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Group 6 Edwin Firmansyah Idah Caridah Indah Mutian Hapsak Rani Tanjung Ristina Santi Damayanti Warnika

Grammatical Are the glue that hold a sentence together and make it grammatical

Lexical Are the principle content of a sentence

Are closed class, their membership is finite and limited

tend to serve as introducers of phrases, they often modify heads

Are open class, they can add new members easily

tend to serve as heads of phrases

1. Number English recognizes a distinction between singular and plural. This distinction has to be expressed morphologically, by adding a suffix to a noun or by changing its form in some other way to indicate whether it refers to one or more than one: student/ students, fox/ foxes, man/men, etc.

2. Gender English does not have a grammatical category of gender as such; English nouns are not regularly inflected to distinguish between feminine and masculine. English has the category of person which distinguishes in the thirdperson singular between masculine, feminine and inanimate (he/she/it). This distinction does not apply to the third-person plural (they). In some languages, such as Arabic, gender distinctions apply to the second as well as third person pronouns. In addition to gender distinctions in the third-person singular and plural, Arabic has different forms for you depending on whether the person or persons addressed is/are male or female.

3. Person The category of person relates to the notion of participant roles. Bahasa Indonesia has a nine-term pronoun system where English has only seven. The gender dimension is absent from Bahasa Indonesia, but two other dimensions are of relevance: i. the inclusive/ exclusive dimension: English we has two translations in Bahasa Indonesia, involving a choice between kami and kita, depending on whether the addressee is included or excluded; ii. the familiar/ non-familiar dimension which necessitates a choice between for instance aku and saya for English I, depending on the relationship between speaker and bearer.

4. Tense and Aspect In some languages, the tense and aspect system are highly developed. Wishram, an American Indian language, makes no fewer than four distinctions in reference to past events alone, each distinction expressing a certain degree of remoteness from the moment of speaking. Some languages, such as Chinese, Malay, and Yurok, have no formal category of tense or aspect. The form of the verb in these languages does not change to express temporal or aspectual distinctions.

5. Voice Scientific and technical writing in English relies heavily on passive structures (in order to give the impression of objectivity and to distance the writer from the statements made in the text).

The syntactic structure of a language imposes restrictions on the way messages may be organized in that language. The order in which functional element such as subject, predicator and object may occur in more fixed in some language than in other. Language vary in extent to which they rely on word order to signal the relationship between element in the clause. Compared in language such as German, Rusian , Arabic and Eskimo, word order in English is relatively fixed word other such as Chinnese often depend entirely on the other word in which the element are placed.

Now need to take a broader look at language and to consider the possibility that, as part of a language system, lexical items and grammatical structures have a meaning potential. This meaning potential is only realized in communicative events, that is, in text. Following Brown and Yule (1983: 6), text is defined here as the verbal record of a communicative event; it is an instance of language in use rather than language as an abstract system of meanings and relations.

1. Text vs non-text
As translators, we have to operate with lexical items and grammatical structures at various stages of the translation process. It is nevertheless imperative that we view the text as a whole both at the beginning and at the end of the process. A good translator does not begin to translate until s/he has read the text at least once and got a gist of the overall message. But this is only the first step. Once the source text is understood, the translator then has to tackle the task of producing a target version which can be accepted as a text in its own right.

2. Features of text organization


Established through the arrangement of information

Establish interrelationships between persons and events


Text type

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