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Interface Overview

Packet Tracer 4.0 does not have the ability to undo actions. If you make a mistake, you have to correct it manually. Therefore, it is a good idea to save often or save copies of your work.

When you open Packet Tracer 4.0, by default you will be presented with the following interface:

This initial interface contains ten components. If you are unsure of what a particular interface item does, move your mouse over the item and a help balloon will explain the item. 1 Menu Bar This bar provides the File, Options, and Help menus. You will find basic commands such as Open, Save, Print, and Preferences in these menus. You will also be able to access the Activity Wizard from the File menu. This bar provides shortcut icons to the File menu commands, including the Activity Wizard. On the right, you will also find the Network Information button, which you can use to enter a description for the current network (or any text you wish to include).

2 Main Tool Bar

3 Common Tools Bar This bar provides access to these commonly used workspace tools: Select, Move Layout, Place Note, Delete, Inspect,

Add Simple PDU, and Add Complex PDU. See "Workspace Basics" for more information. 4 Logical/Physical Workspace Bar 5 Workspace You can toggle between the Physical Workspace and the Logical Workspace with the tabs on this bar. This area is where you will create your network, watch simulations, and view many kinds of information and statistics.

6 Realtime/Simulation You can toggle between Realtime Mode and Simulation Mode with the tabs on this bar. Bar 7 Network Component Box 8 Device-Type Selection Box This box is where you choose devices and connections to put onto the workspace. It contains the Device-Type Selection Box and the Device-Specific Selection Box. This box contains the type of devices and connections available in Packet Tracer 4.0. The Device-Specific Selection Box will change depending on which type of devices you clicked. This box is where you choose specifically which devices you want to put in your network and which connections to make. This window manages the packets you put in the network during simulation scenarios. See the "Simulation Mode" section for more details.

9 Device-Specific Selection Box 10 User Created Packet Window*

* You can freely resize the User Created Packet Window (UCPW) by placing the cursor near the left edge of the window (it will turn into a "resize" cursor) and then drag the cursor left or right. You can hide the window from view by dragging the edge all the way to the right. When the UCPW is hidden, you can bring it back by placing the cursor on the edge (notice when the resize cursor appears) and then dragging the edge back.

Workspaces and Modes


Packet Tracer 4.0 has two workspaces (Logical and Physical) and two modes (Realtime and Simulation). Upon startup, you are in the Logical Workspace in Realtime Mode. You can build your network and see it run in real time in this configuration. You can switch to Simulation Mode to run controlled networking scenarios. You can also switch to the Physical Workspace to arrange the physical aspects (such as location) of your devices. Note that you cannot ?run? your network while you are in the Physical Workspace. You should return to the Logical Workspace after you are done in the Physical Workspace.

Setting Preferences
You can customize your Packet Tracer 4.0 experience by setting your own preferences. From the Menu bar, select Options-->Preferences (or simply press Ctrl-R) to view the program settings. Under the Interface panel, you can toggle the Animation and Sound settings to suit your system's performance. You can also manage information clutter with the Port Labels Always Shown setting. You can also toggle the Logging feature, which allows the program to capture all Cisco IOS commands that you enter and export them to a text file (refer to the "Configuring Devices" page for more information). Lastly, you can also change the program?s base language by choosing from the Languages list and then pressing the Change Language button.

Under the Administrative panel, you can manage the background images that are available in the program. You can also set a password to prevent others from tampering with the images. Note that the password is case-sensitive.

Setting a Background
You can replace the blank workspace with a background image of your choice. You can only set background images that are available in the Administrative panel. To set a background, press the Set Tiled Background button in the Logical Workspace Bar. Choose from the list of available images from the Select Background Image window, and press the Apply button. You can revert to a blank workspace at any time by pressing the Reset button.

You can create or customize your own images and use them as backgrounds in the Logical Workspace. Just put image files in the program's backgrounds/logical folder, and add them to the Administrative panel list. Note that background images do not affect any network functions. They are simply visual aids. The recommended format for background images is

.png. Other supported file formats are .jpg and .bmp. When adding photorealistic files, it is best to use .jpg format. For text or drawings, use .png or .bmp formats.

Tutorial
Open this tutorial to see a demonstration of the Packet Tracer 4.0 user interface.

My First Packet Tracer 4.0 Lab


Introduction
Welcome to Packet Tracer 4.0. Research has shown that users who master some basic tasks early get much more out of the software. This lab is designed to familiarize you with Packet Tracer 4.0's features. This should take 30 minutes to complete; you can use these directions to step through Packet Tracer yourself, or view a tutorial version of this.

Lab Objectives
I. II. III. IV. V. VI. Viewing Help and Tutorials Creating Your First Network Sending Simple Test Messages in Realtime Mode Looking Inside Packets in Simulation Mode Viewing Device Tables and Resetting the Network View Tutorial View Tutorial View Tutorial View Tutorial View Tutorial

Capturing Events and Viewing Animations in Simulation Mode View Tutorial

VII. Reviewing Your New Skills

Important Terminology
1. ICMP ping: command consisting of an echo request message from one device to another, and the returning echo reply. 2. IP address: 32-bit address assigned to devices as identification in the network. 3. Ethernet: one of the most common LAN standards for hardware, communication and cabling. 4. Fast Ethernet Interface: 100 Mbps Ethernet port. In Packet Tracer 4.0, a GUI may be used to configure such interfaces. 5. OSI model: 7-layer framework for looking at network protocols and devices, consisting of the application, presentation, session, transport, network, data link, and physical layers. 6. PDU: protocol data unit, a grouping of data appropriate to a given layer in the OSI model. 7. Packets: OSI Layer 3 protocol data units. Represented by envelopes in Packet Tracer 4.0 Simulation Mode.

8. Device Tables: includes ARP, switching, and routing tables. They contain information regarding the devices and protocols in the network. 9. ARP Table: Address Resolution Protocol (ARP) table, stores pairings of IP Addresses and Ethernet MAC addresses. 10. Scenario: one topology with a set of PDUs that you have placed in the network to be sent at specific times. Using different scenarios, you can experiment with different combinations of packets using the same base topology.

I. Viewing Help and Tutorials (View Tutorial)


1. Launch Packet Tracer 4.0. 2. Open the Help content through the Menu Bar, by clicking on the question mark on the Main Tool Bar or by using the shortcut key, F1. 3. Skim through the sections of the Help content to get a rough idea of the features and functionality of Packet Tracer 4.0 that are documented. 4. Pay closer attention to the Getting Started page as it will help with the tutorial in the next step. 5. Open the tutorial at the end of the page, to learn the basics of the graphical user interface of the program. 6. When the first caption appears, as shown below, click on the Pause button in the playback controls.

7. Click on the Forward button to skip to the next caption then click on Pause. Click on the Back button to view the previous caption. 8. Continue viewing the tutorial by pressing the Play button. 9. When the tutorial finishes, click on the Rewind button to re-start the tutorial. 10. Close all of the Help content windows and tutorials.

Congratulations! You have found some resources to help you get the most out of Packet Tracer 4.0.

II. Creating Your First Network (View Tutorial)


1. Start creating your network by loading a background grid using the Set Tiled Background button. 2. Select the Generic PC under End Devices and drag it as the first PC onto the workspace. 3. Try all 3 ways to learn about this device. First, mouse over or hover over the device to see basic configuration information. Second, click on the device with the Select Tool to bring up the device configuration window where you will see several ways to configure the device. Third, use the Inspect Tool to view tables the network device will build as it learns about the network around it. In this case, a PC's ARP table will appear. Always remember to close windows after you're done viewing them, otherwise, they will clutter the workspace. 4. Open the PC's configuration window and change its settings by going to the Config tab. Change the PC's name (where it says ?PC Name?) to Tokyo. Under Interface, click on FastEthernet and set the IP address as 192.168.1.1 (it will assume other settings for you). Make sure that the Port Status is on. Note for future reference that you could modify other Ethernet interface settings, such as bandwidth, duplex, MAC address, and subnet mask in this window. 5. Drag another PC to the workspace, name it Paris and set its IP address as 192.168.1.2. Make sure that the Port Status is on. 6. Under Connections, select the Copper Straight-through cable (solid black line) and make a connection between the devices with it. The red lights on the link indicate that the connection is not working. Now, using the Delete tool, remove the Copper Straight-through cable, and use a Copper Cross-over cable instead. The lights should turn green at this point, and if you mouse over or hover over either PC, you'll see the link status indicated as ?up.? Your network should look similar to this:

7. Reposition your network devices by dragging them. Add an overall network description by using the ?i? button on the upper right corner of Packet Tracer 4.0. Then add some text labels on the logical workspace by using the Place Note tool. 8. Single click on the Tokyo PC. Turn the PC on and off and on again, while paying attention to the link lights. 9. Do the same step for the Paris PC. Turning devices off will result in red link lights ? meaning that the link is down. 10. Save your work by using the FILE -> SAVE AS? option and creating a filename meaningful to you. Congratulations! You have created your first network.

III. Sending Simple Test Messages in Realtime Mode (View Tutorial)


1. Start with your original saved file open. 2. Notice you are in Realtime Mode. Use the Add Simple PDU tool to send a simple 1-time ping message called an echo request, to the other PC, which responds with an echo reply because you have properly configured their IP address settings. 3. Scroll around in the User Created Packet Window to see the different aspects of this ping message, including an indication that the ping was successful. 4. Alternatively, toggle the PDU List Window to see a larger display of this message. You can save one or more of these messages as a scenario. When you start, you are in Scenario 0. Label this first scenario with an ?i? note. Different

scenarios allow you to use the same topology for experiments with different groupings of user created packets. 5. Click on ?New? to create a new scenario. New scenarios will always initially be blank. 6. Add two packets by using the Simple PDU tool, perhaps a PDU from Paris to Tokyo and a different PDU from Tokyo to Paris. Then add a little ?i? note describing the scenario, to complete Scenario 1. An example is shown below:

7. Go back and forth between Scenario 0 and 1. Several different scenarios can be saved for a single network. 8. Now delete Scenario 1 using the Delete button. 9. You are back at Scenario 0. If you want to remove the PDU, you could scroll across in the User Created Packet Window and click on (delete) on the last column. Do so. 10. Delete the whole scenario. Congratulations! You can send and organize simple test messages in Real-time Mode.

IV. Capturing Events and Viewing Animations in Simulation Mode (View Tutorial)
1. 2. 3. 4. Start with your original saved file open. In Realtime Mode, send a simple PDU from Tokyo to Paris. Delete the PDU by using the method learned in the previous section. Switch to Simulation Mode. In this mode, time freezes, therefore you can watch your network run at a slower pace, observing the paths that packets take and inspecting them in detail ? ?packet tracing!?

5. Under the Event List Filters, click on All/None to uncheck all fields, and then click on ICMP to only view ICMP packets in the animation. 6. Add a simple PDU from Tokyo to Paris. Notice that the newly created PDU is added to the User Created PDU List, this packet has been captured as the first event in the Event List, and that a new packet icon (envelope) appears in the workspace. The eye icon at the left of the Event List indicates that this packet is currently displayed as an envelope. 7. Click on Capture/Forward button once. This acts like a network sniffing program, capturing the next event that occurs on the network. Note that after clicking on Capture/Forward, the packet in the workspace moves from one device to another (this is the ICMP echo request message from Tokyo to Paris). Another event is also added in the Event List ? this reflects the change that happened in the workspace. The first time through an animation, the meaning of the Capture/Forward is ?Capture?; after resetting the simulation, the meaning would be ?Forward.? 8. Adjust the speed of the animation by dragging the Play Speed slider to the right. 9. Click on Capture/Forward button a second time. This captures the next network event (this is the echo reply from Paris to Tokyo, shown as successful with a green check mark on the envelope), and the animation plays faster this time. Dragging the speed slider to the opposite direction (to the left) would have slowed the animation. 10. Click on Capture/Forward button again. At this point, Paris has already sent an echo reply to Tokyo therefore, there are no more ICMP events left to capture. A ?No More Events? window will appear notifying you of this, as shown in the screenshot below. Click OK.

Congratulations! You have successfully captured events and viewed animations in Simulation Mode.

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V. Looking Inside Packets in Simulation Mode (View Tutorial)


1. Continuing from the last activity, click on Reset Simulation. This clears the entries in the Event List except for the original packet. 2. Click on the packet envelope on the workspace to bring up the PDU Information window like the one shown in the screenshot below. This window contains the OSI model tab which shows how the packet is processed at each layer of the OSI model by the current device. Close this window, and note that this packet is indicated in the Event List by the eye icon. The whole row in the Event List is also highlighted. For this row, clicking on the color square in the Info column is equivalent to clicking directly on the packet envelope (try it!).

3. Use the Next Layer and Previous Layer buttons to see details of the packet processing at the relevant OSI Layers. Note that only the Out Layers can be viewed in the case of this original echo request message. 4. Click on the Outbound PDU Details tab. This shows exactly what is in the PDU headers, broken up into header type and the individual fields in each header. 5. Close the PDU Information window. Click on Capture/Forward button once. 6. Click again on the packet in the workspace to open the PDU Information window. Notice that this time, information regarding the In Layers and Out Layers can both be viewed. 7. Click on the Inbound PDU Details tab. In this case this shows the details of the inbound echo request packet from Tokyo to Paris. Click on the Outbound PDU Details tab, which shows similar information, but in this case for the echo reply packet from Paris to Tokyo. 8. Click on Reset Simulation again. This time click on Auto Capture/Play. The echo request and echo reply will be automatically captured, and the ?No More Events? message will occur automatically.

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9. Click on the Back Button twice to rewind the animation one step at a time. Now click on the Capture/Forward button twice to forward the packet through the animation. Also note the change in which packet is highlighted in the Event List. Remember that at any time, you can either click on the packet ?envelope? directly, or click on the Info column in the Event List, to open up the PDU Information window. 10. Click on the Back Button twice to rewind the animation. This time click Auto Capture/Play and the packet animation will automatically occur. Congratulations! You can now look inside packets, view the logic that devices use when processing them, and use the Back, Play, and Forward functions to study packet animations.

VI. Viewing Device Tables and Resetting the Network (View Tutorial)
1. Start by closing the existing workspace and reopening your original saved file. 2. Open the ARP Tables for both PCs by clicking on each PC using the Inspect tool. The ARP tables always appear on the same spot. Reposition one of them to make them both visible. You can also resize the tables for better viewing. 3. In Realtime Mode, send a simple PDU from Tokyo to Paris. Notice that the ARP tables are filled in automatically as shown here:

4. Delete the PDU using the method learned in the previous sections. Notice that the entries in the ARP tables are NOT cleared. This is so because the ARP entries for both devices have already been learned. Deleting the user created PDUs does not reset what already occurred in the network.

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5. Click Reset Network. Notice that the ARP tables are cleared. The Reset Network button power cycles devices by turning them off and then on. By doing so, they lose temporary information like the tables they learned. 6. Go to Simulation Mode. In the Event List Filters, make sure that ICMP and ARP are checked so that you can view ICMP and ARP packets in the animation. 7. Create a new simple PDU from Tokyo to Paris. 8. Notice that since you reset the network earlier, the ARP tables are empty. ARP request packets need to be issued before the ICMP ping packets, so that the devices in the network can learn about each other. Click on Auto Capture/Play to watch the animation. 9. Click on Reset Simulation. Notice that even though the Event List is cleared (except for the user created PDU), the ARP tables still remain full. Click on Capture/Play. This time, since the ARP tables are full, there are no new ARP packets issued. 10. Click on Reset Network. Doing so will empty the tables. Notice that a new ARP request packet appears automatically on the Event List. Congratulations! You can now view device tables, reset simulations, and reset the network.

VII. Reviewing Your New Skills


Single-clicking on the Delete button removes the entire scenario including all the PDUs associated with it. Double-clicking on (delete) in the far right column in the PDU List window deletes individual PDUs. The Reset Simulation button clears all entries in the Event List, except for User Created PDUs, and allows you to restart the animation. This, however, does not reset the device tables. The Reset Network button allows you to power-cycle all of the devices in your network. It turns all devices off and then turns them back on so the tables that the devices built are lost along with configurations and other information not automatically saved. Saving your work periodically prevents you from losing configurations and changes in the network that you want to keep.

Congratulations, you are ready to build and analyze many different networks in Packet Tracer 4.0! There are many other features that were not covered in this lab. To learn more about them, please view the tutorials and go over the help files. Have Fun!

The Logical Workspace


The Logical Workspace is where you will spend the majority of your time building and configuring your network. In conjunction with Realtime Mode, you can use this workspace to complete many of the labs you encounter in your CCNA coursework.

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First, you will want to create devices. This is done by picking devices from the Network Component box. Then, you can do any of the following:

Add modules to your devices to gain additional interfaces. Note that you must turn off a device (by clicking its power button) before you can add a module. Connect your devices by choosing the appropriate cables (also found in the Network Component box). Configure device parameters (such as the device name and IP address) through graphical dialogue boxes or the Cisco IOS (in the case of routers and switches). Make advanced configurations and view network information from a router or switch's CLI interface.

Creating Devices
To place a device onto the workspace, first choose a device type from the Device-Type Selection box. Then, click on the desired device model from the Device-Specific Selection box. Finally, click on a location in the workspace to put your device in that location. If you want to cancel your selection, press the Cancel icon for that device. Alternatively, you can click and drag a device from the Device-Specific Selection box onto the workspace. You can also click and drag a device directly from the DeviceType Selection box and a default device model will be chosen for you.

To quickly create many instances of the same device, press and hold the Ctrl button, click on the device in the Device-Specific Selection box, and then release the Ctrl button. The device is now locked and you can click on the workspace multiple times to add multiple copies of the device. Cancel this operation by pressing the Cancel icon for that device.

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Adding Modules
Most Packet Tracer 4.0 devices have modular bays into which you can insert modules. In the workspace, click on a device to bring up its configuration window. By default, you will be in the device's Physical Device View subpanel. An interactive picture of the device is on the right of the panel, and a list of compatible modules is on the left. You can resize the picture with the Zoom In, Original Size, and Zoom Out buttons. You can also resize the entire configuration window by dragging its borders with the mouse. Alternatively, you can undock the window so that you can move it around and freely resize it. You can browse (by clicking) through the list of modules and read their description in the information box at the bottom. When you have found the module you want to add, simply drag it from the list into a compatible bay on the device picture. You can remove a module by dragging it from the device back into the list.

You must turn off a device (by clicking its power button) before you can add or remove modules, and you should turn the device back on after you are done.

Making Connections
To make a connection between two devices, first click the Connections icon from the Device-Type Selection box to bring up the list of available connections. Then click the appropriate cable type. The mouse pointer will change into a "connection" cursor. Click

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on the first device and choose an appropriate interface to which to connect. Then click on the second device and do the same. A connection cable will appear between the two devices, along with link lights showing the link status on each end (for interfaces that have link lights). For a full list of connections supported in Packet Tracer 4.0, please read the "Connections/Links" help page.

To quickly make many connections of the same type, press and hold the Ctrl button, click on a cable type in the Device-Specific Selection box, and release the Ctrl button. The connection cursor is now locked and you can repeatedly make the same connection type between devices. Cancel this operation by pressing the cable type's Cancel icon.

Logical Topology Editing Tools


You can use the tools in the Common Tools bar to edit the layout of your topology Tool Select Use Click objects and drag them around. This is the default tool. You can also select multiple objects by holding down the mouse button and then dragging your cursor over them. This action draws a rectangle around the objects so you can drag all of them simultaneously. Press the keyboard Esc key for quick access to this tool. Move your entire workspace around with the click-and-drag mouse action. Write and place sticky notes anywhere on the workspace. Delete objects from the workspace. When you select the Delete tool, the mouse cursor will change into an "X." You

Move Layout Place Note Delete

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can then click on any object (a device, connection, or note) that you wish to delete. Inspect Add Simple PDU Add Complex PDU Look at a device's tables (such as ARP and MAC tables) if it has any. Refer to the "Simulation Mode" help section for information. Refer to the "Simulation Mode" help section for information.

Configuring Devices
To make most of the devices useful, you need to configure some basic settings (for example, an interface's IP address and subnet mask). You can set basic parameters through the device's GUI configuration screen (click the Config tab from the device's configuration window). Different devices have different settings available. Refer to each device's help page for detailed information.

Cisco IOS: Routers and Switches


For routers and switches, you will have access to the Cisco IOS with a limited set of commands. You can use the software to make advanced configurations and view various network information in real time (if you are in Realtime Mode). Here are a few examples of the commands available to you: ping, traceroute, show interfaces, ip access-list, and switchport access vlan. Refer to the "Configuring Devices" section of the help files for all supported Cisco IOS commands.

Managing Workspace Clutter (Docking/Undocking Subwindows)

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There may be times when you need multiple windows open on your screen (especially when you start running simulations and have to keep track of many things at once). To minimize the visual clutter, you can arrange popup and sub-windows in various ways. Many windows can be docked to or undocked (floated) from the workspace. You can drag floating windows (via their title bar) and dock them to the left, right, or bottom edge of the workspace. Simply drag a window by its title bar until your cursor is near an edge and then release the mouse button. The window will dock to that edge. To undock a window, drag the window by its docked title bar and move it out of the workspace edge to anywhere on your screen. Some more hints regarding docking and undocking windows:

In a docked position, a window's title bar is unnamed; the window may be at the top or left border. Use the window's Close button (x) as a hint to where the title bar is. You can double click a window's title bar to quickly toggle between the docked or undocked state. If there is already another window at an edge, you can dock a second window next to that first window. If you do not want a window to dock anywhere as you drag it around, press and hold the Ctrl key as you drag it.

Tutorial
Open this tutorial to learn how to create and arrange devices in the Logical Workspace. Open this tutorial to learn how to configure and connect devices.

The Physical Workspace


The purpose of the Physical Workspace is to give a physical dimension to your logical network topology. It gives you a sense of scale and placement (how your network would look in a real environment). The Physical Workspace is divided into four layers to reflect the physical scale of four environments: Intercity, City, Building, and Wiring Closet. The intercity is the largest environment. It can contain many cities. Each city can contain many buildings. Finally, each building can contain many wiring closets. The wiring closet view is where you actually see the devices you created in the Logical Workspace; they are arranged in networking racks and on tables. When you first enter the Physical Workspace, you are in the Intercity view (or "map").

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By default, the intercity contains one city called "Home City." You can click and drag the City icon to move it around in the intercity map. You can also simply click on the City icon to zoom to that city's map.

The Home City also contains one default building called "Corporate Office." This building also can be moved anywhere around the city. Click on the Building icon to zoom to that building's interior. All buildings are limited to one floor. From the City view, you can also return to the Intercity environment by clicking on the Intercity button in the Physical Workspace Bar.

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The Corporate Office contains one default wiring closet called "Main Wiring Closet." Click its icon to view its contents. You can also return to any of the previous environments (Intercity or City) by clicking the corresponding buttons in the Physical Workspace Bar.

The "Main Wiring Closet" initially houses all the devices that you created in the Logical Workspace. It neatly arranges devices onto racks and tables so you can see where your devices physically are. Learn how to move these devices around in the building or even the city in the "Moving Devices" section.

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Wiring closets, buildings, and cities can all be renamed.

The Physical Workspace: Moving Devices


The Physical Workspace allows you to move your devices to various locations. You will first need to create new locations to expand your physical topology. In the Intercity environment, you can create cities with the New City button. You can place new buildings and closets directly onto the Intercity environment with the New Building and New Closet buttons. Similarly, you can create new buildings in the City environment and new closets in the Building environment. To keep things simple, you should create locations according to the established hierarchy. New cities (and buildings and closets) always initially appear on the top left corner of the workspace. To avoid confusion, you should immediately rename and move them.

In this example, the default "Home City" is renamed to "San Jose," and a new city called "Milpitas" is created. Inside San Jose is a building called "Cisco," which has a wiring closet called "MDF." Similarly, Milpitas has a building called "Linksys," which has a wiring closet called "IDF." Initially, all devices are located in the MDF, including two routers named "Router0" and "Router1," which are connected via a serial link.

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If, for example, you want to move Router1 into the IDF, you would first need to go into the MDF. Inside the MDF, click the move object button. Click on Router1, then go through the hierarchy to find the IDF and select Move to IDF. If you exit out to Intercity view, you will see a black line between Milpitas and San Jose. The line tells you that there is a connection between the devices of these cities. In this case, the line represents the serial connection between Router0 and Router1. You can quickly return to the default wiring closet in any environment by pressing the Working Closet button on the far right of the Physical Workspace Bar

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In addition to moving devices with the Move Object button, you can also move buildings and wiring closets. The procedure is the same. There are few restrictions on where you can move objects and devices. In general, something bigger cannot be moved inside something smaller; otherwise, all moves are possible. You can move buildings to other cities or directly onto the intercity. Wiring closets can be placed directly onto cities or the intercity. Devices are not confined by racks or tables and can go anywhere. However, you should maintain their hierarchy to avoid confusion.

The Physical Workspace: Wireless Devices


The Physical Workspace provides the dimension of distance to wireless devices. Access points can establish connections with wireless end devices that are within a certain range. This range is indicated by a gray mesh area surrounding the access point. Note that this mesh area appears as a circle or an oval depending on the dimensions of the background image used. If the background source image is square, the mesh is circular. If the background image is a rectangle, the mesh is oval, scaled by the width and height of the source image.

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In this example, three wireless-enabled PCs and two access points are created. They have all been moved from the default wiring closet and placed directly onto the "streets" of the city (for demonstration purposes). Note the following:

PC0 is within the wireless range of Access Point0, so it associates with Access Point0. PC1 is within the wireless range of both Access Point0 and AccessPoin1. However, because it is closer to Access Point1, it associates with Access Point1. PC2 is not in range of any access point, so it has no connectivity.

Tutorial
Open this tutorial to see aspects of the Physical Workspace in action.

The Physical Workspace: Special Notes


Using Custom Backgrounds
The Physical Workspace comes with a default set of backgrounds (for the Intercity, City, and Building environments). You can replace the background of each environment with your own background images, just like in the Logical Workspace (see "Getting Started"). When using your own images, pay attention to the environment for which an image is appropriate. For example, an image with the map of San Francisco is appropriate for the City environment. To use such an image, perform these steps:

Place that image in the "backgrounds/city" folder. Add this image to the program under the Administrative panel of the program options. In the city where you want to apply the background, click the set background button on the Physical Workspace Bar.

Note that the dimensions of your background images affect the scale and appearance of certain objects.

Navigation Panel
You can click on the Navigation button from the Physical Workspace Bar to bring up the navigation panel of the entire Physical Workspace. The navigation panel contains a physical locations tree that allows you to select a location and then jump to that particular location on the Physical Workspace.

Applying a Grid
You can click on the Grid button from the Physical Workspace Bar to apply a customizable grid to the Intercity, City, and Building levels. The Grid tool allows you to set the grid spacing for each level and the ability to choose the color of the grid lines.

Wiring Closet Limit

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Each wiring closet can house as many as three racks, three tables, two tables and one rack, or two racks and one table. End devices are placed on tables; all other devices are mounted on racks. If the Logical Topology contains more devices than a single wiring closet can house, another wiring closet will automatically be created in the default building. That new wiring closet will become the default wiring closet. You will still be able to access the original wiring closet, although you may need to move wiring closet icons around the building so they do not visually overlap.

Deleting Objects
You can use the Delete tool from the Common Tools Bar to delete cities, buildings, and wiring closets. Devices, however, cannot be deleted in the Physical Workspace. If you delete a wiring closet from the Building environment, the devices in that closet will be extracted and placed directly onto the building "floor." If you delete that building from the City environment, the devices will be placed onto the city "streets."

Operating Modes
Packet Tracer 4.0 operating modes reflect the network time scheme. In Realtime Mode, your network runs in real time. The network responds to your actions immediately as they would in a real device. For example, as soon as you make an Ethernet connection, the link lights for that connection will appear, showing the connection?s state (see the "Connections/Links" page for details). Whenever you type a command in the CLI (such as ping or show), the result or response is generated in real time and you see it as such. All network activity, particularly the flow of PDUs across the network, happens in real time. In Simulation Mode, you have direct control over time related to the flow of PDUs. You can see the network run step by step, or event by event, however quickly or slowly you like. You can set up scenarios, such as sending a ping packet from one device to another. However, nothing "runs" until you play it. When you play the simulation, you will see graphical representations of packets traveling from one device to another. You can pause the simulation, or step forward or backward in time, investigating many types of information on specific objects at specific times. However, other aspects of the network will still run in real time. For example, if you turn off a port, its link light will respond immediately by turning red.

Realtime Mode
In Realtime Mode, your network is always running (like a real network) whether you are working on the network or not. Your configurations are done in real time, and the network responds in real time. When you view network statistics, they are displayed in real time. In addition to using Cisco IOS to configure and diagnose networks, you can use the Add Simple PDU and User Created PDU List buttons to graphically send pings.

Inspecting Devices

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As the network is running, you can use the Inspect tool to view a device's tables as they are populated and updated. For example, to inspect a router's ARP table, choose the Inspect tool, click on the router to bring up the list of available tables, and then choose ARP Table. In addition to the Inspect tool, you can simply mouse-over a device to view details such as the link status, IP address, and MAC address of all the ports on a device.

Sending PDUs graphically


Although Simulation Mode is the preferred mode for sending PDUs graphically, you can use the Add Simple PDU and User Created PDU List buttons to ping or send other PDUs (see the "Simulation Mode" section for details). The drawback is that you will not see PDU icons traveling slowly through the network; the entire ping sequence happens in real time. However, you can view the result of the ping from the User Created Packet Window.

Resetting the Network


The Reset Network button on the Realtime Bar allows you to power-cycle all of the devices in your network; pressing it turns all devices off and then turns them back on. Pressing this button will also clear all events if you are running a simulation with the network. The Reset Network button is also available in Simulation Mode. See the "Simulation Mode" help section for more information. If you reset the network, you will lose the current running configuration on all routers and switches. Before you press the Reset Network button, be sure to issue the copy run start Cisco IOS command sequence on all routers and switches to retain the current network configuration after the reset.

Simulation Mode
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In Simulation Mode, you can watch your network run at a slower pace, observing the paths that packets take and inspecting them in detail. When you switch to Simulation Mode, the Simulation Panel will appear. You can graphically create PDUs to send between devices using the Add Simple PDU button and then pressing the Auto Capture/Play button to start the simulation scenario. The Event List window records (or "captures") what happens as your PDU propagates the network. You can control the speed of the simulation by using the Play Speed Slider. Pressing the Auto Capture/Play toggle button again will pause the simulation. If you need greater control of the simulation, use Capture/Forward button to manually run the simulation forward one step in time. You can use the Back button to revisit a previous timeframe and view the events that occurred then. The Play Control buttons are found in both the Simulation Panel and the Simulation Bar.

You can clear and restart the scenario with the Reset Simulation button, which clears all entries in the Event List. Note that while a simulation is playing, you may see packets that you did not create yourself. That is because some devices can generate their own packets (such as CDP packets) as the network runs. You can see what types of packets are being propagated in the network by looking at its Type field from the Event List. You can choose to hide these packets from view by unchecking the appropriate filter from the Event List Filters menu. You can also hide the Event List (and the entire Simulation Panel) with the Event List button in the Simulation Bar. You will still have access to the Play Controls on the bar.

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The Events List and Time Flow of Events


Packet Tracer 4.0 simulations do not run on a linear time scale. Time is determined by the events that occur. An event can be defined as any instance of a PDU that is generated in the network. The Event List keeps track of all such PDU instances and lists their information in various fields:

Visible: An "eye" icon in the field means that an event is happening at the current simulation time. Whatever packets that are currently visible in the scenario animation will have this icon in the field. Time: This field indicates the timeframe that the event occurred, relative to the last time the simulation scenario restarted. This field is also the simulation time index. Last Device: This field indicates the packet's previous location. At Device: This field indicates the packet's current location. Type: This field indicates the packet type (ARP, CDP, DHCP, EIGRP, ICMP, RIP, TCP, or UDP). Info: This field shows detailed information about the packet instance, broken up into each layer of the OSI model. Learn more about this field in the "PDU info" page.

You can rearrange each of these fields in the Event List by dragging a field's title to the desired position.

Some events occur very frequently, happening every few milliseconds. Some events occur very infrequently, happening every minute or so. On the workspace, network events appear to happen one after another at the same speed (set by the slider), when actually they may be separated by milliseconds or by minutes. You can keep track of event timing by looking at the Time field in the Event List. Time only advances when there are events to be captured. If the network has no further events, time will essentially halt (until the next event occurs). The Auto Capture Indicator will tell you where the Event List stopped recording. You can enforce a constant delay of 1 ms between events by using the Constant Delay option. If this option is off, various factors will contribute to the event's overall delay: transmission delay, propagation delay, and a randomly injected process delay. If you filter out some type of PDUs on the Event List Filters, they will not show up on the Event List. They are still in the network; you just do not see them. The simulation runs more quickly because you will not see the filtered events, but all filtered PDUs still affect the network.

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Restarting a Scenario
Whenever a simulation restarts, the simulation time resets to 0.000 and the Event List is cleared. You will restart the simulation if you do any of the following:

Press the Reset Simulation button. Press the Reset Network button. Switching to Realtime Mode (and switching back). Modify the network in some way, such as deleting a device, adding a device, and changing the configuration on a device. Enter any command in a device's global configuration mode (in the CLI). Switch to another scenario (see the "Managing Simulation Scenarios" section below). Remove a PDU from the Protocol Data Units List (see the "Managing Simulation Scenarios" page).

Restarting a simulation does not erase current or scheduled PDU processes; it simply pauses the simulation and removes the visual clutter of events currently displayed on the Event List. The only way to remove PDU processes is from the User Created Packet Window (discussed on the " Managing Simulation Scenarios" page).

Sending Simple PDUs (Ping)


In Packet Tracer 4.0, the Add Simple PDU button is essentially a quick, graphical way to send pings. You can send pings between devices that have at least one interface with an IP address. To send a ping, press the Add Simple PDU button (the cursor changes to a "packet" icon), click on the source device, and then click on the destination device. Note that pings will only work if the devices have configured ports. After you make the request, the source device will queue an ICMP or ARP packet (or both), which will be on standby until you press the Auto Capture/Play or Capture/Forward button. When you press one of these buttons, the packets will start moving and you can observe the ping process. You may want to uncheck some categories in the Event List Filters to avoid being confused by other packets in the network that you do not wish to observe. You can keep track of all of the PDUs you created with the Add Simple PDU button in the User Created Packet Window. See the "Scenarios" page for more information.

Tutorial
Open this tutorial to learn the basics of Simulation Mode. You may want to read this section's "Special Notes' page to fully understand all aspects of this tutorial.

Simulation Mode: PDU Information

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During a simulation, you can click on a packet (on the topology or the corresponding event in the Event List) to bring up its information window and view its details. The details window contains three possible tabs: OSI Model, Inbound PDU Details, and Outbound PDU Details.

The OSI Model tab shows how the packet is processed at each layer of the OSI model by the current device. The process is further separated by the direction in which the packets are traveling?incoming versus outgoing. The incoming layers (In Layer) show how the device processes an incoming or a buffered packet, and the outgoing layers (Out Layer) show the process a device goes through when it sends a packet to one or multiple ports. The In Layer is meant to be read starting from bottom to top (from Layer 1 to Layer 7), while the Out Layer is read from top to bottom (from Layer 7 to Layer 1). This is because the physical layer is the first layer that incoming PDUs encounter, and it is the last layer that outgoing PDUs pass through when they exit the device. The Inbound PDU Details tab only applies if the PDU you clicked on is being received on the device; it will not appear if the PDU originated from that device. The tab shows exactly what is in the PDU's headers, broken up into header type and the individual fields in each header. For example, a PDU may have an Ethernet II and an ARP header, so the tab will show information such as the preamble, FCS, and source and destination addresses. The Outbound PDU Details tab shows similar information for outgoing packets. This tab only applies if the device has a PDU to send.

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Most of the time, a device will receive a PDU and then, as a result, send out a PDU. In this case, both the Inbound PDU Details and the Outbound PDU Details tabs apply.

Challenge Mode
You can quiz yourself on the encapsulation process by entering Challenge Mode when viewing PDU information. Press the Challenge Me button to do so. The layer details is hidden, and the information window is replaced by a question window that asks you what the device does to a PDU on a given layer. Select from a multiple-choice list. If you answer correctly, the details for that layer are shown and the question window advances to the next layer. You can press the Hint button if you need help.

Each Challenge Question may contain the following answers:


Encapsulate: Adds a header or a header and trailer to this layer's PDU to create the PDU at the next lower layer. De-encapsulate: Removes a header or a header and trailer from this layer's PDU to create the PDU at the next higher layer. Transfer: Moves the PDU from the inbound OSI stack to the outbound OSI stack. Accept: Accepts and finishes processing of the PDU. Queue: Holds the PDU for processing or sending at a later time. Drop: Eliminates the PDU. Transmit: Sends the signal out the physical media.

Tutorial
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Open this tutorial to see Challenge Mode in action.

Simulation Mode: Managing Simulation Scenarios


In Packet Tracer 4.0, you can set up and simulate complex networking situations (scenarios) through the User Created Packet Window (UCPW) found on the lower right corner of the application. A scenario is a set of PDUs that you have placed in the network to be sent at specific times. When you first switch to Simulation Mode, the default scenario is "Scenario 0." You can edit the name of the scenario, and you can write a description for the scenario by clicking the Scenario Description icon next to its name. You can create and delete scenarios with the New and Delete buttons, and you can switch between scenarios by choosing from the scenario drop-down menu.

The Protocol Data Units List is an important part of the UCPW that tracks all of the PDUs you created for the current scenario. You can put the Protocol Data Units List in its own window on the workspace by pressing the Toggle PDU List Window button. Press the button again to integrate it back into the UCPW.

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Each PDU in the PDU list has the following fields:


Fire: You can double click on this field to "send" the PDU immediately in realtime mode or queue for transmission in simulation mode. Last Status: This field indicates the PDU's last known status (Successful, Fail, or In Progress). Source: This field shows the name of the device from which the PDU originated. Destination: This field shows the name of the device that the PDU is ultimately trying to reach. Type: This field specifies the PDU protocol type. Color: This field shows PDU color as it appears in the animation. (See the tip box below for information about changing the PDU color.) Time: This field displays the simulation time (or timeframe) that the PDU is scheduled to be sent. Periodic: This field indicates whether the PDU is to be sent periodically (Y) or not (N). Num: This field shows a numerical index for the PDU. Edit: You can double click this button to edit the PDU properties. (See the next page ("Custom PDUs") for more details.) Delete: You can double click this button to remove the PDU from the list. (It will no longer be part of the scenario.)

User-created PDUs are initially assigned a random color in the animation. You can double click a PDU's colored "tile" in the Protocol Data Units List to bring up the PDU's Color Selector and then change the color.

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You can rearrange the placement of each of the fields in the Protocol Data Units List by dragging a field's title to the desired position.

Note that user-created PDUs are not "cleared" from the Protocol Data Units List when the simulation restarts (such as by pressing the Reset Simulation button). Restarting the scenario simply clears all PDUs currently propagating in the network and resets the simulation time. The PDUs on the Protocol Data Units List will propagate the network at their specified times when you run the scenario again. To remove a PDU you created, select it on the Protocol Data Units List and double click its Delete button.

Simulation Mode: Complex PDUs


In addition to simple, quick pings, you can also send customized PDUs. In the Common Tools Bar, press the Add Complex PDU icon, and then click your source device to bring up the Create Complex PDU dialogue. You can choose which port that the PDU will be sent out (or leave it at the default). You can also change the PDU's type by selecting from the list of applications. Depending on the application, the PDU may have the following settings: Destination IP Address, TTL (Time-to-Live), Source Port, Destination Port, and Sequence Number.

Packet Tracer 4.0 supports custom PDUs with source and destination ports corresponding to the following application layer protocols:

DNS, Finger, FTP, HTTP, HTTPS, IMAP, NetBIOS, Ping, POP3, SFTP, SMTP, SNMP, SSH, Telnet, TFTP, other

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You can also set the PDU's timing parameters. The PDU can be a One Shot event; it is to be sent at a time you specify (in seconds). Alternatively, the PDU can be a Periodic event; it will be sent periodically at intervals you specify (also in seconds).

Tutorial
Open this tutorial to learn how to use scenarios, the Protocol Data Units List, and the Create Complex PDU dialogue.

Simulation Mode: Special Notes


Editing the Network and Using the Cisco IOS in Simulation Mode
Although Realtime Mode is the preferred mode for network configuration, you can also edit the network directly in Simulation Mode. You have full access to the Common Tools Bar and the Network Component Box. You also retain access to the Cisco IOS (or in the PC's case, the command prompt). When you work with the IOS in Simulation Mode, the network responds to most of your command sequences in realtime. For example, when you issue the shutdown command on a port, that port will go down immediately. Any command that does not involve the propagation of PDUs in the network will have a realtime response. Command sequences that do cause or affect the propagation of PDUs will require the user to press the Play or Forward button in order to see the results. For example, after you issue the ping command sequence from a router's IOS, the appropriate PDU animation icons will appear on the workspace (as if you had used the Add Simple PDU button), but you would need to press the Play or Forward button to watch the PDUs propagate. The IOS status messages or indicators will synchronize with the simulation's events and play speed, appearing to be very slow. Note that packets created by IOS commands do not appear on the User Created PDU List.

Time Management Between Realtime and Simulation Mode


Realtime Mode and Simulation Mode shares a common "master" timeline. The master timeline is transparent to the user; you cannot "see" it in numerical form. The master timeline only moves forward; you cannot "reset" it nor move backwards in time. The master timeline is always advancing when you are in Realtime Mode (moving at the speed of realtime). When you switch to Simulation Mode, the master timeline pauses and falls somewhat under your control. At that point, you will be running under simulation time, which can be thought of as a "segment" of the master timeline. You can use the play or forward buttons to move forward in simulation time, which will cause the master timeline to advance accordingly. You can use the back button to view a previous network state; however, time does not actually "travel backwards". The master timeline will remain at its "most-forward" state. For example, if Event A occurs, and then you use the back button to move back in time to create Event B, the result will not be what you would expect. When you play this scenario, Event B will take place after Event A, even if you think you have "forced" Event B to occur first. Thus, it is impossible to interfere or pre-empt an event that already has occurred, and you should 35

not consider using the back button for that purpose. If you clear the event list, the simulation time will restart at 0.000, but the master time will continue from the last event. When you switch back to Realtime Mode, the master timeline will continue off of the last event in Simulation Mode and move forward at realtime speed again. If you started some event in Simulation Mode, and then switch to Realtime Mode, that event will continue and finish in realtime. For example, if you created a ping between two devices in Simulation Mode; and then you switch to Realtime Mode, that ping will proceed (even if you have not pressed the play or forward button back in Simulation Mode).

Connections / Links
Packet Tracer 4.0 supports a wide range of networking cable connections. Each cable type can only be connected to certain interface types. Cable Type Description

Copper Straight- This cable type is the standard Ethernet media for connecting between devices that reside on different layers (e.g., hub to router, through switch to PC, router to hub, etc.). It can be connected to the following port types: 10 Mbps Copper (Ethernet), 100 Mbps Copper (Fast Ethernet), and 1000 Mbps Copper (Gigabit Ethernet). Copper Crossover This cable type is the Ethernet media for connecting between devices that reside on the same layer (e.g., hub to hub, PC to PC, PC to printer, etc.). It can be connected to the following port types: 10 Mbps Copper (Ethernet), 100 Mbps Copper (Fast Ethernet), and 1000 Mbps Copper (Gigabit Ethernet). A serial connection is typically a WAN link, and it can only be connected between serial ports. Note that you must enable clocking on the DCE side to bring up the line protocol. The DTE clocking is optional. You can tell which end of the connection is the DCE side by the small ?clock? icon next to the port. If you choose the Serial DCE connection type and then connect two devices, the first device will be the DCE side and the second device will be automatically set to the DTE side. The reverse is true if you choose the Serial DTE connection type. Fiber media is used to make connections between fiber ports (100 Mbps or 1000 Mbps). Phone line connections can only be made between devices with modem ports. The standard application for modem connections is an end device (such as a PC) dialing into a network cloud. Console connections can be made between PCs and routers or switches. Certain conditions must be met for the console session from the PC to work: the speed on both sides of the connection must be the same, the data bits must be 7 for both or 8 for both, the parity must be the same, the stop bits must be 1 or 2 (but they do not have

Serial DCE and DTE

Fiber Phone

Console

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to be the same), and the flow control can be anything for either side.

Wireless Links
You can establish wireless links between access points and end devices (PCs, servers, and printers). To establish a link, simply remove the existing module on an end device, insert a wireless module, and turn on the device. The device will automatically try to associate itself with an access point. Typically, this means it will associate (physically) with the nearest access point. See the ?Wireless Devices? page under the ?Physical Workspace? section for more information regarding distances. However, if two or more access points are in the same closet, the distance from any access point to any end device is essentially the same. In this case, an end device will associate with the access point that was created first. Recall that the logical topology does not reflect physical distances, and everything that is created in the Logical Workspace is initially placed in the same wiring closet in the Physical Workspace.

Link Status
When you connect two devices, you will typically see link lights on both ends of the connection. Some connections do not have link lights. Link Light Status Bright green Blinking green Red Amber Meaning The physical link is up. However, this is not indicative of the line protocol status on the link. There is link activity. The physical link is down. It is not detecting any signals. The port is in a ?blocking? state due to Packet Tracer's Layer 2 loop-breaking process. (This appears only on switches.)

Devices and Modules


Packet Tracer 4.0 supports a wide array of modules for many devices. Note that you need to turn off a device before adding or removing modules. Also, when you turn off

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switches or routers and then turn them back on, they will load their startup configuration files. If you did not save the running configuration, it will be lost. When the network contains routers or switches, develop a habit of saving their running configurations to the startup configuration before you press their power buttons (or the Reset Network button in Simulation Mode).

Physical Configuration and Module List


When you click on a device on the workspace, you are first presented with the device's Physical Device View. You will see an interactive photo of the device on the main panel and a list of compatible modules on the left. You can interact with the device by pressing its power button, add a module by dragging it from the list into a compatible bay, or remove a module by dragging it from the bay back to the list. You can also zoom in and out of the photo with the zoom controls. The pages in this section show all of the Packet Tracer 4.0 devices and their supported modules. On these pages, you can click on the thumbnail image of each device or module to view a larger image.

Devices and Modules: Routers


All images on this page are thumbnails on which

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you can click to bring up a larger image.

Router: 2620XM

The Cisco 2620XM Multiservice Router provides a one-network module slot platform with one to two fixed 10/100BASE-T Ethernet port(s), two integrated Wan Interface Card (WIC) slots, and one Advanced Integration Module (AIM) slot. Module Name NM-1E Thumbnails Description The NM-1E features a single Ethernet port that can connect a LAN backbone which can also support either six PRI connections to aggregate ISDN lines, or 24 synchronous/asynchronous ports. The NM-1E2W provides a single Ethernet port with two WIC slots that can support a single Ethernet LAN, together with two serial/ISDN backhaul lines, and still allow multiple serial or ISDN in the same chassis. The NM-1FE-FX Module provides 1 Fast-Ethernet interface for use with fiber media. Ideal for a wide range of LAN applications, the Fast Ethernet network modules support many internetworking features and standards. Single port network modules offer autosensing 10/100BaseTX or 100BaseFX Ethernet. The NM-1FE-TX Module provides 1 Fast-Ethernet interface for use with copper media. Ideal for a wide range of LAN applications, the Fast Ethernet network modules support many internetworking features and standards. Single port network modules offer autosensing 10/100BaseTX or 100BaseFX Ethernet. The TX (copper)version supports virtual LAN (VLAN) deployment. The NM-1FE2W Module provides 1 FastEthernet interface for use with copper media, in addition to 2 Wan Interface Card expansion slots. Ideal for a wide range of LAN applications, the Fast 39

NM-1E2W

NM-1FE-FX

NM-1FE-TX

NM-1FE2W

Ethernet network modules support many internetworking features and standards. Single port network modules offer autosensing 10/100BaseTX or 100BaseFX Ethernet. The TX (copper) version supports virtual LAN (VLAN) deployment. NM-2E2W The NM-2E2W provides two Ethernet ports with two WIC slots that can support two Ethernet LANs, together with two serial/ISDN backhaul lines, and still allow multiple serial or ISDN in the same chassis. The NM-2FE2W Module provides 2 FastEthernet interface for use with copper media, in addition to 2 Wan Interface Card expansion slots. Ideal for a wide range of LAN applications, the Fast Ethernet network modules support many internetworking features and standards. The NM-2W Module provides 2 Wan Interface Card expansion slots. It can be used with a broad range of interface cards supporting a diverse array of physical media and network protocols. The 4-port asynchronous/synchronous serial network module provides flexible multi-protocol support, with each port individually configurable in synchronous or asynchronous mode, offering mixedmedia dial support in a single chassis. Applications for Asynchronous/Synchronous support include: Low speed WAN aggregation (up to 128 Kbps), dial-up modem support, Async or Sync connections to management ports of other equipment, and transport of legacy protocols such as Bi-sync and SDLC. The NM-4E features four Ethernet ports for multifunction solutions that require higher-density Ethernet than the mixedmedia network modules. The 8-port asynchronous/synchronous serial network module provides flexible multi-protocol support, with each port individually configurable in synchronous

NM-2FE2W

NM-2W

NM-4A/S

NM-4E

NM-8A/S

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or asynchronous mode, offering mixedmedia dial support in a single chassis. Applications for Asynchronous/Synchronous support include: Low speed WAN aggregation (up to 128 Kbps), dial-up modem support, Async or Sync connections to management ports of other equipment, and transport of legacy protocols such as Bi-sync and SDLC. NM-8AM The NM-8AM Integrated V.92 analog modem network module provides costeffective analog telephone service connectivity for lower-density remoteaccess service (RAS), dial-out and fax-out modem access, asynchronous dial-ondemand routing (DDR) plus dial backup, and remote router management. Both the 8-port and 16-port versions use RJ-11 jacks to connect the integrated modems to basic analog telephone lines on the public switched telephone network (PSTN) or private telephony systems. The WIC-1AM card features dual RJ-11 connectors, which are used for basic telephone service connection. The WIC1AM uses one port for connection to a standard telephone line, and the other port can be connected to a basic analog telephone for use when the modem is idle. The WIC-1T provides a single port serial connection to remote sites or legacy serial network devices such as Synchronous Data Link Control (SDLC) concentrators, alarm systems, and packet over SONET (POS) devices. The WIC-2AM card features dual RJ-11 connectors, which are used for basic telephone service connection. The WIC2AM has two modem ports to allow multiple data communication connections. The 2-port asynchronous/synchronous serial network module provides flexible multi-protocol support, with each port individually configurable in synchronous or asynchronous mode, offering mixedmedia dial support in a single chassis. Applications for

WIC-1AM

WIC-1T

WIC-2AM

WIC-2T

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Asynchronous/Synchronous support include: Low speed WAN aggregation (up to 128 Kbps), dial-up modem support, Async or Sync connections to management ports of other equipment, and transport of legacy protocols such as Bi-sync and SDLC.

Router: 2621XM

The Cisco 2621XM Multiservice Router provides a one-network module slot platform with one to two fixed 10/100BASE-T Ethernet port(s), two integrated WIC slots, and one Advanced Integration Module (AIM) slot. The 2621XM supports the same modules that the 2620XM supports.

Router: Router-PT

The generic router provides ten slots, one console port, and one auxiliary port. Module Name PT-ROUTER-NM-1AM Thumbnail Description The PT-ROUTER-NM-1AM card features dual RJ-11 connectors, which are used for basic telephone service connection. The WIC-1AM uses one port for connection to a standard telephone line, and the other port can be connected to a basic analog telephone for use when the modem is idle. The PT-ROUTER-NM-1CE features a single Ethernet port that can connect a LAN backbone which can also support either six PRI connections to aggregate ISDN lines, or 24 synchronous/asynchronous ports.

PT-ROUTER-NM-1CE

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PT-ROUTER-NM-1CFE

The PT-ROUTER-NM-1CFE Module provides 1 Fast-Ethernet interface for use with copper media. Ideal for a wide range of LAN applications, the Fast Ethernet network modules support many internetworking features and standards. Single port network modules offer autosensing 10/100BaseTX or 100BaseFX Ethernet. The TX (copper)version supports virtual LAN (VLAN) deployment. The single-port Cisco Gigabit Ethernet Network Module (part number PT-ROUTER-NM1CGE) provides Gigabit Ethernet copper connectivity for access routers. The module is supported by the Cisco 2691, Cisco 3660, Cisco 3725, and Cisco 3745 series routers. This network module has one gigabit interface converter (GBIC) slot to carry any standard copper or optical Cisco GBIC. The PT-ROUTER-NM-1FFE Module provides 1 Fast-Ethernet interface for use with fiber media. Ideal for a wide range of LAN applications, the Fast Ethernet network modules support many internetworking features and standards. Single port network modules offer autosensing 10/100BaseTX or 100BaseFX Ethernet. The single-port Cisco Gigabit Ethernet Network Module (part number PT-ROUTER-NM1FGE) provides Gigabit Ethernet copper connectivity for access routers. The module is supported by the Cisco 2691, Cisco 3660, Cisco 3725, and Cisco 3745 series routers. This network module has one gigabit interface converter (GBIC) slot to carry any standard copper or optical 43

PT-ROUTER-NM-1CGE

PT-ROUTER-NM-1FFE

PT-ROUTER-NM-1FGE

Cisco GBIC. PT-ROUTER-NM-1S The PT-ROUTER-NM-1S provides a single port serial connection to remote sites or legacy serial network devices such as Synchronous Data Link Control (SDLC) concentrators, alarm systems, and packet over SONET (POS) devices. The 2-port asynchronous/synchronous serial network module provides flexible multi-protocol support, with each port individually configurable in synchronous or asynchronous mode, offering mixed-media dial support in a single chassis. Applications for Asynchronous/Synchronous support include: Low speed WAN aggregation (up to 128 Kbps), dial-up modem support, Async or Sync connections to management ports of other equipment, and transport of legacy protocols such as Bi-sync and SDLC.

PT-ROUTER-NM-1SS

Devices and Modules: Switches


All images on this page are thumbnails on which you can click to bring up a larger image.

Switch: 2950-24

The Cisco Catalyst 2950-24 is a member of the Cisco Catalyst 2950 series switches. It is a standalone, fixed-configuration, managed 10/100 switch providing user connectivity for small- to mid-sized networks. It does not support add-in modules.

Switch: 2950T-24

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Cisco Catalyst 2950T-24 is a member of the Catalyst 2950 Series Intelligent Ethernet Switches. It is a fixed-configuration, standalone switch that provides wire-speed Fast Ethernet and Gigabit Ethernet connectivity for midsized networks. It does not support add-in modules.

Switch: Switch-PT

The generic switch provides ten slots, one console port, and one auxiliary port.

PT-SWITCH-NM-1CE

The PT-SWITCH-NM-1CE features a single Ethernet port that can connect a LAN backbone which can also support either six PRI connections to aggregate ISDN lines, or 24 synchronous/asynchronous ports. The PT-SWITCH-NM-1CFE Module provides 1 Fast-Ethernet interface for use with copper media. Ideal for a wide range of LAN applications, the Fast Ethernet network modules support many internetworking features and standards. Single port network modules offer autosensing 10/100BaseTX or 100BaseFX Ethernet. The TX (copper)version supports virtual LAN (VLAN) deployment. The single-port Cisco Gigabit Ethernet Network Module (part number PT-SWITCH-NM1CGE) provides Gigabit Ethernet copper connectivity for access routers. The module is supported by the Cisco 2691, Cisco 3660, Cisco 3725, and Cisco 3745 series routers. This network module has one gigabit interface converter (GBIC) slot to carry any standard copper or optical Cisco GBIC.

PT-SWITCH-NM-1CFE

PT-SWITCH-NM-1CGE

45

PT-SWITCH-NM-1FFE

The PT-SWITCH-NM-1FFE Module provides 1 Fast-Ethernet interface for use with fiber media. Ideal for a wide range of LAN applications, the Fast Ethernet network modules support many internetworking features and standards. Single port network modules offer autosensing 10/100BaseTX or 100BaseFX Ethernet. The single-port Cisco Gigabit Ethernet Network Module (part number PT-SWITCH-NM1FGE) provides Gigabit Ethernet optical connectivity for access routers. The module is supported by the Cisco 2691, Cisco 3660, Cisco 3725, and Cisco 3745 series routers. This network module has one gigabit interface converter (GBIC) slot to carry any standard copper or optical Cisco GBIC.

PT-SWITCH-NM-1FGE

Bridge-PT

This bridge provides two slots. The bridge supports the same modules that the Switch-PT supports.

Devices and Modules: End Devices


All images on this page are thumbnails on which you can click to bring up a larger image.

PC-PT

46

This workstation provides a console port and one slot. Module Name PC-HOST-NM-1AM Thumbnail Description The PT-HOST-NM-1AM card features dual RJ-11 connectors, which are used for basic telephone service connection. The WIC-1AM uses one port for connection to a standard telephone line, and the other port can be connected to a basic analog telephone for use when the modem is idle. The PT-HOST-NM-1CE features a single Ethernet port that can connect a LAN backbone which can also support either six PRI connections to aggregate ISDN lines, or 24 synchronous/asynchronous ports. The PT-HOST-NM-1CFE Module provides 1 Fast-Ethernet interface for use with copper media. Ideal for a wide range of LAN applications, the Fast Ethernet network modules support many internetworking features and standards. Single port network modules offer autosensing 10/100BaseTX or 100BaseFX Ethernet. The TX (copper)version supports virtual LAN (VLAN) deployment. The single-port Cisco Gigabit Ethernet Network Module (part number PT-HOST-NM-1CGE) provides Gigabit Ethernet copper connectivity for access routers. The module is supported by the Cisco 2691, Cisco 3660, Cisco 3725, and

PC-HOST-NM-1CE

PC-HOST-NM-1CFE

PC-HOST-NM-1CGE

47

Cisco 3745 series routers. This network module has one gigabit interface converter (GBIC) slot to carry any standard copper or optical Cisco GBIC. PC-HOST-NM-1FFE The PT-HOST-NM-1FFE Module provides 1 Fast-Ethernet interface for use with fiber media. Ideal for a wide range of LAN applications, the Fast Ethernet network modules support many internetworking features and standards. Single port network modules offer autosensing 10/100BaseTX or 100BaseFX Ethernet. The single-port Cisco Gigabit Ethernet Network Module (part number PT-HOST-NM-1FGE) provides Gigabit Ethernet optical connectivity for access routers. The module is supported by the Cisco 2691, Cisco 3660, Cisco 3725, and Cisco 3745 series routers. This network module has one gigabit interface converter (GBIC) slot to carry any standard copper or optical Cisco GBIC. The wireless interface module provides one 2.4GHz wireless interface suitable for connection to 802.11b networks. The module operates at 11 Megabits/second and supports protocols that use Ethernet for LAN access.

PC-HOST-NM-1FGE

PC-HOST-NM-1W

Server-PT

This server provides one slot. This server supports the same modules that the PC-PT supports. 48

Printer-PT

This printer provides one slot. This printer supports the same modules that the PC-PT supports.

Devices and Modules: Other Devices


All images on this page are thumbnails on which you can click to bring up a larger image.

Hub-PT

This hub provides ten slots. Module Name PT-REPEATER-NM-1CE Thumbnail Description The PT-REPEATER-NM1CE features a single Ethernet port that can connect a LAN backbone which can also support either six PRI connections to aggregate ISDN lines, or 24 synchronous/asynchronous ports. The PT-REPEATER-NM1CFE Module provides 1 Fast-Ethernet interface for use with copper media. Ideal for a wide range of LAN applications, the Fast Ethernet network modules support many internetworking features and standards. Single port network modules offer autosensing 10/100BaseTX or

PT-REPEATER-NM-1CFE

49

100BaseFX Ethernet. The TX (copper)version supports virtual LAN (VLAN) deployment. PT-REPEATER-NM-1CGE The single-port Cisco Gigabit Ethernet Network Module (part number PTREPEATER-NM-1CGE) provides Gigabit Ethernet copper connectivity for access routers. The module is supported by the Cisco 2691, Cisco 3660, Cisco 3725, and Cisco 3745 series routers. This network module has one gigabit interface converter (GBIC) slot to carry any standard copper or optical Cisco GBIC. The PT-REPEATER-NM1FFE Module provides 1 Fast-Ethernet interface for use with fiber media. Ideal for a wide range of LAN applications, the Fast Ethernet network modules support many internetworking features and standards. Single port network modules offer autosensing 10/100BaseTX or 100BaseFX Ethernet. The single-port Cisco Gigabit Ethernet Network Module (part number PTREPEATER-NM-1FGE) provides Gigabit Ethernet optical connectivity for access routers. The module is supported by the Cisco 2691, Cisco 3660, Cisco 3725, and Cisco 3745 series routers. This network module has one gigabit interface converter (GBIC) slot to carry any standard copper or optical Cisco GBIC.

PT-REPEATER-NM-1FFE

PT-REPEATER-NM-1FGE

50

Repeater-PT

This repeater provides two slots. This repeater supports the same modules that the Hub-PT supports.

Access Point-PT

This access point has a built-in antenna and provides one slot. This access point supports the same modules that the Hub-PT supports.

Cloud-PT

Although a ?cloud? is not a single device, Packet Tracer 4.0 gives you access to a representation of a cloud. It provides ten slots, a console port, and an auxiliary port. Device Name PT-CLOUD-NM-1AM Thumbnail Description The PT-CLOUD-NM-1AM card features dual RJ-11 connectors, which are used for basic telephone service connection. The WIC-1AM uses one port for connection to a standard telephone line, and the other port can be connected to a basic analog telephone for use when the modem is idle. The PT-CLOUD-NM-1S provides a single port serial connection to remote sites or legacy serial network devices such as Synchronous Data Link Control (SDLC) concentrators, alarm systems, and packet over SONET (POS) devices.

PT-CLOUD-NM-1S

51

Configuring Devices
As with real networks, the networks you make in Packet Tracer 4.0 must be properly configured before they "work". For simple devices, this may just mean entering some fields (such as an IP address and subnet mask) or selecting options in a graphical configuration panel (accessed by the Config tab). Routers and switches, on the other hand, are advanced devices that can be configured with much more sophistication. Some of their settings can be configured in the Config tab, but most advanced configurations will need to be done through the Cisco IOS. This section explains the Config tab for all devices. You will also find the complete listing of supported IOS commands for routers and switches in this section.

Logging IOS Commands


If you enabled the IOS logging feature (found in Options --> Preferences), you can keep track of all IOS commands you entered in a work session. Press the View button to bring up the IOS Command Log window.

The IOS Command Log window will keep track of all the IOS commands you entered in any given work session. You need to manually press the Update button to see your commands. You can export the log into a text file with the Export button (found in the Options window). The log clears any time you start a new workspace or open a file.

52

Tutorial
After reading through all the pages in this section, open this tutorial to see a demonstration of a network being configured.

Configuring Routers
The Config tab offers three general levels of configuration: global, routing, and interface. To perform a global configuration, press the GLOBAL button to expand the Settings button (if it has not already been expanded). To configure routing, press the ROUTING button, and then choose Static or RIP. To configure an interface, press the INTERFACE button to expand the list of interfaces, and then choose the interface. Throughout your configurations in the Config tab, the lower window will display the equivalent Cisco IOS commands for all your actions.

Global Settings
In global settings, you can change the router's display name as it appears on the workspace and also the hostname as it appears in the Cisco IOS. You can also manipulate the router configurations files in these various ways:

Erase the NVRAM (where the startup configuration is stored). Save the current running configuration to the NVRAM. Export the startup and running configuration to an external text file. Load an existing configuration file (in .txt format) into the startup configuration. Merge the current running configuration with another configuration file.

53

Routing Configuration
You can make static routes on the router by choosing the Static sub-panel. Each static route you add requires a network IP address, subnet mask, and next hop address. You can also set a default gateway.

You can enable RIP on specified networks by choosing the RIP subpanel. Enter an IP address into the Network field and press the Add button. The RIP-enabled network is

54

added to the Network Address list. You can disable RIP on a network by clicking the Remove button to remove it from the list.

Interface Configuration
A router can support a wide range of interfaces, including serial, modem, copper Ethernet, and fiber Ethernet. Each interface type may have different configuration options, but in general, you can set the Port Status (on or off), IP Address, and Subnet Mask. For Ethernet interfaces, you can also set the MAC Address, Bandwidth, and Duplex setting. For serial interfaces, you can set the Clock Rate setting.

Routers: IOS

55

Click on the CLI tab in the router configuration window to access the router's Cisco IOS command line interface. Use the Copy and Paste buttons to copy and paste text to or from the command line. This page lists the Cisco IOS command tree for Packet Tracer 4.0 routers. The tree contains only Cisco IOS command chains that are supported in Packet Tracer 4.0.

User Mode

enable exit logout ping WORD show o cdp entry * [ version | protocol ] WORD [ version | protocol ] interface [ Ethernet <0-9>/<0-24> | FastEthernet <0-9>/<024> | GigabitEthernet <0-9>/<0-24>| Serial <0-9>/<0-24> ] neighbors [ detail ] clock controllers [ Ethernet <0-9>/<0-24> | FastEthernet <0-9>/<0-24> | GigabitEthernet <0-9>/<0-24> | Serial <0-9>/<0-24> ] frame-relay lmi map pvc history interfaces [ Ethernet <0-9>/<0-24> | FastEthernet <0-9>/<0-24> | GigabitEthernet <0-9>/<0-24> | Loopback <0-2147483647> | Serial <09>/<0-24> ]

o o o

o o

56

ip

dhcp binding eigrp interfaces [ <1-65535> ] neighbors [ <1-65535> ] topology [ <1-65535> | all-links ] traffic [ <1-65535> ] interface [ Ethernet <0-9>/<0-24> | FastEthernet <0-9>/<024> | GigabitEthernet <0-9>/<0-24> | Serial <0-9>/<0-24> ] brief nat translations protocols rip database route [ connected | eigrp | rip ] o version traceroute WORD

Enable Mode
o o o

clear arp-cache cdp table ip nat translastion * route [ * | A.B.C.D | A.B.C.D A.B.C.D ] configure [ terminal ] copy running-config startup-config startup-config running-config debug ip rip [ events ] disable enable erase startup-config exit logout no debug [ all | ip rip | ip rip events ] ping [ WORD ] [ Protocol ] [ Target IP address ] [ Repeat count ] [ Datagram size ] [ Timeout in seconds ] [ Extended commands ] [ Sweep range of sizes ] reload show access-lists [ <1-999> | WORD ] arp cdp entry * [ version | protocol ] WORD [ version | protocol ] interface [ Ethernet <0-9>/<0-24> | FastEthernet <0-9>/<0-

o o o o o o o

57

o o o

o o

o o o o

24> | GigabitEthernet <0-9>/<0-24>| Serial <0-9>/<0-24> ] neighbors [ detail ] clock controllers [ Ethernet <0-9>/<0-24> | FastEthernet <0-9>/<0-24> | GigabitEthernet <0-9>/<0-24> | Serial <0-9>/<0-24> ] frame-relay lmi map pvc history interfaces [ Ethernet <0-9>/<0-24> | FastEthernet <0-9>/<0-24> | GigabitEthernet <0-9>/<0-24> | Loopback <0-2147483647> | Serial <09>/<0-24> ] ip access-lists [ <1-199> | WORD ] dhcp binding eigrp interfaces [ <1-65535> ] neighbors [ <1-65535> ] topology [ <1-65535> | all-links ] traffic [ <1-65535> ] interface [ Ethernet <0-9>/<0-24> | FastEthernet <0-9>/<024> | GigabitEthernet <0-9>/<0-24> | Serial <0-9>/<0-24> ] brief nat translations protocols rip database route [ connected | eigrp | rip ] running-config startup-config version traceroute [ WORD ] [ Protocol ] [ Target IP address ] [ Source address ] [ Numeric display ] [ Timeout in seconds ] [ Probe count ] [ Minimum Time to Live ] [ Maximum Time to Live ] undebug [ all | ip rip | ip rip events ] write [ erase | memory | terminal ]

Global Mode

access-list (named ACL is under the "ip access-list" branch in Global Mode) o <1-99> [ deny | permit ] [ A.B.C.D | any | host A.B.C.D ] [ deny | permit ] [ A.B.C.D A.B.C.D ] remark LINE o <100-199> [ deny | permit ] [ icmp | ip ] [ A.B.C.D A.B.C.D | any | host A.B.C.D ] [ A.B.C.D A.B.C.D | any | host A.B.C.D ]

58

o o o o o

o o o o o

[ deny | permit ] [ tcp | udp ] [ A.B.C.D A.B.C.D | any | host A.B.C.D ] [ A.B.C.D A.B.C.D | any | eq <0-65535> | host A.B.C.D | gt <0-65535> | lt <0-65535> | neq <0-65535> | range <0-65535> <065535> ] [ eq <0-65535> | gt <0-65535> | lt <0-65535> | neq <065535> | range <0-65535> <0-65535> ] remark LINE cdp run enable secret [ 0 | 5 ] LINE end exit hostname WORD interface Ethernet <0-9>/<0-24>[ . ][ 0-4294967295 ] FastEthernet <0-9>/<0-24>[ . ][ 0-4294967295 ] GigabitEthernet <0-9>/<0-24>[ . ][ 0-4294967295 ] Serial <0-9>/<0-24> ip access-list extended [ <100-199> | WORD ] standard [ <1-99> | WORD ] dhcp excluded-address A.B.C.D [ A.B.C.D ] pool WORD nat inside source list [ <1-199> | WORD ] interface [ Ethernet | FastEthernet | GigabitEthernet | Serial ] <0-9>/<0-24> [ overload ] list [ <1-199> | WORD ] pool WORD [ overload ] static A.B.C.D A.B.C.D static [ tcp | udp ] A.B.C.D <1-65535> A.B.C.D <165535> pool WORD A.B.C.D A.B.C.D netmask A.B.C.D route A.B.C.D A.B.C.D A.B.C.D [ <1-255> ] Ethernet <0-9>/<0-24> [ <1-255> ] FastEthernet <0-9>/<0-24> [ <1-255> ] GigabitEthernet <0-9>/<0-24> [ <1-255> ] Serial <0-9>/<0-24> [ <1-255> ] line console <0-0> no access-list [ <1-99> | <100-199> ] cdp run enable secret hostname interface Ethernet <0-9>/<0-24> FastEthernet <0-9>/<0-24> GigabitEthernet <0-9>/<0-24> Serial <0-9>/<0-24>

59

ip access-list extended [ <100-199> | WORD ] standard [ <1-99> | WORD ] dhcp excluded-address A.B.C.D [ A.B.C.D ] pool WORD nat inside source list [ <1-199> | WORD ] static A.B.C.D A.B.C.D static [ tcp | udp ] A.B.C.D <1-65535> A.B.C.D <1-65535> pool WORD route A.B.C.D A.B.C.D A.B.C.D <1-255> Ethernet <0-9>/<0-24> [ <1-255> ] FastEthernet <0-9>/<0-24> [ <1-255> ] GigabitEthernet <0-9>/<0-24> [ <1-255> ] Serial <0-9>/<0-24> [ <1-255> ] router eigrp <1-65535> rip username WORD router eigrp <1-65535> rip username WORD password [ 0 ] LINE

o o o

Standard Access List Configuration Mode


o

default deny A.B.C.D [ A.B.C.D ] any host A.B.C.D

permit A.B.C.D [ A.B.C.D ] any host A.B.C.D

o o o o

deny A.B.C.D [ A.B.C.D ] any host A.B.C.D exit no deny A.B.C.D [ A.B.C.D ] any

60

host A.B.C.D
o

permit A.B.C.D [ A.B.C.D ] any host A.B.C.D

o o o

permit A.B.C.D [ A.B.C.D ] any host A.B.C.D remark LINE

Extended Access List Configuration Mode


o o

o o

o o

o o

default [ deny | permit ] [ icmp | ip ] [ A.B.C.D A.B.C.D | any | host A.B.C.D ] [ A.B.C.D A.B.C.D | any | host A.B.C.D ] [ deny | permit ] [ tcp | udp ] [ A.B.C.D A.B.C.D | any | host A.B.C.D ] [ A.B.C.D A.B.C.D | any | eq <0-65535> | host A.B.C.D | gt <065535> | lt <0-65535> | neq <0-65535> | range <0-65535> <0-65535> ] [ eq <0-65535> | gt <0-65535> | lt <0-65535> | neq <0-65535> | range <065535> <0-65535> ] deny [ icmp | ip ] [ A.B.C.D A.B.C.D | any | host A.B.C.D ] [ A.B.C.D A.B.C.D | any | host A.B.C.D ] [ tcp | udp ] [ A.B.C.D A.B.C.D | any | host A.B.C.D ] [ A.B.C.D A.B.C.D | any | eq <0-65535> | host A.B.C.D | gt <0-65535> | lt <065535> | neq <0-65535> | range <0-65535> <0-65535> ] [ eq <0-65535> | gt <0-65535> | lt <0-65535> | neq <0-65535> | range <0-65535> <065535> ] exit no [ deny | permit ] [ icmp | ip ] [ A.B.C.D A.B.C.D | any | host A.B.C.D ] [ A.B.C.D A.B.C.D | any | host A.B.C.D ] [ deny | permit ] [ tcp | udp ] [ A.B.C.D A.B.C.D | any | host A.B.C.D ] [ A.B.C.D A.B.C.D | any | eq <0-65535> | host A.B.C.D | gt <065535> | lt <0-65535> | neq <0-65535> | range <0-65535> <0-65535> ] [ eq <0-65535> | gt <0-65535> | lt <0-65535> | neq <0-65535> | range <065535> <0-65535> ] permit [ icmp | ip ] [ A.B.C.D A.B.C.D | any | host A.B.C.D ] [ A.B.C.D A.B.C.D | any | host A.B.C.D ] [ tcp | udp ] [ A.B.C.D A.B.C.D | any | host A.B.C.D ] [ A.B.C.D A.B.C.D | any | eq <0-65535> | host A.B.C.D | gt <0-65535> | lt <065535> | neq <0-65535> | range <0-65535> <0-65535> ] [ eq <0-65535> | gt <0-65535> | lt <0-65535> | neq <0-65535> | range <0-65535> <065535> ] remark LINE

Ethernet / FastEthernet / GigabitEthernet Interface Mode


61

o o o o o o o o o o o o

o o o

arp timeout <0-2147483> bandwidth <1-10000000> cdp enable delay <1-16777215> description LINE duplex [ auto | full | half ] exit ip access-group [ <1-199> | WORD ] [ in | out ] address A.B.C.D A.B.C.D hello-interval eigrp <1-65535> [ <1-65535> ] nat [ inside | outside ] summary-address eigrp <1-65535> A.B.C.D A.B.C.D [ <1-255> ] mac-address H.H.H no arp timeout bandwidth cdp enable delay description duplex ip access-group [ <1-199> | WORD ] [ in | out ] address hello-interval eigrp <1-65535> nat [ inside | outside ] summary-address eigrp <1-65535> A.B.C.D A.B.C.D [ <1255> ] mac-address shutdown speed shutdown speed [ 10 | 100 | 1000 | auto ] (10/100 options are only available for FastEthernet

and GigabitEthernet interfaces and 10/100/1000 options are only available for GigabitEthernet interfaces respectively)

Ethernet / FastEthernet / GigabitEthernet Sub-Interface Mode


o o o o

arp timeout <0-2147483> bandwidth <1-10000000> delay <1-16777215> description LINE encapsulation dot1Q <1-1005> [ native ] exit ip address A.B.C.D A.B.C.D hello-interval eigrp <1-65535> <1-65535> nat [ inside | outside ] summary-address eigrp <1-65535> A.B.C.D A.B.C.D [ <1-255> ] no

62

arp timeout bandwidth delay description encapsulation dot1Q ip address hello-interval eigrp <1-65535> nat [ inside | outside ] summary-address eigrp <1-65535> A.B.C.D A.B.C.D [ <1255> ] o shutdown shutdown
o o o o o o

Serial Interface Mode


o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o

bandwidth <1-10000000> cdp enable clock rate <300-4000000> (only certain clock rates that are listed are valid) delay <1-16777215> description LINE encapsulation hdlc ppp frame-relay [ ietf ] exit frame-relay lmi-type [ cisco | ansi | q933a ] map ip A.B.C.D <16-1007> [ broadcast cisco | broadcast ietf | cisco | ietf ] ip access-group [ <1-199> | WORD ] [ in | out ] address A.B.C.D A.B.C.D hello-interval eigrp <1-65535> <1-65535> nat [ inside | outside ] summary-address eigrp <1-65535> A.B.C.D A.B.C.D [ <1-255> ] keepalive no bandwidth <1-10000000> cdp enable clock rate description encapsulation frame-relay lmi-type [ cisco | ansi | q933a ] map ip A.B.C.D ip access-group [ <1-199> | WORD ] [ in | out ] address

63

hello-interval eigrp <1-65535> <1-65535> nat [ inside | outside ] summary-address eigrp <1-65535> A.B.C.D A.B.C.D [ <1o o o

255> ] keepalive ppp authentication shutdown ppp authentication chap shutdown

Line Console Mode


databits [ 5 | 6 | 7 | 8 ] default [ databits | flowcontrol | history size | parity | speed | stopbits ] exit flowcontrol [ NONE | hardware | software ] history size <0-256> no [ databits | flowcontrol | history size | parity | speed | stopbits ] parity [ even | mark | none | odd | space ] speed <0-4294967295> stopbits [ 1 | 1.5 | 2 ]

Router RIP Mode


o o o o

o o o o o o

auto-summary distance <1-255> exit network A.B.C.D no auto-summary distance <1-255> network A.B.C.D passive-interface default Ethernet <0-9>/<0-24> FastEthernet <0-9>/<0-24> GigabitEthernet <0-9>/<0-24> Serial <0-9>/<0-24> version <1-2> passive-interface default Ethernet <0-9>/<0-24> FastEthernet <0-9>/<0-24> GigabitEthernet <0-9>/<0-24> Serial <0-9>/<0-24> version <1-2>

Router EIGRP Mode

64

o o o o

o o o o o o

auto-summary exit metric weights <0-8> <0-256> <0-256> <0-256> <0-256> <0-256> network A.B.C.D [ A.B.C.D ] no auto-summary metric weights network A.B.C.D [ A.B.C.D ] passive-interface default Ethernet <0-9>/<0-24> FastEthernet <0-9>/<0-24> GigabitEthernet <0-9>/<0-24> Serial <0-9>/<0-24> variance <1-128> passive-interface default Ethernet <0-9>/<0-24> FastEthernet <0-9>/<0-24> GigabitEthernet <0-9>/<0-24> Serial <0-9>/<0-24> variance <1-128>

DHCP Configuration Mode


default-router A.B.C.D exit network A.B.C.D A.B.C.D

Configuring Switches
As with a router, a switch's Config tab offers three general levels of configuration: global, switching, and interface. The global level offers the same settings as the router's does. The switching level, however, is where you can manage the switch's VLAN database. The interface level configurations also offer access to the switch's VLAN settings. Throughout your configurations in the Config tab, the lower window will display the equivalent Cisco IOS commands for all your actions.

Global Settings
In global settings, you can change the router's display name as it appears on the workspace and also the hostname as it appears in the Cisco IOS. You can also manipulate the switch's configurations files in these various ways: 65

Erase the NVRAM (where the startup configuration is stored). Save the current running configuration to the NVRAM. Export the startup and running configuration to an external text file. Load an existing configuration file (in .txt format) into the startup configuration. Merge the current running configuration with another configuration file.

VLAN Database Configuration


You can manage the switch's VLANs from the VLAN Database sub-panel. You can add VLANs by entering a name and a VLAN number and pressing the Add button. You can see all existing VLAN entries in the list below the button. You can remove a VLAN by selecting it in the list and then pressing the Remove button. To associate a particular interface with a VLAN, go to that interface's configuration panel.

66

Interface Configuration
Switches have only Ethernet-type interfaces. For each interface, you can set the Port Status (on or off), Bandwidth, Duplex setting, and VLAN Switch Mode. By default, an interface is a VLAN access port assigned to VLAN 1. You can use the drop-down menu on the right side of the screen to reassign the port to another existing VLAN. You can also change an interface into a VLAN trunk port, and then use the drop-down menu on the right to select the VLANs you want that trunk to handle.

In Packet Tracer 4.0, the switch allows all VLANs

67

(1 to 1005) on a trunk port by default, even if the VLAN does not actually exist on the switch. In the drop-down menu, you can see the current VLANs and block (uncheck) them from the trunk. However, you cannot block VLANs that do not exist. This does not affect the switch's functionality. It is simply a way to display VLANs (or a range of VLANs) that the trunk supports.

Switches: IOS
Click on the CLI tab in the switch configuration window to access the switch's Cisco IOS command line interface. Use the Copy and Paste buttons to copy and paste text to and from the command line. This page lists the Cisco IOS command tree for Packet Tracer 4.0 switches. The tree contains only Cisco IOS command chains that are supported in Packet Tracer 4.0.

User Mode

enable exit logout ping WORD show o cdp entry

68

o o o

o o o

* [ version | protocol ] WORD [ version | protocol ] interface [ Ethernet <0-9> / <0-24> | FastEthernet <0-9> / <0-24> | GigabitEthernet <0-9> / <0-24>| Serial <0-9> / <0-24> ] neighbors [ detail ] clock history interfaces Ethernet <0-9>/<0-24> FastEthernet <0-9>/<0-24> GigabitEthernet <0-9>/<0-24> Switchport Trunk Vlan <1-1005> ip interface brief Vlan <1-1005> mac-address-table version vlan traceroute WORD

Enable Mode
o o o o o o o o

clear arp-cache cdp table mac-address-table dynamic configure terminal copy running-config startup-config startup-config running-config disable enable erase startup-config exit logout ping [ WORD ] [ Protocol ] [ Target IP address ] [ Repeat count ] [ Datagram size ] [ Timeout in seconds ] [ Extended commands ] [ Sweep range of sizes ] reload show arp cdp entry * [ version | protocol ] WORD [ version | protocol ] interface [ Ethernet <0-9>/<0-24> | FastEthernet <0-9>/<024> | GigabitEthernet <0-9>/<0-24>| Serial <0-9>/<0-24> ]

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neighbors [ detail ]
o o o

o o o o o o

clock history interfaces Ethernet <0-9>/<0-24> FastEthernet <0-9>/<0-24> GigabitEthernet <0-9>/<0-24> Switchport Trunk Vlan <1-1005> ip interface brief Vlan <1-1005> mac-address-table running-config startup-config version vlan traceroute [ WORD ] [ Protocol ] [ Target IP address ] [ Source address ] [ Numeric display ] [ Timeout in seconds ] [ Probe count ] [ Minimum Time to Live ] [ Maximum Time to Live ] write [ erase | memory | terminal ]

Global Mode
o o o o o o o o o o

cdp run enable secret [ 0 | 5 ] LINE end exit hostname WORD interface Ethernet <0-9>/<0-24> FastEthernet <0-9>/<0-24> GigabitEthernet <0-9>/<0-24> Vlan <1-1005> ip default-gateway A.B.C.D line console <0-0> no cdp run enable secret hostname interface Vlan <1-1005> ip default-gateway vlan <1-1005> vlan <1-1005>

Ethernet / FastEthernet / GigabitEthernet Interface Mode

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o o o o o o o

o o o o

cdp enable description LINE duplex [ auto | full | half ] exit mac-address H.H.H no cdp enable description duplex mac-address shutdown speed switchport access vlan mode native vlan trunk [ allowed | native ] vlan shutdown speed [ 10 | 100 | 1000 | auto ] (10/100 options are only available for FastEthernet switchport access vlan <1-1005> mode [ access | trunk ] native vlan <1-1005> trunk allowed vlan WORD add <1-1005> all except <1-1005> none remove <1-1005> native vlan <1-1005>

and GigabitEthernet interfaces and 10/100/1000 options are only available for GigabitEthernet interfaces respectively)

VLAN Interface Mode


o o o o o o

arp timeout <0-2147483> description LINE exit ip address A.B.C.D A.B.C.D mac-address H.H.H no arp timeout description ip address mac-address shutdown

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shutdown

VLAN Configuration Mode


exit name WORD no name

Line Console Mode


databits [ 5 | 6 | 7 | 8 ] default [ databits | flowcontrol | history size | parity | speed | stopbits ] exit flowcontrol [ NONE | hardware | software ] history size <0-256> no [ databits | flowcontrol | history size | parity | speed | stopbits ] parity [ even | mark | none | odd | space ] speed <0-4294967295> stopbits [ 1 | 1.5 | 2 ]

Configuring PCs
You can configure a PC's global settings and interface settings with the Config tab. Additionally, the Desktop tab provides tools to configure IP settings, configure dial-up settings, use a terminal window, and open a host command line interface.

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Global Settings
In the global settings, you can change the PC's display name. You can also set a gateway for the PC.

Interface Configuration
PCs can support an Ethernet (copper or fiber), modem, or wireless interface. In general, you can set the interface Port Status, Bandwidth, Duplex, Mac Address, IP Address, and Subnet Mask . These options vary slightly for each interface type.

IP Configuration Utility
In the Desktop tab, click the IP Configuration icon to bring up this utility. If the PC is connected to a configured port on a router, you can use the Use DHCP button to automatically obtain an IP address, subnet mask, and default gateway from the router. Otherwise, you can manually set all three fields.

Modem Dial-up Utility


In the Desktop tab, click the Dial-up icon to bring up this utility. You can establish a modem connection by connecting the PC to a cloud that is connected to a router. The cloud acts like a phone company between the PC and the router. Several conditions must be met before the connection can be successful:

The router has a modem, and you have established user name authentication on the router (using the Cisco IOS global mode command username WORD password LINE).

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The cloud's modem ports have valid phone numbers. You entered the correct user name, password, and number to dial on the PC's modem utility.

If all the requirements are met, press the Dial button to make the call. The status line (as well as link lights) will tell you if the connection is successful. Note that you still must configure all relevant IP settings manually if you want to ping between the PC and the router. Use the Disconnect button to terminate the connection at any time.

Terminal Utility
If the PC is connected to a router or a switch via a console connection (via the PC's RS 232 port), use the Terminal application to gain access to that device's CLI. In the Desktop tab, click the Terminal icon to bring up this utility. Choose the appropriate connection parameters for the console session, and then press the OK button. The Terminal window appears with the device's CLI.

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Command Prompt Utility


In the Desktop tab, click the Command Prompt button to bring up the command prompt. In the prompt, you can issue the following commands:

ping WORD tracert WORD ipconfig help ? dir ls arp -a

Configuring Clouds
The Config tab offers three general levels of configuration: global, connections, and interface. To configure at the global level, press the GLOBAL button to expand the Settings button (if it has not already been expanded). To configure connections, choose the Settings button under CONNECTIONS . To configure an interface, press the INTERFACE button to expand the list of interfaces, and then choose the interface.

Global Settings
The only global setting available for a cloud is its display name.

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Connection Settings
You can use this sub-panel to establish connections between sub-links on the cloud's ports. From the left side, choose a port and one of its sub-links. Then from the right side, choose another port and one of its sub-links. Press the Add button to make a connection between those two sub-links. The connection will now appear on the list. You can remove a connection from the list with the Remove button.

Interface Configuration
Clouds can support two interface types: modem and serial. For a modem port, you can toggle its status (on or off), and you can set a phone number into which another device with a modem can dial. For a serial port, you can toggle its status, choose an LMI (ANSI, Cisco, or Q933a), and set DLCIs to the interface. To add a DLCI, enter an identifying number and a name for it, and then press the Add button to add it to the list. You can remove a DLCI from the port with the Remove button.

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Configuring Other Devices


The configuration options for all other devices are relatively simple. In general, you can change their display names in their global settings sub-panel and make basic settings on each interface.

Bridges
A bridge is basically a simplified two-port switch. It does not have VLAN or trunking functions. The available settings for its two Ethernet ports are Port Status, Bandwidth, and Duplex.

Repeaters
A repeater is a simple two-port device that regenerates the signal it receives on one port and forwards it out the other port. Its port settings cannot be modified.

Hubs
A hub is a multiport repeater that regenerates the signal it receives on one port and forwards it out all other ports. Its port settings cannot be modified.

Access Points
An access point is basically a repeater with one wireless port and one Ethernet port. The settings for the wireless port are fixed at 11 Mbps at half duplex, but you can toggle the Port Status. The available settings for its Ethernet port are Port Status, Bandwidth, and Duplex.

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Servers
A server functions like a PC except that it does not have the PC's utilities. In the global settings, you can set the display name and the gateway IP address. The available settings for its Ethernet port are Port Status, Bandwidth, Duplex, MAC Address, IP Address, and Subnet Mask.

Printers
A printer has the same configuration options as a server.

Keyboard Shortcuts
Many actions in Packet Tracer 4.0 are keyboard-accessible for your convenience. In addition to key combinations, the following keys deserve extra attention:

Alt: Press this key to activate the Menu Bar options. Press Alt plus the underlined letter in the in the menu bar to open the menu. Then press the underlined letter in the command name that you want. In fact, whenever you see an underlined letter in any option or dialogue, you can press that key to select it. Ctrl: Use this key to quickly create multiple devices and connections. Press and hold the Ctrl key, choose a specific device or a connection type, and then release the key. You can now quickly place multiple instances of that device on the workspace or make connections of that type between devices. The Ctrl key can also be used to prevent windows from docking (press and hold the key as you drag a window). Shift: Use this key with the mouse to select multiple objects. Press and hold the Shift key, click and drag the cursor to draw a selection rectangle around the objects you want to select, and then release the key. Alternatively, you can hold Shift, click on all the devices you want to select, and then release the key. You can move the selected objects as one unit. You can also delete them with the Del key. Esc: This key is a shortcut to the Select tool in the Common Tools Bar. It also serves as a "cancel" key?it closes certain pop-up windows or cancels/stops the current action (e.g., continuously placing devices or continuously making connections). Action Go to the Logical Workspace. Go to the Physical Workspace. Switch to Realtime Mode. Switch to Simulation Mode. Start a New network.

Shortcut Shift + L Shift + P Shift + R Shift + S Ctrl + N

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Ctrl + O Ctrl + S Ctrl + Shift + S Ctrl + P Ctrl + W Ctrl + R Alt + F4 Esc M N Del I P C C N Y F1 F11 F12

Open an existing network. Save the current network. Save the current network to a different name (Save As). Print the current network. Run the Activity Wizard. View Preferences. Exit Packet Tracer 4.0. Choose the Select tool. Choose the Move Layout tool. Choose the Place Note tool. Choose the Delete tool. If you have selected multiple objects, pressing Del will delete them. Choose the Inspect tool. Press the Add Simple PDU button. Press the Add Complex PDU button. Choose Cancel in confirmation dialogues. Choose No in confirmation dialogues. Choose Yes in confirmation dialogues. Open the Help Files. Open the Tutorials. Open the About page.

Time Constants
Packet Tracer 4.0 uses the following time constants: RIP default update RIP default timeout RIP default flush timeout RIP default hold-down MAC table entry timeout ARP request timer ARP table entry timeout 30 sec 3 min 4 min 3 min 5 min 2 sec 4 hrs

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CDP update timer CDP neighbor hold-down timer DHCP client timeout CSMA/CD waiting time to resend LMI timeout LMI signaling HDLC keepalive HDLC timeout NAT entries timeout NAT entry encapsulated in a UDP NAT entry encapsulated in a TCP NAT entry encapsulated in a IC PTL2LBP* advertise timer PTL2LBP* block timer CHAP timeout CHAP re-authenticate timeout DIALING no answer timeout DIALING no dial tone timeout PPP keepalive interval Timeout EIGRP Hello time interval period EIGRP Hold time interval period ICMP

1 min 3 min 5 sec random 15 sec 5 sec 5 sec 15 sec Depends on the encapsulation protocol 5 min 24 hrs 1 min 2 sec 6 sec 5 sec 10 sec 5 sec 2 sec 5 sec 15 sec 5 sec 15 sec 1 ms

*Packet Tracer Layer 2 Loop Breaking Protocol

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Modeling in Packet Tracer 4.0


Packet Tracer 4.0 simulates the behavior of real networks and devices using models. As with all simulations, the program is inherently limited by modeling decisions. The following pages describe how protocols, features, and functions are modeled in Packet Tracer 4.0. Refer to these models if you find discrepancies between real-world situations and Packet Tracer 4.0 simulations.

Layer 1 Models
How hubs process frames
When a hub receives a frame (flowchart here):

If two or more ports receive frames at the same time, a collision occurs and the hub forwards a jam signal to all ports. If one port receives a frame, the hub forwards the frame to all ports except the receiving port..

How repeaters process frames


When a repeater receives a frame:

The repeater forwards the frame to the other port.

Layer 2 Models
How switches process incoming frames
When a switch receives a frame (flowchart here):

It compares the receiving port's type (trunk or access) to the frame's format. o It drops the frame if (any): The port is an access port while the frame has a Dot1q encapsulation format. The port is a trunk port and the frame is not a Dot1q frame. o Otherwise, continue to process the frame. It drops the frame if the receiving port is a blocking port (set by the Packet Tracer Layer 2 Loop Breaking Protocol [PTL2LBP]) and the frame is not a PTL2LBP frame. It determines which VLAN the frame is destined. o If the receiving port is a trunk (and so the frame is a Dot1q frame): It gets the frame's destination VLAN number from the VLAN tag in the Dot1q header. It checks if it (the switch itself) has that particular VLAN configured.

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If that VLAN is configured, it refers to that VLAN's MAC table: If the frame's source MAC address is in the MAC table, it resets the entry's timer. If not, it creates a new MAC entry in the table and starts a timer for it. When the timer expires (5 min), it removes the entry. If that VLAN is not configured, the switch broadcasts the frame to all trunk ports (except the receiving port) that allows that VLAN number. o If the receiving port is an access VLAN (the frame is destined for that VLAN), it continues to process it. It sends it to a higher process if (any): The frame is a PTL2LBP frame. The frame's destination MAC address is a CDP multicast address. The frame's destination MAC address is a broadcast MAC address. The frame's destination MAC address matches the active VLAN interface's MAC address.

Layer 3 Routing Models - RIPv1 RIPv2 EIGRP


How a router starts the RIP process
The router generates a RIP request packet to be sent out all ports. The packet will successfully exit a port if the port is (all):

Functional (the port exists, and the line protocol is up). RIP-enabled. Not RIP-passive.

RIP versions
The router deals with RIP packets differently depending on what version of RIP it is running.
o o o o o o o

If it is running RIPv1, it can: Send and receive RIPv1 packets. Send broadcasts. If it is running RIPv2, it can: Send and receive RIPv2 packets. Send multicasts. If the RIP version is not set, it can Send RIPv1 packets. Receive RIPv1 and RIPv2 packets. Send broadcasts.

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How a router sends RIP updates


There are two types of RIP updates: regular and triggered.

The router sends regular updates every 30 seconds. The update contains all of the information in the routing table. The router sends triggered updates only when a route has changed or an interface changes state (up or down).

How a router processes incoming RIP packets


When a router receives a RIP packet (flowchart here):
o o o o o

o o o o o o

It drops the packet if (any): The incoming port does not have a valid IP address or is not RIPenabled. The source IP address is not from a directly connected network. The packet came from the router itself. The packet's RIP version does not match the router's RIP version. If the packet is a request packet, Check the port to see if it is a passive interface. If it is, drop the packet. If it is not a passive interface, process the packet: Create a RIP response packet, which contains information about a route or the entire routing table (depending on the request). Send the RIP response out the same port. If the packet is a response packet, process it: Look through each RIP route portion of the packet (the portion from address family identifier, or AFI, to the metric). A RIP packet can contain up to 25 RIP route portions. Ignore any portions where (any): The metric is greater than infinity. The AFI is not the IP family. It is a broadcast, Class D, or Class E address. Set the next hop to the incoming port's address. For new routes, ignore the route portion if the metric is now 16. For existing routes, the metric is set to 16. If the packet contains information about a network that does not exist in the RIP database, it is added to the database. If a network already has an entry in the RIP database, update it with the latest information. Send out new and updated routes on the next triggered update.

How a router processes incoming EIGRP packets


When a router receives an EIGRP packet (flowchart here):

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It checks to see if the EIGRP process for the autonomous system that is specified in the packet is enabled. o If it is not enabled, then the router drops the packet. o Otherwise, it sends the packet to that EIGRP process.

When an EIGRP process receives an EIGRP packet:

It makes the following checks and drops the packet if (any): The receiving interface does not have EIGRP enabled. The packet does not come from the same subnet as the receiving interface. o The receiving interface is passive. It checks if the packet is a Hello packet. o If so, then it processes the Hello packet (skip to next section). o Otherwise, it checks if the packet came from an existing neighbor. If not, then it drops the packet. If the packet did come from an existing neighbor: It checks if the packet is an Acknowledgment packet. If so, then it removes the acknowledged packet from the neighbor's output queue. Otherwise, it checks the sequence number on the packet and the neighbor's last heard sequence number. If the sequence number on the packet is larger than the last heard, then update the last heard. If the sequence numbers are the same or the one on the packet is smaller than the last heard, then it drops the packet. It checks if the packet piggybacks an Acknowledgment. If so, it removes the acknowledged packet from the neighbor's output queue. It checks if there are any packets in the neighbor's output queue. If there are not, then it sends an Acknowledgment packet back to the neighbor. It checks if the packet is an Update packet. If so, then it processes the Update packet. It checks if the packet is an Query packet. If so, then it processes the Query packet. It checks if the packet is an Reply packet. If so, then it processes the Rep
o o

When an EIGRP process processes a Hello packet:


It checks if the Hello packet has matching K values as the EIGRP process. If not, then it removes neighbor from the router's neighbor table. It checks if the neighbor already exists in the neighbor table. o If so, then it updates the last-heard time and hold timer.
o

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If not, it add the new neighbor to the neighbor table, and send a full update of its topology table to the new neighbor.

When an EIGRP process processes an Update packet:

It goes through all routes in the Update packet and updates the topology table.

When an EIGRP process processes a Query packet:


It updates the topology table with the route in the query. It checks if updating the topology table does not cause the process to query other neighbors. If it does not, then reply the best route to the queried neighbor.

When an EIGRP process processes a Reply packet:

It makes the following checks and drops the packet if (any): The replied route does not exist. The network is not in ACTIVE state. The neighbor who replied was not queried. It checks if the replied route is better than the best heard in the reply table. o If so, then it replaces the best heard in the reply table with the replied route. It checks if the replied route is the last expected reply. o If it is, then processes the last Reply packet to a query.
o o o

When an EIGRP process processes a last Reply packet to a query:


It replies to all queried neighbors with the best-heard route from the reply table. It sets the network to PASSIVE state. It updates the topology table with the best route.

When an EIGRP process updates the topology table with a route:


Checks if the network is in ACTIVE state. If so, it ignores the update. It gets the old best route and old best metric to the network. It adds the route to the topology table. It gets the new best route and new best metric to the network. It checks if the new best route is unreachable or there is no feasible successor. o If either is true, then it queries neighbors about the route. If there is no neighbor to query, then it removes the network from topology and routing table. o If the new best route is feasible, then it adds all successors for the network to the routing table.
o

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Update neighbors.

Layer 3 IP Models
How devices process incoming ICMP packets
When a device receives an ICMP packet:
o

It checks the ICMP message contained in the packet. If the packet contains the message "TTL Exceeded" or "Echo Reply." It checks to see if it has recently sent an ICMP message with the same identification as the received ICMP message. If so, it sends out the ICMP.

Layer 4 Models
How devices process UDP packets
This procedure explains how a device sends and receives UDP packets.

When the device receives a packet: It de-encapsulates it and examines the UDP header for port information. It then maps the local port information and sends the payload up to a higher layer (the application layer) for processing. If it cannot find the upper process based on the port information, it drops the packet. When the device wants to send a packet: o It encapsulates the payload with a UDP header. o It sends the packet to the lower layer for processing.
o o

How devices handle TCP packets


Packet Tracer 4.0 models the TCP process in a way similar to how it models the UDP process. It does not accurately model the real TCP protocol.

Layer 7 Models
How DHCP clients processes incoming packets
When a DHCP client device receives a packet:

It drops the packet if (any): The packet is not a valid DHCP packet. The packet's destination MAC address does not match its own MAC address. It checks the packet's DHCP type (its DHCP message). o If the packet is a DHCP-OFFER packet, it uses the information in the packet (including client IP address, offered IP address, server IP address, and
o o

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gateway address) to construct an DHCP-REQUEST packet and sends it back to the server. o If the packet is a DHCP-ACK packet, it gets the IP address, subnet mask, and the gateway IP address from the packet and sets its IP address configuration accordingly. o If the packet is not a DHCP-OFFER or a DHCP-ACK packet, it will drop the packet.

How DHCP servers processes incoming packets


When a DHCP server device receives a packet:
o o

It drops the packet if: The packet is not a valid DHCP packet. It checks the packet's DHCP type (its DHCP message). If the packet is a DHCP-OFFER packet, it uses the information in the packet (including client IP address, offered IP address, server IP address, and gateway address) to construct a DHCP-REQUEST packet and sends it back to the server. If the packet is a DHCP-ACK packet, it gets the IP address, subnet mask, and the gateway IP address from the packet and sets its IP address configuration accordingly. If the packet is not a DHCP-OFFER or a DHCP-ACK packet, it will drop the packet.

Other Models
How routers process incoming packets (NAT process)
When a router receives a packet:

It checks if the receiving port is a NAT outside port. o If so: It checks to determine whether the packet is UDP, TCP or ICMP to get the packet's source and destination port. It refers to the NAT table (using the global addresses) for the neccessary translation. If it finds a match for the packet (a translation exists): It replaces the inside address and port with the local version. It translates the destination IP address and port o If the receiving port is not a NAT outside port, or if it is a NAT outside port but the requested IP address is not in the NAT table: The router checks to see if there is a route to the destination IP. It drops the packet if (any): There is no route. It finds a route, but the outgoing port of that route entry is the same as the receiving port. 87

If there is a route, it sends a reply with the receiving port's MAC address.

How routers process outgoing packets (NAT process)


When a router wants to send a packet out a port:

It checks if the outgoing port is a NAT inside port. If so: It looks up its NAT table for the necessary translations. It captures the packet's source and destination ports and sets a timer for the packet (depending on the packet's encapsulation type). For a TCP packet the timer is 24 hours. For a UDP packet the timer is 5 minutes. For an ICMP packet the timer is 1 minute. It looks up the NAT table o If the receiving port is not a NAT outside port, or if it is a NAT outside port but the requested IP address is not in the NAT table: The router checks to see if there is a route to the destination IP. It drops the packet if (any): There is no route. It finds a route, but the outgoing port of that route entry is the same as the receiving port. If there is a route, it sends a reply with the receiving port's MAC address.
o

How devices use ARP to send IP packets


When a device sends an IP packet (flowchart here):

If the destination IP is a broadcast, it sets the packet's destination MAC address to the broadcast MAC address and sends the packet out. If the destination IP is a multicast, it sets the packet's destination MAC address to the multicast MAC address and sends the packet out. If the destination IP is a unicast, it looks up the ARP table to see if the destination IP matches an entry's IP address in the ARP table. o If a match exists, it: Sets the packet's destination MAC address to the entry's MAC address. Sends out the IP packet. o If a match does not exist, it: Drops the IP packet. Sends an ARP request out. Adds that request to the list of ARP requests. Sets and starts the timer for it as it waits for an ARP reply.

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How devices send ARP requests


When a device wants to send an ARP request (flowchart here):
o o o o o o o o o o

It will NOT send the request if (any): The sending port is down. The sending port does not have a valid IP address. A request for the same IP address is already sent. If none of the above is true, it proceeds with the ARP request. It: Constructs an ARP request for the IP address in question. Sets the destination MAC address to the broadcast address. Adds the request to the list of existing requests. Sets and starts a timer for this request. Sends the request. Waits for an ARP reply. Drops the request from the list if time expires.

How devices process incoming ARP packets


When a device receives an ARP packet (flowchart here):

It drops the packet if (any): The receiving port is not up. The device is a switch and an active VLAN interface is not up. The packet's source IP is not in the same subnet as the receiving port's subnet. If the above is not true, it proceeds to process the packet: o It checks to see if the packet is an ARP request or an ARP reply. o If the packet is an ARP request, it checks to see if the packet's destination IP matches the receiving port's IP address. If they match, the device sends a reply with the receiving port's MAC address. If they do not match: If the device is not a router, it drops the packet. If the device is a router, refer to "How routers process ARP requests." o If the packet is an ARP reply, the device checks if it submitted a request for the IP address found in the reply. It drops the packet if there is no such request in the list. If the packet is in the ARP request list: The device now removes the request from the list. If the ARP table does not contain an entry with the IP and MAC addresses found in the packet, it will make a new entry with those addresses. If the ARP table already contains an entry with the IP and MAC addresses found in the packet, it just resets that entry?s timer. That entry will be removed from the table when its timer expires.
o o o

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How routers process ARP requests


When a router receives an ARP packet (continuing from "How devices process incoming ARP packets"):

It checks the NAT status on the receiving port. If the receiving port is a NAT outside port, the router checks the NAT table for the packet's destination IP. If the requested IP address is in the NAT table, the router sends a reply with the receiving port's MAC address. o If the receiving port is not a NAT outside port, or if it is a NAT outside port but the requested IP address is not in the NAT table: The router checks to see if there is a route to the destination IP. It drops the packet if (any): There is no route. It finds a route, but the outgoing port of that route entry is the same as the receiving port. If there is a route, it sends a reply with the receiving port's MAC address.
o

How switches break loops


Packet Tracer 4.0 uses a proprietary, nonstandard algorithm to break Layer 2 loops. It should not be confused with the Spanning Tree Protocol.

Included Activities
The SAVES directory of Packet Tracer contains sample activities and network files. Some activities may have additional handouts in Word format. They are all categorized into the following folders: CCNA1: These include concept builders (modeling problems), skill builders (procedural labs and skills exams), design problems, and troubleshooting problems relevant to Academy Course CCNA 1, Networking Basics. CCNA2: These include concept builders (modeling problems), skill builders (procedural labs and skills exams), design problems, and troubleshooting problems relevant to Academy Course CCNA 2, Routers and Routing Basics. CCNA3: These include concept builders (modeling problems), skill builders (procedural labs and skills exams), design problems, and troubleshooting problems relevant to Academy Course CCNA 3, Switching Basics and Intermediate Routing. CCNA4: These include concept builders (modeling problems), skill builders (procedural labs and skills exams), design problems, and troubleshooting problems relevant to Academy Course CCNA 4, WAN Technologies.

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REFERENCE TOPOLOGIES: These are ?starter topologies? that were used for testing purposes. They have no instructions, but may be useful starting points for activities you would like to create. Note: Personal Folders Users can create their own folders in the SAVES directory. Classroom research has shown that the earlier users learn the basics of creating Packet Tracer networks from scratch, the more they can learn from the tool. It is our hope that as you create your own Packet Tracer activities, both .pkt network files and .pka activity files, you will consider sharing them with the Academy community. Note: PT3.2 files PT3.2 files can be obtained from the Packet Tracer ver3.2 program. PT v3.2 files can be used in PT4.0 but please note that the backwards compatibility of PT 4.0 is limited due to fundamental changes in protocol modeling and GUI programming. However, Ver 3.2 topologies may still be useful as starting points. Note that in general you will need to adjust both the GUI features (moving devices around) and configurations (via GUI and command line interface) of the PT 3.2 files loaded into PT 4.0.

Concept Builders
Concept builders are model-building inquiries and investigations leading to studentcreated explanations and animations of networking concepts, especially device algorithms and networking protocols. One intended use for Packet Tracer 4.0 is for students to construct their own model or virtual networks, obtain access to important graphical representations of those networks, animate those networks by adding their own data packets, ask questions about those networks, and finally annotate and save their creations. The term "packet tracing" describes an animated movie mode where the learner can step through simulated networking events, one at a time, to investigate the microgenesis of complex networking phenomena normally occurring at rates of thousands and millions of events per second. For example, a simple concept builder prompt might be ?Illustrate the forwarding behavior of hubs? or ?Demonstrate the filtering, forwarding, flooding, learning, and aging behavior of switches.? Other prompts might include ?Build a PT network that compares and contrasts the behavior of hubs and switches,? ?How does switch behavior differ from router behavior??, and ?Build a model demonstrating the behavior of ARP, ping, trace, CDP, RIP, or EIGRP.? More complex modeling might be prompted by ?Model a network that you use at home or at work,? ?Illustrate the behavior of ping with empty ARP tables on a LAN and across a WAN,? ?Demonstrate the building of RIP and EIGRP routing tables,? or ?Create a routing loop and show how the TTL field of the IP packet is decremented.? Many users may want to model networks they encounter at home or at work. Though this is often limited by the current device and protocol feature set of Packet Tracer 4.0, reasonably sophisticated models can be built. Model-building may be an effective way to learn many networking concepts, and often leads to more questions and research projects. Concept building problems are probably best written as blank or partially completed .pkt files. Given the open-ended inquiry nature of modeling, it is somewhat difficult to author an appropriate .pka file. Some instructors may want to give students a pre-existing topology via a .pkt file and focus students on different packet scenarios; other instructors may want to focus students on modeling a sequence of networks, from 91

scratch, such as PC to PC, PC to hub, and PC to switch, and then on to more complex combinations of switches, routers, and clouds. Some instructors have students present their Packet Tracer models to the class.

Skill Builders
Skill builders support algorithmic problem solving in support of the development of networking procedural knowledge. For example, simple skill building problems can include having students complete hands-on practical labs in Packet Tracer before working on real equipment (as a pre-lab, or what some call a lab ?entry? ticket); after having worked on real equipment (as a post-lab review); or just for practice (similar to an e-lab, but without as much structure). Within the limits of Packet Tracer modeling and supported command set, IOS configurations may be exported (as text files) for input into real switches and routers; such configuration files may be imported back into Packet Tracer. Hence students might create and test their lab configurations before attending class, hopefully getting more out of their often limited time on real equipment. Skill builders can be as complex as Packet Tracer versions of hands-on skills exams. Skill builders may be authored as simple .pkt files with either integrated or printed instructions (handouts). Skill builders may be also be authored as .pka files with the configurable components specified in the grading tree. The use of the .pka activity timer is particularly relevant for skill building activities; for example, friendly competitions

Design Challenges
Design challenges are constraint-based problems with multiple correct solutions. They may range from very simple (?devise a classful addressing scheme for a network consisting of 2 PCs and 2 routers?), to intermediate (?devise a VLSM addressing scheme for a school with various classroom and administrative subnet needs?), to complex (doing large parts of the semester case studies in Packet Tracer). Some instructors have students use Packet Tracer to verify the functionality of IP addressing schemes they have designed. Design challenges are probably best done as blank or partially-completed .pkt files: given the open-ended nature of many design problems it may be difficult to author a ?graded? .pka activity because the current version of the activity wizard has no provision for determining equivalence between the mulitple correct answers that often occur in design problems. The physical mode of Packet Tracer 4.0 (with its Inter-City, City, Office, and Wiring Closet views), ability to load background images, and a variety of other annotation features (such as ?i? boxes for network and scenario descriptions, customizable device names, place note tool, translatable GUI) may also be relevant for contextualizing casestudy type design problems. Some instructors have students create designs in Packet Tracer and defend them in classroom ?design reviews? before allowing students to implement them on real equipment.

Troubleshooting
Troubleshooting activities include diagnosing, isolating, and fixing the simulated network from a previously bugged network file. Troubleshooting problems may range from simple (Ethernet speed and duplex mismatches, IP addresses on the wrong subnet,

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incorrect choices of cables, or missing clock settings on serial interfaces) to complex (improper VLSM schemes, incorrect routing updates, multiple interacting network faults). Both .pkt network files and .pka activity files may be effectively authored for troubleshooting-type problems. Precisely controlled troubleshooting situations may be authored as .pka files with the configurable components specified in the answer network ( grading tree) of the Activity Wizard. For example, even very complex networks with thousands of potential configurable components can have a single bug introduced, and a .pka activity authored which requires the student to diagnose, isolate, and fix that one bug to complete the activity. The use of the .pka-file activity timer is particularly relevant for troubleshooting activities; for example, friendly competitions to see how efficiently students can repair a network.

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