effect. consider figure 7. the load on the tubing can be calculated to check if the completion components have sufficient strength.O . the force needed to re-anchor the tubing to the packer can be determined. Moreover.6. To understand this concept better. . Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 7. Figure 7. Subsequently.Tubing Anchored To Packer The tubing-packer force can be calculated by initially assuming that the tubing is free to move in the packer seal-bore and it is possible to calculate the final total length change of the tubing under pressure and temperature variations of all conditions.P However. all the movement is linear and to restore to the tubing’s real anchored position.p. 7. it is sufficient to impose a ∆L4 elongation by applying a force FP which is obtained from Hooke’s law: ∆L = − FL EAs ⇒ FP = − ∆L4 EAs L Eq.o). in general the problem of identifying the tubing/packer reaction is not linear due to the helical buckling effect and so. Since no force is applied at the end of the tubing which could cause buckling. preventing any movement of the string when well conditions vary (figure 7.
if a force of Ff.Graphical Representation Of Movement . even when this is negative. transferred between the tubing and packer.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 171 OF 295 ENI S. so to position the tubing in the packer after contracting the string must be elongated accordingly. On the curve given in figure 7. 7.∆Lf) and the diagram obtained has a total length variation of ∆LP = -∆ltot. on the curve. is then identified. Indeed. This can be plotted using the following formulae: ∆L = − ∆L = − FL EAs FL F 2 r 2 − EAs 8 EIw ( for F < 0 ) ( for F > 0 ) Eq. radial distance between the tubing OD and casing ID and on the fluids in the well. the cause of the buckling would be eliminated and the neutral point would return to the bottom in the tubing. was applied at the end of the tubing.q the Fp force.p is determined by the size of tubing. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 0 REVISION The first step is to plot the characteristic strength/length variation of the system. ∆Lf).P .A. This curve.p. ∆L4 Fp ∆L ∆L4 Fp F Figure 7. the tubing representative point in the well when it is subjected to the fictitious force.Q The second step is to identify. As shown in figure 7. The origin of the axis moves to the point found in this way (Ff . on the material. shown in figure 7.q this condition is identified by intersection point (Ff.
putting the tubing into compression or slackened-off (Refer to figure 7.6. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 0 REVISION ∆Lp Fp ∆L Fp ∆Lf ∆Lp F Ff Figure 7.A.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 172 OF 295 ENI S. after the packer is set.Graphical Representation of Force 7. In this method.Q . some of the weight of the string is set down on the packer.1.p. Tubing Permitting Limited Motion Another method which may be used in some types of completions is that the tubing is fully or partially limited in downhole movement. .r).
∆Ltot. on the other hand. for example. makes it possible to limit the length variations of the string. The same considerations can be made if ∆Ltot < 0 during the operation while. therefore.R . i. compressing the string and thus causing part of the length variation which would occur in any case at a later stage due to the effects described above.Limited Downward Movement The shortening of the string caused by this.A. . ∆Pso.g. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 0 REVISION Figure 7. e. applying slack-off is the same as moving the packer upwards by ∆Lso. in an injection operation. therefore.p.R where: Fso = slack-off force released on the packer. is decreased by ∆Lso. possible to limit the movements of the tubing with respect to the packer and consequently the length of the packer seal-assembly. If an anchored type constraint is considered then the tubing-packer force with respect to the anchored tubing can be reduced. causing a force on the packer which would be equal to that of the slack-off amount. With this type of anchoring it is.e. The ∆Lso value is determined using the following formula: 2 Fso L Fso r 2 ∆Lso = − − E As 8 E I w Eq.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 173 OF 295 ENI S. any elongation of the string would be prevented. 7. the total length variation calculated as the sum of the above described effects. In practice. during an injection operation.
This involves applying predetermined test pressures to both the tubing and annulus.p. This in turn places stress in the tubing after the packer is set and the pressure is bled off. or by installing a plug with wireline. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 7. 7. These should be seen only as an example of load conditions as each case must be addressed individually as planned operations may vary. It is therefore obvious why. During the time taken to install the tubing. it is essential to identify exactly what operations will be carried out in future to determine the consequent loads and thus the associated load conditions.6. to analyse the characteristics of each operation in order to be able to identify the heavier loads which may be imposed. This stress needs to be taken into account to determine the total stress applied to the tubing.2. in any case. Hydraulic packers are set by plugging the tubing below the packer either by dropping a setting ball onto a shear out ball seat. as pressure is applied to the tubing to set the packer. temperature and mechanical loads for each condition imposed. The formulae for determine this tubing length change are: ∆Fa L EAs 2ν ∆Pim ∆L3 = − L E R2 −1 ∆L1 = − where: (Hooke’s law) (ballooning) ∆Fa = − Ai ∆Pi and ∆Pim=∆Pi 7. the completion will have warmed up to ambient well conditions.7.1. However. Pressure Testing The very first load condition experienced during and after the installation of the completion string is pressure testing. This may be of particular concern when using large bore tubing movement devices as the forces generated by the test pressure are greater than packer tubing seal arrangements. A manual or computer programme is then used to calculate and then ascertain whether the given tubing is able to withstand the maximum load with an acceptable safety level. when selecting the type of tubing for a completion. it changes the length of the tubing during the setting process.A. It is important. The operations normally carried out on a well for which the string control is necessary are illustrated below.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 174 OF 295 ENI S. therefore the only load applied is the pressure induced forces of piston effect buckling and ballooning. the designed test pressures should be equal to or greater than any other subsequent pressures applied to the completion so the magnitude is high.7. . TUBING LOAD CONDITIONS The load conditions of the tubing string during the well’s life causes stresses through the pressure. These pressures may be applied more than once during the installation operation. Packer Setting 0 REVISION A particular problem arises in tubing tied to packer completions when using hydraulic set packers.
With regard to the stresses on the string similar to acid stimulations. and decreasing the bottom hole pressure thus reducing the load. the formation must be pressurised until one (or more) fractures are created. The pressures which can be attained. This operation is carried out by pumping a predetermined quantity of acid down the tubing to the formation at set pressures and flow rates.7. At times during these early stages. Fracturing Fracturing involves the propagation of fractures in the formation for the improvement of productivity of hydrocarbons.7. the maximum pressure able to be applied at the well head must be considered in order to determine the rate of acid which can be applied. together with the temperature variations caused by the injection of colder fluid. Acid Stimulation 0 REVISION Acid jobs are carried out to remove formation damage caused during drilling by the invasion of fluids and cuttings or to stimulate the formation by improving permeability. . From the point of view of the stresses exerted on the tubing string.A. The calculated flow rate is applied during the operation and the pressure trend (which usually decreases when the fracture is created due to the reduction of load losses in the formation) is monitored. are higher than that during acid jobs.3. according to the classical Lubinsky theory. to reduce the loads on the tubing by preheating the acid in order to limit the thermal expansion and pressurising the annulus to reduce the tubing ballooning effect. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 7. It is important to monitor the pressure and temperature trends during the operation as the acid rate will probably increase due to the effect of the acid on the formation. 7. it is important to assess the drop in temperature caused by the injection of colder fluid which. To carry out fracturing. This entails obtaining in advance the injection parameters from various injectivity tests with increasing flow rates.2. To check the string design is suitable.p.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 175 OF 295 ENI S. It may be necessary in some cases. especially during the early injection stage. This may lead to greater cooling down of the tubing with reduced pressures. in Eni-Agip Division and Affiliates case are in-house software which allows reproduction of the correct temperature trend. This equipment must therefore be protected using special isolating tools or protection sleeves. is carried out at high flow rates even though of short duration. figure 7. using computer programmes. Other data are often needed for more complex calculations. which. the pressure and temperature trends can be plotted as shown by the previous example of the acid stimulation (figure 7. in order to exceed the fracturing gradient.s). Friction reducers may also be used to increase flow at the same wellhead pressure.s shows the pressure and temperature trends required to be known so as to ensure stress control of the string. the maximum allowable pressure for some well head equipment may be reached. These fractures reach from the well bore deep into reservoir and allows better drainage. selecting the end of the operation as the final conditions but with a well head pressure equal to the maximum estimated.
a significant break-down is forecast (by a marked reduction of pressure when the fracture is opened up in the formation). and the second with marked temperature variations and lower pressures.S . 0 0 100 200 300 T (°F) INITIAL CSG AND TBG .p. The latter condition may be too conservative.Pressure and Temperature Trends During Fracturing . Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 0 REVISION If during the initial stages of the operation. therefore two conditions should be checked.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 176 OF 295 ENI S.A.FINAL CSG 2500 FINAL TBG 5000 7500 D (feet) 0 0 5000 FINAL CSG 10000 FINAL TBG 15000 P (psi) 2500 5000 INITIAL TBG INITIAL CSG 7500 D (feet) Figure 7. the first with high pressures without temperature variations.
t and figure 7. This shut-in operation involves closing the well during which the well head pressure increases because the reservoir pressure rises to static condition.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 177 OF 295 ENI S.7.A. external pressure may be greater than internal pressure. making it necessary to ensure a collapse control of some sections. figure 7.g.u. Compared to the initial condition. This load condition is considered critical as. the temperature of the string does not vary greatly due to the thermal inertia of the well. Different production situations will occur which cause changing load conditions.p. the string undergoes temperature increases which cause elongation in the string. Flowing 0 REVISION In this case it is not an operation carried out on the well but the normal flowing load conditions to which the string is being subjected. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 7. As shown in the diagrams of figure 7. temperature differences between the beginning and end of the productive life or the need to increase or decrease the flow rate for reasons external to the well. 7. or at least approximate. pressuring up the fluids in the tubing.7. It is therefore very important to establish. e. the pressure and temperature profiles during the life of the well. Shut-In Once a well is in production. The resulting compressive forces may lead to the buckling phenomena and even cause the tubing to exceed its elastic limit. at the moment of shut-in.4. . it is necessary to interrupt production for maintenance or in order to take some data measurements.5. which give the pressure and temperature bottom hole trends as a function of the depth at production start up and when the reservoir is depleted.u shows typical pressure and temperature trends after a shut-in. The situation is now similar to that during production but with well head pressures which are greater and hence increase the stresses on the string.
p.A.Pressure and Temperature Trends in Normal Production Conditions .ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 178 OF 295 ENI S.FINAL CSG 7500 D (feet) Figure 7.T . Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 0 REVISION 0 0 100 200 300 T (°F) 2500 FINAL TBG 5000 INITIAL CSG E TBG .FINAL CSG 7500 D (feet) 0 0 5000 10000 15000 P (psi) 2500 FINAL TBG INITIAL TBG 5000 INITIAL CSG .
U .Pressure and Temperature Trends in Depleted Reservoir Production Conditions 0 0 100 200 300 T (°F) 2500 FINAL TBG 5000 INITIAL CSG E TBG . Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 0 REVISION Figure 7.FINAL CSG 7500 D (feet) .A.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 179 OF 295 ENI S.p.FINAL CSG 7500 D (feet) 0 0 5000 FINAL TBG 10000 15000 P (psi) 2500 INITIAL TBG 5000 INITIAL CSG .
V .ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 180 OF 295 ENI S.FINAL CSG 7500 D (feet) Figure 7.CSG FINAL 7500 D (feet) 0 0 5000 10000 15000 P (psi) FINAL TBG 2500 INITIAL TBG 5000 INITIAL CSG .p.Pressure and Temperature Trends After Shut-In .A. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 0 REVISION 0 0 100 200 300 T (°F) 2500 FINAL TBG 5000 INITIAL CSG AND TBG .
In both cases the problem of completing the well is solved but it is necessary to verify both cost and whether it is better to use on CRA.p. intermediate packers. which may differ depending on the local environmental conditions and on some parameters discussed below. 7. avoiding future workovers or if it is more economical to use carbon steel with an inhibition system and scheduled workovers.A. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 7. can be obtained. Using the above diagrams. TUBING SELECTION The tubing string selection procedure and subsequent stress analysis is fundamental to the completion design process as it is during these two stages.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 181 OF 295 ENI S.6. it will be necessary during the control stage to know the pressure and temperature data of all the packers and of the tubing cross-section variations and is good practice to plot these data on diagrams.8. Load Condition Summary 0 REVISION The operations described above were chosen because they are the most common and show which aspects of an operation must be known in order to determine which loads will have to be considered to verify string design.e. By using an iterative method. i. and knowing the completion configuration.7. A typical example is that of wells with the presence of corrosive agents where either strings and down hole equipment can be made in Corrosion Resistant Alloy (CRA) or carbon steel with inhibitors injected downhole can be used. The Eni-Agip Division and Affiliates approach to choosing the tubing string is similar to that followed when designing any other mechanical part. the relative loads on the sections of the string can be calculated. or more. in any case. by choosing and verifying the various possibilities. during the stage considered most critical as regards the loads applied. it is necessary to assess all the various possible solutions. Since the economic factor plays a primary role of importance when selecting a completion. Alterations are then made to the draft completion until the ideal safety factor. If the string is tapered or has one. that the optimum solution is found through a sequence of approximations. As shown in the examples above. A draft design is considered based on the expected well conditions and then this design is checked to obtain the safety factor(s). it is important to be able to plot the pressure and temperature trends of the casing and tubing on the two pressure/depth and temperature/ depth diagrams for the moment before the packer is set (initial conditions) and at the end of this operation (final condition) or. . the correct safety factor for all the calculated load conditions expected during the life of the well. generally this is greatest in the section above the packer and below the well head. is reached.
e.g. Once the choice of materials has been identified. is the choice of the size. When CRA steels are used (which must be cold worked in order to obtain the required mechanical characteristics). the exact quantities of H2S. is often sufficient though these only reach a maximum grade of T95 (95 ksi yield) therefore do not always meet with stress requirements in high pressures and great depth. the ideal material is determined by the results of corrosion studies carried out prior to the tubing design stage. economics.2. and if the string has more than one size of tubing as in a tapered string. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 7.) must fit inside the production casing and/or liner. it is then possible to identify the optimum mechanical solutions. The presence of residual tension may induce stress corrosion and over-stressing problems which must also be taken into consideration.8. Given that the dimensions of the tubing and components of the string (safety valves.p. the possibility of anisotropies must be checked into as they generally imply a lower compressive yield load than tensile yield load and corresponding reductions for their use at high temperatures. this method does not provide a solution to using carbon steel in conjunction with an inhibition system. etc. outlined below. The inside and outside diameter of the tubing. to complete a well with the presence of corrosive agents (H2S and/or CO2) the use carbon steel with controlled hardness and/or martensitic steel.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 182 OF 295 ENI S. the length of each section needs to be determined at this point. . using the engineering diagrams supplied by manufacturers. Materials The choice of material for the tubing string depends mainly on the well environment. Note: It is vital that any detrimental impact caused by the casing programme is discussed with the drilling engineers to solve any problems. in terms of all the mechanical stresses and corrosivity of the fluids. it is always necessary to determine. or for a quicker choice. it will be necessary to take into consideration their mechanical properties to ensure that a suitable factor can be verified in the subsequent stress analysis stage. However. whether this entails changes to either the casing programme or the completion design. wall thickness and grade of tubing which is optimum to requirements. In this case. especially when the severity of the conditions suggest the use of expensive CRA materials (Refer to section 6). Critical Factors 0 REVISION The main factors driving the choice of the string are described below. frequency of workovers. landing nipples. CO2. In general. it is best to base the choice on an appropriate corrosion study which takes into account many other parameters. Tubing Size And Weight One of the main elements of the completion string design process. Indeed.A. it is essential to establish the size in order to find out if it impacts on the casing design.8. 7.1. thickness of the corrosion product. With regard to corrosion studies. etc. Taking into consideration the well conditions. chlorides and water from production tests and to enter these data into an expert system.
hence. so it is necessary to evaluate each one in order to obtain the most suitable solution in terms of cost. it is useful to consider the thickness tolerance adopted by the manufacturer of the selected tubing.5% eccentricity tolerance which means one point on the tubing’s circumference probably has less thickness. In some particular situations non-traditional solutions must be chosen as some parameters. .A. These threshold velocities can be found in API RP 14E. it may be more appropriate to choose more structurally efficient solutions which use a tapered string with different diameters thus reducing the amount of material needed and therefore the cost. production. The above factors can often lead to a variety of solutions. API standards for carbon steels define a 12. limit the choices. the safety factor under these loads against the yield strength are calculated. This value for CRA tubing’s is often only 10%. faster wall thickness reduction. Calculation of the tubing inflow performance is very complicated and time consuming in most cases and is not covered in this manual. This rate must be lower than the rate at which erosion occurs. When choosing the thickness of the tubing forming the string. The strings of these wells. carried out to remove tong marks.) applied to the selected string. which provides a better safety factor under similar conditions. by grinding. Wells in which hydrocarbons containing corrosive agents are produced are sometimes completed using carbon steel and it is accepted that a certain amount of the material will be lost through corrosion during the life of the well. or gas condensate wells. it may be necessary to increase the weight or grade because the string is too weak. maximum weight) and the workover stage (minimum thickness. Another reduction of thickness which must be taken into account on used tubing. As explained in the following section. such as cost.p. the loads resulting from the various load conditions (acid jobs.e. mechanical strength and practical feasibility. These studies can generally be completed quickly using Eni-Agip Division and Affiliates software which directly provides the diameters of tubing for the expected flow rates and projected rates. The most important value to be decided on the selected tubing is its mechanical strength. should therefore have added thickness so as to have sufficient material to last until the scheduled workover. Once this calculation has been made. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 0 REVISION The first indications of tubing size obtained is from tubing inflow performance analysis. which generally will be equipped with a corrosion inhibitor injection system. it is necessary to calculate the velocities in the string during production. minimum weight) must both be taken into consideration when calculating the string’s stress resistance. It is prudent in such cases to reduce through tubing interventions which knock off the corrosion exposing fresh material and. The two cases. surface pressures. etc. which take into account the type of fluid. i. Once the projected size of the tubing is established for the required flow rate then in gas.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 183 OF 295 ENI S. may be due to repairs. In the case of a very expensive super austenitic steel string for example. bottom hole pressures and other parameters. the new string (maximum thickness.
it is clear from this that the least severe system is where the tubing seal assembly is free to move in the packer bore. Free Movement Limited Downward Movement Attached Figure 7. the operations carried out during the life of a well cause movement of the tubing string which can depend on the type of tubing/packer seal system used between the bottom of the tubing and the packer. with high pressures and temperatures the movements of the lower end of the tubing may reach several feet in magnitude and hence very long seal units would need to be used in the packer which brings related assembly and protection problems during running in. . In very deep wells. is the continuous movement of the seal elastomers which may become damaged due to wear or from the debris deposited in the annulus above the packer.w. In preference. From figure 7. is systems to screw the tubing to the packer using a threaded connection on retrievable packer systems or to a tubing anchor (which allows the packer to be released when necessary) on permanent packer systems. have some disadvantages which are often unacceptable such as dynamic seals. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 7.A. Another important problem of free tubing.W . This will reduce movement of the packer seal assembly by eliminating downward movement and upward movement would only occur in certain limited lead conditions (stimulations or fracturing). The best solution.e.Tubing/Packer Systems The second preference is where downward tubing movement is restricted i. however. This type of anchoring provides the solution to seal life. the free moving system is the first choice and if the loads it creates do not allow for a suitable safety factor during well operations are other systems considered.3.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 184 OF 295 ENI S. using a NoGo locator shoulder fitted above the seal assembly where it is positioned to prevent the elongation of the string while leaving it free to shorten. Anchoring Systems 0 REVISION As illustrated earlier. This system does. due to the use of static seals. but leads to greater stressing of the tubing string. This will extend seal life.8.p. which shows the three most common types of packer/tubing systems. will generate different loads in the string will be generated.
Class of Service According to the specification STAP M-1-M 5006 ‘Connection Procedure Evaluation’. . I and II. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 7. PJD Dalmine and Antares MS have not yet been subjected to the complete qualification programme as per STAP M-1-M. 7.9. They are : Coupled Connections AMS 28 ( manufacturer Dalmine) Vam ACE ( manufacturer Vallourec and Sumitomo) Integral Connections Eni-Agip Division and Affiliates A-DMS (Dual Metal Seal) Other connections like Hydril CS.5006 or API 5C5. They may be used for all service condition where an Application Level II connection is required.2. To date three tubing connections have been qualified for the most severe conditions ALI. there are two service classes. The connections to be used shall be qualified according to the requirements as set in the Eni-Agip Division and Affiliates procedure ‘Connection Procedure Evaluation’.1. In conjunction Eni-Agip Division and Affiliates also recommended that a premium connection be used for production casings and production liners.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 185 OF 295 ENI S. Policy • • The use of premium connections for tubing is mandatory. The use of premium connections for production casing is advised but not mandatory. Application Level I applies to the most severe service conditions. TUBING CONNECTIONS 0 REVISION The Eni-Agip Division and Affiliates policy for tubing connections is that ‘the use of premium connections is mandatory’.9. 7.9. termed Application Levels (AL).p. They have however been used successfully for years with good results. especially when the annulus is to be used for gas lift or an underbalance fluid is used as a completion fluid.A.
ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 186 OF 295 ENI S. Selection Criteria 0 REVISION The following are the selection criteria for connections used in different types of wells and operating conditions.8000 psi Differential WP over 8000 psi (*) For Gas Injection wells.p.B .4000 psi Differential WP 4000 . Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 7.3.8000 psi Table 7.A .4000 psi Differential WP 4000 .Connection Specification Storage/Injection Gas Wells (TVD < 4500m) Criteria Differential WP 0 .9.A. AL I no yes AL II AL I AL I no no AL II AL II (*) AL I Requirement yes yes AL I AL I AL I yes no AL II AL I AL I Table 7.Connection Specification Requirement AL I AL II . Work string or well testing string: Integral AL1 connection shall be used Horizontal wells with Build up ≥ 20°/100 feet: Integral AL1 connection should be used Wells with TVD ≥ 4500m: Integral AL1 connection shall be used Producing Oil And Gas Wells (TVD < 4500m) Criteria NACE Close Proximity Differential WP 0 .
Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 Water Injection Wells (TVD < 4500m) Criteria Differential WP 0 .4 explains the NACE and Close Proximity definitions.A.p.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 187 OF 295 ENI S.8000 psi Table 7. 0 REVISION Requirement AL II AL II Differential working pressure is the maximum differential pressure (internal and/or external) to which the production string is subjected during the life of the well.9. .Connection Specification A flow chart reaffirming the above is shown in figure 7.4000 psi Differential WP 4000 .x. Note: Section 7.C .
A.Connection Application Level Selection Flow Chart . Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 0 REVISION Figure 7.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 188 OF 295 ENI S.X .p.
church. or other similar area that one can expect to be populated. school. Public area shall mean a dwelling. state. • • • • • • • Well is located in any environmentally sensitive area such as parks. town. Public road shall mean any federal. Well is located in state waters. Well is located in or near inland navigable waters Well is located in or near surface domestic water supplies. city limits. These conditions are recommended minimum considerations. from the wellhead and includes any part of a public area including a public road.589) (mole fraction H2S) (Q)] 0. Well is located within 50ft. hospital. Other criteria for consideration should be included when necessary. county or municipal street or road owned or maintained for public access or use. Close Proximity A proximity assessment should be prepared to consider the potential impact of an uncontrolled well flow condition on the life of personnel and the environment around the wellhead. village. The following list of criteria can be used for determining this potential risk. 100ppm Radius of Exposure (ROE) of H2S is greater than 50ft. etc.6258 For determining the location of the 500ppm radius of exposure: X = [(0.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 189 OF 295 ENI S. place of business. 500ppm ROE of H2S is greater than 50ft. of an open flame or fired equipment. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 7. Well is located within 350ft of any dwelling.4. Well is located within 150ft. Texas Railroad Commission Rules The following information is taken from Texas Railroad Commission Rule 36: For determining the location of the 100ppm radius of exposure: X = [(1. government building.p.6258 . a public road.9. city. of a public road (lease road excluded). It will be necessary to meet any other local regulatory requirements. all or any portion of a park. wildlife preserve. school bus stop.4546) (mole fraction H2S) (Q)] 0. NACE And Proximity Definitions NACE Requirement 0 REVISION This applies to the partial pressure of hydrogen sulphide (H2S) in the produced fluid as defined by NACE Standard MR 01-75.A. from the wellhead and includes any part of a public area except a public road.
9.65psia and 60 F. it is possible to calculate the forces acting on the packer. Computer programmes are very useful in this phase as it is possible to make repeated calculations quickly with different parameters. 7. TUBING STRESS CALCULATIONS The final stage of the completion string design is the calculation of stress in areas under the highest loads. .000ft shall be assumed. hence protection. the type of tubing and materials to be used to meet the requirements outlined in section 6. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 where: X = Radius of exposure in feet Q= H2S = 0 REVISION Maximum volume determined to be available for escape in cubic feet per day. 7. as is applicable: For the new wells in developed areas. there is a tendency to gall during make up. the fictitious and piston forces in the string sections. a 100ppm radius of exposure equal to 3. At this point of the process all the possible elements needed for the design verification are available.8. or the field average current adjusted openflow rate. The escape rate used in determining the radius of exposure shall be corrected to standard o conditions of 14.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 190 OF 295 ENI S. 7. During the verification stage it may be seen that the loads on the string are unacceptably high.6. the escape rate shall be determined by using the current adjusted open-flow rate of offset wells. The anti-galling treatments (e. Connection Data Data on tubing connections are available from API specifications and tables in industry handbooks. it is possible to determine how close the stresses are to the material’s yield strength.A.9.g.p.5. information about the load conditions. Bakertron or copper plating) is always applied to the couplings to ensure the utmost coating. but where hydrogen sulphide may be expected. Using the calculation theory illustrated previously. Fp.10. i. whichever is the larger. Mole fraction of hydrogen sulphide in the gaseous mixture which could escape.e. The string or load conditions or the tubing strength must therefore be altered until the calculation produces an appropriate safety factor (SF). and consequently. This requires special surface treatment in the connection’s pin and box. CRA Connections For steels with a high chrome content (>13%). The volume used as the escape rate in determining the radius of exposure shall be that specified below. After these calculations are made. When a well is in an area where insufficient data exists to calculate a radius of exposure.
the tables below summarise the forces acting on the sections of the string which will be used for the design verifications. to calculate forces on intermediate sections between the well head and packer depth. it is sufficient to use an intermediate length ‘l’ ( L > l > 0 ) measured from the packer. The asterix distinguishes the forces calculated in a completion with the string anchored to the packer verses those calculated for a string free to move in the seal bore. instead of ‘L’ of the previous formulae.p. the sections where the string design must be verified are indicated by x-x at the well head and y-y at the downhole just above the packer. Section Y-Y (Packer) Tubing-Packer Mode Free tubing Tubing permitting limited motion and anchored Piston Forces Fictitious Forces Fa Ff Fa* = Fa + F p Table 7. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 7.10.1.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 191 OF 295 ENI S. the forces at the well head coincide with those at the packer depth if L = 0.Forces at X-X F f tp = F f − wL F f*tp = F f* − wL As can be seen. string design must be verified at all the appropriate sections where there are variations in diameter.Forces at Y-Y F f* = F f + F p Section X-X (Well Head) Tubing-Packer Mode Free tubing Tubing permitting limited motion and anchored Piston Forces Fictitious Forces Fa tp = Fa − w s L Fa*tp = Fa* − w s L Table 7.D .E . have intermediate packers or other discontinuities. . For other types of completions. Calculation Methods 0 REVISION Taking.y. as an example.y.A. the type of completion shown in figure 7. Therefore. With reference to figure 7.
p. σb is calculated only if the section of the string to be verified is buckled.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 192 OF 295 ENI S. .Y .Example Completion #1 The piston forces obtained in this way are used to calculate the axial stress which is given by the expression: σa = Fa As The fictitious force is used to calculate the axial stress caused by the tubing bending when helically buckled. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 0 REVISION X X Y Y Figure 7. it is given by the expression: σb = Dr Ff 4I therefore.A.
e. Po and Pi are available.1 which gives the SF values to be used by Eni-Agip Division and Affiliates.p. its functionality. Carbon and CRA Steels up to 13%Cr The acceptable SF for these types of materials is: 1. the equivalent stress is σeq = σi The higher of the stress values determined above will make it possible to obtain the SF of the string for the load conditions and the section considered: SF = σ sn σ eq The SF must be greater than the minimum dictated by policy and listed in section 7. In this case the equivalent force will be the greater of the two. the stress which. if the section to be calculated is buckled. therefore.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 193 OF 295 ENI S. provides a quick reference parameter to evaluate the magnitude of the stresses present in the tubing compared to the maximum acceptable. Safety Factor A completion string’s safety factor is defined as the ratio between the yield stress and the maximum value of the stress obtained as described above.10. which gives the equivalent stresses in the outside and inside wall of the considered tubing section. calculated using the expression below.A. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 0 REVISION Now all the factors needed to determine the equivalent stress σa. if there is no buckling σb = 0 and the greater stress is that in the inside wall. σb. i. both calculations must be made to determine the higher of the two values while. 7. allows comparison of the stresses due to the different effects in a particular section of the string against the material yield stress rating. To calculate the SF the yield limit values of the material are taken into consideration so that there is no permanent corkscrewing of the string which could jeopardise. 2 P − P P − R Po σ o = 3 i 2 o + i 2 +σa ±σb R −1 R −1 2 2 P − R 2 Po R 2 (Pi − Po ) σ σ i = 3 + i 2 +σa ± b 2 R −1 R R −1 2 2 As stated above. even if only slightly. The Eni-Agip Division and Affiliates policy is to apply different types of material due to their different mechanical behaviours and resistance to corrosion. It. by applying suitable criterion (for the materials used in the oil industry the most appropriate is Von Mises).2.25 .
35 Similarly. figure 7. low pressure oil wells.20. (e. super-austenitic and Incoloy is: 1.g.z shows the stress/strain diagrams for the above two types of materials. the acceptable SF can be lowered to 1. Furthermore. As stated previously. Figure 7. This is a dangerous situation which occurs at the breaking point.15 for some particular operations and for specific well conditions. from both the viewpoint of stress corrosion and mechanical strength. the SF is calculated using the yield point but also the collapse rating of the string. It is. apart from the yielding the cold worked materials reach breaking point soon after the yield point while the carbon steels maintain a greater plastic deformation margin before the breaking point. Cold Worked (CW) CRA Steels The acceptable SF for these types of materials which include duplex.). economic decision not to use the next grade of tubing etc. for some particular operations and for specific well conditions. therefore.A. As can be seen.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 194 OF 295 ENI S. the engineer may evaluate whether. clear that a higher SF for Cold Worked materials is required in order to maintain the same safety factor relevant to the breaking points for the two types of materials. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 0 REVISION In each individual case the string design and stress analysis engineer may evaluate whether the acceptable SF can be lowered to 1. The different SF’s between the carbon and CRA steels can be attributed to the different behaviour of these materials for stress values above the yield point.p. the SF should be slightly higher.Stress/Strain Diagrams COLD WORKED CARBON STEEL σ σ σsn r σ σr σsn σr = breaking point σsn = yield point ε = elongation ε ε .Z . the cold worked materials retain residual stress so.
tension tubing. when the pressure in the annulus increases compared to that in the tubing.aa. if applied individually. are known. to the section’s elastic limit which occurs in thin-walled pipes. which require substantial differential operating pressures. External Pressure Limit During the productive life of a well. therefore. In fact the causes of collapse can range from material yield as in the case of pipes with a low D/t ratio.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 195 OF 295 ENI S. As can be seen. In order to use the API Bul 5C3 formulae. conditions may occur making it necessary to limit the external pressure on the string. . the Yp value for use for calculations is adjusted using a special formula. By evaluating the magnitude of this force and considering other factors such as the possibility of future recovery. If the force exerted by the tubing on the packer (Fp = set-down. Packer Load Limits If the Fp force value transmitted by the string to the packer is known.10.10. 7.4. For example. takes into consideration all the stress components to determine the σeq. can be determined. the type of formula is chosen then the maximum withstandable pressure calculated. By using diagrams supplied by the manufacturer. it would be incorrect to use the SF for tension alone because during the life of the well it will be subjected to a combination of stresses. cannot be compared in any way to those described in this manual because they take into consideration only one mode of loading. causes a state of monoaxial stress. Fp = tension. once D/t and Yp are known. if referred to only as in the condition of triaxial stress which.p. However. If an axial force is applied to the pipe as well as external pressure. referred to. Any other SFs. In order to comply with the specifications of the supplier. in a state of monoaxial stresses. greater tensile loads can be applied and vice versa. Po<Pi below). Calculation of external pressure is carried out using the formulae supplied by API Bulletin 5C3 which identifies four types of collapse at external pressure in relation to the D/t ratio and the Yp yield stress of the material. it is possible to calculate this value under various well conditions. this diagram can be used to ascertain the suitability of the condition. it is possible to check whether well conditions come within the limits set by the packer rating.3. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 0 REVISION The SF discussed up to this point is valid. is positive) and the differential pressure above and below the packer (Po>Pi above. the tensile strength in this case is positive. One example is a well at the end of its productive life with less pressure in the tubing than in the annulus. if negative.A. the most suitable type of packer in relation to the completion type. from which it is possible to make a comparison with the yield load. due to the depletion in reservoir pressure. 7. A typical diagram for packer force limits is shown in figure 7. Another example is downhole pumps for artificial lifting and are operated by the power fluid pumped down the annulus.
AA . During a cement squeeze operation.61in Dpb = 3.p.bb. This allows calculation of the variations in length and thereafter the anchoring force in the packer.5lb/ft : 7 2 Ai = 4.A.542lb/in 4 I = 1.3in L = 10.81in R = 1.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 196 OF 295 ENI S. we can consider the single completion in the well shown in figure 7. the analysis of the possible packer/tubing configurations available in this set-up is free tubing to packer and fully anchored.10. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 0 REVISION 400 (tension) 300 200 (Thousands) FORCE 100 0 Safety zone (set-down) -100 -200 -20 -10 0 10 20 (Thousands) (above) PRESSURE DIFF.68in 2 Ao = 6.Typical Packer Force Limit Diagram 7.000in Casing 7in 32lb/ft: Packer bore: Length of string: .178 ws = 0.000ft = 120. (below) Figure 7.5.25in 2 Ap = 8. Data: Tubing 2 /8in 6.49in 2 As = 1.000psi ID = 6.61in σsn = 80.094in r = 1. Example Manual Calculation As an example of applying the method detailed above.
Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 Initial Conditions 0 REVISION Initially both the tubing and the annulus are filled with 30° API oil.000psi and the casing at 1. Final Conditions Final conditions are cement displacement with a specific gravity of 15lb/gal. figure 7. therefore. to a pressure gradient of 0.A.cc (15lb/gal corresponds to a specific gravity of 0.BB . while the temperature is 60°F at the well head and 200°F at the bottom hole.p. obtained by pressurising the tubing at 5.38 psi/ft.000psi. This operation causes the string to cool to 160°F at the bottom hole and creates the pressure and temperature trend 3 shown in figure 7.0649lb/in and to a pressure gradient of 0.0317lb/in and.7795psi/ft).Example Completion #2 .ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 197 OF 295 ENI S. It should be noted that 30° API corresponds to a 3 specific gravity of 0. X X Y Y Figure 7.cc shows the pressure and temperature variations against depth.
A.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 198 OF 295 ENI S.3 − 4.68) − 1000 (8.49) = 30751.Initial and Final Condition (Example #2) Calculation Method a) Calculation of variations in length The variation in the piston force between initial and final conditions is expressed by: ∆Fa = ∆Pi (Ap − Ai ) − ∆Po (Ap − Ao ) = 8995 (8.3 − 6. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 0 REVISION O P (psi) O 60 T (°F) GEOTERMICO CSG e TBG 10000 3800 10000 200 D (feet) D (feet) FINAL CONDITIONS O 1000 5000 P (psi) O 60 T (°F) TBG SQUEEZE CSG 10000 4800 12795 10000 160 D (feet) D (feet) Figure 7.p.9 lb .CC .
is given by: F f = A p (Pi − Po ) = 8.3 x (12795 − 4800 ) = 66358. The weight of string.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 199 OF 295 ENI S. ∆L 2 = − =− F2 r 2 8Elw 2 −(1.3037 lb/in w fo = Ao γ fo = 6.5 ) 8×30000000×1.16 .0317 = 0.2.640 lb/in The neutral point from the bottom hole is therefore: n= Ff w 66358.3037 − 0. then the string is buckled.81 = − 67.2057 lb/in w = ws + w fi − w fo = 0.5 lb As this value is positive. w.68 x 0.542 + 0.96 in The fictitious force.0649 = 0. The variation in length ∆L2.64 = −46. is calculated using the first of the two formulae in section 7.49 x 0.5 = 0.16 in As this distance is less than the length of the string. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 0 REVISION so the variation in length according to Hooke’s Law (piston force) is given by: L1 = − Fa L 30751.640 = 103685.4.6×10.9 x 120000 =− E As 30000000 x 1.61×66358. is calculated in the following way: w fi = Ai γ fi = 4.A. so it is necessary to determine the position of the neutral point in order to calculate the ∆L2. fully immersed in fluids. which is initially zero because Pi = Po.p. not all the string is buckled.20567 = 0.
5 psi ∆Pom = (1000 − 0 ) + (4800 − 3800) 2 = 1000 psi Therefore.178)2 − 1 = − 34.4. is therefore given by ∆Ltot = ∆L1 + ∆L2 + ∆L3 + ∆L4 1 = − 165.56 in.3 6997. As regards the variation in length due to temperature. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 0 REVISION As regards the variation in length due to ballooning. if the tubing can freely move in the packer-bore.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 200 OF 295 ENI S. the average variations in pressure along the string can be calculated using the formulae in section 7.4 in.5 − (1. the formula in section 7. . = 6.p. the variation in length caused by ballooning is as follows: ∆L3 = − 2ν E x ∆P − R2 x ∆P im om xL 2 R −1 2 =− 2 x 0.4.9 x 10 − 6 x (− 20 ) x 120000 The variation in total length of the tubing. is used to calculate the average variation in temperature along the string: ∆TM = (60 − 60 ) + (160 − 200) 2 = − 20 °F The variation in length is therefore: ∆L4 = α ∆TM L = − 16.178) x 1000 x x 120000 30000000 (1.4.73 in.A.3: ∆Pim = (5000 − 0) + (12795 − 3800 ) 2 = 6997.
when there is a tubing permitting limited motion is given by: ∆Lso = ∆Ltot − ∆L so tot = − 165. the neutral point is located as: Fso w 20000 = 0. . The slack-off operation modifies the variations in length the string will undergo during the subsequent cement squeeze stage as shown below. as it off-loads weight on the packer after it is set (slack-off) and compresses the string. n= from the bottom of the string. As this value is less than the total length of the string.485 = 41266.41 − (− 49. it makes it possible to use the formula in section 7.61 x 0.1483 lbs/in w = w s + w fi − w fo = 0. this value is lower than that calculated for a free tubing.73 in.000lb. One method for containing these elongations is to use a tubing permitting limited motion. oil is the fluid inside the tubing and so: w fi = Ai γ fi = 4.81 8 x 30000000 x 1.48 lbs/in.1483 − 0.73) = − 115.485 = − 49. During initial conditions. may sometimes be unacceptable. 2 The variation in the length of the string during the cement squeeze job. As can be seen.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 201 OF 295 ENI S.61 x 20000) 20000 x 120000 =− − 30000000 x 1.A. as it would create seal assembly lengths which are not practicable for the planned type of completion.p.20575 = 0.4 in. Assuming that the slack-off force off loaded on the packer is 20. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 b) Tubing Permitting Limited Motion 0 REVISION The variation in length calculated above.0317 = 0.6 in order to obtain: 2 Fso L Fso r 2 ∆Lso = − − E As 8 E I w (1.68 in.68 x 0.542 + 0.
68 in . When the data of the example are replaced. From this point.68 in. with a slack-off of 20. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 c) Anchored tubing 0 REVISION If we assume a condition obtained with a tubing which only permits limited motion. = Pi (A p − Ai ) − P0 (A p − Ao ) + F p F f* = F f + F p = 29358 lb . giving so ∆Ltot = -115.6 shows the diagram obtained using the formulae which supplies the force/elongation characteristic for tension and compression. the fictitious and piston forces. calculated according to section 7. thus so setting the elongation ∆Lp =-∆Ltot =115. d) Tubing Stress Control If we consider a tubing anchored to the packer during a cement squeeze operation.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 202 OF 295 ENI S. the formulae below are obtained (the diagram can be quickly plotted by entering any F values and calculating the corresponding ∆L): ∆L = − ∆L = − F 452. it is possible to identify the point where the origin of the axes has moved to.000lbs and the packer is forced upwards by the same amount. As figure 7.000lbs. Fp = 37000lbs. movement in the direction of elongation by a ∆Lp value is made in order to locate the point which is distant from the curve by a Fp value. In this case as slack-off after setting the packer is present it is necessary to determine the force required to position the end of the tubing in the packer (Fp).5 F F2 − 452. This value may still be unacceptable so it is necessary to use anchoring in both directions.5lbs). If the diagram is plotted with the value of the fictitious force calculated previously (66358. so the string is subject to stress at its lower end which is equal to 37.6. Figure 8.cc shows.p. are: Fa* = Fa + F p = 629 in.A.5 95403727 [in] for F<0 [in] for F >0 .
A.DD . Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 0 REVISION In the section above the packer (figure 7. the forces at the well head are: Fa*tp = Fa* − w s x L = 629 − 6. F f* tp = F f* − w x L = 29358 − 0. 50 20 trazione [lbx1000] 40 60 allungamenti [in] 100 allungamenti [in] 80 100 compressione [lbx1000] -40 -20 -50 Fp -100 -150 ∆Lp -200 Ff 20 40 compressione [lbx1000] Figure 7.64 x 120000 = − 47442 in.p.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 203 OF 295 ENI S.Anchored Tubing (Example #2) accorciamenti [in] .5 x 10000 = − 64371 in.bb).
Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 Bottom Hole The piston force generates an axial stress equal to: 0 REVISION Fa* σa = As 629 = 1.875 x 1.81 = − 35564 psi .81 = 347 psi the deformation due to buckling generates an axial stress equal to: σb = Dr * Ff 4I 2.A.p.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 204 OF 295 ENI S.61 = 21095 psi If we replace the σa e σb. therefore. if we consider the highest value found as equivalent force.61 x 29358 = 4 x 1. the values below are obtained using the formulae in section 7. values. σb = 0 and the greatest amount of stress is generated on the inner wall of the tubing: σa = Fa*tp As − 64371 = 1.33 Well Head * As Ff tp < 0 the string at the well head is not buckled. the result is σeq = σi. along with Pi = 12795 psi e Po = 4800 psi.10: σo = 51688psi σi = 60223psi . we can obtain the following bottom hole safety factor: SF = = σ sn σ eq 80000 60223 = 1.
10: σi = 36117 psi therefore as σeq = σi. For further information please refer to the user’s manual. have been deliberately omitted as this programme is no longer used by Eni-Agip Division and Affiliates. Therefore only a brief description has been given in Appendix D. .000psi.000psi and po = 1. Example Computation As an example we have included two cases of string calculations. carried out using the Wellcat programme supplied by Enertech. analysed during completion studies for the Villafortuna-Trecate field. Examples done with the Vertubing programme.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 205 OF 295 ENI S.A. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 0 REVISION If we replace the σa value obtained and as pi = 5. 7. the well head safety factor is: SF = = σ sn σ eq 80000 36117 = 2.10.21 The safety factor for the cement squeeze operation results as the lowest of obtained values. The first example is the same as that dealt with by Lubinsky. Particular attention should be paid to data entry and presentation of results in order to obtain knowledge of how the programme handles these two cases.6. . The second is a case history. therefore: SF = 1.33 This value is acceptable because the lower limit for a carbon steel string is 1. please refer to the notes in Appendix D and the user’s manual available in the Company’s library. For a description of the programme’s general functions.p. the value below is obtained using the formula in section 7.25.
p.1. the next stage is establish its performance to meet with all the expected operating conditions (applied force and pressure differences).A .ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 206 OF 295 ENI S.A. while still reflecting the needs which lead to selection of the most commonly used models. Type Of Packer Permanent Setting Method Mechanical Hydraulic Setting Tool • Hydraulic setting tool • Electric line N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A Sealbore Features • Std/Large/Dual • Std/Large/Dual Std/Dual Std/Large/Dual Std/Dual Permanent/ Retrievable Retrievable Mechanical Hydraulic Hydraulic Hydrostatic Weight Table 8. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 0 REVISION 8. operating diagrams for the packers supplied by the manufacturer of the particular packer and to the pressure ratings for retrievable packers.1. The proposed criteria for the choice only take into consideration general technical aspects and do not cover the individual characteristics of particular models or tools. i.3.e.Packer Types . This section defines the series of criteria for choosing packer characteristics to apply to single and selective completions. 8. For this reason regarding permanent packers. The packers considered are listed in table 8. Once the packer type and model have been defined. reference is made to the operating ‘Envelopes’.a below. SUB-SURFACE EQUIPMENT PACKERS The types of packer systems and applications have already been described in section 5.
unplanned) Type of de-compression operations. Selection Criteria Various representations can be used to describe the categories of criteria.A. 8.1. Selection Procedure Packer selection has three stages: 1) 2) 3) 0 REVISION Selection of type of packer Selection of setting mechanism Selection of main packer accessories including the tubing-packer connection In stage 3. . gas) Deviation (max. etc. off-shore under water) Pressures and temperatures Type of well (production. Completion Data This includes the following parameters such as: • • • Type and density of the completion fluid Perforation of the casing using tubing-conveyed or wireline techniques Use of a production liner.). identifying the standard procedures for each stage (Refer to figure 8. This section illustrates the flow diagrams. Operational Data The following operational data are required: • • Stimulations (planned.a.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 207 OF 295 ENI S. deviation angle). The selection process includes the following categories of data: General Well Data This includes data which effects the configuration of the well to be completed. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 8.5 which describes the iterative process of tubing weight/grade/stress calculations.1.2. in particular: a) removal of the tubing by itself b) • • removal of the tubing and packer simultaneously Planned frequency of de-compression operations Potential damage to the formation caused by the workover fluid. the most important being: • • • • • Location (on-shore/ off-shore platforms. setting depth. injection) Type of fluid produced (oil. These data also include type of packer chosen and setting.p. refer to section 7.1. stress analysis is carried out to check the completion string (packer and tubing) under the stress to which they are exposed.
A .p.Selection Process Diagram .ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 208 OF 295 ENI S. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 0 REVISION Figure 8.A.
To this end four classes of well have been identified which are used to analyse the various problems involved in the selection of the packer: 1) High corrosive wells • 2) The fluids have high corrosive problems. Gas injection well with pressures. 3) Critical Well • • Temperatures between 100 and 130°C Depths between 3. 4) Non-critical well • • Depth of less than 3. with priority be given to the former.1. SBHT > 130°C. .1.4. SBHP > 700 atm.000 and 4. If the well has high corrosive.500m.3. High pressures.b). (Refer to figure 8.000m. 8. ITHP above 3.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 209 OF 295 ENI S. If the well is critical or non-critical. Platform well having the risk of failure due to the potential collision from a vessel with the structure. High temperatures. Temperatures below 100 °C. select a permanent/retrievable or permanent packer.000psi. Well Classification 0 REVISION An important parameter for defining the characteristics of a packer is the ‘degree of difficulty of the well to be completed’. Subsea well-head well. Packer Selection For Single String Completion Type Of Packer Procedure The choice is mainly linked to the type of well: 1) 2) 3) In the case of a highly critical well.p. Highly critical wells: • • • • • • Deep depths > 4500m. The depths indicated are true vertical depths.A. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 8. select a permanent packer.
(E) The workover fluid damages the formation.A. .b: (A) High frequency of tubing pullout.B . (D) Measured well depth ≥ 3000 m.p. (B) High frequency of tubing-packer pullout. (C) Use of TCP drilling techniques. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 0 REVISION Figure 8.000psi.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 210 OF 295 ENI S.Type of Packer for Critical and Non-Critical Wells Explanation of figure 8. (F) The packer fluid is a high density mud (> 1.6 kg/l) with probable solid deposits on the packer. (G) Gas injection well with injection pressure > 3.
ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 211 OF 295 ENI S. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 0 REVISION At points A and B.c). The safety factor of using a retrievable packer or not depends on the criticality of the well and. . Packer Setting Method Permanent and Permanent/Retrievable Packers The selection is dependent mainly on the well characteristics: 1) 2) 3) If the well is corrosive or very critical. in the choice is made on the basis of point (D) then there are no particular constraints (no workovers.6 kg/l. The same procedure will also be used later for packers of the type used in a selective type completion. the setting is defined by the conditions detailed in (A).A. in particular. Is a deviated well.C . Figure 8. choose hydraulic setting. or requests due to the completion fluid characteristics). Gas a production liner with inclination > 30°. the priority is indicated by a number (‘1’ corresponds to a higher priority than ‘2’). on its depth. with a maximum deviation angle > 50°. Reference (A) is only true if one of the following conditions are relevant: • • • • SBHT > 150 °C (= 270 °F).p. high frequency of extraction corresponds to a completion life of less than five years. For example. (Refer to figure 8. The rectangle ‘Choose’ indicates the choice between the two alternatives. The completion fluid = mud with density > 1. If the well is critical or not critical.Packer Setting Method for Critical and Non-Critical Wells For a mechanical type permanent packer.
ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 212 OF 295 ENI S.A. following the diagram in figure 8. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 Retrievable Packer Setting Method 0 REVISION The method of setting used for retrievable packers is made. 3) Check (C): • There is high frequency of tubing pullout (life of the completion < 5 years).d: Figure 8. Check (B): • Using TCP shooting techniques.p.Retrievable Packer Setting Method 1) Check (A) is only true if one of the following conditions are relevant: • • • • 2) The well is deviated with a maximum deviation angle of > 20°. The vertical depth of the packer setting is > 2. The bottom-hole temperature (SBHT) is > 60 °C.6 kg/l) with the probability that it leaves solid deposits on the packer.000m (this is true to definitive and not test completions). 4) Check (E): • Completion fluid and damage to the formation 5) Check (F): • The packer fluid is a high density mud (> 1. . Stimulations are planned.D.
5 If the failure of the stress analysis is due to the tension caused by the tubing-packer connection. the corresponding setting procedure will have to be adopted (see permanent packers above). To integrate this choice with the stress analysis procedures. the approach is the same as that for an anchored tubing-packer.Veritas is the UNIX version of the VERTBG package. The shear value is checked for the stress conditions at the wellhead section during the packer release stage. The type of anchor to be used can be defined during this first stage for an anchored completion (without shear release): • If the packer is set mechanically. a configuration which fulfils the stress analysis requirements must be considered for the packer-tubing connection5. Permanent And Permanent/Retrievable Packers Setting Method There are principally two aspects to analyse: • • The choice of the tubing-packer connection. gas injection wells where the IBHP is greater than the packer fluid pressure and SBHP is lower than the packer fluid pressure. an anchor seal assembly is used. The shear ring value is generally set by increasing the maximum force applied to the packer by 25%. in particular the choice is made between a shear release or anchor seal assembly. alternatively. If during the application of the stress analyses of the string gives negative results. If the stress analysis results are negative: • • If a shear release is needed. fixed. the anchor will be a ratchet type or.g. The main consideration is the required setting pressure (lower for hydrostatic packers) which influences the wellhead pressure rating. a permanent/retrievable packer will be utilised and consequently. The maximum force is determined using stress analysis (to take into account the tolerance of the nominal shear value ± 5 to 10%).A.d).p. If these are outwith the capacity of the retrievable packer. e. . defines the type of anchoring on the basis of the conditions for (A).ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 213 OF 295 ENI S. set is left to the engineer. The conditions at the moment of packer setting decides whether to use a retrievable packer. At present the stress analysis procedure is developed using the “Veritas “ software package . a dynamic seal is used (Refer to figure 8. If anchor is needed. Highly Critical Well: Anchored Completion For a highly critical well. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 0 REVISION The decision of whether to use a hydraulic. Tubing-packer connections seal assembly elements will be of the moulded seal type when subjected to alternating pressure cycles. or hydrostatic.
p.f).1.A. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 0 REVISION Figure 8.3). In this case a dynamic seal is used (Refer to figure 8.Dynamic Seal Check (A) . an anchor will be used and the check will be carried out again. Figure 8.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 214 OF 295 ENI S. Highly Critical Well: Dynamic Seal This stage considers an anchored completion which fails the stress analysis calculation because of problems associated with the tubing-packer connection. For an anchor with shear release: • If the stress analysis upon releasing is negative.E .Anchored Completion Option Check (A): Deviated well: • if it is an injection well it cannot be critical (see section 8.F .
the stress analysis results are corrected using factors other than the seal element. run on the tubing. in general. Non-Critical Well The easiest solution in these cases is to choose a Standard Seal Locator.6 kg/l) which may leave solid deposits on the packer.Critical and Non-Critical Wells. Here.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 215 OF 295 ENI S. Reference will be made to this later and also for cases which are different to those described in highly critical wells above. following any failure of the stress analysis. The well is not an injection well. no other rules are apply as. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 • Check (B): • 0 REVISION The packer fluid is a high density mud (> 1. Seal Element .f gives a general description of the criteria behind the choice of dynamic seal to be adopted. This is only possible with hydraulically packers. when using dynamic seals. The procedure illustrated in figure 8.p. Figure 8. This is the case with the following conditions: • • • No stimulations are planned.g is followed.e. the procedure illustrated in figure 8.A. If these conditions do not apply.G . i. Critical. The packer is not set hydraulically. The packer is one trip installation.
Retrievable Packer Tubing-Packer Connections The choice of the tubing-packer connection for retrievable packers (hydraulic and set down weight) is made on the basis of that in figure 8. deviation angle > 20. deviated well with max. No additional adaptation of the seal element is foreseen as a consequence of any stress analysis.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 216 OF 295 ENI S.6 kg/l) which may leave solid deposits on the packer.g. It is better to use a completion with a shear element which is more easily releasable. besides the choice of tubing-packer connection. the need to use the packing setting procedure specified. Particular conditions raise questions over which type of retrievable packer to use.p. or a dynamic seal whenever feasible. Again in figure 8.h. a permanent/retrievable packer is the priority or a permanent should be used and consequently the associated setting procedure and seal assembly selected. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 Check (A): • 0 REVISION the packer fluid is a high density mud (> 1. expected life of the completion < 5 years. the outlet conditions included in the rectangle indicate. In these cases. . (B): • (C): • (D): • the packer is set mechanically. In the case of a deviated well. anchored completion is not recommended.A.
A. The solutions given are for a case with only 2 zones and if a third zone is to be taken into consideration it is assumed that the selection made for the upper zone of the two zone scenario applies. Packer Selection The first case classifies the well on the basis of depth characteristics (≥ 4.5.p.Tubing-Packer Connections for Retrievable Packers 8.1.H . Single Selective Completion Packers The criteria illustrated here are valid for selective completions with 2 or 3 producing zones.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 217 OF 295 ENI S.000m) but more on the basis of its complexity. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 0 REVISION Figure 8. .
the engineer has a certain degree of freedom of choice but is.Single Selective Packer For Complex Wells if several different configurations are available. however. these cases are classified by well depth: . are not applicable. governed by the order of priority specified along with the choices. as for example in figure 8.p.i.A. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 0 REVISION Figure 8.i. If the conditions as of figure 8.I .ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 218 OF 295 ENI S.
ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 219 OF 295 ENI S.000 and 4.p.000m .A.K . Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 0 REVISION Figure 8.Selective Single Well with Depths Between 3.500 and 3.Selective Single Well with Depths Between 1.J .000m Figure 8.
If the completion fluid is a mud with deposition problems. being that the order of priority for the lower zone can be changed by applying the following rules: • • If workovers are planned with removal of the tubing and packer. then it should be selected. and a permanent or permanent/retrievable packer are in the list of possible choices. in the case of multiple choices.i through figure 8. .Selective Single Well with Depths Less Than 1. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 0 REVISION Figure 8.500m in a well not considered complex.p.l is common with the only exception. then the permanent/retrievable should be selected over of the retrievable.A.500m In the case of depths less than 1. and a retrievable packer is one in the list of possible choices. Application of the criteria illustrated in figure 8. it is strongly recommend that a retrievable type packer be used.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 220 OF 295 ENI S.L .
Permanent Stacked Packers: Refer to figure 8.A. Due to this. Lower Permanent Packer With Upper Retrievable: Refer to figure 8. In some cases. The setting criteria of a mechanical permanent packer (on a workstring. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 Packer Setting Method 0 REVISION The type of setting method proposed depends on the following factors: • • Type of packer Setting distance between the packers.j. Tubing-Packer Connection Selection The criteria continues by classifying the packers by type and setting with the zones treated separately.e. hydraulic setting should be used for this type of packer.p.4. It is recommended in any case to re-check the completion after having made the modifications. in these cases the reference packer is permanent and the other packers are the retrievable or permanent/retrievable type. It is essential to check with manufacturers that the distance between the packers is sufficient for the packers to be set. With these type of packers. the zones are be treated separately. . the results of the stress analysis specifically identifies the packers with releasing problems.k and figure 8. Generally. choose hydraulic setting for all the packers or else mechanical setting. if the setting distance between the packers is > 500m (check with the packer manufacturer). figure 8. it is treated with the same criteria used for the upper zone. i. All packers are Retrievable Refer to figure 8.i with all permanent packers. Mechanical setting is preferred for the reference packer and the setting should be by electric line when the distance between the packers is < 500 m. If the reference packer is set by a workstring. three zones are assumed (upper.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 221 OF 295 ENI S. intermediate. a depth control procedure is necessary to verify the depth of the packer setting to ensure positioning of the blast joint across the upper zone which is open to production. or wireline) are those already defined for the single completion described in section 8. hydraulic type setting should be used or else the packers can be set mechanically. In cases where there is no specific mention of an Intermediate zone.l. modifications are be made only to those packers which have the problems.1. if the completion fluid is a brine. lower).k and figure 8.l where all packers are retrievable.
A.4). In the case of failure in the stress analysis a dynamic seal with telescopic joint will be used. Initially an anchor with shear release should be selected. The lower zone packer is a permanent with mechanical setting. The lower zone packer is a retrievable. In the case of failure of the stress analysis on this packer. in particular. In the case of failure of the stress analysis. a dynamic seal will be used (anchor with PBR or telescopic joint). Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 Upper packer 0 REVISION The rules described for the single completion are applied to the upper packer (Refer to 8. a standard length locator.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 222 OF 295 ENI S.1. 2) 3) For the intermediate zone in the case of three zones. a longer locator with seal bore extension should be used. . A dynamic seal should be used. a telescopic joint should be used when there is failure in the stress analysis. For the intermediate zone in the three zone case. an anchor or retrievable type packer will be used. Lower or Intermediate Packer There are three possible ways of treating the lower zones: 1) All the packers are of the permanent or permanent/retrievable types with hydraulic setting. for the intermediate packer.p.
22.214.171.124.g. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 8. a flowline rupture. Applications The applications for SSSV’s are given in section 8. but under some circumstances.1.2.A. 8.p. Any variation to this policy and selection procedures herein. e.2. .4. SSCSSV’s are either pressure differential or ambient pressure operated valves.2. This will determine whether the selected SSSV is Wireline Retrievable (WRSV) or Tubing Retrievable (TRSV). flow erosion of the valve internals may alter the closure settings. The choice of SSSV for a particular development will depend on: • • • • Well location Fluid properties Required flow area Well intervention capabilities.2. Policy All Eni-Agip Division and Affiliates completions shall incorporate a SSSV in the completion string to provide safety in the event of an uncontrolled well flow. SUB-SURFACE SAFETY VALVES 0 REVISION This section provides the Eni-Agip Division and Affiliates policy and guidelines for the application and selection of Sub-Surface Safety Valves (SSSV).ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 223 OF 295 ENI S. Surface controlled sub-surface safety valves (SCSSV’s) shall be used accordingly to the criteria listed below in section 8. the valve may fail to close. The use of these valves should be avoided as they are set up to operate on predetermined conditions representing a major leak at surface. In conjunction. sub-surface controlled sub-surface safety valves (SSCSSV) otherwise known as direct acting valves or surface controlled sub-surface safety valves (SCSSV). shall only be sanctioned by the Eni-Agip Division and Affiliates Head Office. A derivative of the storm choke is the injection valve which is held open by water or gas injection and closes when injection ceases. The policy defined shall be applied to all Eni-Agip Division and Affiliates completion designs world-wide.2. either. 8. when there is a leak of insufficient rate. Both types are generally referred to as ‘storm chokes’. 8. Wireline Retrievable Safety Valves Wireline retrievable valves may be.
• All wells on gas lift. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 8. These valve systems are fail safe and are preferred to SSCSSV’s. • All old wells being recompleted. Gas producer Gas storage Gas injection Water injection Artificial lift H2S in produced fluids Table 8. .A.5 indicate in which applications WRSV’s and TRSV’s should be used. • All wells onshore which can sustain natural flow. tubing and annulus. Note: All valves with ball type closure mechanisms are not recommended for use as they are less reliable than flapper valves.b specifies when SCSSV’s shall be used. Valve Type/Closure Mechanism Selection This section gives recommendations on the choice of valve with the corresponding type of closure mechanism. • All wells. The guidelines given in section 8. wireline retrievable or annulus safety valve systems. • All wells.2. • All new offshore development. Surface Controlled Sub-Surface Safety Valves 0 REVISION These are designed for tubing retrievable. Removal of the pressure allows the valves to close.2. • All wells.Criteria For Use of SCSSV's 8.B .5. Hydraulic pressure opens and then retains the valve open. • All isolated wells. • Electrical submersible pump.4. • All old wells in above categories which are to be recompleted. • All wells. Well Type Oil Producer Criteria • All new offshore development. The following table 8. tubing and only annulus if used for gas venting.2.p.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 224 OF 295 ENI S. They are controlled normally by surface applied hydraulic pressure through a control line clamped to the outside of the tubing string.
C . • Wells with shut-in surface. under the pump. are also installed with the tubing string. • As on insert valve for tubing retrievable SCSSV’s. Injection Lines Tube used as ‘injection lines’ to inject chemical products such as corrosion or scale inhibitors down hole or as deep as possible in the well. . 8. • Gas lift wells.A.3. 8. Control Lines Tube used as ‘control line’ to operate downhole safety valves are installed along with the production string. the length of line required is generally relatively short. • Jet pump wells.p.1. • All waste wells. therefore. Wireline Retrievable Surface Controlled Flapper Valve Storm Chokes Annular Safety Systems Wireline Retrievable Injection Valves Table 8. The line length required in this case.2. Set in the next lowest wireline nipple. Wells with surface flowing temperature greater than 130°C. SCSSV’s are usually set at shallow depths and. • As a backup to the WRSV above when there is a control line failure.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 225 OF 295 ENI S. Wells with the presence of H2S or CO2. 8. • ESP wells with gas venting. CONTROL/INJECTION LINE SELECTION The purpose of this sub-section is to define the basic criteria for the selection and the use of small diameter tubes for SCSSV control line and injection line applications. These two different cases will be considered separately below. will be considerably longer. In this case. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 0 REVISION Type of Valve Tubing Retrievable Flapper Valve • • • • Applications Offshore platform wells.SSSV Closure Mechanism Applications Gas or water injection wells may have either a tubing retrievable or wireline retrievable SCSSV.3. Subsea wells.3.
ranging about 30m to 50m from well head for on-shore installations or from sub sea level in case of off-shore activity. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 8. control and injection line. the raw material comes in strips which are first rolled into tube form which is fed through a welding head to perform a fusion weld. In the seamless tube manufacturing process.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 226 OF 295 ENI S. Welded tubes can be produced in extra long coils more than 3200 ft by butt welding lengths of tubings together.A. Tube Specifications Size 0 REVISION Small diameter tubes for control or injection line applications are manufactured either as seamless or seam-welded and sunk. The cycles of cold drawing with a floating plug drawing method is preferred and annealing operations performed to reach the desired dimensions and produce a weld zone homogeneous with the rest of the tube material. is the pressure required to overcome the closing force of the spring plus resistance due to friction effects.000psi depending on the manufacturer. Once the working pressure has been defined as explained in the following paragraph. the raw material comes in the form of extruded hollows.500 to 2. of 1000 ft in length). . They are usually available in a full range of materials and sizes. Valve Opening Pressure.p. is /4” OD and the wall thickness chosen from among the following sizes according to the pressure requirements: • • • 1 1 1 /4” OD x 0. In the case of welded tube process. For this reason the configuration of the control line is not effected by the well deviation. which are then reduced to the desired diameter and wall thickness by a cold drawing operation. Welded tubes are considered the norm as opposed to seamless which are considerably more expensive and limited in length (usually a max.035” wall thickness /4” OD x 0. Control Line Working Pressures A down hole safety valve is usually set at a relatively shallow depth. Usually it ranges between 1. Both types of lines comply with ASTM specification A269 ‘Seamless and Welded Austenitic Stainless Steel Tubing for General Service’ and ASTM-B751 specification ‘General requirement for Ni and Ni alloy Seamless and Welded Tube’.d for the selection of the size which most suits the requirements.3. therefore in most cases external encapsulation it is not recommended.065” wall thickness. The working pressure (WP) is defined as follows: WP = Safety Valve WP + Valve Opening Pressure Safety Valve WP is as specified by the manufacturer.049” wall thickness 1 /4” OD x 0. The standard size for both applications.3. refer to table 8. provided by the manufacturer.
p. Injection fluid characteristics such as density and viscosity. The pressures given in the table are computed with ultimate and yield tensile strength values given in table 8. combining radial and tangential stress to determine an equivalent resultant using the Von Mises Theory of Distortion Energy: OD 2 Ys − 1 ID P= 4 OD 3x +1 ID Eq. 8. the selection of the tubing size to meet with requirements can be made.n shows the graphs of pressure losses per 100m versus flow rate plotted for various internal diameters and various values of fluid viscosity. Values obtained are based on the Lamè’s formula for thick section pipes using internal pressure only and stress defined at the internal diameter face. Hydrostatic pressure of injection fluid. Working pressure is defined as follows: WP = BHSP + Pfr − Phd Eq. Once the friction losses for laminar flow have been calculated then the diameter size can be determined accordingly. Total pressure required to inject chemicals through the line. therefore the flow profile can be assumed to be laminar.n).f and they are rated to temperatures between -20 and 100°F. Injection rates referred to in this application are always low.B Variables are defined as: P Ys Ys WP OD ID = = = = = = computed pressure (psi) ultimate tensile strength to compute ‘Burst Pressure’ (psi) yield strength (2% offset) to compute ‘Test Pressure’ (psi) 80% of test pressure (psi) outside diameter (in) inside diameter (in) . figure 8.Phd Bottom hole static pressure. Friction losses (see figure 8.A. The definition of working pressure is based on the following considerations: • • • • Well configuration.A where: WP = BHSP= Pfr = Phd = BHSP + Pfr . Once the working pressure has been defined as explained below. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 Chemical Injection Line Working Pressures 0 REVISION Chemical injection lines are run to injection mandrels which are installed as close as possible to the bottom of the tubing. Injection rates to choose the correct diameter and evaluate friction losses.d). 8.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 227 OF 295 ENI S. (Refer to table 8. therefore total vertical depth.
the most commonly used for control or injection line applications are listed in table 8.914 30.089 5.375 0.965 12.914 30.518 21.250 0.f shows the mechanical properties of these materials in the annealed condition.049 0.780 17.427 10.250 0.375 0.035 0.515 18.646 24.035 0.D .142 8.333 5.250 0.972 9.250 0.854 21.659 8.010 Burst (psi) 18.065 0.065 0.250 0.252 37.780 17.983 21.049 0.035 0.333 5.065 0.459 9.112 7.268 31.564 6.763 12.323 12.459 9.438 15.Theoretical Working.035 0.e together with their relative characteristics.250 0.642 30. Bursting and Testing Procedures (for welded stainless steel tubing at between -20°F to 100°F) 8.965 12.375 Table 8.651 5.866 4.006 9.A.375 0.250 0.831 12.965 42. Material Selection Among the stainless steels and nickel alloys available.049 0.709 52. table 8.328 7.255 7.646 24.355 26.250 0.954 15.013 Monel K400 0.831 12.967 7.049 WP (psi) 5.035 0.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 228 OF 295 ENI S.375 Wall (inch) 0.416 6.118 8.390 8.250 0.035 0.049 0.011 4.898 11.515 22. Compatibility of packer or completion fluid with the selected material must be confirmed by means of condition specific laboratory testing.p.457 15.375 Inconel 625 0.035 0.084 21.049 0.035 0.786 17.006 12.605 7.4.375 0.112 7.049 0.250 0.250 0.049 0.375 Incoloy 825 0.908 30. .065 0.025 Test (psi) 6.3.004 5.250 0.809 3.757 15. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 0 REVISION Type of alloy AISI 316 L OD (inch) 0.
Nominal Mechanical Properties in Annealed Conditions (For temperatures between -20 to 100°F) .p.E . the corrosion department should be consulted to confirm compatibility with the packer fluids. In accordance with ASTM specification B704.Stainless Steels and Nickel Alloys Most Commonly Used Once the type of material to be used has been defined. based on pressure ratings and working environment.000 35. In accordance with ASTM specification B165.2% Offset (psi) 25.000 Type of Alloy AISI 316 L Monel K400 Incoloy 825 Inconel 625 Table 8.F .ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 229 OF 295 ENI S. Is a Nickel-base alloy with a higher percentage of molybdenum to give the highest resistance to chloride attack. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 0 REVISION Type of Alloy AISI 316 L Main Characteristics Is an austenitic stainless steel with reduced carbon content.000 60. In accordance with ASTM specification B423. Monel K400 Incoloy 825 Inconel 625 Table 8.000 Yield Strength at 0. Has good resistance to grain boundary attack and improved resistance to pitting and crevice attack.000 70. Tensile Strength (psi) 70.000 28. It is susceptible to chloride stress cracking when the presence of stress is combined with a packer fluid containing chlorides.000 85. Is a nickel-copper alloy resistant to corrosion and stress corrosion over a wide range of conditions.A. Control or Injection line made of the above material shall comply with the following ASTM specifications: AISI 316L Monel K400 Incoloy 825 Inconel 625 In accordance with ASTM specification A269 (TP316L).000 120. Is an austenitic nickel-base alloy with good resistance to pitting in chloride solutions and to stress corrosion has improved resistance to corrosion by many acids.
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STAP-P-1-M-7100 8.3.5. Fittings 0
Connections for either SCSSV control lines or chemical injection lines shall be performed as follows: In case of pressure rating < 5000 psi, line connections shall be of the ‘Swagelok’ type. • In case of pressure rating > 5000 psi, line connections shall be of the ‘Autoclave’ type as recommended by API Spec. 6A (Wellhead & Christmas Tree Equipment) at the paragraph ‘Equipment specification requirement’ under ‘test and gauge connections’. It is suggested to avoid, as far as possible, any intermediate connections to reduce potential leak paths. 8.3.6. Protectors Control line protectors are designed to support and avoid (bare or encapsulated) crushing at where it is most exposed, e.g. where it crosses large offsets like couplings, downhole safety valves or gas lift mandrels. Protectors shall be designed for small annular clearances allowing sufficient annulus flow area. They should be of the “one piece” type without loose parts and designed so as to be quickly installed and removed. ‘Across coupling tubing protectors’ are recommended for use with both SCSSV control and injection lines applications. For control lines used on SCSSV’s installed at shallow depth (less than 250m), other types of protectors may be used. In general, ‘steel banding’ or ‘banding straps’, ‘rubber based’ and ‘mid joint protectors’ shall be avoided at all costs. The following technical requirements will identify protector performance: • • • • • Material shall be of all metal construction. No structural welding shall be allowed. Lab corrosion tests shall be run to verify compatibility with annular environment. Capable of firmly supporting bare or encapsulated lines when performing completions and recovery during workover allowing control line and protector reuse. Force indicated in ‘l’ or ‘tons’ that the protector will support against axial displacement without failing or damaging the supported line. Force stated in ‘lb’ or ‘Kg’ that protector will resist as a direct pull on supported line without any slippage. Maximum load expressed in ‘lb’ or ‘kg’ that protector will withstand when contacting the casing wall without damage. •
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STAP-P-1-M-7100 8.3.7. Encapsulation 0
Encapsulation of this line is recommended only for chemical injection lines applications. Encapsulation increases crush resistance during installation, protects line against abrasion, pinching and improves clamping profile. Several encapsulation materials are available, covering a wide range of environmental conditions. table 8.g indicates the compatibility of the main encapsulation materials with the most commonly used packer/completion fluids. In some cases, braided wire is placed alongside the injection line and bonded together by the encapsulation material, to further enhance resistance and strength avoiding any rolling and twisting tendencies (Refer to table 8.h). The following laboratory tests are suggested to confirm the lines mechanical characteristics and compatibility of the encapsulation material with the packer fluid used: • • • • • • Immersion test of the encapsulated line in downhole conditions for a defined period of time. No evidence of a change in physical appearance should be observable. Gas impregnation tests at various temperatures, pressures and with various gasses for a fixed period of time. No evidence of cracking, blistering or embrittlement should be observable. Combined brine/sour gas exposure tests according to the operating conditions, as above. Combined crude oil/sour gas exposure tests according to operating conditions as above. Abrasion resistance test to compare the resistance against abrasion between bare and encapsulated lines. Crush resistance test by loading the tube laterally, across the diameter, simulating various loading levels, until tube collapse is evident. Encapsulated line results should be compared to bare line tests.
The following table 8.g shows the main properties of the most common types of encapsulation material available. The choice of material, is mainly based on type of packer fluid, well deviation and working temperatures to be experienced and shall be confirmed by laboratory tests for compatibility.
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Encapsulation Material Nylon
Main properties Compatible with diesel packer fluids containing high gas percentages. Nylon should not be used with completion fluids that contain calcium chlorides, calcium bromides or zinc bromides at high temperatures. Its maximum temperature rating is 250°F. Compatible with most packer fluids with the exception of diesel or fluid at high gas concentration. Maximum operating temperature rating is 275°F - 300°F. Chemically resistant to almost all downhole fluids. Excellent mechanical strength and abrasion resistance. Compatible with high gas content environments. Recommended for highly deviated wells. Maximum operating temperature is 400°F. Chemically resistant to almost all downhole fluids. Excellent mechanical strength and abrasion resistance. Compatible with high gas content environments. Recommended for highly deviated wells. Maximum operating temperature is 212°F. Chemically resistant to almost all downhole fluids. Excellent mechanical strength and abrasion resistance. Compatible with high gas content environments. Recommended for highly deviated wells. Maximum operating temperature is 302°F.
Table 8.G - Compatibility and Characteristics of Encapsulation Materials Halar (fluoropolymers) is a registered trademark of Ausimont USA Santoprene (thermoplastics rubber) is a registered trademark of Monsanto Rilsan II (polyamide thermoplastic) Foraflon PVDF (polyvinylidine fluoride thermoplastic material) Samples of different types of encapsulated tubes have been tested under compressive, laterally applied, loading simulating possible damage arising during installation to determine the tube crushing resistance and extend of polymer damage, (see Table below).
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Applied load in metric tons (no damage detected) 2.45 2.65 7.0
100mm - 1/4” OD x 0.049” Alloy 825 bare line 100mm - 1/4” OD x 0.049” Alloy 625 bare line 100mm - 1/4” OD x 0.049” Alloy 825 encapsulated with Foraflon: size 15mm x 12mm
Applied load in metric tons (line partially crushed, fluid flow not interrupted) 3.5 3.8 9.0
Table 8.H - Crush Resistance Test For Encapsulated Injection Lines 8.3.8. SCSSV Hydraulic Control fluid The criteria in this section is for SCSSV control line applications only. Today hydraulic fluids are almost exclusively based on mineral oils. Other types of synthetic based oils, are employed only when operating temperatures are very low and special thermal standby properties are required. Most of the synthetic based oils used are of the flash fire resistant category as they have a very low pour floc point combined with a good performance at higher temperatures. With regard to subsea completions, the control fluid is the same fluid as used for the Xmas tree controls. table 8.i shows the main properties of the recommended oils for control line applications. 8.13 and figure 8.n below shows typical friction losses of control line fluids.
Injected fluid viscosity = 5cP
100 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Q injection - liters/hr
Fri c. los ses psi /10 0m
O.D = 0,25 inches
w.t.= 0,035 w.t.= 0,049 w.t.= 0,065
Figure 8.M - Fluid Friction Loss with 5cP Fluid
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Injected fluid viscosity = 1cP
20 18 16 Fric. losses psi/100m 14 12 10 8 6 4 2 0 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 O.D = 0,25 inches
w.t.=0,035 w.t.=0,049 w.t.=0,065
Q injection - liters/hr
Figure 8.N - Fluid Friction Loss with 1cP Fluid The above graphs are based on the following formula:
Q x L xµ 612.95 Di 4
Pf = Friction losses (kPa) Di = Internal diameter (inches) L = Length (meters) µ = Viscosity (cP) Q = Flow rate (lt / min)
kPa X 0.145 = psi
Properties of Recommended SCSSV Hydraulic Oils * cSt x Density = cp **Density variation = 0.865 - 30 5.875 - 29.1 98 -55 206 0.3 110 -30 204 0.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 235 OF 295 ENI S. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 0 REVISION Oil Name/Properties Viscosity at 40° C cSt Viscosity at 100° C cSt Viscosity index Pour Point °C Flash point °C Density at 15° kg/l Floc point °C Agip Arnica 32 (Petroleum based) Agip OSO 32 (Paraffinic based) Agip Betula S 32 (Synthetic based) 32 6.A. testing and running procedure must be carefully programmed and hydraulic fluid may have to be flushed through a filtration unit.4 5. In order to avoid plugging of the control line while running in hole.00065 (kg/l) / °C For standard applications Agip Arnica 32 is recommended as it has better theological properties than OSO 32.I . Agip Betula 32 should be employed only when operating temperatures are very low as in Siberia where temperatures may reach -50°C. if required (usually 5 micron absolute).4 163 -39 202 0. .841 -60 Table 8.p.
Control/Injection Line Selection Procedure Flow Chart 0 REVISION Figure 8.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 236 OF 295 ENI S.A.9.O .3. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 8.Control/Injection Line Selection Flow Chart .p.
This must take into consideration all the diameter constraints imposed by the casing profile and completion characteristics.4. Data on all of these nipples can be found in the manufacturer’s current catalogue. WIRELINE NIPPLE SELECTION 0 REVISION The nipples required for completion purposes are based on the results of the previous design stages.g. AR (WP < 10. The aim of this section is to determine the type (selective or tapered) and configuration of the diameters in order to optimise access to the sump and prevent friction pressure drop. while R and RN types are used on all higher pressures.A. .000 psi) VF.000 and 15. the choice depends on the working pressure of the string configuration AF.000 psi). Do not rely on data produced elsewhere or use old catalogues as changes to the nipple systems may have been made resulting in incompatibility. Like the case in selective nipples. R. RN The choice of the type of nipple is subject to the working pressure which characterises the completion (e. Tapered: • Baker F top no-go (AF-HF-VF) and R bottom no-go (AR-HR-VR).ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 237 OF 295 ENI S. and include the following models: Selective: • Halliburton (previously Otis) X. The nipples are selected based on those most commonly used by the company. XN. HR (WP between 10. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 8.p. if applicable Lock mandrel OD (LMOD).000 psi. X and XN nipples are used for working pressure < 10.000 psi) HF. VR (WP > 15. The principal physical characteristics of a nipple are: • • • Seal bore diameter No-go diameter. SCSSV or wellhead).
an approximation of 1/100ins for SB is acceptable.p.RB > NGD + RC) then: LMOD = RA . the minimum top and bottom restriction dimensions are determined by the following procedure: 1) The top restriction (RA) is the minimum upper diameter of the nipple. The following physical dimensional values are required: • • Running clearance (RC) = 0.A. decreasing the NGD to adjust the calculations. The bottom restriction (RB) is determined by the ID of the SCSSV tubing-retrievable.050ins for tubing OD < 3. To select the nipples to be as compatible as possible with the available options in the suppliers catalogues. Tapered Nipple Configuration 0 REVISION The configuration of the nipples begins at the top of the string and moves downwards towards the bottom or packer tailpipe.050ins for tubing OD < 5ins 0. is always a Baker type F and is chosen with the maximum diameter available for the size of the completion tubing below the hanger. The minimum values which can be reached by the NGD are: • • • 0. At this stage a hypothesis of seal bore diameter of the nipple (SB) is determined by analysing the following conditions: If RB is not defined. and the only one used.060ins for tubing OD < 5ins = 0.NGD 3) In other cases.4. the previous conditions are re-applied.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 238 OF 295 ENI S. or: RB > RA or (RA .080ins otherwise The first nipple.1. generally in the tubing hanger. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 8.313ins = 0.RC SB = LMOD . For the lower nipples. 4) The data obtained are then used to match the nipple. chosen from one of the following: • • • • • 2) ID of the packer Drift of the tubing ID of the safety valve Vertical access of the wellhead Sealbore diameter (top) or no-go ID (bottom) of the upper nipple.313ins 0.050ins No-go dimension (NGD) = 0. .042ins for tubing OD < 3.070ins otherwise.
4. it is then possible to use an R type nipple if the following conditions exist: • • The nipple in question is not required for the installation of a W/L retrievable backup SCSSV The subsequent nipple must be type F with the following characteristics: SB(F) < SB(R) LMOD(F) + 0. 8. the nipple is compared with the data from the catalogue. the maximum diameter nipple which is compatible with the rated pressure of the Christmas tree is selected.g.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 239 OF 295 ENI S. If there is no nipple with the characteristics required.050 < no-go ID(R). For the subsequent nipples.2.p. It is a rule that if the spacing between two successive nipples is < 30m. i. a tapered nipple will be used. If F is chosen. After this it is necessary to reduce the diameter again. F) is obtained from the previous selection.e. the previous size is selected but only for a maximum of three nipples in series. there are two options: • • Produce a new nipple size Select the maximum nipple diameter from the catalogue < SB. 2) The type of nipple (e. Selective Nipple Configuration Criteria similar to those detailed in the tapered nipple procedure are used to choose the tubing hanger nipple. . Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 0 REVISION 1) In the event of achieving a good match.A.
A. HNS or PYX is used. fluid selection. The performance of each is available from the suppliers. gun selection. The explosives for use in most shaped charges up to 300 F is RDX (cyclonite) and above this temperature and depending on time exposed to the temperature.a). The detonating cord.p. o . therefore perforation damage is an extremely important aspect. PERFORATING The objective of perforating a well is to establish communication between the wellbore and the formation by making holes through the casing. increased perforating skin can reduce production rates. One of the important aspects is the underbalance. To optimise perforating efficiency. applied pressure differential or underbalance.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 240 OF 295 ENI S. The important issues for the completion engineer are the charge selection to meet with the conditions and provide the maximum perforating efficiency. PS. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 0 REVISION 9. must match the explosive selected. and perforating orientation. 9.1. SHAPED CHARGE PERFORATING The principle of shaped charge perforating is available in any service providers sales and technical literature (Refer to figure 9.2. it is not solely down to the perforating technique but relies extensively on the planning and execution of the well completion which includes selection of the perforated interval. The advantages of perforated casing wells is already described in section 5.3 and offers selectivity. however the perforated volume in the pay is relatively small compared to open hole (+/. well clean-up. which couples all the charges to the detonator in the firing head. The detonator is triggered by electrical heating when deployed on wireline systems or by a firing pin in mechanically or hydraulically operated firing head systems employed on tubing conveyed perforating (TCP) systems. HMX. If this is not effective. To this end it is necessary to obtain an adequate shot density with a sufficiently deep enough penetration to pass through the drilling damage and maximise flow through each tunnel.25%). which has been proven to significantly help to achieve a post-perforating flow rate to effectively flush out gun debris and remove the crushed zone which surrounds every perforating tunnel. cement and into formation in such a manner so as not to inhibit the inflow capacity of the reservoir.
GUN TYPES There are four main types of perforating guns: • • • • 9. Wireline Conveyed Casing Guns Through-tubing Hollow Carrier Guns Through-tubing Strip Guns Tubing Conveyed Perforating Guns. .2.p. The advantage of casing guns over the other wireline guns are. low cost.1.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 241 OF 295 ENI S. high charge performance. variable shot densities of 1-12spf. minimal debris. speed and accurate positioning using CCL/Gamma Ray. highest temperature and pressure rating.A. therefore no underbalance can normally be applied although in large size monobore type completions some sizes can be run similar to through-tubing guns using an underbalance. multi-phasing.A. Wireline Conveyed Casing Guns These types of guns are generally run in the well before installing the tubing. high mechanical and electrical reliability.2. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 0 REVISION Figure 9. minimal casing damage. instant shot detection.Perforation Process 9.
p.B . Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 0 REVISION Figure 9.Types of Guns .A.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 242 OF 295 ENI S.
therefore. underbalance perforating can possibly be adopted but only for the first shot. In completion operations. Impact by a wireline deployed tool. normally used on well tests. They only offer 0 or o 1 7 180 phasing with a max. they are usually fitted with decentralising/orientation devices. Another version available.2. The charges have higher performance and are much cheaper than throughtubing carriers guns. of 4spf on the 2 /8” OD gun and 6spf on the 2 /8” OD gun. Tubing Conveyed Perforating TCP guns are a variant of the casing gun which can be run on tubing.4. By being able to be run through the tubing.p. Lengths of over 1. Hydrostatic pressure reduction. Due to the potential of becoming stuck through strip deformation. therefore performance.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 243 OF 295 ENI S. hence have o lower charge sizes and. Through-Tubing Hollow Carrier Guns 0 REVISION These are smaller versions of casing guns which can be run through tubing. . Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 9.A. than all other guns.2. allowing much longer lengths to be installed.3. run on the bottom of the completion packer or run through the tubing on coiled tubing. They also provide 0 or 180 phasing. 9. they may be deployed and hung-off in position before installation of the completion string. Due to the stand-off from the casing which these guns may have. casing damage and have less o o mechanical and electrical reliability. then the guns detonated by either: • • • • A bar dropped from surface Hydraulic pressure applied from surface then subsequently reduced to the planned underbalance pressure during a time delay. Through-Tubing Strip Guns These are semi-expendable type guns and consist of a metal strip into which the charges are mounted.000ft are possible (and especially useful for horizontal wells) and perforating under exceedingly high drawdowns is possible with no risk to the guns being blown up the hole. is where a differential is applied between the annulus and the sump via porting through the test packer. Alternately they can be run in long lengths for overbalance perforating before completion string installation.2. they must have a safety release connection so they can be left in the well. 9. They have a particular application for perforating through DST strings and reperforating completed wells. Subsequent runs would need the well to be flowed to cause a differential pressure.2. A new version called the ‘pivot gun’ has even larger charges for deep penetration which pivot out from a vertical controlled OD to the firing position. however they also cause more debris. Normally the completion is displaced to an underbalance fluid.
API RP 43. Due to the longer exposure time because of the deployment. This provides under two specific tests: • • Entrance hole size and penetration length into a 5ft diameter concrete target. the thickness of casing and cement or if multiple casings are to be perforated also has an impact on the gun performance. 9. .A. gun stand-off. It is necessary for engineers to obtain as much accurate data from the suppliers and use Eni-Agip historic data in order to be able to make the best choice of gun. 9.3. Section II is normally used for comparisons. The variations for these reasons is non-linear and depends on the type of charge. charge alignment. which includes performance data produced by the suppliers. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 The main problems associated with TCP are: • • • • 0 REVISION Gun positioning is more difficult The sump needs to be drilled deeper to accommodate the gun length if it is dropped after firing A misfire is extremely expensive Shot detection is more unreliable. Entrance hole. The performances are listed in two sections I and II.p. The API tests are also unreliable as the targets have had differing strengths and porosities and there is no consistent quality control standard for production of the charges. GUN PERFORMANCE API And Performance Data For most completion applications. higher grade charges may also be required. moisture contamination.1.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 244 OF 295 ENI S. Ageing of explosives. overburden stress and wellbore pressure and temperatures. can be used as a qualitative comparison of charge performance. however the performance in actual use may differ due to differences in rock strength. penetration and flow efficiency in a Berea sandstone target at elevated temperatures and an estimated 800psi effective stress.3.
Shot density to achieve adequate flow area. This is affected by the gun weight. A shot density greater than this is required where: • • • • Vertical permeability is low. o Minimum 90 phasing. underbalanced perforation can be carried out with through tubing systems. .A. type of fluid.4. A gravel pack is be conducted. Debris removal. Penetration. There is a risk of high velocities and hence turbulence. High Underbalanced TCP Perforating High drawdowns over 500psi for production wells require. Shot Density Shot density in homogeneous. if possible: • • • • TCP methods Deep penetrating charges. If perforating with through-tubing guns. High shot density over 8spf. The use of these relatively smaller guns require contact with the casing wall. this will require multiple runs.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 245 OF 295 ENI S. the important factors are: • • • • • Hole diameter to achieve adequate flow area. This in conjunction with correct gravel pack procedures is essential for to prevent high skin factors. bypass area and expected flow rate. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 Guidelines Gravel Pack Completions 0 REVISION Due to the problem of flow restriction discussed earlier in section 2. orientation at o o o 90 with 180 phased guns or in line with the contact point if 0 phased. isotropic formations should be a minimum of 8spf but must exceed the frequency of shale laminations. Shot phasing. Underbalanced Perforating With Through-Tubing Guns If TCP costs cannot be justified and if formation perforated skin factor is acceptable. There is a risk of sand production.1. On the first run a high overbalance can be used but on subsequent runs the only means of producing a differential is to flow the well at a rate governed not to blow the gun up the hole.p.
Hole Size The hole size obtained is a function of the casing grade and should be as follows: • • • Between 6mm and 12mm for natural completions. formation fluids and must also be clean to prevent formation damage.A. As a general rule stand-off should never be more than 50mm. This requires that less drawdown is exerted during the well clean up. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 Penetration 0 REVISION In general. then strict control over the fluid used to ensure it is compatible with the reservoir formation. Gun Stand-Off Gun stand-off should be minimised for improved performance. The optimum clean up period is subjective and opinions range from 1gall to 5gall per perforation. If low phase angle. 120 . The best method of clean up is to flow the well continually for several hours after perforating at normal offtake rates.p. o o o o Overbalanced Perforating If a well is to be perforated overbalanced. to obtain high shot density. an underbalance should be used.2. the intention is to cause perforation enlargement to remove the crushed zone without collapsing the cavity or sanding in the guns. the deeper the shot the better. King et al developed a recommended minimum level of drawdown based on a number of field studies where TCP perforating had been employed. Phasing Providing the stand-off is less than 50mm.3. If the smallest charges are being used then the stand-off should not be more than 25mm. especially at high pressures. These guidelines should be used to select the appropriate drawdown for consolidated completions. 9. Between 15mm and 25mm in gravel packed completions. Underbalanced Perforating To optimise the perforating clean up.90 . Between 8mm and 12mm if fracturing is to be carried out and where ball sealers are to be used.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 246 OF 295 ENI S. In unconsolidated sands. the guns may be limited to the charge size which can physically be installed which will impact penetration. However. high density shots are preferred then TCP and casing guns should be used. (Refer to the Figures below). 180 or less. 60 is preferable. but at the least it should exceed the drilling damage area by 75mm. If o fracturing is to be carried out then 90 and lower will help initiate fractures. .
Two very important considerations are safety during installation of TCP systems and redundancy in the event of a fault occurring in the primary firing system. in TCP systems there are a wide variety including pressure operated. 9. Using wireline installed firing heads provides some redundancy in that the first head can be retrieved and a second head deployed.p. Perforating Procedures Refer to the ‘Completion Procedures Manual.A. This provides full safety during gun deployment. there are a number of different firing heads for various applications. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 9. Wireline perforating systems are normally electrically trigger by passing an electrical signal down the cable to the guns. Protecting the firing head from test pressure is a dangerous procedure as a plug may leak will also cause premature detonation. wireline activated.3. However. There are other side-by-side systems available which provide a tubing installed pressure activated firer with a secondary receptacle for a wireline installed firer. for if there is a firing head fault. etc.3. . gun recovery would be very costly. it is undesirable to have a gun actuation pressure higher than the test pressure as a leak may occur while trying to trigger the guns. Redundancy This is an important aspect.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 247 OF 295 ENI S.3. bar drop. It is good practice to use a bar drop firing mechanism (deployed on wireline if possible as dropping the bar from surface may damage sensitive completion items) or wireline installed firing heads which can be installed after the completion is set and tested. Obviously.4. Firing Heads 0 REVISION As described earlier. Safety The use of tubing installed hydraulic actuated systems has the problem of how to conduct pressure integrity tests on the completion with sufficient margin between the gun activation pressure and the highest test pressure applied. .
C . Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 0 REVISION Figure 9.D .Recommended Underbalance for Perforating Gas Zones in Stable Sandstones Figure 9.A.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 248 OF 295 ENI S.p.Recommended Underbalance for Perforating Gas Zones in Stable Sandstones .
ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 249 OF 295 ENI S.A.E . Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 0 REVISION Figure 9.p.Recommended Underbalance for Perforating Shallow Unconsolidated Gas Sands Figure 9.Recommended Underbalance for Perforating Shallow Unconsolidated Oil Sands .F .
such as casing size. GLR and lack of particular experience with the system. Section 10. In some fields. These early decisions can save much expense later. limitations and comparisons. low pressure wells. Offset the effects of increasing water production.6. In simple terms. Kick off high GLR wells that die when shut-in.g. Overcome high friction effects of heavy viscous or waxy crudes. The application of artificial lift simply displaces the TPC curve downwards so that a lower bottom-hole flowing pressure is achieved. Reservoir development optimisations studies are necessary to determine the relative technical and economic benefits of the options and the timing of the investments. . artificial lift from the outset is necessary to achieve the production and economic targets. then minimisation of the FBHP is critical to low PI.4. Meet with targeted high offtake rates. such as: • • • • • • • • Casing ID Casing connection in on gas lift Size and positioning of liners Provision of a sump for rod pumpers Pre-positioning of gas lift mandrels for gas lift and ASV system Pre-installation of conduits for hydraulic pumps Parallel bore for plunger lift etc. Some systems are able to cope better with production problems than others which will obviously affect the choice. The selection of the most appropriate artificial lift system involves a number of factors but mainly on specific well performance. ARTIFICIAL LIFT The benefits and most commonly used artificial lift were described previously in section 5. System life is difficult to predict as it is a function of operating conditions. solids production.A. ESP life can vary between days and five years depending on temperature. etc.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 250 OF 295 ENI S. liner top setting. design considerations. In other cases. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 0 REVISION 10. Consideration of future artificial lift requirements must be taken during the planning stage. Just as tubing size is critical to high PI wells. the artificial lift injects energy into the system. To summarise the reasons for the installation of artificial lift are to: • • • • • Reduce the effects of declining bottom-hole pressures.7 lists all the systems. their applications. both pressure maintenance and artificial lift are used which defers the installation. Selection of the method is also based upon operating costs and workover frequency costs. e.p. Energy can also be introduced by reservoir pressure maintenance.
Qi. the gas moves down to the next valve unloading the casing fluid and as the reaches the second valve and lightens the fluid gradient from that point. hence the back-pressure on the formation.1. Due to the low liquid production. it is desirable to position the lower gas injection point as deep as possible in the well. As described in section 2. most gas lift systems are based on available gas supply volumes.1psi/ft). GAS LIFT 0 REVISION The continuous gas lift method adds gas into the producing fluids which reduces the hydrostatic head and. the first unloading valve closes so that all the gas passes through the second valve. As can be seen the gas is injected down the annulus and into the tubing through the topmost valve lightening the fluid column in accordance with the total GLR curve shown.3. As GLR requirements are subject to diminishing returns. which is used to produce low volumes of liquid (<350stb/d) from wells with low BHFP (<0. During this process the well BHP will drop to the point where the well will flow.p. also shown in figure 10. Occasionally the gas is pumped into the tubing and the production taken up the annulus or in the annular space in a concentric completion.a). The lift gas is normally pumped into the annulus and into the tubing through gas lift valves installed in Side Pocket Mandrels (SPMs). A standing valve is sometimes necessary to prevent the gas from flowing into the formation.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 251 OF 295 ENI S. increasing GLR initially decreases the bottom-hole pressure on the TPC. There is an optimum GLR to produce stabilised flow for a particular tubing size and a minimum BHFP. the injection is optimised to maximise production.A. The injection gas is supplied in a closed loop system in which it is taken from the separators and then compressed. Production is determined by: • • • • reservoir pressure PI water cut gas injection rate Once the well reaches a stabilised rate. however this is limited by: • • • • available gas lift pressure the flowing tubing pressure at the intended offtake rate the depth of the packer and deepest gas lift mandrel the differential required to close the upper valves closed (+/-20psi) and to ensure that injection at the operating GLV is stable (between 50 and 500psi) figure 10. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 10. This continues in sequence for all other valves until reaching the operating valve where the casing pressure will drop below the initial kick-off pressure. Another less common application is Intermittent Gas Lift. it must be produced in slugs by intermittently gas injection through a motorised valve.b illustrates the fundamental principle of a gas lift design and operation. In continuous gas lift. or either the near optimum GLR which provides a BHFP within 20-50psi of the minimum. .a. As the fluid gradient changes.4. dried if necessary and then delivered to the well (Refer to figure 10.
IGLR = Qi/q Figure 10.p.A.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 252 OF 295 ENI S.Typical Gas Lift System . q.A . is dependent on the IPR and attainable BHFP. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 From this it is seen: • • • 0 REVISION Liquid rate. Total GLR = Producing GLR + Injection GLR </= optimum GLR.
Modern gas lift systems usually now use SPMs with wireline GLVs to reduce servicing costs. the spacing of them is much more critical. hence gas tight or premium connections are generally selected. As the mandrels at deeper depths become increasingly closer. much higher gas supply pressures have been used to enable deeper valves to be reached or reduce the number of mandrels and valves required. All mandrel depths are taken of the design as TVDs and these must be converted to MD. Although gas lift valves incorporate check valves to prevent back flow.p. This increased pressure.Example Gas lift design 10. This may again impact on the casing design. SPMs have relatively large ODs and this needs to be considered in the casing design.1.1.A. .ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 253 OF 295 ENI S. however. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 0 REVISION Figure 10. applies more pressure on the annulus casing. Impact On Completion Design In recent times. an annulus safety system is installed for platform safety.B . these are not reliable and as the annuli contain quite a considerable inventory of gas.
ESPs performance is best at stable conditions within +/-25% of the optimum rate. The differential pressure or total dynamic head (TDH) developed by the pump is a function of the pump flow rate which is relative to the head developed by each stage and obtainable from manufacturers publishing’s. If possible.2. On offshore installations. TDH=Ns Hs where: NS HS = = number of stages head per stage Eq.2. Each stage consists of a rotating impeller and stationary diffuser. 3.A The pump characteristics are based on constant rotational speed which is dependent on the AC supply frequency. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 10. the problems are usually inefficiency through upper gas lift valve or tubing leaks. .000scf/stb. Operationally. gas production up the annulus may be a significant problem.A.p.500 rpm at 60 Hertz and 2.1. 10. motor controller and a wellhead pack-off for the cable.c shows the most common types of ESP installations and the pump components. Due to these high speeds and pump construction it is obvious that sand production is very detrimental and that emulsions are easily formed. 10. high water cut wells and water supply wells. The construction of the ESP is a multi-staged centrifugal connected through a short shaft to the downhole electric motor. the installation should be designed to facilitate downhole separation of free gas and vented up the annulus which is necessary when the gas volume exceeds the pump operating limit (typically +/-10% of the total fluid volume). ELECTRICAL SUBMERISBLE PUMPS ESPs greatest application is in moving large volume of low GOR (<100scf/stb) fluids.915 at 50 Hertz. To prevent sand production it is sometimes necessary to install a gravel pack or pre-packed screen for pump protection. The ESP delivery capacity will vary according to: • • • • Well IPR Reservoir pressure Surface back-pressure Electrical supply frequency figure 10. Common Problems 0 REVISION The worst problem that can arise is that the pressure losses in the gas injection system and slugging have been underestimated and that the valve spacing is too far apart. Their main limitation is gas production but improved downhole separators and procedures can now handle GORs up to 1. Versions with variable frequency drives (VFD) are available or the use of surface chokes can be used to increase the band of rate (50-190%) but incur higher capital and operating costs. Surface equipment usually includes a three phase transformer.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 254 OF 295 ENI S. They are particularly popular for high rate undersaturated oil wells.
The motor is situated at the bottom of the assembly so that the well flow around the motor will dissipate the heat generated.Typical ESP Installations .A. most pump installations are on the end of tubing and positioned above the perforations or open hole.p.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 255 OF 295 ENI S.C. Bottom discharge pumps are used in powered dump flood wells. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 0 REVISION As can be seen from the schematic. Figure 10. If the pump has to be positioned below the interval. a shroud is used to draw the produced fluid down past the motor.
A.000 50-125 100-300 200-650 400-850 500-1020 500-1030 5.j below.J .ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 256 OF 295 ENI S.000-12. Casing Size.p. or number of stages. stb/d Power.500 5.375 N/A N/A 100-1. A recent development with the later is in Norway where downhole safety is satisfied by the installation of shear seal capability below the coiled tubing hanger. and determine the attainable pump rate with: • • a fixed IPR and various tubing sizes a fixed tubing size and various IPR options 2) In this approach the pump performance curve is often plotted below the system performance curves. Pre-select the maximum pump horsepower.000-26.000 1.2.000-16.000 5. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 Other less common deployment methods are: • • 0 REVISION Suspended on the cable and latched into a downhole receptacle. ESP sizes and capacities are shown in table 10.375 4.750 4.000 500-3.1.ESP Capacity Ranges Two approaches are commonly used to evaluate an ESP system: 1) Pre-select the production target and corresponding BHFP and determine the TDH and pump size and depth required to meet this rate.d). ins Pump OD.000-33.000 2.000-12.000 12.000-5.500 Table 10. An example this to optimise the number of stages for a maximum pump HP is shown in figure 10.750 8.437 7.000 4.625 11.000 24. HP TDH.000 5. This often carried out by plotting the pressure traverses above and below the pump (Refer to figure 10.000 3.e.625 6. Both of these suffer from some problems such as cable failures with the cable suspension method and well control issues with the C/T mounted method (i.000-12.000-10. ESP Performance It is normal procedure to select the largest pump that will fit into the production casing (especially if this was catered for in the planning stage). downhole safety systems if the well can flow naturally). ins Motor OD.000 5.e. . 10. On coiled tubing with the cable through the coil which is terminated with a special wellhead arrangement. Small casing or liners will obviously limit the pump size selection.000-100.900 200-5.250 3. ft 4 /2 5 /2 7 8 /8 10 /4 13 /8 3 3 5 1 1 3. ins Rate.
D . Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 0 REVISION Figure 10.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 257 OF 295 ENI S.p.A.Example ESP Design for a Pre-selected Rate .
ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 258 OF 295 ENI S.E.A.p. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 0 REVISION Figure 10.Example ESP Design for a Pre-selected HP .
2. Centralisation of the pump is also critical. When re-completing a ESP well the pump should be moved slightly from the original position to help minimise any casing corrosion due to eddy currents. Also consideration must be given to the optimum tubing size and cable dimensions to ensure they can be accommodated in the casing.p. . vice versa. Inadequate system analysis leading to the system operating outside the range. especially when temperatures are in the o region of 250 F. Too much free gas and no enlarged intakes stages. Scaling up of the impellers. Sand production. Impact On Completion Design 0 REVISION The key to an efficient ESP design is heat removal and insulation material selection for the actual operating temperatures and environment.2.A. In large casings. If properly planned an ESP completion only requires one onsite termination. 10. Centralisation and crush resistant clamps should be installed across doglegs. Unsuitable cable insulation material for the conditions. Too many frequent start ups when there is no soft start facilities. The completion design is also affected if downhole separation is required in conjunction with downhole safety. Common Problems The biggest problem with ESP completions is short running time before failure with the cost impact for re-completion. However.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 259 OF 295 ENI S. a shroud must be used to provide this rate. Poor voltage supply stability. The pump should be set in a straight section of casing to avoid bending and the cable needs to firmly attached to the tubing for support by cable clamps (two per joint). ESP systems are becoming evermore reliable. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 10. The most common problems are due to: • • • • • • • • Bad installation procedures.3. The clearance between the pump and the casing should be small enough that a flow velocity of a minimum of 1ft/sec is achieved.2. Tubing hanger and penetration systems for packers have been well developed now for fast easy installation with the testing of the connections carried beforehand in the workshop. Casing design is obviously has a large impact on the completion design or in the case of an ESP completion.
000ft) wells. Jet Pump The jet pump uses no moving parts and imparts momentum into the fluid using the venturi effect with a jet. supply pressure and rate. The size of the these can be varied to pump volumes of 1 100-15.000-18.k below.000scf/stb. Optimisation is generally through using supplier’s computer software. pump intake pressure. The maximum attainable performance have been summarised in table 10. .ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 260 OF 295 ENI S. However pump efficiency is low at 33-66% and large production rates can only be achieved in high rate installations.000ft although high surface power fluid pressures are required below 12.A.3.000stb/d although it is normally used to produce <2. In effect the piston pump is equivalent to the rod pump except that the pump drive is subsurface but can produce up to 8. Piston Pump The piston pump is a reciprocating pump operated with a drive piston which automatically shuttles backwards and forwards exhausting the spent power fluid into the returns.000stb/d with 4 /2” tubing.000ft. The pumps can be installed and retrieved by wireline or pumping method using swab cups. the pump is not as sensitive to damage and lower quality power fluids can be used and can be used in higher GOR wells up to 3. There is a large selection of pump sizes/stroke length available for a wide range of operating conditions. deviation or severe operating environments. or restricted offtake target wells. however this exposes the annulus to potential corrosion so. depth. The two simplest and common systems are the Jet Pump and the Piston Pump which are interchangeable in most instances which provides great flexibility in coping with changeable well conditions. The downside is the requirement for two reasonably large conduits to minimise fluid pressure losses. HYDRAULIC PUMPING SYSTEMS 0 REVISION Hydraulic pumping systems are attractive alternative to ESP systems where there is high temperatures. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 10. hence providing lower servicing costs. it is recommended to submerge the pump by at least 20% of the TDH so is better suited to respectfully productive. Their application is commonly for deviated wells between 8. if this is a problem.000stb/d. maintaining a clean solids free power fluid and the high capital and operating costs. Pump performance is a complex function of GOR. dual tubing strings can be used either parallel or concentric. As there is no moving parts. The conduits for the power fluid and returns can be the annulus with a single tubing. The annulus is sometimes required for gas venting and in this case a dual string is required. There is flexibility in the system as pump rates are controlled by controlling the power fluid supply rate.000stb/d although free pump systems are limited to 8. It is also popular where there is insufficient gas for a gas lift system and is a viable alternative to rod pumps for deep (>8. To prevent cavitation. A preliminary calculation of the pump intake or output curve can be made by hand.p. throat and diffuser.
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Head Ratio 0.45 0.25 0.17 0.10
Flow Ratio 0.5 1.0 1.5 2.0
Table 10.K- Jet Pump Maximum Performance In table 10.k above: Head Ratio = pump output pressure − pump inlet pressure downhole power fluid pressure − pump output pressure reservoir production rate Flow Ratio = power fluid rate
Often the maximum power fluid supply pressure and rate is fixed by surface equipment rating, e.g. p<5,000psi, qPF <4,500stb/d. When calculating bottom hole pressures, the completion configuration and power fluid rate to the production to obtain the total discharge rate. The pump intake curve (PIC) can then be generated using table 10.k above plotted against well IPR (Refer to figure 10.f).
Figure 10.F- Example Jet Pump Design Curve
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STAP-P-1-M-7100 Turbine Pumps 0
The hydraulic turbine pump developed by Weir Pumps is an alternative to the ESP for producing very large volumes of fluid, 2,000-100,000stb/d. It has the same principle of operation as the ESP but the motor is replaced by a hydraulic turbine which rotate the shaft at 5,000-10,000rpm. This provides higher lift capacities (head and volume) per stage, therefore the units are much shorter approximately 10% of the ESP. The operating range is much greater as the pump can be controlled by varying the supply pressure giving 10-100% rate and 20-50% TDH at reduced rates. Their reliability is still suspect due to the high rotating speed and metallurgy problems. 10.3.1. Impact On Completion Design The casing size is obviously important here to accommodate the pump size and perhaps two tubing strings. Sometimes concentric completions are preferred or the annulus is used but consideration must be given to potential corrosion due to oxygen in the power fluid. Like the piston pump solids free power fluid is essential. Like the ESP, gas venting may be necessary which would require a third conduit (generally the annulus). Occasionally the DHSV is controlled by pressure from the pump. 10.4. ROD PUMPS The most common pumping system on low rate land wells is the rod or beam pumping. It is usually limited to shallow wells (<8,000ft) producing less than 500stb/d although they can produce up to 2,000stb/d. The system consists of three elements, the downhole pump assembly, the sucker rod and the surface pumping unit. The annulus is usually left open and used to vent any free gas that is separated downhole. Tubing is used as the production conduit and contains the rods preventing wear and corrosion to the annulus. The tubing is usually anchored to the casing and pulled into tension to reduce tubing movement, buckling and, hence rod wear. There are two versions of bottom-hole pump, the tubing retrievable barrel and the rod retrievable barrel. The tubing pump requires the tubing to be pulled to retrieve the barrel and the rod pump barrel is retrieved when pulling the rods. The tubing pump has the largest capacity but is more costly to repair than the rod pump which is the most common. The pump displacement, PD, is defined by the plunger stroke, SP, and the pump speed, N, the plunger diameter, D and the amount of liquid fillage and/or slippage past the plunger, EP = 0.7 to 9.5. PD = Ct x Sp x N x D x Ep Eq. 10.B where: EP Ct = = Pump efficiency 2 Correction factor 0.1166 for oilfield units, (in, spm, in , stb/d)
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Figure 10.G- Typical Rod Pumping System
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As the rod suffers from stretch and dynamic forces, SP will not be the same as the stroke at surface, S, therefore load-displacement plot forms the basis for pump design and analysis. The fluid load, Fo, carried by the rods on the upstroke is dependent on the net lift, H, which is the vertical distance from the operating fluid level (OFL) in the annulus to surface plus the equivalent head of any surface back-pressure. It also depends on fluid SG or density. API recommends ignoring the area of the rods when calculating this load: Fo = Ct x SG x D x H where: Ct = 0.340 in oilfield units (SG, in , ft, lbs)
This load can be estimated from dynamometer surveys, which measure the rod load versus displacement at the surface and serves the most effective means of diagnosing pump problems. As the loads on the polished rod includes fluid load, dynamic forces and rod weight, the rod weights may be relatively large in deep wells and in these cases a tapered rod string is preferred where the rod diameter is larger with increasing load. Buoyancy varies throughout the cycle but it is generally taken on the downstroke when the travelling valve is open. Acceleration and friction are also factors in dynamic loading with the peak polished rod load on the upstroke will be significantly higher than the sum of the rod and fluid loads. Similarly, on the downstroke, the minimum will be less than the buoyant weight of the rods. Pump stroke efficiency is a function of pump speed and rod loading. The dynamics also cause the rods to oscillate harmonically like a stiff spring. Typical pumping speeds are 8 to 15spm which amounts to 4.2 to 7.9 million cycles per year, therefore the rod design must focus on minimising fatigue failures which is exacerbated by corrosion in the operating environment. The surface pump unit is usually a beam type although other concepts have been developed. The surface prime mover and gearbox have been developed over the years to cater for the rod pump to reduce failures. System design is very complex and is an iterative process normally carried out by computer software. API have produced a programme to generate a set of design curves published in API RP11L and provided some general results in Bulletins 11L3 and 11L4 which are a useful starting point for design. However, in 11L4, API used 100% efficiency and pump rates which are higher than those generally found in the field, therefore, it is advisable to enter a curve which is 100 to 200% of the intended target for scoping out the required o equipment capacity. It is also not reliable for heavy oil wells (<20 API) unless correction factors are applied for fluid vicosities and lack of rod weight on the downstroke. Rod fall problems often cut restrict pump rates to 1.5 to 2.5spm which lead the use of long stroke pumps. Sand problems are often a problem with high viscous crudes which increase wear of the pump parts.
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ENI S.p.A. Agip Division
STAP-P-1-M-7100 10.4.1. Impact On Completion Design 0
If free gas is expected then a packer should not be installed to allow the gas to vent up the annulus if it is planned to convert a completion to rod pump lift within a few years unless required for zonal isolation. If a well has to be pumped which is below the bubble point, it is advised to set the pump below the producing interval to aid gas separation, maximise drawdown and minimise perforation blocking by fill. If a well is fractured, the pump must be set above the perforations as frac sand can damage the pump. The casing geometry must be sufficient enough to enable the gas to percolate through the fluid column against the down-flow. 10.5. SCREW PUMP SYSTEMS Screw or progressive cavity pump is a rotary positive displacement pump consisting of a rubber stator and stainless steel rotor. The rotary drive to the downhole pump is through sucker rods from a prime mover through a gearbox. They rates of between 5 to 500stb/d, although in some circumstances capacities of 1,500stb/d is possible, on heavy oil wells or viscous emulsions where conventional rod pumps are hindered by rod fall. They have an advantage in that they can handle some sand production and less costly. The production rate is proportional to the rotary speed and are determined from manufacturers charts, generally between 50-100rpm in heavy oil and 500rpm in light oils. The selection of the material for the rubber stator is the key for operational life in the well environment. 10.6. PLUNGER LIFT Plunger lift are used on high GLR wells that produce liquids at relatively low rates (<500stb/d). The tubing/casing annulus is used to store gas energy provided to the tubing when the well is opened up. This energy is used to drive the plunger up to surface carrying a small slug of liquid. After production of the following tail gas when the liquid begins to kill the well the plunger is dropped again and the cycle repeated. It is particularly useful for de-watering gas wells. Operating requirements are: • • • GLR >500scf/stb PI <1stb/d/psi Plunger velocity 700 to 1,000ft/min
Efficiency of this system decreases with depth and PI but increases with tubing size. It is essential that the completion tubing is parallel and drifted to ensure correct operation of the plunger.
ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 266 OF 295 ENI S.H.Typical Screw Pump Installation .A. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 0 REVISION Figure 10.p.
A.Typical Plunger Lift Installation . Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 0 REVISION Figure 10.p.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 267 OF 295 ENI S.I .
Excellent for flowing wells.000 BFPD. Design Considerations And Comparisons Consideration Rod Pumping Screw Pumping ESP Hydraulic Piston Pumping Varies but often competitive with rod pumps. Pumps usually run at a fixed speed. Very low. Tubing needs to be sized correctly. Intermittent Gas Lift Same as continuous flow gas lift. 200ppm of 25µm particle size acceptable. No moving parts in pump. Good even when small supplementary gas is added. Long service life and simple repair procedures. only low cost well equipment if no compressor required. Miscellaneous problems Stuffing box leakage may be messy and a potential hazard. Can vary power fluid rate and pressure adjusts the production rate and lift capacity. Multiple well. Reported system efficiency 5070%. May exceed rod pumps for ideal cases. produced or seawater) acceptable. Good for low volume wells.L . Good valve design and spacing essential. Excellent. Operating practices have to be tailored to each well for optimisation. Gas must be dehydrated properly to avoid gas freezing.1. Good. Gas injection rate varied to change rates. Fair. Moderate cost for well equipment (valves and mandrels). Flexibility Excellent. Good design plus good operating practices essential. A highly reliable compressor with 95+% run time required. Choice of wireline retrievable or conventional valves. Need 15ppm of 15µm particle size max. normally requires a high injection gas volume/bbl fluid. Plunger hangup or sticking may be a major problem. Poor. Power water (fresh. Cost increases with higher horsepower. Must size pump properly. friction and pump wear. Full pump fillage efficiency typically about 50-60% feasible if well is not over-pumped.A. Table 10. Unload to bottom with gas lift valves. Consider chamber or high PI and low BHP wells. SUMMARY ARTIFICIAL LIFT SELECTION CHARTS 0 REVISION 10. Heavily influenced by power fluid plus production gradient. length. Maximum efficiency only 30%. must adjust injection time and cycles frequently. Low wells for wells requiring high GLRs. efficiency typically is 40%. Fair to good. Good selection. Method sensitive to rate changes. Power fluid solids control essential. More operating data needed.Design Considerations and Overall Comparisons (pg1) . Data bank of rod and pump failures beneficial. tolerant to moderate solids in power fluid. Numerous pump sizes and pump/engine ratios adapt to production and depth needs. plunger size and run time to control production rate. Downhole Equipment Reasonably good rod design and operating practices needed. Excellent total system efficiency. Good design and operating practices needed. Poor. Requires computer design programme for sizing. Good to excellent. seats. Low increase with depth and larger rates. Dilutents may be added if required. May have problems with selection of appropriate stator elastomer. Power fluid rate and speed of downhole pump. No input energy required because it uses the well. can alter speed. Costs increase as horsepower rises. Requires proper cable in addition to motor. etc. Time cycling normally avoided.7. Requires careful sizing. Requires a highly reliable electric power system. Labour intensive to keep time tuned otherwise poor performance. Efficiencies range from 3040% with GLR >100.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 268 OF 295 ENI S. Central compression system reduces cost per well. May be higher with lower GLR. Relatively low capital cost if commercial electric power available. Proper design plus good operating practices essential. Must add surfactant to a water power fluid for lubrication. Typical efficiencies at 20% but range from 5-30%. VSD provides more flexibility but added costs. Efficiency (output hydraulic HP divided by input HP) Excellent. Some problems with sticking plungers. Can adjust ingestion time and frequency. can alter stroke speed. May have limited service in some areas. Triplex plunger leakage control required.7. to avoid excessive engine wear. operating and repair practices needed rods and pump. Hydraulic unit provides additional flexibility but at added cost. Hydraulic Jet Pumping Competitive with rod pump. Continuous Gas Lift Low well equipment costs but lines and compression costs may be high.000 BID. Because this a newer method. requires powerful conductor. Typically total system efficiency is about 50% for high rate well but for <1. Free pump and choose powerful option. Good for high rate wells but decreases significantly for <1. More tolerant of power fluid solids. pumps.p. central systems reduce cost per well but is more complicated. Plunger Lift Capital Cost Low to moderate increase with depth and larger units. not as good as rod pumping owing to GLR. field knowledge and experience are limited. Selection of throat and nozzle sizes extend range of volume and capacity. maintaining steady gas show often causes injection gas measurement and operating problems. Typical lift efficiency is 1050% improved with plungers. Typically operating efficiencies of 10-20%. Anti-pollution stuffing boxes are available. Fair to poor. Fair increases for wells that require small injection GLRs. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 10. Good to excellent.
Most like a flowing well.p. high volume. Hydraulic Jet Pumping High cost owing to HP requirement. Low pump maintenance cost typical with properly sized throat and nose. Used on <1% of US lifted wells. Good if well production is stable. Often used as a default artificial lift system. Limited proven design. Varies. Excellent if there is an adequate supply of ingestion gas and adequate low pressure storage volume for injection gas. install and operates following API specifications and recommended practices. Also a default for low bottom-hole pressure wells on continuous gas lift. Requires excellent operating practices. Requires attention. dry non-corrosive and clean gas supply source is needed throughout the entire life.. install and operate. Some trade in value. Can be used for extending flow life or improving efficiency. Used on about 85% of US artificial lift wells. Flexible operation. System approach needed.400BFPD). Excellent for ideal gas lift cases. Salvage Value Excellent. Usually very low. poor for problem areas. Used on <1% of US lifted wells.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 269 OF 295 ENI S. More problems if pressures >4. related to pump intake pressure. The normal standard artificial lift method. Free pump easily retrieved for servicing. API specifications and design/operatin g recommended practices should be followed. Run time efficiency >95% if good operating practices are adopted and corrosion. energy costs are high. Compression costs vary on fuel cost and compressor maintenance. Excellent if compression system is properly designed and maintained.000psig. Best suited for <200oF and >1. Usage/ Outlook Excellent. Reliability Excellent. Some market for good used compressors and some trade in value for mandrels and valves.000BFPD rates.M . Central plant more complex. Same as continuous flow gas lift. Essentially a low liquid rate. High pulling costs result from short run life. Free pump easily retrieved for onsite repair or replacement.5% of US lifted wells. Fairly simple to design but requires good rate data. Varies. Fair. Poor open market value. Simple to install and operate. System (total) Straightforward and basic. corrosive fluids. high pressure. Individual well or system. testing and operation.500ft) and locations with low production (. Very sensitive to operating temperatures and electrical malfunctions. high GLR lift method. Table 10. Fair to poor. Short run life increases total operating costs. wide rate range suitable for relatively deep. Requires adjusting and plunger maintenance. Fair. Poor open market values. Good with a correctly designed and operated system. Most often used on high water cut wells. flexible. Some trade in value. Same as continuous flow gas lift. Used on less than 0.A. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 0 REVISION Consideration Rod Pumping Screw Pumping ESP Hydraulic Piston Pumping Often higher than rod pump even for free systems. Normally over-pumping and lack of experience decreases run time. GOR try higher volume wells requiring flexible operation. high rate artificial lift system for wells with high bottom-hole pressures. Used on about 10% of US lifted wells. Typically each well is an individual producer using a common electric system. Plunger Lift Operating Costs Very low for shallow to medium depth (<7. solids. Each well needs an individual system. high GOR and significant sand production.Design Considerations and Overall Comparisons (Pg2) . Simple manual or computer design. high temperature deviated oil wells. Ample gas volume and/or pressure needed for successful operation. etc. Used on <1% of US lifted wells. deviations. high temperatures. Basic operating procedures needed for downhole pump and wellsite unit. Intermittent Gas Lift Same as continuous flow gas lift. Often used as a default artificial lift method in lieu of sucker rod pumps. Problems or changing well conditions reduce downhole pump reliability. System will tolerate wide depth ranges. if HP is high. Must avoid operating in cavitation range of jet pump throat. Used primarily on gas well dewatering. Fair market for triplex pump. Potentially low but short run life on stator or rotor frequently reported. Good data needed for valve design and spacing. typically used. procedures to design. System not forgiving. An excellent high rate artificial lift system. Used on <2% of US lifted wells. usually results in test and treatment problems. Good. Low back-pressure beneficial. wax asphaltenes. Simple to design. installation and operating specifications Each well needs an individual system. Computer programme typically used for design. Other repair costs are high. Key is to inject as deeply as possible with optimum GLR. Easily moved. Good. easily moved and good market for used equipment. are controlled. Frequent downtime results from operational problems. System must be designed for the unstable gas flow rates. Sometimes used to test wells that will not flow offshore. Continuous Gas Lift Well costs low. Fair market for triplex pumps. Good with proper throat and nose sizing for the operating conditions. An adequate volume. good value for wellsite system that crane can move easily. Limited to relatively shallow wells with low rates. Downhole jet often requires trial and error to arrive at best/optimum jet. Good. mostly offshore. Some trade in value. Easily moved and some current market for used equipment Fair. Individual well unit very flexible but extra cost. Follow API recommended practices in design.
Larger casing may be required if dual strings run. Prime mover flexibility Good. Good but depends on good well test and pressure charts. Good to fair. Reduced performance inside 5. Fair. Wellsite power fluid units can be sound proofed. Good to excellent. Same as continuous flow. Usually limited by fallback. Practical depth of 20. Excellent. Not possible to use dynamometers and pump-off cards.000psi) or HP. Good low profile surface equipment. Continuous Gas Lift The use of 4. Same as continuous flow. Avoid 4. Same as piston pump. Bottomhole pressure and production log surveys easily obtained. Casing size will limit use of large motor and pumps. Free gas reduces efficiency and service life. Prime mover can be electric motor. Fair. Controlled by system injection pressure and fluid rates.000stb/d use >7ins casing and >3. Usually limited to motor HP or temperature. Good. <100psi provided adequate displacement and gas venting. Normally no problem for 4. requires a good power source without spikes or interruptions.e. Can be analysed easily. Depth limits Good.5ins) mat result in excessive friction losses and limits production rate. 1. similar limits as reciprocating pump. Poor.5 and 5.5ins casing depending on depth and rate.000ft well may be >1. Typically <10. Poor if must handle >5% free gas. Often preferred in urban areas if production rate is high.000ft. possibly 5. Good low well noise. Excellent. Low volume. Special low profile units are available. REVISION 0 Intermittent Gas Lift Small casing (4. Typically for 1.. Motors are more reliable and flexible.5 and 5.000 GLR. Typical design targets 25% submergence. Good with the surface prime mover causing the only noise.2. Same as piston pump.5ins casing and larger but gas separation may be limited. Fair to good wellhead equipment has low profile. Good. Poor restricted by the gradient of the gas lifted fluid.Operating Conditions Summary . >350psig to 5. PIP >250psi for 10.5ins nominal tubing.000ft. turbines or motors can be used for compression.000ft. Low. both engines or motors can be used easily. Table 10. Downhole pump performance can be analysed from surface power fluid rate and pressure.5 and 5. Practical depth about 10.000ft for low rate. Effectively about 500stb/d at 7. Fair but complicated by standing valve and fallback.N . Intake Capability Excellent.500ft and 150stb/d at 15. Poor to fair. Good low profile but must provide for compressor. has an injection depth of about 10.000ft with low GLR. Small casing size (4. Small casing (4. Obtrusiveness Size and operation are drawbacks in populated and farming areas. Small casing suitable for this low volume lift. Fair but not as good as rod pumping. None normally required. moderately high for urban areas.000ft.000stb/d with 2. >250psi pump intake pressure). limited by power fluid pressure (5.000stb/d. Surveillance Fair. Thus the backpressure on 10.5ins casing with 2ins nominal tubing normally limits rates to <1.A. For rates >5. Good. Good when used with chamber.5ins tubing needed.000ft injected depth. Typically about 50 to 100psig. Same as piston pump. Excellent. Same as continuous flow. Excellent with low noise.5 and 5. rods of structure may limit rate at depth.000ft well. Low at well but noisy at compressor. analysis can be based on production and fluid levels only.000ft.000psig. high lift head pumps operating at depths to 17.5ins) may limit free gas separation. Optimisation and computer control being tried. few wells >10. if little free gas (i. Analysis improved by use of dynamometers and computers. Excellent. Annulus must have adequate gas storage volume.5ins casing.p. Plunger Lift Casing size limits (restricts tubing size) Problems only in high rate wells requiring large plunger pumps.440psi lift system and lift system and 1. Higher voltages can reduce I2R losses Fair based on electrical checks but special equipment needed otherwise. limited to relatively shallow depths.7. <25psig feasible provided adequate displacement and gas venting. Safety precautions must be taken for high pressure gas lines. engines. can be easily analysed based on well test. Transformer may cause problems in urban areas. Requires surface treating and high pressure pumping equipment.000ft Hydraulic Jet Pumping Small casing size often limits producing rate owing to high (unacceptable) friction losses. Noise Level Fair. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 10.5ins) normally is not a problem for this relatively low volume lift.000ft.000ft. Good. Typically moderate rate is limited to about 100psi/1. Fair when used without chambers. bottomhole pressures <150psi at 10. Operating Conditions Summary Consideration Rod Pumping Screw Pumping ESP Hydraulic Piston Pumping Larger casing required for parallel free or closed systems. gas or diesel fired engines or motors. high GLR wells.000ft. etc. Low. both engines or motors can be used. Bottom-hole pressure obtained with free pumps. Same as piston pump. PIP of <250psi feasible at 10. Intake pressure <100psig usually results in frequent pump repairs.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 270 OF 295 ENI S. speed and producing rate. fluid levels. Good low profile but requires transformer bank.
Table 10.p. Well testing with a central system is more complex requiring accurate power fluid measurement. Good. Well testing is simple with few problems using standard available equipment and procedures. Labour intensive Plunger Lift Testing Good. Not applicable.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 271 OF 295 ENI S. Good.A. Poor.Operating Conditions Summary (Pg2) . Soft start and improved seals and protectors recommended. Poor. Well testing complicated by injection gas volume/rate. is possible but not normally used. Good. Well testing with standard individual well units presents few problems. Three stage production tests can be conducted by adjusting production step rates. Well testing is simple with few problems. Well testing complicated by injection gas volume/rate. Measurement of both input and outflow gas is a problem. Formation GLR obtained by subtracting injected gas from total produced gas. Intermittent Gas Lift Poor. Continuous Gas Lift Fair. Cycle must be periodically adjusted. same as rod pumping. Usually controlled only by displacement checks. High water cut and high rate wells may require a free water knock-out. Well testing is simple with few problems. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 0 REVISION Consideration Rod Pumping Screw Pumping ESP Hydraulic Piston Pumping Fair. Gas measurement errors are common. Avoid shutdown in high viscosity/sand producers. A pressure recorder must be used to monitor intake pressures. Time cycle and pump-off controller’s application Excellent if well can be pumpedoff. Poor. Not applicable. Does not appear applicable owing to intake pressure requirement higher than pump-off. Intermittent flow can cause operating problems with separators. Hydraulic Jet Pumping Same as piston pump.O . Poor.. Pumpoff control not developed.
Parallel 2x2ins low rate dual feasible inside 7ins casing.A. Good to excellent. Good mechanical cutting sometimes required. Pump will normally pass through the tubing. Similar to piston pump. Parallel 2x2ins nominal tubing inside 7ins casing and 3x3ins tubing inside 95/8ins casing feasible. Good. weight and pulling unit space. Poor for free gas >5% through pump. Concentric fixed pump or parallel free permits gas venting with suitable downhole gas separator below pump intake. Dual application No known installations. Vent free gas if possible. Fair. Fair. Batch or continuous inhibition treatment can be circulated with power fluid for effective control. Paraffin handling capacity Fair to good. frequently for both corrosion and scale control.. Crooked/ deviated holes Fair. Poor if must pump >50% free gas. Soluble plugs available. Inhibitor mixed with power fluid mixes with produced fluids at entry of jet pump throat. Dual gas lift is common but good operating of dual lift is complicated and inefficient resulting in reduced rates. Fair to good. Feasible operation in horizontal wells. Same as continuous flow. Table 10. Produced water or seawater may be used as a power fluid with wellsite type system or power fluid separation before production treating system. Poor to fair. Good. Free pumps can be surfaced on a schedule. Excellent. Rotary gas separators helpful if solids not produced. Limited experience in horizontal wells. increased load and wear problems. Same as continuous flow Excellent. Fair. batch inhibition possible. Circulate heat to downhole pump to minimise build-up. Hydraulic Jet Pumping Good to excellent. Offshore application Poor. Must provide electrical power and service pulling unit. Dual inside 5ins casing currently not in favour. Heading causes operating problems.3. Possible to unseat pump and circulate hot fluids. Feasible operation in highly deviated wells. Requires long radius wellbore bends to get through. Hot water/oil treating and/or use of scrapers possible but they increase operating problems and costs. Poor if it must pump any free gas. Artificial Lift Considerations Consideration Rod Pumping Screw Pumping ESP Hydraulic Piston Pumping Good to excellent. Good. Increased load and wear problems. Tubing may require treatment. Limited to low GLRs and moderate rates. Continuous Gas Lift Good. Fair. Casing free pump limited to low GLRs. Inhibitor in the injection gas and/or batch inhibiting down tubing feasible. Requires deck space for treatment tanks and pumps. Excellent. however a pulling unit is needed. Poor in wells needing sand control. Same as piston pump. Power oil a fire and safety problem. mechanical cutting. Some success in pumping 15o/100ft using rod guides. Same as piston pump except it can possibly handle higher GLRs but at reduced efficiency. Gas handling ability Good if can vent and use natural gas anchor with properly designed pump. Steps must be taken to avoid corrosion in injection gas lines. Same condition as hydraulic piston pump.P . Batch treatment inhibitor used down annulus feasible. Excellent if tubing can be run in the well. Increased mechanical problems. Excellent as it cuts paraffin and removes small deposits. High angle deviated holes (>70o) and horizontal wells are being produced. Good to fair. Normal production cycle must be interrupted to batch treat the well. Free gas reduces efficiency but helps lift. Same as continuous flow gas lift. Excellent and is the most common method if adequate injection gas available.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 272 OF 295 ENI S. Rod scrapers not used. REVISION 0 Intermittent Gas Lift Same as continuous flow. No none installations. Most wells are deviated and typically produce sand. Excellent. Must design for unit size. Excellent for correct application. Mechanical cutting and inhibition possible. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 10. Few problems. Fair. Fair. Gas is a problem for lower zone. Batch treat down annulus is feasible. Plunger Lift Corrosion/ scale handling ability Good to excellent. Possible running and pulling problems. Excellent. Same as continuous flow. No known installations. Fair. Free pump retrieved without pulling tubing. Good. Larger casing would be needed. Water power fluid can be used.p.Artificial Lift Considerations (Pg1) . Poor. May have some special application offshore. Hot water/oil treatments. Batch inhibition treatment only to intake unless shroud is used. Three string nonvented applications have been achieved with complete isolation of production and power fluid from each zone. short pump can pass through doglegs up to 24o/100ft in 2ins nominal tubing.7. Currently very few known installations. Produced gas reduces need for injection gas. Use a gas anchor. Use of standing valves risky. Injection gas may aggravate existing problem. Few wireline problems up to 70o deviation for wireline retrievable valves.
Poor. Plunger Lift Slim-hole completions (27/8ins production casing string) Feasible for low rates <100stb/d and low GOR <250. Standard materials up to 300oF+ and to 500oF+ feasible with special materials.000stb/d with adequate flowing bottomhole pressure. Excellent for high water cut lift even with high viscosity oil. Production with up to 800cP possible.000stb/d from 4.000ft. Possibly 200stb/d from 10. Excellent up to 50% sand with high viscosity >200cP crude.000ft and 200stb/d from 5. High viscosity fluid handling capability Good for <200cP fluids and low rates 400stb/d. Improved performance for high viscosity >200cP cases. Avoid unstable flow range. Limited to about <250oF for standard and <325oF with special motors and cables. Excellent. Good. max.000stb/d from 4.1% sand for inflow and outflow problems. Same as continuous flow. Fair to good.000stb/d from 10. Typically 0. limited to about 200cP. Use fresh water injection for salt build-up formations. Typically about 200stb/d from 10. Fresh water treatment for salt formations. Feasible if low rates. Excellent. Fair. Same as continuous flow. Increases HP and reduces head.000ft with 240 HP. Tandem motors can be used but will increase costs. Fair but standing valve may cause problems.000ft feasible with 1. Not as good as rod pumping.000 to 10. rates of 5. Depending on reservoir pressure and PI with 4ins nominal tubing. Suitable for low rates and low GLRs. rate about 4. Limited by cycle volume and number of possible injection cycles. Table 10.000ft and 1. Excellent for <100stb/d shallow wells that do not pump-off. Power fluid can be used to dilute low gravity production.000.000ft and 1. Low volume lift capabilities Excellent. Fair. Good to excellent. Rod fall problems for high rates. Limited by number of cycles.440psi injection gas and GLR of 1. Good in >8o API production with <500cP possible.Q . Limited by efficiency and economic limit. Sand can stick plunger. Possibly 2. Generally poor. Limited by tubular and HP. Power oil of oil >24o API and . Limit is inflow and surface problems. Most commonly used method for wells producing <100stb/d. No known installations. Poor. Typical limit is 0. Jet pumps are operating with 3% sand in produced fluids. Restricted to relatively small rates. Improved wear resistant materials available at premium cost.1% sand with special pumps. Power fluid to jet pump can tolerate 200ppm of 25µm particle size.5ins and 700stb/d for 3. Fair but limited by stator elastomer.000ft with 3. Need to know temperatures to design bellows charged valves. Excellent. Temperature limitation Excellent and currently used in thermal operations.000stb/d from 10. Hydraulic Jet Pumping Same as piston pump. Intermittent Gas Lift Same as continuous flow. Excellent and possible to operate to 500oF with special materials.000ft. tubular size and HP. 550oF. limited by needed HP and can be restricted by casing size.A. Solids/sand handling ability Poor.5ins casing can produce 4.5ins nominal tubing.000stb/d from 1. Decreases to <10% sand for water producers. Typically 3. Lower efficiency and high operating costs for <400stb/d.000ft. Good. Also produced fluids must have low solids <200ppm of 15µm particles for reasonable life. Fair. Potential solution is to use ‘core flow’ with 20% water. Excellent.000ft with <250psi pump intake pressure. however it wipes tubing clean. Requires <200ppm solids. May be able to handle up to 0. Higher rates may required dilutent to lower viscosity. Excellent. Fair. In 5. Limited by heading and slippage.50cP viscosity or water power fluid reduces friction losses. Good.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 273 OF 295 ENI S. Excellent. Typically lower limit is 200stb/d for 2ins tubing without heading. Typically a maximum of about 350oF. Fair but restricted to shallow depths using large plungers . 400stb/d for 2. Poor to fair for low viscosity <10cP production. Requires <10ppm solids power fluid for good run life.000stb/d from 5.5ins tubing.500psi system. or below 20cP viscosity. Few problems for >16 o API.Artificial Lift Considerations (Pg2) .p.000stb/d from 2.000ft. Typically are used with 1. Fair. High volume lift capacity Poor. Poor. Restricted by tubing size and injection gas rate and depth. Similar to casing lift but must have adequate formation gas. >200stb/d from 4.000ft. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 0 REVISION Consideration Rod Pumping Screw Pumping ESP Hydraulic Piston Pumping Possible but may have high friction losses or gas problems. Typically 100 to 300stb/d from 4.000ft possible. Same as continuous flow Normally not applicable. At present normally below 250oF. Excellent. Continuous Gas Lift Feasible but can be troublesome and inefficient. Up to 15. Excellent for high viscosity fluids with no stator/rotor problems.5 to 4stb/cycle with up to 48 cycles/d Excellent for low flow rates of 1 to 2stb/d with high GLRs. >75stb/d from 12. low GORs and shallow depths but no known installations.
Over and above this. i. i.3. 11. • • 11. BARRIER PRINCIPLES Eni-Agip Division and Affiliates has determined that a packer fluid.e.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 274 OF 295 ENI S. cannot be considered as a barrier.A. This being the case. therefore is not a practical barrier. . through tubing perforation after packer setting. i.p. The main reasons are: • The integrity of the annulus. however tubing leaks and deterioration of the fluid cannot be guaranteed. APPLICATION The use of non-kill weight packer fluid will be considered in the following situations: • • • When a brine with a gradient lower than the formation gradient has already been used as completion fluid. does not require the presence of an overbalance fluid. The re-use of the completion fluid is envisaged when it is opportune or cost effective. 11.30kg/Lt/10m where it is still considered good practice to use overbalance completion fluids. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 0 REVISION 11. A hydrostatic overbalance fluid can only be considered a barrier on a long term basis if it is fully maintained. This policy does not refer to gradients below 1. some completion types such as High Rate liners using a liner PBR may be some considerable distance from the formation. high pressure and high temperature (HP/HT) wells. it should not be classified as a barrier.1. with regard to double barrier protection is mechanically obtained by means of the wellhead. The use of non-kill weight packer fluid has been thoroughly evaluated and is permitted for the wells which have pressure gradients above 1.e. high density oil mud. therefore.30kg/Lt/10m. the tubulars (tubing and casing) and packer system and.e. When it is necessary to replace a completion fluid containing solids in suspension. USE OF UNDERBALANCE COMPLETION FLUIDS POLICY The purpose of this section is to provide the basic criteria when ‘non-kill weight packer fluids’ can be used in completion design.2. regardless of the density.
The worst possible case being immediately above the packer.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 275 OF 295 ENI S. a risk assessment should be carried out to ensure. the casing design must be able to withstand full well pressure in conjunction with the completion fluid hydrostatic pressure at respective depth. if an underbalance completion fluid is to be used. However.2. .1. as contingency against a tubing/packer envelope leak. Well Testing For exploration wells. prior to commencing a well test using non-kill weight packer fluid.A. a risk analysis evaluation (HAZOP) must be carried out by the District Drilling & Completion Engineering Department. 11. that the completion design will keep the formation pressure off the production casing.p. in order to identify and evaluate the operative risks associated with downhole equipment functionality. RISK ASSESSMENT 0 REVISION 11.4.4. Completions Similar to above.4. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 11.
REPORT FORMS To enable the contents of this completion manual and other operating procedures manuals to be improved. workover and well testing operations are available and must be filled in and returned to head office for distribution to the relevant responsible departments as soon as possible as per instructions. it is essential that ENI .p. As the first section is generic to all the forms it is only shown in ARPO 01 instructions. .Agip Division and Affiliates obtain feed-back from the field. Feed-back reports for drilling. To this end a feed-back reporting system is in use which satisfies this requirement. The forms relevant to completion operations are: • • • • • • • • • • ARPO 01 ARPO 02 ARPO 06 ARPO 07 ARPO 08 ARPO 09 ARPO 11 ARPO 12 ARPO 13 ARPO 20 Initial Activity Report Daily Report Waste Disposal Management Report Perforating Report Gravel Pack Report Matrix Stimulation/Hydraulic fracturing Report Wireline Report Pressure/Temperature Survey Report Well Problem Report Well Situation Report Behind each report form are instructions on how to fill in the forms.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 276 OF 295 ENI S. completion. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 0 REVISION APPENDIX A .A.
Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 A.A.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 277 OF 295 ENI S.[m] First Flange[m] Top housing [m] Reference Rig Ref. Rig RKB .L .1st Flange Cellar Pit Depth [m] Length [m] Width [m]: Manufacturer Type Liner avaible [in] Major Contractors WELL NAME FIELD NAME Cost center Joint venture AGIP: % % % Type of Operation % % % Program TD (Measured) Program TD (Vertical) Rig Pump [m] [m] Type of Service Mud Logging D.p. & C. Fluids Cementation Waste treatment Operating Time Moving Positioning Anchorage Rig-up Delay Lost-time Accidents Company Contract N° Type of Service Company Contract N° Jack-up leg Penetration [gg:hh] [hh:min] [hh:min] [hh:min] [hh:min] [hh:min] Rig Anchorage Leg N° Air gap [m] Penetration [m] N° Supply Vessel for Positioning Name Horse Power Bollard pull [t] Anchor Bow N° 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 Note: Angle Type & Manufacturer Weight [t] Mooring Line Length Cable [m] Chain [m] Piggy Back Weight N° [t] Length [m] Mooring Line Chain Ø [mm] Cable Length [m] Ø [mm] Tension Operative [Tested] [t] Tension [t] Total Time [hh:min] Supervisor Superintendent . INITIAL ACTIVITY REPORT (ARPO 01) 0 REVISION District/Affiliate Company DATE: Permit/Concession N° General Data On shore Latitude: Longitude Reference Rig Name Rig Type Contractor Rig Heading [°] Offset FROM the proposed location Distance [m] Direction [°] Off shore INITIAL ACTIVITY REPORT ARPO 01 Well Code Depth Above S.1. Ground Level[m] Water Depth [m] Rotary Table Elev.
Type Serial No. vel.L Partial Progr. IADC Diam.p. (24:00) Total Drilled Rotating Hrs R. Supervisor: .P.D.V. hours Ø Description Part. L Progr.IFT [kg/l] 1 2 at m at m 3 Last casing Next Casing RT Elevation Ground Lelel / Water Depth RT .A.[t] Flow Rate Pressure Ann.p. R. HHP Bit HSI I [m 3] [m 3] B N° Run N° N° Run N° Bottom Hole Assembly N° __________ Rot. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 A. Stock Quantity UM Supply vessel Total Cost O G D O L R I B O G D O L R Daily Progr. [psi] Reduce Pump Strockes Pressure Pump N° Liner [in] Strokes Press.P.2. Losses [kg/l] [s/l] [cP] [g/100cm2] / [cc/30"] [cc/30"] [kg/cm2] [°C] [g/l] [g/l] [kg/m3] [%] [%] Bit Data Manuf. Y. Progressive Rot. Hrs. Nozzle/TFA From [m] To [m] Drilled [m] Rot.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 278 OF 295 ENI S. Jet vel.P.1st flange / Top Housing BOP Stack Diverter Annular Annular Upper Rams Middle Rams Middle Rams Middle Rams Lower Rams Last Test Type Ø ARPO 02 [m] [m] [m] WELL NAME FIELD NAME Cost center Well Code Report N° Permit / Concession N° M. Sand pm/pom pf mf Daily Losses Progr.M. [psi] Lithology Shows From (hr) To (hr) Op.[in] Top [m] Bottom [m] Top of Cmt [m] Last Survey [°] LOT . ClSalt pH/ES MBT Solid Oil/water Ratio. hrs Back reaming Hrs Personnel Agip Rig Others Total Agip Rig Other Total [m] [m] [m] [hh:mm] [m / h] [hh:mm] [hh:mm] Injured of w.O.V. (24:00) T. DAILY REPORT (ARPO 02) 0 REVISION DAILY REPORT Drilling District/Affiliate Company DATE: Rig Name Type of Rig Contractor Well Ø nom. Temp. Gel 10"/10' Water Loss HP/HT Press.D. Code OPERATION DESCRIPTION Operation at 07:00 Mud type Density Viscosity P.O. W.B.
3.concentration (g/l ) Cumulative [m ] Recycled Total 3 Fresh water [m ] Phase Cumulative Service Mud Company Waste Disposal Transportation 3 Recycled [m ] Company Contract N° 3 Remarks Remarks Supervisor Superintendent .A.p. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 A.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 279 OF 295 ENI S. WASTE DISPOSAL MANAGEMENT REPORT (ARPO 06) 0 REVISION WASTE DISPOSAL Management Report District/Affiliate Company DATE: Report N° From [m] To [m] Phase size [in] Water consumption Usage Mixing Mud Others Total Readings / Truck Mud Volume [m ] Mixed Lost Dumped Transported IN Trans orted OUT Waste Disposal Water base cuttings Oil base cuttings Dried Water base cuttings Dried oil base cuttings Water base mud Oil base mud transported IN Oil base mud transported OUT Drill potable water Dehidrated water base mud Dehidrated oil base mud Sewage water Transported Brine Period [t] [t] [t] [t] [t] [t] [t] [t] [t] [t] [t] [t] Cumulative 3 WELL NAME FIELD NAME ARPO-06 Cost center Depth (m) Interval Drilled (m) 3 Drilled Volume [m ] Cumulative volume [m ] Phase /Period [m ] Fresh water Recycled Total Fresh water 3 3 Mud Type Density (kg/l) Cl.
V. Max. Gun Ø Charge Type S.1 Flange [°] [m] Workover Rig RKB .D. T. inclination at Formation name: Lithology PERFORATING REPORT ARPO-07 WELL NAME FIELD NAME Cost center Pool: [m] Rotary Table Measurement [m] Drilling Rig RKB . [m] Steel Grade Service Company Perforation System Wireline TCP Thru Tubing Data Gun Type Overbalance Underbalance Differential Pressure [kg/cm ] Gun Specific.D.1 Flange Workover Rig RKB .D.3.Sea Level Workover Rig RKB .P.Sea Bottom Thickness [lb/ft] Measured Depth Top [m] Bottom [m] st st Final Completion Report [date] Final Workover Report [date] Reference Logs: Recorded on: Vertical Depth Top [m] Bottom [m] Cement Top M.A. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 A. [m] T.F 2 Completion fluid Fluid in front of Perforation Fluid Losses after Perforation Measured Depth Top [m] Bottom [m] Vertical Depth Top [m] Density Density [kg/l] [kg/l] [m3] Pool Remarks Bottom [m] Note: Supervisor Superintendent .ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 280 OF 295 ENI S.D.p.V. PERFORATING REPORT (ARPO 07) 0 REVISION District/Affiliate Company DATE: Well location Onshore Offshore Total Depth Well Type Vertical Deviated Horizontal Well Situation Liner Casing Casing Tubing Packer Tubing shoe Size [Ø] M.
4. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 A.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 281 OF 295 ENI S. GRAVEL PACK REPORT (ARPO 08) 0 REVISION Cannot Load File form supplied Eni-Agip Excel .p.A.
V.Top perforation Volume [l] Treatment Data Service Company HHP avaible Initial Shut-in pressure [psi] Annulus pressure [psi] Pressure test [psi] Max.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 282 OF 295 ENI S.5.Vol. injection pressure [psi] Pumping time [min] Pumping time [min] Equipment Coiled Tubing [Y / N] Ø Stimulation vessel / Other equipment Operation Description Fluid Ref. Volume [m ] 3 Pumping Parameter Progr. interval Slotted liner From [m] To [m] ARPO .09 WELL NAME FIELD NAME Cost center Interval to be Treated Tot.A. casing / liner Ø Shoe M. [m] Open hole Ø Prod.p.D. [m] T. [psi] Notes Notes / Remarks: Supervisor Superintendent . [lb/gal] Press. injection rate [bpm] Max.: Formation name: Pool: Lithology: Completion Data Bottom hole gauge [Y / N] Type Wellhead type Packer type Packer fluid Density Fluid in well at operation beginning String O. Proppant Initial Entering in Formation Concentr. net perf. Starting Time Pumping Rate [bbl/1'] [m ] 3 Fluid Type Fluid Schedule Fluid Composition Density [kg/l] Mixed Volume [m3 ] Volume Progr. [in] String capacity [l] Packer . 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Injected Circulated N° Fluid Ref.D. [m ] General Data M. [psi] Injection Index [bbl/day/psi] Casing Press. [psi] Final Press. 0 REVISION MATRIX STIMULATION/HYDRAULIC FRACTURE REPORT (APRO 09) MATRIX STIMULATION HYDRAULIC FRACTURING District/Affiliate Company DATE: Well Location Onshore Offshore Well Type Vertical Deviated Horizontal Treatment Type Matrix stimulation Acid Solvent Other Hydraulic Fracturing Foam Water base Oil base Other Acid Fracturing Acid Gelled acid Acid + Gel Other Main Frac Treatment Proppant type: API Mesh Size Amount of Propant [t] 3 Total Frac Fluid Vol. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 A.D. [m] Top liner [m] Reservoir Parameters Reservoir fluid Density [Kg/l] 2 Gradient [Kg/cm /10 m.] Fracturing gradient [calculated] Fracturing gradient [tested] Porosity % SBHT [°C] 2 SBHP [kg/cm ] at m at m Open hole Perfor.D.
@ m. @ m.p. Weight [lb/ft] Weight [lb/ft] SELECTIVE SHORT STRING LONG STRING Well Code Flanges Base Flange @ m. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 A. @ m.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 283 OF 295 ENI S.11 WELL NAME FIELD NAME Cost center SINGLE COMPLETION DUAL COMPLETION General Data RKB Elevation @ m. @ m.6. WIRELINE REPORT (ARPO 11) 0 REVISION WIRE LINE REPORT District/Affiliate Company DATE: ARPO . Tubing Size OD Tubing Size OD Tubing Shoe Ø Packer data Minimum I.D.A. String Previous Bottom Hole Request Operation @ m. Tbg Spool Top Flange Ø Flowing Flange Ø Kill Line Flange Ø BPV Type Psi Psi Psi Ø Wellhead Pressure Check [Kg/cm2] CHP / / / P P P THP Annulus Annulus Annulus POOL Perforated Zones [Kg/cm 2] [Kg/cm 2] [Kg/cm 2] [Kg/cm 2] Open Hole To [m] From [m] Note Operation Description Situation After the Job NO TOOLS IN HOLE TSV Note BPV SCSSV PLUG OTHER TOOLS Actual Bottom Hole: Max Size Run in Hole Ø Supervisor Superintendent @m .
0 REVISION PRESSURE/TEMPERATURE SURVEY REPORT (ARPO 12) Cannot Load File form supplied Eni-Agip Excel .p.7. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 A.A.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 284 OF 295 ENI S.
p.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 285 OF 295 ENI S.8. Of .[kg/l]: Solutions Applied: Results Obtained: Solutions Applied: Results Obtained: Solutions Applied: Results Obtained: Solutions Applied: Results Obtained: Supervisor Supervisor Supervisor Remarks at District level: Superintendent Lost Time Remarks at HQ level hh:mm Loss value [in currency] Pag.A. WELL PROBLEM REPORT (ARPO 13) 0 REVISION District/Affiliate Company WELL PROBLEM REPORT DATE: ARPO -13 Top [m] Bottom [m] FIELD NAME WELL NAME Cost center Start date End date Problem Code Well Situation Open hole Last casing Well problem Description Ø Measured Depth Top [m] Bottom [m] Vertical Depth Top [m] Bottom [m] KOP [m] Type Mud in hole Max inclination [°] @m DROP OFF [m] Dens. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 A.
: of: .ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 286 OF 295 ENI S. m SHORT STRING Note Joint n° m LONG STRING Progr.p. WELL SITUATION REPORT (ARPO 20) 0 REVISION WELL SITUATION (COMPLETION TALLY) District/Affiliate Company DATE: ARPO 20 / E FIELD NAME WELL NAME Cost center SINGLE COMPLETION Joint n° m Progr. m Note Remarks: Supervisor Superintendent pag.9. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 A.A. m DUAL COMPLETION Note Joint n° m Progr.
NOMENCLATURE FOR TUBING CALCULATIONS Ai Ao Ap As D d Dpb E F Fa * Fa Fa tp * Fa tp Ff * Ff I Ff II Ff Ff tp * Ff tp Fp Fso I L n Pi /pi Po /po R r t Tfinal Tinitial w ws wfi wfo α γfi γfo ∆Fa ∆Ff ∆L ∆L1 ∆L2 ∆L3 ∆L4 = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = Area inside tubing Area outside tubing Packer-bore area Resistant tubing area (Ao .Ai) External diameter of tubing Internal diameter of tubing Packer-bore diameter 7 Young’s module (3⋅10 psi for steel) Generic force applied to the tubing end Piston force at the packer depth Piston force above the packer with anchored tubing Piston force at well head conditions Piston force at well head conditions with anchored tubing Fictitious force Fictitious force above the packer with anchored tubing Fictitious force due to the effect of internal pressure Fictitious force due to the effect of external pressure Fictitious force at well head conditions Fictitious force at well head conditions with anchored tubing Tubing-packer force Slack-off force Moment of inertia of the resistant tubing section Tubing length Distance between the lower end of the tubing and the neutral point Pressure inside the tubing at packer depth / well head Pressure outside the tubing at packer depth / well head Ratio between the external and internal diameters of the tubing Tubing-casing radial distance (Douter casing -D)/2 Tubing wall thickness Final temperature of tubing Initial temperature of tubing Linear weight of the tubing immersed in fluid Linear weight of the tubing in air Linear weight of fluid inside the tubing Linear weight of fluid outside the tubing -6 Coefficient of thermal expansion (6.9⋅ 10 in/in/°F for steel) Specific gravity of fluid inside the tubing Specific gravity of fluid outside the tubing Variation in the piston force Variation in the fictitious force Generic variation in the tubing length Variation in length due to Hooke’s Law Variation in length due to buckling Variation in length due to ballooning Variation in length due to thermal effects .p.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 287 OF 295 ENI S. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 0 REVISION APPENDIX B .A.
p.A. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 ∆Lp ∆Lf ∆lso ∆ltot ∆Pi ∆pim ∆pom ∆TM ν σa σb σeq σi σo σsn Yp = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = 0 REVISION Total variation in length prevented by the packer Variation in length generated by fictitious force Variation in length generated by slack-off force Total variation in length of the tubing (= .3 for steel) Axial stress in the tubing section Axial stress in the tubing section due to buckling Equivalent axial stress Equivalent axial stress on the inner wall of the tubing Equivalent axial stress on the outer wall of the tubing Material yield axial stress σsn .ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 288 OF 295 ENI S.∆Lp) Variation in pressure inside the tubing Average variation in pressure inside the tubing Average variation in pressure outside the tubing Average variation in tubing temperature Poisson’s coefficient (0.
p.High Temperature International Drilling Contractor Inside Diameter .ABBREVIATIONS API BHA BHP BHT BOP BPD BPM BPV BSW BUR C/L CBL CCL CET CGR CRA C/T DC DE DHSV D&CM DP DST E/L ECD ECP EMW ESD ESP ETA FBHP FBHT FTHP FTHT GLR GOC GOR GP GPM GPS GR HAZOP HP/HT IADC ID American Petroleum Institute Bottom Hole Assembly Bottom Hole Pressure Bottom hole temperature Blow Out Preventer Barrel Per Day Barrels Per Minute Back Pressure Valve Base Sediment & Water Build Up Rate Control Line Cement Bond Log Casing Collar Locator Cement Evaluation Tool Condensate Gas Ratio Corrosion Resistant Alloy Coiled Tubing Drill Collar Diatomaceous Earth Down Hole Safety Valve Drilling & Completion Manager Drill Pipe Drill Stem Test Electric Line Equivalent Circulation Density External Casing Packer Equivalent Mud Weight Electric Shut-Down System Electrical Submersible Pump Expected Arrival Time Flowing Bottom Hole Pressure Flowing Bottom Hole Temperature Flowing Tubing Head Pressure Flowing Tubing Head Temperature Gas Liquid Ratio Gas Oil Contact Gas Oil Ratio Gravel Pack Gallon (US) per Minute Global Positioning System Gamma Ray Hazard and Operability High Pressure .A.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 289 OF 295 ENI S. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 0 REVISION APPENDIX C .
Quality Control Repeat Formation Test Rotary Kelly Bushing Radius of Exposure Rate Of Penetration Radios Of Uncertainty Remote Operated Vehicle 0 REVISION .ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 290 OF 295 ENI S.p.A. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 IPR JAM KOP LAT LCM LMRP LOT LWD MAASP MD MLH MLS MMS MODU MPI MSL MSS MWD NACE NDT NSG NTU OBM OD OIM ORP OWC P&A PBR PDC PDM PGB PI PLT POB PPB ppg ppm PVT Q Q/AQ RFT RKB ROE ROP ROU ROV Inflow Performance Relationship Joint Make-up Torque Analyser Kick Off Point Lowest Astronomical Tide Lost Circulation Materials Low Marine Riser Package Leak Off Test Log While Drilling Max Allowable Annular Surface Pressure Measured Depth Mud Line Hanger Mud Line Suspension Magnetic Multi Shot Mobile Offshore Drilling Unit Magnetic Particle Inspection Mean Sea Level Magnetic Single Shot Measurement While Drilling National Association of Corrosion Engineers Non Destructive Test North Seeking Gyro Nephelometric Turbidity Unit Oil Base Mud Outside Diameter Offshore Installation Manager Origin Reference Point Oil Water Contact Plugged & Abandoned Polished Bore Receptacle Polycrystalline Diamond Cutter Positive Displacement Motor Permanent Guide Base Productivity Index Production Logging Tool Personnel On Board Pounds per Barrel Pounds per Gallon Part Per Million Pressure Volume Temperature Flow Rate Quality Assurance.
ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 291 OF 295 ENI S.A.p. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 RPM RT S/N SAFE SBHP SBHT SCC SCSSV SDE SF SG SICP SIDPP SPM SSC SSD SSSV STHP STHT TCP TD TOC TOL TRSV TVD UHF VBR VDL VHF VSP W/L WBM WC WHP WHSIP WOB WOC WOW WP YP Revolutions Per Minute Rotary Table Serial Number Slapper Activated Firing Equipment Static Bottom Hole Pressure Static Bottom Hole Temperature Stress Corrosion Cracking Surface Controlled Subsurface Safety Valve Senior Drilling Engineer Safety Factor Specific Gravity Shut-in Casing Pressure Shut-in Drill Pipe Pressure Stroke per Minute Sulfide Stress Cracking Sliding Sleeve Door Valve Sub Surface Safety Valve Static Tubing Head Pressure Static Tubing Head Temperature Tubing Conveyed Perforations Total Depth Top of Cement Top of Liner Tubing Retrievable Safety Valve True Vertical Depth Ultra High Frequency Variable Bore Rams (BOP) Variable Density Log Very High Frequency Velocity Seismic Profile Wire Line Water Base Mud Water Cut Well Head Pressure Well Head Shut-in Pressure Weight On Bit Wait On Cement Wait On Weather Working Pressure Yield Point 0 REVISION .
1977 Bruist. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 0 REVISION APPENDIX D . 36th Annual Fall Meeting of SPE. L G and Glaze. Ponwell Publishing Company. J R : ‘ How To Accurately Predict Future Well Productivities’ ( May 1968) 99-106 Fetkovich. Aziz. Duns. A ‘ A Comprehensive Mechanistic Model For Multiphase Flow In Wells’. M and Whiston. H JR and Ros. Jones. Houston. Hammerlind: ‘Basic Fluid and Pressure Forces on Oilwell Tubulars’. P . 3 edition (Dec 1981) API RP 14E Fourth Edition: ‘Recommended Practice for Design and Installation of Offshore Production Platform Piping System’. M : ‘ Pressure drop in wells producing oil and gas’ (July Sept 1972). International Human Resource Development Corporation.p. 1994. Vols 1 And 4. 38-48 Beggs. OK. Journal of Petroleum Technology. O H : ‘Use of short term multirate flow tests to predict performance of wells having turbulence’ (1976) Brown.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 292 OF 295 ENI S. October 1-4. 1984. 1961. N C J : ‘ Vertical flow of gas and liquid mixtures in wells’ (1963). NY (1986) STAP Number STAP P-1-M-6100 STAP M-1-M 5006 . J P : ‘ A study of two-phase flow in inclined pipes’ (May 1973). E M. E HY : ‘ Better performance of Gulf Coast wells’( 1974) D. 53th annual Fall Technical Conference and Exhibition. 1781-1788 (in german) Gilbert.P ‘ Wasserbewegung Durch Boden’ (1901) 45. and Line Pipe Properties’. GW and Fogarasi. Covier. February. W. J. C H: Well Performance. M J : ‘ The Isochronal Testing Oil Wells’ (1973) Forcheimer. 1978. 451 Earlougher. H D and Brill. J. The University Of Tulsa (1988) API BUL 5C3 Sixth Edition: ‘Formulas and Calculations for Casing Tubing Drill Pipe. April 15. 1977.A. MS Thesis. D. Hammerlind: ‘Movement. Other References: Ansari. October 8-11. K E : The Technology Of Artificial Lift Methods. Tulsa. 607617 Blount. K. Forces and Stresses Associated With Combination Tubing Strings Sealed in Packers’. API RP 14E ‘Recommended Practices For Design And Installation Of Offshore Production rd Platform Piping Systems. Dallas.BIBLIOGRAPHY Document: Drilling Design Manual Connection Procedures Manuals. Arthur Lubinsky: ‘Helical Buckling of Tubing Sealed in Packers’. Boston. October 1. R C JR and Kersch K M : ‘ Analysis of short-time transient test data by typecurve matching’ (July 1974) 793 Eickmeier. 126 Golan.E: ‘Flowing and Gas-Lift Well Performance’ API Drill and Prod Pract (1954).
R G.A. (1936) Reinicke. E L and Schellhardt. J : ‘ Predicting Two-Phase Pressure Drops In Vertical Pipes’ (June 1967). J F JR and Tighe. (Jan 1970) 97 Rawlins. R J and Hueni. 829838 Ramey. H J JR : ‘ Short-Time Well Test Data Interpretation In The Presence Of Skin Effect And Wellbore Storage. A R and Brown. Anderson. Tulsa. Remer. J V : ‘ Inflow Performance Relationships For Solution Gas Drive Wells’. H E : ‘ Vertical Flow Correlation-Gas Wells’ API Man 14BM. 1972) Orkiszewski. D R : ‘ Pressure build up in wells’ (1951) Hurst. H K : ‘ Radius-Of-Drainage And Stabilisation Time Equations’ (Sept 1964) Vol 62. No 37 Vogel. R E : ‘ Gas Well Operations With Liquid Production’ ( 1983) Milner.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 293 OF 295 ENI S. M B : ‘ Concerning The Calculation Of Inflow Performance Of Wells Producing From Solution Gas Drive Reservoirs’ (Sept 1971) 1141-1142 Texas Railroad Commission Rule 36 Turner. G E. W : ‘ Establishment of skin effect and its impediment to fluid flow into a wellbore’ (Oct 1953) King. K M. Beggs: ‘Production Optimisation Using NODAL Analysis’. (Jan 1968) 83-93 . M A : ‘ Back-Pressure Data On Natural Gas Wells And Their Application To Production Practices’ US Bureau Of Mines.p. API 14B. D. E E and Warren D A JR : ‘ Drill stem test analysis utilising McKinley system of after flow dominated pressure build up’ (Oct. M D ‘ A field study of underbalance pressure necessary to obtain clean perforations using tubing-conveyed perforating’ ( June 1986) 662 Lea. K E: ‘ Experimental study of pressure gradients occurring during continuous two-phase flow in small diameter vertical conduits’ ( April 1965) 475-484 Hagedorn and Brown (1967) Horner. SSCSSV Sizing Computer Program. 1991. OGCI. F : ‘ The Skin Effect And Its Influence On The Productive Capacity Of A Well’ (Oct 1953) Van Poollen. Hagedoorn. A R and Bingham. A E : ‘ Analysis And Predictions Of Minimum Flow Rate For The Continuous Removal Of Liquid From Gas Wells’ (Nov 1969) Van Everdingen. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 0 REVISION Gray. 38-40 H. M G and Duckler. R J : ‘ Gravel pack design consideration’ (Feb 1974) Standing. G : ‘ Comparison Of Measured And Predicted Pressure Drops In Tubing For High-Water-Cut Gas Wells’ (Aug 1987) 165-177 Saucier. Hubard.
ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 294 OF 295 ENI S. without any graphic display. however. The programme also enabled users to find an optimal solution by means of the iterative process using a number of approximations and producing results which were more reliable. caused by temperature increases. possible to take into account the reduction in the performance of some CRA type steels. The programme is generally considered to be reliable because the results of three years use have consistently matched actual well applications. It is necessary to calculate load losses during the relative operation and obtain the resulting fictitious hydrostatic gradient which then lets the user obtain the correct pressures for the various string sections. . The programme is supported by VAX/VMS computer systems and is currently available at Head Office and in the Districts on the Company computer network. with a string and a high number of packer’s as well (multiple zone completions) and takes into account the fact that packer setting can be mechanical or hydraulic.TUBING MOVEMENT/STRESS COMPUTER PROGRAMMES E. The programme does not incorporate a library or collection of data on commonly used tubing material. ‘Vertubing’ produces the results as numerical files.p. ‘VERTUBING’ PROGRAMME The need to fast computing to carry out tubing movement/stress calculations led AGIP to produce the ‘Vertubing’ programme in 1989. It is not. which results in extremely accurate results. The programme’s architecture defines a rigid sequence for data entry. The application does not enable the user to independently assess dynamic situations such as with production or injection operations. The application carries out all functions for tubing control in vertical or deviated wells. It is also possible to check stress tubing’s with varying diameters (tapered string) and to consider materials with anisotropic characteristics. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 0 REVISION APPENDIX E . which would enable users to design the string starting from an existing material. This application was based on a previous version designed by a company named ‘Tubmov’ which was run on Hewlett Packard 41CV computers.A.1. The ‘Vertubing’ programme provided a calculation tool which significantly reduced times for engineers involved in string calculations.
2. to completion and other various well operations. which can be read. The WT-Drill module lets the user evaluate the temperatures and pressures during drilling and the casing installation stages. Gray. VAX Mainframe and UNIX versions. The most interesting feature of the programme is its capability to evaluate temperatures during and after well operations. while the Govier-Aziz formula is used for single stage fluids. The WT-Circ and WT-Prod modules let the user evaluate the temperatures during standard production and circulation operations and the WS-Tube module lets the user calculate tubing movement and stress. while the resulting stresses the casing is subject to are calculated using the WS-Casing module. The calculation of load losses and the hydraulic conditions can be carried out using different correlations which are valid for two-stage flow (Beggs & Brill.A. Agip Division STAP-P-1-M-7100 E. The brief description below only describes the parts of the application concerning tubing. Orkiszewski. printed or exported as graphic files. The need to use an in-house company programme which was more complex compared to ‘Vertubing’. is due to this application’s limitations in terms of obtaining the trend of temperatures the string is subject to during various well operations. Duns & Ross). During testing the results were compared to actual field data and a good match was obtained.p. During processing it is also possible to display and print a simple drawing of the well and the completion. The programme also assesses the installation of a hanger in the completion as well as hydraulic or mechanical packer setting. ‘WELLCAT’ PROGRAMME 0 REVISION Eni-Agip Division and Affiliates recently acquired Enertech’s (1994) ‘Wellcat’ programme which is an application integrating the most specialised software. It is possible to evaluate the reduction in material rating due to temperature and any anistropy of materials. ‘Wellcat’ produces results in ASCII format. The programme incorporates five modules. It is also possible to calibrate the average coefficients for thermal exchange and specific heat. once the temperature profile and lithology of the formations are known. selective completions with a maximum of five packers. ‘Wellcat’ can be used for single completions. Hagedorn & Brown. dual completions with a maximum of two packer’s and dual selective completions. The ‘Wellcat’ programme was initially tested with the most typical cases (discussed in publications) and appropriate comparisons were made with data previously obtained using the ‘Vertubing’ programme with reasonable results. . As ‘Vertubing’ had to be integrated with software in ENI-Agip Division and Affiliates expert system (Welcome) it seemed more appropriate to use a modern design programme such as ‘Wellcat’. ranging from drilling. and the inability to analyse dual completions. The programme is now used in the company for completion string design and at present available in PC.ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 295 OF 295 ENI S.