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YEAR 2009

CHEMISTRY
FOLIO
CHAPTER 5: CHEMICALS FOR CONSUMER

NORSAFINAH BINTI MOHD TUMIRAN | 5 DORISIA


CONTENTS

No. Title Page

5.1 Soap and Detergent 2

5.2 Food Additives 6

5.3 Medicine 7

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5.1 : Soap and Detergent

Soap

• Salt that are formed by neutralization between a fatty acid and an


alkali.
• One example of soap is sodium palmitate, CH₃(CH₂)₁₄COONa. It is
formed when palmatic acid is neutralized by sodium hydroxide, NaOH.

CH₃(CH₂)₁₄COOH(aq) + NaOH(aq) → CH₃(CH₂)₁₄COONa(aq) +


H₂O(l)

Detergent

• Salt that are formed by neutralizing an alkyl hydrogen sulphate with an


alkali.
• One example of detergent is sodium lauryl sulphate
• Detergents may contain many other substances in addition to the
substances that does the cleaning and also to make it more effective.
These substances are called additives

Biological enzymes are catalyst that increase the detergency or cleaning


power of a detergent. Whitening agents include bleaches such as sodium
perborate. They release chlorine and oxygen that remove stains and make
clothes become whiter and cleaner.

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Preparation of detergent

• Detergents are made using raw material obtained from petroleum

Production of lauryl hydrogen sulphate

CH₃(CH₂)₉CH₂OH + H₂SO₄
CH₃(CH₂)₉CH₂OSO₃H + H₂O

2. neutralization of lauryl hydrogen sulphate

CH₃(CH₂)₉CH₂OSO₃H + NaOH
CH₃(CH₂)₉CH₂OSO₃Na + H₂O

DETERGENT

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Preparation of soap

• Oils and fats are esters formed from glycerol and fatty acids.
• It made up through heating oils or fats with an alkali such as sodium
hydroxide, NaOH.
• The oil or fat molecules are “broken up” or hydrolyzed to glycerol and
fatty acids.
• This reaction is the reverse of esterification (saponication)
• The fatty acids formed then react with sodium hydroxide, NaOH to form
a salt (soap).

Saponication of oils or fats


O
ll
R’—C—O—CH₂ HO—CH₂
O l
ll OH⁻ HO—CH + R’COOH
+ R”COOH + R”’COOH
R”— C—O—CH + 3H₂O l
O HO—CH₂
fatty acids
ll
R”’—C—O—CH₂ glycerol

Neutralization of fatty acids

R’COOH + R”COOH + R”’COOH + 3NaOH R’COONa + R”COONa + R”’COONa


+ 3H₂O

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The cleansing action of soap and detergent

• One part of the soap and detergent anion is negatively charged


(polar end).
-It dissolves in water. It is hydrophilic or “likes water”.
• The other part has no charge (non-polar end)
-It dissolves in oil or grease. It is hydrophobic or “hates water”.
• These two parts work together to remove grease.
hydrophobic part (non-polar end)

hydrophilic part
(polar end)

• When soap or detergent is added to the dirty surface of a piece


of cloth covered with a layer of oil or grease,
(a) The negatively charged ‘heads’ (hydrophilic) of soap ions or
detergents ions dissolves in water
(b)The hydrocarbon ‘tails’ (hydrophobic) of soap or detergent
ions dissolves in the layer of grease.
• If the water is agitated slightly, the grease begins to lifted off the
surface.
• When the cloth is rinsed with water, the droplets will be carried
away
• Heating and stirring may help to loosen the dirt particles from
the material being washed.

The effectiveness of the cleansing action of soap and


detergent

Property Soap Detergent


Cleaning power Less powerfull More powerfull
Ease of rinsing It is difficult to wash away Rinse out well from clothes
all soap on clothes. The
soap that remains leave
and odour and spoils the
fabric
pH Slightly alkaline Can be controlled to suit
the cleaning task
Molecular structure Determined by the fatty Can be modified to suit the
acids found in the oil or fat cleaning task. For
used to produce soap example, a detergent can
be made specially for
cleaning toilet bowls.
Formation of scum Forms scum with hard Does not form scum with
water hard water

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5.2 : Food Additives

Uses of food additives


To make food last longer (to extend the shelf
life)
To make foods taste better and look better

Types of food additives Effects on health

Preservatives: sodium Allergy: MSG


nitrite, sodium benzoate Carcinogenic: NaNO₂
Antioxidant: ascorbic acid Brain damage
Flavouring: Monosodium Hyperactivity
glutamate(MSG), aspartame
Stabiliser and thickener:
gelatin and acacia gum
Dye: azo compounds,
triphenyl compounds

Functions of food additives

Preservatives: to inhibit or prevent the growth


of moulds, yeast and bacteria that spoil foods
Antioxidants: to prevent spoilage of food due
to oxidation by oxygen
Flavouring agents: to enhance the taste of
food
Stabilisers and thickeners: to improve the
texture of foods
Colouring agents: to restore the colour or to 7 | Page
enhance the natural colour
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5.3 : Medicine

• A medicine is a substances used to prevent or cure disease or to


reduce pain and suffering due to illness.

PlantLocal nameUsesAloe veraLidah buayaSap used to


relieved pain from burnsBetelSirehLeaves relieved sore
eyesBitter gourdPeriaFruit used to cure
diabetesCoconutKelapaYoung coconut water reduces
feverGarlicBawang putihReduces infection and
hypertensionGingerHaliaReduces inflammation and improves
blood circulation and digestionGinsengGinsengRoots maintain
good healthHibiscusBunga RayaLeaves relieves headache and
hair lossTurmericKunyitCures pimples

Traditional medicines
Derived from plants and
animals

Medicines

Modern medicines
Chemicals that are extracted
from plants and animals

Type of modern
medicineFunctionExamplesAnalgesicsRelieve
painAspirin, paracetamolAntibioticsKill or inhibit growth of
infectious bacteriaPenicillin,
streptomycinPsychotherapeutic medicinesControl
symptoms of mental illnessStimulants, antidepressants

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Side effects of medicines

• Both traditional and modern medicines have side effects


• Some traditional medicines help people lose their weight by speeding
up their metabolism. The side effects are an increase in blood pressure
and heart rate
• Birth control pills are an example of modern medicine. Women who use
them experience side effects such as hypertension, acne, and
abnormal bleeding.

Correct ways of using medicines

• Use the correct amount or dosage and using it for the correct purpose
• For example, using antibiotics to treat infections caused by viruses is
drug misuse. This is because antibiotics have no effect on viruses.
• Drug abuse is using drug for its intoxicating effect. For example, the
use of Morphine, Viagra and ecstasy pills.

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