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COMPARISON BETWEEN SATELLITE, FIBER OPTICS & MICROWAVE Satellite Communication

1. Can be used for broadcast purposes for example TV transmission and It can cover the whole continent. 2. Cost of the satellite is independent of the distance for example 1 km to A 5000 km cost remains same. Satellite communication is viable only When distances> 500 kilometres. 3. Bandwidth is Limited for satellite communication for example 75 MHz for each transponder. 4. Requires a regeneration of the transmitted signal. 5. Satellite communication is more suitable to the rough terrain and at Remote areas where fiber optics and microwave can't be used. 6. It requires high-powered transmitter and low noise amplifier (LNA). 7. Satellite communications suffers from propagation delay (270msec This can be removed by sophisticated electronic circuits). 8. It is possible to jam the satellite. 9. Minimum three or four satellite can cover the whole world. It can Also provide global mobile communication for example GPS. 10. Future up gradation of channel capacity is not possible. 11. It is possible to have mobile communication that is equipment can be Moved from one place to another (transportable). 12. Operating band of frequencies are: a. C band 4/6 GHz b. Ku band 11/14 GHz c. Ka band 20/30 GHz 13. Dynamic channel allocation/bandwidth allocation is possible. 14. Communications is affected by storm/EMI.

Fibre Optics
1. Suitable for Telecommunications purposes. Solition communication can cover the Whole continent but presently under the experimental stage. Covering Distance may be of the order of 30,000 km. 2. Cost of fiber optics communications depends on: a. Number of channels required. b. Point-to-point link distance. c. Type of installation for example cable laying in ducts or on overhead Power lines etc. 3. Unlimited bandwidth is available (50 THz) for optical fibers. 4. Regeneration cost can be avoided by the use of. optical amplifiers or Solition communications. 5. Suitable for sea or flat terrain both. 6. No such requirement (however optical amplifiers are available for Signal boosting). 7. No such delays. 8. No jamming is possible. Immune to EMI and RFI and to some extent To EMP. 9. Fiber optics can also cover whole world but cost considerations are to Be worked out (possible with solition communications only). 10. Channel capacity can be upgraded in future. 11. No possibility of mobile terminals since cable is to be laid Physically. 12. Operating frequency is more than 10 to the power 14 Hz. 13. Possible. 14.Not affected

Microwave
1. Can be used for broadcast point-to-point purposes but distance Covered is < 200 km. 2. Cost of the microwave communication is independent of the distance But one single hop cannot be more than 50 km. 3. Availability of bandwidth is Limited. 4. Regeneration is required. 5. Suitable for rugged terrain. 6. Does requires high-powered transmitters and low noise receivers. 7. No such delays. 8. Jamming is difficult due to point-to-point links. 9. Can provide one single hop of 50 km maximum. However, multiple Hops are possible. 10. Channel capacity can be upgraded in future. 11. Can have mobile communications (transportable). 12. Typical microwave frequencies are < 8 GHz. 13. Not possible. 14.Affected.