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Chapter I

Introduction

Background
An electric generator is a device that converts mechanical energy to electrical energy. A generator forces electric charge (usually carried by electrons) to flow through an external electrical circuit. It is based on the principle of production of dynamically (or motionally) induced emf (Electromotive Force). Whenever a conductor cuts magnetic flux, dynamically induced emf is produced in it according to Faraday's Laws of Electromagnetic Induction. This emf causes a current to flow if the conductor circuit is closed. A shunt generator is a method of generating electricity in which field winding and armature winding are connected in parallel, and in which the armature supplies both the load current and the field current. In a shunt generator, the armature coils and the shunt field coils are connected in parallel.

+ Ra Ia + E _ _ Rsh Ish VL IL

where: E = generated emf in the armature (volt) Ra = armature equivalent resistance (ohm) Rsh = shunt field winding resistance (ohm) VL = terminal voltage or load voltage (volt)

Ia = armature current (ampere) Ish = shunt field current (ampere) IL = load current (ampere) Pg = power developed or generated in the armature (watt) PL = power delivered to the load (watt) Applying Kirchoffs Voltage and Current Laws to our circuit analysis, we obtain several equations:

(1)

(2)

(3)

(4)

(5)

Engineering Problem Posed


A shunt generator is connected to a load that draws 28.8 kW. Ra = 0.04 and Rsh = 48 . If the power developed in the armature is 106.3 % of the power delivered to the load. Determine the terminal voltage of the generator.

Mathematical Analysis Engineering Problem Expressed Mathematically


Determine the terminal voltage (VL) of a shunt generator given that PL = 28.8 kW, Ra = 0.04 , Rsh = 48 , and Pg = 1.063PL.

Obtaining the unknown value in the problem requires different mathematical methods and in order to obtain it, rearranging the sets of equations is done so as to arrive to what is asked in the problem.

Analytical Solution Starting with (3),

Substitute (1) and (2) to (3),

(6)
Then inserting (6) to (5),

(7)

Finally, (6) and (7) to (4),

][

Simplifying yields,

( )

(8)

Substituting the values to (8),


( )( )

f(VL) =

) (

f(VL) =

( (

( )

) ( )

; or

f(VL) =

By quadratic formula,

VL12=

) (

( )

)(

= 56607.05216

VL1 =

= 237.9223658

VL1 = 237.9223658

VL22=

) (

( )

)(

= 28109.55067

VL2 =

= 167.659031

VL2 = 167.659031 Using VL1, Therefore, VL = 237.9223658 Volts

CHAPTER II
Methods in Obtaining Roots of the Equation

Referring to Appendix A are the figures of the flowchart of the programs being constructed for each methods of obtaining root of an equation, it follows a subroutine procedure. The program contains a main class obtaining the necessary methods calling for inputs, and subclasses (Bisection, False Position, Fixed Point Iteration, Newton Raphson, Secant, Brent) which leads to the computation of the root using any method.

Bracketing Method

It comprises different methods which the roots may be found within the two initial guesses which are typically changes the signs. The methods present here give strategies which reduces the width of the bracket until the root will be found.

Bisection Method

It is called the binary chopping or the Bolzanos method. A Bracketing method which finds root of a given continuous function over an interval will have an opposite signs that gives f( ) f( by computing the midpoint f( =( + and such that f( ) and f( )

) < 0. The method divides the interval in two

)/2 of the interval. Either f( ) and f( ) or f( ) and

) will have opposite signs and it brackets a root, we must select a subinterval within the

interval and apply the same bisection step. There will be a 50% of chance of getting a function equals to zero. If f( ) f( ) < 0, then the method sets equal f( ) < 0, then the method sets equal to to , and if f( )

. For both cases, the new f( ) and f(

) will

have opposite signs, so that the method is applicable to this smaller interval.

The continuous function on the given interval [ ,

] and f( ) f(

) < 0 states that

the bisection converges to a root of the function and the true error is halved in each step and the method converges linearly if f( ) and f( ) will have different signs. This method

gives only a range where the root exists and not the estimation where is the roots location. The smallest bracket is where the root can be found. Its true error of n steps can be solved by the equation;

(2.1)

False Position Method/Regula Falsi Method

It is also called the linear interpolation method. An alternative method based on the graphical method. The false position method starts with a two points functions f( ) and f(( and such that the

) will have an opposite signs then one of the end-points will

converges and the other will remain fixed for all the iterations function f a root. It is given by the formula,

( )( ( ) (

) )

(2.2)

The root

is from the graphical representation of joining the function f( ) and f((

by a straight line and which the point that intersects the line and the axis is the improve root. The value of the root replaces f( ) and f(( root is always at the interval of the two point ) with the same sign as f( .
)

so that the

and

The termination of the computation will be the same as the bisection method and same as the algorithm, but the equation for finding is used. The error of the regula falsi is

more efficient for root finding than the bisection since one of the points will stay throughout

the computation and the others converges quickly and makes the approximate error conservative.

Modified False Position Method

It is the remedy of being one-sided of the false position method. It divides the function value that was stuck. The algorithm implements the strategies on how the counters are used to determine the root when the one is bound stays fixed for the two iterations and through this, the function value is bound halved.

It is more than the bisection and the false position method for setting the stopping criterion as 1.01% since it gives only 12 iterations compare with the 14 and 25 of the bisection and false position method.

Open Method

It composed of different methods that are based on the formulas that requires only a single starting value of x or two starting values that do not necessarily bracket the root. It may diverge or converges as the computation progresses.

Simple Fixed Point Method

It is also called the One-point iteration or the successive substitution method. It rearranges the function f(x)=0 to x=g(x) It can be obtained by adding both sides a x of can be used to

the equation or by simply doing algebraic manipulation. The guess roots estimate as and can be expressed as =g(x).

The convergence or the divergence of this method can be depicted graphically through its behavior and structure or it can also be predicted by separating the it into two components parts and the x values obtained by the intersections are the roots of the function f(x)=0.

The two-curve method also shows the convergence and the divergence of the simple fixedpoint method. To find for the approximate error of this method can be solve using this formula,

(2.3)

Newton Raphson Method The widely used for finding the root for approximations to the zeroes of a real valued function. It converges quickly for the iterations which are near on the desired root. It also detects and overcomes the convergences failure.

This method starts with an initial guess which is close to the true root, the given function is approximated by its tangent line then computes the x-intercept of this tangent line. This x-intercept will be the approximation to the function's root than the original guess, and the method can be repeated. The formula for this method is given by

( ) ( )

(2.4)

The termination of the Newton- Raphson method is the same as for computing the other methods. The convergence depends on the accuracy of the initial guess root and the nature of the problem.

Secant Method

It is an open method which assumes a function that can be approximately linear in the region of interest. The formula for the needs two initial estimates of x but the f(x) is not required to change the signs between the two estimates and is given by this equation,

( ) ( ( )

) ( )

(2.5) 8

The two values can sometimes lie on the same root and sometimes this can cause the divergence. The convergence of this method is that the root is within the bracketing which is the reason that it was compared with the false position method.

Modified Secant Position Method

This method uses an alternative approach which involves the fractional perturbation of the independent variable to estimate the f(x) instead of using the two arbitrary values. The formula for the iteration is given by
( ) ) ( )

(2.6)

Bairstows Method

It is a method that finds complex roots of a polynomial of a quadratic formula and can be used for solving the root all kinds of a polynomial. It uses the Newtons method to adjust the coefficients u and v in the quadratic x2 + ux + v until its roots are also roots of the polynomial being solved. The root can be found be found by dividing the polynomial by

the quadratic to eliminate the roots and then it can be repeated until the polynomial becomes quadratic or linear and all roots will be determined. The values of u and v can be found by picking the starting and repeating the Newtons method in two dimensions until it converges, for the quadratic equations of multiplicity higher than one it converges to that factor is a linear and quadratic factors that have a small value which has real roots will tend to diverge to infinity. To find for the zero of polynomial can be implemented with a programming language.

Mller's method A root finding method that solves for the root of the form f(x) = 0 of the single variable x and a scalar function whenever theres no information about the derivatives that exists. Its the generalizes the secant method but it uses three points of quadratic interpolation noted by as xk, xk-1 and xk-2.The The parabola going through the three points (xk, f(xk)), (xk-1, f(xk-1)) and (xk-2, f(xk-2)) when

It can be written in the Newton form, where f[xk, xk-1] and f[xk, xk-1, xk-2] denote divided differences ;

where;

Brents Method It is a method that combines that bisection method, the secant method. The idea is to use the secant method because they converge faster, but to fall back to the more robust bisection method if necessary.

Given a specific numerical tolerane , | | < | bk bk 1 |must hold and the results is used in the iteration and if previous step is perform interpolation then the inequality gives | | < | bk 1 bk 2 |. Also, if the previous step used the bisection method, the inequality must hold, otherwise the bisection method is performed and

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the result used for the next iteration. If the previous step performed interpolation, then the inequality is used instead. Most of the N2 iterations, where N

denotes the number of iterations for the bisection method, if the function f is well-behaved, and this method will usually proceed by either inverse quadratic or linear interpolation, in which case it will converge linearly.

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Chapter III
Source Code The following are the listing for the source code of the different methods of obtaining the root of the function. Listing 1. Main Program package es84; import java.util.Scanner; public class Main { public static void main(String[] args) { int choice,answer; do{ Scanner ee = new Scanner(System.in); System.out.println("Choose a method for finding the root!"); System.out.println("1. Bisection" + "\n2. False Position" "\n3. Fixed Point"+ "\n4. Newton Raphson"+ "\n5. Secant"+ "\n6. Muller"+ "\n7. Bairstow"); choice = ee.nextInt(); if(choice==1){Bisection mark = new Bisection(); mark.bisection1();} if(choice==2){FalsePosition FalsePosition(); mark.falseposition1();} if(choice==3){FixedPoint mark = new FixedPoint(); mark.fixedpoint2();} if(choice==4){NewtonRaphson NewtonRaphson(); mark.newtonraphson2(); } if(choice==5){Secant mark = new Secant(); mark = new mark = new

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mark.secant2(); } if(choice==6){Muller mark = new Muller(); mark.muller3(); } if(choice==7){Bairstow mark = new Bairstow(); mark.bairstow3(); } do{ System.out.println("Perform another operation(Press 1 or 2):"); System.out.println("1. Yes"+"\n2. No"); answer = ee.nextInt(); }while(answer!=1 && answer!=2); }while(answer==1); } }

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Listing 2. Bisection Method

package es84; import java.util.Scanner; public class Bisection { public void bisection1(){ Scanner mark = new Scanner (System.in); double xl,xu,xr,i=0,xrold=0,test,fxl,fxr,ea,es=0.00000001; System.out.println("Lower limit (xl):"); xl = mark.nextDouble(); System.out.println("Upper limit (xu):"); xu = mark.nextDouble(); System.out.println("\tIterations" + " \txl" + " \txu" + " \txr" + " \tea"+""); do{ i=i+1; xr = (xl+xu)/2; ea = Math.abs((xr-xrold)/xr)*100; if(i==1){System.out.println("\t" +i+ "\t +xl+ "\t " +xu+ "\t " +xr+ "\t ");}else{System.out.println("\t" +i+ "\t +xl+ "\t " +xu+ "\t " +xr+ "\t "+ea+"\t");} " --"

fxl = 0.02085069444*xl*xl*xl*xl -1766.4*xl*xl + 33177600; fxr = 0.02085069444*xr*xr*xr*xr -1766.4*xr*xr + 33177600; test = fxl*fxr; if(test<0){xu=xr;} if(test>0){ xl=xr;} xrold=xr; }while(ea>es); System.out.println("The root is "+xr+"."); }}

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Listing 3. False Position Method

package es84; import java.util.Scanner; public class FalsePosition { public void falseposition1(){ Scanner mark = new Scanner (System.in); double xl,xu,xr,i=0,xrold=0,test,fxl,fxr,ea,es=0.00000001,fxu; System.out.println("Lower limit (xl):"); xl = mark.nextDouble(); System.out.println("Upper limit (xu):"); xu = mark.nextDouble(); System.out.println("Iterations" + " xl" + " xu" + " xr" + " ea"+""); do{ i=i+1; fxl = 0.02085069444*xl*xl*xl*xl -1766.4*xl*xl + 33177600; fxu = 0.02085069444*xu*xu*xu*xu -1766.4*xu*xu + 33177600; xr = xu - (fxu)*(xl-xu)/(fxl-fxu); ea = Math.abs((xr-xrold)/xr)*100; if(i==1){System.out.println("\t" +i+ "\t +xl+ "\t " +xu+ "\t " +xr+ "\t ");}else{System.out.println("\t" +i+ "\t +xl+ "\t " +xu+ "\t " +xr+ "\t "+ea+"\t");} " --"

fxr = 0.02085069444*xr*xr*xr*xr -1766.4*xr*xr + 33177600; test = fxl*fxr; if(test<0){xu=xr;} if(test>0){xl=xr;} xrold=xr; }while(ea>es); System.out.println("The root is "+xr+".");}}

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Listing 4. Fixed Point Iteration Method

package es84; import java.util.Scanner; public class FixedPoint { public void fixedpoint2(){ Scanner mark = new Scanner (System.in); double xr,i=1,ea,es=0.00000001,xrold; System.out.println("Initial guess (xr):"); xr= mark.nextDouble(); System.out.println("Iterations" + " System.out.println("" +i+ " x" +" " +xr+" ea"+""); "+"");

do{i=i+1; xrold=xr; xr = Math.sqrt(Math.sqrt((1766.4*xrold*xrold 33177600)/0.02085069444)); ea=Math.abs((xr-xrold)/xr)*100; System.out.println("" +i+ " "+ea+""); }while(ea>es); System.out.println("The root is "+xr+"."); }
}

" +xr+"

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Listing 5. Newton Raphson Method

package es84; import java.util.Scanner; public class NewtonRaphson { public void newtonraphson2(){ Scanner mark = new Scanner (System.in); double xr,i=1,ea,es=0.00000001,xrold; System.out.println("Initial guess (xr):"); xr= mark.nextDouble(); System.out.println("Iterations" + " System.out.println("" +i+ " x" +" " +xr+" ea"+""); "+"");

do{i=i+1; xrold=xr; xr = xrold-(0.02085069444*xrold*xrold*xrold*xrold 1766.4*xrold*xrold + 33177600)/(4*0.02085069444*xrold*xrold*xrold 2*1766.4*xrold); ea=Math.abs((xr-xrold)/xr)*100; System.out.println("" +i+ " "+ea+""); " +xr+"

}while(ea>es); System.out.println("The root is "+xr+"."); } }

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Listing 5. Secant Method

package es84; import java.util.Scanner; public class Secant { public void secant2(){ Scanner mark = new Scanner (System.in); double xr,i=0,ea,es=0.00000001,x0,x1,xt=237.9223659,fx0,fx1,et; System.out.println("Initial guess (x0):"); x0= mark.nextDouble(); System.out.println("Initial guess (x1):"); x1= mark.nextDouble(); System.out.println("Iteration" + " \tx0"+ " \tx1"+ " \txr" +" \tet"+"");

do{i=i+1; fx1=0.02085069444*x1*x1*x1*x1 -1766.4*x1*x1 + 33177600; fx0=0.02085069444*x0*x0*x0*x0 -1766.4*x0*x0 + 33177600; xr=x1 - (fx1*(x0-x1))/(fx0-fx1);

et=Math.abs((xr-xt)/xr)*100; " System.out.println("" +i+ " "+x0+ " " +xr+" "+et+""); x0=x1; x1=xr; "+x1+

}while(et>es); System.out.println("The root is "+xr+"."); } }

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Listing 6. Mullers Method

package es84; import java.util.Scanner; public class Muller { public void muller3(){ Scanner mark = new Scanner (System.in); double x0,x1,x2,es=0.00000001,ea,fx0,fx1,fx2,h0,h1,pert0,pert1,a,b ,c,den,rad,xr,i=1; System.out.println("Initial guess (x0):"); x0= mark.nextDouble(); System.out.println("Initial guess (x1):"); x1= mark.nextDouble(); System.out.println("Initial guess (x2):"); x2= mark.nextDouble(); System.out.println("Iterations" + " x2"+" ea"); x0" +" x1"+"

do{ fx0=0.02085069444*x0*x0*x0*x0 -1766.4*x0*x0 + 33177600; fx1=0.02085069444*x1*x1*x1*x1 -1766.4*x1*x1 + 33177600; fx2=0.02085069444*x2*x2*x2*x2 -1766.4*x2*x2 + 33177600;

h0=x1-x0; h1=x2-x1;

pert0=(fx1-fx0)/h0; pert1=(fx2-fx1)/h1;

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a=(pert1-pert0)/(h1+h0); b=a*h1 + pert1; c=fx2;

rad=Math.sqrt(b*b - 4*a*c); if(Math.abs(b+rad)>Math.abs(b-rad)){ den=b+rad; }else{ den=b-rad; } xr=x2 - 2*c/den;

ea=Math.abs((xr-x2)/xr)*100; System.out.println("" +i+ " "+x2+" "+xr+" "+ea+""); " +x1+"

i=i+1; x0=x1; x1=x2; x2=xr; }while(ea>es); System.out.println("The root is "+xr+"."); } }

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Listing 7. Bairstows Method

package es84; import java.util.Scanner; public class Bairstow { public void bairstow3(){ Scanner mark = new Scanner (System.in); double g,r,s,es=0.00000001,ear,eas,b4,b3,b2,b1,b0,c4,c3,c2,c1,i=1, det,dr,ds,x1,x2,disc,r1,r2,i1,i2,xr; System.out.println("Initial guess (xr):"); g= mark.nextDouble(); r=g; s=g; System.out.println("Iteration" + "\tr" + "\ts" + "\tear" + "\teas");

do{ b4=0.02085069444; b3=r*b4; b2=-1766.4 + r*b3 + s*b4; b1=r*b2 + s*b3; b0= 33177600 + r*b1 + s*b2;

c4=b4; c3=b3 + r*c4; c2=b2 + r*c3 + s*c4; c1=b1 + r*c2 + s*c3;

det=c2*c2 - c3*c1;

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dr=(-b1*c2 + b0*c3)/det; ds=(-c2*b0 + b1*c1)/det;

ear=Math.abs(dr/r)*100; eas=Math.abs(ds/s)*100; r=r+dr; s=s+ds; System.out.println(""+i+ "\t"+r+ "\t" +s+ "\t"+ear+ "\t"+eas+""); i=i+1;

}while(ear>es && eas>es);

disc = r*r + 4*s; if(disc>0){ r1=(r + Math.sqrt(disc))/2; r2=(r - Math.sqrt(disc))/2; i1=0; i2=0; }else{ r1=r/2; r2=r1; i1=Math.sqrt(Math.abs(disc))/2; i2=-i1; } xr=r1; System.out.println("The root is "+xr+".");}}

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Chapter IV
Results and Discussion A. Graphical Representation 10

0.1

0.01 Approximate Error Bisection False Position Fixed Point Newton Raphson Secant 1E-05 Muller

0.001

0.0001

1E-06

1E-07

1E-08 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 Iterations

Figure 1 Approximate Error versus Iterations Graph

Figure 1 shows the graphical representation between the approximate errors(

) and

the number of iterations. The results were obtained through the use of the different methods stated.

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B. Screenshots of Outputs

The following figures are the actual results or screenshots obtained using the source codes accessible on Chapter 3.

Figure 2. Screenshot of the Result for Bisection Method

Figure 3. Screenshot of the Result for False Position Method

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25

Figure 4. Screenshot of the Result for Fixed Point Iteration Method

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Figure 5. Screenshot of the Result for Newton Raphson Method

Figure 6. Screenshot of the Result for Secant Method

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Figure 7. Screenshot of the Result for Mullers Method

Figure 8. Screenshot of the Result for Bairstows Method

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C. Table of Results The following are the tabular presentation of the results obtained after employing the different methods for solving the function (8).

Iteration 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31

Xr 225 237.5 243.75 240.625 239.0625 238.28125 237.890625 238.0859375 237.98828125 237.939453125 237.9150390625 237.92724609375 237.921142578125 237.9241943359375 237.92266845703125 237.92190551757812 237.9222869873047 237.92247772216797 237.92238235473633 237.9223346710205 237.92235851287842 237.92237043380737 237.9223644733429 237.92236745357513 237.92236596345901 237.92236521840096 237.92236559092999 237.9223657771945 237.92236587032676 237.9223659168929 237.92236589360982

Ea --5.263157895 2.564102564 1.298701299 0.653594771 0.327868852 0.164203612 0.082034454 0.041034058 0.020521239 0.010261673 0.005130573 0.002565352 0.00128266 6.41E-04 3.21E-04 1.60E-04 8.02E-05 4.01E-05 2.00E-05 1.00E-05 5.01E-06 2.51E-06 1.25E-06 6.26E-07 3.13E-07 1.57E-07 7.83E-08 3.91E-08 1.96E-08 9.79E-09

Table 1. Results for Bisection Method

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Table 1 shows the obtained results for solving the roots of (8) using the Bisection Method. As shown, the root was obtained after 31 iterations and is equal to Xr = 237.92236589360982, where the condition a < s was satisfied after 31 iterations such that a = 9.785992282792908E-9, which is less than the inputted stopping s =0.00000001. The limits used in solving the problem are 200 and 250, the lower and upper limits respectively.

Iteration 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15

Xr 224.67536444828656 234.89347895440497 237.318847516671 237.8057078164819 237.89995110002397 237.9180640649125 237.92154046339786 237.9222075074168 237.9223354919107 237.9223600478178 237.9223647592592 237.92236566322387 237.92236583666377 237.922365869941 237.92236587632573

Ea --4.3501056528273585 1.0219873337686205 0.2047302835080043 0.03961467125414917 0.007613110404087877 0.001461153319111096 2.8036223517251274E-4 5.379255110118232E-5 1.0320974911360553E-5 1.9802431876803654E-6 3.7994101934363575E-7 7.28976866272087E-8 1.3986586466724268E-8 2.6835384088661486E-9

Table 2. Results for False Position Method

Table 2 shows the obtained results for solving the roots of the function (8) using the False Position Method. As seen above, the root was obtained after 15 iterations, which was evaluated from the lower and upper limits, 200 and 250 respectively, where the value of the approximation error is a = 2.6835384088661486E-9, which satisfies the condition a < s, where s = 0.00000001.

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Iteration 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42

Xr 250 246.692356058754 244.3413107877861 242.6477219025026 241.4157066841177 240.51295756237394 239.8479223621773 239.35605376505686 238.99118391918697 238.71992526132217 238.51792927238526 238.36732599237288 238.25493697970256 238.1710082825081 238.10830081504878 238.06143090246846 238.02638855081756 238.00018348513868 237.98058390531727 237.96592301779395 237.95495539107782 237.9467500967798 237.94061109952733 237.93601788205498 237.9325811255118 237.93000960702986 237.92808546397575 237.92664570374905 237.92556837857458 237.92476224630875 237.92415903713163 237.92370766870454 237.9233699185065 237.92311718609338 237.92292807067116 237.92278655861176 237.92268066729923 237.9226014303962 237.9225421385649 237.92249777132687 237.92246457194176 237.92243972930007

Ea --1.3407970940365201 0.9621972082362296 0.6979619969249076 0.5103293548323025 0.37534323759236576 0.2772736964518846 0.20549661869142863 0.15267083910227758 0.11363050552560697 0.08468796855360805 0.06318117610514921 0.047171745565924975 0.035238838597396946 0.026335691466727595 0.01968815880953096 0.014722044838914866 0.011010523309330328 0.008235789449613538 0.006160918898553207 0.004609118855336448 0.003448374182326637 0.0025800544195021154 0.001930442273193121 0.0014444245201407874 0.001080787785530052 8.087078288211644E-4 6.051277789605556E-4 4.527992438162895E-4 3.388181449570302E-4 2.53530023834406E-4 1.89711412753269E-4 1.4195755471943424E-4 1.0622440396106702E-4 7.948600151737888E-5 5.947814475748947E-5 4.4506607033909525E-5 3.3303646876332864E-5 2.4920644671710202E-5 1.8647769098841955E-5 1.395386735529298E-5 1.0441487453380839E-5 31

43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66

237.92242113989136 237.92240722968967 237.92239682087407 237.9223890320978 237.92238320386136 237.9223788426703 237.9223755792495 237.9223731372754 237.92237130997887 237.92236994263732 237.92236891947394 237.92236815385445 237.92236758095163 237.9223671522561 237.92236683146893 237.92236659142822 237.92236641180892 237.9223662774022 237.92236617682747 237.92236610156874 237.92236604525363 237.92236600311378 237.9223659715811 237.9223659479856

7.813222739563813E-6 5.846528643250487E-6 4.374878421269796E-6 3.2736625965750265E-6 2.449637724273955E-6 1.8330310419125377E-6 1.3716325756699129E-6 1.0263742990649673E-6 7.680221574536923E-7 5.747007118705481E-7 4.300408501600424E-7 3.2179382524022694E-7 2.4079401450141426E-7 1.8018294538031221E-7 1.3482850309186008E-7 1.008903547760194E-7 7.549491651142079E-8 5.649183838690552E-8 4.227208206080775E-8 3.163163123622907E-8 2.3669534336761066E-8 1.7711594794063636E-8 1.3253353787261695E-8 9.917300419164622E-9

Table 3. Results for Fixed Point Iteration Method

Table 3 shows the obtained results for solving the roots of the function (8) using the Fixed-Point Iteration Method. From the table, a root of Xr = 237.9223659479856 is obtained after 66 iterations, where the condition a < s is satisfied, where a = 9.917300419164622E-9and s = 0.00000001. The initial guess used is 250.

Iteration 1 2 3 4 5 6

Xr 250 239.93823075475302 237.99439326059897 237.92246319633293 237.9223658780196 237.92236587784157

Ea --4.193483136720871 0.8167576838777 0.03023256539113961 4.090339004635533E-5 7.482843708920579E-11

Table 4. Results for Newton Raphson Method

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Table 4 shows the obtained results for solving the function (8) using the NewtonRaphson Method. From the table, a root of Xr = 237.92236587784157 is obtained after 6 iterations with a relative approximate error of a = 7.482843708920579E-11, which satisfies the condition a < s, where s = 0.00000001. The initial guess used is 250.

Iteration 1 2 3 4 5 6

Xr 239.79161317846024 238.24802035030942 237.93344315249146 237.9224333513766 237.92236589189025 237.92236587784157

Ea 3.8401621722635477 0.647893244141626 0.1322122664430748 0.004627474996690377 2.835357075690802E-5 5.904732995302025E-9

Table 5. Results for Secant Method

Table 5 shows the results after computing for the root of the function (8) using Secant Method where the root was found out to be equal to Xr=237.92236587784157. This root was obtained in the 6th iteration where the relative approximate error is equal a=

5.904732995302025E-9 which is less than the required stopping condition s=0.00000001. The
initial estimate used is 250 and 249 respectively.

Iteration 1 2 3 4 5

Xr 237.82154154021524 237.9231796737367 237.9223659364772 237.9223658778416 237.9223658778416

Ea 4.279872375675272 0.04271888668470724 3.420179756127264E-4 2.464484848913563E-8 0.0

Table 6. Results for Mullers Method

The table above shows the results obtained after computing for the root of the function (8) by employing Mullers Method. As shown above, the root, Xr =

237.9223658778416, was obtained in the 5th iteration where the computed approximate error
Ea=0.0 satisfies the terminating condition a<s where s = 0.00000001.

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In evaluating the root of the function using the formula for Mullers Method, the initial guesses where 250, 249 and 248 respectively.

Iteration 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15

r 1899.799518 389.1164048 180.9560812 88.02951397 43.45613273 21.55977473 10.66817429 5.169861904 2.297490939 0.737404216 0.082723041 6.68E-04 2.31E-08 1.60E-17 -1.23E-32

s -329685.4962 2246889.881 1267478.757 680346.5905 367412.1016 206627.1092 125463.6913 85221.39625 66181.91209 58538.2074 56723.57508 56607.54488 56607.05219 56607.05218 56607.05218

ear 659.9198072 79.51802803 53.49564321 51.35310547 50.63458746 50.38726786 50.51815513 51.53939404 55.55991665 67.90393367 88.78185948 99.19223979 99.9965424 99.99999993 100

es 131974.1985 781.5252436 43.58963618 46.32284077 45.99633382 43.76148518 39.28014006 32.0748534 22.34120185 11.5495374 3.09991099 0.204553757 8.70E-04 1.74E-08 2.22E-14

Table 7. Results for Bairstows Method

Table 7 shows the results after computing for the root of the function (8) using Bairstows Method where the root was found out to be equal to Xr= 237.92236587784157

although not shown in the data but was shown on the Screenshot for bairstows method. This root
was obtained in the 15th iteration with the initial guess of 250.

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Chapter V Conclusion

The Mullers Method gives the least approximate true error over other methods in finding the root of equation (8). Equation (8) is much more approximately equal to zero when the root obtained using the same method is substituted. In addition, these methods give a lesser relative approximation error, though a and t for this technique has a considerable difference compared to the other methods. The Newton Raphson and Secant Methods displayed significant results as the root for (8) were obtained with almost least number of iterations and approximate error which means that the root finding is fast and mostly accurate. While on the other hand, the Bisection and Fixed-Point Iteration Methods holds the most number of iterations which means the approximate error converges slowly to the desired stopping criterion or shall we say the process of root finding takes longer time than the previous methods. Based on experiences and readings, the performance of each method is not the same in every function. There are some cases that in a certain function, one method performs better than the other but in another or different sets of functions, it performs poorly. But the thing is, with the help of these numerical methods, one can obtain the root(s) of a function by just inputting the values of the function.

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