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UJI KEKERASAN

UJI KEKERASAN

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UJI KEKERASAN ATAU YANG LEBIH DIKENAL DENGAN NAMA HARDNESS TEST.
UJI KEKERASAN ATAU YANG LEBIH DIKENAL DENGAN NAMA HARDNESS TEST.

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Published by: Shiezkhaede Shirakawa on Mar 05, 2013
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Why are metals tested ?

 Ensure quality
 Test properties
 Prevent failure in use
 Make informed choices in using materials

Factor of Safety is the ratio comparing the
actual stress on a material and the safe
useable stress.
Two forms of testing
 Mechanical tests – the material may be
physically tested to destruction. Will
normally specify a value for properties such
as strength, hardness, toughness,etc
 Non-destructive tests (NDT) – samples or
finished articles are tested before being
used.
Introduction
Hardness is determined by the resistance to plastic
deformations and fracture of interatomic and crystalline
bonds in the material, which also determines the mechanical
strength of a material.
There are three standard methods for measuring the hardness
which depends upon the manner in which the test is
conducted.
These are:
1- Scratch hardness measurement.
2- Rebound hardness measurement.
3- Indentation hardness measurement
Why Use a Hardness Test?
Easy to perform
Quick - 30 seconds
Relatively inexpensive
Non-destructive
Finished parts can be tested
any size and shape can be tested
Indentation hardness measurement
A load is applied by pressing the indenter at right angles to
the surface being tested.
The three commonly used indentation hardness tests is:
BRINELL HARDNESS TEST
sphere indenter of 10 mm in dia,, varying load, measure the size of
indentation
Dr. J. A. Brinell invented the Brinell test in Sweden in 1900
ROCKWELL HARDNESS TEST
using different scale (various sized indenter, different loads)
Stanley P. Rockwell invented the Rockwell hardness test
VICKERS PYRAMID HARDNESS TEST
diamond used as indenter
The Vickers (HV) test was developed in England is 1925
CH-07 LEC 27
Slide 7
Hardness
The resistance of a material metal to penetration by a pointed tool
is called Hardness. It is the property of a metal, which gives it the
ability to resist being permanently, deformed (bent, broken, or
have its shape changed), when a load is applied. The greater the
hardness of the metal, the greater resistance it has to deformation.
3-4 Hardness
CH-07 LEC 27
Slide 8
Hardness Measurement Methods

 Rockwell hardness test
 Brinell hardness
 Vickers
 Knoop hardness
 Shore

3-4 Hardness
HARDNESS TESTING
Hardness is the ability to withstand dents or
scratches


Fundamentals of Hardness
 Hardness is thought of as the resistance to penetration by an object or the
solidity or firmness of an object
– Resistance to permanent indentation under static or dynamic loads
– Energy absorption under impact loads (rebound hardness)
– Resistance toe scratching (scratch hardness)
– Resistance to abrasion (abrasion hardness)
– Resistance to cutting or drilling (machinability)

 Principles of hardness (resistance to indentation)
– indenter: ball or plain or truncated cone or pyramid made of hard steel or diamond
– Load measured that yields a given depth
– Indentation measured that comes from a specified load
– Rebound height measured in rebound test after a dynamic load is dropped onto a
surface
GAMBAR MACAM-MACAM MEDIA PENGUJIAN
BRINELL
ROCKWELL VICKERS
Hardness testing machine
 The indenter is pressed
into the metal
 Softer materials leave a
deeper indentation

ALAT UJI KEKERASAN MATERIAL LOGAM
Brinell hardness test
 Uses ball indentor.
 Cannot be used for thin
materials.
 Ball may deform on very
hard materials
 Surface area of indentation
is measured.
Brinell Hardness
Brinell Hardness
A spherical indenter (1 cm diameter) is shot
with 29 kN force at the target
Frequently the indenter is steel, but for
harder materials it is replaced with a
tungsten carbide sphere
The diameter of the indentation is recorded
The indentation diameter can be correlated
with the volume of the indentation.
CH-07 LEC 27
Slide 17
Brinell Hardness Test

Brinell hardness is determined by forcing a hard steel or carbide
sphere of a specified diameter under a specified load into the
surface of a material and measuring the diameter of the
indentation left after the test. The Brinell hardness number, or
simply the Brinell number, is obtained by dividing the load used,
in kilograms, by the actual surface area of the indentation, in
square millimeters. The result is a pressure measurement, but the
units are rarely stated.
CH-07 LEC 27
Slide 18
For steels
The relationship between the minimum ultimate strength and
the Brinell harness number for is
0.495
3.41
B
u
B
H kpsi
S
H MPa
¦
=
´
¹
200 450
B
H s s
Cast Iron
The minimum strength, as defined by the ASTM, is found to be
0.238 12.5
1.58 86
B
u
B
H kpsi
S
H MPa
÷
¦
=
´
÷
¹
Brinell Hardness
( ) ( )
2 2
2
d D D D
P
BHN
÷ ÷
=
t
Brinell Hardness
 ASTM and ISO use the HB value. It can be
HBS (Hardness, Brinell, Steel) or the HBW
(Hardness, Brinell, Tungsten)
 HBW = 0.102 BHN
 Sometimes written as HBW 10/3000
(Tungsten, 10 mm diameter, 3,000 kg force)

Typical HB values
Material Hardness
Softwood (e.g., pine) 1.6 HBS 10/100
Hardwood 2.6–7.0 HBS 1.6 10/100
Aluminum 15 HB
Copper 35 HB
Mild steel 120 HB
18-8 (304) stainless steel annealed 200 HB
Glass 1550 HB
Hardened tool steel 1500–1900 HB
Rhenium diboride 4600 HB
Hardness Mechanical Tests
 Brinell Test Method
– One of the oldest tests
– Static test that involves pressing a hardened steel ball (10mm) into a test
specimen while under a load of
 3000 kg load for hard metals,
 1500 kg load for intermediate hardness metals
 500 kg load for soft materials
– Various types of Brinell
 Method of load application:oil pressure, gear-driven screw, or weights with a lever
 Method of operation: hand or electric power
 Method of measuring load: piston with weights, bourdon gage, dynamoeter, or
weights with a lever
 Size of machine: stationary (large) or portable (hand-held)




Brinell Test Conditions
 Brinell Test Method (continued)
– Method
 Specimen is placed on the anvil and raised to contact the ball
 Load is applied by forcing the main piston down and presses the ball
into the specimen
 A Bourbon gage is used to indicate the applied load
 When the desired load is applied, the balance weight on top of the
machine is lifted to prevent an overload on the ball
 The diameter of the ball indentation is measured with a micrometer
microscope, which has a transparent engraved scale in the field of view
Brinell Test Example
 Brinell Test Method (continued)
– Units: pressure per unit area
– Brinell Hardness Number (BHN) = applied load divided
by area of the surface indenter
( )
2 2
2
d D D D
L
BHN
÷ ÷
=
t
Where: BHN = Brinell Hardness Number
L = applied load (kg)
D = diameter of the ball (10 mm)
d = diameter of indentation (in mm)
• Example: What is the Brinell hardness for a specimen with an indentation
of 5 mm is produced with a 3000 kg applied load.

•Ans:
( )
2
2 2
/ 6 . 142
) 5 ( ) 10 ( 10 ) 10 (
) 3000 ( 2
mm kg
mm mm mm mm
kg
BHN =
÷ ÷
=
t
Brinell Test Method
(continued)
 Range of Brinell Numbers
– 90 to 360 values with higher number indicating higher hardness
– The deeper the penetration the higher the number
– Brinell numbers greater than 650 should not be trusted because the
diameter of the indentation is too small to be measured accurately and the
ball penetrator may flatten out.
– Rules of thumb
 3000 kg load should be used for a BHN of 150 and above
 1500 kg load should be used for a BHN between 75 and 300
 500 kg load should be used for a BHN less than 100
 The material’s thickness should not be less than 10 times the depth of the
indentation

Advantages & Disadvantages
of the
Brinell Hardness Test
 Advantages
– Well known throughout industry with well accepted results
– Tests are run quickly (within 2 minutes)
– Test inexpensive to run once the machine is purchased
– Insensitive to imperfections (hard spot or crater) in the material

 Limitations
– Not well adapted for very hard materials, wherein the ball deforms excessively
– Not well adapted for thin pieces
– Not well adapted for case-hardened materials
– Heavy and more expensive than other tests ($5,000)


Rockwell Test
 Hardness is a function of the degree of indentation
of the test piece by action of an indenter under a
given static load (similar to the Brinell test)
 Rockwell test has a choice of 3 different loads and
three different indenters
 The loads are smaller and the indentation is
shallower than the Brinell test
 Rockwell test is applicable to testing materials
beyond the scope of the Brinell test
 Rockwell test is faster because it gives readings
that do not require calculations and whose values
can be compared to tables of results (ASTM E 18)
Rockwell Test Description
 Specially designed machine that applies load through a system of
weights and levers
– Indenter can be 1/16 in hardened steel ball, 1/8 in steel ball, or
120° diamond cone with a somewhat rounded point (brale)
– Hardness number is an arbitrary value that is inversely related to
the depth of indentation
– Scale used is a function of load applied and the indenter
 Rockwell B- 1/16in ball with a 100 kg load
 Rockwell C- Brale is used with the 150 kg load
– Operation
 Minor load is applied (10 kg) to set the indenter in material
 Dial is set and the major load applied (60 to 100 kg)
 Hardness reading is measured
 Rockwell hardness includes the value and the scale letter




CH-07 LEC 27
Slide 30
3-4 Hardness
Rockwell Hardness Test
The Rockwell Hardness test is a hardness measurement based on
the net increase in depth of impression as a load is applied.
Hardness numbers have no units and are commonly given in the
R, L, M, E and K scales. The higher the number in each of the
scales means the harder the material.
Rockwell hardness tests
 Gives direct reading.
 Rockwell B (ball) used
for soft materials.
 Rockwell C (cone) uses
diamond cone for hard
materials.
 Flexible, quick and easy
to use.
Rockwell Hardness
Rockwell Hardness Measurements
In the Rockwell hardness test either a 120° conical diamond (C scale) or a
steel ball (B scale) indentor is pushed into the surface of the test piece with
a load of .



Rockwell C Diamond Indenter Test Rockwell B Indenter test
HR = E - e
Rockwell Hardness
Rockwell Hardness Scales
Scale Code Load Indenter Use
A HRA 60 kgf 120° diamond cone
Tungsten
carbide
B HRB 100 kgf 1/16 in diameter steel sphere
Al, brass, and
soft steels
C HRC 150 kgf 120° diamond cone Harder steels
D HRD 100 kgf 120° diamond cone
E HRE 100 kgf 1/8 in diameter steel sphere
F HRF 60 kgf 1/16 in diameter steel sphere
G HRG 150 kgf 1/16 in diameter steel sphere
Conversion/Comparison
HBW
10/3000 HRA 60KG HRB 100KG HRC 150KG
Tensile
Strength
(Approx)
638 80.8 - 59.2 329,000
578 79.1 - 56 297,000
461 74.9 - 48.5 235,000
375 70.6 - 40.4 188,000
311 66.9 - 33.1 155,000
241 61.8 100 22.8 118,000
207 - 94.6 16 100,000
179 - 89 - 87,000
149 - 80.8 - 73,000
111 - 65.7 - 56,000
Rockwell Values


Scale Indenter Applied Load
(kg)
A Brale 60
B 1/16 in 100
C Brale 150
D Brale 100
E 1/8 in 100
F 1/16 in 60
G 1/16 in 150
•B Scale: Materials of medium hardness (0 to 100HR
B
) Most Common
•C Scale: Materials of harder materials (> 100HR
B
) Most Common
•Rockwell scales divided into 100 divisions with each division (point of
hardness) equal to 0.002mm in indentation. Thus difference between a
HR
B
51 and HR
B
54 is 3 x 0.002 mm - 0.006 mm indentation
•The higher the number the harder the number
Rockwell and Brinell Conversion
 For a Rockwell C values between -20 and
40, the Brinell hardness is calculated by


 For HR
C
values greater than 40, use


 For HR
B
values between 35 and 100 use

( )
C
HR
x
BHN
÷
=
100
10 42 . 1
6
( )
C
HR
x
BHN
÷
=
100
10 5 . 2
4
( )
B
HR
x
BHN
÷
=
130
10 3 . 7
3
Rockwell and Brinell Conversion
 For a Rockwell C values, HR
C
, values
greater than 40,


 Example,
– Convert the Rockwell hardness number HRc 60
to BHN


( )
C
HR
x
BHN
÷
=
100
10 5 . 2
4
( ) 60 100
10 5 . 2
4
÷
=
x
BHN
625 = BHN
T a r a r a n g k y u
CH-07 LEC 27
Slide 41

Vickers hardness test
 Uses square pyramid
indentor.
 Accurate results.
 Measures length of
diagonal on indentation.

Hardness Test
• The hardness test offers the engineer a
quick, inexpensive and nondestructive way to
estimate the tensile strength of a specimen.
• Hardness tests all make a small (sometimes
microscopic) indentation into the surface of
a specimen, and then use the force applied
and the size of the indentation to calculate a
"hardness number."
• The correlation between this value and the
tensile strength allows this to be used as a
quality control parameter
Brinell Hardness Test
• The Brinell Hardness Test utilizes a
steel sphere which is usually 10mm in
diameter.
• The sphere is forced into the surface
of a material. Then, the diameter of
the resulting impression is measured.
The corresponding Brinell Hardness
number is then calculated.



– D; diameter of indenter
– Di; diameter of impression in mm
– F; applied load in Kg
• Hardness correlates well with wear
resistance
• For steel, nondestructive test
Tensile strength (psi)=500*HB

( )
2 2
2
i
D D D D
F
HB
÷ ÷
=
t
• The Rockwell Hardness Test utilizes two
kinds of indentors.
• A small steel ball is used for soft materials
and a diamond-shaped cone called a Brale is
used for hard materials. To perform the
test, the indentor is pushed into the surface
of the material being tested. The test
machine measures the depth of penetration
and automatically converts this data into a
Rockwell Hardness number
Relationship between hardness & Strength
 For steel, H
B
between 200 to 400
Su=0.495 H
B
Kpsi
Su=3.42 H
B
Mpa
 Cast iron (ASTM data)
Su=0.23 H
B
–12.5 Kpsi
Su=1.58 H
B
-86 Mpa
 SAE minimum strength
Su=0.2375 H
B
-16 Kpsi
Example 3.2
 It is necessary to ensure that a certain part
supplied by a foundry always meets or
exceeds ASTM No. 20 specifications for
cast iron. What hardness should be
specified?
Solution of Example 3.2
Su=0.23 H
B
–12.5 Kpsi

If the foundry can control within 20 points
145< H
B
<165
141
23 . 0
5 . 12
=
+
=
u
B
S
H
Example 3.3
 Brinell hardness tests were made on a random
sample of five steel parts during processing
 The results were HB values of 248, 247, 244, and
246
 Estimate the mean and the standard deviation of
the ultimate strength in SI units
 The ASTM minimum is established at a level that
99 % of the population can meet or exceed. On
the basis of this definition, what minimum
ultimate strength corresponds to this sample
testing?
Solution of Example 3.2
( ) 760 0432 . 0 * 326 . 2 1 3 . 844 ) 1 (
5 . 36 0432 . 0 * 3 . 844 ˆ
0432 . 0 0136 . 0 041 . 0 ) (
3 . 844 6 . 247 * 41 . 3
) 0136 . 0 , 1 ( 6 . 247 ) 041 . 0 , 1 ( 41 . 3
) 041 . 0 , 1 ( 41 . 3
450 200
0136 . 0
36 . 3 ˆ
6 . 247
ˆ
99 . 0
2 2 2
2
= ÷ + = + =
= = =
= + = + =
= =
=
=
s s
=
=
=
Su u u
Su u Su
y s su
mean
u
u
B u
B
HB
HB
B
C z S S
MPa C S
C C C
MPA S
S
MPa H S
H f or
C
MPa
MPa H
o
o
Five data, normal distribution
Eq 3.21
u(z)=0.01, then z=-2.326
Conversion of Data to DPH
 Vickers hardness (HV) - DPH (Diamond Pyramid Hardness)
 DPH covers entire range from HRF up to HRC

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