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Tripoli University

Faculty of Engineering
Electrical and Electronic Engineering Department B. Sc. Project

Design and Implementation of a CCTV Network

Prepared by: Riyad Omar Mohammed Abdelhamid Elmahdi Mohammed

Supervised by: Dr. Hussain sijuk


Fall 2012 Tripoli-Libya

Abstract

Growth naturally stimulates changes, and CCTV technology has been no exception. A system that once merely required cameras, cabling, and video monitors has now become a complex electronic configuration of equipment intertwined with both computer and telecommunications technologies. This dramatic change is directly related to the introduction of digital technology.

Closed circuit television CCTV and other related video security and surveillance technology has advanced further and faster in the period from 2000 until now than any prior comparable time period.

The focus of this project is to clarify the idea of the CCTV systems by studying the systems and the types of these systems, and showing the advantages of using such a technology in increasing the security and reducing the possibility of crimes.

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Acknowledgement
Praise be to Allah, who has revealed the Quran and by which Mohamed Peace Be Upon Him was learn what he had not known before, in which we also have been ordered to learn and pursue knowledge wherever it is possible. We would like to thank everyone who contributed in making this work become reality especially: Our parents and families for their moral and financial support.
Our supervisor Dr. Hussain Sijuk for his support, help and

inspirations during the preparation of this study.


Eng. Mahmoud Hamza, Eng. Khasem algusbi Mohammed Tata, Eng.

Mofeeda faraj Eng. Hussam Shita Eng. for their assistance and help.
To all the staff in the Albadeel company and Aleshara company for

their great assistant and help in the thesis.


To our friends and Colleagues in the Electrical and Electronic

Engineering department. Finally we would like to acknowledge and thank our staff members and engineers in the Electrical and Electronic Engineering department throughout our studies.

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Table of Contents
CHAPTER 1:INTRODUCTION ............................................................................................. 1 1.0 What is CCTV? .............................................................................................................. 2 1.1 History of CCTV ............................................................................................................ 2 1.2 Why CCTV? ................................................................................................................... 3 1.3 Objectives of the Project................................................................................................. 3 CHAPTER 2 : Analog and Digital CCTV ............................................................................... 4 2.1 Analog Systems .............................................................................................................. 5 2.1.1 The basic components of a CCTV system ............................................................... 5 2.1.2 Analog CCTV Systems ............................................................................................ 5 2.1.3 The Camera .............................................................................................................. 6 2.1.4 The Monitor.............................................................................................................. 6 2.1.5 The Video Cast Recorder (VCR) ............................................................................. 7 2.1.8 Transmission Link .................................................................................................... 7 2.1.7 Multiplexer ............................................................................................................... 8 2.2 Digital Systems ............................................................................................................... 9 2.2.1 Digital CCTV ........................................................................................................... 9 2.2.2 The Digital Camera .................................................................................................. 9 2.2.3 Digital Video Recorder (DVR) .............................................................................. 10 2.2.4 Image server ........................................................................................................... 11 2.3 Combined Analog and Digital CCTV .......................................................................... 13 2.3.1 Hybrid Systems ...................................................................................................... 13 2.4 A comparison between Digital and Analog.................................................................. 15 2.4.1 Digital vs. Analog .................................................................................................. 15 2.5 STANDARDS .............................................................................................................. 16 2.5.1 PAL ........................................................................................................................ 16 2.5.2 NTSC ...................................................................................................................... 17 2.5.3 SECAM .................................................................................................................. 18 CHAPTER 3: CCTV Main Components ............................................................................... 19

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3.1 Cameras ........................................................................................................................ 21 3.1.1 Illumination ............................................................................................................ 22 3.1.2 Light Sensitivity ..................................................................................................... 23 3.1.3 Signal to Noise (S/N) Ratio .................................................................................... 23 3.1.4 Back Light Compensation ...................................................................................... 24 3.1.5 Camera types .......................................................................................................... 24 3.1.6 Some cameras types used in normal life ................................................................ 28 3.2 Lenses ........................................................................................................................... 28 3.2.1 Lens parameters...................................................................................................... 29 3.2.2 Types of lenses ....................................................................................................... 32 3.2.3 Lens selection ......................................................................................................... 33 3.3 Camera housing ............................................................................................................ 34 3.3.1 Ingress Protection (IP rating) ................................................................................. 34 3.3.2 Camera Brackets .................................................................................................... 36 3.4 Monitors........................................................................................................................ 36 3.4.1 Monitors types ........................................................................................................ 37 3.4. 2 Notes on monitor installation ................................................................................ 39 3.5 Switcher Selection & Video Recording ....................................................................... 41 3.5.1 Sequential switcher ................................................................................................ 41 3.5.2Multi-viewer ............................................................................................................ 42 3.5.3 Matrix switcher ...................................................................................................... 43 3.5.4 Multiplexer ............................................................................................................. 43 3.5.5 Time-lapse VCR recordings ................................................................................... 44 3.5.6 Digital video recorders (DVRs) ............................................................................ 46 CHAPTER 4: Transmission media ........................................................................................ 48 4.0 Video transmission media ............................................................................................ 49 4.1. Video Cable Types ...................................................................................................... 49 4.1.1 Unbalanced (Coaxial) Cables ................................................................................. 49 4.1.2. Balanced (Twisted Pair) Cables ............................................................................ 50

4.1.3. Typical Cable Losses ............................................................................................ 51 4.1.4 Fiber Optic Transmission ....................................................................................... 51 4.2 Video non-cable type transmission .............................................................................. 52 4.2.1 Wireless Video Transmission: ............................................................................... 52 4.2.2 Infrared Beams ....................................................................................................... 53 4.2.3 Microwave Transmission ....................................................................................... 54 4.3 Power Cable .................................................................................................................. 54 4.4 Power over Ethernet .................................................................................................... 54 CHAPTER 5: CASE STUDY ................................................................................................ 56 5.1 Introduction: ................................................................................................................. 57 5.2 Aim of case study: ........................................................................................................ 57 5.3 Description of the site: .................................................................................................. 57 5.4 Design criteria............................................................................................................... 59 5.4.1 The cameras and network video recorder (NVR) .................................................. 60 5.5 Installation .................................................................................................................... 67 5.5.1 Adding an IP Address ............................................................................................ 67 5.5.2 Connecting and Changing Settings ........................................................................ 69 5.5.3 Recording time ....................................................................................................... 75 5.6 Cabling.......................................................................................................................... 76 5.7 TROUBLESHOOTING ............................................................................................... 78 5.7.1 Camera troubleshooting ......................................................................................... 78 5.7.2 NVR troubleshooting. ............................................................................................ 79 5.8 Bill of quantity .............................................................................................................. 80 CHAPTER 6: CONCLUSION .............................................................................................. 81 6.1 General conclusion ....................................................................................................... 82 6.2 Conclusion of the case study ........................................................................................ 83 References .............................................................................................................................. 84

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List of figures Figure 2. 2 Typical CCTV Monitor ...............................................................................6 Figure 2. 3 a typical analog CCTV system showing all components ............................8 Figure 2. 4 a hybrid CCTV system ..............................................................................13 Figure 3. 1 CCTV components ....................................................................................20 Figure 3. 2 how we see .................................................................................................22 Figure 3. 3 illumination unite .......................................................................................22 Figure 3. 4 Light Sensitivity (LUX).............................................................................23 Figure 3. 5 the back light compensation effect ............................................................24 Figure 3. 6 panoramic camera ......................................................................................27 Figure 3. 7 some other cameras types ..........................................................................28 Figure 3. 8 Angle of view ............................................................................................29 Figure 3. 9 Types of Lens and View Field...................................................................29 Figure 3. 10 variable focal length ................................................................................31 Figure 3. 11 Comparing the human eye to the video camera lens ...............................32 Figure 3. 12 camera housing ........................................................................................34 Figure 3. 13 camera brackets .......................................................................................36 Figure 3. 14 Monitor Size & Recommended Monitoring Distance .............................37 Figure 3. 15 CRT monitor ............................................................................................38 Figure 3. 16 Multi viewer ............................................................................................43 Figure 3. 17 Centralized Systems ................................................................................43 figure 4. 1 coaxial cable ...............................................................................................49 Figure 4. 2 fiber optics .................................................................................................52 Figure 3.22 Digital video network using Power over Ethernet (POE) ........................55 Figure 5. 2 a closer look to the site ..............................................................................58 Figure 5. 3 design for the site using autocad ...............................................................59 Figure 5. 4 SNO-5080RP .............................................................................................60 Figure 5. 5 SNV-7080RP .............................................................................................60 Figure 5. 6 SRN-3250 ..................................................................................................60 Figure 5. 7 CCTV network block diagram ..................................................................67 Figure 5. 8 local area connection properties ................................................................68 Figure 5. 9 advanced TCP/IP settings ..........................................................................68 Figure 5. 10 login window ...........................................................................................69 Figure 5. 11 NVR display ............................................................................................70

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Figure 5. 12 configuration menu ..................................................................................70 Figure 5. 13 camera setup menu ..................................................................................71 Figure 5. 14 camera search option ...............................................................................72 Figure 5. 15 network setup menu .................................................................................73 Figure 5. 16 spectrum of video signal ..........................................................................77 List of tables

Table 2. 1 Digital vs. Analog .......................................................................................15 Table 3. 1 to noise ratio and the corresponding picture quality ...................................23 Table 3. 3 field of view ( 1/3 Type CCD ) ...................................................................30 Table 3. 4 IP rating chart ..............................................................................................35 Table 3. 6 Recording Mode vs. Recording Interval .....................................................45 Table 4. 1 Typical Cable Losses ..................................................................................51 Table 5. 1 cameras specifications ................................................................................61 Table 5. 2 the NVR specifications ...............................................................................65 Table 5. 3 CAT6e electrical performance ....................................................................76 Table 5. 4 loss in all the cables ....................................................................................78 Table 5. 5 bill of quantity .............................................................................................80

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ABBEREVIATIONS
LC CCTV CCD CMOS CRT DVR DSP DVD DDNS DNS DHCP FOV FL HDD HTTP IR IT IP ISP JPEG LAN LCD LED LLL LCOS MAC NTSC NVR OLED PAL POE POL PTZ PPPOE RF RTP RTSP SNR SECAM UTP VCR VHS VMD WAN Back Light Compensation Closed Circuit Television Charge-Coupled Device Complementary Metal-Oxide-Semiconductor Cathode ray Tube Digital Video Recrder Digital Signal Processing Digital Video Disc Dynamic Domain Name Server Domani Name Server Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol Field Of View Focal length Hard Disk Drive HyperText Transfer Protocol Infra Red Information Technology Ingress Protection Internet Service Provider Joint Photographic Experts Group Local Area Network Liquid crystal Display Light Emitting Diode Low Light Level Liquid crystal On Silicon Media Access Protocole National television System committee Netwok Video Recorder Organic Light Emitting Diode Phase Alternating Line Power Over Ethernet Power Over Lan Pan/tilt zoom Point to Point Protocole Over Ethernet Radio Frequency Real-Time Transport Protocol Real-Time Transport Protocol Signal-to-Ratio Sequentiel Couleur Aves Memoire, French for "Sequntial Color with Memory Unshielded Twisted pair Video Cassette Recorder Victor Home System Video Motion Detection wide Area Network

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CHAPTER 1:INTRODUCTI ON

1.0 What is CCTV?


CCTV, Closed Circuit Television, is a TV system that does not broadcast TV signals to public but transmits them over to limited monitor(s). CCTV system usually utilizes CCD video cameras (to produce the video), cable or wireless transmitters/receivers or Internet (to transmit the video), and monitors (to see the video). CCTV system is not only applied to the security and surveillance purpose but also to the other fields like laboratory in schools or in private companies, even to production lines in factories. As the application of CCTV system increased, the CCTV industry has developed variety of CCTV equipment like Time Lapse VCRs, combiners, infrared illuminators, etc. The most recent development is web camera server which uses the Internet for remote surveillance [11].

1.1 History of CCTV


The earliest usage of Closed Circuit Television (CCTV) actually dates back to 1942 when it was first used by the military in Germany. The military used remote cameras with black and white monitors to observe the launch of V2 rockets. During the 1940's the US military also used CCTV when developing and testing atomic weapons, as this allowed them to observe the tests from a safe distance. In the years since that time CCTV has become very common in non-government and military sites. In the 1970's and 1980's CCTV was commonly used as an added security measure in banks. Many other retailers also began to use these CCTV's in their stores as a method to both prevent and record any possible crime. They are extremely popular in convenience stores and gas stations. Gas stations have used them to record drivers who leave without paying for their gas. There is no proof that CCTV's decreased crime rates, but they have been very successful in helping to apprehend criminals who were recorded in the act. CCTV's also became very useful in monitoring traffic. Britain first started using them for this purpose and thousands of cameras were placed all over the city to monitor traffic and to see if there were accidents. Since that time they have been placed in vehicles such as taxis, buses and trains. They have also been placed in private areas such as parking lots to attempt to decrease instances of vandalism. In the 1990's certain cities in the US and Canada used these CCTV's to track traffic

violators and in turn they were sent tickets automatically after getting caught on tape. Today CCTVs are very common in the home. Many homes with security systems have these installed as an added security feature to prevent break-ins or unwelcome intruders. They are also used in many public areas including schools and airports to record any suspicious activity. These cameras have also changed over the years. They were once large white boxes that could not zoom in or out or follow objects closely. Today they can be small in size and hidden not to be noticed. They have many advanced features including higher definition and being able to detect and follow motion in areas where there should be none.

1.2 Why CCTV?


a. CCTV monitoring adds visual verification to alarm calls. b. CCTV does not need breaks and it does not mind rain. c. CCTV is never late or suffers from all the normal human failings.

1.3 Objectives of the Project


- To study the components of analog and digital CCTV systems and their features. - To understand transmission techniques used in CCTV systems and its performance analysis. - To plan a CCTV network for a selected site

CHAPTER 2 : Analog and Digital CCTV

2.1 Analog Systems


2.1.1 The basic components of a CCTV system How a complete CCTV system looks like, can differ in many ways, But there are a number of basic components that always have to be included. The first and probably most important part is the camera, Without a good camera the whole system is ruined, It doesn't matter how good the rest of equipment the system consist of, because if the camera provide low quality pictures, the whole system is worthless, The next very important part of the system is the video cast recorder (VCR), The VCR should record the images the camera provides, To provide longer recording time on a single tape, many VCRs use a technology called time-laps [1]. 2.1.2 Analog CCTV Systems The analog systems have been around for quite a long time now and developer still try to really squeeze the most out of them. There is always something that can be improved, and the reason for that a lot of companies still produces analog systems is that many companies on the market still use analog systems. Instead of investing in a totally new digital system, they stick to the analog version, and try to update the system once in a while to maintain the quality of the system. In this chapter a description of a simple analog system will be presented. The figure 2.1 show a basic analog CCTV system [1]

Figure 2. 1 basic analog CCTV system

2.1.3 The Camera The probably most important part of a CCTV system is the camera. Without a good camera, the whole system will only offer low quality pictures, When Discussing analog cameras this often mean cameras that have an output that is analog, however there still often exist digital signal processing circuits within the camera. The camera is actually only a part of the whole camera when we talk about cameras we talk about the camera and the lenses. The idea of the lenses is that the light from the illumination source reflects of the scene. The lens collects the light from the scene and forms an image of the scene on the light sensitive camera sensor. Then the camera sensor converts the visible scene formed by the lens into an electrical signal suitable for transmission to the remote monitor and recorder [1]. 2.1.4 The Monitor The video monitor or computer screen display (CRT, LCD or plasma) the camera image by converting the electrical video signal back into visible image on the monitor screen. The figure 2.2 show CRT monitor with adjusting buttons

Figure 2. 2 Typical CCTV Monitor

2.1.5 The Video Cast Recorder (VCR) To save all the pictures that are taken by the camera, the system has tape equipped with a VCR. The VCR stores the pictures on video cassettes, which then can be archived and used for replay later on. It is important that the VCR is of high quality so that the images that are stored are of the same quality as the original ones taken by the camera. The VCR there for has to be able to handle high resolutions, which means a high number of TV-lines. The VCR must also be very reliable, so it doesn't stop suddenly or trashes video cassettes. Sometimes two independent VCRs is used in CCTV system to have some kind of backup if something should happen. To use two VCRs could also be a way of avoiding stops when changing video Cassettes. One big problem with VCRs is actually that the tapes have to be changed once in a while. The VCRs in CCTV systems can be of very different types. There exist both VCRs that use cassettes that are the same as the VCRs in our homes use, but there is also other more advanced VCRs. the only reason for CCTV VCRs to use different kinds of cassettes is that they should offer a longer recording time [1]. 2.1.8 Transmission Link The transmission media carries the electrical video signal from the camera to the remote monitor. Hard-wired media choices include: (a) coaxial, (b) two wire unshielded twisted-pair (UTP), (c) fiber-optic cable, (d) Local area network (LAN), (e) Wide area network (WAN), (f) intranet, and (g) Internet network. Wireless choices include: (a) radio frequency (RF), (b) microwave, or (c) optical infrared (IR). Signals can be analog or digital [2].

2.1.7 Multiplexer To add more flexibility to the system there exist a lot of different products. One product that often is used to complement the existing system and to make it more adjustable is the multiplexer. A multiplexer is a must if the system is going to have more than one camera. The multiplexer offers a variety of different options, but the ability to connect many cameras to one VCR and/or one monitor is probably the most important one. The multiplexers come with different setups but often they have the ability to connect at least four cameras as input channels. There however exist multiplexers that can offer up to 32 different input channels or more. The introduction of multiplexers in the CCTV business was really important. Before one camera was connected to one VCR and then linked to a monitor or vice versa. The multiplexer often has a lot of both inputs and outputs possibilities. There exist a lot of different setup possibilities when handling, the figure 2.3 shows a typical analog CCTV system showing all the components with the multiplexer [1].

Figure 2. 3 a typical analog CCTV system showing all components

2.2 Digital Systems


2.2.1 Digital CCTV In digital CCTV systems, compared to the analog systems, almost all equipment uses digital technology instead of analog. But that is only partly since there still exist part within the equipment that uses analog electronics. The basic digital CCTV system has the same basic parts as the analog one, but of course the different components use digital technology instead. 2.2.2 The Digital Camera A digital camera differs a lot compared to an analog one. But one thing that is common for both of them is that they use lenses. Often the lens and the rest of the camera, the housing, is bought separately. In that way it is easier to customize the whole camera so it fits certain needs. The digital camera in CCTV systems uses the same technology as the handheld digital cameras that almost every person today owns. But the big difference is that the CCTV cameras often is more robust because they are exposed too much harder conditions. In the digital camera the light passes through the lens as in the analog camera. But then the similarities with the analog camera Ends. To convert the light into a digital image a CDD (ChargeCoupled Device) element is used or CMOS (Complementary Metal-Oxide Semiconductor) sensors. CCD the CCD element is like small photometer that detects the light intensity, and represents the intensity with a proportional analog voltage. To get a whole picture; many CCD elements are used together in an array. One CCD element represents one pixel. So if the CCD array consists of an array with 1024*768 elements, this is also the highest resolution (in pixels) that the camera in the end will offer.

CMOS In 1998 the CMOS started to be used in digital cameras instead of CCD elements. The reason was that the CMOS sensors are cheaper to manufacture than the CCD, and it also showed that that the CMOS required less power to work properly. Another advantage of using the CMOS instead of CCD was that it offered more possibilities to adjust the preferences of the Picture in an early stage. Camera with digital technology but analog output this kind of camera is actually a digital camera but instead of having a binary signal as output the signal is converted into analog one. Of course this means that the signal will suffer from more noise, but this kind of camera is superior in many ways to a traditional analog camera. It can use all the advantages of a digital camera like signal processing, and still offer an analog output. These cameras are often used when companies want to upgrade their analog CCTV systems, but don't want to replace all equipment with expensive digital gears [3]. 2.2.3 Digital Video Recorder (DVR) In the digital CCTV system all images are digital, with some resolution and some size. To store these images an old VCR cannot be used anymore, and instead a DVR (Digital Video Recorder) is used. The DVR often offers high technology and many functions. The most common way to connect the camera to the DVR is via a network cable. The great thing with the DVR is that the images are stored on a hard drive instead of on a video cassette. In this way there is no need for changing recording media. When the hard drive is full, then the DVR has to start erasing images or just write over the old images. To make it possible to store as many pictures as possible The DVR has to be equipped with large hard drives. The hard drives starts to become really cheap now, but still the DVRs often come with a pretty small hard drive. The concept is then to buy an extra had drive that can be installed in the DVR or hooked up via some interface like SCSI link, fire wire or

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USB 2.0. The companies that sells the DVRs often tries to make extra money on them by using own designed interfaces. In that way the costumers have to buy their products when they want to expand the number of hard drives. But in many cases a standard hard drive just like the ones found in a regular PC will work fine. There isn't only the size of the hard drive in the DVR that plays a role when calculating how many pictures that will fit. It is also the size of the images and with what speed the images are recorded. As mentioned before, is real-time recording said to be a recording with 30frames/sec (fps) for NTSC and 25 frames/sec (fps) for PAL. So there is a big difference in recording real-time and to record in 20 frames/sec for example lets say that the DVR has a 60GB hard drive installed. The camera is then setup to capture 30frames/sec then each picture has a size of 52kb (example with a jpeg image and resolution of 704*576 pixels). For how long time will the hard drive then last? 30 frames/sec -> 30*52 = 1560 kb/sec = 1,56 MB/sec 60GB/1,56MB/sec-> 38461 sec = 641 min = 10,7 hours The 60GB disk only lasts for about 10 hours, then old images have to be erased. 30frames/sec is however very much and such high frame rates are not used very often. To use frame rates that ranges from 10-20fps is often enough. This means that the 60 GB disk will last for twice the time calculated before (if 15fps is used). With a frame rate of about 14, the 60GBdrive will last for about 24 hours. Then the images dont have to be erased every day. But the best way is of course to buy a larger hard drive, especially if more than one camera is going to be used in the same system [3]. 2.2.4 Image server In the same fashion as the analog system can be expanded, the digital Systems offer many different opportunities to create a more complex solution. And the better way of storing the images that are taken by the camera is to use an image

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server that is based on a standard computer. An image server is a device that has much storage capabilities. The servers are actually just plain computers. The only thing extra that is needed is software for how to setup the transferring of images from the different cameras and what should happen when they are received. The computer has to have much hard drive capabilities, a very good network card and a fast processor and much memory. This solution is much cheaper to both buy and upgrade. If the software gets old, then it's easy to upgrade by just buying a better one. And that's much cheaper than buying new equipment, as the case is for the image servers not built on standard computers. If the hard drive space suddenly is too small, new hard drives have to be bought, but this is very cheap these days since the computer industry is so large and the competition is so hard. The great thing with a PC based image server is that there is no secret what's inside the machine. It's easy to buy new parts and upgrade the system. It's also cheap to buy a new computer when the old one becomes incapable of running the system in a sufficient way. The best way of using an image server is possibly to use it together with DVRs. One DVR could be placed close to each camera locally and then the image server can be placed at one more central location. All the DVRs are then connected to the internet and the image server also. Then the image server can be setup to download all the images or just specific images by following a programmed time schedule. A smart way is to transfer the images from the DVRs to the image server by night, because there is less traffic on the internet by that time. To transfer the images, the DVRs and the image server use an ftp server. The images are then transferred fast, easy and secure. By having the system operating like this it is much easier to control it. The images always end up on the image server and then the persons in charge can go through the material, without having to feel the stress for the case that a DVR gets full of images and that some has to be erased or that the DVR should be stopped [1].

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2.3 Combined Analog and Digital CCTV


2.3.1 Hybrid Systems Today there is a big discussion about whether the CCTV system should be digital or analog. Most experts say that all CCTV systems will become digital in the future, but as the market looks today the use of analog or digital systems depends on where the system should be installed. For example is it a very big difference if the system should have cameras outside or inside buildings and if the cameras should be sued at daytime or at night. It is easy to say that the digital systems should be used since everything is going digital these days, but still many analog systems can give very good result. As it is today the really good digital systems cost a fortune to install. Therefore many companies choose to use a cheaper digital system or an advanced analog system. But maybe the best system consists of both analog and digital equipment, like a kind of hybrid as shown in figure 2.4.

Figure 2. 4 a hybrid CCTV system

To make the system easy to expand or change in the future the basic components should be based on digital technology. The only analog part that still is really interesting to use is actually the camera. All other parts of the system should

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actually be digital. The reason for using an analog camera is that the offer much better images when capturing images in dark conditions than what a digital camera would. Of course it exist digital cameras that provides very good pictures at very low flux values, but they are still very expensive. To make the conversion between analog and digital signal and to be able to use an analog camera a video server has to be used. The video server has the possibility to connect to internet via a web server. Often a video server has at least four channels. The images can then be viewed directly by accessing the video server. The discussion above about an analog-digital hybrid is based on the fact that the system is going to be installed from scratch. But often companies face a totally different problem. They already have an analog CCTV system installed. Then they want to expand the system or increase the performance in some way. The question is then how this should been done. The company wants to invest money in a system that will last for many years but they feel that it is a big problem because the basic system is analog. The best way to expand and change the system so it will be future proof is to convert the system into digital step by step. Probably the first step will be to change the old VCR to a DVR. When the DVR is installed it also means that parts of the system will become based on a network. The DVR can be connected to internet and that means that users can login to the DVR and watch picture streams from the camera or recorded material that are stored on the DVRs hard drive. As soon as the DVR is installed it is very easy to install digital cameras direct or via a switch to the DVR. Since the DVR is connected to internet it is also now possible to install an image server, to which the pictures from the DVR can be transferred. Standard PCs can also be added so the handling of the system becomes easy. Next step is to get rid of the multiplexers and install a video server instead so the analog cameras still can be used. Then the last step to really get rid of all the old analog equipment is to install digital cameras [5].

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2.4 A comparison between Digital and Analog


2.4.1 Digital vs. Analog [6]

Table 2. 1 Digital vs. Analog

Analog Cameras Tried and tested, but restricted to interlaced PAL or NSTC resolution. Available with a wide range of CCD and CMOS sensors. Better in low-light situations. Install dedicated coax or fiber cable for every interconnection, with separate cables for power and control. Boosters needed for longer distances Difficult. Each analogue camera requires its own cable. Image quality is lost when using long cables. Video stored on VHS tapes which require constant changing and lots of storage space. Recorded video quality degrades over time.

Digital Wide range available from cheap & cheerful low-resolution webcams to megapixel, with options for wireless transmission, POE, analytics, etc. Simply connect the camera to the network and configure its network settings. Single network cable can be used for video, data and power.

Installation

System Expansion

Connect additional devices to the network and add them to the NVMS software.

Recording

Digitized images recorded on hard-disk arrays enabling easy management and retrieval. Video can be recopied and does not degrade Working copy is an exact copy of the original recording. Export process can be slow and cumbersome. There is no standard export format, so a proprietary player program is required. Constant video quality (after initial compression), with no loss in quality during transmission, recording or export.

Export

Physical tapes can be easily provided as police evidence, and standard SVHS format guarantees easy replay. However, quality degrades when tapes are copied.

Video Quality

Limited resolution, and motionblur between interleaved fields. Signal loss during transmission, and when recordings are copied.

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Analog Resilience Very limited.

Digital Flexible options for different levels of resilience for storage, network transmission and system control. International IT standards for video compression and transmission. Evolving standards (ONVIF, PSIA) for device interoperability. Standard IT equipment, operating-systems, network and storage. Can use existing LAN or dedicated network. Virtually unlimited flexibility for connectivity via LAN, WAN or Internet. Basic video analytics can be done by the encoder DSP. Software platform allows integration of alarm information and analytics metadata.

Standards

Well-established video signal standard, but otherwise manufacturer-specific. Proprietary CCTV-specific hardware, infrastructure and operating platform. Dedicated point-to-point cables with very limited scope for remote access or distributed systems. Separate bolt-on system with little scope for integration.

System Platform

Connectivity

Video Analytics / ANPR

2.5 STANDARDS
There are a few different television standards used worldwide today. CCIR/PAL recommendations are used throughout most of Europe, Australia, New Zealand, most of Africa, and Asia. A similar concept is used in the EIA/NTSC recommendations for the television used in the United States, Japan, and Canada, as well as in the SECAM recommendations used in France, Russia, Egypt, some French colonies, and Eastern European countries. The major difference between these standards is in the number of scanning lines and frame frequency [4]. 2.5.1 PAL PAL was created back in 1967. The characteristics for the PAL standard are that it has 625 TV lines that make the horizontal resolution. Those lines are transmitted in an interlaced form. This means that all odd lines, starting with 1, 3, 5 etc transmitted. When all odd lines are transmitted, the even lines are transmitted,

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starting with line 2, 4, 6 etc. The set of odd lines and even lines are called fields. An odd field and an even field together form a frame of video. The PAL standard uses a field speed of 50 fields/sec (50Hz), which means that the actual frame rate is 25 frames/sec. This is said to be real-time video in the PAL standard. So if a camera should be used in a system where people are going to watch the video in PAL standard the frame rate has to be 25 to be in real-time. The advantages with the PAL standard are that it uses many scan lines (625) which result in a better picture details. Another advantage is that is can correct some errors that can occur in the transmitted signal. The disadvantage is that flicker is more noticeable due to the relatively low frame rate (25fps). The PAL standard is mostly used in Europe, Australia, the Middle East, parts of Africa and some parts of South America [4]. 2.5.2 NTSC The NTSC started to be used in television broadcasting in 1953. The NTSC standard has a fixed vertical resolution of 525 horizontal lines; whereas the horizontal resolution is variable to fit different situations and applications. As in the PAL standard a whole frame is made out of combining one odd field and an even field. The field rate in the NTSC system is 59.94 fields/sec. This yields a frame rate of 29.97 fps Thus in a NTSC system the video is said to be real-time if the frame rate is at least 29.97 fps. The great advantage with NTSC compared to the PAL standard is that the frame rate is higher which means that there are fewer flickers in the picture. The NTSC standard also often offers better SNR (Signal to Noise Ratio) levels. The disadvantage of the standard is that it uses less scan lines than PAL, which result in a picture that is less detailed and where the scan lines can be more visible when larger TVs or monitors are used. The NTSC standard is used in North America, Central America and Japan [4].

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2.5.3 SECAM The SECAM standard is very similar to the PAL standard and was adopted in 1967. It uses the same number of scan lines and same frame rate as the PAL standard. The major difference is the way how the color is modulated and transmitted. It therefore also has about the same advantages and disadvantages as the PAL standard. The SECAM standard is used in France, Russia, some parts of Africa and Eastern Europe. The PAL, NTSC and SECAM formats are the most common video signal standards in the world. Beside these standards that define how the actual video signal should behave, there exist an enormous amount of formats and standards for how the video should be represented before it is transformed into a video signal. The PAL, NTSC and SECAM standards are made for video signals like the one used in ordinary TVs, monitors and VCRs. But with a regular computer screen the digital video can be viewed directly without transforming it into a specific video signal. The digital video is also compressed like digital pictures to save bandwidth and storage space. This is some of the reasons why digital video is so popular and the reason for that there exist so many different video compression standards. The compression of a video can resemble the compression of a picture in many ways, but there also exist big differences. One thing that is very important to understand with digital video is that due to its characteristics, much higher compression rates can be achieved. Another thing is that it is pretty easy to trick the human eye and to change videos in some way without the eye noticing it too much [4].

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CHAPTER 3: CCTV Main Components

The typical CCTV network consists from the fallowing main components:1- Cameras 2- Lenses 3- Camera housing 4- Monitors 5- Switching equipment 6- DVRs

Figure 3. 1 CCTV components

We know that digital compression is a method of converting information to a format that requires fewer bits and can be reversed to a close approximation of its original state once transferred to a new location. In the case of CCTV, this means that video can be digitized to a smaller form and therefore transmitted at a quicker speed. An important fact to remember when considering cameras for CCTV applications is that the final resolution quality will only be as good as the weakest

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link in the system. In other words, if you have high resolution capability from the camera but your Monitor provides a lower resolution, the monitor will determine the resolution you receive. Do not make the mistake of assuming that because you have high resolution capable cameras, you will automatically receive high resolution images. Just like an automobile, all parts of the CCTV system must provide equal or similar performance levels to achieve the overall goal.

3.1 Cameras
Before we talk about cameras we should know how do we see things? Vision - the faculty of sight - is one of the most amazing abilities to have evolved. It can be an extremely sensitive tool of perception, yet is also very vulnerable to adverse conditions. For several hours a day, for example, darkness renders our eyes nearuseless, and yet, on a clear day, as the saying goes, we can see for miles. This is because vision depends on light. Light is reflected off objects and enters our eyes. The eyes then focus the light and turn it into tiny electrical impulses that are sent along the optic nerve to the brain, and it is in the brain that we actually see things. The figure 3.2 show the vision concept ( how can we see ). The way we see things depends on where the reflected light is coming from. If its coming from exactly where our gaze falls, we see things sharply and in detail; this is called our "central vision". If its coming from somewhere off-centre, it falls within our "peripheral vision". Both central and peripheral vision is important. Without central vision, we couldnt read, recognize faces or look at things directly. Without peripheral vision, it would be very difficult to move around without bumping into things.

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Figure 3. 2 how we see

Now we should understand some Camera specifications 3.1.1 Illumination Illumination is a standard measurement for light. In CCTV, minimum illumination is the minimum amount of light necessary for the camera to capture an acceptable image. Illumination is usually expressed in Lux. One lux is equal to one candela illuminating an object at a (point to point) distance of one meter. See figure 3.3

Figure 3. 3 illumination unite

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3.1.2 Light Sensitivity - Sensitivity ratings are generally given as the minimum "Lux" levels at which the camera will produce a useable image (1 Lux equals 1/10 Candle Light). - The lower the Lux level rating, the more light sensitive the camera The figure 3.4 shows a light sensitivity of a different source.

Figure 3. 4 Light Sensitivity (LUX)

3.1.3 Signal to Noise (S/N) Ratio - The higher the Signal to Noise ratio, the clearer the video image produced by the camera. - Good CCTV cameras will have a S/N ratio of at least 48dB The table 3.1show the signal to noise ratio and the corresponding picture quality.
Table 3. 1 to noise ratio and the corresponding picture quality

signal to noise ratio (SNR) 60 dB 50 dB 40 dB 30 dB 20 dB

picture quality Excellent, no noise apparent Good, a small noise amount but picture quality is good Reasonable, fine grain or snow in the picture, some fine detail lost poor picture with a great deal of noise Unusable picture

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3.1.4 Back Light Compensation The BLC function eliminates the effect of an over exposed background. BLC prevents the subject from being recorded too dark by opening up the iris. Backlight means that the light falls on the subject from behind i.e. the subject is standing in front of a window. The figure 3.5 shows the BLC effect.

Figure 3. 5 the back light compensation effect

3.1.5 Camera types Video security cameras are represented by several generic forms including: (1) Analog, (2) Digital, (3) Internet, (4) LLL (low light level), and (5) Thermal IR, (6) Panoramic 360Camera. For daytime applications, monochrome, color, analog, digital, and IP cameras are used. When remote surveillance is required an IP camera is used. For low light and nighttime applications the LLL ICCD (low light level intensified charged coupled device) image intensified camera is used. For very low light level or no light level applications, thermal IR cameras are used. 3.1.5.1 Analog Analog cameras have been with the industry since the CCTV systems has been used in security. Their electronics are straight forward and the technology is still used in many applications [4].

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3.1.5.2 Digital Since the second half of 1990s there has been an increased use of DSP in cameras. It significantly improves the performance of the camera by: (1) Automatically adjusting to large light level changes (eliminating the automaticiris) (2) Integrating the VMD into the camera (3) Automatically switching the camera from color operation to higher sensitivity monochrome operation, as well as other features and enhancements.[4] 3.1.5.3 Internet The most recent camera technology advancement is manifest in the IP camera. This camera is configured with electronics that connects to the Internet, WWW network through an Internet service provider (ISP). Each camera is provided with a registered Internet address and can transmit the video image anywhere on the network. This is really remote video monitoring at its best! The camera site is viewed from anywhere by entering the camera Internet address (ID number) and proper password. Password security is used so that only authorized users can enter the website and view the camera image. Two-way communication is used so that the user can control camera parameters and direct the camera operation (pan, tilt, zoom, etc.) from the monitoring site [4]. 3.1.5.4 Low-Light-Level Intensified Camera (LLL) When a security application requires viewing during nighttime conditions where the available light is moonlight, starlight, or other residual reflected light, and the surveillance must be covert (no active illumination like IR LEDs), LLL intensified CCD cameras are used. The ICCD cameras have sensitivities between 100 and 1000 times higher than the best solid-state cameras. The increased sensitivity is

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obtained through the use of a light amplifier mounted in between the lens and the CCD sensor. LLL cameras Cost between 10 and 20 times more than CCD cameras. 3.1.5.5 Thermal Imaging Camera An alternative to the ICCD camera is the thermal IR camera. Visual cameras see only visible light energy from the blue end of the visible spectrum to the red end (approximately 400700 nanometers). Some monochrome cameras see beyond the visible region into the near-IR region of the spectrum up to 1000 nanometers (nm). This IR energy, however, is not thermal IR energy. Thermal IR cameras using thermal sensors respond to thermal energy in the 35 micrometer (m) and 814m range. The IR sensors respond to the changes in heat (thermal) energy emitted by the targets in the scene. Thermal imaging cameras can operate in complete darkness. They require no visible or IR illumination whatever. They are truly passive night time monochrome imaging sensors. They can detect humans and any other warm objects (animals, vehicle engines, ships, aircraft, and warm/hot spots in buildings) or other objects against a scene background [4]. 3.1.5.6 Panoramic 360 Camera. Powerful mathematical techniques combined with the unique 360 panoramic lens have made possible a 360 panoramic camera. In operation the lens collects and focuses the 360 horizontal by up to 90 vertical scene (one-half of a sphere, a hemisphere) onto the camera sensor. The image takes the form of a donut on the sensor (Figure 3.8). The camera/lens is located at the origin (0). The scene is represented by the surface of the hemisphere. As shown, a small part (slice) of the scene area (A, B, C, D) is mapped onto the sensor as a, b, c, d. In this way the full scene is mapped onto the sensor. Direct presentation of the donut ring video image onto the monitor does not result in a useful picture to work with. That is

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where the use of a powerful mathematical algorithm comes in. Digital processing in the computer using the algorithm transforms the donut-shaped image into the normal format seen on a monitor, i.e. horizontal and vertical. All of the 0 to 360horizontal by 90vertical images cannot be presented on a monitor in a useful way there is just too much picture squeezed into the small screen area. This condition is solved by computer software by looking at only a section of the entire scene at any particular time. The main attributes of the panoramic system are: (1) Captures a full 360 FOV (field of view), (2) can digitally pan/tilt to anywhere in the scene and digitally zoom any scene area, (3) Has no moving parts (no motors, etc. that can wear out), and (4) multiple operators can view any part of the scene in real-time or at a later time. The panoramic camera requires a high resolution camera since so much scene information is contained in the image. Camera technology has progressed so that these digital cameras are available and can present a good image of a zoomed-in portion of the panoramic scene. The figure 3.6 show the panoramic camera concept.

Figure 3. 6 panoramic camera

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3.1.6 Some cameras types used in normal life

Figure 3. 7 some other cameras types

3.2 Lenses
The performance of a CCTV system is very much reliant on the quality and type of lens fitted to the camera. A system will offer poor picture performance when the installer does not specify the correct lens during the initial survey, and correct lens does not simply mean choosing a lens which will offer the correct field of view, although this is one important factor. The quality of the lens, the format size and the spectral response are all-important factors relating to lens performance and thus image quality. For example, there is no point in fitting a lens with an infrared filter when the system is expected to perform in the dark with the assistance of artificial infrared lighting! And this has been known to occur. [3]

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3.2.1 Lens parameters 3.2.1.1 Angle of view The angular range covered by a camera is referred to as its angle of view and is determined by the focal length of the lens and the size of the imager (CCD) on which the picture is formed(as shown in figure 3.8) . Note: For multiple lenses with identical focal lengths, the angle of view will not match if the size of the cameras CCD is different.

Figure 3. 8 Angle of view

CCD screen sizes are available in 1/4", 1/3", 1/2" and 2/3" types, measured based on its diagonal dimension. This difference in size makes almost no difference in terms of performance, but it does change the range of the view field. Formulas for calculating field range, see figure 3.9 [7]

Figure 3. 9 Types of Lens and View Field

The angle of view is expressed by the following formula:

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Table 3. 2 width, height and angle of view equations

CCD Width Height


angle of view

1/4" (3.6 x ) / f (2.7 x ) / f

1/3" (4.8 x ) / f (3.6 x ) / f

1/2" (6.4 x ) / f (4.8 x ) / f

= 2x

: Angle of view
: Effective dimension of CCD (mm) f: Lens focal length(mm)

The angles of view for different lenses are listed in the Table 3.3
Table 3. 3 field of view ( 1/3 Type CCD )

Field of View (1/3" TYPE CCD)


F(mm) D(m) 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 4 4.5 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 20 25 30 60 3.6 1.33 x 1.00 2.00 x 1.50 2.67 x 2.00 3.33 x 2.50 4.00 x 3.00 4.67 x 3.50 5.33 x 4.00 6.00 x 4.50 6.67 x 5.00 8.00 x 6.00 9.33 x 7.00 10.67 x 8.00 12.00 x 9.00 13.33 x 10.00 14.67 x 11.00 16.00 x 12.00 17.33 x 13.00 18.67 x 14.00 20.00 x 15.00 26.67 x 20.00 33.33 x 25.00 40.00 x 30.00 80.00 x 60.00 6 0.80 x 0.60 1.20 x 0.90 1.60 x 1.20 2.00 x 1.50 2.40 x 1.80 2.80 x 2.10 3.20 x 2.40 3.60 x 2.70 4.00 x 3.00 4.80 x 3.60 5.60 x 4.20 6.40 x 4.80 7.20 x 5.40 8.00 x 6.00 8.80 x 6.60 9.60 x 7.20 10.40 x 7.80 11.20 x 8.40 12.00 x 9.00 16.00 x 12.00 20.00 x 15.00 24.00 x 18.00 48.00 x 36.00 12 0.40 x 0.30 0.60 x 0.45 0.80 x 0.60 1.00 x 0.75 1.20 x 1.90 1.40 x 1.05 1.60 x 1.20 1.80 x 1.35 2.00 x 1.50 2.40 x 1.80 2.80 x 2.10 3.20 x 2.40 3.60 x 2.70 4.00 x 3.00 4.40 x 3.30 4.80 x 3.60 5.20 x 3.90 5.60 x 4.20 6.00 x 4.50 8.00 x 6.00 10.00 x 7.50 12.00 x 9.00 24.00 x 18.00 25 0.19 x 0.14 0.29 x 0.22 0.38 x 0.29 0.48 x 0.36 0.58 x 0.43 0.67 x 0.50 0.77 x 0.58 0.86 x 0.65 0.96 x 0.72 1.15 x 0.86 1.34 x 1.01 1.54 x 1.15 1.73 x 1.30 1.92 x 1.44 2.11 x 1.58 2.30 x 1.73 2.50 x 1.87 2.69 x 2.02 2.88 x 2.16 3.84 x 2.88 4.80 x 3.60 5.76 x 4.32 11.52 x 8.64 75 0.06 x 0.05 0.10 x 0.07 0.13 x 0.10 0.16 x 0.12 0.19 x 0.14 0.22 x 0.17 0.26 x 0.19 0.29 x 0.22 0.32 x 0.24 0.38 x 0.29 0.45 x 0.34 0.51 x 0.38 0.58 x 0.43 0.64 x 0.48 0.70 x 0.53 0.77 x 0.58 0.83 x 0.62 0.90 x 0.67 0.96 x 0.72 1.28 x 0.96 1.60 x 1.20 1.92 x 1.44 3.84 x 2.88

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90 120 150

120.00 x 90.00 160.00 x 120.00 200.00 x 150.00

72.00 x 54.00 96.00 x 72.00 120.00 x 90.00

36.00 x 27.00 48.00 x 36.00 60.00 x 45.00

17.28 x 12.96 23.04 x 17.28 28.80 x 21.60

5.76 x 4.32 7.68 x 5.76 9.60 x 7.20

3.2.1.2 Field of view The field of view (FOV) is the horizontal or vertical scene size at a given length from the camera to the subject. An important aspect that must be considered before choosing a camera lens is the field of view, or the actual area that the camera is expected to cover. Table 3.3 shows the width and the height of the FOV on a 1/3 format camera and lens. [8] 3.2.1.3 Focal length The Focal Length (FL) of a lens is actually the distance from the center of the lens to the surface of the tube or solid-state target. As the focal length of the lens increases, the area being viewed decreases. Focal length may be fixed (fixed field of view) or variable (variable field of view using a zoom length) the figure 3.10 show a variable focal length. [8]

Figure 3. 10 variable focal length

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3.2.1.4 Iris Mechanisms Most CCTV lenses have an iris diaphragm (as does the human eye) to adjust the open area of the lens and change the amount of light passing through it and reaching the sensor. Depending on the application, manual or automatic-iris lenses are used. In an automatic-iris CCTV lens, as in a human eye lens, the iris closes automatically when the illumination is too high and opens automatically when it is too low, thereby maintaining the optimum illumination on the sensor at all times. Figure 3.11 show the Comparing the human eye to the video camera lens with iris control.

Figure 3. 11 Comparing the human eye to the video camera lens

A. No Iris has a non adjustable iris and cannot adjust to varying lighting conditions. B. Manual Iris has an adjustable iris. Level is determined by the installer at setup at the camera location. C. Automatic iris controls an electro-optic accessory to a lens that measures the video level of the camera and opens and closes the iris diaphragm to compensate for light changes. 3.2.2 Types of lenses The following types of lenses are usually used for surveillance cameras: 1) Fixed Focus Lens

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This type of lens offers a lineup of standard, wide-angle and super-wide-angle versions, all with a fixed angle of view. 2) Varifocal Lens A zoom lens that is manually adjusted is referred to as a Varifocal lens. Although this type of lens cannot be remotely controlled, its focal length can be adjusted manually when the camera is installed. This eliminates the need to select a specific lens, making it more convenient and versatile than fixed focal lenses. 3) Motorized Zoom Lens This zoom lens can vary its focal length to permit subjects to be displayed in closeup or wide-angle. The focal length ratio between the telescopic ends to the wideangle end is referred to as the zoom ratio. The greater this ratio, the more range you have to change the size of the image. The motorized zoom lens has a built-in motor for changing the focal length and can be remotely controlled by joystick panel or DVR. Cameras with motorized zoom lenses are normally used in combination with motorized pan/tilt heads (PTZ), with their zooming and focusing (iris) operations controlled via a remote control unit.[7] 3.2.3 Lens selection Selecting the proper lens type requires taking into consideration the location or position in which the camera will be installed and simulating the coverage area to be picked up in the camera image. Such simulations can be approximated roughly based on the field of view. Several points to bear in mind when selecting the proper lens are summarized below: 1) Wide-angle lenses provide a wide coverage area but subjects picked up in their images will be shown smaller. 2) Standard lenses show the subject larger but have a narrower coverage area.

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3) To eliminate blind spots within the smaller the room, the wider the lens view angle needs to be. To pick up detailed images from the whole of a wide area, either use multiple cameras or equip one or more cameras with pan/tilt heads and zoom lenses.

3.3 Camera housing


Camera housings are designed to protect the camera from weather, dust, vandalism, damage, etc. We use the housing for the indoor cameras when it is used outdoor.

Figure 3. 12 camera housing

3.3.1 Ingress Protection (IP rating) IP ratings are a measure of resistance to the penetration of solid objects (e.g. A product considered to be weatherproof would have a rating of IP65 and

dust) and liquids (e.g. rain!)

above - IP stands for Ingress Protection

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The first number (in this case 6) is the protection against solids (0~6, 6 being dustproof)

The second number (in this case 5) is the protection against liquid (0~8, 8 being protected against constant submersion )

Table 3. 4 IP rating chart First number (Protection against solid objects) 0 1 Second number (Protection against liquids) 0 1

Definition No protection Protected against solids objects over 50mm (e.g. accidental touch by hands) Protected against solids objects over 12mm (e.g. fingers) Protected against solids objects over 2.5mm (e.g. tools and wires) Protected against solids objects over 1mm (e.g. tools, wires and small wires) Protected against dust - limited ingress (no harmful deposit) Totally protected against dust

Definition No protection Protected against vertically falling drops of water Protected against direct sprays up to 15o from the vertical Protected against direct sprays up to 60o from the vertical Protected against sprays from all directions - limited ingress permitted Protected against low pressure jets if water from all directions - limited ingress permitted Protected against strong jets of water e.g. for use on ship decks limited ingress permitted Protected against the effects of temporary immersion between 15cm and 1m. Duration of test 30 minutes Protected against long periods of immersion under pressure

Explosion Proof: Housing required for potentially combustible atmospheres, Laboratory, Chemical storage areas. Vandal Proof: Used where structural integrity and vandalism are a priority, for public areas & prison facilities.

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Pressurized Housing: operating in tough environmental conditions e.g. on board ships 3.3.2 Camera Brackets As mentioned in the housing section, the housing if it does not come with one will need a bracket. This also means that if the camera is not being installed in housing then it will need a bracket. The figure 3.13 show the brackets.

Figure 3. 13 camera brackets

3.4 Monitors
Most CCTV monitors are designed solely for industrial applications and therefore do not Include built-in TV tuners. When selecting a monitor, consider the positional relationship of the monitor to its operator to determine the proper size. Figure 3.14 show Monitor Size & Recommended Monitoring Distance.

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Figure 3. 14 Monitor Size & Recommended Monitoring Distance

If a 4-segment split-screen display is to be used, Distance B should be shortened slightly since the images will be smaller. Smaller monitors such as 9-inch types are easy to install and can be mounted in equipment racks, but they are not suitable for observing the finer details of images displayed on the screen. If the size of a room does not permit a small 9-inch monitor to be installed in usably close proximity to the operator, a larger monitor should be selected. Liquid crystal display (LCD) CCTV monitors for commercial applications are becoming increasingly available and more accessibly priced. Their remarkable features include lower power consumption and freedom from the danger of image burn-in. The advent of LCD monitors is also bringing solutions to problems that have proved difficult to solve using conventional CRT monitors. For example problems involving contrast, off angle viewing and display speed.[7] 3.4.1 Monitors types 3.4.1.1 Cathode-ray tube (CRT) Monitor CRT technology has been used in most televisions and computer display screens until recent advances in flat screen technologies have made these more easily available and affordable. A CRT works by painting an electron beam back and

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forth across the back of the screen. Each time the beam makes a pass across the screen, it lights up phosphor dots on the inside of the glass tube, which then illuminates the active segment of the screen. Phosphors are chemicals that produce light when excited by electrons. Figure 3.15 show the CRT monitor component.

Figure 3. 15 CRT monitor

3.4.1.2 Liquid Crystal Display (LCD) Monitor A liquid crystal display is made up of an electrically-controlled light-polarizing liquid trapped in cells between two transparent polarizing sheets. The polarizing axes of the two sheets are aligned perpendicular to each other, and each cell is supplied with electrical contacts that allow an electric field to be applied to the liquid inside. LCDs are non-organic, non-emissive light devicesthey do not produce any form of light but instead block light that is reflected from an external source. 3.4.1.3 Plasma Display Monitor Plasma can be accelerated and steered by electric and magnetic fields, which allows it to be controlled and applied. In a plasma display monitor, light is created

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by phosphors that are excited by a plasma discharge between two fl at panels of glass. The use of phosphors, as in CRTs, limits their useful life to 20,000 to 30,000 hours. 3.4.1.4 Liquid Crystal on Silicon (LCOS) Monitor Liquid Crystal on Silicon (LCOS) is relatively new technology that is a mixture of micro mirror and liquid crystal technologies. LCOS devices can be smaller and are easier to manufacture than conventional LCD displays and have higher resolution. 3.4.1.5 Organic light emitting diode (OLED) Monitor Organic light emitting diode (OLED) technology uses substances that emit red, green, blue, or white light. Without any other source of illumination, OLED materials present bright, clear video and images that are easy to see at almost any angle. When used as pixels in fl at panel displays, OLEDs offer advantages over LCDs that need backlighting, including lower power consumption, greater viewing angle, lighter weight, and quicker response.[5] 3.4. 2 Notes on monitor installation [7] Bear the following points in mind when installing monitors: 1) Installation Location Determine where to install the monitor. Multiple operator rooms may be required depending on the intended purpose of the system. The number of required monitors is determined by the size of the room in which they are to be installed and the number of operators. 2) Monitor Installation Height For around-the-clock surveillance applications, monitors should be positioned at a height slightly below operator eye level. Consider the operators normal working styles as well. According to some statistics, four is the maximum number of

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monitors an operator can view effectively at one time. When multiple operators will view a single monitor, a large projector may be used. In any case, be sure to at least determine the maximum number of monitors that can be installed and the minimum number of monitors required for the system requirements.

3) Room Brightness (Lighting) If the monitor is placed in a dark room, operators may suffer eye fatigue. On the other hand, too bright a room exposed to the direct sunlight may negatively affect the view-ability of the screen. Also, installing lighting equipment in close proximity to the monitor or installing lighting equipment with no directivity could result in annoying light reflections from the monitor screen. 4) Ventilation Since monitors generate heat, they need to be positioned to allow for heat to escape. Overheating of the surveillance room in general should be prevented. Especially when monitors are placed on the operation table or in monitor racks, it is recommended that they be equipped with ventilating fans. 5) Power Supplies Remember that a large surge of electric current flows into monitors when their power is turned on. When designing a system employing many monitors, it is important to ensure that the system has sufficient circuit breaker capacity, as well as delay circuits that can stagger power input. Power supply voltage should be kept stable whenever possible. If voltage fluctuations cause image distortion on the monitor, it may be necessary to change the power supply layout or use a voltage stabilizer. 6) Induction When multiple CRT monitors are installed side by side or one on top of another, magnetic fields may cause horizontal oscillation wave interference, possibly

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resulting in color variations or noise appearing on the screen. Placing a ferrous metal type plate between the CRT monitors can neutralize the influence of these magnetic fields. When using large CRT monitors side by side, mount them in a metal monitor rack.

7) Image Burn-In If a CRT monitor continuously displays the same picture for a prolonged period of time (about 6 to 12 months on average, consult the CRT manufacturer for model specific information and recommendations), image burn-in may occur. To avoid this, take care to avoid continuously displaying the same image on the screen. In particular, bright images are more likely to cause burn-in, shortening the CRT life span.

3.5 Switcher Selection & Video Recording [7]


As the number of camera's increases, the number of monitors also increases. Since there is a limit to the number of screens a single operator can view at one time and because space for monitor installation is also limited, the number of monitors can be reduced by switching camera outputs in sequence on a single monitor or by using multi-segment split-screen displays. Also, since operators cannot always view all screens, sensors connected to time-lapse VCRs or DVRs may also be required to capture unviewed images for later playback if necessary. 3.5.1 Sequential switcher To view multiple camera outputs on a single monitor, switch the outputs displayed on the monitor in sequence or display them together on a split screen. A manual switcher is designed to allow manual switching among camera's images. An automatic sequential switcher switches the images at specified intervals. When

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sequential switching is used, the screen can display only one camera output at a time, meaning that other camera images cannot be viewed simultaneously. In this case, important scenes could be missed or discovered too late. If, for example, 12 camera outputs are sequenced to display on a single monitor at 10 seconds intervals, the total amount of time to display images from all twelve cameras is 120 seconds. Therefore, the greater the numbers of cameras, the longer the sequence cycle interval. To prevent important scenes from one camera output from being missed while another camera output is being displayed the switcher should be equipped to receive the sensor signal in the form of an alarm that instantly and automatically switches the display to the relevant camera image. Note that when switching among multiple cameras by means of the switcher, the cameras must be synchronized 3.5.2Multi-viewer A Multi-viewer has a split-screen display function that allows multiple camera images to be viewed on a single monitor. Either a 4, 9 or 16 segment split-screen display is possible. The larger the number of segments, the smaller each will be on the screen requiring use of a larger monitor. A Multi-viewer can also be connected to a sensor to switch the screen to a sensor-operated camera output. Since the video signal is digitally processed, cameras need not be synchronized. Other versatile Multi-viewer functions include a screen freeze function and a 2X-zoom function that digitally magnifies part of the screen. Using a split-screen display, multiple camera images can be viewed simultaneously. As shown in figure 3.16.

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Figure 3. 16 Multi viewer

3.5.3 Matrix switcher For systems with multiple operator rooms, the distributed method was conventionally used by CCTV systems to distribute camera images to sequential switchers installed in each. Nowadays, however, to save cables for video signal transmission, a new Matrix Switcher control method that switches images at a matrix section has replaced the conventional method. As shown in figure 3.17.

Figure 3. 17 Centralized Systems

3.5.4 Multiplexer Because Multiplexers include a frame recording function, they can be used in conjunction with a time lapse VCR or DVR to record 9 or 16 camera images on a single VCR or DVR in quasi-moving picture formats. The following table shows the recording differences between a Multiplexer and a sequential switcher.

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Table 3. 5 Frame Switcher Recording

To record images from more than one camera, either prepares as many recorders as there are cameras or connect one recorder to the sequential switcher or Multiplexer to record images displayed on the switched or split screens. Keep in mind, using the switcher or Multiplexer may involve the problems mentioned above, including missing recording of Important scenes (sequential switcher) and image size reduction (Multiplexer). A Multiplexer allows multiple images to be recorded by switching them frame by frame. Thirty frames (NTSC) or 25 frames (PAL) are transmitted per second from each camera, with one camera output being assigned to one frame and recorded in the frame recording. When reproducing images for playback, individual frames from the same camera output are retrieved and compiled into quasi-moving picture formats. With this method, all camera outputs are recorded and only those cameras required can be selected for reproduced playback. 3.5.5 Time-lapse VCR recordings 1) Recording VCRs are used when: (a) Recordings should be kept as potential evidence of crimes or accidents. (b) An operator does not always attend monitors.

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(c) Performing remote surveillance. In remote surveillance applications, if it is difficult to transmit images from places like elevators, then a VCR can be used to record surveillance images for reproduction only as needed. Either of the following methods may be used for this function. (d) The tape is set in a recorder and recording takes place until the end of the tape is reached. The tape then automatically rewinds and is used again, overwriting the previous recording. (e) Several tapes are prepared and used in rotation. In one typical example, seven 120-minute tapes are used in 24-hour mode, with each being replaced by the next at 8:00 AM each morning throughout the week. This approach preserves video images for up to one week, since that is how long it will take until any given tape to come back into the cycle to be reused and overwritten. Table 3.6 show Recording Mode vs. Recording Interval.
Table 3. 6 Recording Mode vs. Recording Interval

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2) Searching for Specific Images Inevitably it will be necessary to search for a particular segment of video recording for later playback. The larger a system becomes, the larger the number of VCRs and tapes will also become. Tapes themselves can be organized and labeled for later use based on their recording time and location, but it can be quite difficult to search within any given tape for a specific event, especially if the event occurred over a short period of time. To facilitate such searching, some VCRs can record an alarm signal along with the video signal that sounds during playback. 3.5.6 Digital video recorders (DVRs) Digital video recorders (DVRs) are classified into three types depending upon the recording media used. These include hard disk drive (HDD) types, optical disk (DVD) types and combined DV cassette tape and HDD types. They can also be divided broadly into multi-channel types equipped with frame-plexer functions and one-channel types not equipped with such functions. Since digital video recordings also have their own life spans, recorded data must be backed up. Unlike time-lapse VCR recording, digital video recording uses compressed digital images offering the following advantages. 1) Easy searching It is possible to locate and call up only those scenes tagged with alarm data, or to select particular scenes by specifying there recording date and time. Both functions allow desired scenes to be located more quickly and easily than was possible conventionally. 2) Simultaneous recording and playback Video recording and playback can be performed simultaneously, a function that is not possible with time-lapse VCR recording. Recording does not stop even during

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playback. Using this function, images currently being recorded and reproduced can both be displayed simultaneously using a multiple-segment-split screen. 3) High-quality video recording In digital recording, the fact that the original signal does not deteriorate allows for higher quality recordings. The deterioration of tape media and record/playback heads that are normal with time-lapse VCR equipment do not occur, allowing higher quality images with less variation in quality over time to be recorded. 4) Easy data handling The digital nature of image data makes it easy to handle. Since every piece of information is recorded and stored as digital data, it can be input into a computer for editing or transmitted easily over a LAN or other network.

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CHAPTER 4: Transmission media

4.0 Video transmission media


CCTV transmission is mainly related to transmission of video, data and power. The transmission of video and data signals could be done using wires or wireless, whereas, the power signal has to be connected using wires.

4.1. Video Cable Types


There are two main types of cable used for transmitting video signals, which are: Unbalanced (coaxial) and balanced (twisted pair). 4.1.1 Unbalanced (Coaxial) Cables This type of cable is made in many different types of impedance. In this case impedance is measured between the inner conductor and the outer sheath. 75-Ohm impedance cable is the standard used in CCTV systems. Most video equipment is designed to operate at this impedance. Coaxial cables with an impedance of 75 Ohms are available in many different mechanical formats, including single wire armored and irradiated PVC sheathed cable for direct burial. The cables available range in performance from relatively poor to excellent. Performance is normally measured in high frequency loss per 100 meters. The lower this loss figure, the less the distortion to the video signal. Therefore, higher quality cables should be used when transmitting the signal over long distances.

figure 4. 1 coaxial cable

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A. Advantages: Low cost simple handling Point-to-point connection No maintenance required No active amplifier required B. Disadvantages: Large space required due to wide diameter of cable Signal interference from electro-magnetic sources Limited range: up to 200 m depending on cable specification Lightning protection expensive Separate cable required for control ( for PTZ cameras ) 4.1.2. Balanced (Twisted Pair) Cables In a twisted pair each pair of cables is twisted with a slow twist of about one to two twists per meter. These cables are made in many different types of impedance, 100 to 150 Ohms being the most common. Balanced cables have been used for many years in the largest cable networks in the world. Where the circumstances demand, these have advantages over coaxial cables of similar size. Twisted pair cables are frequently used where there would be an unacceptable loss due to a long run of coaxial cable. Advantages: _Range up to 1500 m _More resistant to Electromagnetic interference compared to Coaxial _Uses existing cable infrastructure _Small space required due to narrow diameter of cable _Cost-effective for medium distances

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_Control data can be transmitted on the same line _ Disadvantages: _Active elements (transmitter and receiver required) _Maintenance required (temperature-dependent) 4.1.3. Typical Cable Losses A selection of commonly used cable specifications is given below in table 3.7.
Table 4. 1 Typical Cable Losses

Cable REF. CT125 CT305 CT600 URM70 RG59 TR42 9207 9182

Type Coaxial Coaxial Coaxial Coaxial Coaxial Twisted pair Twisted pair Twisted pair

Impedance 75 ohm 76 ohm 77 ohm 78 ohm 79 ohm 110 ohm 100 ohm 150 ohm

Loss/100 meters 1.1 dB 0.5 dB 0.3 dB 3.3 dB 2.25 dB 2.1 dB 2.3 dB 2.7 dB

4.1.4 Fiber Optic Transmission Fiber optics is the technology of transmitting data along cables that consist of optical fiber. Optical fibers are much smaller and lighter than copper, therefore easier and cheaper to install in long runs. A major advantage of optical fibers is that they can carry far more information than copper. Optical fibers are completely immune to interference from electromagnetic sources A. Advantages: _ Immune to Electromagnetic interference

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_Secure against tapping _Low pallet and fire load (weight) _No maintenance required _Multiple transmission of signals possible B. Disadvantages: _Higher cost (material and handling) _Active elements (transmitter and receiver required) _Significant effort and expense involved with changes _in camera location _Special installation training required

Figure 4. 2 fiber optics

4.2 Video non-cable type transmission


The previous section dealt with the transmission of video signals by various types of cable. There are many instances where it is not possible or desirable to use cable and other methods need to be employed. These can be: Infrared beams (wireless) Microwave (wireless) 4.2.1 Wireless Video Transmission: Wireless may be an old-fashioned term for a radio receiver, but there is nothing oldfashion about wireless video transmission. Communicating digital images without the

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benefit of cables, cords, or wires is now almost common place. Today, the term is practically universal for the transmission of data between devices via radio frequency, microwave, or infrared signals. Radio frequency penetrates many visually opaque materials, goes around corners, and does not require a line-of-sight path when transmitting from one location to another. The radio frequencies are, however, susceptible to attenuation and reflection by some objects therefore they sometimes produce unpredictable results. The microwave link requires an unobstructed line of sight; any metallic or wet objects in the transmission path cause severe attenuation and reflection, often rendering a system useless. Some microwave frequencies penetrate dry nonmetallic structures such as wood or drywalls and floors, so that non-line-of-sight transmission is possible.[4] Infrared data communications systems use infrared beams to carry data with light pulse. The IR beam can be strongly attenuated by heavy fog or precipitation, severely reducing its effective range as compared with clear-line-of-sight, clear-weather conditions. The IR beam can be reflected off one or more mirrors to go around corners. The advantage of the IR system over RF and microwave links are : (1) security (since it is hard to tap a narrow light beam), (2) high bandwidth (able to carry multiple channels of information), and (3) bidirectional operation. 4.2.2 Infrared Beams With this type of system the video is superimposed onto an infrared beam by a transmitter. The beam is aligned to strike a receiver where the signal is output as a conventional composite video signal. The infrared beam is at a wavelength of 860 nanometers, which is above the visible part of the spectrum. The system may be

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configured as a full duplex set up. Then it is possible to transmit telemetry control signals in the reverse direction to control pan, tilt units. The system can also carry speech in both directions. The actual configuration must be specified at the time of obtaining quotations or ordering. 4.2.3 Microwave Transmission Microwave links carry the video and telemetry along a link from a transmitter to a receiver. They are capable of much farther transmission distances from 1 kilometer to 50 kilometers. They are largely unaffected by weather conditions. On the other hand they are more expensive than infrared links.

4.3 Power Cable


The CCTV cameras usually use 3 different kinds of voltages: 12V DC, 24V AC and 110V AC (220 V AC). Usually 12 VDC cameras come with its power supply prewired. When 24 VAC PSU is used, the recommended cables are: UL SPT-1 VW-1 E94163 18AWGx2C UL SPT-2 VW-1 E94163 18AWGx2C -1 18AWGx3C

4.4 Power over Ethernet


The POE, also referred to as power over LAN (POL) is a Technology that integrates data and power over standard LAN infrastructure cabled networks, The POE is a means to supply reliable, uninterrupted power to network cameras, wireless LAN access points, and other Ethernet devices using existing, commonly used category (CAT) cable with four twisted pair conductors and CAT5 cable infrastructure The

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POE is a technology for wired Ethernet LANs that allows the electrical power (current and voltage) necessary for the operation of each device to be carried by the data cables rather than by power cords. This minimizes the number of wires that must be strung in order to install the network. The result is lower cost, less downtime, easier maintenance, and greater installation flexibility than with traditional wiring. Unlike a traditional telephone infrastructure, local power is not always accessible for wireless access points, IP video cameras, phones, or other network devices deployed in ceilings, lobbies, stairwells, or other obscure areas. Adding new wiring for power may be a difficult and costly option. In cases like this, an option is to combine the provision of power with the network connection using POE technology over any existing or new data communications cabling figure 4.3 show Digital video network using Power over Ethernet (POE).[4]

Figure 3.22 Digital video network using Power over Ethernet (POE)

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CHAPTER 5: CASE STUDY

5.1 Introduction:
With the worldwide threat of crime and terrorism increasing daily, the demand for high quality video surveillance systems is also growing rapidly. Users are demanding new capabilities and greater efficiency from their security systems. CCTV companies is dedicated to the goal of producing high performance products that introduce features and capabilities that push the boundaries of what can be done with those products. They are redefining what you should expect from video surveillance systems.

5.2 Aim of case study:


The aim of this case study is to: To clarify the advantages of using the CCTV systems. To know how to design and configure the CCTV systems. To reach to suitable configuration and system components that fulfills the requirements.

5.3 Description of the site:


The site of the case study is located at the north west of Tripoli city in Assaraj area as shown in the figure 5.1.

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Figure 5. 1 the location of the site

And the area of this site is about 7000 and the figure 5.2 shows the details of the site.This picture was taken by Google Earth.

Figure 5. 2 a closer look to the site

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And as shown in picture there is a fifteen building dividing into twelve offices and a Gym with showers and a restaurant also there is a building for the workers and building specialized for all security systems (CCTV, Fire alarm, motion detection) also there are four parking ,football square, and a pool . All these locations are showed more in the designing map (figure 5.3)

Figure 5. 3 design for the site using autocad

5.4 Design criteria


To choose the right components for the CCTV system first we should understand a lot of things like: Understand the intended aim of the system. Study the installation locations of cameras and monitors. Understand the environments where cameras and monitors will be installed. Select cameras, lenses, and pan/tilt drives. Select signal routing, monitors, and switchers.

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Select recording methods. In our case study the main aim of the CCTV is to prevent crime actions. This application is generally referred to as crime prevention cameras. This aims not only to create a psychological effect to act as a deterrent to crime, such as theft and molestation, but also to help identify criminals after crimes are perpetrated by reviewing recorded images resulting from the installation of a CCTV system. According to the site survey in our case study location we had to choose an outdoor cameras and according to the client requirements and the budget we had to choose the type of the cameras and we choosed Samsung CCTV system because of their warranty license, and because Samsung system can support other CCTV systems protocols such as (Samsung Techwin, Pelco D, Pelco P, Panasonic, Bosch, SEC). 5.4.1 The cameras and network video recorder (NVR) In our design we choosed an IP CCTV system so we choose these two types of cameras and NVR SNO-5080RP as shown in the figure 5.5 SNV-7080RP as shown in the figure 5.4 SRN-3250 as show in figure 5.6

Figure 5. 5 SNV-7080RP

Figure 5. 4 SNO-5080RP

Figure 5. 6 SRN-3250

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The SNO-5080RP and SNV-7080RP are high performance HD 1.3 megapixel network cameras capable of displaying multiple resolutions from CIF (320 x 240) through to 16:9 format 720p High Definition and up to full 1.3 megapixel (1280 x 1024). Equipped with 31 IR LEDs, they can provides perfect night time monitoring solution by enabling 30m of viewing length at 0 Lux darkness. The full compatibility with ONVIF makes it easy to cooperate with other network equipments. In addition, rated to IP66 with integrated sunshield and supplied with a mounting bracket that allows the camera to be installed either wall, surface or ceiling mount to ensure the required field of view can be obtained every time. The specifications of these cameras are listed in the table 5.1
Table 5. 1 cameras specifications SNV-7080RP Items Imaging Device Total Pixels Effective Pixels Scanning System Video Min. Illumination S / N Ratio Video Out Focal Length (Zoom Ratio) Max. Aperture Ratio Lens Angular Field of View Focus Control Lens Type Mount Type Description 1/2.8" 3M PS CMOS 2,144(H) X 1,588(V) 2,096(H) X 1,561(V) Progressive Color : 1 Lux (F1.2, 50IRE), 0.017Lux (Sens-up 60X) B/W : 0 Lux (F1.2, 50IRE, IR LED ON) 50dB CVBS : 1.0 Vp-p / 75 composite, 704x480(N), 704x576(P), for installation 3~8.5mm (2.8X) Motorized Varifocal F1.2 H: 100(Wide)~35.3(Tele), V: 74.6(Wide)~26(Tele) Remote control via network (Manual, One-shot AF) DC Auto Iris Board-in type 3~10mm (3.6X) Motorized Varifocal SNO-5080RP

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Pan Range Pan Speed Tilt Range Pan / Tilt / Rotate Tilt Speed Rotate Range Preset Preset Accuracy Auto Tracking IR LED Viewable Length Camera Title Day & Night Backlight Compensation Wide Dynamic Range Contrast Enhancement Digital Noise Reduction Digital Image Stabilization Motion Detection Privacy Masking Sens-up (Frame Integration) Gain Control Operational White Balance Electronic Shutter Speed Digital Zoom Flip / Mirror Intelligent Video Analytics Alarm I/O Remote Control Interface RS-485 Protocol Digital Zoom Flip / Mirror Intelligent Video Analytics Alarm I/O Remote Control Interface RS-485 Protocol

0~355 _ 0~90 _ 0~355 _ _ _ 15ea 25m Auto (ICR) / Color / B/W Off / BLC / HLC Off / On (Full HD WDR) SSDR (Samsung Super Dynamic Range) (Off / On) SSNRIII (2D+3D Noise Filter) (Off / On) _ Off / On (4 programmable zones) Off / On (1ea 4 Point Polygonal + 16ea Rectangular zones) Off / Auto (2X ~ 60X) Off / Low / Medium / High ATW / AWC / Manual / Indoor / Outdoor Auto / A.FLK / Manual _ Off / On _ Input 1ea / Output 1ea (Relay) _ _ _ Off / On _ Input 1ea / Output 1ea (Relay) _ _ 30m Off / On (Displayed up to 15 characters)

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Ethernet Video Compression Format

RJ-45 (10/100BASE-T) H.264, MJPEG <2M Mode>1920x1080P(Full HD), 1280x1024, 1280x960, 1280x720P(HD) , 1024x768, 800x600, 800x450, 640x480, 640x360, 320x240, 320x180

Resolution <3M Mode> 2048x1536, 1920x1080P(Full HD), 1600x1200, 1280x1024, 1280x960, 1280x720P(HD), 1024x768, 320x180 <2M Mode>* H.264 : Max 30 fps at all resolutions (When WDR ON, Max. framerate is Max 15 fps.) * MJPEG : 800x600 ~ 320x180 - 30 fps 1280x1024 ~ 1920x1080 - 15 fps Max. Framerate Network <3M Mode> * H.264 : Max 20fps at all resolutions * MJPEG : 800x600 ~ 320x180 20 fps 1280x1024 ~ 1920x1080 - 15 fps 2048x1536 - 10 fps Smart Codec Yes (Area Based Method, Face Detection Method) H.264 : Compression Level, Target Bitrate Level Control MJPEG : Quality Level Control Bitrate Control Method Streaming Capability Audio I/O Audio Compression Format Audio Communication IP H.264 : CBR or VBR MJPEG : VBR Multiple Streaming (Up to 6 Profiles) Mic / Line in, Line out G.711 -law 2-Way IPv4, IPv6 TCP/IP, UDP/IP, RTP(UDP), RTP(TCP), RTSP, NTP, Protocol HTTP, HTTPS, SSL, DHCP, PPPoE, FTP, SMTP, ICMP, IGMP, SNMPv1/v2c/v3(MIB-2), ARP, DNS, DDNS Security HTTPS(SSL) Login Authentication

Video Quality Adjustment

Network

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Digest Login Authentication Security IP Address Filtering User access Log 802.1x Authentication Streaming Method Max. User Access Network Memory Slot ONVIF Conformance Unicast / Multicast 10 users at Unicast Mode SD/SDHC Yes English, French, German, Spanish, Italian, Chinese, Korean, Russian, Japanese, Swedish, Denish, Portuguese, Czech, Polish, Turkish, Rumanian, Serbian, Dutch, Croatian, Hungarian, Greek NET-i viewer -40C ~ +50C (-40F ~ +122F) / ~ 90% RH IP66 Grade (Waterproof 12V DC, 24V AC, PoE(IEEE802.3af) Max. 9W or 650mA (Heater Off), Power Consumption Max. 13W or 800mA (Heater On)

Webpage Language

Central Management Software Environmental Operating Temperature / Humidity Ingress Protection Input Voltage / Current Electrical

In general rule, when considering using IP cameras on an existing Network, we have to choose the right Network Video Recorder (NVR).Setting up this recorder is easy; you may use the buttons on the front of the product, or connect to the product remotely via a network. With proven performance and reliability, the NVR is a self-sufficient video recorder as well as ideal for digital video feed storage for monitoring systems of banks, apartment buildings, and public offices that require a high security level. Since video is stored on hard disk, there is no loss in picture quality due to repeated playback from the storage media. Further, since all video data is stored as digital files, it is easily and quickly searchable. This highresolution video recorder features a large storage capacity and also comes with a wide variety of user-friendly features such as: Simultaneous recording and playback capabilities, motion detection, PTZ (pan, tilt, zoom) control, password, real-time voice data recording,

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convenient access permissions setup using Key Lock, and maintenance of up to 10,000 event lists and log files. The NVR is similar functionally to a DVR, however. The NVR accepts IP camera. NVRs can also be software based, meaning that they can only accept IP camera streams over the internet. In our case we need 24 cameras so we choosed the SRN-3250 NVR which has 32 channel input and has a high performance and support a full HD resolution recording and has 64Mbps recording bit rate and has a monitor output HDMI and VGA and support a 20TB HDD. The features of this NVR is listed in the table 5.2
Table 5. 2 the NVR specifications DISPLAY Video IP Camera Inputs Live Search Web Support Control Configuration PERFORMANCE Compression (IP) Bandwidth Record Rate / MEGA H.264,MPEG-4,M-JPEG , supported by the connected camera Up to 36Mbps (Up to 8Mbps each camera) Up to 60fps@2048x1536 Up to 120fps@1280x1024 Up to 480fps@704 x 480 Recording Record Rate / NTSC Up to 960fps@704 x 240 Up to 960fps@352 x 240 Record Rate / PAL * Mode Overwrite Modes Pre-alarm Up to 800fps@704 x 288 Up to 800fps@352 x 288 Manual, Schedule (Normal / Event) Continuous Up to 5sec SRN-3250/SNR-3200 1, 4, 9, 16, 32 channels simultaneously 1 channel Pan / Tilt / Zoom / Focus for available camera IP, Port, ID, Password, Picture type, Video Quality, Resolution, Framerate

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Recording Search & Playback

Post-alarm Search Mode Playback Function Bandwidth Control Remote Users Maximum Protocol Support

Up to 60sec Time, Event, Calendar REW, FWD (Depends on CMS) Automatic (Automatic Transmission Control) 5 Users simultaneously TCP/IP, DHCP, DNS, DDNS, HTTP, ARP, ICMP, NTP, RTP/RTCP, RTSP CMS Software Net-I Viewer, Built-in web server Up to 20TB using external storage option Normal, RAID1 Up to 4 SATA HDDs Up to 4 expansion bays (up to 4 HDD each) 2 User Level 20 x 2 status display Screw terminal 2 inputs, NO/NC Screw terminal 2 relay outputs, NO/NC Notification via e-mail 3 (RJ-45 100/1000 Base-T), 1 (RJ-45 100Base-T) RS-232C 2 USB 2.0 ports (firmware upgrade) 4 External SATA ports Samsung Techwin network products, AXIS network cameras (VAPIX,MPEG4 Modes, limited some functions) 100 ~ 240 V AC 10%, 50/60 Hz, Auto ranging Max. 110W (with 1xHDD) Max.130W (with 4xHDD) +5C ~ +40C (+41F ~ +104F) 0%RH ~ 60%RH FCC (Class A), cUL/UL listed, CE (Class A)

Network

Monitoring Maximum Capacity RAID Internal HDD

Storage Security INTERFACE Monitor Alarm

External HDD Password Protection DOT Matrix LCD Inputs Outputs Remote Notification Ethernet

Connections

Serial Interface USB eSATA

Supported IP Cameras GENERAL Input Voltage Electrical Power Consumption Operating Temperature Humidity

Environmental Certification

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5.5 Installation
To configure the CCTV system first you must have access to the NVR with a PC using Ethernet cable so you can assign IPs to the cameras and chose the right configurations to the system as shown in figure 5.6.

Figure 5. 7 CCTV network block diagram

5.5.1 Adding an IP Address In your computer, click Start > Control Panel > Network Connections > Local Area Connection> Properties. As shown in figure 5.7.

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Figure 5. 8 local area connection properties

Select Internet Protocol (TCP/IP.) Click the Properties button then in the Internet Protocol (TCP/IP) Settings dialog, click the advanced button to open the Advanced TCP/IP Settings dialog.

Figure 5. 9 advanced TCP/IP settings

(If the "Obtain an IP address automatically" option is checked under the Internet Protocol (TCP/IP) Properties window, click the "Use the following IP address" button option before proceeding.)

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Click Add under IP addresses then enter 192.168.1.xxx. The NVR uses 192. 168. 1. 100 as the IP address; you cannot use the address for your computer's internal IP address. As shown in figure 5.8. 5.5.2 Connecting and Changing Settings Type 192.168.1.100 in your Internet browser address bar then press Enter. In the login window, enter admin as the User ID and 11111111 for the Password. Click Login to connect to the product. As shown in the figure 5.9.

Figure 5. 10 login window

When connecting to the product for the first time, no video displays as no network or camera is set up. As shown in figure 5.10.

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Figure 5. 11 NVR display

Clicking config button at the top of the screen directs you to a new page, as shown in the figure 5.11.

Figure 5. 12 configuration menu

all the configurations for the CCTV network are done in this menu. And we only concerned about the camera setup menu and network setup menu. A. Camera setup When choosing the camera setup menu from the sidebar a new window appear as shown in figure 5.12.

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Figure 5. 13 camera setup menu

Select a channel in the left list; you can view or modify its camera settings. The available settings for each camera are listed below. Selecting Enable activates a channel and selecting disable deactivates the channel. Channel Name: Name a channel. Channel Name is displayed on the top of the Monitoring and Playback screens. Model: Select the model number for a camera. Connection Type: Select the connection type for a camera between Static IP and DDNS. - To use Static IP, enter the IP address and connection port for a camera. - To use DDNS, enter the DDNS server address and user ID. Port: Choose the port used for remote access. By default the port 4000 is used.

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ID, Password: Enter the login ID and password for a camera. Picture Type: Select an image save method between MPEG and JPEG formats. Camera search: as shown in the up right side of the figure 5.12 the camera search option is indicated and it is automatically searches the current network to find cameras to connect as shown in figure 5.13.

Figure 5. 14 camera search option

B. Network Setup When choosing the network setup menu in the sidebar a new menu appear as shown in figure 5.14

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Figure 5. 15 network setup menu

You can use either PPPOE, Static IP, or DHCP as a connection method for the network ports on the rear panel. If the product is connected to a PPPOE-type XDSL line, choose PPPOE as the connection method, and enter the access ID and password. Choose the Static IP connection method if you wish to use a static IP, and enter the IP address, subnet mask, and gateway to use. Choose DHCP if a DHCP server is connected to the network you want to connect to; the DHCP server will automatically assign an IP address for you. The 3 rear network ports are the Monitor Ethernet Port, Source Ethernet Port, and Storage Ethernet Port. The Monitor Ethernet Port connects the monitoring computer to the NVR via the web or the setup program. The Source Ethernet Port connects to the cameras. The Storage Ethernet Port connects to NAS devices.

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In relation to Monitor Ethernet Port, you can set the connection port number and http port. The http port is used to connect to the NVR via Web Viewer. If you changed the default value (80) for HTTP Port, then you must append "(your port number)" to the NVR address when connecting to your NVR with Web browser. For example, if your IP address is 192.168.1.110 and HTTP Port is 8080 then http://192.168.1.110:8080 is the NVR access address for Web browser. The connection port is used to connect your computer to the NVR after the http Connection is established. You can activate or disable ATC in the ATC Mode menu. ATC automatically adjusts the video quality depending on the network's connection status. Monitor Ethernet Port supports DDNS. By registering your product with a DDNS server, you can connect to the Monitor Ethernet Port from outside by using the DDNS server ID, instead of the NVR IP address. If you are using either PPPOE or DHCP to connect to the Monitor Ethernet Port, you'll be assigned a new IP address each time you connect the NVR to the network. DDNS is especially useful in these circumstances. Source Ethernet Port can act as a DHCP server to assign an IP address to a connected camera. Enter two IP addresses the first and last addresses of an IP range to limit the range of dynamic IPs. This DHCP Server option is especially useful when you want to open only the NVR to an external network and keep the connected cameras within the internal network. All ports use the same DNS server; you can have up to two DNS servers. DNS1 is used as the default, and DNS2 is used when DNS1 is unavailable. Using RTP/RTSP lets you watch the video of the SRN-3250 in the monitoring system without using Web browser. To use RTP/RTSP, select "Enable" in the Use RTSP menu, and then change the RTSP and RTP port numbers in the Settings menu. (RTSP is used to control video, and RTP is used to transfer video data.) The Multicast option is useful when sending video to multiple users simultaneously without consuming too

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much bandwidth. Multicast is available only within a local network that is configured with a multicast-enabled router; it cannot be used via the Internet. 5.5.3 Recording time One of the most important things in the CCTV system is the recording time. And it is the time the system can record to. The recording time depend in many variables, and we can calculate the recording time by this equation (5.1) Where: Tr is the recording time (S) HDD is the hard disk capacity (MB) F is the frame rate per second N is the number of cameras in the system C is the picture capacity (MB) For example lets say that the NVR has a 2TB hard drive installed and 24 cameras in the system. The camera is then setup to capture 30frames/sec then each picture has a size of 52kb (example with a jpeg image and resolution of 704*576 pixels). In this case the recording time can be calculated with the equation 5.1

Tr = 14.83 hour By reducing the frame rate to 25 which gives a smooth video picture we can increase the recording time to 17 hour. Of course this is too much for the system because we cannot change the hard disk every day or it will be useless, however there is so many techniques that we can use to increase the recording time like changing the quality of the pictures or

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increasing the storage capacity and reducing the number of recording cameras or change the periodic of the recording time and configure the system to record at certain time or at some event (like when motion detected or like on some sensor send a signal). And it depends on the user requirement and the engineer settings. In our case the system will not work for 24 hour also no all he cameras will work together at the same time and also the system come with a 20TB hard disk and with choosing the right configurations the system can last for 3 months and more.

5.6 Cabling
In any communication system choosing the right medium is one of the most important things in the design procedure. When you choose the cables or medium for any system you need to take in your considerations a lot of variables such as: The bandwidth required for the system Indoor or outdoor system Is the system near to any noise source or not In our case study we designed an IP system so we had to choose Category cables And due to the distances and the environment of the site we choosed CAT6e cables for the network. The electrical performance of the CAT6e cable is listed in table 5.3.
Table 5. 3 CAT6e electrical performance

Frequency MHz 1 4 8 10 16 20 25

Attenuation (dB/100m) 2 3.8 5.3 6 7.6 8.5 9.5

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31.25 62.5 100 155 200 250 350 400

10.7 15.4 19.8 25.2 29 32 39.5 42.7

In our design we have twenty four cameras in the site and the distance between any camera and the control system is different, and because of different distances each cable has a different attenuation. A CCTV video signal contains a wide range of a.c components with frequencies varying from 0 Hz up to 5.5 MHz as shown in figure 5.16. And by taking the frequency 5.5MHz we can calculate the loss in each cable for each camera

Figure 5. 16 spectrum of video signal

The attenuation in the cable for each camera is listed in table 5.4.

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Table 5. 4 loss in all the cables

Camera NO

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24

Distance (m) 20 15 15 35 55 75 95 115 135 155 175 160 140 130 110 90 70 50 30 20 55 40 60 75

attenuation (dB/m) 0.76 0.57 0.57 1.33 2.09 2.85 3.61 4.37 5.13 5.89 6.65 6.08 5.32 4.94 4.18 3.42 2.66 1.9 1.14 0.76 2.09 1.52 2.28 2.85

5.7 TROUBLESHOOTING
5.7.1 Camera troubleshooting Cant access the camera from a web browser. - Check to make sure that the cameras Network settings are appropriate. - Check to make sure that all network cables have been connected properly.

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If connected using DHCP, verify that the camera is able to acquire dynamic IP addresses without any problem.

If connected using a DDNS URL, verify that the MAC address has been properly entered.

If the camera is connected to a Broadband Router, verify that port forwarding is properly configured.

Cannot connect to the system using a tab browser of Internet Explorer - When you try to connect to the system using a tab browser, the same cookie information is shared, resulting in errors when connected. Therefore, instead of using a tab browser, open a new browser window to connect to the system. Images overlap. - Check whether two or more cameras are set to a single multicast address instead of different addresses. If a single address is used for multiple cameras, the images may overlap. No image appears. - If the transmission method is set to multicast, check whether there is a router that supports multicast in the LAN the camera is connected to. 5.7.2 NVR troubleshooting. Cannot boot. - Check power. - Check power cord. Some channels fail to display video. - Check camera power. - Check camera video output.

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- Check Recorder's input port. Video is not stored. - Check the connection of HDDs on the HDD Setup page. - Check the free space of HDDs. - Check video recording setup. Stored video does not play. - Check video recording setup. Video is too bright or too dark. - Check camera setup. Network does not function. - Check network cable connection. - Check Recorder's IP setup. - Check PC's IP setup. - Run Ping Test.

5.8 Bill of quantity


Table 5. 5 bill of quantity

Description

SNO-5080RP SNV-7080RP SRN-3250 40" LED monitor


CAT6e /meter RJ 45 cameras DC adapters power cables/ meter UPS 1500W circuit breaker installation

quantity 7 17 1 1 2000 48 24 450 1 1 -

Price (LD) 420 450 2950 690 0.2 0.75 15 0.75 750 20 150LD/camera

Total price (LD) 2940 7650 2950 690 400 36 360 337.5 750 20 3600

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CHAPTER 6: CONCLUSION

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6.1 General conclusion


CCTV systems gained high importance in most countries of the world. It is implemented in companies, schools, hospitals, and homes to ensure the safety of people. CCTV systems importance is in reducing crime, and burglary, and in enhancing education, surveillance areas include: (1)

government/industrial/business agencies, (2) small and large retail stores, (3)correctional institutions, (4)banking and financial institutions, (6) airports, seaports, and highway surveillance. The questions that should be asked when designing a CCTV surveillance system is : - What is to be protected: Assets or personnel? - What is the value of the protected asset or personnel, and what is the cost of the system needed to protect it? - Are goods and/or personnel to be under surveillance? - Is the application daytime only? Daytime or nighttime? - What type of and how many cameras are required to view the personnel and articles to be protected? - Where should cameras be for the best view? - Which cameras should be overt? - Which cameras should be covert? - What monitoring equipment is needed at the console? - What is the number of monitors?

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6.2 Conclusion of the case study


The key to any IP system is the design of the network infrastructure that binds it all together. The system design proposal and / or contract documentation should include the following information: - Use of fixed IP addresses, either manually allocated or assigned by automated method (DHCP) - User names and passwords - Contact and policy details for the providers of the SLAs of all equipment - Extent of maintenance coverage (who is responsible for what). IP CCTV systems can offer new approaches to the provision of conventional CCTV functions and may therefore require additional training to familiarize engineers, administrators and users in the installation, configuration, usage and service of the system. The ability to understand basic IT skills and DOS commands will prove invaluable.

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References
1. Modern CCTV Systems by Erik Eriksson\ 2005 2. CCTV Networking and Digital Technology Second Edition Vlado Damjanovski \2005 3. Closed Circuit Television Third edition Joe Cieszynski\2007 4. CCTV Surveillance second edition by Herman Kruegle \2007 5. DIGITAL CCTV by Emily Harwood \2008 6. WHITE PAPER A GUIDE TO IP CCTV Alan Perrott \2009 7. Closed Circuit Television Systems Fundamentals Course TOA CorporationTTI 8. www.samsung.com \2013
\2013

9. http://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/VerlustbehafteteDatenkompression

10. lectures on communications system by akki & mousa mousa 2 nd edition

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