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Published by: PRASAD326 on Feb 24, 2009
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Cladded coatings have thicknesses reaching several millimeters. They
are made of a metal which is more noble or more decorative than the
substrate on which they are deposited. These coatings, also called plat-
ing [59], were applied to steel and non-ferrous metals, by coating with a
single or double layer of noble metal, e.g., tableware [60, 61].
Presently, the concept of cladded coatings has been significantly broad-
ened. They comprise two groups: pressure and overlay coatings.
Pressure coatings are obtained by joining the cladding material with
the cladded material by exerting pressure, usually at appropriately el-
evated temperatures, in order to weld them. Most often, plating is ac-
complished by:

– mechanical means, by one-sided or two-sided hot rolling of sheet or
strip from both metals, after prior cleaning of surface, mainly of oxides.
The cladding material may also be deposited by casting, usually centrifu-

© 1999 by CRC Press LLC

gal (the cladded object is coated, after which the semi-finished product is
subjected to further treatment, usually cold or hot work, by pressing or roll-
ing). Other methods include shrinkage deposition (in which the prior made
cladding is hot slid over the substrate material, press forming and broached.
Metal joining is obtained by their welding, i.e., heating to dough consistency
and pressed. Metals may also be joined by diffusion welding;
– detonation action - by generating very high pressure (even up to
millions of atmospheres) as the result of detonation of explosive material
and generating extremely high velocities of particles at the moment of
contact with the substrate (from several to several tens km/s). Metal join-
ing has the characteristics of diffusion, but in this case there is a significantly
higher degree of mixing of plating material and substrate than that observed
in other methods, a kind of mechanical alloying under pressure (pressure
transportation of mass), enhancing substrate strength.
In both methods the substrate material is usually plain carbon steel (in
which case the plating material is martensitic and austenitic stainless steel,
copper, nickel, silver, titanium, aluminum and Monel metal), aluminum (in
which case the plating material is pure aluminum or its alloys), copper, nickel
or alloys of these two metals. The thickness of plated coatings varies, de-
pending on the type and application, and ranges from 1.5 to 15% of the
substrate thickness [59]. Pressure plated coatings are used predominantly for
anti-corrosion purposes (particularly in the chemical industry), less often for
decorative purposes, and sometimes as technical coatings with special elec-
trical or thermophysical properties. Technical coatings deposited on thin sub-
strates are referred to as bimetals (a name applied to coating and substrate
together) [60, 61].
Overlay coatings are obtained by
– pad welding - i.e., melting the plating material on the substrate
surface, using various sources of heat: welding torches, plasma burners
and lasers. The pad welded material with a composition close to that of
the substrate metal is melted and joins with it, aided by the use of an
oxy-acetylene torch or electric arc; it can be achieved cold (without pre-
heating of substrate) or hot (with preheating of the substrate usually to a
temperature of 200 to 400ºC or higher, close to the melting point of the
substrate material, in order to avoid cracks). The overlays may be com-
posed of stellites (stelliting), steel rods in the form of small pipes, filled
with tungsten carbide grains (applied in corrective coating of machine
components working in soil or rock, e.g., excavators, mining drills); brass
(when overlaying is done on cast iron objects, i.e., pump pistons, water
turbine blades, gears) and lead (overlaying of walls of steel reservoirs
for the chemical industry);
– braze welding - by melting, with the aid of flux (e.g., mixture, com-
prising 70% borax, 20% kitchen salt, 10% boric acid), of coating material,
which is mainly common brass or nickel-brass, without melting the sub-
strate material. The latter is usually a high melting point material, e.g.,
cast iron, bronze, steel coated with zinc or tin. The operation is accom-

© 1999 by CRC Press LLC

plished with the aid of an oxy-acetylene torch or, less often, electric arc.
The overlaying material does not melt together with substrate material
(similarly to brazing);
– electro-spark discharge - by deposition of material of an eroding elec-
trode on the substrate, due to electric discharges (spark discharge) between
electrode and substrate.
Plated overlay coatings require machining; in some cases prior heating
is essential. Applications are mostly anti-corrosion and anti-wear. They
may be made of the same materials as pressure coatings or different ones.
Usually, they are deposited on smaller objects or fragments. These coatings
may also be used for corrective purposes, e.g., repair of streetcar and railroad
tracks, worn journals, road wheels, excavator teeth, cutting tools, dies,
punches, etc.

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