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1
For thc past sxtccn ycars l havc bccn waIkng thc strccts and pubIc
spaccsofthccty and watchnghow pcopIcuscthcm. Somcofwhat l
foundoutmaybcofpractcaIappIcaton.ThcctysfuIIofvcxatons
stcps too stccp drs too tough to opcn, Icdgcs you cannot st on
bccausc thcy arc t hgh or too Iow, or havc spkcs on thcmso that
undcsrabIcs wII not st on thcm. lt s dmcuIt to dcsgn an urban
spacc so maIadrotIy that pcopIc wII not usc t but thcrc arc many
suchspaccs. OnaIargcrscaIc,thcrcarcbgbIankwaIIs, whoIcbIock-
fronts of thcm fortrcssIkc mcgastructurcs, atrums, and cncIoscd
maIIs. Thcrc arc concourscs undcrground and skyways ovcrhcad,
madc thc morc dsorcntng wth IIumnatcd maps that you cannot
dccphcr. SmaII probIcms or Iargc, thcrc arc practcaI ways to dcaI
wth thcmandlshaIIbcsuggcstng ncIudngadchntvcsoIu-
ton tothc bIank waII.
utthcrcsmuchtobccncouragcdabouttoo. Thcrscovcryof
thc pIcasurcs ofdontown has bccn madc n cty ahcr cty. To takc
ust onc ndcx thcrc has bccn a markcd ncrcasc n thc numbcr of
pcopIcusngccntcrctyspaccs Ths sn goodpartbccauscthcrchas
bccnamarkcdncrcascnthcnumbcrofspaccscrcatcd. Somcofthcm
havc ndccd bccn maIadrotIy dcsgncd but many arc not and a fcw
arcsupcrb. My rcscarch groupkcptfarIy prccsccount ofkcy spaccs
and found that bcgnnng n thc carIy scvcntcs thc ycartoycar n-
crcasc n daIy usc of kcy spaccs avcragcd about 0 pcrccnt. SuppIy

j|
L
was crcatingdcmand not onIy wcrc spaccs cach ycar, but
morc pcopIc wcrc gctting in thc habit using thcm. lntimc, spaccs
rcach an ccctivccapacity, onc that is Iargcand isniccIy
dctcrmincd by pcopIc thcmscIvcs. M has bccn Icamcd about thc
factors that makc a pIacc work, and havc bccn appIicd to good
ccct in somc stunning Iocations. (Onc ourprincipaIhndings pco-
pIc tcnd to sit most whcrc thcrc arc pIaccs to sit.)
Thcrc has bccn aproIifcrationofoutdoorcafs. NotsoIong ago,
thc convcntionaI wisdom was that Amcricans wouId coy aIfrcsco
dining on trips to Europc but wcrc too CaIvinistic to do so at homc.
Today a numbcr of oncc-staid citics havc an outdoor ambiancc in
spring and summcr that is aImost Mcditcrrancan. Washington is an
cxccIIcnt cxampIc.
Thc rcdiscovcry ofthc ccntcr sccmstobc afairIy univcrsaI phc-
nomcnon. lnEuropcan citics, which havc had ahcadstart onours in
thcprovisionofcongcniaIspaccs,thcrchasbccnawidcsprcadincrcasc
in thc pcopIing of downtown. Thc outsanding cxampIc is Copcnha-
gcn. Thanks in good part to proscIytizig by architcct !an GchI, thc
ccntcr has bccn pcdcstrianizcd to dramatic ccct. GchI has kcpt dc
taiIcd rccords, and thcy show a dramatic incrcasc in thc simpIcpIca
surcs of downtown stroIIing, sitting, window shopping. Thcy aIso
showgrcatincrcascsinpIanncdandunpIanncdactivitics, cvcninwin-
tcr. A ncw "tradition," startcd in 9&2, is thc Copcnhagcn CamivaI,
a thrcc-day aair that has pcopIc samba dancing thcir way to thc
ccntcr.
A goodpart ofthis book is conccmcd with thc practicaI, and in
particuIar, thc dcsign andmanagcmcntfurban spaccs. utmy main
intcrcsthasbccninmattcrs muchIcsspacticaI as l wouIdprcfcr
to tcrm it, fundamcntaI rcscarch. Whacvcr may bc thc signihcancc,
whatismostfascinatingaboutthcIifc ofthcstrcctisthcintcrchangcs
bctwccnpcopIcthattakcpIaccinit. takcmanyforms. l wiIItakc
thcm up in dctaiI in thc ncxt chaptcr, t Ict mchcrc notc a fcw.
Thc most basic is what wc tcrm thc pcrccnt
that is, thc way pcopIc who stop totaIk gravitatc tothcccntcr ofthc
pcdcstrian trac strcam. A variant is thc proIongcd, or thrccphasc
goodbyc. Somctimcs thcsc go on intcrminabIy, with scvcraI faiIcd
goodbycs as prcfacc to thchnaI, cIimactic onc.
Schmoozcrs arc instructivc to wath. Whcn thcy Iinc up on thc
sidcwaIk, aIong thc curb most oftcn, th may cngagc in an intricatc
foot baIIct. Onc man may rock up and own on his fcct. No onc cIsc
wiII. Hcstops. lnafcwscconds anothcrmanwiIIstartrockingupand
downonhisfcct.AthirdmanmaytuinahaIfcircIctohisrightand
1ntroduct/on
thcn to his lcft. Thcrc sccms to bc somc proccss of communication
going on. ut what docs it mcan l havc not brokcn thc codc.
Anothcr sourcc of wondcr is thc skillcd pcdcstrian. Hc is rcally
cxtraordinary in thc subtlcticsofhis movcmcnts, signals, and fcints. l
will analyzc somcinstantrcplays ofcrossingpattcrns andavcrtcdcol
lisions as tcstimony.
ct mc tcll bricy how all this got startcd. ln VbV, onald l
liott, thcn thc chairman ofthc Ncw orkCity lanning Commission,

askcd mc to hclp its mcmbcrs dra a comprchcnsivc plan. lt was an


cnoyablc task, for lliott had gathcrcd togcthcr a vcry ablc group of
young architccts, planncrs, and lawyrs. Morovcr, thc thrust of hc
plan was unusually challcnging it was conccrncd with thc maor is-
sucs of thc growth and workability of thc city and its govcrnmcnt
rathcrthanwithspccihcland-uscprocctionsandthckindoffuturistic
proccts typical ofsuch plans. Thcrc was also a strong cmphasis on
urban dcsign and thc usc of inccntivc zoning to providc parks and
plazas. Ncw ork was doing thc pionccring in this arca, and thc tcxt
was propcrly sclf-congratulatory on thc mattcr.
Oncthingl didwondcris how thcncwspaccswcrcworkingout.
Thcrc was no rcscarch on this. Thcrc was no budgct linc for it, no
pcrson on thcstawhoscob it was to go out and chcck whcthcr thc
placc was bcing wcll uscd or not, and ifnot, why. lt occurrcd to mc
that it would bc a good idca to sct up an cvaluativc unit to hll thc
vacuum.
l got a brcak. ndcr anothcr innovativc Ncw ork program, l
was invitcd to Huntcr Collcgc as a istinguishcd rofcssor. (hat a
splcndidtitlcTranslation nodoctoratc hcrconlyoncycar.Through
Huntcr'scstimablcsociologydcpartmcnt, l was ablctoputthcarmon
somc studcnts to do studics ofparticular placcs. Somc of thc studics
wcrc cxccllcnt. Thcy wcrc also adcmonstration ofhow thctimcs can
color pcrccptions. This was during thc pcriod ofcampus unrcst thc
prcsidcntofthccollcgcwasrcgularlyhungincgy andthcstudcnts
studicsofspaccs inandaround thccollcgctcndcdtoindicatc that thc
wholcplacc was alousy plot. Ncarby Madison Avcnucwas vicwcd as
a hostilc placc, and with somcustihcation. hatcvcr thc bcctivc
tactors, howcvcr, somc ot thc studcnts provcd vcry good at obscrva-
tion, and this fortihcd my bclicfin thc viability ofa small cvaluativc
group.
l applicd forgrants to sct up aunit. Onc ofthc hrst applications
was to thc trustccs of thc Rcscarch ivision of thc National Gco
graphic Socicty. Thc gist ofmy application was that thcy had sup-
portcd obscrvational studics of far-o pcoplcs and far-o placcs, so
why not thc nativcs ofa city7 Thcy thought it abit chccky, but thcy
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did likc thc argumcnt. Thcy gavc mc a grant an "cxpcdition grant"
actually thc hrst domcstic onc thcy hd adc. (l had to submit an
cxpcdition-lcadcr form as to whcthcr thc mcmbcrs had bccn inocu-
latcd against likcly tropical discascs.)
A word about mcthodology. ircc obscrvation was thc corc of
our work. Wc did do intcrvicwing, an occasionally wc did cxpcri
mcnts. ut mostlywc watchcdpcoplc. Wc tricdto do it unobtrusivcly
andonlyrarclydidwcacctwhatwcwcrcstudying. Wc wcrcstrongly
motivatcd not to. Ccrtain kinds of strcct pcoplc gct violcnt if thcy
think thcy arc bcing spicd upon.
Wc uscd photography a lot. Jmm for stills, Supcr & for timc-
lapsc, and !6mm for documcntary work. With thc usc ofa tclcphoto
lcns, onc cancasily rcmainunnoticcd, but wcfound that thcpcrspcc-
tivcwasunsatisfactoryformoststrcctintcrchangcs. Wc movcdinpro-
grcssivcly closcr until wc hnally wcrc hvc to cight fcct fromour sub-
ccts With a spirit lcvcl atop thc camcra and a widc-anglc lcns, wc
couldhlmawaywithourbackshalftumcdandthusrcmainunnoticcd
most ofthc timc.
Ourhrststudicswcrcconccmcdwithdcnsity. Thcyhadtobc. ln
thc latc sixtics and carly scvcntics thc spcctrc ofovcrcrowding was a
popularworry. Highdcnsitywasundcrattackasamaorsocialilland
o was thc city itscl "chavioral sink" was thc ncw pcorativc. Thc
city was bcing ccnsurcd not only for its obvious illsbut for thc com-
prcsson that s a condton ot t. tth Avcnuc through a tclcphoto
lcns.cihtblocksofpcoplc,tcnscandunsmiling,squcczcdintooncon
thc soundtrack, ackhammcrs, sircns, and a snatch of discordant
Gcrshwin. This was thc imagc ofthc city ofthc documcntarics. Was
thcrc hopc7 Ycs, a bright hopc, says hc narrator. A littlc child is
with hard hats and wrccking balls arc hown dcmolishing old build-
ings. Thcy arc thc good guys. As childrcnlookon, up gohigh, whitc
towcrs, likc cCorbusicrs radiantcity. And thcy camc to pass, thcsc
utopias, and with thc bcst ofintcntions.
Thcrcwcrcmanystudicson Notablcwasthcworkofr
!ohn Calhoun of thc National lnstitu of Hcalth. ln cxpcrimcnts
with rats and micc, hc found that vary gdcgrccsofcrowdingcorrc-

latcd with ncuroticand somctimcs suidal bchavior. Thcrc wcrc uni-
vcrsity studics on thc cccts on pcopl of dicrcnt spacc conhgura-
tions, such as how twcnty pcoplc in a irclc in room A pcrformcd a
taskascomparcdwiththcsamcnumbc pcrformingthcsamctaskina
squarc in room . Anothcrapproach was to monitorpcoplc'sphysio
ing from a crowdcd strcct to a wildcrnss gladc.
Fcrch atLcxinton and1t]-:cvcnth 5trcct. hc u:cd a battcr] o]camcra: to
trackcdc:trian] ow:. :trcctcocrcncountcr:, andthcdail] lco]thc ncw:-
:tandatriht.

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bcforcyuppicscamcaIong, thcdispIaccmcntofpcopIcwasundcrway.
Somctimcs thc rcdcvcIopmcnt phasc ncvcr did comc about. To this
day, thcrc arc citics with swaths of cIcarcd spacc in Iimbo oisc,
ldaho,whichcamcncardcstroyingitscIf, stiII hasmany bIocksawait-
ing rcdcvcIopmcnt.
Too much cmptyspacc and too fcw thishnaIIycmcrgcd
as thc probIcm ofthc ccntcr in morc citics than not. lthad bccn thc
probIcm for a Iong timc, but thc Iag in rccognizing it as such was
IamcntabIyIong. Thiswas particuIarIythccascwithsmaIIcrciticsfor
many ofthcm it stiII is.
lt is a wcIIknown fact that smaII citics arc fricndIicr than big
oncs. ut arc thcy7 Our rcscarch on strcct Iifc indicatcs that, ifany-
thing, thc rcvcrsc is morc IikcIy to bc thc casc. As far as intcraction
bctwccn pcopIcis conccmcd, thcrcismarkcdIy morcofitinbigcitics
ot ust in absoIutc numbcrs but as a proportion of thc totaI. ln
smaII citics, by contrast, you scc fcwcrintcrchangcs, fcwcrproIongcd
goodbycs, fcwcrstrcct confcrcnccs, fcwcr !pcrccnt convcrsations,
and fcwcr ! pcrccnt Iocations, for that mattcr. lndividuaIIy, thc
fricndIincssquoticntofthcsmaIIcrmightbcmuchhighcr. As acr
rcsidcntofasmaIItown,l wouIdthinkthistobctruc. ltcouIdaIsobc
argucd that fricndships run dccpcr in a smaIIcr city than in a Iargcr
onc. As far as]requenc of intcrchangc is conccmcd, howcvcr, thc
strcctsofthcbigcityarcnotabIymorcsociabIcthanthoscofasmaIIcr
onc.
ltis not a qucstion ofthcovcralI popuIation butofitsdistribu-
tion. AsmaIIcitywithatightcorccanconccntratcmorcpcopIcinits
ccntcrhanaIargcroncthatsprawIsaIlovcrthcpIacc. utmostsmaII
ciicsdonotconccntratc,indccd, fcwhavc thcconccntrationthatthcy
oncc had. Iockfront aftcr bIockfront has bccn brokcn up, thc con
tinuity dcstroycd by a misccIIany of parking Iots. Somc citics havc
goncovcrthc 50pcrccntIcvcI inthis rcspcct withmorc arca in park-
ing than city.
Whcnl visitacity, l Iikctotakcsomcquickcountsinthcccntcr
oftown at midday. lfthc pcdcstrian ows on thc sidcwaIks arc at a
ratc Icss than a thousand pcopIc an hour, thc city couId pavc thc
strccts with goId for aII thcdicrcncc it wouId makc. Thc city is onc
that is Iosing its ccntcr or has aIrcady donc so. Thcrc arc simpIy not
cnough pcopIc to makc it work not cnough to kccp thc Iast dcpart-
mcnt storc going not cnough to sustain somc good rcstaurants, not
cnough to makc livcIy Iifc on its strccts.
ltis sad to scc how many citicshavc thiscmptincss atthcircorc.
ltis saddcrstiIlto scc howmanyarc adoptingcxactIy thc approachcs
thatwiIImakcmattcrsworsc. Mostofthcirprogramshavcincommon
1ntroduct/on
as a statcd purposc "rcIicffrom pcdcstran congcstion." Thcrc is no
pcdcstrian congcstion. What thcy nccd is pcdcstrian congcstion. t
whatthcy arcdoing is taking what pcopIc arc on thcstrccts and put
ting thcm somcwhcrc cIsc. ln a kind of hoIy war against thc strcct,
thcy arc putting thcm up in ovcrhcad skyways, down in undcrground
concourscs, and into scaIcd atriums and gaIIcrics. Thcy arc putting
thcm cvcrywhcrccxccpt at strcct IcvcI.
Onc rcsuIt is an ccct akin toGrcsham'sIaw. to makc thcirsub
stitutcstrcctsmorccompctitivc,citicshavcbccnmakingwhatis Icftof
thcirrcaI strccts duIIcryct. Oncinstrumcntis thcbIank waII. Accord
ing to my rough computations, thc proportion of downtown bIock
frontsthatarcbIankatstrcctIcvcIhasbccn growingrapidIy mostof
aII,insmaIIcitics,whicharcthconcsmostimmcdiatcIyhurtbysubur
ban shopping maIIs and most tcmptcd to hght thcir tormcntors by
copying thcm.
Thcy do copy thcm, and it is scIf-dcfcating of thcm to do so.
CiticsforpcopIcwhodo notIikcciticsarc thcworstoftwoworIds. As
thcNationaITrust's MainStrcctprogramhasbccndcmonstrating, thc
approachcs that work bcst arc thosc which mcct thc city on its own
grittytcrms, which raisc thc dcnsity, rathcrthan Iowcr it, which con
cntrat tightning up tfabric and gt thc pdtrian back on th
strcct.
ut itis thcbig citics that facc thctoughcst chaIIcngc. WiII thcir
ccntcrs hoId7 Or wiII thcy spIattcr into a host ofscmicitics7 At thc
momcnt,thcdcccntraIizationtrcndsccmsdominant. Thcdcmograph
ics indicatcthatthisisthccasc. So do thc coIonicsoftowcrs goingup
bctwccn thc cIovcrIcafs. Evcn within thc city, suburbia is winning.
Now coming ofagc is a whoIc ncw gcncration ofpIanncrs and archi
tccts forwhom thc formativccxpcricnccofaccntcrwas thc atriumof
asuburbanshoppingmaII. SomcciticshavcaIrcadybccnrccast inthis
imagc, and morc arc foIIowing suit.
l amcschcwingprophccyinthisbook. ltis hardcnough to hgurc
out what ishappcning now, Ict aIonc whatmight or might not twcnty
ycars hcncc. ut onc can hopc. l think thc ccntcr is going to hoId. l
think it is going to hoId bccausc of thc way pcopIc dcmonstratc by
thcractons how vitaI s ccntraIty. Thc strcct rituaIs and cncountcrs
that sccm socasuaI, thcproIongcd goodbycs, thc pcrccnt convcr
sations thcscarc notat aII triviaI. Thcy arc manifcstations ofonc of
thc most powcrfuI ofimpuIscs. thc impuIsc to thc ccntcr.
Andofthc primacyofthcstrcct. lt is thc rivcrofIifcofthc city,
thc pIaccwhcrcwc comctogcthcr, thcpathwaytothc ccntcr. lt is thc
primary pIacc. As l hopc to show in thc chaptcrs that foIIow it has
much to tcach us.
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lt was a dandy hypothcsis. How far, l had wondcrcd, wouId pcopIc
movcoutofthcpcdcstrianowtohavcaconvcrsation7Myhypothcsis
wasthatthcy wouIdgravitatcto thcunuscdfootorso ofbucr spacc
aIong thcbuiIding waIIs. lt was a mattcr ofsimpIc common scnsc.
Wc focuscd timc-Iapsc camcras on scvcraI strcct comcrs and rc-
cordcd thc activity fortwowccks. On maps ofthc comcrs wc pIottcd
thcIocationofcachconvcrsationandhowIongitIastcd. To scrccnout
pcopIc who wcrc onIy waiting for thc i to changc, wc notcd onIy
thosc convcrsations Iasting a minutc or Iongcr.
Thcatvtywasnotascxpctcd. T oususc, thcpcopIcwho
stoppcd to taIk did not movc out ofthcmin pcdcstrian ow, and if
thcy had bccn out of it, thcy movcd into it. Thc grcat buIk of thc
convcrsations wcrc smack in thc middI of thc pcdcstrian ow thc
! pcrccnt Iocation, to borrow thc rc l cstatc tcrm. ln subscqucnt
studics wc wcrc to hnd thc samc impusc to thc ccntcr in travcIing
convcrsations thc kind in which two pcopIc movc about a Iot but
don'tgo vcry far. Thcrc is muchapparcnt motion,butifyoupIot thc
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Lccaticu c/ strcct ccurcrsaticus lastiu twc miuutcs cr mcrc at 5ak 1tb
Hrcuuc aud1ictb 5trcct. Cumulatirc/cr]rc da]s iuJuuc. Nctc maiu ccu-
ccutraticu at ccc scccudaq cuc cutsidc cutraucc
orbits, you wiII hnd that thcy arc ccntcrcd around thc ! pcrccnt
Iocation.
ObscrvcrsinothcrcountricshavcaIsonotcdthctcndcncytoscIf-
congcstion. ln his study of pcdcstrians in Copcnhagcn, !an GchI
mappcd bunching pattcrns aImost idcnticaI to thosc obscrvabIc hcrc.
Matthcw CioIck studics an AustraIian shopping ccntcr with simiIar
rcsuIts. "Contrary to common scnsc' cxpcctations," CioIck notcs,
"thcgrcatmaorityofpcopIcwcrcfoundto scIcctthcirsitcsforsociaI
intcraction right on or vcry cIosc to thc trac Iincs intcrsccting thc
pIaza. RcIativcIy fcw pcopIc formcd thcir gathcrings away from thc
spaccs uscd for navigation. "
!ustwhypcopIcbchavcIikc this l havc ncvcr bccn abIc to dctcr-
minc. lt is undcrstandabIc that convcrsations shouId originatc in thc
mainow. Whcrcthcrcarcthc most pcopIc, thcIikcIihoodofamcct-
ing or of a Icavctaking is highcst. What is Icss cxpIainabIc is thc
incIination to rcmain in thc main ow, bIocking trac, and bcing
ostIcdby it. This sccms to bc a mattcr not ofincrtia but ofchoicc
instinctivc pcrhaps, but by no mcans iIIogicaI. ln thc ccntcr of thc
crowd, you havc maximum choicc to brcak o, to switch, to con-
tinuc. ltis much IikcbcinginthcmiddIcofacrowdcdcocktaiIparty,
whichisitscIfamovingconvcrsation growingcvcr dcnscranddcnscr,
occasionaIIy cnding up with cvcryonc squcczcd into a corncr. lt is a
bchavior univcrsaIIy dcpIorcd and practiccd.
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What attracts pcopIcmost, in sum, isothcrpcopIc. lfl Iaborthc
point, it is bccausc many urban spaccs arc bcing dcsigncd as though
thc oppositc wcrc truc and as though hat pcopIc Iikc bcst arc thc
pIaccs thcy stay away from. PcopIc thcmscIvcs ohcn taIk aIong such
Iincs, and thatis why thcir rcsponscs to qucstionnaircs canbc so mis-
Icading. HowmanypcopIcwouIdsaythcyIikctositinthcmiddIcofa
crowd7 lnstcad, thcy spcak ofgctting away from it aII, and thcy usc
tcrmsIikc"oasis,""rctrcat,"and"cscapc."lamvcrygIadmyhypoth-
csis bIcw up in my facc. lt has forccd mc to Iook at what pcopIc do.
Thc bcst pIaccs toIook arcstrcctcomcrs. As agcncraI ruIc, !
pcrccntconvcrsations arcspottcd mostohcnat thc busicst crossroads
Iocations. Fifth Avcnuc at Fifticth Strcct is onc such. Thc hcavicst
pcdcstrian ows arc at thc cntrancc to Saks dcpartmcnt storc and at
thcstrcct comcr. lt is at thcsc two pIaccs that thcgrcatcst numbcrof
convcrsations arc cIustcrcd, with rcIativcIy fcw in thc spacc bctwccn
thc corncr and thc cntrancc. Of ! JJ convcrsations wc mappcd ovcr
scvcraI days, 57 pcrccnt wcrc conccntratcd in thchighcst-trac Ioca-
tions. WhiIc thcrc wcrc no signihcant dicrcnccs bctwccn mcn and
womcn, mcn did tcnd to taIk somcwhat Iongcr than womcn. 50pcr-
ccnt of maIc groups taIkcd hvc minutcs or Iongcr, comparcd to 5
pcrccnt offcmaIc groups.
cxington Avcnuc is morc crowdcd yct aImost to thc point of
travcsty bctwccn Fihy-scvcnth and Fihy-cighth strccts. What with
signs, oraI dispIays, strcct vcndors, its narrow, twcIvc-and-a-haIf-foot
sidcwaIksarc rcduccd toanccctivcwaIkwayofhvcorsix fcct. Atthc
pcakofthcIunchtimctrac, towaIksingIchIc. Andit
isthcnthatthcsidcwaIkisIikcIytobc rthcrbIockcdbyconvcrsation.
PcdcstriansarcsurprisingIy ofthcbIockcrs. Asancxpcr-
imcnt,twoofourrcscarchcrscngagcdimarathonconvcrsationinthc
middIc of thc bIock. "AImost aII of tc pcdcstrians," onc rcportcd,
"madcancorttoavoidbrushing tuscvcnthoughthisinvoIvcd
squcczingcIoscto thcdispIaysortothccarsat thccurbs. Oncwoman
did ostIc mc on purposc. A fcw mad rcmarks undcr thcir brcaths.
utifthcothcrsfcItrcscntfuI, thcydidtshowit. ThcywcrcsopoIitc
that whcn thcy couIdn't avoid brushing against us, thcy murmurcd
apoIogics as thcy passcd. "
PcopIc waiting for pcopIc arc intccsting to obscrvc, particuIarIy
so afcw minutcs aftcrthchour. ut mostintcrcstingofaII arcpcopIc
who mcct pcopIc thcy did not cxpcct to. Whcn l startcd obscrving
strcctbchavior,itwasthchighincidcnccofthcscchanccmcctingsthat
struck mc. ut whcn you comc to think ofit, it is not chancc at aII.
WithaboutthrccthousandpcopIcan hourstrcamingpastaspot, thcrc
is an actuariaI probabiIity that somconc wiII scc africnd, an acquain-
1he 3ocial Le o/ the 3treets [ i 1]
tancc,orthcfamiIiarstrangcryoucanaImostpIaccbutnot quitc.Thc
probabiIity may bc highcr yct whcn you takc shifts into account.
Thc postIunch groups hcading back to thc omcc around onc
cIck Ik Ikcunr and mddIc managcmcnt pcopIc. Thc pcpIc
you scc around two arc oIdcr, morc cxpcnsivcIy drcsscd, and appar-
cntIy not in a hurry.
Ofthc strcct convcrsations wc trackcd, about J0 pcrccnt appcar
to havc bccn unpIanncd. Somc cncountcrs wcrc too bricfto dcvcIop
intoaconvcrsation aquickhcIIoandawavcofthchand. Somcwcrc
awkwardIytcntativc,withncithcrpartyquitcsurcwhcthcritwouIdbc
righttopassonorstop.utmanywcntonforthrccminutcsormorc.
lfonc ofthc pcrsons was with a group, thc cncountcr somctimcs in-
voIvcd a fuII round of introductions and handshakcs.
lt is dimcuIttogaucthcvaIucofchancccncountcrs. DidthcoId
fricnds mcct for Iunch as thcy said thcy wouId7 Did thc tradc gossip
turn ut to bc right7 ossibIy. ut onc thing is ccrtain it is at thc
crossroads thatthc chanccs arc bcst. As wc wiII scc in thc chaptcron
thc outward movc of corporatc hcadquartcrs, chancc is what thcy
forfcit.
Most goodbycs arc bricf. a fast "ciao," "takc carc," a wavc, and
thcy'rco. utanumbcrarcprotractcd, particuIarIysowhcnthcyarc
ancxtcnsionofafaiIcdgoodbyc. lt'saIittIcIikcthcpcopIcwhohovcr
inoccdoorways,forcvcronthcvcrgcofIcaving,but ncvcrdoingso.
lfpcopIc go through thc motions ofa goodbyc and stop short at thc
point ofconsummation, a momcntum is sct up that can Icad to pro-
grcssivcIy morc cmphatic goodbycs, up tothc hnaI rcsoIvinggoodbyc.
ltis fascinating to watch thcscthrcc- andfour-wavcgoodbycs andtry
todistinguishthcrcaIgoodbycfromthcfaIsconcs. Don'tbcfooIcdby
thc gIancc at thc watch. lt is onIy prcmonitory. l havc a wondcrfuI
hIm rccord of two mcn grippcd in indccision in front of Saks Fihh
Avcnuc. Thcy ust can't bring thcmscIvcs to part. Thcrc arc scvcraI
rounds ofgoodbycs and Iooks at thc watch, but it's not untiI a third
party comcs aIong that thcy hnaIIy brcak out ofthcir impassc.
csttowatcharcthcpostIunchgoodbycsofthcscniorcxccutivcs.
Somctimcs thcrc is a notc ofirrcsoIution about thc Icavc-taking, as if
thc rcaI busincss thc Iunch was supposcd to havc bccn about has not
yct bccn broachcd. nally, somconc brngs t up. Thc dcal Thc con
tract7 Ycs, ycs, ofcoursc. How couId thcy havc forgottcn7 Thcy now
procccdtothcbusincssandasthcydo,thcirfootand armmovcmcnts
tcndtobccomcrcciprocaI. ThisisanindicationofpcopIcobIigingonc
anothcr, and soon thc mattcr wiIl bc complctcd.
Onc of thc most notabIc sociaI rituaIs is schmoozing. ln Ncw
YorksgarmcntdistrictonScvcnthAvcnuc,youwiIIsccgroupsofmcn
Iincd up aIong thc curb, facing inward. Thcrc arc oftcn so many of
/ss. /ss
7he 3ocial Le o/ the 3treets
5chmccziu cu 5cvcuth Hvcuuc.
thcm that you havc to go out into thc strcct along with thchandcart
pushcrs ifyou want to makc any hcadway. Somctimcs thc vchicular
trac slows to a ncar halt for all thc gaing.
"Schmoozing" is a iddish tcrm for which thcrc is no prccisc
dchnition utasicallyitmcans "nothingtalk" idlcgossip,political
opinions,sportstalk,utnot,so thcysay, usincsstalk. utgroupsdo
tcndto form upalongoccupational lincs, salcsmcn, for camplc, tcnd
toschmoozcwithothcr salcsmcn, andpattcrnmakcs, withothcr pat-
tcrnmakcrs. Somc of thc schmoozcrs arc rctirccs who likc to comc
ack around midday to kccp in touch. lmost all garmcnt district
schmoozcrs arc mcn.
hysically, its an awful placc. lt is without trccs or graccs, it is
noisyandfumc-riddcn,andthctracissoadcvcncycliststrytogivc
thc lacc a widc crth. lfyou ask thc schmoozcrs f thcy wouldn
prcfcr thc plazas and opcn spaccs furthcr uptown, thcy will look at
you as though you arc crazy. Thosc othcr placcs. pcoplc dont uork
thcrc. id stu. This is thc ccntcr ofthings
lnoncrcspcct,itmostccrtainlyis.infcwplaccswillyousccsuch
a clcar dcmonstration ofthc rclation ctwccn ccntrality and word of
mouth communication. Thc schmoozing groups arc anything ut
static. Somc will last only tcn minutcs or so, dissolvc, and thcn c
#
rcplaccd by a ncw group. thcr groups will constantly rcncw thcm-
sclvcs, with ncwcomcrs oining as othcrs lcavc. Thcn thcrc arc thc
pcoplc who roam Thcsc arc ohcn scnior mcn, toudgc by thc dcfcr-
cncc paid thcm. Thcy work thc block stopping fricnds to chat for a
nOncH! Ot SO, CDcCKIH_ IH Dt1cH_ W1!D !Dc s!aHO1H_ _tOuj. LHc naH
that wc trackcd talkcd with cightccn scparatc groups. Hc accostcd
thcmwithalookofurgcncy,and thcylistcncdwithintcrcst. Whatcvcr
it was hc was communicating, it was multiplicd almost gcomctrically
and it wasnt "nothing talk" cithcr
Anothcr grcat placc for schmooing is thc diamond district, thc
singlcblock on Fortyscvcnth Strcctbctwccn Fifth and Sixthavcnucs.
Hcrc Hasidic !cws play a largc rolc. Schmooing hcrc is vcry much
busincss, and many kcy transactionsarccarricd out on thcstrcct. ut
thcrc is a grcat dcal of social schmooing as wcll, and it carrics on
throughout thc wintcr months.
Hcrc thcrc arccthnic factors to considcr. ou scc a rich vocabu-
lary of gcsturcs rootcd in thc clturc of thc rthodox !cws ln his
rcmarkablc study of gcsturcs, avid Efron comparcd thosc of thc
Eastcrn !cws in cw ork with southcrn ltalians. Thc ltalian gcs-
turcs, Efron found, had a vcry spccihc mcaning, and havc had for
gcncrations. Rcadingoldbookson gcsturcs(suchas Andrcadi!orios
l &2 work on capolitan gcsturcs), Efron found that gcsturcs wcrc
thc samc as thcy wcrc accnturyago, for, indccd,in ancicntRomcand
Grcccc. Thcn as now, thc gcsturcs so wcll portraycd a particular
mcaningthatonccouldtcllastorywiththcmthatothcrscouldfollow
and undcrstand.
ut this was not thc casc with thc uropcan cws. hcn fron
comparcdthcirgcsturcswith whatthcywcrcsaying,hc foundthatthc
gcsturcs cmphasizcd and punctuatcd what was cing said ut had no
yolc i i hlv

rt fo, To loy,
thccw vcry rarcly cploys his arm in thcguiscofapcncil todcpict
thc things hc is rcfcrring to, ut uscs itoftcn as a pointcr to link onc
propositiontoanothcr,ortotracc thcitincraryofalogicalourncyor
clsc as a aton to cat thc tcmpo of his mcntal locomotion. Efron
found it toccspcciallycharactcristicofthc cshiva typcofcw, who
was accustomcd to argumcntation and syllogistic rcasoning.
This is vcry oscrvalco Forty-scvcnth Strcct. lfyou watch two
[ i 6]
L
mcninacoIIoquy,youwon't knowwhat thcy arcsaying,butyouwiII
gct avcry cIcar imprcssion ofthcrocer thcyarcgoingthrough. ltis
thc cxcrcisc of Iogic by rcasonabIc, fair-mindcd mcn. Thc gcstrcs
somctimcs indicatc a dismay at thc wck argumcnt ofthc othcr, but
gcncraIIy thcsc cxchangcs cnd upon an obviousIy fricndIy, oratIcast
rcsoIving, notc.
Schmoozing is now to bc sccn aII ovcr, uptown and downtown,
andwhiIc thc intcnsitycannotmatch that ofthc garmcnt district, thc
basic pattcs arc simiIar. anks and corporations with Iargc cIcricaI
stastcndtohavcIotsofschmoozcrs. ThcscarcaIsothckindofpIaccs
thatprovidcin-housccafctcrias, rccrcationfaciIitics,T rooms,hobby
cIubs,andthcIikc. utschmoozcrswanttogctoutsidc. Thcywon'tdo
much whcn thcy gct thcrc, gcncraIIy thcy wiII form up abrcast in a
Iinc. This is thc most functionaI to watch pcopIc go by. Thc
schmoocrs wiII somctmcs cxchangc cmarks on thc passcrsby, but
somctimcs simpIy watch, bound in an miabIc siIcncc.
Schmoozcrs arc fairIy consistcnt in choosing Iocations. Thcy
show aIiking forwcII-dchncdpIaccs ccdgcofthccurb, for cxam-
pIc, or a Icdgc. Thcy arc aIso vcry piIIar-tropic, obcying pcrhaps a
primcvaI instinct for somcthing at thcir backs. RarcIy wiII thcy stand
for Iong in thc middIc ofIargc spaccs.
Schmoozcrs arc aIso consistcnt in thc duration of thcir scssions,
whichwiIIbccithcrfairIybricforfairIy Iong hhccn minutcsorcvcn
morc. Somc groups, ason Scvcnth Avcnuc, arc ofthc scmipcrmancnt
oatingkind, and many IastthcwhoIc unchhour. Thcstaycrsdomi-
natc. lfyou add up thc minutcs spcnt by cach schmoozcr ovcr an
hour'stimc, youwiIIhndthatthcgrcatmaorityofthctotaIschmooz-
ing minutcs wiII bc accountcd for by Iong-tcrm schmoozcrs.
Thc most common form that strc t convcrsation takcs is that of
straightmanandprincipaI. ForawhiIc,oncmandominatcs,whiIcthc
othcrcoopcratcsbyrcmainingstiII an Iistcning. Thcn thcrc wiII b a
shift thconIookcrcan scnscit andthc activc manbccomcs
thc passivc onc.
Or shouId. Somctimcs pcopIc vioIatc thc tacit compact and
kccp on taIking and gcsturing thcir timc. ConvcrscIy, thc
straight man may faiI to rcspcct thc during thc principaI'stu
andump in prcmaturcIy. hcn thcrc arc such faiIurcs ofaccommo-
dation, thcrc is a Iack ofsymmctry in
.
movcmcnts. l havc a hIm
scqucncc ofaIongconvcrsation on -scvcnthStrcct that is acata-
Iogofdiscords. Acigarsmokingman bccnIong ovcrcxtcndinghis
tu. This bcgins to bc rccctcd in gcsturcs of thc Iistcncr. Hc
bcginsto Iook thiswayand that, as if hcIp and brushcs Iintohis
IapcIs. Hcrocksupanddownonhis andthcnstopsabruptIy. Hc
1he 3ocial Le o/ the 3treets [ i
7
]
whccIs to Icavc. Thc othcr man, stiII taIking, grabs him by thc sIccvc
8Hd B0H H8 0080 Bim.
Soapboxcrs dispIay coopcrativc antagonism in hcightcncd form.
About . m. thcygathcratroadandWaIIstrccts. MostarcrcguIars
somc arc Hcnry Gcorgc singIc-tax pcopIc, somc spcciaIizc in worId
aairs, many conccntratc on rcIigion, intcrprctation of thc ibIc in
particuIar. ThcprocccdingswiIIbchighIyadvcrsariaI, andthatiswhy
thc soapboxcrs to disputc and bc disputcd. Somc structurc
thcir discoursc to bc hcckIcd and may bc discomhtcd ifthcy arc not.
Thc cIassic form ofthcir cncountcrs is thrust and countcrthrust.
With aabbing hngcr punctuating cach point, onc man advanccs on
hisadvcrsary, whogivcsway atthcsamcpacc. AftcracIimacticour
ish, thc hrst man stops, and his hands go Iimp. What morc couId
possibIybcsaid7Thcothcrmanabsouthishngcr. HowcouIdthatbc
squarcdwithGcncsis7 Hcadvanccsonthcothcrman, whogvcsway.
ThcwhoIcprcccdingsccncisnowactcdoutinrcvcrsc.Othcrsoapbox-
crs may cgg thcm on. A man who is known as thc Logician, a man
with a spadc bcard and an incongruous twccd hat, may top o thc
scssion. oth mcn havc misscd thc point.
Thc back-and-forth movcmcnts of strcct cncountcrs havc thcir
paraIIcI in spccch Thc pausc is thccruciaI cIcmcnt. Profcssor Fricda
GoIdmanEisIcrofthcLnivcrsityCoIIcgcofLondonhasfoundthatin
spontancous spccch % pcrccnt to 0 pcrccnt is siIcncc and that thc
spccd ofspccch is aImost cntircIy a function ofnot spcaking. Pauscs
J
havc mcaning frcqucnt oncs indicatc ncw thoughts, and fcw pauscs,
standard cxprcssion. Whcn two pcopIc arc taIking, thcy show a tcn-
dcncy to match thc rhythms ofcach othcr's pauscs.
lnthcirbookBhthms o]Dialogue. !oscph!acandStanIcyFcId-
stcinnotcthcsamcphcnomcnon. Spcakcrstcndtomatchthcduration
ofcach othcrs pauscs and to spacc thcm at thcsamc intcrvaIs. lnhis
study ofconvcrsation, !amcs M. Dabbs, !r., ofGcorgia Statc Lnivcr-
sitynotcsthatcach tum"containcdanumbcrofpauscs. Thcscwcrc
of a continuation varicty, not for intcrruption. Thc pausc that con
cIudcs atu, howcvcr, is a switching" pauscandis acIcarsignaI to
thcothcrthathccantakcovcr.Distinguishingonckindofpauscfrom
thc othcr takcs art, and ifonc Iingcrs on a continuation pausc a haIf
sccond or so too long, thc othcr man s lkcly to grab thc slcncc and
run owith thc convcrsation.
Gcsturcs rcinforcc thc spccch and thc pauscs. A pcrson may
pausc forccct and thcn add an uh" or an u" tosignaI that hc's
goingtogoonagain. As hcdocshcmaysignaIthcsamcmcssagcwith
a movc of thc hand. Gcsturcs arc cspcciaIIy important whcn onc
spcakcr docs not pIay thc gamc, umping a pausc, for cxampIc, or
Corncr o] hall and hatcr:trcct:: noon.
1he 3ocial Le o/ the 3treets
taIking wcII bcyond his tum. At such timcs, gcsturcs arc apt to bc
touching gcsturcs a hand on thc othcrs sIccvc, for campIc, as ifto
say, "l'm not hnishcd yct."
Most touching gcsturcs arc fricndly, thc arm around anothcr's
shouIdcrsisonc ofthcmorccommononcs. utthcpurposcisocna
mcasurc ofcontroI. Thc onc who docs thc touching is dominant at
thatparticuIarmomcnt,atIcast scckingtobc. Whcnamanwhois
taIking rcachcs out and touchcs anothcr's arm, hc is giving a com-
mand Don't start taIking again now, bccausc l'm not hnishcdyct. A
morc-opcn cocrcion is thc grasping ofanothcr's arm to stay a dcpar-
turc.
Whotouchcswhom7McnusuaIIyassumcthatwomcntouchpco-
pIc morc than mcn do. l assumcd this and was rathcr pIcascd with
somc xccIIcnt cxampIcs l hImcd of womcn picking Iint from cach
othcr'scoatsand othcrformsoftouchingrituaIs. Oncofourrcscarch-
crs a woman, took issuc with my assumption, hoIding that typicaI
maIc thinking was invoIvcd and that somc systcmatic obscrvation
might bc in ordcr. Shc was right. ln thc strcct cncountcrs wc subsc-
qucntIy studicd, wc found that mcn did morc touching than womcn.
And thckind most frcqucnt was mcn touching mcn.
Othcr studics havc arrivcd at simiIar hndings. PsychoIogist
Nancy HcnIcy found that touching corrcIatcs rathcr strongIy with
powcrandstatus. lnthcincidcntsobscrvcd, maIcsdidthcmosttouch-
ing maIcs touchcdfcmaIcsmorcfrcqucntIy thanviccvcrsa andoIdcr
pcopIc touchcd youngcr pcopIc morc frcqucntIy than vicc vcrsa. Hcr
anaIysis oftouching incomicsandT movicsshowcdmcnwayinthc
Icad. ln hction, as inIifc, thcboss did thc touching.
ltis obvious cnoughthat gcsturcs hcIp oncpcrson communicatc
with anothcr. ut thcrc is a sccond function, andit maybc thcmorc-
important. Whcn onc man is saying somcthing to anothcr, hc may
cmphasizchispointsbygcsturingwithhishands. utthcsccondman
wiIIbc Iookingathisfacc, not athis hands. Thc gcsturcsarcasmuch
for scIfas for thc othcr pcrson.
Somc of thc most intcrcsting gcsturcs arc unsccn by thc othcr
party.Thcmanwho'sdoingthcgcsturingoftcndocsitwithhishands
bchind his back, out ofthc sight ofthc pcrson for whom thcy'rcprc
sumayntcndcd. youoowatravcngconvcrsaton,youwnotc
thatvcry oftcn oncofthc groupwiII havchishandsoincdbchind his
back and wiII show alI sorts ofhngcr and thumb movcmcnt, somc-
timcs at variancc with thc pIacid micn hc's showing his companion.
(OccupationaIIy l scc a Iot of thcsc hiddcn gcsturcs, whcn hIming
travcIingconvcrsationsonthcstrcct, lhnditmuchcasicrto hImthcm
frombchindthanfrom thcfront,andasarcsuIt, l'vchadtopaymuch
morc attcntion to thcsc kinds ofgcsturcs than l othcrwisc might.
7he 3ocial Le o/ the 3treets
Whatcvcr thc function ofthc gcsturcs and movcmcnts thc strcct
is a congcnial placcfor thc cprcssion ofthcm. Thcy tcnd to bc morc
cpansivcthcrc than in intcrnal spaccs You may scc orbiting convcr-
sations in a building lobby but out on thc strcct thcy may covcr far
morcspacc. ls thcrc morc room on thc strcct7 Not rcally thc highcst
incidcncc ofcncountcrs is in thc most-crowdcd locations
Thc strcct is a stagc and thc scnsc that an audicncc is watching
pcrvadcs thc gcsturcs and movcmcnts ofthc playcrs on it. For cam-
plc arc "girl-watchcrs" rcally looking at girls7Thcy arc putting on a
show ofgirl-watchcrs looking at girls. Thc hard hatsappcar hrst and
sit on thc sidcwalk with thcir backs proppcd up against thc building
wall. Thcy arc quitc dcmonstrativc, much givcntowhistlcsanddircct
salutation to thc "girls. " lfthcrc arc scvcral oldcr mcn among thcm
thcothcrsmayoshthcmasthoughthcywcrcoutofcontcntion.Thcy
arcabit crucl. ifabaglady passcs thcy willhoot at hcr. Whitc-collar
girl-watchcrsstandorsitonlcdgcsandarcquictcr.Thcscarcconnois-
scurs, amuscd and somcwhat disdainful Thcy cchangccommcntson
passcrsbyandsnickcrandsmirk.utitismachismo.lhavcncvcrsccn
a grl-watchcr makc a drcct pass at a woman. As our camcras havc
rccordcd, whcn a reah good-looking woman gocs by thcy will bc
confoundcd and thcy bctray it with involuntary tugs on thc carlobc
and ncrvous stroking ofthcir hair.
Attractivc womcn can scarc thcm. ln an cpcrimcnt to scc how
much room strangcrs would givc cach othcr as thcy passcd, amcs
abbs and Ncil Stokcs of Gcorgia Statc nivcrsity rccordcd passing
cncountcrs Among othcr things thcy found that individual pcdcstri-
lI w8lC00IS Ul 00 8
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00Kl0g 8l glIS. Ul ll lS
80 08C0lS00. 08v0
00v0I S000 8 glI
w8lC00I 08K0 8 I08
8SS 8l 8 glI.
1t dccsn 't takc mucb tc draw a crcwd in Ncw Ycrk.
ans would gct farthcr out ofthc way for an oncoming pair than for a
singlc and wouldgivc mrc room toan oncoming malc thanafcmalc.
ut most intcrcsting was thc ccct of bcauty. Would pcoplc pass
ncarcr to an attractivc woman than to aplain onc7 oth rolcs, by thc
way,wcrcplaycdbythcsamcwoman. Foronc,shc waswcaringtight-
htting clothcs and attractivc makcup For thc othcr, shc uscd no
makcu ullcd cr air back and worc sloy clothcs. cdcstrians
gavc hcr a widcr bcrth whcn shc was attractivc. lt didn't makc any
dicrcncc whcthcr thc pcdcstrians wcrc malc or fcmalc. Thcy walkcd
noticably closcr to tc unattractivc girl, and in scvcral cascs, malc
pcdcstrians madcovcrturcs to hcr. Nonc did whcn shc was attractivc
abbs and Stokcsbclicvc this bchavior is bcst undcrstood in tcrmsof
social powcr, with a dcfcrcncc givcn to thosc furthcr up thc scalc.
Thcrc arc many othcr pcrformcrs ThcThrcc olly Fcllows rccur
so frcqucntlytat you wouldalmostthink thcy wcrcan act put on by
strcctcntcrtaincrs. ovcrsarcanothcrcamplc, fcrvcntlycmbracingin
thcmost hcavily trackcd spots, oblivious ofthc crowd. utarc thcy
so oblivious7 l doubt it. Thcir display ofacction may bc quitc gcnu-
inc, but it is a display. nd thcy cnoy it vcry muc
ccausc l livc in Ncw ork City, most ofmy initial rcscarch was
donc tcrc. l havc bccn scoldcd about this, thc city bcing dccmcd too
uniquc too skcwcd, too much ofa distorting mirror Thcrc is somc
truthtothis. Ncw ork isaplacc that caggcratcsthings, nomistakc.
utit is not ncccssarilyanylcssinformativcforthat.Thcrconcsccsin
boldcr rclicfpattcrns of bchavior morc mutcd in othcr placcs.
!he Soc/a/ Le o/ the Streets
Ourworking assumption was that bchavior in othcr citics wouId
bc basicalIy thc samc, and subscqucnt comparisons havc provcd ou
assumption corrcct. Thc important variabIc is city sizc. As l wiIl dis-
cussin morcdctaiI, in smaIlcrcitics dcnsitics tcndto bc Iowcr, pcdcs-
trians movc at a slowcr pacc, and thcrcis Icss ofthc sociaI activity in
high-trac arcas. ut thc basic pattcrns arc thcrc. coplc arc not aII
that dicrcnt. Givcn thc cIcmcnts of a ccntcr high pcdcstrian voI
umcs,conccntration,andmiturcofactivitics pcoplcinonccitytcnd
to rcspond likc pcopIc in anothcr.
Onc ofthc hardcst tasks in obscrving a placc is to hnd out what
normal is. Wc spcnt alotoftimcdoing this in scvcraI smallunivcrscs,
among thcm a slcazy strctch of cington Avcnuc. As timc wcnt on
andwcgot abcttcrundcrstandingofrccurrcntpattcrns,wcbroadcncd
our hcld. Wc did comparativc studics in othcr .S. citics in rcccnt
ycars, smaIIcr citics in particuIar. Wc aIso did somc obscrving in a
numbcrofmaorciticsabroad. Wc wcrcgIadwc did,forthcyprovidcd
morc conhrmation of basic pattcrns than did many in thc nitcd
Statcs.
cdcstrians in thc grcat mctropoIitan ccntcrs act morc likc onc
anothcrthan pcdcstrians in smaIlcrcitics in thcirrcspcctivccountrics.
Tokyo and Ncw ork arc camplcs. Thc Iincar dcvcIopmcnt charac-
tcristic of!apancsc citics is quitc unlikc thc grid pattcrn ofAmcrican
citics, and thc cuItural dicrcnccs arc cnormous. ut whcn you gct
pcoplcout on thcstrcct, thc pcdcstrians ofthc two citics bchavc vcry
much thc samc. Thcy waIk fast and aggrcssivcIy, and clustcr in thc
middlcofthc way. At Shin uku Station, thc busicst in thcworld, you
willbcstruckbyhowmuchofthccongcstionissclfcongcstion. lprizc
ahlm rccord l havc oftwo uniorcccutivcs soIcmnIy practicing goIf
swings at a WaIl Strcct corncr. ut a bcttcr onc is ofthrcc !apancsc
uniorcccutivcs going through thc samc motions in ShinukuStation
in thc vcry middIc ofthc crowd.
ln ondon you scc thc samc rccurrcnt pattcrns. ln thc City thc
hnanciaI pcoplc usc thcir narrow sidcwalks in thc samc ways Ncw
orkcrs do thcirs. Thcy block thcm. Alongsidc thc ank ofEngland
thcsidcwaIk narrows at onc point to about fourfcct, and that spot is
favorcdforconvcrsations. lnothcr rcspccts, pcoplc in thc City bchavc
vcry much !kc thosc n Vall 5trcct, ncludng thc 1hrcc Jo!ly cllows.
Schmoozcrs in Milans GaIlcria tcnd to clustcr in latc aftcrnoon
rathcrthanatmidday, asin Ncw ork. ut thcbasic rhythms arcthc
samc, with thc schmoozing groups bcing constantly rcplcnishcd as
ncwpcopIcoinandothcrsdropout. Foot motionsarcas complcand
indcciphcrablc as in Ncw ork.
That thc pcoplc ofgrcat citics should act alikc is not surprising.
Thcyarcrcspondingtohigh-dcnsitysituations and toarangc ofstim-

000SII80S 0 gI08I
00II00lI80 CI0S 0
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A
L
uIi not found in smalIcr citics. lt is at oncc thc boon and thcbanc of
smaIIcr citics that thcy arc not crowdcd. PcopIc in smaIIcr citics do
waIk morc sIowIy thcyarc not as aggrcssivc and pushy bccauscthcrc
is not much to bc pushy about. SidcwaIks arc uncrowdcd, and thcrc
arc fcwcr pcopIc bIocking thc ow.
ut simiIaritics of bchavior bctwccn citics, Iargc or smaII, arc
morc signihcant than thc dicrcnccs. And this probabIy gocs back in
timc. ln thc strccts ofthc souk in thc OId City of!crusaIcm you scc
pcdcstrian bchavior that probabIy dicrs vcry IittIc from what it was
ccnturics cforc. Thcrc arc Icssons in thcsc oId pIaccs. lnconsidcring
pIans for ncw civic spaccs pcopIc oftcn frct thcmscIvcs into inaction
ovcrthcthoughtofobsoIcsccncc. lfwcdcsignfor todayspcopIc,thcy
ask, howdowcknowit wiIIworkagcncrationorso hcncc7You cant
know, ofcoursc. utthc fact isthatspaccsdcsigncdtoworkvcrywcII
forthcirinitiaI constitucncy usualIyworkvcrywcIlforIatcroncsand,
indccd, hcIp dchnc thcm.


Many pcopIc work thc strcct. Thcrc arc thc rcguIars cops, postmcn,
sanitation mcn, trac dircctors, doormcn, us dispatchcrs. Thcrc arc
supcrvisorstransitauthoritypcoplcchcckingonusdispatchcrs, traf-
hc ocials on trac dircctors. Thcrc is cvcn a man to chcck that thc
gratc clcancrs arc doing thciro.
Storc owncrs can cstrcct pcoplc. On a highvolumc strcct with
many smaII storcs, somc owncrs spcnd a lot ofthcirtimc standing in
thc doorway. lfapasscry stops to lookinthcwindow,thcywillstart
to scll him. Thcrc is vcry littlc thcy do not know aout thc strcct.
Thc irrcgulars arcthcmostnumcrous handilIpasscrs, pushcart
food vcndors, mcrchandisc vcndors, mcsscngcrs, cntcrtaincrs, palm-
ists, soIicitors for rcIigious causcs, lood prcssurc takcrs. Thcn thcrc
arc thc odd pcoplc. Moondog, Mr. Magoo, Mr. aranoid, Captain
Horrilc,Aztccricstcss,raciousady, TamourincWoman.What-
cvcr thc fantasics thcy havc ccn acting out thcy makc a cnchccnt
prcscncc on thc strcct. Sincc thc midscvcntics, howcvcr, thcir ranks
havcccn swcllcd y scorcs ofdisturcd pcoplc rclcascd from institu-
tions. Thcrc has ccn no outpaticnt support for thcsc pcoplc and a
numcr arc on thc strccts who ought not to c. Thc ag ladics arc a
spccial catcgory. Thcy antcdatcd thc wavc of rclcascd paticnts and
cndangcr no onc savc thcmsclvcs. Thcy rcmain hcrccly indcpcndcnt.
Thcrc appcars to c morc ofthcm on thc strcct than cforc.
Thc undcrlifc of thc strcct has a rich cast too. Thcrc arc thc
cggars, thcphony pitchmcnfor causcs, thcthrcc-card-montcplaycrs
L X
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Bank lcdc: on 1]t]-:cvcnth 5trcct madc/nc all-uro:c :acc.


Hncxccllcntodium]orirl-watchin.
H amc o]chc::. Fo:in . 5ortinackac:.
1hc bankut in :ikc:.
Kndor: u:cd thcm a: di:la] rack:.
L Y
Thcrc is anothcr rcason why vcndors arc not too unhappy about
thc poIicc. Thc poIicc thin out thc compctition. WhiIc vcndors arc
fairIycoopcrativc with onc anothcr thc rcguIars, that is thcy don't
Iikc to bc crowdcd in with a Iot of amatcurs. ln a contcst with thc
poIicc, thc amatcurs havc nowhcrc ncar thc survivaI powcrs of thc
rcguIars.
cndors arc vcry adcpt at quick dispcrsaI. This is particuIarIy
cvidcnt on bIockfronts whcrc a group of vcndors has Iincd up. Thcy
wiII maintain onc or two Iookouts, usuaIIy a kid standing on abox at
thc strcct corncr. atcIy somc groups havc takcn to using waIkic
taIkics. Thcy arc prcparcd for thc gctaway. Thcy havc dctcrmincd
which doorway thcy wiII usc, which subway cntrancc, which parkcd
van. ThcirdispIays arc instantIy coIIapsibIc and thc mcrchandisc can
bc thrown into onc or two cartons. Thc racks thcy usc for Icathcr
goods havc whccIs on thcbottom and can bc raccd away.
Thc vcndors aIso know thc prccinct Iincs. lfa Midtown North
patroI car is coming up, thc vcndors rush to thc south sidc ofFihy
ninthStrcct.Nowthcy'rcinthcScvcntccnthPrccinct,andtohcIIwith
you,bud. lfacarfromthcScvcntccnthisspottcdthcyrushrightback

aga.
lfthcpoIiccdodcsccndonthcminforccthcrcwiIIbcshoutsand
whistIcs, andvcndors racing this way and that. lttakcs abouttwcnty
tothirtyscconds l havc timcd thcsc urrics and thcn thcrc wiIIbc
no onc cxccpt thc poIicc, and pcrhaps onc hapIcss vcndor who has
ccn a t too sow. aan hour atcr thc vcndors w a c ac.
Tcamworkisimportantinsuch situations. SoishavingahcIpcr. Thcy
functionnotonIyasIookouts,butascxtrasaIcsmcnandrcIicfpcrsons.
Manyvcndors, probabIy amaority, arcrcccnt immigrants. LntiI
rcccntIy, iddIc astcrncrs dominatcd mcrchandisc vcnding, as
Grccks did food vcnding. ut cthnicpattcms arc shifting. Sincc l 9&J
thcrc has bccn a strong inux of young mcn from ScncgaI, a formcr
FrcnchcoIonyonthcwcstcoastofAfrica.Fromgcncrationtogcncra
tionstrcctscIIing hasbccn an honorcd tradition in ScncgaI. lnrcccnt
ycars ScncgaIcsc vcndors havcbccomc ahxturc onthc strccts ofParis
and from thcrc thcy havc sprcad to othcr Europcan citics. Now thcy
arc in Ncw York, ovcr six hundrcd at Iatcst cstimatc, and thcirnum-
bcrs arc incrcasing rapidIy.
Thcy arc dicrcnt from othcr vcndors. Thcy arc poIitc, for onc
thing, cvcn thc poIicc who arrcst thcm notc this. Thcy spcak IittIc
ngIish, butthcy spcak it with a soh Frcnch acccnt. Thcy scII cvcry-
thing, but thcy arc partiaI to goId trinkcts and watchcs. ikc othcr
vcndors, thcy buy from thcobbcrs.
Thcy do not hawk thcir warcs thcy ust stand siIcntIy bchind
thcirtrays ofgoods. lfthcy do addrcss a customcr, it is with a whis

3treet Feole
pcrcd qucstion. GoId watchcs7 GoId watchcs7 Thcir scrcnity is dis-

Othcr ncw arrivaIs arc thc book vcndors. Somc scII ncw books,
somc scII uscd oncs. A fcw spcciaIizc in comic books. Thc most vcn-
turcsomc scII Iargc-format art books and cocc-tabIc gift books, usu-
aIIy at a discount from thcir high Iist priccs. Sprcad out on thc sidc
waIk, thc Iargc books makc an atractivc dispIay and inducc many a
passcrby to pausc and Iook.
LnIikc so many othcr vcndors, thc book vcndors do not kccp
Iooking ovcr thcir shouIdcrs for cops. Thcy arc on to a sccrct. Thc
cops can't arrcst thcm. Thc scIIing ofbooks comcs undcr thc protcc
tion of thc First Amcndmcnt and cannot bc prohibitcd by IocaI ordi
nanccs.
FoodvcndorshavcbccnthccatcrcrsofthcoutdoorIifcofthccity
andthcirnumbcrsarcgrowingfrom J,Iiccnscdin l 97&to,Jin
l 9&&. Thc biII offarc has broadcncd too. lt uscd to bc hot dogs, so
prctzcIs, soda, icc crcam, and chcstnuts. Thcy arc stiIIthc stapIcsbut
tothcmhavcbccnaddcdahostofdishcs,manyofthcmforcign,many
cookcd on thc spot souvIakia, faIafcI (with or without pita, Grcck

sausagc, ltaIian sausagc, bratwurst, omcIcts to ordcr, Chincsc bccf,


tacos,chiIi,quichc, stucdRockCornishgamchcn AnothcrspcciaIty
is thcuicc squcczcd to ordcr from chiIIcd frcsh orangcs.
Thc farc is surprisingIy good. ls it safc as wcII7 Mcrchants and
omciaIs arc forcvcrfrctting ovcrthc possibiIity ofcontaminatcd food,
airborncbactcria, andothcrsuchdangcrs. Thc rccord appcarstohavc
bccnquitcgood.Rcquircmcntsforfoodcartsinwhichcookingisdonc
arcstict,thcymusthavchotandcoIdwatcr,provisionsforchiIIingas
wcII as cooking, and ood

with Itcs and cxhaust fans. Thc caIth


Dcpartmcntsaysthcrc hasncvcrbccn a casc offoodpoisoningtraccd
to a food vcndor.
cndors can do vcry wcII. A good onc with a good Iocation can
makc as much as , a ycar. Consistcncy is important. Thc oncs
with thcbcst cIicntcIc arc thc oncs who arc aIways in thc samc spot.
Onc buys from thcm notust for thc food, but to chcck in. Thcrc is
Gus, for cxampIc, at thc northcast corncr ofFifty-sccond and Park.
chashadhshotdogcartthcrcorovcrccnycars day,no
mattcrwhatthcwcathcr. lnwintcrhcmovcshiscardircctIyovcrthc
covcrofastcammanhoIcandtrapsthcwarmthwithanawning. Hcis
notvcry taIkativcbutpcopIcIikc to stopbyandsay hcIIo. Hc hasput
a son through coIIcgc and graduatc schooI from his carnings.
Food vcndors arc cIcarIy functionaI and pcopIc apprcciatc this.
DcaIings with mcrchandis vcndors tcnd to bc advcrsary, with fod
vcndors, agrccabIc.
PI0 I00I0 00I0SS00S
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SUCC0SS7 I00S0
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L Y
Mcrchants willkccpupthchght againstvcndors all kinds but
victory will continucto bcclusivc. ltalways has bccn. Ovcrthcycars
vcndor rcgulations havc uctuatcd in dcgrcc of scvcrity, somctimcs
lcaning toward pcrmissivcncss. ut thcsc shihs do not makc much
practical dicrcncc. Evcn at thcir most libcral, thc rcgulations arc so
fullofnullifyingstipulationsthatwcrcthcycnforccdtothclcttcrthcrc
could bc no morc vcndors at any placc at any timc. And this is not
tcnablc.
Ovcr timc you cannot cnforcc a law that is against somcthing
pcoplclikc. Thcrc isa parallclhcrc to Prohibition. Authority is bcing
rcfutcd by thc markctplacc. Pcoplc arc told that food vcnding is bad
fordowntownbusincss, bad fortrac, bad forthcm andthcir hcalth.
utpcoplcdonotbclicvcthis. Thcylikccatingoutof-doors. Thcylikc
thc choiccs. Thcy likc thc priccs. Thcy prcfcr a hot dog and a soda
thcy canaord( . 6toafullcrlunchthcy cannot. Sothcybuy. Thc
vcndors arcproviding what thc cstablishcd ordcr is not.
Thcrc is a vacuum and it is ofthccity'sownmaking. Takc Ncw
York'sSixthAvcnuc.Onccitwas lincdwithplaccstocatdclis,cafctc-
rias, lrishbars, cocc shops. Ncwoccbuildingconstruction,spurrcd
by inccntivc zoning, did away with thcsc placcs. ln thcir stcad wcrc
plazas and bank windows. ut no food. Not cvcn a snack. Thcn vcn-
dors camc. Thcn morc. Today thcsidcwalks arc fullofthcm, lincdup
somctimcs six to cight in a row. Thc rcvcngc of thc strcct.
R6tBR6t5
ProbablythchncststrcctcntcrtaincrofourtimcisPhilippcPctit.
l was lucky cnough to catch onc of his hrst pcrformanccs aftcr hc
arrivcdfromParis. ltwasonuppcrFifthAvcnucatthcPulitzcrFoun-
tain. A gamin-likc fcllow with a battcrcd high hat was stringing a
tightropcbctwccn twotrccs. As a crowd bcgan togathcr, hc got on a
unicyclc and pcdalcd around, simultancouslyuggling somc balls. Hc
was obviously a mastcr ofthc usc ofprops.
Thcpropthathcwastouscbcstwasapoliccman. Forthcclimax
ofhisact,Pctitgotuponthctightropc,litthrccbatons,andprocccdcd
tougglc thcm as hc wcnt across. Thc crowd applaudcd vigorously.
Pctitdismountcdandmadcthc roundsofthccrowd withoutstrctchcd
hat.Atthispointafricndlyblackcopwhohadbccncnoyingthcshow
from thc rcar camc forward. Pctit lookcd strickcn. Hc rccoilcd as if
hit. "Dont hit him," somconc shoutcd. Thc crowd was angry. Out-
ragcdat thisdisplayofpoliccbrutality,pcoplcprcsscd additionalcon-
tributions on Pctit, who had sucicntly rccovcrcd from his tcrror to
makc anothcr round. As thc bcmuscd cop lookcd on, Pctit mountcd
his unicyclc, docd his hat, and madc his gctaway.
3treet Feole
Scvcralwcckslatcr, atscvcn-thirtyinthcmorning, pcoplcaround
thc World Tradc cntcrlookcd up in amacmcnt On a wirc bctwccn
thc two towcrs, , l 5 fcct in thc air, a gurc was walking back and
forth with a balancing rod. With an accomplicc, ctit had gaincd
acccss to a towcr thc night bcforc and, with a crossbow, shot a ropc
and thcn pullcd a mctal cablc across to thc othcr towcr. "Whcn l scc
two orangcs, l want to ugglc. Whcn l scc two towcrs, l want to go
across."
yquartcrofcightatrcmcndouscrowdhadgathcrcd. Tracwas
stoppcddcad. Forthirtyminutcs ctitpcrformcd. Hcwouldgct down
ononc kncc,gctup, go backand forth oncc hcalmost tcctcrcd intoa
fall. lfthcrc had bccn pcoplcon thcstrcct collcctingforhim, thctakc
wouldhavcbccnafortunc. "lwashappy,"ctitrccallcd. "lwasdying
with happincss."
Pctit was arrcstcd. ut thc city govcrnmcnt was rathcr plcascd
with thc kind ofpblicity hc gcncratcd. Pctit was scntcnccd to givc a
spccial public pcrformancc. At strcct lcvcl.
Fcw strcct cntcrtaincrs arc in a class with ctit, but thcrc arc
manytalcntcdoncs. omcofthcmarcprofcssionalmostarcparttimc
studcnts, uncmploycd actors. Onc ofthcbcstvcntriloquistsin Ncw
York onc summcrwas a Princcton philosophy maor Thclargcst sin-
glccatcgory is "musicstudcnts" toudgcbythc signs, alargcpart of
thc strcct population is working its way through !uilliard. Thcrc arc
manymusicalgroups, somcpickupandsomcscmipcrmancnt forcx-
amplc, thc FlybyNight String and, thc lllusionary Frcc Lunch
and.
Onc way or anothcr thcy all makc a pitch for moncy. Thcy pass
thc hat thcy havc somconc pass it, orthcyhavc an cmpty instrumcnt
casc orboxinfrontofthcm Proppcd up onitmay bc ahandlcttcrcd
sign with an admonition. Pcoplc arc vcry curious to scc what it ays.
"No crcdit cards plcasc."
"c a patron ofthc arts. "
"Support livc music. "
"Scnd this wcird boy to camp."
Onc black saxophonist had a sign that said "Scnd mc back to
Africa." Hc had donc vcry wcll with it. "Thc blacks chi in bccausc
thcywantmctoscc thcirroots,"hcsaid. "Thcwhitcswishwc'dallgo
back and gurc it might as wcll start with mc."
Thc donation and rccciving ofmoncy is part ofthc pcrformancc
Aswithbcggars, thcrcisastrongdominoccct iftwoormorpcoplc
stop to put in moncy thcrc will likcly bc a rapid succcssion ofgivcrs.
Thccntcrtaincrsusuallyacknowlcdgcthcdonationswithasmilcanda
thankyou. A musician may salutc with a fcw high notcs. Thc ac-
ccpting, in sum, is donc with gracc. Rarcly do cntcrtaincrs cprcss
discourtcsy to thosc who do not givc.
L
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hC S3mC IS lfuC 3l OHdOHS LOVCHl L3fdCH 3Hd OllhC ataliers
3l LCHlfC OmQIdOuIH 3fIS. PlbOlhQ30CS lhCfC 3QQC3fS lObC 3 l30Il
uHdCfSl3HdIHg lh3l 30lS Sl3y WIlhIH 3 lCH-lO-BllCCH-mIHulC QCfIOd.
Olh Q30CS h3VC CHOugh SQ30C lO 300OmmOd3lC 3 HumbCf Ol0OH0uf-
fCHl 30lS, bul CHlCfl3IHCfS dISIkC lhIS kIHd Ol0OmQClIlIOH.
hC SIZC OllhC SQ30C IS HOl lhC ImQOfl3Hl l30lOf lOf CHlCfl3IHCfS.
hCy WOud 3S SOOH SQuCCZC QCOQC IH 3S HOl. h3l CHlCfl3IHCfS mOSl
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CH0C Ol fCgu3fS, Su0h 3S Om0C WOfkCfS, 3Hd Ol lOufISlS. PmOHg lhC
bCSl Q30CS IH mIdlOWH CW XOfk 3fC lhC SlCQS Ol lhC CW XOfk
ubI0 Ibf3fy, lhC SlCQS Olbl. hOm3S Lhuf0h, Lf3Hd Pfmy 3Z3,
lhCm3IH LCHlf3 3fk. blfCCl 0OfHCfS 03H WOfkVCfyWC. LHCOllhC
VCfy bCSl IS Iy-HIHlh 3Hd Ih. Of IHdIVIdu3 muSI0I3HS Il IS lhC
0OSCSl lhIHg lO Q3yIHg lhC 330C. hC CW XOfk 7imes's II3m
LCISl lCSOlISlCHIHg lO3H CX0CCHl S3XOQhOHISl lhCfC, H3y ClCfS. P
WOm3H Qul By 0CHlS IH hIS 03SC. `XOufC 3H CX0CQlIOH3y gIllCd
yOuD_ naD, SDC SaIO. ``Ou naKC !Dc DI_ !1nc SOncOa_.
3treet Feole
"Madam," hc caIIcd acr hcr, "this is thc big timc."
n oston thc bcst spacc is in thc Common at thc Par Strcct
station. nSan rancisco oncofthcbcst pIaccs isGhirardcIIi Squarc.
t is so popuIar that cntcrtaincrs must bc auditioncd by thc managc
mcnts bcforc thcy can pIay thcrc.
How do thcy Iikc strcct pcrforming7 Thcy arc ofscvcraI minds.
SomcsaythcydonotIikcit thcyfccI that it is dcgrading, that thcrcis
nofuturcin it. utmostofthcmsay that thcycnoyit,thcgoodparts
at Icast. "tstcrribIy insccurc," says onc "but Iikc thc insccurity of
it. " Entcrtaincrs spcak offrcc choicc, thc givc-and-takc with pcopIc,
thc honing ofonc's skiIIs, thc immcdiacy ofthc audicncc.
Thcy aIso spcak ofwhatitis Iikc whcn thcrc is no audicncc, and
ofthc humiIiationofpcrforming whcn no onc stops to Iook or Iistcn.
"havcn'tycthardcncd myscIfto thc rccctionand in thisIinc of
workthcrcisrccctionrightand Ich,"saysa vcntriIoquist. Somctimcs
hctaIkstohisdummyonaparkbcnchforasmuchastwcntyorthirty
minutcs aIonc. tisabittcrwait. utthcnsomconcstopsandIistcns,
and thcn anothcr stops. Soon thcrc wiII bc an audicncc.
Entcrtaincrspraiscthctoughncssofstrcctaudicnccsandsay that
of aII audicnccs, Ncw Yorkcrs arc thc toughcst. ut aIso thc most
apprcciativc. fyou can coIIcct from thcm, thcy say, you'vc got to bc
good, which is to say that thcy arc prctty good thcmscIvcs.
t is intcrcsting to watch pcopIc as thcy chancc upon an cntcr
taicr. SooftcnthcywiIIsmiIc. Astringquartct. Hcrcatortyfourth
ThcirsmiIcisIikcthatofachiId. orthcscmomcntsthcysccm uttcrIy
at casc, thcir shouIdcrs rcIacd. PcopIc cnoy programmcd cntcrtain
mcnt, too, but not thc samc way. t is thc uncpcctcd that sccms to
dcIight hcm most.
Strcct cntcrtaincrs can havc a strong binding ccct on pcopIc.
This is particuIarIy thc casc whcn thc cntcrtaincr is skiIIfuI in invoIv
ing mcmbcrs ofthc audicncc in thc act Iikc magician !cShcridan,
whoborrows abusincssman'scoatand thcn appcars tobum a hoIc in
it who gcts a prctty girI to takc o hcr straw hat, from which hc
produccs a bottIc of bccr. How did hc do it7 Watch his Icft hand,
somconc says. No, it was up his sIccvc, says anothcr.
Shcridan is vcry skiIIfuI. ut cvcn a bad pcrformcr can unify a
crowd. hcrcsoncmagcanwhohasapcrcctlydrcadulactand his
pattcr is so corny that onc aImost has to say somcthing about it. ut
hc docs gct pcopIc invoIvcd and his incpt pcrrmancc providcs a
conncction bctwccn thcm.
ThcrcisacommunaIscnsctothcsc gathcringsandthoughitmay
bcccting, it isthc city at itsbcst. rcmcmbcrcspcciaIIy thc cnd ofa
mimc's act in front of PuIitzcr ountain at ifty-ninth Strcct. Thc
mimc was making fun ofpcopIc. Hc waIkcd up to twounior cccu-
l lS l0l0I0Sll0g l0
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L Y
tivcs and drcw a squarc inthc airovcr thcm. Evcryonc Iaughcd, ccn
thcunior cxccutivcs. Thcn acopwaIkcd acrossthc pIazawithasidc-
to-sidcswinginggait. ThcmimcwaIkcdbchindwiththcsamc sidcto-
sidc swinging gait. Thc cop saw pcopIc Iaughing, Iookcd

ovcr his
shouIdcr at thc mimc, Iaughcd, and t cn turncd to thc mimc and
shook his hand. Thc crowd appIaudcd. t was a spIcndid momcnt, a
vcry city kind ofmomcnt.
HistoricaIIy,thcpoIicchavcwarrcdagainststrcctcntcrtaincrs,or,
to bc morc accuratc, havcbccn madcto war. Lcft to thcirownudg
mcnt,cops usuaIIytakcaIivc-andct-Iivcstancc.Whcnoncdocsmovc
against ancntcrtaincr hc may tcII him hc'ssorry, but thccaptainhas
bccnonhisback. Andhchasbccnsobccauscthcmcrchantshavcbccn
on hisback.
Mcrchants havc bccn thc main forcc against strcct cntcrtaining,
and it has bccn IargcIy on thcirsay-so that city counciIs havc passcd
prohibition against soIiciting moncy. Tc vchcmcncc ofthc phrasing
inNcw York'soIdhurdy-gurdyIawwcIIconvcysauthority'sattitudc
ltis unIawfuI to soIicit, ask, or rcqucs moncy in any way, shapcor
manncr, dircctIy or indircctIy. "Thc oId statutc was rcpcaIcd in l 97
but thc spirit Iivcs on. Strcct cntcrtainingis IcgaI, but onIy if
l . not much noisc is madc.
2. thc sidcwaIk is not obstructcd.
J. thcrc is no soIicitation for moncy.
ltis odd that pcopIc who champion thc frcc markct arc against
suchapurccxprcssionofit. WhatissowrongaboutsoIicitation7Thc
passcrsby arc undcr no durcss. Thcy don't cvcn havc to stop lfthcy
dostopthcydon'thavctogivc. lfthcyivc,thcamountiscntircIyup
to thcm and thcirudgmcnt ofthc woth ofthc cntcrtaincr. lt is thc
Iattcrwhohastakcnthc cntrcprcncuriaIrisk. HcshouIdbccntitIcd to
somc rcward.
Mcrchants say thatthc cntcrtainc havc hurt thcirbusincss and
futurc inundations wouId makc mattcrs far worsc. MichacI Grosso,
hcad ofthc Fifth AvcnucAssociation, uts itthis way lfyou aIIow
oncmusicianorpcddIcr in, thcn you hvc toIctthcmaII inandthcy
wouId takc ovcr thc whoIc midtown aca."

l wish l couId say that ourrcscarh provcd that strcct cntcrtain


ing is good for thc mcrchants' storcs. think it is, but our rcscarch
docsnotprovcthis.Whatitdocsprovc sthatthcrcisahighdcgrccof
compatibiIity bctwccn a strong rctaiI strcct and a IivcIy strcct Iifc.
Mcrchants do not scc this. Thcy do ot Iikc much about strcct Iifc
anyway cxccpt for customcrs coming thc door. Entcrtaincrs bIock
lccl cc
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mOfc QctSu3SlVc lcSllmOBy S3llSBcS lhc 0OuIl lh3l, OVct3l , Qc0cSl tl3
lt30 lS Ol 0OBgcSlc0 O mOtc lh3B . QctSOBS Qct OOl Qct ml Bulc O
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OVcf lS lhc lC D OOG O lhC SltCCl QCfOfmCf.
L
Thc city appcaIcd Thc LS. Court of AppcaIs rcvcrscd !udgc
ryan'sdccision in part. ltfoundthatthcordinanccwas arcasonabIc
rcguIation. ltwas not surc, howcvcr, tht it was drawn as narrowIy
as possibIc to maximizc spccch whiIc sccuring thc city's intcrcst in
pubIic safcty" lt scnt thc mattcr back to thc District Court, asking
!udgc ryan tomakccxpIicit thc factuaI rcasons forhoIding thcordi
nanccunncccssariIybroad. Howwidcwcrc thcstrccts7Whatwcrcthc
pcdcstrianows7ThcrcwasampIcdocumcntationonthcsc points. y
makingthcm cxpIicit, !udgc ryan rccstabIishcd his originaI hnding.
Thcrc was pIcnty ofoom
ThcsccondfcdcraIcascwasinChicago. ForquitcawhiIcthccity
had bccn hospitabIc to strcct cntcrtaincrs ln thc summcr of l 979
Mayor !anc ymc had thc city hirc a corps ofyoung cntcrtaincrs to
pcrformatbusstopsandtransitstationsduringthcsummcr. (Paytcn
doIIars an hour. PcopIc wcrc dcIightcd. SRLL ARSS HLL LY
SARKLL, said an cditoriaI in thc Chicago 5un 7imes.
ut thc mcrchants did not Iikc strcct cntcrtaincrs, anywhcrc. ln
l9&2 thcy prcvaiIcd on thc city counciI to pass an ordinancc that
wouId ccctivcIy ban thcm from thc uppcr Michigan Avcnuc arc
that is, thc pIacc most suitcd for thcm.
Guitarist WaIIy Fricdrich initiatcd a cIass action suit against thc
city, and thc Amcrican CiviI Libcrtics Lnion oincd in suppo. l
scrvcd as cxpcrt witncss on thc pcdcstrian aspcct.
Thc city's contcntion was that congcstion on thc sidcwaIk had
rcachcd drastc cvcs, and that cntcrancrs addcd sorc ohs co-
gcstion and shouId bc banncd, providing morc room for pcdcstrian
safcty and amcnity.
lt was an cxtraordinary compIaint. Of aII thc avcnucs in thc
LnitcdStatcs, thcycouIdnothavc pickcd onc withbroadcrsidcwaIks
than uppcr Michigan Avcnuc. Thcy rangc bctwccn thirty and thirty-
hvc fcct in width. Pcdcstrian voIumcs wcrc strong but did not tax
thcm. My sampIingcounts andthccity'scountsibcd. Thc amountof
spaccpcrpcdcstrianwasvcrygcncrousandprovidcdaIcvcIofscrvicc
that ratcd an A by anybody's computation.
Thcrc was, indccd, aImost a surfcit of spacc. Thc city itscIfhad
udgcd thcrc was so much spacc ithad cncouragcd thc withdrawaI of
Iargcchunks ofsidcwaIkspaccforropcd-opIantingbcds Wcrc thcsc
grassy cxpanscs convcrtcd back tosidcwaIk spacc, thcIcvcI ofscrvicc
wouIdbc highcr yct.
ln1rieJrich v. Chicago thccourtupcIdthcordinanccinpartand
dcnicditinpartThc courtfoundthatt ccity waswithinitsrightsto
curb strcct cntcrtaining whcn it cndangcrcd thc pubIic safcty. lt aIso
found that thc ban was much broadcr han ncccssary. On Michigan
AvcnucaIIpcrfomanccswcrcbanncdonSaturdaysandSundays,and
^PJ

Street Feo/e
on wcckdays from l l A. m. to Z . m. and from . m. to l l . m. Thc
court obscrvcd that thc cty had not donc 8ny homcwork to support
thcsc swccping rcstrictions, and that its own rccords indicatcd that
pcdcstrianowsdiminishcd dramaticaIIy aftcr7 . m. Rush Strcct was
anothcr mattcr. lt is thc citys disco, tavcrn, and caf strip and gcts
Iotsofpcdcstrian tracahcr dark, cspcciaIIy on Friday and Saturday
nights.utthisdidnotustifyabanstartingat J. m. , thccourtfound,
nor onc on Wcdncsday nights.
Thc most intcrcsting part of !udgc Marvcn E. Aspcn's dccision
conccmsbrcakdancing.As inNcwYork,so in Chicagobrcakdancing
surfaccd as a fad in l 9&J. Evcrywhcrc onc Iookcd, it sccmcd, young
bIackswcrcstakingoutIargcswathsofsidcwaIkanddoingacrobatics.
Somc wcrc tcrribIc a fcwpcopIcumping upanddown to a portabIc
tapc pIaycr. ut somc wcrc rcaIIy quitc taIcntcd and put on a show
thatattractcd Iargc crowds. lt was thcsc crowds, !udgcAspcnnotcd,
that causcd most ofthc mischicf.
ut brcak dancing pcakcd in l9& and is now pcrformcd onIy
sporadicaIIy. This raiscs a qucstion. lfbrcak dancing was thc onIy
maor thrcat to pubIic safcty and if it has IargcIy disappcarcd, why
thcn thc ordinancc7 ln a scction that couId bc subtitIcd "Much Ado
About rcak Dancing" !udgc Aspcn tackIcs thc qucstion
l il i8 ltuc lh8l Otc8Kd8nCing h88 gCnc lhc W8y Cl lhc hul8 hCCp 8nd i8 8
l8dcd l8d, lhcn pcth8p8 lhc ltcqucnCy Cl l8tgc 8udicnCc8 h88 8uO8l8n-
li8lly l8llcn . . . hu8, il lhc Lily ChCC8c8 lC tcncW lhc Ctdin8nCc ncXl
yc8t, il WCuld Oc Wcll 8dVi8cd lC CCn8idct lhc p888ing Cl lhc Otc8Kd8nC-
ing phcnCmcnCn in il8 cV8lu8liCn. l il h88 p888cd, 8nd 88 lhc cVi-
dcnCc 8hCWcd mC8l Clhct pctlCtmct8 8llt8Cl Cnly 8m8ll CtCWd8, lhc
CCn8liluliCn8l undctpinning8 Cl lhc Ctdin8nCc m8y h8Vc V8ni8hcd lCt
lulutc yc8t8.
BR00ll B556t5
ForaIIthcdicrcnccsinpcopIc, timcs, andpIaccs, thcrhythmsof
handbiII passing and taking arc surprisingIy rcguIar. lf thc passcr
makcsanycortat aII that is, stands ncar thcccntcr ofthc sidcwaIk
8nU 8Clu8lly Cct8 h8nUOill8 lC p888ct8Oy lhc CCmplcliCn t8lc Will
runat Icast Jpcrccnt or thrcc outofcvry tcn pcrsons. Thc ratcwiII
vary according topcdcstrian ow, charactcr ofow, andtimcofday,
butby farthcmostimportantfactorwiIIbcthchandbiIIpasscrhimscIf
and thc asscrtivcncss of his tcchniquc. Somcwhat Iikc thc staccato
pattcrnsofdonationstobcggars,thctakingofhandbiIIstcnds to occur
inbunchcs. lnpartthisisduc to thcfoIIow-thc-cadcrtcndcncyofthc
pcopIc who takc handbiIIs. ut cIosc anaIysis of thc hIm rccord of
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Handbi1rank. 1t]-ninth andLexinton, I0r..
f3Hk SCCkS lOCOmIH3lC lhC CHCOuHlCf, 3HC !IkC mOSl WhO CO, hC
IS fCSQOHSIVC lO lhC fCCCQlIOH gIVCH hIm. Pl mICC3y OHC PuguSl
h!mCC hm 3l WOfk lfOm 3 hh-hOOf WHCOW 3l !OOmIHgC3!CS. l
W3S hOl 3HC muggy 3HC QCOQ!C WCfC mOVIHg mOfC S!uggISh!y lh3H
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3g3IH. H lhC h3!!hOufhC SQCHl, hC3VCf3gCC 3 QCfCCHl COmQ!ClIOH lO
h3HCOI!!S OBCfCC.
SQOkC lO f3Hk !3lCf 3HC lO!C hIm 3OOul Ouf mICC3y COuHl 3HC


L Y
timc. Wc should gct him whcn hcs hot. Fivc oclock. Rush hour. ln
front ofthc subway stcps.
Hc was right. At hvc thc southcast corncr was a mass ofpcoplc
and in thc middlc, dominant, was Fran Thc pcoplc wcrc scarccly
movingasthcycdgcdtowardthccurbothcsubway stairs. ut Frank
was moving, makinghisownspacc. Hcasturning,hrst oncway and
thcn thc othcr, and as thc crowd swcllcd hc workcd fastcrand fastcr.
ow hc was giving a sharpick to thc cards atthc cnd ofthc thrust.
Hc was not smiling Hc was staring intcntly, almost bclligcrcntly
Thcrc was no casy badinagc now. Hcwas giving commands. Takc it,
hc would say, takc it. And thcy did. lt was six outoftcn now. Frank
was hot
Thconlyoncs lvcsccn tomatch himwcrcinTokyo. Two young
mcn wcrc working thc crowdcd allcy lcading to thc annon Shrinc.
Thcywcrcgot upinancicntcostumc. Oncworkcdabouttwclvcfcctin
frontofthcothcrandigglcdasignupanddownthattoldpcoplctobc
surc to rcad thc intcrcsting mcssagc that was about to bc givcn. Thc
othcr handcd out thc mcssagc with a ratc of complction similar to

Franks, about pcrccnt. Thc mcssagc was foran ccl rcstaurant scv-
cral blocks away.
Handbillsarc avcry importantmcdium forplaccspcoplcpassby
butdonotscc placcsupallcysorupon atirdorfourthoor. Oncof
rank`s bcst customcrs s 5stcr anc, a sprtua! advscr and palm
rcadcr who has a third-oor room on thc cast sidc of cxington Shc
has a ncon sign in thc window but is ut of thc pcdcstrians linc of
sight Handbills arc a ncccssity for hcr.

FranksomctimcssubcontractsTo handlcsomcofthcbillpassing
for Sistcr anc hc took on a young rascal namcd Eddic cct. Eddic
turncdout tobc almostas skillfulas Frank a hlm scqucncc l havcof
his hand motions and lccring grin shows a mastcr ofinsinuation.
Eddic brokc with Frank and bcgan dcaling dircctly wit Sistcr
anc At thc samc timc hc took on bill passing for Mrs Williams,
anothcrspiritualadviscr,whohadan upstairsroomonthcwcstsidcof
cxington. Eddic likcd to work both sidcs ofthc strcct.
Anothcr group ofhandbill passcrs was organicd by ouis, thc
owncr ofa sccond-oor haircutting cstabIishmcnt on cxington Hc
hircd scvcral pcrsonablc young Pucrto Ricans and showcd thcm how
to walk alongsidc womcn, givc a quick spicl, and ask thcm tosign up
fora -pcrccnt rcbatcon ahairdo Right upstairs,thcywcrc to say as
thcy drcw abrcast ofthc doorway.
lt was a vcry ccctivc tcchniquc. A rcal bunch of hustlcrs,"
ouis told mc And l rcally psych thcm up. ut thcir intcrcst
aggcdWhat thcylikcd todo most was to siton thchoodsofthccars
-^PJ
3treet Feole
parkcdoutfront and chat withthcirfricnds,ofwhomthcrcsccmcdto
bc an cvcr incrcasin numbcr. Lous wouId Ioo down on thcm, Ic
Fagin watching his brood, and rap sharpIy on thc window to snap
thcmto. At Icngthhchrcdthcm. Thcy wcntto work, carrying Louis'
tcchniquc with thcm, for anothcr haircutting cstabIishmcnt. Louis
hircd thrcc of thcir fricnds as rcpIaccmcnts. Hc said thcy workcd
hardcrand bcttcr than thc othcrs. A rcaI hustIc crcw, hc toId mc.
EvcntuaIIy thcy wcrc hrcd too. ut thcy stuck around, oining
that informaI nctwor of handbiII passcrs, crrand runncrs, vcndors,
Iookouts, and thc Iikc that stacd that strctch ofLcxington. Thcy aII
sccmcdtoknowcachothcr. OncortwocouIdusuaIIybcsccncruising
from Fiy-scvcnth to Sixticth and back, stopping to chcck in with a
fricnd.
LctustutothchandbiIItakcrs. WhcthcrornotpcopIcacccpta
handbiIIhasvcryIittIctodowithcontcnt. PcopIcusuaIIyhavcnoidca
what is on thcm untiI aftcr thcy havc takcn onc. ut pcopIc do rcad
thcm. Somc thcnimmcdiatcIythrowthcmaway. utmosthangon to
thcm for a whiIc. Somc twist thcm. Somc crumpIc thcm. cforc thcy

throw thcm away, somc wiII waIk a bIock or so cIutching thcm, as if


thcy wcrc a kind oftaIisman.
Whatcvcr thc mcssagc, it wiII rarcIy bc writtcn with any styIc.
Thc artworkwiIIbc bad. SowiII thc papcrandthc printing. Advcrtis-
ingagcncics,itwouIdappcar,wouIdnottouchthcmcdium. Andquitc
IitcraIIy it is trash. No othcr activity gcncratcs so much of it or is
hardcr to curb.
AIIthisbcingthccasc, itwouIdbchttingtosaythatthcmcdium
is aIsovcryincmcicnt. utitis not. ForaIIthccrudityofthcform,itis
anccctivcwayofgctting across abasicmcssagc forcxampIc, comc
on anddoingitcIosctothcpotcntiaIpointofsaIc. Andaudicnccs
can bc targctcd somc handbiIIs for womcn onIy somc for mcn onIy.
Costs arc modcratc, thc Iabor suppIy incxhaustibIc. With a handbiII-
passingratcofnomorcthanpcrccnt, thc costpcrcompIctcdtrans-
action wiII rangc bctwccn a haIf miII and scvcraI miIIs. Thcrc is a
potcntiaI hcrc that has not bccn touchcd. Thank hcavcns.
m moo
Thcmost compcIIingcharactcronthc strccts ofNcwYork is Mr.
Maoo. Hc is a man in his scvcntics, stocky, rcdfaccd, and with a
pcrpctuaIIy chocric cxprcssion. Hc drcsscs nattiIy, aIways with a
owcrin hisbuttonhoIc. lnwintcrhc wcarsachcstcrcId andaback
homburg.
Mr. Magoo dirccts trac. On Fifth Avcnuc his favoritc hc wiI
stationhimscIfinthcmiddIcofthcintcrscctionandwithcIoqucntarm

L Y
gCS!ufCS CIfCC! !hC C3fS. bCCQ I! mOVIHg IS hIS ICC3. 3IS m3kIHg SOW
fIgh! !ufHS IHlufI3!C hIm. 3XIS QICkIHg uQ QCOQC !CH lCC! Ou! lfOm !hC
CufO IHlufI3!C hIm MC WI!! gO OVCf 3HC S!3m hIS h3HC OH !hC hOOC.
hC CfIVCfS WI!! CufSC MC WI! CufSC. P CfOWC WI! g3!hCf.
Nf. N3gOO !3!kS !O !hC !f3mC, C3f Oy C3f. MC C3!S !hCIf ICCHSC
Q3!CS. P WOm3H IH 3 C3f WI!h YIfgIHI3 Q!3!CS IS CfIVIHg VCfy SOWy.
`XOufC HO! IH YIfgIHI3, hOHCy, S3yS Nf. N3gOO, `yOufC IH CW
XOfk NOVCl NOVCl NOVCl hC WOm3H SQCCCS uQ. O 3 WhI!C-h3IfCC
!3Cy WhO IS ]3yW3!kIHg 3CfOSS !hC S!fCC!. hO IH !hC hC! CO yOu
!hIHk yOu 3fC? bC!BSh O3g, !h3!S Wh3! yOu 3fC. bhC IS HOHQuSSCC.
P! !hIS CC!Igh!S !hC SQCC!3!OfS, Ol WhOm guI!C 3 lCW WI h3VC
g3!hCfCC 3! !hC COfHCfS. Nf. N3gOO Q!3yS CIfCC!y !O !hC g3!!Cfy. MC
QOIH!S !O 3 CW JCfSCy C3f m3kIHg 3 QOOf !ufH. `CW JCfSCy CfIVCfS.
!hCyfC !hC WOfS!, hC S3yS. hC CfOWC !3ughS. `O, COC!OfS 3fC !hC
WOfS!, hC S3yS. NOfC !3ughS. `O, HO, CW JCfSCy 3yC-yI-
yI.
P! !hC !OQ OlhIS lOfm hC IS guI!C m3jCS!IC MIS gCS!ufCS OCCOmC
mOfC ImQCfIOuS. MC S!3HCS !3!Cf. L3fS 3fC OOCyIHg hIm. hC !f3mC IS
mOVIHg WC!! 3HC I! fC3!y COCS WhCH hC CIfCC!S. COQ!C 3fC IS!CHIHg
!O hIm 3HCSOmC 3fC COIHgWh3! hC !C!S !hCm !O CO. lI! IS 3l3H!3Sy, I!
IS 3 QfC!!y gOOC OHC !O 3C! Ou!. PHC hC s IH Ch3fgC.
MC CCf!3IHy gC!S QCOQC !3kIHg !O C3Ch O!hCf. l yOu 3fC 3! 3
COfHCf W3!ChIHg hIm, SOmCOHC IS IkC!y !O 3Sk yOu WhO IH !hC WOfC
Mr. Mcgoo on I]th venue.
3treet Feole
that guy is out thcrc. Or tcII you that hc's an cxcop, that hc scaIps
tickctsatthcMctropoIitanOpcra. OncdayaIadyturncdtomcandin
aconhdcntiaItoncsaidthatMr.Magoohad madchcrdaybutthatshc
wasn'tsurcwhy.Wc cxchangcdthoughtsonthis.Was ithisarrogation
ofmunicipaI authority, thc individuaI against thc systcm7 No. Hc is
strongforIawandsystcm. ShouIdoncfccI sympathyforhim7 HardIy
Mr. Magoo isnota nicc pcrson. Hc'srudc, abitofabuIIy, and whiIc
hc's funny about it hc docs trcat pcopIc thc way wc'd Iikc to but do
not.
Lct mc add a mcthodoIogicaI notc. ln hIming strcct charactcrs
suchasMr. MagooandthcWitch, thcy arcfuIIy awarcofthccamcra
and l cannot say that is unobtrusivc rcscarch. ut thcrc arc usuaIIy
othcr camcras pointcd in thcir dircction too, and thcy arc obviousIy
pIcascd to bc photographcd. Thc whoIc point ofthcir pcrformancc is
tobc noticcd.
Mr. Magooacctsgrcat annoyanccwhcnhc sccsmchImingwith
aamcra. Youagain,"hcsaysdisgustcdIyandwavcsmcaway. lkccp
onhIming,ashcknowslwiII, andsomctimcshcsncaksagIanccto scc
ifl am.
t. BtBR00
Thcrcisamanwhostandson strcctcorncrsonFifth Avcnuc. Hc
wcars a fcIt hat crcascd in thc coIIcgc styIc of thc Iatc fortics. Hc
standsatthccurb,facinginward,andtonooncinparticuIartaIksina
convcrsationaI tonc of voicc. lf you pass by, you may hcar thc kcy
words hc kccps rcpcating Fl," poIicc," lRS." What hc is saying
is that thcy'rc out to gct him, thc whoIc damn bunch ofthcm. And
thcy'rc out to gct you too, hc says, if you don't watch out. Hc is
dcrangcd, ofcoursc.
Shc is a sparc, middIc-agcd woman with frizzy gray hair. Shc
waIks uictIy down thc strcct untiI shc comcs to a promncnt pacc,
suchaschurchstcpsoradcpartmcntstorccntrancc. Shcstops, takcsa
tambourincoutofanairIinc bag shc has bccn carrying, bangs itthrcc
timcs, and thcn bcgins a haranguc. A crowd gathcrs.
What is shc saying7 ltishardto tcII. As is so ocn thccasc with
odd pcopIc, any onc scntcncc is uitc pIausibIc. lt is thc Iack ofcon
ncctions that is confusing. l was FrankIin D. RooscvcIt's IittIc girI-
fricnd," shc shouts thcn gocs on to say that ionism is a pIot Sud-
L Y
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3fHC O3g, 3HC W3kS 3W3y, C3VHg !hc QuZZCC OHOOkCfS OChHC.
RB5BcK BR
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3HC OH hS O3Ck W3S 3 kH3QS3Ck. 3S!CHCC !O ! W3S 3 QhO!Ogf3Qh Ol
hm 3HC 3 C3fC W!h 3 h3HC-C!!CfCC S!3!CmCH!. ! fC3C ONLY mY
lAmL Y HAS H RLH O ASSALL m. l YOL AR NO A mmHR
Ol mY lAmLY LAS OO NO H m.
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m3CC !hC fC3CHg Ol ! CmCu!. bOmC!mCS !hCfC WOuC OC SCVCf3
QCOQC !fyHg !O fC3C ! 3HC !hCy WOuC]OS!C C3Ch O!hCf lOf QOS!OH.
P! S!fCC! COfHCfS hC WOuC S!OQ 3HC !hCH S!3HC mmOOC W!h h3HCS
lOCCC 3S lH Qf3yCf. hC QCOQC WhO h3C OCCH lOOWHg hm COuC
HOW fC3C !hC SgH 3HC SOOH WOuC CSQCfSC.
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bh0 h3S 3 OHg, QOH!CC
OHC mOVHg CBCfCH!y !h3H
3y h3S 3 lOCCC Mall 5treet
H 3 OuC, f3SQHg VOCC. MCf
! 3 b!. 3!fCkS 3y Q3f3CC
Ch3fgC Ol 3 Q3fOCh3-SChOO
W3H!CC, 3HC !hCH CC 3 CWC
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mO!hCf W3k Oy. hC !Ch fC3fS ` yOu, yOu !!C O3S-
!3fC, ShC S3yS, SCHCHg 3 C3SC3CC Ol SQ! huf!Hg hS

W3y. bhC S
CCQOf3OC, Ou! SO 3fC !hC OHOOkCfS. hCy CXCh3HgC hOBCC g3HCCS.
`C yOu SCC !h3! WOm3H SQ! 3! !h3! !!COOy' u! !hCy 3fC SmHg,
3mOS! 3S !hOugh !hCy 3fC OH hCf SCC
hC !Ch Q3yS !hC fOC Ol W!Ch SO COHVHCHgy 3HC OOkS SO
3treet Feole [
4 7
]
much Iikc a witch that quitc IikcIy shc wouId havc bccn burnt as a
witch in carIicr timcs. Many wcrc, with far Icss fcarsomc appcaracc.
ut in thcsc timcs shc is good un to watch,

with vicarious maIcvo
Icncc, and shc is pIcascd to havc thcaudicncc. And think shc rathcr
Iics mc. Whcncvcr wc pass on thc strcct, shc wins.
bh0Rg Bg B065
Thc toughcst, hardicst ofaII thc strcct pcopIc arc thc shopping
bag Iadics. Thcy arc dishcvcIcd and dirty, and thcir Icgs arc oftcn
swoIIcn. Thcir cIothing is usuaIIy tattcrcd. Thcy carry two or thrcc
shoppingbags scc-through pIastic, mostIy, hIIcd with trash and bits
ofrags. Somc whccI thcm in supcrmarkct shopping carts. Thcrc arc
aIsoafcw shoppingbag mcn. Onc, cIIophancMan,wraps himscIfin
many Iaycrs of cIcar pIastic.
Shoppingbag pcopIcarcvcry rcguIarinthcirroutcsand stations.
Thcy tcnd to sIccp in thc samcdoorways orthc samc spots in Grand
cntraI Station. According to thctimc ofday, oncshopping bag Iady
canbcoundat thc southcastcomcroScagram PIaza, a doorway on
Fifty-third Strcct, and thc Icdgc ofthc iticorp PIaza.
Whcrc do thcy coc from7 SociaI worcrs hnd thcm baing.
Most shopping bag Iadics arc sustaincd by a grand antasy of somc
ind,suchasthatthcyarcvcryrichbutthccityishidingthcirmoncy.
AnothcrbagIady,whoscbcatisoutsidcthcPubIicLibrary, isworking
on a book that wiII savc thc worId. Onc fancics shc is stiII a prctty,
coqucttish woman and is grotcsqucIy rougcd. Most of thcsc pcopIc
cocromamiddIc-cIassbackground. SomcarcwcIIcducatcd. Thcrc
is onc who is a arnard graduatc, was a Powcrs modcI with scvcraI
magazinc covcrs to hcr crcdit, and, compIcting thc idcaI ofthc AII-
AmcricanGirI, was a top-sccdcd tcnnispIaycrinthcMiddIcAtIantic
onfcrcncc thirty ycars ago. now this to bc so bccausc my wifc
roomcd with hcr.
What thcy aII havc in commo now is a hcrcc indcpcndcncc.
thccity thcrcarcmany homcIcss pcopIc tcmporariIy out ofthc sociaI
scrvicc systcm, thcy may havc Iost thcir wcIfarc chcc or havc ust
ccncvctcd rom thcrapartmcnt. utshoppingag Iadicsarcdicr
cnt. Thcy arc totaIIy outsidc of thc syscm. Whats morc, thcy rcsist
cortstogctthcmintoit. fthcyarctakcntoaninstitutionthcyarcso
confuscd, frightcncd, and upsct at thc intcrvcntion that thcy cannot
mcct thc istitutioaI ruIcs for bcing hcIpcd. Thcy wont say what
thcirnamcis.Thcy havcnoaddrcss togivc.Thcyrcfuscto takcshow-
crs or bc othcrwisc cIcancd up. Thcy cannot, in sum, quaIify for thc
aid that wouId put thcm in shapc to quaIify.

L Y
Thc probIcs appcar to bc gctting grcatcr, notus for shopping
bag Iadics, but for disturbcd pcopIc ofal kinds. With thcirmispIaccd
rcIiancc on stabiIiing drugs, Ncw York Statc's mcntaI hospitaIs put
somcythousand pcopIconthcstrcct. Thcrcis much tobcsaidfor
gctting thcm out of hospitaIs, but thc outpaticnt thcrapy that was
supposcd to bc part of thc pIan has not bccn providcd on any scaIc.
For many pcopIc thc rcsuIt has bccn thc worst of both worIds Thc
institutionaI cpcricncc conditioncd thcm to ahighIy structurcd cnvi-
ronmcnt for such pcopIcthc frccdom ofthccity can bc afrightcning
cpcricncc. For somc thc onIy rcfugc is thc singIc-room-occupancy
hotcI. ut thcy arc afraid ofthat too, and thcpcopIc who might prcy
on thcm.
Oncofthcirfcw pIcasurcs is sitting in thc sun on thcbcnchcs in
thc middIcofuppcr roadway. OIdcr copIc ofaII kinds comc thcrc
somc taIkativc, somc rigidIy siIcnt. Thcrc may bc a hcad-nodding
unkic or two as wcII. utthcy arc rcasonabIy safc pIaccs and thcrc is
Iots ofIifc to scc.
6ggBt5
ikc handbiII passcrs and cntcrtaincrs, succcssfuI bcggars arc
markcd by ccntraIity and movcmcnt. Thc bcst campIcs l havc sccn
arc thc profcssionaI bIind bcggars who work Fihh Avcnuc. Thcy arc
vcry consistcnt. Thcy stay in onc spot and it is aImost aIways in thc
ccntcrofthcsidcwaIk. Atthcirsidcisadog(notatrucguidcdog,but
it Iooks Iikc onc. Thcy wcar a sign that says somcthing Iikc
"God bIcss thc chccrfuI givcr. "Thcy traditionaI tin cup.
Thcy movc. Onc movcs his back and forth in a waIkIikc
motion whiIc his fcct stand stiII. AII thc cup back and forth,
occasionaIIygivingitasharprattIc. factofmovcmcntsccmstobc
important. lfoundthis out whcnonc bychanccwchadthccquiv-
aIcnt ofacontroIIcd cpcrimcnt. Wc bccn Imingtimc-Iapsccov-
cragc of thc bcggar who usuaIIy stationcd himscIf in front of St.
Thomas hurch. Hc was gctting donations at his customary ratc.
Thcn anothcr bIind bcggar appcarcd. Hc must havc bccn truIy bIind,
forhc positioncdhimscIfaboutftccnfcctbchindthcrstbcggar. And
hcdid not movc. AII hc didwashoId thccup. Hcdid notshakc it.
Hc ust stood thcrc, waiting for Thcrc wcrc not many.
During a twcnty-scvcn-minutc pcriod, thc moving bcggar rcccivcd
fourtimcs as many donations as thc stationary onc
Thcrc is a pronounccd domino in thc giving of moncy.
Donations tcndto comc inbunchcs t rcc orfourinarow,quickIy
andit is undcrstandabIcthatthcy do otcntiaI givcrs usuaIIy sIow up
about twcnty fcct away from thc bcgar and start hshing for a coin.
V
3treet Feole
ThisappcarstotriggcranyIatcntimpuIscstogivcinthcpcoplcbchind
thcm. lfthcy gvc too, thcrc may bc somc congcston, and this may
slow othcrs and providc additional timc to considcr giving.
Onc hcars storics about bcggars bcing drivcn by chaucurs in
RolIsRoyccs. l did scc, onscvcraI occasions, onc ofthcbIindbcggars
bcing droppcd o by a car at thc Fiicth Strcct cntrancc ofSaks. lt
was anordinarycar. utthcy donotdobadIy. To gctanidcaofthcir
takc lchartcdthcfrcqucncyofdonationsovcrconsidcrabIpcriodsof
tmc. Thcmcdian intcrvalbctwccndonatonswastwcntyscconds. ut
bccausc ofthc staccato naturc of many donations and thc slack pcri-
ods, thc avcragc was onc donation for cvcry hy scconds, or scvcnty-
two an hour. Thc sizc ofthc donations, howcvcr, l couId not dctcr-
minc. Thcbcggars arc aIwayscmptyingsmaIlcoins from thc cupand
Icaving thc big oncs in. Assuming an avcragc of25 ccnts, thcir takc
wouId bc about l &an hour. Most ofthc profcssionaI bIind bcggars
work about six hours a day. At thc lcast thcy shouId avcragc l to
5 a day in aII probabiIity a good bit morc.
Thcsc bcggars arc thc rcguIars samc spot, samc timc, samc
props. Likc mcmbcrs of a guiId, thcir numbcrs havc not incrcascd
matcriaIIy. utbcgging in gcncralmost ccrtainly has. l havc takcn no
ccnsus,but lwouIdcstimatcthatthcnumbcrofpcopIcbcggingonthc
strccts ofmidtown has doubIcd sincc l9& Much ofthis incrcasc is
ducto thcrscnhomclcssncss. As a mattcroffact, somcofthcmost
succcssful soIiciting is for donations to thc homclcss. Thcrc is aIso a
good bit ofoccasionaI and part-timc bcgging much ofit by youngcr
pcopIc, and with considcrabIc aggrcssivcncss. Thc owcry bums who
clcancdyourwindshicldhavcbccn supplantcdby tccnagcrswho cIcan
your windshicId and arc quitc intimidating about bcing compcnsatcd
for it. Somc surprisingIy wcII-drcsscd young womcn bcg, usualIy for
"farc moncy. " Onc has a axcn-haircd baby with hcr and, whcthcr
rcntcd or not, it draws vcry wcIl. Most of thc bcggars, howcvcr, arc
without skiII or stratagcm. Thcy arc mostIy winos and dcrclicts, too
dazcd to bcg ccctivcIy or to dcfcnd thcmscIvcs against prcdators.
Thatthcrcarc so many ofthcm atthis timcofapparcnt prospcrity is
not a good augur.
tchm6R 0t LBu565
Groups making pitchcs for rcligiouscauscs rangc from thc navc
to thc frauduIcnt Somc, such as thc Harc rishna, arc trucbclicvcrs
inwhatcvcrthcy bclicvc in. Thcy may sccm foolish, but so havca lot
ofgroupsovcrthcycars.Andwhilcthcirmusicandthcirsaronrobcs
makcan odd sight, it has bccn africndly onc. Thcy arc not tobcsccn
so much anymorc and many pcoplc rathcr miss thcm.
A goup that is not misscd is a rock group of young mcn and
j
S
| L
womcn who drcsscd in bIack monks robcs and hoods and spokc as if
thcy had aII gonc to Harvard. Thcy Iookcd Iikc somc kind ofsatanic
cuIt but thcy said thcy wcrc in thc hght against drugs. Thcy wcrc
ambuIatory opcrators, Iikc Louis handbiII passcrs, and whiIcwaIking
aIong with you wouId invitc you to purchasc thcir pubIication and
madc a donation. Thcy madc a point ofsaying thcy accc d chccks.
An odious bunch.
Aaunty fcIIow with a twccd cap standsbcsidc asmaII tabIc. On
it is a cIipboard and writing pad. A sign hxcd to thc tabIc says SANL
HL OROSL As pcopIc go by hc says to thcm, pIcascoin thc hght
and sign thc pctition for thc porpoiscs. Many pcopIc stop. !ust sign
hcrc,hcsays,cxtcndingapcn.Asthcysignuphc suggcststhatasmaII
donation wouId hcIp. Ovcrhcad. Printing cxpcnscs. Hc is giving his
timc frcc. Most of thosc who stop, sign, and most ofthosc who sign,

gvc.
Hc camc upon this modus opcrandi somc ycars ago. l hrst saw
him whcn his sign rcad SANL LRANO LLNRAL. This was in l 975,
whcn many citizcns wcrc quick to givc for this cstimabIc causc. Thc
MunicipaI Art Socicty was most upsct to havc an impostor siphon
away contributions, and it wcnt to thc poIicc.
SANL HL HALLS
-
thc sign ncxt rcad. A picturc ncxt to it
showcd smaII whaIcs bcing cIubbcd to dcath. This appcaI must havc
provcdvcryIucativc, forhccontinucdwithit untiIthccarIycightics,
whcn hc switchcd to thc porpoisc.
cK0cK65 BR0 Lh6t Lt00K5
Pickpockcts usuaIIywork in pairs. Thcy Iikc crowds. lfthcrc isa
strcct crowd watching an act, thc pickpockcts wiII work thc tip" of
thccrowdthcywiIIbconthcoutcrrank,Iookinginatthcmarks,and
with a cIcar hcId bchind thcm for thc cxit.
Pickpockcts cspcciaIIy Iikc crowds in conhncd pIaccs. uscs arc
idcaI. lknow, forlhavcbccnancasymark. Ontworcccntoccasionsl
was ccccd whiIc standing ncar thc rcar cxit door. An oIdcr man
standing ncar mc droppcd a packagc on thc oor. l Icancd down to
hcIphimpickitup.Ayoungcrmanwhohadbccnstandingncxttomc
quickIy Iiftcd my waIIct from my right rcar pockct and vanishcd out
thc door. l Iookcd around for thc oIdcr man. Hc had gonc out thc
front.
This wasastandardopcration,twotoppickpockctdctcctivcstoId
mcIatcr. And l hadbccnvirtuaIIyaskingforit, thcyaddcd.Thcrc arc
manyvariants,butthccruxisthcquick,disconccrtingmovc. Whcthcr
it is a shovc, aostIc, a sIight coIIision, it is a mattcr of onIy a fcw
scconds and thc twoarco. Mymostrcccntcncountcr,againonabus,
3treet Feole
was with a man who unfortunatcly got his hand mixcd upwith minc
as wc hcld on to thc ovcrhcad straps. This timc l was morc alcrt. l
discntangcd and tod him to cutit out. ut hc was gonc, and so was
my wallct From my right rcar pockct, unbuttoncd.
You havc to spot thcm bcforchand, thc dctcctivcs told mc. Somc
ofthcmthcy kncw on sight, indccd, thcy had an almost fricndly rcla
tionship with thcm. ln most cascs, howcvcr, itwas a mattcr ofobscr-
vation.
l walkcd with thcm as thcy wcnt back and forth ovcr scvcral
crowdcd shopping blocks. l askcd thcm what madc thcm suspicious.
Suspicious-looking pcoplc, thcy said. Thcy wcrc not bcing facctious.
Pickpockcts and othcrcrooks arc paranoid about thc policc, thcy cx-
plaincd, and arcforcvcrlooking ovcrthcirshouldcrand darting thcir
glanccthiswayandthat. Whcnthcyspotamandoingthisthcycanbc
surc thcy arc on to somcthing.
Thcrcis anothcrthing to watchfor, thcy said. Watch out for thc
guy who is moving around a lotbut is not goinganywhcrc. Hc kccps
coming back, circling, likc thc prcdator hc is. lfhc alsois a tccnagcr,
black, and is wcaring whitc tcnnis shocs hc is likcly to bc takcn as a
muggcr. This is not vcry fair to whitc tcnnis shocs, or tccnagcrs, or
blacks. Whilc it may bc truc that most muggcrs wcar whitc tcnnis
shocs, most pcoplc who wcar whitc tcnnis shocs arc not muggcrs.
Thc kcy advicc, to rcpcat, is to watch out for thc guy who is
moving but not going anywhcrc. And ifhc starts circling, movc.
1ht66-LBt0-0R6 B6t5
Thrcc-card-montcplaycrs providcsomc ofthcbcst strcct thcatrc
andadcmonstrationofthclcngthspcoplcwillgotobcgullcd. Thcy
should bc suspicious from thc start. Two rash young mcn, usually
black, put acartondown on thc sidcwalk and playbcgins. Thc dcalcr
shucsthrcccardstwo ofthcmblack, oncrcd. Pcriodically hcshows
thc rcd card facc up. Hc taunts thc playcr to bct which onc it is. Hc
has a chant
Rcd you win
lack you losc
lt all dcpcnds
On thc card you choosc.
Thctwoarc arguingvcry loudly. This attracts pcoplc and soon a
crowd has formcd. A sccond shill willoin thc crowd. Hc willproba-
blybcan oldcrpcrson, occasionallyawoman,butin any cvcntwillbc
in disguisc as an ordinary citicn.
Thcgamcisobviouslyriggcd. Thc shillshouldbc casytospot. Hc
W8lC0 0I l00 080 w00
S 00v0g 8I0U00 8 0l
DUl S0`lg00g
80yw00I0. 0 K00S
C000g D8CK, CICl0g
K0 l00 I008l0I 00 S.
4
wins. ut on thc playcrs comc. Thcrc is a lot ofcgo hcrc. Thc activc
playcrs havc a knowing look. Thcyrc on to this crook. Hc's mct his
match. As thcy win somc small bcts thc dcalcr is visibly upsct hc
almost cowcrs. Thc playcr movcs in for thc kill and triplcs hisbct.
ln morc cascs than not, howcvcr, thc dcalcr will bc hostilc and
mcnacing and thc gamc bccomcs an cxcrcisc in intimidation. Thc
dcalcrshouts at thc playcr. Hc glarcs malcvolcntly at him. ut down
thc twcnty dollars, hc says. ut it down. ut it Joun. Why anyonc
should obcy is a puzzlc, but thcy do.
Slcight ofhandand thclawofavcragcsarccnoughtoassurcthat
thc dcalcrwillwin. And so hc docs, invariably. ut to win big hc has
anothcr tool. lnthc classic gambit ofthc con gamc, hc uscs thc play-
crs own tastc for larccny. Thcscqucncc gocs likc this. A shill shouts
"cop."Thcdcalcrgocsotoinvcstigatc,lcavingthccardslyingonthc
carton. Onc ofthconlookcrspicks upthc rcd card, withawinkatthc
audicncc hc slightlycrimpsonccorncrofthccardand puts itbackon
thc carton. Thc dcalcr rcturns. Thc onlookcr puts a big bct on thc
crimpcdcard. lt comcsuprcd. Hc wins. Hc bcts again and wins. Thc
dcalcr is furious. Hc tclls thc onlookcrhc cant play anymorc. cavc.
Onlookcr docs.
Now pcoplc arc ostling cach othcr to bc hrst to gct a big bct
down on thc crimpcd card. Onc man comcs up with two hundrcd
dollars and lays it on thc card. Thc dcalcr turns it ovcr. lt is black.
Rcd you win
lack you losc
lt all dcpcnds
On thc card you choosc.
lrccl c0]c
u0 080fS, Yuf0S, 8Bd tlS
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00Sy O O0DIy b0O0uS0 lh0y uSu0 y WOf0 Wh0I Ih0y h0O b00D W00fDg
O0lOf0.
P f0Ouff0DI 0VcDl W0S lh0 0ffV0 O 0 f0O lWOOOOI S0O0D
mO0ll0fDOOH. Pl0f 0fkHg Of0Oly H tODI O lh0 b0f, lh0 OfV0f
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by S0V0f0 0O0. PI0f0bOul I0D mHul0S O0OIly Ih0 Of V0f WOuO
g0l b3Ok D Ih0 O0f 0DO 00V0. hS fOulH0 WOuO l0k0

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lmc8 D 0lc 0llcfuOO.
OW00f 0g0 , lh0 gO DgS-OD w0t0 S0ISyHgy f0gu0f. LD 0 hOI
Summ0f Dghl Ih0 hfSl l0SI O0m0. Pl J. 0J Ihf00 OOS W0k0O lO h0
0mp O0 D fODl Olh0b0f. ufugIh0 f0OuS hOuf lh0f0 h0O b00D
hV0 gfOu S0SSODS O0OOul SX IO 0ghl mHul0S. P 0X0Oly lWO mD
uI0S b0Of0 lh0 0ff 0 Ol lh0 OO Ih0 0Sl gfOu OfOk0 u. OI lh0
0HSuHg lh fly m Dul0S Ih0 OS f0m0D0O by lh0 ghl O0 O I0tHg,
you ght ay and at onc n crc o ncd by a Iourt h.
Pl . JJ lhc OS bcg0D lO mOV0 c08l . Pl 0 mO8l lhc S0mc l m0,
If00 OIh0 f0gu0fS m0l0f0 Z0O. y J. J4 Ih0 COS mOV0O ul OIlh0
OIu0. Y0 0f0 b0C IO HOIm0 0g0 H. 0 gfOu 0OlVIy OODlDucO
uD0O0l0O Ih0 f0Sl O lh0 0V0 Dg. LD SubS0Qu0Dl OOO08ODS 0 L w0
OuDO lh0l lc 0OI ly lh0l O008cS WIh Ih0 0p00f00 OI Ihc OS
f0Sum0S IhD 0 0w S0OODOS Olh0f O0p0flf0.
0 OO 0 8m0f Sl uOy Olh Ol0fug 0Il0IuS 0fOuDO lhc ISlO
L Y
otcI, a squaIid oId hotcI in thc Timcs Squarc arca. Prostitution and
dopc pcddIing appcarcd to bc its principaI activitics. As was thc casc
around thc Top ar, thc arca ofativt cmbracd thc strcct orncr
and a haIf-bIock strctch bcyond. Thcc wcrc usuaIIy four to hvc
whorcs thcy stood in doorways most fthc timc, spaccd twcnty to
forty fcct apart. lf thcy waIkcd it wouId bc onIy as far as thc ncxt
doorway orso and back. CustomcrbchaviorwascquaIIy rcguIar. Po-
tcntiaIohns wouId Iook in a shop window orust stand thcrc for a
whiIc bcforc approaching a whorc. Anothcr prcdictabIc occurrcncc
wouId bc thc arrivaI of a big fat woman about cvcry four hours to
chcckonthcwhorcs. Shc wouIdchat bricy, acccptwhat appcarcdto
bc moncy, and go on to thc ncxt onc. atc in thc aftcrnoon a pink
CadiIIacconvcrtibIcwouIdstop,andout wouIdgctataIIbIackmanin
a Iong fur coat. c was so much thc archctypaI pimp that onc sus
pcctcd hc might bc an undcrcovcr cop.
Thcrc wcrc scvcraI othcr common dcnominators. Thcrc was a
Ioosc nctwork ofpcopIcandit incIudcdsomcstrcct rcguIars. Aguard
at ancarbybankmoonIightcdonandoasasortofmcsscngcr.Thcrc
was a coopcrativc Iookout systcm. Wc noticcd that cvcry oncc in a
whiIcawindowshadconthcthird-oorfront wouIdbcyankcdupand
down. lnvariabIy, it signaIcd thc approach ofa poIicc car.
Around Forty-sccond Strcct and Timcs Squarc it is hardIy sur
prisingto scc pcopIc who Iook Iikc criminaIs. Go down tothcsubway
worId undcrncath and thcrc arc many morc tough, mcan, and dan-
gcrous. This is thc nationaI ccsspooI, and whcn pcopIc from othcr
citics start taIking about thcir undcsirabIcs thc Ncw Yorkcr has to
Iaugh. Thcy shouId scc ours. Hcrc arc thc real undcsirabIcs.
ln vicw of this grcat conccntration, what is rcmarkabIc is how
safc is thc adoining busincss district. l havc bccn kccping rcasonabIy
abrcast ofactivityon itspIazasandsmaIIparks, and as faras assauIts
on oncs pcrson arc conccrncd, thcy havc bccn IargcIy troubIc frcc.
This nccds somc quaIfying, of oursc no strcct is safc at 2 A. m.
ccrtain fringc Iocations arc bcst cd, whitc-coIIar drug tram,
whiIcnotdangcrous,continucstobcarobIcm. SimiIarIy,prostitution
waxcsandwancsasastrcctphcnomcno. ln thcscvcnticsthcrcwcrca
visibIc sincc but thcrc arc indications strcctwaIking is picking up
W
aga.
Thcrc is pIcnty ofsin, in short, bu not so muchdangcr. Pcrccp
tions, howcvcr, arc othcrwisc. ln man citics thc pcrccption ofcrimc
in thc ccntcr is considcrabIy grcatcr t an thc actuaIity. ln DaIIas, a
poIIofcitizcnsindicatcdthatmostagrccdhatcrimcindowntownwas
a scrious probIcm quitc a fcw addcd, howcvcr, that pcrsonaIIy thcy
^PJ
3treet Feole [
5 5
]
had had no troubIc. Statistics bcar out thc quaIihcation. Of aII thc
partsofGrcatcr DaIIas, thc oncwith thc Iowcstincidcncc ofrcportcd
crimc has bccn downtown.
So in othcr citics, thc ccntraI busincss districts arc among thc
safcst of pIaccs during thc hours that pcopIc usc thcm. ConvcrscIy,
among thcmost dangcrous arc thc parking Iotsofsuburbanshopping
maIIs.
ut thc imagc of crimc is itscIf a forcc. Corporations sccking
sanctuary in suburbia invariabIy citc crimc on thc strccts as a rcason
for thcirmovc. ltmay, in fact, bc a minor onc. ut thc corporations
arc worricd cnoughby thc imagcthat thcy buiId thcirncwhcadquar-
tcrs Iikc fortrcsscs.
l dont wish to bc PoIIyanna. Thcrc arc dangcrous pIaccs in thc
city, and dangcrous timcs. Thcrc arc dangcrous pcopIc. ut it is im
portantto dicrcntiatcbctwccnkindsofpcopIc bctwccnthcmuggcr,
say,andthcvcndor.ManybusincssmcnandcivicIcadcrsdonotdicr
cntiatc. cing thcmscIvcs insuIatcd from thc Iifc of thc strcct, thcy
Iump aII its pcopIc as undcsirabIc, and somc Icadcrs wouId bc quitc
happy ifthcy wcrccIiminatcdaItogcthcr, arcsuItthatthcirpoIicics in
somc citics arc caIcuIatcd to bring about.
ThcyshouIdbcworkinginthcothcrdircction.Thctimctoworry
is whcn strcct pcopIc bcgin to Icavc a pIacc. Likc canarics in a coaI
minc, strcct pcopIc arc an indcx ofthc hcaIth of a pIacc.
Thisisnotrccctcdin thckind ofcityrankingsIatcIy so popuIar
thctcnbcstquaIity-ofIifcciticsin thcL. S. ,thctwcntyhappicstcom
munitics, and so on. Citics Iikc Ncw York go at thc bottom, thc top
going to communitics that couId aIso quaIify as thc highcst on any
bIandncss indcx. WhiIconcwouId not wish to add yctanothcr spuri-
ous statisticaI cxcrcisc, it might bc in ordcr to comc up with a city
indcxofcnoyabiIity thcnumbcrofstrcctcntcrtaincrs, foodvcndors,
#
pcopIcinconvcrsation,thcnumbcrsmiIing.AsiIIyindcx,pcrhaps,but
thcrc is a simpIc point to bc madc. Strcct pcopIc arc notust a prob-
Icm, thcy arc thc hcart of thc strcct Iifc ofthc ccntcr. lts IivcIincss is
thc tcst ofthc city itscIf.
Good pcrformcrs and good audicnccs. Thcsc arc thc stuof a
good strcct Iifc. lts vigor is a tcst ofthc vigorofthc city itscIf.
On skinn old
lcxington avcnuc
spccd up
to pass this man
so i can slow down
i takc
grcat plcasurc
in thc cxact sizc
of m stcps
Robcrt Hcrshon
Thcpcdcstrianis asocialbcinghcis alsoatransportation unit, and a
marvclousl complcx and cmcicnt onc. Hc is sclf-containcd, sclf-pro-
pcllcd, and movcs forward with a hcld of vision about l dcgrccs
widc, furthcr widcning this with backand-forth scanning movcmcnts
to almost l & dcgrccs. Hc monitors a host ofcquations two crossing
pattcrnsatlcftfront,29fcctaminutc,thrcconthcright,anglconthc
cars J dcgrccs and closing, a pair abrcast dcad ahcad, a trac light
startingto ash DONT A. ln fractionsofa sccond hc rcsponds
with coursc shihs, accclcrations, and rctards, and hc signals to othcrs
thathcisdoingsoThinkofthcordcrsandcomputcrsitwouldtakcto
N
P
!he Sk/hed Fedestr/an
match him Transportation cnginccrs arc spcnding miIIions on dcvcI-
oping automatcd pcopIc-movcr systcms. utthcbcst, by far, is a pcr-
son. Hcrc, in a bricf summary, arc thc chicf charactcristics of thc
pcdcstrian
. cdc8lti8n8 u8u8lly W8lK Cn lhc tighl. (Lct8ngcd pcCplc 8nd
CddO8ll8 8tc mCtc liKcly lC gC lcH, 8g8in8l lhc BCW.)
. P l8tgc ptCpCtliCn Cl pcdc8lti8n8 8tc pcCplc in p8it8 Ct lhtcc8Cmc8.
J. hc mC8l diBCull lC lCllCW 8tc p8it8 WhC W8lK unCctl8inly, Vccting
ltCm Cnc 8idc lC lhc Clhct. hcy l8Kc lWC l8nc8 lC dC lhc WCtK Cl
Cnc.
+. %cn W8lK 8CmcWh8l l88lct lh8n WCmcn.
J. XCungct pcCplc W8lK 8CmcWh8l l88lct lh8n Cldct pcCplc.
6. cCplc in gtCup8 W8lK 8lCWct lh8n pcCplc 8lCnc.
cCplc C8ttying O8g8 Ct 8uilC88c8 W8lK 8OCul 88 l88l 88 8nyCnc cl8c.
5. cCplc WhC W8K Cn 8 mCdct8lc upgt8dc W8lK 8OCul 88 l88l 88 lhC8c
Cn lhc lcVcl.
V. cdc8lti8n8 u8u8lly l8Kc lhc 8hCtlc8l Cul. n 8Cmc pcdc8lti8n m8ll8
CutVing p8lhW8y8 h8Vc Occn Cullincd in lhc p8Ving. cdc8lti8n8 ig-
nCtc lhcm. hcy 8liCK lC lhc Occlinc.
I . cdc8lti8n8 lCtm up in pl8lCCn8 8l lhc lighl8 8nd lhcy Will mCVc in
pl8lCCn8 lCt 8 OlCCK Ct mCtc.
I . cdc8lti8n8 CHcn lunCliCn mC8l cBCicnlly 8l lhc pc8K Cl tu8h-hCut
BCW8.
What is most imprcssivc about thc individual pcdcstrian is thc
skiIl with which hc adapts his movcs to thc movcs of othcrs. Thc
simpIc avoidancc of colIision, as Erving Goman notcd, is rcaIly a
rathcr rcmarkabIc dcmonstration ofcoopcrativc cort. Considcr, for
cxampIc, thcmovcs ncccssary in a simpIcpassingsituation. Lpahcad
thc pcdcstrian spots somconc advancing on him. Whcn thc two arc
about twcntyfcct apart, thcy will Iookat cachothcr. This is a criticaI
momcnt. ythcirgIanccthcy must not onlyconvcythcsignaI but scc
ifthcsignaI hasbccnacknowIcdgcd. Afcwfcctncarcrthcy dropthcir
gazc and makc a sIight shih in coursc to usc Michacl Wols tcrm,
thc stcp and sIidc. Thc coursc shift in itscIf is not cnough for a fuIl
cIcaranccbutitwiIIbccnoughifthcothcrpcdcstrianmakcs acompa
rabIc movc, as with fcw cxccptions thcy do.
ln ambiguous situations thcrc may bc a sharp loo in thc dircc-
tionthcpcdcstrianintcndstotakc, aslightpointingmotionwithhand
or foIdcd ncwspapcr. As thc two pass, thcy wiII bc Iooking dircctly
ahcad, hcads sIightly bowcd, sIightIy forward, shouIdcrs droopcd.
Pcdcstrians havc anumbcrofwaysofcoping with crowdcdsitua-
tions. Thcy do not waIk dircctIy in back ofsomconc. As with tailgat-
ing, this can Icad to coIlisions, and if you do waIk dircctIy bchind
somconc for a whiIc, somc sixth scnsc oftcn stirs that pcrson to turn
9PJ "

around andgivcyoua sharpIook. Thc good pcdcstrian usuaIIywaIks
slghtly to onc sdc, so that hc s lookng ovcr thc shouldcr of thc
pcrson ahcad. ln this position hc has thc maximum choicc and thc
pcrson ahcad is in a scnsc running intcrfcrcncc for him.
MorcchaIIcngingthansimpIcpassingpattcrnsarcthcmancuvcrs
nccdcd whcn you arc approaching pcopIc waIking diagonaIIy toyour
coursc, or pcrpcndicuIar to it. ln addition to thc tcchniqucs of thc
simpIc pass, you now may instinctivcIy usc what couId bc caIIcd a
rctard a sIight, aImost impcrccptibIc slowing that wiII avcrt a coIIi-
sioncoursc.lnanaIyzinghImthatwasshotatthcrcguIarcncspccdof
twcntyfour framcs pcr sccond, l found that thc rctard takcs pIacc
within thrcc or four framcs hhh ofa sccond or Icss. !ust that
fraction, howcvcr, wiII bc cnough to avcrt coIIision.
Somc ofthc most chaIIcnging situations arc cross ows at strcct
comcrs. Oncofthcm thatwc havcstudicd intcnsivcIy isat thcsouth
wcst corncr of Fihy-ninth and Lcxington. lt has a subway cntrancc,
usuaIIy atIcastoncvcndoratthccurb, ohcn onc ortwomorcon thc
sidcwaIk itscIf. At pcak thc pcdcstrian ow runs ovcr hvc thousand
pcopIc anhour, anditis awondcrthcwhoIc mcssdocsnot comctoa
dcad stop.
utitncvcrdocs andagrcatdcaI ofskiII and coopcrativcbchav-
e
8
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8
8
8
8
8
8
8

8
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e
1cr rcccrdin wbcrcpcdcstrians did wbat and/cr bcw lcn, wc madc wcrk-
abcct mapa c/Lcxintcn Hrcnuc blcck/rcnta. 1bis is c/ tbc cast blccrcnts
bctwccn 1]j-scrcntb and1tj-cibtb.
ioristhcrcason. lnsIowmotionandrcguIar, wchavchImcdscorcsof
coIIision courscs, crossing pattcms, and passing mancuvcrs, and thcn
pIottcdthcmonIargc-scaIcmapsofthccomcr.Studyany onccncoun
tcrandyoubcginto apprcciatcnotonIyhowadroitIythcparticipants
managcd, but how much thc rcsoIution of ncighboring cncountcrs
madc thc succcss possibIc. ltis a vcry compIcx wcb ofmovcmcnts.
ThcrcisguiIc, too. Pcdcstrians arcnotaII saintsandsomcwouId
prcfcr to havc othcrs givcway rathcrthan givc waythcmscIvcs. Thcy
uscfcints andsomctimcs intimidatc. OurinstantrcpIay ofFast rown
and SIow Iuc is a casc in point. Looking dircctIy down at thc Fihy-
ninthStrcct comcr, wcsccFast rown approachingfrom thcIcft. Hc
isbigand hciswaIking fast 60fccta minutc. Atthc bottom ofthc
sccncappcarsSIow Iuc. Hcis smaIIcrandhciswaIkinsIowIy. oth
arc on a coIIision coursc Ncithcr changcs pacc. Thcn, ust at thc
criticaIpoint,SIowIucsIowIypasscshisIcarmupbyhishcad.This
throwsFast rown. Hccomcs to a dcad stop as SIow Iuc gIidcs on.
CompIctcIy discomhtcd, Fast rown wastcs scconds in IatcraI foot
movcmcnts bcforc gctting undcr way again.
G tactics caII for quick idcntihcation ofthc oncoming ow.
WhicharcindividuaIs7 Whicharc moving ingroups7 ltmakcs a con
sidcrabIc dicrcncc. A pair ofmcn, for campIc, may forcc you to a

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lImCS lhCy COmC lOuf 3HC BVC 3OfC3Sl.
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SuOl!CSl OlmOlIOHS lhCy SIgH3! lhCIf IHlCHlIOHS lO OHC 3HOlhCf 3 ShI
OllhC CyCS, 3 CCgfCC Of SO OB3XIS, 3 S!Ighl mOVC OllhCh3HC, 3 W3VC Ol
3 lO!CCC HCWSQ3QCf.
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lufH lhCy CO CVCfylhIHg QOSSIO!C lO lhW3fl hIm. hCy QfClCHC HOl l O
1he 3kihed Fedestrian [ 6 i ]
scc thc cars. Thcy makc thcmscIvcs hostagc and forcc an impossibIc
choicc. akc way for mc or kiII mc.
Thc Ncw York s Richard Shcpard, a kccn studcnt of thc
strcct and himscIfapcdcstrian, saysthat "thcNcwYorkcrwaIks with
a spcciaI purposivc gait, thc foot Iocomotion of pcopIc who havc a
dcstinationtorcachand,asbchtourmunicipaItcmpo,donotwantto
dawdIc about it. " Anothcr cxpIanation, much favorcd by Ncw
Yorkcrs, is that thc citys pacc is duc to its attraction for ambitious,
intcIIigcnt, aggrcssivc pcopIc that is, pcopIc such as thcmscIvcs.
Thcy rcscnt constraints. Trac signaIs arc a particuIar vcxation.
Thcy arc, foronc thing, timcdtobcnchtcars rathcrthan pcdcstrians.
TakcFifthAvcnuc.Youwanttomakctimcgoingnorth. Atthctuof
thcIighttogrccnyoustartwaIkingbriskIy. Youhavcabout2fcctto
go to rcach thc ncxtIight. YouwiII rcach itustasthcIightturnsrcd.
OnIybygoingatankspccd,sayJ fcct pcrminutc,wiIIyoubcatthc
Iight.
Whcrcas an out-of-towncrby habit may wait submissivcIy at thc
Iight, thcNcw YorkcrmaynotIook at thc Iight at aII. HcwiII Iookat
thc roadway toscc whatopcnings thcrcmay bc. WcII bcforc thc Iight
gocs grccn hc wiII bc strcaking across.
Ncw Yorkcrs arc incorrigibIc aywaIkcrs. Thcy may start out
within thc crosswaIk but thcrc is a strong tcndcncy to vccr oat an
angIc. any aywaIkcrs cIcct to cross dircctIy in thc middIc of thc
bIock, cspcciaIIy whcn thc bIocks arc vcry Iong, Forty-sccond Strcct
bctwccnFihandSixthavcnucsisthcprimccxampIc. Atthcmoing
rush hour,aywaIkcrsust about takc ovcr. Whcn car tramc is sIight
cnough,aywaIkcrswiIIoftcncutacrossaroadwayonaIongdiagonaI,
somctimcs travcrsing as much as two thirds ofa bIocks Icngth. lt is
dangcrous,butthcrcissomc Iogic to it. y taking thc hypotcnusc, thc
aywaIkcrcuts thcourncy by as much as a third.
lnsomcpIaccsthcaywaIkingisinvoIuntary. ThcrcsimpIy is not
cnoughsidcwaIkspacctohandIcthcnumbcrofpcopIc. Thc Lcxington
Avcnuc sidcwaIk aIongsidc Grand CcntraI is a notabIc cxampIc. As l
wiII dctaiI in thc ncxt chaptcr, thcrc is a thrcshoId point, a fairIy
prccisconc too, andbcyond it pcopIc turnvcry mcan to cars. lnsuch
cascs thcrc arc somc rcasons for thc aywaIking. ut most of it is
fooIish. Thcrc is a grcat dcaI of zigging and zagging bctwccn cars,
aImostasifthc vcry dangcrofitwasthcattraction. Anditisdangcr-
ous.
Onc's admiration for thc bravado of thc Ncw York pcdcstrian
mustbc tcmpcrcdby his frcqucntcxtinction. Pcr l, popuIation,
Ncw York has bccn avcraging 7 pcdcstrian fataIitics annuaIIy, at thc
top ofthc Iist. (Chicago . 5, Los AngcIcs .) Sixty-cight pcrccnt of
thosc kiIIcd wcrc mcn. Onc probcm is thc Iack ofany ccctivc sanc-
+

L
tions. PcopIc arcnot tickctcdforaywaIking,and ifthcy wcrc, thchnc
is 2. Anothcr probIcm is thc drunkcn pcdcstrian. Of aII pcdcstrians
kiIIcd in Ncw York City, onc in scvcn has tcstcd intoxicatcd.
Ancw dangcrforpcdcstriansis thc riscofthcmcsscngcrcycIists.
Lp untiI about vc ycars ago most of thc cycIists onc cncountcrcd
wcrc pcopIc on thcir way to work. Thc mcsscngcr cycIists, howcvcr,
arc animatcd by moncy. Thcy gct paid for thc numbcr of dcIivcrics
thcy can makc in a day, and truc spccd wiII nct thcm around l
additionaI a day, fora totaI takc ofabout 25J. Sothcy go fast,
vcry fast thirty to thirty-hvc miIcs pcr hour whcn possibIc, thcy go
against tramc and thcy run rcd Iights. Thcy sccm tohatc pcdcstrians,
thcy scowIandcurscatthcmandycIIandbIowwhistIcsatthcmtogct
thcm out ofhc way.
Pcdcstriansarc stiII not accIimatcdtothcmorto thcirunprcdict-
abIc ways, and instincts honcd in thc battIc with cars iII prcparcs
pcdcstrians for this ncwcr contcst. cforc crossing a onc-way strcct,
thcpcdcstriannormaIIytakcsaIookin thcdircctionthccarsshouIdbc
comingfrom. Thcnhc stcps out. utthiscouIdbabadmistakc. Out
of nowhcrc, from thc wrong dircction, a cycIist may bc upon him.
SomccycIistspcriodicaIIybIowthcirwhistIcstoaIcrtpcopIctogctout
ofthcway, butusuaIIy thcapproach is withoutsound untiIthcwhirr

b upon onc.
ln l 9&6, J pcopIc wcrc kiIIcd in pcdcstrian-cycIist cncountcrs,
, 60 inurcd. ut most cncountcrs go unrcportcd. Thc dangcris un-
dcrcstimatcdinanothcrrcspcct. WaIkinghasbccomcmuchIcsscnoy-
abIc. Now you mustcrancyourncck right, thcnIc, watching forthc
dchIc bctwccn thc cars. Two fcct is aII hc nccds. Dangcr has bccn
furthcr hcightcncd by thc way cycIists havc bccn taking to thc sidc-
waIk. Hcrcthcy whccIandcircIcandbythcir unprcdictabiIitycnforcc
unprcdictabiIiyonthcpcdcstrian. lshcgoingtogotothcright,orthc
Ic Thc cycIist has bccn taking your coursc as a givcn. For you to
adapt to his coursc now throws cvcrything o. Out ofthcsc ambigu-
itics can comc somc vcry nasty momcnts.
lndocumcntarics onthcpIightofthcpcdcstrian, astockshotisa
bunch ofthcm moving togcthcrin thc samcdircction, and fast. Actu-
aIIy, this is no bad situation. Whcn thcrc is adominantdircction, thc
owmakcsthcbcstofthcwaIkwayspaccavaiIabIcandmovcsatfairIy
highspccdforthatdcgrccofcongcstion. Thcrcis, to bcsurc,anosct.
lfyou arc going with thc ow hnc. lfyou arc not, you had bcst bc
agiIc. AtthcScvcnthAvcnuc, castcrnmostcntrancctothcLonglsIand
RaiIroad concoursc, somc , pcopIc pcr hour strcam out via a
scvcntccn-footdcIc duringthcmorning rushhour. ltisarcmarkabIc
1he 3kihed Fedestrian
fcat. LnhappiIy for thcm, howcvcr, thcrc arcabout , pcopIc who
want to gct into thc station. (Somc arc commuting to aob in subur-
bia.) Thcy hght thcir way in, tight against thc waII.
ThcsIowcrthcvchicIctrac, thccasicrit isforthcpcdcstrian to
asscrt himscIf. ostons pcdcstrians, for cxampIc, arc anothcr aggrcs-
sivcIot, andinpartthisisductothcnarrowandwindingstrcctsofthc
oId downtown. AsthcvchicIctrac on thcscstrcctsincrcascsandthc
spccdsdccrcasc, thcbaIanccofpowcrshihstothcpcdcstrian. YouwiII
scc ostonians signaIing with thcir arms for cars to gct out ofthcir
way or stop, sIapping thcir hoods whcn thcy dont, and frcqucntIy
forcing thcm to a dcad stop.
Anothcr tough bunch of pcdcstrians arc ontrcaIs. Thcy havc
much to contcnd with. On Stc. Cathcrinc, thc principaI shopping
strcct, thcsidcwaIksarcasmcanasLcxingtonstwcIvcandahaIffcct.
ThcsidcwaIkowsarcprodigiousduringthcbusypcriod,somc ,
to7,pcopIcanhour. lntcrscctionbchaviorisundcrstandabIyanar-
chic. Dcrck Drummond, dircctorofthc schooI ofarchitccturc at c-
GiIILnivcrsity,hasstudicdthcpcdcstrianspattcscxtcnsivcIy. "Thc
moststrikingfcaturcofpcdcstrian tracaIongStc. CathcrincStrcct,
hc rcports, withsomcpridc, "isthat so many pcopIcpay noattcntion
at aII to thc trac Iights.

Lpto6pcrccntofthosccrossingthcstrcct do sowhiIc thcIight


is rcd. Drummond thinks thcy havc rcason to. "A Iight cycIc inscnsi-
tivc to pcdcstrian movcmcnt rcsuIts in thc pcdcstrian arriving at an
intcrscctionust ahcr thc Iightturns rcd, hc notcs. "ontrcaIsIight
cycIcis vcry Iong (scconds)witha6sccondgrccnIightfortrac
on Stc. Cathcrinc Strcct. lt is IittIc wondcr that pcdcstrians sprint
through any gaps in thc vchicuIar trac.
Thcy kccp coming back for morc. Evcn in thc coIdcst wcathc
say twcnty bcIow thc pcdcstrians arc out in fuII forcc on thc strcct.
Atsuchtimcs thchcatcdconcourscofncarby PIacciIIcaricdraws
onIy J pcrccnt to pcrccnt ofthc ow on Stc. Cathcrinc.
A tributc to Tokyo pcdcstrians is in ordcr. ln vicw of thc widc
cuIturaIdicrcnccs, thcyarcrcmarkabIysimiIartothoscofNcwYork.
Thcy arc aIso cvcry bitasskiIIcd, thoughnoticcabIy morc discipIincd.
1hcy wak tast about J to J20 fcct pcr mnutc n thc downtown
ccntcrs. ut thcy do runmorc. This is most noticcabIcust bcforc thc
haIf-hourandhourmarksofthcmorningrushhour. As thcy ncar thc
cnd ofthcirourncy, a numbcrofpcopIc wiIIbrcak into a run. any
wiIIIaughasthcy doit. Andothcrpcdcstrians may Iaugh too. Tokyo
pcoplc scc thc comcdy ofthc strcct, and thcy cnoy it.
WhiIcTokyos pcdcstrians arc Icss anarchic than Ncw Yorks, in
thcirown way thcy makcthccrossing ofstrcctssomcthingofagamc.
1ok]oede:trian:are well di:cilined, the] almo:t alwa]: wait]or the :inal
be]ore cro::in. Ht thi: inter:ection, loud:eaker: broadca:t cautionaq an-
nouncement: in a little-irl voice. 1t ': almo:t the end o]the WH c]cle, :he
:a]:. :o don 't be childi:h. Ht thi:oint. the/nal mad ru:h bein:.
Pl lhC m3IH 3VCHuC CfOSSIHgS lhCy WI! Ofm uQ Wh3l SCCm lO OC lhC
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Pl SOmC CfOSSIHgS IH lhC LIHZ3 3fC3, Ouf p3lOOHS WI! CfOSS CI3gO-
H3!y fOm 3! Ouf COfHCfS. l IS guIlC 3 SIghl.

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ShC S3yS. LClS CfOSS S3Cy 3l lhC HCXl !Ighl. OW lhC QCCCSlfI3HS Sl3fl
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IHg. bOmC QCOQ!CWI Sl3fl 3CfOSS 3l OHy 3 CW SCCOHCS lO fCC 3HCWI!
CC3f lC mICCC O lhC 3VCHuC juSl 3S lhC C3fS Sl3fl fO3fIHg 3CfOSS.
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IH lhC W3kIHg SQCCCS lhCy ChOOSC. H gCHCf3, mCH W3k 3SlCf lh3H
WOmCH; yOuHgCf QCOQC 3SlCf lh3H O!CCf QCOQ!C; QCOQC 3OHC 3SlCf
lh3H QCOQC IH gfOuQS. LO3CS CO HOl SCCm lO SOW QCOQC uQ; HCIlhCf
CO S!Ighl uQgf3CCS. hCy Qul Oul 3 Ill!C mOfC CHCfgy Oul lhCy CO HOl
S!OW COWH.
1he 3kihed Fedestrian
j 6
5
]
ln a big-citydowntown, mcn wiII avcragc about 5 fcct a sccond,
fcc a minuc miIcs an hour. Fas waIkcrs wiII avcragc
aoumiIcsahour,adipassisiuaioshcymayacccIcraco
5 miIcsan hour. How IongpcopIcwiIIsustain thcscspccds dcpcndsa
goodbitonthcnaturcofthccity. lnthcncwcr, auto-oricntcdciticsof
thcSouthwcst, somcwhcrc around thrcc to fourbIocksis about asfar
as most pcopIc wiII waIk. ln Ncw York City it is about hvc.
PcopIc in big citics waIk fastcr than pcopIc in smaII citics. !ust
why his shouIdbc so noonc has satisfactoriIy cxpIaincd, buhcfac
ofthc dicrcncc docs sccm wcII cstabIishcd. Studics havc shown that
thcrcisaroughcorrcIationbctwccnthcsizcofthccityandthcpaccat
whichitspcdcstrianswaIk.ThcmcasurcmcnsarcusuaIIyofpcopIcin
frcc-ow situations, sincc such situations arc rarcr in big ciics than
smaII, thc pacc ofbig-city pcdcstrians might havc bccn ovcrstatcd a
bit ut probaIy by vcryIittIc. Ourown tracking studics ofpcdcstri-
ans in varying situations indicatc that thc convcntionaI imagc ofcity
pcopIc ashusIcrs is roocd in fact Thcy do waIk fast.
Why arc thc big-city oncs so fast7 Thc RcgionaI PIan Associa-
ions oris Pushkarcv bcIicvcs thcy waIk fastcr bccausc hcy waIk
farthcr. ThcirtimcisvaIuabIcothcmand so thcycomprcssthcimc
ofthcir trips.
AnothcrcxpIanationisthchighdcnsityofpcopIcthcymustcopc
wih. PsychoIogist StanIcy iIgram saw it as a matcr of ovcrIoad.
PcopIcinbigciticsarcsubcctcdtoavcryhighvoIumcofstimuIation,
hc rcasoncd, thcyhavcaIargcnumcrofpcopIcwith whom tointcr
ac. Thc Ioadis grcatcrthan thc individuaIscapacitytoproccss it, so
in dcfcnsc thcy scck to minimizc itby waIking fast.
l donotthink this isso. lfitis, itccrtainIydocs notfoIIowfrom
thc data on pcdcstrian spccds. Thc pcdcstrian spccds, furthcrmorc,
wcrc cIockcd in frcc-ow situations. Thcy wcrc not waIking fast bc-
causc thcy wcrc crowdcd. Thcy wcrc not crowdcd. Truc, thcy may
havc ccomc so habituatcd to crowds that thcy waIkcd fast whcthcr
hcrcwas a crowd ornot. ut such conccturcs arc IimitIcss.
As for ovcrIoad, it is ccrtainIy truc that pcopIc adopt various
dcfcnsivcmcchanisms tocopcwithcrowdcd situations goingIimpon
hc suway, avoiding unncccssary contact with strangcrs, and so on.
But s walkng fast ncccssarly such an adaptaton? Cnc could as wcll
arguc ha pcopIc do so to increase cnvironmcnaI stimuIation.
l timingindividuaI pcdcstrians, l havcnoiccd thatthosc going
at a fast cIip do not appcar to bc any morc harricd or tcnsc than
anyonccIsc.Thcydo appcartobcgcttingsomcwhcrc, andthcmanncr
ofthcirgaitsomctimcscarricsatouchofarrogancc. ltsccmstosay, l
amanimportant,busypcrsonandlamonmyway.ostfastwaIkcrs,
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howcvcr, arc not impcrious, and thccommonplacc cxplanationmight
bc thc right onc Thcy walk fast bccausc thcy arc in a hurry.
Likccarryingcapacity,thcconccptofovcrloadisasloppyonc. lt
ispcorativcand, byimplication,trcats ahighdcgrccofstimuationas
somcthingtobc mitigatcd. ut somcofthcmostplcasurablcstrcctsto
walk along arc thosc that do havc a high dcgrcc ofstimulation As l
willargucinalatcrchaptcr,thcbcststrcctsarcscnsorystrccts,andwc
cannot havc thcm all good and nobad. On rcal-lifc strccts thc mix is
incxtricablc, likc thc orists display you likc to touch but that too
many othcr pcoplc do too.
ut pcoplc arc attractcd to thcsc strccts. lfthcy wcrc not thcy
would go clscwhcrc Thcy would go to thc strccts with a vcry low
dcgrcc ofstimulation thc strccts that arc lincd with blank walls and
arc uncncumbcrcd withactivitics Pcdcstriancounsshow that pcoplc
donotuscsuchstrcctssavcfor ncccssity. Andwhcnthcy douscthcm,
thcy do not tarry
Whatonciswalkingpastinucnccshowfastoncwalks Apcdcs-
trian may start out at a brisk 29 fcct a minutc, thcn slow down to
about2fcctaminutcas hc gocs pastsomcthing ashop window, a
mcrchandisc display and hc may somctimcs stop for a fcw scconds.
Whcn hcrcsumcshc maygo uptoJ% fcctaminutc, as ifimpcllcdto
makc upthc pausc. Similarly, as hc passcs abank orablankwall, hc
may stcp up his pacc abit Dull blocks arc fast travcrscd
Tmc oday accts pacc nc othc cst momcnts sust corc
lunch hilc it is not mcasurablc, thcrc is an upbcat quality to thc
movcmcnt Thcrc willbc quitcafcwpcoplcingroups, youngcrcxccu-
tivctypcs in particular, and thcy will bc manifcsting what appcars to
bc vcry high spirits This is whcn thc Thrcc olly Fcllows arc most
likcly to appcar Thcrc will bc muchoking and laughing. Expccta-
tions arc high Somcthing good is going to happcn
Ahcrlunch thcpacc is slowcr, thoughoccasionallysomconcwill
brcakintoarunto gctbackintimc Thcrcwillbcmanylcavc-takings
as lunch groups brcak up Thc kcy oncs comc latc around two, as
bchts thc scniors. lts bccn a good lunch, thcir ambling gait sccms to
sayThcrcmaybcaprolongcdroundofgoodbycs,oradclaycdrcsolu-
tion ofthc dcal lunch was about. Thcsc casual momcnts can bc quitc
climactic
Rush-hour tcmpos arc briskcr Of thc two, thc morning rush is
thc most purposivc. This is a timc whcn pcoplc rcally arc intcnt on
gcttingfrom Ato,and thcy managcitwithconsidcrablcskill Long
bcforcadccisionhastobcmadc, thcywillanticipatcthcplaccmcntof
an cscalator by shihing to thc cxtrcmc right or lcft ofthc ow
Thccvcningrush hourisbrisk too, butitismorcsociablc Thcrc
P

1he 3kihed Fedestrian


wilI bc morc pcopIc waIking in twos and thrccs, morc l pcrccnt
convcrsations, morc proIongcd goodbycs, and morc pcopIcuststand-
ing thcrc. ut it is an ccicnt ow noncthcIcss. And thanks to thc
phcnomcnon ofthc opcn door it may ow casicst at thc vcry pcak.
lfthcrc is a propcr pIacc for it, thcrc wiII bc a grcat dancc. Thc
bcstofthcoIdraiIroadstationsprovidcdsuch pIaccs, and whcrc thcsc
rcmain thc movcmcnt is spIcndid. Stand on thc baIcony ovcrlooking
thc main oorofGrandCcntraI. At lc,withthrcc ofthc fourcscaIa-
tors hcadingdown, thcrc is amassofpcopIcgoingthcsamc way. ut
onIyforamomcnt. ThcyspIitintoaninnityofdircctions. Somcswirl
aroundthcinformationkioskclockwisc,somccountcrcIockwisc.Hun-
drcds ofpcopIc wiII bc moving this way and that, wcaving, dodging,
fcinting. Hcrcand thcrc somconc wiIIbrcakintoarun. AImost cvcry-

oncisonacoIIisioncourscwithsomconccIsc, but withamuItitudcof


rctards, acccIcrations,andsidcstcpsthcygothcirwayuntouchcd. ltis
indccd a grcat dancc.

LO0 0 IO0 O0SI


O3//0w00 0 /3OO/O
C0OC0S /S O0
S03l3I/0O 0
000SIl/3O l0O
v0O/CU/3l Il8MC. !O/S /S
0l IO0 00O00I 0
v0O/C/0S, S0 IO0y w///
0I IO0 l/00 S3C0.
lQcdcSlf3nS 3fc SKcd, l S Dc03uSc lhcy Vcfy Wc h3Vc l0 Dc. -
most cvcry Amctcan ctty gt vcs thcm thcshort cnd o|thc ttc. Lca
lf3BS0fl3ll0B 3ulB0ftllcS uSu3ly B3Yc l WflII0B lB IB0lf 0B3fl0f lB3l
lf3nSQ0f3l0n cmDf30cS QcdcSlf3nS 3S Wc 3S Vch0cS 3nd lB3l lBcy
0ughl l0 Q3n l0f lhcm. ul lhcy d0 n0l. hcy Q3n 3g3nSl lhcm,
dclcnSVC y. f30 SgnS 3ddfcSScd l0 QcdcSlf3nS gcncf3y lc3lufc lhc
W0fdS Qf0hDlcd, n0, W3lh 0ul l0f, 0f d0n l .
f3dc ScQ33l0n S 3n0lhcf nd03l0f. nc 0llhc m0Sl Vcncf3lcd
0lQ3nnng 00n0cQlS h3S DCcn lhc ScQ3f3l0n 0lVch0u3f lf0m QCdCS-
lf3n lf30. Ud l0f Wh0Sc DcncBl h3S lhS OccU ch0cS. CdcSlf3n
0VCfQ3SScS 3fc 3n cX3mQc. hcy 3fc SuQQ0Scd l0 m3Kc lhngS c3Scf
l0f QcdcSlf3nS. ul lhCy 3fc fc3y mc3nl l0f 03fS, S0 lhcy 03n g0
l3Slcf 3nd W0U h3Vc l0 S0Q 3nd cl 3 Dun0h 0l QcdcSlfl3nS Q3SS
30f0SS lhc f03dW3y. ul QcdcSlf3nS W l3Kc lhc f03dW3y llhcy h3Vc
3 l3f 0h3n0c. hCy d0 n0l Kc l0 0mD uQ 3nd 0Vcf lhc Slfu0lufCS,
3nd lf3nSQ0fl3l0n cngnccfS W0udn l clhcf l lhcy h3d l0.
f30 ghlS 3fc fggcd 3g3USl QcdcSlf0nS. U m0Sl 0lcS lc
m3]0f 3VCnucS cl m0fC gfccn lmc lh0l lhc Sdc SlfcclS. bn0c lhc
3VcnucS 03ffy m0fc Vch0cS, lhS W0ud Sccm l3fcn0ugh. hc lf0uDc
S lh3l lhc DuK 0l lhc QcQc uSng lhc 3VcnucS 3fc n0l n Vch0cS.
hcy 3fc 0n l00l 3nd lhc lmng S U0l fghl l0f hcm. ly0u W3nl l0
1he Fh)sical 3treet

crossNorthichiganAvcnucinChicago,forcxampIc,youhadbcttcr
bc o thc mark thc instant thc Iight says WAL. ightccn scconds
Iatcr it wiII start ashing DONT WAL. Thcy Ict you havc a bit
morc timcbut it is ncrvous timc.
Thc discriminationis awastcroftimc. Ncw YorksFih Avcnuc
providcs an cxampIc. Each bIockfront on thcavcnucis 2fcct Iong,
buiIdingIinctobuiIdingIinc. lfyoustartacrossat an intcrscctionust
as thcIightturnsgrccnandwaIkat abriskpacc,youwiIIarrivcatthc
ncxtintcrscctionustasthcIightturnsrcd. ApIatoonoffcIIowpcdcs-
trians forms up. Acr idIing hfty scconds, you start o again, and
againrcachthcncxtintcrscctionustasthcIighttusrcd. Thcrcisno
ow for thc pcdcstrian instcad, a scrics ofstaccato stops and starts
that makcs waIking takc aImost doubIc thc timc itshouId and maxi-
mizcs thc bunchingofpcopIc into pIatoons.
utitisinthcdivisionofspaccandthcruIcsforusingitthatthc
pcdcstrian gcts thc shortcst cnd ofthc stick. ln aImost aII L.b. citics
thc buIk ofthc rightof-way is givcn to thc roadway for vchicIcs, thc
IcasttothcsidcwaIkforpcdcstrians. Ncw YorksLcxingtonAvcnucis
a primc cxampIc, in particuIar thc fourbIock strctch bctwccn Fiy-
scvcnth and Sixty-hrst strccts. lt is thc rcductio ad absurdum ofthc
L.S. city strcct and by its vcry cxccsscs it providcs cIucs for its rc-
dcmption.
As with many strccts in L.S. citics ovcr thc ycars, Lcxingtons
roadway has bccn madc widcr at thc cxpcnsc ofthc sidcwaIks. Thc
roadwayisnow 5fcct,cachofthcsidcwaIks l 2fcct. ThcsidcwaIk
pavcmcntiscrackcd, buckIcd, atscvcraI pIaccsit sIopcsatanangIcof
abouttwcntydcgrccs. ltisfuII ofhoIcs and hoIIows, somcwith scmi-
pcrmancnt puddIcs that arc rcpIcnishcd by rain and snow in wintcr,
and by thc watcrtrickIing down from thc air conditioncrs ovcr storc
doorways in summcr. Thc onIy IcvcI pIaccs arc thc subway gratings,
which womcn avoid bccausc thcirhccIs gct caught.
Thc strcctscapc is so wrctchcd that picturcs of it arc oftcn fca-
turcd in prcscntations on thc dccIincofurban dcsign. AIong thc curb
isan iIIpIaccd assortmcntoftrash containcrs,maiIboxcs, ncwsstands,
subwaystairs,hrchydrants,signs,andpoIcs,anumbcrbcntbytrcks,
somcwithncstsofbicycIcschaincdto thcm. PartsofthcsidcwaIkwiII
bc n usc for unloadng and storagc of boxcs. 1hcrc wll bc handbll
passcrs, vcndors dispIaying mcrchandisc, cops arrcsting vcndors in
aII, somanyobstructionsthatthcccctivcwaIkwayisnomorcthan 6
or7 fcct. At timcsit wiIIbc rcduccd cvcn morc whcn thc mcrchants
pushthcirwoodcn biIIboards out as far as

hcy darc, thc passagcwiII


bc narrowcd to about four fcct.
Now considcr thc Ioad to bc carricd. Each day on thc bIock bc-
twccn Fiftyscvcnth and Fiftycighth somc twcntytwo thousand
0 800Sl 0v0Q U.5.
CQ l00 DUK 0 l00
Hg0l 0 w8y S gv00 l0
v00C0S, l00 08Sl, l0
000 00 00l. 0S S
0 0v0IS0 I08l00S0
l0 0000.
L Y
pcoplc travcrsc thc cast sidcwa, ninctccn thousand thc wcst in to-
tal, forty-onc thousand pcoplc During this samc timc, twcnty-vc
thousand travcrsc cington in vchiclcs.
Thc spacc is allocatcd in invcrsc rclationship to thc load two
thirds to vchiclcs, onc third to pcdcstrians. This is so bad its good.
iththatmanypcoplcsqucczcdin sosmallaspacc,thclcvcragcccct
ofarclativclysmalladditionofspacccanbcgrcat. lf forcamplconc
vchicular lanc wcrc climinatcd, thcr would bc l fcct to dividc up
bctwccn thc two sidcwals. That docs not sound lic much, but 5 fcct
addcdtocachsidcwalwouldustaboutdoublcthcccctivcwalway.
ltwould also widcn thc sidcwal past thc minimum nccdcd for good-
sizcd trccs and amcnitics lic bcnchcs.
Thcwidth would sccm much grcatcr too. A good dcmonstration
ofthis has bccnprovidcdbythcncwCiticorpuilding.Onits Lcing-
ton blocfront it has addcd a 5foot strip of spacc to th sidcwal
incrcasing it to 7 fcct. lt sccms lic aboulcvard.
Somc ofus oatcd a proposal to libcratc uppcr cington with a
rcallocationofspacc. ltfcllat. ostpcoplcthoughtitquitcimpracti-
cal. Evcn community-board pcoplc, for whom "pcdcstrian" is a holy
word, shicdo. hcrcwouldthcvchiclctracgo7ltwasbadcnough
with vc lancs. hat would happcn with only four7
lfthcrcwastobc anyactiononpcdcstriancongcstionsuchqucs-
`
D`

|

W
1bc paaa at Lcxintcn Hrcnuc and 1]]-acrcntb 5trcct. 1bia cxaapcratin
atrcct bad itaaidcwalka narrcwcd tc twclrcanda ba/ /cct. 1bc c_cctirc walk-
wa], bcwcrcr, ranca bctwccn/curandaix/cct, dcpcndincn tbcplaccmcntc/
aina, ]craldiapla]a, rcndcra' tablca, and raricua impcdimcnta.
1he Fh)sical 3treet
tionsaboutvchicuIartrachadtobcanswcrcd. To thiscnd,mygroup
cmbarkcdonastudyoftramcmovcmcntinthcLcxingtoncorridor, in
Ianc-by-anc dctaiI. Standard trac counts rccord thc numbcr ofcars
passing ovcracountcrcord strctchcd acrossaroadway. This is uscfuI
for gctting gross gurcs but docs not tcII anything about thc intcrnal
charactcristics of thc ow. To gct at this wc Imcd thc daiIy tramc
with a scrics oftimc-Iapsc camcras aimcd at two cordon Iincs. Thcn,
framc by framc, wcchartcd thc passagc ofcach vchicIc what typc of
vchicIc itwas taxi, bus, ortruck, which Ianc itwastravcIingin,
thcprcciscscconditpasscdby. lnadditionwcmadcspotobscrvations
to chcck vchicIc occupancy, right-tu bchavior, and thc Iikc. Thc
rcsuIt, l immodcstIy notc, was onc of thc most thorough anaIyscs of
vchiculartracmadcuptothattimc.(ltwasaIsocxhausting,tochart
twcIvc hours of actuaI tramc took six wccks ofwork, principaIIy by
1
rcscarchcr Ann Hcrcndccn.)
Wc found out somc things wcdid not cxpcct to nd
! . hcn lI8BC i8 hc8Vic8l, OclWccn 7 8nd 5 P.N., Il BCW8 mC8l I8QIdly
8lmC8l 88 88l 88 lhc lI8BC lighl8 Will 8llCW. hc Q8IKcI8 h8Vc nCl
8IIIVcd ycl.
2. hc lI8BC CllCW8 8 uniCIm 88uCcI Q8llcD. l i8 lighlc8l 8l midd8y,
]u8l Whcn lhc Qcdc8lII8n BCW i8 hc8VIc8l.
J. hc lI8BC I8 O8dly dI8lIiOulcd. hc OulK C Il I8 8QuccZcd InlC Cnly
lWC C lhc BVc l8nc8.
+. hc lcl-h8nd l8nc I8 I8Icly u8cd CI VchiClc mCVcmcnl. n c8Ily
mCDing, dIIVcI8 dCnl nccd lC u8c il, lhc Ic8l C lhc d8y, lhcy C8nl.
8IKcI8 h8Vc l8Kcn il CVcI.
J. hc IIghl l8nc i8 nCl u8cd muCh cilhcI. u8 dtIVcI8 dC 8lCQ in Il, Oul
CI mCVIng lhcy lIKc lhc mIddlc l8nc8. Ilh gCCd Ic88Cn: unlc88 lhc
tIghl l8nc I8 cXClu8iVcly CI Ou8c8, dIIVcI8 8Ic Ch8Iy C Ocing mCu8c-
lI8QQcd Oy 8 C8I 8l lhc CuIO.
6. u8c8 C8IIy 8 di8QICQCIlICn8lcly hIgh 8h8Ic C lhc lC8d. hcy m8Kc
uQ Cnly + QcICcnl C lhc VchIClc8 Oul lhcy C8IIy J7 QcICcnl C lhc
QcCQlc.
7. IiV8lc C8I8 C8IIy lhc cWc8l. hcy 8VcI8gc ! .6 CCCuQ8nl8 QcI C8I
(inCluding dIiVcI). hc OIggcI lhc C8I, lhc 8m8llcI lhc numOcI. n
CuI ChcCK8, L8dill8C8 8VcI8gcd ! . ! CCCuQ8nl8.

Thcchartoflhc lI8mC CD c8Ch l8Dc 8hCW8 ushowD8dly dI8lIiD-


utcd thc trac was. Lancs two and thrcc carricd 7 pcrccnt of thc
trac. Lanconc,thcbusIanc, hadavcrysmaII ow, sodidIancfour,
thc doubIc-parking Ianc. Lanc vc had practicaIIy no ow at aII.
Thc kcy factor, cIcarIy, is thcbIockagc ofa Ianc by parkcrs. Wc
dccidcd to do somc cIosc-up studics. How long did thc parkcrs say
WhatwasthctuovcrWc tooktimc-IapscImsandfromthcmmadc
charts Iikc pIaycr-piano roIIs to chronicIc a days parking in scvcraI
`1 0^
00 D880C0 0lI8MC lS
I8gl0. 0CK 800l00I
800, 800 8 UllQ CI0w
8l 8 080000, 8 lI80I
lIUCK 08R8y 8CI0SS
80 l0l0IS0Cll00. N0w
800USl 000 00I0
00UD0-8IK0I 800 l00
w000 l0l0g C000S l0 8
000Kl0g 00SS. S S000
08lg0 08Sl0I0l00 8l
w0IK7 N0. L080C0
8000 000S l00 lIlCK.
L
bIocks. Thc charts dcmonstratcd that smaII numbcr of Iong-tcrm
parkcrs accountcd for ovcr two thirds of thc avaiIabIc parking timc.
Thcy camc carIy, thcy staycd Iatc. lnth fcw spaccsthatthcy didnot
hog, thcrc was somc turnovcr. ut not much, and IittIc of thc kind
that mcrchants Iikc to think takcs pIacc.
crchantsIikcon-strcctparkingbccauscthcybcIicvcitscrviccsa
highturnovcrofshoppcrs.utitdocsnot.Ourstudicsshowcdthatin
and-out parkingaccountcd for onIy asmaII proportion ofthc doubIc-
parkingtimcavaiIabIc. ThcbuIkwas accountcdforbycars parkcdfor
hours or morc and thcy wcrc much rc IikcIy to bcIong to thc
owncrs or cmpIoyccs ofthc storcs than thccustomcrs.
DoubIcparkcrs7 Wc cxpcctcd Iots. lnourminds cycs Lcxington
was aIways ammcd with doubIc-parkcd vchicIcs. Whcn wc countcd
thcm, howcvcr,wcfoundonIyoncortwopcrbIockatanygivcntimc.
lt sccmcd odd that so fcw couId do so much. ut thc numbcr, wc
found,wasnotthccriticaIfactor. ltwasthcamountoftimcaIancwas
out ofaction bccausc ofdoubIc parking. !ust onc vchicIc pcr bIock is
cnough.
utthcdoubIcparkcrisnotthcviIIainofthcpiccc. ostocnhc
has a truck with a dcIivcry to makc or hc is on a scrvicc caII. Hc
doubIc-parks bccausc hc has to and hc docs not tarry Iong. Thc rcaI
viIIain is thc noncsscntiaI parkcr. Hc bIocks acccss to thc curb for
thosc who rcaIIy nccd it, hc aIso sIows down trac in thc Ianc out-
boardofhim. DrivcrsdonotIikctoskirt toocIosctoaIanc ofparkcd
cars sincc thcy can cxpcct abrupt puIuts thcy gvc t a wdcbcrth,
with thc rcsuItthatthccapacity ofthc utboard Iancisrcduccdby as
much as onc haIf.
Latcrwcdidastudyofthccntircmidtownbusincssdistrict. With
thc hcIp of sixtccn graduatc studcnts of architccturc from CoIumbia
Lnivcrsity, wc didaswccpcount ofcvcry bIock, pIottingthc Iocation
ofcach parkcd vchicIc, its Iiccnsc pIatc, and any idcntifying cards on
thc windshicId (for cxampIc, "cmbcr PoIicc Chicfs Association").
ThcpattcrnwasthcsamcasLcxington's, writIargc. ArcIativcIysmaII
numbcr of vchicIcs wcrc doing thc congcsting. On thc 6 miIcs of
strcctinmidtown,wcIoggcd,J l parkcdvchicIcs, 2,wcrcparkcd
iIIcgaIIy onIy 22 wcrc tickctcd. ln cvcry singIc bIock ofmidtown wc
found at Icast onc Ianc intcrdictcd totrac whcthcr by cars parkcd
IcgaIIy or iIIcgaIIy, doubIc parkcd, or standing.
Thcrcis an cxtraordinary dis-ccicncy in aII this. Oncc onc Ianc
isbIockcd,ittakcsonIyafcwmorccIcmntstobringaboutacompIctc
stoppagc. AddautiIitycrcwdiggingahIcinthcstrcct, aparkcdmaiI
nd thc whoIc thing comcs to a ho king, cursing haIt. You must

1he Fh)sical 3treet [


7 3
]
*
1bc pcrrcrsc cccncmics c/ ccncsticn: tbc Kcrcan wi scllcr paid tbc stcrc
cwncr/curbundrcddcllarsamcntbin illcalrcnt/cr squarc/cctc/sidcwalk
spacc cn Lcxintcn Hrcnuc. 1bc dlcmat wbc babituall] parkcd bis Mcrcc-
dcs-Bcnz at tbc curbpaid nctbin/cr bis I0squarc/cct. Had bcpaidat tbc
samc ratcpcr squarc/cct as tbc wi scllcr, bc wculd barcpaid cibtccn tbcu-
sanddcllars a mcntb.
suspcct that somc maIign mastcrmind was coordinating thc vchiclcs
from ccntral control. No such mastcrmind of coursc is nccdcd.
Chancc aIonc dictatcs thc rcsuIt.
Thc cost is grcat. lt is not to bc mcasurcd mcrcly in congcstion
Iostcncrgyandtimc orcimportantarc thcpositivcbcnctsthatarc
forsworn. ygivingaway Iand toparkcrs orrcntingit forapittancc
citics arc squandcring somc ofthc most valuabIc rcaI cstatc that thcy
havc. Thcrc arc much bcttcr uscs for it than thc nonmovcmcnt of
vchicIcs. lts highcst and bcst usc is transportation spccihcalIy for
pcdcstrians. Thcy arc thc maorcomponcnt ofccntcr-city transporta-
tion. Thcy shouId bc givcn a Iargcr sharc ofthc spaccs and thc city
and thc citys mcrchants wiIl bc bcttcr oifthcy arc.
ForacIuc from thc markctplacc considcrthc cascofthc orcan
wig scIIcr. Hc uscd to pay a storc owncr on Lcxington Avcnuc four
hundrcddoIIarsamonthforusingsquarc fcctofsidcwaIkforhiswig
stand. lt wasntthc storcowncrsspacc to rcnt ofcoursc,butas such
chargcs go it was rcasonabIc and thc wig scllcr thought thc busincss
was worth it ln thc curb Ianc adaccnt a diplomat uscd to park his
crccdcs-cnz cvcry wcckday. And hc parkcd it alI day long. For
+
L 3
uSng l Su3fc lccl 0lSQ30c hc Q3d n0lhng. lhc h3d l0 Q3y 3l lhc
S3mc f3lc 3S lhc Wg Sccf hundfcd 03fS 3 m0nlh Qcf SQu3fc
l00l W0ud h3Vc Q3d cghlccn lhuS3nd 03fS Qcf m0nlh. u
lQy lh3l Dy lhc numDcf 0l Q3fKcd 03fS n lhc 0ly, 3nd DcW X0fKS
Bn3n03 lf0uDcS W0ud Dc 0Vcf. hc m3lhcm3l0S m3y Dc fc0Slct-
0uS, Dul S0 lS lBc Sllu3ll0B.
0 Scl m3llcfS fghl, Wc 3fgucd, l W0ud n0l Dc cn0ugh l0 Dl
lhc Q3fKcfS. hc V30uum W0ud S00n Dc Bcd. l lhc SQ30c W3S n0l
lf3nSlcffcd l0 QcdcSlf3nS, 3nd u0Ky, l W0ud Dc 03mc Dy Vcht-
0cS lhc 3V33Dly 0lhc SQ30c W0ud nu0c ycl m0fc lf3B0.
bcVcf3 Qf0c0lS Qf0Vtdcd 3 VVd uSlf3lt0n. Lnc W3S lhc N3dt
S0n PVcnuc cX0uSVc-DuS-3nc Qf0]c0l. hc lW0 ghl-h3nd 3ncS Wcfc
fcScfVcd l0f DuScS, lhc 0lhcf lhfcc 3ncS l0f 03fS 3nd lfu0KS. hc Kcy
W3S lhc cll-h3nd 0ufD 3nc. l h3d Dccn Q0Slcd 3g3nSl Q3fKtng. D0W
lhc fuc W3S cnl0f0cd. 0n l cVcn ht 0lQ3fKng, lhc Stgn S3td. l
Qc0Qc Sllll 0l0B l DcllcYc, ScYct3l t0YlBg l0W ltu0KS m30c lBc Q0tBl
hc fcSul W3S 3 m3fKcd SQccduQ0lDuS lf3. Bc 0lBct Ychl0u-
3f lf3B0, lh0ugh n0W fcSlflcd l0 lcWcf 3ncS lh3n Dcl0fc, m0Vcd
m0fc c3Sy l00. cXngl0n PVcnuc W3S SQccdcd uQ. f3B0 L0mmlS-
S0ncf, b3muc b0hW3tlZ W3S n0l 0ny nVcnlVc Dul 3ttng. Mc cm-
n3lcd m0Sl 0llhc QfVcgcd Q3fKcfS lf0m lhc cll-h3nd 0ufD 3nc lh3l
lhcy h3d S0 0ng h0ggcd n0 c3Sy lc3l n 3 0ly fun Dy QVcg0d
Q3fKcfS. g3n, lhc Qf0VS0n 0l m0fc SQ30c l0f Vch0c m0Vccnl
Suffcd m0fc VchCc m0Vcmcnl. t0f S0 00ngcSlcd 3n 3c3, lhc Vcht-
0lcS m0Yc WllB SufQflSlBg c3Sc 3B0 ccd.
Pnd lhcfcn cS lhc Qf0Dcm. P lcW m0fc Su00cSScS Kc lhS 3nd
lhc 0ly W Dc luflhcf lh3n cVcf lf0m lS g03 0l fcdu0ng Vch0c
lf30. 0fc mmcd3lcy, lhc 0ly W Dc luflhcf lh3n cVcf lf0m m3K-
tng QcdcSlf3n lf3B0 c3Scf 3nd S3lcf.
hc cXngl0n 3QQf030hcS l0 f3nd Lcnlf3 cfmn3 Qf0Vdc 3
lcSl. lWc 00K 3l lhc l0l3 fghl-0l-W3y, l S 3QQ3fcnl lh3l lSdVdcd
uQ 0S nculy 0S 0S uQQcf cXngl0n H lhc ScVcnlcS. l lhc
Qc0Qc Wh0lf3VcfSclhcfghl-0l-W3y Qcfcnl d0S00n l00l, 0ny
Qcf0cnl n Vch0cS. ul lhcSQ30c S3003lcd lhc0lhcfW3y 3f0und
Qcf0cnl l0f Vch0cS J J Qcf0cnl l0f QcdcSlt3nS.
PS 3 fcSul, lhc SdcW3 30ngSdc f3nd Lcnlf3 h3S Dc00mc
0nc 0l lhc W0fSl 0h0Kc Q0HlS 3nyWhcfc. Pl Qc3K lhc f3lc fc30hcS
, J Qc0Qc Qcfh0uf 0f l J 3 mnulc. hcSQ30c hc n0mn3 Wdlh
0l lhc SdcW3 S l / lccl hc cc0lVc Wdlh S 3D0ul lccl . hS
lf3nS3lcS nl0 3 f3lc 0l l Qc0Qc Qcf 00l 0l W3W3y Wdlh Qcf
mnulc. hS S 0 lhc 0h3flS. l S 3S0 d3ngcf0uS. n 000Kng fuSh-
h0uf0WS, h3Vcn0lcd lh3l Whcn lhc f3lc fc30hcS Qc0Qc3 mnulc
S0mc W cdgc 0ul 0nl0 lhc f03dW3y Whcn l fc30hcS l 3 mnulc
lcy S0t.
c SmcSl lhH 0 d0 S Wdc lhc SdcW0KS llhS W3S 00u-
1be Fb)sical 3treet
pIcd with thc rcpavings that comc uppcriodicaIIy, thc cost wouId bc
modcratc. Ncw York provcd ths whcn a maor ovcrhauI othc Avc-
nucofthc Amcricas was bcing considcrcd. Thc dcpartmcnt oftrans-
portation,praiscbc, thought thcrcwouIdbcsomcimaginativcrcstruc-
turing. Thc right-ofway was an unusuaIIy broad onc, and parts ofit
wcrc not vcry functionaI tramc isIands, paraIIcI roadways that wcrc
Iit

Ic uscd, and odd bits and picccs ofspacc. ln thc ov

rhauI, thcsc
spaccs wcrc rcworkcd into a scrics oparks and sitting arcas. Thcsc
wcrcsimpIyandniccIydoncandmosthavcbccnvcrywcIIuscdbythc
pcopIcofthcncighborhood. Thccosts ovcrandabovcthcrcsurfacing
,.
A numbcr of citics havc convcrtcd a strctch of thcir principaI
strcct into a transit maII. nIikc thc aIIpcdcstrian maIIs, thcsc sct
asidc onc ortwo Iancs for buscs in thc casc ofPortIand, Orcgon, for
strcctcars SomchavcworkcdvcrywcII thcbuscsprovidingnotonIy
bcttcr downtown acccss, but activity that pcdcstrian maIIs couId usc
morc of. ctaiIing is thc crux somc transit maIIs havc attractcd thc
rctaiIing nccdcd to makc thcm work, somc arc stiII struggIing.
Whathasbccnmost cncouraging, howcvcr, is what has nothap
pcncd contrary to widcsprcad prophccics, thc cIosing of onc strip of
downtown to cars has not crcatcd ams on thc othcrs. Tramc has
adustcdvcryquickIytowhatisavaiIabIcforit. Asspaccforitdimin-
ishcs, so docs thc tramc.
TransitmaIIs arca promisingapproach. nfortunatcIy, howcvcr,
mostAmcricanciticshavcnotyctgottcnaroundtothcmorcrudimcn-
tary stcp ofwidcning thcir kcy sidcwaIks. Nor havc thcy bootcd thc
parkcrsfromthccurbIancs.ThcscapproachcsarcnotcostIyandthcy
canbc doncincrcmcntaIIy.
utthcirshccrmodcstIyisadisadvantagc. ProgramsIikcthisdo
notstircivicpassions. uantumIcaps, orstcpsthatpromiscquantum
Icaps, do stir passions. lfa city has sidcwaIks that arc too narrow it
couIdmcct thc probIcm by widcning thcm. ut that isnotsomcthing
togct cxcitcd ovcr. What wouIdbc is a muItimiIIion-doIIarprocct to
add umptccn miIcs ofsidcwaIks in undcrground concourscs and sky-
ways.
CiticsshouId takc a cIoscr Iook at what thcy aIrcady havc. ost
ofthcmarcsittingonahugcrcscrvoirofspaccyctuntappcdbyimagi-
nation. Thcy do not nccd to spcnd miIIions crcating spacc. ln thcir
incmcicntIy uscd rights-of-way, thcir vast acrcagc o parking Iots,
thcrc is morc than cnough spacc orbroadwaIkwaysand smaII parks
and pcdcstrian pIaccs and at prcmium Iocations, at ground IcvcI.
How widc shouId sidcwalks bc7 Studics by transportation pIan-
ncrs havc providcd somc uscfuI guidcIincs in particuIar thc work o
!ohn !. Fruin ofthc Port Authority ofNcw York. With camcras and

L
countcrs, Fruin obscrvcd pcopIc inaII sorts ofhigh-dcnsity situations
buscucs,cIcvators, station corridors. Frm thcsc studics hc dcvcIopcd
a IcvcI-of-scrvicc conccpt that is, thc aount ofspacc pcrpcdcstrian
that is nccdcd for unimpcdcd movcmcn, IcvcI A, for sIightIy unim-
pcdcdmovcmcnt,IcvcI ,andsoon upthc dcgrccsofcrowdingtothc
aImost unbcarabIc. For IcvcI A, waIkways shouId havc a ow ratc of
scvcnpcopIcorIcsspcrminutcpcrfootofwaIkwaywidth.ThiswouId
invoIvcsomccrowdingatthcbusicsttimcbutthcgoingwouIdbc casy
most ofthc timc.
Thc RcgionaI PIan Association of Ncw York adoptcd Fruins
IcvcI-of-scrviccconccptinitsinucntiaIstudy, 0rban 5aces]or PeJes-
trians. lt wcnt quitc a bit furthcr than Fruin. Thc pIanncrs fcIt that
FruinsstandardswcrcadcquatcforowsintcrminaIsandconcourscs,
which arcapttobc unidircctionaIatpcak timcs. For strcct situations,
howcvcr, thcy bcIicvcd morc spacc was nccdcd bccausc of thc cross
ow and thc tcndcncy of pcopIc to bunch in pIatoons Thus thcy ap-
pIicd a standard somcwhat morc IibcraI than Fruins to pIatoons and
crosswaIks, namcIy,sixpcopIcpcrfootpcrminutc.ThisrcsuItcdinan
hourIy arerage ow of onIy two pcdcstrians pcr minutc pcr foot of
waIkway width as thcir "unimpcdcd" standard A. Sincc thisstandard
cannotbcattaincdinatruIyhighdcnsityurbancnvironmcnt,thcyarc
wiIIing to scttIc for an avcragc ow of four pcdcstrians pcr foot pcr
minutc on thc busicst strccts. That is cquivaIcnt to cight pcopIc pcr
foot pcr minutc in pIatoons. Thcsc arc cxpansivc standards, but thc
rcscarch chnd thcm s mprcssvc, and a numcrofctcs havcccn
adopting thcm for ncw-dcvcIopmcnt arcas.
l thinkFruinwasrightthc hrsttic. ThcRPA standardsarc too
cxpansivc. Thcy wouIdprovidcmuchmorcspaccpcrpcrson, andthis
wouId makc for rathcr casy going cvcn at thc pcak ofthc rush hour
Thc tradc-o, howcvcr, wouId bc cmpty spacc most ofthc rcst ofthc
timc. This wouId bc particuIarIy IikcIy in Iargc-scaIc rcdcvcIopmcnt
proccts whcrcthc dcsigncrs havc afairIy bIank canvastoworkwith.
Thcir incIination is to ovcrscaIc in such situations. Giving thcm such
an additionaI rationaIc wouId furthcr conhrm thcm
Thc RcgionaI PIanAssociation hasdoncascrviccinraisingstan-
dards forpcdcstrian spacc. Though l think thcy havc goncabit ovcr-
board on sidcwaIk widths, Ict it bc notcd that thc provision of too
muchspaccforpcdcstriansis notaprcssingdangcr. ThcprobIcmisto
gct cvcn a IittIc cxtraspacc, and thcR standards havcbccnhcIpfuI
in dramatizing how inadcquatc arc ourcxisting spaccs.
Ovcrsizcd spaccs, howcvcr, arc n t dcsirabIc. Thcy Icavc vacu-
ums.Oncsuchwas thcsidcwaIkaIongsidcthcExxonuiIdinginNcw
supposcd to c an amcnity but it provd so cmpty and duII that thc
managcmcnt hIIcd thc void with Iantcr tubs and shrubbcry.
1be Fb)sical 3treet
Chicagos North ichigan Avcnuc is anothcr casc in point. For
si bIocks its sidcwaIks arc a gcncroustwcnty cct in width or tc
ncxtsixthcyarcwidcryct,thirtyfcct.Thcrcissomuchspacc,indccd,
thatgrassypIotswithkccpo-thc-grasschainsaroundthcmhavcbccn
introduccd. Onc odd conscqucncc is that thc thirty-foot sidcwaIks
havc Icss waIkway spacc than thc twcntyfoot sidcwaIks.
AnothcrpitfaIIisthcscantingothcsociaIcomponcntsofcongcs-
tion. FormuIas bascd on thc pcdcstrian as a transportation unit arc
mostappIicabIctotransportationsituations,suchasgcttingrom con-
coursc cxit A to gatc . ut pcdcstrians arc sociaI bcings too. Somc-
timcs thcystopandchatwith onthcconcoursc. Thcy
cIustcrindoorways. Thcy pausctoIookatashopwindow. lnaword,
thcy scIfcongcst. Thc crowding and thc pIcasurc arc incxtricabIy
bound up. To put it anothcr way, part ofwhat attracts pcopIc to thc
strcct is a mcasurc ofthc congcstion thc high standards wouId savc
thcm from.
thirdprobIcminthcuIaapproachisthatitgivcsthcsamc
wcight to onc foot of waIkway width as to anothcr. ut arc thcy
comparabIc7 Thc hrst fcw cct ofwaIkway width arc absoIutcIy criti
caI. Thc waIkway wouIdnt bc waIkabIc without thcm. tcnth and
cIcvcnthwouIdbcniccto havc. AtwcnticthmightbcquitcmarginaI,
if not too much Iikc thc cxtra parking spaccs oshopping ccntcrs
that arc onIy uscd scvcraI days in Dcccmbcr.
Contcxt is aII important. How a waIkway works dcpcnds vcry
muchonwhatisoncithcrsidcofit. lfitishcmmcdinbywaIIsitmay
fccInarrowcrthanitactuaIIyis.lfitisbordcrcdbyopcnspacc, itmay
borrow somc othc spacc andfccI thc widcr for it.
AbsoIutcwidthsarcimportanttoo. AfootowaIkwaywidthona
narrow sidcwaIk is dicrcnt from a foot on a widc onc. StatisticaIIy,
thc pcdcstrian dcnsity might bc thc samc. Thc waIking cxpcricncc,
howcvcr, might bcquitc dicrcnt. On thc narrow sidcwaIk thcrc wiII
bc Icss choicc, on thc widc onc, morc morc passing Iancs, morc op
portunitics or mancuvcr ccausc ormuIas do not makc aIIowanccs
forsuchdicrcnccs, thcy undcrstatcthccasc for adding width tonar-
row sidcwaIks and ovcrstatc it for widc sidcwaIks
A widc sidcwaIk can toIcratc obstruction bcttcr than a narrow
onc. On th vcnuc, or cxamplc, thc ccctvc waway was
abruptIy narrowcd to thirtccn cct by two round bcnchcs outsidc o
EIizabcth Ardcn. utthcrcwcrcfcwams. ln akind ovcnturiccct,
pcopIc anticipatc anarrowing and adust thcirgaitaccordingIy, somc
acccIcrating,somcmakingway.Asthcydcbouchromanarrowcrtoa
widcr spacc, thcy may an out rom onc or two Ics to thrcc or our.
For somc pcopIc thc rcquircd rctards and acccIcrations and brocn-
hcId running arca wcIcomc chaIIcngc. Thc point is, thcrchas tobc a
hcId. On narrow Lcxington thcrc is hardIy any to bcgin with whcn

L
mcrchants push thcir biIIboards out, thcrc is nonc at aII, and pcopIc
havc to vccr out onto thc strcct.
Thcrc is, ofcoursc, no onc aII-purposc optimum sidcwaIk width.
utrcpcatcdobscrvationsdoindicatcthatccrtain rangcswork wcIIin
manykinds ofsituations and accommodatcwidc variations in ow. lf
lwcrcforccdat gunpointtosct awidthformcdium and Iargccitics, l
wouIdspccify ahccn-foot minimumfor moststrccts, twcnty-hvcfor
maoravcnucs. Evcn at pcak, thc sidcwaIks wouId bc widccnough to
handIcthc pcdcstrian ows comfortabIy Ncw Yorks yctnar-
row cnough that thcrc wouId bc a pIcasant hustIc and bustIc.
Thcsc arc minimums. Whcnindoubtitis probabIybcst to crron
thc sidcoftoomuch spacc. Amcrican citics havc bccn paying a stccp
priccforthcsidcwaIknarrowingsofthctwcnticsandthirtics. ltwouId
bcinordcrto makcupforthcmandthcnsomc ThcrcwouIdbcmorc
spacc for amcnitics, morc spacc for futurc choiccs.
That said, too much spacc is to bc avoidcd. This is a Icsson cur-
rcnt cxpcricncc bcars out. lt is aIso a Icsson of history. ln thc ncxt
chaptcr l am going to cxpIorc thc strcct as a scnsory cxpcricncc and
how, ovcr many ccnturics and cuIturcs, ccrtain charactcristics kccp
rccurring in dicrcnt forms in souks, aIIcys, bazaars, fairs, and thc
Iikc. Thcy sccm to bc rootcd in particuIars uniquc to thc pIacc thc
IincardcvcIopmcntof!apancsc citics,thcdimcnsionsofwhccIcdvchi-
cIcs in Romc. ut thcrc arc common dcnominators as wcII, and thc
width of thc strcct is onc of thcm. For whacvcr rcasons, thcrc has
bccn a congruity in thc dimcnsions othc most ccIcbratcd othc an-
cicntwaIkways. ostofthcmfaIIwithinarangcoftwcIvctocightccn
fcct. Givc pcopIc room, onc Icsson wouId bc. ut not too much.

Thc strcct l havc spcnt thc most timc on is Ncw York's Lcxington
Avcnuc spccihcaIIy, thc fourbIock strctch from Fiy-scvcnth to
Sixty-hrst Strcct. Thc sidcwaIks arc narrow and crowdcd, thcirpavc-
mcnts arc crackcd, fuII of hoIcs and subway gratings, thcy arc ob-
structcd by a host ofbadIy dcsigncd Iight standards, parking signs,
maiIboxcs, trash containcrs, andmuch ofthc surfacc is in pcrmancnt
usc for tcmporary storagc of cratcs, ncwspapcrs, dispIays of mcr-
chants, signs, and whatnot. Furthcr obstructing thc ow is a host of
strcctopcrators handbiII passcrs, dcmonstrators, hustIcrs for sccond-
oor cstabIishmcnts, pitchmcn for storcs, pushcart food vcndors,
knickknackvcndors,bcggars.ThcrcarcaIIsortsofnoiscs thccricsof
thc vcndors, thc bIarc oftransistor radios. From food countcrs comc
smcIIs pizza,knishcs,hotdogs.Atthc sidcsandabovcisamisccI-
Iany of awnings, rickcty marquccs, ags, ncon signs.
Why do pcopIc pcrsist in using this strcct7 any havc to, its to
and from a ma]or subway staton and thcr way to work. But f you
trackpcdcstrians,youwiIIhndthatmanyofthcmcouIduscIcsstacky
orcrowdcdroutcsifthcywishcd. YouwiIIaIsohndthatonLcxington
Avcnuc thc sidc ofthc strcct with thc most obstructions and sIowcst
going is thc sidc that attracts thc most pcopIc. PcopIc Iovc to hatc
Lcxington,andthcyhavctcrribIcthingstosayaboutit.SomcactuaIIy
doavoid it, but it docs appcarthat many ofthcpcopIc on Lcxington
arc thcrc bccausc thcy want to bc.

[ & c ] L
Onc rcason is mcssincss. Whcrcvcryouarc in thc arca, yousccm
tobconthccdgcofsomcthingcIsc.hcrcarcnocIcarboundarics.On
oncsidc arc thc occbuiIdingsofthcccntraIbusincssdistrict, onthc
othcr, thcapartmcntbuiIdingsandbrownstoncsofthcrcsidcntiaIEast
Sidc. ln bctwccn arc dcpartmcnt storcs, savings banks, rcstaurants,
bars, smaII shops. ltishighIy IocaI, and a succcssion ofscrvicc faciIi-
tics such as cIcancrs, Iiquor storcs, and dcIicatcsscns kccps rcpcating
itscIf. hc pIacc is, in sum, a mishmash ofactivitics thc kind that
zoning was originaIIy sct upto prcvcnt.
hcrc arc many shifts commutcrs on thcir way to work, carIy
shoppcrs, occ workcrs going to Iunch. hc hvc ocIockcrowds Iatc
shoppcrs (IoomingdaIcsopcn tiII ninc), pcopIcIining upatthcmov-
ics, pcoplcgoing to dinncr. ostimportantofaII, cspcciaIIy at night,
arc thc pcopIc who Iivc thcrc. orc than anybody cIsc, thcy kccp it
aIivc.
On Saturdays, Lcxingtonbccomcsarccrcationarca. You wiII scc
many famiIy groups, wth chiIdrcn pcrchcd onthcfathcrs shouIdcrs.
lt isatimcfor shopping, browsing, cating, andIooking atthccrazics.
hc crowding rcachcsitspcakincarIy aftcrnoon, anditisofadicr-
cntcharactcrfromthcwcckday rush. hc pacc is sIowcr, morcamia
bIc, and thcrc is a Iot ofcruising back and forth. Pucrto Rican tccn-
agcrscomcdownfromthcronxandEastHarIcmtocatchthcaction
and ifyou stay in onc spot Iong cnough, youII rcpcatcdIy scc thc
samconcspassingupanddownthcstrcctandacross,stoppingtogrcct
frcnds, sttng on car hoods to watch thc gongs-on.
anybIindpcopIc know LcxingtonwcIl. hat admirabIc institu-
tion, hc Lighthousc, has its hcadquartcrs a haIfbIock from Lcxing-
tonandconductsitsmobiIitytrainingforthcbIindthcrc. ccauscitis
so congcstcd, Lcxington Avcnuc is an cxtraordinariIy dicuIt chaI
Icngc for thc bIind, but it is unusuaIIy rich in scnsory cucs. Onc who
rcads thcm with accuracy is !crry, a young man rcccntIybIindcdbut
with a grcat dcaI ofscIfconhdcncc. LnIikc thc congcnitaIIy bIind, hc
has avisuaImcmory ofthc pIacc, and hchas Icacdto rcconstructit
fromtouchandsmcIl andsound. Approaching Lcxington,hccxpIains
thatthcncwsstand upatthccorncrisasmcIIcuc. Ncwspapcrshavca
vcryidcntihabIcodortohim.Anothcrcucis thcvoiccofob,thcman
who runsthc ncwsstandandwhois aIwayssayingsomcthing tosomc-
body. cn fcct furthcron, thcrc is thcsmclI ofthc hot prctzcIs ofthc
vcndor at thc corncr.
Now!crryison Lcxingtonitsclf. hcrcarcmanycucs thcsound
ofwatcr dripping from thc Icaky airconditioncrovcr thc doorofthc
pct shop thc touch andsmcII ofthc owcrsat RiaIto FIorist, thcrush
ofwarmorcool airin frontofAIcxandcrsdoorway, thcsmclIofbccr
from CIancysar. (Thc smcII ofinccnsc at thchcad shophad bccna
Madiscu Hvcuuc, bctwccu 5ixt]-uiutb aud5cvcutictb:/uc cxamplc c/scccud
atcriucaa.
strong cuc, but it was cIoscd up.)
Lcxingtonhas so manycucs,andsomcarcsostrongastobIotout
othcrs. Thc Ioudcst is thc Ioudspcakcr at thc rccord shop, pIaying
rock.This kindofsoundmasksothcrsthatcanbcmorchcIpfuI such
as thc changc in thc pitch and rcvcrbcration of strcct noisc as it is
bounccd oa buiIding waII or canopy For good rcason !crry kccps
moving his canc from sidc to sidc, constantIy tcsting.
Evcn Lcxingtonsdisadvantagcs canbc hcIpfuI. Thc wrctchcd to-
pography of its pavcmcnt is a map to bc rcad. !crry knows cvcry
hiIIock and dcprcssion, thc cracks and puddIcs, and hc can tcII from
thc angIc ofthc pavcmcnts sIant cxactIy whcrc hc is. As Lighthousc
instructorscxpIain, LcxingtonisnotapIaccfora"subtIctravcIcr.lts
cucs arc gross and bIatant.
b6c0R0 b0tR655
Anothcrrcason Lcxington works is its sccond storincss. Thcrc is
stiII a good suppIy of brownstoncs aIong it, and in most cascs thc
sccondstoryaswcIIasthchrstisuscdforstorcsorrcstaurants. AIong
a thrcc-bIock strctch onc nds thc foIIowing
L8nCc 8ludIC
8lmI8l
M8ItCulling p8tlCt
LCll hC8pIl8l
atatc aCaUcD
incsc rcstarant
ail 8ludIC
%8lltc88 8lCtc
HcCCtd 8hCp
LlCCK tcp8it 8hCp
Togcthcr thcy makc a IivcIy sight, cspcciaIIy at dusk and aftcr.
Whcn thcbaIancc ofIight shifts to thc intcrior, thcrc is much movc-
mcntsiIhoucttcdorspotIightcddancingcoupIcs,hairdrcsscrsandcus-
N0w Y0lKS %80lS00
Pv00u0 lS 800SI IO0
l0v0lS0 0 IO0
SuDulD80 SO0l0g
08. lI lS 8 00uD0
08000 SIl00I, wlIO IO0
D8SlC 000u0 S0I Dy
IO0 Iw00Iy-00I
Dl0w0SI000.

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ShOQ SIfCCI IH IhC WOf!C, yCI IIS O3SIC C!CmCHIS 3fC QuIIC OfCIH3fy. hC
O3SIC mOCu!C IS IhC BVC-SIOfy OfOWHSIOHC, IWCHIy lCCI WICC, ICH
OfOWHSIOHCS IO 3 O!OCk, 3HC, WhI!C QuIIC 3 lCW h3VC OCCH fCQ!3CCC Oy
HCWCf 3HC hIghCf OuI!CIHgS, IhC OfOWHSIOHC SII!! SCIS IhC lOfm 3HC
Ch3f3CICf Ol IhC SIfCCI. IIh lCW CXCCQIIOHS, IhCIf BfSI 3HC SCCOHC
SIOfICS 3fC uSCC lOf SIOfCS, 3HC IhC S3mC IS IfuC WIIh 3 HumOCf OlIhC
HCWCf OuI!CIHgS Ih3I 3C]OIH IhCm.
IIS HOI 3 gOOCI3SIC SIfCCI HOI 3S 3 WhO!C, 3I 3Hy f3IC. hCfC IS
HO uHIlOfm COfHICC !IHC, IhC l3C3CCS 3fC 3 ]umO!C Ol SIy!CS, SO IS IhC
SIgH3gC. uI IhC SC3!CIS fIghI lOf IhC QCCCSIfI3HS-CyC VICW, IhCCHSCm-
O!CIS Q!C3SIHg. N3HIlCSI!y, IhCQ!3CCWOfkS, 3HC IhCfCHISOC3f WIIHCSS.
H IhC LOWCfbIXIICS, SIOfCS fCHI lOf 3OOuI J3SQu3fC lOOI, 3HC h3!l
IO 3 IhIfC OlIh3I OH SCCOHC hOOfS.
h3I WC h3VC hCfC IS 3 COuO!C-!O3CCC SIfCCI 3HC 3 lOfm3I 3!-
mOSI IhC fCVCfSC OlIh3I OlIhCSuOufO3H ShOQQIHg m3!!. hC!3IICf3!SO
h3S IWO !CVC!S OlShOQQIHg, OCH IhfCC. uI II QfOVICCS W3!kW3yS lOf
C3Ch !CVC! 3HCQuIIC gCHCfOuS!y SIZCC OHCS, IOO, SOmC IWCHIyI OIhIfIy
lCCI 3CfOSS. N3CISOH, O COHIf3SI, !O3CS IIS IWO !CVC!S OHIO OH!y OHC
1he 3ensor) 3treet
walkway, thirtccn fcct widc. This is squccing things morc than thcy
should bc hvc morc fcct would but thc sidcwalk docs work
wcll. On adison thc load is stillbuilding. Cafs and dclis havc bccn
puttingoutchairsand tablcsonthcsidcwalk, andon Saturday,anity
Fair day, onc has to thrcad oncs way with carc.
Rd0W bh0Rg
ln many citics window shopping would appcar to bc a dying
activity Thcrc arc, for onc thing, fcwcr windows to shop orc dc
partmcntstorcshavcbccnclosingdowntownthanopcningup,andthc
ncw oncs that havc bccn built fcaturc fcw windows at strcct lcvcl, if
any, and nonc at all on thcir uppcr lcvcls. Furthcrmorc, that formcr
adunctto thc window, thcdoor, maybc on its way out, too. lncrcas-
ingly, acccss is from withinthcbuildings, somctimcs along rcplicas of
shopping strccts.
ut thc rcal thing still works. hcrc thcrc arc display windows,
pcoplc windowshop, and thc storcs that havc thcm cnoy a compcti-
tivccdgcgrcatcrthanbcforc. ithanattractivcwindow,cvcnasmall,
twcntyfootwidc storc can draw up to thrcc hundrcd window shop-
pcrs an hour. How many bccomc buycrs is hardcr to tcll, but thc
numbcr oflookcrs and buycrs docs corrclatc with thc numbcr ofpc-
dcstrians with which gurc, to thc chagrin ofrctailcrs, rcnts corrc
latc, too.
indow shopping is highly sclcctivc As our tracking studics
show, pcdcstrians tcnd to slow down or stop in ccrtain placcs thcy
skip past othcrs and spccd up as thcy do. ost window shoppcrs arc
womcn and thcy arc quitc profcssional about it. Thc scrious window
shoppcrtakcsinthcwholcwindowin akindofvisualswccpand thcn
looksdownatanyplacardthatmightbcthcrc. lfthcrcarctwowomcn
togcthcr, usually thcy will cchangccommcnts. ut its all donc vcry
quickly. Thc mcdian clapscd timc is somcwhcrc bctwccn forty and
sityscconds. Thcrcarcmanyconvcrsationsthat lastlongcrandthcsc
arc important in attractingmorc pcoplc, butthc grcatbulkofwindow
shopping is donc with dispatch.
cOjc OD IDc IDDOaIO sIOc WaK1D_ IO IDc I1_DI IcDO IO OOK aI IDc
windows morc than thosc outboard. ut thc closc-up vicw has its
drawbacks and thc pcoplc on thc outboard part ofthc sidcwalk frc-
qucntly gct a bcttcr vicw ofthc displays. any window displays ap-
pcarto havc bccncomposcd as though thcy wcrcto bcvicwcd from a
pcrspcctivc about twcnty fcct out in thc middlc ofthc strcct somc
what likc architcctural rcndcrings showing a facadc from a point of
vicw nobody could sharc bccausc a building is in thc way.
indow shoppcrs tcnd to comc in bunchcs Partly this is duc to
4
L
thc fact that thc pcdcstrian ow itsclf comcs in bunchcs. Thc trac
light at thc corncr is a kcy factor but thcrc arc othcr rcasons for
bunching. Window shoppcrs attract window shoppcrs. Onc pcrson
stops, anothcr stops, thcn a couplc. Thcy attract othcrs. Thc domino
ccct is short livcd, to bc surc, and it may bc followcd by scvcraI
minutcs of nobody stopping at all. Thcn somconc stops again.
Pauscs lcad to succcssivc pauscs. Whcn a pcrson has stoppcd to
look at onc attraction hc is likcly to bc morc rcsponsivc to othcr
stimuli in thc samc vicinity. Thc bchavior of passcrsby at thc ialto
Florist is an cxamplc. Almost always, thcrc is a stand offorsythia, or
pussy willow, or thc likc out on thc strcct. As pcoplc pass by, somc
willbrushupagainstthcowcrs,othcrswillstoptotouchthcm.Thcsc
momcntary stoppagcsmay triggcrsimilartouchingby thc pcopIcfol
lowingbchind inmuchthcsamcwaythatpcoplcputtingmoncyina
bcggars cup inducc othcrs to do thc samc.
This is good for thc busincss ofthc orist, somc ofthc touchcrs
willgointothcshopandbuysomcthing. utthcstoppagcisaIsovcry
bcnchciaI to thc storc ncxtdoor. This is a storcthat fcaturcs T-shirts
with dccals on thcm. Pcoplc who comc to a full stop bccausc ofthc
owcrs gct a much bcttcr vicw of thc T-shirt storc than do othcr
passcrsby, and thcy arc morc likcly to look at thc windows. This in
turn prompts a numbcr to go on in through thc door.
Stoppagcs arc so ccctivc at inducing spillovcr tramc that mcr
chants mght wcll consdcr t worthwhilc to dclibcratcly crcatc thcm.
Onc who did was r. adcscu, a fmcr omanian musical comcdy
starwhoran afruituiccstandonLcxington. Hcuscdtostickastrcct
sign out on thc sidcwalk advcrtising discount cigarcttcs, hc was anx-
ious to prccmpt busincss from a discount cigarcttc storc two doors
north. Hc soon saw that thc rcally valuablc function ofthc sign was
obstruction. lt rcduccd thc ccctivc walkway to about six fcct and so
constraincdpcdcstrian tracastodivcrtmorcofittohiscountcr. Hc
bcganmovingit farthcroutontothcsidcwalk.Occasionallysomcbody
would angrily movc thc sign back to thc countcr. ut r. adcscu
would kccp pushing it farthcr onto thc sidcwaIk. l havc a Im sc
qucnccofhim pushing it sofaras torcduccthcwalkway toonIyfour
fcct. lt was bad of him and l ccrtainly dont want to advocatc such
brigandagc. As an cxamplc ofthc manipulation ofspacc, howcvcr, it
ccrtainly was ccctivc.
WhatdrawspcoplcThcmcrchandiscitsclf, ofcoursc, isthckcy.
On Lcxington Avcnuc womcns novclty fashions and acccssorics arc
primc draws. Pricc is part of thc attraction, and almost all of thc
pitchcs you hcar cmphasizc thc incrcdiblc bargain bcing ocrcd, and
how ccting it willbc. Today only. Evcrythinghalfpricc. Today only.
ut thc vcry cxpcnsivc attracts too. Onc display that wc studicd
1he 3ensoq 3treet [ &
5
]
was of mannikins in vcry cIcgant skirts madc from Chincsc court
rocs. hough thc priccs wcrc out of rcach for aII ut a vcry tin
fraction ofpasscrsy, thc particuIarwindow drcw many morc pcopIc
than thc Iocation usuaIIy docs, and many of thc Iookcrs wcrc Iow-
incomc pcopIc.
ln this casc, wc found thc dispIay Icd to a signihcant numcr of
saIcs. OrdinariIy it isdicuIt to hgurc what corrcIation thcrcmayc

ctwccn Iookcrs and cvcntuaI saIcs. Somc high-drawing dispIays do
indccd inducc many saIcs somc cIcarIy do not. ut onc must not
appIytooimmcdiatcayardstick.WhatcvcrcIscitis,windowshopping
is cntcrtainmcnt. lt scIIs thc storc and it scIIs thc cnvirons.
hcmcrchandiscthatattractsmostisthcmcrchandiscthatisout
front, on thc strcct, whcrc you can pick it up, fccI it. Whcrcvcr storc
owncrs havc put a dispIay on thc strcct thcrc is a markcd incrcasc in
thcnumcrsofIookcrs and stoppcrs, thcArgosy ookStorc, withits
insct cnty and piIcs of sccondhand ooks, is onc of thc cst such
pIaccs. Orangcs, appIcs, unk cwcIry, cvcn a piIc of rcmnants wiII
draw a crowd. Watching thcm, onc gcts thc fccIing that thc hngcring
ofthc goods is an cnd in itscI
So is thc ack-andfoth chattcr. Among thc rcasons outdoor
mcrchandisc puIIs wcII is that thc mcrchant or onc of his sta wiII
usuaIIy c out thcrc, too. lf hc is at aII aggrcssivc, thc mcrcant is
physicaIIy in thc idcaI spot to turn a Iookcr into auycr.
ovcmcnt attracts. Day in, day out, thccst drawing dispIay on
Lcxington Avcnuc is a ct shop with a window fuII of puppics and
kittcns. Livc pcopIc do wcII too. IoomingdaIcs windows oftcn draw
cst whcn thc window drcsscrs arc thcmscIvcs thc show, fussing
around with mannikins and Iights. A whoIc party of pcopIc can c
cttcr yct. Onc timc IoomingdaIcs stagcd a disco dancc in a cocr
windowandkcptscndinginrcIaysofprcttygirIsanduniorcxccutivc
typcstodanccaway.Thccrowdsoutsidcgotsoigthattraccamcto
a haIt.
Around thc corncr is Fiorucci, a womans spcciaIty shop that
frcqucntIy fcaturcs Iivc pcopIc in its windows girIs having thcir Icgs
paintcd with tattooIikcdcsigns, forcxampIc, or a Iivc pcrson donc up
as a mmc who's acctng not to bc lvc.
ut onc of thc iggcst draws l cvcr saw was whcn a storc dis-
pIaycdnothingncss. onwitTcIIcrcovcrcdscvcraIofitswindowswith
rown wrapping papcr and cut smaII cychoIcs in it at tiptoc hcight.
his drovc pcopIc crazy. cforc Iong thcy wcrc qucuing up to gct a
crack at thc pccphoIcs. Thcrc was nothing much to scc whcn thcy
Iookcd, ut this amuscd thcm, too, and thcy stuck around to scc how
othcrs wouId rcact.
Light attracts. Thc raunchicst Iock on Lcxington (Fiftyscvcnth
to Fihy-cighth, wcst sidc) was notaIc for its Iighting cccts. Onc

j & 6 ]
L
SlOIc, C8IuS, lc8luIcd DInkIng SlIODc IghlS 8nd ncOn. hc ccCl W8S
SO Ch8OlIC Onc WOud lhInk lh8l lhc 8d]OInIng SlOIc OWncIS WOud
OD]cCl. hcy dId nOl. hcy dId nOl cVcn OD]cCl lO lhc COmDIn8lIOn Ol
dISQ8yS 8nd Ighl 8l lhc LcXInglOn H8Q LuD. P SIgn On lhc SIdcW8k
S8Id LOmc I8Q WIlh Onc OlOuI SIX OVcy COnVcIS8lIOn8ISlS. Pl lhc
DOllOm Ollhc Sl8IIS c8dIng uQ lO lhc CuD 8 QIlChm8n SlOOd. LVcI Onc
dOOIW8y, lWO Icd IghlS IcVOVcd SOWy.
bOund 8llI8ClS. bcIng SlIcclS 8Ic nOISy. Ln LcXInglOn lhc QIZZ8
m8n I8llcS 8 COWDc Whcn hc SccS 8 Q8lOOn Ol QcOQc 8QQIO8ChIng.
Ilh DuhOIn OI OudSQc8kcIS, S8cSQcOQc ShOul 8l Q8SScISDy lh8l 8
S8c IS On. LVcIylhIng h8lQIICc LhcCk uS Oul hcn lhcIc IS lhc IOC.
P8n, lhc yOung m8n WhO I8n 8 muSIC ShOQ, h8d 8 OudSQc8kcI C8nlcd
8l ]uSl lhc 8ngc lO C8lCh QcOQc lu D8Sl 8S lhcy Wcnl Dy. Mc Q8ycd
lhc S8mc h8Id-IOCk SccClIOn lImc 8llcI lImc DclOIc hc Ch8ngcd lO
8nOlhcI lcSlcd l8VOIIlc. Pg8In, ncIghDOIIng SlOIc OWncIS WcIc SuIQIIS-
Ingy lOcI8nl. hc QOICc WcIc nOl. P8n W8S h8ucd InlO COuIl 8
numDcIOllImcS8ndBncdOnc hundIcddO8ISc8Ch lImc. Mc h8S SInCc
mOVcd On, unIcQcnl8nl.
OOd 8nd lhc c8lIng OlIl IS LcXInglOnS m8]OI 8ClIVIly 8nd mOSl
Ol Il l8kcS Q8Cc IIghl On lhc SlIccl. N8ny Ol lhc ShOQS h8Vc OQcn
COunlcIS. lhc lIuIl ]uICc 8nd QIZZ8 Q8CcS, lOI cX8mQc, lhc SOll ICc
CIc8m ShOQ, WhICh lOI gOOd mc8SuIc QuShcS lhc lIccZcI Oul OnlO lhc
SIdcW8k In l8II Wc8lhcI. bOmc lOOd ShOQS h8Vc lOdIng lIOnlS, Whcn
lhcy 8Ic lOdcd D8Ck l S h8Id lO lcll WhcIc lhc SdcW8lk cndS 8nd lh
ShOQ DcgInS, 8 dISlInClIOn luIlhcIDuIIcd Whcn lhc QIOQIIclOIS QulOul
l8DcS 8nd Ch8IIS.
P OllhIS, mInd yOu, l8kcS Q8Cc On SIdcW8kS lWcVc 8nd 8 h8l
lccl WIdc. l IS 8 uSc OlQuDIC SQ8Cc lh8l IS cIlhcIIcg8 OI, In lhc VIcW
OlmunICIQ8 OBCI8S, ShOud Dc. NOSl CIlIcS D8n SuCh 8 SIdcW8k QuI-
Vcy8nCc OllOOd, SOmc gO SO l8I 8S lO QIOhIDIl CIlIZcnS lIOm lhcc8lIng
OlIl. PcCcSS8Iy lOI QuDIC S8lcly, yOu WI Dc lOd, lOI S8nIl8lIOn Ic8-
SOnS lOI dcCcnl 8QQc8I8nCcS.
ul lhc m8IkclQ8Cc IS SluDDOD. IlncSS Wh8l h8QQcncd lO lhc
PVcnuc Ollhc PmcIIC8S In PcW XOIk. hcn Il W8S bIXlh PVcnuc 8nd
h8d lhc Ll IunnIng 8Ong Il, Il W8S lu Ol lOOd Q8CcS IcSl8uI8nlS,
IISh D8IS, C8lclcII8S, COBcc ShOQS, dcIS, mOm-8nd-QOQ SOd8 C8nlccnS.
hcn Il W8S IcdcVcOQcd. hc Ll Wcnl SO dId lhc Od DuIdIngS, 8nd
lhc ShOQS 8ndD8IS. n lhcIISlc8d Wcnl uQ 8ScIIcS OllOWcIS 8nd Q8Z8S
8nd WIndOWS OlD8nkS.
hcn, SOWy, lhc SlIccl lOOk IlS IcVcngc. P lcW lOOd VcndOIS
C8mc lO B lhc V8Cuum, lhcn 8 lcW mOIc. uSIncSS DOOmcd. Od8y lhc
SIdcW8k In lIOnl Ol lhc LXXOn uIdIng, lhc IVcIcSl SIdcW8k On lhc
8Vcnuc, IS In gOOd Wc8lhcI ]8mmcd WIlh 8S m8ny 8S lWO dOZcn Vcn-
dOIS 8nd lhcII CuSlOmcIS.

1he 3ensoq 3treet


ul Onc clcmcnl IS mISSIng. hctc IS nO dtInkIng lOunl8In On lhc
8VCnuC. hCtC 8tC nOnC On CXInglOn. hCtC 8tC nOnC On 8ny m8O
8Vcnuc In lhc CIly. hctc 8tc lcW In mOSl Olhct CIlIcS.
Pn cXCcQlIOn IS lhc Bnc SySlcm OlOtll8nd, LtcgOn. l gOcS D8Ck
lO CIVIC c8dct bImOn cnSOn. N8ny lOggctS 8nd Sc8mcn uScd lO COmc
lO lOWn, 8nd CnSOn lhOughl Il WOuld Dc8gOOd IdC8 lO m8kCW8lCtSO
8V8I8Dc lhcy WOud Dc cSS lcmQlcd lO Olhct dtInk. Mc g8Vc 8 CIly-
WIdc SySlcm OllOunl8InS. hctc 8tc l OQct8lIng lOd8y.
hIS IS nO Sm8 8ChIcVcmcnl. n lhcSc lcChnIC8y 8dV8nCcd
lImcS, Wc Sccm lO h8Vc OSl lhc C8Q8DIIly Ot tcQ8ItIng lhc SImQc
l8uCcl. O lhcIt Sh8mc, mOSl PmctIC8n CIlIcS nOl Ony h8Vc l8Ilcd lO
QtOVIdc ncW lOunl8InS lOt lhcIt SltcclS Dul h8Vc l8ICd lO m8Inl8In lhc
lCW lh8l SlI CXISl. (OtSl CX8mQC PCW XOtkS InCOln LCnlCt. lS
Onc OuldOOt dtInkIng lOunl8In Wcnl Oul Ol Otdct In l 9&. bInCc lhcn
lhc CIly Bn8nCCd 8 tcnOV8lIOn Ollhc OQcn SQ8CcS 8l 8 COSl OlOVct l
mIlIOn. hc tcQ8It Ol lhc dtInkIng lOunl8In W8S nOl InCudCd, hOW-
cVct, 8nd 8S l lhIS WtIlIng Il IS SlI Oul Ol Otdct.)
8y D8Ck In l972 PcW XOtk 8unChcd 8 ltI8 QcdcSltI8n m8l. Ot
8 lWO-Wcck QctIOd lhc CIly ClOScd 8 BHccn-DOCk SltclCh Ol N8dISOn
PVcnuc lO VchICcS DclWccn nOOn 8nd 2 .m. c Scl uQ lImc-8QSc
C8mct8S 8nd tCCOtdcd Wh8l h8QQcncd.
bOCI8y, lhc m8 W8S 8 SuCCCSS. hC numDCt Ol QcOQC On lhC
SltCcl mOtc lh8n dOuDcd, gOIng ltOm nInC lhOuS8nd lO nInclcCn lhOu-
S8nd. Pnd lhIS W8S nOl 8l lhc cXQcnSc Ol 8ClIVIly On ncIghDOtIng
SltcclS. hc OWS lhctc Wctc 8DOul 8S hIgh 8S lhcy uSu8y Wctc. h8l
W8S mOSl InlCtCSlIng, hOWCVCt, W8S WhCtC lhC 8ddIlIOn8 QCOQC On
N8dISOn COngtcg8lcd. bOmc uScd lhc mIddC OllhC tO8dW8y In Q8t-
lICu8t, QcOQC QtOmcn8dIng lhtcC 8nd lOut 8Dtc8Sl. ul lhc m8]OtIly,
QctCcnl, WCtc On lhc SIdcW8kS. bInCc lhcSc tcm8Incd lhcIt nIg-
g8tdy lhItlccn lCcl lhCtc W8S 8 8tgct dCgtcc OlCtOWdIng lh8n DclOtc.
ul Il W8S Cc8t lhIS W8S 8 m8llct OlltCC ChOICC. hc SIdcW8kS WctC
Whctc lhc SlOtCS 8nd lhcIt WIndOWS WCtc.
hc m8 W8S ShOl dOWn, WIlh lhc l8XI dtIVctS lhckcy OQQOSIlIOn.
ul OkyO Q8nnctS Wctc ImQtcSScd. hCy dcCIdcd lO COSc lO lt8BC 8
m8]t 8Vcnuc, LhuO-LOtI, cVcty bund8y. huS W8SDOtn LInZ8 8t8-
dSC 8nd 8nOthCt dCmOnStt8tOn Ol thC Qull Ol thC SdCW8lk.
LhuO-OtIS tIghl-Ol-W8y IS nInCly-VC lCCl WIdC, IlS SIdCW8lkS
lWCnly-lWOlCClC8Ch, 8nd IlS tO8dW8y HylCCl SImIl8tlO
Illh PVCnuCS. Ln bund8yS, QcdCSltI8n VOlumCS 8DOul dOuDlC. PS On
N8dISOn, lhC 8ddIlIOn8 QCOQC 8tC nOl dISltIDulCd CVCnly OVCt lhC
tIghl-Ol-W8y. Ln 8 bund8y Whcn WC COunlCd QC8k OWS Ol lhItlCCn
lhOuS8nd QOQC 8n hOut, Only BVC lhOuS8nd WCtC On lhC tO8dW8y,
VCtSuS CIghl lhOuS8nd On lhC SIdcW8lkS. hC SIdCW8kS 8CCOunlCd lOt
6 QctCcnl Ol lhc SQ8Cc Dul 62 QctCCnl Ol lhc OW. hc dcQ8tlmcnl

%l 8lI 0l, 0Ky0S


SlIlS 8I C00SlSl0ly
00I l0lISll0g lO80
0uIS. %lkluI lS 00
I8S00. O J880S
00 00l uS Z00l0g l0
00IC 8 Ilgl0
S8I8ll00 0 uSS, Dul
l0Sl80 0C0uI8g
0l0I0l uSS, Sl0 Dy
Sl0 800 uw8I0
SO0S, SO0wI000S,
8COl0K0 8I0IS,
ISl8uI80lS l0 00
l0 0ISl8uI80lS, 0uI
0I 0v Sl0IlS 0I 00I.
1bis traditicualsbcppiuallc]lcadiutc tbcKauucu5briuciu 1ck]cprcridcs
aplcasautl] tactilc bustlc aud bustlc. Mau] ucw strccts dc uct.
SlOIcS dtd lhctI OcSl lO Sccd 8CltVtly tn lhc mtddlc Ollhc IO8dW8y Wtlh
l8OlcS 8nd Ch8tIS 8nd umOIcll8S. ul lhc CIOWdS WcIc On lhc Stdc-
W8lkS, 8nd SO WcIc lhc VcndOIS 8nd lhc l8Sl lOOd 8nd lhc SlOIcS Stdc-
W8lk dtSQl8yS.
uI lDc nO5l a5ClDalID_ O OKyO5 5lIccl5 aIc ll5 OIOlDaIy ODc5.
Ntlc8ct mtlc, lhcy 8Ic COnStSlcnlly mOtc tnlcIcSltnglh8nOuIS. hcIc
8Ic m8ny Ic8SOnS lhc ltnc8I QIOgIcSStOn OlclcmcnlS, cVcI IcQc8ltn~
lhc COBcc ShOQS, lOOd

Ql8CcS, l8nlcIn StgnS, lhc QIOluStOn Ol ncOn, lhc


m8ny QcOQlc On lhc SlIccl 8nd lhc OOVtOuS cn]Oymcnl lhcy l8kc tn tl.
n lhc bhtn]uku dtSlItCl lhcIc 8Ic mOIc SuCh SlIcclS lO S8VOI lh8n tn
mOSl \. b. CtltcS Qul lOgclhcI, 8nd lOI ShccI ScnSOIy tmQ8Cl lhcIc tS
nOlhtng lO m8lCh tlS O8Ck 8llcyS Wtlh lhctI Ch8ICO8l gItllS 8nd SmcllS
8nd ClOudS Ol SmOkc.
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bC8VcngcIS m8dc lhcCOnl8IncIS WOIkDcllcI. NOSl SC8VcngcIS O
lOW 8 Icgu8I IOulc, 8nd In lhc COuISc O8 d8y lhcy WI C8 8l m8ny
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gcI VISIl QcI hOuI. Ilh lhc COnCIclc kInd, lhc SC8VcngcI WOud Ic8Ch
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h8nd dOWn 8nd Sl8Il Iumm8gIng lhIOugh lhc lI8Sh OI SOmclhIng O
V8uc. PS lhcy dId SO, lhc lI8Sh W8S dISlIIDulcd mOIc cVcny, 8II QOCk-
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Sdct8D nCIc88cd
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QcOQc C8n Dc Sccn Iumm8gIng lhIOugh lI8Sh COnl8IncIS, 8nd nOl SuI-
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8QSc SludIcS O lI8Sh COnl8IncIS, Wc h8Vc Iun 8CIOSS InSl8nCcS O lhc
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lO 8nOlhcI In 8 Sm8 8Ic8.
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8QQIcCI8lc hOW VcIy uScu lhcy WcIc. hcy WcIc nOl VcIy gOOd OI
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lOI O Wh8lS mISSIng In OuI SlIccl uDIluIc.
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lhcy 8Ic Q8Ccd 8l SlIccl COcIS, 8d]8Ccnl lO lhc QcICcnlOC8lIOnS.
McIc 8Ic SOmc Olhc W8yS lhcy ScIVcd.
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OtclC8c8.
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P8 dc8K Ct dCCumcnl8 Ct 8ltccl CCnctcnCc8. {Ln lWC 0C8Cn8 Wc
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dCllCn. |
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P8 CCltc8l Ct pcCQlc 8llng Cn nctby Ct hCCd8.
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8DOul IIghl.
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crcr.

#
A
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lhcy WcIc WIdcI ycl. hc BISl IcgIOn8 m8llS h8d OlS lgIccn SQ8Cc,
8nd lhcII CcnlI8 W8kW8yS WcIc 8S muCh 8S By lO SIXly lccl 8CIOSS.
hcn dcVcOQcIS Sl8Ilcd QullIng IOOlS OVcI m8lS, lhcy IcduCcd lhc
W8lkW8yS SOmcWh8l, Dul lhcy WcIc SlIl 8n 8mQlc lhIIly lO Blly lccl
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8nlIdOlc lO lhc CIOWdIng Ol dOWnlOWn.
ul m8l dcVcOQcIS Dcg8n lO Scc mInuScS. uIlc 8SIdc lIOm lhc
COSl Ol lhc cXlI8 SQ8Cc, Whcn W8kW8yS 8Ic VcIy WIdc, lhc SlOIcS On
Onc SIdc dOnl WOIk Wcll lOI lhc SlOIcS On lhc OlhcI, lhcIc IS nOl lhc
m8IgIn8 lIIClIOn yOu gcl In 8 lIghl ShOQQIng8yOul, nOIlhchuSlc 8nd
DuSlc.
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8ncuI M8l N8IkclQ8Cc In OSlOn. hc VcncI8Dlc OldDuIdIng W8S 8
gIVcn, 8nd DcC8uSc Ol lhc Q8Ccmcnl Ol lhc QI8IS, lhc m8In W8kW8y
COud Dc Ony ccVcn lccl WIdc. cVcOQcI J8mcS HOuSc 8nd 8IChIlcClS
J8nc 8nd cn hOmQSOn lhOughl lhc VcIy n8IIOWncSS WOuld QIOVc 8
VIIluc. bO Il h8S. hc W8kIng OlIl IS 8n cXQcIIcnCc8nd Ilh8S 8llI8Clcd
OncOllhc hc8VIcSl QcdcSlII8n OWS Ol8ny m8IkclQl8Cc In lhc COunlIy.
XOu cdgc Q8Sl lOOd dISQ8yS, dclOuI 8IOund knOlS OlQcOQlc S8mQIng
lhc lOOd, 8nd Q8Sl 8l SOIlS OlSmclS 8nd XOu 8Ic CIOWdcd, nO
mISl8kc, Dul Il IS 8 lIcc-ChOICc CIOWdIng 8nd VcIy lOcI8Dc. hcIc IS
Qlcnly OlSQ8Cc OulSIdc lhc DuIldIng, lhOugh lhc SlcQS c8dIng lO Il m8y
Dc DlOCkcd Dy QcOQc c8lIng lunCh On lhcm. l IS SOmcWh8l mcSSy 8l
lhc mOSl CIOWdcd lImcS, Dul QcOQlc dO Sccm lO Dc cn]OyIng lhcm-
SclVcS.
hcn HOuSc 8nd lhc hOmQSOnS Wcnl On lO dcSIgn M8IDOIQl8Cc
In 8llImOIc, lhcy dId SO WIlhOul lhc COnSlI8InlS Ol Old DIldIngS.
POnclhccSS, lhcy dcSIgncd lhc m8IkclQl8Cc W8lkW8yS lO Dc cVcn n8I-
IOWcI lh8n 8l 8ncuIl M8ll lcn lccl On 8VcI8gc. hcy WcIc C8Iclu lO
QIOVIdc WIdcnIngS hcIc 8nd lhcIc, Dul nOl lOO m8ny OI lOO DIg. Lnc IS
ncVcI VcIy l8I lIOm lhc mcICh8ndISc 8l M8IDOIQl8Cc.
Lnc Ol lhc VIIlucS Ol SlIccl lIccS IS lhc W8y lhcy Ch8nnc lhc
W8lkW8y 8nd mOdcI8lc lhc SC8c Ol lhc IIghl-Ol-W8y. P VcIy WIdc
SIdcW8k WIlhOul lIccS IS nOl 8COmlOIl8Dc SQ8Cc. hIS QIOVcd lhc C8Sc
WIlh LhIC8gOS POIlh NIChIg8n PVcnuc. PlOng Onc SlIclCh lhc SIdc-
W8lkS WcIc m8dc lhIIly lccl WIdc. hIS QIOVcd SuCh 8 SuIlcIl OlSQ8Cc
lh8l Il W8S dcCIdcd lO Bll Il uQ 8DIl. hcy Qul In lIccS 8nd gI8SSy QlOlS
WIlh Ch8InS 8IOund lhcm. hcy dId lhIS SO cXQ8nSIVcly lh8l lhc W8lk-
W8y WIdlh W8S n8IIOWcd lO 8DOul lcn lccl.
1he 3ensoq 3treet
j
9 5
]
P gIc8lcI QIODcm 8IIScS Whcn lhc SIOcW8kS 8Ic n8IIOWcO 8nO
lhc lIccS ChOQQcO OOWn 8S Wc. n lhc C8uSc OlSlIccl WIOcnIng, hIgh
W8y OcQ8IlmcnlS h8Vc OcSlIOycO m8ny 8n 8cy OlBnc OO lIccS. 8IIS,
Ol8 CIlIcS, h8S Dccn guIly lOO. Ln lhc OucV8IO NOnlQ8In8SSc, Il
cImIn8lcO Onc Ol lhc lWO IOWS Ol lIccS On cIlhcI SIOc 8nO n8IIOWcO
lhc SIOcW8k Dy 8DOul BHccn lccl lO m8kc mOIc IOOm lOI C8IS.
1h6 b6llRg RtBRc6
LOOIW8yS QOSc muCh lhc S8mc Ch8cngc 8S W8kW8yS. O WOIk
8l lhcIIDcSl, lhcy nccO lO Dc DIO8O, OQcn, 8nO COngcSlcO. hIS IS nOl 8
lhOughl lh8l mOSl Icl8IcIS WOuO COnSIOcI. ngIcSS 8nO cgIcSS 8Ic lhc
lunClIOnS, 8nO lhc COnCcQl lh8l lhc OOOIW8y mIghl 8SO Dc 8 ScIng
lOO WOuO Sccm l8IlclChcO lO m8ny.
l8 ScIng OOOIW8y WcIclO Dc OcVIScO, LcXInglOn PVcnuc WOuO
Dc lhc Q8Cc lOI Il. lS lWO OcQ8Ilmcnl SlOIcS 8Ic lu Ol CucS. Onc
DcC8uSc IlS OOOIW8y IS SO gOOO QhySIC8y, lhc OlhcI DcC8uSc Il IS SO
D8O.
Lnc IS PcX8nOcIS. l COmDIncS ScVcI8 lc8luIcS hc COIncI IS
mIlcIcO 8nO QIOVIOcS 8n unuSu8y SQ8CIOuS SlIccl CODcI 8Ic8. hc
OOOIW8y, cIghlccn lccl WIOc, h8S cIghl SWIngIng OOOIS. n l8II Wc8lhcI
lhcy 8Ic OQcn 8nO lunClIOn 8S 8n 8II OOOI.
hc cnlI8nCc WOIkS VcIy Wc QhySIC8y, lhcIc IS 8mOSl ncVcI 8
]8m. l WOIkS cVcn DcllcI SOCI8y. N8ny QcOQc SlOQ In lIOnl Ol Il lO
Ch8l. cOQc COmIng Oul Ollhc SlOIc OHcn WI Q8uSc, 8S IllO gcl lhcII
Dc8IIngS, OOk 8DOul, 8nO lhcn mOVc On. bOmc QcOQc]uSl Sl8nO lhcIc
W8IlIng lOI SOmcOnc, OI c8lIng 8n ICc CIc8m COnc.
hc Ch8Il ShOWS 8 Ol lhc QcOQc WhO SlOQQcO In lhc cnlI8nCc
8Ic8 Onc O8y DclWccn nOOn 8nO .m. POlc lh8l lhc gIc8lcSl COnCcn-
lI8lIOn OlQcOQc IS OIIcCly In lhc mIOOc Ollhc OW lIOm lhc SlOIc.
POlc 8SO lh8l lhc InVISIDc cXlcnSIOn Ol lhc DuIOIng Inc ScIVcS 8S 8
DOunO8Iy Ol 8ClIVIly.
P DOCk uQ lhc SlIccl IS OOmIngO8cS SOulh cnlI8nCc. l IS 8
mOOc Ol8 lh8l IS D8O In OOOIW8yS. hcIc 8Ic lWO IcVOVIng OOOIS,
Onc 8l cIlhcI SIOc, 8nO DclWccn lhcm 8Ic lWO SWIngIng OOOIS. hc
IcVOVIng OOOIS OO nOl h8nOc lhc O8O Wc. hcn CIOWOIng IS mOSl
InlcnSc, m8ny 8 QcISOn WI Dc COnluScO Dy lhc Q8Cc, Q8uSc 8 lI8ClIOn
Ol8 ScCOnO lOO Ong, 8nO mISS 8 luIn. l8 m8n SlcQS lO lhc cH lO cl 8
WOm8n lhIOugh lhc OOOI BISl, hc WI BnO hImSclmOuSclI8QQcO, WIlh
lhc IncgOIng lhIOugh On hIS IIghl. hc lWO SWIngIng OOOIS l8kc mOIc
cOIl 8nO 8Ic muCh cSS uScO.
hclOl8 OW, Illh8l IS lhcWOIO, ISD8OyOISlIIDulcO. LllhclOuI
OOOIS Ol lhc OulcI cnlI8nCc, lhc IcVOVIng OOOI 8l lhc IIghl 8CCOunlS
lOI &JQcICcnl Ollhc QcOQc cnlcIIng, lhc lWO mIOOc OOOIS, & QcICcnl
W
^PJ
#
M

M &

&

M
1hc dOOrwuj O_cundcrS Ic]urlmcnl lOrc n ^cw JOrk S u grcul ]uCc _Or
mcctinpccplc, ccnvcrain, cruat atandin. bia cumulativc rcccrd c/wbcrc
pccplcatcppcdabcwatbc tcndcnc]tc cluatcr. Nctc bcw/crmcrbuildinncac/
cbam/crcd ccmcraccmcd tc actaa an inviaiblc bcundaq.
8nd l QcICcnl, lhc OlhcI IcVOVtng dOOI, &QcICcnl. hc QcOQc COmtng
Oul ShOW 8 SOmcWh8l Stmt8I m8dtSlItDultOn, SKcWcd lO lhc Itghl.
h8l tS lhc OulcI cnlI8nCc nStdc lhcIc tS 8nOlhcI Scl Ol dOOIS,
QuS 8 nun Stlltng On 8 Ch8tI. P lhc dOOIS 8Ic SWtngtng dOOIS 8nd
lhcy IcQutIc COnStdcI8Dc cBOIl. PS cScWhcIc, QcOQc Qucuc uQ Dchtnd
lhc OQcn dOOII8lhcIlh8n OQcn Onc lhcmScVcS. XOu Ollcn Scc SOmcOnc
lIy lO OQcn 8 dOOI 8nd lhcn gtVc uQ uQOn Bndtng]uSl hOW h8Id tl tS.
LVcnlu8y, cVcIyOnc gclS tn. l tS 8 lItDulc lO OOmtngd8cS tnncI
8llI8CltOnS lh8l SO m8ny QcOQc gO lO SO muCh lIOuDc lO dO SO. Lnc
WOndcIS Wh8l WOud h8QQcn tltl WcIc m8dc c8Sy.
h8lcVcI tlS dtBCultcS Ol tngIcSS, OOmtngd8cS cnlI8nCc tS 8
VcIy tVcy Onc SOCt8y. l h8S lhc htghcSl dcnStltcS h8Vc cVcI COmc
8CIOSS 8l SlIccl cVc 8nyWhcIc. J8mmtng 8l lhc dOOIS tS Onc Ic8SOn,
Dul muCh Ol lhc COngcSltOn tS Scl-COngcSltOn. htS tS lhc C8Sc On

7he 3ensoq 3treet


b8luId8yS, Whcu LcXIuglOu DcCOmcS 8 IcCIc8lIOn 8Ic8. lIS cVcu mOIc
SC CmC hSlm8SlImC b8nl8 l8uSCS, b8lV8lICn PImy QCOQlC DCg-
g8IS 8nd VcudOIS SO SWcll lhc CIOWd lh8l Il DcCOmcS nc8I Sl8lIOn8Iy.
lIS lhc VcudOIS WhO h8Vc lhc gIc8lcSl ImQ8Cl. ul8lc 8llcDOOnS
lhcIc WIllDc 8 SOlId Qh8l8nX Ollhcm 8lOug lhc CuID, WIlh lugg8gc 8nd
lc8lhcIgOOdS8udOlhcIdISQl8ySdIIcClly Iu lIOnlOllhcm8InculI8nCc.
Lu lhc SIdc 8ud 8IOuud lhc COIncI WIllDc 8 mISCcll8ny OlmIuOI IlcmS
QcIlumc,]uuk]cWclIy, m8Iu8u8 WI8QQIug Q8QcI, m8Ikcd Ql8yIug-
C8Id dcCkS lOI cduC8lIOu8l QuIQOScS Ouly hcIc WIll Dc Ouc OI lWO
lOOkOulS 8l Ouc Ollhc QOlcS h8llW8y uQ lhc SlIccl. hc VcudOIS 8Ic lhc
dcSQ8II Ol lOOmIugd8lcS 8ud lhc QOlICc, 8ud lhcIc 8Ic QcIIOdIC
SWccQS Ol lhcm. hcIc WIll Dc WhISllcS 8ud ShOulS 8ud In lcSS lh8u
lhIIly ScCOudS lhc VcudOIS WIll h8Vc m8dc OWIlh lhcII gOOdS. P h8ll
hOuI l8lcI lhcy WIll Dc D8Ck.
hy dO QcCQlc Duy lIOm lhcm? hcy OcI nO gu8I8nlcc, nO Ic-
luDS, 8ud lhcII Q8llcI VIIlu8lly IuVIlcS dISlIuSl. ul lhIS IS lhc g8mc.
hc DuycI lcclS Qul On hIS mclllc hc l8ICcuOuS 8SQcCl dOcS nOl Qul
hImO, Il8llI8ClS hIm. LIkc lhcCIImQcd C8IdOllhc lhIccC8Id-mOulc
Ql8ycI, Il cXQl8IuS Why hc IS gOIug lO gcl 8D8Ig8Iu. MclIkcSlhc Idc8Ol
uOOVcIhc8d, uO S8lcS l8X. Mc cVcu lIkcS lhc Idc8 lh8l lhc gOOdS mIghl
Dc SlOlcu. hcy 8Ic uOl mOSl 8Ic SuQQlIcd Dy WhOlcS8lcIS WhO SQc-
CI8lIZc In lhIS QICVISIOnIng Dul lhc VcndOIS cnCOuI8gc lhc SuSQICIOu.
cudOI, WIukIng P Ic8l Slc8l, l8dy. )
ul Wh8l m8y 8QQc8l mOSl IS lhc cuCOunlcI lhc BugcIIug
OllhcgOOdS, lhcgIVc-8ud-l8kc WIlh lhcVcudOI. hc InlcICh8ngcSlcud
lO Dc DIuSQuc 8nd SlImul8lIug.
Cmn: MCW muCh7
YcndCt: cn dCt8.
Cmn: LP dCt87
YcndCt: cn dCt8.
Cmn: XCu gCll Oc KIddIng.
YcndCt: n lhc 8lCtc Il8 BHccn.
Cmn: hc C8Q. hctc8 Cny Cnc C8Q.
YcndCt: cn dCt8 yCu gcl Cnc C8Q. Kc il, dy.
Cm8n: hI8 I8 CtZy. LImmc lhc OtCWn Cnc.
Lu8lCmct8 8lImulc Clhct Cu8lCmct8. CnCc 8W DuyIng tcnzy In
lIOulOllOOmIugd8lcS. hIcc VcudOIS h8dSQIc8d Oul 8 QIlc Cllc8lhcI
h8ndD8gS On lhc SIdcW8lk. hc uSu8l QOIl8Dlc I8dIO W8S luIncd uQ lull
VOlumc, 8ud OVcI lhc dIu lhc VcndOIS WcIc ShOulIug lO QcOQlc lO gI8D
lhc D8gS DclOIc lhcy WcIc gOnc. P Sm8ll CIOWd g8lhcIcd. OI 8 WhIlc
uODOdy DOughl. hcu Ouc WOm8n DOughl 8 D8g. hcn 8nOlhcI. NOIc
QuShcd lhcII W8y lO lh lIOnl Ollhc CIOWd lO Scc Wh8l W8S gOIng On.
1he 3ensor) 3treet
hc lcmQO QICkcO uQ. uOOcnly 8lmOSl cVctyDOOy W8S lhtuSlIng OOll8t
DIllS 8l lhc VcnOOtS.
Ptc lhctc nOl SOmc lcSSOnS l lhcSc t8SC8lS htIVc SO, lhcy muSl
Dc QtOVIOIng SOmclhIng lh8l QcOQlc lIKc. l IS lhc m8tKclQl8Cc 8l IlS
mOSl D8SIC l8Cc lO l8Cc, mano a mano, 8S Il IS 8nO h8S Dccn In 8lcyS
8nO SOuKS 8nO D8Z88tS 8ll OVct lhc WOtlO
nSIOc, SlOtcS m8y QtOVIOc Il. lOOmIngO8lcS IS lul Ol mOOclS
h8nOIng Oul C8tOS 8nO S8mQlcS, QcOQlc OcmOnSlt8lIng 8QQlI8nCcS lhc
8ISlcS 8tc Ocn Q8tlI8lly DlOCkcO Dy Sl8CKS OlgOOOS, In lhc COSmclICS
OcQ8tlmcnl ScVct8l QIlChWOmcn WIll Dc 8l WOtK. ul 8ll lhIS IS Inlct-
n8l. hc mctCh8nOISIng OOcS nOl gO DcyOnO lhc OOOtW8yS 8nO lhIS IS
ltuc OlmOSl SlOtcS. \. . mctCh8nlS OO nOl KnOW hOW lO uSc lhc Sltccl.
J8Q8ncSc OcQ8tlmcnl SlOtcS OO. Ot Onc lhIng, lhcy Dc8l lhc Vcn
OOtS 8l lhcIt OWn g8mc. l yOu Scc Sltccl VcnOOtS h8WKIng W8tcS On
lhc SIOcW8lK DcSIOc lhc SlOtcS, yOull BnO lh8l mOSl Ol lhcm 8tc cm-
QlOyccS Ollhc SlOtcS. hc SlOtcS uSc lhcm 8S COmc-OnS. hcy mctCh8n-
OISc OulSIOc lO gcl QcOQlc InSIOc. P gOOO cX8mQlc IS NIlSukOShI. Pl IlS
QctCcnl COtnct In lhc InZ8 lhctc IS 8 DIg, DtO8O cnlt8nCc lh8l IS
Vcty c8Sy lO W8nOct InlO. O m8Kc Il c8SIct ycl, Sl8B QcOQlc Scl uQ
OISQl8yS OlmctCh8nOISc Onlhc Sltccl. hcy DtIng Oul DOXcS OlImQulSc
IlcmS lunny C8QS, Sungl8SScS 8nO Ql8Cc lhcm In t8CKS ]uSl OulSIOc
lhc CC. p888CtDy p8u8C8, lCCK8 8l lhc DcCh8DOi8cg pICK8 il up.
S8lcSQctSOn nOOS lC lhc C8Sh tcgISlct ]uSl InSIOc lhc SlOtc PS Il cn-
lOlOcO Dy lhc lcnOtIl Ol8 C8tnIVOtOuS Ql8nl, lhc Q8SSctDy gOcS In 8nO
Q8yS lOt hIS QutCh8Sc. hc BtSl Onc.
NOSl OcQ8tlmcnlSlOtc OOOtW8yS QtOVIOc 8ncIlhct-OtChOICc. XOu
gO In Ot yOu gO Dy. hctc IS nO Ql8Cc lOt InOcCISIOn, lOt h8ll8y SlcQS
Ot ScCOnO lhOughlS. hc Only lt8nSIlIOn8l SQ8Cc uSu8lly lc8OS !O 8
ScCOnO Scl Ol OOOtS, S8Vc 8S 8 Wc8lhct Sc8l Il IS WIlhOul lunClIOn.
i o o j L Y
Ocn vc:tibulc makc: congcnialtaringlacc. Hrgo:] Book 5torc, Ea:t1t]-
ninth 5trcct. Ncw York Cit].
AgOOC CH!f3HCC Cf3WS QCOQC HO!]uS! !hOSCWhOmC3H !O gOIH,
Ou! !hOSC WhO CO SO Ou! O ImQu!SC. ! Cf3WS !hCm HO! Oy OfCIHg 3
CCCISIOH, Ou! Oy m3kIHg 3 CCCISIOH uHHCCCSS3fy. LC! mC CI!C 3Cy
3fk Of 3H 3H3!Ogy. !S 3!!f3C!IVC 3HC !fCCS CX!CHC Ou! !O !hC
OrO. hCrC S nO OC3r !nC OC!WCCn Q3r 3HC S!rCC!, 3nC OCO3uSC !hC
CH!fy SQ3OC IS SO OfO3C, !hCfC IS 3 u!! VICW O !hC 3C!IVI!y WI!hIH.
3SSCfSOy OOk 3! I!. bOmC WI!! Q3uSC. bOmC WI! mOVC 3 CW S!CQS
C!OSCf, !hCH 3 CW S!CQS mOfC, 3HC !hCy 3fC IH, WI!hOu! h3VIHg CCCICCC
!O OC.
b!OfC COOfW3yS ShOuC OC SImI!3fy IHCuCIHg. O !hIS CHC !hC
CH!f3HCC ShOu!C OC OfO3C 3HC OQCH SO !h3! I! C3H OC CfOWCCC. hIS IS
HO! !hC COH!f3CIC!IOH IH !CfmS I! mIgh! 3QQC3f !O OC. CH!f3HCCS 3fC
QhySI03!!y 0I3mQcC, !hcIc WI! Oc HO S!30k !O WOIk WI!h. !hcy 3Ic
gCHCfOuS!y SQ3CCC, !hCy WI! 3!!f3C! mOfC SOCI3 uSC. QCOQC hO!CIHg
! 00 QCfCCH! COHVCfS3!IOHS, CXCh3HgIHg IH!CfmIH3O!C gOOCOyCS, ]uS!
S!3HCIHg !hCfC. hCfC 3SO ShOuC OC 3 HumOCf O QCOQ!C !OOkIHg 3!
!hCIf W3!ChCS, W3I!IHg Of fICHCS !O !ufH uQ. H!fICS C3H 3C!IVCy QfO-
mO!C SuCh uSC. L3fgC, hIghy CChH3OC OO]CC!S m3kC ICC3 fCHCCZVOuS
QOIH!S, SuCh 3S !hC C3g!C 3! 3H3m3kCfS, Of !hC !IOH 3! NI!SukOShI.
hC mCfCh3HCISIHg ShOu!C S!3f! Ou! OH !hC S!fCC!. HS!C3C O Su-
QIHC!y !C!!IHg VCHCOfS uSufQ !hC QfImC SC!!IHg SQ3CC, S!OfCS mIgh! Qu!
Ou! !hCIf OWH CISQ3yS, !IkC NI!SukOShI. ISQ3yS 3HkIHg 3H CH!f3HCC,
CSQCCI3!!y !hOSC !h3! IHVI!C !OuChIHg, QfOVICC !hC kIHC O m3fgIH3
fIC!IOH !h3! SOWS QCOQC COWH 3HC m3kCS !hCm mOfC !IkCy !O gO IH.
!he Sensor Street
hc lI8nSIlIOn8l 8Ic8 OclWccn SlIccl 8nd SlOIc ShOuld Oc ScllIng
8QCc, nOl ncultl 8QCc. llhctc t8 nC 8uCh 8QCc, Il Cn Dc CtclcU O
IcCcSSIng lhc cnlI8nCc O8CK InlO lhc SlOIc. McIc, 8l lhc QOInl Ol cnlIy,
IS WhcIc lhc SlOIc ShOuld Qly mOSl VIgOIOuSly IlS 8IlS Ol lIghlIng 8nd
dISQl8y. hc SQ8Cc ShOuld Oc 8 OcCKOnIng Onc, ShcllcIcd lIOm lhc
SlIccl 8nd ycl 8 Q8Il Ol Il lO gO InlO lh8n lO Q8SS Oy.
hc numOcI Ol8ddIlIOn8l QcOQlc 8 gOOd cnlI8nCc WOuld 8llI8Cl IS
h8Id lO cSlIm8lc. ul Il WOuld nOl l8Kc m8ny lO m8Kc 8n 8QQIcCI8Olc
dIcIcnCc. PSSumc 8 SlOIc WIlh 8n 8VcI8gc hOuIly InOW Ol Bllccn
hundIcd QcOQlc 8l IlS QIInCIQ8l cnlI8nCc. lOnly lWcnly mOIc QcIhOuI
WcIc 8llI8Clcd, OVcI 8 mOnlh lh8l WOuld 8dd uQ lO BVc lhOuS8nd
8ddIlIOn8l QcOQlc. NOSl lIKcly, mOIc lh8n lh8l WOuld Oc 8llI8Clcd.
Lcl mc IcC8QIlul8lc lhc clcmcnlS Ollhc gOOd SlIccl. hcy 8Ic 8S
lOllOWS
UdIng8 BU8h lC lhc 8dcWK.
blCtc8 lCng lhc tCnlgc.
LCCt8 nd WndCW8 Cn lhc 8ltccl.
bO l8I, nOl VcIy nOVcl. hc dcSCIIQlIOn 8QQlIcS lO m8ny cXISlIng
SlIcclS. ul nOl 8ll CIlIcS 8QQIcCI8lc Wh8l lhcy h8Vc In lhIS InhcIIl8nCc.
POI dO 8ll Ql8nncIS 8nd 8IChIlcClS. P WhOlc ncW gcncI8lIOn h8S COmc
Ol8gc lOI WhOm lhc nOIm IS lhc SuOuIO8n m8ll. O COmmcnd lO lhcm
lhc O8SIC SlIccl l, Il IS OcSl lO QIcScnl Il In cnlIIcly ncW lcImS.
bQc8K Ol lhc mullIQlc-8CCcSS OlOCK, lhc COnlInuOuS lcncSlI8lIOn, lhc
Bookatalla on Fh vcnuc. 1hc] do bua] u a aidcwalk, butit ia an amiablc
kind o]congcation.
[ t o z ] L X
fhyIhmO f00IIOU O 0UIfy pODIS h0 hOm0y SIf00I W SOuHd k0
0 WODd0fuy f0Sh OOHO0I .
O 0OHIH0 WIh Ih0 SI
b0OOHd-SIOfy 0OIVIy WIh W DdOWS, SO yOu O0H S00 I .
P gOOd Sd0W0k, I ShOud O0 uSI OfO0O 0HOugh SO l S SghIy
0fOWd0d 0I Q00k. LH Sd0 SIf00IS, hI00H 00I ShOuO O0 0m0, D m0D
SIf00IS 0Hd m0Of 0V0Hu0S, IW0DIy-hV0 00I .
f00S. g If00S.
b00IHg 0Hd SmQ0 0m0DI0S.
OO m0Hy 0d0SIf0H m0S 0Hd f0dOH0 SIf00lS 0f0 OV0f-O0SgH0d.
h0f0 S lO muOh uDh0d SgH0g0, IOO m0Hy 0W0fdWHHDg ghI Sl3-
d3fdS IOO mu0h gOOd I0Sl0 D g0H0f0, Of lh0 Qf0I0DSOD O I, 3Dd
SD0c m3Hy d0SgDcfS h0Y0 Ihc S0m0 gOOd I0Slc, Ihc f0Sul S 3 3d
0OHOfmly.
h3l S D00d0d 0f0 SmQ0 O0HOh0S, Q000d H f00lOH IO uS Suh
O3S0 0mcDI0S 3S 0O0kS 0Hd df HkHg OuHl3DS, 0Hd lf0Sh 0Ol3DctS
lh3l WOfk. h0 0Q0H0S0 0fc muOh mOf0 IhOughlu lh3D W0 3fc 3Ol
Su0h QOSSbl0S. H Ih0 S0O0S| uSl OuI8O0 O0Q0flm0Hl Slfc8 lhcy 0
k0y IO QfOVO0 SuOh 0m0HI0S 0S O0DOh0S, 0fgc 0ShIf0yS, Q0y
hODcS, 0Dd SOuIuf0 IO m00I 0I.
bOm0 OlIh0 O0SI S0O0S 0f0 0OOO0UI0 OHcS. Ny 0VOfI0 h0S O00D
Ih0 Hd0HI0O 0dg0S O Ih0 Lh0S0 0Hk 0I N0dSOH 0HO lIy-S00Dlh
bIf00I . h0y O0H O0 S0I uOU, 0O0I Ih0y f0 0 OI hgh. h0y fOVd0
SOm0 WHd QfOI0OIOH 0Hd Ih0y SI g0I SOm0 SuH. h0f0 S uSu3y 3
lOOU C0Il 0l lH0 COIDcI 0DU 0 OO OW O 0880SO. 0 O0Hk fc
00Hly QuI SQ k0S L Ih0 0dg0S. hS h0S Oufl00d Ih0 SIIHg Oul h0S
m0d0 Ih0 0Og0S mOf0 S0fVO00O0 Of V0HOOfS OOOOkS 0Dd Oluf0S,
Ih0y fO lh0m 0g0H8l Ih0 Sk0S
bm0f y, SOm0 OIh0 mOSI uS0u I0mS OlSIf00l ufHIuf0 uD0-
IOD mOf OuI OH0dV0fI0HO0 Ih0H d0S gH. f0Sh f0O0QI000S WIh 3l
IOQS Of 0X0m0, OO HOI WOfk W0 0S If0Sh f0O0I0O0S OuI d WOf
W0 08 Sm0 I0O0S. f0 SI0Hd 0S 0f0 OI0H Ih0 OUy SIIHg 0V0 0O0
OH 0 bOk. O8l 8uOh 0m0U I0S 0fc uDUI0Hd0O. Yh DOI I0Dd
Ih0m h0y WOud OOSI II0 OfHOIhDg 0 0W H0S OH 0 Q0D 0Hd
I S00fy H Ih0 g0m0, Ih0y mghIO0 h0O lOf Ih0 0SkHg. M0f0 0f0 SOm0
OSS OI0S.
P Sllll g cGgc 3DOul 3 OOl GccQ, SlXlcc lO lWcly l0hcS hlgh.
P Shcl cGgc Of fc3ff3glg Q3CK3gc 3G SOtll g Q3QcfS.
L3SS Of Slcc W3 S uScu lO WOmc 3S mlftOfS Of 0hc0KlHg

m3KcuQ, lO mc Ot 0hc0Klg lfOuScf cglhS.


P cGgc OW cOugh lO llc Oc S ShOc30cS O. O l 3ugh. 3l0h hOW
mc u c 3 Bfc hyGf3l .
Lhlml g QOcS. cOQc OVc lO lOu0h Of t3Q O OD)cClS 3S lhcy Q3SS Dy,
3G l lhlS m3kcS 3 uuSu3 SOud, SO mu0h lhc Dcll0f.

c Dcg8n Out tcSc8tCh On SQ8CcS Dy OOkIng 8l ncIghDOthOOd Q8tkS
8nd Q8ygtOundS. Lnc Ollhc BtSl lhIngS lh8l SltuCk uS W8S lhc 8Ck Ol
CtOWdIng In m8ny Ollhcm. P lcW Wctc]8mmcd, Dul mOtc Wctc nc8tct
cmQly lh8n lu, Ollcn In ncIghDOthOOdS lh8l t8nkcd Vcty hIgh In dcn-
SIly OlQcOQc. bhcct SQ8Cc, Il W8S ODVIOuS, W8S nOl OlIlScll8llt8ClIng
ChIdtcn. ul m8ny SltcclS Wctc.
l IS OHcn 8SSumcd lh8l ChIdtcn Q8y In lhc SltcclS lOt l8Ck Ol
Q8ygtOundS. ul m8ny ChIdtcn Q8y In lhc SltcclS DcC8uSc lhcy Ikc
lO. Lnc OllhcDcSlQ8y 8tc8S lh8l WcC8mc8CtOSS W8S 8DOCkOn Sl
bltccl In L8Sl M8tcm. l h8d IlS QtODlcmS, Dul Il WOtkcd. hc Sltccl
IlSclW8S lhc Q8y 8tc8. hc8d]OInIng SlOOQS 8nd BtccSC8QcS QtOVIdcd
QtImc VIcWIng 8CtOSS lhc Sltccl 8nd Wctc hIghy lunClIOn8 lOt mOlhctS
8nd Odct QcOQc. hctc Wctc Olhct l8ClOtS 8l WOtk lOO, 8nd h8d Wc
Dccn mOtc QtcSCIcnl Wc COud h8Vc S8Vcd OutScVcS 8 Ol Ol lImc lh8l
Wc SQcnl tcSc8tChIng Q8Z8S. hOugh Wc dId nOl knOW Il lhcn, lhIS
DOCk h8d WIlhIn Il 8 lhc D8SIC ccmcnlS Ol8 SuCCcSSlu utD8n Q8Cc.
PS Out SludIcS lOOk uS nc8tct lhc Ccnlct 8tc8S, lhc tc8lIVc un
dctuSc Ol m8ny SQ8CcS W8S cVcn mOtc 8QQ8tcnl. hcc W8S muCh
CtOWdIng, Cctl8Iny, Dul mOSl OlIl COud Dc lt8Ccd lO 8 SctIcS OlChOkc
QOInlS SuDW8y Sl8lIOnS In Q8tlICu8t. n lOl8, lhcSc SQ8CcS 8tc Ony 8
lt8ClIOn Ollhc Ccnlct, Dul lhc CtOWdIng IS SO COnCcnlt8lcd, lhc cXQctI-

Y
cnCc OlIl SO 8DySm8, lh8l Il dISQIOQOIlIOn8lcly COOIS OuI QcICcQlIOn
Ol lhc CcnlcI. hc SQ8Cc lccS CIOWdcd, cVcn Whcn Il IS nOl.
y 8l OddS, lhc CcnlcI8Ic8S ShOuld h8Vch8d m8n mOIc Qlc8S8nl
SQ8CcS 8S IcIc bInCc l96l PcW XOIk LIly h8d Dccn gIVIng InCcnlIVc
DOnuScS lO dcVcOQcIS WhO WOud QIOVIdc Ql8Z8S. llhcy dId SO, lhcy
COud 8dd lWcnly QcICcnl mOIc OOI SQ8Cc OVcI lhc 8mOunl nOIm8y
QcImIllcd Dy lhc ZOnIng. bO lhcy dId WIlhOul cXCcQlIOn. LVcIy ncW
OBCc DuIdIng Qu8IBcd lOI lhc DOnuS Dy QIOVIdIng 8 Q8Z8 OI COmQ8-
I8Dc SQ8Cc, In lOl8l, Dy l92 SOmc lWcnly 8CIcS Ol lhc WOIldS mOSl

cXQcnSVc OQcn SQ8Cc.


bOmc Q8Z8S 8llI8Clcd OlS Ol QcOQc. Lnc, lhc Ql8Z8 Ol lhc bc8-
gI8m uIdIng, W8S lhc Ql8Cc lh8l hclQcd gIVc lhc CIlyS Ql8nncIS lhc
Idc8 lOI lhc Q8Z8 DOnuS. LOnSlIuClcd In l 95&, lhIS 8uSlcIcy ccg8nl
Q8Cc h8d nOl Dccn dcSIgncd 8S 8 QcOQcS Q8Z8, Dul lh8l IS Wh8l Il
DcC8mc. Pl unChlImc On 8 gOOd d8y, lhcIc WOud Dc 5 QcOQc SIl-
lIng, SunD8lhIng, QICnICkIng, 8nd SChmOOZIng. cOQc 8SO OCkcd In
gIc8l numDcIS lO 778lcIblIccl, knOWn 8S SWIngcIS Q8Z8 DcC8uSc
Ollhc I8BSh yOung CIOWd Il 8llI8Clcd.
ul On mOSl Q8Z8S lhcIc WcIc lcW QcOQlc. n lhc mIddc Ol lhc
unCh hOuI On 8 Dc8ulIlu d8y lhc numDcI Ol QcOQc SIllIng On Q8Z8S
8VcI8gcd lOuI QcI lhOuS8nd SQu8Ic lccl Ol SQ8Cc 8n cXlI8OIdIn8IIy
lOW BguIc lOI SO dcnSc 8 CcnlcI. hc lIghlcSl-knIl CcnlI8 DuSIncSS
dISlIICl 8nyWhcIc COnl8Incd 8 SuIQIISIng 8mOunl Ol OQcn SQ8Cc lh8l
Wcnl cmQly.
lQl8CcS SuCh 8S bc8gI8m 8nd 778lcIblIccl COuld WOIkSOWc,
Why nOl OlhcIS hc CIly W8S DcIng h8d. OI lhc mIIOnS OldO8IS Ol
cXlI8 OOISQ8Cc Il W8S h8ndIng OullOdcVcOQcIS, Il h8d cVcIy IIghllO
dcm8nd muCh DcllcI SQ8CcS In IcluIn.
Qul lhc QucSlIOn lO lhc Ch8IIm8n Ol lhc CIly Q8nnIng COmmIS-
SIOn, LOn8d LlIOll. PS 8 m8llcI Oll8Cl, cnlI8QQcd hIm InlO SQcnd-
Ing 8 Wcckcnd lOOkIng 8l lImc-8QSc BmS Ol nOlhIng h8QQcnIng On
Ql8Z8S. Mc lcll lOughcI ZOnIng W8S In OIdcI. lWc COud Bnd Oul Why
lhc gOOd Q8CcS WOIkcd 8nd lhc D8d OncS dIdnl 8nd COmc uQ WIlh
lIghl guIdcIncS, lhcIc COud Dc 8 ncW COdc. bInCc Wc COud cXQcCl lhc
QIOQOS8S lO Dc COnlcSlcd, Il WOud Dc ImQOIl8nl lO dOCumcnl lhcC8Sc
lO 8 l8Ic-lhcc-Wc.
c Scl lO WOIk. c Dcg8n SludyIng 8 CIOSS ScClIOn Ol SQ8CcS In
8, SIXlccn Q8Z8S, lhIcc Sm8 Q8IkS, 8nd 8 numDcI Ol OddS 8nd cndS
Ol SQ8Cc. WIl Q8SS OVcI lhc l8Sc Sl8IlS 8nd lhc OundcIIng, S8Vc lO
nOlc lh8l lhcIc W8S 8 Ol 8nd lh8l lhc IcSc8ICh W8S nOWhcIc nc8I 8S
lIdy 8nd ScQucnlI8 8S Il C8n Sccm In lhc lclIng. Lcl mc 8SO nOlclh8l
SOmc OlOuI mOSl OgIC8 lhcOIIcS luIncd Oul lO Dc WIOng, Indccd, OuI
IcSc8ICh COud l8IIy Dc lcImcd 8 SlIIng Ol DuSlcd hyQOlhcScS.
hc IcSc8ICh COnlInucd lOI lhIcc yc8IS. hcBguIc SOundSImQIcS-
1he Design o/ 3aces
SIVc. ul Il IS C8cnd8I lImc. OI 8 QI8ClIC8 QuIQOScS, 8l lhc cnd Ol
SIX mOnlhS Wc h8d COmQclcd lhc Sludy. hc CIly mOVcS SOWy, hOW
cVcI. PdVcIS8IIcS 8QQc8Icd Oul Ol nOWhcIc, 8nd lhOugh OuI C8uSc
COud h8Vc Dccn 8SSumcd l8nl8mOunl lO mOlhcI OVc 8nd lhc 8g, Wc
lOundWch8dlOSQcndl8I mOIc lImcCOmmunIC8lIngOuI BndIngSlh8n
8IIIVIng 8l lhcm. LVcnlu8y, In l975,lhc CIlyS O8Id OlLSlIm8lc W8S
lO 8dOQl lhc ncW ZOnIng. hIS WOud Dc ]uSl In lImc, lO gcl 8hc8d Ol
OuI SlOIy, lOI 8 ncW ZOnIng CIISIS.
c Sl8Ilcd Dy Ch8IlIng hOW QcOQc uScd Q8Z8S. c mOunlcd
lImc-8QSc C8mcI8S 8l SQOlS OVcIOOkIng lhc Q8Z8 8lOQ lhc H8CQucl
LuDlOI bc8gI8m 8nd IcCOIdcd lhcd8Wn-lO-duSk Q8llcInS. c m8dc
QcIIOdIC CIICuIlS Ollhc Q8Z8S 8nd nOlcd On SIghlIng m8QS WhcIc QcO-
Qc WcIc SIllIng, lhcII gcndcI, 8nd WhclhcI lhcy WcIc 8Onc OI WIlh
OlhcIS. c lOund Wc COud dO lhIS In 8DOul BVc mInulcS Illc mOIc
!im0 !B8H8imp0B08dOuH! wOud !80. 0 8OiH!0i0w0dp0Op0
8nd lOund WhcIc lhcy WOIkcd, hOW lIcQucnly lhcy uScd lhc Q8Z8,
8nd Wh8l lhcy lhOughl Ol Il. ul mOSly Wc W8lChcd QcOQc lO Scc
Wh8l lhcy dId.
NOSl Ol lhcm WcIc yOung OBCc WOIkcIS lIOm nc8IDy DuIdIngS.
LHcn lhcIc WOud Dc Ic8lIVcy lcW lIOm lhc Q8Z8 OWn DuIdIng. PS
SOmc ScCIcl8IIcS COnBdcd, lhcy WOud]uSl 8S SOOn Qul 8 Illc dISl8nCc
DclWccn lhcmScVcS 8nd lhc DOSS COmc unChlImc. n mOSl CScS lhc
Q8Z8 uScIS C8mc lIOm 8 DuIdIng WIlhIn 8 lhIcc-DOCk I8dIuS. bm8
Q8IkS, SuCh 8S 8cy 8nd LIccn8CIc, h8d 8 SOmcWh8l mOIc V8IIcd mIX
Ol WIlh mOIcuQQcI-InCOmc OdcI QcOQc DulcVcn hcIcOBCc
WOIkcIS QIcdOmIn8lcd.
hIS unCOmQIC8lcd dcmOgI8Qhy undcISCOIcS 8n ccmcnl8 QOInl
8DOul gOOd SQ8CcS. SuQQy CIc8lcS dcm8nd. P gOOd ncW SQ8CcDuIdS 8
ncW COnSlIlucnCy l gclS QcOQc InlO ncW h8DIlS SuCh 8S 8lIcSCO
unChcS 8nd InduCcS lhcm lO uSc ncW Q8lhS. l dOcS lhIS 8 VcIy
QuICky. n LhIC8gOS LOOQ lhcIc WcIc lcW SuCh 8mcnIlIcS unlI lhc
COmQclIOn Ollhc IISl P8lIOn8 8nk 8Z8. n Ony 8 lcW mOnlhS Il
Ch8ngcd lhc mIdd8y W8y Ol Ilc lOI lhOuS8ndS Ol OBCc WOIkcIS. buC-
CcSScS SuCh 8S lhcSc In nO W8y SuIlcIl lhc dcm8nd lOI SQ8CcS. hcy
ShOW hOW gIc8l lhc unIc8IZcd QOlcnlI8 C8n Dc.
hcDcSl-uScd Q8Z8S 8Ic SOCI8Dc Q8CcS, WIlh 8 hIghcIQIOQOIlIOn
Ol COuQcS 8nd gIOuQS lh8n yOu WI Bnd In cSS-uScd Q8CcS. Pl lhc
mOSl-uScd Q8Z8S In PcW XOIk, lhc QIOQOIlIOn Ol QcOQc In lWOS OI
mOIc IunS 8DOul 562 QcICcnl, In lhc c8Sl-uScd, 25J QcICcnl. P
hIgh QIOQOIlIOn IS 8n IndcX Ol SccClIVIly. lQcOQc gO lO 8 Q8Cc In 8
gIOuQ OI IcndcZVOuS lhcIc, Il IS mOSl OHcn DcC8uSc lhcy dcCIdcd lO
DclOIch8nd. POI 8Ic lhcSc Q8CcS cSS COngcnI8 lO lhc IndIVIdu8. n
8DSOulc numDcIS, lhcy 8llI8Cl mOIc IndIVIdu8S lh8n dO lhc cSS-uScd
SQ8CcS. l yOu 8Ic 8Onc, 8 IVcy Q8Cc C8n Dc lhc DcSl Q8Cc lO Dc.
uy CI08l0S
000800. P g000 00w
S8C0 Du0S llS
C00Slllu00Cy~g0lS
000 l0l0 00w O8DlS,
lK0 08ll0g 0ul000IS,
l00uC0S lO00 l0 uS0
00w8lOS.
O0 D0SluS00 S8C0S
O8v0 8 OlgO I00Ill00
0C0u0S 800 gI0uS.
O0y 8S0 O80 8 OlgO
I00Ill00 0 w0000.
j
i
6
|
hc DcSl-uScd Ql8CcS 8lSO lcnd lO h8Vc 8 hIghcI lh8n 8VcI8gc
QIOQOIlIOn Ol WOmcn. hc m8lc-lcm8l I8lIO Ol 8 Ql8Z8 IccClS lhc
mQOIIOn O h0 WOIk OI0 8n V8II0 lIOm 8I08 l 8I08. n
mIdlOWn PcW 3OIk Il IunS 8DOul 6 Qc m8lc, QcICcnl lcm8lc.
Omcn 8Ic mOIc dISCIImIn8lIng lh8n cn 8S lO WhcIc lhcy WIll SIl,
lhcy 8Ic mOIc ScnSIlIVc lO 8nnOy8nCcS 8nd lhcy SQcnd mOIc lImc
C8SIng 8 Ql8Cc. hcy 8Ic 8lSO mOIc lIkcly lO duSl O 8 lcdgc WIlh lhcII
h8ndkcIChc.
hc m8lc-lcm8lc I8lIO IS Onc lO W8lCh. l8 Ql8Z8 h8S 8 m8Ikcdly
lOW QIOQOIlIOn OlWOmcn, SOmclhIng IS WIOng. LOnVcIScly, IlIl h8S 8
hIgh QIOQOIlIOn, lhc Ql8Z8 IS QIOD8Dly 8 gOOd 8nd Wcll-m8n8gcd Onc
8nd h8S Dccn ChOScn 8S SuCh.
hc IhylhmS OlQl8Z8 lIlc 8Ic muCh 8lIkc lIOm Ql8Cc lO Ql8Cc. n
lhc mOInIng hOuIS, Q8lIOn8gc WIll Dc SQOI8dIC. 8 hOl dOg VcndOI Scl-
lIng uQ hIS C8Il 8l lhc COcI, 8 ShOcShInc m8n 8l lhc lcdgc, 8 mcSScn-
gcI OI lWO, 8n cldcIly QcdcSlII8n Q8uSIng lOI 8 mOmcnl, SOmc lOuIISlS,
8 D8g l8dy Iumm8gIng lhIOugh hcI D8gS. llhcIc 8Ic DuIldIngS undcI
COnSlIuClIOn nc8IDy, lhc h8Id h8lS WIll 8QQc8I ShOIlly 8cI clcVcn
WIlh DccI C8nS 8nd S8ndWIChcS. hIngS WIll Sl8Il lO lIVcn uQ.
*
PIOund nOOn lhc m8In ClIcnlclc DcgInS lO 8IIIVc. bOOn 8ClIVIly
WIll Dc nc8I Qc8k 8nd WIll Sl8y lhcIc unlIl 8 lIlllc DclOIc lWO. PcW
3OIk h8S 8n unuSu8lly lOng lunCh QcIIOd. nOlhcI CIlIcS Il IS ClOScI lO
Onc hOuI lh8n lWO, 8nd In 8 lcW Il IS 8S DIIcl 8S lOIly-BVc mInulcS.
(M8IllOId, WIlh IlS InSuI8nCc COmQ8nIcS, IS Onc SuCh. hc CIly WOuld
lIkc lO Scc mOIc OuldOOI lIlc, Dul lhcIc]uSl dOcSnl Sccm lO Dc cnOugh
lImc.)
bOmc &QcICcnlOllhcQcOQlc8ClIIlyOnQl8Z8SCOmcS duIIng lhc
lunChlImc, 8nd lhcIc IS VcIy lIlllc Ol8n kInd 8HcIBVclhIIly. ul lhIS
IS Q8I, 8nd CIlIcS ShOuld nOl lccl lhcII OWnlOWn SQ8CcS 8Ic unIQucly
IncBCIcnl In lhIS IcSQcCl. cgIlIm8lc lh8lIcS OQcI8lc Only 8 lcW hOuIS
8 d8y Dul 8Ic nOl lhc lcSS lunClIOn8l lOI lh8l. PS Wc WIll l8kc uQ l8lcI,
lhcIc IS muCh lh8l C8n Dc dOnc lO cXlnd lhc uSclul hOuIS Ol dOWn
lOWn SQ8CcS. ul Onc ShOuld nOl cXQcl lOO muCh. h8l WIlh, S8y,
]8ZZ lOI 8 l8lc SummcIS 8llcInOOn, QcOQlc WIll SlICk 8IOund lOI 8n-
OlhcI hOuI OI SO. ul Dy ScVcn mOSl WIll Dc On lhcII W8y hOmc.
LuIIng lhc lunCh QcIIOd, QcOQlc WIll dISlIIDulc lhcmSclVcS OVcI
SQ8Cc WIlh COnSIdcI8Dlc COnSISlcnCy, WIlh SOmc ScClOIS gcllIng hc8Vy
uSc d8y In 8nd d8y Oul, OlhcIS muCh lcSS SO. c 8lSO lOund lh8l O-
Qc8k uSc Ollcn gIVcS lhc DcSl ClucS lO QcOQlcS QIclcIcnCcS. hcn 8
Ql8Cc IS 8mmcd, QcOQlc SIl WhcIc lhcy C8n, lhIS m8y OI m8y nOl Dc
WhcIc lhcy mOSl W8nl lO. PllcI lhc m8In CIOWd h8S lcll, hOWcVcI, lhc
ChOICcS C8n Dc SIgnIBC8nl. bOmc Q8IlS Ol lhc Ql8Z8 DcCOmc cmQly
OlhcIS COnlInuc lO Dc uScd. Pl bc8gI8m, 8 Ic8I lcdgc undcI lhc lIccS IS
mOdcI8lcly Dul Slc8dIly OCCuQIcd Whcn OlhcI lcdgcS 8Ic cmQly.

1he Design o/ 3aces
lSccmS lhc mOSl unCIOWdcd OlQ8CcS, Dl On 8 Cumu8lIVc D8SIS Il IS
lhc DcSluSc Q8Il Ol bc8gI8m.
Ncn ShOW 8 lcndcnCy lO l8kc lhc lIOnl-IOW Sc8lS, 8nd IllhcIc IS 8
kInd Ol g8lc lhcy WI Dc lhc gu8IdI8nS Ol Il. Omcn lcnd lO l8VOI
Q8CcS SIghly ScCudcd. llhcIc 8Ic dOuDcSIdcd cdgcS Q8I8c lO lhc
SlIccl, lhc InncI SIdc WI uSu8y h8Vc 8 hIghcI QIOQOIlIOn OlWOmcn
lhc OulcI, Olmcn.
Lllhc mcn uQ lIOnl lhc mOSl COnSQICuOuS 8Ic lhc gII W8lChcIS.
PS h8Vc nOlcd, lhcy Qul On SuCh 8 ShOW Ol gII W8lChIng 8S lO
IndIC8lc lh8l lhcIIIc8 InlcIcSl IS nOl SO muCh lhc gIIS 8S lhc ShOW. l
IS 8 m8ChISmO. LVcn In lhc 8 blIccl 8Ic8, WhcIc gII W8lChcIS 8Ic
cSQcCI8y dcmOnSlI8lIVc, yOu WI h8Idy cVcI Scc Onc 8llcmQl lO QICk
uQ 8 gII.
8Z8S 8Ic nOl Idc8 Q8CcS lOI SlIIkIng uQ 8CQu8Inl8nCcS. NuCh
DcllcI IS 8 VcIy CIOWdcd SlIccl WIlh OlS Olc8lIng 8nd Qu8ng gOIng
On. Pn OulSl8ndIng cX8mQc IS lhc CcnlI8 IunW8y Ollhc bOulh blIccl
bc8QOIl. Pl unCh SOmclImcS, Onc C8n h8Idy mOVc lOI lhc CIuSh. PS
In muSIC8 Ch8IIS, lhIS C8n c8d lO InlcIcSlIng COmDIn8lIOnS. Ln mOSl
Q8Z8S, hOWcVcI, lhcIc ISnl muChmIXIng. llhcIc8Ic, S8y, lWO Sm8Sh-
IngDOndcSOn8cdgc, lhcmcnnc8IDy WIuSu8y QulOn 8nc8DOI8lc
ShOW OldISIcg8Id. LOOk COScy, hOWcVcI, 8nd yOu WI Scc lhcm gIV-
Ing 8W8y lhc QOSc WIlh COVcIl g8nCcS.
LOVcIS8IclODclOund On Q8Z8S, Dul nOl WhcIcyOuWOudcXQcCl
lhcm. hcn Wc BISl Sl8Ilcd InlcIVIcWIng, QcOQc WOud lc uS lO Dc
SuIc lO Scc lhc OVcIS InlhcIc8IQ8CcS. ul lhcy WcIcnl uSu8y lhcIc.
hcy WOud Dc Oul lIOnl. hc mOSl lcIVcnl cmDI8CIng WcVc IcCOIdcd
On Bm h8S l8kcn Q8CcInlhcmOSl VISIDcOlOC8lIOnS, WIlh lhcCOuQc
ODIVIOuS Ollhc CIOWd. {n 8 Ong CulCh, hOWcVcI, h8Vc nOlcd lh8l
Onc Ollhc OVcIS m8y Snc8k 8 g8nCc 8l 8 WIISlW8lCh.)
LcIl8In OC8lIOnSDcCOmc IcndcZVOuS QOInlS lOI gIOuQS OlV8IIOuS
kIndS. hc SOulh W8 Ollhc Lh8Sc N8nh8ll8n 8Z8 W8S, lOI 8 WhIc,
8 g8lhcIIng QOInl lOI C8mcI8 DugS, lhc kInd WhO 8Ic 8W8yS DuyIng
ncW cnScS 8nd l8kIng 8DOul lhcm. 8llcInS Ol lhIS SOIl m8y 8Sl nO
mOIc lh8n 8 Sc8SOn QcISISl lOI yc8IS. P D8Ck CIVIC c8dcI In LIn-
CInn8lI lOd mc lh8l Whcn hc W8nlS lO m8kc COnl8Cl, C8Su8y, WIlh
SOmcOnc, hc uSu8y knOWS ]uSl WhcIc lO OOk 8l Ounl8In bQu8Ic.
bomc tmc ago a partcular corncr ot a Icw York plaza bccamc a
l8VOIIlc Q8Cc lOI SOmc I8BSh yOungcI QcOQc. bInCc lhcn lhcIc h8Vc
Dccn m8ny Ch8ngcS In QcISOnnc, Dul Il IS SlI 8 l8VOIIlc Q8Cc lOI
I8BSh yOungcI QcOQc.
bl8ndIng Q8llcDS On lhc Q8Z8S 8Ic l8IIy Icgu8I. hcn QcOQc
SlOQ lO l8k lhcy WI gcncI8y dO SO 8lhW8Il Onc Ol lhc m8In lI8BC
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hcy lIkc Wcll-dcBncd Ql8CcS, SuCh 8S SlcQS OI lhc DOIdcI Ol 8 QOOl.
h8l lhcy I8Icly ChOOSc IS lhc mIddlc Ol 8 l8Igc SQ8Cc.
hcIc 8Ic 8 numDI Ol cXQl8n8lIOnS. hc QIclcIcnCc lOI QIll8IS
mIghl Dc 8SCIIDcd lO SOmcQIImcV8l InSlInCl yOu h8Vc8lull VIcW Ol8ll
COmcIS Dul yOuI Ic8I IS COVcIcd. ul lhIS dOcSn l cXQl8In lhc InClIn8-
lOn mcn h8Vc lOI lInIng uQ 8l lhc CuID. yQIC8lly, lhcy l8Cc InW8Id,
WIlh lhcII D8CkS cXQOScd lO lhc VchIClc lI8BC Ol lhc SlIccl.
h8lcVcI lhcII C8uSc, QcOQlcS mOVcmcnlS 8Ic Onc Ol lhc gIc8l
SQcCl8ClcS Ol8 Ql8Z8. XOu dO nOl Scc lhIS In 8IChIlcCluI8l QhOlOgI8QhS,
WhICh 8Ic uSu8lly dcVOId Ol hum8n DcIngS 8nd 8Ic l8kcn lIOm 8 QcI-
SQcClIVc lh8l lcW QcOQlc Sh8Ic. l IS 8 mISlc8dIng Onc. LOOkIng dOWn
On 8 D8Ic Ql8Z8, Onc SccS 8 dISQl8y OlgcOmclIy, dOnc 8lmOSl In mOnO-
ChIOm. LOWn 8l cyc lcVcl lhc SCcnc COmcS 8lIVc WIlh mOVcmcnl 8nd
COlOI QcOQlc W8lkIng QuICkly, W8lkIng SlOWly, SkIQQIng uQ SlcQS,
Wc8VIng In 8nd Oul On CIOSSIng Q8llcInS, 8CCclcI8lIng 8nd Icl8IdIng lO
m8lCh lhc mOVcS OlOlhcIS. LVcn Illhc Q8VIng 8nd lhc W8llS 8Ic gI8y,
lhcIc WIll Dc VIVId SQl8ShcS Ol COlOI In WInlcI cSQcCI8lly, lh8nkS lO
WOmcnS lOndncSS lOI Icd CO8lS 8nd COlOIcd umDIcll8S.
hcIc IS 8 Dc8uly lh8l IS DcguIlIng lO W8lCh, 8nd Onc ScnScS lh8l
lhc Ql8ycIS 8Ic QuIlc 8W8Ic OllhIS lhcmSclVcS. XOu C8n Scc lhIS In lhc
W8y lhcy 8II8ngc lhcmSclVcS On lcdgcS 8nd SlcQS. hcy Ollcn dO SO
WIlh 8 gI8Cc lh8l lhcy muSl 8QQIcCI8lc lhcmSclVcS. Ilh IlS DIOWn-
gI8y ScllIng, bc8gI8m IS lhc DcSl OlSl8gcS In lhc I8In, lOO, Whcn 8n
umDIcll8OI lWO QulS SOlS OlCOlOI In lhc IIghl Ql8CcS, lIkc LOIOlS Icd
dOt8.
Lcl uS luIn lO lhc l8ClOIS lh8l m8kc lOI SuCh Ql8CcS. hc mOSl
D8SIC Onc IS SO ODVIOuS Il IS Ollcn OVcIlOOkcd QcOQlc. O dI8W lhcm, 8
SQ8Cc ShOuld l8Q 8 8lIOng OW Ol lhcm. hI8 mc8nS lOC8lIOn, 8nd, 8S
lhc Old 88gc h8S Il, lOC8lIOn 8nd lOC8lIOn. hc SQ8Cc ShOuld Dc In lhc
hc8Il OldOWnlOWn, ClOSc lO lhc lQcICcnl COIncI QIclcI8Dly IIghl
On lOQ OlIl.
cC8uSc l8nd IS Chc8QcI luIlhcI Oul, lhcIc IS 8 lcmQl8lIOn lO QICk
SIlcS8W8ylIOm lhcCcnlcI. hcIc m8y 8lSODcSOmcl8nd lOIlhc8SkIng
SOmc undcIuScd SQ8CcS, lOI cX8mQlc, lcH OVcI lIOm 8n Ill-8dVIScd
CIVIC CcnlcI C8mQuS Ol uID8n IcncW8l d8yS. hcy WIll Dc QOOI D8I-
g8InS. P SQ8Cc lh8l IS Only 8 lcW DlOCkS lOO l8I mIghl 8S Wcll Dc lcn
DlOCkS lOI 8ll lhc QcOQlc WhO WIll VcnluIc lO W8lk lO Il.
cOQlc ought lO W8lk lO Il, QcIh8QS, lhc cXcICISc WOuld dO lhcm
gOOd. ul lhcy dOnl LVcn WIlhIn lhc COIc OldOWnlOWn lhc ccClIVc
I8dIuS Ol 8 gOOd Ql8Cc IS 8DOul lhIcc DlOCkS. PDOul &QcICcnl Ol lhc
uScIS WIll h8Vc COmc lIOm 8 Ql8Cc WIlhIn lh8l 8Ic8. hIS dOcS IndIC8lc
8 l8ZIncSS On lhc Q8Il Ol QcdcSlII8nS 8nd lhIS m8y Ch8ngc 8 DIl,]uSl 8S
lhc InSISlcnCc On ClOSc-In Q8IkIng m8y. ul lhcIc IS 8 gOOd SIdc lO lhc
1he Design o/ 3aces
COnSlI8Incd I8dIuS. bInCc uS8gc IS SO hIghy OC8IZcd, lhc 8ddIlIOn Ol
OlhcIgOOd OQcn SQ8CcS WnOlS8luI8lcdcm8nd. hcyI InCIc8ScI.
LIVcn 8 Bnc OC8lIOn, Il IS dIBCul lO dcSIgn 8 SQ8Cc lh8l WI nOl
8llI8Cl QcOQc. h8l IS Icm8Ik8Dc IS hOW OHcn lhIS h8S Dccn 8CCOm-
QIShcd. LuI InIlI8 Sludy m8dc Il Cc8I lh8l WhIc OC8lIOn IS 8 QIcIcQ-
uISIlc lOI SuCCcSS, Il In nO W8y 8SSuIcS Il. bOmc Ollhc WOISl Q8Z8S 8Ic
In lhc DcSl SQOlS LcncI8 NOlOIS Sunkcn Q8Z8, lOI Onc, ncXl lO Onc
Ol lhc gIc8l OuldOOI IOOmS OlPcW XOIk.
P Ollhc Q8Z8S 8nd Sm8 Q8IkS lh8l Wc SludIcd h8d gOOd OC8-
lIOnS, mOSl WcIc On lhc m8]OI8VcnucS, SOmc On 8llI8ClIVc SIdc SlIcclS.
P WcIc COSc lO DuS SlOQS OI SuDW8y Sl8lIOnS 8nd h8d SlIOng QcdcS-
lII8n OWS On lhc SIdcW8kS DcSIdc lhcm. Xcl Whcn Wc I8lcd lhcm
8CCOIdIng lO lhc numDcI Ol QcOQc SIllIng 8l Qc8k lImc, lhcIc W8S 8
WIdc I8ngc. lIOm l 6 QcOQc 8l 77 8lcI blIccl lO l 7 8l 2& 8Ik
PVcnuc.
MOW COmc?hc BISll8ClOIWcSludIcd W8Slhc Sun. c lhOughl Il
mIghl Wc Dc lhc CIIlIC8 Onc, 8nd OuI BISl lImc-8QSc SludIcS Sccmcd
lO Dc8I lhIS Oul. buDScQucnl SludIcS dId nOl. PS l WI nOlc 8lcI, lhcy
dId ShOW lh8l Sun W8S ImQOIl8nl Dul dId nOl cXQ8In lhc dIcIcnCcS In
lhc QOQu8IIly Ol Q8Z8S.
POI dId 8cSlhclICS. c ncVcI lhOughl OuIScVcS C8Q8Dc Ol mc8-
SuIIng SuCh l8ClOIS, Dul Wc dId cXQcCl OuI IcSc8ICh lO ShOW lh8l lhc
mOSl SuCCcSSlu Q8Z8S lcndcd lO Dc lhc mOSl Qc8SIng VISu8y. bc8-
gI8m Sccmcd VcIy muCh 8 C8Sc InQOInl. McIc 8g8In lhcIcW8S COnICl-
Ing cVIdcnCc. Lc8n, ccg8nl bc8gI8m W8S SuCCcSSlu, Dul SO W8S lhc
lun Q8Z8 8l 77 8lcI blIccl, WhICh SOmc 8IChIlcClS OOkcd On 8S
QuIc kIlSCh. hc ccg8nCc 8nd QuIIly Ol8 COmQcXS dcSIgn, Wc h8d lO
COnCudc, h8d Illc Ic8lIOnShIQ lO lhc uS8gc Ol lhc SQ8CcS 8IOund Il.
hc dcSIgncI SccS lhc WhOc DuIdIng lhc Cc8n VcIlIC8S, lhc
hOIIZOnl8S, lhc W8y NIcS luIncd hIS COIncIS, 8nd SO On. hc QcISOn
SIllIng On lhc Q8Z8 m8y Dc QuIlc un8W8Ic OlSuCh lc8luIcS. McIS mOIc
8Ql lO Dc OOkIg In lhc OlhcI dIIcClIOn. nOl uQ 8l lhc OlhcI ccV8lIOnS
Dul 8l Wh8l IS gOIng On 8l cyc cVc. O S8y lhIS IS nOl lO SIghl lhc
dcSIgncIS cyc OI hIS h8ndIng Ol SQ8Cc. hc 8Ic8 IOund bc8gI8m IS 8
gIc8l uID8n Q8Cc 8nd IlS Ic8lIOnShIQ lO NCIm, Nc8d, hIlcS
8CQucl LuD 8CIOSS lhc SlIccl IS InlcgI8 lO Il. Ny QcISOn8 lccIng IS
lh8l lhc Bnc ScnSc OlcnClOSuIc COnlIIDulcS lO lhc cnOymcn OluSIng
lhc bc8gI8m 8Z8. ul CcIl8Iny C8nnOl QIOVc lhIS WIlh BguIcS.
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Ollhc COmmISSIOnS uID8n dcSIgn gIOuQ DcIcVcd lhIS W8S VcIy ImQOI-
l8nl 8nd hOQcd OuI BndIngS WOud SuQQOIl lIghl CIIlcII8 lOI QIOQOI-
lIOnS 8nd Q8Ccmcnl. hcy WcIc Q8IlICu8Iy 8nXIOuS lO Iuc Oul SlIIQ
Q8Z8S Ong, n8IIOW SQ8CcS lh8l WcIc Illc mOIc lh8n cn8Igcd SIdc-
W8kS, 8nd cmQly Ol QcOQc mOIc lImcS lh8n nOl. hc uID8n dcSIgn
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can bc madc unaittablc.
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SQcCIBC, 8nd Il C8mc nOl lIOm dcVcOQcIS Oul lIOm mcmOcIS Ol8 COm-
munIly OO8Id. hcI Q8Ik8nd-OQcn-SQ8Cc Ch8IIm8n S8Id lh8l Il WOuld
Oc WIOng lO SQcl Oul lhc IcQuIIcmcnlS n dcl8Il. nSlc8d, lhc ZOnIng
ShOud l8y dOWn 8 OIO8d dIIcClVc lOI cX8mQc, m8kc lhc Q8Z8 SIl-
l8Olc 8ndcl lhchOW-lOOllhISOcWOIkcd Oul ngIVc-8nd-l8kc8CIOSS
lhc l8Olc OclWccn dcVcOQcI, 8IChIlcCl, 8nd COmmunIlyOO8Id QcOQc.
Lcl mc Q8uSc lO dc8l WIlh lhIS 8Igumcnl. l IS 8 QcISu8SIVc Onc
cSQcCI8ly lOI 8ymcn, 8nd 8l lhc IncVl8Olc mOmcnl In ZOnng mccl-
ngS Whcn COnluSIOn IcgnS, SOcOnc WIl gcl uQ 8nd S8, lclS Cul
lhIOugh lhIS CI8Q 8nd gcl dOWn lO O8SICS. NuCh 8QQl8uSc. c dOnc
WIlh ZOnIng gOOOlcdygOOk. OWn WIlh OuIc8uCI8lIC nIl-QCkIng.
ul 8Ck OlgudclncS IS 8 muCh WOISc QIOOcm. llhc hOmcWOIk
h8S nOl Occn dOnc OclOIch8nd, lhc SQcCIBCS h8Shcd Oul 8IOund lhc
l8Olc Wl 8mOunl lO SQOl ZOnng, 8nd 8l IlS lOOScSl. IIm CIlcII8 C8n
OcCOmc Ould8lcd, Oul SO C8n OuIdIng COdcS. hc mOI8 IS lO kccQ
lhcm uQ lO d8lc, nOl lO dO 8W8y Wlh lhcm.
L8Ck Ol guIdclIn0S, Il W8S S8Id, gIVc 8IChIlcClS mOI0 lI00dOm lO

%0Sl l0C00llv0 Z00l0g


0I0l080C0S 8I0 v0Q
S0Cl0C 8S l0 wO8l lO0
00v000I g0lS. O0y
8I0 0USOy 8S l0 wO8l
O0 SO0U0 glv0. 70U
0USl I0SCIlD0 l0
00l8l. P00g0l ll l0
wIlll0g.
P 0l000Sl00 lO8l lS
lIUy l00Il80l lS lO0
OU080 D8CKSl00. l lS 8
0l000Sl00 080y
8ICOll0ClS lg00I0. N0l
0R00 wly0U 000 8
00g0 0I D00CO lO8l lS
000 000UgO l0 D0
Slll8D0 00 D0lO Sl00S.
000 8I00l Slll8D0 00
000.
L Y
InnOV8lc. l lhIS WcIc SO, lhc QcIIOd 8llcI lhc Q8SS8gc Ol lhc 96l
ZOnIng WOud h8Vc Dccn 8 gOdcn 8gc lOI Q8Z8 dcSIgn. hcIc WcIc
VIIlu8y nO guIdcIncS. Pnd VcIy lcW gOOd Q8Z8S WcIc DuIl. L8Ck Ol
guIdcIncS W8S 8 lOICc lOI mcdIOCIIly. LcVcOQcIS W8nlcd lhc mInI-
mum dOnc, 8nd dOnc COnVcnlIOn8y. Pnd lh8l IS Wh8l lhcy gOl.
PmDIguIly 8S lO Wh8l lhc dcVcOQcI muSl QIOVIdc IS 8n InVIl8lIOn
lO QIOVIdc Illc. NOSl InCcnlIVc ZOnIng OIdIn8nCcS 8Ic VcIy SQcCIBC 8S
lO Wh8l lhc dcVcOQcI gcls. hc QIODcm IS lh8l m8ny 8Ic I8lhcI
muShy 8S lO Wh8l hc ShOud gIVc 8nd muShIcI ycl 8S lO Wh8l WI
h8QQcn 8lcI Ilhc dOcSnl. 8guc dIIcClIVcS, 8S 8 numDcI OlCIlIcS h8Vc
c8Incd, 8Ic uncnlOICc8Dc. XOu muSl QIcSCIIDc In dcl8I. Pnd gcl Il In
WIIlIng.
bRg
Lnc guIdcInc Wc lhOughl WOud Dc c8Sy lO cSl8DISh W8S lOI
SIllIng hcIghlS. lSccmcd ODVIOuS cnOugh lh8l SOmcWhcIc 8IOund SI-
lccn lO ScVcnlccn InChcS WOud QIOD8Dy Dc lhc OQlImum. ul hOW
muCh hIghcI OI OWcI COud 8 SuIl8Cc Dc 8nd SlI Dc SIll8Dc? h8nkS
lO SOQcS, ScVcI8 Ollhc mOSl QOQu8I cdgcS QIOVIdcd 8 I8ngc OlCOn
lInuOuSy V8II8Dc hcIghlS. hc lIOnl cdgc 8l bc8gI8m, lOI c8mQc,
Sl8Ilcd 8l ScVcn InChcS 8l Onc CODcI 8nd IOSc lO lOIlylOuI InChcS 8l
lhc OlhcI. McIc W8S 8n OQQOIlunIly lOI 8 dcBnIlIVc Sludy, Wc lhOughl,
Oy IcCOIdng OVcI tmc hOW m8ny QcOQc S8t 8t Wh8t hcghtS, Wc
WOud gcl 8 Sl8lISlIC8 mc8SuIc OlQIclcIcnCcS.
c dIdnl. Pl 8ny gIVcn lImc lhcIc WOud Dc CuSlcIS OlQcOQc 8l
Onc hcIghl, lcWcI On 8nOlhcI. ul SuCh COIIc8lIOnS dId nOl 8Sl VcIy
Ong. hcn Wc Cumu8lcd m8ny d8yS OlODScIV8lIOnS, Wc lOund lh8l

QcOQc h8d Dccn dISlIIDulIng lhcmScVcS WIlh Icm8Ik8Dc cVcnncSS


OVcI lhc WhOc I8ngc OlhcIghlS. c h8d lO COnCudc lh8l QcOQcWI
SIl 8mOSl 8nyWhcIc DclWccn 8 hcIghl Ol Onc lOOl 8nd lhIcc, 8nd lhIS
W8S lhc I8ngc lh8l W8S lO Dc SQcCIBcd In lhc ZOnIng. cOQc WI SIl
OWcI OIhIghcI, OlCOuISc, Dul lhcIc 8Ic 8Ql lO Dc SQcCI8 COndIlIOn
8 W8 lOO hIgh lOI mOSl 8dulS lO mOunl Dul]uSl IIghl lOI lccn8gcIS.
PdImcnSIOn lh8l IS lIuy ImQOIl8nl IS lhchum8nD8CkSIdc. lIS8
dImcnSIOn m8ny 8IChIlcClS IgnOIc. H8Icy WI yOu Bnd 8 cdgc OI
DcnCh lh8l IS dccQ cnOugh lO Dc SIll8Dc On DOlh SIdcS. bOmc 8Icnl
dccQ cnOugh lO Dc SIll8Dc On Onc. NOSl lIuSlI8lIng 8Ic lhc cdgcS]uSl
dccQ cnOughlO lcmQlQcOQclO SIl OnDOlh SIdcS, DullOOSh8OW lOcl
lhcm dO SO COmlOIl8Dy. Pl Qc8k lImcS QcOQc m8y SIl On DOlh SIdcS
Dul lhcy WOnl Dc COmlOIl8Dc dOIng Il. hcy WI Dc SIllIng On lhc
lOIW8Id cdgc, 8WkW8Idy.
huS lO 8nOlhcI Ol OuI Sl8IlIng BndIngS. cdgcS 8nd SQ8CcS lWO
P
1be Design o/ 3aces j i
5
]
D8CkSIdcS dccQ Sc8l mOIc QcOQc lh8n lhOSc lh8l 8Ic nOl 8S dccQ. LuI
IcCOmmcndcd dcQlh W8S 8IIIVcd 8l QuIlc QI8gm8lIC8y. hc mInI
mum-dcQlh cdgc Wc C8mc 8CIOSS h8l W8S COnSISlcnly uScd On DOlh
SIdcS W8S lhIIly InChcS dccQ. {IOnl cdgc, 277 8Ik PVcnuc). l 8
cdgc IS 8l c8Sl lh8l dccQ 8nd IS 8CCcSSIDc OnDOlh SIdcS, lhc cnglh Ol
c8Ch SIdc COunlS 8S Sc8lIng.
OI 8 lcW 8ddIlIOn8 InChcS OldcQlh, lhcn, 8dcVcOQcIC8n dOuDc
lhc 8mOunl OlhIS cdgc-SIllIng SQ8Cc. hIS dOcS nOl mc8n lh8l dOuDc
lhc numDcIOlQcOQcWI uSc lhccdgc. hcy QIOD8Dy WOnl. ullh8l
IS nOl lhc QOInl. hc DcncBl Ollhc 8ddIlIOn8 SQ8Cc IS SOCI8 COmlOIl.
hcIc WI Dc mOIc IOOm lOI gIOuQS 8nd IndIVIdu8S lOSOIl lhcmScVcS
Oul, mOIc ChOICc, 8nd mOIc QcICcQlIOn Ol ChOICc.
blcQSWOIklOIlhc S8mcIc8SOn. hcy 8OId 8nInBnIlyOlQOSSIDc
gIOuQIngS, 8nd lhc cXCccnl SIghl IncS m8kc 8 lhc Sc8lIng gIc8l lOI
W8lChIng lhc lhc8lIc Ollhc SlIccl. blcQS 8Ic nOl VcIy COmlOIl8Dc, lhcy
8Ic COd, lhcIc IS nO Ic8 D8Ck SuQQOIl, 8nd lhcIc IS Ollcn nOl cnOugh
dcQlh lOI COmlOIl. Ilh nO S8CIIBCc OllhcII Sl8II lunClIOn, hOWcVcI,
lhcy COud Dc m8dc mOIc COmlOI8Dc. L8ndSC8Qc 8IChIlcCl 8u
IIcdDcIg SQcCIBcS 8 lIc8d dcQlh Ol 8l c8Sl lOuIlccn InChcS lOI hIS
SlcQS, SInCc lhIS m8IIIcS Wc WIlh 8 OW IIScI Ol, S8y, SIX OI SIX 8nd 8
h8lInChcS, lhc SlcQS 8Ic 8SO VcIy c8Sy gOIng uQ 8nd dOWn On.
c dcCIdcd nOl lO CIcdIl SlcQS 8S IcQuIIcd SIllIng SQ8Cc. l lhcy
WcIc, dcVcOQcIS COud h8Vc lOO c8Sy 8n Oul, 8nd SOmc Q8Z8S WOud
Dc mOSly SlcQS 8nd Illc cSc. ul SlcQS ShOud Dc Q8nncd WIlh QcO-
QcS SIllIng lcndcnCIcS InmInd. hISIS cSQcCI8y lhc C8Sc WIlh CODcIS
Ol SlcQS.
O undcISl8nd Why, cl uS OOk 8g8In 8l lhc SOCI8 Ilc Ol Q8Z8S.
hc m8]OIIly Ol lhc QcOQc WhO uSc Q8Z8S 8Ic In Q8IIS OI gIOuQS Ol
lhIcc OI mOIc. NOSl SIllIng IS Inc8I. hS IS Bnc lOI IndIVIdu8S, 8
IIghl lOI Q8IIS, Dul nOl VcIy gOOd lOI lhIcc OI mOIc. LcH lO 8II8ngc
lhIngS lOI lhcmScVcS, 8S WIlh Ch8IIS, QcOQc In gIOuQS WI QOSIlIOn
lhcmScVcS 8l 8ngcS SOmcWhcIc 8IOund lOIly-BVc dcgIccS. hIS IS lhc
mOSl COmlOIl8Dc lOI l8kIng, 8nd lhc mOSl COmlOIl8Dc lOI DIOWn D8g
unChIng.
IlhOul knOWIng Il, 8IChIlcClS dcSIgn lOI SuCh gIOuQIngS Whcn
lhcy h8Vc SlcQ CODcIS, 8nd cSQcCI8y SO WIlh 8 cdgc 8DullIng 8l 8
IIghl 8ngc. IOuQS 8Ic 8llI8Clcd lO lhcSc Q8CcS. Pnd SO, nOl SO Q8I8
dOXIC8y, 8Ic QcdcSlII8nS On lhc mOVc. bc8gI8m IS 8 C8SSIC cX8mQc.
cOQc WhO 8Ic cnlcIIng 8nd c8VIng lhc DuIdIng Dy lhc m8In 8Ik
PVcnuc dOOIW8yS W8k On lhcdI8gOn8 DclWccn lhc dOOIW8yS 8nd lhc
SlcQ COIncIS. n lhc QIOCcSS lhcy DIScCl Wh8l 8Ic Ollcn lhc DuSIcSl
c8lIng 8nd SIllIng SQ8CcS On lhc SlcQS. LOnICl? hcOIclIC8y, ycS.
I8ClIC8y, nO. OI 8 lhc DuSlc, OI DcC8uSc Ol Il, lhc SIllcIS dOnl
Sccm lO mInd. OI dO lhc W8kcIS. bOmclImcS lIQlOcIng, lhcy WI
A
`1 0

+
00CO0S 8I0 00Sg0
8Il8ClS lO0 uI0S0 0
wOCO S l0 u0Clu8l0
8ICOl0CluI8
O0l0gI8OS.
[ i 6
] L Y
lhIc8d lhcII W8y lhIOugh lhc CumQS Ol QcOQc I8lhcI lh8n l8kc Ong
dclOuIS 8IOund lhcm.
c lOund SImI8I Q8llcInS 8l OlhcI Q8CcS. P lhIngSDcIng cQu8,
yOu C8n C8Cu8lc lh8l WhcIc QcdcSlII8n OWS DIScCl 8 SIll8Dc Q8Cc,
lh8l IS WhcIc QcOQc WI mOSl Ikcy SIl. Pnd Il IS nOl SO QcIVcISc Ol
lhcm. l IS Dy ChOICc lh8l lhcy dO. llhcIc IS SOmc COngcSlIOn, Il IS 8n
8mI8Dc Onc.
LIICu8lIOn 8nd SIllIng, In Sum, 8Ic nOl 8nlIlhclIC8 Dul COmQc
mcnl8Iy. SlIcSS lhIS DcC8uSc 8 gOOd m8ny Q8nncIS lhInk lhc lWO
ShOud Dc kcQl ScQ8I8lc. NOIc lO lhc QOInl, SO dO SOmc ZOnIng COdcS.
PcW XOIkS C8cd lOI QcdcSlII8n CIICu8lIOn 8Ic8S ScQ8I8lc lIOm
8ClIVIly 8Ic8S lOI SIllIng. cOQc IgnOIc SuCh DOund8IIcS.
c lcl lh8l QcdcSlII8n CIICu8lIOn lhIOugh 8nd WIlhIn Q8Z8S
ShOud Dc cnCOuI8gcd. 8Z8S lh8l 8Ic Sunkcn OI ccV8lcd lcnd lO 8l-
lI8Cl OW OWS, 8nd lOI lh8l Ic8SOn lhc ZOnIng SQcCIBcS lh8l Q8Z8S Dc
nOl mOIc lh8n lhIcc lccl DcOW SlIccl cVc OI 8DOVc Il. hc c8SIcI lhc
OW DclWccn SlIccl 8nd Q8Z8, lhc mOIc Ikcy lhcy 8Ic lO COmcIn 8nd
l8IIy 8nd SIl.
hIS IS lIuc Ol lhc h8ndIC8QQcd 8SO. l 8 Q8Cc IS Q8nncd WIlh
lhcII nccdS InmInd, lhc Q8Cc IS 8Ql lO lunClIOn mOIc c8SIy lOI cVcIy-
Onc. LIInkIng lOunl8InS lh8l 8Ic OW cnOugh lOI WhccCh8II uScIS 8Ic
OW cnOugh lOI ChIdIcn. 8kW8yS lh8l 8Ic m8dcc8SIcIlOI lhch8ndI-
C8QQcd Dy I8mQS, h8ndI8IS, 8nd SlcQS Olgcnlc QIlCh 8Ic c8SIcIlOI 8.
hc guIdcIncS m8kc SuCh 8mcnIlIcS m8nd8lOIy, SQcCIlyIng, 8mOng
othcr thngs, that stcps along thc man walkways havc trcads at lcast
l l InChcS dccQ 8nd IIScIS nO hIghcI lh8n 7. 5InChcS, 8nd lh8l I8mQS Dc
Q8Ccd 8OngSIdc lhcm. (MIndSIghl IndIC8lcS Wc ShOud h8Vc m8dc lhc
dImcnSIOnS 2 InChcS 8nd 6. 5 InChcS). OI lhc DcncBl Ol lhc h8ndI-
C8QQcd, IlIS IcQuIIcd lh8l 8l c8Sl 5 QcICcnl Ollhc Sc8lIng SQ8CcS h8Vc
D8CkIcSlS. hcSc 8Ic nOl ScgIcg8lcd lOI lhc h8ndIC8QQcd. PO l8CIIlIcS
8IcScgIcg8lcd. hcIdc8 IS lO m8kc 8 OllhcQ8Cc uSclu lOI cVcIyOnc.
6uCh65
cnChcS 8Ic dcSIgn 8IlIl8ClS lhc QuIQOSc OlWhICh IS lO QunClu8lc
8IChIlcCluI8 QhOlOgI8QhS. hcy 8IcmOSl OllcnSIlcd InmOdu8IlOIm,
SQ8Ccd cQuIdISl8nl lIOm Onc 8nOlhcI In 8 SymmclIy lh8l IS Qc8SIng In
Q8n VIcW. hcy 8Ic nOl VcIy gOOd, hOWcVcI, lOI SIllIng. hcIc 8Ic
uSu8y lOO lcW Ol lhcm, lhcy 8Ic lOO ShOIl 8nd lOO n8IIOW, lhcy 8Ic
ISO8lcd lIOm OlhcI DcnChcS 8nd lIOm Wh8l 8ClIOn lhcIc IS lO OOk 8l.
LclS l8kc lhcm8llcIOlSIZc 8nd Q8Ccmcnl. hc SOCI8 SIlu8lIOn IS
mOIc ImQOIl8nl lh8n lhc QhySIC8. hcn lhcIc 8Ic lcW QcOQc 8IOund,
lhc COmlOIl8Dc dISl8nCc DclWccn SlI8ngcIS IS l8IIy WIdc. lyOu 8Ic

1be Design o/ 3aces


Onc Ol lhc lcW QcOQc SIllIng, 8nd 8 SlI8ngcI COmcS 8nd SIlS On yOuI
DcnCh nlc8d Ol8n cmQly Onc, lhctc C8n Dc 8 IOng lccIng OlInlIu
SIOn. lSIkcSIllIngIn 8 nc8IcmQly lhc8lIc8nd h8VIngSOmcOncCOmc
8nd l8kc 8 Sc8l COSc lO yOuIS.
PS 8 SQ8Cc BS uQ, SOCI8 dISl8nCcS COnlI8Cl. POW Onc dOcS nOl
mInd SlI8ngcIS SIllIngCOScIDy. hcy h8VclO, SO IlIS InOIdcI. LIOWd-
Ing, In 8 ScnSc, C8n m8kc CIOWdIng mOIc lOcI8Dc.
8lCh hOW DcnChcS B uQ. hc BISl 8IIIV8 WIl uSu8y l8kc lhc
cnd Ol8 DcnCh, nOl lhc mIddc. hc ncXl 8IIIV8 WIl l8kc lhc cnd Ol
8nOlhcI DcnCh. buDScQucnl 8IIIV8lS hc8d lOI Wh8lcVcI cnd SQOlS 8Ic
nOl l8kcn. Lny Whcn lhcIc 8Ic lcW OlhcI Q8CcS cll WI QcOQc SIl In
lhc mIddc Ollhc DcnCh, 8nd SOmc WI ccCl lO Sl8nd.
bInCc IlS lhc cndS Ol lhc DcnChcS lh8l dO mOSl Ol lhc WOIk, Il
COud Dc 8Igucd lh8l DcnChcS Oughl lO Dc ShOIlcncd SO lhcyIc 8 cnd
8nd nO mIddc. ul lhc unuScd mIddcS 8Ic lunClIOn8 lOI not DcIng
uScd. hcy QIOVIdc DucI SQ8Cc. hcy 8SO QIOVIdc ChOICc, 8nd IlIl IS
lhc c8Sl QOQu8I ChOICc, lh8l dOcS nOl ncg8lc IlS ulIIly.
bm8 DcnChcS 8Ic mc8n. bOmclImcS lhcy 8Ic QuIQOScy m8dc
Sm8 SO lhcy WI Dc lOO ShOIl lOI undcSII8DcS lO SccQ On. NOSl lImcS
lhcy 8Ic m8dc Sm8 Oul Ol IgnOI8nCc Ol lhcII OIdIn8Iy lunClIOnS. bO-
CI8ly 8nd QhySIC8y, DcnChcS 8Ic DcSl Whcn lhcy 8Ic gcncIOuSy QIO-
QOIlIOncd. hcIcVcI QOSSIDc lhcy ShOuld Dc 8l c8Sl cIghl lccl Ong.
LOnlInuOuS cnglhS OlDcnChcS, Ikc cdgcS 8nd SlcQS, QIOVIdc 8 S8lISly-
Ing I8ngc OlSIllIng QOSSIDIIlIcS. hc COnVcnlIOn8 Q8Ik DcnCh IS Ollcn
8Id Oul In 8 COnlInuOuS Inc 8Ong W8lkW8yS, 8nd Il lunClIOnS VcIy
Wc lh8l W8y.
hIS IS Inc8I SIllIng 8nd Ilh8S CcIl8In 8dV8nl8gcS In hIgh-dcnSIly
SIlu8lIOnS. cC8uSc lhcy 8Ic OOkIng OulW8Id, 8 Ol Ol QcOQc C8n SIl
QuIlc COSc WIlhOul ImQIngIng On OlhcIS QIIV8Cy. Ilh Wh8l LIVIng
LOm8n lcImcd CIVIl In8llcnlIOn Onc C8n nOlc OlhcIS QIcScnCc 8nd
c8Vc Il8llh8l. h8lm8kcSQcOQcunCOmlOIl8Dc ISdIIcClcyc COnl8Cl
WIlhSlI8ngcIS. Iuc, QcOQcIkclOOOk8l OlhcIQcOQlc, Dullhcy dOnl
Ikc lO Dc C8ughl 8l Il 8nd lhcy dOnl Ikc lO Dc OOkd at. n BmIng
QcOQcS Dch8VIOI In QuDIC Q8CcS, h8Vc lOund lh8l C8mcI8S dO nOl
DOlhcI lhcm. ul Il lhcy Scc mc OOkIng dIIcClly 8l lhcm, IlOny lOI 8
ScCOnd OI SO, lhcy 8Ic On lO lhc g8mc 8nd lhcy SOmclImcS gcl QuIlc
8nnOycd. dO nOl Dl8mc lhcm.
nOlcd c8IlIcI lh8l Whcn lhcy h8Vc lhc ChOICc, QcOQc In gIOuQS
Ol lWO OI mOIc Ikc lO QOSIlIOn lhcmScVcS SO lh8l lhcy 8Ic C8lly-
CODcIcd lIOm c8Ch OlhcI lh8l IS 8l 8n 8ngc DclWccn lOIly-BVc 8nd
nIncly dcgIccS. l IS c8Sy lO QOSIlIOn DcnChcS lO gIVc SuCh ChOICc. n-
Slc8d OlSlIIngIng lhcm Oul On 8 Inc, 8 lh8l h8S lO DcdOnc ISO Ql8Cc
SOmc Ollhc DcnChcS 8l IIghl 8nglcS lO OlhctS. H8Icly IS lhIS dOnc, OI
cVcn COnSIdcIcd. n lhc lcW C8ScS WhcIc Il h8S Dccn dOnc, lhc DcnChcS

[ i i & ]
L
8Ic 8Ql lO Dc lOO l8I 8Q8Il lOI 8 COmlOIl8Dc SOCt8 OtSl8nCc tkc 8
COcc l8Dc lh8l tS]uSl 8 lcW tnChcS m8OOcntngy Oul Ol Ic8Ch Ol lhc
SOl8.
cnChcS Q8CcO 8l Itghl 8ngcS ShOuO nOl Dc DullcO uQ 8g8tnSl
c8Ch OlhcI. bOmc SQ8Cc Oughl lO Dc cll lQcOQc 8Ic lO Stl COmlOIl-
8Dy 8CIOSS lIOm c8Ch OlhcI, lhcIc ShOuO Dc cgIOOm 8nO SOmc SOCt8
OtSl8nCc. MOW muCh? h8Vc m8Oc 8 SluOy Ol lWOSOmcS 8nO lhIcc-
SOmcS tn Stlltng Stlu8ltOnS 8nO lhc nOSc-lO-nOSc OtSl8nCcS lhcy ccCl.
hcSc WcIc cyc cSltm8lcS, 8nO nOl VcIy QIcCtSc. h8O lO lOISWc8I l8Qc
mc8SuIcS. ul lOunO I8ngcS l8tIy COnStSlcnl. Ltghlccn tnChcS tS 8
WOIk8Dcmtntmum. XOung OVcIS gcl COScIlh8n lh8lDul mOSl QcOQc
OO nOl. P WOIk8Dc m8Xtmum tS lhtIly tnChcS. clWccn lhcSc tmtlS
lhc gIc8l m8]OItly OlnOSc-lO-nOSc OtSl8nCcS Wt l8. hc mOSl tmQOI-
l8nl V8It8Dc tS nOtSc. LulOOOIS tn lhc Ctly C8n b VcIy nOtSy, 8nO lO
l8k c8Sty 8nO hc8I c8Sty QcOQc tnCh lhcmScVcS muCh COScI tn
nOtSy Q8CcS lh8n QutclcI OncS.
OI DcnCh Q8Ccmcnl, lhcSc BguIcS tnOtC8lc 8n 8II8ngcmcnl SuCh
8S lhtS.
'
'
'
l lhc CODcI-lO-COIncI OtSl8nCc DclWccn lhc DcnChcS tS 8DOul 8
lOOl, lhcy Wt Dc l8I cnOugh 8Q8Il lO QIOVtOc cgIOOm Dul COSc
cnOugh lOI COmlOIl8Dc COnVcIS8ltOn. hcIc Wt 8SO Dc cnOugh IOOm
lOI DIOWn D8gS. btmQy Dy Shtlltng 8 lcW tnChcS, QcOQc C8n c8Sty
8O]uSl OtSl8nCcS, 8S tnSltnCltVcy lhcy OO SO Wc.
hcIc tS 8nOlhcI8OV8nl8gc lODcnChcS. ltlluInSOullhcy 8Ic nOl
tn lhc DcSl OC8ltOnS, OcStgncIS C8n mOVc lhcm lO DcllcI OncS. l tS
htghy unuSu8 lOI lhtS lODc OOnc, hOWcVcI. lWOuO C8 lOI BISlh8nO
ODScIV8ltOn Ol hOW lhc DcnChcS 8Ic WOIktng. LcStgncIS BnO tl VcIy
OtBCul lO OO SuCh ODScIV8ltOn, cl 8Onc IcCOgntZc lh8l lhc OcStgn tS
nOl WOIktng lhc W8y lhcy lhOughl tl WOuO.
htS tS Why OcStgncIS ShOuO Dc Ch8Iy Ol lOO muCh COnCIclc. l
lhcy lIccZc 8 lhctI Stlltng SQ8CcS tn COnCIclc, lhcy lIccZc lhctI 8S-
SumQltOnS lh8l, lOI cX8mQc, QcOQcW8nl lOStll8Ctng8W8y lIOmlhc
8CltOn. ltl IOVcS WIOng lhcIc tS nOl muCh lh8l Wt Dc OOnc 8DOul tl
1be Design o/ 3aces
htS h8S Dccn 8 QIODcm Wtlh 8 numDcI Ol QcdcSlIt8n m8S. P lhc
dcStgn DclS WcIc m8dc DclOIc lhc m8S WcIc COmQclcd. n OQcntn
d8y lhcy WcIc ]8mmcd 8nd WcIc QIOC8tmcd SuCCcSScS. hcn lhc
D8ndS SlOQQcd Q8ytng, hOWcVcI, 8nd lhc CIOWdS cH, lhc m8S WcIc
Qul lO lhc lcSl Ol nOIm8 uS8gc. hcIc WcIc cSSOnS h8ISh cSSOn~
Dul nO c8Sy W8y lO hccd lhcm. Pnd lhcy WcIc nOl hccdcd.
cStgncIS ShOud Dc cSQcCt8y C8Iclu Ol 8mQhtlhc8lcIS. OO
m8ny OllhOSc h8Vc Sccn tn uSc h8Vc 8n tnlcgI8 8W. lhcIc tS8 8Igc
g8Q DclWccn lhc BISl IOWS 8nd lhc QcIlOImcS. htS m8kcS dtBCul
lh8l 8IC Ol 8llcnltOn DclWccn QcIlOImcI 8nd 8udtcnCc lh8l tS SO CItlt-
C8. Pnd tl tSnOl IcmcdtcdDy luDtnguQ lhc VOumcOnlhc8mQtBcIS.
8lCh 8gOOd SlIcclQcIlOImcIWOIk 8CIOWd. McDcCkOnS lhcmCOScI.
lS lhc QcOQc tn lhc BISl lWO OI lhIcc I8nkS lh8l hc COnCcnlI8lcS On.
mmcdt8Cy tS]uSl8S tmQOIl8nllOI Sm8-gIOuQ QIOgI8mS tnQ8IkS 8nd
SQu8IcS. OI 8n 8udtcnCc OluQ lO 8DOul l 25 QcOQc]uSl 8 Q8tn SQ8Cc,
gI8SSy OI Q8Vcd, Wt ScIVc 8dmtI8Dy. llhc 8udtcnCc tS cH lO BguIc
tlS OWn dtSQOStltOn tl Wt QIOD8Dy g8lhcI 8IOund tn 8 l8tIy COhcStVc
Q8llcD. cOQc 8Ic Qutlc gOOd 8l lhtS. OI 8Igc cVcnlS, SuCh 8S 8
COnCcIl Dy lhc OC8 SymQhOny, muCh mIc c8DOI8lc l8CttltcS 8Ic tn
OIdcI. 8Igc QOIl8Dc Sl8gcS, hc8Vy duly8mQtBcIS 8nd cQutQmcnl, 8nd
lhc tkc. PmQhtlhc8lcI Sc8ltng C8n Dc Bnc, Dul 8 l8Cttly dcStgncd lO
mccl O8dS Ol l ,OI mOIc QcOQc C8n Dc Oul OlSC8c lOI lhc tndtVtd-
u8 8nd Sm8-gIOuQ 8llI8CltOnS lh8l 8Ic lhc Sl8Qc Ollhc SummcI l8Ic
Ol QuDtC SQu8IcS.
hcIcOughl lODcmOIccXQcItmcnl8ltOn. hcSlOCkdcStgnS Ollhc
DcnCh m8nul8CluIcIS COmc tn 8 Sh8QcS 8nd StZcS 8nd cnd lhcmScVcS
Wc lO dtcIcnl COnBguI8ltOnS. bm8 Q8llOIm DcnChcS ScIVc Wc 8S
tnkS DclWccn DcnChcS 8nd 8Ic lhcmScVcS cmtncnly mltQuIQOSc. l
dcStgncIS W8nl lO lIy Oul 8 ncW 8yOul, QcOQcWtDc VcIy QutCk lO cl
lhcm knOW Dy lhctI Dch8VtOt WhclhcI tl WOIkS OI nOl. l SOmcOnc
OOkS. l WOud Dc mOSl nOVc, 8nd V8u8Dc, tllhcIc WcIc 8 Q8n lh8l
COunlcn8nCcS lhc QOSStDttly lh8l lhc tntlt8 8yOul COud Dc tmQIOVcd
lh8l C8S lOI QOSlCOnSlIuCltOn cV8u8ltOn Ollhc cSSOnS, 8nd 8CltOn
lO m8kc uSc Ollhcm. l WOud 8SO hcQ tllhc ltmc 8g W8S 8 yc8I OI
cSS I8lhcI lh8n 8 dcC8dc OI mOIc.
LhBt5
c COmc nOW lO 8 WOndctlu tnVcnltOn. lhc mOV8Dc Ch8tI. M8V-
tng 8 D8Ck, tl tS COmlOIl8Dc, 8nd cVcn mOIc SO tl tl h8S 8ImIcSlS 8S
Wc. ul lhc Dtg 8SScl tS mOV8Dttly. Lh8tIS cn8Igc ChOtCc. lO mOVc
tnlO lhc Sun, Oul Ol tl. lO mOVc COScI lO SOmcOnc, luIlhcI 8W8y lIOm
8nOlhcI.
hc QOSStDttly Ol ChOtCc tS 8S tmQOIl8nl 8S lhc cXcICtSc Ol tl. l

^PJ
*
Fcolc likcto movcmovablcchaira. Evcn thouh thcrcacarato bcnoloical
rcaaon. thc] ma] movca chaia]ootor morc bc]orcaittin on it did thia
woman at Chaac Manhattan Flaza.

1be Design o/ 3aces j i z i ]


yOu knOW yOu C8n mOVc Il yOu W8nl lO, yOu C8n lcc 8 lhc mOIc
COmlOl8Dc Sl8yng Qul. hS IS Why, QcIh8QS, QcOQc SO Ollcn 8Q-
QIO8Ch 8 Ch8I 8nd lhcn, DclOIc SIllng On l, mOVc lhc Ch8I 8 lcW
nChcS lhS W8y OI lh8l, Bn8y cndng uQ Wlh lhc Ch8II ]uSl 8DOul
WhcIc Il W8S In lhc BISl Q8Cc. hcSc mOVcS 8Ic lunClIOn8. hcy 8Ic 8
dcC8I8lIOn Ol OncS lIcc W lO OncScl, 8nd I8lhcI S8lISlyng. n lhIS
Onc Sm8 m8llcI yOu 8Ic lhc m8SlcI Ol yOu l8lc.
bm8 mOVcS C8n S8y lhIngS lO OlhcI QcOQc. l 8 ncWCOmcI
ChOOScS 8 Ch8II ncXl lO 8 COuQc In 8 CIOWdcd Slu8lOn, hc m8y m8kc
ScVcI8 mOVcS WIlh lhc Ch8II. Mc IS COnVcyng 8 mcSS8gc. bOIIy 8DOul
lhc COScncSS, Dul Il C8nl Dc hcQcd 8nd 8m gOIng lO IcSQcCl yOuI
QIIV8Cy 8S yOu WI mnc. P IcCIQIOC8 ShIll Ol 8 Ch8II m8y SIgn8
8CknOWcdgmcnl.
Lh8I 8II8ngIng Dy gIOuQS IS 8 IIlu8 WOIlh W8lChIng n 8 gIOuQ
Ol lhIcc OI lOuI WOmcn, Onc m8y Dc dOmn8nl 8nd dIcCl lhc SIllng,
InCudIng lhc lclChIng Ol8n cXlI8 Ch8II. NOIc lImcS, lhc mcmDcIS Ol
lhc gIOuQ WOIk l Oul lhcmScVcS, OHcn WIlh l8Sc Sl8IlS 8nd ScCOnd
ChOICcS. hc Ch8II8II8ngIngC8n l8kc QuIlc8 DIl Ollmc On OCC8SIOn
l S IlScl 8 l Ol IcCIc8lIOn Dul QcOQc cn]Oy Il. 8lChIng lhcSc
cXcICIScS In CIVIly IS Onc Ol lhc Qc8SuIcS Ol 8 gOOd Q8Cc.
IXcd IndIVIdu8 Sc8lS dcny ChOICc. hcy m8y Dc gOOd lO OOk 8l,
8nd n lhc lOIm OlSlOOS, mcl8 OVc Sc8lS, gI8nIlc CuDcS, 8nd lhc kc,
lhcy m8kc nlcIcSlIng dcCOI8lVc ccmcnlS. h8l IS lhcII QIIm8Iy lunC-
lIOn. OI SllIng, hOWcVcI, lhcy 8Ic IncXIDc 8nd SOCI8y unCOmlOIl-
8Dc.
bOCI8 dISl8nCc DclWccn QcOQc S 8 SuDlc dImcnSIOn, cVcI Ch8ng-
Ing. ul lhcdISl8nCcSOlBXcd Sc8lS dO nOl Ch8ngc 8ndlh8l ISWhylhcy
8Ic I8Icy QuIlc IIghl lOI 8nyDOdy. LOVc Sc8lS m8y Dc 8 IIghl lOI
OVcIS, Dul lhcy 8Ic lOO COSc lOI 8CQu8Inl8nCcS 8nd muCh lOO COSc lOI
SlI8ngcIS. LOncIS lcnd lO l8kc lhcm OVcI, QIOQQng lhcII lccl On lhc
OlhcI Sc8l SO nO Onc cSc WI SIl On Il.
hcIc SQ8Cc IS 8l 8 QIcmum In lhc8lIcS, Sl8dI8 BXcd Sc8lS 8Ic
8 ncCcSSIly. n OQcn SQ8CcS, hOWcVcI, lhcy 8Ic unC8cd lOI, lhcIc IS SO
muCh SQ8Cc 8IOund lhcm lh8l lhc COmQIcSSIOn m8kcS lOI 8WkW8Id
SIllIng. n lhc8lIcS SlI8ngcIS Sl ncXl lO c8Ch OlhcI WIlhOul Qu8m,
COnVcnlIOn m8kcS Il lOcI8Dc. n OQcn SQ8CcS, hOWcVcI, lhc COScncSS
IS m8nul8CluIcd. hc dcSIgncI h8S COnlIiVcd I! 8nd hc WIl DIOOk nO
Ch8ngcS. POW, yOu SIl hcIc, lhc Sc8lng S8yS, 8nd yOu Sl lhcIc. hcIc
IS 8 m8nIQu8lIVc CulcncSS 8DOul lhcSc gIOuQIngS lh8l m8kcS SOmc
QcOQc D8k Ln Onc C8mQuS 8 gIOuQ Olmcl8 OVc Sc8lS W8S Ccmcnlcd
lO lhc Q8VIng WI!h cQOXy guc, In ShOIl OIdcI lhcy WcIc WIcnChcd Oul
Ol QOSIlIOn Dy SludcnlS. hc dcSIgncI IS unIcQcnl8nl. MIS OVc Sc8lS
h8Vc WOn ScVcI8 dcSIgn 8W8IdS.
N8Inlcn8nCc QcOQc 8Ic Ollcn hOSlIclO Ch8IS 8nd DclOIc lhc l8Cl
lX00 l00lvl0U8 S08lS
000y C00lC0. 00
00Slg00I lS S8yl0g y0U
Sll 00I0 800y0U Sll
l00I0. 0lS lS 80g80l
00l0. 000 8I0
0UC0 D0ll0I 8l l0lS
l080 00Slg00IS.
t z z ]
L X
W Qf0QhcSy lh3l m0Sl W Dc S00D Sl0cD. c 00ud D0l m3nd3lc
lhcm B lhc Z0BBg gudcBcS Dul Wc dd Dud n 3B B0cBlVc. c
0tcdlcd 0h3tS Wh lhtly B0hcS 0l SllBg SQ30c, lh0ugh m0Sl 3tc
0ny 3D0ul nclccB B0hcS Wdc. hc 0ly S DudBg dcQ3flmcBl 0D-
]c0lcd. l 0D]c0lcd l0 lhc dc3 0l m0V3Dc 0h3fS 3l 3 . l h30 lhc
fcSQ0BSDly 0lSccBglh3l DudctS Vcd uQ l0 fcQufcmcBlS. buQQ0Sc
lhc 0h3fS Wcfc Df0KcB 0f Sl0cB 3Bd lhc Dudcf ddn l fcQl30c lhcm
hclhctlhc dcQ3tlmcBl W0ud cVcf0hc0K uQ B 3By cVcBl W3S 3 m00l

Q0Bl, Dul l W3S lfuc lh3l lhc lcWcf 3mcBlcS lhcfc Wcfc l0 m0Bl0f,
lhc c3Scf lhc]0D W0ud Dc.
M3QQy, lh0 0h3tS Sl3ycd B. LBc fc3S0B W3S lhc d00umcBl3l0B
W0 00uld I00u00 0B lh0 0X00ll0Bl I000Id 0llh0 0h8tS 8l Ql800S Su0h
8S 80y 3Bd f00B30fc Q3tKS 3Bd Q3Z8S Su0h 8S 3l0f blt00l.
h0fc h3d D00B Vcfy llc V3Bd3Sm 3l 3By 0l lh0m.
c tc00td SB0c lh0B h3S DccB cQu3ly cB00uf3gBg. h0 0h3fS
h8V0 D000m0 8 Sl3Bd8Id 3m0Bly l BcW Ql800S, 8B0 Wllh l0W m8lBl0
B8B00 QI0Dl0mS. N8B8g0m0nlS h8V0 Dc0B 0BlV0BBg 0XlSlBg S800S
8Bd, 8l 8 BumD0t 0l lh0m, 8d0Bg 00BSdct8Dy tc 0h8tS lh3B lh0
gu00llB0S t0Qut0d. LBc t08S0B h8S Dccn 00Sl. hcB Wc 0t0W uQ lh0
gud0BcS B lh0 08ty ScV0Bl0S 8D0ul lh0 0hc8QcSl 0h8t3V38l0 f8B
3f0uBd , 3Bd lhc c03 0h3t, lhc BcW 03SS0 0l 0h3tS, 3Dul
$ U. bB0c lh0B l W0ud 3QQc8f lh3l cVcty Sm3l 0ly lf0m l3y l0
3W8B h3SD00B lutBBg 0ul Whl0 VBy-003lcd Slccl-mcSh 0h8IS. B0
Qt0c S B0W d0WB l0 uBdct l . hcfc S tc3y n0 Q0Bl l0 Sl03Bg
.
h0 m0Sl g0Bct0uS Qf0Vl00f h8S D00B l0 0lf0Q0ll8B NS0u
0lPtl. LB lh0 SQ80cS 0n clh0I S0c 0llS lI0Bl SlcQS l QulS 0ul uQ l0
lW0 huBdtcd m0V3Dc 0h3tS, 3Bd l c3VcS lhcm 0ul, lWcBly-l0uf
h0utS 3 d3y, S0VcB dyS 3 WccK. hc Ncl gutcd l W0ud 00Sl lcSS l0
Duy tcQl30cmcBlS l0f 0Sl 0f d3m3gcd 0h3tS lh3B l0 h3Vc lh0 0h8IS
Df0ughl B cVcty nghl 3Bd Qul 0ul cVcfy m0fBBg. hc SySl0m h8S
W0fKcd Bc.
LBc 0lhc Qc3S0BlcSl DdBgS h0S DccD lhc DcBc00 cc0l m0V
3Dc 0h3fS h3Vc h3d 0B cdgc 3nd DcB0hcS. hcy Qf0Vdc c3tSc3llng
BBc l0f BdVdu3S 0t lW0S0mcS Dul 0tdn3fy n0l Vcty g000 0t
gf0uQS. hcB lhctc 3tc lhfcc 0f l0uf Qc0Qc, y0u W B0lc lh3l lhcy
0llcB W mQt0VSc 3 gt0uQ 3tt3BgcmcBl Wlh 0Bc 0f lW0 Sl8BdBg,
t3lhcf lh3B SllBg 0B lhc R3BKS.
hS W3S Q3fl0u3ty lhc 03Sc 3l B00B LcBlcf. lS 0cBlcc W3S
hc3Vy Wcghlcd Wlh gt0uQS, 3Bd D0l0tc m3lBccS lhc lt8V0Iln0
cdgcS 0l lhc lcc Q3BlctS W0ud Dc Vcty S003Dc Q3BlcS. ul cV0B
WcB lhcfc W3S cXlf3 f00m 0B lhc cdgcS, 0Bc 0f m0fc mcmDctS 0l3
gf0uQ W0ud Sl3Bd S0 lh3l lhcy 3 W0ud Dc B 3 l30c-l0-l30c 00Bgu
t3l0n. hc 0cnlcfQc0c W0ud 0llcDDc3 D0llc 0lWBc3Bd S3ndW0hcS
0n lhc cdgc.
1be Design o/ 3aces
IcCOmmcndcd lhc QIOVISIOn Ol ScVcI8 hundIcd mOV8Dc Ch8IIS.
hcIc W8S Qcnly OlSIllIng SQ8Cc QcI Sc 8Ic8dy, Dul lcl lhcDcSl uS
OlCh8IIS WOud Dc 8S SuQQcmcnlS lO cdgc Sc8lIng. h8l IS lhc W8y Il
WOIkcd Oul. hcIc W8S muCh uSc Ol Ch8IIS 8S IndIVIdu8 Sc8lIng, Dul
lhcmOSl lIcQucnl uSc W8S lO COnVcIl lhc cdgcS Inc8I Sc8lIng lO l8Cc-
lO-l8Cc Sc8lIng lOI gIOuQS. c h8d 8 dcVI Ol8 lImc gcllIng lhc Ch8IIS
Oul On lhc Q8Z8S 8 kcy lunClIOn8Iy W8S dc8d Scl 8g8InSl lhcm Dul
OnCc lhcy WcIc Oul, QcOQc hcQcd lhcmScVcS 8nd dId lhc Ch8II 8I

I8ngg.
l W8S8COnVIVI88II8ngIng, 8nd lhcQ8Z8SncVcIOOkcdSOQc8S-
8nl OIWOIkcd SO Wc. PS lOI V8nd8ISm, Whcn lhc Ch8IIS WcIcScCuIcd
8l nIghl WIlh WIIcS 8nd Q8dOCkS, lhcIc WcIc nO OSScS.
hc D8llc W8S WOn lhc C8uSc W8S OSl. LInCOn LcnlcI IcVcIlcd.
hcIc 8Ic Ch8IIS dOWn In lhc SlOI8gc 8Ic8S Dul lhcy 8Ic nOl Qul Oul
8nymOIc. hcy mIghlDc SlOcn. llhcy 8Ic nOlQul Oul, hOWcVcI, lhcy
WI nOl Dc SlOcn. bO lhcy 8Ic nOl Qul Oul 8nd lhcIc IS nO QIODcm.
huS lhc InSlIlulIOn8 ImQcI8lIVc.
P mOIc SuCCcSSlu lII8 lOOk Q8Cc On lhc Q8Z8 OllhcL88S LIly
M8. hc DuIdIng W8S SlIIkIng, Dul lhc Q8Z8 W8S nc8I cmQly mOSl Ol
lhc lImc, 8nd Onc l8ClOI W8S lhc Sc8lIng. l W8S 8 ScIIcS Ol COnCIclc
DcnChcS 8Id Oul In 8 mOdu8I Q8llcIn lh8l h8d Illc lO dO WIlh QcOQc
OWS OISun. LllhIIly-lOuIDcnChcS Ony lhIcc WcIc SIlcd SO lh8l lhcy
WOud Dc In lhc Sh8dc Ol8 lIcc. hcIc W8S COnSIdcI8Dc ScnlImcnl lOI
dcmOIShIng lhc DcnChcS. l Ch8IIS WcIc QIOVIdcd, hOWcVcI, lhc
DcnChcS mIghl QIOVc uSclu In OlhcI W8yS 8S l8DcS, lOI cX8mQc. bO
lhcy dId. ul lhc mOSl lIcQucnl uSc Ol lhc DcnChS h8S Dccn 8S lOOl-
IcSlS.
P S8ulc lO gI8SS IS In OIdcI. l IS 8 WOndcIluy 8d8Ql8Dc SuD-
Sl8nCc, 8nd WhIc Il IS nOl lhc mOSl COmlOIl8Dc Sc8lIng, Il IS Bnc lOI
n8QQIng, SunD8lhIng, QICnICkIng, 8nd IISDcc lhIOWIng. LIkc mOV8Dc
Ch8IIS, Il 8SO h8S lhc gIc8l 8dV8nl8gc Ol OcIIng QcOQc lhc WIdcSl
QOSSIDc ChOICc OlSIllIng 8II8ngcmcnlS. hcIc 8Ic 8n InBnIly OlQOSSI-
Dc gIOuQIngS, Dul yOu WI nOlclh8l lhc mOSl lIcQucnlh8S QcOQc Scl-
QOSIlIOncd 8l ODIQuc 8ngcS lIOm c8Ch OlhcI.
LI8SS OcIS 8 QSyChOOgIC8 DcncBl 8S Wc. P Q8lCh OlgIccn IS 8
IclIcShIng COunlcI lO gI8nIlc 8nd COnCIclc, 8nd Whcn QcOQc 8Ic 8Skcd
Wh8llhcy WOuld lIkc lO Scc In 8 Q8Ik, lIccS 8nd gI8SS uSu8lly 8Ic 8l lhc
lOQ Ollhc ISl. hc CIlIZcn gIOuQS lh8l dId lhc hOmcWOIk On lhc COm-
QclIlIOn lOI lhc IcdO Ol LOQcy bQu8Ic In OSlOn WcIc unIlcd On Onc
QIImc IcQuIIcmcnl lh8l Il Dc SOH 8nd gIccn. bO Il WI Dc, WIlh 8
COmmOn 8nd OlS Ol lIccS.
llhcIc 8Ic SOmc hIS OI SOQcS, SO muCh lhc DcllcI lOI lhc gI8SS,
8nd Il lhcIc 8Ic nOnc lhcy C8n Dc CIc8lcd. Lnc Ol PcW XOIkS mOSl
dcIghllu ncW Q8IkS, 8ShInglOn N8Ikcl 8Ik, W8S CIc8lcd On 8 8l
+
P S8Ul0 l0 gI8SS. l lS
S0 808l8D0, 000 0I
Sllll0g, 08l0g,
SU0D8lOl0g, lC0lCKl0g,
800 SD00 8yl0g.
LlK0 CO8lIS, ll I0vl00S
8 l0ll0SS CO0lC0 0
8I80g0000lS.
Dcllc: dcvclocrHcrlcn Crowconvcrtcd thcround]ooro/ccrkincrcc
to:cvcrcl:ho:, c Chinc:c tckc-outlccc. cndcourmctdclicctc::cn,lcntcd
c bo:quc o/honc] locu:t:,ut out tcblc: cnd chcir:. 1hc rc:ult i: onc o/thc
mo:t concnicl:ccc: in town.
W
W
W
W
W
W
W
ddition o/morcblc chcir: ct Dcllc: Cit] Hcll Flczc cllow: concrctc bcnchc:
to bcutto hihc:t cndbc:t u:c.
ha:hington Markct Fark, Ncw York Cit]. 1avorcd :cating hcrc i: gra:: .

j i z 6
]
L Y
Stlc. 8ndSC8Qc 8tChtlcCl cc ctnlt8uO h8d 8 htlOCk Olc8tlh Ctc8lcd
tn lhc mtddc 8nd Q8nlcd tl Wtlh gt8SS. l h8S OcCOmc 8 l8VOtcd Q8Cc
lOt QtCntC unChcS lOt OBCc WOtkctS O-Qc8k, Chtdtcn l8kc OVct. Pn-
Olhct Bnc gt8Sy Q8Cc tS lhc 8Wn Ol ty8nl 8tk. hc C8Q8Ctly tS
gtc8l On 8 Sunny d8y lhctc Wtl Oc CuSlctS OlcOlc 8l OVct 8nd Onc
muSl SlcQ C8tcluy nOl lO cnCtO8Ch.
0W uch b6atRg
PQucSltOn Wc h8d lO tcSOVc lOtlhc gutdctncSW8S lhc 8mOunl Ol
Stlltng SQ8Cc lO Oc tcQuttcd. c SQcnl 8 Ol Olltmc On lhtS muCh lOO
muCh, nOW tc8tZc 8nd m lcmQlcd lO tcCOunl OutV8ttOuS C8Cu8-
ltOnS lO dcmOnSlt8lc hOW COnSCtcnltOuS Wc Wctc. hc ltulh tS lh8l
8mOSl 8ny tc8SOn8Oc y8tdSltCk WOud WOtk 8S Wc 8S OutS. l tS lhc
l8Cl Ol Onc lh8l tS tmQOtl8nl.
htS S8td, nOW cl mc lc yOu hOW COnSCtcnltOuS Wc Wctc. c
mc8Sutcd 8nd tcmc8Sutcd lhc Stlltng SQ8Cc On lhc Q8Z8S 8nd Sm8
Q8tkS tn mtdlOWn 8nd dOWnlOWn PcW XOtk. PS Stlltng SQ8Cc, Wc
tnCudcd 8l lhc SQ8CcS mc8nllOt QcOQclOStlOn, SuCh 8S OcnChcS, 8nd
lhc SQ8CcS lhcy S8l On lhOugh lhcy Wctc nOl mc8nl lO, SuCh 8S cdgcS.
PlhOugh 8tChtlcClS Q8nS Wctc hcQlul Wc dtd mOSl Ollhc mc8Suttng
OutScVcS, Wtlh 8 l8Qc, tn lhc QtOCcSS Slttttng muCh CuttOStly ltOm
gu8tdS 8nd Q8SSctSOy.
1be Design o/ 3aces
cXl, Wc Ic8lcd lhc 8mOunl O SIllIng SQ8Cc lO lhc SIZc O lhc
Q8Z8. hc SQu8Ic ccl O SIllIng SQ8Cc On lhc DcSl-uScd Q8Z8S I8n
DIWn 68nd QICnI OIh IOI8 OQn SQ8Cc. PS 8 D8Q8IkuI,
Il Sccmcd Ih8l SOmcWhcIc 8IOund QcICnl WOud Dc 8 Ic8SOn8Dc
mInImum lO IcQuIIc
OI OlhcI COmQ8IISOnS Wc luDcd lO Inc8I ccl. hIS IS 8 mOIc
QIcCISc mc8SuIc OSIllIngSQ8Cclh8n SQu8Ic ccl, 8nd 8 mOIc IcVc8Ing
Onc. PS Ong 8S lhcIc IS SOmc C8I8nCc 8l OncS D8Ck, lhc 8ddIlIOn8
SQu8Ic InChcS DchInd dO nOl m8llcI VcI muCh l IS lhc cdgcS O
SIllIng SQ8Cc lh8l dO lhc WOIk, 8nd Il IS lhc cdgcS lh8l ShOud Dc m8dc
lh mOSl O.
OI 8 D8SIS O COmQ8IISOn, Wc lOOk lhc numDcI O Inc8I ccl
8IOund lhc lOl8 SIlc. bInCc lhc QcIImclcI InCudcS lhc DuIdIng, lhc
dISl8nCc IS 8 mc8SuIc Olhc Duk O lhc QIOcCl 8nd IlS ImQ8Cl On lhc
SuIIOundIng cnVIIOnmnl PmcnIIIcS ShOud lhcIcOIcD In SOmcQIO-
QOIlIOn lO Il. Ln lhc mOSl QOQu8I Q8Z8S, lhcIc WcIc 8mOSl 8S m8n
ccl OSIllIng SQ8Cc 8S lhcIc WcIc QcIImclcI ccl. hIS SuggcSlcd lh8l,
8S 8 mInImum, dcVcOQcIS COud Dc 8Skd lO QIOVIdc lh8l 8mOunl O
SIIlIng SQ8Cc.
LVcn On lhcDcSl Q8Z8S, lhc 8IChIlcClSCOud h8Vc dOncDcllcI. O
gcl 8n Idc8 O hOW muCh DcllcI, Wc C8Cu8lcd lhc 8ddIlIOn8 SQ8Cc
lh8l COud h8Vc Dccn QIOVIdcd On V8IIOuS Q8Z8S I8lhcI c8SI, WhIc
lhc OIIgIn8 Q8nS WcIc DcIng dI8cd. c dId nOl QOSIl 8n Ch8ngcS In
lhc D8SIC 8Oul, nOI dId W l8kc lhc c8S W8 O 8ddIng 8 Ol O
DcnChcS. COnCcnlI8ld On Sc8lIng lh8l WOud Dc InlcgI8 lO lhc
8IChIlcClS dcSIgn.
nmOSl C8ScS Il W8S QOSSIDc lO 8dd 8S muCh 8S 5QcICcnl mOIc
SIlIIng SQ8Cc, 8nd VcI gOOd SQ8Cc8l lh8l. hcLXXOn 8Z8, OI cX8m-
Qc, h8S 8 8Igc QOO DOIdcId D lWO SIdc cdgcS Ih8I Ou C8nl SIl On.
Ilh 8 W Ch8ngcS, SuCh 8S 8DIO8dnIng O Ihc cdgcS, lhc S8lIng
C8Q8CIl Olhc Ql8Z8 COud h8Vc Dccn dOuDcd. P In 8, lhcSc cX8m-
QcS IndIC8lcd, dcVcOQcIS COud c8SI QIOVIdc 8S m8n ccl OSIllIng
SQ8Cc 8S lhcIc 8Ic ccl 8IOund lhc QcIImclcI O lhc QIOcCl.
hc IcQuIIcmcnl Bn8 Scllcd On W8S 8 COmQIOmISc Onc Inc8I
OOl OSIllIng SQ8Cc OI cVcI lhIIl SQu8Ic ccl OQ8Z8 SQ8Cc. l W8S
lO QIOVc QuIlc ScIVICc8D, Indccd, WIlh nO Ch8ngcS Il W8S 8dOQlcd
vcrbatm n thc zonng rcgulatons of many ctcs. By all accounts,
dcVcOQcIS h8Vc Dcn mcclIng lhc IcQuIIcmcnl WIlh nO lIOuDc.
lCOud Dc 8Igucd lh8l lhc IcQuIIcmcnl ShOud Dc SlIcI. ul lhc
cX8ClI8lIO IS nOl8S ImQOIl8nl8S lhc8ClOOnc. LnCc 8n 8IChIlcCl8nd
dcVcOQcI Sl8Il COnSIdcIIng W8S O m8kIng 8 Q8Cc SIll8Dc, Il WI Dc
dICul nOl lO SuIQ8SS 8n mInImum. Pnd OlhcI lhIngS OOW. NOIc
lhOughl muSlDc gIVcn lO lhc QIOD8Dc QcdcSlII8n OWS, lhc Q8Ccmcnl
8nd QIlCh O SlcQS, Q8nlIng DcdS OI lIccS, 8nd lhc Ikc. LmD8Ikcd On
00 0I0u8 0I 0guIl0g
l00 800u0l 0Sllll0g
S8C0 I0ulI00 w8S 8
D8CK0l00-00v000
C00I00lS0. l 08S
D000 00S0Il000l0
C0u0l0SS Z00l0g
0I0l080C0S 8CI0SS l00
C0u0lQ, v0ID8ll0. l
w0IKS 000.

W8S 8I0 Ul U 0 l00


0Sl8K00 00l00 l08l
l00y wm 08K0 8 S8C0
00 S80I. 00y 08K0
l 00 S08l00 800
g000y.
[ z & j
L Y
SuCh 8 COuISc, Il DcCOmcS 8mOSl c8SIcI lO CIc8lc 8 BISl-I8lc Ql8Cc lh8n
8 mcdIOCIc Onc. Lnc lclICIly c8dS lO 8nOlhcI.
6lB0R5h 0 h6 bt66
Lcl uS luIn lO 8 mOIc dIBCul COnSIdcI8lIn. Ilh lhc kInd Ol
8mcnIlIcS Wc h8Vc Dccn dISCuSSIng, lhcIc 8Ic ScCOnd Ch8nCcS. l lhc
dcSIgncIS h8Vc gOOlcd On Sc8lIng, mOIc 8nd DcllcI Sc8lIng C8n Dc QIO-
VIdcd. l lhcy h8Vc Dccn lOO SlIngy WIlh lIccS, mOIc lIccS C8n Dc
Ql8nlcd. l lhcIc IS nO lOOd, 8 lOOd C8Il C8n Dc Qul In QOSSIDy, 8
Sm8 Q8VIIOn OI g8ZcDO. l hcIc IS nO W8lcI lc8luIc, 8 Dcncl8ClOI
mIghlDc QcISu8dcd lOdOn8lc8 Sm8l QOO OI lOunl8In. h8nkSlOSuCh
IclIOBllIng, SQ8CcS Icg8Idcd 8S hOQccSS dOgS h8VcDccn gIVcn ncW Ilc.
h8l IS mOSl dIBCul lO Ch8ngc, hOWcVcI, IS Wh8l IS mOSl ImQOI-
l8nl lhc OC8lIOn Ollhc SQ8Cc 8nd IlS Ic8lIOnShIQ lO lhc SlIccl. hc
Ic8 cSl8lc QcOQc 8Ic Itghl 8DOul lOC8lIOn, OC8lIOn, OC8lIOn. OI 8
SQ8Cc lO lunClIOn lIuy Wcl Il muSl Dc CcnlI8 lO lhc COnSlIlucnCy Il IS
lOScIVc 8nd IlnOl In QhySIC8l dISl8nCc, In VISu8l 8CCcSSIDIIly. NOnu-
mcnl LIICc In ndI8n8QOIS 8nd Ounl8In bQu8Ic In LInCInn8lI 8Ic
cXCclcnl cX8mQlcS.
hc SlIccl lunClIOnS 8S Q8Il Ol lhc Q8Z8 OI SQu8Ic, Indccd, Il IS
OHcn h8Id lO lcl WhcIc lhc SlIccl c8VcS O8nd lhc Ql8Z8 DcgInS. hc
SOCI8l Ilc Ol lhc SQ8CcS OWS D8Ck 8nd lOIlh DclWccn lhcm. Pnd lhc
mOSl Vl8l SQ8Cc O 8ll S Ocn lhc SlIccl COIncI. 8lCh Onc Ong
cnOugh 8nd yOu WIll Scc hOW ImQOIl8nl Il IS lO lhc Ilc Ol lhc 8Igc
SQ8CcS. hcIc WIllDc QcOQc In !QcICcnl COnVcIS8lIOnS OIQIOOngcd
gOOdDycS. llhcIc IS 8 lOOd VcndOI 8l lhc CODcI, Ikc LuS 8l bc8gI8m,
QcOQc WIl Dc CuSlcIcd 8IOund hIm, 8nd lhcIc WIl Dc 8 DIISk lOOl
lI8BC DclWccn CODcI 8nd Q8Z8.
lIS 8 gIc8l ShOW, 8nd Onc Ollhc DcSl W8yS lO m8kc lhc mOSlOlIl
IS, SImQly, nOl lO W8l O lhc Ql8Z8 lIOm Il. IcdcIICk L8W LmSlcd
SQOkc Ol 8n InlcIIOI Q8Ik 8nd 8n OulcI Q8Ik, 8nd hc 8Igucd lh8l
lhc 8llcI lhc SuIIOundIng SlIcclS W8S VIl8 lO lhc cn]Oymcnl Ollhc
lOImcI. Mc lhOughl Il 8n 8DOmIn8lIOn lO ScQ8I8lc lhc lWO WIlh W8S
OI, WOISc ycl, WIlh 8 SQIkcd IIOn lcnCc. n cXQIcSSIOn 8nd In 8SSOCI8-
lIOn, hc S8Id, Il IS In lhc mOSl dISlInCl COnlI8dIClIOn 8nd dISCOId
WIlh 8 lhc ScnlImcnl Ol8 Q8Ik. l DclOngS lO 8]8I OI lO lhc IcSIdcnCc
Ol8 dcSQOl WhO dIc8dS 8SS8SSIn8lIOn.
ul W8llS 8Ic SlIl DcIng Qul uQ, uSu8lly In lhc mISl8kcn nOlIOn
lh8l lhcy WIl m8kc lhc SQ8Cc lccl S8lcI. hcy dO nOl. PS Wc WIl l8kc
uQ In lhc Ch8QlcI On undcSII8DlcS, lhcy m8kc 8 SQ8Cc lcc ISO8lcd 8nd
gOOmy. LcSScI dclcnSIVc mc8SuIcS C8n WOIk 8mOSl 8S muCh d8m8gc.
hc lIOnl IOWS Ol 8 SQ8Cc WhclhcI cdgcS OI SlcQS OI DcnChcS 8Ic
1be Design o/ 3aces
lhc DcSl Ol SIllIng Q8CcS, ycl lhcy 8Ic Ollcn mOdIBcd 8g8InSl hum8n
uSc. Pl lhc cncI8 NOlOISuIdIng On Illh PVcnuc, lhc lIOnl cdgcS
l8Cc Oul On Onc Ol lhc gIc8lcSl OlQIOmcn8dcS. ul yOu C8nnOl SIl O
lhc cdgcS lOI mOIc lh8n 8 mInulc OI SO. hcIc IS 8 luSSy Illc I8IIng
lh8l C8lChcS yOu IIghl In lhc Sm8 OlyOuI D8Ck. dO nOl lhInk Il W8S
dcIDcI8lcy Q8nncd lO dO SO. ul Il dOcS 8nd yOu C8nnOl SIl lOI mOIc
lh8n 8 lcW mOmcnlS DclOIc yOuI D8Ck huIlS. PnOlhcI lWO InChcS Ol
Cc8I8nCc lOI lhc I8IIng 8nd yOu WOud Dc COmlOIl8Dc. ul d8y 8llcI
d8y, yc8I 8llcIyc8I, Onc Ollhc gIc8l lIOnl IOWS gOcS SC8ICcy uScd, lOI
W8nl OllWO InChcS. L8nlcd cdgcS, cSQcCI8y OncS OlQOIShcd m8IDc,
8Ic 8nOlhcI nuIlyIng lc8luIc. 3Ou C8n 8mOSl SIl On lhcm IlyOu kccQ
QIcSSIng dOWn On yOuI hcc h8Id cnOugh.
PnOlhcI W8y lO Cul 8 Q8Z8 O lIOm lhc SlIccl IS lO SInk Il OI
ccV8lc Il. P lcW lccl cIlhcI W8y WI nOl m8kc muCh dIcIcnCc, Dul
OnCc Q8Sl lhIcc lccl lhc SQ8Cc C8n DcCOmc Ic8lIVcy In8CCcSSIDc. l IS
nOl 8 QhySIC8 m8llcI SO muCh 8S 8 QSyChOOgIC8 Onc. P SQ8Cc lh8l IS
m8lcII8y hIghcI OI OWcI lh8n SlIccl cVc IcQuIIcS 8 dcCISIOn. Lnc
Q8Z8 lh8l QcOQcCOudDc cXQcClcd lO uSc DuldO nOl IS Ony 8 lcW lccl
hIghcI lh8n COmQ8I8Dc OncS lh8l QcOQc dO uSc. ul Il SccmS muCh
hIghcI. hc SlcQS 8Ic n8IIOW, QIlChcd 8l 8 Sh8IQ 8ngc, 8nd Sh8IQy
dcBncd Dy I8IIngS.
bIghl IncS 8Ic ImQOIl8nl. l QcOQc dO nOl Scc 8 SQ8Cc, lhcy WI
nOl uScIl. nlhcCcnlcIOl8nS8S LIly W8S 8 munICIQ8 Q8Ik]uSlhIgh
cnOugh 8DOVc cyc cVc lh8l Q8SScISDy dId]uSl lh8l Q8SScd Dy. lW8S
8 OSl Q8Ik unlI IcdOnc WIlh 8 muCh mOIc 8CCcSSIDc SlIccl DOIdcI.
bImI8Iy OSl W8S 8 Sm8 Q8Z8 In bc8llc. l W8S Wc OC8lcd 8nd
cn]OycdOlSOlWh8lcVcISun bc8llcgOl. lWOudIkcy h8VcDccn VcIy
QOQu8IIlQcOQc COud h8Vc Sccn Il lIOm lhc SlIccl. hcy ncVcI COud.
l W8S lCkcd 8W8y On 8 mcZZ8nInc cVc.
\ncSS lhcIc IS 8 COmQcIng Ic8SOn, OQcn SQ8CcS ShOud nOl Dc
Sunk. Ilh Ony 8 lcW cXCcQlIOnS, Sunkcn Q8Z8S 8Ic dc8d Q8Z8S. XOu
Scc lcW QcOQcIn lhcm. llhcIc 8Ic 8ny SlOIclIOnlS, SOmc WI luIn Oul
lO h8Vc dummy dISQ8yS lO m8Sk lhc V8C8nCIcS. \ncSS lhc Q8Z8 IS On
lhc W8y lO 8 SuDW8y, Why gO dOWn InlO Il? LnCc lhcIc, yOu lcc 8S Il
yOu WcIc 8l lhc DOllOm Ol 8 Wc. cOQc OOk 8l yOu. ul yOu dOnl
OOk uQ 8l lhcm.
P kccn ODScIVcIOlSQ8CcS IS lhc d8nCcI 8IIyn OOdS. lh hcI
lIOuQc, Shc h8S Sl8gcd ChOIcOgI8QhIC CccDI8lIOnS Ol QuDIC Q8CcS
8CIOSS lhc COunlIy. hc DcSl Q8CcS, nOl lOO SuIQIISIngy, m8kc lOI lhc
DcSl QcIlOIm8nCcS 8nd lhc mOSl 8QQIcCI8lIVc 8udIcnCcS. bc8gI8m 8nd
LInCInn8lIS Ounl8In bQu8Ic 8Ic 8l lhc lOQ OlhcI ISl. Pl lhc DOllOm
8IcSunkcn Q8Z8S. hcy lcl dc8d, Shc IcC8S, 8S Il8 W8 h8d Dccn Qul
DclWccn lhc d8nCcIS 8nd lhc 8udIcnCc.
h8l 8DOul HOCkclccI 8Z8? l h8S 8 Sunkcn Q8Z8 In lhc mId

lgOl l00S 8I0


l00Il80l. l000 00
00l S00 8 S8C0, lO0y
wm 00l uS0 ll.

L
dlc 8nd Il IS 8 VcIy SuCCcSSlu Q8Cc. bO IlIS. ul lhOSc WhO CIlc Il 8S 8n
8Igumcnl lOI Sunkcn Q8Z8S ShOud l8kc 8 COScI OOk 8l hOW Il WOIkS.
hc OWcI Q8Z8 IS Ony 8 Sm8 Q8Il Ol8 m8]OI uID8n SQ8Cc, 8nd Il IS
nOl lhc Q8Il WhcIc mOSl Ol lhc QcOQc 8Ic. hcy 8Ic In lhc lIcIS Ol 8n
8mQhIlhc8lcI. m8ny 8Ic 8l SlIccl cVc, On lhc SQ8Cc lh8l SOQcS dOWn
lIOm IHh PVcnuc, OI On lhc D8COnyIkc W8kS On cIlhcI SIdc Ollhc
Q8Z8. Lny 8DOul 2 QcICcnl 8Ic On lhc OWcI cVc. n 8 ScnSc, lhcy
8Ic ShIS lOI lhc Q8Cc. n WInlcI lhcIc IS ICc Sk8lIng, In SummcI, 8n
OQcn-8II C8l.
hc Q8Z8 Ol lhc BISl P8lIOn8 8nk Ol LhIC8gO IS 8SO QuIlc
Sunkcn SOmc cIghlccn lccl Dcnc8lh SlIccl cVc. hIS W8S lO QIOVIdc
Icl8I D8nkIng lIOnl8gc, InOIS D8nkS DcIng cn]OIncd lIOm DI8nCh
D8nkIng. bunkcn OInO, Il h8S QIOVcd Onc Ollhc mOSl SuCCcSSlu Q8Z8S
In lhc COunlIy WIlh Wc OVcI 8 lhOuS8nd QcOQc On Il 8l unCh On 8
nICc d8y. l IS SuCCcSSlu DcC8uSc ]uSl 8DOul cVcIylhIng h8S Dccn dOnc
lO m8kcIl SuCCcSSlu lhcIc IS Qcnly OlSIllIng SQ8Cc, 8n OuldOOIC8l,
8 lOunl8In, muI8SDyLh8g8, 8nd uSu8y muSIC 8nd cnlcIl8Inmcnl 8l
mIdd8y.
hc IISl P8lIOn8 Q8Z8 h8S 8n cXCccnl Ic8lIOnShIQ lO lhc
SlIccl. hc DIO8d SIdcW8kS 8Ic Q8Il OlIlS SQ8Cc 8nd lhcIc IS 8 SlIOng
ScCOnd8Iy uSc Ol lhc Q8Z8 Dy lhc Q8SScISDy. N8ny Q8uSc lO OOk 8l
Wh8lS gOIng On. bOmc WI dIIH dOWn 8 lcW SlcQS, lhcn 8 lcW mOIc.
Ikc HOCkclccI 8Z8, Il lunClIOnS 8S 8n 8mQhIlhc8lcI, WIlh ScVcI8
lIcIS Ol QcOQc OOkIng 8l QcOQc WhO 8Ic OOkIng 8l QcOQc WhO 8Ic
OOkIng 8l lhc ShOW.
P gOOd SQ8Cc DcCkOnS QcOQc In, 8nd lhc QIOgIcSSIOn lIOm SlIccl
lO InlcIIOI IS CIIlIC8 In lhIS IcSQcCl. dc8y, lhc lI8nSIlIOn ShOud Dc
SuCh lh8l IlS h8Id lO lc WhcIc Onc cndS 8nd lhc OlhcI DcgInS. 3Ou
ShOudnl h8Vc lO m8kc 8 COnSIdcIcd dcCISIOn lO cnlcI, Il ShOud Dc
8mOSl InSlInClIVc. 8cy 8Ik IS lhc DcSl OlcX8mQcS. hc SIdcW8k In
lIOnl Ol Il IS 8n InlcgI8 Q8Il Ol lhc Q8Ik 8nd IS Q8Vcd WIlh lhc S8mc
m8lcII8, Q8nlcd WIlh lhc S8mc lIccS 8nd OWcIS hc SlcQS 8Ic c8Sy
8nd InVIlIng 8nd On cIlhcI SIdc 8Ic CuIVcd SIllIng cdgcS. n lhIS lOycI-
Ikc SQ8Cc yOu C8n uSu8y Scc SOmcOnc W8IlIng lOI SOmcOnc cSc Il IS
8 COnVcnIcnl IcndcZVOuS 8nd QcIh8QS 8 gIOuQ Sl8ndIng In lhc mIddc
Ollhc SlcQS.
8SScISDy uSc8cy lOO. PDOul h8lWI luIn lhcIIhc8dS8ndOOk
In. LllhcSc, 8DOul h8lWI SmIc. h8Vcnl C8Cu8lcd 8 SmIc IndcX~
lh8l WOud Dc muCh lOO SOcmn Dul lhIS VIC8IIOuS, ScCOnd8Iy uSc IS
ImQOIl8nl. lhc SIghl Ol lhc Q8Ik, lhc knOWcdgc lh8l Il IS lhcIc, Dc-
COmcS Q8Il Ol lhc Im8gc Wc h8Vc Ol8 muCh WIdcI 8Ic8.
dOnl knOW Ol8ny W8y lO Qu8nlIly lhcDcncBlS OlSuCh uScDul
lhInk lhcy mIghl Wc Dc gIc8lcI lh8n lhc ImmcdI8lc DcncBlS Ol lhc
QIIm8Iy uSc. PS Q8SScISDy dcmOnSlI8lc Dy lhc cXQIcSSIOn On lhcII

P
1be Design o/ 3aces
Fale] Fark i: a delight topa::er:b] a: well a: :itter:.
l8CcS, lhc VtSu8l cn]Oymcnl tS Ic8l cnOugh, 8nO Whcn lhcSc 8Ic mullt-
QltcO Dy lhOuS8nOS OlQ8SScISDy OVcI WcckS 8nO mOnlhS 8nO yc8IS, Wc
h8Vc gIc8l DcncBlS tnOccO.
NOSl Ol lhc QcOQlc WhO cnlcI 8lcy 8Ik tnlcnOcO lO gO lhcIc,
lhcy m8kc lhtS Clc8I Dy lctI COuISc 8nO SlItOc. ul lhcIc tS 8 SuDSl8n
lt8l 8mOunl OltmQulSc Sc. PS lhcy COmc 8DIc8Sl, SOmc QcOQlc Wtll OO
8OOuDlc l8kc, Q8uSc, mOVc 8lcW SlcQS, lhcn, Wtlh8 Sltghl 8CCclcI8ltOn,
gO On uQ lhc SlcQS 8nO tnlO lhc Q8Ik. LhtlOIcn OO tl mOIc cmQh8lt-
C8lly. hc VcIy yOung OncS QOtnl lO lhc Q8Ik 8nO lug 8l lhctI mOlhcIS
lO gO On tn. N8ny Ollhc OlOcI OncS Wtll DIc8k tnlO 8 Iun ]uSl 8S lhcy
8QQIO8Ch lhc SlcQS, 8nO SktQ uQ 8 SlcQ OI lWO.
8lCh lhcSc cnlIy mOVcmcnlS 8nO yOu Wtll 8QQIcCt8lc hOW tm-
QOIl8nl 8Ic SlcQS Wtlh lOW ItScIS 8nO OccQ lIc8OS. hOSc 8l 8lcy BVc
8nO ccn inhc8 Ic8QctVcly 0lO8t Qull yOu in. O OOnt h0c tO
COmc lO 8 OcCtStOn. XOu C8n Sl8nO 8nO C8Sc lhc Ql8Cc, mOVc uQ 8 SlcQ,
Q8uSc, lhcn 8nOlhcI, 8nO lhcn, WtlhOul h8Vtng lO m8kc 8 COnSCtOuS
OcCtStOn, SlcQ On tn. hc SlcQS 8l bc8gI8m 8nO LIccn8CIc 8Ik 8Ic
Stmtl8Ily tnVtltng. LOmc On tn, lhcy S8y. PnO QcOQlc OO. hcy IcSQOnO
tn ktnO, SOmcltmcS SktQQtng uQ ScVcI8l SlcQS, 8nO DuStncSSmcn lOO.
hc lcIQtSChOIc tS lhc DcSl Q8Il Ol lhc SlcQS, 8nO lhc mc8SuIc Ol tlS
gI8Cc.

W3S l3ty Sutc lh3l SuBhl W0ud Qt0Vc l0 Dc 0tl03 l0 lhc Su00cSS
0l 3 SQ30c. t0t lh3l tc3S0B W3S gfc3ly Qlc3Scd Wlh 0uf tSl lmc-
l3QSc m 0llhcSuBQ3SSBg30t0SS bc3gt3m 3Z3. Dl0lc m0fBBglhc
Ql3Z3 W0S D Sh3d0W. bh0tlly Dcl0fc D00D, 3 D0ff0W Wcdgc 0lSuBlghl
Dcg3D m0VDg 30f0SS lhc Ql3Z3, 3Dd 0S l dd, S0 dd lhc SllctS. hcfc
lhcSuD W3S, lhcy S3l Whcfc lhcfc W3S D0SuB, lhcy dd D0l Sl. lW3S 3
SQlcBdd 00ffcl3l0B 3Bd 0hcDShcd l. Kc lhc ufD3D dcSgD Qc0Qlc,
lh0ughl 3 S0ulhc cXQ0Sutc W0uld Dc 3 Bc0cSSly. ctc W3S 3DuBd3Bl
Qt00l.
hcB S0mclhBg WcBl 3Wfy. PS Wc00BlBucd 0uf lmc-3QSc Slud-
cS lhc 00ttcl3l0BS V3BShcd B0l 0Bly 3l bc3gf3m Dul 3l 0lhct Ql30CS
Wc Wcfc 0h3flBg. hc SuB Slll m0Vcd, Dul lhc Qc0Qc dd B0l. Pl
lcBglh, lhc 0DV0uS d3WBCd 0B uS. 3y h3d DccB l0l0Wcd Dy uBc.
3fcf l W3S] uSl 0hy cB0ugh lh3l 0Bc W3S B0l 00ml0fl3DlC SllBg
uBlcSS hcW3S B lhcSuB. D0W lhc lcmQcf3lutcSWcfc hgh CB0ughlh8l
0Bc 00uld Sl 00ml0fl3Dly, SuD 0f B0 SuB. b0 Qc0Qc dd. buD, Wc 3d
l0 fc00gBc, W3S B0l lhc 0fl00l l300f Wc h3d hyQ0lhcSZcd l W0uld
Dc.
l W3S 3D0ul lhS lmc lh3l mu0h 0l 3cy Q3fKS SuDghl W3S
D0gBBBg l0 D0 0ul 0Dy 8B 00c DudBg g0Bg uQ 30f0SS lh0 Slfc0l.
#
ter, ind, 1rees, and Ligbt [
i
J J
]
IOm tIS SC8Odtng Wc lOCuScd Itmc-8QSc C8mcI8S On Ihc Q8Ik 8nd
IcCOIdcd Ihc QIOgIcSStVc OSS OlSuntghI 8nd tIS tmQ8CI On Ihc Q8I.
hc tmQ8CI W8S SuIQItStngy StghI. cOQc uScd 8cy 8DOuI 8S Ihcy
h8d DclOIc. I tS QOSStDc IhcIc mtghI h8Vc Dccn 8 ncI tnCIc8Sc tn IhctI
numDcISh8d Ihc Sun nOIDccn CuII8tcd, WtIhOuI 8n tdcnItC8Q8Ik 8S8
COnIIO, Onc COud ncVcI Dc SuIc. nlOIIun8Ic 8S Ihc OSS Ol Sun W8S,
Wc h8d IO COnCudc, Ihc Q8Ik COnItnucd IO lunCItOn VcIy Wc.
h8I 8IIcnd8nCc BguIcS dO nOI mc8SuIc, hOWcVcI, tS Ihc Qu8tIy
OlIhc cXQcItcnCc. I C8n Dc gIc8IcI Whcn IhcIc tS Sun. OI Ihcn yOu
h8Vc Sun, OI Sh8dc, OI tnDcIWccn. hc DcSI Itmc IO StI
Dcnc8Ih 8 IIcc tS Whcn IhcIc tS SuntghI IO Dc Sh8dcd lIOm. hc mOIc
8CCcSS IO Sun, Ihc DcIIcI, 8nd tlIhcIc tS 8 SOuIhcD cXQOSuIc, tI ShOud
Dc m8dc Ihc mOSI Ol. hc ZOntng gutdctncS Ih8I WcIc 8IcI 8dOQIcd
IcQutIcd 8 SOuIhcD cXQOSuIc tl 8I 8 lc8StDc.
dO nOI Ihtnk tI ShOud Dc m8nd8IOIy. LuI Sccmtngy ncg8ItVc
BndtngS8DOuISuntghISuggcSI Ih8I Q8CcSWtIh tIIc dtIcCI Sun8Ic nOI
8 OSI C8uSc. tIh 8dIOtI dcStgn, Ih8I tIIc SuntghI C8n Dc m8dc IO
SccmmuCh mOIc. PS Wt gO tnIO tn dcI8t tnIhcCh8QIcISOn Sun 8nd
tghI, IhcIc 8Ic W8yS IO Sn8ICh SOmcDOdy cScS Sun 8nd IO gcI tI
DOunCcd lIOm nctghDOItng DutdtngS.
8ImIh tS]uSI 8S tmQOII8nI 8S SuntghI. hc d8yS Ih8I DItng OuI
Ihc Qc8k CIOWdS On Q8Z8S 8Ic nOI Ihc SQ8Iktng Sunny d8yS WtIh
IcmQcI8IuIcS tn Ihc OW ScVcnItcS, gOOd 8S IhtS Wc8IhcI m8y Dc lOI
W8ktng. I tS Ihc hOI, muggy d8yS Sunny OI OVcIC8SI Ih8I DItng
Ihcm OuI. Ou WOud Ihtnk IhcSc 8Ic Ihc d8yS Whcn QcOQc WOud
W8nI IO SI8y tnStdc 8nd Dc 8tI COndtItOncd. uI IhtS tS Whcn Ihc Qc8k
numDcIS 8Ic IcCOIdcd c muSI h8Vc SOmc QItmcV8 tnSItnCI lOI Ihc
IIOQtC8.
cOQc dO tkc W8ImIh. n SummcI, Ihcy Wt gcncI8y StI tn Ihc
Sun 8S W 8S Ihc Sh8dc. Lny tnVcIy hOI Wc8IhcI ntncIy dcgIccS OI
Wt Ihc Sunny SQOIS Dc V8C8nI. Hc8ItVc W8ImIh tS tmQOII8nI,
IOO. Lnc OlIhc Qc8k StIItng d8yS tS Ihc BISI W8Im d8y tn SQItng. hc
8DSOuIc IcmQcI8IuIc m8y Dc Wh8I WOud OIdtn8Ity Dc COnStdcIcd On
Ihc COO Stdc. I tS Ihc Suddcn Ch8ngc lIOm COd Ih8I m8cS Ihc dtcI-
cnCc. btmt8Iy, Ihc BISI W8Im 8nd dIy d8y 8lIcI 8 SIIcICh Ol COO OI
I8tny Wc8IhcI Wt DItng OuI Ihc CIOWdS.
h8VcIc8Icd Ihc COunIS OlIhcnumDcIOlQcOQc 8I V8ItOuS Q8IkS
8nd Q8Z8S WtIh Ihc Wc8IhcI IcCOIdS. NOSI Ol Ihc COIIc8ItOnS 8Ic
ODVtOuS cnOugh. Sun 8nd W8ImIh DItng QcOQc OuI I8tn 8nd COd kccQ
Ihcm 8W8y. I tS Ihc m8Igtn8 d8yS Ih8I 8Ic mOSI tnIcIcSItng. hcy
tndtC8Ic Ih8I Ihc dtcIcnCc DcIWccn uSc 8nd nOnuSc C8n IcSI On mtnOI
dcStgn lc8IuIcS. OI mtCIOCtm8IcS, IO QuI tI 8nOIhcIW8y, StghI C8uScS
C8n QIOduCc Dtg ccCIS.
htChDItngSuSD8CkIO W8ImIh. Ll8IhcmtCIOCtm8ItC l8CIOIS,
00 08yS l08lDI0g 0Ul
l00 00Sl Sll0IS 8I0 00l
l00 SU00y, S8IKh0g
08yS 0 l00 S0v00l0S.
00y 8I0 l00 00l,
0Uggy 08yS. 0USl
08v0 SlI00g lI0C8
0Sl0ClS.
W
L X
lhc 0BcS Wllh lhc gfc3lcSl cVcf3gc 3tc lh0Sc lh3l cnh3B0c W3fmlh.
D0hcS, l0f cX3mQc Vcn S0mc SuBlghl 3Bd 3 Q30c fc0cSScd lf0m
lhc WBd, 000 Wc3lhcf 03B Dc g00d l0f SlllBg. l lS lhcB lh3l 8 Q80c
0QcB l0 lhc f3d3Bl hc3l 0 lhc SuB S f3yS 03B m3Kc lhc dctcB0c
DclWccB SllB 00ml0tl3Dy 3Bd B0l SllBg 3l 3 . c0Qc Wl 30lVcly
SccK lhc Sun, 3Bd gVcB lhc fghl Qct0hcS lhcy W Sl n SutQtSBg
BumDcfS B Qulc 00d Wc3lhct.
hc m0tc n0flhcfB lhc 3llu0c, lhc m0tc 3fdcBly W lhcy d0
S0. hcfc lhc WBlcfS 3fc 0Bg 3Bd lhc SuB SclS 0W n lhc SKy, Qc0Qc
0hctSh Wh3l SuBghl lhctc S. 3B ch SSludcS Sh0W lh3l SllBg 3Bd
Sl3BdBg Q3llcfBS B L0QcBh3gcB 3tc Vcfy Sm3f l0 lh0Sc Wc h8Vc
0h3tlcd cX0cQl l0f 0BclhBg. L0QcBh3gcB Qc0Qc3fc mu0hm0fc Kcy
l0 0tcBl lhcmScVcS l0 lhc SuB, cSQc03y lB WlBlct.
lhB lhc nlcd bl3lcS, Qc0Qc B lhc D0flh uSc 0uld00t SQ30cS
B lhc WBlcf m0fc lh3n Qc0Qc B lhc b0ulh. 3m uBd0uDlcdy 3 Dl
D3Scd 0B lhS, DcBg 3 D0tlhcfBcf, Dul l3Kc S0mc B3lVc Qfdc B lhc
h3fdBcSS 0l my lc0W QcdcSlt3BS. Ln tc3y 00d d3yS y0 W 0c
0Sl0n3BS 3Bd DcW X0fKcfS 0ul S0hm00ZBg, S0mcllmcS Wlh0ul l0Q-
003lS.
b0ulhcfB 0llcS h3Vc mu0h Dcllct Wc3lhcf l0f lhlS Dul d0 B0l uSc
ll Vcfy mu0h. 3S S 3 03Sc B Q0Bl. c0Qc lhctc 3SSutc mc lh3
m0fc g00d 0uld00f SQ30cS W0ud Oc Qf0Vdcd Wcfc l D0l l0f 3 lc3u
h3Bd03Q lhc 33S Wc3lhct. n 30lu3 l30l l S SQcndd m0Sl 0llhc
lmc, 3Dcll 3 Dl WBdy. uy 3Bd PuguSl 3tc 3Wlu, l0 Dc Sutc, Dul
lhcSc m0BlS 3tc 303cm0. 00y VcBufcS 0u cB cy C0D
Q0SSDy 3V0d l. LB0c, l W3SB l S0 O3d. Pl0Bg lhc m3B SlfcclS 0llhc
b0ulh 3nd b0ulhWcSl lhc SdcW3KS Wcfc Sh3dcd lf0m lhc SuB Dy 03B0
Ql0S 3Bd 3WBBS. B 0uf huDS 0Vcf 3t-00Bdll0BBg, Wc h3Vc dS
QcnScd Wlh Su0h SmQlc cXQcdcB .
c Vcfy mu0h Bccd 0 fcdS00Vct hcm, 3Bd l Wc d0 Wc 03B
gfc3ly mQt0Vc lhc h3Dl3Dlly 0l0Qcn SQ30cS. Ln m3tgB3 d3yS, l0f
cX0mc, uSl lhc 3DScD0c 0 df3llS 03B m3Kc lhc 0ll03 dctcB0c.
c0Qc Kc Sun lf3QS, 3Bd B lhS fcSQc0l Sm3 Q3fKS 0uBdcd 0B lhtcc
SdcS luB0l0B Vcty Wc . hlS lS 0Bc 0llhc tc3S0BS lhct tc3llVc 03tty
Bg 03Q30ly S S0 hgh. cW 0fK S fccH30fc 3fK h3S Blf3fcd hc3l
cfS 0D 3n 0Vcfhc3d 03n0Qy, Dul lhcy 3tc uScd 0By 0n Vcfy 00d d3yS.
c03uSc l 0cfS D0lh SuB 3Bd Qf0lc0l0B lf0m Wnd, lhc Q3fK S 00m
l0fl3Oc cVcn 0B nQQy d3yS.
Lulnbc3llc l SccmS l0Dc f3BBg 3 lhclmc, Dul l fc3ly SB l,
3Dd lS gcncf3y 3 ghl dfZZc. LBc 00c OudBg, l l l htd PVc-
nuc, h3S 3 Q3Z3 dcSgncd l0 m3Kc lhc DcSl 0llhngS. W0 Sltu0lutcS
h3Vc DccB Dul 0n lhc cdgc 0l lhc Q3Z3. LBc S 3 R0fSl S l0tc, lhc
0lhcf 3 g0utmcl 03lclct3 D0lh lun0l0B 3S WBdDfc3KS. hc mBulc
hc dfZZc Sl0S, lhc c0Qc 00mc 0ul 3nd Sl 3l lhc 0h3fS 3Bd l3DcS
0B lhc Q3Z3.
W
ter, ind, 1rees, and Ligbt
ndcnl8ltOnS tn Dutdtng W8S SOmcltmcS QIOVtdc Wtnd lI8QS. l
lhcy 8SO h0Vc lhc Dcncl Ol unODSCucd Sun lhcy C8n DcCOmc gOd
Sl8ndtng Q8CcS. knOW Ol nO tnSl8nCc WhcIc SuCh ntChcS h8Vc Dccn
Q8nncd, lhOugh tl WOud Dc gOOd tllhcy WcIc. bOmc DuS ShclcIS h8Vc
Dccn dcStgncd Wtlh Wtnd Q8Ilt8y tn mtnd. NOSl h8Vc nOl. PcW
XOIkS, OQcn On lWO StdcS, gtVc SC8nl QIOlcCltOn.
LOScSl lO gOOd QIOlOlyQcS 8Ic lhc Wtnd D8cS 0lOQ lhc IOOl Ol
lhc OId I8dc LcnlcI. hcy gIOuQ lhIcc g0SS Q8ncS 8IOund 8
DcnCh. hcy dO l8mclhc BcICc WtndS Onc cXQcItcnCcSlhcIc, Dul nOl 8S
muCh 8S lhcy COud. O lhtS nOncngtnccIS cyc, lhc ccCltVc ntChc tS
lOO Sh8OW. lyOu SCIunCh yOuIScl 8 lhc W8y D8Ck, lhcIc tS muCh
cSS Wtnd. l yOu Stl On lhc lIOnl Ol lhc DcnCh, lhcIc tS lOO muCh.
nChcS, cVtdcnly, 8Ic 8 CItltC8 mc8SuIc. tlh SOmc ltnkcItng, tl Oughl
lO Dc QOSStDc lO COmc uQ Wtlh 8 gOOd mOduc.
LI8HS tnduCcd Dy DutdtngS C8n m8kc Q8Z8S unuS8Dc. Pl 8n
OlhcI bc8llc Q8Z8, lh8l Ollhc bc8BISl 8nk, lhc guSlS 8Ic SOmcltmcS
SO BcICc lh8l S8lcly tncS h8Vc lO Dc SlIung 8CIOSS lhc Q8Z8 lO gtVc
QcOQc SOmclhtng lO h8ng On lO. LhtC8gO h8S SOmc OulSl8ndtngy
DIccZy Q8CcS nOl DcC8uSc Ol lhc OC8 Wtnd, WhtCh tS nOl SO VcIy
muCh SlIOngcI lh8n tnOlhcI CtltcS, Dul DcC8uScOllhc dOWndI8HSlIOm
lhc JOhn M8nCOCk 0nd bc8IS DutdtngS. hc dI8HS 8Ic Ollcn SO SlIOng
8S lO QIcVcnl QcOQc lIOm Stlltng On lhc Q8Z8S, cVcn tl lhcIc WcIc
Ic8SOn lO.
hcSc ccClS 8Ic mc8SuI8Dc 8nd lhcy 8Ic 8VOtd8Dc. tnd-lunnc
lcSlS 8Ic DcCOmtng IOultnc lOI QIOQOScd lOWcIS, 0nd lhcIc 8Ic dcStgn
QItnCtQcS lOI l8mtng lhc dOWndI8llS Ol lhc lIcc-Sl8ndtng SlIuCluIc.
ul lhc lcSlS 0Ic uScd mOIc lO g8ugc lhc ccClS On lhc SlIuCluIc tlScl
lh8n On QcOQc. hc lcSlS lOI lhc OId I8dc LcnlcI dclcImtncd
SlIcSScS tn lhc lOWcI, 8nd lhc Slcc ncCcSS8Iy lO COQc Wtlh lhcm. h8l
lhc ccClS mtghl Dc On lhc QcOQc dOWn On lhc hugc Q8Z8 DcOW W8S
8QQ8Icnly nOl 8 m8llcI gtVcn muCh COnCcIn.
hcSc QIODcmS 8Ic nOl lcChntC8, Dul COnCcQlu8. J8mcS N8ISlOn
tlCh, 8n 8IChtlcCl WhO h8S dOnc mOIc lh0n 8ny OlhcI lO D8dgcI lhc
QIOlcSStOn tnlO COnStdcItng cnVtIOnmcnl8 ccClS, Ch8IgcS lh8l tl l8kcS
lhc c8Sy W8y Oul. PIChtlcClS StmQy tgnOIc 8dVcISc ccClS. hc Oul
dOOI SQ8Cc, S8yS tlCh, tS dcStgncd 8S tllOI SOmc tdc8 Ctm8lc, cVcI
Sunny 8nd Qc8S8nly W8Im. Pnd lhtS tS 8 Sh8mc, hc QOtnlS Oul, lOI
lhcIc 8Ic 8 SOIlS OlW8yS Wc C8n gIc8ly tnCIc8Sc lhc h0Dtl8Dttly Ol
uID8n SQ8CcS.
cChnOOgtC8y, Onc Ol lhc gIc8lcSl tS lhc lIcc. hcIc 8Ic m0ny
gOOd Ic8SOnS lOI h8Vtng OlS OllIccS, Dul lOI Ctm8ltC Ic0SOnS 8Onc Wc
ShOud Q8nl m8ny mOIc Ol lhcm OncS, lOLn lhc SlIcclS 8nd
SQ8CcS Ol OuI CtltcS. n lhc OQcn-SQ8Cc gutdctncS lOI PcW XOIk Wc
Sh8IQy SlcQQcd uQ lhc lIcc IcQutIcmcnlS dcVcOQcIS muSl QIOVtdc 8

L
trcc forcvcry 2fcct ofsidcwaIk, and it mustbcat Icast . inchcs in
diamctcrandpIantcdush withthcground For pIazas, trccsmustbc
providcd in proportion to thc amount of spacc, for a pIaza of
squarcfcct,forcxampIc, thcrcmustbcaminimumofsixtrccs. Atthc
hcarings on thc ncw guidcIincs, onc dcvcIopcr tcstihcd that thc stan-
dards wcrc ruinousIy high and that thc cxtra trccs couId bankrupt a
man. ln thc tcn ycars sincc thcn no dcvcIopcr has compIaincd about
thc trccs.
Oncrcasonisthatwcdidnotsctthcstandardshighcnough.With
thc bcncht of hindsight l now scc that wc shouId havc spccihcd a
minimumdiamctcrofat Icast 6 inchcs, prcfcrabIy &. Thcrc arc ampIc
prccdcnts to invokc. Onc is thc WorId Tradc Ccntcr. With a vcry
Iargc pIaza, it nccds vcry Iargc trccs. lts initiaI pIantings ofLondon
pIanc trccs in thc carIy scvcntics arc now fcct or morc high, and
with Iargc canopics to cast pIcnty of shadc. Thc microcIimatc ofthc
pIazaishcrcc, howcvcr,andthcy doIosctrccs. utwhcnthcy rcpIacc
thcm, thcy do not do it with sapIings. Thcy rcpIant with trccs of at
Icast &-inch caIipcr. Thcir rcward is instant trcc and it costs not so
muchmorcthanasmaIIcronc. Thccostofan &-inch-caIipcrtrccruns
around thirty-hvchundrcd tofourthousanddoIIars, but this is a rca-
sonabIc sum for what is gaincd about hvc ycars' Icad timc, for onc
thing, vcrsus a smaII sapIing.
Thc Iimiting factor is thc voIumc of thc pIanting bcd. lncrcas-
ingIy, ncwurbanspaccsarcthctopsofparkinggaragcs, andinstcadof
trccs plantcd ush to gradc, wc havc trccs n aovc-gradc pantcrs or
thc ubiquitous ums. Thcy do not havc to bc skimpy. At thc WorId
radcCcntcr, thcLondonpIancsgrowinrcctanguIarpIantcrsprovid-
ing, pcr trcc, spacc l fcct by l fcct by . (This is four timcs thc
cubicfootagcpcrtrccinthcpIantcrsatincoInCcntcr. Thcdicrcncc
in thc trccs is a strong saIcs argumcnt for gcncrous pIantcrs.)
ltis importantthat thcpIantingbcdsbcspccihcd in dctaiIin thc
originaI pIans. Thcrc arc many sorry-about-that mishaps that can bc-
faII dcvcIopcrs' trcc pIans. lt might bc thc discovcry that subsurfacc
conditions wiII not pcit a pIanting bcd ush to gradc. So thcy'II
havc to havc tubs. And not vcry big oncs. A dcccnt-sizcd trcc wouId
rcquirc cubic fcct of wcII-watcrcd carth, and this aIong with thc
trccitscIfaddsuptoavcrybigIoad. So,sorry,butthctrccwiIIhavcto
bcmuchsmaIIcr. ThcrcisaIso thcprobIcm ofgaragcspacc. Thcaddi-
tionaIbracing nccdcd to supportatrccIoadonthcpIaza abovc might
bccostIy worscyct, itmightinvoIvcthcIossofaparkingspacc. Thcy
producc rcvcnuc. Trccs do not.
ln thccost-trimming phasc ofproccts it may aIso bc discovcrcd
that thcarchitcct docsn't rcaIIy much want trccs, big trccs cspcciaIIy.
At oncIargc civic pIaza thc pIan ofthcIandscapc architcct for good-
9 m
ter, ind, 1rees, and Ligbt
sizcd trccs was ovcrruIcd by thc architcct. Hc wantcd smaIIcr oncs.
hcsc wouId not bIock thc vicw of thc architcct's buiIding and thc
statcmcnt it madc.
At LincoInCcntcrthcvcrycarIypIanscaIIcdforbig trccsonthc
pIaza. HughFcrrissrcndcringsmakcthcpIazaIookdownrightIuxuri
ant. During costpruning rcvisions by Robcrt Moscs thc pIaza trccs
gotIchout As subscqucntcxpcricncchas dcmonstratcd, thcIosswas
agrcat onc. AtnightthcmainpIazaisan cxcitingand coIorfuIsccnc
during thc day it is a gIarc box, somctimcs a virtuaI ovcn, and with
umptccn thousands of fcct of travcrtinc bouncing Iight, footcandIc
rcadings arc cxtraordinary. What thc pIaza so badIy nccds is somc
handsomcbigtrccs, as thcpIans had it in thcrst pIacc. lna study l
did for LincoIn Ccntcr l madc such a rccommcndation.
Thc rcaction of somc dcsigncrs was onc of purc horror. Evcn a
Iandscapc architcct was aghast. Trccs wouId mar thc architcctonic
charactcrofthc pIaza, hc said. SomcpcopIcthoughtthcidca wortha
try. PhiIip !ohnson did skctchcs showing how scvcraI wcII-sitcd trccs
couIdcnhanccthcIincsofthcpIac. lnthccvcntuaIrc-doofthcpIaza,
howcvcr, thc cost ofthc ncw granitc oor was so grcat thcrc was no
moncy to bc sparcd for thc trccs.
Acitynccdstrccghtcrs. lfthcrc arcany withinthccity govcrn-
mcnt, aIIthcbcttcr. OncrcasonNcwYorkhasagoodnumbcroftrccs
is thc nuisancc that onc of thc pIanning commissioncrs rcpcatcdIy
madc of himscIf ovcr proccts' trcc pIans. Hc was not contcnt with
hoIdingdcvcIopcrstominimum standards. Hcprcsscd thcm formorc
and biggcr trccs. Hc had no IcgaI right to imposc such highcr stan
dards. StiII,itwouIdn'thurtncgotiationsonothcritcmsifthcdcvcIop
crswcntaIong. Somanydid.Andthccommissioncrmadcitapracticc
toscc, onthcground,ifthcy pIantcdwhatthcysaidthcywouId. Thcrc
arc many trccs to scc, for which a saIutc to Martin GaIIcnt, foncr
dcputy chairman ofthc Ncw York City PIanning Commission.
Watcr is anothcrhnc cIcmcntanddcsigncrs havcbccn doing vcry
wcII with it. Ncw pIazas and parks providc watcr in many forms
watcrfals, watcrwalls, rapids, sluiccways, tranquil pools, mcandcring
strcams, watcr tunncIs. ln onIy onc rcspcct is somcthing Iacking. ac
ccss.
Onc of thc niccst things about watcr is thc Iook and fccI and
soundofit. lhavcaIwaysthoughtthcwatcratScagramIookcdunusu
aIIy Iiquid, and l think it is bccausc you know you can spIash your
hand in itifyouarc of mindto. PcopIc do itaII thctimc, thcy stick
thcir hands in it, thcir tocs and fcct, and if thcy spIash about, somc
ter, ind, 1rees, and Ligbt
sccurity guard docs not comc running up to tcII thcm nay.
ut in many pIaccs watcris onIy for Iookingat. ctafoot touh
itand aguardwiIIbcthcrcinaninstant. Forbiddcn. ChcmicaIsinthc
watcr. Dangcr ofcontamination. ct pcopIc start touching thc watcr
and thc hrst thing you know thcy wiII bc swimming in it.
Somctimcs thcy do Thc big rcccting pooI ofthc Christian Sci
cncccompIcxinostonmakcsavcryhandsomcshcctofwatcr.ltaIso
Iooks as though it wouId bc grcat for wading or swimming. Whcn it
hrst opcncd, chiIdrcn ockcd to it to do ust that. lt was with somc
dimcuIty thatthcpooIwasputoIimits tosuchactivityand rcstorcd
to its omamcntaI function.
lt'snotrightto putwatcrbcforcpcopIcandthcnkccpthcmaway
from it. utthis is whathasbccnhappcning acrossthc country. PooIs
and fountains arc instaIIcd, thcn immcdiatcIy postcd with signs ad-

monishingpcopIcnotto touch. EquaIIy cgrcgiousisthccxccssivc zcaI


withwhichmanypooIsarccontinuaIIybcing cmpticd, vacuumcd,and
rchIIcd, as though thcir function wcrc to bc cmpticd, vacuumcd, and
rchIIcd. Maintcnancc, not usc, is thc hrst priority. Thc grand oId
uckingham Fountain in Chicago's Grant Park, forcxampIc, was put
oIimits for rcpairs with a girdIing fcncc "cIcctricaIIy protcctcd. "
SafctyisthcusuaIrcasongivcnforkccpingpcopIcaway. Thisisa
Icgitimatc conccm but thcrc arc ways short ofcIcctrocution for han-
dIing it. At thc Auditorium Forccourt PIaza in PortIand, Orcgon,
thcrcisacompIcxofsIuiccways, rapids, andwatcrfaIIsthatIooksvcry
dangcrous. andscapc architccts awrcncc HaIprin and AngcIa
Danadicva dcsigncd it to Iook vcry dangcrous Onc conscqucncc is
that it is not dangcrous. Tccnagcrs havc bccn cIambcring ovcr it and
thcrc havc bccn no scrious mishaps. Thc dcsign, for onc thing, pro-
vidcs faiIsafc positions ust whcn onc thinks hc has gonc ovcr thc
brink, hc hnds thcrc is anothcr Icdgc togo. ccausc ofsuch rcpricvcs
andthccarcthcdcsigninspircs, thcpIacchasworkcdouttobcsafcas
wcIIas fun. ltis an amrmationoffaith inpcopIc tccnagcrs at that
and says much about thc good city ofPortIand.
lcc ocrs grcat possibiIitics. ln thc imagination of Iandscapc ar
chitcct MichacI an aIkcnburgh, thc watcrwaII at PaIcy Park con-
urcd up thc thought ofmagniccnt icc waIIs. CouId thcrc not bc aII
sorts oficc formations and in aII sorts ofpIaccs7 To rcsoIvc thc not
inconsidcrabIc tcchnicaI probIcms, hc has bccn cxpcrimcnting with
scvcraI prototypc waIIs. Onc was in thc quad ofRadcIic CoIIcgc in
Cambridgc. WiththchcIpofstudcnts, hcriggcd upastrctch ofmcsh
wircand atopthishcputahoscdcvicctomctcroutwatcr(ustabovc
frcczing). Asitfrozconitsdownwardcoursc,thcrcsuItwasadazzIing
waII oficc.
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LHC C3y, fumm3gIHg !hfCugh !hC !3QCS, QICkCC uQ !hC WfCHg CHC.
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PCf !C !hCm I! W3S 3Cy 3fk 3HC Q3y !hC !3QC 3g3IH, !hCy OCgIH
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W3!CfW3 IS !ufHCC CB, !hC Q3CC SCCmS HCWhCfC HC3f3S CCHgCHI3. Lf
3S QuIC!.

lfyouwant tosccdapIaccwithactivity,thchrstthingtodoistoput
out food. ln Ncw York, at cvcry pIaza r sct of stcps with a IivcIy
sociaI Iifc, youwiIIaImostinvariabIyhnd afood vcndorortwoat thc
cocr and a knot ofpcopIc around.
cndors havc a good nosc for spaccs that work. hcy havc to.
hcyarcconstantIytcstingthcmarkct, andifbusincsspicksupinonc
spot,thcrcwiIIsoonbcacIustcrofvcndorsthcrc.hiswiIIdrawmorc
pcopIc and yct morc vcndors, and somctimcs so many convcrgc that

pcdcstrian tramc is sIowcd toa crawI. Fihy-ninth Strcct oFihh is a


notabIc cxampIc. ln front of RockcfcIIcr Ccntcr onc day during thc
Christmas hoIidays l countcd thc biggcst conccntration cvcr hftccn
vcnors n a fort-foot strcth offth vcnc.
hcciviccstabIishmcntsofmostciticsdcpIorcvcndors.hcrcarc
cnoughordinanccsto makcitiIIcgaIforvcndorstodobusincssat any
spotwhcrcbusincss is good, and ifthcy arc Iiccnscd, it is stiII iIIcgaI.
hc poIicc don't Iikctobcar down on vcndors butthc mcrchants arc
aIways gctting on thcir back to cnforcc thc ordinanccs Somctimcs
thcrc arc swccps, thc poIicc arriving with vans to hauI thc vcndors'
carts away. hcsc confrontations draw big crowds, and thcy arc aI-
most aIways on thc vcndors sidc.

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f00 p0Z0 O lhc XXOH udDg. l l, lh0fc W08 DO OOd. 0tc
W0S DOl muOh O0 OfOWO, 0lh0f uS00 S b0OW 0f Of Ih0 0mOuDl
OS0O0. Pl Ouf Sgg0SlOH, m0H0g0m0Dl uI D 0 OOO O0f . I W0S 0H
mm0O0l0 SuOO0SS. Of0 0O0 O0m0. bOOH 0 f0gu0f uShO0fl hOl
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l0D0Dl8 D8l0 0 bu0I O0D0 f O0 OH Ih0 00. Of0 0O0 O0m0,
0DO y0I mO0 0DO OV0f 0DO 0bOV0 Ih0 Humb0f WhO O0m0 lO uS0 lh0
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pfOpS, DOlhDg mOf0 S D00O0O lh0H S0V0f0 Sl0OS OOh0fS 0Hd l0O0S,
0D 0 O0DV0 0WDDg O IWO. f00O Ih0 OuI, pul u lh0 umOf00S,
bID OD lh0 w0lf0SS0S 0DO Ih0 OuSIOm0f 0DO Ih0 VSu0 00Ol O0H O0
h0 m0h00m0hl 0} ]0C05
SluBBBg. llhc 03l m3KcS m0Bcy, Wh0h m0Sl 0llhcm d0, S0 mu0h
l Dll. ul lh l B D]ull Dy lhC Shl CCl 0BC. l
h3td l0 lhnK 0l 3By 3dVllBg 0 Qt0m0l0B3 cR0l lh3l 00ud 3l-
lt30l S0 m3By Qc0Qc 3l S0 llc 00Sl.
3cy 3Bd tccB30tc Q3tKS 3tc cX0ccBl m0dcS. 0lh lc3lutc
Q3SS-lht0ugh 00uBlctS, 3 mlcd Dul cX0ccBl D 0ll3tc, g00d 03Kc,
g00d 00cc, tc3S0B3Dc Qt0cS. cBly 0lSm3 l3DcS 3fc Qt0Vdcd 3Bd
Qc0Qc 3tc Wc00mc l0 DtBg lhct 0WB l00d WBc l00, l lhcy Kc.
tt0m lhc Sltccl, lhc Q3tKS S0mclmcS 00K 3S l 3 3tgc Q3tly Wctc
g0Bg 0B. hc Bc 0l Qc0Qc W3lBg l0 0tdcf l00d S 3 00mc-0B l00.
t00d, l0 tcQc3l, dt3WS Qc0Qc, Wh0 dt3W m0tc Qc0Qc.
c Qt0Q0Scd lh3l lhc BcW Z0BBg gudcBcS m3Bd3lc lhc Qt0V-
S0B 0lD3S0 l00d 00lcS 3l 3 BcW Q3Z0S 3Bd Q3fKS. bB0c m0Sl BcW
DudBgS h3d DccB cmB3lBg l00d l30lcS, l Sccmcd 0By tghl lh3l
S0m0 tcSllul0B Dc n 0tdct. h0 Ql8BBBg 00mmSS0n d0muttcd. l
lh0ughl m3Bd3lng l00d W3S l00 mu0h l0 3SK, Dul l dd DccVc lh3l
lhc Qt0VS0B 0llSh0uld D0 cn00ut3gcd. PS BB3lly 0B80l00, lh0 gud0-
BcS l3V0tcd l00d K0SKS 3Bd 0lhcf Sltu0lutcS. 0tmcfy, lhcy Wcfc
03SScd 3S 0DSltu0l0BS B0W lhcy Wcfc 3mcBlcS. Luld00f 00lS
Wctc cB00ut3gcd, 3Bd uQ l0 UQct0cBl 0llhc0QcB SQ30c 00udDc uScd
l0t lhcm S0 0Bg 3S lhctc W3S Qt0VS0B l0t Df0WB D3ggBg 0B lhc
Q3Z3 3S Wc.
hc gudcBcS Wcfc m3dc tclf000lVc l0 Slmu0lc Qf0VS0B 0l
l00d l30lcS 0B cXSlBg Q3Z3S. LBc 0l lhc BfSl fclf0l 0Qcf3l0BS
W3S d0Bc Dy lhc 0ly g0VctBmcBl. DcXl l0 lhc muB0Q3 DudBg W3S
3 3tgc WBdy SQ30c, bl. PBdtcWS 8Z3. hc lhcB dcQly D0t0ugh
QtcSd0Bl, 00 8mm0f, 00B00V0d lh0 d03 0l uSng lh0 Ql3Z3 l0f 3
03l lc3lutBg V3t0uS clhB0 00B0cSS0B3tcS. bhc D3dgctcd S0mc 00t-
Q0t3l0BS Bl0 gVBg l3DcS 3Bd 0h3tS, 3Bd lhcB Bcd uQ S0mc D3Kct-
cS 3Bd 03lS 3nd 3 03m h0uSc lt0m Bc3tDy llc l3y l0 gcl lhBgS
g0lBg. 3lct, Shc Dt0ughl B S0mc S0u l00d 3Bd 0mc LhBcSc 00B0cS-
S0BS. hc 03l W3S 3 hl lt0m lhc DcgBBBg, Wlh 3S m3By 3S SX
huBdtcd Qc0Qc 3l lhc Qc3K 0llhc mdd3y Qct0d.
NS. M3mmcf 3S0 Qt0Vdcd 3 cSS0B B SQ30c uSc. bhc dd B0l
dSltDulc lhc l30lcS 3 0Vcf lhc 0tgc SQ30c. BSlc3d, Shc DuD0hcd
lhcm 0Bd, Wlh lhc lyf0Dl S h0Dd 0l3 g00d h0SlcSS, gf0uQcd lhc l0DcS
CD5C lD_ClHCI. lltD_ lD llDC DI WCVlD_ lHClI 0y lHtDu_H lHC lDlC5,
Qc0Qc Wctc 00mQfcSScd Bl0 mcclBg 0Bc 3B0lhct. cty Qu0Ky, lhc
Q3Z3 Dc03mc 3 gfc3l Blct0h3Bgc l0t 0ly g0VctBmcBl Qc0Qc 3Bd, Dy
3By BdcX, 0Bc 0llhc m0Sl S003Dc 0lQ30cS. Vc BcVcf SccB S0 m3By
Qc0Qc Slt KBg uQ 00DVcfS3l0DS, Dlf0du0Dg Qc0Qc, S0yBg hc0 3Dd
g00dDyc. l0 0hc0K S cVcf m0dc, l W0ud Qf0D0Dy Sh0W lh3l 0By
m3ft3gcS 3Dd 0hdfcB 00ud Dc lf30cd D30K l0 3 Summct d3y 3l bl .
PBdfcWS 3Z3.
1crmer: 'mcrket: Cnion 5qucre, New York Cit].
hC kIHC CllCCC SCmC QCCQChHCmCS! CCmQCIHgIS IIgh! CB!hC
l3Im. ISp3yCC CH !hC O3CkS Cl!IuCkS CI IH S!3S, lIuI!S 3HC VCgC!3-
OCS3IC QICVIHg !COC 3BHC mCCIum lCICHIVCHIHgQuOICSQ3CCS. hCy
3IC CCI!3IHy 3 mCS! SCHSCIy CHC. lu ClCC!CIS, IHVI!IHg !C !CuCh 3HC
SQuCCZC 3HC SHIB. hC 3C!IVI!y IS 3SC VCIy SCCI3OC. hCIC IS 3 CIICC!
IHC lICm gICWCI !C CCHSumCI, !hC IuCS Cl!hC g3mC lCI mCS! l3ImCIS
m3IkC!S ICQuIIC !h3! !hC l3ImCIS OC IC3 l3ImCIS, HC! mICCCmCH, 3HC
!h3! !hCy h3VCgICWH Wh3! !hCy 3IC SCIHg. hIS mC3HS mCIC!hIHgS !C
!3k 3OCu!, !C QuCIy, 3HC mCS! Cl!hC l3ImCIS !3k kHCWCCgC3Oy 3HC
WC. hCIC IS 3SC 3 gCCC OI! Cl IH!CICh3HgC OC!WCCH !hC CuS!CmCIS.
LI!y pCCQC WhC !3kC !C l3ImCIS m3IkC!S C3H OC ZC3CuS IH!hCII CCH-
VCISICH 3HC !hCy CC IkC !C CISQ3y !hCII HCWlCuHC CXQCI!ISC.
hCIC IS HC SQCCI3 QIICC 3CV3H!3gC, CuS!CmCIS Q3y 3OCu! !hC
S3mC lCI QICCuCC 3S !hCy CC IH 3 SuQCIm3IkC!. u! !hCIC IS 3 3IgC
Qu3H!I!3!IVC CIBCICHCC. CI ShCCI lICShHCSS 3HC !3S!C, l3Im-!C-CuS-
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!CmCIS 3HC IS CHC Cl !hC IC3SCHS l3ImCIS m3IkC!S 3IC SC QC3S3H!y
g3OOy 3OCu! !hC bIIOyS, lCI CX3mQC, 3HC hCW muCh OC!!CI !hCy 3IC
!h3H ICgu3I CuCumOCIS.
PHC!hCI gCCC !hIHg !h3! h3S OCCH h3QQCHIHg !C uIO3H Q3CCS IS
!hC uSC Cl!hCm lCI 3I!. uOIC 3I! uSCC !C mC3H gCHCI3S CH hCISCO3Ck
hc m0h0gcmchl 0} 0Cc5
. ! 1 S !
B0 D3d lhBg, cl l Dc S3d cBct3 bhct3B 3l t3Bd t 3Z3
IS SlIll 8 Sl0B0I0 SIgRl. ul 8S 00I0I8lI0BS R8Y0 D00B luIBIBg l0 8ll
lhcy h3Vc Sh0WB lhcmScVcS l8ltly c0l00ll0. cy lB0llBc l0W3td Dlg
B3mcS, 3S lhcy 03B 30td l0, 3Bd l3V0t Vcty Dg B0BtcQtcScBl3l0B3
W0fKS, B Q3fl Dc03uSc 0l lhc 0VctS3cd cmQlBcSS 0l S0mc 0l lhc
Ql3cS lhcy h3Vc l0 0Scl. ul lhctc S mu0h cX0clcBl W0tK, 3BdB0l
] uSl 3S cmDclShmcBl, Dul lBlcgt3 l0 lc d0SgB S0ulQlutc l0t SlllBg,
l0t cX3mQc.
0VctBmcBlS 3tc B0W l3KBg m0tc 0l3 lc3d. P BumDct 0l 0lcS
3Bd lhc lcdct3 g0VcfBmcBl h3Vc Scl uQ Qct0cBl l0t 3tlS Qf0gt3mS.
Bdcf lhcSc, uQ l0 l / Qct0cBl 0l lhc 03Ql3 00Sl 0l 3 g0VcfBmcBl
Qf0c0l S 3003lcd l0t QuD0 3tl . b3B tf3B0S0 h3S g0Bc 3 SlcQ lut-
lhct l B0W tcQutcS 3 Sm3t 00mmlmcBl l0t 00mmct03 DudBgS
3S Wc.
hctc h3Vc DccB lc3tS lh8l lhc KBd 0l3t 0h0ScB W0uld DcDl3Bd.
8QQy QuDl0 3tlS Qt0gt3mS h3Vc DccB gcBct3Bg 00Bt0VctScS,
S0mc 0llhcm Qulc ct0c. 0Sl uSu3ly, lhc 0h3tgc lS lh3l 3 DuB0h 0l
clSlS S ltyBg l0 t3m S0mc l3t-0ul 3tl d0WB lhc QuD0 S lht03l.
f0cduf3y, lhc 0QQ0BcBlS 03m, 00mmuBly Qc0Qc h3Vc B0l h3d
cB0ugh S3y B lhc Scc0l0B Qt00cSS 3cSlhcl03y, lh3l lhc 0h00c S
ugy, uBQ3lf0l0, 0hdSh, S0mclhBg my llc Kd 00ud d0 Dcllct.
hc 00mQ3BcfS 3fc 0l 3W3yS Wf0Bg. Bc 0llhc m0tc 3Dm0
B0uS00Blt0VctScS W3S 0Vct 0h3td bctt3 S tl/cdHlC 0B lhc tcdct3l
3Z3 B 0Wct 3Bh3ll3B. lS 3 l0t0clu W0tK D3dy Slcd 3 DgD30K
Slcc W3 0B 3 Dg D3BK Q3Z3 lh3l BccdS 3m0Sl 3BylhBg Dul 3 Dg
l30K Slcc W3l. hc Ql3Z3 S, B l30l, 3 d0g 0l3 SQ30c lKc S0 m3By
g0VcmcBl SQ30cS, uBltcBdy cB0ugh l0 DcgB Wlh.
ul lhc 0Vct3 tc00td h3S DccB g00d. Bdccd, 00BSdcfBg h0W
B0BtcQtcScBl3l0B3 3Bd uBScBlmcBl3l m0Sl QuDl0 3tl h3S Dcc, lhc
8m0uBl 0lQ0Qu3t SuQQ0tl h3S DccB mQtcSSVc. PBd lmc d0cS hcQ.
B m0Sl C3ScS, cVcB 3fl lh3l Bl3y Slttcd mu0h h0Slly h3S Dc00mc
300cQlcd, lgfudgBgy, 3Bd B lmc f3lhctKcd, S0mclmcS 0hctShcd,
3S 3 Dc0Vcd c00cBlf0ly.
L3cS LdcBDutg S0uQlutc 0B 3 Q3Z3 B hl3dcQ3 lS 3B cX-
3mQc. l h3S 3 m3tVc0uS Slc 3 0t0SSt03dS SQ30c 30t0SS lhc Sltccl
lt0m Lly 3 Wh0h S B0 mc3B S0uQlutc 3Bd 00mQc-
mcBlc y 3 Bc 000 VcB0tS 3l lc 0ut. ul 3 g3Bl00lcSQB B
htlJdclhtJ!3S lhS30Kc hcy 3tc B0l t3d03 Bh3dcQh3 3Bd
lhS l00K S0mc gcllBg uScd l0. ul lhcy dd gcl uScd l0 l lhcy g0l l0
Kc l. hcy m3dc l 3 Bc mccBg Q30c Kc lhc c3glc 3l
3B3m3KctS. l S Wc 0D lS W3y l0 VcBcf3Dly.
c03uSc 0uf Sludy 0lQ3Z3S W3S 3 00BlBuBg 0Bc, Wc h3d 3 Dum
Dcf 0l0Q0fluDlcS l0 0hc0K lhc Dcl0tc-3Bd-3llct cc0lS 0l3 W0fK 0l

7
& W
W
W

M

Bank o] Hmerica Flaza. 5an 1rancixco. 1he xculpture ix known locall] ax


"Baner': Heart.
public art on pcoplc's bchavior. n somc cascs it was considcrablc.
can Dubuct's 1our 1rees on thc Chasc Manhattan Plaza in lowcr
Manhattanis oncofthcbcstcxamplcs.Thisisavcrylargcspaccandit
calls for a vcry largc sculpturc. 1our 1rees, twcnty fcct high, color
whitcandblucishandsomclylargc. ttamcsthcsicofthcplazaand,
in thc proccss, sccms itsclfcmincntly human in scalc
t draws pcoplc. Almost from thc day it was installcd, pcoplc
havc bccn walking by it, through it, around it, and as with so many
succcssful placcs, holding prolongcd convcrsations inthcmiddlcofit.
Thcy touch it somctimcsthcy rap on it, to scc ifit rings. (t docsn't.)
rom afar it is a dclight. ying athwart thc plaza's main axis, it
bcckons pcoplc to it most strikingly around noon, whcn thc hrst
shaftofsunlight hitsit. Thcpassagc through thc sculpturcispartofa
largcrproccssional cxpcricnccthat cxtcndsalmost to thcHudson and
aords somc of thc most vivid contrasts of sun and darkncss, spacc
and constraint, anywhcrc to bc found.
Anothcr cxamplc of a big sculpturc working for a big placc is
Alcxandcr Caldcr's Pink 1lamingos on thc cdcral Plaza in Chicago.
thasavcrydchnitcguidingccct onthcfoottraccuttingacrossthc
diagonal ofthc plaa. (And it is not pink, butCaldcrorangc-rcd.On
thchugcplazaofthc DallasCity Hall, aHcnry Moorcgivcsthcspacc
anccdcdanchor. tisalso vcry casy to slidcdown andchildrcnlovc it
always a good sign.
ut placcmcnt is critical. On anothcr hugc plaza, at thc orld

5trcct convcr:ation: :culturc on Calgar]cdc:trian mall


Tradc Ccntcr, thcrc is a nc Caldcrst thc sic and olor rcd or-
angc this spacold usc. t thc sulptrc docs not work too wcl
hcrc. lt is srnhcd up against thc rcar ofthc plac.
Thc bcst dcmonstration l havc cvcrsccn ofdrawingpowcrwas a
tcmporarcxhibitatLinolnCcntcr. Atopa largccmptbridgcspac
bctwccnuilliard and thc rcst ofthccntcr, thc ritishsulptorMau
ricAgishadplacdhisColors dc. ltwasan inatablc, walkthrogh
scricsofbrightoorcdvinltbcs. lt wasgrcatfun to walk throgh,
or, inthcascofhildrcn, rnthrough. Thclighthltcringthroghthc
vinl was oddl plcasant, and so was thc sound ofthc tapcs of clc-
troniall snthcsicd msi.
How Agis talkcd Linoln Ccntcr into this l do not know, but l
ha apartiularrcasonto bc gladhc did.lwasstudingthcfcasibilit
ofsing thc small plaa and stair spac adacnt for an otdooraf.
Thc qucstion was whcthcr or not pcoplc down on thc strcct old bc
4
[
i
4
& ]
L
induccdtomakcthctripup.ThctubcsshowcdthcycouIdbc. As soon
as Agis pumpcd up thc tubcs in thc moming, thc top part of thcm
bccamc visibIc from thc strcct down bcIow thc rcd and bIuc tubcs
mostvividIyso. hatwcrcthcy7LpthcpcopIccamc.ord ofmouth
grcw. y thc cnd of thc cxhibit, pcopIcwcrc coming in grcatcr num-
bcrsduring thcdaythancvcrthcyhadbcforc. That wasin ! 9&! . Thc
scuIpturchasIongsinccgonc.Thcspaccshavcrcvcrtcdtothcircmpti
ncss.
ScuIpturc is not aIways thc bcstdraw for aspacc. Somctimcs, as
thc Scagram PIaza indicatcs, quitc a dicrcnt soIution is prcfcrabIc.
PhyIIis ronfman Lambcrt, who hcIpcd instigatc thc Scagram uiId-
ing, tcIIs how mcticuIousIy Mics van dcr Rohc studicd approachcs to
scuIpturc on thc pIaza. Picasso suggcstcd his Bathers bc put in thc
pooIs, Constantin rancusi, an cnIargcd vcrsion ofonc ofhis scuIp-
turcs. Latcr, MicstumcdtothcpossibiIiticsofaHcnryMoorc. Hchad
aphotoofthcscuIptorsBeclining 1igure bIownupto dicrcntscaIcs
sohccouIdstudyitsrcIationtothcpIazaandbuiIding.Asancxtstcp,
twofuII-sizcmock-upswcrcmadcandpIaccdonthcpIazasoMicsand
MoorccouIdstudythcminpIacc.Thisdccidcdthcm. cttcrnoscuIp-
turc on thc pIaza at aII.
Moorc fcIt that it wouId bc out of scaIc with thc pIaza. Mics
agrccd. PcopIc wouId bc thc scuIpturc. As PhyIIis Lambcrt puts it,
"Scagram PIaza changcs aII thc timc. lt Iooks wondcrfuI whcn it is
cmpty, thcn itchangcs as pcopIcgo in and outofthcbuiIdingorust
wandcr on thc plaza. hcn pcoplc st on thc cnchcs and walls, t
again has anothcrcharactcr."
Asthingshavctumcdout,thcpIazahasbccnhosttoanumbcrof
tcmporarypIaccmcntsofsculpturc. Most ofthcsc havcbccn attcntion
gcttcrs Mark Di Suvcro's scmimoving structurc, a hugc hcad ofthc
Eastcr lsIand kind, aIargcmound ofwhatappcarcd tob ycIIow and
whitctabIc-tcnnisbaIIs. Thcy havchadapIayfuIquaIityforwhichthc
scrcnity ofthc sitc sccms to havcbccn contrariIy right.
lnasscssing pubIic arts programs thcrc arc many factors to con-
sidcr. AImost aIways, howcvcr, it comcs down to a pcrson. ln Ncw
York it was thc Iatc Doris Frccdman, a rcmarkabIc woman with a
giftcdcyc forthcmatingofart and sitc and agrcat abiIity to marshaI
thc troops. lt was thanks to hcr imagination that thc "City aIIs"
programturncdbIankwaIIsofbuiIdingsintothccanvasofartistssuch
as Richard Haas. ltwas thanks to hcrcampaigning that thccity cm-
barkcd on its "pcrccnt for art" program.
Oncoshootisan"ArtsforTransit"program. lt isancxcrciscin
pcrccption. Thcidcais togct NcwYorkcrstobcIicvcthatthcsubways
arc gctting bcttcr, and thus to brcak thc vicious cycIc of dccIining
+

Ba::la]cr in Chicago :ubwa] :tation.


ridcrship and dcclining standards. Thc subways actually arc gctting
bcttcrbut this is not cnough. Pcoplc havc to think thcy arc.
To hclpthcmtothispcrccption,thcMctropolitanTransportation
Administration has launchcd an "Adopt-A-Station" program to gct
public art in thc stations. Somc installations havc bccn uitc profcs-
sional.atthcihy-thirdStrcctstation,forcxamplc,illuminatcdcxhib-
itsofthcmostintcrcstingthingstosccupabovc. Somchavcbccndonc
by schoolchildrcn at auccnsstationsomchvchundrcdstudcntsdid
murals ofthc ncighborhood
Anothcr program is for "Music undcr Ncw ork." or scvcral
ycars musicians havc bccn playing in thc subways thc platforms
too, not ust on thc mczzanincs topsidc. ut thcy had bccn playing
illcgally and, worsc yct, passing thc hat. ln 9& thc transit policc
handcd out 67l summons. Thc ncw program rcvcrscs coursc. lnstcad
ofbanning musicians, thc MTA cncouragcs thcm lt has sixty on its
rostcrandbooksthcmfor cightccnactivcsitcs mostusuallyforpcak
timcs and thc busicst placcs. Thc MTA docs not pay thcm anything
but lcts thcm solicit contributions
Thc program has bccn a popular succcss. Pcoplc arc surpriscd
and dclightcd whcn thcy comc upon a rass uintct down on a pat-
form. Commcnts arc laudatory, thc most frcucnt onc bcing that thc
music will calm down all thosc othcr uptight, ncrvous Ncw orkcrs
Thc acoustics, surprisingly, arc fairly good
Othcr citics havc had similar programs. oston startcd its pro
gram in 976 Paris followcdsuitscvcral ycarslatcr. ln Chicago, thcn
Mayor anc yrnc sponsorcd a "Troubadours" program in 9&2 for
gcttingcntcrtaincrsinthcsubwaysandon thcstrccts (Aslnotcinthc

L
chaptcr on strcct pcopIc, thc program was vcry succcssfuI with thc
pubIic. ut not with mcrchants and hotcI pcopIc Thcy got thc city
counciI to pass an ordinancc sharpIy Iimiting cntcrtaincrs.
ScattIc, not surprisingIy,has onc ofthcncstpubIicartprograms
in thc country. lt is distinguishcd by its strong cmphasis on an
approachits Icadcrstraccback tothcsaIvationofthcPikcPIaccMar-
kct.ThcpubIicrcfcrcndumonthcfatcofthcmarkctwasarcfcrcndum
on morc thanthcprcscrvationofanoIdfoodmarkct. lnsupportingit,
thc pubIic was dccIaring what kind ofcity it wantcd ScattIc to b.
Thc ScattIcArt Commission sct uponc ofthccarIicst " -pcrccnt
forart"programsinthc country, in l 9J. As inothcrcitics, thcmain
thrust of thc program has bccn on bcautifuI obccts in parks and
pIazas. AIatcrapproach hasbccntositc-dctcrmincdart, inwhichthc
artist takcs his cucs from thc sitc and its surroundings. lnonc cxam-
pIc, atcamofartistsworkcdwitharchitcctsonthc dcsignofasubsta-
tion. Thcir fancifuI art "WhirIigigs Gardcn" was intcgraI to thc
structurc.
ThccommissiondccidcdtostudyaIIofthcsitcsinthccityandto
conccivc ofdowntown as itscIfa scuIpturc gardcn or art park. This
conccptprovcdimpracticaI ltwastoomuchofasctpiccc. "lnstcadof
a static urban art ccntcr,' '' says Richard Andrcws, dircctor of thc
commission, "its cIcar that an arts pIan shouId bc bascd on thc con-
ccpt of thc city as a nctwork of primary pubIic pIaccs in a constant
statc of ux." ln dcning thcsc primary pIaccs, thc commission has
takcn a Icaffrom thc work ofsociaI scicntist cvin ynch. na vcry
thoroughinvcntoryofsitcsithasidcnticdpaths,nodcs,districts,and
cdgcs. lt has aIso paid a Iot ofattcntion to human activity. Primary
pubIicpIaccs, itbcIicvcs, shouIdbcsociaIIyfunctionaIandthcyshouId
rcinforcc onc's scnsc ofpIacc.
Thc commission pcopIc waIkcd and waIkcd, thcy survcycd cvcry
ncighborhood,andthcyIookcdwithopportunisticcycatthcmatingof
grids hiIIsidcs, aIIcys, thc odds and cnds of spacc produccd by an
orncry topography. Thc rcsuIt is an cxtraordinariIy thorough and
imaginativc agcnda.
Hcrcarc somcofthcprimarypIaccsthcyspottcdandwhatmight
bc donc with thcm

hc tCdc Cn c8lctn PVcnuc undct lhc Kc Cc %tKcl: h8 8


dtK nd CCK8 Wu. ul l CCud Oc gCCd CnV8 nd ghlcncd up.
(ul Wy lC d8CCutgc pgcCn8 mu8l Oc Cund.)

hc ltngut h8
@
8hpcd Oy P8Kn y nd c8lctn PVcnuc 8
8llc tghl C Wy. l8 hgh V8Oly lC OClh pcdc8ltn nd Ct
ltVcct mKc l Vcty gCCd CClCn Ct puOC tl.
Pl lhc CCtnct C t8l PVcnuc nd bcncC 8 8m ptVlcy-CWncd
ptCc. l8 CClCn mKc8 l n cnlty pCnl lC lhc Cly. l 8hCud Oc
u8cd Ct lcmpCtty tl ptC]cCl.

1be Management o/ 3aces


W
t ccond and cslcr is a ligtl landscacd sacc on onc sidc, an
unusualllargcsidcalk saccon tcotcr

Tcrc souIdbc aunif


ing dcsign it srubbcr and landscaping
cattlcs oldcr buildings uscd atcrtans on tc roo. an otcsc
or tcir latfors rcain and rovidc rcad-adc strcturcs for
artorks. c sa onc in anattan icas racd in goldla
and it adc astunning transoration.
iIlclibstocIdcstriansconcrtcstcccrstrcctsillbccoc
orcrcvalcnt ittcirsalIscalcand cdcstrian ocs, tcrc-
scnt ortunitics orartists to bccoc involvcd in tcir dcsign.
W
arkinglotsand btscan bc transforcd intoartorksb ainting
or aniIating tc asalt sracc itscl oots, an in disrcair,
can bc rcnovatcd it nccctcd art.
Thc pcrformng arts arc anothcr way to cnIcn pubIc spaccs.
ThsssomcthngAmcrcanciticsdo rathcrwcIIthcyIovcthchoopIa
thc invoIvcmcnt ofschooIchiIdrcn, thc invcntion ofncw traditions to
ccIcbratc. And thcy do Ikc musc. Thc cquivaIcnt of thc muncpaI
band conccrt now s azz, country, bIucgrass, modihcd rock, cvcn
chambcrmusicby woodwndorbrassquntcts, and,on occason, mu-
ncpaIbandconccrts. ThcrcarcaIsocntcrtainmcntsofvariousknds
trampoInc artists, mimcs, magcians, and such.
As an itncrantobscrvcr l havca fcw obscrvationsto makc. Onc
s that thc bcst pIacc for prcscntatons s a smpIc opcn pacc. Thc
numbcrofpcopIcapcrformnggroup wIIdrawwIIbcabout l 25l 5
at thcmaxmum bcyond that, pcopIc on thccdgcarc too farback to
cnoy thc show, and thcrc s a ccrtain scIf-Iimtng factor at work.
Symphony conccrts and othcr Iargc-scaIc cvcnts arc anothcr mattcr,
thcy rcqurc Iargc spaccs and spcciaI Iogstics.
ut thc smaIIcr, nformaI prcscntatons arc thc brcad and buttcr
ofprograms. For that rcason its good tobccharyofpIanningcIabo-
ratc amphthcatcrs. Thcy can accommodatc Iargc numbcrs, but thcy
tcndtobcsingIc-purposcfaciIitcsand arcnot wcII adaptcdtosmaIIcr
groups.Tooohcnthcspaccbctwccnthcpcrformcrandthchrstrowof
thcaudcnccsmuchtoogrcat,andsnccthcamphthcatcrsfrozcnn
concrctc, thcrcsnotmuch thatcanbcdoncaboutt. To rcpcat, kccp
it smpIc. A grassy Iawn makcs a hnc stagc, and ift sIopcs a bit, so
uch thc bcttcr.
Whcn it comcs to cquipcnt municipaI govcmmcnts arc stngy.
ThcpcopIcwhostagcthcprogramsarcforcvcrscroungingaroundand
borrowng cqupmcnt. What citics nccd s a good n-housc suppIy of
chairs, tabIcs, dcountabIcpIatforms, and ampIifyingcquipmcntthat
actuaIIy works. Pittsburgh'sprogram is onc ofthcfcw that hasa fair
storc ofcquipmcnt, and that is onc rcason t is an outstanding pro-
gram.
Anothcr nccd s cIcctricty. ln thc pIannng ofpIazas and parks,

L Y
architccts should bc induccd at gunpoint to providc scvcral wclI-Io-
catcd l l 5- and 22-volt outIcts. cry fcw spaccs havc bccn so pro-
vidcd, and as arcsuIt IincshavctobcIaidin,covcrcdwith tapc,takcn
up, Iaid in again. Thcy arc costly, ugIy, and dangcrous and add to
insurancc liabiIity. Pcrmancnt Iincs acccssibIc t a numbcr of points
aIlow thccvcnts pcopIc much morc cxibiIity in staging cvcnts. Thcy
wouId aIso havc morc choiccs to makc if originaI pIans caIIcd for
watcrIincs to bc run in lf thcrc arc going to bc fcstivaIs with food
booths and such, watcr wiII bc indispcnsabIc Running it in aftcr thc
fact is vcry costIy, ifdonc.
OncofthchncstcxampIcs ofawcIl-programmcdpIaccisPionccr
Courthousc Squarc in Portland, Orcgon. lthad tobc programmcd to
bc buiIt. A parking faciIity occupicd thc sitc, and many of thc mcr-
chants and poIiticians wouIdust as soon havc kcpt it that way. An
opcn squarc wouId attract undcsirabIcs, thcy said. A vigorous citizcn
cort won thc day howcvcr, and to capitaIizc on thc momcntum a
grcat brick saIc was Iaunchcd. Within a ycar ovcr J5, pcopIc had
purchascd bricks andothcrfcaturcs for thcpIaza, raising muchofthc
7.&miIlion constructionbudgct. Findingonc'sinscribcd brick isonc
ofthc squarcs divcrsions.
Sinccthcn thc scrics ofcvcnts has bccn almost nonstop, andina
rcIativcIy short timc a host of traditions has bccn cstabIishcd. Thc
squarc is maintaincd by thc citys park dcpartmcnt, but thc managc-
mcnt of thc spacc s handlcd by a nonproht corporaton sct up for thc
purposc. lt has a profcssionaI sta ofcight, and it puts thc arm on
many citizcn voluntccrs. lt has a hnc stock ofcquipmcnt and Iots of
outlcts. Annual cxpcnditurcs J,, pIus l &, for maintc-
nancc, bornc by thc city.
Thc rcsuIt is an astonishing varicty ofactivitics. Among thoscin
9&6 tca dancc for scniors trick cycIing dcmonstration group acr-
obicsscssionsbrassquintctwoodwindquintctHcstcrStrcctIczmcr
and ChincscIiondancc SwissCulturcDaymimcPortIandFcstivaI
Symphony Movicsby Moonlight Music from thc Js squarcdanc-
ingazz quartct.
Thc corporation also rcnts out thc squarc alI of it or parts, at
rcasonablc rcntals. Amongothcr things, it pushcs wcddings. Hcrcarc
cxccrpts from onc ofits ycrs
L P bQLPHL PL
n! Wcddng !h!8 !cd !C !td!Cn W!h !W8! C 8Cmc!hng ncW7
Hcn! Cncct LCut!hCu8c bqutc Ct !hc Og cVcn!.
hc cc 8 , tcundOc Ccnng cc C J mu8! 8C Oc pd.
P Wcddng 8!c my Oc 8ccC!cd tCm mCng 8cVct tc8: !hc m-

1be Management o/ 3aces


phIlhclct, ClC8c lC c VIllCn tc8lutnl I8 Cnc. on tc pCllcd
trccs on 5. . Broadway s anothcr. P vcry !argc cvcnt mght want to
utilizc tc curvcd stairs and rp.
Ll 22J- l JCt dclI8. Pnd tic lhc KnCl In lhc 8Qutc.
Thc corporation aIso rcnts spacc for commcrciaI usc, an cight-
foot-squarcbooth, forcxampIc, rcntsforJfor cighthours. Lighting
systcms, sound systcms, and portabIc staging moduIcs arc avaiIabIc.
Thc corporation makcs much of thc stimuIus to downtown rctaiIing
and is now mcrchandising a spcciaI "Squarc DcaI" packct to pcopIc
who pay thc l 5 mcmbcrship fcc. lt contains J worth ofcoupons
rcdccmabIc at ncighboring storcs
Thc corporation is stiII scIIing thosc bricks.
WithadroitschcduIing,asthc squarc hasdcmonstratcd,hoursof
usc can bc cxtcndcd. Many Amcrican citics dcspair on this point.
Thcir downtown spaccs go dcad whcn downtown gocs dcad, somc-
whcrc around hvc to hvc-thirty. Citics arc right to bc conccmcd but
thcy shouId not bc too discouragcd. PcopIc comc togcthcr in down-
town to work togcthcr, and that is why thcy Icavc togcthcr As with
thc pcrcnniaI hopcs for staggcrcd work hours, hours ofusagc can b
cxpandcd somcwhat but not grcatIy changcd, at Icast not in thc ncar
tcrm. Longcr tcrm, thcrc arc factors that couId makc a substantiaI
dicrcncc.thccrcationofmorcdowntownhousing,morc good rcstau-
rantsandattractionstodrawpcopIctodowntownorhoIdthcmthcrc.
ThccvoIutionofDaIIas' WcstEndwarchouscdistrict is an cncourag-
ing casc in point. ln rcIativcIy fcw ycars it has spawncd a host of
rcstaurants and bccr-gardcntypc famiIy pIaccs. lt is fun to go to.
Evcn ifyou do not, you fccI bcttcr about downtown DaIIas
Wt thc downtowns that arc gIVcn, Il I8 QCssIDlc lC cxtcnd tc
uscofthcirpubIicspaccs. utnottoo much. Attcmptswcrcmadcby
RockcfcIIcr Ccntcr and Citicorp to schcduIc cvcnts so pcopIc wouId
stay untiI cight o'cIock or Iatcr. ut not many did. Thc buIk of thc
omcc-workcrcIicntcIcwiIIcvcntuaIIygohomctodinncr. utthcy can
bc kcpt tiII as Iatc as scvcn and in thc dusk hours this is an accom-
pIishmcnt. !azz for a Iatc summcr's aftcmoon, a gIass ofwinc undcr
lHc umDtcll8: tCm 8uCH Qlc8utc8 Cn 8Cmc 8uD8lnlIl 8hIl8 Dc Ctc-
atcd.
ThccxccptionaIcxampIciswhathashappcncdtothcdcmograph-
ics of oston's hnanciaI district. Not so many ycars ago thc pIacc
cIoscddownathvcandcvcrybodywasonthcirwayoutoftown. Thcn
camc thc FancuiI aII MarkctpIacc. Station yourscIf at onc of thc
main strcct cocrs and you wiII scc a massivc trck ofyoungcr omcc
workcrshcadforthcpIacc. y sixthcy arcthrccdccpatthcbars,and

+
5/O D/ 3 /93| /3C9
/5 |//3OU/3|/DO. !O/5 /5
|O9 /DC95S 0y wO/CO
5D09 9X|9/O3/ 5|/0U/US
/Dv/09S 3 hOK39
09%99O 9D/9 3O0
/D0|5 S|/3O9/S |D
|a |O 3aO OO a
|O9y w9/9 OD|.
L X
lhcy Sl3y lhcfc uHl cghl 0f HHc0f 3lcf. hc b0lh lfccl bc3Q0tl H
cW 0tK S S3f 3l lcS y0u 00ud mSl3Kc l 0t 3 gg3Bl0
SUgcS Q3fly. fSS h3Vc 00mQ3Bcd lB3l lhcSc Q30cS 3fc lfV00uS
lhcy 3tc 3 Ol, Qcth3QS, Oul lhcy 3y Oc 3 fcSQ0USc l0 3 S003 Bccd
lh3l S U0l 3 3 lflV00uS
1fl8Bg8luB
c h3Vc g0Dc 0Vcf lhc QtD0Q3 30l0tS lh3l m3Kc 3 Q30c W0tK.
ul lhctc S 0Bc m0tc l30l0t. 03 llt3Bgu3l0B. ylhS m08B lh8l

Qt00cSS Dy Wh0h S0mc cXlctB3 SlmuuS Qt0VdcS 3 BK3gc DclW0cB
Qc0Qc 3Bd Qt0mQlS Slt3BgctS l0 l3K l0 0lhct Slt3BgctS 3S llhcy KB0W
030h 0lhcf. B0tc 3t, S3y, lW0 W0mcB Sl3BdBg 3l 3 Slt0cl 00tB0t. P
Wc-dtcSScd y0uBg gt Sl0KS 0ul hct h3Bd 3B0 S00lS m0B0y lt0m 8
m3B Sl3B0Bg lB0t0. Bc 0l lh0 W0m0B lutBS l0 lB0 0lB0t. d y0u
Scc lh8l Sgt800lu, lh0 0lhct S8yS. B lB0 l0Bc 0l V000 uSu8lly
tcS0fVcd l0f 00Sc ltcBdS lhc lW0 cX0h3Bgc lh0ughlS 0B lh0 dc0lB0 0l
Pm0t03B V8ucS.
bltccl 0h3t30lctS 0l 3 m0tc Q0SlVc S0tl Slmu3lc mu0h Bl0t
0h3Bgc. t. 3g00, 3S 3Vc B0lcd, 03U dt3W 3 0t0Wd, 3Bd lS m0m
OcfS W Sl3tl l3KBg l0 c30h 0lhct 3D0ul hm. bltccl cBlctl3DctS 08B
h3Vc lhc S3mc cRc0l D3d 0BcS. LBc 0llBc DcSl 0llhc D3d 0B0S
Vc SccH S 3 y0uDg m3g03H W0Sc Q3llcf S S0 00tB l3l y0u 3tc
Vflu3y l0t0cd Bl0 00BVctS3l0B Wlh y0ut HcghO0f.
P Vfluc 0Sltccl 30lS S lhct uHcXQc0lcdHcSS. hcU Qc0Ql0 l
uQ 3t0uBd 3H cHlctl3Dct l h3QQcUS Vct Qu0Ky, B 3 mBulc 0t S0
lhcy 00K mu0h Kc 0hdfcB Wh0 h3Vc 00mc Q0B 3 ltc3l. b0m0
W Dc SBg U SmQc dcghl. hS S ltuc tc0tc3l0B, lB0ugh t3tcy
lh0ughl 0l3S Su0h H0l Oy lhc tcl3ctS Wh0 lty S0 h3td l0
0l0W lhc cDlct0Dct u lhctc 0mclhDg 0 V0c hctc
hc Slmuu 03U Oc 3 QhyS00 0O]cCl 0t Sghl. Pl lhc Sm3 Q3tK
3l lhc f0mcH3dc H t00KyD cghlS, lhctc S 0 SQc0l30u3t VcW 0l
lhc l0WctS 0l 0Wct 3Hh3ll3H 30f0SS lhc 3Sl Vct. l S 3 gtc3l
00HVctS3l0H 0QcHct 3Bd Slf3HgctS 0lcU tc3tK 0H l l0 c30h 0lhct.
hcH y0 00c uQ0U Su0h 3 S0cHc l W0ud Oc fudc H0l l0.
c h3Vc D0lcd lhc Slt0Ug S0C3 cc0lS lh3l Qlutc 03B h3Vc.
Pl lc cdcf3 33 U LhC3g0 PcX3Udcf L3dct S hugc Sl3Dc h3S
h3d 3 m3gUcl0 cc0l 0H lhc QcdcSlt3H 0WS. cl0tc-3Hd-3llcf SludcS
0l lhc h3Sc 3Hh3ll3H Q3Z3 H cW 0fK Sh0Wcd lh3l uDuRclS
0Nr rccS h0 h3d Sm3f cc0lS. c0Qc 3tc df3WD l0 lhc S0uQlutc
3Ud dt0WU lh0ugh l . hcy Sl3Dd uUdctl . hcy l0uCh l hcy t3Q 0B
1be Management o/ 3aces [
i
5 5
]
it to hcar thc sound it makcs. Thcy taIk to othcr pcopIc about it.
What's t adcof7 Wood7 Soc knd ofpIastic aybc7
Anothcr

stimuIus for trianguIation is thc univcrsaI cxpcrt. Ncw


YorkisfuIlofhim. HcisknowIcdgcablconaIlmattcrsandwiIIvoIun-
tccr his hcIp. lt's not wood it's madc o lt's adc ofbcrgIass.


/0l O0SI 0US/O0SSO0O
/I /S O0I IO0 000
003/0lS 0l OU0lS
wO0 00S0SS IO00. /I /S
IO0 3 Sy000/,
0lO3S, 0 IO0 O3O
0O0 O/OI 00C0O0 0UI
0l IO0 l3C0 0 3I0.
hc DggcSl Sngc 0DSl30c l0 lhc Qf0VS0n 0l Dcllcf SQ80cS S lhc
uDdcSf3DlcS f0Ocm. hcy 3fc lhcmScVcS n0ll00 mu0h0l3 Qf0Dlcm.
l S lhc 0l0HS l0KcH O 0mD0l lc l0 lc fOc. ul O0
8lm0Sl 0DS0SSVc lc8f 0l lhcf QfcScn0c, 0V0 lc8dcfS W0tty lh8l l 8
3c S m3dc 3llf0lVc l0 c0Qlc l Wl c 0llf30lVc l0 uBdcSf8Dlc
Qc0Qc. b0 l S m3dc dclcBSVc. hcfc S l0 Dc n0 0lcDng Wh3l 8
8VlnSl Scfm0n lS n lh0Sc W0fdS 8nd lhcfc S l0 Dc n0 c8lng, B0
lccQlng. b0 ll S l3l Dcn0cS 3fc m8dc l00 Sh0fl l0 SlccQ 0B, l8l
SQKcS 3fc Qul 0n cdgcS, lh3l m3ny nccdcd SQ30cS 3fc n0l Qf0Vdc0
3nd lhc Ql3nS l0f lhcm S0ullcd.
Dc 0 lhc Qf0lcmS D dc0D Wlh undcSf8DlcS S 8 l8lufc l0
dcfcnl3lc. t0f m0Sl DuSHcSSmcD, 0uf0uSy, l S H0l muggcfS, d0Qc
dc3cfS, 0f lfuy d3ngcf0uS Qc0Qc lh3l 0DScSS lhcm. l S lhc Wn0S
dcfcll0lS, mcB Wh0 dfnK 0ul 0l h3l-Qnl D0lllcS n Q8Qcf D8gS lhc
m0Sl Vuncf0Dc 0llhc 0ly S m3fgn3l Qc0Qlc, Oul 3 SymD0l, Qcfh3QS,
0l lhc m3n 0Bc mghl Dc00mc Dul l0f lhc gf00c 0l l3lc. hcB S0mc
Qc0Qc SQc8K 0l lhcSc mcn lhcy Smc 3S l lhcy Wcfc lclng 8 dy
]0Kc.
t0f fcl8cfS, lhc Sl 0lundcSf3DlcS S m0fc n0uSVc. hcfc 8fc
lhcO3g W0mcn, D3g mcn, Qc0Qc Wh0 l3K 0ul 0ud nDuScS, lccB8gcfS
0dcf Qc0Qc, Slfccl muS03nS, Slfccl Vcnd0fS. Ln 0nc 0008S0n 3 fc-
l3lcf Q0nlcd 0ul ScVcf3 l0f mc lW0 y0uBg W0mcD n Dluc ]c3BS
!be 0ndesirables
1uctdcut at 5t. Fatrick's Catbcdral
W/IO 0w 0XC0I/0OS,
/8Z8S 8O0 S080 8/KS
/O 00SI C0OIl3/
0US/O0SS 0/SIl/CIS 3l0
3S S80 3 /3C0 3S y0U
C3O 0O0 0Ul/O IO0
I/005 IO8I 00/0 US0
IO0O.
L
l3KBg B0lcS 3l lhc00fBcf. hctc 3fc S0mc 0llhcm, lhc fcl3cfS30.
hcy Wcfc lW0 0l0uf fcSc3f0hcfS.
0 Qt0000uQ8l0n Wl un0Sl80S lS 8 SymQ0m 0l 8B0lh0t
Qf0Dcm. 3By 00fQ0f3l0B cXc0ulVcS W0 m3K Kcy 0c0S0BS 3D0ul
lhc 0ly h3Vc SufQtSBgy llc 30Qu3Bl3B0c Wl lhc lc 0llS SltcclS
3Bd 0QcB SQ30cS. f0m lhc Sl3l0B lhcy m3y h3Vc l0 W3lK 0Bly 3 lcW
D00KSl0 lhcf 00cDu0Bg, Dul0B0c BSdc, S0mcd0 B0l VcBlufc 0ul
3g3B uBll l S lmc l0 hc3d D30K l0 lhc Sl3l0B. b0 0t0umS00 S
lhct lcttl0ty lh3l m3By SQcBd 3 dc03dc 0t S0 Wlh0ul Slt3yBg m0tc
lh8B 3 lcW D00KS 0 lhct Scl Q3lhW3yS llhct 00c Dul0Bg h8S 8
Ql8Z8, lhcy 8tc lKcly l0 h3Vc SccB ll cVcty 8y Dul B0l l0 h8V0 0V0t
uScd l lh0mSclVcS. Sh0Wcd 3 Blm l0 lhc Dt3SS 0l3 3tgc 00I0t8l0B
0B lhc llc 0l lhct Ql3Z3. hc Q3Z3 h3QQcBcd l0 Dc 3 Su00cSSlul 0Bc
8B0 lhc cXc0ulVcS Wtc l3S0B3lcd Dy l 3S ll Wctc 3 l3I-0Sl8Bd
Q30c. cy h3d BcVct B0WB l.
ll S 3 dclcBSVc Q3Z3, lcW 0lhcf Qc0Qc W h3Vc uSc0 l clhct.
l30cS 0cSgBcd B dSltuSl gcl Wh3l W3S 3Bl0Q3lcd 3Bd l S B lh0m,
t0Bl03lly, lh8l y0u Wll m0Sl llKcy Bd 3 WB0. X0u Wll BBd WB0S
clScWhctc, Dul l S lhc cmQly Q30S lhcy Qfclct. lS B lhcm lh3l lhcy
00K 00BSQ0u0uS 3lm0Sl 3S llhc dcSgB h30 DccB 00BltVcd l0 m3Kc
lhcm S0.
c3f Qf0VcS lScl. Mghly c3D0f3lc dclcBSVc mc3SufcS 3fc 3B
30V3B0c B003l0f lh3l lhc 00fQ0f3l0B m3y 0lc3t 0ul 0l lhc 0ly cB-
ltcly. 0Bg Dcl0tc B0B L8tDc3BB0uB0cd l W3S 03VBg cW 0tK
ll OI Oull uDull8, l5 DulOl 58lO l8l ll OuO. 8 OI UO
cXhDl 3fc3, lhc DulBg W3S Sc3lc 0t0m lhc 0ly, Wlh Q0l0clKc
gu3tdS Wlh D30K uBl0 3Bd W3lKc-l3lKcS. LulSdc Wctc ltgc
cXQ8BScS 0l Q3VBg 3Bd B0l 3 Ql30c l0 Sl.
ctc Slll S D0l 0 Q00c. 3Bul30lufcfS M0n0Vcf tul, Wh0h
g0l lhc DudBg l0t 3 S0Bg, Qul 0g, Dl30K, m3tDc 0D]c0lS 0 lhc
SQ30cS Wlh lhc B3mc 0l lhc D3BK 0B lhcm. ul y0u 03BB0l Sl hctc
lhc S0cS 3fc S0 SlccQy 03Blcd y0u Sldc 0.
hc DcSl W3y l0 h3B0lc lhc Qt0Dcm 0luB0cSt3DlcS S l0 m8Kc 8
Q30c 3llt30lVc l0 cVcfy0Bc clSc. hc fc00fd S 0VctWhclmBgly Q0S-
lVc 0B lhS S00tc. lh lcW cX0cQl0BS, 0cBlct 0ly Q3Z3S 3B0 Sm8ll
Q3fKS 3fc S3lc Q30cS.
hcy mtf0tcXQc0l3l0BS. bc3gf3m m3B3gcmcBlSQlc3Sc0 Qc0Ql
lKc lS Q3Z33Bd S Qulc fcl3Xc0 3D0ulWh3l lhcy d0 0B l. llclS lhcm
Sl0K lhcf lccl B lhc Q00S l l0cf3lcS 000D3S 3Bd cVcB 3l0WS lhcm
l0 SccQ lhc Bgl 0B lc c0gcS. hc SuB ScS lhc BcXl m0Bg.
00d Ql30cS 3fc 3fgcy Scl-Q00Bg. 3lcy 3tK S 3B cX0clcBl
cX3mQc. l S 00ufy l0 Qc0Qc. 30KS0B L3DlhctS 3B0 3SQct tccB,
lhc gu3tdS, 3fc 3m3Dlc h0SlS 3B0 t3fcy h3Vc l0 d0 mu0h 3dm0BSh-
4
1be 0ndesirables
ing. lf it is ncccssary somcbody throwing trash on thc ground, for
cxampIc gucstsarcIicIytodothcadmonishing. Withitsmov
abIcchairsandtabIcsthcparshouIdbchighIyvuIncrabIctovandaI-
ism. ut it is not. Hcrc is thc rccord ofsccurity infractions sincc thc
par opcncd in l 67
V5 Lnc C lhc CWct unIl8 Cn lhc 8IdcWlK W8 8lClcn Oy
V!
V!
V!
V!+
V5
V5J
V!~V5
lWC mcn In Vn.
hc ``Hctc8hmcnl8 8Ign W8 lKcn tCm lhc Wll.
P 8mll lOlc W8 lKcn.
P mn ltIcd lC CtVc hI8 InIlIl8 Cn Cnc C lhc ltcc8.
Lnc C lhc Ot88 lIghl8 l lhc cnltnCc W8 tcmCVcd.
bnCK Ot OtCKcn InlC ncW dCCt tcquItcd.
bmll tcu8c Btc Cn 8IdcWlK ptCOOly CCIdcnll.
n cnlItc pctICd nC mCVOlc ChIt8 hVc Occn 8lClcn.
ln thc sixtccn ycars that l havc bccn studying Ncw or pIazas
andsmaIIpars thcrchasbccn rcaI troubIcinonIythrcc, aIIthrcc of
thcmbadIydcsigncdandmanagcd. lnwcII-uscdpIaccsthcrchasbccn
no troubIc.
PIaccsthatarcdcsigncd primariIyforsccurityworscn it. Foronc
thingthcyfcaturcwaIIs.ThcidcaistoccpoutbadpcopIc.Thcccct
can bc thc oppositc. About tcn ycars ago a corporation with a wcII
uscd smaII par was aIarmcd to notc that somc dopc dcaIcrs wcrc
woring thc pIacc at Iunchtimc. Thc managcmcnt paniccd. lt too
away haIfthc bcnchcs. Thcn it had stccI-bar fcnccs put up aIong thc
twoopcnsidcsofthcpar.ThcscmovcssharpIycutdownthcnumbcr
of pcopIc using thc par much to thc dcIight of thc dopc dcaIcrs,
whonowhadthcpIaccmuchmorctothcmscIvcsandthcircustomcrs.
Managcmcnt dccidcd to rcvcrsc coursc. AppIying thc rccommcnda-
tions ofthc Procct for PubIic Spaccs, it rcdid thc par it put in ncw
food ioss and chairs and tabIcs and schcduIcd a scrics ofmusicaI
cvcnts. Thc par has bccn doing wcII cvc sincc.

Thc most striing cxampIc of a waIIcd cncIavc is Ncw Yors


ryantPa. ltshouIdbconcofthcgrcatcstofccntcr-citypars. ltis
spacious somc ninc acrcs and it is in thc vcry hcart of midtown,
ust wcst of thc PubIic Library at Fihh Avcnuc and Fortysccond
bltccl. Pnd Ct CVct hly yct8 Il h8 Occn ltCuOlcd plCc.
ln thc carIy thirtics thcrc was a dcsign compctition for a maor
rcdoofthcpar.ThcwinningschcmcwasrootcdinaphiIosophic
prcmisc. Thc par was to bc a rcfugc from thc city, frcc from thc
hustIc and bustIc of pcdcstrians. To that cnd, it was physicaIIy rc
movcd from thc surrounding strccts. lt was cIcvatcd about four fcct
abovc strcct IcvcI, Iincd with an iron fcncc, and thcn, for good mca
surc, givcn an additionaI scparation from thc strcct in thc form of
[ t 6 o ]
L X
dcBSc ShfuDDcfy. hcfc Wcfc fc3lVcy lcW cBlf3B0cS Bl0 lhc Q3fK.
LB0c lhcfc, 0Bc 00ud B0l 0ul 30f0SS lhc Q3fK. hc dc3 W3S l0 d-
00uf3gc lBf0ugB QcdcSlfl3B R0WS, B0l lBYllc lBcm, 3Bd DcclBcS 8B
Sh0fl0ulS Wcfc D00Kcd Dy 00BlBu0uS D3uSlf3dcS.
Bc lBIcBlOBS Wcfc lBc DcSI. hcD3S0 dcSgB, h0WcVcf, tcSlcd0B
3 l330y. c0Qc m3y S3y lhcy W3Bl l0 gcl 3W3y lf0m lhc 0ly, 3V0d
lhc huSlc 3Bd DuSlc 0l Qc0Qc, 3Bd lhc Kc. ul lhcy d0 B0l. hcy
Sl3ycd 3W3y lt0m fy3Bl 3fK. LB BBc Summcf d3yS lhcy W0ud uSc
lhcgfc3l 3WB. Bfc3l0B l0 lSSZc 0Bd 0cBlf3 003l0B, h0WcVcf, lhc
Q3fK fcm3Bcd Vcfy mu0h uBdcfuScd.

X0cQl Dy uBdcSf3DcS. P Su00cSS0B 0lV3f0uS KBdS 0mB3lcd
lhc Q3fK dufBg lhc 0-h0ufS, 0umB3lBg B lhc Vtlu3 fuc 0 l Dy
dtugdc3cfS B lhc3lc ScVcBlcS. hcy cVcB h3d Qc0QcSl3BdBg 3l lhc
cBlf3B0cS, 3Bd WhcB lhcy 3Kcd d0WB lhc Q3lhW3yS lhcy W3Kcd B
lhc mddc. hS W3S lhct Q30c.
P 003l0B 0l 0V0 gf0uQS 3Bd BcgBD0DBg 000t3l0BS h8
3uB0hcd 3 3fgc-S03 c0tl l0 fcdccm lhc Q3fK. hcfc 3fc m3By cc-
mcBlS B lS Qf0gf3m 3 g3SScd-B gf3Bd 03, l0f c3mQc l00d -
0SKS, D00KSl3S, 3Bd lhcKc. ul lhcKcy 3m S lO 0QcB lhcQ3tK uQl0
lhc Slfccl. bcVcf3 BcW cBlf3B0cS 3fc l0 Dc 3ddcd lhc 3DyDBlhBc
Blc3 3y0ul S l0 Dc SmQBcd l0 cB00uf3gc lhf0ugh QcdcSlD3B
R0WS. hc ShfuDDcty h0S 3fc3dy g0Bc. 3BdS03Qc 3f0hlc0lS 00
M3BB3 3Bd 3ufcLB 3fc dc3Bg Wlh 3 0cflcd 3Bdm3fK 3Bd h3V0
h3d l0Dc fcSQc0llu0llhc 0fgB3 dcSgB. hcy h3Vc DccB 3dt0ly S0,
hCWcVcf Hd lhc cSul 3 0n lh3 00KS Vcty mu0h Kc lhc0d 0B0
Dul lB uB0ll0B lS lhc 0QQ0Sll0 0 ll.
0Sl Wc-uScd Q30cS h3Vc 3 m3y0f 0l S0flS. Mc m3y Dc 3
DudBg gu3f0, 3 BcWSSl3Bd 0Qcf3l0f, 0f 3 00d YcBd0f. hI0ugh0ul
lhcd3y y0u W B0l0c Qc0Qc0hc0KBg BWlh hm 3 00Q, Qcfh3QS, 3
DuS dSQ3l0hcf, V3f0uS Slfccl Qf0lcSS0B3S, 3Bd 00c W0fKcf 3Bd
Sh0QQcfS Wh0 Sl0Q Dy DtcR l0f 3 hc0 0f Dl 0lD3Blcf. hc m30tS
3tc fc3l 00mmuB03l0B 0cBlcfS, 3Bd lhcy 3fc u0K l0 S0l 3By dc-
Q3tlutc lf0m lhc B3 lc 0l lhc Q30c. bu0 3S uS. hcB Wc Sl3D
0DScfVBg 3l 3 Q30c uB0DlfuSVcy, Wc Kc l0 lhBK lhc fcgu3fS
SQ0l uS Vcty Qu0Ky. c fc B0l m0VBg, l0f 0Bc lhBg. cl0fc 0Bg, lhc
m3y0f W dfll 0Vcf 3Bd lfy l0 Bd 0ul ]uSl Wh3l Wc fc uQ l0.
LBc 0llhc DcSl m3y0fS Vc cVcf SccB S 0c 3fdy 0llhc X0B
udBg 0l 00Kclccf LcBlcf. Mc S 3B 30l0f 3S Wc 3S 3 gu3f0 3Bd
W3S 0fgB3y hfcd l0 Q3y b3Bl3 L3uS, Wh0m hc fcScmDcS. Lt-
B3ty, gu3fdS 3fc B0l SuQQ0Scd l0 Bl3lc 00BVcfS3l0BS, Dul J0c S
gfcg3f0uS 3Bd 0ut0uS 3Bd B3S 3 B0c ScBSc 0lSlu3l0BS. hcfc m3y
Dc 3B 0dcf 00uQc 00KBg S0mcWh3l 00BluScd. Mc W 3Bl0Q3lc
lhcf QucSl0BS 3Hd g0 uQ l0 lhcm. Pfc lhcy, Dy 0h3B0c, 00Bg 0f 3
fc3S0B3Dc Q00c l0 c3l c ycS, lh3l S Wh3l lhcy Wcfc g0Bg l0 3S
W
1he 0ndesirables
him.OnanothcroccasionthcrcmightbctwogirIstakingtumsphoto
raphi cach othcr. !oc sucsts mayc thcy'd c hm to tac a
picturc ofthctwo ofthcm. Ycs, thcy wouId.
!oc is toIcrant of winos and odd pcopIc, as Iong as thcy dont
bothcr anyonc. Hc is vcry quick, howcvcr, to spot incipicnt troubIc.
GroupsoftccnagcrsarcancspcciaIchaIIcngc.ThcyIikctotcstapIacc.
Thc voIumc knob on stcrco bIastcrs" is a favorcd wcapon. !oc says
youhavc to nip thiskind ofthing carIy oryouvcIost. Onc tactic hc
uscsistogo uptothctoughcstIooking mcmbcrofthc groupand ask
hishcIp in kccping things cooI.
Anothcr hnc mayoris cbbic ay ofthcPortIand, Orcgon, Pio
nccr Courthousc Squarc. A young woman with a thcatcr arts back-
ground, shc was out of wor whcn thc squarc was opcning up and
appIicd for aob as guard. Shc has bccn a bcnchccnt prcscncc thcrc
cvcr sincc. A smiIin, fricdIy pcrson, shc cnoys taIkin to pcopIc,
suchasthcoIdcrpcopIcwhocomcso rcguIarIy. ShciscspcciaIIygood
withtccnagcrs. lfthcyhavcaprobIcmwithsomconc,thcyapprcciatc
havingmchcrc,"shcsays. Thatswhatlmhcrcfor tomakcpcopIc
fccI comfortabIc bcing hcrc."
Guards arc an undcruscd assct. At most pIaccs thcy dont do
much cxccptstand. For wantofanything to do, thcy tcndto dcvcIop
occupationaItics.OncmihtwavchisarmsrhythmicaIIytoandfroor
rock upand down on his hccIs. Anothcr may bcnd his knccs atpcri-
odicintcrvaIs. lfyouwatchhimyouIIgctmcsmcrizcdtryingtohgurc
whcn thc ncxt knccbcnd wiII comc.
Thc guardsob ought to bc upgradcd. Thc morc onc has to do,
thc bcttcr hc docs it, and thc bcttcr thc pIacc functions. Thc two
mayors at PaIcy arc a casc in point. lt was originaIIy cxpcctcd that
spccaI sccurityguards wouIdbc nccdcd, in addition to scvcraI pcopIc
to kccp thc pIacc tidy and do painting and rcpairs. Thc two mayors
wcrc abIc to do aII thcobs, and in a notabIy rcIaxcd way.
Thcrcarcantimayors. AtoncofourIargcstcivicistitutios,thc

hcad ofthc miIitiais a mca-Iooking fat man inabIack uniform who


cruiscs about in a goIfcart. l havc ncvcr sccn him actuaIIy hit any-
body,buthccomcssocIoscandatsuchspccdyoufccIhcrcaIIywants
to. hcuardsucrmarcaarccacot,uttcosarcso
thcy arcborcd to dcath. ltis IittIcwondcr thcy sncak o0to a ncarby
strcct to smokc pot.
ThcmostbcdcvIiprobIcmofacccsssthcpubcrcstroom. lts
numbcrshavcbccdccIii,andnow, withthcrcccnticrcascinthc
homcIcss, it is onthcbrinkofdisappcarancc. FaiIurctodcaI with onc
probIcm rationaIizcsthcothcr. Providcrcstrooms,itissaid,adthcy
L X
Wll Dc 0VcffuD Dy lhc h0mclcSS. hS W0uld 0llf00l ycl m0fc un-
dcSf0DcS 3nd Sl0Q d0WBl0WB S fcVV3l.
BlS lS Vcfy mu0B lKc lBc 3fgumcBl 0f SQlKcS 0B cdgcS. l lS B0l
]uSl Ihc h0mccSS WB0 ccd fcSl f00mS. Ldcf Qc0Qc, SB0QQcfS, VlS
l0fS l0 lhc 0ly, 3nd Qc0Qlc ln gcBcf3 nccd lhcm l00, 8nd 8 Q00 lh8l
Wlhh0dS 8n 3mcnll lf0m 3 0llhcm l0 Wlhh0d l lf0m lhc h0mc-
cSS S 0 mc0n 0nc ndccd. hc 0ly h0S 0n 0Dg0l0B l0 Qf0Vdc Su0h
l30lcS, 3nd n Qf0VdBg lhcm l m0y Bnd lh0l l S 0S0 30lBg n lS
3fgcf SclnlcfcSl. 3fS h3S 00mc l0 lhS 00n0uS0n Wlh lS BcW
unScX l0clS. b0 h8S 0tl3nd, Lfcg0n. lS Q8fK dcQ3flmcnl B3S Dccn
Qullng ndVdu0 unScX l0lclS n Q3fK 3fc3S 3nd n0W h3S SX B lhc
hc3fl 0l d0Wnl0Wn.
0f 3B m3]0f d0WBl0Wn Qf0]c0 B Wh0h Z0BBg n0cBlVcS 3tc
lBY0Ycd Whl0B lS l0 S3, m0Sl Qf0]c0lS Qf0VS0n 0l QuUl0 fcSl
f00mS Sh0ud Dc fcufcd 3nd S0 Sh0ud lhcf m3nlcB8n0c. h8l 08-
l8Slf0QhcS W0ud fcSul fc0cdcBlS SugcSl n0nc. Pl lhc l00fQ
3lfum lhcfc 3fc ScQ3f3lc fcSl f00mS l0f mcn 3nd 0f W0mcB, 3B0 lhcy
3fc Wc 00Kcd 0llcf. Pl lhc Bllncy S0uQlufc g3fdcn n lhc BlQ
0ffS udlBg 3 unlScX l0cl 3nd l3V3l0fy lS Qf0Vdcd. l S lu0Kcd
3W3y Dy lhc cSQfcSS0 00uBlcf, 3Bd y0u h3Vc l0 3SK l0f l l0 BBd l. ul
l S lhcfc.
n lhc g3cfy 0llhc uldBg lhcfc 3fc 3llt30llVc fcSl f00mS
S0fuQu0uSy m3nl3ncd. hcfc lS 3S0 3 0hc0Kf00m l0f 003lS 8Bd
h3lS, Wh ScfV0c 0n lhc h0uSc. bu0h nlcfB3 SQ30cS d0 n0l S0lVc lhc
Qf0cm 0lHC HDHClC55 lHCy 0 c D5Cly UQ5CC D lHC CCDlCC.
ul lhcy d0 mccl 0 Dccd 0Dd lhcy dcm0nlf0lc lh0l l S Qf00l00l l0
QfcSS l0f m0fc 0l lhcm.
ul lBcfc muSl Dc m0fc QuDll0 fcSl f00mS ln lfuly QuUl0 Q30cS.
hcfc uScd l0 Dc. cfc Sh0uld c 0g0n. hc fch0Dl0l0n 3n
3fK m3y Qf0Vc 0B nd00l0f. nc Qf0Dcm h3S Dccn Wh8l l0 d0 Wl
lhc f0lhcf 0fD0lc Slfu0lufcS lh0l Wcfc 0tgn0 Qf0Vdcd 0S fcSl
f00mS 0D lhc 0Dc Sdc l0f mcD, 0n0lhcf 0B lhc lhcf Sdc l0f
W0mcn. hS uSc B3YlBg UccB 0ul 0l lBc qucSl0B l0f S0mc llmc, lBc
Slfu0lufcS h3Vc Dccn uScd 3S Sl0f3c 3Bd l00 SBcdS. D0W 8 f8d08
Qf0Q0S3 S Dcng 00nSldcfcd. Sc lhcm 3S fcS f00mS. llhcy W0f n
fy0nl 0fK, l Wl Dc fcm3fKcd, lhcy Wl W0fK 3nyWhcfc. nd lhcfc
S 3 Vcfy g00d 0h3n0c lhcy Wl W0fK.
hcfc lS 0n0lhcf Qf0Ocm Wlh fcSl f00mS 3nd l S ulc Qcf8-
SVc. l lhc Vcfy c3Sl, W0mcn S f00m Sh0uld Dc h3l3g0n 0S 3fgc 3S
mcn S. ul lhcy 0fc n0l. hc dmcnS0DS 0W0mcn S f00mS lcnd l0 Dc
lhc mft0f m0gc 0lmcnS f00mS. hc 3m0unl 0lSQ00c S lhc S8mc B
c30h. hc dcfcn0c S D lhc BXlufcS S0mclmcS lhc W0mcB gcl 3B
cXlf0 l0cl S0mclmcS n0l. hc SuQQl0nddcm0nd l00l0f S0 0ul 0l
Wh00K, 0 l30l lh0l S Q0nluy cVdcnl Whcn lhc l30lcS 0fc l0Xcd
1be 0ndesirables
with pcak crowds. lntcrmission timc at thc thcatrc is a casc in point.
Whcn thc bcII rings for thc curtain, thcrc stiII may bc a qucuc of
womcn outsidc thc rcst room, but no qucuc of mcn outsidc thcirs.
Spacc has bccn symmctricaI, function has not bccn.
Citicshavc an opportunityto scizc. PhiIadcIphiaisonc. Through
adcsigncompctitionithas bccncanvassingidcasforthcrcvitaIization
ofthcpubIicspaccsinandaroundCity aII. Thcbasicaimistomakc
CityaIIamcctingpIaccforthc workcrsandshoppcrsofdowntown.
Thcrchavcbccnmany cxccIIcnt idcas. outdoorcafcs, watcrworks, Ia-
scr bcams, and such. ut probabIy thc bcst amcnity of aII wouId bc
good cIcan rcstrooms, for womcn cspcciaIIy, and for that ovcrIookcd
constitucncy, womcn with chiIdrcn in tow. Such provisions wouId bc
much apprcciatcd and aII thc morc for thc Iack of thcm most any-
whcrc cIsc in downtown. And thcy arc Iacking in most cvcry down-
town.
ThcrcisarcIatcdqucstion. owpubIicarcthcpubIicspaccs7On
many pIazas youwiII scc a smaIIbronzc pIaquc that rcads somcthing
Iikc this RNAL ROLRY. LROSS A HL RSK O HL LSLR ANO
H RLNOLAHLL LRmSSON O HL ONLR. lt sccms cIcar
cnough. lt mcans thatthcpIaza is thcowncr'sandhc has thc right to
rcvokc any right youfancy youmay havc to usc it. Whcthcr ornot a
oor-arca bonus was givcn, most buiIding managcmcnts takc it for
grantcd that thcy can bar any activity thcy hnd undcsirabIc. Thcir
conccpt ofthis, furthcrmorc, gocs bcyond antisociaI ordangcrous bc
havior. Somcarcquitcpcrsnickcty. Whcnl uscdaruIctomcasurcthc
frontIcdgcsatthcGcncraIMotorsuiIdingthcsccuritypcopIcrushcd
upin grcat constcmation. This was not pcrmittcd, cvcn though l was
n thcpubIicsidcwaIk. lfl wantcd tomcasurcl wouIdhavctosccurc
writtcn pcrmission from thc pubIic rcIations dcpartmcnt.
This isnotamattcrtogotothcSuprcmcCourt on, pcrhaps, but
thcrc is a principIc of somc importancc invoIvcd. Thc spacc was pro-
vidcd by thc pubIic through its zoning and pIanning machincry. And
thc owncr wcnt aIong with thc dcaI. lt is truc that thc spacc faIIs
withinthcpropcrty Iincofthcowncr, and itis cquaIIy tructhat hc is
rcsponsibIc forthcmaintcnancc ofit. ut thcIcgisIation cnabIing thc
oor-arca bonuscs forsch spaccs ncvocaII statcs that thc spacc
"must bc acccssibIc to thc pubIic at aII timcs."
What docs "acccssibIc" mcan7 A commonscnsc intcrprctation
wouIdbc thatthcpubIiccouId uscthcspaccin thcsamc manncrthat
+
it uscs any pubIic spacc, with thc samc frccdoms and thc samc con-
straints. Many buiIding managcmcnts havc bccn opcrating with a
much narrowcr conccpt of acccss. Thcy shoo away cntcrtaincrs and
pcopIc who distributc Icacts or givc spccchcs. Apartmcnt buiIding
L X
m8B8g0m0BlS 0ll0n Sh0 8W8y 0V0fyD0dy 0X00Ql fcSd0BlS. hS S 8
8gf8Bl V08ll0B 0lh0 0BlBg Bl0Bl, ul l0 d8l0 B0 0B0 h8S g0B0 l0
00I 0B ll
h0 QuDlt0 Sghl tB ufD8B Ql8Z8S W0uld Sccm 0lc8f. D0l 0By 8f0
Ql8Z8S uScd 8S QuDlt0 SQ80cS tB m0Sl 08ScS lhc 0Wncf h0S Dccn SQc0tB-
08ly, 8Bd f0hly, f0W8Id0d l0f Q0VldlBg lh0m. 0 h8S n0l D00n gV0n
l00BS0 l0 8ll0W 0Bly lhS0 Qul 80lVl0S h0 h8QQ0BS l0 8QQf0V0 0l.
0 m8y 8SSum0 lh8l h0 h8 l00S0, 8Bd S0m0 0WB0fS h8V0 D00B 0Qf
8lng 0n lhS 8SS Wlh mQBly. ul lh8l tS Dc08uSc B0D0y hS
0h8llCB0d lhcm. P Slt, 0l8lytB lcSl tS tB 0fdcf.
B
So far wc havc bccn considcring ways of making city spaccs attract
morc pcopIc. NowIctus tumto anothcrqucstion. Whatifwcwcrcto
succccd too wcII7 ConccivabIy, so many morc pcopIc might bc at-
tractcdastocrowdoutthcvaIucsthcycamctocnoy.lthashappcncd
atnationaIparksitcouIdccrtainIyhappcninthccity.ThispossibiIity
conccmcd thc pIanning commission. CouId our studics shcd somc
Iight7Was thcrcawaytogaugcthccarryingcapacityofspaccs7 How
many is too many7
To gctat thcscqucstionswcundcrtookcIosc-upstudicsofhvcof
thcmostintcnsivcIyuscdsittingspaccsinNcwYorkaIcdgcaIongsidc
a buiIding, a Icdgc at a pIaza, and thrcc scts ofbcnchcs. First, wc
rccordcd thc avcragc numbcr of pcopIc sitting at cach pIacc at pcak
ando-pcakhoursingoodwcathcr. ltwasimmcdiatcIy apparcntthat
thc numbcr who couId sit and thc numbcr who did sit wcrc quitc
dcrcnt. At thc most hcavly uscd placcs thc numbcr ol sttcrs rangcd
bctwccnthirtythrccandthirty-cightpcopIcpcrhundrcdfcctofsitting
spacc. Thcsc pattcms arc consistcnt cnough to yicId a rough ruIc of
thumbifyouwishtocstimatcthcavcragcnumbcrofpcopIcwhowiII
bc using a primc sitting spacc at pcak pcriods, dividc thc numbcr of
fcct in itby thrcc and you wiIIbc cIosc to a good hgurc.
ThisisnotphysicaIcapacity Wcrc pcopIc to sit atthcsamcrcIa-
tivcdcnsityas thcy doonbuscs, thc avcragc couIdgoas high as sixty
[
i 6 6
]
L Y
pcopIc pcr hundrcd fcct. ln spcciaI situations, such as a marathon
going by, thc numbcr can go to absoIutc physicaI capacity. That is
aboutscvcnty pcopIc, thoughIctitbc notcdyouwiIIncvcrscc scvcnty
pcopIcncatIydistributcdaIongasittingspaccIikcstarIingsonaphonc
Iinc.
What wc arc conccrncd with is e]ectire capacity, that is, thc
numbcr ofpcopIc whoby frcc choicc wiIIsit at apIacc duringnormaI
pcak-uscpcriods. EachpIacc, you wiIInd,hasitsownnorm,andthis
dcpcnds on many particuIars thc microcIimatc, thc comfort of thc
pcrch, what you can scc from it, thc attractivcncss ofthc pIacc.
SuppIy is anothcrmaorfactor. AIotofpcopIchavctopassby to
providc a numbcr ofsittcrs, and thus thcrc is bound to bc a rcIation-
ship bctwccn thc numbcr of sittcrs and thc pcdcstrian ow. ln his
studics ofCopcnhagcn, !an GchI found a strong corrcIation bctwccn
thc numbcr of pcopIc sitting on bcnchcs aIong Copcnhagcn's main
pcdcstrian way and thc numbcr standing or waIking. Thc numbcr
sitting was a fairIy constant fraction ofthosc standing or waIking.
OfaII factors, ofcoursc, thc sittcrs thcmscIvcs arc thc most im-
portant. Wc conccntratcd on thc north front Icdgc at Scagram for a
minutc-by-minutc study of thcir bchavior. From thc roof of thc
RacquctCIubacrossthcstrcct, wcfocuscdtwo timc-Iapsccamcrason
thc Icdgc, and at an intcrvaI of a framc cvcry tcn scconds thcy rc
cordcd what wcnt on from carIy moming to dusk.
1bc lcdc at 5caram.
W
Carqing Caacit)
Procctcd,thchImwasfascinatingtowatch,mostparticuIarIythc
Iunch pcriod. Oncsaw in spccdcd-up action avcry hcavy turnovcrf
Icdgcsittcrs, andasccmingIy randomdistribution ofsittcrsandcmpty
spaccs. Yct thc ovcraII numbcr of sittcrs at any onc timc rcmaincd
fairIy constant.
To undcrstand why, l pIottcd thc information in thc hIm onto a
horizontaI chart and, in chronoIogicaI ordcr, rccordcd who sat whcrc
andforhowIong.l tookanunconscionabIc amountoftimc doingit, l
shouId add. Thc tcdiousncss of this kind of anaIysis is onc of thc
rcasons fcw timc-Iapsc-study programs Iast thc coursc. Thcy rcquirc
manyhours abouthfty hoursinthiscasc, sprcadovcrthrccwccks. l
havcsinccIcamcdthatspccdandamcasurcofbravadoisancccssityif
thcrc is to bc practicaI usc of timc-Iapsc anaIysis
SIow or not, l found thc kcy to a puzzIc. Each sittcr was rcprc-
scntcd by aIinc, thc Icngth of which showcd how Iong thc sittcr sat,
and on what part of thc Icdgc. Laid out in chronoIogicaI ordcr, thc
chart Iookcd vcry Iikc a pIaycr-piano roII.
Thc day at Scagram starts sIowIy At cight-hfty, thrcc pcopIc sit
down, aftcr a fcw minutcs thcy Icavc. From thcn untiI about cIcvcn-
thirty usc is sporadic, with thc totaI numbcr sitting at any onc timc
uctuating bctwccn two and hvc. Thc suddcn upswing at tcn thirty-
hvc is causcd by twcnty-six schooI chiIdrcn who stoppcd to rcst.
AroundcIcvcn-thirtythctcmpopicksup, shortIy aftcrnoon, thcnum-
bcr ofsittcrs is around cightccn. For thc ncxt two hours it wiII rangc
bctwccn scvcntccn and twcnty-to with thc avcragc around cightccn
to ninctccn.
Now Ict us Iook at thc gcographic pattcrn. Whcn pcopIc start to
hIIupaspacc, thcy do notdistributcthcmscIvcs cvcnIy across it, and
thcydo nothcad forthccmpticst pIaccs. Thcy gowhcrcothcrpcopIc
arc, or rcasonabIy cIosc. At Scagram, thc most favorcd spots arc thc

corncrs ofthc front stcps. This is whcrc thc buiIdup ohcn bcgins.
You can scc thc samc phcnomcnon at bcachcs. On a busmans
hoIidayinSpain, l sctupatimc-Iapsccamcraon abIuovcrIookinga
smaII bcach. Whcn thc hrst comcrs arrivcd with thcir umbrcIIas and
bcach paraphcmaIia, most wcnt to thc front and ccntcr. As othcrs
arrivcd,thcydid notvccrotothccmptyspaccsat thcsidcs. lnstcad,
in a sort of tic-tac-toc pattcm, thcy Iocatcd thcmscvcs aout onc or
two spaccs rcmovcd from othcr pcopIc. y noon thc pattcrn was sct
Thcbcach umbrcIIas wcrc spttcd in thrcc praIIcI rows and wcrc so
cquaIIyspaccdthatyouwouIdthinkthcywcrcIaidoutby asurvcyor
Thc sidcs and thc rcar of thcbcach wcrc stiII aImost cmpty.
Thc dcnsc arcas got dcnscr. Evcn in vcry-high-dcnsity pIaccs
thcrc is thc samc tcndcncy to cIustcr. ln an cxccIIcnt study for thc
NationaI Park Scrvicc, thc Procct for PubIic Spaccs rccordcd thc
WO0 0 I8II I0
u 8 S8C, IOy 00
00I 0lSIIlDuI
IO0SvS v0y
8CSS lI. Oy g0
wOI 0IOI0
8I. O 00S 8I8S
gI 00SI.
[ t 6 & ]
L Y
W

W
W

W
W

W
1

N1Hb Lfb f 1Hb NH1H fHN1 Lbb 1 bH

1
NNNTTAL
MDW mBDy |S IDD mBDy D|S BDByS|S D B 0By D S|!I| Dg BI ID DDfID fDDI 0g D ID
BgfBm BZB | D0|CBIS IDBI | D ID| f | DSI| DCI|V WBy D DBV B D| C SDS D WDBI |S f| gDI
Df B BC. BD V|W SDDWS T T SCI|DDS D 0g BI I. D | DS gD| Dg fDm I ID f| gDI
SDDW DD WD| CD BfI D ID 0g BCD fSDD SBI BD0 fC|Sy DDW DDg. NDfD| Dg BCI|V|Iy | S
0SUIDQ. [D SDBf USW| Dg BI T |S 0U ID Z SCDDD CD| 0fD.) PI DDDD, BCI|V|Iy | CKS U
Carqing Caacit)
TOTAL PEOPLE
Y 8TO8
1 U U U U
SRBIy BDO SByS B B R| R |BVB UD I RB UI DOVB| |S RBBVy, DU RB DURDB| OD % | BO@
B BDy | RB SByS |BRB|8BD|y UD | O|R BS |UDDl D OB| B DOOR SROWS, DWBBD T 8DO ZT
O|B. RB DURDB| S DO CODS|| CBO Dy | BCK O SBCB. NOB RB B RB BKUSB RORBDS,
DB|B |S | BDy O S8CB O| RO|B S| B|S. U DBy OOD 88|. D |BBCDO|CB SI U8| ODS SUCD
BS R|S, BV|OBD|y, CBBCly BDOS O SB|~ BVB| | D, 8DO O|B OBB|R| DB | |8DB| BBC |VB.
[
i
7 0
]
L
bcachpattcrnsat!acobRiisParkofthcGatcwayNationaIScashorcin
Ncw York. On pcak-usc days as wcII on othcrs, thc hIm rccord
showcd, pcopIc wiII cIustcr upfront rathcr than hII up thc rcIativcIy
unuscd arcas at thc rcar. This cannot bc cxpIaincd as a Iow-incomc
phcnmcnon.At thcothcrcndofLonglsIand,atthcHamptons,thcrc
is much morc sandy bcach avaiIabIc pcr pcrson. ut thc cIustcring
tcndcncy is much thc samc.
Anothcr cxampIc is fumishcd by thc pcopIc who usc thc lM
gardcn on Ncw York's Madison Avcnuc. This Iargc and attractivc
atrium spacc opcncd with twcnty tabIcs and sixty chairs. Thc tabIcs
wcrc hxcd into thc oor, thc chairs, howcvcr, wcrc not, and this
promptcdsomcindcpcndcntbchavior.ThcstawouIdsctthcchairsat
thc tabIcs, and gcncraIIy thc sittcrs found this O. Thcy wouId in
duIgc inthcusuaIminormovcsbutmorcorIcssstay atthctabIc. ut
anumbcrofpcopIc wouIdcIcctto movc thcchairtoanothcrIocation.
l kcpt track ofthcsc movcs, for thcy wcrca good indicationofwhcrc
additionaI chairs might bcst bc providcd. As at thc bcachcs, pcopIc's
movcsdidnottakcthcmvcryfarfromothcrpcopIc.Oncfavorcdspot
was thcbascofacIumpofbamboo trccsustoutboard ofthccxisting
scating. Thc staman who tidicd up thc arca was indcfatigabIc and
wouIdpcriodicaIIymovcthcchairsbacktothctabIcs. !ustasindcfati-
gabIy, pcopIc wouId movc thc chairs to somcwhcrc cIsc, such as thc
basc ofthc bamboo trccs.

To gct back to thc Scagram Icdgc. as Iunchtimc procccds, thc


numcr of pcoplc on thc lcdgc wll uctuatc ctwccn cghtcc ad
twcnty-onc. Thisis surprisingIyuniforminvicwofthchcavytumovcr.
FortwohourshardIyaminutcgocsbywithoutsomconcgcttingupor
sitting down. icwcd as a timc-Iapsc movic, it Iooks frcnctic. utthc
ovcraIIrangcrcmainsthcsamc. Whcncvcrthcnumbcrrcachcsthctop
ofthc rangcattwcnty-onctotwcnty-two, somconcgctsupand Icavcs.
Whcncvcr it drops to cightccn, thcrc wiII bc no morc nct Icavcrs, to
putit anothcrway, cnoughncwsittcrs wiIIappcar tomakcupforthc
Icavcrs. Somc sort ofscIf-rcguIating mcchanism, it wouId appcar, has
bccn at work.
Goodspacing,oncmightassumc.To apoint,ycs,butthisdocsn't
rcaIIy cxpIain mattcrs. Notc that at no timc during pcak hours arc
pcopIccvcnIyspaccdoutovcrthcIcdgc, nordothoscwhoIcavcdoso
bccausc thcy havc bccn pinchcd in for want ofspacc. ln somc pIaccs
on thc Icdgc thcrc wiII bc cIumps of pcopIc sitting cIosc togcthcr
cIscwhcrc, pcopIc wiII havc considcrabIc spacc around thcm. This is
truc cvcn at thc thrcc pcak momcnts of this particuIar day. twcIvc-
hhy, onc twcnty-vc, and onchhy. Thcrc is cnough cmpty spacc on
thc Icdgc to takc carc ofanothcrhaIfdozcn pcopIc casiIy.
ut thcy do not appcar. lt is as if pcopIc had somc instinctivc

Carqing Caacit)
scnsc of what is right ovcraII for a pIacc and wcrc coopcrating to
maintainitthatway,obIigingIyIcavingorsittingdown,ornotsittin,
to kccp thc dcnsity within rangc. Happcnstancc is at work thc
fourfricndswhosqucczcintoaspaccIcftby thrcc, thcchanccsucccs-
sion ofthrcc Ioncrs. Ovcr timc, happcnstancc can bcquitc rcguIar.
Whatcvcr thc mcchanism, thcrc sccms to bc a norm that inu-
cnccs pcopIc'schoiccsas much asthc immcdiatcphysicaI spacc docs.
Thus is ccctivc capacity dctcrmincd. lt is not static, nor can it bc
cxprcsscd onIy in hgurcs. Thcrc arc quaIitativc aspccts to bc consid-
crcd whcthcr pcopI arc comfortabIc, whcthcr thcy tarry or Icavc
quickIy and thcsc can bc quitc dicrcnt for dicrcnt pcopIc.
Thcrccvcnmaybamusicofsorts.OnthcIcdgcchartthcrcisan
uptcmpo urry of dashcs around tcn minutcs bcforc two. lt is up-
tcmpoonthcground,too,itisthcIastminutcrctumofthcIatcIunch-
crs. Sincc thc chart IookssomuchIikc apIaycr-pianoroII l wondcrcd
whatthcsoundwouIdbcifaIIthcdotsanddashcscouIdbcpIaycd. A
composcrfricdwasfascinatcd.WiththcrighttonaIscaIc,hcsaid,thc
chartcouIdbcorchcstratcdanditwouIdbcmusic.lhopcthatoncday
itwiIIbcd Da in the Lge o]the North 1ront LeJge o]5eagram Plaza.
Iirace.

Thc sitting chart of Scagram yicIds scvcraI othcr points worth


noting. Onc is thc uniformity with which thc total numbcr of sittcrs
throughoutthcday isdistributcdon thcIcdgc. At any onc timcthcrc
is IittIc uni ity. y thc cnd of thc day, howcvcr, thc cumuIativc
totaIs for cach ofthc Icdgc's cIcvcn squarcs arc simiIar. Thcrc is onc
cxccption thc squarc ncxt to thc stcps. lt has two cdgcs and attracts
doubIc thcnumbcr ofsittcrs.
ThcIogofthcamountoftimcpcopIcsitis aIsorcvcaIing.ccausc
ofthc high tumovcr, it is casy to assumc that in-and-outcrs account
for thc buIk of thc sitting donc on thc Icdgc. ut appcaranccs arc
dccciving. Ovcrthc day chartcd at Scagram thcrc wcrc somc 266 sit-
tcrs. As might bc cxpcctcd, thc numbcr who staycd for onIy a fcw
minutcs was grcatcr than thcnumbcrwho staycd Iongcr. Add upthc
totaI amount oftimc spcnt sitting, howcvcr, and you hnd that thosc
who staycd Iongcr Ioggcd far and away thc most ofit. OfthctotaI
somc 3,77mnutcs about thrcc quartcrs was loggcd by pcoplc stay-
ing l l minutcs or morc, aImost haIfby thosc staying 2 minutcs or
morc. A studyofthcsouth Icdgc showcd simiIarrcsuIts. Thrcc quar-
tcrsofthctimc spcntduring Iunchpcriods was accountcd forby pco-
pIc staying l 5 minutcs or morc.
lhavcfoundthcsamcpattcminothcruscsofspacc. Curbsidccar
parking is onc. As with Icdgc sittcrs, thc activity sccms to bc domi-
natcd by thc short-tcrm uscrs. ActuaIIy, it is thc Iong-tcrmcrs who
L88ClQ lS S0
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dominatc, out of proportion to thcir numbcrs, thcy account for thc
buIk ofthc avaiIabIchours ofusc.
ForthcdcsignofsmaIIparksandpIazas, thcdcnsitystudicsyicId
cncouraging Icssons. Capacity, to rccapituIatc, is scIf-IcvcIing PcopIc
thcmscIvcsdctcrmincthcnumbcrthatisrightforapIacc, andthcydo
it vcry wcII. Dcsigncrs nccd not worry that thcy might makc a pIacc
00 attractivc,too ovcrrunbypcopIc. ltisthcrcvcrscthatthcyshouId
bcworrying about. Thc carrying capacity ofmost urbanspaccs is far
abovc thc usc that is madc ofthcm.
Thc fcw that attract thc highcst dcnsity of pcopIc providc thc
most cncouraging Icsson of aII. WhiIc thcy may in fact bc thc most
crowdcdofpIaccs, thcyarcpcrccivcdasthcmostpIcasant, uncrowdcd
of pIaccs. Scnsitivc dcsign and gcncrosity of spirit providc thc
anomaIy.
LctmcappcndawordaboutIargcspaccs Mycmphasishasbccn
onsmaII spaccs. utthisis nottoscantthcdcsirabiIity ofIargc oncs.
Thc qucstion is somctimcs raiscd as to whcthcr it isbcttcr to hav a
CcntraIParkorancquivaIcntamountofspaccinsmaIIparks Thcrcis
nocomparabiIity. CcntraIParkis amagnihccntspacconaIargcscaIc,
and it docs somcthing for thc city that no scattcring ofsmaII spaccs
couId. ThankstothccycofFrcdcrickLawOImstcdandCaIvcrtaux,
CcntraI Park is at oncc a Iargc spacc and ahost ofsmaII and distinc
tivc oncs, and itis cxpcricnccd as such.
1hc tact s, howcvcr, that tor a long tmc to comc, thc opportun-
ticsinthc ccntcrcity arcgoingtobcforsmaIIspaccs. Costs arcgrcat,
cvcnwhcnthcyarcdisguiscdinthcformofinccntivcs,taxabatcmcnts,
and thc Iikc, spacc wiII comc dcar. ut that is a conscqucncc ofccn-
traIity. Costs arc high in thc ccntcr bccausc so many pcopIc wiII bc
scrvcd. Lcss costIy pIaccs somcwhcrc cIsc canbcavcry poorbargain.
lt is wondcrfuIIy cncouraging to hnd that thc pIaccs that pcopIc
IikcbcstarcthcmostrcpIicabIcofspaccs rcIativcIy smaII hvc thou
sandtotcnthousandsquarcfcct markcdby ahigh dcnsityofpcopIc
and an cmcicnt usc of spacc. Thcy tcnd to bc fricndIy pIaccs, with a
high proportion ofpcopIc in groups and much intcrchangc back and
forth
lamnot,hcavcnforfcnd,arguingforpIaccsofmaximumgrcgari-
ousncss or for sociaI dircctors. What l am suggcsting, simpIy, isthat
wc makc pIaccs fricndIicr. Wc know how. With such dctaiIs as somc
right angIcs inthc scating, a rcccsscd wind trap, and trccs that catch
thc sun, wc can crcatc thc conditions that Icad pcopIc to mingIc and
mcct. AndtobccomfortabIyaIonc,too. lfoncwishcstorcadorthink
orIook,itismuchbcttcrtodosoinapIaccthatothcrsIikcthaninonc
that is cmpty.
Carqing Caacit)
Somc ofthc most fcIctous spaccs n a cty arc odds and cnds,
Icovcrs, nchcs happy accdcns ha work or pcopIc, and of whch
thcrc shouId bc not so accdcntaIIy morc. us stops shouId b nhcr-
cntIy congcnaI and thcrcason so fcw arc s a nggardIncss ofdcsgn
whch can bc casIy sct rght.
l am, n sum, advocatng smaII, busy pIaccs. Too busy7 l thnk
not. Somcfrct thatfpIaccsarcmadctooattractvcthcywIIb ovcr
run. Thssaspccrcthat nccdnotworry us.As wchavc sccn,pcopIc
havc a ncc scnsc ofsocaI dstancc and thcy managc bctcr han
anybody cIsc. Thcy aIso havc a ncc scnsc ofthc numbcrthat s rght
for a pIacc, and t s thcy who dctcrmnc how many s too many.
Thcy do notscc to gct away from t aII. lfthcy dd thcy wouId
go tothc IoncIy pIaccs, whcrc thcrc arc fcw pcopIc. uthcy do not.
Thcy go tothcIvcIy pIaccs, whcrc thcrc arc many pcopIc. Andthcy
go thcrc by not tocscapc thc cty, but to partac oft.

8000IS S000l00S
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B 0Sl 0lcS lh0 Dgg0Sl 0DSl3cS l0 Q0d0Slf8n m0Vcm0Bl 8f0
lhc cnlfnOcS l0 DutdBgS. hcy 3fc 0Vcf-cngtnccfcd, l0f 0nc lhng.
Su3lly lhcy O0nSSl 0l3 Scl 0lfcV0VBg d00fS, R8nKcd 0n ctlhcf Stdc
b dO0IS l3l SWng 0QcD ly0u uS lhcm h3fd cn0ugh Dul lh3l 3f0
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W3y. c3Sc uSc0lhcf d00f, 3 SgD 0n lcm S3yS. b0mcltmcS lhc StgB
S m0unlcd 0D 3 cdcSl3l]uSl nD03f0 0llhc d00f 3nd l30cd dtfcOly
n lSQ3lh, Wh0h d00S Sccm n0nSSl0nl l0f d00fS lh8l m8y h8Vc l0 D0
uScd l0 gcl 0ul 0l lhc Q30c.
n 3ny 0Vcnl, l S l0ugh 0ng. hc fcV0Vng d00fS d0 B0l fc-
V0Vc, fc3y y0u fcV0Vc lhcm 3nd l 0llcB l3KcS m3ny l00l0undS 0l
cncfgy l0 d l. b0mc cnlfn0cS uSc 3 Scl 0lSWngng g3SS d00fS, 8Bd
lhcSc fc c3Scf l0 m3Bgc PS Wlh f0V0lVng d00fS, h0W0Vcf, lhcf0
0llcn 3 Sc00nd Scl 3D0ul lWcV0 lccl luflhcf nSc. P lhS S B000S-
S3fy, cngnccfS Sy, l0 KccQ O0ld 0f h0l Wc3lhcf lf0m O0mng tB 3Bd,
m0fc mQ0fl3nl, l0 m3nl3n 3n 3fSc3 S0 lh8l df8llS W0n lWhSl0 uQ
ccV3l0f Sh3llS n 3 Sl30K 0c0l.
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lf3n0cS. 0u W0n lcVcnBn lhc W0fd n lhcf ndcXcS. hcy h3V03 0l

3tes and Entrances
tosay aboutexit, howcvcr, and arc vcry concccd withgcttingpco-
pIc safcIy from thc insidc to thc outsidc. This is propcr cnough as fa
as it gocs doors for panic cgrcss, doors widc cnough, doors
that swing in thc cxit dircction. ut thcrc is no cncouragcmcnt for
maingitcasicrtogofromthcoutsidctothcinsidc,andoncprovision
ruIcs out thcbcst ind ofdoor thcrc is.
For thc cIucs to this door, watch a sct of swinging doors as thc
rush hour buiIds. You may spot an oddity as thc numbcr ofpcoplc
riscstoapcathcygothroughfastcrandcasicr. lwashrststrucwith
this contradiction whcn l wasstudying thc moing rush at thcmain
cntrancctoPIacciIIcMaricin Montrcal,oncofthcbusicstcntranccs
inthcworId. lthassixswingingdoors. Atcightforty-vcthcowwas
ataratcofsixthousandpcopIcpcrhour.Thcrcwasmuchcongcstion,
withpcopIcqucuingupbchindoncanothcr. TcnminutcsIatcrthcow
wasuptocightthousandpcopIcpcrhour.utnowthccongcstionwas
Icss. Pcoplc wcrcmoving through casiIy and thcrc was IittIc qucuing.
Thc cxpIanation Iics in thc phcnomcnon ofthc opcn door. lt is
cnormousIy attracting. Givcn a choicc, pcopIc wiII hcad for thc door
that is aIrcady opcn, or that is about to bc opcncd by somcbody cIsc.
Somc pcopIc arc naturaI door opcncrs. ut most arc not, oftcn thcy
qucuc up thrcc and fourdccp bchind an opcn doorrathcr than stric
out on thcir own.
As thc crowd swclIs, morc doors wiIl bc cpt opcn. Thc pcoplc
wiII bc distributing thcmsclvcs morc cvcnIy across thc cntrancc, and
hnaIIy, at pca, aII thc doors wiII bc opcn and thc pcopIc wiII bc
strcaming through. Thc hcadway bctwccn thc pcopIc going through
thc doors wiIl bc much shortcr than is rcgardcd as comfortablc. ut
thatis why thcy movcso quicIy. Thcy don'tgivcthcdoors achancc
to cIosc.
Thought. Why not Icavc a door opcn7 Or two or thrcc7
lnNcw Yor CityitwouldbcagainstthcIaw. Thccodcsays cxit
doors "shaII normaIIy bc Ich in thc cIoscd position." Codcs in othcr
citics saythcsamc. Thcn thcrcis thc stac ccct toworryabout, and
thchcatgainorIoss. FortunatcIy, somcbuiIdingguardshavcnotbccn
propcrly indoctrinatcd about thcsc dangcrs. l'vc notcd a numbcr of
occasions whcn buiIding guards proppcd a door opcn, cvcn coIlapscd
thc lcavcs ol rcvolvng doors and lch thcm opcn too. 1hc buldng stll
stood. NoovcrpowcringdraftswhistIcdthrough.ThccIcvatorscontin-
ucd running.
Andthcbuildingswcrcmuchcasicrtocntcr. Evcnatthcpcaof
thc rush hourthccapacity ofafcw opcn doors is prodigious. A good
cxampIc is thc cntrancc to thc RCA uiIding from thc Sixth Avcnuc
subway concoursc. lt consists of cight swinging doors. During thc
morning rush, thc two doors on thc right going in arc usuaIIy opcn.
A
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0000IS. %0SI 8I0 00I.

Lurco]thcocndoor:hcrcatthcbu:ic:tcntrancctoMontrcal':Flacc
IllcMaric, pcoplc qucucu bchindocn door:. hhcn]ow i: modcr-
atc, onl] a]cw door: arc opcn, :o thcrc i: con:idcrablc conc:tion.
Latcr, whcn]ow rcachc: cak. no door ct: a chancc to clo:c. and
cvcqonc :trcam: throuh.
3tes and Entrances
That is bccausc so many pcopIc arc going through thcm. At thc pcak
ow ofcight thouand pcopIc pcrhourabout two thirdofthcpcop
cntcrthrough thcsc two doors.
Anothcrhigh-tramc cntrancc isthcwcst cntranccofGrand Ccn
traITcrminaIonForty-sccondstrcct. ltisagrubby-Iookinga0air,with
dimIy Iit vcstibuIc. ut it is vcry cmcicnt. Thcrc arc ninc swinging
doors, and a fcw of thcm do thc ob. Onc moming that l chcckcd
thcm, thcow ratc at 9A. m. washfty-scvcnhundrcdpcopIcpcrhour.
Thrcc doors had bccn proppcd opcn, iIIcgaIIy but amcnabIy. Of thc
pcopIc cntcring, J l pcrccnt uscd thcsc thrcc doors, 2 pcrccnt wcnt
through a door that had bccn opcncd by somconc ahcad. TotaI opcn-
door uscrs. 7J pcrccnt. A simiIar sct of ninc swinging doors at thc
middIccntrancc on Forty-sccondshowsthc samc opcn-dorfavoring.
At thc pcak ows, thc buIk of thc tramc gocs through thrcc of thc
doors. ActuaIIy, it can bc hardcr to cntcr in sIack pcriods, whcn you
may havc to opcn a door yourscIf.
Thcsc prcccdcnts suggcstcd thc dcsign forthc cntrancc to a ncw
buiIding. For thc PhiIip Morris uiIding across from Grand CcntraI
on Forty-sccond Strcct, architcct Irich Franzcn had dcsigncd an in-
door scuIpturc gardcn to bc opcratcd by thc Whitncy Muscum. Thc
idca was to makc thc spacc as attractivc as possibIc and thc cntrancc
casy and inviting. l rccommcndcd an opcn door. Franzcn dcsigncd
what couId bc caIIcd a mostIy opcn door. Thc cntrancc is a twcnty-
footwidc span of gIass. ln thc ccntcr arc sIiding doors. ln good
wcathcrthcycanbckcptopcntoawidthofsixfcct cnoughfor
thcnormaIows.Forovcrows,andforconhrmcddooropcncrs,thcrc
arcswingingdoorsatcithcrsidc.(LcgisIationwasnccdcdtomakcthis
sctup IcgaI. ut thc pIanning commission was dcIightcd with thc cn-
trancc, and thc IcgisIation was cnactcd.)
A smaII ronx chccr is inordcr, howcvcr. Thc way thc doorway
hasbccnmanagcdconsidcrabIyundcrcutsthcwcIcomingintcntofthc
door. For onc thing, a moving T survciIIancc camcra is mountcd
atop thc insidc of thc door. SIowIy it rcvoIvcs, scnding its cIcctronic
imagc to a monitor on an uppcr oor a rathcr rcdundant proccss
inasmuch as thc guards in thc Whitncy gardcn scc bcttcr than thc
camcra. Exccpt as mobiIc scuIpturcit has no rcaI function. A sccond
ronxchccrisforthcdoorway. Evcn inbamywcathcrwhcn tcmpcr-
aturcs outsidc arc thc samc as insidc, thc doors arc not Icft opcn but
arckcpton automatic,tothcfrcqucntdiscomhturcofthcpcopIcusing
thcm. As thcyapproach thc opcn door, thcycanbcabit takcn aback
as it starts to cIosc on thcm, ifthcy arc rcsoIutcand kccp advancing,
thc door wiII start opcning again. ut you can't tcII untiI thc Iast
minutc. lt wouId makc scnsc simpIy to Icavc thc door opcn.
Opcndoorsarcgoodtohavcinintcriorspaccstoo. AIItooohcn,
[
i
7
& ]
L
spaccs wthn buIdngs arc choppcd up wth unncccssary doors and
parttons. Ths was thc casc wth thc ndcrground concoursc of
RockcfcIIcr PIaza. lt was a rcvoIvng door manufacturcr's drcam
thousandsoffcctofconcourscgongthswayandthat,andwhcrcvcra
concoursc wcnt undcr abuIdngIncorastrcct, thcrcwouIdbc asct
ofdoors to makc vsbIc thcboundary.

Astudy ofthcconcourscbythcProcctforPubIcSpaccsshowcd
that thc doors acccntuatcd cImatc changcs and drahs. As part ofa
maorupgradng program, rcdundantdoorwayswcrc rcmovcd, andn
thc frccd-up spacc, sttng pIaccs wcrc provdcd. As soon thc
changcs wcrc madcthc pcdcstran ows bccamc much cascr and Icss
congcstcd. Thc concoursc bccamc a morc socabIc pIacc, partcuIarIy
atIunchtmc. WhcrcprcvousIygroupshadbccnbrokcn upbyhavng
togothroughthcdoorssngIchIc, thcynowambIcdaIong. Thcrcwas
morc schmoozng, morc ! pcrccnt convcrsatons, morc sttng and
pcopIcwatchng.
(Anothcr ronx chccr n a muItmIIon doIIar mprovcmcnt
procctthcconcourscarcahasrcccntIybccndoncovcrnwhtctravcr-
oors, waIIs, and aII. Ths has madc t much Ightcrand thats
good. ut thcrc s no rcadng or sttng. AII ofthc scatng has bccn
rcmovcd. Lcdgcs that wouId othcrwsc bc sttabIc havc bccn ntcr-
dctcd wth shrubbcry and pIants.)
For shccr casc of cntry, to rccaptuIatc, nothng bcats an opcn
door. ForcImatcandsafctyrcasons, ofcoursc, doorscannotbcopcn
aIIthctmc.utthcycansccmtobc.Oncwaystorcccssthccntrancc
nto thc storc. Ths provdcs a transtonaI arca, and wth thc actuaI
doorway at thc rcar thc cImatcchangc s modcratcd. AncxampIcs
thc Argosy ook Storc on Ncw York's Fhy-nnth Strcct. lts front s
compIctcIy opcn to thc strcct and, wth tabIcs stackcd wth sccond-
hand books, functons as a browsn and comc-on arca. Morc cafs
andrcstaurantsarcmakngadspIayofthcrfrontswthFrcnchdoors,
or wth foIdabIc ons that can bc rctractcd, thc patrons at thc front
tabIcs, n ccct, arc thc wndow dspIay.
l wouIdnomnatcIoomngdaIc'snNcwYork as aprmccand-
datcforsuchtrcatmcnt. At thcmomcntthaswhatsunqucstonabIy
onc of thc worst cntranccs anywhcrc, two scts of doors, a

narrow sdcwaIk, crowds backcd up, vcndors workng thc crowd. To


makcthsascIIngcntranccnstcad,about20fcctoffrontagccouIdbc
movcd back nto thc storc. About ! 2 fcct n, thcrc couId bc sIdng
gIass doors, postoncdopcnas muchofthctmcas fcasbIc. Thctran-
stonaI arca wouId makc for much cascr acccss from thc strcct. y
bcngnvtng,ofcoursc, thccntry wouIdnduccmorcpcopIcto gon,
but thcrc wouId bc room. Thcrc wouId aIso bc room for Ioom-
3tes and Entrances
ngdaIc'stogo toworkonthcm. ltdocsthsnownsdcthcstorc, you
cant go J0fcct wthoutsomcbody handngyouasampIc. utts th
vcndors who gct hrst crack out front. Thc storc couId do what !apa-
ncsc dcpartmcnt storcs do so adrotIy. havc thcr own vcndors n thc
cntry arca, put out hghmpuIsc-appcaI tcms. And havc thc
purchascs payabIc at a cash rcgstcr ust nsdc thc cntrancc. Comc
nto myparlor.
b65
Stcps arc Ikc cntranccs. Thcy ought tobc casy to ncgotatc and
wouIdcostIttIcornomorcfthcywcrc.Thcsamcstrucofstarsthat
arc safc. No ncw tcchnoIogy s nccdcd. ut obscrvaton ccrtanIy s.
LttIcrcscarch on stars has bccndoncsnccthat of Frans IondcI
n Pars n thc ! 6s. Hs formuIas govcrn . S. buIdng codcs, and
somc updatng mght not bc amss.
Lkc cntranccs, most stars arc not casy. Thcy arc too stccp, for
onc thng. To bc casy to go up, stars shouId havc a ptch of undcr
thrty dcgrccs. Stars wth a 6-nch rscr and a ! 2nch trcad wouId
quaIfy, producng an angIc of twcnty-sx dcgrccs ut you wlI hnd
fcw stars n ncw omcc buIdngs that arc ths gcntIc. Thc rccom-
mcndcdrangcnarchtccturaIpractccsbctwccnthrtyandthrty-hvc
dcgrccs. ThsstoIcrabIccnoughfthcrcarcnotmanystcpsaght.
ut fthcrc arc, thc gong up can bc trng.
For dscomfortand hard gong, oncknd ofstars s n acIass by
tscIf. subwaystars. MosthavcrscrsofatIcast 7nchcsandtrcads of
nomorcthan ! ! nchcs. On thc avcragc, thcy havc an angIc ofabout
thrty-hvc dcgrccs. Ths stccpncss s ratonaIzcd as an cmccnt usc of
spacc. Stccpstarsdonottakcupas muchroomasmodcratconcs.For
smIarrcasonsstarwaywdthsarconIy50nchcs,nchcsraIngto
raIng. Thcsc arc supposcd to accommodatc two pcopIc abrcast, 22
nchcs cach.
Such cmccncy carrcs a st prcc. Gong down s not bad, at
sIackpcrodsat Icast. utgongupcanbctoughgong.Thsspartcu
IarIy thc casc whcn thcrc arc no Iandngs to brcak thc asccnt. Most
buIdng codcs forcommcrca buIdngs rcurc a Iandng aftcr a rsc
ofso manyfcct n Ncw York. ut transt authortcs makc up
thcr own ruIcs. Ncw York's now caIIs for Iandngs, but somc whop-
pcrs got through wthoutIandngs. Possbly thc worst starwayn thc
worIdsthconclcadngfromthcLcxngtonLnctothcGrandCcntral
TcrmnaI concoursc. Lookng up, youscctwcnty-scvcn unntcrruptcd
stcps. Thc sght makcs you trcd cvcn bcforc you start thc cImb. c-
causc thc stcps arc so stccp, pcopIc wth shoppng bags or sutcascs
00 0I0u8 0I S0IIl0g
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0PIC0lI0CIuI0 0
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0I00I.
1hc wor:t :tairwa] in Ncw York: twcnt]-:crcn :tc: andagauntlct o]bcggar:. Lcxing
ton linc:tation at Crand Ccntral.
3tes and Entrances
sIowdown. Somc stop to rcst afcw scconds. uickIyaknotofpcopIc
wiIIbcbackcd upbchindthcm. ncIancmaybcbIockcdbyasIccping
drunk.
AtIcast thcscstairsarc widc about ! 7fcct. Ncgotiatingthcstan-
dard stairway is morc dimcuIt yct. Thcy cannot handIc countcrows
wcII. Whcn pcopIc going up arc bIockcd by thc sIowncss of pcopIc
ahcad of thcm, thcy wiII usuaIIy movc to thcir Icft. ut if thcrc arc
pcopIc who want to comc down in that spacc, it isust toobad. Thc
dominant ow docs not dcfcr.
SothccconomyisafaIsconc. AIittIcspaccmayhavcbccnsavcd
in initiaI construction, but to what cnd7 ln timc wastcd, cncrgy cx
pcndcd, discomfort, and inciviIity pcopIc havc bccn paying for thc
mcanncss ofthcsc stcps in and day out, ycar ahcr ycar aftcr
ycar.
How much moncy is savcd7 cry IittIc, if any. ln thc casc of
scvcraI ncwbuiIdings, l havc bccn abIc tocomparc thcspacc rcquirc-
mcntsofthc standard stairwaythcywcrcgoingto buiId with thoscof
a comfortabIc onc thcy couId buiId. Thc di0crcntiaI was onIy 6 to &
fcctofadditionaIhorizontaIspacc. AndthchorizontaIspaccwouIdbc
thcrc in any cvcnt, whcthcr as a corridor spacc or as stairway spacc,
thc cost considcration wouId bc minor. So it wouId bc with many
cxistingstairs. lfyouwiIIchcckthcoorspaccatthctoporbottomof
thc stairs that you hnd stccp, thc chanccs arc that thcrc was quitc
cnoughspaccforagcntIcrrunofstcps.Thcywcrcmadcstccpbyrotc,
not by ncccssity.
Most architccts and dcvcIopcrs do not givc a hang. Thcy show
this in thc way thcy handIc subway station rcnovations. Whcn thcsc
invoIvcncwomccbuiIdingsthcrcisusuaIIyagoodbitofmoncyavaiI
abIc,thcrcnovationbcingpartofabonusdcaIbctwccncityanddcvcI-
opcr. Attractivc brick waIIs and ooring arc instaIIcd, so is grcatIy
improvcdIighting lfthccitytwistcdthcdcvcIopcr'sarmcnoughthcrc
wiIIbcncwcscaIatorsaswcII.utstcps7Thcrcisnocitizcns'Iobbyfor
stcps. Thcir pitch is a mattcr ofindi0crcncc to thc dcsign pcopIc in-
voIvcd. Thc transit authority has IibcraIizcd its guidcIincs, it is no
Iongcr against thc Iaw to buiId comfortabIc stairways. ut thc oId
7inchI I inch format is stiII pcrmittcd.
A numbcr of studcs havc bccn madc ofthc cncrgy rcqurcd to
mount di0crcnt stcp combinations WhiIc thc studics di0cr as to thc
cxact numbcr offoot-pounds, thcy do show that rcIativcIy smaII dc-
crcascs in thc angIc ofasccnt makc a big di0crcncc in thc casc ofthc
cIimb. Thc kcy is thc riscr. ThcsmaIIdi0crcnccbctwccn thcstandard
7 inchcs and thc much Icss common 6 inchcs makcs for a whaIc ofa
di0crcncc, on Iong ights cspcciaIIy. Trcads arc important too, of
coursc.ThcminimumdcpthshouIdbc ! 2inchcs.lfitisIcss,mcnhavc

9 m
L0Hl00I wl0I0S 8I0
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L
troubIchttngthcrfcct tothcspaccandoftcngodown sdcways,wth
crabIkc stcps.Ovcrafoot, addtonaI nchsoftrcad arcncc tohavc,
but thcy arc Icss mportant than fcwcrhaIfnchcs ofrscr.
ObvousIy, rscrand trcad mustbc n asatsfactory rcIatonshp.
nIcss thcy arc, gcncrosty of dmcnsons can fctch dmnshng rc-
tumsand, n somccascs, dangcr. Somcycars ago at LncoInCcntcr,t
wasfoundthatpcopIcwcrctrppngonthcstcpsnfrontofthcMctro-
poItanOpcraHousc.RaIngswcrcnstaIIcd. StIIthcytrppcd.Arch-
tcct !amcs Marston Ftch of CoIumba nvcrsty nvcstgatcd. Hc
found that thc troubIc was an unusuaIIy shaIIow rscr J. J nchcs
and an unusuaIIy dccp trcad ! & nchcs. Thc conhguraton dd not
match pcopIcs' strdcs and thrcw thcm o0 baIancc. LncoIn Ccntcr
cvcntuaIIy rcgradcd thc pIaza and rcpIaccd thcstcps wth a ramp.
Thcrc s a formuIa for rscrs and trcads and t s found n somc
form n aII buIdng codcs. Most commonIy, t s cxprcsscd thus thc
sumoftwo rscrs and atrcad shaII bcnotIcss than 2nchcsormorc
than25. AIotofsatsfactorycombnatonscanbcdcrvcdfromths
formuIa.utt docshavcamathcmatcaIbas, howcvcrunntcndcd. lt
favors gcncrosty of trcads. lf you want a Iow rscr say, onc of 5
nchcs you must havc a trcad ofat Icast !nchcs. Thc cxtra trcad
dcpth docs not makc much d0crcncc n comfort but mght caII for
morcIatcraIspaccthansavaIabIc. ConvcrscIy,a !2-nchtrcadwouId
marrynccIywth a 5-nch rscr, buttwouIdnothtthcformuIa. And
thc formuIa has ncvcrbccn changcd.
Not sncc !672, n fact. That was whcn t was formuIatcd by
Franos IondcI, drcctor of thc RoyaI Acadcmy of Archtccturc of
Francc. IondcI was a vcry rcsourccfuI man, hc dd a Iot of waIkng
and obscrvng to dctcrmnc normaI strdcs. Two fcct, hc found, was
aboutavcragc. HcthcndcvscdaformuIatohtstarwaydmcnsonsto
thcsc strdcs. lt stpuIatcd that thc totaI of thc trcad and two rscrs
shouId bc 2 nchcs.
ln thc cnsung J l J ycars pcopIc havc grown taIIcr, paccs n-
crcascd. utthcformuIaIvcson, unaItcrcd. Whathasbccn Iackngs
a foIIow-up of thc obscrvatonaI approach that Icd to thc formuIa n
thc hrst pIacc. ut no morc Dr. IondcIs havc comc forward. Thc
archtccturaI profcsson shouId makc upforthc Iost tmc by sponsor-
ng frcsh ncw nqurcs. As Ftch obscrvcs, n addton to thc stcp
formuIa, mostofthc othcrruIcs ofthumb forcorrdors and cntranccs
and thc Ikc arc qutc arbtrary and arc n conct wth cach othcr.
Corrdor and starway wdths arc an cxampIc. Thcy arc usuaIIy
sct as mItpIcs of 22 nchcs. Ths s thc "body cIIpsc" and s prc
sumcd toncIudcnotonIyavcragcshouIdcrwdthbutan nchorsoof
bu0cr spacc. For a two-Ianc starway, thcn, a wdth of nchcs
4
3tes and Entrances
shouIdbccnough. lfcvcryoncuststood,itwouIdbc. utwhcnpcopIc
waIk thcy movcbcyond thc cIIipsc. Thcy sway.
!. L. PauIs ofthc Rcscarch oard ofthc Canadian Govcmmcnt
has documcntcd thisphcnomcnon in anintcnsivc hIm cxamination of
bchavior on stadium stairs. Hc found that pcopIc sway IatcraIIy as
much as J or inchcs from thcir straight-up position. ln a study of
asccnts anddcsccnts ofsomc ! !2 stcpsat onc stadium, hcfoundhow
vcry important arc handraiIs afcaturc ohcn omittcd in stadium dc-
signs, yct criticaI to safcty.
Spaccnccdsfor pcopIcgoingsingIchIcarcundcrcstimatcd, spacc
nccds for pcopIc going abrcast arc ovcrcstimatcd. Onc pitfaII is to
computc thc disposition of pcopIc as though thcy wcrc in a static
situation, thrcc pcopIc abrcast on thc right, thrcc pcopIc inthcoppo-
sitc dircction on thc Icft and aII in a Iinc at cxactIy thc samc frozcn
momcnt. Add it aII up and you gct six body cIIipscs in a row. ut
pcopIc do not waIk that way. To bc surc, if thcrc is cnough room
ahcad,thrccpcopIcwiIIwaIkabrcastandtakcpIcntyofspaccdoingit.
ut whcn othcrs approach thcm from thc oppositc dircction, thcy
cIosc up a bit, ncxt onc or two of thcm wiII movc back and sIightIy
bchind anothcr. Thc IatcraI di0crcncc thc thrcc occupy may shrink
from 6 or 7 fcct to . Furthcrmorc, thcy wiIIsIow down oracccIcratc
sothatthctwogroups ofthrccwiIInotcomcabrcastofanopcningin
thc tramc at thc samc instant.
y happcnstancc, lcamcacrossatcstcasc ofstairsafcty andthc
kincsthctictcmptationsofcurvcd stairways. A Iargcbankforwhich l
had donca pIaza studyaskcd mcto havc aIook at thcmain stairway
ofthcir ncw hcadquartcrs. Thcy wcrc vcry proud ofthc stairway. lt
was quitchandsomc, with two scts ofstraight stcpsoincdbyagracc-
fuIcurvc in thcmiddIc. ltwas wcIIIitand hadadramaticvicw ofthc
bank's confcrcncc ccntcr at thc bottom ofthc stcps.
ut pcopIc wcrc stumbIing. About two thirds ofthc way down
thcywouIdmakcamisstcp.OnIyoncpcrsonhadsu0crcdabadfaIIso
far, butthcpoIishcdmarbIcstcpscouIdmakcasIight faIIadangcrous
onc. With dismaying frcqucncy pcopIc wcrc coming cIosc. Onc couId
aImost hcar thc Iaw ofavcragcs cIattcring away.
lt did not takc Iong to hnd that thc probIcm was inhcrcnt. Thc
stumbIcstookpIaccatthctwcnty-hrstandtwcnty-sccondstcps.Thcrc
was nothing wrong with thc stcps. Thc probIcm was thcstcps furthcr
up. Thcywcrcbiggcr biggcrbccauscthcywcrccurvcd. Thcycncour-
agcd Iongcrstridcs and thcrcby sct uppcopIcfor thccross-up. Atstcp
twcnty,thc startofthcstraightaway, thcstcps wcrc smaIIcr. SuddcnIy
so.
9PJ "
V
D 9utuy9 yDt
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L
Thcbcst thingwouIdbc totcardownthc stairwayand rcpIaccit
with a ncw onc. ut this wouId takc tim thc bank was going to bc
hostingarcgionaIconfcrcnccandcouIdnottackIcthcrcdoforscvcraI
months. Wcrc thcrc short-tcrm mcasurcs that wouIdhcIp7Wc consid-
crcd thc possibiIitics.
"GuidcIincs for Stair Safcty," pubIishcd by thc NationaI urcau
ofStandards,citcdsixmaorrcquircmcnts(!)consistcncyofriscrand
trcad dimcnsions, (2) uniform Iighting, (J) cdgc oftrcads cIcarIy visi-
bIc, () handraiIs, (5) no "rich" vicw to onc sidc. (6) at Icast onc
Ianding for cvcry cight fcct of risc. Thc bank's stairs unkcd on aII
counts savc onc. ltdid havc handraiIs.

lnascmicontroIIcd cxpcrimcntsomcofthc missingfactorscouId


bc introduccd onc by onc marking thcdangcrstcpswithwhitcstrips,
carpcting thc stcps, changing thc Iighting, masking thc distracting
vicwat thcbottomofthcstcps. Forgood mcasurc, thcbank stationcd
guards on thc stcps to individuaIIy caution pcopIc.
Wc Icarncd somc surprising things about stair bchavior. Thc
stumbIcrs, wcfoundout, tippcdthcmscIvcs o0at thc topofthcstcps.
Thcy didnotgrasp cithcr ofthc handraiIsandIookdown atthcstcps
bcIw. Most pcopIc did. OIdcr pcopIc, womcn cspcciaIIy, wcrc most
IikcIy to do so. Thcy tookthcirtimc and aII thcwaydowncontinucd
to Iook at thc stcps with vigiIancc. Maybcthat is why thcy had Iivcd
Iong cnough to bccomc oId.
lt was thc youngcr pcopIc thcpcopIc with thc most agiIity, thc
bcst vson, and thc sharpcst rcccs who wcrc most lcly to bc
stumbIcrs.ThcywcrcIcastIikcIyto graspthchandraiIandIookdown.
ThcywcntatafastcIip,somcboundingdowntwostcpsatatimc.Thc
most conhdcnt of aII wcrc young fathcrs with chiIdrcn pcrchcd on
thcir shouIdcrs. l ncvcr saw onc stumbIc, but it was unncrving to
watch thcm.
lfocuscdcamcrasonthckcystcpsand rccordcdfootmovcmcnts
in sIow motion. Whatcvcr thc dcpth of thc trcad, thc hIms showcd,
pcopIctcndtopIaccthcfootas far forward as possibIc, withthcfron
ofthc shoc a haIfto two inchcs bcyond thc cdgc ofthc trcad. lfthc
trcad is incrcascd in dcpth thcy push thcir foot that much furthcr
forward. Youngcr pcopIc arc markcdIy morc advcnturous than oIdcr
oncs in this rcspcct.
This tocing ofthc front cdgc ofthc trcad Iooks dangcrous, but
ordinariIyitis not. ThcfaiIsafcis thcmctatarsaIarch. AsIongas itis
hrmIy supportcd by thc trcad, aII wiII bc wcII. Womcn, with thcir
shortcr stridcs, usuaIIy pIacc thcirfcct so that thc front ofthcshocis
ust short ofthc trcad cdgc.
ThisprcsupposcsthatcachstairwiIIbcidcnticaItothcncxt.This
is acardinaI provision ofaII buiIdingcodcs, which spccify that in any
3tes and Entrances

ight of stcps thc dimcnsions of thc riscrs and trcads shaII rcmain
constant. n thc casc ofthc bank, thcy did not. Thc rcason was th
marrying ofa curvc and a straightaway without an intcrvcning Iand-

g.
Asthcstairwaycntcrsthccurvc,thctrcadsassumcawcdgcshapc
andthcwidcsidcgctswidcr.Thisinvitcsonctotakcbiggcrandbiggcr
stcps and to pick up thc pacc. As tcrpsichorc it is rathcr fun. ut a
surpriscis at hand. !ust as onchas bccomc uscdto thcrhythmofthc
widctrcad, thcstairsstraightcnand thc wcdgcs contract. Thctoc stiII
pushcsforwardbcyondthccdgcofthctrcad. utsuddcnIthccdgcof
thctrcadisnotthcrc. ThcmctatarsaI archmcctsair. SooncstumbIcs.
Frcqucncy7ltwasimpossibIctocomputcastatisticaIIyvaIidratc.
Somctimcs thcrc wouId bc thrcc or four stumbIcrs within an hour
othcr timcs onIy onc, or nonc. FuII faIIs wcrc rarcr, on thc ordcr of
aboutoncfaIIforcvcrytcnstumbIcs. OncwouIdcxpcctthatthcnum-
bcrofstumbIcsandfaIIswouIdruninsomcproportiontothcnumbcr
ofpcopIcusingthcstairs. oIumc, howcvcr, provcdamisIcadingfac-
tor. During somc pcriods, thchighcrthc voIumc, thc]euer thc stum-
bIcs and faIIs. (Avcragc daiIy voIumc. thirty-six hundrcd pcopIc in
scvcn hours.)
Aswcobscrvcdwithdoorways,aIargcvoIumcofpcopIccanbca
discipIinc. On thc stairs, an incrcasc in thc numbcr ofpcopIc sIowcd
things down markcdIy. With both upand down sidcs ofthc stairs in
fuII usc, pcopIc wouId form up singIc hIc. Thcy wcrc morc IikcIy to
takc a handraiI and Iook down youngcr pcopIc. Thcrc was no
boundingdown thc stairs, and in thc cvcnt ofafaII, thcrc wcrcmorc
pcopIc on thc stairs to faII against.
Thcrc is nothing wrong with curvcd stairways. As Iong as curvc
and stcps arc constant, thcrc is no cross-up. Thcy do Iook morc haz-
ardousthan straight oncsbut this is itscIfa safcty factor. SpiraI stair-
cascs, cspcciaIIythckindwithopcnriscrs, arcscaricryct. utthcyarc
quitc safc, in part bccausc pcopIc trcat thcm with unusuaI caution.
lncxpcrimcntingwith tcmporary mcasurcs wcfoundthat mark-
ingson thccdgc oftrcads do tcndtoaIcrt pcopIc. Wc aIso found how
vaIuabIc carpcting can bc. Thcstair-safcty pcopIc havcmixcdfccIings
about carpctng, bcng lcss mprcsscd wth ts cushonng propcrtcs
than with itssusccptibiIity totcars and fraying. ut wcfoundcarpct-
ingofcriticaIimportancctosafcty. Not muchrcscarch hasbccndonc
onthc Iifc-and-Iimb aspcct, thc carpct manufacturcrs bcing curiousIy
unrcsourccfuI on this productadvantagc. l knowfrom pcrsonaI cxpc-
ricncc, howcvcr, that thosc tufts providc thccxtramiIIimctcrs ofgivc
thatmakcthcdicrcnccbctwccnaspiIIandabadaccidcnt.(lfcIIona
tiIcoorthatusuaIIywascarpctcdbutwasn'twhcnl fcII. lnstcadofa
#

[
i & 6 ]
L Y
bruisc l brokc a bonc. AII stairs and oors in our housc arc now
carpctcd.)

Not thc Icast of carpcting's advantgcs is thc way it dcmarcatcs


thccdgcoftrcads. Asthccarpctingroundsovcrthc noscofthctrcad,
thchbcrssprcadabitandcatchthcIigat di0crcntangIc.Thismakcs
thc cdgcsIookcithcrpcrccptibIyIightcrthanthcrcstofthccarpct, or,
in somc cascs, darkcr. Going up or going down, you scc a scrics of
highIightcd cdgcs.
Wc couIdnottcstcach changcby i scIfandthuscouIdnotassign
prccisccausc and c0cct. utscvcraI poi tswcrccIcar. OfaII thcmca-
surcs, carpcting wasthcmost hcIpfuI. ldidnotstopfaIIsbutitmadc
thcm much morc toIcrabIc. Thc othcr mcasurcs wcrc of somc hcIp.
ut thc stumbIcs continucd, aIbcit at a omcwhat rcduccd ratc. Evcn
thc warnings ofthc guards wcrc not much ofa dctcrrcnt. Thc paIIia-
tivcmcasurcs, wchadtoconcIudc,wcrcaminorcountcrtothcawcd
dcsign. So wc wcrc back to whcrc wc startcd. Pay thc two doIIars.
Thcbankand thc architcct did it in good gracc. A ncw stairway
was dcsigncd incorporatingthcIcssons Icarncd. lthad thrcc straight-
away ights Iinkcd by two gcncrous Iandings. Thc stairway was cn
tircIy carpctcd. ltwas handsomc and nobody stumbIcd on it.
WhiIcthconc IandingofthcoriginaIstairway wasnotafactorin
thc stumbIcs, thcrc is somc cvidcncc that good-sizcd Iandings and
pIcntyofthcm makc stairs safcraswcIIas casicrto ncgotiatc. lfyou
scc Iandins ahcad you know thc on wII bc cascr.
Thc ncw stcps to thc Iobby of Camcgic HaII arc a hnc casc in
point. Architcctamcs StcwartPoIshck arrangcdthcstcpsso thatthc
ncxt Ianding ahcad wouId bc visibIc. "That is an ancicnt and unob-
scrvcdruIcofgraccfuI transition,"hc says. "Youmovcup scvcnstcps
and comc to a Ianding. Thcn you go up again untiI you comc to thc
rcar ofthchaII."
Such hnctuning ofstairs, itcouIdbc obscrvcd, is niccbutrathcr
pointIcss, for aII practicaI purposcs stairs havc bccn supcrscdcd by
cscaIators inthcpubIicspaccs ofmost ncw omcc buiIdingsand trans-
portation faciIitics. EscaIators havcbccomc so univcrsaI, indccd, that
adaccnt stairways arc dcsigncd to thc samc pitch.
lt is ccrtainIy truc that thc grcat buIk of pcopIc wiII takc thc
cscaIator ovcr thc stairs. lt is aIso truc that onc cscaIator opcrating
ncarcapacity aboutscvcntypcopIcpcrminutconthcstandardforty-
onc-inch width movchcavy ows cry cmcicntIy. Evcncxtrcmc
chokc points can bc tamcd by thc adrit pIaccmcnt of an additionaI
cscaIatorortwo. Pcnn Station's horrcndous subway cxits shouIdsoon
bc a dcmonstration.
9 m
3tes and Entrances
utstairsarcnotyct obsoIctc. Thcy arc uscfuI fortaing carcof
thc ovcrow at aktmcs lor thc cscaators, and thcy arc prclcrrcd b
a smaII minority ofconhrmcd stair cIimbcrs. Morc to thc point, in
Iow-voIumc situations, which mcans most situations, thcy rcmain thc
principaI mcans of asccnt and dcsccnt. Thcy might as wcII bc madc
safc and attractivc and casy.
This iscspcciaIIy trucofcxtcrior stcps. Thcy arcmorc uscd than
intcrior oncs, usuaIIy bcing thc onIy way up and in. And thcy havc
morcfunctions. Oncisccrcmony. Architccts do wcIIwiththisaspcct.
Thcir stcps for courthouscs and govcmmcnt buiIdings and muscums
tcnd to bc imprcssivc, ohcn morc so than thc buiIdings thcy Icad to.
Anothcr function of stcps is to invitc pcopIc into a pIacc. Thc
stcpsinfrontofPaIcy Par in Ncw Yor Citydo thismostcIcgantIy.
Thcrc arcustfourstcps, withhvc-inch riscrs and hftccn-inch trcads.
PcopIc sccm puIIcd toward thcm and thcy ohcn go upthcm without
sccmingtohavcmadcanydccisionataII.ThcstcpsatGrccnacrcPar
onFifty-hrstStrcctfunctionthcsamcway. othPaIcyandGrccnacrc
wcrcthcwor ofIandscapc architccts rcspcctivcIy Robcrt ion and
Hidco Sasai. For somc rcason Iandscapc architccts sccm to havc a
spcciaI fccI for stcps.
Architcct Mics van dcr Rohc, howcvcr, was rcsponsibIc for thc
bcststcps ofanymaoromccbuiIding thoscatthc Scagram uiIding.
Hc was aIways mcticuIous about thc dcsign of stcps and it shows in
both appcarancc and function. Thc stcps up to thc sidc cntrancc arc
boththccasicstandthcbcst-IooinginNcwYorCity(hvc-inchrscr,
fourtccn-inch trcad). HisstcpsinfrontofthcpIazaarcinvitingin thc
wayPaIcyPar'sarc.ThcyaIsodischargcanothcrfunctionofcxtcrior
stcps thcyarchncforsitting andthcfactthatthcarchitcctdidnot
dcsign thcm for that purposc docs not dctract from thcir utiIity as a
modcI. Thc comcrs of thc stcps arc particuIarIy uscfuI, for brown
baggcrs cspcciaIIy, providing facc-to-facc sitting and a pIacc for thc
food.Thc architcctdidnot, as somanydo, fussy upthccomcrs ofthc
stcps with raiIings. ln this casc Icss has indccd bccn morc.
Thc Scagram stcps arc so hnc thcy arc causc for dismay. Thc
buiIdingwasputupinthccarIy ! 950s, infactitisnowoId cnough to
bc dccIarcd a Iandmar. lts towcrand pIaza conhguration havc bccn
cnshrncd n zonng codcs and copcd n countlcss omcc buldngs. But
not thc stcps. Day in, day out, for ovcrthrcc dccadcs thcy havc pro-
vidcd a modcI ofa ncar idcaI sct ofstcps safc, cIcgant. ln aII
that pcriod no omcc buiIding has incorporatcd stcps thcir cquaI.
Anothcr modcI has bccn providcd by thc stcps to thc subway
cntranccs to thc Citicorp uiIding. Thcy havc six-inch riscrs and
twcIvc-and-thrcc-quartcr-inch trcads. Thc vcrticaI cIimb is ninctccn
fcct but thc pitch is comfortabIc, thc Iandings gcncrous. y contrast,

1hcca:ic:t:tc:in Ncw York Cit]. Ncw York Count]Courthou:c. 1olc]5quarc. (Ki:cr:


]ouranda hainchc:, trcad: cightccn inchc:./
lc]S 0nd nlr0nCcS
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SQc0B03y, 3l f30KS l 3nd f30KS l /l 0llhc 0ng S3nd 3
f03d. hc SlcQS l0 f30K l 3fc lhc Sl3nd3fd. h0Sc l0 l /l , h0W-
cVcf, Dy S0mc Ruc 0fg00d dccd Wcfc m3dc Qulc hum3nc. hc dcf-
cn0c n 00ml0fl 3nd cncfgy cXQcndcd S df3m3l0.
hc lf3nSl 3ulh0ftly h3S Dcf3tZcd lS SQc0B03l0nS l0f Sl3f
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l0fDdS ftScfS 0Wcf lh3n SX n0hcS 0flfc3dS dccQcf lh3n lWcVc n0hcS
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fScfS 0ny l0uf 3nd 3 h3ln0hcS hgh 3nd lfc3dS 0l cghlccn n0hcS,
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und M3 3l M3fV3fd S f3du3lc b0h00 0lcSgn h3S 3 Scl 0l0Vct-

SZcd SlcQS lh3l 3fc g00d l0f SQf3Wng uQ0n.


Pl lhc N g3fdcn lhc lcmQ0f3fy Sl3gc Qul uQ l0t LhfSlm3S
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l30cl0l30c fghl 3ngcS, Wcfc cSQc03y l3V0fcd. c l00K 0uf 0uc
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SmQc 33f Wlh ScVcf3 R3l Suf0cS 3nd SlcQS, 3 00ml0fl3Dy
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n lhS fcSQc0l, lhc lW0 BncSl cX3mQcS 3fc lhc SlcQS 0llhc cW 0tK
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Df3fy, 0nc 3S0cndS n c3Sy Sl3gcS 3 lcW c3Sy SlcQS, 3 3ndng, S0mc
m0fc SlcQS, n0lhcf 3ndng, 3nd S0 0D uQ, cSy. LD0c nSdc, h0W-
cVcf, m0numcnl3ly tS n0l S0 Knd l0 y0u 3S l W0S 0ulSdc hc SlcQS
l0 lhc Sc00nd R00f h3Vc 3 fc3S0n3Dc Ql0h lWcnlylhfcc dcgfccS
Dul lhcy m3Kc uQ l0f lhS Dy nlcfn3Oly llct lcn nlf0du0l0ty
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H rcat nichc. 5t. 1homaa' atcpa. northwcat comcr o/ 1]th Hvcnuc and 1t]-third
5trcct.

3tes and Entrances


stcps, thcrcisaIanding, and thcn a Ich tutofacc an unintcrruptcd
ightofthirty-twostcps. ltsnocasy cIimbuptothcthirdoorcithc.
!ohnMcrvcnCarrrcandThomasastingsmayhavcbccnhncarchi-
tcctsbut thcsc stcps arc bad stcps.
Somcarchitccts donot IikcIandingsand wouIdnothavc thcm if
thcbuiIding codc did not spccify thcm. SomcIcavc out Iandings any-
way.ThcIandingsbrcakthcrhythmofthcproccssionaImovcmcnt.To
avoidIandings, twosctsofstcps maybcprovidcd.oncadhcringtothc

buiIding codc, thc othcr, to a highcr acsthctic. Somc architccts arc
quitc hcartIcss on this scorc. And thc buiIding dcpartmcnt Icts thcm
gctawaywithit.(OncIoophoIc.asccondsctofstairsthatconformsto
thc codc in aII dctaiIs.)
Coming out foursquarc for comfortabIc stcps shouId not bc a
dimcuItstandtotakc. utitisacascthatdocsnccd making. Thcfact
is that most stcps arc nowhcrcncaras comfortabIc as thcy shouIdbc,
andthcyarcsoductoanumbcrofoutmodcdorfauItyruIcsofthumb.
Thcrcarc,forcxampIc,thcIcastcncrgyriscrtrcadformuIas.ThcycaII
for stcps abiton thc stccp sidcand ruIc out vcry Iow riscrs and vcry
dccp trcads. ThcrationaIizationisthatwhiIccachIow-riscstcpiscasy
totakc, morcwiIIbcnccdcdtoncgotiatcthccIimbandthiswiIIcanccI
out thc advantagc.
ltwiIInot.ThcrcisafaIIacyhcrc.ThcIcast-c0ortcquationsscant
thcimportanccoftimc. Morcisindccdnccdcdtogo up,say, cightccn
casy stcps than fourtccn stccp oncs. ut that cxtra timc is a boon lt
sprcadsoutthctimcincasicr-to-takcscgmcnts. AtthccndofcIimbing
thcvcrygcntIcstcps ofTrack ! &, oncfccIs muchIcssfatigucd than at
thccndofcIimbingthcmorcvcrticaIstcpsofTrack !7. l havcnotthc
apparatus to mcasurcthc rcIativccxcrtions, but simpIc obscrvationof
thc comparativc ows Icavcs onc in IittIc doubt. PcopIc go up gcntIc
stcps morc casiIy than stccp stcps.
Thcrc is cnough knowIcdgc in hand to warrant scvcraI maor
improvcmcnts.StcpnumbcroncshouIdbcarcvisionofbuiIdingcodcs
to bring stair rcquircmcnts out ofthc scvcntccnth ccntury. IondcI's
pionccring work nccds updating. Thc standard two-riscrs-and-onc
trcadformuIaistoorigid, anditmiIitatcsagainstIowriscrsbyrcquir-
ing unncccssariIy dccp trcads in compcnsation. Rcviscd guidcIincs
should not mcrcly sct forth thc pcrmssblc rangc of rscr and trcad
dimcnsions. Thcy ought to takc sidcs and comc out for an optimum
conhguration suchassix-inchriscrandtwcIvc-inchtrcadatthcvcry
Icast, hvc and fourtccn whcrc fcasibIc. Thcsc shouId aIso bc incorpo-
ratcdinthcguidcIincsoftransportationauthoritics. urcaucraticincr-
tiabcingwhatit is,ustchangingthoscfcwhgurcswouIdwrcakmaor
improvcmcnts, ycar aftcrycar.
Standards shouId bc sct for cxtcrior stcps. At prcscnt thcrc arc
L
nonc. ThishasnotbccnaIItothcbad,somcofthchncstcxtcriorstcps
wouIdhavcbccnforbiddcnhad thcformuI forintcriorstcps appIicd.
ThcNcwYorkCountyCourtHousc'scxcmpIarystcpswouIdnothavc
passcd mustcr, nor wouId thc stcps of thc MctropoIitan Muscum of
Art. ConvcrscIy, forwantofstandardssomc stcps wcrcprovidcdthat
shouId not havc bccn thc handsomc but trippabIc stcps in front of
thc MctropoIitan Opcra Housc.
ExtcriorstcpsarcinmanywaysmorcofachaIIcngcthanintcrior
oncs. Thcy arc morc oftcn aprimary faciIity than an aItcmativc, thcy
carry hcavy pcdcstrian ows, thcy scrvc as sitting and congrcgating
pIaccs, thcyarcakcycIcmcntofthcstrcctanditisnotafriIIthatthcy
bccIcgant as wcII as uscfuI. Thcrc is no dcarth ofgood prcccdcnts. l

concIudc with my favoritc. thc stcps to thc sidccntranccs ofthc Sca


gram uiIding.

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Thc war against thc strcct gains forcc. Not onIy havc pIanncrs and
architccts bccn Iiningit withbIankwaIIs and garagcs, thcy havcbccn
cvcIingbIocksofoIdbuiIdingsforparkingIots,dc-mappingstrcctsfor
mcgastructurcs. Nowthcyarcgoingthcncxtstcp.Thcyarctakingthc
principaIfunctionsofthcstrcctandputtingthcmaImostanywhcrcbut
onstrcctIcvcI. Thcy arcputtingthcminundcrgroundconcourscsand
shoppingmaIIs, inskywaysanduppcr-IcvcIgaIIcrics. Itimatcy, thcy
may gct thc pcdcstrian othc strcct aItogcthcr.
Thc waIkways and concourscs wc arc going to discuss arc thc
Iatcst manifcstation of onc of thc most vcncrabIc conccpts of urban
pIanning.thcscparationofvchicuIarfrompcdcstriantramc. Fromthc
ictorian cra on, aImost cvcry utopian procction of thc futurc has
fcaturcd such scparation, ohcn inromantic tcrms grcat bridgcs and
tunncIs in thc sky, subsurfacc pIcasurc grounds and promcnadcs,
drblcs and monorals, and, latcly, computcr-drcctcd pcoplc mov-
crs.
AII this isforthcbcncht ofthcpcdcstrian, it is said. hc scpara-
tion providcs safcty from cars, fumcs, noisc, and thc Iikc. ln actuaI
fact, thc scparation is for thcbcncht ofvchicIcs. Who gcts thc primc
spacc7 Notthcpcdcstrian. Hchad itoncc. ground IcvcI. Thcpointof
scparation is to gct him oit. So hc is scnt tothc ccIIar, or upstairs.
chicIcs gct thc primc spacc.
w
L
ln principIc, transportation dcpartmcnts pIan for pcdcstrians as
wcII vchicIcs. ut Iook at how thcy opcratc fcdcraI, statc, IocaI
thcy arc aImost whoIIy conccmcd with maximizing vchicuIar tramc.
Thc pcdcstrian is considcrcd, tobcsurc, but as aprobIcm, andnot so
much tobc pIanncd for as to bc pIanncd against.
Onc thinks of that uItimatc dccIaration, thc frccway cIovcrIcaf,
admitting of no trcspass by pcdcstrians whatsocvcr. Whcrc thcrc arc
pcdcstrian faciIitics, thcy arc apt to bc both scparatcand uncquaI thc
giganticovcrpasscsofTokyo,for thcscarc rcaIIy forcarsso
thcy won't havc to sIow down for pcdcstrians. Thc Iattcr scnsibIy
avoid thc cIimb ifthcy possibIy can.
Thc surrogatc strccts thc most rootcd in function havc bccn thc
undcrground concourscs. OriginaIIy, thcy camc about as aduncts to
thc undcrground raiI systcms. Thcy wcrc gcarcd to thc movcmcnt of
grcat numbcrs ofpcopIc in vcry short pcriods oftimc. Thcy stiII arc,
and savcforthcintroductionofcscaIators pionccrcd by thcLondon
ndcrground thcir physicaI charactcristics havc not changcd vcry
much. As a mattcr offact ncw stations havc not matchcd thc dcsign
IcvcI rcachcd by Grand CcntraI and PcnnsyIvania stations. AII that
grandcur, wc bcIatcdIy rccognizcd, was rathcr functionaI. you kncw
whcrc you wcrc going, you kncw whcrc you wcrc. Thc structurctoId
you.ThcncwPcnnStationundcrgroundmovcspcopIcadcquatcIy,but
uttcrIy without gracc and that is a form ofincmcicncy.
lt was naturaI that thcrc bc an cxtcnsion of undcrground raiI
concourscs to ncarby buiIdings. Thc concoursc ofRockcfcIIcr Ccntcr
was an carIy prototypc. WhiIcit was primariIy atransportation corri-
dor,itfcaturcdshopsaIongitsspincandwasconncctcdwithasunkcn
pIaza at onc cnd.
Thc ncxt stcp was to scc concourscs as cnds inthcmscIvcs
ncctcdwithraiIand subway stations, pcrhaps,butprovidingcompIctc
cnvironmcnts, with a rangc ofshops and scrviccfaciIitics, rcstaurants
and mcctingpIaccs. MontrcaI's PIacc iIIcMaricand thc nctworks it
spawncd wcrc inucntiaI prcccdcnts.
Ofthcbcnchtsundcrgroundconcourscsprovidc, thcmostimpor-
tant is protcction frombad wcathcr. Asonc who has uscd thcRockc-
fcIIcr Ccntcr concoursc for many ycars, l ccrtainIy wouId not scant
that bcncht. Nor thc convcnicncc shopping, thc post omcc, thc boot-
bIack,thcGrccngroccrs' takc-outdcIi. Thcccntcrisatruc l pcrccnt
Iocation, withmassivcpcdcstrianowsconccntratcdaIongacIcaraxis
from a maor transportation faciIity.
Contcxt is aII important. What is troubIing about thc gcncsis of
many o0-strcct systcms is how casiIy this factor is ovcrIookcd. Con-
sidcrMinncapoIisand MontrcaI. ThcsccoIdwintcrciticsarcthcmost
Concourses and 3k)aa)s
Iicw]rcm Minncacli: :kjwaj tc dullcd:trcct lcrcl.
copicdmodcIsforo0-strcctsystcms.Thcciticsthatdo thccopyingarc
not ncccssariIy coId-wintcr citics thcmscIvcs. Somc havc spIcndidIy
miId wintcrs. What impcIs thcm to copying is a fccIing that thcir
downtowns arc too dowdy, too oIdfashioncd. A quantum Icap is
nccdcd, and maybc somc architccturaI razzIc-dazzIc might bring it
about.
So thccitics scndcivicdcIcgationsonpiIgrimagcstoinncapoIis
and ontrcaI. Thcy Iikc what thcy scc. Thcy Iikc thc skyways of
inncapoIis. Thcy Iikc thc concourscs of ontrcaI. Thcy notc that
both downtowns arc succcssfuI. Thc syIIogism compIctcs itscI
So thcy go back to thcir citics with visions of concourscs and
skyways. What thcy do not go back with is thc contcxt that makcs
thcm work in inncapoIis and ontrcaI. Thcy do not, for onc thing,
go back with cightccn dcgrccs bcIow zcro. Thcy do not go back with
thc high-dcnsity, pcrccnt Iocations that inncapoIis has in thc
lDS Ccntcr, ontrcaI in PIacc iIIc aric, nor with thc vcry hcavy
pcdcstrian owsthat convcrgcon thcsc pIaccs. Thcygoback to citics
withIow-dcnsitycorcs, Iightpcdcstrian ows, andIittIccnoughrctaiI-
ingatstrcctIcvcItobcginwith. WhatthcscciticssorcIynccdarcmorc
pcopIconthcstrccts, notfcwcrpcopIc. utthcyputinthcconcourscs
and thc skyways and thcy wondcr why thc strccts arc dcadcr than
cvcr.
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CcdarKapida, 1owa 5ccond5trcct.
1

L Y
How good is thc substitutc7 lfthc planncrs had to spcnd somc
timc in thcir undcrground utopias, thcy might havc sccond thoughts.
Thcundcrgroundspaccsarc,amongothcrthings, disoricnting. Stay in
onc spot for a whilc and you will soon bc approachcd by lost pcoplc
scckingdircctions.Thcrcarcsignsaround,butthcydonothclpmuch.
Nordothcilluminatcd maps, with thcirarrows pointing toYOL ARE
HR. Pcoplcarc puzzlcdby thcm. Whcrcis HR: That'saproblcm.
HR is a pillar or a wall likc all thc othcr pillars and walls, without
uniqucncss. Thcrc is no hxcd point to sight on, no glimpsc ofsky or
sun to suggcst north or south.
Thc situation is compoundcd by architccts' liking for symmctry.
Concourscstcnd to bclaidout so that northcorridorA is thc mirror
imagc ofsouth corridor . Nothingis askcw, as itis topsidc no stcc
plc, nodomc, noccccntricbuildingtogctyourbcaringsby.Thcrcarc
somcclucs. Thcpizzaparlormcansyou'rc at thcwcstcndofcorridor
L0nC0ScS Cnd )n0)S
P, n0l lhcc3Sl. h3l W0udDc lhc O3fd Sh0Q. ul cVcB lhc Vclcf3n 03n
gOl CCnlu8Od. lCtgOl WhCh 8dO Cl lh V0lOt 0 CmO OW
0n, O3n 3Sy gcl myScllucd 3f0und Wf0ng 3nd hc3d BOflh Whcn
W3nl l0 g0 S0ulh.
cS cff3SScS, 0c0llhc ncWcSl Sh0QQng O0mQlcXcS n N0nlfc3,
W3S S0 00nluSBg l0 Qc0Qlc Wlh lS m3By cVcS 3nd h3lcVcS lh3l l
W3S O0Scd d0Wn l0f 3n cXlcnSVc 0Vcfh3u . PS 3l lhc 0B3VcBlufc n
0S PBgccS, 00f00dng W3S 3d0Qlcdl0gudcQc0Qcl0lhcfV3f0uS
dcSln3l0BS. l S Sl 00BluSBg. hc m3]0f Qf0Dcm S 0nc lh3l d0gS
S0 m3ny O0mQcXcS. 0u O3n l Scc 0ul. 0u O3n l gcl y0uf Dc3fngS
lf0m 3 KB0WB 3ndm3fK. P ncW Qf0]cOl, L0mQcXc cS]3fdBS, S
muOh c3Scf l0 fc3d. Pl clhcf cnd 0llhc m3n SQ30c, 3fgc cXQ3BScS 0l
g3SS gVc 3 VcW 0l lhc DudBgS Dcy0Bd. 0u Kn0W Whcfc y0u 3fc.
Lm3l03y, 00BO0ufScS 3f0 SuQQ0Scd l0Dc3 h3QQy mcdum. ul
m3ny 3fc df3lly, cSQc03y Bc3f cBlf3B0cS, 3Bd lhcfc m3y Dc 3DfuQl
V3f3l0nS B lcmQcf3lufc lf0m 0B0 Sc0l0n l0 3B0lhcf. hcfc 3fc B0l
lhc cXlfcmcS 0Bc BndS 0uld00fS, Dul lh3l S lScl 3 Qf0Dcm. Pn n-
DclWccn Om3lc O3n Q0Sc m0fc dBOulcS l y0 3lcfB3lc DclWccn
0lSdc 3Bd BSdc. h3l nd 0ll0lhcS l0 Wc3f ufng 3 g00d Q3fl
0l lhc yc3f l S l00 W3fm BSdc l0f lhc 0Vcf003l y0u Bccd l0f lhc
0ulSdc.
PS Sh0QQng cnVf0BmcBlS, 00n00ufScS 3fc BBc l0f 00nVcBcB0c
lcmS ncWSQ3QcfS, Sh0cShncS, O0n l0OKcfS, Qh0l0O0QcS, 0ul0m3lcd
lccf m3OhncS, Q3SlfcS 3nd Dfc3d l0 l3Kc h0mc. ul lhcy 3fc n0l
fghl l0f lhc l0Q 0llhc nc. 3ScmcnlS 3fc D3ScmcBlS, Wh3lcVcf lhcy
3fc O3cd, 3nd lhc SOh0OK Qu0lcnl S uSu3y hgh. hS SccmS l0 Dc
3B BlcfB3l0n3 QhcB0mcB0B lf0m 3cSu bQu3fc B 0Ky0 l0 N3fKcl
blfccl n h3dcQh3, 00B00ufScS Sh0W 3 Slf0Bg 3Bnly l0f gll Sh0QS,
l3Sll00d O0unlcfS, gfcclng 03fd Sh0QS, 3nd lh0 Kc. hc lcW O0n-
O0ufScS lh3l d0 h3Vc S0mc BfSl-f3lc Sh0QS 3fc 3Ql l0 Dc Q3fl 0l 3
O0mQcX B WhOh lhc Slfccl cVc h3S Dccn dcdO3lcd l0 0BOcS, D3nK
Wnd0WS, 3nd D3nK W3S f3lhcf lh3n fcl3ng. hS Qf0VdcS 3 03Q-
lVc 0cBlcc l0f lhc fcl3 Sh0QS d0WB Dc0W 3Bd luhcf 00BB3l0n
0l lhc fghlncSS 0luBdcfgf0undng.
LBc undcfgf0und cBVf0BmcBl lh3l h3S h3d Slyc 3nd g00d Sh0QS
S N0nlf03 S 30c c N3fc. lS lcn3nl mX S B0l 3S uQS03c 3S
CnCO t 0S. Uut t S 8tll n Cut8tndng QtCtCtyQO. PmCng thC lC-
lufcS VSlng OVO gf0uQS W0ud d0 Wc l0 n0lc S lhc Slc, Kc lh
b Lcnlcf n NnBc3Q0S, S 3 l Qcf0cnl 0O3l0n, yBg DclWccn
lhc f3f03d Sl3l0n 3nd lhc m3n Sh0QQng Slfccl, blc. L3lhcnc. h0
Sl Sl0QS Sh3fQly, 0nd 0l lS n0flhcfB Sdc l S cnlcfcd 3l Slfcl lVc .
3ylghl h3S Dccn Df0ugh Dl0 lhc O0mQlcX lhf0ugh Sm3l O0ufly3fdS
c3dng l0 3 Df03d Q3Z3 3D0Vc. hc Q3Z3 lScl, h0WcVcf, h3S 0Sl Kcy
l3lufcS, 3m0ng lhcm 3 O3lc, n0W fcQl3Ocd Dy 3 O0mQulcf l3Olly.

4
L
Thc wintcr cIimatc is hcrcc. Onc wintcr day whcn l was hIming
Stc. Cathcrinc Strcct, thc tcmpcraturc was so coId that my camcra
frozc up. ut ths dd not dctcr thc shoppcrs, of whom thcrc wcrc
many on thc strcct as many pcr hour, indccd, as n thc warm
main corridor ofPIacc iIIc Maric.
Thc most praiscd bcncht of concourscs and skyways is that of
systcm. Thcy arc notustan aggrcgatcofscgmcnts, thcpointismadc,
but an cncompassing nctwork, with cvcry buiIding Iinkcd to cvcry
othcr soon to bc, if aII dcvcIopcrs shapc up. Thc drcam is a
graphiconc, andthc systcmisccrtainIy imprcssivcinmapsofit.Thcy
do sccm so compIctc.
utthccompIctcncssisnotrcIcvanttomostpcdcstrians, norisit
pcrccivcdbythcm. lfyouchcckhowpcopIcuscaconcoursc, youwiII
hnd that a fcw man scgmcnts carry thcbuIk oftramc. As you pokc
into thc far rcachcs, howcvcr, thc numbcr ofpcopIc drops markcdIy.
So do thc cost-bcncht ratios.
lts ncctoknow that youcan go fromAto andontoorY
or. OIdhands at RockcfcIIcrCcntcr, forcxampIc, know awaythat
takcs thcm o0thc bcatcntrack and, viannumcrabIctwstsand tums
and rght-angIcd passagcways, cnds thcm up at thc Spcrry Rand
uiIding. utpartofthcpIcasurcofthcroutcisthatfcwothcrpcopIc
knowit. ThatparticuIarcscaIatorisnotmuchuscd,somctimcsscvcraI
minutcs go by without a pcrson appcaring. ut thc cscaIator kccps
going, kiIowatt aftcr kiIowatt as cxpcnsivcIy as thccscaIators in
thc placcs whcrc thcrc arc many pcoplc. 1hs s not to gansay thc
amcnityofcscaIators.ThcpointisthatthcadvantagcsofcompIctcncss
ofsystcmarcvastIyovcrratcd,andcostIytoboot,itcostsust much
to buiId thc Iow-tramc scgmcnts, and as much to opcratc thcm.
Thc city that has donc mostto kiIIo0its strccts is DaIIas. With
cxtcnsivc pIanning and strong civic support, it has cmbarkcd on thc
constructon of an undcrground concoursc-and-skyway systcm so
compIctc that cvcry buiIding in downtown wiII cvcntuaIIy bc con-
ncctcd with cvcry othcr onc.
Thcy do not do things haIfway in DaIIas. lt is to bc the systcm,
not mcrcIy a suppIcmcnt. Thcrc is no namby-pamby scntimcntaIty
about pcdcstrian strccts. Onc gathcrs that thc proponcnts wouId b
dcIightcd if pcdcstrians couId bc cIiminatcd from thc strccts aIto-
gcthcr. This wouId dccongcst strccts ofpcopIc and makc morc room
for cars. So in csscncc gocs thc rationaIc.
Hcrc is how it has bccn put by inccnt Pontc, thc pIanncr who
cmbarkcdDaIIasonthiscoursc. "Oncofthcchicfcontributingfactors
to tramc congcstion," hc says, "is crowds ofpcdcstrians intcrrupting
thcowoftramcatintcrscctions. "ccauscofthiscrowdng,hcpoints
out, thc structurcofthc corcmakcs it impossibIc to widcn thc strccts
L0hC0ur5c5 0h0 K)b0)5
l0 8000mm0d8l0 m0f0 V0h0l0S. hcf0 S B0l 0B0ugh Sd0W8lK SQ80c l0
Oul dCW. CW, lhC, C tC0VC hC t0lCm
%
0l lhC QCdCl8BS 0R lhC Slf0ClS. bld0S Sh0W, S8yS 0nlc
lh8l d0WBl0W W8KW8y SySl0mS, Wlh lhcf 0f0SSW8KS 8nd undcf
Q8SScS, df8W Qcd0Slf8BS 0R 0f0Wd0d Sd0W8lKS.
h0 uBSl8l0d Qf0mS0 S lh0 Qfm80y 0l Vch0u3f lf8B0. ul
0Bl0 Sl0QS Sh0fl 0l08ffyBg lh0 8fgm0Bl l0 lS 0g08 00n0uS0n.
lh0 Q0d0Slfl8BS h8V0 D00B uSuBg Slf00l SQ800 l0 lhc hufl 0lVch00S,
8S 0Bl0 Bd08l0S, Why l0l lh0m 0B lh0 Slf00l 8l 8 0 D0 00nSSlcnl,
lhc 0ly Sh0ld m8K0 uS0 0l lhC uBd0fgf0uBd 00 m8nd8l0fy. l
dd, l 00uld f08Q 8 l8fg0 WBdl8ll Dy f00y0Bg lh0 n0W fcdund8nl
Sd0W8lK SQ800. l00uld00BV0fl lh0 SQ800 l0 3ddl0n8llf8B0 l8n0S l0f
V0h00S. B 3l8S, lh8l W0ud mc8n lW0 0f0 l3BcS. Plc0lVcy,
lh0 0ly 00uld m8fK0l lh0 SQ800 00mm0f08y. l 00uld m0Vc lhc
uldBg lBC 0l l0 lh0 l00f ufD Bc 8Bd S0 0f 08Sc lh0 cXlf3
SQ800 l0f f0l8Bg 8Bd 000 uS0.
ulI8g00u 0S, Dul l 00S B0l 0gg8f QI0D8Dllly. 00 lS 8
m0m0Blum l0 lh0S0 Qf000lS lh8l 8K0S lh0m S0ll-8ggf8BdZBg. Ln00
8 BumD0f 0l DuldBgS 8f0 lBK0d l0 8 00B00ufS0, lh0f0 S m0uUln
Qf0SSuf0 0B SuDS0Qu0Bl d0Vcl0Q0fS l00B uQ Wlh 8 lBK 0llh0f 0Wn.
h0 Qf0VS0B 0l Su0h 8 lBK, Bd00d, D000mcS S0m0lhng 0l 8 l0y3ly
l0Sl, 8Bd lS 8 Df8V0 0fl00Sh d0V00Q0f Wh0 8DSl8BS. Vcnlu3y, n0
Qf0SSuf0 S B000SS8fy. bB00 S0 m8ny 0lh0fDudngS 8f0 0B lhc SySl0m,
8 00V00Q0f W Bgf0 h0h3S l0]0B uQ lhS Qf0Q0y S l0Dc m3fKcl
8Dl0.
h0 Dgg0Sl Qf0Dl0m Q0S0d Dy Suff0g8l0 Slf00lS S B0l lh3l lhcy
l3ll l0 luB0l0B Dul lh8l lh0y luB0l0B l00 W0ll. lul0B S lh0 00nSc-
Q0B00. P d0WBl0WB 08B SuQQ0fluSl S0 m8By Sl0f0S 8Bd f0Sl8uf8nlS,
8B0 l S 8 lCly 00WB0Wn llh0fc 8f0 0B0ugh 0llh0m 0n lS SlfcclS.
0d 8B0lh0fl0V0l 8B0 S0m0lhBgh3S l0gV0. hS S Wh8l h3QQcncd B
8ll8S. 0d0Slf8B 0f0Wdng S B0l8D0 l0f lS 8DScB00. Pl lh0 Q03K 0l
lh0 luB0h Q0f0d, S00W8lK V0um0S 8f0 n lh0 f8ngc 0l l l0 l ,
Q00Ql0 Qcf h0uf, 8 V0 0W Bguf0 l0f S0 hghy dcnSc 8 00fc.
h0f0 8fc lh0y 8ll b0m0 8fc n lh0 n-h0uSc 08lclcf3S, 0lhcfS B
lh0 00WBl0WB 0luDS. P g00d BumD0f 8f0 B lh0 S88d D8fS 8Bd QZ8
accs Olhc undcrrOundOOOOusc SySlCm. n nO Cc 3Oc 0fc lhcfc
V0fy m8By QC0Ql0, 8nd, Whl0 38S S 8 dyB8m0 0ly, y0u W0ud
B0V0f gu0SS l y lS Slfc0lS. b0m0 0f0WdBg S ]uSl Wh8l lhcy Bccd.
h0f0 8f0 SgBS 0lVl8lly Slf0cl V0Bd0tS h3Vc 00n l00nScd. ul lhc
und0fgf0uBdBg 00BlBucS 8Q80c.
P 0ly lh8l h8S h8d S000Bd lh0ughlS S 0f0nl0. t0f m3ny yc3fS l
Z080uSy QufSu00 lh0 g08l 0l S0Q8f8l0n 0l Q0d0Slf3n 3Bd Vch0u0f
lI80. l 8I0 B8l lB0 0l 0l ndg0und gnlS 8n0 80Wc0
!O9 D/9S| /DD/90
DS90 Dy SKyw3yS 3O0
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3O0 SD09|O/O O3S |D

3.
L
buiIdcrsto incIudcbascmcntspaccas afrcc bonus ovcrand abovc thc
oorspaccpcrmittcd by thc zoning. As is usuaIIy thccasc, thc pcdcs-
trians got thc short cnd. Thcy wcrc givcn thc bascmcnt, cars got
groundIcvcI. As timcwcntonandmorcstrcct-IcvcI rctaiIcrswcntout
ofbusincss, thc city dccidcd it had gonc toofar.
Toronto wasbccoming a city of moIcs, said hcad pIanncr Stcvcn
McaughIin. "What wc dont want is to havc cvcryonc usc undcr-
ground privatc strccts, which cIosc at 6 .m.
-
and Icavc thc outdoor
strccts cmpty of Iifc cxccpt for a fcw bravc souIs dashing bctwccn
buiIdings from urban for to urban fort undcr thc cyc ofskyscrapcr
sccurity guards." Torontohas now rcvcrscd coursc. lthas withdrawn
thcinccntivcsforundcrgroundingandhasfoIIowcdNcwYorkscxam-
pIcofrcquiring rctaiIing at strcct IcvcI in ncw buiIdings.
SkywaysposcthcchaIIcngcsofsystcmcompIctcncssasforcibIyas
concourscs. Oncc a fcw arc buiIt, thc momcntum for adding morc
gathcrsforcc,andbcforcIongthccivicgoaIisacompIctcsystcm. Thc
bcst cxampIcs in thc nitcd Statcs arc thc twin citics ofMinncapoIis
and St. PauI. Thc YOL ARL HLRL signs you scc in thcsc citics show
comprchcnsivc nctworks connccting virtuaIIy aII of thc principaI
buiIdings ofdowntown.
Thc comprchcnsivcncss is what mostimprcsscs visiting pIanncrs.
ut it is a bit misIcading. Thosc maps indicatc a homogcncous nct-
work,thcyfaiItoshowthatthcusagcisconccntratcdncar !pcrccnt
Iocations andthatitfaIIsomarkcdIasoncpokcs outtothcfurhcr
rcachcs. ln MinncapoIis, forcxampIc, thc fourskyways that fccdinto
thc lDSCrystaICourthavcvcryhcavy pcdcstrianvoIumcs. OnacoId
wintcr's day l cIockcd voIumcs at midday avcraging 5, &, ,&,
5, 5,and2,2&0pcopIcpcrhour.Asoncmovcsawayfromthcccntcr,
thc ows tapcrorapidIy. At an arcadc abIockand a haIfaway, thc
ow is around ! , ! pcopIcpcrhour. As with concourscs, thccapitaI
and opcrating costs ofIittIc-uscdscgmcnts arc about as grcat as thosc
ofthc hcaviIy uscd scgmcnts.
AcsthcticaIIy,skywaysarc amixcdbag. Mostarc poorIydcsigncd
and rarcIy in harmony with thcdcsign ofthcbuiIdings thcy conncct.
utsomcarc handsomc, notonIyforthcvicwofthcmfromthcstrcct,
butthc vicwfrom thcm ofthcstrcct. Moststrccts inourgrid systcms
ncvcr sccm to havc a stopping point, thcy rcccdc o to inhnity. A
pcdcstrianbridgc can framc thcsccnc, givc itsomc cIosurc, and bring
down thc apparcnt scaIc ofvcry Iargc buiIdings. Thc bridgc can aIso
providc vantagc points and pcrspcctivcs on thc city that did not cxist
bcforc. Thc tramc bcIow can bc an intcrcsting picturc, cspcciaIIy at
dusk.
utbridgcs can mcss upthc townscapc, too. St. PauI has a most
intcrcsting topography, with Iots ofhiIIsidcs and cIcvations.

Concourses and 3k)aa)s
Thcnctwork ofbridgcs with so many at thc samc lcvcl has a way
otamng thc topograph and attcnng thc ct.
Anothcrcity with topography tochcrishis Scattlc. ltscity coun
cil has rulcd against skyways, largcly on acsthctic grounds. lt was
askcd to makcan cxccption in thccasc ofa ncw complcx that would
linkthrccstorcs. Thcrcwasgoodcconomicustihcationforonc and it
wastobcwclldcsigncd. Thccitycouncilwouldhavcnoncofit. Evcry
day, said thc chairman, shc had to look at thctwo that wcrc alrcady
built and thcy wcrc awful. Thc othcr mcmbcrs agrccd. Scattlc had a
hnc compact corc and attractivc strccts. Thc council rcasoncd that it
should guard its blcssings. Thc cxccption wa not grantcd.
Whygoup7nIcssthcrcisaclcarrcason, pcoplc rcsist. Thcyarc
tcrrcstrial. Thcy likc ground lcvcl and will oftcn put up with dimcul-
ticsatgroundlcvcl rathcrthan takcasccminglycasicrway up abovc.
Thosc hugc pcdcstrian ovcrpasscs in Tokyo arc an cxamplc, scnsibly,
mostTokyopcdcstriansprcfcrtowaitforthclightandcrossthcstrcct
rathcr than go up thc ovcrpass.
altimorc's Charlcs Ccntcrwas onc ofthccarlicst downtown rc-
ncwal proccts in thc country and onc ofthc most inucntial. lt fca-
turcdalargcccntralplazacncloscdbyoldandncwbuildings by
Mics van dcr and withan clcvatcd walkway systcmfor pcdcs-
trians. Thc walkway systcm was considcrcd a maor advancc in plan
ning and inspircd similar scparation proccts clscwhcrc.
ut pcoplc did not usc thc walkways vcry much. ln timc, it was
hopcd, thcy would lcarn to. ut thcy did not. Thc Charlcs Ccntcr
pcoplc, a practical group, hgurcd that thc pcdcstrians probably wcrc
right. Thc walkways did not tic in with thc main activity or with thc
storcs, onc strctch, for cxamplc, had not a doorway on it. Thc walk-
way also tcndcd to makc spaccs bcncath darkcr than thcy should bc.
ln !9&6, as part of an ovcrall rcvitalization plan, it was dccidcd to
rcmovcthcmaorpart ofthcsccond-lcvclsystcmand gct thcfocusof
activity back to ground lcvcl.
A fcw blocks southis anothcrcxamplc, Harborplacc. Thc watcr-
sidcpromcnadcs and pavilions arc agrcatattractionforpcoplc. Thcy
arc somcwhat hcmmcd ofrom thc city, howcvcr, by a maor high-
way. To makc acccss casicr for pcoplc, a largc pcdcstrian bridgc has
bccnprovdcd.sagcsmuchcssthanoncwouIdcxpcct.MostpcopIc
prcfcr to wait for thc light and cross at gradc.
Atthcnivcrsityoflllinois'CirclcCampusinChicago,thcrcisa
two-lcvcl systcm. pavcd walkways on thc ground and a duplicatc sct
dircctIyabovcthcm. lt was hopcd that thcadditionofthc uppcrlcvcl
would rclicvcpcdcstrian congcstion and induccusctopsidcbfaculty
and studcnts. As it happcncd, thcrc was no congcstion to rclicvc and
thcuppcrlcvclhasbccn littlcuscd. Maintcnancc has bccn a problcm,
0uSl0g I0]0CI
`SII00IS l0 I00 SKy 00
00I w0IK v0Q w0.
W000 y0u I8K0 8 SII00I
8w8y I00 gI0u00 0v0
y0u I8K0 8w8y w08I
08K0S lI w0IK
8S I00 l0IIlC8I0 0lXIuI0
0000, I00 S00S,
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W08Iy0u 8I0 0I wlI0
lS 8 C0Hl00I.
L
particuIarIy inwintcr,thcwaIkways,whicharc notcovcrcd, arcwind-
swcpt and imcuIt to cIcarofsnow.
Mixcd-usc dcvcIopmcnts that spring up around intcrchangcs arc
bcgcttcrs ofsccond-IcvcI systcms. A casc in point is thc CrystaI City
compIcx inthcirginiasuburbsofWashington. Asinmostsuch com-
pIcxcs, thcrc is an cnormous amount of supcrstructurc uscd by not
vcrymanypcopIc. ThcprobIcmisnotthatitkiIIso0thcstrcct. Thcrc
is no strcct to kiII o0. Thc probIcm is supcruity. ln thcsc compIcxcs
pcopIc do not waIk much, whatcvcr thc IcvcI.
Somc uppcr-IcvcI systcmshavcbccn dcsigncd in thcnamc ofthc
strcct, that is, not to diminish its vitaIity but to rcIocatc it. ScvcraI
imaginativcdcsignsforhigh-rischousinghavctakcnthisapproach.y
stacking a ticr of waIkways vcrticaIIy, thcy havc givcn cach oor its
own strcct. Thc apartmcnt units opcn dircctIy onto it, as row houscs
do on thc ground.
Thcy havc not workcd vcry wcII. Whcn you takc a strcct away
from strcct IcvcI you takc away what makcs it work. Rcmovc thc
intricatc mixturc of pcopIc, thc pcdcstrian bustIc, thc shops, and thc
tramc, and what youarc Icft withisacorridor. ltcanbcavcrybIcak
onc, too, as was thc casc with thc iII-fatcd Pruitt-lgoc procct in St.
Louis.
Thc city that has donc a good ob of combining a IivcIy strcct
IcvcI with an uppcr-IcvcI skyway systcm is CaIgary. lthas rcason for
skyways, at Iatitudc hhy-onc dcgrccs north, it has dvcdgc daytimc
tcmpcraturcs in wintcr of twcnty-hvc bcIow zcro. ln rcaIIy coId
wcathcritdrops tohfty bcIow. Thcsun shincs aIot, but itsitsIow on
thc horizon and its shadows arc Iong.
To makcdowntownmorcwaIkabIcinwintcrthccityinitiatcdthc
"pIushftccn" pIan. DcvcIopcrs rcccivcabonusofcxtraoorspaccby
providingwaIkwaysat thchftccn-foot IcvcIwithin thcirbuiIdingsand
across thc strccts. Two additionaI IcvcIs, pIus-thirty and pIus-forty
havc bccn addcd. Thc dcsign ofthc waIkways is a cut abovc that of
othcrcitics.somcarcsitcdaIongthcsidcsofbuiIdingsandarcvisuaIIy
Iinkcdtothcstrcct. NobIank waIIshcrc,butIots ofscc-throughgIass.
WaIkways opcn up into IargcrpubIic arcas, withsnackbarsand cafs.
ut CaIgary did aII thiswithouttuingitsback on thcstrcct. lt
hasactivcIysupportcd strcct activityas muchas possibIc. Proportion-
atcIy, its downtown bIocks havc morc strcct-IcvcI rctaiIing than most
mcdium-sizcdcitics,andthcstorcsopcndircctIyontothcstrcct.Thcrc
arc many pIaccs to sit, and whiIc thc omcc buiIdings arc about par,
thcrcisoncthatisstrikingIyattractivc.OncofthcprincipaIstrcctshas
bccntucdinto apcdcstrianmaII. lngood and passabIcwcathcritis
fuIIofyoungpcopIc, and, whiIcsomc citizcns dcpIorcthcraunchincss
ofonc cnd ofit it is an cnIivcning pIacc CaIgary pcopIc makc much

Concourses and 3k)aa)s


morcofthcsunandwarmththcygct than pcopIcwhohavcaIotmorc
oft.
Thcrc s, thcn, IttIcdIuton. lnwntcr, pcopIc usc thcwaIkways
to thc fuIIcst, n summcr, thc strcct.
Why not both approachcs7 As CaIgary dcmonstratcs, t s poss-
bIc to havc an uppcr-IcvcI systcm and a IvcIy strcct IcvcI as wcII.
SmIarIy, n thc carIy stagcs, whcn thcrc arc as yct onIy a fcw sky-
ways, ctcs can hnd that thcy compIcmcnt thc strccts morcthan thcy
compctc wth thcm. That wII comc Iatcr.
ThccocxstcnccwIIprovcncttIcsomc. AIargccaptaInvcstmcnt
s rdng on thc o-strcct systcm, and so s cvc udgmcnt. To bc
vndcatcd, thc o-strcct systcm must prospcr, and to do ths t must
domnatc. ln most towns thcrc s smpIy not thc markct to support
twofuIIIcvcIsofbusncss. OncorthcothcrwIIsucr.AndsowIIthc
cty.
ScvcraI ycars ago CharIottc, North CaroIna, had oncman IcvcI.
lt was a good onc. Downtown was compact, dchncd wth a sIghtIy
ccccntrc grd (duc, onc story has t, to a drunkcn survcyor). Thcrc
wcrcstorcsaIongtsmanstrccts, hnc oIdbuIdngsand ncwoncs, thc
most magnhccntstrcct trccsofany .S. cty, abaImycImatc, andan
amabIc ctzcnry.
ut t was a bt oId-fashoncd. What t nccdcd, a dcvcIopcr of
suburban shoppng maIIs bcIcvcd, was a shoppng maII. On a stc
adaccnt to thc ccntcr oftown, hc put up a mxcd-usc compIcx, com-
bnng a hotcI, a bank and omcc towcr, and, on thc sccond IcvcI, a
shop-Incd concoursc thc Ovcrstrcct MaII, t was caIIcd. Thc maII
was soon conncctcd by skyway to thc cty's ncw convcnton ccntcr
across thc strcct, ncxt by anothcr skyway to a dcpartmcnt storc,
through t and thcncc by skyway to anothcr storc.
ln a rcmarkabIy short tmc CharIottc had a sccond IcvcI and
wthout proIongcd dcbatc ovcr thc pros and cons. lt was too Iatc for
that. WhowouIddsputc succcss7 Thc hotcI dd wcII, so dd thcbank
and omcc buIdng, and so dd thc shops on thc sccond-IcvcI maII.
Pcdcstran tramc has bccn brsk, at Iunchtmc, counts on thc man
scgmcnt ofthc maII run around thrcc thousand pcopIc pcr hour.
Strcct IcvcI has not donc wcII. ComparabIc counts on thc sdc
waIksofthckcybIocksavcragcaroundoncthousandpcopIcpcrhour.
Somuchactvtyhasbccnsphoncd otothcuppcrIcvcIthatground
oorspacchasgoncbcggng. lnoncomcctowcrthcsccond-IcvcIrctaI
spacc rcntcdoutquckIy, t tcd n wththcmaII. utthcgroundoor
rctaI spacc rcmancd unrcntcd for scvcraI ycars.
Thc cty's man strccthasbccn upgradcd wth bcnchcs and shcI-
tcrcd bus stops and othcr pcdcstran amcntcs. What t Iacks s morc
pcdcstrans. Of thc fcw shops on thc prncpaI bIockfronts, somc arc
P I0S080S L8wlS 8I
w0IK. 0 I0I0CI I00lI
l0v0SI000I l0 u0I
800 0w0I-0v0 SII00IS,
ClIl0S 8I0 0ull0g I00lI
SII00I-0v0 SII00IS.
L
1wo-lcrcldowntown: Charlottc, North Carolina. Ccr-lcrclak]wa] andaho-
in mall]or thc a_ucnt. 5trcct lcrcl]or bua ridcra.
cxccIIcnt,andoncarcadc-andaIIcycombnatonssupcrb. utthcrcs
not thc rctaI contnuty thcrc couId havc bccn. Wth a ncw ccntraI
squarc to bc provdcd at thc crossroads of thc two prncpaI strccts,
pcdcstran actvty at ground lcvcl should pck up. But t w!l bc trom a
Iow IcvcI.
Thcrchasbccn asocaIspIt. Thc sccond IcvcI s uscdby mddIc-
cIass whtcs, thc strcct IcvcI by bIacks and by pcopIc whohavc to usc
thcbus. lnoncwaythcygct thcbcstoft.ThcyarcthcIaststrcctIcvcI
pcdcstrans. Thanks to thcm, thc bus stops and bcnchcs arc whcrc
most ofthc strcct Ifc n CharIottc takcs pIacc.
DaIIas has bccn smIarIy a0cctcd. Davd DIIon, archtccturaI
crtc ofthc DaIIasMoming Neus bcIcvcs that thc probIcm has bccn
acccntuatcd by thc upgradng ofthc concourscs that has bccn takng
pIacc. Thc ncwcst compIcxcs around onc of thc man ntcrscctons
havcprovdcdsomcattractvcfoodfacItcs. MostofthcpcopIcusng
thcm arc wcII-drcsscd youngomccworkcrs. Mostofthc pcopIc up on
thc strcct arc studcnts, mnorty, and poor pcopIc. Thc onIy facItcs
for thcm arc thc bus shcItcrs. "Thc socaI strathcaton s startIng,"
says DIIon, "and t wII onIy gct worsc as Iong as thc undcrground
systcm s trcatcd as a knd ofGod."
A Grcshams Iaw s at work. Thc sccond-ratc can farc bcttcr f
thcrc sno compctton from thc hrstratc. Ctcs that go for o0strcct
Concourses and 3k)aa)s
systcms, accordingIy, havc rcason to makc thc rcguIar strccts Icss at
tractivc than bcforc. To protcct thcir growing invcstmcnt in uppcr-
and Iowcr-IcvcI systcms, thcy go aIong with thcduIIihcationofstrcct-
IcvcIfrontagcs most ccctivcIy, by scaIing thcmowithbIank waIIs
that arc now no Iongcr inadvcrtcnt, but dcIibcratc.
Thishas happcncdin MinncapoIis. ForquitcawhiIcthcskyways
compIcmcntcd an activc strcct IcvcI. Thc citys chicf pridc was thc
pcdcstrian maII aIong NicoIIct. Thc lDS CrystaI Court was attrac-
tivcIy transparcnt and its strcct-IcvcI spacc a truc mccting pIacc. As
thc skyway systcm has grown, howcvcr, urban dcsign at strcct IcvcI
has takcn a tu for thc worsc. Town Ccntcr, thc ncwcst Iink in thc
systcm, oins two dcpartmcnt storcs with a sccondIcvcI waIkway.
Down bcIow, most ofthc strcct sccnc is bIank waII.
AnothcrGrcshamsIawcxampIcisprovidcdbyWinnipcg. lnthc
hcart of its downtown is an undcrground shopping maII and con-
coursc. Givcn thc hcrcc wcathcr up thcrc, it is undcrstandabIc that
pcopIc usc it. ut thcy arc a hardy bunch, cvcn on thc coIdcst days
somcpcopIcpcrsistinusingthcsidcwaIksabovc.To induccthcmtogo
undcrground instcad, thc city has crcctcd a concrctc barricr on thc
sidcwaIk. This makcs furthcr passagc at strcct IcvcI dimcuIt, Icaving
thcpubIicstairway downto thcconcourscthc aItcmativc. LcstpcopIc
cvadcthis forccd choiccbywaIking across thcstrcct, poIicc hand out
tickcts to thosc who do so.
Thc worst thing about duIIihcation is thc way pcopIc gct uscd to
it. Thcy cvcn gct to Iikc it. lf thcrc arc no Iongcr strccts that arc
attractivc to usc, thcy wiII not usc strccts Thcy wiII forgct thcrc cvcr
wcrc any and, as in DaIIas, say that cuIturaIIy strcct Iifc may not bc
suitcd to thcir city. So thcy takc thc choicc that is givcn thcm. con-
courscsandskyways. LikcthcbIucchccsc drcssings ofthcsaIadbars,
oncc you gct uscd to thcm, you Iosc yourtastc for thc rcaI thing.

000 808I I0 IO0


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CO00S0 0I0SSl0g l0 IO0
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Thc ultimatc cxprcssions of thc ight from thc strcct arc thc mcga-
structurcs hugc, mItipurposc compIcxcs combining omccs, storcs,
hotc!s, and garagcs, and cnc!oscd n a grcat carapacc ot concrctc and
glass such as DctroitsRcnaissancc Ccntcr, AtIantasOmni lntcrna
tional. Thcir distinguishing charactcristic is scIf-containmcnt. ln
tcndcd for thcsaIvationofdowntown, thcy tcndtob indcpcndcntof
it ad thc dcsig procIaims thcm so. Thc mcgastructurcs arc whoIIy
intcrnaIizcd cnvironmcnts, with thcir own Iifc-support systcms and
with no obcisancc to thc strccts of which, most IikcIy, was dc-
mappcd so thcstructurc couIdbcas bigasit is. Thcir cncIosing waIIs
arc windowIcss, andto thc city thcy tu abIank facc.
SmalIcr citics havc bccn particuIarIy vuIncrabIc. Thcy arc thc
cIoscst to thc suburban maIIs and havc fcIt thc compctition ofthcm
most kccnIy. Thcy arc tcmptcd to hght thc maIIs on thc maIIs own
tcrms to ask thcir chicftormcntors to comc to town and rccast thc
instrumcntofthcirdccIincintothcncwboon. Sothcycoopcratc.Thcy
wcIcomcthccncIoscd maIIs, thco0strcctstrccts, andthcycnforccthc
usingofthcmby makingthcrcguIarstrcctsIcssattractivcthanbcforc.
Mcgastructurcs arc for pcopIc who havc cars. EsscntiaIIy, thcy
arc an cxtcnsionofthcfrccwayculturc, andwhiIc thcyprovidcacccss
to downtown, thcy aIso providc an aImost cIoscd circuit insuIatcd
from it. At Houston Ccntcr you can drivc your carin from thcfrcc-
Octroit: Fcolc Movcr andmcga:tructurc.
way to thc ccntcr's parking garagc, walk through a skyway to onc
towcrandthcncctoanothcr,work, shop, lunch, worksomcmorc,and
thcn hcad back to thc garagc and thc frccway without cvcrhaving to
sct foot in Houston at alI.
Andwhy shouIdonc7 Savcfor vchicuIarportaIs,thcstrcct facadc
bclow is soIid bIank waII Thc only activity is a drivc-inbank. To thc
crcditofTcxas Eastcrn, buildcrofthcprocct, it shouIdbc notcd that
thc company has concIudcd that thc scparation from thc strcct was a
badidca. Forafuturccxtcnsionofthcprocct thcy hopctohavcIivcIy
strcct spaccs
Thc rcscmblancc to fortrcsscs is not accidcntal. lt is thc philo-
sophicbasc. "Thcydo Iook aIittlcforbidding,"oncproponcntsaid to
mc, "utthcrc is arcason Thchardfact is wcrcnot goingtolurc thc
middIccIass shoppcrbacktothccity unlcsswc promisc thcmsccurity
from thc city."
To savc thc city, thcy would rcpudiatc it So, in spirit as wclI as
torm, thc suburban shoppng mal! is transplantcd to downtown, and
sccurity is raiscd to thc nth dcgrcc Thcsc complcxcs abound with
guards and cIaboratc cIcctronic warning systcms orts ofcntry from
thcoutsidcarcfcwin numbcrandthcirdcsignismanifcstlydcfcnsivc.
Whcrc Rcnaissancc Ccntcr faccs ctroit thcrc is a largc concrctc
bcrm athwart thc cntrancc lts a wondcrthcrc isnt a portcuIIis ut
thc mcssagc is cIcar. Afraid ofctroit7 Comc in and bcsafc.
Mcgastructurcs havc an anity for convcntion ccntcrs, sports
egas|ruc|ures have
ana/n/|y or
conven|/on cen|ers and
arenas, andv/a
5yy5 C C
/n|o a c/osed c/rcu/|.
he resu/|/s |oo c/|/es
conven|/on c/and
regu/arc/|y, and o/|h
//||/e /n|er/ng/ng
e|oeen v/s/|ors and
na|/ves.
uDuR80 SO0l0g
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[ z c & ] L
arcnas, and mcrchandisc marts. Thcsc arc gcarcd forvisitors, and via
skywaysand concourscs thcycan bc matcd intoan aImost cIoscd cir
cuit. As a rcsuIt, somcAmcrican citics arc two citics. visitorcity and
rcguIar city. Thcrc is not much intcrmingIing bctwccn thc two. As
convcntion ccntcr cxpcrts wouId putit, thcrc is IittIc contamination.
Thcsc cnvironmcnts arc so duII that cvcn proponcnts conccdc
somcthing is missing. Thc strcct is what is missing, and to hII thc
vacuum, somc managcmcnts arc constructing facsimiIcs of strccts.
Onc cxampIc is thc Gcorgctownmotifstrcct inthc Whitc FIint MaII
outsidc Washington, D.C. A furthcr stcp wiII bc a thcmc faciIity to
givcpcopIcthccxpcricnccofthc citywithoutanyofthcdangcrs. Onc
proposaI l havc sccn wouId fcaturc muItimcdia prcscntations of as-
pccts ofthccity. striking visuaI imagcs frombattcrics ofsIidc procc-
tors, highhdcIity tapcs of strcct sounds, taxi drivcrs' coIorfuI argot,
and such. Thc waIkways wouId bc programmcd with stroIIing actors
doncupas strcct pcopIc. Oncofthcm, tocomcfuIIcircIc, wouIdbca
bag woman.
Which brings us to thc issucs of privatization. MaIIs scrccn out
pcopIc. ln suburban maIIs this is countcd an assct. y kccping out
undcsirabIcs,thcmaIIs' guardsprovidcrcguIarcustomcrs withamorc
sccurcand pIcasant cnvironmcnt. Thcy arcpubIic, but not too pubIic.
A furthcrscIf-scrccning factoris buiItinto suburban maIIs. Sincc
acccssisby car, pcopIcwhodonthavc carsarcIcssIikcIyto go thcrc.
Thcy maygobybus,butschcduIcdrunsarc infrcqucnt. (lfthcydogo
by bus, turthcrmorc, thcy may gct a vcry small hcllo. At onc mall n
Ncw crscy, thc bus waiting arca providcs no ovcrhcad covcr and no
pIacc to sit.)
Much hasbccn madcofmaIIsas thcncwtownccntcrs. Thcyarc
not. Ccntcrs, pcrhaps, but not of thc city. Thcy rccct many of thc
activiticsofatrucccntcr. Thcydo not indccd,do nottoIcr
atc soapboxing, passing of Icacts, impromptu cntcr-
taining, happcnings, or ccccntric bchavior, harmIcss or no.
t is inconsistcnt of thcsc prcsumcd town ccntcrs to curb such
functions. WhcthcritisiIIcgaIornotis anothcr mattcr. CourtruIings
havc bccn inconcIusivc. Somchavc rulcd thatmaIIs arc in fact pubIic
pIaccsand thatthcFirst Amcndmcnt rights offrcc spccch shouId not
bc abridgcd in thcm. Othcr ruIings havc uphcId thc maIIs. Thc tiIt,
howcvcr, docs sccm tobc toward thc First Amcndmcnt rights.
Withthc movcofshoppingmaIIstodowntown, thcprivatization
issuc has bccomc morc acutc. HistoricaIIy, thc ccntcr ofthc city has
bccn a pIacc whcrc aII sorts of pcopIc arc toIcratcd. For onc kind,
singIc mcn without mcans, it is thc Iast rcfugc. Downtown can bc
cspcciaIIyimportantforoIdcrpcopIc.ThoughthcymaynotIivcthcrc,
its congrcgating pIaccs arc a kcy dcstination for thcm.
* 9

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Downtown maIIs managcmcnts do not Iikc such pcopIc. Somc
arc quitc ovcrt about it. Guards arc instructcd to kccp tabs on how
Iong noncustomcrs havc uscd abcnch and, ahcrawhiIc, ask thcm to
movcon. lndcfcnsc,oIdcrpcopIcIcamtosimuIatcshoppingbchavior.
Somc, for cxampIc, wiII takc carc to havc a shopping bag (ust onc
bag, with morc than thatandonccrosscs thcIinc and is considcrcd a
bag woman).
TccnagcrsarcavcxingprobIcm. ThcyhavcmadcsuburbanmaIIs
thcirfavoritcpIacctohangoutandthcmaIIshavcdivcrtcdthcmwith
gamc arcadcs. ln thc city, howcvcr, tccnagcrs arc morc of an aIicn
cIcmcnt, cspcciaIIy whcn travcIing in packs. Guards monitor thcm
carcfuIIy. Thcy aIso kccpasharp watchforwinosorpcopIcwhoIook
as thoughthcymightbcwinos.MaIIsaIsoadoptprccmptivcmcasurcs,
suchas shortbcnchcsnotIongcnoughforwinostosIccpon. Thcysay
thcydothistosparccustomcrs,butthcIattcrsccmmorcrcIaxcdabout
it than thc managcmcnt. ln onc Canadian city thc downtown maII
startcd a maor controvcrsy by arrcsting as a wino a IocaI charactcr
and having him cxiIcd from thc prcmiscs. lt tumcd out that pcopIc
Iikcd him as a sort of Iandmark for downtown and thought thc maII
pcopIc hcartIcss. utthc maII pcopIc prcvaiIcd. Thcy usuaIIy do.
ln Toronto's Eaton Ccntrc, poIicc hand outtrcspass tickcts for a
hnc ofhfty-thrcc doIIars for undcsirabIc bchavior. ln !9&5thcy forc-
ibIy rcmovcd about J, pcopIc, mostIy dcrcIicts, tccnagcrs, and
othcr "undcsirabIcs." ln onc casc, thc ccctcc succcssfuIIy appcaIcd.
ThccourtruIcdthatthc ccntcrhadaIIowcdsubway routcsthoughits
propcrty and did not havc thc soIcright to controI acccss to it.
Somctimcs cvcnordinarypcopIccan causcprobIcms. Takingpic-
turcswithacamcrais onc ofthc mostfrcqucntofpubIic-pIacc activi
tics,yctforsomcrcason it upscts maIImanagcmnt. Thishasbccn an
occupationaI hazard for mc, l'vc found that cvcn a smaII OIympus
camcra wiII bring upa worricd guard in shortordcr.
Somcmanagcmcnts,Ictitbcsaid,arcquitcopcnhandcd. Citicorp
in Ncw York is an cxampIc. For such a hard-noscd outht ithas bccn
notabIy hospitabIc. lt has bccn providing an incrcasing numbcr of
chairs and tabIcs forbrown baggcrs and pcopIc who wouId Iikc tosit
+
andtaIkorrcad. Rcstroomsarcopcn toaII comcrs andthcyarckcpt
cIcan. CiticorpistoIcrantofnoncustomcrsandoddtypcsaswcII.Onc,
abcardcd bag man, adoptcd thctopofthcmain stairsas his favoritc
pcrch.
Thc lM indoor gardcn in Ncw York is anothcr good cxampIc.
Somc cxccutivcs worricd that thc gardcn wouId attract bag womcn
andsuch. Soitdid. Arccurringcvcntin atimc-Iapscstudy l madcof
thcdaiIyIifcofthcgardcn wasthcappcaranccofayoungbagwoman
at about ninc-thirty cvcry moing. Shc wouId Icavc an hour or so
Megastructures

Iatcr. To thcamuscmcntofthcguards,shcwouIdhcraIdthcdcparturc
wthscvcraIoathsandthcnbcgonc.Thsgavcthcnccmatronsnth
pIacc an ntcrcstng cxpcrcncc to taIk about. WhIc bag pcopIc havc
bccnfcw,thccIcntcIchasbccnadvcrsconc andthasbccnvcry wcII
bchavcd, notabIy so n thc dsposaI oftrash. Thc guards arc a
gcnaIIotandhavcahnc, proprctaryatttudctowardthcpIaccandts
gucsts.
Such hosptaIty s rarc. lt shouId bc thc ruIc. ln onc form or
anothcr, ahcr aII, managcmcnts havcbccn gvcn nduccmcnts to pro-
vdcpubIcspaccs taxwrtc-downs,ncrcascdoor-arcaratos, wav-
ngofsctbackrcguIatons,orthcIkc. lnrcturnthcctyshouId rcqurc
that thcy provdc pubIc spaccs that arc pubIc n fact.
ThccommtmcntshouIdnotbccvadcdbccauscthcorgnaIman-
agcmcnt soId toanothcronc. ThcCrystaI CourtofthclDSCcntcrn
MnncapoIs s a casc n pont. RghtfuIIy t was haIcd as an ndoor
spacc that was truIy a ccntcr. ln my hIm on thc socaI Ifc of urban
spaccs, l showcd how wcIcomng t was, IIustratng thc pont wth
shotsofthcoIdcrpcopIcsttngnthcmddIcofthcspacc notbuyng
anythng, ust taIkng and sttng, and nobody hassIng thcm to do
othcrwsc.
No Iongcr. Thc pIacc was takcn ovcr by ncw owncrs. Thcy rc-
movcd thc pubIc scatng.
Thckcy to thcsucccss orfaIurc ofan ntcmaI pubIc spaccs ts
rcIatonshp to thc strcct. MIan's GaIIcra s constantIy nvokcd and
ts namc borrowcd for spaccs that Iack ts bascs. Thc GaIIcra s an
cxtcnsonofthcstrccts andspaccsofMIanandhasahnc !pcrccnt
IocatonbctwccnthcDuomoandLaScaIa. ltdocsprovdccovcrovcr-
hcad but t s not a cIoscd spacc, t s opcn at four grcat cntrcs. lt s
Incd wth storcs and cafs on thc strcct sdc as wcII as wthn. Ths
grcat pIacc s a vbrant crossroads for MIan, not a rcfugc from t.
AImost wthout cxccpton thc bcst-uscd and bcst-Ikcd nsdc
spaccs n ths country havc a strong vsuaI tc wth thc outsdc. You

canIookout ofthcmtothcstrcctsandbuIdngsbcyond,youcanIook
nto thcm. Thcy arc thcr own comc-on. Irch Franzcn's dcsgn for
thcWhtncy scuIpturc gardcn n thcPhIp Morrs uIdng s a good
cxampIc. lthasIargc wndowsonboth tsForth-Strcctand ParkAvc-
nuc frontagcs. You know cxactIy whcrc you arc. rght across from
Grand CcntraI Staton. Thc vcw from wthout s a good onc too.
Whatarc thosc crazy obccts7WhatarcthoscpcopIc dong7Thcopcn
gIass doors bcckon you.
Thc lM gardcn s smIarIy opcn aIong ts strcct frontagcs, and
fortsgoodmanncrstsbIcsscdwthIotsofahcrnoonsunIghtfaIIng
on t. Thc two bcst arcadcs n thc country, thc CIcvcIand Arcadc
00 00SI SuCC0SSu
0I0O0I S8C0S 0 I00
C0u0IQ 08v0 8 SII00g
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0uI 0 I000.
M w
1bc CqatalCcurtc/tbc1D5 1cwcr in Minncapclia, dcaincdbj JcbnBurcc
andFbilipJcbnacn, ia cncc/tbcbcatintcricrapaccain tbc Cnitcd5tatca. 1t baa
alac bccn abcapitablcplacc, witbplcntjc/public wclluacdbj all
W
acrta c]ecle, including clderecle c]mcdeat meana. But nc mcre. new
cwner bcught the building and remcred theublic aeating.
L
( ! &&&) and thc Providcncc Arcadc (! &J2), arc cmincntIy dircctionaI,
with ccntraI spaccs running through thc bIck from onc strcct to an-
othcr, both strccts arc cIcarIy vsbIc. From aImost any pIacc wthn
thc arcadcs youcomprchcnd thc whoIc in a gIancc.
ln a mcgastructurc you cannot. AII of thc maor factors that
makcfordisoricntationarc prcscnt. IittIcornovisuaIconncctionwith
thc outsidc, mirror-imagc corridor Iayouts, misIcading cucs Iack of
cIcar drcctionaIity. ntiI rcccntIy thc acknowIcdgcd Icadcr in this
rcspcct was cnaissancc Ccntcr in Dctroit. cgions of mccting gocrs
havc cxchangcd taIcs ofgctting Iost n its circuIar mazcs, cnding up
addrcssngthcwrongaudcncc,su0crngakindofct-IagdspIaccmcnt
oftimc and spacc.
AIatcrcxampIcis Lafaycttc PIacc, ancwhotcIdcpartmcntstorc
compIcx in oston. lt has no visuaI acccss at strcct IcvcI, thc spacc
givcn ovcr mainIy to a parking garagc, and no visuaI acccss from
abovc, cthcr. That s bIank waII. Thc prncipaI waIkway is thc uIti-
matc n mirror imagcs a crcIc and you can go twicc around and
morcbcforc you rcaIizc that you arc whcrc you wcrc bcforc.
lfindividuaImcgastructurcsarcdisoricnting,whathappcnswhcn
thcrc s a whoIc downtown of thcm7 Los AngcIcs is on thc way to
hndingout. ltwantstomakcdowntownthcccntcritonccwas,and,as
thcoIdtwo-rccIcomcdcshImcd thcrcinthctwcnticsshow, thcrcs a
rcason. ltwasahnc,compactdowntownwithstrongrctaiIcontinuty,
cXccllcnt mass transt, and a ycar-round clmatc dcal tor strcct actv-
ity.
crc and thcrc a fcw cIcmcnts ofthis past havc bccn rccIaimcd.
ThciItmorcotcIisamodcIofcIarity andcasycircuIationwiththc
strcct and itsoriginaI oorpIan isintact (Anothcr novcI fcaturc cIc
vators within waIIs.) Thc art dcco Oviatt uiIding has bccn rcscucd
from ncgIcct and cIcgantIy rcstorcd as an omcc buiIding.
ThcscbuiIdingsgraccthcstrcct.MostofthcdcvcIopmcntactivty
docs not. lt is n thc othcr drccton toward buiIdngs soIatcd from
thc strcct and thcIifcofit, faccd inward, thcirwaIIs massivcIy bIank,
insum, toward apcrvcrsc dcniaI ofaII thc advantagcs ofcImatc and
sitc and os AngcIcs.
itby bit, thc strcct is bcing obsoIctcd. Thc hcart ofoId down-
town is stiII convcntionaI, Iincd with storcs. Onc ncw cIcmcnt is
roadway PIaza, a Iargc structurc cncIosing a garagc, a dcpartmcnt
storc, andahotcI. lthasbccn succcssfuI intcrnaIIy. utit docs IittIc
for its ncighbors, to thosc onits sidcs it turns waIIs ofbrick.
ScvcraI bIocks away is thc bg omcc-and-shopping compIcx of
AtIantic ichhcId. At strcct IcvcI thcrc is a Iargc pIaza and a scuIp-
turc. utno shopsorrcstaurants doyouscc. Thcrcarc manyofthcm
BonavcnturcHotcl, Lo:Hnclc:. 5inccthi:icturcwa:takcn, manacmcntha:
cut a window into thc wal

but thc arc down bclow thc plaza, in subtcrrancan lcvcls. ln balm
Los Angclcs.
skwalk onccan go ncxttothc onavcnturc complcxofohn
Portman. t conssts ot a largc concrctc basc on whch arc placcd tour
rccctivc clindcrs. Within thc basc arc man lcvcls ofshops, all fac-
inginward. Downat strcctlcvclthcrc loomsupwardagiganticslabof
concrctc, cightoors'worth ofit. Original it wasunpunctuatcd b a
singlc opcning but a window has bccn cut into it. lt is still uitc a
wall.
Thc onavcnturc is also an outstanding cxamplc of isoricnta-
tion. From thc opcningda it wasfull ofbacd pcoplcsccking dircc-

[ z i 6
]
L
tions, and thcIayout was so compIicatcd thatthc giving ofdircctons
soundcd Iikc a who's-on-hrst routinc. To rcsoIvc thc probIcm, thc
managcmcnt hgurcd out a sct ofdircctions and distributcd thcm to
visitors. Thcy arc worth rcpcatig at somc Icngth.
hc LC8 Pngcc8 CnVcnlutc, c8ln MClc, WcCCmc8 yCu lC dCWn-
lCWn LC8 Pngcc8. ""
PClcd tChlcCl JChn Ctlmn h8 bccn tc8pCn8bc Ct 8Cmc C lhc
mC8l ccgnl nd nnCVlVc hClc8 n lhc CCunlty. %ny cc lhl lhc
CnVcnlutc 8 lhc ptdc C h8 ccl. %t. Ctlmn pCc8 hgh ptCtly
Cn c8lhclC8 n h8 hClc8, nd lhc CnVcnlutc 8 nC cXCcplCn.
hcn yCu Bt8l ttVc, lhc yCul C lh8 hClc Cn bc ltc CVct-
Whcmng. h8 ccng 8 c8y CVctCCmc Wlh lhc KnCWcdgc C cW
hnl8 lhl W hcp yCu nVglc mCng lhc BVc tCund g88 lCWct8 lhl
CCmpt8c lhc CnVcnlutc MClc8 guc8ltCCm8 nd lhc tcClngut
ltum Cbby.
P8 yCu Cc lhc Hcg8ltlCn Lc8K, guctC bltccl 8 L Cnc cVc
nd lC yCut cl. CWct bltccl 8 Cn lhc LCbby LcVc nd lC yCut tghl.
P bu8c8 8lCp l lhc CWct bltccl LtVc.
LCh lCWct 8 CCCt CCdcd Wlh tgc LL Cn lhc g88 ccVlCt
8hl nd tgc VctlC bnnct. lh yCut tCCm Kcy yCu tcCcVc mp
WhCh 8hCW8 yCu lhc b8C yCul C tCCm numbct8 n cCh lCWct.
HCCm numbct dtcClCn 8gn8 tc Ccty V8bc 8 yCu cXl lhc
ccVlCt8. LC nCl lty lC tcmcmbct lC lutn tghl Ct cH Cul C lhc ccV-
lCt yCu Cn gcl C8l. c8c CCK l lhc 8gn8 cCh lmc, lhcn yCu hVc
nC ptCblcm. An] clcVlCt Wtll lkc yCu lC yCut tCCm.
P mcclng tCCm8 cXCcpl lhc LCD nd Lln tCCm8 tc
CClcd Cn lhc LCbby LcVc, bchnd lhc XLLLL bnK C ccVlCt8.
hc LCbby LcVc 8 CCn8dctcd cVc ! . CWct bltccl 8 Cn lhc
LCbby LcVc. Ln lhc 8cCCnd cVc (Cnc cVc bCVc lhc LCbby), yCu W
Bnd lhc guctC bltccl LnltnCc, lhc LCD tCCm, nd lhc Bt8l
C lhc tcl 8hCp8, nCudng lhc ncW88lnd, LLbLPb. Hcl 8hCp8,
tCm CWct8 lC ut8, Cn bc Cund Cn cVc8 lhtCugh .
XCu Cn tcCh lhc L L YL HLbPLHPP nd
LPPYbP LLLPLL cnl]by lKng lhc LHPPLL ccVlCt8. hc8c
lWC Clc8 tc l lhc lCp C lhc mddc lCWct, WhCh 8 lct lhn lhc
Clhct Cut lCWct8.
Twcnty miIcs away, in DisncyIand, pcopIc pay good moncy to
waIk aIong asimuIation ofa rcguIar, oId-fashioncd strcct, with storcs
and cafs and doors and windows.
Thcy ccrtainIy wiII not hnd it in downtown Los AngcIcs. Now
thatthcstrcctisbcingdcadcncdofmostofits Iifc, thcncxt stcpcouId
bc thc rcmovaI of pcdcstrians from it aItogcthcr. As in DaIIas, thc
rcIcgation ofthc pcdcstrian is bcing haiIcd as his cmancipation. ln a
maordcsigncompctition, LosAngcIcshasrcqucstcdproposaIsforthc
M egastructures [
z i
7
]
crcation of a gradc-scparatcd pcdcstrian systcm. Onc shuddcrs to
thinkofthchackncycdvisionsthatwillbcunlcashcdsidcwalksinthc
sky, on pylons, cantilcvcrcd movingwalkways pcoplcmovcrs, mono-
rails, two and thrcc lcvclsofcrisscrossing tubcs in a hnal, architcc
toniccombination, l wouldwagcr, thcywillcomc upwithdowntowns
that look likc a vcrymodcrn airport.
ut thcrc will bc onc mattcr that fcw proposals will tacklc.
Should thcrc bc such a systcm at all7 A rcvicw ofplanning litcraturc
ovcr thc ycars shows that thc gradc scparation idca gocs way, way
back and waxcs and wancs in cyclical fashion, lying dormantfortwo
or thrcc dccadcs until thc failurc ofcarlicr schcmcs is forgottcn.
Lct mcgobacktothc mattcrofcontcxt. Thcproblcm isnotthat
mcgastructurcs in thcmsclvcs arc so awful. Against a background of
oldcr buildings thcy can look quitc dazzling. lnsidc, thcrc arc solid
attractions, whcthcr or not onc likcs cocktail pods, or glasscd clcva-
tors, or rcvolvingbarson sky tcrraccs, many pcoplc do. And thcrc is
no law that says thc building has to bc brutish on thc outsidc.
ortman'sSanFranciscoHyatt,forcxamplc,hasaclcarlayout abig
trianglc this timc and cnoys a hnc watcrfront sctting.
Scttings arc thc rub. Mcgastructurcs tcnd to go with thc clcan-
swccpapproachtodowntown. lnstcadofrcmainingasingularclcmcnt
inthcirsurroundings, thcy prompt comparablcdcvclopmcntand thus
do away with thcir singularity. Thcy bccomc thcir own dullihcrs.
Complcxcs dcrivc urbanity from thcirsurroundings. Ncw York's
Citicorp is an cxamplc. With its atrium, Citicorp could havc sccmcd
likcasuburbanmall. utitdidnot. ltwassurroundcdbybasiccity a
livcly mixturc of ncw buildings and old oncs, attractivc storcs, tacky
storcs, lrish bars, Gristcdc's, owcr shops, and, at Fifty-third and
Lcxington, onc ofthc mostcrowdcd, garish, and convivialncwsstand-
and-snack-countcr placcs in Ncw York City
ad tastc can bc a hnc foil. Scagram ncvcr lookcd bcttcr than
W
whcn thc purplc Harwyn Club and Al Schacht's Stcak Housc wcrc
across from its plaza Wc do not apprcciatc such countcrpoints until
thcy arcgonc. ln thc casc ofCiticorp thcsurroundings wcrc idcalfor
this high-tcch tourdc forcc. Thc worst thing that could happcn to it,
somcsaid, wouldc thcuildingofasonofiticorp. nhappily, that
is what happcncd, right across thc strcct, and with a mctallic skin to
boot. Thcn anothcr omcc building wcnt up Morc brownstoncs wcrc
clcarcd away. Twomorcomccbuildingswcntup. Thcn, at Fifty-third
and Lcxington, a vcry big omcc building with a mitcrcd opcn spacc
whcrc thc corncr uscd to bc.
Thc rcsult is not quitc an omcc park. Thanks to thc no-blank-
wallszoningrcquircmcnt,dcvclopcrshavchadto dcvotcstrcctlcvclto
9 m
y0u w80I I0 K00w
w08I 000 08IuI0 lS
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00SII0y.

1]t]-third andLcxington: ncwbuildinga dcrivc aacnac o]lacc]rom


old onca until thc old oncaarc dcmoliahcd.
rctaiIing. And it is stiII a pcdcstriandistrict. ut somcthing ofvaIuc
hasbccnIost. Mixturc. Thcscnscofcontinuit.ThcIinkswiththcpast
ofa historic and vitaI avcnuc. lt wouId havc bccn good for thc ncw
buiIdings had thcrc bccn, somcwhcrc in thosc bIocks, an anchor of
Iandmark status. ut thcrc was not.
RcaI cstatc pcopIc wouId havc bccn quick to advcrtisc its prcs-
cncc. CharactcristicaII, thc Ia cIaim to thc graccs ofthc ncighbor-
hood cvcn as thc arc dcstroing thcm. Ads for vcr taII occs and
condominiums in thc East iftics fcaturc picturcs ofIow buiIdings in
thcEast ihics. utccanditsbrownstoncisafavoritc,soarcthcrow
1hc wor:t thing thct could hccn to Citicor would bc :on o]Citicor.
houscsofTurtlc ay Gardcns,and thcgatcand alIcytoAmstcrYard.
Lp inmyncighborhood,YorkviIIc, thcbchcmothsthathavcbccntak-
ing our sun away havcaparasitic rclationship with thc vc-story rc
cscapcbuildingsonthcoppositcsidcofthcavcnucs. ThckindofsmaII
storcs that cnIivcn thc ncighborhood can aord thcsc oId buiIdings,
aIbcitust barcly, and thats whcrc most ofthc intcrcsting shops and
cafs havcbccn going.
Thcrc is somcthing about thc intcrnal world of thc mcgastruc-
turcs that nhbts pcop!c trom vcnturng out ot thcm. 1hc dca was
that thcir rctail shops wouId stimuIatc thc provision ofmorc in thc
downtownaround lthasrarclyworkcdoutthatway. Thcyhavcmorc
oftcn dcadcncd compctition than stimulatcdit. Stamford'sTown Ccn-
tcr has bccn so cncompassing that a numbcr of IocaIIy owncd storcs
havc farcd poorly. "Our grcatcst pIanning chaIIcngc," says Stamford
Planning Dircctor on Smith, "has bccn to bring pcoplc out of that
malI oncc thcy drivc in."
A numbcr of citic arc forswcaring thc suburban maIl modcl.

Brocdwc] entrcnce to the Mcrriott Mcrqui: Hotel: John Fortmcn, crchitect.


Fc::cewc] lecd: to rehicle unlocdin crec.
hi: i: where :ererclenerction: o]]ouneole met under the clock ct the
Biltmore. (Nowit i: theBcnko]mericc Flczc./ 1heclock wc: :credcndi:
ri:ible orer the de:k.
Megastructures j z z i ]
OakIand s onc. lt has two shoppng compIcxcs undcr way and both
arcstrcctorcntcd. Wcdontwantasuburban soIuton," says DcvcI-
opmcnt Drcctor Gcorgc WIIams. "Wc don't want to suck shoppcrs
nto a Iocaton whcrc thcy ncvcr rccognzc that thcy arc n an urban
Iocaton. Wc want our downtown to bc vcry strcct orcntcd." Thc
rcndcrngforoncofthccompIcxcs,thc!ack LondonWatcrfront maII,
docs not fcaturc thc oncc ncvtabIc atrum lt shows pcopIc waIkng
on strccts. Outsdc.
Thc oId-Inc mcgastructurc s bcgnnng to Iook Ikc a fossI.
WhIc shoppng compIcxcs may do wcII, thc cIassc mxcd-usc mcga-
structurcs havc bccn n troubIc and scvcraI havc bccn cIosc to bank-
ruptcy. SmuIatcdctcs for pcopIcwhohatc ctcs, t turnsout, s not
suchatough-mndcdconccptahcraII.PcopIcprcfcrthcrcaIthngand
thcrc s abundant proofnthcmarkctpIacc. Thcmost succcssfuI rctaI
procct n thc country s thc oppostc ofa mcgastructurc thc FancuI
HaIIMarkctpIaccnoston. Acty strcct runs through thchcart oft
opcn to thc sky, uncanopcd, not cvcn ar-condtoncd or hcatcd.
And you know whcrc you arc.
Thssthcqucstonthcmcgastructurcscannotanswcr.Thcybor-
row a scnsc of pIacc from thcr surroundngs, thcy dcny t wthn.
Whcrc,ndccd,shere Andwhcn7lstnght7Orday7lstsprng7Or
wntcr7 Youcannotsccout. Youdonot knowwhatctyyouarc n, or
fyouarcnacty at aII. Pcrhaps ts acompIcxoutby thcarportor
atancwntcrchangc. ltcouIdbonthcWcstCoast. ltcouIdbc on thc
East. ltcouId bc n aforcgn country. Thcppcd muscgvcs no cIuc.
ltsthc samc musc cvcrywhcrc. ltsthcsamc pIacc cvcrywhcrc. You
arc n thc unvcrsaI controIIcd cnvronmcnt.
And tsgong to datc vcry badIy. Forms oftransportaton havc
usuaIIy produccd thcr most cIaboratc manfcstatons aftcr thcy havc
cntcrcd thc pcrod ofobsoIcsccncc. So t may bc wth thc mcgastruc-
turcs. Thcy arc thcIast, rctrogrcssvc cxprcssonofafrccway cra that
has crcstcd, and thcy arc a wrctchcd modcI for thc futurc.
l0u8I00 ClIl0S 0I
000 w00 000`I lK0
ClIl0S, lI IuHS 0uI, 8I0
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8I0I 8.

Thc dominant fcaturcofthc townscapc of. S. citics is coming tobc


thc bIank waII. l hrst noticcd this in thc Iatc scvcntics. Whcn l was
sortingoutthcsIidcslhadtakcnonmytravcIs,itstruckmcthatlhad
bccn favoring picturcs ofbuiIdings with bIank waIIs. Mcgastructurcs
wcrc thc showicst cxampIcs, but thcrc wcrc many othcrs, and thcy
wcrc all surprsngly phoogcnc crsp vcrcals, clcan horzontals, no
fussy dctaiIingtobusy upthccxpanscs.!ustpurcwhitcspacc, Iikcthc
kind in architccturaI modcIs.
Sincc thcn l havc bccn cataIoging thc many di0crcnt kinds of
bIank waIIs, racing thcir origins and, whcrc possibIc, thcir c0cct on
downtowns. l wiIInotfcignncutraIity. l thinkthcbIankwaIIsarcbad
for thc city. ut l must confcss that l takc a pcrvcrsc pIcasurc in
comingacrossncwcrandbiggcrbIank waIIs notonIy in absoIutc
dimcnsions, but in rcIation to whats Icft ofthc strcctscapc.
l havc toycd with thc idca ofcaIcuIating a bIank-waII indcx. lt
wouId bc bascd on thc pcrccntagc ofbIockfront up to thc thirty-foot
IcvcI that was bIank. Computc this for aII of thc bIockfronts of a
downtown and you wouId havc an obcctivc rating appIicabIc to aII
. S. citics. Toomuchwork.Anditisnotncccssary. ltisaIrcadycIcar
which citics bcIong atthc top ofthc Iist.
ThcbIankwaIIshcrcdiscusscdarcnotinadvcrtcnt thckindthat
arc uncovcrcd by thc dcmoIition of adaccnt buiIdings. Thcy arc,
rathcr, waIIs that wcrc mcant to bc bIank from thc vcry bcginning.
Andthcyhavcamcssagc.ThcyarcadccIarationofdistrustofthccity
and its strccts and thc undcsirabIcs who might bc on thcm.
horld': tcllc:t blcnk wcll:Z1d1': Long Linc: building in Ncw York Cit].

$
0 S000 8C0S IO0I0
8I0 Iw0 ClIl0S.
C00v00Il00 ClQ 800
I08 ClIy.

L Y
SmaIIandmcdium-sizcdciticsarc thcmostsusccptibIc. igcitics
do havc bIank waIIs. Ncw York, for cxamIc, has thc biggcst bIank
waIIinthc world, SanFrancisco,oncofthc mostboorish. lfoncwcrc
to construct abIank-waII indcx, howcvcr, thc highcst rcadings wouId
bcfoundinsmaIIcrcitics. Thcy havc bccn thc most immcdiatcIy hurt
by thc rcgionaI maIIs, and thc most pronc to throw in thc towcI and
takc an if-you-can' t-bcat-'cm-oin-'cmattitudc. Thc civicIcadcrshipis
IikcIy to bc aImost whoIIy suburban, in pIacc of rcsidcncc ifnot in
spirit thc oncoming gcncration cvcn morc so. Thcrc wiIIbc fcw who
havcany mcmory ofwhata thrivingdowntownwas Iikc. Thcncarcst
thing to a ccntcr thcyhavc cxpcricnccd is thc atrium of a suburban
shopping maII. This is oftcn as truc ofarchitccts as ofthcir patrons.
Thc primary modcI is thc suburban shopping maII. Out by thc
frccway intcrchangcs thc bIank waII is functionaI. lt providcs morc
shcIfspacc, and thc abscncc ofdispIaywindowsis noprobIcm. PcopIc
aIrcadymadcthcdccisiontocntcrthcstorcwhcnthcydrovcthcircars
thcrc. Thcrc is no nccd to bcckon passcrsby. Thcrc arc no passcrsby.
Now thcmaIIis bcingtranspIantcd todowntown. Hcrc thcrc arc

passcrsby and adaccnt buiIdings and strccts. ut thc form is IittIc


changcd.EvcrythingisintcrnaIizcd,asitwasoutinsuburbia,withfcw
or no windows. Thc onc maor di0crcncc is thc parking, instcad of
bcingsprcadovcracrcs ofasphaIt,thcparkingisconccntratcdinmuI-
tiIcvcI structurcs. Somc add yct morc bIank waII, but a numbcr havc
good, smplc gcomctrcs and arc bcttcr to look at than thc complcxcs
thcy scrvc.
Anothcrcontributoristhcconvcntionccntcr. Thcyarcbiginbig
citics thcy arc big in smaIIcr citics as wcII grcat huIks ofconcrctc
strctching two or thrcc bIocks with scarccIy a window in thcm. Con
vcntionccntcrcxpcrtssaythatthisscaIcd-boxfomatisthcwayithas
tobc. OthcrwiscthcrcwouIdbc "Icakagc, "or "contamination" that
is, nativcswithoutbadgcs mixingitupwiththcothcrs. Thusthctight
scaI. Somccxpcrts wouId Iock up thcconvcntion gocrs for thcwhoIc
day.
Thc scparation works. l'vc chartcd pcdcstrian activity on civic
spaccs adoining somc of thcsc ccntcrs and found surprisingIy IittIc
rcIationship bctwccn what's going on insidc and what isn't outsidc.
Within, thcrc might bc four thousand ophthaImoIogists, but on thc
sidcwaIkandbcnchcsofthcadoiningspaccsonIyahandfuIofpcopIc.
ln somc pIaccs thc scparation is so pronounccd thcrc arc two
citics. rcguIar city and convcntion city. ln thc Iattcr, thc convcntion-
ccrs foIIow an aImost cIoscd circuit. by shuttIc bus from thc convcn-
tion hotcIstothcccntcrandback. Spouscsdogcttoshop, butthcy'rc
scgrcgatcd too, and on thcwhoIcthcrc isIittIc intcrmingIingbctwccn
Blank alls
C 5
M
Quakcrbridc Mall Koutc I, Nc Jcr:c]. Hcrc thc blank wall i:unctional
thc convcntionccrs and thc nativcs. At night thc scparation is com-
plctc. Thc strccts arcdcscrtcd. ost rcstaurants havc closcd. Thc of-
cc work forcc has gonc homc. Thc only lifc is in thc atriums ofthc
hotcls, convcntionccrs with othcr convcntionccrs.
Thc ultimatc cxprcssion of thc blank wall is thc mcgastructurc
As wc notcd in thc prcvious chaptcr, thc blank wall is idcologically
ncccssary to it. Thc mcgastructurc must acknowlcdgc thc dangcrs of
thc city around it and promisc sccurity from thcm. lt must ocr dc-
lights within but kccp thcm carcfully shicldcd from cxtcrnal vicw A
blankwall docs all this, and thc biggcrand morc dcclarativc it is, thc
purcr its cxprcssion offunction.
ut for whom7 As it happcns, most of thc big mcgastructurcs
havc not bccn doing wcll at all. Thc markcting prcmisc that pcoplc
whocomc to thc city want tobc wallcd fromit has bccncmphatically
disprovcn. utsupposc, forthcmomcnt, that thcmcgastructurcshad
bccndoingwcllnancially.Thcrcwouldstillbcalargcrqucstiontobc
answcrcd. Mow wc!l havc thcy bccn tunctonng tor thcIr nc:ghbors,
and for downtown in gcncral7
Thcyhavcbccndcadcningit. Walkpastoncofthcscbrutalhulks.
Whatcvcrisgoingoninsidc,thcrcwillbclittlcgoingonoutsidc. Thcrc
will bc fcw pcoplc on thc sidcwalks alongsidc and fcw on thc blocks
bcyond. Thc blankwalls, thclackofstorcs and activityhavc killcd o
thc lifc that might havc bccn
lnstitutions likc blank walls. Almost always thcrc is a tcchnical

80K w8S I0C80


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L
cxpIanationthc waIIspaccis nccdcdforthcstacks,forcIimatccontroI
forthccomputcrs,forIightingunvaricdbyaturaI Iight. utthcscarc
not thc rcaI rcason. Iank waIIs arc an cnd in thcmscIvcs. Thcy pro-
cIaimthcpowcrofthcinstitution,thcinconscqucnccofthcindividuaI,
whomthcy arccIcarIy mcant toputdown, ifnotintimidatc. Standby
thcncw Fl hcadquartcrs inWashington. YoufccI guiItyustIooking
atit. ltisatruIymcnacingprcscncc,yct, ironicaIIy,itisitscIfvuIncra
bIc, fuII of thc kind of Iurking spaccs and dcad cnds and nichcs thc
wisc pcrson avoids.
Powcr and fcar arc conoincd. To udgc by thcir dcsign, onc
wouId gathcr that thc institutions fccI thcmscIvcs undcr sicgc. T
survciIIancccamcrasarc cvcrywhcrc. SignsaboundtcIIingyou, rcdun
dantIy, not to do this or do that. "Thcsc staIIs for govcrnmcnt cars
onIy." "No admittancc ahcr J J." "ccp out."
tiIitics go forbIank waIIs, thccIcmcnts ofthc cIIsystcmcspc-
ciaIIy. Evcn whcn thcy arc in thc hcart ofa downtown, thcy usuaIIy
tum a bIank facc to th strcct. Thc outstanding cxampIc is ATT's
LongLincsuiIdinginthcWaIIStrcctarca. Thc cxpanscisabsoIutcIy
brcathtaking aboutforty-pIusstoricsofsoIidbrick,surcIythcbiggcst
bIankwaII inaIIthcworId. AndatitsbascisavcrysmaII sign. ltsays
"No aII orFrisbcc PIaying. "
WhattodowithbIankwaIIs7Thconcgoodthingthatcanbcsaid
ofthcmisthatthcyarcso awfuI anythingcIscIooksgoodbycontrast
against a background ofopaquc bIack gIass, for cxampIc, a chro-
mum hrc standppc looks rathcr clcgant. 1hcsc walls tarly cry tor
somcthing to sct thcm somc cnIightcncd gramti, a "iIroy was
hcrc," a touch ofthc vuIgar. ut this cannot bc. Thcsc buiIdings arc
uttcrIy without humor.
cgionaI variation7 With my coIIcction of sIidcs of hundrcds of
bIank waIIs across thc country, l havc tcstcd pcopIcs' pcrccption of
pIacc. As part ofaprcscntation onthcbIankwaII, l show about sixty
sIidcsinrapidsucccssion.ThcyarcarrangcdnotgcographicaIIybutin
ordcr ofthc numbcr ofsapIings. For somc rcason audicnccs hnd this
amusing, but on thc mattcr ofIocation thcy draw a bIank. cgionaI
cucs7Thcrc arcnonc. Nobody, myscIfincIudcd, has cvcrbccnabIcto
disccrn any rcgionaI variation, or, indccd, any rcaI variation of any
kind. CIosc up, to bc surc, you can scc somc dicrcnccs
striatcdhorizontaIIyononc waII, vcrticaIIyon anothcr. utfrom afar
thcdicrcnccsinthcwaIIsdisappcar.ThcyIookIikc,wcII,bIankwaIIs.
ThcbcstthingtodowithbIankwaIIsis todoawaywiththcm,or,
at thc vcryIcast, to prcvcnt thcirrccurrcncc. Thc wayto do thisisto
hII thc vacuum, or rcpIacc nothing with somcthing most particu-
IarIy, strcct-IcvcI rctaiIing.
ThcpcopIcofthccityhavcan cquityinthis. AnowncrwhoIincs
Blank alls
his frontagc with abIankwaII not onIy dcadcns his part ofthcstrcct
hcbrcaksthccontinuitythatis sovitaIforthc rcstofthcstrcct. torc
thrivc on thc propinquity ofothcrstorcs and thctramc thcy gcncratc.
ScaI oa bIockfront, intcrrupt a scqucncc ofstorcs, and part ofthc
Iinc ofthc strcct is Iost.
This was cspcciaIIy cvidcnt aIong thc Avcnuc of thc Amcricas.
Whcrc oncc thcrc had bccn dcIicatcsscns and bars and shops, thcrc
wcrc now pIazas fronting on cxpanscs of gIass bchind which wcrc
bankcrssittingatdcsks. OncofthcscbuiIdingswasbadcnoughwhoIc
strctchcs ofthcm, bIockfrontaftcrbIockfront, wcrc stupcfyingIy duII.
Thcrc was atrucIoss ofamcnity. ThcscbuiIdingstookawayfarmorc
in food faciIitics than thcy providcd ancw, and much ofthis was bur-
icd in o-strcct concourscs.
Lch to thcir own dcviccs, dcvcIopcrs wouId prcfcr to rcnt thcir
ground-oor spacc to corporations morc rcnt, Icss troubIc. ut for
providing thcsc duII pIazas, thcy had bccn gctting vcry handsomc
oor-arca bonuscs. lt sccmcd onIy fair that thcy Iivcn up thcir front-
agcs as a quid pro quo. Wc supportcd a provision rcquiring that at
Icast 50 pcrccnt of thc buiIdings' ground-oor fronts bc dcvotcd to
rctaiI uscs. Thcrc wcrc so many othcr provisions in thc pIaza IcgisIa-
tion that this onc wcnt through with no fuss at aII.
For thc ncxt hvc ycars thcrc was no fuss. To rcpcat an obscrva
tion dcvcIopcrs arc a pragmatic Iot, and oncc somcthing is on thc
statutcbooks, thattcndstobcthat. DcvcIopcrsroutincIyprovidcdthc
rctaiIfrontagc, andthcrctaiIrcnts wcrc apparcntIyquitc highcnough
nottobcahardshiptothcm.Whcnthcmidtown zoningcodccamcup
for a maor ovcrhauI, it sccmcd in ordcr to raisc thc rcquircmcnts to
l pcrccnt ofthc frontagcs Icss thc cntrancc). This provision, fur-
thcrmorc, wouId bc divorccd from inccntivc zoning. onus or no bo-
nus, it wouIdbc mandatory. Two othcrconditionshad tobcmct thc
storcs wouId havc to bc acccssibIc from thc strcct thc gIass fronts
wouId havc tobc ofscc-through gIass.
Thc IcgisIation has workcd unobtrusivcIy and wcII. Somc ofthc
storcs wcrc widcr than thc pIanncrs had hopcd thcy wouId bc thcy
wouIdIikcto sccagrcatcrnumbcrofthcsmaIIcrfrontagcs twcntyto
twcnty-hvc fcct so charactcristic ofgood spcciaItyshopping strccts.
utaItuIt avbgood. TttarcrtaItc
IivcIicrforthcstorcs andforthcbIankwaIIsthatwcrcnotputupbut
might havc bccn.
Othcr citics arc foIIowing suit. cIIcvuc, Washington, now rc-
quircsground-IcvcI rctaiIingondcsignatcdstrccts. San Franciscodocs
not spccicaIIy mandatc storcs in rctaiI arcas, but twists dcvcIopcrs'
armstothcsamcccctinprocctrcvicw. ForitsSixtccnthStrcct aII,
Dcnvcr givcs inccntivc bonuscs ofcxtra oor spacc to dcvcIopcrs for
providing ground-IcvcI rctaiIing. Shops must bc dirctIy acccssibIc

[ z z & ]
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from thc strcct and shopfronts bc of scc-through gIass. No city has
banncd bIank waIIs pcr sc it sccms morc c0cctivcto rcquirc positivc
uscs. (For thc tcxt ofthc Ncw York statutc, scc Appcndix .)
CiticswouIddowcIItohavcthcdiscipIncofagoodstatutc.This
is cspcciaIIy thc casc with smaIIcr and mcdium-sizcd citics whcrc thc
dcvcIopcrsofdowntownhavcIatcIy arrivcdfrom suburban maIIpro-
ccts. ln on rcccnt ccntcr-city procct thc dcvcIopcr ruIcd out strcct-
IcvcI storcs, savc a tokcn ortwo. His Icasing agcnt, hc cxpIaincd, toId
himthatthatkindofrctaiIingwouIdn'tgointhatIocation. Asitmost
dchnitcIywiIInot,thcdcsignprccIudingitandasupincpIanningcom

msson acqcscg.
IankwaIIs arc tough to hghtbccausc no oncis for thcm. Thcrc
arc no civic dcbatcs whcthcr to havc thcm or not. Thcrc is ohcn no
rccognition that thcy havc bccomc a probIcm at aII. Thcir growth is
tooincrcmcntaI.Thcy arcthcby-productofothcrcauscs, manysccm-
ingIy good scparation of vchicuIar and pcdcstran tramc, o0strcct
circuIation,andsuch. Givcncurrcntmomcntums,thcbIankwaIIswiII
continuc to sprcad, cvcn in thc most cxcmpIary ofcitics.
Such as St. PauI, Minncsota. lt is thc bIank-waII capitaI of thc
nitcd Statcs. You wouId not cxpcct it to bc. lt is a most habitabIc,
attractivc, and fricndIy city it has onc of thc most rcsourccfuI and
c0cctivcmayors in thccountryitsLowcrtownrcdcvcIopmcntisofan
cmincntIyhumanscaIcandhasahncstrcctprcscncc. St.PauIaIsohas
onc ot thc most complctc skyway systcms n thc country, and t s
probabIy thc bcst dcsigncd ofaII ofthcm.
lt is paying a stccp pricc. ln a striking cxampIc ofthc Grcsham
c0cct, skyway IcvcI has Icd to thc bIanking-out of strcct IcvcI. Thc
rcsuIt is as drastic as if shop fronts and windows had bccn dccrccd
iIIcgaI. Thcrc arc fcw to scc. Thc cxpcricncc is so duII that to waIkat
strcct IcvcI is to do pcnancc for not using uppcr IcvcI Iock ahcr
bIock, it is bIank waII. OccasionaIIy thcrc is a brcak toindicatc what
might havc bccn Iikc thc trompc I'ociI windows on thc waII of a
parking Iot.
lt is not cntircIy farfctchcd to prophcsy that onc day St. PauI
might cmbark on a rcdiscovcry procct to uncovcr its buricd strcct
IcvcI. AtIantamadcatouristattractionofitsoId undcrgroundstrccts
sodid ScattIc ofits Skid Row. utprimcshoppingstrccts arc amuch
grcatcr trcasurc, and thc fact that thcy havc bccn conccaIcd shouId
makcthcirrcappcaranccaII thcmorcdramatic. DisncyIand mcrchan
discs a simuIation ofa strcct. ut citics havc somcthing cvcn bcttcr
actuaI strccts. Right undcr thcir noscs.

ltsccmcdsuchaspIcndddca. DcvcIopcrswantcdtoputupbuIdngs
as bg as thcy couId. Why not hamcss thcr avarcc7 PIanncrs saw a
way. Frst, thcy wouIddownzonc. Thcy wouId IowcrthcImt on thc
amount ofbuIk a dcvcIopcr couId put up. Thcn thcy wouId upzonc,
wthstrngs.ThcbuIdcrscouIdbuIdovcrthcImtthcyprovdcda
pubIc pIaza, oran arcadc, or a comparabIc amcnty.
Evcryonc wouId wn. Thc dcvcIopcr wouId gct hs cxtra oors,
thcpubIcwouIdgctan amcnty twouIdnot havc othcrwsc, thc cty
wouId gct hghcr propcrty asscssmcnts for ts tax basc, and aII ths
wouId bc brought about wthout spcndng an cxtra pcnny ofpubIc
funds.
Thus, n !96! , Ncw York cmbarkcd on nccntvc zonng. lt
workcd. Ovcrthcncxttcnycarstwastopromptthccrcatonofmorc
ncw opcn spacc n thc ccntcr cty than was crcatcd n aII thc othcr
ctcs n thccountrycombncd. OthcrctcsfoIIowcdsutwthsmIar
programs. Ncw Yorkcontnucdts ponccrngby movngfromacross-
thc-board zonng to a cxbIc, casc-by-casc approach.
L
Cascbycasc,dcvcIopcrswouIdbcprcssingfobiggcrbonuscsyct,
andanumbcrofimaginativczoningIawycrwouIdhcIpcIcarthcway.
PIanncrswcrcto show simiIarrcsourccfuIncss ininvcntingncwkinds
of spaccs to bonus. gaIIcrias, atriums, gardcn courts, through-bIock
circuIationarcas,covcrcdpcdcstrianarcas, roofgardcns. "Finctuning
thczoning ordinancc,"thiswouIdbccaIIcd, or "NcwYork'ssophisti-
catcd zoning. "Thc cuphoria was to run thick.

lt shouId havc bccn a waming. Things wcrc about to go awry.


DcvcIopcrswouIdsoonbcputtingupbuiIdingsbiggcrthancvcr,shad-
ows wouId bc gctting Iongcr, cvcn on thc sidc strccts whcrc cvcryonc
pIcdgcdtokccpbuiIdingsIow. utdcvcIopcrswouIdbcunhappy,thcy
wcrcn'tmaking cnough moncy, thcy said. Thc pIanncrswouIdb un-
happy, and unhappicstofaIIwouIdbcthccivicgroups. DcbacIc, thcy
wouIdcry, andatthcirbchcstamassivcovcrhauIofthczoningwouId
takc pIacc.

lnthischaptcrlwanttotcIIhowthiscamcabout,andthcIcssons
thcrcarcinthccxpcricncc.ThcyarcnotpccuIiartoNcwYork, savcin
scaIc NcwYork'sworstcxampIcsarcsobadthatoncisaImostproud
ofthcm. utthcIcssonsarc considcrabIcproandcon, andthosccitics
thatarcnowbcginningtoadoptinccntivczoningmightwcIIpaythcm
hccd.
LctusstartwithaIookatthcantcccdcntstoinccntivczoning. ln
its carIicst form, zoning was for thc provision ofIight. lncightccnth-
ccntury Paris thc hcight ofbuiIdings was Iimitcd to a mItipIcofthc
wdth othc strccts low on narrow strccts, hghcr on wdc strccts.
Whcn Ncw York City institutcd zoning in l 9l 6, thc samc principIc
wasappIicd.ThcrcccntIybuiItEquitabIcuiIding,whichroscstraight
up from thc strcct, was thc symboI of what was to bc avoidcd. Thc
zoningspccihcdthatasbuiIdingswcntupwardthcyhadtoconformto
askycxposurcpIanc.ThiswasaspccihcdangIcsIantingbackfromthc
strcct sharpIy on narrow strccts, Icss so on widconcs. lfa buiIding
hadcnoughsctbacksinitsIowcrportions, thctowcrcouIdgostraight
up quitcaways. So anumbcrofbuiIdings did, mostspcctacuIarIy thc
Empirc Statc and thc ChrysIcr uiIding. ut thc morc customary rc
suItwasthc"ziggurat" abuiIdingthatIookcdIikcascricsofsucccs-
sivcIy smaIIcrboxcs put on top ofonc anothcr.
y thcIatchfticsitwascvidcntthatacomprchcnsivcovcrhauIof
thczoningcodc wasbadIynccdcd. Ovcrthcycars, thccodc hadgath-
crcd somc twcnty-hvc hundrcd cxccptions, in thc proccss morc than
doubIing in buIk. Most important, thc zoning had bccn much too
pcrmissivcondcnsity. AshorrorskctchcscircuIatcdbyrcformgroups
showcd it, cw York wouId bc a soIid mass of towcrs if buiIding
continucd on to thc IcgaI Iimits. CIcarIy, somc downzoning was in
ordcr.
7cnin landmark. thc Equitablc which :tartcd thc whclc thin in
!!.
Thc pIanncrs thought so, and in thc proposcd ncw codc thcy
sharpIy rcduccd thc aIIowabIc dcnsity. Thcy did this through thc dc-
vce ot the oor-area rato. 1hs was the mu!tp!er the deve!oper cou!d
appIytothcnumbcrofsuarcfcctinhisIottogctthctotaInumbcrof
suarc fcct in his buiIding. For commcrciaI districts this was sct at a
mItipIcofhccnf a.r. This mcantthat thcdcvcIopcrcouIdbuiId thc
amountofsuarcfcctinhisIottimcsftccn. HccouIdmassthcm in a
suatbuiIdingorgouphighcrwithatowcrthatcovcrcdIcssofthcot.
Thcrc wcrc no hcight Iimitations as such. ln practicc, howcvcr,
thcf.a.r.didimposcacciIing.Towcrscanbccomcuncconomicas thcy

[ z
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5

1ncxcnaivcaun-atud] tcchniqucdcrclccdb] Frc]caacrBrcntFcrtcrc]Brcck-


jn S rull 1nSlIlulc. Jc luKcS u Scl OgmOdcS Oul nlO lhc Sun und CunlS lhcm
until thcahadcwc]thcatick (rih ccincidca with thcmark]cran hcurc]thc
da]. 1hua cricntcd, thc mcdcla caat ahadcwa aa thcac actual buildina wculd.
pokc up highcr and sIimmcr. Givcn thc sizc of most omcc-buiIing
sitcs, somcwhcrc around thirty to thirty-two storics is thc practicaI
Iimit for buiIdings offtccn f.a.r.
y cIiminating thc sky-is-thc-Iimit fcaturc ofthc oId zoning, thc
oor-arcaratioIimitcdthcbuIkthatcouIdbcput upin thccity. utit
wouId not unduIy Iimit buiIdcrs. ihccn f. a.r. is a Iot of buiIding.
uiIdcrs had bccn doing quitc wcII putting up buiIdings ofthat sizc,
and thcrc was agood bit ofcmpiricaIusticationforscttingit as thc
basc Iimit. lt was thc mcdian buIk ofthcomcc buiIdingsput up sincc
orId ar ll.
Thcrc was to bc a swcctcncr. To gct thcbuiIdcrs bchind thc ncw
zoning, thc pIanncrs ocrcd in inccntivc bonus. Thc rst appIication
wouId bc for pIazas. Thc pIanncrs had bccn much imprcsscd by thc
rcccntIy compIctcd Scagram uiIding. lt was handsomc, introduccd
Iots of spacc and Iight, and madc possibIc a shccr towcr far morc
cIcgant than thcoId sct-back buiIdings. To prod buiIdcrs into provid-

1be Rise and Fah o/ 1ncentire Zoning


ng comparabIc spaccs, thc zonng o0crcd thcm a dcaI. for cvcry
squarc footofpIazaspaccbuIdcrsprovdcd,thcycouIdadd l 0squarc
fcct of omcc spacc. Ths wouId rasc thcr totaI oor spacc by 20
pcrccnt, and thc f.a.r from hftccn to cghtccn. Thc bonus, furthcr-
morc, wouIdbc as-of-rght. fthcbuIdcrsfoIIwcdthcgudcIncsprc-
scrbcdnthczonng,thcrpIanswouIdbcassurcdofapprovaI,andno
spccaI rcvcws or pcrmts wouId bc nccdcd.
AII n aII, t was an attratvc packagc, and buIdcrs took to t.
Thcrc hadbccn, ofcoursc, muchoppostonfrombuIdcrstothcpro-
poscdncwzonng,butthcbonusswungovcrcnoughofthcmtogana
crtcaI margn ofsupport.
Thcrcwcrcdoubtcrs. WouIdnotthccxccptonbcgthcqucstonof
thc ruIc7 lfhftccn f.a.r. was udgcd thc rght tp Imt, how couId a
hghcroncbcrghttoo7PIanncrsfcItthcanswcrwasnthco0sct.Thc
cxtra dcnsty, thcy bcIcvcd, wouIdbc morc than compcnsatcd forby
thc cxtra amcnty.
Othcrs thought so, too. Cvc groups saw thc ! 96! zonng as a
grcatforwardstcpandthcywcrcnotncIncdto ntpckovcrthcorct-
caI probIcms. Nor wcrc thc buIdcrs. HaIcd on aII sdcs, nccntvc
zonng was o0to a promsng start.
Thc bonus provcd aImost cmbarrassngIy succcssfuI. Ovcr thc
ncxtdccadc, wthnocxccptons, cvcry dcvcIopcrwhoputupanomcc
buIdng took advantagc of thc pIaza bonus. ctwccn ! 96! and !97J
somc ! . ! mIIonsquarcfcctofncwopcnspaccwascrcatcdthatway
morcthan n aII ofthc othcrctcs ofthc country combncd.
ThsshouIdhavcbccnsccnas anaIcrt. WhcnabuIdngrcntsout
vcryquckIy,rcaIcstatcpcopIchgurcthcymghthavcsctthcrcntstoo
Iow. ThcpIannngcommssonmghtwcII havc concIudcdthat t had
undcrprccd thc bonus. ltccrtanIy sccmcd cIcar that thc bcnchts for
buIdcrs wcrc grcat. Somc suspcctcd thcy mght bc scandaIousIy so
ln a Iatcr cost-bcncht anaIyss of nccntvc zonng, !croId S.
aydcn computcd thc constructon costs, to thc dcvcIopcrs, of thc
pIazas buIt bctwccn !96! and !97J. Thcy camc to J, &20,27&. ln
rctuforths,dcvcIopcrswcrcabIctoputup 7, 60, 556squarcfcctof
addtonaIcommcrcaIspacc. MuItpIyngthsbythcavcragcnctcap-
taIzcd vaIuc pcr squarc foot of 2J. &7 a conscrvatvc cstmat
aydcn gotabonusvaIucof$l , l , 0. To puttanothcrway, for
cachdoIIarhcputoutforapIaza,adcvcIopcrrcapcdncarIy&worth
ofcxtra spacc.
ln many cascs thc dcvcIopcrs' Icvcragc was grcatcr yct. Many
wcrc abIc to takc advantagc of varous ta abatcmcnt nccntvcs thc
cty pcrodcaIIy o0crcd. Ths was doncto modcratc buIdngsIumps,
but cycIcsbcng what thcy arc, thc abatcmcnts tcndcd tobc consum-
matcd at thc pcaks ofbooms.
Wcrc thc dcvcIopcrs gcttng too much7 No, sad thc pIanncrs.
N
00 8Ig0I C0SIS 0
l0C00Ilv0 Z00l0g 08v0
D000 l0 I00 0SS 0 Su0
800 lg0l. l lS 8 0SS
I8I0y C0u0I00.
L
oth couId arguc that thc prcsumcd sprcad bctwccn cost and proht
was onIy thcorcticaI, and thatin anycvcnit was notachargconthc
pbIic. Thc cxtra spacc thc dcvcIopcr got camc out of thc air
IitcraIIy, with thosc cxtra oors and did not cost thc city anything.
Thc truc costs, howcvcr, arc not mcasurcd in cash outIays, or n
Iand or construction costs. Thcy arc thc sun and thc Iight that arc
sacrihccd, and thc additionaI Ioad of pcopIc on community faciIitics.
ut thc oscttingbcnchts ofa wcII-uscd pIaza can go far bcyond thc
dircct costs ofproviding thcm.
Did any pIazas do this7 No onc rcaIIy kncw.
Thc pIanningcommission had sct upan urban dcsign group and
had spun o simiIar groups to work in spccihc dcvcIopmcnt arcas.
Thcywcrcstacdwithanoutstandinggroupofyoungarchitccts,pIan-
ncrs, and Iawycrs, and thcy wcnt about thcir work with imagination
and Ian. l had an opportunity to obscrvc this, for at thc timc, l was
working on thc tcxt ofthc commission's comprchcnsivc pIan for thc
city. ln it, propcrIy cnough, thcrc was a saIutc to thc innovativc ap-
proachcs ofthc stapcopIc and thc ncw spaccs thcy wcrc crcating.
ut how wcII wcrc thc ncw spaccs workingout7 Thcrchadbccn
nomcchanismformonitoringthcprogram.lnaIIthatIargcsta, thcrc
was no onc pcrson who had thcob of going out and chccking up on
thcrcsuIts. lnadrahofthcpIan, loatcdaproposaIforscttingupan
cvaIuativc unit. lt got nowhcrc.
his wasoncofthcrcasons sctupthctrcct ifc Procct. As
rccount cIscwhcrc, l thought thatobscrvationofhowpcopIc uscdcity
spaccswouIdbcuscfuIforsuchspccihcmattcrsaspIazasandarcadcs.
WhatlmosthopcdtodcmonstratcwasthcgcncraIappIicabiIityofthc
approach and thc simpIicity ofthc tcchniqucs invoIvcd.
lt was obvious that a Iot ofthc pIaccs wcrc awfuI. stcriIc, cmpty
spaccsnotuscdformuchofanythingcxccptwaIkingacross.utafcw
wcrc cxccIIcnt. Whcn l showcd thcpIanncrstimc-IapschImsofnoth
inghappcningon somcpIazas, Iots onothcrs, thcyagrccdthatfurthcr
casc-and-ccct study was in ordcr. PIanning commission chairman
DonaId EIIiottthoughtitcouId hcIpframcncw zoningstandards. Wc
struck a bargain. My group wouId try to dctcrminc what madc good
pIazas work and bad pIazas not work, and thc rcasons why. lfthcsc
couIdbc transIatcdintotightguidcIincs, thccommissionwouIdincor-
poratc thcm n a ncw opcn-spacc zoning sccton.
That is what happcncd. NaiIing down thc guidcIincs was casy,
gctting thcm through thcmiII took somctimc. Thcy wcrc as-of-right,
as most ofthczoning guidcIincs to datchad bccn, and spcIIcd out in
considcrabIc dctaiI what thc ruIcs of thc gamc thc maximum
@

1be Rise and Fall o/ 1ncentire Zoning

pcrmssibIc hcght ofthc pIaza, thc amount ofscatng, thc minmum


numbcr oftrccs, and so on.
Opponcnts argucd that guidcIincs would cramp architccts' frcc-
domanddictatcdcsignbyformula. ThcbcstrcbuttaItothswasmadc
by thc chairman of thc Iocal chaptcr of thc Amcrcan lnsttutc of
Archtccts, Hcrbcrt Oppcnhcimcr. Tcstfying n favor of thc lcgsIa-
ton, hcargucdthattoughguidcIincswouIdnotmcanIcssfrccdomfor
thc archtcct, but morc. Wthout gudcIncs, hc sad, thc dcvcIopcr
wouIdcalIaIIthcshots. lfthcrcwcrcno rcqurcmcnts forscatng, for
campIc, thcrc wouId IkcIy bc noscatng bccausc that s thc way thc
dcvclopcr wouId probabIy want it lf thcrc wcrc rcqurcmcnts thcrc
wouIdbcchoccwhcrcthcrchadbccnnoncbcforc. Snccouradvcrsar-
cs wcrc bcwalng thc plight ofarchtccts, thc tcstimony carricd a lot
of wcght. ln May !975 thc oard of Estimatc appovcd thc ncw
gudcIncs.
ThcgudcIncs hadasaIutary ccct. Thchandwrngngovcrthcr
tghtncssprovcdunfoundcd. OnccthcywcrconthcbooksthcdcvcIop-
crswcntalong,quitccquably. Ovcrthc cnsungtcnycars thcrc wasto
bcno complaintby adcvclopcrorarchtcct ovcr thc basc gudcIncs.
uIdcrs put n bcnchcs and chairs, thcy pIantcd trccs, and somc
wcnt farbcyond thc mnimum rcqurcmcnts in provding owcrs and
food kosks and thc Ikc. Thc ncw zonngaIso cncouragcd thc rctroht
ofcstngpIazas, andanumbcrofhithcrtodcadoncswcrcbroughtto
Ifc. Thc zonnggudcIncswcrc adoptcdby othcr ctcs, somctmcs n
such dctaiI that thcy rcpcatcd thc prccisc dmcnsons that had bccn
dcrvcd from ourNcw York prototypcs. Thc formula for guring thc
amount of sittng spacc to bc rcqurcd ! Incar foot for cvcry 0
squarc fcct of plaza spacc was a back-of-thc-cnvclopc compromisc
bctwccn Incar-fcct pcoplc and squarc-fcct pcoplc. lt has bccn cn-
shrincdncountIcsszoningordinanccsacrossthccountryandtworks
ust hnc.
Sofar, sogood. cforclong,howcvcr,somccIoudsappcarcd.Thc
ctysnancaIratngssIippcdabt, thcnabitmorc. Soon thcctywas
ncarbankruptcy. lnhighIypubIczcdmovcs,anumbcrofIargccorpo-
ratons movcdthcrhcadquartcrs tosuburba, and morc sccmcd rcady
toointhcm. Thcbuildngboomcollapscd. From aIcvclof! 2,260,
squarc tcct n 73,constructon ot omcc spacc tcll to 6n I 76.
ThcbuiIdcrsplcdforhcIp. Thcywantcdtobcablc tobuiIdbiggcr
andtaIlcrbuiIdngs. Thcywantcdtobuildthcmon sidcstrcctsaswcll
as avcnucs. ln addition to thcnanciaI probIcms thcy faccd, buldcrs
had bccn runnng out ofgood sitcs. Thc castcrn part ofmdtown had
bccnso pickcdovcrthatwhatwas lcftwcrcsitcstoosmalItobuildon
protabIy undcr construction rulcs. uIdcrs mght havc concIudcd
that what thc markct was saying was to go wcst. ut thcy saw a
L
simpIcr mcssagc. Changc thc ruIcs.
ThcpIaningcommissioncoopcratcd. ltsurbandcsignpcopIcwcrc
conccivingncwkindsofbonuscsfor through-bIockcorridors, covcrcd
pcdcstrian arcas, arcadcs, and atriums. Thcy cvcn gavc cxtra bonuscs
for shops in atriums. y combining aII thcsc bonuscs with dcvcIop
mcnt-rightstransfcrs, zoning-Iotmcrgcrs, andothcrtcchniqucs,dcvcI-
opcrs couId raisc thc oor-arca ratio abovc ! &. Thc bonuscs, furthcr-
morc, appIicd to Iargc sitcs as wcII as smaII oncs. notabIy, thc ATT
uiIding, thc lM uiIding, and thc Trump Towcr, thc Iattcrcnding
up at an f. a.r. of 2! .6. Morc important than thc incrcasc in buIk,
howcvcr, was a changc in thc rcvicw proccss. To rationaIizc thc buIk
thcrc had tobc.
Thcrc wcrc two ways to gct a procct through. Onc was as-of
right. ln this approach thc dcvcIopcr hcwcd to thc standard zoning
provisionsand askcd no spcciaI favors orcxccptions. This sparcd him
appcaring bcforc rcvicw bodics. Hc didn't cvcn havc to caII on thc
pIanningcommissionorthc communityboard. lfthcbuiIdingdcpart-
mcnt found his pIans in ordcr, that wouId bc that.
Thc othcr way was thc spcciaI pcrmit routc. This way thcdcvcI-
opcr had to go through a timc-consuming rcvicw proccss. This was
simpIihcd somcwhat as thc niform Land sc Rcvicw Proccss, or
LRP. ltscthn dcadIincsforcachstcpofthcrcvicw. lnthcnotcs
atthccndofthisbookthcrcisamorcdctaiIcddcscription. Sumccitto
say hcrc that thcdcvclopcrwas ocrcd a tradc-o. Hc would havc to
submittoascrics ofncgotiating scssionsbut hc couId ask for morcof
what hcwantcd for cxampIc, morcbuIk.
LctusIookatthcprosandcons. Thc NcwYork cxpcricnccisby
no mcans uniquc, thc Icssons it may aord rccur in procct rcvicw
proccsscscvcrywhcrc. To stick tothcruIcsofthcgamc7To bccxibIc
and work things out cascby casc7 Thc contcntious history ofrcvicw
boards is a scrics ofaItcrnationsbctwccn thc two approachcs.
Eachhasstrongprosandstrongcons.Thcas-of-rightapproach
rigid. ltsctsdownbcforchand, andinsomctimcsstupcfyingdctaiI,thc
ruIcsthatmustbc foIIowcd thcminimumsizcofapIaza, for cxampIc,
its maximum cIcvation abovc gradc, and so on. lt makcs fcw distinc
tions for dicrcnccs in sitc, and whiIc it is mcant to bc obcctivc, it
docstcndtoproducc thckindofdcsign that thc pcopIc who madc up
thcruIcsIikc. lnthccascofthc !96! zoning, thiswasthcfrcc-standing
towcrsct in opcn spacc, as thc Scagram uiIding was.
utasof-righthasimportantadvantagcs. ForthcdcvcIopcrthcrc
isccrtainty. Timcis within hiscontroI. lfhc gocsbythcbook hcgcts
approvaI. Thc ruIcs arc cIcar and thcy arc postcd bcforc thc gamc
bcgins. Thc homcwork has tobc doncbythcpIanncrsbcforc thcrcgu-
1be Rise and Fah o/ 1ncentire Zoning
Iationsarcdraftcd,thcyappIytoaIIcomcrscquaIIyandthcycIiminatc
thc rcd tapc ofthc casc-by-casc approach. lfthc guidcIincs arc found
wanting, as thcy wcrc with thc pIazabonus, thcy can bc amcndcd.
Thc spcciaI pcrmit approach ocrs much morc cxibiIity. lt aI
Iows pIanncrs to taiIor dcsign rcquircmcnts to particuIar situation
ohcnwithabcttcrhttothcintcntofthcIawthantothcIcttcrofit. ln
thcncgotiatingscssions, furthcrmorc, improvcmcntsinthcdcsigncan
bc suggcstcd and adoptcd that wouId not havcbccn undcr thc as-
of-right approach.
Thc pIanncrs havc cards to pIay. Thc cIock is ticking away on
somchigh-costborrowcdmoncyandthcdcvcIopcrisanxioustocxpc-
ditc mattcrs. Thc pIanncrs arc in a position to suggcst amcnitics and
thcy usuaIIypush thcdcvcIopcrquitchardin this rcspcct gcttingthc
dcvcIopcrto putinancxtracscaIator, forcxampIc,orpubIictoiIctson
thc ground oor.
ut onc trump card thc pIanncrs gavc up. thc shicId ofburcau-
cratic proccdurc. No IongcrcouId thcy invokc as-of-right rcguIations
toustify a hard-noscd stancc. ndcrthc spcciaI pcrmit approach, as
thcdcvcIopcrs wcIIkncw,thcpIanncrscouIdbcndthcrcguIationsand
ifncccssarymakcupncwoncstoht.To putitbaIdIy, thcycouIdspot-
zonc.
lnprcssing foraccommodation, thc dcvcIopcrwouIdhavcstrong
cards of his own. Hc wouId bc hcIping thc citys cconomy, crcating
obs, incrcasing thc tax basc. lmportant pcopIc wouId bc on his sidc.
Thc prcssurcs for acquicsccncc on thc pIanncrs wcrc considcrabI
from thc mayors omcc, from commcrciaI groups, from Icading busi-
ncssmcn, from anyoncwhocarcd aboutbuiIdingabcttcrcityand did
not want to scc it hamstrungby burcaucratic nit-picking.
Such prcssurcs arc normaI, and yicIding to thcm was nothing
ncw. What wasnovcI was thcway inwhichthcyicIdingwas rationaI-
izcdasanadvanccdformofzoningsophistication. Takc, forcxampIc,
thcatriumbonus. ltwas hcdgcd with aII sorts ofconditions as tothc
impactofthcbuiIdingonitssurroundings,anditcouIdnotbc grantcd
unIcss thc pIanning commission madc favorabIc hndings on aII of
thcm. This it was vcry abIc to do, cvcn undcrdimcuIt circumstanccs.
lt simpIy dccIarcd thc impact wouId bc favorabIc.
Thc rcductio ad absurdum ofrcvicw is thc city's EnvironmcntaI
uaIity Rcvicw proccss. Asacondition ofapprovaI, buiIding proccts
must bc ccrtihcd as posing no signihcant advcrsc cccts on thc cnvi-
ronmcnt. Fcw maorprocctshavcbccnfoundtohavcadvcrsc cccts.
lndccd, fcw havc bccn found to havc had d signihcant cccts, ad-
vcrsc or othcrwisc.
HowcouId this bc so7 ThcanswcrIicsinwhohIIs out thcforms.
#
9 m
L Y
Thc principal invcstigativc instrumcnt is thc Procct Data Statcmcnt.
Hcrc arc two of thc qucstions, cxactIy as phrascd.
. ptC]cCl Ch8ngc n p8llctn, 8C8c Ct Ch8t8Clct C gcnct8 8tc8 C
8lc, .c 8 lhc ptC]cCl dBctcnl tCm 8uttCundng dcVcCpmcnl?
.Xc8 PC
. ptC]cCl Ch8ngc n dcm8nd Ct munCp8 8ctVCc8 (pCCc, Btc,
W8lct, 8cW8gc, 8ChCC8, hc8lh 8Clc8, clC.? Xc8 PC
Thc Trump Towcr on Fifth Avcnuc was a casc in point oth
qucstionswcrcanswcrcdby achcckmarkinthc "No"box. AII ofthc
othcrqucstions wcrcgivcnsimiIarIyfavorabIcanswcrs. Andwhynot7
Thc answcrs wcrchIlcd in by thc architcct. Thcrc is nocvidcncc that
any indcpcndcnt invcstigation was madc of thcsc mattcrs such as a
study ofthc shadows that might bc cast. ln duc coursc, thc cnviron-
mcntaI rcvicw proccss produccd its dctcrmination. thc procct wouId
"havc no signihcant c0cct on thc cnvironmcnt."
No signihcant c0cct. No changc in scalc. Wow. Fihy-hvc storics
ofgIass. Thcboard mightwcIIhavcsaidthatycs,indccd, thcbuiIding
wiIIa0cct its surroundings,butonbaIancc thc good wiIIoutwcighthc
bad ltmightaIso havcraiscdaqucstionaboutthcadditionaImunici-
palscrviccs nccdcd and thcpaIpably siIIy statcmcnt that thc buiIding
wouId rcquirc nonc. ut thcboard said "no signihcant c0cct. "
Gctting pIanning commission approvaI of a procct rcquircd
much morc c0ort. As an opcning gambit a dcvcIopcr might comc up
withafrightpIan.ThiswouIdshowthcdrcadfuIbuiIdinghccouIdput
up undcrcxistingrcguIations ifhc wasofamindto. SinccaImostany
othcr plan would bc a grcat improvcmcnt, thc pIanncrs wouId bc in
thchappypositionofbcingabIctomakchcIpfuIchangcs. Andso thcy
did. lflay critics stiII found thcbuiIdingdrcadfuI, thcpIanncrs wouId
havc a rcoindcr. lfyou think this plan is bad, you shouId havc sccn
thc hrst onc.
orc oftcn, thc dcvcIopcrwcntfor thc bigonc right o0. Hc had
thc architcct dcsign a buiIding with cvcry bonus possibIc and somc
possiblc ncw oncs to gct thc building highcr yct. Thc commission
would dcmur. Part of thc way up ut not aII. ln granting him his
incrcasc in bulk, accordingIy, it couId rcfcr to thc incrcasc as a dc-
crcasc. AbuiIdcr,forcxampIc,startsoutwithapIanforatwcnty-hvc-
storybuiIdingandprcsscsforbonuscsthatwiIltakcituptothirty-hvc
storics. Hc cnds up with thirty-two storics. Thus is thc buiIding "rc-
duccd" by thrcc storics. Thc dcvcIopcr askcd for thcstars Thc com
mission wouId onIy givc him thc moon.
Thc commission wouId draft spccial IcgisIation to makc thc par-
ticular procct lcgal, and Icst it bc thought spot zoning, it wouId bc
7be Rise and Fah o/ 1ncentire Zoning
writtcnasifitwcrcofgcncraIappIicabiIityThcrcwasnotthcgraccof
a . th gcat soIcmty suh IcgsIaton sct foth thc nccds and
bcnchts thatthc commssion mustdbcfocgvgappovaI. lnva
abIy, thc commission did so hnd. For his part, thc dcvcIopcr was cn-
oincdbythcIcgisIationtodoanumbcrofthingsthatitwasinhisscIf
intcrcsttodo obcy aIIappropriatcconstruction ruIcsand rcguIations
hircsccurity guards kccp thc pIacccIcan. LastIy,hc had to"conform
thcpIantothczoning" astaggcringIy rcdundantprovision, thc zon-
ing having bccn writtcn to conform to thc pIan.
As timcgocson, apIanncrcan comctoidcntify with thc procct
hc is monitoring, and somctimcshc can bccomc a strong advocatc of
it. Hisown suggcstions arc incorporatcd into it. Hchas Iivcd with it,
oftcn for a vcry Iong timc. Hcsccs thc probIcms thc buiIdcr and thc
architcct facc
Thc commonbond is thc scaIc modcI of thc structurc ltcan bc
cntrapping. Onccyoustartmovingaroundthoscpicccsofwhitccard-
board,youpartIyposscssapIaccandinthcscminormanipIationsof
spacc thcrcisa scnscofIargcrcontroI thatisrathcrpIcasing. lt'sIikc
mapping a pIacc it is nomorcyours than it was bcforc, but you fccI
thatit isust thc samc.
Onc night, probabIy in somc church bascmcnt, thc buiIdcr and
architcctandthcpIanncrtakcthcmodcIbcforccitizcnmcmbcrsofthc
community board Hcrc arc critics. And thcy act thc part. For shccr
rancor, unfai criticism, and rudcncss, thcrc is nothing Iikc somc of
thcscpubIiczoningmcctings.OncgctsanidcaofwhatarcvoIutionary
pcopIc'scourt mustbc Iikc. l'vcsccn architccts trcatcd Iikc brigands,
Iawycrsintcrruptcdwithhoots and dcrisivc Iaughtcr ltis ahcIIofan

cxpccncc
utstaythctcars.Thcmoncyandthcpowcrarcononcsidc.Thc
dcvcIopcrcanbring intopcxpcrts. HisIawycrwiIIprobabIybconcof
thc fcw pcopIc in thc city who undcrstands thc zoning codc. Thc
cxpcrtsmaybc givcnacriticaIrcccptionby somcofthc mcmbcrs, but
thc board wiII usuaIIy havc no countcrcxpcrts to rcfutc thcm. Thc
distinguishcd architcct wiII probabIy bc vcry skiIIcd at thc art ofthc
prcscntation most distinguishcd architccts arc, and board mcmbcrs
apprcciatcthis. Manyhavcbccomcconnoisscurs ofthcartofthcprc-
scntation, and thcy hnd thcbcttcrarchitccts tcnd tobc thc ost ds
arming in thcir wiIIingncss to Iistcn to board mcmbcrs' suggcstions.
PhiIip !ohnson is a mastcr at this. l don't know ifany of thc board
mcmbcrs' suggcstions cvcr cndcd up in thc actuaI dcsigns, but thcy
ccrtainIy wcrc graccfuIIy rcccivcd.
AndthcnthcrcarcthcmodcIs. Evcnthcmost trucuIcntofboard
mcmbcrs can bc cntranccd. Thc modcIs

Iook so cIcan and whitc, Iit


from bcncath with a bcnign gIow. lfonIy buiIdings couId bc Iit that
C80 0000S C80 D0
00lI8l0g. L0C0 y0u
Sl8Il 00vl0g 8I0u00
l00S0 w0ll0 l0C0S 0
C8I0D08I0, y0u 8I0
000K00. 0 00, S8yS
l00 8IC0ll0Cl, 0R 00l00
I00 L000 l0l0 0y
8I0I.

L
way,howspIcndidthccitywouIdbcAndthcrcarcthcmovabIcroofs,
ustwaitingtobcpickcd up.YoucanIookrightdownintothcatrium.
lf you kccp pIaying around with thc modcI, you wiII soon bc thor-
oughIy hookcd.
As thcy havc gaincd in cxpcricncc, thc community boards havc
bccomcIcssconfrontationaIandmorccxpcrt.ThcycanstiIIgivcdcvcI-
opcrsavcryhardtimcifthcythinkthcpIanisbad.ThcyarcgcnuincIy
dcIightcd, howcvcr, whcn a dcvcIopcr comcs up with a wcIIdcsigncd
onc, and thcy can bc downright poIitc. Thcir suggcstions arc ohcn
quitc hcIpfuI and havc Icd to substantiaI improvcmcnts in proccts.
On maorqucstions ofsizc and shapc howcvcr, thc boards havc
no powcr.Thcydo havc somc Icvcragc, forthccity'sruIingbodicsdo
notIikcto approvc what thcboards disapprovc. ln thccnd, howcvcr,
thc ruIingbodicsdoapprovc. Sincc thcboards anticipatcd thiswouId
bc thc casc, thcy can bc cxcuscd carIicr hotfoots and catcaIIs.
To cIinch approvaIs dcvcIopcrsinvokc "thc numbcrs. " No, a dc-
vcIopcrwiIIconccdc, thcprocctisnotpcrfcct. utitisthcbcstpossi-
bIc sct of compromiscs that couId bc arrivcd at. Thc numbcrs work
out, aIbcit ust barcIy. ut changc ust onc cIcmcnt and thc whoIc
thing wiII comc apart.
Thus thc intractabiIity of !ohn Portman's dcsign for his Timcs
Squarc HotcI. Whcnhc proposcd it in !969 thcpIanningcommission
was dcIightcd. ltwas pushing for thcrcvitaIization ofthc thcatrc dis-
trictanditthoughtthchotcIwouIdbcahnccataIyst.utmanypcopIc
dsagrccd. Thcprocctwouldrcqurcthcdcmoltonothrcclcgtmatc
thcatrcs, and this sccmcd a poor way to rcvitaIizc. Anothcr probIcm
was thc dcsign. With its strcct IcvcI dominatcd by vchicIc roadways
and parking acccss, with its sidcs Iincd withbIankconcrctc, itconsti-
tutcd a virtuaI dccIaration ofwar on thc Ncw York strcct.
ForoncrcasonoranothcrthcprocctwasdcIaycd,anditwasnot
untiI !9&2 that construction bcgan. Much had changcd in thc mcan
timc,thcdcsignhadnot.oningnowmandatcdrctaiIingatstrcctIcvcI
and discouragcd bIank waIIs. ut savc for a fcw tokcn changcs, thc
waIIs rcmaincd IargcIy bIank Thc architccts wouId not budgc. Thc
pIanncrs didnotc0cctivcIyprcssthcmto, and soit was that thcpIan-
ningcommissionthatsoughtaIivclystrcctscapcbccamcthcchampion
ofamaorcontravcntionofit. ln carIy !9&6thchotcIopcncdwiththc
!969 dcsign intact, Iikc a gigantic mammoth frozcn in thc tundra.
Thc hnaI issuc in controvcrsics is patriotism. Why arc you do
goodcrs kicking thc city7 Why arc you spitting on city haII7 lf thc
procctisnowcopardizcd ovcrsomc niggIinglittIcpobIcm, cvcryonc
is goingtoIosc. Thcbankcrs wiII puIIout. Thousands ofconstruction
obs wilI bc Iost. So wiII miIIions in cxtra tax rcvcnucs. Thc corpora-

1be Rise and Fah o/ 1ncentire Zoning


on that so wantcd thosczoningchangcs wiIImovcto Stamford. Thc
dvcIopcr wII movc to Ncw !crscy.
lt wouId scrvc thcm right. ut civic omciaIs rarcIy caII such
blu0s, cspcciaIIy whcn thc cityhnanccs arc in straits, so oftcn thcy
arc. AcityinthatstanccisadcvcIopcrscity,andagrcatmanyinthc
nitcd Statcs arc cxactIy that.
To rcsist such prcssurcs, pIanning commissions nccd support.
ThcynccdthcsupportofcivicgroupsthatwiIIraischcIIwiththcm. ln

Ncw York thc groupsthat moststrongIy supportpIanning, urban dc-


sign,andprcscrvationappcaratpubIichcaringstotcstifyagainstcom-
mission proposaIs as ohcn as for thcm, and thcy arc usua

Iy most
c0cctivc whcn thcy arc against. PIanncrs can bc aggricvcd with such
fricndsbutthcycanaIsosccthciruscfuIncss. ThccountcrvaiIingprcs-
surc puts thc pIanncrs in a bcttcr ncgotiating stancc with dcvcIopcrs.
ln thc rcvicw proccss thc pIacc tostakc out is thc middIc ofthc
road. PIanncrsdothisbydircctingdcvcIopcrs attcntiontothcthrcats
fromthccxtrcmistsonthcanksfromthcdo-goodcrs,MunicipaIArt
Socicty groupics, Sicrra CIub typcs, smart-aIcck pubIic intcrcst Iaw
ycrs,andothcrswhowouIdbcquicktospotanyfauItwiththcprocct,
protcst givcaways, dcmand strict obscrvancc of zoning rcguIations,
andtakcothcrcxtrcmcpositions. WhcnpIanncrscannotinvokccrcdi
bIcthrcatsofthiskind,whcnthcydonotthcmscIvcsfccIthchcat, itis
a sign that civicgroupshavcbccomctoo supportivc and constructivc
and rcasonabIc. That is whcn zoning and pIanning go to hcII.
y 9&0itappcarcdthatpIanningwas indccd goingtohcII. uIk
was bcgctting buIk. Thc vcry anticipation of incrcascs was making
thcm Whcn it bccamc known that buiIdcrs couId gct
morc buIk on a sitc than thc zoning had aIIowcd bcforc, thc fact got
buiIt into thc pricc of thc Iand. Most dcaIs bctwccn dcvcIopcr and
Iandowncr wcrc on a contingcncybasis so much moncy ifnozoning
changc swcctcncd thc pot, so much if thcrc was a zoning changc.
Thcrc was somc spccuIativc risk, to bc surc, whatcvcr thc zoning, it
wasncccssarythatthcprocctgctthcpIanningcommissionsapprovaI.
ThcmarkctsassumptionthatitwouIdbc forthcomingwasoncofthc
morc scvcrcudgmcnts madc about thc commission.
lfthccommssonddbaIatgvnganncrcasc,dcvcIopcrscouId
pIcadhardship. ThcirpubIicargumcntthcypadthroughthcnoscfor
thc Iand on thc cxpcctation that thcy wouId gct thc cxtra to
ustify thc pricc thcy paid. lfthc city now gocs back on its impIicd
promisc, it rcndcrs thc dcaI unprohtabIc, and that mcans an unfair
taking. lt is a crass argumcnt, but surprisingIy c0cctivc.
ln aImost cvcry casc thc pIanncrs waivcd thc hcight and sctback

rcguIations.Thc !96!zoning had spccihcdthattowcrscouId covcrno

B
L X
m0fc lh3n Qcf0cnl 0llhc 0l 3nd h3d l0 Dc Scl D30K lf0m lhc Slfccl
3l c3Sl Blly lccl. lh Dg ScS, dcVcl0QfS dd n0l mnd lhS Wlh
Sm3l0f Sll0S, B0W0Y0f, lh0 S0lD30KS m03Bl lBclf l0W0fS W0u0
Sm3lcf 3nd cSS Qf0Bl3Dc lh8n lhcy W0ud Kc. hc Q8nncfS 3000m
m0d3lcd lhcm. Lnc mcmDcf 0llhc 00mmSS0n, 0cLh3f3n 8f-
ln 3cnl, Qf0lcSlcd lhc W3VcfS. ul lhcy Wcfc lhc fulc. N0Sl 0llhc
l0WcfS 3QQf0Yc0 n lhc l3lc ScVcBlcS 00Vcfcd m0fc lh8B Qcf00Bl 0
lc 0l n lhc 3 blfccl 3fc3, O0cf3gc Wcnl 3S hgh 3S Qcf0cnl.
Pnd lhc DudngS Wcfc 3 0l 00Scf l0 lhc Slfccl lh3n Blly lccl. b0mc,
ndccd, f0Sc Shccf lf0m lhc Du dng nc 3nd KcQl g0ng Slf3ghl uQ
]uSl Kc lhc Qul3Dc udng lh3l Slffcd DcW X0fK nl0 Z0nBg n
lhc BfSl Ql30c.
PS Slfu0Iuf0S gf0W Dlgg0f, lh0y Qul cB0D0uS SQ00u3llY0 Qf0S
Sufc 0n nc3fDy SlcS. ndccd, lhc Q0SSDlly 0l Sm8f Slfu0lufcS 08n
d00m lhc dcSlfu0l0n 0llhc DudBgS lh3l 8fc m0Sl mQ08nl l0 S8Vc.
cfgd0fl00dm3n 3nd b3KS tllh PVcnuc 3fc cX8mQcS. D0l 0Bly 3fc
lhcy mQ0fl3nl Sl0fcS, Dul lhcf S03C 3nd lhcf m0dcf3lc hchl 3fC
l3 l0 lhcf Suff0undngS. cfgd0 00dm3n 00nlfDulcS l0 lhc
3mcnly 0llhc ulZcf 3Z3 3fc3 Dy cllg 0lS 0lSuB l3 l, 8nd
lS Whlc lmcSl0nc l33dc D0un0cS cn0ugh Sc00nd3fy ghl 0nl0 tllh
PVcBuc l0 f3Sc ghl cVcS ScVcf3 l00l03ndcS.
P lWcVc-Sl0fy Dudng 000uQyng Qcf0cnl 0l 3 Slc W0ud
0fdn3fly Dc 3B c00n0m03 uSc 0l8Bd 3Bd n0l S0 Y0fy 3f uB00f lhc
0nn tt abOt thrcc hOOrs' wOrth. An rtsc tn that ttt, hw
0Y0f, gf3ly m3gBlBcS lh0 3llf30ll0B 0 lBc Dull0lBg LcY0l0QcfS yf8
md h0fBn3n0ng 0B 3 Vfy Sm3ll 8m0unl 0llh0f 0Wn 03Sh, 8nd 8By
uQW3fd 0h3ngc n lhcclf3 R00fSQ30cWDchghy cVcf3gcd. hS S
lhc cd0 0Vc0QcfS SccK. llhc Z0nlB 0cS uQ lf0m l0 I3. f. lh0
c/J R00f SQ80c Q0lcBl3l d0uDcS 3l . D l m0fc Ih3B IDQ0S. hc
lWccSl0fy Dudng S n0W 0DS0clc, W0h m0fc dc3d lh3n 3Vc. l
W3S n0l lhc mQ3fl3 W0fKng 0l lhc m3fKclQl30c lh3l cnd3ngcfcd
Su0h DudngS l W3S lh W 0fK ly 3nng 0mmSS0n n
lS Z0nng.
Lnc SSuc lh3l W3S 00mBg l0 lhc l0fc W8S lhc l8ufc 0l S0mc
dcVc0QcfS l0 f0Vdc lhc 3mcnlcS lhcy Qf0mScd. lh Q3Z8S S0
mu0h lhc fuc, Q3nncfS Wcfc DuSy D0nuSng 0lhcf 0RSlfccl SQ30cS
lf0m SdcW3K WdcnngS l0 fc0cSScd SdcW3KS, l0 Sh0QQng 3f08dcS
Wlhn OudnS, l0 lhf0uh-D00K OfOu3l0n 3fc3S. hS Qf0fcSS0n
lf0m Slfccl l0 nlcf0f 0umn3lcd n lhc 00Vcfcd QcdcSlf3n 8fc8. l-
00fQ Sd3ZZng00ufl W3S 3 Qf0l0lyQc, 3nd lhc0ly ufgcd dcVc0QcfS l0
00W Sul Wlh 3lDumS 3nd g3cf3S.
cW 0f W0ud S00n h3VcDccn 3W3Sh Wlh 3lfumS h3d n0l lW0
h0 t50 0h0 0// 0} hC0hltr0 Z0hthg
0l lhc ncW 0ncS D0mDcd Vcfy D3dly 3nd Vcfy lSlDly. hc DulldcfS
QCCclcd lhc clt0 CCtS CtcDl0lc SQ0Cc, ul lhcy dD l Qul D hc
ShCQS 3Bd lhlBgS lB lhc SQ3CcS Whcfc lhcy QfCmScd lhcy WCud. hc
00mmlSS0n S3d lh3l lhS W3S fc3y Vcfy D3d 0llhc OuldcfS Dul lh3l
3l lhc llmc lhcfc W3S n0l mu0h lh3l ll 00ud d0 3D0ul ll .
bCmclmcS lhc30K 0lSh0QS 3nd 3mcnlcS W3S duc l0 3 0h3ngc 0l
0WBcfShQ Wlh lhc UcW m3B S3ylng hc ddD l KB0W 3UylhB 3OCul
3ny 00mmlmcBl 3nd dcnyBg hc W3S OCuHd Oy l 0ByW3y. cW CtK
fcSQ0Bdcd lccDy WhcB BfSl CCnfCBlcd Wlh Su0h fcC30lf0BlS. ul
cVcnlu3ly cn0uh luSS W3S f3Scd Dy 0lVl0 gf0QS l0f lhc 0lly l0 l3Kc
30l0D.
ul h0W ccCllVcly LBc Qf0Ocm B cBl0fCcmcBl h3S Dccn lhc
l3CK ClQf30llC3l S3BCll0B. hc Clly 03n glVc 3 S3Q CB lhc WfSl 0f l
03n df0Q lhc 3l0m fcV0Kc lhc dcVc0Qcf S 0cfllB03lc 0l 0C0u-
Q3DCy. hS C3D mc3D gVlBg lhc lcB3DlS lhc fghl 0 WlhhCld fcBl 3
mc0Sutc SC df0CCB3D 0S lCc f0fcy DV0cd. LBcudlBg CWBcf W0S
SC 0Oduf3lc hCWcVcf, lh3l lhc Clly dd tcVCc hS CcfllBC0lc CCCC
Q0DCy. hS W3S Cf BCCD bQu3fc 3 CCmOD0lCD CBCc OdDg
fcSdcnll3 l0Wcf 3nd fcgl0n3 hc3dQu3flcfS 0f lhc N0nS. hc
Oudng h3d DccB gf0Ulcd 3B cXlf3 SX R0CfS 3S 3 D0nuS l0f Qf0Vldng
3 3UdSC3Qcd 0-Slfccl Ql3Z3. ul 3 lh3l W3S cVcf Qf0Vldcd W3S 3n
cmQly SQ30c. lW3S S0 D3d lh3l Qcf0dl03ly Sl0QQcd Dy l0 uQd3lc my
QhCl0gf3QhlC fcC0fd 0l0ulSl3BdlBgyD3d SQ3CcS. 00uld 3lW3yS 00uUl
0n lhcQ30cDclng d3fK, SlfcWn Wllh lllcf, Ocfcll 0lDcB0hcS 3nd Dcfcll
0l Qc0Qc. Pllcf lhc 0lly 30lcd ln 3y J lhcfc W3S 3n lndl03ll0n
lh3l lhc fcSldcnll3 lcn3nlS mlghl Wllhh0d lhclf fcnlS. ln3ly ln
l , 3 dc3 W3S CCnSumm3lcd Dy Whl0h lhc SQ30c W0ud Dc l3Kcn
CVcf Dy lhc 0K Pfl NuScum.
b0mcllmcS lhc D3dBcSS 0l3 Q03 S Sccd uQCB 0S fc3SCB l0f lhc
W0fScnlng 0lll. P 03Sc ln Q0lnl lS f30c 3Z3 3 Dl, D3ffcn S3D 0l3
Ql3Cc lh3l W3S S0 nh0SQll3Oc l0 Qc0Qc ll C3mc l0 Oc Q0Qu3lcd
l3fgcy Oy dfug dc3cfS. hc dcVc0Qcf fcSQ0Udcd Dy Qulllng uQ 3U
lfCH lcnCc. hlS W3S 0c3fy 3g0BSl lhc CCmmllmcBl lCf WhlCh lhc
dcVc0Qcf h3d Dccn gVcB cXlf3 RC0fS, 3nd lhc Q3BBBg C0mmlSS0H
l0f0cd lhc dlSm3nlng 0l lhc lcn0c. hc dcVc0Qcf lhcn fcl8ncd 3
Iorcr hcad oIthc commsson' s urban dcsgn group. Jhc pIaa was a
h0ccSS C3uSc, lhc Q3BHcf S3d. hy B0l B ll lB Wlh 3 lW0Sl0fy
ShCQQU m0
hc dcVcCQcf W3S cBlhuS0SlC. c hc ShCud h3Vc OccD. C
0tc Clhc 00 hc W0S Scl CD lhc Q3lh lO tcW0td. hc 3ud0Cly Ol
lhc dc3 g0tDctcd SuQQ0fl, DCudBg lh0l O LCmmuDly 00fd Vc.
ul lhc Q3nnBg0CmmlSS0n W3S 3gh3Sl 3S Wcfc 0lVCgfCuQS, 0d lhc
ldc l0undcfcd. 0f yc3fS ll fcm3ncd 3 Q3 n lmO0. ul 3 SmQcf
#
0 l00 08ll0I 0Z000g
D00uS0S 800
0C00lv0S, w08ly0u 00
00l S0CQ y0u 00 00l
g0l.
L
soIutonmay now bctrcd mac thcpIaccattractvc. Thc Procct for
PubIc Spaccs has drahcd a pIan that caIs for, among othcr thngs,
food oss, Iots ofcharsandtabIcs, cxtcnsvcprogrammngofmusc
and cvcnts.
Othcr ctcs havc had smIar probIcms. Cncnnat s onc. ln
FountanSquarcthasthchncstsquarcnthccountry,andthasbccn
rghtIyconccmcdovcrwhathappcnstothcsquarcssurroundngs. For
a dcvcIopcr who pIanncd a hotcI-omcc compIcx, thc cty spcnt 20.7
mIIon cIcarng a stc on thc south an ofthc squarc. ln rctum thc
dcvcIopcr was to provdc a gIass-cncIoscd pubIc spacc as an ndoor
countcrpart.
What thc cty got was tcn thousand squarc fcct of nothng no
bcnchcs, no chars, no tabIcs, no snac facItcs, no amcntcs savc
dspIays at Chrstmas. Thc mayor voccd hs dspIcasurc. So dd thc
rban Dcsgn Rcvcw oard. Thc most vapd ntcror spacc wth
supposcdIy cvc ovcrtoncs lvc cvcr sccn n ths country or cIsc-
whcrc," sad mcmbcr Davd NIand.
hc dcvcIopcr's pcopIc contnucd to thumb thcr noscs. What
thcypromscd,thcysad,wasancxctngpIaccto waIthrough,notto
st n. WouId gucsts of thc Wcstn HotcI Ic to scc r0ra0sttng on
bcnchcs7AgroupofcvcIcadcrscartcdnsomctabIcsandcharsand
stagcdabrownbagst-n. ThcdcvcIopcrwasunmovcd. HcwouIdnot
put n scatng. Hc stII wont.
To rcpcatnmattcrsofzonng nccntvcsandbonuscs, whatyou
do not pcc ou do not ct. And tbcttcrbc n wrtn.
Thc most agrant nosc-thumbng n Ncw Yor was donc by
apartmcnt housc dcvcIopcrs. Thcy wcrc awardcd bonuscs for provd-
ng parIc pubIc spaccsat thcbascofthcrbuIdngs, but thcycus-
tomarIybarrcd thc pubIc from usng thcm. Thcycvn put upspcs
on thc Icdgcs so that pcopIc wouId not st on thcm.
ln !977,as afoIIow-throughtothcpIazaIcgsIaton,thcpIannng
commsson strcngthcncd thczonng toassurc both pubIc acccss and
rctaIng aIong thc strcct rontagc. StII dcvcIopcrs thumbcd thcr
noscs. Around thc comcr from whcrc l Ivc a dcvcIopcr put up a
buIdngwthdummystorcfrontsnstcadofthcrcaI storcsrcqurcdby
thc zonng. Hc nstaIIcd spcs on thc Icdgcs of thc par." Thc cty
has not so much as rappcd hs nucIcs.
Thc cascs l havc bccn dscussng arc oncs whcrc thc dcvcIopcr
wcIshcd. MostdcvcIopcrsddnot. Wthfcwcxccptons, omccbuIdng
dcvcIopcrs provdcd thc stpuIatcd amcntcs. ut thosc cxccptons
wcrc so vsbIc and thcy cstcrcd so Iong that pcopIc got thc dca thc
cty was bcng had on cvcry procct. ltwas not, but thcbcIcfwas to
havcas much todowth thcdscnchantmcntovcrnccntvczonngas
any othcr factor.
7be Rise and Fah o/ 1ncentire Zoning
lnthcIatcscvcntics mattcrs camc to ahcad. Onc aftcrthc othcr,
somc vcry big buiIdings wcrc startcd. Thc cumuIativc ccct worricd
pcopIc whcrcthcbuiIdingswcrctobcchccktoowI,as on

Madison Avcnuc. And whcrcwouIditcnd7ThcpIanning commission


hadbccngrantingsoma

yspcciaIdispcnsationsandruIcchangcsthat
thc two voIumcs ofthc zoningcodc had grown monstrousIy fat.
Civicgroupswcrc up inans. park pcopIc, historicprcscrvation-
ists, architccts, Iandscapc architccts. Ncwspapcrs and magazinc arti-
cIcsscoIdcdthccommission.ThccommissionitscIfbcratcdthcstatcof
zoning. WhcnacoaIitionofgroupsproposcdamaorstudy,afounda-
tion ocrcd to hcIp with a grant ifthc commission wouId tackIc thc
ob. Thc commission acccptcd and in !979 Iaunchcd thc Midtown
oning Study.
As onc of thc pcopIc who had bccn bcchng about thc zoning, l
was put on thc spot by thc commission as a consuItant. My task. to
cvaIuatcthc various inccntivcbonuscs and thcspaccs thcy produccd.
Whichwcrcworking7WhichshouIdbckcpt7Strcngthcncd7Droppcd7
As on thc pIaza study, l uscd timc-Iapsc photography, obscrva-
tion, and simpIc hcad counting to chcck out thc spaccs. lt was not
dimcuIt. ThccvidcnccwasovcrwhcIming. Mostofthcspaccswcrcnot
workingwcII notwcIIcnoughtowarrantthcvcrygcncrous
subsidicsgivcnforthcm.Worscyct,inaniIIconccivcdcorttorcducc
pcdcstrian congcstion on thc strccts," thc pIanncrs wcrc bonusing
pcopIc away from thc strccts.
Hcrc arc thc principaI spaccs and what l found out about thcm.
1hrough-Block Circulation dreas. Thcsc wcrc pIanncr's spaccs.
Thc idca was to rcducc pcdcstran congcstion on thc sidcwaIks by
providing spaccs running through buiIdings. l chcckcd aII of such
spaccs and found that most ofthcpcopIc usingthcm wcrc going into
thcbuiIding. RcmarkabIy fcw pcopIc uscd thcpassagcways as astrcct
to shortcut through. Thcy prcfcrrcd thc rcaI strcct, and cvcn in thc
coIdcstwcathcr. ln!anuary, duringapcriodwhcn250pcopIcanhour
wcrc using thc OIympic Towcr passagcway somc ,5 pcopIc wcrc
using thc paraIIcI sidcwaIk ofFihh Avcnuc.
As for thc rcIicving of congcstion, thcrc was no Icsscning ofthc
ows on thc sidcstrcct sidcwaIks. How couId thcrc havc bccn7 Thc
throughbIock passagcs wcrc not aItcmatvcs to thc sdcwals, but
conncctors. ShortofdcsccndingonthcbuiIdingfromahcIicoptcr, onc
couId not travcrsc with conncctor without using thc sidcwaIks.
1hrough-Block Netuorks. Topromotcnctworksofsuchcorridors,
thc pIanncrs proposcd that whcrc a Iot ran bctwccn two strccts, thc
dcvcIopcrshouIdprovidcathrough-bIockpassagcand, whcrcpossibIc,
Iinc it up with any passagcs on thc othcr sidc of thc strcct. Such
passagcs wouId bc both mandatcd and bonuscd.

L
Thcrc wcrc somc partiaI nctworks aIrcady. Onc Iay in thc Iong
bIocksbctwccnFihhandSixthavcnucsinmidtown.Mostwcrcwithin
omccbuiIdings ofthc l and twohundrcd fcctdccp, with
cIcvators and ncwsstands in thc middIc of thc passagc and, in somc
cascs, rctaiIshopsIiningit.To thcknowIcdgcabIc,thcschavcccrtainIy
bccn an amcnity. Onc can zig and zag most of thc way north from
Forty-sccondtoFihythirdStrcctandbcundcrcovcrabouttwothirds
ofthctimc. MostofthctramcishighIy IocaI.fcwpcopIccvcrtravcrsc
thcwhoIcroutc,mostwiIIbccnroutctodcstinationswithinabIockor
so. ccauscofthcunusuaIIcngthofthccrosstownbIocks,thcpassagcs
scrvc handiIy as shortcuts. ut in totaI, as with most o0-strcct ows,
thcnumbcr ofpcopIcgoingthrough cach passagc wiIIbcsmaII, avcr-
aging about 2 pcopIc pcr hour during o0-pcak hours. Wcrc thcrc
morc conncctions, bcttcr signagc, and thc Iikc, howcvcr, thcrc wouId
undoubtcdIy bc strongcr ows. Thc qucstion is how much ofa pricc
shouId bc paid for thcm.
NopriccshouIdbcpaid. ltiscntircIyinordcrtorcquircabuiIdcr
to providc through-bIock passagcs in throughbIock buiIdings. Why
bonus thcm toboot7 Thc buiIdcrwouIdbc crazy not to providcsuch
passagcs.
drcaJeJ 5iJeualk: ArcadcdsidcwaIksrankhighinthcIitcraturc
ofurbandcsignanditisundcrstandabIcthatinccntivczoningfavorcd
thcm. Europcprovidcs many cxampIcs ofsucccssfuI oncs aIong thc
Ruc dc RivoIi in Paris, for cxampIc, whcrc thc rcadc cmbraccs thc
cntrcwaIkway bctwccn thcbuIdngsand thc carragcway Thc sdc-
waIksbonuscdinNcwYorkarcofadi0crcntm anadditionaIstrip
paraIIcI to thc rcguIar sidcwaIk but rcccsscd within thc buiIding or
covcrcd with a cantiIcvcrcd roof. Thanks to thc arcadcd portion, thc
amountofspacc avaiIabIc for pcdcstrian movcmcnt is about doubIcd,
andthcrcisovcrhcadcovcragainstrainandsnow. To spurdcvcIopcrs
tobuiId continuous scqucnccs ofarcadcd sidcwaIks, a spcciaI LincoIn
Squarc zoning district o0crcd oor-arca bonuscs to dcvcIopcrs of
buiIdings aIong roadway if thcy wouId providc arcadcd sidcwaIks,
and scvcraI did so.
Thcy didnotworkwcII. NorhavcsimiIaroncs cIscwhcrc. PcopIc
arcstubbom. Thcpath thcy foIIow is sctby thc rcguIarsidcwaIk, and
if thcrc arc pcriodic widcnings, thcy do not changc coursc. As timc-
Iapscstudicsshow,thcypcrsistaIongthcoriginaItrack,andthcydoso
cvcn whcn thc pcdcstrian ow is hcavy.
WhyshouIdn'tthcy7Thcpcdcstriansdo notnccdthccxtraspacc,
andtouscitthcywouIdhavctodctour.Thcrcisnoinccntivcforthat.
Thc ovcrhcad covcrkccps out thc rain, it aIso kccps out thc sun and
thcIightofthcsky,andasaconscqucnccarcadcdsidcwaIkstcndtobc
darkandgIoomy. WhiIcitmaybc sacriIcgioustosay so, thisistrucof
somc of thc dark, mcdicvaI passagcs ofltaIian citics.
1be Rise and Fall o/ 1ncentire Zoning
And what happcns whcnit rains7 A surprising numbcrofpcopIc
kccp rght ongoing. lfitrcaIIystarts topour, thcywiIIvccrinwardto
gain covcr, in a Iight drizzIc, savc for thosc who arc going to go into
thcbuiIding, thc maority wiII stick to thc outcr sidcwaIk.
Oncbcncht arcadcdsidcwaIks arc supposcd to providc is abcttcr
scttingforrctaiIshopsandwindowshopping. MostarcadcdsidcwaIks
do fcaturc rctaiIing and that is to thc good. ut thcrc is onc grcat
drawback. Thc cxtra spacc rcccsscs thc shops away from thc main
pcdcstrian strcam. lt is dimcuIt to quantify thc c0cct, but inwaIking
by such pIaccs you wiII notc that thc shops Iic at thc cdgc of oncs
pcriphcraIvision. AIIyouhavctodo,ofcoursc,istumyourhcadand
you'IIsccthcshops. ut notsomanydoso. OccasionaIIy,youwiIIscc
apasscrbydoakindofdoubIctakcandwaIkintowardastorctohavc
a Iook. Thc fact that it took a conscious dccision is a mcasurc ofIost
potcntiaI. Whcn thc shops arc right ncxt to thc passcrsby, thcrc arc
hrsttakcs manyofthcm. Thcrcisan anaIogyhcrctothccntrancc to
apark. WhcnthccntryisvirtuaIIypartofthcsidcwaIk,whcnitiscasy
to turn into, impuIsc usc is frcqucnt. So with window shopping. Thc
bcst pIacc for it is by thc windows.
5hoing ZrcaJes. Most ofthc city's shopping arcadcs wcrc so
poor it was aImost unfair to citc thcm as prototypcs bIcak corridors
going from nowhcrc to nowhcrc, and nothing much in bctwccn. ut
Ictus considcrthc arcadc at itsbcst. Combiningthrough-bIockcircu
Iation with rctaiIing, it can producc a pcdcstrian amcnity of strong
drawing powcr. London' urIington Arcadc is thc most citcd cxam
pIc, thc two bcst in this country arc thc arcadcs of CIcvcIand and
Providcncc.
Thcscwcrcsct upas commcrciaI vcnturcs. Thcy stiIIarc, andthc
discipIincofthcmarkctpIacchasbccnarcasonforthciramcnity.Thcy
havc an cxccIIcnt rcIationship with thc strcct high visibiIity, tightIy
scaIcdwaIkways, astrongscnscof and aIIforsound cconomic
rcasons.
lfthcy arc cconomic, Ict dcvcIopcrs buiId thcm. ut no subsidy
shouIdbcgivcn. lfthchgurcsdonotworkwithoutonc,thcrcisproba-
bIysomcthingwrongwith thc procct,and thccitywouIdbcbcttcro0
ifit was not buiIt. y bonusing o0-strcct shopping, thc city is tiIting
thc scaIcs against on-strcct rctaiIing.
CorereJ PeJestrian Zreas: For thc pIanncrs, thc highcst form of
intcrior spacc was thc atrium, or gaIIcry, or gaIIcria, or court, or, in
thczoningIanguagc,covcrcdpcdcstrianarca.ThcCiticorpatriumwas
an important prototypc. !ust as thc Scagram uiIding had hcIpcd
shapcthcpIazazoning, Citicorpscrvcdasakindofinvcntoryofamc-
niticsforinsidc spaccs. lt hadarooftothcsky, scvcraI IcvcIsofshops
andrcstaurant, andIotsofsittingandbrowsingarcas, and itwaswcII
programmcd with cntcrtainmcnt. lt cvcn had pubIic rcst rooms Scv-

L
craIothcrsucccssfuI pIaccscamcaIongthcWhitncyMuscum'sscuIp-
turc gardcn in thc PhiIip Morris uiIding, thc gardcn and gaIIcry of
thc ncw lM uiIding.
lnanothcrchaptcrl gointothcprosandconsofintcmaI spaccs
thcissucofprivatization,thcdistinction,orIackofonc, bctwccnsuch
spaccs and suburban shopping maIIs. Thcrc is aIso thc probIcm of
succcss scttinginmotionthcdcstructionofthcsurroundingsthcyso
nccd as a foiI.
Thcqucstionathand,howcvcr,wasnotwhcthcratriumscouIdbc
madc to work wcII. ObviousIy, somc workcd vcry wcII. Thc qucstion
waswhcthcrornotthcyshouIdbcbonuscd.lbcIicvcdthcyshouIdnot
bc.
Thc argumcnt isnotagainstatriums through-bIockarcas, or
arcadcdsidcwaIks,orgaIIcrias, as such. Hcrcandthcrcthcycanmakc
scnsc, and if thc voicc of thc markctpIacc tcIIs dcvcIopcrs thcy can
makcmoncyfromthcm,thcywiIIprovidcthcm. utshouIdthcprovi-
sionbcubhc poIicy7Whatcvcrthcirmcrits,thcscspaccsarcan intcr-
naIizationofpubIicspaccandadrainonthcvitaIityofthcstrcct.This
is not what pIanning shouIdbcabout. Thcargumcnt, thcn, is against
payingdcvcIopcrs toprovidcthcsc spaccs againstbonusinga hicrar-
chy of spaccs thc dcnominator of which is that thcy arc withdrawn
from thc strcct, and thc uItimatc succcss of which dcpcnds on with
drawing pcopIc from thc strcct, as wcII.
omcspaccscamcdthcirway.ThcmosttruIypubIicwcrcpIazas,
and anumbcrofthcmwcrcwcIIuscdand cnoycd, particuIarIy thosc
dcsigncd ahcrthc !975guidcIincs wcrc Iaiddown. ltsccmcd inordcr
tokccpthcpIazabonus yct,togoastcpfurthcrandgctdcvcI
opcrs to crcatc smaII urban parks
This was a bom-again idca. Whcn wc wcrc workingon thc !975
pIazaguidcIincs, wcwcrcuncomfortabIy awarcthatinsomcinstanccs
it wouIdbcbcttcr ifdcvcIopcrs did not providc pIazas. As Sixth Avc
nucsstringofpIazashaddcmonstratcd, thcrcsuItcouIdbcabrcakin
thccontinuityofthcstrcctwaIIandasurfcitofspacc. AsmaIIcrspacc
bcttcr Iocatcd wouId bc much prcfcrabIc.
Why not, somconc suggcstcd, givc abonus forust that an o0
sitc spacc7 A dcvcIopcr with an avcnuc sitc couId gct hisbonus ifhc
wouId hnd a smaII sitc on a ncarby sidc strcct, providc a PaIcy-
Grccnacrctypc park, and maintainit. ltwouIdbc agood dcaIforaII
conccrncd. ThcdcvcIopcrcouIdtransfcrthcunuscdairrightsovcrthc
parktohisbuiIdingsitc,thcrcbygcttinghisadditionaIavcnucspaccat
sidcstrcctpriccs. ThccitywouIdgctasmaIIparkat thchighcstordcr
ofamcnity, and without thcburdcn ofmaintaining it.
Wc wcrcstiIIcongratuIatingourscIvcsonthissurchrcidcawhcna
1be Rise and Fah o/ 1ncentire Zoning
snag dcvcIopcd. ScvcraI mcmbcrs of Community oard 5, which
had usdiction ovcr midtown, obcctcd to thc park idca. Thc
thought it wouIdbc too good a dcaI for dcvcIopcrs. Thcy obcctcd to
ust about cvcrything cIsc bcing rccommcndcd our goaIs,
which thcy wcrc for 5 pcrccnt, right down thc Iinc. With support
Iikc this, it Iookcd as ifthc whoIc packagc ofproposaIs wouId faiI to
pass thc citys oard ofEstimatc.

To scc to it that it wouId pass, thcn pIanning chairman !ohn


uccotti ocrcd a compromisctooard 5. Hc wouId withdrawthc
urban park provision for furthcr study and postponc any rcintroduc-
tiontoaIatcrdatc. oard 5 acccptcd thccompromisc and rcsumcd
thc hght against thc proposaIs. FortunatcIy, this was thc onIy rcaI
opposition and thc oard ofEstimatc votcd approvaI.
Now,in ! 9&2,itwasthat Iatcrdatc.Thctimingwasfortuitous.A
smaIIparkustIikcthatcnvisioncdinthcproposaIhadbccnprovidcd
by thc lntcrnationaI Papcr Company as part ofa buiIding-and-pIaza
rcnovation. Thc park had cvcrything pIus thc kitchcn sink gourmct
food kitchcn, chairs, tabIcs, umbrcIIas, fountains, trccs, sun,azz, and
Iots and Iots of pcopIc cnoying it aII. Thcrc couId not havc bccn a
bcttcrdcmonstration ofthcbcnchts ofsuch a spacc.
SavcforthoscforthcpIazaand urban park, l rccommcndcdthat
aII thc bonuscs bc droppcd. Whcrc a basic pubIic bcncht was con-
ccmcd,itshouIdnothavctohavcabonusdangIcdforthcprovidingof
it. ltshouIdbcmandatcd. lfabuiIdinghascntranccsontwostrccts,a
pcrson oughtto bcabIctowaIkthrough, and withoutabonushaving
bccn givcn thc dcvcIopcr for vouchsahng thc conncction.
AIotofthcbon uscdspaccsarcgIorihcdIobbyspaccs. DcvcIopcrs
and corporations havc bccn quitc wiIIing to spcnd thcir moncy for
imprcssivc oncs, and thcy shouId not havc to bc givcn inccntivcs to
boot. Thc samc is truc of storcs at strcct IcvcI. This is vitaI for thc
bIockfront,forthcbuiIdingsncighbors, fordowntowningcncraI,and
buiIdingowncrscanmakcmoncy byprovidingthcm. ThcrcshouIdbc
no nccd to givc thcm a bonus for doing so.
Thc nccd is thc othcr way around to mandatc thosc amcnitics
that shouId bc mandatcd storcs, gIass you can scc through, ncws-
stands, rcst rooms, snack tacltcs. And placcs to st. Vhy pay dcvcl-
opcrs not to put spikcs on Icdgcs7 Or to buiId Icdgcs that arc not so
high you cannot sit on thcm7 ln Rcnaissancc ltaIy, buiIdings wcrc
rcquircd to makcsomcobcisanccto communaI uscfuIncss. Wc shouId
ask as much.
lt wouId IikcIy bc givcn. DcvcIopcrs arc a pragmatic Iot. Oncc
somcthing gcts on thc books, that is that thcy havc othcr things to
worry about than to rchght oId battIcs. During thc !975hcarings on
L0v000IS 8I0 8
I8g08IlC 0I. L0C0 8
I0ulI0000I lS 00 I00
D00KS, I08I lS I08I.
00y 08v0 0I00I I0l0gS
I0 w0IQ 8D0uI.
9 m

L
tghtcr zonng gudcIncs for opcn spaccs, thcrc was dcvcIopcr tcst-
mony that such addtonaI amcntcs as orc trccs couId tp a man
ntobanruptcy. utn aII thctmc snccthcn, nodcvcIopcrhascvcr
rascd obcctons to thc rcqurcmcnts for scatng and trccs. lndccd,
acccptancc ofmostofthcst0crrcqurcmcntshasbccn soungrudgng
that onc fccIs a bt Ic dcvcIopcrs whosc buIdngs havc rcntcd out
fastcr than thcy cxpcctcd. Thc prcc must havcbccn tooIow.
ln thcr prvatcstratcgy scssons, dcvcIopcrs donotfrct ovcrcx-
actons that arc n thc Iaw. What thcy dscuss s thcr faIIbac pos
tonsonoptonaItcms. WhatwIIthcywIIngIygvc7WhatonIyasa
Iast rcsort7 ShaII thcy hoId out on that thrd cscaIator thc pIanncrs
want7 Or throw tn carIy7
MoraI what youdo not as for, you do not gct. As.
ln l, thcpIannngcommssoncamcthroughwtha
rcvson of mdtown zonng. lt ascd a Iot. lt downzoncd mdtown,
rcducngoorarcaratosfromarangcof l-l. tooncof l -l. On
thcWcstSdc,whcrcthcpIanncrswantcddcvcIopcrstogo, ratoswcrc
Ich hghcr.
Wthtwocxccptons thoscforpIazasandurban
wcrcdroppcd. ThcbonusforapIazawasrcduccdfromanf.a.r.ofJ to
an f. a.r. of l . Lccway was Icft for atrums n spccaI cascs, and for
arcadcs n thc thcatrc dstrct.
ThcpIannngcommssongottoughcraboutamcntcs. lnstcadof
gvngbonuscsforthcm, tmandatcdthcm. WhcrcabuIdngfrontcd
ontwosdcstrccts,forcxampIc, thcdcvcIopcrwasrcqurcdtoprovdc
athrough-bIocconnccton.SncctwouIdbstupdofhmnotto,thc
commsson dccdcd tshouId not gvchm a bonus toboot.
Thc commsson mandatcdrctaIcontnutyaIong thcstrcctwaII,
wth storcs drcctIy acccssbIc from thc strcct and wth fronts ofscc-
through gIass. Thc commsson mandatcd morc and bggcr trccs. ln
stcadofthcsmpysapIngssoohcnpIantcd,thczonngspcchcdtrccs
ofa mnmum caIpcr offour nchcs, n gratngs ush to gradc, and
wth at Icast two hundrcd cubc fcct ofsoI pcrtrcc. Ths mcant that
dcvcIopcrscouIdnotpaImo0IttIctrccs n tubs, whchmanyIcdto
dosothcrcwouIdmorcspaccundcmcathforcars.Nowthcyhadto
dg.
FnaIIy, thccommssonsad twas gong to swcaro0ncgotatcd
zonng. Scptcs had hcard

ths bcforc andwcrcsurc thc commsson


wouId rcvcrt to ts oId ways. ut t was as good as ts word. ln thc
ycarsust aftcrthcpassagc ofthc rcvscd zonng, mostbuIdng pro-
ccts n mdtown wcnt through as-of-rght, wth no changcs ascd or

gvcn.
ut thcn, an cxccpton hcrc, an cxccpton thcrc, and ncgotatcd
7he Rise and Fah o/ 1ncentire Zoning
zonngwas back. Thc troubIcwas, thccxccptonswcrcfor bgbuId-
ngs Cty Sprc, Saks towcr addton, Coty-zzoI. Thcn thcrc ws
thc CoIscum procct, cxcmpt from any zonng at aII sncc thc cty
tscIfowncd thc stc. lt sct thc tcrms, too, and wth an avarcc un-
matchcd by aII but a fcw dcvcIopcrs.
ut thc pIannng commsson dcscrvcs kudos. lt saw that thc
zonng had gonc awry and t took stcps to sct mattcrs rght. ut a
qucston rcmans. ow was t that thc zonng got sovcry awry7 Onc
schIofthoughthoIdsthatnccntvczonngwasagooddcathatwas
awcd n cxccuton. pto apontths maybctruc, butthcrc wIIbc
no ad homncm argumcnt hcrc. Thc pIanncrs nvoIv havc cn of
top caIbrc, ndccd, thcy madc thc ctys urban dcsgn program thc
outstandng onc n thc country. Though thcrc havc bn changcs n
thc cast ovcrthcycars, thc samc probIcmshavckcptcomngup, and
thcy havc comc up n othcr ctcs, too.
Thc basc aw has bccn n thc nccntvc zonng prcss. lt was
bound togowhcrc t has. Ths shndsght, tobc surc, but thcrcs a
prncpIc ofsomc tmcIcssncss nvoIvcd. lfa standard s hcId up, and
thcnthoscwhohcIdtupcncouragcadcparturcfromthatstandard,a
scrcs ofconscqucnccs s sct n moton. Thc cxccptons bcgct cxccp-
tons, and markct prcssurcs spraI prcssurcs that conhrm thc
trcnd and warp thcudgmcnt ofthoscwho shouId rcsst t.
utthcrc s a contrary way ofIookng at t. lnccntvc zonng, t
couIdbc sad, was a bad dca, buttwas good twas trcd. For thcrc
arc pIuscs to count. Thc zonng has crcatcd manyopcn spaccs n thc
corc ofthc cty that wouId not othcrwsc havc bccn crcatcd. lt has
promptcdamarkcdmprovcmcntnthcprovsonofpIaccstost,and
morc tostundcr. lthas promptcdthccrcaton ofndoorpubIc
spaccs, scvcraI ofthcm ofoutstandng amcnty.
Thc costs7 Thc vaIuc to buIdcrs ofcxtra oor spacc gancd by
bonuscshasbccn nthchundrcdsofmIIonsofdoIIarsThsof
tscIfs not ncccssarIy bad. What s far morc mportant s what thc
pubIc has bccn gcttng n rctum. That, unfortunatcIy, has bccn too
IttIc.SomcofthcspaccshavcbccnwcIIdcsgncdandwcIIuscd,morc
havc not.
ut thc Iargcrcosts ofnccntvc zonng havc bccn n thc Ioss of
thc most basc ofamcntcs sun and Ight. lts a Ioss that s rarcIy
countcd. Thc stock apoIoga s that thc shadows arc rcdundant"
that s, thcyfaII nshadows aIrcadythcrc, andfthcrcarcafcw morc
to comc, thcy arcnt gong to makc any d0crcncc. utthcy wII.
Fhccnf.a.r.snomagchgurc,buttdocssccmacrtcaIthrcsh-
oId asfarassunIghtsconccmcd. ltswhcnbuIdngsgobcyondths
to f.a.r. and abovc, to forty and hfty storcs that thc shadows
L00 SC000 0 l00U0l
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l008 08w00 l0
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D8SlC 08w 08S D000 l0
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grow so big, and thc abandonmcnt of thc oId hcight and sctback rc-
quircmcnts insurcs that thc darkcning wiII bc acccntuatcd. As l takc
up in thc chaptcr on sun and Iight, it is not onIy thc Ioss of dircct
sunIight that hurts, but ofsccondary Iight. For aII practicaI purposcs
most ofthc light in midtown Ncw York ahcr J .m. is rccctcd Iight,
and it is thc loss ofthis that is most kccnIy fcIt.
Thc Iosscs arc paIpabIc. Oncofthc sightsthat ncvcrshouIdbc is
PaIcy Parkin thcdark in midahcrnoon. Evcn at thcsummcrsoIsticc,
whcnthcbigbuiIdingsarcinfuIIsun,PaIcyissodarkthcIightsonthc
watcrwaII arc turncd on.
Do thc amcnitics that wcrc bonuscd o0sct thc Ioss of sun and
Iight7ltishard toquantify thcIossand assignitavaIuc,butwhatwc
scc in front ofus indicatcs that thcrc is no fairo0sct. As amattcrof
Iogic, couId thcrcbc onc7 A particuIar amcnity docs not compcnsatc
for thc c0ccts of thc cxtra buIk of a buiIding. Thcsc c0ccts and thc
amcnity arc indcpcndcnt of cach othcr. No mattcr how pIcasant an
atrium might bc for thosc who usc it, it docs not itscIf tcmpcr thc
downdraftsinduccdbythctowcr. ltdocsnottcmpcrthcshadowscast
byit.ymakingthcshadowspossibIc, indccd,thcbonusmaydomorc
ham to somc pcopIc than it docs good to othcrs. And supposc it
wasn'tcvcnagoodatrium7Thco0sct conccptisasIoppy rathcr
Iikc robbing Pctcr to pay PauI, but without conccding thc robbcry.
Anothcr cost is thc vitaIity ofthc strcct. ln thc namc offrccing
pcopIcfrom congcstiononthcsidcwaIks, pIanncrshavcbccnbonusing
thcmawayfromthcsidcwaIks tointcmaIspaccsthatarcpubIic,but
not quitc pubIic. lt is a pcrvcrsc kind of urban dcsign, and thc bcst
thing about it is that in mostcascs it has not workcd. ltwouIdbc far
worsc for thc city ifithad.
Anothcr qucstion rcmains. EvcntuaIIy thc commission saw what
had to bc donc. ut why did it takc so Iong to gct around to it7
Rcscarch was not thc probIcm. Answcring thc kcy qucstions was
IargcIy amattcrofgoingoutonthcstrcctandIooking,and thiscouId
havc bccn donc anytimc. On thc mattcrofthc arcadcd sidcwaIks, for
cxampIc,ittookabouttwodays'worktodctcrmincthatthcywcrcnot
workingand why. CaIcndartimc, howcvcr, wassomcthing cIscagain.
That was mcasurcd in ycars twcIvc in thc casc ofthc arcadcd sidc-
waIks.
Thc probIcm isasking thc qucstions. Somcthirtccnycars cIapscd
aftcr thc pIaza bonus was cstabIishcd bcforc thc commission got
aroundtoconsidcringhowthcplazaswcrcworkingout.Thc twodays
ofwork on thc arcadcd sidcwaIks couId as casiIy havc bccn donc in
!972 as in !9&2, and it wouIdhavc bccn most hcIpfuI tothc commis-
sion ifit had bccn.


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h3S lS BSQc0l0f 0Bcf8lS, muB0Q8 0VcmcBlS lhcf 00mQlf0lcfS,
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ul lS cXlf30uff0u3f, 0nlhc0Wnlmc. hcDuSy W0fK 0lQ3nnng
h3S n0 f00m l0f 0DScfV3l0n, m0Sl 0cfl8ny n0l l l 00ud Dc 0l 3
8dVcfS3fy n3lufc. Lnc 00uld V0lunlccf, 0l00ufSc. L0n0cV3Dy, 3 Sl3R
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l S l0f W3nl 0lSuSl3ncd 0DScfV3l0n lh3l lhc lmc 3g DclWccn
l3ufc 0l 3n 3QQf030h 3nd fc00gnl0n 0l l h3S Dccn S0 3WcS0mcy
0ng. 0nSdcf lhc m3]0f mSl3KcS Wc h3Vc m3dc n 0ly Q3nnng 3nd
h0W 0ng Wc0ung l0 lhcm. 0 Wc h3Vc l0 3l l0f lhc dyn3mlng 0l
lhc full-g0c h0uSng Qf0]c0l n bl. 0uS l0 Scc lh3l lhc dcSgn
3QQf030h W3S Wf0ng t0f yc3fS cVdcn0c h3d Dccn m0unlng lh3l 00-
0ncS 0lhgh-fSc l0WcfS Wcfc n0 W3y l0 h0uSc l3mcS. d Wc h3Vc
l0 cndufc lhc cVS0cf8l0n 0l0uf 0cnlcf 0lcS hc dcSlfu0lVc cRc0lS
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cd h0W 3 lhc d0Wnl0Wn SQ30cS Wcfc Dcn uScd, 3nd lhcy Slcncd
lhcf fcQufcmcnlS 0n lhc D3SS 0l Wh3l lhcy S3W. Mcfc 3nd lhcfc,
un0uDlcdy, lhcfc mghl Dc 8 lcW m0fc c3mQcS.
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quitc profcssionaI. groups such as thc MunicipaI Art Socicty ofNcw
Yorkarc forcvcrputtinganaonarchitctsandIawycrs andvarious
spcciaIists to do work, and for frcc. ut thc Iaymcn can bc ust as
vaIuabIc. cinguntutorcdinsophisticatcdpIanninganaIysis,thcytcnd
to ask simpIc qucstions and to do a Iot ofIooking.
Lct mc concIudc with thrcc cxampIcs cIosc to homc. Onc is thc
downzoning of thc ppcr East Sidc. Ncighborhood groups bcIicvcd
thatthcmodcratcscaIcofthcsidcstrccts shouIdbcgivcnrcaI protcc
tion. SodidthcpIanningcommission.Adownzoning,howcvcr,wouId
rcquirc dctaiIcd study ofsomc two hundrcd bIocks ifit was to stand
up. At thc momcnt thc commission had ncithcr thc budgct nor thc
sta0 pcopIc to tackIc thc ob. HaIina RoscnthaI, Prcsidcnt of thc
Fricnds of thc ppcr East Sidc Historic Districts, said hcr pcopIc
wouId do thcob thcmscIvcs. Shc organizcd a corps ofvoIuntccr ob-
scrvcrs. Iockby bIock, thcy carcfuIIy rccordcd thc hcights ofbuiId
ings, currcnt usc, and othcr data. At thc cnd of hvc months thcy
prcscntcd thc compIctcd rcport to thc pIanning commission. lt rc-
spondcdinkind.Withinafcw monthsthccommissiondownzoncdthc
midbIocks ofmost ofthc sidc strccts ofthc ppcr East Sidc. Hcncc-
forth,buiIdingscouIdbcnohighcrthanthcwidthofthcrightof-way,
orsixty fcct thc samc proportion, bythc way, thc FrcnchIaiddown
for Paris avcnucs in thc l .
Anothcr cxampIc of citizcn input is thc casc of thc ovcrsizcd
sprc. 1t camc about bccausc Cty C!ub prcsdcnt bally Coogold
watchcda softbaII gamconc day in CcntraI Park. From thcdiamond
shc saw thc cIustcr of towcrs going up by Camcgic HaII in a ncw
pcrspcctivc. Oncofthctowcrs City Spirc Iookcdtohcrto b abit
highcr than an cxisting buiIding, thc hcight ofwhich shc kncw. And
CitySpircwas notsupposcdtobcthathigh. Shcmcntioncdthcpoint
tohcrfcIIowwatchcrs.Neu Xrk Magazine gotwindofitandchcckcd
intothcmattcr.Surccnough,thctowcrwastoohigh twcIvcanda
haIf fcct. Thc city was shockcd. Naughty. Naughty lt sIappcd thc
dcvcIopcr smartIy on thc wrist. Hc couId kccp thc spirc, but as pcn-
ancc hc wouId havc to buiId additionaI spacc for community dancc
groups to usc.
A simiIar casc was thc ovcrbuiIt towcr at !0& East Nincty-sixth
Strcct. Gcnic Ricc, hcad ofthc civic group CllTAS, suspcctcd that
thc dcvcIopcr was going to buiId it highcr than thc zoning aIIowcd.
ChcckingthcomciaIdocumcnts, shcfoundthat bccauscofamisintcr-
prctationofthczoningmapthcbuiIdingwas indccdgoingtogohighcr
by somctwcIvcstorics. ThcbuiIdingdcpartmcnt rcscindcd thcpcr-
mit. Thc dcvcIopcr appcaIcd and procccdcd to buiId thc cxtra cight
storics. CllTAS was out for bIood. Thc Ncw York Statc Suprcmc
7he Rise and Fah o/ 1ncentire Zoning
Court ruIcd that thc storics wouId havc to comc down. Again thc
dcvcIopcr appcaIcd, and thc mattcr wcnt to thc appcIIatc court. Thc
court has not yct ruIcd. Whichcvcr way, it is possibIc thc dcvcIopcr
wiII cnd upcquitabIy hcads hc wins, taiIs hc docs not Iosc.
Thcsc cascs arc toomixcd up to yicId aIargcmoraI. utthcydo
rcitcratca point. ltiswhcn civic groups and citizcnsbccomctoosup
portivc, tooundcrstanding, thatpIanning and zoning go tohcII. Mat-
tcrs don't gct sct right untiI thcy bccomc impaticnt, angry, mcddIc-
somc, most important, whcn thcy go out and Iook.
U.5. Cl0S 08v0 D000
deSlrOyn lher Sun
800 hg0l8l80
8CC00I8l0g C. Ul
0000 08S D000 000g l
00 SUC0 8 08SSv0
SC80, wl0 00I0
l0C00C8 08Sl0Q, 800
wl0 SUC0 8
S00SlC8l00 S0l 0
U80 00Sg0 l00S 8S
N0w Y0IK LQ.
L.b. citicshavcbccn dcstroying thcirsun and Iight at an acccIcrating
cIi. ut nonchavcbccn doing it on such a massivc scaIc, with morc
tcchnicaI mastcry, and with such a sophisticatcd sct ofurban dcsign
tooIs as Ncw York City. And nonc, of coursc, havc had such a big
hcadstart. ForciticsthatstiIIhavcsomcsunlcft, NcwYorkhas many
Icssons.
ThcgrcatbuiIdingboomthatbcganinthc l 9Iaidthcground-
workbutitdiditincrcmcntaIIy,abuiIdinghcrc,abuiIdingthcrc.Ncw
Yorkcrs arcvcry adatabIc ycarby ycarfcw noticcdthc IossofIight.
utthcIosswasgrcat. SucccssvcacraI hotosshow thatbythcmid-
scvcntics thcrc had bccn a dramatic incrcasc in shadow arca. Thcrc
wcrc stiII somc cmty saccs and Iowrisc buiIdings that Ict through
patchcs of sunIight. ut thc grcat buIk of midtown was in shadow
from midahcmoon on.
Thcn thc nichcs wcrc hIIcd in. On thc sidc strccts morc ofthc
IimcstoncandbrownstoncbuiIdingswcrcdcmoIishcdtomakcwayfor
highrisc buiIdings, so, on thc avcnucs, highrisc buiIdings to makc
wayfor highcrriscbuiIdings. Thc gamc is notyct ovcr. Fifth Avcnuc
isstiIIagIoriousIyIitstrcct.AfcwIow-riscbIocksrcmain. utustthc
buiIdings now undcrconstruction arc going to havc profound c0ccts.
ThcmostcrvasivcIoss hasbccnofsccondaryIight.Thcshadows
3an and 3hadoa
ofncwbuiIdings, it uscd to bc said, faII on thc shadows ofoIdbuiId-
ngs and thcrc s thus IttIc Iost. ut ths s not so. hc shadows arc
z
compoundcd and thcrc is a markcd diminishmcnt ofIight. Thc dark
pIaccsgct darkcrstiII. ltisnotustthcIoss ofsunthatiscriticaI it is
thcIossofskyovcrhcad, ofthcIightthatmakcsthcdicrcnccbctwccn
bcing in shadow and bcing at thc bottom ofawcII.
Ncw Yorkscourschasbccnarcgrcssivconc. ndcrthcoIdruIcs
manytaIIbuiIdingswcrcbuiIt, suchasthcEmpircStatcuiIdingand
thc ChrysIcruiIding. utthcy wcrcrcIativcIy sIim. Thc towcrs wcrc
sct wcIIbackfromthcstrcct andthcycovcrcd onIy a part ofthc sitc.
Now thcrc arc sIabs, oftcn with no sctbacks at aII, but rising straight
up.Worsc,somcarcsooricntcdthatthcccct,ifnotthcintcntion,isa
maximum bIockagc of sun. Thcy do not knifc into thc sun, thcy sit
broadsidc to it and cast hugc shadows to thc north.
As notcd in thc chaptcr on inccntivc zoning, somc ofthc Iost
sunIight was bonuscd away. A primc casc in point is PaIcy Park on
East5JrdStrcct. ln lJ, adcvcIopcrputupaspccuIativcomccbuiId-
ing dircctIy to thc south of PaIcy Park. To gain additionaI buIk
through inccntivc bonuscs, thc dcvcIopcr providcd somc opcn spacc
and a through-bIock arcadc. lt providcs a shortcut for pcdcstrians,
scvcraIshops, andaniccvisuaIapproachtoPaIcy Park inshadowin
midahcmoon bccausc ofthcbuiIding that wcnt up highcrbccausc of
inccntivcbonuscs for thc arcadc.
To bcfair, it shouIdbcnotcd thataImostany omccbuiIdingthat
couId havc bccn buiItthcrc wouIdhavcbIockcdPaIcys sunIight. ut
that is ust thc probIcm. AImost any ncw buiIding couId havc bccn
buiIt thcrc. Thc zoning providcd no protcction for thc smaIIcr-scaIc
sidcstrccts ltwouId Iatcr, bywhich timcmostofthc rcmaining sitcs
wouId havcbccn dcvcIopcd.
ln Ncw York, as in most citics, zoning did makc provisions for
sun and Iight. lt outIawcd thc Iikcs of thc oId EquitabIc uiIding,
which rosc straight up from thc strcct. Thc ordinanccs prcscribcd an
imaginary cxposurc pIanc sIoping back from thc strccts, as buiIdings
wcnthighcr, thcy hadtobc sctback from thisIinc sothcy wouId not
vioIatc it.
Thcrc is a paraIIcI to thc cvoIution of zoning in Paris. ln thc
cightccnth ccntury thc citydccrccd thatbuiIdinghcightsbcrcIatcd to
thcwidth ofthcstrccts Iow on narrow strccts, highcronwidcroncs.
aron aussmann continucd thc principIc in his rcconstruction. ln
succccdingycars, thczoningwaspcriodicaIIymodihcdchangcs inthc
widthhcightratiosaIIowcd thccomiccIincto goupabit, and thcn a
bitmorc. Ncxtthc arca abovc thc cornicc Iincwas cxpandcdby man-
l DUl0l0S C8Sl Dl
S0800wS. l0I
DUl0l0S C8Sl Dl0I
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L
sarding, and thcn somc morc. EvcnuaIIy aImost as much buIk couId
bc constructcd abovc thc oId Iimit as bcIow it.
Thc samc kind of tinkcring took pIacc in Ncw York in a much
hortcr timc. lncrcaingIy thc pIanncr modihcd thc hcight and ct-
back rcguIations, and bcforc Iong thcy waivcd thcm aItogcthcr. Sky
cxposurcpIancsbccamctruIyimaginary.Outofrccx, dcvcIopcrstiII
hIcd diagrams ofthcm with pIans that cIcarIy vioIatcd thcm.
With sun tabIcs, computcr maps, scaIc modcIs and a touch of
art it is possibIctodcrivcfarmorcIightandIcssshadowfrom struc-
turcs ofa givcn sizc than is now thc cac. Howcvcr, bcforc taking up
thcsctcchniqucs, Ictoncpointbcrcamrmcd. GivcnsizciscruciaI. ig
buiIdings cast big shadows. iggcr buiIdings cast biggcr shadows.
Thcrc isnooptimum cuto0, but Ncw York's originaIIimitof ! 5f. a.r.
was a rcasonabIc cciIing. uiIdings of that dcnsity can cast pIcnty of
shadow, butmuchofthis isabsorbcdby strcctandavcnuc spacc. ltis
whcn thc buiIdings go highcr and fattcr that rcaI damagc i donc.
Whcn buiIding hcights arc routincIy incrcascd to forty and hhy sto-
rics,thcshadowimpactsarcgrcatIyincrcascd. Forthosconthcrccciv-
ing cnd thcchangcis not onc ofdcgrcc, it maybc absoIutc. Thcy had
sun now thcy havc nonc.
What is nccdcd i soIar zoning. Givcn a scnsibIc Iimitation on
buIk, wc can not onIy rcducc matcriaIIy thc bIocking ofunIight but
incrcasc thc bcnchccnt rccction ofit. Wc can cvcn manipIatc and
rcdircct it to pIaccs that had no sun bcforc. ln thc proccss wc may
producc somc ncwbuiIding shapcs, ccccntric and ccctivc.
Thc most comprchcnsivc approach hasbccn thc dcvcIopmcnt of
thc soIar cnvcIopc. Thc pionccr in this has bccn RaIph nowIc of
SC. Hc has conccivcd thc cnvcIopc as an imaginary containcr that
wouId rcguIatc dcvcIopmcnt in tcrms of timc as wcII as spacc. Thc
convcntionaI sky cxposurc pIanc puts upward and outward Iimits on
thcsizcofbuiIdings. ThcsoIarcnvcIopcdocstoo,butwiththcimpor-
tant di0crcncc that ittaiIors thcsc Iimits to aIIow as much sunIightas
posibIcto faII on othcr buiIdings.
Thc chicf appIication so far has bccn for soIar cncrgy, zoning
cnvcIopcs havc bccn dcviscd for rcsidcntiaI construction so that cach
houscwiIIIctpIcntyofsunfaIIonncighbors'rooftopsandsoIarcoIIcc-
tors. A numbcr of citics in thc Suthwcst havc adoptcd soIar zoning
ordinanccsto thiscnd. A grcat dcaI ofIcgaI and tcchnicaI homcwork
ha bccn donc on this kind of soIar acccss, and thcrc is rcason to
cxpcct much widcr appIication in thcycars ahcad.
MostofthcworktoassurcsunhasbccndoncinpIaccswhcrchc
sun is casicst to comc by. ccping suburban houscs Iow is no grcat
probIcm.WhatisfarmorcdimcuItisthcappIicationofsoIarzoningto
San and Shadoa
citics. Thc workisonIybcginning. nowIcshasbccn dcvcIopingzon-
ng modcIs for parts ofLos AngcIcs. Thc NationaI urcau of Stan
dards hasbccn funding somc dcmonstration proccts to cxpIorc soIar
cncrgy opportuniticsin such cnvironmcntsassuburban shoppingccn-
tcrs and omcc parks. With thc rcdcvcIopmcnt authority ofaItimorc,
ithasbccnstudyinghowthcgcomctryofaIow-risccommcrciaIbIock
accts sun and hcat and Iight.
OnIy IatcIy, howcvcr, has attcntion bccn dircctcd to soIar acccss
in thc ccntcr ofthc city. Not surprisingIy, onc ofthc bcst corts has
bccninacityfartothcnorth, Canada'sCaIgary.Sittingasitdocsona
highpIatcauatIatitudchhyoncdcgrccsnorth,ithasamostdiscipIin-
ing cIimatc. Thcwindsarcoftcnhcrcc, thcwintcrtcmpcraturcsrangc
aroundfortybcIow IowcrwhcnitrcaIIygctscoId. utthcskycanbc
startIingIycIcarandthcrcisIotsofsunIight,thcmostofanyCanadian
city.
ltcomcsinataIowangIc,howcvcr.ThismcansthatbigbuiIdings
cancast vcry Iongshadows. AtthcwintcrsoIsticc, thcCaIgaryTowcr
castsashadowcightbIocksacrossdowntown. SinccCaIgaryhasIatcIy
bccn putting up morc big buiIdings, it has probIcms it oncc had not.
utithasIcamcd. Foroncthing,ithasadoptcdstringcntsoIarzoning
guidcIincs. Forcachstrcct andavcnucthcrcarc dctaiIcd prcscriptions
ofangIcs and pIancs that must bc obscrvcd by buiIdcrs to assurc thc
passagc ofsunIight. SoIar zoning cnvcIopcs arc shapcd so that buiId
ings to thc south of pubIic opcn spaccs wiII faII within an angIc of
thirty-scvcn dcgrccs thc sun angIc at ! ! A. m. at thc cquinox.
ThcmunicipaIgovcmmcntispracticingwhatitprcachcs. ltsncw
MunicipaI uiIding is taiIorcd to thc sun. On thc sunward sidc, thc
buiIding is at its taIIcst thirtccn storics. From thcrc it is tcrraccd
down, a oor at a timc, untiI it is thrcc storcs high. Thc angIc is
thirtyscvcn dcgrccs. This is cnough to aIIow thc sun to faII on thc
opcn spaccs bcyond from ! ! A.m. to J .m. at thc cquinox, and for
most ofthc day in Iatc spring and summcr.
Anothcr northcm city put in soIar zoning bccausc of gIarc.
Thanks to a combination ofIow sun angIcs and somc ncw glass-waII
towcrs, citizcns of ScattIc found thcy wcrc squinting into rccctcd
sunIight a Iot morc than bcforc.
A ncw HiIton HotcI brought mattcrs toa hcad. Thc citys cnvi-
ronmcntaI rcvicw of thc procct had dctcrmincd that thc buiIding
wouId havc no advcrsc cccts. ut no sooncr was it hnishcd thcn thc
ccctsbccamcbIindingIyapparcnt. ltsgIasswaIIsbIastcdIightdowna
kcy strctch ofthc intcrstatc frccway Icading into town, during mom
ing rush hours in wintcr, thc sun camc in at such a Iow angIc that it
was rccctcd dircctIy into drivcrs' cycs. SIowdowns Icd to massivc
tramcams.
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1c maximize theaaaae c[aunliht, Calaq'a newcit] hallia alced dcwn at
an anle c[ thirt]-aeven dereea.
Thcsc rccctions could havcbccn prcdictcd had anyonc thought
to do so, and n I7 thc cty counc passcd a law rcqurng that
hcnccforth such mattcrs bc thought of. All proposcd construction
must bc rcvicwcd to scc what advcrsc impacts thcrc might bc from
light and glarc, and thcsc must bc mitigatcdby rcdcsign.
Fcwciticshavchadccctivchcightlimitationsandstucktothcm.
Parisdid, inthcscvcntccnthccntury,butit latcrblcwitsadvantagcby
chcating abovc thccornicc linc. Flcxibility has bccn thcproblcm. Dc
vclopcrs and architccts and thc rcal cstatc marct adust to
almostanylcvcl, solong as itis thclcvcl, and no monkcy busincss. lt
isthcanticipationofadustmcntsandcxccptionsandwavcringmunic
ipal wills that scnd land priccs highcr, and, in tum, thc buildings.
ut onc Amcrican city had a vcry succcssful hcight limitation.
Philadclphia. lt wassucccssfulbccausc it wasarbitrary. ln thc words
ofplanncr Edmund acon, "A maor linc, unprcccdcntcd in history,
crcatcd not by law but by conscnsus. lt is thc linc abovc which no
buildinghasriscn. "ltis thchcightofWilliamPcnn'sstatucatopCity
Hall 9! fcct.
Thcrc was no lcgal basis for this hgurc, no rationalc bascd on
oorarca ratios or sky cxposurc plancs or such. lt was ust that it
n 0nd h0d0n
Sccmcd SuQfcmcy fghl lh3l lhc l3cSl Dudng n lhc 0ly Dc lS 0ly
h, tht t DC n thC VCty CCntCt O thC Cty, nd tht t DC CtCWnCd
Wlh 3 Sl3luc 0lhc 0ly S WSc l0uUdct.
nd V l lccl S 3 0l 0lccl 0t 0y Sl0fcS 3nd 3 Vcfy
00ml0fl3Oc ml l0f ScVcf3 gcnct3l0nS 0lOudcfS. Mcghl BgufcS 0l
h3dcQh3 0B0c DudngS nd03lc lh3l lcW 0l lhcm h3d Dccn
QfcSScd uQ 3g3nSl lhc ml.
n l VJ dcVc0Qcf 3fd 0uSc f0Q0Scd 3 00mQcX lh3l W0ud
Ofc3h lhc ml, 3nd 00nSdcf3Oy S0 lW0 l0WcfS, 0nc 0l lccl,
3n0lhc 0l lccl. hc 0W 3lcfn3lVc W0ud Dc lhfcc l0Wcf 0l V l
lccl Wllhn lc lml, Dul DuKcf.
hcfc W3S 3 Dg 0lV0 0ul0fy. ul lhcfc W3S 3S0 SuQQ0fl l0f lhc
hgh DudBgS. N3ny h3dcQh3nS S3d l W3S lmc lhc 0ly Shcd lS
Sl0dgy m3gc, lh3l l W0ud Oc g00d l0 h3Vc S0mc fc3y Og DudngS,
3S cW 0fK dd. l W0ud ScfVc n0l0c lh3l h3dcQh3 W3S Og lmc
U0W, n0l 3 SccQy u3Kcf l0Wn.
N3y0f S0n 00dc hcd 3 lW0-d3y hc3fng 3nd Slcncd l0]uSl
3D0ul cVcfyD0dy Wlh 3n 0Qn0n. hcn hc 03mc 0ul 0f d0ng 3W3y
lh lhc 3m cnn Sl3luc ml3l0n. hc l30l 00nScnSuS W3S 0Vcf.
hcy h3d 3 g00d lhBg g0ng l0f lhcm. Pnd lhcy 0Sl l.
un Sm0ncy. 0 Dc3Dcl0 l3Kc 3W3y S0 m3ny unlS0lSunghl S
lhc 0lhcf Sdc 0llhc 00n 0lOcng 3Dc l0 Qul uQ lh3l m3ny m0fc lccl
0l00mmcf03 SQ30c. Pn 3f0hlc0l 03n m0dly lhS cQu3l0n S0mcWh3l
Dy lhc W3y hc 00nBgufcS lhc Oudng. ul lhc Kcy l30l0f S Du. 0
fcQc3l Og OudngS 03Sl Og Sh3d0WS. ggcf DudngS 03Sl Dggcf
Sh3d0WS. Pnd m3Kc m0fc 0ncy. ncSS lhc 0ly h3S fg0f0uS gudc
ncS l0f OuK 3nd Sun 3nd ghl 3nd lhc mcllc l0 Sl0K l0 lhcm
m0ncy W Wn 0ul 0Vcf Sun.
hc 03Sc 0l33S S nSlfu0lVc. S 0nc 0B03 ul l, 33S h3S
n0l Occn n lhc DuSncSS 0l dS00uf3gng dcVc0QcfS. l hS h3d n0
cc0lVc gudcncS l0f Sun 3nd OuK 3nd hcghl. PS 3 00nScQucn0c 3
ncW Q3fK SQ30c n lhc 0cnlcf 0l d0Wnl0Wn W3S n]c0Q3tdy lf0m lhc

d3y l W3S 00mQclcd. hS W3S h3nKSgVBg Qu3fc, 3 lf3ngu3f-


Sh3Qcd SQ30c lh3l W3S m0Sly n lu Sun, cVcn U Wnlcf.
P0f0SS lhc Slfccl l0 lhc SunW3fd, 3 Slc W3S 0c3fcd. l W3S l0f 3
Vcfy l3 Sl3O Oudng, lllcd, 3S S S0 0lcn lhc 03Sc, 0f lh3l Wh0h l
W0ud dcBc. h3nSgVng 0Wcf, l W3S 03cd. uSncSSm3n clcf
lcW3fl, lhc m0Vng l0f0c Dchnd h3nKSgVng Qu3fc, 00mmSS0ncd
Sun SludcS Dy 3 003 cngnccf. hcy Sh0Wcd lh3l lhc Oudng W0ud
03Sl 3f m0fc Sh3d0W lh3n l h3d l0. hc l0Wcf W3S g0ng l0 Dc 3d
Of03dSdc l0 lhc SuU. h3l S Why lhc Sh3d0W W0ud Dc S0 Og, 3nd 3l
lhc mdd3y lmc Whcn SuU W3S S0 nccdcd cX0cQl n uy 3Ud uguSl,
WhcU l W3S n0l. llhc DudUg Wcfc 03nlcd S0 lh3l l S0cd nl0 lhc
Creenacre Fark in/ull aunliht. 1hanka tc aneaaementandacmereemtire
bu]in, the/ull aunlihtahculd ccntinue.
*
V
3an and 3badoa
sun, thcrc wouId bc far Icss shadow. ut thc dcvcIopcrs wouId not
changc thc pIans by so much as an nch. Nor wouId thc cty govcr-
mcntprcssurcthcm todoso. Thctowcrwcntup. ltcastbigshadows,
ust as thc studics indicatcd that it wouId.
Thc indcfatigabIc Stcwart, cycing othcr vuIncrabIc spaccs, askcd
thc city to adopt a tough sun-and-shadow ordinancc. Thc city Iikcd
thc idca. Thc dcvcIopcrs did not. Thc mattcr rcsts.
OfaII thc citics, Ncw York has bccn far and away thc Icadcr in
thctradingofsunforbuIk. lnthc ! 96! zoningrcsoIutiontsctaoor-
arca ratio of ! 5. This wasbascd onhappymcdans ofpast cxpcricncc
and was not a bad basc. At hftccn or bcIow shadows wcrc toIcrabIc,
much of thcm bcng absorbcd by thc strcct. ut as thc ratios wcnt
highcr to2! . 6insomcinstanccs thcshadowccctswcnt
upmorc thanproportionatcIy. As wcnotcd in thcchaptcr on zoning,
buIkbcgotbuIk,andinthcqucsttopiIcupyctmorcoors,dcvcIopcrs
grcw incrcasingIy hccdIcssofthc mpacts on thcirsurroundings. And
so, what was worsc, did thc pIanncrs.
ln thc casc of thc chromum paIacc two partcs wcrconcd n
IpabiIity. ThcbuIding in qucstonwastobcbig and squat and risc
shccr from thc strcct. ad cnough to bcgin with, it gaincd yct morc
buIk as bonus was pIcd on bonus arcadc bonus, atrium bonuscs,
zoning-Iotmcrgcr, waivcrofhcightand sctbackrcguIations, airrights
transfcr from an adaccntIandmark.

Thc procctwouIdhavc gonc throughas pIanncdhad itnotbccn


foronc sidc ccct. Somconcfoundoutthat thc hcight had gonc up so
much that thcbuIding wouId shadow Grccnacrc Park a bIock and a
haIfaway. Thc shadowing was, to bc surc, nadvcrtcnt. Thc pIanncrs
dd not know thc buiIding wouId cut osunIght that way. Thcy did
not want to know. Thcy dd not do any homcwork to hnd out. Thc
architcctdid notknow. His diagrammcd shadows fcIIon whitcspacc,
noparkor othcrbuiIdingsbcing indicatcd. Thc pIanncrs did conccdc
that thcrcwas apark. ut thcysaid thc shadow wouIdbc rcdundant,
faIIing on anothcr buiIding' shadow. Thc pIanning commission ap-
provcd thc procct.
lt was thc Iast straw. On ths onc thc communty-board pcopIc
and civic groups dccidcd to go down hghting. Thcy wcnt bcforc thc
cy'snalrbunal,hcoardosmac,andascdoovcrrulchc
pIanningcommissionanddcnythcbonusforthccxtrabuIk. Andthcy
camc withthcirhomcworkdonc, compIctcwithsunstudcs and com-
putcrprintouts.Rcdundatmycyc.ThcrcwouIdndccdbcshadow
at Icast two or thrcc oors' worth and atust thc wrong tmc. ln an
unprcccdcntcdmovc, thc oard ofEstmatc rcscndcd thcatrum bo-
nus and ordcrcd thcbuiIdng hcght rcduccd bythrcc storcs.
Thc pIannng commission was stunncd. Thc dcvcIopcrs wcrc

L
stunncd. SowcrcothcrdcvcIopcrs. Thcrchadbccnatacitundcrstand-
ing that this was not thc way things wcc supposcd to work. Thc
maddcrthcy got, thcmorc thcy tucd thcirirc on thcvcry pIanning
commission that had tricd so hard to bcmorcthan fairtothcm.
lnits !9&2rcvisionofmidtownzoning, thcpIanningcommission
rcnounccd thc Iikcs of thc chromium paIacc. lt rcintroduccd hcight
and sctbackrcguIations inanovcI way. To assurcpIcntyofdayIight-
ing"as wcIIas sun,consuItantsMichacIwartIcrandAIanSchwartz
man dcvcIopcd a twoticr approach onc prcscriptivc thc othcr, pcr-
formancc. Thc aim is thc samc in both cascs to havc buiIdings so
shapcd that thcy aIIow a satisfactory amount of opcn sky abovc and
dayIightbcIow.
Architccts can takc thcir pick. Thc prcscriptivc routc is as-of-
right it scts forth dctaiIcd hcight and sctback standards, which, if
foIIowcd, wiII rcsuIt in thc dcsircd amountofdayIighting. lfthc pIan
conforms to thcsc standards, it is approvcd.
Thc hrst approach mcasurcs causcs thc sccond mcasurcs c0cct
Thc architcct cvaIuatcs thc amount of Iight his proposcd buiIding
wouIdbIock. With dayIight cvaIuationcharts, hcpIotsthc amountof
dayIight as it wouId bc pcrccivcd in scvcraI Iocations. Thc sccnc is
dividcd into imaginary squarcs. y counting thc squarcs whcrc Iight
wouId bc bIockcd and thosc whcrc it wouId not, thc architcct can
hgurc thc pcrccnt ofdayIight that wouId bc Ict through.
Scvcnty-hvc pcrccntis passing. lfit is that or morc, thcbuiIding
wll bc approvcd, howcvcr thc archtcct arrvcd at hs soluton. 1hc
scorc can bc furthcr improvcd by incrcasing thc rccctivity of thc
buiIdingsurfaccs and thus thc amount ofIightscntbacktothcstrcct
So far, most architccts havcoptcd for thc prcscriptivc approach.
ThcothcrismorccompIicatcdbutnotascompIicatcdasithrstsccms.
With thc advcnt of computcr mapping, architccturaI omccs can
quickIy makc thc computations for counting squarcs ofdayIight and
such data. Somc aIrcady havc crankcd thc ncccssary cquations into
thcirtapcs.
Onc hgurc that shouId bc crankcd into Ncw York computcrs is
twcnty-nincdcgrccscastoftrucnorth. ctmcdisgrcssabittocxpIain
why. Thc strcct grids ofmostcitics arcIaid out on cardinaI pointsof
thc compass, and main strccts tcnd to run duc north-south or cast-
wcst. NcwYorksgrid isdi0crcnt,andagoodthingforthccitythatit
is. Thc commission that was appointcd to dctcrminc thc futurc strcct
systcm mctin ! & ! ! . Thcy dccidcd onthcrcctanguIar grid. ltwas thc
chcapcstforbuiIdingconstruction, thc commission said, muchprcfcr-
ablc to fancy circuscs or ovaIs as in Europc.
lnhttingthc rcctanguIargrid tothcshapc ofthc isIand, thccom
Sun and Sbadoa
mission had to angIc it somcwhat. Thc north-south avcnucs did not
point to truc north, but twcnty-ninc dcgrccs to thc cast of it. Thc
fortuitous rcsuIt is an optimum sun pattc for thc strccts. Sincc thc
northsidcofthcbIocksarcangIcdabittothccast,thcyrcccivcscvcraI
hoursofcarIymorningsun.ThcsmaIIsidcstrccts gctsunduringmost
ofthc moing and during mid- and Iatc ahcrnoon. (Thc houscs on
thcmgct it rightup to sunsct ifthcy havc baywindowscxtcnding far
cnoughoutward.)ThcavcnucsgctfuII sunatthchcightofthcpromc-
nadc,around l to2. m. ltis,inshort,amosthappyunionofsunand
grid.
Thcrc has bccn somc backsIiding. Whcn thc city has sponsorcd
thc dcvcIopmcnt ofsitcs it owns itscIf, it has provcd thc most avari-
cious ofdcvcIopcrs, not onIy toIcrating grcat buIk but dcmanding it.
ugc shadows havcpromiscd to bcthcconscqucncc spawninga ncw
round of ingcnious rationaIiations. Onc is thc shadowIcss buiIding.
Sundiagrams ofthcsc show thc outIincs ofshadows that wouId havc
bccn cast wcrc not thc spaccs aIrcady shadowcd by somcbody cIsc.
Spccd shadows arc anothcr variant. For thcsc thc shccr hcight ofthc
structurciscitcdasanamcIioratingfactor itsshadowis soIcvcragcd
that thc top of it raccs across thc cityscapc. PubIic opinionhas hard
cncd signihcantIy against thc supcrtowcrs, and so, pcrhaps, has thc
omcc spacc markct.
OfL. S. citics, San Francisco has bccn thcmostcaIousinguard
ing its sun. Not so Iong ago it had bccn compIaccntIy Iax. lt had sct
thc maximum oor-arca ratio for buiIdings at fourtccn and it ocrcd
inccntivc bonuscs with which dcvcIopcrs couId makc thcm biggcr.
That thcy did, with towcrs and pyramids, and thc citicnry bccamc
aIarmcd.Thcmostdrcadcdofprospccts, "Manhattaniation,Ioomcd
ahcad.
EnvironmcntaIists agitatcd for a rcfcrcndum, and in J thcy
gotanantihighriscmcasurcputonthcbaIIot. ltcaIIcd forrcducing
thcmaximum buiIdinghcightsto2fcct ortwcnty oors inthccorc
downtown arca, Iowcr in thc adaccnt downtown arcas &0 to l J0
fcct.
By a narrow margn, thc mcasurc ta!cd. But thc momcntum dd
not. Thc pIanning commission undcrtook a maor ovcrhauI of its in
ccntivc oning and its buIk and hcight rcguIations. uiIding hcights
wcrc rcduccd to a maximum of 550 fcct, and maximum oorarca
ratios and bonuscs whcrc sharply parcd.
ln l 9& anothcr antihigh-risc mcasurc, Proposition , was put
onthcbaIIot. ltwouIdbananybuiIdingthatwouId shadowparksand
pubIicopcnspaccs. OncthingithadgoingforitwasaisibIcoutragc.
L
lt had manifcstcd itscIfin Chinatown a dccadc carIicr. This was thc
construction of thc Pacihc TcIcphonc Iding, a twcntytwo story
high riscofunparaIIcIcd ugIincss, and onc ofthc worst ofmy coIIcc-
tion of bIank waIIs. lt was not onIy drcadfuI to Iook at, it cast a
shadowthatfcIIonmuchofSt.MarysSquarcatIunchtimcmostdays
ofthc ycar.
Thcn, in 92, a fcw bIocks away, thc tiny Chincsc PIayground
was thrcatcncdby aprospcctivc !0-foot-highcondominiumtowcr.A
tcam from crkcIcys Iandscapc architccturc program wcnt to thc
pIanning commission and dcmonstratcd cxactIy how many hours of
sunIight wouId bc Iost if thc towcr wcrc to go up. Thc tcam aIso
dcmonstratcd how suchbuiIdingproposaIscouIdbc forcstaIIcd in thc
futurc. Thcy had drawn up maps that showcd soIar fans," a sct of
imaginary pIancs caIcuIatcd tocorrcspond cxactIy with thc angIcs of
thc sun Iow angIcs strctching cast to cmbracc thc moming sun,
somcwhat stccpcr for thc midday sun from thc south, and Iow again
toward thc wcst for thc aftcoon sun.
Thc commission adoptcd this approach. lt Iowcrcd aIIowabIc
buiIding hcights around thc pIayground to prcscrvc its sun. Encour-
agcdbythisstcp,communitygroupswcntastcpfurthcrandproposcd
thatthiskindofsoIarzoningbcappIicdcitywidc. Thcmattcrwasput
tothcvotcrsin!unc of !9. ltwas approvcdbyathrcc-to-twomar-
gin. And ust in timc. Passagc haItcd sccraI high-risc towcrs ncar
Lnion Squarc.

SofarwchavcbccndcaIingwithmcasurcstocurbshadows. utthcrc
arc many morc positivc aspccts to bc cxpIorcd. Thc samc big bad
buiIdingsthatarccuttingolighttooncarcacan rccctittoanothcr.
Thc potcntiaIs for such bouncc Iight shouId bc cxpIorcd, so, too,
shouId spotIightingtcchniqucsforrcdirccting thcsun intodarkplaccs
that ncvcrhad itbcforc. Thc prcrcquisitc is athoroughmicrocIimatic
study of thc cccts of ncw buiIdings on thcir surroundings. This rc-
vicwshouIdbcdoncbythcpIanningcommissionorbyan indcpcndcnt
body on its bchaIf. ltshouId not bc Ich to thc architccts.
On tcchnicaI mattcrs, pIanning bodics usuaIIy acccpt thc data
givcn thcm by thc architccts and dcvcIopcr. Thcy do not havc thc
budgctto do thcirown studics orcommission thcm. Sothcy'rcgratc-
fuI for thc data, whcn thcy shouId bc ust a bit suspicious, and thcy
usuaIIyadoptthcmas thcirowninthchnal statcmcntofhndings. Sun
studicsarcacasc in point. lt'snot that thcyarc sIantcd not dcIibcr-
atcIy,anyway it'sustthatthcycanbcgrosslyinaccuratc.Thrccthat
l cxamincd rcccntIy wcrc not onIy in crrorbut paIpabIy so. Onc had
truc north 6 dcgrccs to thc wcst ot truc north. Anothcr, by onc ot thc
biggcst hrms, had shadows faIIing on abstract spacc, with no indica-
tion as to what buiIdings, if any, wcrc in thcir path. A third had Iatc
aftcoon sun at J dcgrccs thc sun itscIfgcts onIy to 270 dcgrccs
whcn it caIIs it a day.
lnnocofthcscinstanccsdidthcrcvicwbodicsspotthccrror. lf
thc studics had shown thc sun sctting in thc cast, thc rcvicw bodics
probabIy wouId not havc spottcd thc crror. Thcrc is somcthing in thc

[ z 6 & ] L Y
proccss that miIitatcs against it. Too much faith and trust provcd
troubIcsomc for San Francisco's pIanning commission. Onc of thc
worstshadowswas thcproductofabuiIdingthatthcarchitcct'sstudy
indicatcd wouId bc cxcmpIary. Whcn it provcd othcrwisc, thc pIan-
ningcommissioncamcnforaIotofcriticism,anditrcsoIvcdncvcrto
makc thc samc mistakc again. uckiIy, across thc ay in crkcIcy
thcrc wasust thc kind ofbody thc pIanncrs couId tu to for hcIp.
With a grant from thc NationaI Scicncc Foundation, thc Iatc
DonaIdAppIcyardhadcrcatcdthcEnvironmcntaISimuIationabora-
tory. Onc of his hrst studics was ofthc vicw from thc road. Ovcr a
room-sizcd topographicaI modcI of Marin County hc suspcndcd a
!mm camcra. Witha computcr-drivcn mcchanism thccamcra couId
bc instructcd to movc aIong a givcn routc at any simuIatcd spccd.
Thanks to a pcriscopc attachmcnt to thc Icns, thc camcra wouId rc-
cord thcsccncfrom thc drivcr's-cyc vicwpoint.
Thctcchniqucwastobc highIy uscfuI in studyingthcstrcctIcvcI
cccts of San Francisco's sun and dcnsity probIcms. With a Iargc
modcI ofthc city inhcritcd from its worId's fair, AppIcyard and suc-
ccssor Pctcr osscImann tcstcd variousaItcmativcs. thcsun andIight
pattcs asthcycxistcd, atthcywouIdbc ifhcightswcrc incrcascd or
dccrcascd thc cccts of dicrcnt sctback Iimits. And thcsc wcrc not
static cxampIcs. With astonishing vcrisimiIitudc, thc camcra wouId
takc oncon an cycIcvcI waIk orbrisk drivc in a car.
As l notcd in thc prcviouschaptcr, thcsc simuIationshcIpcd San
rancscos planncrs comc up wth ncw and toughcr hcght and u
rcquircmcnts. Thcy wcrc aIso hcIpfuI in rcvicwing particuIar proccts
dcvcIopcrs wantcd to put up. Morc timcs than not, thc simuIations
showcd that thc buiIdings wouId cast morc shadows than thcy wcrc
supposcd to or had to. Thc simuIations aIso showcd that with somc
adroit rcvisions thc buiIdings' shadows couId bc substantiaIIy miti-
gatcd. Somc architccts scrcamcd and ycIIcd at hrst, but thcy camc
around.
Thc Iaboratoryscquipmcnt is cxpnsivcbut thcbasicob can bc
doncwithoutfancyhardwarc. osscImanndcmonstratcdthiswhcnhc
camc to Ncw York to Icnd a hand on a study ofTimcs Squarc. Thc
MunicipaIArtSocictyofNcwYorkfcarcdthatzoningofthcarcawas
IikcIy to bc disastrous. lt askcd osscImann if hc couId do a quick
studywithsimpIcinstrumcnts. HccouId. Hccrcatcd Iargc-scaIccard-
boardmodcIsofaIIcxistingbuiIdings,withthcirfacadcsmadcofcoIor
prints of thc actuaI buiIdings and signs. AdditionaI modcIs incorpo-
ratcddicrcntdcsignpossibiIitics.ThcmodcIscouIdbc movcdattabIc
hcight, andby shiftingthcmonccouIdsccwhat thc aItcrnativccccts
wouId bc thc vistas up roadway and Scvcnth Avcnuc, on thc
gaIaxy ofsigns bchind Duy Squarc.

Boance Light
ScvcraI points bccamc strikingIy scIf-cvidcnt. Ordinary omcc
buiIdings wouId makc a mcdiocrchash ofthcpIacc. oningthat rc-
ognizcd thc uniqucattraction ofit wouId not. City omciaIs and pIan-
ncrs wcrc fascinatcd by thc cxhibits modcIs, as wc havc notcd, arc
cntrapping.WhcthcrthccitywiIIhccdthcparticuIarIcssonsisaqucs-
tion. AIargcronc, howcvcr, iswhcthcrit wiII hccd thcgcncraI Icsson
and sct upits own cvaIuativc ccntcr.
PIanning commissions arc thc IogicaI bodics todo this. ut thcy
havc not donc so and arc not IikcIy to. Thcy arc rcccptivc to cvaIua-
tions, cvcn criticaIoncs, butthcydonotIikcto originatc thcm. Thcrc
must bc somcthing in intragovcmmcntaI protocoI that inhibits thcm
fromdoing so. lnany cvcnt, ifthcobis tobcdonc, itwiIIhavctobc
through an indcpcndcnt ccntcr ofsomc kind.
Such a ccntcr wouId bc sta0cd and cquippcd to appIy a widc
rangc of tcchniqucs. lt wouId do sun studics using thc modcIs and
bcforc-andacr mcthods pionccrcd by crkcIcy it wouId do com-
putcr mapping of sun and shadow pattcms as practiccd by scvcraI
architccturaI hrms, most notabIy by Skidmorc, Owings, and McrriII.
Thc ccntcr wouId do windtunncI tcsting to dctcrminc thc drafts a
buiIding might inducc and thc mcasurcs that wouId modify thcm. lt
wouId aIso study thc winds gcncratcd by naturc and somc microci
matic dcfcnscs. Morc citics than Chicago arc windy citics but fcw do
anything so rudimcntary as to providc scating shcItcrcd by wind-
brcaks. us shcItcrs arc minimaI mcasurcs, bcing dcsigncd morc for
thc dispIay ofadvcrtising than for thc comfort ofpcopIc. Thcrc is so
muchthatcouIdbcdoncinthcwayofcxpcrimcntationbcrmsinthc
rght pIacc, gIass windbrcaks and dccctors, sun nichcs and wind
traps. Savc in supcrcoId pIaccs, Iikc CaIgary, pIanncrs and dcsigncrs
havc not donc much to cxpIorc thc possibiIitics.
Thc ccntcr couId aIso cvaIuatc thc and cxisting
buiIdingsandspaccs ltwas todcmonstratc how simpIythiscouIdbc
donc that l sct up thc Strcct Lifc Procct. My hopc was that thc
pIanncrs wouId notonIyadopt ourhndings but adopt thc tcchniqucs
and dcvcIop thcir own in-housc capabiIity. Pittsburghs pIanning dc-
partmcntdid a study comparabIc toourpIazastudy and madccxccI-
Icnt uscofthchndings. As faras l know, howcvcr, thconIy fuII-timc
cvaIuation cing donc today is that y thc rocct for uIic paccs.
ltwouIdhcIp ifthcccntcrhad aunivcrsityconncction. ltsboard
shouId bc rcprcscntativcofvarious intcrcsts a0cctcd pIanncrs, archi-
tccts,Iandscapcarchitccts dcvcIopcrs, communityIcadcrs, and, cx of-

hcio, thc chairman of thc pIanning commission. Foundation support


wouId bc vitaI. WhiIc thc ccntcr couId bc partiaIIy scIf-supporting
through fccs from thc city and othcr cIicnts, it shouId havc hnanciaI
indcpcndcncc. lt must bc abIc to ask its own qucstions, not mcrcIy
neeJnJeenJen
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000S 00I. I S0IS l0 I00
w0S N0 800lIl008
I0S08IC0 lS 000000 00
I0lS 0l0I.
L
rcspond to othcrs lts bcst rcscarch tack wiII bc cxpIoring ncw pos
sibiIitics ncw ways of making microcIimtcs morc bcnign, sun and
Iight morc pcrvasivc.
SmaIIcr citics havc good rcason to sct up simiIar cvaIuativc ccn-
tcrs. Thcy do not havc thc buIk and dcnsity probIcms of thc biggcst
citics, but that is thcir good fortunc. Thcy stiII havc a Iot of sun to
savc. ProportionatcIy, thc cost of an cnvironmcntaI simuIation sctup
wouId bchighcrfor thcm, thcrcbcing fcwcrcIicnts and buiIdings for
spIitting thcbiII. ut thc cost couIdbc modcratcust thc samc.
Somcofthcmostccctivcsun-studytcchniqucshavcbccndcvcI-
opcdforuscbycommunitypIanningboards.ProfcssorrcntPortcrof
Pratt lnstitutc makcs smaII-scaIc cardboard modcIs of a particuIar
arca of thc community. Hc thcn pIaccs thcsc on top of a kind of
sundiaI diagram. For a Iight sourcc hc uscs thc sun. Hc takcs thc
modcIsoutsidc, thcntwistsand tiItsthcmuntiI thcshadowofasmaII
stick intcrsccts thc Iinc dcnoting thc dcsircd timc 2 . m. , for cxam-
pIc, on Dcccmbcr 22. Thc shadows cast by thc modcIs wiII approxi-
matc thosc that wouIdb cast inactuaIity. Portcrhas aIso dcvcIopcd
comparabIy simpIc tcchniqucs for charting an arca's wind shadows.
For a community board of Manhattan's Lppcr East Sidc hc and a
groupofhis studcntsdidacompIctcmicrocIimaticstudyofwindand
suncccts. Thcy ound astrong corrcIation bctwccnthc two. Thc big
buiIdingsthatbIockcd aIotofsuntcndcdtobcthconcsthataIso had
crcc downdrahs at thcirbascs.
Study tcchnoIogy, to rcpcat, is not a probIcm. High tcch orIow,
thcrcarc aII sorts ofways toanswcrthc qucstions. lt is thcasking of
thcm that is thccriticaI stcp. And thcproccss must bc dynamic, with
answcrs prompting foIIow-up qucstions. How much sunIight, for cx-
ampIc, wiII thc buiIding pass on to its ncighbors7 This is thc stock
qucstion and wiII bc answcrcd with shadow diagrams.
ut thcrc is a morc important qucstion, and onc that is rarcIy
askcd. HowmuchsunIightcoulJ thcbuiIdingpasson7Answcringthis
wiIIrcquircimagination. HcightandsctbackrcguIations mayassurca
ccrtain amount ofopcn sky abovc, thcy do not ncccssariIy assurc a
satisfactory amount ofsunIight Iight dcrivcd from it.
TakcaIookatthcwaymostbuiIdingsarcsitcdandcongurcd. lf
wchadto dcduccthcpassagcofthcsunfromthccIucsthcscbuiIdings
aord, wc wouId havc to concIudc that thc sun riscs in thc cast, tra-
vcrscs afuII circIc, and comcs back tothc cast tosct. ManybuiIdings
show thc samc facc to cvcry dircction, asifthc sun fcII uniformIy on
aII sidcs. orth, south, cast, and wcst thcrc is oftcn no dicrcncc
bctwccn thc sidc that faccs south and thc onc that faccs north.
Thc sun docs not sct in thc cast, it scts in thc wcst, and it onIy
travcrscs l &dcgrccs. oadditionaI rcscarch isnccdcd on thispoint.
Boance Light
lfyouwanttomaximizcthcamountofsunIightpassing ovcr abuiId-
ing, youshouId conhgurcthcmass so that it sIopcs downtoward th
north.ThisisthcthrustofCaIgary'szoning. rdinariIy,howcvcr,fcw
buiIdingsarcconhgurcd in thisfashion. lndccd, thcyarcustas apt to
bcconhgurcdinrcvcrsc.AbigncwrcsidcntiaIcompIcxputsthcIowcst
part on thc southcm cnd of thc sitc, thc highcst on thc northcm,
thcrcby rcducing thc amount ofsun faIIing on thc row houscs to thc
northwcst. Thc compIcx hasbccn accIaimcd for its scnsitivc dcsign.
Had thc qucstion bccn raiscd carIy, and forcibIy, thc mass couId
havc bccn conhgurcd to bcttcr ccct for aII conccmcd. Thc samc
wouId havc bccn truc in thc casc of thc too high hat. ut of shccr
inadvcrtcncc an architcct puta high hat" structurcfor his cIcvators
and watcrtankstothcrcarofhistowcr. Hadthcqucstionbccnraiscd
hc wouId havc rcaIizcd that this positioning providcd thc cxtra fcct
that wouId shadow akcy pubIic opcn spacc. Had itbccn to thcfront
thcrc wouId havc bccn no cxtra shadow. ut thc qucstion was not
raiscd in timc. Thus thc cpitaph. Wc ncvcrthought ofit.
Sothatitisthoughtof, aIIproposcdbuiIdingsshouIdbcsubcctcd

to a rigorous study ofthcir microcIimatic cccts on thcir surround


ings windtunncI tcsts of modcIs, notust to dctcrminc thc sway up
top, butthcdrafts downbcIow, sun studics to dctcrminc thcshadows
cast, thc Iight rccctcd, and whcrc and whcn, thc Iight that is Iost
bccauscitisustoutofrcachandnccdnotbc.Thcrcarcmanypositivc
aspccts to cxpIorc
nc ofthcm is bouncc Iight. ig buiIdings can scnd back many
footcandIcsofIight. Somctimcs thcyscnd it at thcwrongangIc to thc
wrongpIaccs aswithScattIc'sgIarc. utsomctimcs thcccctcanbc
quitcbcnchccnt. NcwYork'sCiticorpuiIding,forcxampIc,isanota-
bIc bcstowcr ofIight so much so that trccs on onc rccciving bIock
havc bccn growing fastcr than bcforc. Citicorp's rcach has bccn Iong
rangc. n Iatc aftcmoonsin spring itrccctcd sunIightaII thcway to
thcwcst sidc ofFifth Avcnucbctwccn Fihyscvcnthand Fihycighth,
somc scvcn bIocks away. That is, untiI thc lM uiIding wcnt up.
PaIcyParkbcnchtcd. ShortIyaftcrithadIostmuchofitssunIight
to a buiIding to thc south, a buiIding wcnt up to thc northcast. nc
sidcofitwasasoIidcxpanscofbIackbrick. hcnthcsunfcIIon this
waII,howcvcr,asurprisingamountofIightwasbounccdtothcsouth-
wcst andtoPaIcyPark. ltbcstowcdasofthIIIight thatis, untiIan
intcrvcning buiIding wcnt up.
Lrban dcsign guidcIincs somctimcs ruIc out opcn spaccs with
northcrn cxposurcs. l think this is a mistakc. A southcrn cxposurc is
prcfcrabIc, tobc surc, butspaccswithoutonc shouIdnot bcruIcdout.
ThankstobounccIight, thcy cancnoy sunIightvicariousIy. Acasc in
0 08X0Z0 I00
800u0I 0 Su0g0I I08I
8 Du00g 0IS Dy, I00
08SS S00u0 D0
C000guI00 S0 I08II
S00S 00w0 I0w8I0
I00 00II0. 00I0 8I0
0w SuC0 Du00gS.
L
pointis Gracc IazaincwYork. lt isabumpIaza,but IackofIight
is not thc rcason. Thc buiIding across thctrcct to thc north gcts fuII
sun in thc aftcoon and scnds a Iot ofitback to thc pIaza.
Such cccts havc bccn IargcIy accidcntaI. ln vcry fcw cascs did
thcarchitccts anticipatcthcmandinno cascthatl know ofwcrcthcy
dcIibcratcIy pIanncd. EasIcy amncr, associatc ofugh Stubbins on
thc Citicorp procct, says thcy wcrc concccd ovcr possibIc Iawsuits
frombuiIdingstothcsouth. ln Tcxasthcrc hadbccn suitsbybuiIding
owncrs aggricvcd ovcr thc cxtra air-conditioning Ioad causcd by rc
cctcdsunfrom gIassbuiIdings. osuchprobIcmsappcarcdIikcIyfor
Citicorp and no dcsign changcs provcd ncccssary. As it turncd out,
mostofthc rccctions work to good ccct.
Why not pIan thcm7 A surfacc rcccts back Iight at an angIc
cquaItothatwithwhichitrcccivcdit.lfyouknowonc,youcanhgurc
thcothcr,andseriatim, succcssivcbounccsthatmightbcgoodtopIan.
Wc gct manyofthcsc bounccswiIIy-niIIy, wcmightas wcIIdctcrminc
thc whcrc and whcn ofthcm.
Wc canaIsodctcrmincthcquaIityofthcIight. uiIdingmatcriaIs
arcthckcyfactor. Thc gIasswaIIsthathavcbccomcsomuchthcruIc
may cut down hcat transmission into thc buiIding, but thc Iight that
thcyrccctisharsh. ThcgIassscndssunIightbackthcwayitcamcin
paraIIcI rays. lt is a highIy conccntratcd Iight in timc as wcII as in
spacc. Dcpcndingon thcazimuth and thcaItitudcofthcsun, abIack
gIass buiIding can bc a bIast ofIight or a bigbIack void.
orous surfaccs such as brc or Imcstonc act dcrcntly. hcy
rccct far morc Iight, whitc-paintcd masonry, for cxampIc, has a rc
cctivityfactorof. vcrsus . !2fordarkgIass. utthcIightisbcnign.
lt docs not gIarc. lnstcad ofrcccting thc sun bac in paraIIcI ways,
porous surfaccs brcaup thcrays and diusc thcm. For urban dcsign
this has two good conscqucnccs. Thc Iight is cvcnIy rccctcd by thc
buiIdings that itfaIIsupon and thcy arc thc casicr to Iook at forthis.
Somc ofthcm fairIy gIow.
!ustas importantis thcIight rccctcd into othcrarcas. lt can bc
vcrypIcasant. Fifth AvcnucinthcFifticsisaspIcndidIyIitpIacc, and
oncrcasonisthcprcvaIcnccofIimcstoncandtravcrtincinthcfacadcs.
Thc pIay ofIight on thcsc surfaccs is rccctcd on thcir surroundings
andthcstrcctandthcpcopIconit,andapIcasantandattcringIightit
is. Likc good rcstaurant Iighting, thc ccctivc Iight comcs from thc
sidc, notovcrhcad, and itwashcsaway aws. (AdvicctoIadics ifyou
wanttobc discovcrcd Iooingyourvcrybcst, bc on thc wcstsidcwaIk
of Fifth Avcnuc bctwccn Fiftyhfth and Fifty-scvcnth around four-
thirty in thc aftcrnoon on thc vcaI cquinox.)
lfyouIooktothcsourccsofthcscIightingcccts,yourcaIizchow
grcatanassctarc thcIight-coIorcd buiIdings, such as crgdorfGood
Boance Ligbt
man. Youscc, too, howwcIIthc ncwIycIcancd St. Patrick'sCathcdraI
iIIumincs thc strccts around it, and how vitaI to its Iight, in turn, ar
thcIow-riscIimcstoncbuiIdingsthatankthcpromcnadctoRockcfcI-
Icr PIaza.
Morcthan acsthctics arc invoIvcd. ln taking footcandIc rcadings
aIong Fifth, l havc found that aIthough thc rcadings ofthc sky auIt
ovcrhcad arcfairIy consistcnt, thcrcarcmarkcdvariations inthcIight
rcccivcdatcycIcvcI. Thcscvariationsarc duc principaIIy to thc matc-
riaIs in thc facadcs thc Iimcstonc of Carticr's thc bIack gIass of
OIympic Towcr. Onc cxpands thc Iight thc othcr swaIIows it up.
Thc planncrs arc now rcquiring that any ncw buiIding on Fihh
Avcnuc bc of Iight-coIorcd masonry aIong at Icast 20 pcrccnt of its
frontagc up to thchrst sctback. cttcryct, zoning cncouragcs a morc
gcncraI usc by giving architccts cxtra dayIighting crcdits for Iight
coIorcd matcriaIs. Othcr citics shouId bc taking simiIar stcps. lfthcy
donothingmorc thangctarchitcctstoIayasidcthatbIack gIass, thcy
wiII bc worth thc whiIc.
Facadcs arc not thc onIy pIaccs for rccctivc matcriaIs. lntcriors
ofbIocks,thcorphansofsomuchdcvcIopmcnt,couIdprohtbybouncc
Iight.ustthcIightrccctcdbyoncsIabofabuiIding'backsidccouId
makc a signihcant dicrcncc. Thc samc is truc of many rcsidcntial
bIocks. rownstoncrcars arcnotprctty, but ifthosconthcnorthsidc
arcpaintcdbuorwhitc, thcy wiIIdowondcrs for thcintcriorsofthc
bIocks.
Thcrcisanothcrqucstiontobc askcd. lsthcrcsomc sunIightthat
couId bc intcrccptcd7 Ycs, if you Iook for it. ut this is not usuaI
proccdurc. Mostsun-and-shadcdiagramsarcinpIan. Whcrcthcrcisa
pIaza, for cxampIc, thc diagrams wiII show thc portions that arc in
shadow and thosc that arc in sun at a givcn timc. Thc vicw wilI bc
IitcraIIy abIack-and-whitc onc. Sun hcrc and shadow thcrcand that's
that.
Thus arcopportuniticsobscurcd. lfyouIookatthc samcpIaccin
scctionyouwiIIsccangIcsatwhichthcsunfaIIs. ThcoorofthcpIaza
may bc rcccivingnosunat aII, butabovc itthcsunmay b comingin
atanangIcthatputsitabouttwcntyfcctabovcthcccntcrofthcpIaza.
nd t kccps gong. hcrc s nothng on thc plaza to ntcrccpt t, to
rccct it. ut ifthcrc wcrc somc foIiagc up thcrc say, a thirty-foot-
high honcy Iocust thcrc wouId bc sunIight. lt would bc partiaI a
tiny fraction of thc spacc. ut what a dicrcncc that fraction can
makc Thc diuscd and dappIcd Iight that hItcrs through can bc vcry
pIcasant, and pcrsuasivc.
To capturc such opportunitics it is important to pIan for Iargc
trccs rcaIIy Iargc trccs, cight-inchcaIipcrminimum andthismcans


L
makingsurcthcpIantingbcdsarcIargcanddccp.ThiscanbcdicuIt.
Ncw pIazasand smaIIparks arcohcnbuiItatopundcrgroundgaragcs,
and spaccs for cars arc givcn priority ovcrtrccs. lt's tough cnough to
gctspaccforthcmin thcpIanningstagc. ltis virtuaIIyimpossibIcaftcr
thc concrctc is pourcd.
Anothcrwaytoborrow Iightisby dircctprocction. This is simi-
Iar tobouncc Iighting but uscs highIy dircctcd Iight aimcd at spccihc
targcts. To givc an iIIustration Ict mcskctch a hypothcticaI situation.
A smaII ccntcrcity park hasIostmost ofits sunIight. Worsc yct, it is
now so surroundcdby ncw buiIdings that thcrcis prccious IittIc day
Iight, Ict aIoncsun. Ancwocctowcr, howcvcr, ocrs hopc. Whcnit
ishnishcd,thcrcwiIIbcadircctIincofsightfromitsrooftothcsmaII
park.
CouId not somc ofits Iight bc procctcd to thc park7 Somcthing
such as a mirror wouId bu thc park uscrs to a crispbut thc usc of
highIy rccctivc pancIs might work wcII. lt wouId not takc many of
thcm to scnd a substantiaI amount ofIight. Thc sctup couId bc com
putcr controIIcd to track thc sun for maximum ccct in thc park
incIuding thcbackIightingofa much Iikcd statuc in thcccntcrofthc
park.
arfctchcd7 Ycs, but no morc so than somc of thc buiIding fca-
turcsthatarchitcctshavcbccn comingupwith. ThcprismaticgIassof
DcrScuttsTrumpTowcr,forcxampIc,shootsIightinaImostaninhn
ityofdircctions. WhcthcrpIanncdornot,thcscbuiIdingsarcmanipu
latng lght. t would makc scnsc to antcpatc what thc cccts wll bc
nd what bcttcr cccts thcrc couId bc.
Thcncw hcId ofsoIaropticsuggcstsoncofthcpossibiIitics. Thc
pionccrin this isscicntistMichacI Duguay, nowofcII Laboratorics
ln a 9cxpcrimcnthcdcmonstratcdthatitwaspracticaIto capturc
sunIightwithasuntracking coordinator, procctitthroughasmaII
hoIcinabuiIding,andthcnpipcitdownintothcintcriorspaccsofthc
buiIding. lt is thc sort of thing that Lconardo couId wcII havc in
vcntcd most of thc cIcmcnts arc ancicnt mirrors, gcars, Icnscs, and,
most basic, a knowIcdgc ofwhcrc thc sun wiII bc at any givcn timc.
Thc Lnivcrsity ofMiami is appIying this approach in thc dcsign
of its ncw civiI cnginccring buiIding. ln a schcmc that rcscmbIcs a
Rubc oIdbcrg drawing, tcn hcIiostats havc bccn pIaccd on pcnt-

houscsonthcroof, throughasystcmofmirrorsandIcnscs, sunIightis


funncIcddownintothcworkingarca.Ovcrtimc,thccapturcdsunIight
shouId cut thcir cIcctric biII considcrabIy.
On thc markct now arc computcr-controIIcd mcchanisms that
track thc sun and rccct its Iight to intcrior workpIaccs. Thc samc
principIc couId bc adaptcd to thc suppIcmcntaI Iighting of cxtcrior
spaccs.RccctivcpancIsuphighcouIdbcgcarcdtobounccIightdown
Boance Light
into spaccs that havc bccn darkcncd from on high such as PaIcy
Park. PancIs might c uscd with poIarzing Itcrs, to modcratc thc
IighttransittcdaccordingtothcIightrcccivcd. Trickybusincss,tobc
surc,andthcrccouIdbc thcdcviItopayindamagcsuitsifthcmccha-
nismsgotoutofwhack. utwhatashowthcrccouIdc ascrbcams
arc hnc, but nothingis bcttcr than thc sun itscIf, and wc do not nccd
high tcch to makc thc most ofits possibiIitics.
ThcancicntswcrcmorcrcsourccfuIthanwc. lnhis 1he Poetics o]
Light architcct Hcnry PIummcr has dcscribcd how thc most stirring
powcrofdayIighthas comc with itspainting oftimc. "uiIdingsfrom
ancicnt Egyptian tcmpIcs to thc chapcI at Ronchamp," hc writcs,
"havcbccnabIctocatchhoIdofpassingtimc,ovcrcomingthcdcadcn-
ing incrtia of xcd forms through structurcs chorcographcd to Iyri-
caIIy mutatcundcrightsofsun. Tcxturcs arc hardcncd and softcncd
byshiingangIcsofrays,shadowsIcngthcnandbrushacrosssurfaccs,
whiIc coIorcd bcams Iancc into thc darkncss."
lfonIywcthinkofthcm,thcrcarcaIIsortsofthingswccandoto
bcndIightandrccct ittofcIicitousccct asIightcantingofafacadc
to catch thc Iatc acmoon sun across it, a pancI ofwhitc canvas up
hightoIightthcdark partofa smaIIpark aspircsuch as that ofthc
ChrysIcr uiIding, which gIints at you whcrcvcr you arc and makcs
you fcIIthc bcttcrfor it. Wc nccd morc foIIics Iikc this.

!0l0 8l0 8 b0lb 0


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hg0l800 I0B0Cl l l0
0Cl0uS 000Cl. 8
C80l0g 0 8 8800 l0
C8lC0 l00 8l0
8R0H000 Su0 8CI0SS
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l00 08IK C0H0I 0 8
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y0u w00I0v0Iy0u 8I0
800 08K0S y0u 00
l00 D0ll0I 0l l. W0
0000 00l0 00b K0
l0S.
Thczoningapproachcswchavcbccndiscussing, Ictitbcconccdcd,arc
somcthing ofabribc. lnstcadofrcquiring sunIightas aright, wchavc
bccn whccdIing it. Wc havc bccn asking dcvcIopcrs to bIock thc sun
onIy partiaIIy instcad of compIctcIy and havc bccn richIy rcwarding
thcm for thciravaricc in doing so. Thc proccss has bccomc so outra-
cous that a kind ofzonin-spcak has ariscn to Icitimatizc it. hus
whcn a dcvcIopcr sccks to add cight morc storics and thc pIanning
commission grants him four, thc incrcasc in buIk is announccd as a
rcductioninbuIk. Whcn adcvcIopcrhasasitcncxttoacity park, arc
his aIIowabIc buIk and hcight rcstrictcd7 ust thc oppositc. Hc is aI-
Iowcdto waivchcightandsctbackrcguIations,incrcascthchcightand
buIk, and dump his shadows onto thc park. This is a provision of
Park lmprovcmcnt District" IcgisIation.
SunIight shouId bc a right, not an amcnity that is nicc to havc,
and thc poIicc powcrshouId bc uscd to assurc it. Thc courts wiII not
go thisfar, howcvcr. Thcrc is a pointbcyond which usc ofthc poIicc
powcr is dccmcd a taking of propcrty without fair compcnsation. A
govcmmcnt cannot usc thc poIicc powcr to compcI a bcncht, thc
courts hoId. lfitwants it, it has to pay forit.
ln timc, thc courts may comc to Iook on sunIight as morc of a
right. MuchwiIIdcpcndon how succcssfuIIy citizcnand cnvironmcn-
taI groups push thc conccpt. Thc rcccnt IcgisIation in San Francisco
and thc uphoIdingofit in thc courts is cncouraging in this rcspcct.
ln thc mcantimc thcrc arc somc othcr avcnucs that shouId bc
pursucd. Evcn ifwctakc thcnarrow vicw ofsunIight as abcnch
3an Easements
wcwiII hnd that thc abiIityofpubIicagcncicsto dcaI withithasbccn
considcrabIy strcngthcncd. Thcy can buy sunIight. Thcy can rcnt i
Thcy can givc taxcrcditsforit.Such notionsmaysoundodd,butitis
in this hazy arca bctwccn rights and bcnchts that somc intcrcsting
opportunitics Iic.
nc way to purchasc sunIight is through a soIar cascmcnt. You
buy from a housc owncr a binding agrccmcnt that hc wiII not add
anything to his housc that wouId bIock thc passagc of sunIight to
yours. Lcd by CoIorado, inthcIastfcw ycars anumbcrofstatcshavc
passcd statutcs cxprcssIy authorizing soIar cascmcnts. Thc purposcis
toassurc sun for soIarcncrgy coIIcctors. Thc cascmcnts mustbc vcry
cxpIicit. Thcy must statc thc angIcs at which thc cascmcnt cxtcnds
ovcr thc propcrty tobc protcctcd, how much thc propcrty owncr to
thcsunward istobcpaidforabidingbythccascmcnt, and how much
hc is to pay for vioIating it. Thc compcnsation fcaturc disturbs somc
obscrvcrs. Thcy rcason that whiIc cascmcnts might bc incxpcnsivc in
ranch country, thcy might bc prohibitivcIy cxpcnsivc in morc urban
arcas.
Thcrc is anothcr approach and it avoids compcnsation. Thc
modcI for this is Ncw Mcxico's statutc, which was subscqucntIy ac-
ccptcd as thc basis for CaIifomia's and Minncsota's statutcs. Thcsc
statutcs invokc thc who-was-rst principIc of Wcstcm watcr-rights
Iaw,orDoctrincofPriorAppropriation. Thcstatutcsprovidcthatthc
rst man to instaII a soIar coIIcctor has rst caII on thc sun and wiII
continuc to. Thosc who subscqucntIy buiId in thc arca must not cn-
croach on his soIarwindow" thc path ofthc sun tohis roof
ltisquitcaconfcrraI.ThcoriginaIidcaofwatcrrightsIawwasto
assign prioritics to thc usc of a naturaI rcsourcc during tcmporary
pcriods of scarcity. Lndcr thc soIar IcgisIation, thc man who hrst
stakcsacIaim tothcrcsourccisawardcditpcrmancntIy. As far as his
ncighbors to thc south arc conccmcd, hc is in thc catbird scat so
much so that hc couId scriousIy impcdc subscqucnt dcvcIopmcnt and
impair thcir propcrty rights.
Thcrc is not cnough cxpcricncc yct for hrm concIusions, but l
wouId gucss that thc cascmcnt approach wiII provc sound, ifIimitcd,
andthatthcprior-appropriationapproachwiIInot. l wouIdaIsogucss
that thc cascmcnt approach wll provc most usctul n conscrvng sun-
Iight for sunIight'ssakc and that its main appIication wiIIbc in citics.
A rcIatcdapproach is air-rights transfcr. CoupIcd with Iandmark
dcsignation, thishasbccnvcry uscfuI in taking thc dcvcIopmcntprcs-
surcsohistoricpropcrtics. LndcrNcwYorkCity'statutc thcsti
cst thc city can dcsignatc a buiIding as a Iandmark, or a group of
thcm as ahistoric district. yso doing, thc citycancnointhc owncr

L
ofa Iandmarkcd buIdng from makng aItcratons wthout thc cty's
approvaI. Thc protccton ofsun and Ight s ncdcntaI, but t s most
ccrtanIy a maor ccct.
No compcnsaton s nvoIvcd. ut thcrc s a swcctcncr for thc
owncr. Hc can scII thc unuscd ar rghts abovc thc buIdng to thc
owncr of a contguous propcrty, who, n tu, can add thcsc to thc
amount of oor spacc hc s cnttIcd to buId on hs own propcrty.
(Exccpton. Lndcr Ncw York Iaw, buIdngs n hstorc dstrcts arc
not cIgbIc for ar-rghts transfcr.)
ThcabIty totransfcrarrghtswasnotcdbythcSuprcmcCourt
whcntuphcIdthc cty's Landmark statutcnthcGrand CcntraITcr-
mnaIcasc. Thcowncr,PcnnCcntraI, compIancdthatthccty'sdcsg-
natonofthctcrmnaIasaIandmarkdcprvcdtofthcabItytocarna
rcasonabIc rcturn. Thc Court dsagrccd. lt notcd that Pcnn CcntraI
wasabIctoscIItsarrghtsforqutcconsdcrabIcsums. lnonctrans-
acton t sold 75, squarc fcct to PhIp Morrs for 2 mIIon wth
thcsc rghts PhIp Morrs ncrcascd thc sc of ts buIdng by thrcc
and a haIfstorcs.
PrvatcsaIcsofarrghtshavcbccnuscdsmIarIy. AncxampIcs
thcfcIctous dcalarrangcdby thcChurch ofSwcdcn onManhattan's
Fortycghth Strcct. Thc church was onIy hvc storcs hgh n an arca
zoncd to aIIow fortaIIcrbuIdngs. ThcdcvcIopcrofanomccbuIdng
that was to go up rght ncxt door to thc church had an dca lfhc
ouhtthcchurch's ar rhtshc coudmakc surc thaths rht ank
wasprotcctcd,andthatsomchorrblcdaythcwndowsofhsbuIdng

wouId not bc bIockcd o by a towcr rsng on thc church stc. Hc


wouId aIso havc rghts to add a good many addtonal squarc fcct to
thc amount aIrcady pcrmttcd for hs buIdng.
ThcchurchwasagrccabIc. lthadpadonIy570,fortsbuId-
ng back n l 97&. Now t wouId not onIy gct to kccp thc buIdng, t
wouId pockct 990, for scIIng thc ar rghts to thc cmpty spacc
abovc t. (N. . Thc St. arthoIomcws casc workcd out vcry badIy
butoncrcasonwasthcfaIurcofthcchurchtocxpIorcthcpossbItcs
of scIIng ts ar rghts. lt hgurcd t couId makc morc moncy f t
bccamc codcvcIopcr and putup a towcr on part ofthc stc.)
Ar-rghts transfcr has bccn hcmmcd n by thc rcqurcmcnt that
transfcr bctocontguousstcs thats, ncxtdoor, acrossthcstrcct,or
cattycomcrcd. To cxpand thc program, t has bccn urgcd that ar
rghtsbcabIc to"oat. "As nthctransfcrofdcvcIopmcnt-rghtspro-
grams for agrcuIturaI arcas, thc rghts wouId bc Icapfroggcd to "rc-
ccvngstcs" somcdstanccaway. Such transfcrsdo posc somc tough
probIcms. ThcmanoncsthcccctaddcdbuIkwIIhavconthcarca
to whch t s transfcrrcd. What shouId bc thc cuto ponts7 Who

Sun Easements
dctcrmincs thcboundarics ofthc sitcs7 uch dctcrminations rcquirc a
rcvicwboard with a highly cpcrt sta, stoncwall rcsistancc to politi
cal prcssurcs, and grcat wisdom. Onc would likc to hnd such abody.
Thcrc is anothcr problcm. lt is in thc word transfcr." ith air
rights thc additional building potcntial is not curbcd. lt is movcd
somcwhcrc clsc, and thcsc shihs can somctimcs do morc damagc in
onc placc thcy thcy prcvcnt in anothcr. ith an cascmcnt, howcvcr,
thc additional building potcntial is not shihcd, it is scvcrcd. Thcrc is
no potcntial to shift. Thc donor yiclds his right to built additions,
dcfacc thc propcrty, orwhatcvcr it is thc cascmcnt spccihcs, and it is
donc for pcrpctuity. Thc cascmcnt runs" with thc propcrty and is
binding on all subscqucnt owncrs. This is why cascmcnts stand up
whcrczoningdocsnotandthccommitmcnttothclongtcrmis crucial
to thc tax dcductibility ofgihs of cascmcnts.
Thc most succcssful application of thc principlc has bccn with

conscrvation cascmcnts. Thcy havc bccn uscd most ohcn with farms
andrurallandinthcpathofdcvclopmcntThccascmcntsprovidcthat
thc landowncr wiIl not build additional houscs on thc arca covcrcd,
chop away hillsidcs, cut down stands oftrccs, dam crccks, sucrbill
boards, orothcrwiscfoul upthcpropcrty. Thccascmcnts arc for pcr
pctuity. Thcy run" with thc land and arc binding on all subscqucnt
owncrs.
Eascmcnts do not ncccssarily covcrall ofa mans propcrty. Onc
ofthcmosthclpfullcssonslcacdinthccarlycascmcntprogramswas
thc dcsirability of tailoring cascmcnts to thc land. Onc portion of a
propcrty mightbcwcll suitcd to dcvclopmcnt. ith thc idca in mind
ofdcvclopingiton thcclustcrprinciplc, thcowncrmightbc willingto
donatccascmcntsonthccrccks, thcdraws, thcwctlandmcadows, and
thc woods that arc so vital to thc bcauty of thc landscapc and so
cnhancc thc portions that arc dcvclopcd. Thcrc has bccn a grcat dcal
of highly imaginativc ncgotiating along thcsc lincs by local land
trusts, conscrvation commissions, thc Naturc Conscrvancy, and oth
crs. Tops thc randywinc Conscrvancy in my homc county an cx
traordinarily ingcnious program for so conscrvativc an arca.)
Looking back, l think wc wcrc much too slow to rcalizc how
rclcvant thcsc rural cascmcnt stratcgics wcrc to thc city. Thc hrst
application wasinthcform offacadccascmcnts. Thcy wcrccspccially
uscful for prcscrving thc cxtcriors of historic buildings. Historic
prcscrvationistscarricdthcballonthcscprograms. ocalgovcrnmcnts
cvcntually got around to passing landmark statutcs with tccth and
cstablishing commissions to cnforcc thcm, but until thcy did, casc
mcnts wcrc a hrst linc ofdcfcnsc.
Thcrc wcrc othcrpotcntialstobc cxplorcd. ln !97scvcral ofus

[ z & c ]
L
sct upthc Ncw ork Landmarks Conscrvancy, lnc. Thc city aIrcady
hadancxccIIcntstatutcandaIandmarksprcscrvationcommission.Wc
thought a Iay group such as ours couId bc hcIpfuI in supporting thc
commission,nccdIingit,anddoinganumbcrofthingsthccommission
couId not such as buying oId buiIdings and rccycIing thcm, or con
scrving thcscorcs ofbuiIdings and bIocks that did not ratc Iandmark
status but wcrc noncthcIcss of architccturaI or historic signihcancc.
Oncofourhrst vcnturcs was thc acquisitionoffacadc cascmcnts
on such buiIdings brownstoncs, Iimcstoncs, oId commcrciaI struc-
turcs with fronts intact. Donors wouId oftcn approach us. Thcy wcrc
impcIIcdbyafccIingforthciroIdbuiIdingsthcywcrcaIsoimpcIIcdby
thcrcaIizationthat afaadc cascmcntcouIdbccntcrcd as acharitabIc
dcduction on thcir incomc tax.
Wc wouId hammcr out thc tcrms of thc cascmcnt with thcm.
asicaIIy, it wouId stipuIatc that thcrc wcrc to bc no structuraI
changcs in thc cxtcrior of thc buiIding savc by our pcrmission. Wc
wcrc particuIarIy concccd with what was visibIc from strcct IcvcI.
Thc owncr had to pIcdgc to kccp thc cxtcrior in good shapc and to
advancc a sum toosct somcofthc cxpcnscs thc Conscrvancy wouId
incurinthcadministrationofthccascmcnt.ThcvaIuationofthccasc
mcnt for tax purposcswas up to thcbuiIdingowncrand his asscssor.
lnaIIcascs, owncrsrcccivcdasubstantiaItaxrcductionfromthclRS,
though by no mcans aII that somc ofthcm askcd for.
Thcrc wcrc bugs to bc workcd out. ln thc bcginning wc wcrc
nowhcrc ncar tough cnough n scttng condtons and cntorcng thcm.
Thc amount of Icgwork and monitoring was grcat and thcrc wcrc
contingcncics wc had not anticipatcd. (ln thc protractcd casc ofthc
rooftop !acuzzi wc Icacd that visibiIity from thc strcct was not aI-
waysasatisfactoryguidcIinc, wcwcrc thrcatcncd withIcgaI actionby
pcopIc who Iivcd abovc thc rooftop)
utthcprogramwasworking. Thanks to thcshakcdown pcriod,
wchadourproccdurcs ironcd out. Wc wcrcnot happy with thctcrm
facadc" andfcItthatconscrvationcascmcnt" wouIdbc abcttcronc.
Wc prcparcd brochurcs and promotionaI matcriaI and got rcady to
Iaunch a scIIing campaign.
Thcn in ! 9&0, Congrcss passcd an act changing tax trcatmcntof
cascmcnts. ln a fcw scntcnccs it thrcatcncd to put us out ofbusincss.
Thc act camc up with a tight dchnition of "architccturaI and
historicsignihcancc. "Hcnccforth, itwouIdmcanpropcrticsthatwcrc
(!)IistcdonthcNationaIRcgistcrofHistoricPIaccsor(2)ccrtihcdas
bcing ofsignihcancc within a rcquircd historic district. To put it an-
othcr way, thc act rcstrictcd cascmcnt protcction to propcrtics that
wcrc aIrcady protcctcd by othcr mcans. ltruIcd out our program.
Or did it Wc notcd that thc act Icft conscrvation and sccnic
3an Easements
cascmcnts rcIativcIy unscathcd. t was gcncraIIy assumcd, ofcoursc,
thatthcscappIicdtoruraIandsuburbanspaccs. utthcrcwas nothin
in thc act that rcstrictcd thcm to ruraI and suburban spaccs. Thc
wordingofthcRSguidcIincsforthcimpIcmcntationofthcactwouId
bc criticaI.
Thcmorcwcthoughtabout it, thcsurcrwcwcrcthatourfacadc
cascmcnts rcaIIy wcrc sccnic cascmcnts so in thcir ccct.
utwchad tomakc thc point. Whatcvcrthc architccturaI orhistoric
signihcancc of thc buiIdings, wc had to cstabIish that thcir grcatcst
bcnchts wcrc in thc conscrvation ofthc Iandscapc. Thc urban Iand-
scapc.
MyidcaofagoodtimcisnotascssionwiththcntcrnaIRcvcnuc
Scrvicc but wc thought it might bc wisc to pay a caII Wc wcnt to
Washington to scc Stcphcn SmaII, thc RS omciaI who was drafting
thc rcguIations for thcimpIcmcntation ofthc act. Wc toId him ofour
conccpt. ishrstrcaction, undcrstandabIy, was skcpticism. Goodtry,
fcIIas ut hc gavc us a fair hcaring. As wc discusscd thc bcnchts of
Iight and air, scaIc, rcIicffromurban cIoscncss, hc saw a strong casc
for urban Iandscapc cascmcnts. c said hc wouId try tobroadcn thc
rcguIations to incIudc thcm.
c did. Thc hnaI rcguIations wcrc pubIishcd in !anuary of l9&6
and thcy incIudcd aII thc points ncccssary for urban Iandscapc casc-
mcnts. crcarcsomcofthccritcria thcrcgulations incIudc fordchn
ing a vicw as sccnic"
hc CQcnnc88 C lhc nd (WhICh WCud Oc mCtc 8IgnIBCnl ClCt
In n utOn Ct dcn8cy QCQulcd 8cllIng Ct In hcVIy WCCdcd tc).
HcIc tCm utOn CC8cnc88. . . .
hc dcgtcc lC WhICh lhc nd u8c mInlIn8 lhc 8Cc nd ChtClct
C lhc utOn nd8CQc lC Qtc8ctVc CQcn 8QCc, VI8u cn]Cymcnl, nd
8unIghl Ct lhc 8uttCundIng tc.
SmaII thought it wouId bc important that our hrst urban casc-
mcntpackamaximumofbcnchts. GrccnacrcParkdid thatandmorc
sunIight, trccs, owcrs, watcrwaIIs and fountains, mothcrs with thcir
babics, young Iovcrs, oIdcrpcopIcinthc autumn sun but
thc ag.
c wcnt Cvct lhc propcrt maps for a lkcI donor. Across thc
strcct, wc found, wasafourstorybuiIdingowncdby apromincntrcaI
cstatcmanandcivicIcadcr, ScymourDurst. Wc askcdhimifhcwouId
considcr giving an cascmcnt. c said hc wouId. Thcrc cnsucd somc
unusuaIIy thorough discussions bctwccn thc Iawycrs for Durst, thc
GrccnacrcFoundation,andthcConscrvancy.AtIcngth, onDcccmbcr
2, l9&thcdaybcforcChristmas Mr. Durstdccdcdthccascmcnt.
Mr. Durst's buiIding is not high cnough to shadow Grccnacrc.

L
Thcpoint ofthc cascmcnt is tokccpitthat way, sccondIy, to prcvcnt
asscmbIagc ofa towcr that wouId shadow it. y rcmaining Iow, fur-
thcrmorc,thcbuiIdingcontributcstothcambianccandmodcratcscaIc
ofthispIcasantIy tacky bIock.
Thc potcntiaIs of an urban cascmcnt program arc trcmcndous.
DcvcIopmcnt vaIucs arc dcar indccd in thc city but thcy can bc har-
ncsscdtogoodccct. As ruraIprograms havcdcmonstratcd, stripping
thc dcvcIopmcnt vaIucs from onc part ofa propcrty can incrcasc thc
vaIucs on anothcr part. CIustcr dcvcIopmcnt makcs good usc of this
principIc.
ln thc city a Iargc mcasurc of protcction can bc achicvcd with
rcIativcIy modcstcurbs on additionaIdcvcIopmcnt. Thinkofa rowof
brownstoncs. Thcy arc, Ict us say, fourstorics high for thc most part
andmakcahncIightguardforthcbIocksaroundit. ltwouIdbcmuch
casicr to soIicit cascmcnts from thc owncrs if thc hcights wcrc not
frozcn. Somc of thc owncrs, uitc IikcIy, may havc bccn thinking of
adding asmaII pcnthouscorgrccnhouscatop thc roof. And why not7
Sun studics mightshowthat nosun wouIdbc bIockcd ifthc structurc
was mansardcd back from thc cornicc Iinc and sIopcd at thc rcar to
kccp thc sun angIcs cIcar.
Low-riscbuiIdingsarcthcobviousoncsforancascmcntprogram,
both for cnoying thc sunIight passcdthroughby othcrs and for pass-
ingitonthcmscIvcs. utmcdium-riscbuiIdingscanuaIify too. Many
a ncghborhood block cn]oys almost tull sun bccausc thcrc arc a num-
bcr of thc convcntionaI six-story apartmcnt buiIdings of thc !9J.
Thcy arc notmuch toIookat with thcirhrc cscapcs, butduringmost
ofthcycarthcydonotbIockmuchsun,morcimportant,thcyprccmpt
thcsitcsfrombcinguscdforbigncwapartmcntbuiIdingsthatwouId.
EvcnvcrybigbuiIdingscanbcinvoIvcdincascmcntproccts. Lct
ussay thatacorporationhas atowcrandsmaIIparkthat itwouIdIikc
toprotcctas muchas possibIc. Acrossthcstrcctisasitc thathasbccn
asscmbIcd for anothcr big towcr. ln thc usuaI coursc of cvcnts thc
towcrwiIIgoup,takcawaymostofthcsun,andthatwiIIbcthat. You
cannot makc an omcIct, itwiIIbc said, without brcaking somc cggs.
ltis obvious that an cascmcnt that wouId havc rcuircd thc ncw
buiIding to bc much smaIIcr wouId havc cost tcns of miIIions as
muchas haIfthc vaIuc ofthc bigbuiIding. utso draconian an casc-
mcntwouIdnot havcbccn ncccssary. Lct mcrcturnto thc cxampIcof
PaIcy Park. ltis cxcruciating towatchthcpath ofthcsunasitcomcs
tothctowcrstothcsouth. Duringakcypartofthcahcmoonthcsun
comcs vcry cIosc to not bcing bIottcd out. ut it is bIottcd out, and
PaIcy Park is much darkcr for it and wiIIbc for ycar aftcr ycaraftcr
ycar.
3an Easements
A rcIativcIy smaII shi in thc pIaccmcnt of a towcr can makc a
crtcal dcrcncc thc amout o su that aIIs o a spacc ad thc
timingofit. ThccascofthcDaIIastowcrisancxampIc. utrarcIyarc
such situations anticipatcd. PcopIc wiII invcst Iargc sums in thc crc
ation of kcy opcn spaccs but takc no stcps to sccurc thcir southc
anks. Thcy faiI cvcn to hypothcsizc thc advcrsitics.
lt is so casy to do so. Thc sun is most rcIiabIc, and with somc
rudimcntary mcasurcmcnts it is possibIc to caIcuIatc ust whcrc thc
shadow Iimits of possibIc ncw construction wouId bc. Thc pastor's
omcc is an cxampIc. ordcring a smaII park is a parish housc two
storics high. Thc board ofdircctors of thc park wouId havc Iikcd to
purchasc an cascmcnt from thc church that wouId kccp thc parish
housctwostoricshigh. ThatwaynoadditionaIshadowswouIdfaII on
thc park. Thc church baIkcd. Thc pastor, it was Icacd, wantcd an
omcc buiIt for him atop thc parish housc.
Sun studics indicatcd that ifa structurc about cIcvcn fcct high
was positioncd at onccnd ofthc parishhousc, no additionaI shadows
wouId faII on thc park. An cascmcnt dchning thcsc Iimits wouId bc
agrccabIctothcchurch,andforasumfarIcssthanano-construction
at-aII casccnt.
EascmcntscanbcuscfuIinpurchasc-and-saIc-backproccts.Oncc
again Grccnacrc Park is an cxcmpIar. lts northcrn cxposurc was gct
ting cIoggcd up with buiIdings. This did not acct thc sunbut it did
cutdownonthcskyvauItabovcandthcfccIingofopcnncss.utthcrc
wasonc chinkinthcbuiIdingmasstothcnorth. lt wasthcrcarofthc
caI McCoysarandGriII. ltwasonIythrccstorics high, andabovc
it was a window to thc sky.
Thc bar and griII was purchascd by a fricnd ofthc park for !
miIIion. ltwastidicdupa bit, hadancascmcnt put onitconstraining
any furthcr dcvcIopmcnt, thcn was put back on thc markct. lt was
soonsoId,for! miIIion. lfyouarccvcrinGrccnacrcPark,Iookupat
thc watcrfaII, thc smaII hrc-cscapc buiIding bcyond, and thc patch of
bIuc sky abovc. lt isthcrcbccausc it was not takcn for grantcd.

Thc out-migration startcd sIowIy. Thc hrst to movc was GcncraI


Foods, to Whitc PIains in 95. Tcn ycars Iatcr lM movcd out, to
rmon. hcn ln, totamord. n I70 thc momcntumpccd up.
A fcw corporations hcadcd forthcSunbcIt. Mosthcadcd forthcsub-
urbs, to Connccticut's FairhcId County in particuIar. y !976 ovcr
thirtymaorcorporationshadmovcdoutofNcw York City,andmorc
wcrc Icaving incIuding oncofthcbiggcst, nion Carbidc. Occ va-
cancy ratcswcrccIimbing. Withthccityonthccdgc ofbankruptcy,it
Iookcd as ifa fuIIcdgcd rout was in thc making.
High timc, many pcopIc said. Evcn Ncw Yorkcrs oincd in thc
rcprchcnsion. CouIdn't bIamc nion Carbidc, thc Ncw York 1ime
cditoriaIizcdthccityhadIctitdown.Dr.GcorgcStcrnIicb,dircctorof
utgcrs' Ccntcrfor rban PoIicy cscarch, who had bccn prophcsy-
ingsuch cvcnts, fairIy chortIcd at thcir arrivaI. "lttakcs aman who's
bccnshotinthchcadawhiIctorcaIizchc'sdcad,"StcmIicbobscrvcd.
"NcwYorkmaynotrcaIizcit,butifyouIookatthcnumbcrsit'scIcar
that Ncw York is dcad. "
utthcroutdidnotcomco. ThcbadncwsaboutNcwYorkhad
bccnsobad thatacIassic bottomwasbcingformcd. Anycorporation
thathad notyctdccidcdto Icavc probabIy wouId notIcavc. Thc oncs
whohadIcfthadIongbcforcsignaIcdthcirintcntions. lnourrcscarch
on pubIic spaccs wc had found an carIy waming indicator. ltwas thc

7he Cororate Exodas


corporatons own buIdng. Oftcn t wouId gvc an advancc tp that
thccorporaton was not Iong or thc cty.

nonCarbcshcaquartcrsonarkvcnucwasonsuch. hs
sIcckbIackbuIdngwasonthcSkdmorc, Owngs, and McrrIIsbcst,
and t was supcrbIy Iocatcd. ln opcraton, howcvcr, t brstIcd wth
dstrustofthccty. Largcstrpsofcmpty spaccbordcrcdtssdcsand
fronts,andwthnaryabcnchoraIcdgcforanyonctoston.Guardng
cntry was acorpsofguards. ltshouIdhavc comcas no surprsc whcn
thc company announccd n !976 that t was forswcarng thc cty and
wouId movc to Danbury, Conncctcut.
nonCarbdc'stmngwasnotvcrygood. Thcmasscxoduswas
ust about ovcr. rcpostcrous as t may havc sccmcd thcn, thc bad
ncws was pcakng ust as thc ctys compcttvc poston took somc
dccdcd tums for thc bcttcr. Ovcrscas busncss had bccomc a grcat
stmuIant thcrc was an nux offorcgn hs, cspccaIIy n hnancc.
lntcmatonaI dvsons ofcorporatons wcrc cxpandng and t was n
Ncw ork thatthcy wcrcdongt.A numbcrofhrmsthathad carIcr
contcmpIatcd Icavngthcctyhad sccond thoughts. PhIpMorrs an-
nounccdtwouId stay. Soddhzcr. Ncworks troubIcs wcrcby no
mcans ovcr, but thcrc was to bc a rcsptc, and tmc for muIIng ovcr
somcIcssons.
OncthnghadbccomccIcar. WhIcthcrcIocatonswcrctoutcdas
cconomcmcasurcs, thcywcrcnfactvcrycostIy,andformorcpartcs
than thc corporatons. Lct us foIIow thc Lnon Carbdc casc. At 270
arkvcnucthadahfty-thrccstorybuIdngwth . 2mIIonsquarc
fcct. ltsoId t for !0 mIIon, or 92 a squarc foot a hrcsaIcprcc
forsuch abuIdngat such aIocaton, andagrcat coupforthcbuycr,
Manufacturcrs anovcr Trust Company. lt soId ts prcvous hcad
quartcrs, asmaIIcr buIdng, for 6! mIIon, or JJJ a squarc foot.
Lnon Carbdcs ncw hcadquartcrs wouIdbcsIghtIy Iargcr than
thcoIdonc . JmIIonsquarcfcct.ltwouIdcost! 90mIIon.To Ink
up wth thc hghway systcm, a frccway sccton and cIovcrIcafhad to
bc constructcd, thc cost tobc bomcby fcdcraI taxpaycrs.
Thcdcsgn,bycvnochcand!ohnDnkcIoo,wasahandsomc
onc and n horzontaI tcrms matchcd thc hghIy ccntraIzcd managc-
mcnsrucurc ofthccompany. omcoscrvcrs wcrcsurprscd. hcy
thought thccompany wouId takc advantagc ofthc movc to shft to a
Iooscr, morc contcmporary organzatonaI sct up, wth morc auton-
omyforthcdvsons. utt dd not, thcrcby producng, n thcwords
ofonc critc, a monumcnt to thc 95.
lnany cvcnt, twas faraway somc nncty mIcs from Ncw ork
and n an arca not wcII scrvcd by mass transportaton. cIocaton
costs wcrc hcavy 0 mIIon. Of thrtytwo hundrcd cmpIoyccs,
*
4
L
aboutscvcnhundrcdIivcdcIosc cnoughtothcncwsitcnottohavcto
movc. About twcIvc hundrcd did havc to ovc and hnd ncw homcs
and schooIs, and thc company subsidizcd thcir movcs. About twcIvc
hundrcd pcopIc rcfuscd tomovc and Icft hc company.
Atthctimcofthcmovchousingwasin shortsuppIy in thcDan-
buryarca inparticuIar,housingaordabIcbymiddIcincomcpcopIc.
ThcmovcitscIfputhousingfurthcroutofrcachforpcopIcwhowouId
workthcrc. Sothcymadcdo. Thcycommutcd, and foranumbcr, thc
commutcs wcrc Iong indccd.
lnvaryingdcgrccsothcromccgrowth arcas havcsucrcd simiIar
imbaIanccs. Housing is not whcrc thc omccobs arc, and vicc vcrsa,
and thc ncw-town idcaI ofonc's working within waIking distancc of

onc'shomcwasncvcrfurthcrfromrcaIity. lnthcfox-huntcountryof
Ncw !crscy's Morris and Somcrsctcountics, ncw omcc compIcxcsarc
bringingmanywhitccoIIarcIcricaIworkcrstoabcautifuIcountrysidc.
utfordaytimcusconIy. NottoIivcthcrc. PhysicaIIy, thcrcispIcnty
ofroom forncw housing, andcvcntuaIIy mostofthcrcmaining farms
and cstatcs wiII go, and thcrc wiII bc housing. ut it wiII bc Iong in
coming and probabIy vcr dcar. Arcadia wiII cvcrbc rcccding.
lnthcmcantimcanothcrstccpprccisbcingpaid.Tramc. ltisthc
primc probIcm that thc omcc growth arcas facc and it is hard to scc
how thcrc can bc any substantiaI rcIicffor ycars to comc. Thc high
ways wcrc Iaid out for othcr scttIcmcnt pattcms, othcr kinds ofour
ncys, and thcy do not match with thc mixcd, aII-dircctions
spawncd occ ccntcrs. hcrcvcr ou want to go n thcsc arcas,
thcrc ncvcr sccms tobc a dircct routc. ou zig and you zag, stop for
intcrminabIc Iights, turn rght for onc routc, Icft for anothcr. Thc
frccways arcn't so bad, it's thc mishmashbctwccn thcm that is awfuI.
nginccrscannotsoIvcthisprobIcm. ltis csscntiaIIy govcmmcn-
taI. How many morc acccss points to aIIow on a givcn strctch of
highway7ShouIddcvcIopcrsbcasscsscdthccostofovcrpasscs7ShouId
thcrc bc ovcrpasscs7 ShouId thcrc, for that mattcr, bc morc proccts7
ln whosc township7Thcrc arc fcw rcgionaIbodics with tccth to makc
thctough dccisions. LntiIthcrcarc, stay on -95. Lcavcitandyouarc
in troubIc.
lnthcdowntownsas inthccountrysidc, companics arc bcfouIing
thc surccasc thcy sought. Grccnwich, Connccticut, now has ovcr 2
miIIion squarc fcct ofomcc spacc, much ofit in thc downtown arca.
FormostcmpIoyccs,howcvcr,thcrcis nomasstransitthatispracticaI
forthcm.Thcymustdrvc,andviaastrcctsystcmthatwasIaidoutin
thc ! 7. Fivco'cIockcanbcamcmorabIccxpcricncc. Forthccxccu-
tivcs thc gcography is hnc somc havc homcs onIy a fcw miIcs away.
Thosc who hcad north to thc woods and thc cstatcs havc onIy a fcw

1be Cororate Exodus


miIcs morc. utmost cmpIoyccs donotIivcin Grccnwich. Thcy hcad
south forExit 5ofthcNcw EngIandThruwayand, acrthcygcton
it, somc ofthc dcnscst tramc on thc Eastc Scaboard.
lnbothGrccnwichandStamfordthcstationsarconIyafcwbIocks
awayfrommanyofthc hcadquartcrs. utonIyaminorityofcmpIoyccs
appcar to usc thcm. PossibIy bccausc of thc nccd for a car trip at thc
othcr cnd ofthc Iinc, thc maority makc thcwhoIc trip by car.
lsitforsuchfactorsthatcompanicshavcmovcd7Thcycitctrans-
portation asonc, thcy citctaxdicrcntiaIs, thcy sitcomcccosts, avaiI-
abiIity oftraincd pcopIc, and othcr tangibIc factors. Somctimcs, as at
Phzcr, thcvarious factors havcbccn rankcd by computcrstudicsand
thcngivcnwcightingsby cachofthccxccutivcs. LocationconsuItants,
such as Thc Fantus Co., havc bccn rctaincd by companics to advisc
thcm whcthcr thcy shouId movc ornot, and if so, to whcrc. DctaiIcd
comparisons havc bccn drawn up to mcasurc thc rcIativc mcrits of
Iocations A, , and C.
Such studics havc bccn imprcssivc. Thc boiIcrpIatc aIonc has
somctimcs bccn as thick as a phonc book. ut what thc studics havc
mainIyprovcdisthattangibIcfactorshavcIittIctodowiththcmovcs.
ltisthcintangibIcsthathavcbccnthc kcy. Environmcnt"is thc
umbrcIIatcn. Shoofcuphcmism, hcrcis whatcxccutivcsmcanby
it (!)Thc ccntcrcityis a bad pIacc crimc, dirt, noisc,bIacks, Pucrto
icans, and so on. (2) Evcn ifit isn't a bad pIacc, middIc mcricans
think it is and thcy don't want to bc transfcrrcd hcrc. (J) To attract
and hoId good pcopIcwc havcto givc thcma bcttcr cnvironmcnt. (
Wc havcto movctosuburbia. ThusLnionCarbidc,concIudingatwo-
ycar study "Thc Iong tcrm quaIityofIifc nccds of our hcadquartcrs
cmpIoyccs wcrc thc ovcrriding factors.
ScIfscrving picty has bccn charactcristic of thc movcs. Not for
thc brass, not for thc company it has bccn for thcir pcopIc that thcy
havc movcd, and for thcir IifcstyIc nccds.
lts a wondcr cxccutivcs kccp a straight facc. LifcstyIc nccds of
cmpIoyccs7 Companicsdon'thavctospcndaIIthatmoncyrcscarchig
thcm. ThcydonthavctocomparcarcaAwitharcaandarcaC. AII
thcy havc to do is Iook in thc phonc dircctory. Whcrc docs thc boss
Iivc7 That is whcrc thc company is going.
nd that swhcrc thcy wcnt. urng thc hcght ofthc codus
madc a Iocation study. l pIottcd thc movcs ofaII thc maor corpora-
tionsthathad movcdfrom NcwYorktothcsuburbsandbcyondovcr
thcprcvioustcnycars. y chcckingoIdphoncdircctorics, strcctmaps,
and rcgistcrs of cxccutivcs, l pIottcd thc homc Iocations of thc chicf
cxccutivc omccrand hisfcIIow topcxccutivcsat thctimcthc dccision
wasmadctomovc. Thcn lpIottcdthcIocationthccompanymovcdto.
ThccorrcIation ofthirtycightcorporations, thirtyoncmovcdto
WO0I0 SO0u0 lO0
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bATNTNNbA
Nctwcrkiu at wcrk. O/tbitj-cibt ccmpauics tbat mcrcd cut c/Ncw Ycrk
Citj tc bcttcr quatj-clc uccds c/tbcir cmplcjccs, tbirtj-cuc mcrcd tc tbc
Urccuwicb-5tam/crdarca. Blackcirclcs sbcwwbcrctbccbic/cxccutircc_ccrs
lircd at tbc timc tbc mcrc was plauucd, wbitc circlcs sbcw wbcrc tbc ucw
bcadquartcn was subscqucutlj lccatcd. Hrcrac distaucc /rcm tbc CEO's
bcmc: cibt milcs.
a pIacc cIosc to thc top man's homc. Avcragc distancc. about cight
miIcs by road.
Thc gcographic conccntration was cxtraordinary. Thc hcartIand
wasinGrccnwich spccihcaIIy, ina circIc aboutfourmiIcsindiamc-
tcr,bounddonthccastbythcurningTrccCountryCIubandonthc
wcst by thc FairhcId Country CIub. Within it wcrc no fcwcr than
twcIvc chicfcxccutivc omccrs.

7he Cororate Exodas
Andwhcrcddmostofthcrcompancsmovcto7 rccnwchand
cnrons.
hs was hardIy a chancc dstrbuton. As a chcc l pIottcd thc
homc Iocatons ofthc top cxccutvcs ofnnctyhvc corporatons that
had not movcd from Ncw Yor. athcr thanbcng conccntratcd n a
fcw spots, thcy wcrc wdcIy dstrbutcd ovcr thc mctropoItan arca,
wth about a quartcr n Ncw Yor Cty tscIf.
Compancs say thc top man's prcfcrcncc bccomcs a factor onIy
ahcr thc basc dccsonto movchas bccn madc. hcfactssuggcst thc
rcvcrsc that t s a prmc motvatng factor from thc bcgnnng. hc
concdcnccs toogrcat tobc ratonaIzcdothcrwsc. ObvousIysomc-
thngothcrthanobcctvcanaIysshadbccnatwornthcrccnwch
cascs. Pccrshadbccnat wor. hcpIaccwasrfcwthchcfcxccutvc
omccrs, and t was n thc Ioccr rooms of thosc goIfcIubs that thc
most mportant Iocaton rcscarch may havc tacn pIacc.
lfcxccutvcswantcdtotacthcrpcopIctothcsuburbs, that was
thcr prcrogatvc. ut wouId t bc good for thccompany7 cry much
so, sadthccxccutvcs, and thcyhadgIowngstorcstobacthcm up.
CcrtanIynot, sad urbanIoyaIsts, andthcyhad storcs,too.hctcst,
ofcoursc, wouIdbc pcrfoancc. Latcr, somcastonshngdatawouId
bccomc avaIabIc, but at thctmcthcrcwas nottoo much to go on. l
madc ycar-to-ycar camngs comparsons but most of thc movcs had
bccn too rcccnt for h concIusons to bc drawn.
ScvcraIpontswcrccIcar, howcvcr. SomcndofcycIcaIproccss
hadbccnatwor.Anumbcrofcompancshadshownaprcdsposton
tomovcandthsappcarcdtohavcbccnIncdtothccompanysstagc
ofIfc. Movc-out compancstcndcd tobcbgcompancs, ncarthc top
ofthcFortuncU.hcytcndcdtobctcchncaIIyorcntcd,wthahgh
quotaofcngnccrs n managcmcnt. Thc compancs wcrc hcavIy cap-
taIzcd and scIf-sumccnt cnough not to nccd bans as much as thcy
ddcarIcr. MoststartcdoutnsmaIIctcsortownscIscwhcrc, movcd
toNcw Yor, and wcrc now movng oncc agan, away fromthc cty.
WhatcvcrthcmpuIscsforthcmovcs,mostcxccutvcssccmtobc
pIcascd wth thcm. hcy havc a strong psychc nvcstmcnt n bcng
pIcascd, ofcoursc, butmostofthcmddIcmanagcmcntpcopIcappcar
to plcascd also. 1hcy lkc thc plcasant surroundngs and thc tmc
savcd ncommutng whchhasgcncraIIybccnuscdformorctmcat
thcomccthan at homc. (hc usuaIarrvaI hours ncarcr & A. m. than
9.) As for thc hustIc and bustIc of thc cty, pcopIc who havc ust
movcd out may mss t at rst, aftcr a whIc thcy do not. Whatcvcr
thcy arc mssng, thcy arc happIy unawarc ofwhat ts.
Andthcrcmaybcthcrub. MgratonsarcascIf-provngpropos-
ton, and fcxccutvcs arc happy, t s n part bccauscthcmovcstcnd
+
L0I0I8l0 C80uS0S
8I0 ul0l8C0S.
LulSl00 l00 0u00Sl
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L
to scrccnout pcopIcwhowouIdnotbc. SomcpcopIc,among thcm thc
mostabIcandaggrcssivc, rcfusctogoout,andthcyoinothcrcompa
nics. Somc who do go out hnd thc atmosphcc dcadcning and Icavc
Most pcopIc adapt. Thc ruraI cnvironmcnt is casy to adapt to.
PhysicaIIy, thcrc is much spacc, pIcasantIy arrangcd. lndividuaI of-
hccrsandworkstations

cndtobcIargcrthanthcircountcrpartsinthc
city vastIy so in thc casc of somc top cxccutivcs' occs. Thcrc arc
attractivc common arcas. Outdoors thcrc may bc shadcd waIks and

pcc arcas
Thcsc pIaccs arc quict pIaccs. What onc noticcs at hrst is thc
stiIIncss. Outsidc, thc Ioudcst noisc hcard is thc swish ofthc watcr
sprinkIcrs on thc Iawn, thc mucd hum ofthc trac on thc ncarby
parkway. Exccpt at & and 5, not many pcopIc arc to bc sccn coming
and going. At outIying campuscs somc cxccutivcs may stroII around
thcbuiIdings. At GcncraIEIcctricthcrcarconc-tu"mcnandtwo-
tu" mcn. Mostofthc timc, howcvcr, thcrcisIittIcactivityoutdoors.
ThcpaccissIow, visibIyso. othmigrantsandvisitorsrcmarkon
howmuchmorcsIowIy pcopIcsccmtomovc.To somcthisis hcaIthy
IackofhassIc arcIaxcd, Iowstrcssatmosphcrcthatisgoodfor cIcar

thinking. To othcrs, itis torpor.


Thcy waIk sIowcr," says a non migrant cxccutivc. Thcy taIk
sIowcr. Thcy think sIowcr." Thc chargc is cxprcsscd inothcrway
dryrot,"gonctosccd. "ltisabiascdchargc, tobcsurc,butitisonc
that companics shouId hcar. lt'snot right for guys to havcsuch big
omccs," says an cxccutvc whosc omcc szc isdiscipIincdby cty costs.
lt gcts to a pcrson acr a whiIc. Thcy'rc big frogs out thcrc and
thcy'rc gctting out oftouch. " Exccutivcs ofmigrant hns somctimcs
wondcr thcmscIvcs. lt's not that thcy thcmscIvcs wiII go sIack, thcy
say, thcyhadthcirformativcycarsinatoughcrcIimc. utwhatabout
thc youngcr mcn7 Thcy'rc thc oncs l worry about, "says onc scnior
cxccutivc. Thcrc'sust too damn much contcntmcnt. Ovcr thc Iong
run thc movc is going tobc bad for this company."
Thcsc arc bcctivc mattcrs. Onc aspcct that is not is scIf-con-
tainmcnt. cadquartcrs, cvcnthoscinthc ccntcroftowns, havcIittIc
conncction with thcir surroundings. Thcy arc cIcmcnts of a car cuI-
turc onc arrivcs by car and Icavcs by car, and thcrc is not much
intcrchangc with thcoutsidc worId inbctwccn. Within thchcadquar-
tcrs arangcofscrviccsmakcs thcoutsidc unncccssary. Thcscarcpar-
ticuIarIybountifuI in outIyingcampuscs. At cnchciaI Managcmcnt's
corporatc viIIagc in Pcapack, Ncw!crscy, a pIcasant grouping ofIow
buiIdings is arrangcd around a courtyard and bcII towcr. Thcrc arc
outdoordiningarcas, diningroomswithin, shops,hcaIthfaciIiticsthc
garagcisIaidoutsothatoncdrivcstoanundcrgroundspaccandtakcs
an cIcvatorto within a fcw fcct ofhis occ.
Evcn in downtown Iocations, hcadquartcrs arc scIf-sucicnt. ln

1talian villac camu:: Bcnc]cialManacmcnt Cororation, Fcaack. Ncw Jcr:c].


000 0 SUDU80
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8I0g 8I08S, lD0
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L
Stamford thcrc is a broad bouIcvard Iincd with thcm. ut it is not
much waIkcd upon. Thcrc appcars to bc IitIc human tramc bctwccn
thc scparatchcadquartcrs. EmpIoyccsdovisitthchucshoppinmaII
across thcway, butnotsomanythat thc sidcwaIks arc cvcrtoobusy.
Or that thc tramc Iihts havc to bc timcd to iv thc pcdcstrian a
brcak. c has to prcss a button to ct on thc waitin Iist.
What Stamfordhas madcisan architccturaI park. ThcbuiIdins,
by somc of thc countrys most notcd architccts, form a scrics ofdc-
tachcd cxhibits, scvcraI mountcd on podiums. OnIy onc has a strcct-
IcvcIprcscncc. Champion lntcmationaIs, dcsincdbyIrich Franzcn
it has an outdoor pIaza and a branch ofthc Whitncy Muscum on
thc round oor A numbcrofthc othcrs do not havc any pcdcstrian
acccss at strcct IcvcI at aII, thcir cntry points arc up abovc, on thc
uppcr IcvcIs ovcrthc parkin aracs.
CampusIocationordowntown,hcadquartcrspcopIcsharcasimi
Iar probIcm. PcopIc do not o out to scc thcm vcry much. Tramc at
chcckpoints, such as atchouscs and sccurity dcsks, is Iiht, so is thc
parkininthcarcarcscrvcdforvisitors, thcprovisionofwhichcIcarIy
anticipatcd ar morc ofthcm than havcbccn tumin up.
Exccutivcs ofcompanics contcmpIatin a movc arc wary on this
point. Thcy havc hcard about thc Iow visitor ratcs. ut thcy bcIicvc
thcy havccnouh cIoutthatpcopIcwiII oouttosccthcm. SopcopIc
wiII. pcopIc with somcthin to scII to thc company, pcopIc with ac
countstoscrvicc, pcopIcwhoarc Icss important than whomcvcrthcy
arcointoscc Nobodydropsin. Thcvisits arcpIanncdvisits,andas
thccompanicshow-to-ct-thcrcbookIctsindicatc,thcsccantakcsomc
cort.AcrcxitinfromthcMcrrittatJ&, tumrihtontoMiddIc
Ridc Road and continuc to thc third stopIiht . . . ")
SomcwouId-bcvisitorsbaIk,and thcyarc apttobc thcimportant
oncs. Thcy cvcn scnt a Iimousinc in for mc," rccaIIs a top antitrust
Iawycr. Thcysaid lshouIdprcparcthccascoutinWhitc PIains. Onc
visit was cnouh. l said no, thcy couId scnd thc cxccutivcs in to mc.
Wcdrcntasuitcat thcarcIayandoovcrthccascthcrc. Andthats
what wc did."
Thc probIcm is notustthcinfrcqucncy ofthcvisitsbutthcchar-
actcrofthcm. Whcn scniorcxccutivcshavctotravcI outtosccscnior
cxccutivcs ofan outIyin company, thcy can bc kccnIy awarc that a
mcasurc of cocrcion is invoIvcd. Thcy dont Iikc this. Onc cxccutivc
toId mc ofaoumcy hc and two fcIIow cxccutivcs had to makc to a
companywith aNcw!crscycampus. Thcywcntoutbccauscthcyhad
to, thc Ncw !crscy company had a proccss thcy badIy wantcd to Ii
ccnsc. Wc had to o out twicc," hc said. Thcy rcaIIy stuck it to us
Thcrc thcy wcrc in thc bi chairs. lt was Iikc a court and wc wcrc
7he Cororate Exodas
scrfs. Wc fcIt siIIy, frankIy. lt was a bad pIacc to do any ncgotiating
in. "
Anothcr mans homc tcrritory is not thc bcst pIacc to bargain
with him, cspcciaIIy whcn thc trip out is itscIf an obcisancc. TruIy
criticaI ncgotiations arc bcst donc informaIIy, on common mccting
grounds cquaIIyacccssibIcto both partics Thcscthc city has inabun-
rcstaurants, buiIding Iobbics, strcct cocrs. Thcsc
pIaccsarcthchcartofthccity'sintcIIigcnccnctworks, andacompany
thatcutsitscIfofromthcmIoscssomcthingthatnocIcctronicsystcm
can cvcr providc.
Somc companics havc tricd to compcnsatc for thc isoIation by
using consuItants morc. Many cxpcrts havc bccn caming thcir pcr
dicms by travcIingout tobricfcompany pcopIc and shoot idcas back
and forth with thcm. Onc cxccutivc summcditupinaword. What, l
had askcd him, gcsturing to thc cmpty visitors parking Iot, did thcy
do about visitors7 "Wc hirc thcm," hc said
Exccutivc of outIying companics do go back into town pcriodi-
caIIy, and thc companics wouId Iikc to havc thcm scc morc pcopIc
whcn thcy do. "Wc cncouragc thcm to schcduIc thcir contacts morc
tightIy,"saysonccxccutivc. "NowastcdtimconpurcIysociaIstuno
Iong Iunchcswith oId coIIcgcbuddics." Which isto say, no surpriscs
no chancc cncountcrs, no uncxpcctcd points ofvicw.
Thcrc has bccn somc rcIocation work back to town. Companics
arc quitctouchyon thc mattcr, but many ofthcirpcopIcarccommut-
ing to thccityfor thcirkcy work kccping intouch. Thisis cspcciaIIy
thc casc with pcopIc in communications. ou can't work thc room if
youarcnotthcrc.Somcofthcintownoccsthatcompanicshavckcpt
arc now morccrowdcd than thcy wcrc bcforc. GcncraI EIcctric's for-
mcrhcadquartcrsbuiIdingon LcxingtonAvcnuchasmorc GEpcopIc
working in it than whcn it was hcadquartcrs. Somc companics that
kcptnospacchavcrccstabIishcdthcirprcscnccwith "rcgionaI"occs
and with hotcI or apartmcnt suitcs.
ln somc rcspccts, thc movcs to suburbia havc spurrcd contact.
PIanc travcI to company outposts has bccn rising somc companics
havc bccn cnIarging thcir privatc ccts and cxccutivcs havc bccn
spcndingasmuchifnotmorctimconthcroadthanbcforc.Withinthc
ncwhcaduartcrsfurthcrmorc somcofthcprcdominantIyhoriontaI
IayoutshavcIcdto morcintcrchangcthan inthcvcrticaIstructurcsof
thccity.ThisiscspcciaIIynoticcabIcaroundIunchtimc,aspcopIccon-
grcgatc in thc dining rooms and common arcas.
ut thcsc arc intcmaI contacts, company pcopIc taIking to com-
pany pcopIc.Thcrcisapricctopayforthisinbrccdingandthcfarthcr
away fromthc mainstrcam a company gocs, thc morc vuIncrabIc it is
toit. Evcry Iargcorganization has withinit tcndcncics to tuinward
on itscIf. Moving to suburbia intcnsihcs thcsc tcndcncics.

N0 D8g 80l0S, 00
wl00S, 00 000D8S
8SS8uI I00l
800SC800 I808IIS,
y0I I00 C0080l0S
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I0I08I 0 I000 8S I00y
w0I0 D8CK l0 I00 ClQ.
+
L
Thc movcs arc acts of withdrawaI and thc buiIdings convcy it.
Many ofthc ncw structurcs arc curiousIydccnsivc indcsign, asifthc
probIcm wcrctoomanyoutsidcrs tryingtogct inrathcrthan toofcw.
A numbcr ofcompanics arc sitcd on stccp hiIIsidcs, Iikc forts. Onc,
thcn AmcricanCan, hadasorofGoIdhngcr'scastIcwithan cntrancc
thatopcncdfor cxccutivcs cars, IikcaportcuIIis. GcncraI EIcctrichas
agatchouscforscrccningpcopIcbcforcthcydrivcontothchcadquar
tcrs itscIf, whcrc a dcsignatcd cmpIoyccwiII rcccivc thcm.
No bag Iadics, no winos, no oddbaIIs assauIt thcir Iandscapcd
ramparts, yctthccompanicssccmcvcrybitas obscsscdwith thcthrcat
ofthcm as thcy wcrc back in thc city. Guards arc aII ovcr thc pIacc.
Thcrc arc cIaboratc T survciIIancc systcms. With thcir Iong, whitc
camcras, sIowIyrotating, thcyarcasmuchtobcsccnastoscc. Sotoo
thcmastcrconsoIcsinthcIobby, withthcirbanksofsmaIITscrccns
and bIinking Iights. Thcy arc thc most imprcssivc dcsign cIcmcnt of
many Iobbics and thc spirituaI ccntcrpiccc ofthcm.
ThccompanicssaythcywantpcopIctocomc. ThcirbuiIdingssay
no.
Aftcr thc 976 dcparturcs thc outward movcmcnt sIowcd to a
trickIc, avcraging about two hns a ycar. Thcn in 96 thc pacc
pickcd up four movcd out and scvcraI othcrs announccd thcy wcrc
goingto Exxon, !. C. Pcnncy, MobiI, ATT. As in thcmidscvcntics,
thc ncws thoroughIy aIarmcd thc city. This timc, many said, thc city
rcay had had t.
Thcrc was a widcsprcad disposition to scc thc movcouts sidc,
andtosccthcirdcparturcasadamningindictmcntofthccityitshigh
taxcs, crimc, and strcss and strain. Thc movcs had bccn prcccdcd by
cxhaustivcstudyofaIIfactors,thchrnscmphasizcd,andccrtainIythis
must havc incIudcd thc cxpcricncc ofthc prcvious movc-outs. lt was
gcncraIIy assumcd that thcy had donc vcry wcII in thcir suburban
campuscs, and in hnanciaI as wcII as cnvironmcntaI tcs.
uthad thcy7 Whcn l did my 976 study, not cnough timc had
cIapscdtodrawvaIidconcIusions. utnowtcnycarshadgoncby and
thcrcwasharddata.To foIIowup,ltrackcdthcpcrformanccofthcJ
companics thathad movcdout and J6thathad not, andbythatmost
hard-boiIcd ofmcasurcs, thc vaIuation ofthc markctpIacc.
Thc hrst discovcry was that scvcntccn of thc thirty-cight movc-
outhshadIost thciridcntity. Thcyhadbccnboughtout, raidcd, or
mcrgcd, and in nocsc as thcdominant partncr. ThatIcft twcnty-two
companics. For cach l traccd thc stock vaIuation for thc cIcvcnycar
pcriod Dcccmbcr J , 976, to Dcccmbcr J , 97. Thc avcragc in-
crcascwas 07pcrccnt somcwhatbcttcrthanthc9Jpcrccntincrcasc
ofthc Dow-oncs lndustriaI Avcragc.
1be Cororate Exodas
What about thc companics that had staycd in Ncw York7 Thc
rcsItswcrcdownrightstartIing. For thcthirty-simaorcorporations
that staycd thc avcragc incrcasc was 277 pcrccnt two and haIf
timcs thc incrcasc ofthc movcouts.
Assigning causc and ccct is dimcuIt. Thcrc arc ust too many
variabIcs. lt couIdbc that thc soourninsuburbia didduII rccxcs, as
somcprophcsicditwouId. utitcouIdaIsobcargucdthatthccompa-
nicswcrcthcbcttcrforhavingmovcdandwouIdhavcfarcdworschad
thcy not movcd.
lthinkthcdicwascastwcIIbcforcthccompanicsmovcdout. Thc
impuIsc sccms to havc bccn intcrnaI, thc conscqucncc of cycIicaI
changcs within thc companics, and indcpcndcnt of thc city and its
probIcms. lnaword, thcywcrc not doing vcry wcII. Somchad grown
oId and fat and sIow. ScvcraI had idcntity probIcms. (Amcrican Can
got out ofthc can busincss cntircIy, changcd its namc to Primcrica,
and wcnt into hnancc.) To paraphrasc Dr. !ohnson, if a company is
tircd of Ncw York, it is tircd.
ndcrstandabIy, companics that wcrc unhappy bccamc unhappy
with thc city. FrcqucntIy thcy tcIcgraphcd thcir intcntions by citing
somcbody cIsc's compIaints, thc rccaIcitrant yokcI was a favoritc.
Whcn thc companics hnaIIy did announcc, it was with a vcngcancc
Thc Icavc-takings wcrc acts ofrcnunciation, a turning ofthc back to
thc past. Thc shccr mcchanics ofthc migration, thc pIanning studics,
andthcdcsignworkpromiscdtobcashotinthcarm.Andso itwa
for thc top managcmcnt group, at any ratc, ifnot for thc undcrIings
whowcrcunabIctopickuprootsandointhcmovc. Sorryaboutthat.
Anothcrstudy rcvcaIcdawidcdisparitybctwccnthcpcrformancc
of movc-outs and that of staycrs. ln a 9&0 asscssmcnt for thc c-
gionaI PIan Association, cginacIzArmstrong anaIyzcd thrcc kinds
ofhrms thoscthat staycd in NcwYork City thosc that movcd to thc
suburbs, thosc that movcd out ofthc rcgion cntircIy. Thc factors shc
chcckcd wcrc productivity, prohtabiIity, and growth.
Ofthctwcnty-thrcccompanics that had movcdto thcsuburbs in
thcpcriod l 9727, thc maority had prohtabiIity Iowcr than avcragc
for companics in thcirindustryinthcrcgion, and thcgrowth ratcwas
onIyahathatothcothcrs. Thc twcnty rms thathad movcdoto
thc rcgion had pcrformanccs modcratcIy bcIow avcragc for thcir
group.
As in my study, hrms that rcmaincd in Ncw York City did vcry
wcII, somc spcctacuIarIy wcII. Thc avcragc vaIuc ofoutput and proht
pcr doIIarofIaborinputincrcascd muchfastcrthanboththcrcgionaI
and nationaI avcragc, and fastcr yctthan thc avcragc ofthc movcout
hrms.
5cni:h villcc ccmu:: Lc: Colinc:. 1cxc:.
Costs7 oth studics arc illuminating on this scorc. At thc top of
thc list ofrcasons advanccd for moving out has bccn thc cost ofNcw
York. Thcy arc indccd high, and for a rangc ofthings for a housc,
anywhcrc, forcommutationforschooling. Hightooarccostsofocc
spacc, it bcing morccxpcnsivc tobc at thc crossroads than up aback
road.
ut costs arc rclativc. What is thc payo What is thc prot
carncd from thc lowcr costs7 Thc cxpcnditurcs for housckccping arc
far lcss important to a balancc shcct than protability and pcrfor-
mancc. On this scorc, both studics spcak loudly. Thc lowcr costs cn-
oycdby thc movc-outcompanicsdidnotcorrclatcwith cxccllcntpcr-
formancc. Thc highcr costs ofthc Ncw York companics did.
Thcrc willprobably bc morc movc-outs. Morc companics willbc
7be Cororate Exodus
growingoIdcrandfattcr, andasanormaIconscqucnccthcywiIIIcavc.
ThiswiIIbcpainfuIforthcciticsthcyIcavc,cspcciaIIywhcnthcmovcs
comc in bunchcs, as thcy sccm to do from timc to timc.
Thcy too arc Iosing back-occ work to thcir suburban occ
parks, and somctimcs thcy Iosc hcadquartcrs as wcII. Whcn hrms
movc South and Southwcst, furthcrmorc, thcy wiII not ncccssariIy
movc to a downtown. !. C. Pcnncy did not. To thc discomhturc of
DaIIas itmovcdaII thcway from NcwYork, not to DaIIas, butto thc
town ofPIano. Somc DaIIas Icadcrs wcrc incrcduIous. PIano7
On baIancc, thc ccntcr city is compcting rathcr wcII. Thc occ
obsthatithasbccn Iosinghavcbccn mostIy inthcbig, aging compa
nics thc oncs most IikcIy to hcad for suburbia and to bomb whcn
thcy do. Thc ncw-ob incrcascs havc bccn mostIy in ncwcr, smaIIcr
hrms. ThcyarcIocaIcompanics, mostofthcm,butas!anc!acobshas
obscrvcd, IocaIcconomicsarc whcrc itaII starts.ThcsmaIIcompanics
nccd acccss to a widc rangc ofspcciaIizcd scrviccs and pcopIc. Thcy
cannothavcthisin-housc. Thcyarcnotbigcnough. Thcycannothavc
thisoutinsomcisoIatcdIocation. Thcynccdtobcinthcccntcr as
cIosc to it as rcnts and spacc wiII pcrmit.
Turnovcrisbrisk. ManywiIIfoId, buthcrc and thcrcsomc ofthc
companicswiIIbccomcbigcompanics. EvcntuaIIy, somc ofthcmmay
dcfccttothcsuburbs,butinthcirdynamicycarsthcywiIIthrivcinthc
city. So, at Icast, our comparison study wouId indicatc. As a group,
thc companics that compctcd in thc city provcd to bc toughcr and
morc prohtabIc than thc companics that did not and by an imprcs-
sivc margin. Thc crossroads, it wouId appcar, is a vcry good pIacc to
bc.
l rst saw DaIIas thirt cars ago on thc ridc in from thc airport
Thcrc, risingabruptI upfromthccottoncIds, wasa grcatcIustcrof
towcrs. boId, asscrtivc, dccIarativc.
Today DaIIas has man morc towcrs and thc arc taIIcr and Iit
up. ut that's not what ou scc hrst. Driving in from thc airport or
coming down from thc north, ou scc a scrics of towcrs groupcd
around thc cIovcrIcafs. Thcrc is thc Las CoIinas dcvcIopmcnt, with a
skyIinc so imposing that pcopIc takc it for DaIIas. ut DaIIasitscIfis
farthcrback, upstagcd and somchow diminishcd.
Trcnds arc writ Iargc hcrc, but thc samc kind ofdcvcIopmcnt is
taking pIacc in mctropoIitan arcas cvcrwhcrc. Mcga-ccntcrs, mini
downtowns,growthcorridors,urbanviIIagcs,tcchnoburbs.noonchas
yct comc upwith a satisfactor cuphcmism, orcpithct. PartI, this is
bccausc thc dcvcIopmcnt is somcthing of a bastard f, without a
unifying idcoIogy. Thc ncw-town movcmcnt ofthc sixtics had a vcry
cohcrcnt sct ofaims, thc physicaI vision was cohcrcnt too, and if it
faiIcd, it wcnt down with phiIosophy intact. Thc currcnt growth, by
contrast, is quitc frcc ofutopian constraints.
lt is cmincntIy opportunistic and it takcs many ms. Somc of
thcdcvcIopmcnt consistsofcIumps oftowcrs somc ofIowriscbuiId-

Ibe Semi-Cities
ings in parks, somc ofhigh-risc corridors. ut most havc scvcraI dc-
nominators. Thcyarcadaccnttoorncarahighway intcrchangc, thcr
is a shopping maII in thc compIcx or ncarby, transportation isby car,
not onIy to and from but within, thcrc arc acrcs ofparking, both at
gradc and muItiIcvcI, thcrc is a hotcI with an atrium, a hcaIth cIub,
andaconfcrcnccfaciIity(with, incvitabIy, statc-of-thc-artaudiovisuaI

support"),thcrcismcticuIousIandscaping, conncctionstoairportsarc
providcd indccd, somc ofthc dcvcIopmcnts arc airport citics thcm-
scIvcs, so convcnicnt for convcrging cxccutivcs that thcy may bypass
thc rcaI city cntircIy.
Somc of thc growth is at thc far cdgc of thc mctropoIitan arca.
NorthofNcwYorkCity,dcvcIopmcnthaspushcdbcyondWcstchcstcr
County to Putnam County. ScvcraI Iargc farms aIong Routc 22 havc
bccn convcrtcd into Iargc mixcd-usc proccts, and most ofthc rcst of
thc farms havc bccn acquircd for thc samc purposc.
Somc of thc dcvcIopmcnt has bccn cIosc to thc ccntcr city and
cIcarIy at thc cxpcnsc ofit. Outsidc Dctroit, thc suburb ofSouthhcId
has bccn transformcd into a gigantic omcc park and now has morc
omcc spacc than aII ofdowntown Dctroit 2! miIIion squarc fcctvcr-
s ! 5miIIion.
Thc most spcctacuIar cxampIcs of growth havc bccn in Ncw
!crscy, and notsurprising for this corridor" statc, thcy havcbccnin
thcformofcorridors. Dr. Gcorgc StcmIicb, dircctorofRutgcrs Ccn
tcr for Lrban PoIicy Rcscarch, has studicd cight of thcm. Thcir
growth, hc hasfound, has notbccn at thc cxpcnsc ofNcw York City
but ofNcw !crscys oIdcr industriaI citics, such as Trcnton and Ncw
runswick. Thcy sorcIy nccd morcobs, whitc-coIIar and bIuc-coIIar.
Thcy arc not gctting thcm. Thc bIuc-coIIarobs arc diminishing, thc
whitccoIIar oncs arc in thc corridors.
Thc most intcrcsting corridor is thc strip aIong Routc ! by
Princcton.Thc hrst scttIcrwas RCA. ackin !92 it sctupthcDavid
Samo0Rcscarch Ccntcr. ln form it was fairIy convcntionaI. a Iargc
thrccto-fourstory buiIding that Iookcd Iikc a nicc factory. WhiIc it
was compact, it did forcshadow subscqucnt dcvcIopmcntbybcing sct
in a Iargc cxpansc ofgrccn spacc.
ltwas Princcton Lnivcrsity that sct thccharactcrofthcRoutc !
dcvcIopmcnt. lthad had thc forcsight toasscmbIc aImost J acrcs
of prim Iand on both sidcs of thc highway. LnIikc RCAs unitary
pattcrn, ForrcstaIs dispcrscd Iow-risc buiIdings ovcr a widc swath,
most spaccd wcII apart from othcrs and somc tuckcd away in thc
woods. A rostcr ofprimc tcnants signcd among thcm, lM and
morcofRCA. A Scandinavian h sct up a confcrcncc ccntcrand a
rcstaurant that madc IocaI ncws by having good food. North and
south of thc FrrcstaI campus othcr dcvcIopcrs startcd occ com-
" "" v
*
v.
#
w

B *

4
B

0 L0r0uSl0rS 0dl0hI LlI}.


pIcxcs.y l9&7thcrcwcrcovcr25miIIionsquarcfcctofoccspaccin
thc 5-miIcstripby Princcton, andwhat undcvcIopcdIandwas Ich was
aIrcady spokcn for.
Thcticwith Princctonhasbccnmcrchandiscdtoafarc-thcc-wcII.
lnitiaIIy, thcrc was a Iot oftaIk about syncrgy and cross-fcrtiIization
andhowstimuIating forboth corporatc and acadcmic pcopIc thcfrat-
crnaton would bc t turncd out that thcrc wasn't an to scak o
Thc univcrsitypcopIcstick vcry muchto thcunivcrsity. StiII, thcpro-
pinquity rcmains a scIIing point. Across stiII-opcn hcIds you can scc
thc spircs of Princcton from Routc , and a grand sight thcy makc,
aImostthcatricaI in thcir procIamation. SurcIy vaIucsarc bcingtrans-
mittcd. Or soat Icast oncwouId gathcrfrom thc promotionaI matcri-
aIs in thc Routc worId thcy dcpict, thcrc arc cIoistcrcd spaccs and
twccdy intcIIcctuaIs mingIing with young managcrs.
Onc Princcton assct dcnitcIy has bccn transmittcd &5, ip
codc of thc town. As is incrcasingIy thc custom with post omccs,
Princctons main onchasbccnmovcdoutoftowntoasuburbanIoca-
tion in thc middIc of thc corridor. For good mcasurc, thc zip codc
has bccn strctchcd to cmbracc most ofthc hrms in it.
Thcscarc notcorporatchcadquartcrs,thcytcndtogoitaIoncand
sct up thcirown scparatc campuscs ln thc Princcton arca, for cxam-
pIc, arc thc hcadquartcrs of Mcrck and of thc EducationaI Tcsting
Scrvicc, with thcir own scparatc cstatcs. Thc corporatc movcs to thc
kind ofccntcrs wc arc discussing arc primariIy of whitc-coIIar back-
omcc pcrsonncI McrriII Lynch is an cxampIc. lthas sct up two cam-
puscs in thc Routc l corridor. Onc of thcm contains a trading room
formutuaI-fund accounts, but thc buIkofthc works in data proccss-
Cr]atal Cit], Iirinia.
ing,andthclikc. Thcccntcrsalsoattractbranch-occopcrations for
insurancc companics, cll systcm units, and such. Thc scrvicc vcry
smallrms, includingonc-manopcrations. ThcCarncgicCcntcrcom
plcx has an "Exccutivc Ccntcr" facility providing part-timc rcntal of
occ spacc, acccss toconfcrcncc rooms, andtypingand photocopying

scrccs.
As in similar arcas clscwhcrc, thc labor markct in thc Routc !
corridoristight andit is likclytogctmuch tightcr. ln ! 9&! thcrc was
5 millionsuarcfcctofoccspacc,by !9& thcrcwas25milliongoing
on J million. Traincd whitc-collar pcoplc arc in short supply, sccrc-
taricsand data proccssing pcoplc cspccially.Trcntonand Ncw runs-
wick havc no pool Thcy havc pcoplc who nccd obs but it is bluc
collarobs thcy nccd. For all thc growth in thc corridors thc lowcr-
incomc pcoplc arc bcing morc distanccd from this whitc-collar world
than cvcr
cith Whcclock, prcsidcnt of Dun radstrcct's location divi
sion, told a group ofcorridor cxccutivcs that it was thc Grccnwich-
Stamford situation all ovcr again too much ncw occ spacc for too
fcw colc with too littlc housing. Thc bcst advicc thcy could givc
pcoplc planning tomovc intothc Routc ! corridor, hc said, wouldbc
simplc. Stay away.
Anothcrrcason wouldbc thctrac. Alongthc Eastcrn Scaboard
thcrcisno cxpcricncctomatchalatcaftcrnoondrivconRoutc ! . tis
a succcssion of stoplights, cars backcd up in thc right-hand lanc, and
intcrminablc waits. Thc staggcring of work hours has hclpcd somc.
Ovcrpasscs can hclp too, thcy makc it lcssdicultforpcoplctogct in
and out ofthcir campuscs from Routc .
L
ut that is onIy thc bcginning. Routc ! docs not go whcrc most
pcopIcwanttogo. Soonthcyhavctogct oitandthatisasdicuItas
gctting onto it. or thcrc is no dominant dircction to thc ow. Thc
pattcrn ofscttIcmcnt is purc Ncwcrscy a road pattcrn Iaiddown in
ColoniaI days, going this way and that and with fcw clcarIy dchncd
placcs along thc way. This is onc of thc rcasons mass transit ocrs
IittIc promisc for this arca it nccds to tap strong conccntrations of
pcopIctobccconomicaIand thcdcnsiticsaIongRoutc ! arcmuchtoo
Iow.
Thcrc is agoodsidcto this. hiIcthcscttIcmcntpattc maybc
diusc, itiscomcIy.Thcrcis awcaIthofcarIy ! &framchouscs,and
manyictoriangingcrbrcadoncs.ThcarcaiswcIIwoodcdandthcrcis
a surprising amount offarmIand Icft opcn. Around Princcton and to
thcwcstiscstatccountry,aIongthcawrcnccviIIcRoad,anunusuaIIy
attractivc scrics of mansions and stabIcs and winding drivcs. Thcn
thcrc is Princcton itscIf.
ut this is aII rathcr irrcIcvant to pcopIc who work on Routc ! .
Thc cxccutivcsandIawycrs and aII Strcctpcoplcwhocanaordthc
hnc housingdo not work on Routc ! . Thc pcopIcwhodo arc Iucky if
thcy can aord thc most modcst of thc tract houscs in thc Routc l
arca. At thc minimum thcy nccd a 0, incomc and thcrc arc fcw
houscs on thc markct at this rangc.
lnEast runswick, cntryIcvcI" houscscomconpIotsavcraging
by !fcct,thcyhavcthrccbcdroomsandbctwccn ! , ! and ! , 7
squarccct ospacc. hcy scllor $I 40,0 to $ 70,0 . hcncxtstcp
up wouIdbchouscson widcrlots 90by l atwocargaragc, and
maybc abascmcnt. Thcy scII for ! 60, to ! 9,. urthcr away
from Routc ! homc buycrs may hnd houscs somcwhat lcss in pricc.
ut cvcn in thc rural placcs, or what wcrc ruraI scvcraI ycars ago,
thcrc arc nobargains. Thc drivcs from Routc ! wiIIbcgcttingIongcr.
Exccutivcs arc not disturbcd. ln thcStcrnIicb study, thc hcadsof
thc companics aIong thc growth corridors said that highway acccss
andthccostofIandwcrc thc maorfactors thatinucnccdthcirIoca
tionchoiccs.ThcavaiIabiIityofaordabIchousingfor thcircmpIoyccs
was ncarcr thc bottom of thc Iist. As thcy wcrc awarc, fcw of thcir
cmpIoyccs ! pcrccnt Iivcd in thc municipality in which thc com-
pany was Iocatcd. Sorry about that.
Thisisafarcryfromthcncw-townmodcIanditsvisionofpcopIc
waIking to work. Thc modcI was unrcaIistic, howcvcr, and in its way
rctrogrcssivc, itminimizcdthcgrcat advantagc ofamctropoIitanarca
idcacccsstoobs andprcscribcdwhatincsscnccwouldbcakind
of company town. ut thcrc was onc aspcct of thc modcI that was
quitc progrcssivc waIking itsclf.
Thcrc is not much of it in thc ncw compIcxcs. hcthcr it is a

7he 3emi-Cities
physicaI or a cuIturaI phcnomcnon, thc outcrmost Iimit for waIking
thcrc sccms to bc around to ! , fcct about thc distancc bc-
twccn thc anchors of a shopping maII. Evcn short of this, howcvcr,
pcopIcwiIIhopintoacarforashorttrip,thcrccxbcingmorcimpor-
tantthanthcactuaIdistancc.Thcycan dothisinciticstoo, soitcant
bc bIamcd aII on suburbia. To rcpcat a forccast if Amcricans couId
widcn thcirwaIking radius by onIy 2fcct, thcrc wouIdbc arcvoIu-
tion in .S. Iand usc.
utthcrcwouIdhavctobcsomcstructuraIchangcs.ThcrcwouId
havc tobc pIaccs to waIk. This struck mcvcry forcibIy on aoumcy
fromPrincctontoamcctingon outc ! . ltwasabcautifuIday, l had
pIcnty oftimc, so l waIkcd. AIong thcstiII-bucoIic Washington oad
thc path wassoggybutchaIIcnging, and l managcd. Whcn l camc up
toout ! , howcvcr,thcpathvanishcd. Thcrcwasnowayacross no
IcgaIoncanyway. l hnaIIy madcadash forit, carshonkingatmc. On
thc othcr sidc was a bricf sidcwaIk. lt vanishcd as outc l wcnt
through an undcrpass. l squcczcd aIong onc sidc, inchcs from a roar-
ing mass ofcars and truck-traiIcrs.
Whcn l arrivcd at thc mccting l was grcctcd with incrcduIity.
%lkeJ From Frinceton PcopIc camc up to ask mc about it. Thcy
thought l was somc kind ofnut.
l was, but an unrcquitcd urgc for waIking may bc harborcd by
morc pcopIc than onc wouId think. To gct an idca of thc rccrcation
mix that shouId bc pIanncd for, dcvcIopcr AIan Landis of Camcgic
Ccntcrhad anthropoIogist Sctha LowofthcnivcrsityofPcnnsyIva-
niastudyscvcraIsuburbancompIcxcs. ShcfoundthatofaIIsportsthc
most favorcd was waIking, ahcrIunch cspcciaIIy. Shc aIso foundthat
thcrc wcrc no pIaccs to waIk safcIy. lt had to bc on thc roads, thcrc
wcrcncithcr paths norpavcmcnts. lt hadnt occurrcd to thc dcvcIop-
crs and architccts to providc thcm.
Camcgic Ccntcr has appIicd thc Icssons. Thcrc arc many paths
andaItcmatcpathsandpIaccstopausc. Thcrcisanattractivcoutdoor
dining pIacc and a Iagoon to circIc. Distanccs arc markcd. nowing
how far yourc waIking, apparcntIy, is an inccntivc. lvc notcd this at
somc hcadquartcrs campuscs. At GEs in Connccticut, for cxampIc,
cxccutivcsmaytcIIyouwhcthcrthcyarca"onc-tu"ora"two-tu"
man a turn around thc buldng complcx bcng roughly a quartcr of a
miIc.
lt hcIps ifthcrc is a pIacc to waIk to. Thc most ambitious cort
aIong outc l in this rcspcct is thc ForrcstaI iIIagc procct. lt is a
rcIativcIy high dcnsity cIustcrofbuiIdingsand itisIaid outin afairIy
tight urban m. Thcrc arc somc maII-Iikc intcrior spaccs, but what
scts thc charactcr of thc pIacc is its strccts smaII, of
pIcasantscaIc, withcontinuousrctaiIfrontagc andthathncoIdinsti-

L
tution, thc omcc ovcr thc storc Thc initiaI tcnant mix is strong on
upscaIcspcciaItyshops, pcrhapstoomuchso. vcntuaIIythcrcwiIIbc
! 25shops,pIusaday-carcccntcrabIctohandIctwohundrcdchiIdrcn.
Thcrc is a Marriott HotcI and a confcrcncc ccntcr. A onc stop viI
Iagc," its dcvcIopcrs say, that givcs you acccss to ust about cvcry-
thing you nccd orwant cvcry day ofyour Iifc."
Notquitc. ltisahncviIIagcccntc butforoncthing.ltisaviIIagc
ccntcrwithoutaviIIagc.Nohomcsabutit. NoschooIspourforththcir
chiIdrcn. Pcrhapsintimc,nowvacantspaccswiIIbringhousingtothc
ccntcr's cdgcs. CurrcntIy, howcvcr, no onc Iivcs within normaI waIk
ing distancc ofthc ccntcr. lt won't sccm Iikc a rcaI viIIagc untiI thcy
do.
Looking at thc not-quitc-viIIagcs, oncisrcmindcd ofhow good a
modcI is thc convcntionaI town. With its grid and its ccntcr it is not
onIyacomcIyandccicntformofdcvcIopmcnt,butancxccIIcntbasc
forcxpansion. Townsinthc rangcofhftccn thousand to twcnty thou
sand popuIation, for campIc, can handIc a popuIation incrcasc ofas
muchas 50pcrccntby cxtcndingthcgrid twotothrccbIocksoncach
sidc. Most havc not donc it this way, unfortunatcIy, and thc incrcasc
hasbccnspIattcrcdovcrfarmorcopcnIandthanthcrcwasIandinthc
town. utin most cascs thc town is stiII thc ccntcr.
Mostofthcncw growtharcasIackthcanchorofatown, orcvcn
ofa scmiccntcr. Thcy arc a strung-out scrics ofcIcmcnts that arc for
thc most part unrclatcd to cach othcr and that do not cncourac thc
kind ofintcraction that is thc haIImark ofan urban ccntcr. Thcy arc
acccssibIc onIy by car, cvcn within thcir boundarics thc car is domi-
nant.
Tcn acrcs arc bcing uscd to do thc work of onc. Comparcd to
convcntionaI suburban sprawI, thc corridor pattcm is of modcratcIy
high dcnsity. ut onIy in comparison. y any urban standard, it is
vcry Iow dcnsity, and that is thc sourcc ofmany ofits probIcms. As
thc corridors sprightIy ncwspapcr, Boute , has cditoriaIizcd Thc
troubIc is not too many pcopIc, buttoo fcw. "
Thc tightcst pattcrn is thatofCamcgic Ccntcr. ltdocs notstring
its buiIdings aIong a road but cIustcrs thcm around ccntraI opcn
spaccs. lnoncofthchrstcompIcxcstobccompIctcd thcrcarcapond,
bridgcs,paths, andanoutdoorcaf.ctwccnthccIustcrs thcrcis opcn
spacc, and onthcfarsidc ofthc tractaIargc swathhasbccnsctasidc
as a grccnbcIt. vcn ifthcacrcagc ofthc Iargcrspaccs isnotcountcd,
thc ratio ofbuiIding spacc to opcn spacc is smaII.
ln thc hrst part ofForrcstaI Ccntcr to bc dcvcIopcd, thc ratio is
inhnitcsimaI. uiIdingsarc sitcd far apartfrom onc anothcrandthcrc
1be 3emi-Cities
arcvaststrctchcsofintcrvcninggrccn. ndcgrcc,thiscmphasisonlow
dcnsit and abundant landscaping was a rcaction to a horrib x
plc. Down thc road is half-milc strctch ofRoutc ! that is virtualy a
caricaturc of roadsidc Amcrica dincr, tacky storcs, movics, motcls,
garish signs. Lndcrstandably, thc Forrcstal pcoplc wantcd to go cm-

phatically in thc othcr dircction.


o did thc local govcrnmcnts. oning ordinanccs wcrc rcdraftcd
to lock thc dooron strips. Followingthc Forrcstalmodcl, zoningnow
callcd for low dcnsitics in ncw dcvclopmcnt. Floor-arca ratios forof-
hcc parks wcrc sct at an avcragc of . 25 a vcry low ratio indccd.
Gcncrousbucrs ofopcnspaccwcrcrcquircd, aswcllas vastamounts
of concrctc roadway to conncct cvcrything up. f you calculatc thc
footprints ofthc actual buildings, thc oorarca ratios avcragc out to
around 2 or J. nrclation to thcnumbcrofbuildings thisis sprawl
highclass sprawl, pcrhaps, but sprawl noncthclcss.
isually, thc payo is disappointing. Twcnty ycars ago, whcn
rcscarchparksandcorporatccampuscswcrcmakingthcirappcarancc,
thcy sccmcd modcls ofplanning and dcsign. Thcir low dcnsitics wcrc
cspccially praiscd. Now that thcy arc bccoming thc rulc, sccond
thoughts arc occurring.
Thc opcn spacc is incmcicntly uscd. Too much of it is institu
tional vast lawns sctting o thc corporations logo, intcrminablc
strctchcs of unrclicvcd grccncry. omc of thc landscaping, lct it bc
said,iscxcmplary,Forrcstaliscspcciallynotcworthyforitsgrcattrccs,
many with small signs to idcntify thc spccics.
ut rcmarkably littlc pcrsonal usc is madc of thc opcn spacc.
Lsually, opcn spaccs work bcst along thcir cdgcs and along watcr
courscs.Thisiswhcrcthcrcarcthcmostbcncts. utthcscdcpcndon
howmanypcoplccxpcricnccthcm.nthisscorc, thcbulkofthcopcn

spacc is undiscovcrcd country many squarc miIcs in thc ccntcr of


tracts that no onc sccs, cxccpt from a planc.
nc is rcmindcd of thc Ycar 2 Plans of thc sixtics, which
dccrccd vast swaths of opcn spacc. Thcy foundcrcd, for thcy wcrc
impractical. Abstract opcn spacc is unsustainablc. o, in timc, will
Routc ! itsclfdcmonstratc. pcn spacc, likc dcvclopmcnt, nccds thc
disciplinc of function. Lsc it or losc it.
hcrc s onc dcvc!opmcnt n thc corrdor that s an cxcmplar n
this rcspcct. t has a wcalth of opcn spaccs, thcy conncct with onc
anothcr thcy arc cnoycdday inandday outbyagrcat manypcoplc,
and on foot. Yct thc dcvclopmcntdcnsity is much grcatcr than in thc
Routc ! dcvclopmcnts. rcfcr to thccampus ofPrinccton Lnivcrsity.
tsoorarca ratio is . 75 forthc main campus. Yct forall thcinlling
that has takcn placc, thc opcn spaccs do not fccl crampcd. Thc vcry

9 m
L
cncIosurc thc buiIdings aord makcs thc spaccs congcniaI in scaIc.
Pathways providc hnc Iinkagcs. And pcop waIk.
hat todo ltmightnotbc a good idcato rcpIicatc thctownof
Princcton, but thc idca of towns is gaining currcncy as a ncw ap-
proach. SamucI amiII, dircctor of thc MiddIcscx Somcrsct Mcrccr
cgionaI CounciI, bcIicvcs that furthcr growth ought to bc conccn-
tratcd in ccntcrs, not strips, and thatthc Ncw!crscy town isthcbcst
modcI to foIIow.
hatcvcr thc answcrs, thc mcss has bccomc so visibIc that it is
forcing pcopIc to think of stcps thcy wouId not havc thought of tcn
ycars ago. Thcrc is growing scntimcnt, for cxampIc, for highway dis-
tricts cmpowcrcd to Icvy asscssmcnts for highway improvcmcnt and
acccss to bcnchting propcrtics. Lcadcrs in thc outc ! corridor arca
arccoopcratingwiththcstatcpIanningcommissioninthcprcparation
ofa statcwidc plan. Among thc approachcs bcing favorcd is thc crc-
ation ofrcgionaI bodics with rcvicw powcr ovcrmaor dcvcIopmcnts.
Thc sticking point in such programs is thc dcgrcc to which thc
rcgionaIbody couId ovcrridc thcIocaIgovcmmcnts. Ncw!crscysarc
as IocaI as thcy coc, and somc wouId undoubtcdIy hght any vcto
powcr. So wouId many dcvcIopcrs. Evcn so, a rcgionaI body couId
wicId considcrabIc powcr. Thc udsonivcraIIcy Commissionwas
givcn Iimitcd powcrs it couId onIy dcIay a procct, not vcto it. lt
turncdout, howcvcr, thatthcpowcrtodcIaywasoftcntantamountto
thc powcr to vcto. Addtonal months ot hgh-ntcrcst moncy could
makc dcvcIopcrs scc thc Iight and couId bc furthcr Icvcragcd by not
scttingthcmctcrtickingonrcvicwuntiIfuIIdatawcrcsuppIicdbythc
dcvcIopcr. Expcricncc with CaIifomiacnvironmcntaIcommissions in
dicatcs similar pcrsuasivcncss inthc rcvicw proccss Thc csscntiaI isa
stawith a high dcgrcc ofcxpcrtisc and thc abiIity to comc up with
constructivc countcrpIans.
utit isvcryIatcinthcgamcforthcIikcs ofoutc ! . Muchcan
bc doncwithncwIyappIicdtooIs, suchas dcvcIopmcntrightstransfcr,
grccnway nctworks, cIustcr dcvcIopmcnt. ut mostofthcmaorIand
uscdccisions havcbccn madc, andwhiIcthcrcwiIIbcmorcgrowthto
shapc, thc charactcr ofit is not apt to changc vcry much. Thcrc wiII
probabIybc somcinhIIing, andasomcwhattightcrpattcm withinncw
dcvcIopmcnts. ut basicaIIy outc ! wiII probabIy bc morc of thc
samc an automobiIcdominatcd strip ofIow-dcnsity dcvcIopmcnt.
SimiIargrowtharcasmayaIsobcbcyondmctamorphosis. ingof
Prussia, wcst ofPhiIadcIphia, shouIdbc acitybynowitisastridcthc
unctionofthrccmaorhighwaysandhascnough omcc, rcscarch,and
shoppingspacc tobcarathcrgood-sizcdcity. utithasnot bccomc a
7be 3emi-Cities
city not cvcn a town. lt rcmains a coIIcction ofparts, acccssibIc by
highways and scparatcd by thcm.
ThcrcisagrowtharcainthcLnitcdStatcsthatis goingthcothcr
way. ltiscIIcvuc, Washington, twcnty miIcs castofScattIc. OnIy tcn
ycarsagoit sccmcdthccpitomcofthccarsuburb,withasmattcringof
omcc towcrs and parking Iots for a downtown. ut thcn, starting
about !9&,thcIcadcrswcrcoItcdintotakingstock, oncrcasonbcing
thc thrcat ofahugc shopping maII bcyondthc city Iimits. uitcIitcr
aIIy, cIIcvuc was at a fork in thc road. Thcy had to dccidc, and
sooncr than Iatcr, what kind ofpIacc thcy wantcd it to bc.
Thcy dccidcd that cIIcvuc shouId bc a city. Thc activity
shouIdn't bc oby somc intcrchangc, thcy asscrtcd as thcy kiIIcd o
thc maII. lt shouId bc in thc ccntcr a vcry waIkabIc onc, with many
shops and rcstaurants and pIcasant outdoor spaccs.
That is what is comingto pass. Thc ccntraI busincssdistrictthat
cIIcvucisbuiIdingdocs notsprawI, it has atightpattcrnofdcvcIop-
mcntwith wcII-dchncdcdgcs. Withinthccorcofthc CD,dcvcIopcrs
can put upbuiIdings with aoor-arca ratio as high as & by providing
bonusabIc amcnitics up to !0 by providing spccihcd pubIic spaccs.
cyondthcCD,howcvcr,dcvcIopcrsmustbuiIdIow,withthcmaxi-
mumoor-arca ratio a mcagcr . 5. This rcprcscnts acIcarpubIic dcci-
sion to conccntratc and dircct dcvcIopmcnt rathcr than simpIy Ict it
happcn.
Thanks to thcruIcs ofthcgamc, dcvcIopcrs arc not Icapfrogging
ovcr cmpty spaccs but arc hIIing thcm in. Downtown, as a consc-
qucncc, rcmains quitc compact an casy waIk from onc sidc ofit to
thcothcr. That is notto say pcopIcdo waIkthat far whcn l was Iast
thcrc l did not scc a surfcit of waIking. cIIcvuc pcopIc insist that
thcrc is indccd morc waIking and that within thc past two ycars thc
incrcascinwaIkinginthccorcarcahasbccn quitcnoticcabIc. ccausc
ofthc conccntration, thcrc arc morc pcopIc thcrc and morc amcnitics
to prompt thcm to waIk.
Thcy bcIicvc thc vcry structurc ofdowntown is IikcIy to inducc
morcwaIking. iscctingdowntownisaccntraIpcdcstriancorridor.At
onc cnd thcrc is an attractivc shopping maII at thc othcr, a uniquc
transt ccntcr, wt lots of scatng and ovcrhcad covcr. cvclopcrs
aIongthccorridorcontributcscgmcntstoit, and viainccntivczoning,
bonuscs arc givcn to providc a rich townscapc of trccs, handsomc
paving, Iighting, and canopics to tcmpcr thc Northwcst's drizzIc. At
IikcIy gathcrng pIaccs, smaII parks arc bcing simiIarIy providcd and
with aII thc amcnitics a good urban spacc ought to havc.
cIIcvuc has aIsobcgun aIargc ccntraI park. ScvcraI ycars ago a
L
hftccn-acrcschooIsitcbccamcsurpIus. lnmanyacityarapaciouscity
haIIwouIdhavcsoIditoforamassivcdcvcIopmcnt. cIIcvucbought
it from thcschooI district and hcId a nationaI compctition to scIccta
winning dcsign. Thc hrst cIcmcnts of thc park wcrc opcncd in mid-
l &7 and havc aIrcady bccn discovcrcd by stroIIcrs, oggcrs, and
brown baggcrs. ltis cvcn gctting usc at night.
Thccarisbcingtamcd. lnstcadofmorcparking, thccity isman
dating Icss. Ncw buiIdings uscd to havc to providc a standard hvc
spaccs pcr thousand squarc fcct ofomcc spacc. This has bccn cut to
thrcc spaccs. To pinch mattcrs furthcr, commcrciaI parking Iots and
garagcs arc forbiddcn in thc CD. About haIfof aII ncw cmpIoyccs
woringin downtown wiII havctooincar pooIs ortakc abus to gct
thcrc.
rban dcsign guidcIincs favorastrongand attractivc strcct waII,
withfrontagcsouttothcbuiIdingIincrathcrthanrcccsscdawayfrom
thc pcdcstrian ows. Taking a Icaffrom Ncw York's codc, cIIcvuc
mandatcs rctaiIing strcctIcvcI rctaiIing aIong thc corridor and
principaIstrccts.ThcshopsmustbcdircctIyacccssibIcfromthcstrcct
shopping arcadcs buricd within buiIdings do not gct bonuscd. Thc
gIass ofthc shp fronts must bc sccthrough gIass. Iank waIIs arc
iIIcgaI.
ThccitywouIdIikctogctsomcpcopIcIivingindowntown. lthas
acIcan sIatc in thisrcspcct. Thcrchasbccnno gcntrihcation in cIIc-
vuc, for thcrc has bccn no oIdstockofhousingtogcntrify. To stimu-
latc uldcrs, thc cty s gvng spccal nccntvcs or rcsdcntal con-
structionin twodistricts. Onc compIcxnowgoing upcombincs shops
at strcct IcvcI with tcrraccd apartmcnts atop.
WhiIccIIcvucis h on whcrc it wants to go, itsbasic pIan on
how it gcts thcrc is opcn cndcd. Most IargcscaIc compIcxcs, by con-
trast, arc usuaIIy dcsigncd aII at oncc, and cvcn if thcy arc to bc
constructcdovcraIongtimcspan, thcpIansarccndstatcpIans, com
pIctc to thc Iastphasc. This has two conscqucnccs. Onc is homogcnc-
ity. ThcsmaIIunitsofavcrybigcompIcx arc gcncraIIyIcssattractivc
thcnthcsmaIIunitsofamodcratcsizcdcompIcx.!ustwhythiswouId
bc so is dimcuIt to dctcrminc, but thc dicrcnccs arc visibIc.
Anothcr conscqucncc is thc frcczing of dcsign against changc.
Such pIans admit of no sccond thoughts, no coursc corrcctions to
incorporatc Icssons Icamcd in thc hrst phasc. Lifc insurancc compa-
nics'gianthousingprocctshavcbccnacascinpoint.MostfthcWcst
Coastoncsstartcdowithamixturcofhighrisctowcrsandascricsof
twostory dupIcxcs groupcd around gardcn courts. Thc courts rcntcd
out fast, thc towcrs sIowIy. Thc markct was fairIy shouting, but as
subscqucntphascswcrcbuiIt, thcproportion ofunitswas notaItcrcd.
hc cml-LlltcS
hcfc W3S n0 Qf0VS0n l0f Su0h RcXDlly. Vcnlu3ly 3 lghl h0uSng
0tcl O0lCd Cul lhc lCWct 0nd lhCfC W3S BC cSS0n lcll l0 hcc0.
MCW Wll ccVuc l3fc lS 3QQf030h S S0 mu0h 3g3BSl lhc gf3n
0l QfcScnl SuDufD3n Q3llcS lh3l 0QlmS muSl Dc lcmQcfcd. hc
ncW-l0Wn m0Vcmcnl Sccmcd Qf0mSng l00 3Bd l Qf0Vcd l0Oc unfc3-
Sl0. y hun0h Slh3l cllcVuc Sg0ngl0W0fK 0ulWc, B0lS0 mu0h
0ul 0lSlcQ 3S hc3d 0ll. lWl Qf0Vclh0f0ughy Qf30l03l, S3yS 3fK
MnSh3W, Qfn0Q3l ufD3n dcSgBcf l0f clcVuc. hcfc 3fc Sml3lcS
Wlh lhc ncWl0Wn dc3, hc n0lcS lhc cQh3SS 0n QcdcSlf3B m0Vc-
mcBl 3nd S03lc, QuD0 lf3nSQ03l0n. ul n 0Bc Kcy fcSQc0l, clcuc
S Wh0ly dcfcnl. l S 3 0ly 8nd l W3nlS l0 Dc 3 0ly. hcfc S n0nc
0llhc 3nlufDB D3S lh3l R3Wcd S0c ncWl0Wn dcSgBS, B0f S lhcfc
lhc n0lB3l0n l0 lhc Q0lufcSQuc 3Bd l0 3n cX0cSSVc Qufly 3n0 0f0cf.
clcVuc S d0Wnl0Wn, S3yS MnSh3W, S Sh3QBg uQ 3S BlcBSc 3Bd uf-
Dn. Vcn dS00fd3nl, hc S3d h0Qclully.
lS f0n0 lh3l 3n cfSlWhlcSuDufD Sh0uld Dc l3KBg lhS l30K. P
WcWScc n lhcncXl 0h3Qlcf, 3 3fgc BumDcf Cl. b. 0lcS 3fc l3Kng
3n 3lm0Sl d3mclf03y 0QQ0Slc 0nc. 0 00Qclc Wlh SuDufD3, lhcy
3fc g0ng SuDufD3n.

ThcIincsarc gcttingbIurrcd. Suburbanomccccntcrsarcimitatingthc


ccntcr city. Thc ccntcr city is imitating suburban omcc parks. This
maybcovcrstatingthcpointbutarcaIqucstionis bcing poscd. Whcrc
wiII thcccntcrgo Thcrc arctwocontrary trcnds. On onchandthcrc
arcciticsthatarctightcningupthcirdowntown,rcinforcingthcroIcof
thcstrcct, andingcncraI rcasscrtingthcdominanccofthcccntcr. ut
agrowingnumbcrarcgoinginthcoppositcdircction.ThcyarcIooscn
ing up thc structurc gcaring it morc tothccar taking thc pcdcstrian
o thc strcct, and rctaiIing too. Thcy arc doing aImost cvcrything,
indccd,tocIiminatcthcstructurcdadvantagcsofthcccntcrthcyinhcr
itcd.
As a way ofdistinguishing which camp a city is in, l havc prc-
parcdachcckIistofcightqucstions.NoonccityscorcsycsonaIIcight,
butquitcanumbcrscorchigh. ConvcrscIy,somc citicsscorcvcryIow.
Thcrc sccms tobca strong tcndcncy to godccisivcIy in oncdircction
or in thc othcr.
I . 8 muCh C dCWnlCWn 8uCCc88uly tZcd undct utOn tcncWl7
. 8 l c8l h C dCWnlCWn dcVClcd lC ptKIng7
J. MVc munICIp nd CCunly CBCc8 Occn tcCClcd lC Cmpu87

Hoa to Duh) Doantoan


4. MVc 8ltccl8 bccn dc-mQQcd Ct 8uQctblCCK dcVclCQmcnl8?
J. MVc lhc dcVclCpmcnl8 nCludcd n cnClC8cd 8hCppng ml?
6. MVc lhcy bccn lnKcd lCgclhct Wlh 8KyWy8?
7. MVc lhcy bccn lnKcd lCgclhct Wlh undctgtCund CCnCCut8c8?
5. 8 n ulCmlcd QcCQc-mCVct 8y8lcm bcIng plnncd?
Thchighcrthcscorc,thcmorcIikcIythccityistobconcthathas
Iost its cgo, its scnsc and pridcofpIacc, its awarcncss ofwhcrc it has
comc from and whcrc it is going. lt is a city with so IittIc assurancc
that it is prcy to what couIdbc biIIcdas boIdncwapproachcs, and to
architccturaI acrobatics ofaII kinds.
SmaII and mcdium-sizcd citics sccm particuIarIy vuIncrabIc.
Thcirdowntowns,foroncthing,arcmorcsubccttothcdominanccof
thcfrccway thcnarcvcry Iargconcs. Thc Iattcrmay havcstagcd thcir
antifrccway rcvoIts whiIc thcy wcrc stiII short of cvisccration. Many
smaIIcr oncs ncvcr did rcbcI and, for thcir compIiancc, had much of
thcir ccntcr dcstroycd. A cIovcrIcaf in smaII city can chcw up a
much Iargcr proportion ofdowntown than a cIovcrIcafin a big onc,
and it can wrcak morc damagc to thcfabric ofthc ccntcr.
ln othcr ways smaIIcr citics facc a toughcr chaIIcngc thcn big
oncs. ForstructuraIrcasons, thcyarc morchurtbythccompctitionof
outIyingshoppingmaIIs. WithsmaIIcrcitics, thcdistanccfromdown-
town to thc intcrchangcs and thcir maIIs is apt to bc no morc than
thrcc to hvc miIcs. ln somc cascs, citics whosc boundarics cmbracc
somc ofsuburbia havcaIIowcd dcvcIopcrs to buiId thcirmaIIs within
thc city Iimits and havc rucd thc day thcy fooIishIy did so. Thc
rctaiIcrsthatarcIcftindowntownhavcbccnhurtthcIastdcpartmcnt
storc may bc about to cIosc up or has aIrcady donc so. Onc of thc
saddcst sights is thc boardcd-up windows, cspcciaIIy so whcn thcy
front on a pcdcstrian maII with no onc in it.
SmaIIcrciticstcndtohavcquitcIowdcnsiticsinthcirdowntowns.
ltisnotbccauscthcyhavcaIowovcraIIpopuIation,somcviIIagcsthat
drawonaIimitcdpopuIationhavcrcIativcIy highdcnsitics. Thcprob
Icm is thc distrbution of pcopIc. Whatcvcr thc totaI numbcr in thc
mctropoIitanarca,thcnumbcrindowntownisthccrux. lnmanycascs
thcrc arc simpIy not cnough pcopIc to makc thc pIacc work rght.
ig citics, by contrast, tcnd to havc many morcpcopIc in down-
town, oth n asolutc an rclatvc tcrms. hans to thc pccstran
ows thcy gcncratc, it is dicuIt to dcsign an opcn spacc that wont
work.lthasbcndonc,butmorcoftcnthannotthcspaccisbaiIcdout
bythchigh numbcrs ofpasscrby and thcIaw ofavcragcs.
Whcnlhrstvisitacity,lIikctomakcaquickchcckoffoottrac
at thc !pcrccnt comcr at midday. lfthc ow pcr sidcwaIk is at a
ratc Icss than onc thousand pcopIc pcr hour, thc city is bcyond gim-
mickry. lt has Iost its cnginc.
00 00SI vu00I8D0
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Manycitics compound thcirprobIcms bythc waythcydistributc
what pcopIcthcy dohavc. Thcy faiI toconccntratc. lnstcad thcy dif
fusc. Thcy sprcad ovcraIargcarca whatwouId workwcrc itconccn
tratcd in a smaII onc. Pcdcstrian maIIs arc an cxampIc. Somc havc
workcd wcII thc maIIs in ouIdcr CoIorado for cxampIc and
Tampa FIorida. Many havc not. Thcrc arc a numbcr ofrcasons for
rcgionaI shopping maII toomany for thc prin
cipaIrcasonhasbccntoomuchspaccfortooIittIcactivity. Somccitics
havc vcry broad rights-of-way in thc Wcst whcrc strccts
arc somctimcs a hundrcd fcct across. Takc away thc cars and thc
pIaccs Iook cmpty. Thcrc is a vacuum and it is not hIIcd by rock
gardcns and pIay scuIpturc. Thc brcadth of thc arca is so grcat that
oncsidcofthcstrcctisoutofimpuIscdistanccofthcothcr.Somctimcs
you can't cvcn rcad thc Icttcring on thc storcs on thc othcr sidc.
ThcrcistoomuchIcngthaswcII. Whcnciticsgcarupforapcdcs
trian maII thcy Iikc to shoot thc works and go for onc thats six to
cightortcnbIocksIong. ltistoomany.FcwciticscansustainamaIIof
thatsizc. l havc ycttosccamaII thatwouId nothavcbccnbcttcrifit
hadbccnscvcraIbIocksIcss. ThrccbIocksisnotabadIimit as scvcraI
citics havc found whcn thcy ran out offunds for a Iongcr onc.
Anothcr kind ofdiusion is thc crcation ofncw downtown ccn-
tcrs away from thcccntcr. Land asscmbIy isohcn casicr and chcapcr
onthccdgcofdowntownandsomctimcsthcrcisavcryIargcopcnsitc
avaiIabIc. lfasatcIIitcdowntownisbuiItthcrcprooncntssayintimc
thcrc wiII bc dcvcIopmcnt ofthc spacc bctwccn and thc two down
towns wiII bc unitcd.
utthcy probabIy wiIInot. ansas CityprovidcsancxampIc. lts
Crown Ccntcr compIcx is Iocatcd about twcIvc bIocks from down
town, it covcrs cighty-hvc acrcs and is aImost a downtown in itscIf.
utnotquitc. Norhasdowntownmovcdtowardit.lnthcintcrvcning
spacc thcrc has notbccn much dcvcIopmcnt. Many ansas City pco-
pIc bcIicvc thc city wouId bc much bcttcr o0 if thc two downtowns
wcrc onc
Evcn a fcw bIocks can bc a divisivc distancc. CoIumbus Ohio
providcsaniIIustration. lthasa fairIy tightdowntown corcanchorcd
inpartbythcstatccapitoIand its hnc grounds. Thc Nationwidc Mu-
tuaI lnsurancc Company put up a Iargc hcadquartcrs buiIding about
fourbIocks from thc corc and Iatcroincd a hotcI to it with an ovcr-
hcad waIkway. Thcy sccm an cntity distinct from downtown and thc
gap bctwccn thcm and thc corc rcmains.
lt is not Iincar distancc that is criticaI but continuity. own-
townsworkbcstwhcnthcy arccompact,itisrcmarkabIcindccdhow
many good downtowns havc a corc that is no morc than about four
Hoa to Dahy Doantoan
bIockssquarc. lfanactivityisIocatcdadaccnt, itbccomcspartofthc
corc. ft s a storc, thc othcr storcs work for t. ut fyou Icapfrog
ncwactiviticsbcyondthccorc,thccontinuityisbrokcn.lnDaIIas, onc
ofthc rcasons City aII PIaza is undcruscd, pcopIc wiII tcII you, is
howfaraway itisfrom downtown. utitisntitisin factquitccIosc
nIy thrcc bIocks from Main Strcct. ut it sccms much farthcr.
Thcrcisasharpbrcakincontinuityas high rscabruptIygivcs wayto
Iow rsc and to thosc grcat scparators, parking Iots. LntI thcrc is
substantiaI inhII thcpIaza wiII continuc to fccI too far away.
lnchoosingasitcfor astadiumorconvcntionccntcr, citicsmorc
ohcn than not go for an outIying sitc. lt sccms morc cconomicaI.
Acccss wiII IikcIy bc via frccway, so thc sitcwiII bc convcnicnt for at
Icast onc quadrant ofthc mctropoIitan arca. ut thc ccntcr wouId bc
thcbcttcrchoicc. AsSt. Louis andPittsburgh wouIdattcst, astadium
thatisin orcIosc todowntown rcinforccsthcIifcofthcccntcr, andit
draws on abroadcr arca.
Argumcnts against a ccntraI Iocation arc bascd on thc car. WiII
thcrc bc cnough parking7 Ths was onc of thc big qucstions in thc
controvcrsyovcrthcsitcscIcctionforScattIc'sconvcntionccntcr. Onc
sitcwasoncxpositiongroundsbcyonddowntownanothcronthccdgc
ofdowntown.ThcIastpossibiIitywastodcckovcrafrccwaysmackin
thc middIc of downtown. lt wouId bc ncxt to anothcr dcckcd-ovcr
faciIity, Frccway Park, and wouId bc itscIf an attractivc cIcmcnt of
downtown,withtcrraccs,rfgardcns, shops, andopcn-aircafs. Ata
kcy pubIic mccting, thc sitc scIcction committccIistcncd to scvcntccn
convcntion ccntcr cxpcrts tcstify. To a man, thcy wcrc against thc
downtown sitc. At thc outIying Iocation, thcy said, thcrc wouId bc
pIcntyofroomtomarshaI thcbuscs thatwouIdbcncccssarytotrans-
portpcopIcfrom thc downtown hotcIs to thcoutIying sitc As for aII
thatgIass,androofgardcnsandshops,forgctit.AscaIcdboxiswhats
nccdcd. Thc committcctookadccp brcath and votcd for thcfrccway
sitc.AndforastructurcwithIotsofgIassandroofgardcnsandshops.
ThcpitfaIIswchavcbccndiscussingso farinvoIvcthcdi0usionof
downtown. A worsc onc, howcvcr, is in thc othcr dircction. ltwouId
cncapsuIatc downtown. lf you cannot bcat thcm, somc citics havc
comc to thnk, you mght as wcll ]on thcm. bo thcy look to thc nstru-
mcntofthcir dccIinc for saIvation and wcIcomcthcconstruction ofa
suburban shopping maII n downtown. And thcy givc away thc storc
togct it.
WhiIcitwiIIbcscIf-containcd, twIIa0cct thc surroundingarca
vcry substantiaIIy. For onc thing, a strcct wiII IikcIy havc bccn dc-
mappcd by a compIiant city so that thc maII can strctch ovcr morc
spacc. Likcits suburban modcI, thc citymaII wiII bc caroricntcd and

#
0C0000v0 SySl00S
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0v0 0I l00 0000

C8SS, SlI00l 0v0 0I


D8CKS 800000 w00
08v0 l0 uS0 DuS0S.
0 S000 P00OC80
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00w0l0w0 08S D000
C08I00 0I 8IKl0g l08l
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L
wiII rcquirc vast amounts ofparking. Thc pricc of a downtown maII
usuaIIyincIudcsthcdcmoIitionofmorcofdowntowntomakcwayfor
morc garagcs.
Anothcr pricc, w havc notcd, may bc a sccond-IcvcI waIkway
systcm. Thcy startinnocuousIy cnough abridgcfromagaragctoan
omcc buiIding, for cxampIc. ut thcsc things grow, and grow somc
morc, untiI cvcntuaIIy thcrc wiII bc a whoIc systcm compIctc with
storcs and scrviccs. AsarcsuIt, thcrcwiIIbctwocitics anuppcr-IcvcI
onc for whitc middIc-cIass pcopIc a strcct-IcvcI onc for bIacks and
Iowcr-incomc pcopIc.
A furthcr conscqucncc may bc a high bIank-waII quoticnt. For a
sccondIcvcI systcmtoattractthcmostpcopIc,itwiIIbc dccmcdhcIp
fuI ifthcstrcctIcvcIismadctoattractfcwcr. A GrcshamsIawsctsto
work.AsthcduIIihcationprocccds,windowsarcboardcdupandwhat
was good gcts rcpIaccd bythc bad. Iank waIIs brccd bIank waIIs.
Thc worst discontinuity is parking. lt is usuaIIy ugIy, though it
nccd notbc Parking structurcs canbcoddIy pIcasing inthcirgcomc
try. Thcir bIankncss at strcct IcvcI can bc osct with storcs. Parking
IotscanbcpIantcdwithtrccsandshrubbcry.ThcbIightofparkingIics
inwhat is not thcrc. PcopIc. Activity. Function Thc daytimc storagc
ofvchicIcs is not a highcst and bcst usc but it is trcatcd as ifit wcrc.
lnsomc Amcrican citics, so much ofthcccntcrhas bccncIcarcd
tomakc wayforparking thatthcrcis morc parking than thcrciscity.
And quitc IitcraIIy too. Somc citics, such as Topcka, ansas, havc
gonc sofar as torcach atippingpoint. lfthcy cIcaraway any morc of
whats Icft, thcrc wouId not bc much rcason to go thcrc and park.
A hrst stcp to Iibcration wouId bc a rcduction in thc additionaI
amounts of parking rcquircd. Communitics arc not as dcmanding
about this as oncc thcy wcrc but thcy stiII induIgc thc parkcr to an
cxccssivc dcgrcc, smaIIcr citics in particuIar. For ncw omcc buiIdings
from thrcc to hvc parking spaccs arc rcuircd for cach thousand
squarc fcct ofomcc spacc and garagcs must bc within or adaccnt to
thc omccbuiIding. Thc rcsuIt is a scrics ofvcry short garagc-to-omcc
trips and a Iowcr IcvcI ofovcraII pcdcstrian activity.
What wouId happcn ifadditionaI parking was not providcd7 ln
Ncw York, thc South Strcct Scaport brought approximatcIy J,
squarcfcctofrctaiIingtoitssitcanditisammcdwithcustomcrs. Not
oncadditionaIparking spacchasbccn providcd. Somc pcopIc takc thc
subway, somc, thc bus. Thc buIk, mostIy omcc workcrs, waIk to thc
pIacc.
Sofar, thconIyhopcfuIactionhasbccnnot addingmorcparking.
cforc Iong, wcmay actuaIIystartcuttingit. ltmightmakccconomic
scnsc. ln thcir zcaI to woo thc car, dcvcIopcrs and municipaIitics
Hoa to Dahy Doantoan
grabbcdosomcofthcbcst-IocatcdparccIs ofdowntown. lndianapo-
Is is an cxampIc. Ths is a good city with a hnc ccntcrpiccc in its
Monumcntquac. utsomuchofthcsurroundingarcaofdowntown
is givcn ovcr to parking that it is hard to cnvision furthcr progrcss
without somc garagc cIcarancc Thc dcmoIition of thc Pruitt-lgoc
houscsint. LouiswasasymboIiccvcnt. omightbcthchrstdcmoIi-
tion of a bunch of downtown parking structurcs. Thcrc is a Iot of
vaIuabIc Iand undcrthat concrctc.
ThccxpIosion wiII bc somc timc in coming. ln citics most domi-
natcd by parking Iots and parking garagcs a kcy civic issuc is thc
IamcntabIc Iackofparking. LctmccitcaIIas again. ln has thchigh-
cst ratio ofparking spaccs to omcc spacc in thc country. ut studics
continuaIIy caII for morc parking, and at modcratc cost.
Thisvisitor,whomarvcIcdathowpIcntifuI andincxpcnsivcpark-
ing was in aIIas, participatcd in a survcy touching on thc probIcm.
WiththchcIpoftwoncwspapcrs ldrahcdasctofqucstionstobcput
to citizcns. ucstion numbcr onc is thcrc cnough parking in down-
town7 Answcrs NO. NO. NO. ANO mLLH OO LXLNSNL. ucstion
numbcrtwo how far isitfromwhcrcyouparkand whcrc youwork7
Answcrs avcragc distancc about two and a haIfbIocks.
Two and a haIfbIocks. And short bIocks at that. Expcricncc in
othcrcitics issimiIar. uppIyhas soconditioncddcmandthatparking
has bccomc an cnd in itscIf, with pcopIc in a bondagc to it morc
psychoIogicaI than physicaI. ut supposc, ust supposc, that Amcri-
cans wcrc to cxtcnd thcirwaIking radius by onIy a fcw hundrcd fcct.
Thc rcsuIt couId bc an cmancipation ofdowntown. Parking couId bc
pushcd outward and this wouId takc an advcrsc prcssurc o down-
town. lnstcad ofbcing scqucstcrcd for thc storagc ofvchicIcs, primc
spacc wouId bc rcIcascd for positivc activitics. Thc pricc7 Parkcrs
wouId havc to waIk about hvc minutcs morc than thcy do now and
bcttcrofor it thcy wouId bc.
Curbsidc parking is morc wastcfuI of spacc than cvcr. Parking
paraIIcItothccurb, whichchcwsupthcIcast, isbccomingaIostskiII.
ManypcopIcundcrthirtyhavcbccomcsouscdtothchcad-inparking
of suburban shoping maIIs that thcy arc unabIc to copc with any
othcr kind. A numbcr ofcitics havc had to switch from paraIIcI to
hcad-n for ths rcason.

Rights of way arc a grcat potcntiaI sourcc of primc spacc. A


surprisingamount ofroadway spacc is not uscd for thc movcmcnt of
cars but for nonmovcmcnt, and with Iots ofrcdundant spacc. As a
numbcrofcomcIyprocctshavcdcmonstratcd, thcscbitsandpicccsof
spacc arc oftcn supcrbIy Iocatcd and thcy makc cxccIIcnt park and
sitting pIaccs. Thc samc rccycIing of spacc that frccs up a vchicIc
Ianc for additionaI sidcwaIk spacc makcs for not onIy a morc
P00IC80S w0u0
w000 I00I w8K0g
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L
amcnabIc strcctbutoncthatfunctionsmorcccctivcIy fortransporta-
tion.
ln our wastcfuIncss in sum Iics opportunity. Thc disincIination
towaIk morcthan afcw bIocks thcovcrsuppIyofbadIy uscdvchicu
Iar spacc, thc Iow suppIy of pcdcstrian spacc, wcII uscd or iII thc
usurpationofthc ccntcrforautomobiIcstoragc thcIitanyofourbad
waysisaImostcauscforrcoicing. Thcrcis rcaIIyagrcatdcaI ofspacc
inthccity ifwchavcthcwittosccit. Andputittobcttcrusc. Ascan
bcsaidofLcxingtonAvcnuc,inthcmostcrowdcdpIaccthcrcispIcnty
ofroom.
Most Amcrican citics startcd with a compact Iayout LsuaIIy it was
thc maIigncd grid, with bIocks in thc rangc oftwo hundrcd by thrcc
hundrcdfcct.AsmanyciticsarccomingtobcIicvc,thcywcrcrightthc
hrsttimc. ThctightgridandshortbIocksmaybc rigid,butthcpattcrn
maximizcs pcdcstrian activity, and it providcs many ofthosc bcst of
spaccs, strcct corncrs.
Grids oftcn run countcr to thc topography, and duc to thc acci-
dcnts ofcarIy scttIcmcnt pattcrns thcrc arc somctimcs two grids onc
going oncway, onc going anothcr. lnwhatmay havcbccnacasc ofa
drunkcn survcyor, a Southcm city has two paraIIcI strccts that comc
to a point
ltisthcpropcrtyofagridtomakcdcparturcsfromitintcrcsting.
WiIIiamPcnn'sPhiIadcIphiaisamodcIofsymmctry, withfourpubIic
suarcs cuidistant from cach othcr. ut among thcfcaturcs that arc
so Iikcd today is a grcat diagonaI cut through thc grid for a City
cautifuImovcmcntparkway.AIsoIikcdarcthcpartsofthcgridthat
shouIdbccIcarIy obsoIctc thcvcrynarrow strcctsandaIIcyssouthof
markct. hcy makc a nc pcdcstran arca.
ThcboardofcommissioncrsthatpIottcdthcisIandofManhattan
in ! &0IikcdthcgridThcycxpIicitIyrccctcdovaIsorcircIcsorothcr
fancy Europcan modcs Thcy said thc important thing was to stimu-
Iatc commcrciaI dcvcIopmcnt, and thc pattcrn that was bcst for that
was thc grid So thcy Iaid out a grid, and virtuaIIy aII grid too, thcrc
bcing IittIc provision for parks or pubIic suarcs Thcsc had to comc
Iatcr.
ut thc commissioncrs did fastcn on onc fcIicitous touch. Most
[
3
i
& ]
L
gridshavcbccnbascd onthcpointsofthccompass. Not Manhattan's.
Thc isIand runs on a bit of a sIant. Thc commissioncrs wantcd to
maximizc thcdcvcIopmcntpotcntiaI, atcndcncy stiII vcry much aIivc
today So thcy httcd thcir grid to thc sIant, not to thc compass. As a
rcsuIt,thcsupposcdnorth ofthccity'snorthsouthavcnucsisactuaIIy
twcntyninc dcgrccs cast oftruc north. ltso happcns that this is ncar
idcaI for Ictting thc sun faII on thrcc cxposurcs, incIuding about an
hourandaquartcrofsuncarIy momingsonnorthcm facadcs. cncr-
ations ofbrownstonc dwcIIcrs havc bccn in thc commissioncrs' dcbt.

San Francisco is anothcr cxampIc. As has bccn frcqucntIy ob-


scrvcd, thcy wcrc out ofthcirminds to Iay a grid on topofthis hiIIy
pIacc. utitsccmcdtowork,andwhcncarthquakcandhrcIcvcIcdthc
city thcy wcnt rightback to thcgrid. ltstiII sccms to work.
ltisnotthcgrid,howcvcr,thatisimportantsomuchascompact
ncss. Curvcs and obIiquc angIcs can wrk as wcII in this rcspcct as
right angIcs and rcctangIcs. hc ccccntric strcct pattcm ofthc tip of
Manhattan was Iaid out by thc utch in thc scvcntccnth ccntury. lt
stiII works. Thc strccts arc too dark thcy arc too narrow. Cars havc
troubIcncgotiatingthcm.Sothccarsstayaway.Pcdcstriansdominatc.
OnNassau StrcctthcymorcorIcsstookovcrthcroadwaycvcnbcforc
cars wcrc banncd.
oston is simiIarIy pcrvcrsc. lf you wantcd to dcsign a strcct
pattcrnforpcdcstrian movcmcntyoucouIdhardIycomcupwithany-
thing bcttcr than thc ancicnttwists and tums ofthchnanciaI district.
Ahcad ofthcirtimc, thcytipthcscaIcs infavorofthcpcdcstrianovcr
thc car. ostonians arc aggrcssivc pcdcstrians, and whcn cars gct
sIowcd downona windingstrcct thcywiIIoftcn buIIythcmtoadcad
stop. LatcIy oston hasbanncd cars from somc ofits main shopping
strccts, and thc pcdcstrian activity has bccn prodigious. ut thc dic
had aIrcady bccn cast.
l ambiascdbccauscl gcwupinthcarcabutl dothinkthatofaII
ccntcrs, PhiIadcIphia's has cohcrcd thcbcst. Thcrc arc many possibIc

rcasons. survcyorThomas HoImcs, Edmund acon, thcpIaccmcntof


thc SchuyIkiII whatcvcr thc causc, ccntcr city dcvcIopmcnt has not
bccn scattcrcd, butconccntratcd within a twomiIc rcctangIc, rivcr to
rivcr. Thc ccntcr is prcciscIy whcrc it was pIanncd to bc and in thc
middIcisthcmagnihccnt Sccond EmpircpiIc ofmasonry that is City
HaII upstagcdbyabuiIdinghighcrthanWiIIiamPcnn'shat,butstiII
acompcIIing symboI. Oncthing aboutPhiIadcIphia. ou knowwhcrc
you arc.
AnothcrIcgacy isthcshortbIock. lnmany.S.citics, oIdcroncs
inparticuIar,bIocksfaII inthc rangcoftwohundrcdtothrcchundrcd
fcct, and a worabc arrangcmcnt it has provcd to bc. Somc citics,

1ightening 0
howcvcr, fccI that it has bccn a disadvantagc. Downtown is too
choppcd up, thc ccI, too unsutcd or chcIc trac. hcrc arc t
many ntcrscctons, too many trac ghts to stop for, too fcw broa
thoroughfarcs. Such citics wcIcomc dcvcIopcrproposaIs to dc-shortcn
thcbIocksbycIiminatingastrcctortwoandthcrcbycrcatingasupcr-
bIock.
Thc shouId count thcr bIcssings. SmaII bIocks makc for good
pcdcstrian downtowns. As pIanncr Ron bagh points out, Thc
smaIIcrthcbocks andthcgrcatcrthcnumbcrofnarrowcrstrccts, thc
bcttcrthcdowntowncnvironmcnt. Thc tramc is sprcad outmorcand
thcrc can bc a nicc dcgrcc of compatibiity bctwccn pcdcstrians and
vchicIcs."
ThcgridsystcmswcrcvcryadaptabIctothcstrcctcarIincsand to
thc cxpansion ofthcIincs to thc suburbs. Thc origina suburbsmixcd
thcgrwithcuvingroasandparkways paticuarIyso ifthcOm-
stcds had anything to do with it. ut thc scttIcmcnt pattcs wcrc
rcIativcIycohcsivc,ncarany oncstopthcrcwouIdbccnoughpcopcto
makc a stop worthwhiIc. Many ofourncwcr outIying arcas not onIy
ack mass transit scrvicc, thcy Iack thc pattc ofcvcopmcnt that
makcs it cconomica.
OIdcr citics arc wcII gcarcd for mass transit. hcy havc thc con-

ccntrationsofpcopcthat makcmass transit work, morctothcpoint,


thcy havcmasstransitsystcms Somc ofthcsubway systcmsarcrick
cty, producc cnormous dchcits, and havc bccn Iosing rdcrs as farcs
rscutthcyarcsystcmsinpIacc, andwhicthccostsofrchabiitating
thcm arc grcat J biIion for Ncw Yorks thcir costs arc far Icss
than thc costs ofncw subway systcms.
From a cost point of vicw a particuIary wcIcomc dcvcIopmcnt
hasbccnthcrcdiscovcryofthctroIcy. Anumbcrofciticsthattorcup
thctracksaftcrWorId War llarcnow puttinginsystcms. Thcyrcnot
caIcd troIIcys anymorc, but Iight raiI" and citics Iikc to cmphasizc
thcirhightcchaspccts.SacramcntohasustinauguratcdthchrstIcgof
a procctcd -mic Iinc. A car on this Iinc ooks vcry much Iikc a
troIcyrunningdownthcmiddcofthcstrcct.To SacramcntopcopIcit
is futuristic, and thcy arc dcIightcd with it. A pivotaI stcp," says
Mayor!ancRudin, takingSacramcntointothctwcntyhrstccntury."
Compared to heavy-ral systems, costs can be qute tolerable.
With a captaI invcstmcnt of 6miIIion San Dicgo uscd an cxisting
right-of-waytoashion a l 6miIc Iinc running fromthcMcxican bor-

dcr tothc ccntcr oftown. Thc cars arc doubIc-ointcd Gcman oncs,
paintcd a hrc-cnginc rcd, and whcn thc comc down thc strcct you
pcrk up.
Morc futuristic arc thc pcopIc movcrs. hcsc arc systcms fcatur-
ing singc cars opcrating on ovcrhcad tracks. Thcy arc compIctcIy
automatcd, Iikc somc airport systcms, and havc thc samc scpuIchraI
L00 0 l00 gI08l0Sl
D000S 008SS lI80Sll
lS w08l ll 08K0S
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voiccs tcIIing you to stand Icar of thc doors. Whcthcr thcy makc
much scnsc is a qucstion.
lnoncrcspctthcyarcquitcrctrogrcssivc. Forycarsthcstandard
rcndcring of thc city of thc futurc inIudcd monoraiIs and gIcaming
whitcpyIons. ThcmonoraiIcarswcrcsuspcndcdfromthcirstruturcs
pcopIcmovcrsridcatopthcirs.Eithcrway,howcvcr,thcstructurcsarc
aprobIcm. AscwYorkfoundout, atgrcatcost,ovcrhcadstruturcs
anhavcadcvastatingcctonthcstrcct,anddicrcntiaIsinpropcrty
vaIucs wiII rccct this. And thc structurcs wiII not Iook whitc and
cIcan for vcry Iong. As with thc undcrsidcs of cIcvatcd cxprcssways,
thcir cnd statc is IikcIy to bc dirty, gray concrctc.
PcopIc movcrs do not marry wcII with othcr forms oftransit. ln
addition to its ncwMctroraiIsystcm, Miaminowhas a pcopIc-movcr
systcm. lttraccs a ! .9-miIc Ioop arounddowntown. Andthat isthat.
At onc point it comcs by thc MctroraiI but thc two do not connct.
Thcir gaugcs arc dicrcnt. So around and around and around thc
pcopIc movcr gocs.
cavyorIight,aprobIcmofthcncwcrraiIsystcmshasbccnthcir
routc structurcs. DisproportionatcIy, thcy bcst scrvc thc high-incomc
pcopIc who Icast nccd mass transit, and thcy poorIy scrvc thc bIaks
and Iow-inomc pcopIc who nccd it thc most. Washington, D. C. , for
cxampIc,has an inncr-citypopuIationthatismostIybIack.ThcpcopIc
who ridc thc Mctro arc prcdominantIy whitc, and high-incomc whitc
at that. 7J pcrccnt of ridcrs, acording to a rccnt survcy, ca
$, a ycar or morc.)
lnmostciticsmasstransitmcansbustransit.Somctimcsitisvcry
bad. Miami, which has not bought a ncw bus in scvcn ycars, has
notabIypoorscrvic, with onIyhaIfthc sizccct it nccdsfor itsprcs-
cnt routcs. cw York cant sccmtobuy buscsthat work, and a Iargc
numbcrofits drivcrs an't drivcpassabIy instcad ofcasing to a stop
thcyamthcirway to it. ut somc citics havc cxccIIcnt systcms ncw
cquipmcnt wcII maintaincd, frcqucnt schcduIcs, shcItcrcd bus stops,
skiIIcd and courtcous drivcrs. AtIanta is onc suh ity. ltis aIso cm
barking on a subway systcm, and though it docs not nccd onc right
nowithgurcsthatitwiIIIatcr atwhichtimcitsgoodbussystcmwiII
makc a hnc fccdcr systcm.
Costs of mass transit can bc prodigious. Somc parts ofthc ncw
systcmshavc cost far morc than thc tramc warrants cvcncstabIishcd
systcms havc rackcd uphugcbiIIs for improvcmcnts. Thcrc arc morc
factors to bc considcrcd. ln computing costs and bcnchts, howcvcr,
oncofthcgrcatcstboonsofamasstransitsystcmisnotconsidcrcd at
aII. lt is what thc mass transit systcm makcs unncccssary vast arc-
agcsofparking. yrcduingthcdominanccofthccarandthcparking
Iot and thc parking garagc, thc systcms rcinforcc thc intcgrity ofthc
cntcr. Mass transit makcs a pcdcstrian downtown possibIc. Crank in
1igbtening 0
thisbcncht and such cnvironmcntaI bcnchts as cIcan air and Icsscncd
ongcstion not to mcntion acsthctis and mass transit bcgins t
Iook Iikc a bargain.
R Lut6Bch
Thcfunction ofthcccntcrfor whichcompactncssis mostvitaIis
rctaiIing. StorcsthrivcbcstwhcnthcyarcchcckbyowI,conccntratcd
within a rcIativcIy smaII arca. So thcy wcrc oncc. ln thc sixtics and
scvcntics, howcvcr, many citics Iost this compactncss. Thc dccIinc of
downtown rctaiIing Ich a Icgacy ofcmpty storcfronts and thoscmost
dcprcssing of sights dcpartmcnt storcs and movic thc-
atrcs with bIank marquccs. Thc Ioss of storcs was bad cnough, but
worscwasthcbrcakincontinuity. lntotaI,thcrcmaystiIIhavcbccna
good numbcr of storcs, but thcy wcrc so scattcrcd that in any onc
bIock thcrc was not thc dcnsity to makc it work right.
Thc markct had contractcd, but thc spacc had not. Citics with
cnough storcs to hII about tcn bIockfronts had rctaiI districts with
sixtccn or morc and, conscqucntIy, many gaps. Citics wouId bc far
bcttcroifthcy couId comprcss thcir rctaiI districts.
aincsviIIc, FIorida, is an cxampIc. lts downtown has Iost storcs
to thc suburbs but it stiII has cnough to makc a thriving downtown.
ut it is not thrving. Thc storcs arc sprcad out ovcr a rctaiI district
that is much too big for what is in it. Pcr bIock thcrc arc too fcw
storcs, too fcw within supporting distancc ofothcrs. A ncw and uscd
bookstorcthatwouIdbc assctforanycityisnotindowntownataII
but in a shopping strp on thc cdgc oftown What communitics Iikc
aincsviIIcnccdisasortofurbanrcncwaIin rcvcrsc. ltisdivcrtingto
imaginc thc rcconstruction that couId bc accompIishcd with a giant
hcIicoptcrtosqucczc thingsup. And gct thatbookstorcbackwhcrc it
bcIongs. Such rcsorting is not a practicaI coursc, pcrhaps, but at thc
vcry Icast citics couId stop moving out in thc othcr dircction. Whcn
thcypIan a pcdcstran maII, as wc havcnotcd, aImostinvariabIythcy
strctch it out far bcyond thc capacity of thc rctaiI basc to sustain it.
lnhII is what citics shouId bc up to. lfa city can hnd thc right
tcnantsforthcprimcvacantspots,cvcnamarginaIshihcouIdmakca
big dicrcncc and in thc appcarancc ofdowntown as wcII as doIIar
voIumc. ut thcrcis usuaIIy no cntitytobringthisabout, and oppor
tunitics go bcgging.
Downtown nccds morc storcs but what it nccds most is morc
kinds of storcs spcciaIty storcs in particuIar. ut thc rctaiI mix is
gcncraIIy a mattcr ofhappcnstancc, and with too many mismatchcs
bctwccnstorcsand thcmarkct. Thcrcmaybc, forcxampIc, apIcthora
9 m
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0uI8R0I I000.
L0w0I0w0 000
S00u0 00 I00 S800.

L
ofshocstorcsorwomcn'scIothingstorcs, atwhichthcshoppingmaIIs
cxccI,butnohrstratcmcn'sshop, atwhichmaIIs do notcxccI. Thcrc
may bc a furniturc storc but no fabric shop, a photographcr's studio,
butnofuII-Iinc camcra storc. Somctimcscvcn thcstapIcs arc missing.
nc timc l wcnt Iooking for aspirin in ouIdcr, CoIorado. lt was a
most attractivc downtown. n thc pcdcstrian maII thcrc wcrc pcopIc
ambIing about, somc sunning onthc grass, somc rcading, oncpIaying
a guitar. Thcrc wcrc nicc outdoor cating pIaccs. Thcrc wcrc many
shops. l couId buy books and rccords, handcrahcd Icathcr goods, oiI
paintings. Thcrcwasagazcbowithhomcmadcicccrcam. utnoaspi-
rin. Notoncstorcstockcdit.ThcrcstorcdictorianhotcIdidnothavc
any. At Icngth l did what miIIions ofAmcricans do. l got in thc car
and drovc to thc shopping maII.
For inhII thcrc has to bc outrcach. Shopping maII managcmcnts
do not sit and wait for good tcnants to shop up. Thcy go out ahcr
thcm. Downtown pcopIc shouId do thc samc. Frcdcrick, MaryIand,
hasahncbrcadthofstorcsandhasoutcompctcdnotoncbuttwoIargc
shopping maIIs. An activist mayor has Icd a scarch opcration and
induccd a wcIIbaIanccd mix of storcs. Thcrc is nothing showy in
downtownFrcdcrick,butthcrcisstorcaftcrstorc, good oncs, andnot
a vacant front.
nc ofthc Iongcst outrcachcs bcgan in AIbuqucrquc, Ncw Mcx
ico.AIcadingbankcrwantcdahrstcIassfoodopcrationforAIbuqucr-
quc. Thc onc kind of rcstaurant thc city had ncvcr had was a tradi-
tonal apancsc onc. n cmssary was dspatchcd to oo. Hc cac
upon a !apancsc miIIionairc who was cntranccd with thc idca Thc
rcsuIt Rcstaurant Minato.
Good spcciaIty opcrations do morc than hII a gap. Thcy widcn
thc dcmand. An cxampIc is thc cmcrgcncc ofthc Wcst End istoric
DistrictinDaIIas. Fiftccnycarsago itconsistcdofsomcdcfunctbrcw-
crics, factory buiIdings, and warchouscs. lt was sIatcd for razing, to
makc spacc for parking. Thcn, in !975, it was dccIarcd a historic
districtbythccity, andsomcimaginativcarchitcctsandcntrcprcncurs
bcgan rccycIingit. Today thcdistrict is aIivcIy mixturc ofstorcs and
omccs and rcstaurants thirty-hvc ofthcm at Iast count, morc than
thcrc wcrc in aII ofccntraI DaIIas bcforc. And thcrc is varicty. somc
arc vcry good and vcry cxpcnsivc, somc arc for thc famiIy tradc, and
somcarcofthcramsh kindthatmarksDaIIas' sIowrctrcat fromCaI-
vinism. Thcdistrict is fun to go to and ithashad astrongimpact on
pcopIc's pcrccption of downtown. Thcrc is a downtown, many now
bcIicvc, and thoscwhowouIdcarIicrhavcIocatcdthcccntcrofDaIIas
out at a frccway intcrchangc arc now apt to pIacc it in thc ccntcr of
DaIIas.
1igbtening 0
Somc citics arc trying to compctc with thc shopping maIIs by
copingthcphsicaIformofthcm.WhatthcshouIdbccopingistc
ccntraIizcd managcmcnts of thcm thcir abiIity to coordinatc tcnant
scIcction, promotion, Icasing, and markct rcscarch. Thc maIIs, of
coursc, havcthcgrcatadvantagcofowncrship,citicsdonot. utshort
ofowncrshipthcrcismuchthatciticscandotobccfup thcirrctaiIing,
and thc various downtown associations havc bccn badgcring thcm to
do morc. Thcy havc bccn prcssing for thc cstabIishmcnt of pubIic
privatc cntitics that couId bc invcstcd with somc ofthc managcmcnt
functionsofthcshoppingmaIIs, such as tcnant scIcction andIocation
hat is, inhII and outrcach
ln somc citics, busincss improvcmcnt districts havc bccn sct up
withthccapacitytoinitiatcimprovcmcntsandIcvyasscssmcntsonthc
bcnchtcdpropcrtics. lnNcwYorkthcIargcstsuchdistricthasbccnsct
up by thc Grand CcntraI Partncrship, a consortium of corporations
and buiIding owncrs who want to scc an upgrading ofthis somcwhat
tacky arca. Onc hundrcd and twcnty-four propcrty owncrs arc in-
cIudcd Each contributcs to thc kitty an amount proportionatc to his
totaI oor spacc, at a ratc of l0 pcr squarc foot. iIIings arc 5
miIIion a ycar. With thcsc funds thc partncrship wiII suppIcmcnt thc
citys scrviccs with additionaI scrviccs and activitics.
AsahrststcpitcommissioncdcnandancThompsontodoan
invcntoryofthcarcaspIuscs andminuscs and howthc arcamight bc
improvcd.Thc rcsuItisanunusuaIIy thoroughanaIysisandan unusu-
aIIy imaginativc agcnda An crstwhiIc rctaiIcr himscIf (csign Rc-
scarch Storcs), Thompson has put spcciaI cmphasis on thc rctaiI po-
tcntiaI ofthc arca.
ln a numbcr of smaII citics thc Main Strcct program of thc
NationaI Trust for Historic Prcscrvation has cstabIishcd a numbcr of
simiIar cntitics. To datc, no district has bccn sct up with swccping
powcrs, such as condcmnation. ut thcrc is movcmcnt in that dircc
tion. ln Mainc, IcgisIation has bccn passcd to authorizc dcvcIopmcnt
districts pubIicbodicswith authority to cntcr into Icascs and canccI
thcm for nonpcrformancc.
OncofthchncstcxampIcsofccntraIizcdmanagcmcntisthcbusi-
ncss districtofStatc CoIIcgc, PcnnsyIvania. Fcw smaIIciticsanywhcrc

havc so dcnsc and thriving a mix ofstorcs, scrviccs and rcstaurants.


Thc rctaiIing is continuous aIong thc principaI strccts, thcrc arc no
gaps orvacant storcfronts. Thc strcctscapcisbasic PcnnsyIvania. Thc
main movicthcatrc rcmains unconvcrtcd. ltshows movics. Thcrc arc
Iots ofpcopIc on thc strcct at night.
lt hcIps, ofcoursc, to havc thirtyhvc thousand studcnts on thc
othcr sidc ofthc main strcct. ut thcrc is a Iargcr markct too forty
thousand pcopIc Iivc in thc town or ncarby. Thcrc arc two outIaying
000 ClIl0S 8I0 IQl0g
I0 C000I0 wlIO IO0
SO0l0g 08hS Dy
C0yl0g IO0lI OySlC8
0I0. WO8I IO0y SO0u0
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0808g0000IS.
L Y
shopping maIIs, but downtown has bccn strcngthcning its position as
thc truc ccntcr ofits rcgion.
Onc rcason is Sidncy Fricdman. Hcowns a maor pcrccntagc of
thc storcs and rcstaurants and omccs in thc town. A soft-spokcn rcaI
cstatc man, hc bcgan his cntrcprcncuriaI carccr by opcning a bicycIc
rcntaI agcncy whcn hc was a frcshman at thc coIIcgc. Twcnty ycars
ago hc bcgan acquiring storcs in downtown. Thc pIacc was dying.
Maor storcs wcrc cIosing down or moving out. Thc movic thcatrc,
knowntostudcntsasThcArmpit,"wasbarcIyopcrating.Thcrcwcrc
rumors that thc vcncrabIc Statc CoIIcgc HotcI mightbc dcmoIishcd.
FricdmanboughtthchotcI. Hchadbccomccngagcdtohiswifcin
its Corncr Room. This was a sccond-story pcrgoIa ofgrcat ifdowdy
charm pcrchcd, it so happcncd, ovcr thc !pcrccnt cocr. Fricd
manprocccdcdtobuyothcrpropcrtics.Atthctimchchadnoparticu-
Iarstratcgy inmind,buthcworkcdhiswayintooncstorcbystorc. l
rcaIizcdthcrc was noscnscinmygoingahcr! CPcnncyormart,"
hc says Thcy'rc too big for downtown Wc do bcst with spcciaIty
storcs, topof-thc-Iinc mcnand womcn'swcar, gift shops, dcIis, cthnic
rcsturants, nightcIubs. "
FridmanwiIInotrcnttofastfoodfranchiscs lcouIdgcthftccn
to twcnty doIIars a foot from thcm vcrsus tcn for a IocaI man," hc
says ut l prcfcr to havc IocaI owncrship. Fast-food outIcts ust
arcnt right for downtown "
To kccp thc right mioftcnants, Fricdman gocs out Iooking. At
AItoonathcrcwasancspcciaIIygoodmcn'sstorc.Fricdmanconvinccd
thcowncrtoIocatcabranch inoncofhisaIIcys ltnow docsabiggcr
busincss than thc basc storc.
Fricdman is kccn on aIIcys and smaII storcs. Hc is particuIarIy
proudofCaIdcrWay,anupgradcdaIIcythatprcviousIyhadbccnIincd
with dumpstcrs and thcbacksidcs ofstorcs Hchad thc storcs tu a
facc to thc aIIcy, and on its othcr sidc hc constructcd a Iinc of spIit
IcvcI" storcs thc two IcvcIs doubIing thc whammy of thc frontagc
and hcIping Iight thcpIacc at night.
Fricdman dos not havc thc cIout that shopping maII managc-
mcnts havc. Thc IocaI zoning board docsnotIicdownforhim Othcr
propcrtyowncrsmaymovcinoppositcdircctions suchasrcntingto
W
urgcr ing, Roy Rogcrs, and Wcndy's. ut Fricdman has sct thc
pacc for this IivcIy community, and thc fact that hc did it without
uniquc powcrs or cIout makcs thc Icssons aII thc morc rcIcvant to
downtowns cvcrywhcrc.
1

What our ccntcr citics havcnccdcd most is morc pcopIc Iiving in thc
ccntcr. lfonIy, thchopchasbccnvoiccd, youngcrpcopIc wouIdcomc
backtothc oIdncighborhoodsandhxthcm up, whataboonit wouId
bc. Hcrc and thcrc a fcw hcartcning prcccdcnts couId bc spottcd.
hcn l workcdonthclcscricson "Thc xpIodingMctropoIis"
in l957 wc wcrcabIc to runa portfoIio ofattractivcbIocks in various
citics.ThcscwcrcmostIy uppcrincomc pIaccs, howcvcr,and from thc
markct studics wc did it was hard to scc any substantiaI shihback to
thc ccntcrcity.
OncIargc rcason was thckindofhousing ocrcd. Thckindmost
indcmandwcrcthcrowhouscsofGcorgctownandrookIynHcights.
ThcscwcrccIcarl out ofrcach for most pcoplc ut thc dd provdc
strong cucs for dcsign and markcting ofncw housing. Thcy wcrc not
hccdcd. Thc fcdcraI TitIc l urban rcdcvcIopmcnt proccts wcrc ust
gctting undcr way, and in scaIc and spirit thcy wcrc thc diamctrc
oppositc ofthc oId bIocks. With IittIc variation from city to cit thc
proccss wasthcsamc, notonIywcrcbIocks razcd, butstrccts as wcII,
and hugc supcrbIock proccts groupcd coIonics ofhighrisc towcrs in
abstract grccn spacc.
L
AtcrribIcmistakcwasbcingmadc.ThcscbIcakncwutopiaswcrc
not bIcak bccausc thcy had tobc. Thcy wcrc thc concrctc manifcsta
tion and how IitcraIIy a dccp misundcrstanding ofthc function
ofthc city.
y such mcasurcs as tcnantsatisfaction, crimc ratcs, andmaintc-
nanccitshouIdhavcbccncvidcntthatthchighrisctowcrswcrcprov-
ing much Icss suitabIc for famiIics with chiIdrcn than Iow-risc units.
ut thc momcntum was unstoppabIc. ln Ncw York City thc procct
format bccamc so imbcddcd in thc ruIcs that it was dimcuIt to buiId
any pubIic housing that dcpartcd from it. And it was a photogcnic
format. What onthc ground Iookcd Iikcdirty, grayconcrctcgIcamcd
whitc against cIoud-hIIcd skics in architccturaI photographs. Particu-
IarIy attractivcwcrcthcphotosofthcPruittlgocprocctinSt. Louis.
ut citics citics cspcciaIIy had a grcat assct a pIcntifuI
suppIy ofoId housing Thc houscs wcrcnot ofthcquaIity ofthc rcd-
brick FcdcraI houscsofGcorgctownorrookIyn cights. Thcy wcrc
ugIy, many ofthcm brownstoncs, for cxampIc, thc fcIiciticsofwhich
tookaIotoftimctoapprcciatc.Mostofthchousingwasinbadshapc,
much ofitforccIoscd. utthis provcd a bIcssing. Somc sitcs activcIy
promotcd thcir rchabiIitation. atimorc, for onc, sct up a homc
stcading" programwith itsstock oftaxforccIoscd propcrtics, tobuy
crswhowouIdpIcdgctohxthcmupthccitywouIdscIIthchouscsfor
a nominaI sum. Thc rcsuIt has bccn somc vcry attractivc ncighbor
hoods. Onc, thc Ottcrbcin houscs, is a vcry aItimorcpIaccand with
nt stcs as hitc as any in thc ty.
Pitsburghisanothcrcitythathashadhomcstcadingprograms.lt
startcd with a Grcat ousc SaIc," in which it put hfty-cight city
owncdhouscs upforsaIcatonchundrcddoIIarsapiccctopcopIcwho
wouId rchabiIitatc thcm. Sincc thcn priccs havc gonc up it has bccn
scIIing abandoncd propcrtics to homcstcadcrs for thrcc hundrcd doI
Iars apiccc.
y and Iargc, howcvcr, thc pcopIc who havc bccn rchabiIitating
oIdncighborhoodshavcbccndoingitwithoutmuchhcIpfromgovc
mcnt somctimcs dcspitc govcmmcnt. ThcfcdcraI govcmcnt subsi-
dizcd suburbia with FA-guarantccd mortgagcs but o0crcd no such
hcIp for rchabiIitating city houscs. Thc Dcpartmcnt of ousing and
Lrban DcvcIopmcnt did havc somc dcmonstration programs, incIud-
ing oncfor"ncw townsintown." ltwas, ifanything, toowcII mcant.
ltwas thoroughIy suburban in itsassumptionsandwas so Iadcn with
antidcnsity, anticity provisions that it was bound to foundcr.
anks and insurancc companics wcrc not much hcIp cithcr.
ankswouId withhoId mortgagc hnancingfrom arcas bcing rchabiIi-
tatcd untiI thc rchabiIitation was IargcIy compIctcd and hnancing no
Iongcr so nccdcd. Thcn thcy wouId Icnd. lnsurancc companics wcrc

1he Case /or 6entrcation


oftcnsocharyofoIdcrncighborhoodsthatobtainingadcquatchrcand
+
IabIity poIccs was cxtrcmcIy dimcuIt and costIy.

CashwasthcbigprobIcm. Whcnbanksddocrmortgagchnanc
ingthcrcwasasizcabIcgaptohII. ThchomcbuycrusuaIIyhadto put
up about J0pcrccnt ofthcpurchascpricc incash, and raisingttook
somcdoing. MoncyforthcactuaIrcnovationwashardtocomcbytoo.
RatcsonsccondmortgagcswcrcastronomicaIandthctcrmstooshort.
DcspitcthcdimcuItics, thcrchabIitationmovcmcntgaincd forcc.
Thcrcwascommonscnscto it.Thcncighborhoodsmight havcIookcd
shabby wth thcir PcrmaStonc facadcs, brokcn windows, and vacant
Iots. ut withthcm wcnt an infrastructurcofstrccts and utiIitics and
urban scrviccs substantiaIIy intact. For a fraction ofany pro rata rc
pIaccmcnt cost, thc homc buycr was acquiring a sharc of this urban
basc.
ln thc cycs of thcsc bchoIdcrs thc oId houscs acqurcd a bcauty
that had not bccn so disccibIc bcforc. Thcrc was, for cxampIc, a
considcrabIc shih in acsthctic udgmcnts on thc brownstoncs. Thcy
uscd tobcdrab, dark, andmonotonous ndccd, ugIy. utthcn wth
nophysicaIchangctospcakof, thcychangcd. Thcybccamchnccxam-
pIcs of thc ltaIianatc styIc, thcir stoops a graccfuI cvocation of thc
urbanrhythm.To pantovcrthcbrown,as rcmodcIcrsddcarIicr, was
sacriIcgc. lf, as in Park SIopc, thcbrownstoncs wcrctwcnty-fourfcct
or morc widc, had parquct oors and staincd gIass, thcy bccamc ob-
ccts of vcncration. Evcn thc basic cightccn-footcrs thc tract houscs
of thcir day rcspcct. And rising priccs. PcopIc who
boughtthcm thoughtthcywcrcgcttingatrcmcndousbargain. As thc
rcaIcstatcmarkctwas subscqucntIytodcmonstratc,thcywcrcindccd.
Good ncws7 You wouId think so. ut many pcopIc do not think
so. lnvokingthatdrcadtcrmofurbanaairs,thcy sayts"gcntrihca-
tion," andthoscwhohaiIcd thcpossibiIity ofamiddIc-cIass rcvivaIof
ncighborhoodsarcunhappynowithasbccomcarcaIity.Thcysaythat
it is cIitist, that it has bccn at thc cxpcnsc ofthc poor, that thc dis-
pIaccmcnt ofthcm by mddIc-cIass pcopIc has brokcn up oncc stabIc
ncghborhoods and cthnic groups. Thcrc is not a confcrcncc on city
probIcmsthatdocsnotringwithprotcstationsofguiItovcrgcntrihca-
ton. bhamc on us tor what wc havc donc.
Thc gcntrihcation chargc has had an inhibiting ccct ongovcrn-
mcnt support. Lct mc go back to onc of thc hrst cascs. ln thc I969
Plan ]or Nen York Cit, thc pIanning commission haIcd thc brown-
stoncs rcvivaIwithcnthusiasm. "lfbrownstoncrshavcdoncwhatthcy
havcdoncinthcfaccofmaordimcuItics, "thcpIansaid, "tsstaggcr-
ingtothnkofwhatcouIdbcdoncifthcdimcuIticswcrcrcmovcd. "To
that cnd, it proposcd

O0 g00lH0C8l00
CO8Ig0 0l0S lO8l lO0
CO0 lOI08l l0 O0uS0g
0I lO0 00I S lO0
ugI800g 0
00g0D0I0000S. !00
I0D00 S lO0
00Sl0. O0 CO0
lOI08l S 0S
0v0Sl000l. P00 lO0
w0ISl CuHl S lO0
000I8 g0v0H000
L
munICIQl lCn8 Ct mCtlggc gutnlcc8 lCt Cnc- nd lWC-lmIly
hCmc8.
W
tcVClVIng lund lC OtIdgc lhc gQ OclWccn lhc QtICc Cl lhc hCu8c nd
CCnVcnlICnl mCtlggc.
lCng-lctm lCn8 lCt tcnCVlICn WCtK.
munICIQl 8cCCnd mCtlggc8 lCt lWcnly yct8 l tcgult mCtlggc
tlc8.
lcmQCtty lX Olcmcnl Cn hCu8c ImQtCVcmcnl8.
Thc proposaIs wcrc not supportcd. Thcy wcrc crtczcd, and by
many of thc cvc actvsts that had bccn cxpcctcd to support thcm.
EItsm, thcy chargcd. Thc grcat rcscrvor of brownstoncs was n
rookIyn many squarc mIcs oft buttoudgcfrom thccrtcsms,
thcbrownstoncmovcmcntwassomcthngfomcntcdbyasmaIIcotcrc
ofsmartaIcckManhattanIbcraIsand quchc catcrs Ths wasbcforc
thc tcrm yuppcs" was nvcntcd.)
WhatdspIaccmcnt7 Andwhcn7Thcgcntrhcatonchargc svcry
msIcadng. Chcck thc ycarby-ycar changcs n ncghborhood housc
hoIdsandyouwIIhndvcry fcwcascsofdrcctdspIaccmcnt,thats, a
rcntcr gong out thc door as a homcowncr comcs n. Lowncomc
rcntcrs arc frcqucntmovcrs 0pcrccnt ofthcrcntcrsn a ctyncgh
borhood wII movc. Of aII movcs, thc Dcpartmcnt of Housng and
rban DcvcIopmcnt has cstmatcd, onIy pcrccnt arc causcd by ds-
pIaccmcnt.WhcnthcrcsdspIaccmcnt, furthcrmorc,tcomcscarIyn
thc gamc, usually wcll bctorc thc homc buycrs arrvc.
Whatcauscst7ThcmpIctassumptionofthcgcntrhcatoncon
ccptsthatthcchcfthrcattohousngforthcpoorsthcmprovcmcnt
ofncghborhoods. ThcprobIcm sthcoppostc. Thcchcfthrcats thc
dctcrioraton ofncghborhoods. Thc poor arc not bcng hurtby md-
dIccIass nvcstmcnt. Thcyarcbcng hurtby dsnvcstmcnt Iand-
Iords and owncrs who Ict buIdngs go to rot, who waIk away from
thcm, who torch thcm. Morc unts havc bccn Iost through abandon-
mcntnthcronxaIoncthanhavcbccnprovdcdbybrownstoncrcha-
bItaton n aII ofNcw York Cty.
Thcworst casc ofdsnvcstmcnts thc fcdcraI govcmmcnt pubIc
housngprogram.Thcnumbcrofuntsconstructcdcachycarhasbccn
faIIngprccptousIyfrom 6,5n !to ! ,26n !5. Thccond-
ton of unts s worscnng, by Iaw thc rcnt cannot bc morc than J0
pcrccntofthcfamIy'sncomcbutIocaIhousngauthortcsarchavng
troubIchoIdngthcInc. Mantcnancchassucrcd andIatcIytosuch
ancxtcntthatmorcuntsarcbcngIostthanbuIt.OurpubIchousng
programnccds anovcrhauI n poIcyanddcsgn. What t nccds most,
howcvcr, s a faramount ofmoncy.
7he Case /or 6entrcation
RchabiIitationprogramsarcprocccdingwcIIandthcyarcdoingit
wthoutdspIaccmcnt. As part ofts "andmar chabItaton pr-
gram, Savannah, Gcorgia, isrcstorng l ,2 untsn ts ictoriands-
trict and wiII rcnt ofthcm to Iow-incomcbIacks. ln ansas City
thc uaIity HiII rcdcvcIopmcnt is rcstoring what is Icft of a focr
goIdcoastbyrchabItatngoIdstructurcsandnhIIngwthncwthrcc-
story row housing. During thc stagcd construction thc procct has
bccn abIc to housc most ofthc pcopIc who wcrc on thc sitc carIicr.
HarIcm might onc day bc an cxampIc. lt has aIrcady sucrcd
disinvcstmcntanddispIaccmcnt. ltis, infact,undcrpopuIatcd, having
Iost aImostathirdoftspopuIationsincc ! 970. Muchofthctcncmcnt
housing s bumt out. ut HarIcm has grcat advantagcs. lt s wcII
scrvcdwithmasstransit,thasbroad,trcc-IncdavcnucsandcxccIIcnt
acccsstoparks. ThcrcarcmanycIcarcdsitcsforncwhousing, thcrcs
a nc stock ofbrownstoncs, somc bIocks ofwhich, such as Strivcrs
Row, havc bccn kcptincxccIIcnt shapc.
lnthccountryasawhoIc, Ictitbnotcd, thcmarctforrchabIi-
tatcd ccntcr-city housing is a smaII onc. Most of thc data avaiIabIc
indicatc that thcprimcprospccts arc pcopIcaIrcadyIivingin thccity.
Ncxtarc pcopIc whonormaIIy wouIdgotothc uburbsbutwho havc
cIcctcd to stay in thccity for oncrcason or anothcr. This is probabIy
thc swing scctor and couId bc cnIargcd wcrc thc suppIy ofunits in
crcascd and thc cost not. About a third arc pcopIc who havc bccn
Iiving in suburbia, a considcrabIc proportion ofthcm arc cmpty ncst
crs, whosc chiIdrcn havc grown upand movcdaway. AIIinaII, thas
bccn cstimatcd, housc saIcs in rchabiIitatcd cty ncghborhoods num-
bcr no morc than !, units a ycar.
Thcsc fcw pcopIc, howcvcr, can havc a profound impact on thc
ccntcr city and thc pcrccption of it by othcrs. Sincc thc basc is so
smaII, a rcIatvcIy smaII addition can carry a Iot ofIcvcragc. ln Dcn
vcr, for cxampIc, anothcr twcntyscvcn hundrcd pcopIc wouId doubIc
thc downtown rcsidcnt popuIation. Such additions wII not am thc
bars and puthordcs onthcstrccts at night. Likcthcircountcrparts in
suburbia, city rcsidcntsarchomcbodics. utthcirprcscncc docsmac
adicrcncc,andavcryhcaIthyonc. lnCharIottc, NorthCaroIina, thc
NCN bank sponsorcd a town housc dcvcIopmcnt that is onIy hvc
locs rom tc ccntcr o owntown. coplc d to wor rom it.
Thcy aIso agtatc for morc rctaIng and scrvccs, morc actvty at
night. Ofsuch stcps s a ccntcr rcvitaIizcd.
Citics-wthin-citics, aIas, arc stiII bcing buiIt. Thcy arc usuaIIy
vcry Iargc on cIcar tracts such as obsoIctc frcght yards, that
givcarchtcctsanddcvcIopcrs thcbIansIatcthcyouIdbcbcttcro
for not havng. Thc proccts arc sucicnt unto thcmscIvcs, thc sur
roundingncghborhoodsarcnotnthcprovnccofthcrpIannng. For
LI0S-wIO0-CI0S g0
wIO v0Q 8Ig0, C08I
II8CIS, K0 I0gOI
y8I0S, wOCO gv0
8ICOI0CIS 800
00v000IS IO0 D80K
S8I0 IO0y w0u0 D0
D0II0I 00 0I 00I
O8v0g.
L
urban scrviccs thc proccts providcbits and picccs within. a gmct
foodshop, asimuIationofaramsh pub. ArcccntcxampIcisPrcsidcn-
tiaITowcrs,amiddIccIassdcvcIopmcntinChicago.Writingin!nlanJ
drchitect, Catharinc lngraham haiIs it as crsatz city. Thc idca that
onc can imitatc thc divcrsity of citics in isoIatcd dcvcIopmcnts by
bringingtogcthcrdcsirabIcpicccsofthcurbanfabrichastakcnhoIdof
citypIanning. ParadoxicaIIy, thcmorconc imitatcs, orcxtractsthings
from thc vcmacuIar city, thc morc artihciaI thc rcsuIts sccm. Thc
dcvcIopmcnt stands as a buIwark against thc vcry divcrsity that it
capitaIizcson."
ut thcrc arc somc good prototypcs. Thcrc havc bccn for somc
timc, whichmakcsthcbadoncsaIIthcIcssundcrstandabIc. crcand
thcrc, ycar acr ycar, rcsidcntiaI proccts havc bccn buiIt that arc of
rcasonabIy high dcnsity, cmincntIy cconomicaI, ofpIcasing scaIc, and
thoroughIy urban. Thcy do not datc.
OncofthcbcstcontcmporarymodcIsisSt.FrancisSquarcinSan
Francisco. With its townhousc groupings, intcror opcn spaccs, and
privatc patios, it is onc ofthc pIcasantcst ncighborhoods youwiII scc
anywhcrc. ltwasbuiItfor Iow and middIcincomcpcopIctwcntyhvc
ycarsago. To rcpcata point.adcsignthatiswcIIconccivcdfora timc
andpIacctcnds tobctimcIcss. Wc shouIdnothavctoscarch hard for
such Iost Icssons. Thcy arc aII about us.

iII thc ccntcr hoId7


hat youscc can makcyoudoubt it. Ridcthc rccways and you
scc thc conscqucncc oa wcakcning ccntcr. You scc a mishmash o
scparatc ccntcrs, without ocus or cohcrcncc. Takcn by thcmscIvcs,
somc othc componcntsarc wcII donc, but it is stiII a mishmash that
thcy add up to. And it is hard to scc how it can do anything but
worscn.
1hc dcccntralzaton trcnd that s scndng thc back-omcc work ot
thcccntcrtothcsuburbsisstrcngthcning.ThccomputcrshavcaIrcady
madcthcmovc. CiticscanargucthatitwouIdmakcmuchmorcscnsc
toIocatcthcscunctionswithinthccity,withitsscrviccsanditstransit
nctwork in Iowcost rookIyn, orcxampIc, rathcrthan Manhattan.
cwcorporationsarcbuyingthcargumcnt itscithcrthcccntcrorthc
suburbs.
Thc citics o thc northcastc and north-ccntraI statcs sccm to

L
havc bccn ht partcuIarIy hard. A succcsson ofdcmographc studcs
havcargucdthatthcyhavchadt, thatthcyarc agng"andfuncton-
aIIy obsoIctc, bcng gcarcd toadccInngmanufacturngcconomyand
wthanovcrprccdIaborforcc andthat, nany cvcnt, thcyarcnthc
wrong Iattudc. Thcmcssagc s cIcar. Goto thcSouthandthcSouth-
wcst. Thc ctcs n thosc rcgons, runs thc argumcnt, arc cxpandng
vgorousIy, ocr Iowcr taxcs, Iowcrcosthousng, a morc tractabIc Ia-
bor forcc, and a quaIty ofIfc unmatchcdby thc coId North.
ut thc SunbcItctcs arc havngthcrprobIcms too. Onc rcason
taxcshavcbccn rcIatvcIyIowsthatthcyhavcbccnpostponcd, ashas
bccn nvcstmcnt n nfrastructurcs. OI rcvcnucs arc no Iongcr takng
upthcsIack. Thc spcctacuIarpopuIaton growthofsomcofthcctcs
hasbccnducnIargcparttothcanncxatonofncghborng commun-
tcs, but ctcs arc runnng out ofpIaccs to anncx. Thcy havcnomass
transttospcakofandarc as muchhostagctothccarandthcfrccway
as thcy arc thcrbcnchcarcs. uaIty ofIfc Mgrantsfrom thc roII-
ng grccn Iandscapcs ofthc Northhavcsomc cnvronmcntaIsurprscs
n storc. Thosc mId wntcrs havc a prcc.
ut rcgonaI comparsons nccd not bc nvdous. Thc prcsumcd
dccInc ofthc agng ctcs of thc North s bcIcd by somc sgnhcant
countcrtrcnds. To a Iargc cxtcnt, thcmovcmcntto thc Southwcst has
bccn a movcmcnt ofmaturng products and proccsscs. Many ofthc
SouthwcstsmanufacturngpIantswIIsoonagc too. aycarthcrcs as
Iong as t sanywhcrc cIsc. n thc mcantmc, somc prcsumabIy ovcr-
thc-hII ctcs up North havcbccn dong surprsngIy wcII.
utrcgonaI dcrcnccsarcnotas mportantasrcgonaIsmIar-
tcs.Ascconomstohnckmanhaspontcdout,ts notrcgonsthat
grow oId, butproducts. Thcy havc aIfc cycIcofthcrown, and thcy
go from nnovaton, through dcvcIopmcnt, to maturtyand standard-
zaton. At cach stagc thc rcsourccs nccdcd by thc manufacturcr
changc, and ths can prompt hm to makc somc Iargc gcographc
movcs.
Ths s what hasbccn happcnng n thcmovcs tothc Southwcst.
ckman ponts to thc computcrndustry as an cxampIc. ghIy so-
phstcatcd products and producton proccsscs tcnd to b Iocatcd n
thc man ccntcrs oftcchnoIogy, Ikc oston, Ncw York, MnncapoIs,
and, morc rcccntIy, DaIIas and PaIo AIto. " Thc manufacturng of
pcrphcraI tcms and knockos of systcms tcnd to bc scattcrcd cIsc-
whcrc. Thcy do not nccd hgh tcchnoIogy so much as Iowcrproduc-
ton costs. Thc Southwcst has thc cdgc on Iowcr producton costs of
standardzcd tcms. Ncw EngIand, howcvcr, has a strong cdgc n ts
tcchncaI and rcscarch basc for thcdcvcIopmcnt ofncw proccsscs. ln
thcbrthratcofncw hrms, Massachuscttsssccond onIy to CaIfoma.
0lurh l0 lh0 H0r0
hc lddlc Pll3nll0 Sl3lcS 3fc n0l d0lng S0 Wcll. bl3l0 8nd l008l
VcfDmcDlS D SuO 0fc0S lcD ODOcDlf0lc D SuSy 0D fcSlO
l0B l0 KccQ 0d BuSlcS lf0m m0VBg 0ul . cKm3B lhlnKS lh3l lhlS
S lc W0fSl Q0SSDc mSl3Kc 0Bd lh3l Wh3l lhcy 0ughl l0 Dc 00B0cB-
lf3lBg 0B S lhc nufluDng 0l ncW BfS Wlh 3 Slf0ng lc0hn00g03
D3Sc. hc Kcy l0 Dc3lng lhc Qf0du0l 0y0lc 3nd nduSlf3l mgf3l0n,
hc S3yS, lS n0l n KccQng lhc nduSlflcS 3l h0mc, Dul ln fcQl30lng
lhcm Wlh BcW BduSlfcS.
hc W0fK 0lc00B0mSl 3Vd f0h 0lN Q0BlS l0 Sm3f
000luSl0nS. hf0ugh dcl8cd SludcS 0l]0D 0fc3l0n ln 3 0f0SS Sc0ll0n
0l Pmcf03n 0lllcS, hc l0und lh8l m0Sl 0llcS l0Sc 30ul lhc S8mc
Qcf0cnl3gc 0l lhclf ]0D D3Sc c30h yc3f 3D0ul Qcf0cnl 0n 3Vcf3gc.
hS lS 3 n0fm3l 00nScQucn0c 0lcnlfcQfcncuf3l 30lVlly. hc 0ulQfl
ln dc0llnlng c00n0mlcS, S3yS lf0h, lS n0l]0 l0SScS ul lhc 3Scn0c
0l ncW ]0DS l0 f0Ql300 lhc l0SS0S . . cV0l0Qm0nl Slf8l0gl0S 8m0d
3l h0ldng 3 lhumD n lhc dKc W0uld 3QQc3f l0 c 3S lullc 8S lcllg
lhc ldc n0l l0 g0 0ul
Ny Sludy 0llhc mgf3ll0nS lf0m DcW X0fK Llly Qf0VdcS luflhcf
d00umcnl3l0n. hcfc W3S n0l 3 gfc3l dc3l lh3l lhc 0lly 00uld d0 l0
Sl0Q lhcm. 0 0 3fgc cXlcnl, lhc 03uScS 0lhc 00mQ0ncS m0VcS Wcfc
nlcfn3 , lhc 00BScQucB0c 0l0y003 0h3ngcS Wlhln lhc 00mQ0ny 3Bd
lS nduSlfy, 3nd Wcfc BdcQcndcBl 0llhc 0ly 0Bd lSQf0S 3nd 00nS. 0
S3y lh0l Su0h m0VcS 3fc S n0l 0hccfng l0 lhc 0ly S dclcBdcfS,
Dul l S B0l 0 D3d ncWS. PS lhc m3fKcl-V3u3l0n 00mQ3DS0BS dcm
0nSlf3lcd, lhc 00mQ3nlcS lh3l m0Vcd 0ul lcndcd l0 Dc l30KluSlcf Q0f-
hc 00mQ3BcS lh3l Sl3ycd B lc Oly Wcfc 0ulSl3ndBg Qcf-
l0fmcfS.

hc Oly, 0l O0ufSc, dcS D0l W0Dl l0 0Sc 0By O0mQ0BcS, mcd0-
Ofc 0f n0l, Dul l m0Sl Qf0D0Dy W 0Sl m0fc. Xcl lhcfc 0fc l3V0f3Dc
3SQc0lS l0 lhclufB0Vcf. hc]0DS lhc0ly S 0Sng3fc Qfcd0mn3lcly n
lhc 0ldcf 3nd lggcf 00mQ3nlcS, 3nd lhc 0ncS lh3l 3fc n0l d0lng Vcfy
Wc 3fc lhc 0ncS m0Sl 3Ql l0 Q00K uQ lhc Wh0c 00mQ3ny 3nd c3Vc
l0Wn. hc ]0OS lhc 0ly S g3nng, Oy 00Blf0Sl, 3fc Qfcd0mn3nly n
lhc ncWcf 0d Sm0cf BfS.
B 0 Sludy 0lb0B tf3B0S00 S cXQcfcB0c OclWccn l 3Bd l ,
f0h 0uBd lh3l Sm3ll BfmS Wcfc 0fc3llng lhc ncW]0DS. 3fgcf BfS
wth cmpIoyccs or morc, wcrc shcddngobs. Company agc was a
l00l0f l00 cSS lh0D l0ufyc3fS 0d Qf0duOcd 0 Dcl g0B 0lJ, J
]0DS 0Vcf lhc Qcf0d, Dul lh0Sc lWcVc yc3fS 0d 0f m0fc h0d 3 ncl 0SS
0l l J, J 0OS.
c 0fK h0S DccD cD]0yBg Sm0f g0DS. B l l h0S 0 Dcl
g0B 0 , 0 0Oc ]0OS 0Bd 0D0ul lhc S0mc W3S cQcOlcd l0f l V.
b0mc 0l lhc g3B h0S 00mc f0m lhc cXQ3nS0n 0l l003l m0Sl
m3fKcdy B BB0n00 ScfV0cS. hS cXQ0nS0B h0S Occn S0 Du0y0nl 0S
!O0 ]00S IO0 C/Q /S
/0S/O 3l0 O3/O/y /O IO0
0/00l 3O0 0/0l
C0O3O/0S. !O0 ]00S
|O0 C/Q /S 3/O/O 3l0
O3/O/y /O O0w0l 3O0
SO3//0l C0O3O/0S.

L
to bc unscttIing and has absorbcd most of thc spacc vacatcd by thc
movc-outs. Fis moving into Ncw York, incIuding scvcraI from thc
Sun bcIt, havc broughtobs. Whatintimcmay provcthcmostfruitfuI
sourcc arc thcobscrcatcd through thc startup ofcntircIy ncw com

pacs.
ConvcntionaI cconomic dcvcIopmcnt programs conccntratc on
hanging onto big nswith ta abatcmcnts and othcrdcfcnscs. Likc
Hckman,irchbcIicvcsthisisbadstratcgy. ltdocsnotmcctthcnccds
ofthc growth scctor, and itdcsnot do much thatis ccctivcfor thc
nongrowth scctor. CharactcristicaIIy, tax abatcmcnts comc on strong
in thc boom pcriods, whcn thcy arc Icast warrantcd. Ncw York has
bccn apatsy in this rcspcct many timcs. Corporatc gratitudcfor such
favors, ithasIcacd, is a nonfactor. utthc gamc gocs on. Sponsors
ofbigomccprocctsprcss forconccssionsandthrcatcntopackupand
goto Stamfordifthcydontgctthcm. lfthc city caIIsthcirbIu, thcy
wiII probabIy stay. lfthcy do go, it wiII scrvc thcm right.
Thc bcIicfthat maoromccproccts arc thc primcsourcc ofncw
obs dics hard. Most citics havc assumcd that thcy arc and havc
cquatcd omcc buiIding construction with thc city's cconomic vitaIity.
ut thc growth is in ns that arc priccd out ofthc towcr markct
ThcynccdoIdcr,somcwhatbcat-upquartcrsotothcsidcbutnottoo
far from thc ccntcr.
"Omcc towcr dcvcIopmcnts," irch argucs, "is notob dcvcIop-
mcnt. ltmay, indccd, bc somcthing ofa dctcrrcnt. Thc nd ofns
thatcan aord thcJ5afootarcthconcsthatarcnotproducingncw
obs. To makc way for thc towcr, howcvcr, oIdcrbuiIdings arc bcing
dcmoIishcdwhich arcaordabIcbythcsmaIIhns whichdoproducc
ncwobs."
lf thc numbcr of pcopIc who can aord thc high rcnts of thc
towcrsisdiminishing, howcomcso manyncw towcrsarcbcingbuiIt7
lt is notbccauscofany cccss ofdcmand. Occ vacancy ratcs across
thccountryhavcbccnrisingforsomctimc.Thcimpctusforconstruc-
tionhasbccn hnanciaI. lthas bccn drivcn by a hugc suppIy ofinvcst-
mcnt capitaI. What thc markcts givc thcy can takc away
Ncw York City is cspcciaIIy vuIncrabIc. Onc of thc rcasons it
farcd wcII in thc crcation of omcc obs in thc midcightics was thc
prodigious growth of thc nanciaI scrviccs scctor. ut what markcts
can hcIpcrcatcthcy can takc away. Thc contraction inobsfoIIowing
thc 9&7 crash was scvcrc. lt couId gct much worsc.
OnbaIancc, howcvcr, thcshift ofobsand pcopIchasbccnfavor-
abIcforcitics.What is mostcncouragingiswhcrcthcgrowthhasbccn
taking pIacc. Thcgain inobshasbccn grcatcrthan thc Ioss ofthcm,

Retam to the Xgora


and thcgains havcbccn mainIy inncwcrand smaIIcrrms thc kind
whcrc futurc growth is most IikcIy to comc from.
lt is truc that thc abIcst, bcstpcrforming corporations arc thc
oncs which stay in thccity and that thosc which Icavc tcnd tobc thc
Icss abIc. ut thc city cannot rcoicc ovcr this. l adviscd or no, thc
dcfcctingcompanics takc aIotofobs with thcm, and thcpsychoIogi-
caI hurt is pcrhaps thc most tcIIing.
Evcnthccorporationsthatstay arcmovingsomcobstothcsub

urbs. Thcy arc thc morc routincobs, but thc city is undcrstandabIy
upsct to scc thcm go. And thc movcmcnt wiII probabIy continuc.
Hcadquartcrs rcmaining in thc city arc gctting Icancr, in somc in-
stanccs, thchcadquartcrsconsistofsomcomccsuitcsandahandfuIof
top cxccutivcs, with thc grcat buIk of thc organization out by thc
frccways.
With or without a downtu, thc ccntcr city may start Iosing
morcomccobsthan itisgaining. utthis wouId notncccssariIy bc a
catastrophc. OnIy twcnty ycars ago, critics wcrcumping on thc city
for having too many pcopIc init, in thc ccntcr most ofaII. A bchav-
ioraIsink,thcy caIIcdit,andprcachcdthchorrorsofurbandcnsity. lf
thc city now Ioscs somc dcnsity, it hardIy sccms fairto whack it for
that, as somc obscrvcrs do. Thcy wouId havc it both ways and intcr-
prct any additionaI outward movcmcnt as furthcr cvidcncc of thc
citys maIaisc tcrminaI maIaisc.
WiIIthiscomctopass7 LctusrctumtothcRoutc ! corridorand
its countcrparts. As wc havc aIrcady notcd, thcy arc suppIanting thc
ccntcrcityforwhitc-coIIarwork.WiIIthcysuppIantitasthcccntcras
wcII7 Somc pcopIc bcIicvc so. Thcy scc thcsc ncw arcas as thc truc
wavc ofthc notust anothcr kind ofsuburb but a ncw city
itscIf. A forccfuI cxprcssion of this diagnosis is Robcrt Fishmans
Bouqeois 0toias. "lnmyvicw, hc writcs, "thcmost importantfca-
turcofpostwarAmcricandcvcIopmcnthasbccnthcaImostsimuItanc
ousdcccntraIizationofhousing, industry, spcciaIizcd scrviccs, and of
cc obs, thc conscqucnt brcakaway of thc urban pcriphcry from a
ccntraI city it no Iongcr nccds, and thc crcation of a dcccntraIizcd
cnvironmcnt that ncvcrthcIcss posscsscs aII thccconomic and tcchno-
IogicaI dynamism wc associatc with thc city. ln sum, aII thc advan-
tagcs ofthc ccntcrwithout it thc city without tcars.
How can this bc7 What makcs this bcst ofboth worIds possibIc,
says Fishman, istcchnoIogy spccicaIIy, "thcadvanccd communica
tion tcchnoIogy which has so compIctcIy supcrscdcd thc facc-tofacc
contactofthctraditionaI city. lthasgcncratcd urban divcrsitywith-
out urban conccntration
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wO8CK I 0I IO8I.

L
ut thcrc has bccn a pricc scattcration. Fishman conccdcs that
thc tcchnoburbs," as hc calls thcm, arc a bit of a mcss and will
probablyrcmainsoforsomctimc.uthcbclicvcsthatcvcntuaIlythcy
willbcsctrightbyrcgional planningand advanccdtramctcchnology.
Aprcmiscofthisoptimismisthatthcrcarcagood manyoptions
still opcn. ut arc thcy rcaIly7 ltiscasyto ovcrlookhow prccmptivc
carly dcvclopmcnt pattcms can bc. ln most ofthc ncw growth arcas
thc formativc dccisions havc alrcady bccn madc. Thcrc is an anaIogy
hcrctothc rcsidcntial dcvclopmcntofthccountrysidc. Thccarlysub
divisions ohcn sctthccharactcrofsubscqucnt growth longbcforcthc
main body of suburbanitcs had arrivcd. ln many mctropolitan arcas
thcdicwascastascarIyas thcftics. ythcn, thcfacrshadsoIdo0
thcir kcy frontagc land on thc county roads thc strcams had bccn
riprappcdorburicdinpipcs, thcwoodcdridgcshadbccnshavcd. Thc
namcs ofthc subdivisions had forctold thc futurc thcy wcrc custom-
arily namcd aftcrthc natural fcaturcs thcy wcrc about tooblitcratc.
utthcrcwasmuchhopcfultalkofshapingncwgrowthpattcms.
Thc sixtics was a timc of Ycar 2" plans, which wcrcfull ofboId
possibiIitics to considcr cnuclcatcd growth points, lincar dcvclop-
mcnts,ringsofsatcllitccommunitics,andthclikc.Atcountlcssclinics
and confcrcnccs, pcoplc wcighcd thc pros and cons of thc various
altcmativcs. lt madc pcoplc fccl good, thcsc cxcrciscs in ordcrcd
choicc, and thcy wcnt about thcm as solcmnly as though thc choiccs
wcrc in fact thcrc to makc.
hcmostcclcbratcd was thc wcdgcs and corrdor plan or thc
Washington mctropolitan arca. lt callcd for channcling growth into
spokclikc corridors and conscrving thc bulk of thc Iand in grcat
wcdgcsofgrccn opcnspacc. lt was abad pIan actually, thc kcytracts
of thc grccn wcdgcs having bccn bought up by dcvclopcrs. ut thc
planpcrsistcdforsomctimcasthcrcgionsbcsthopc,planncrsprcfcr-
ring to go to hcll with a plan than to hcavcn without onc.
ltdocs notfollowthatthcncwgrowth arcascannotbchclpcdby
rcgional pIanning. ltis vcry much nccdcd, latc inthcgamc though it
may bc. ut it ishard to conccivc ofany drastic changcs in thc pat-
tcrnsorthclackofthcmOnccthcfrccwaysarcbuiIt,thcintcrchangcs
sitcd, and thcmalls anchorcd inplacc, futurcchoiccs arcconstraincd
and not vcry much can bc donc to changc mattcrs.
Thcrc arc palliativcs, to bc surc ug handlc tumo0s at cxits of
rcscarch parks, ovcrpasscs to improvc acccss to malls, ncw frontagc
roads, additional limitcd-acccss strctchcs, or cntircly ncw highways.
ut such mcasurcs can bc cxtrcmcly costly and thc appIication of
thcm madc thc morc dimcult by thc pcrvading lack of ccntrality.
Thcrcisno dominantdircction. Thctramcowsgo cvcry which wa,
and thc mcdiation ofthcm calls for yct morc concrctc.
Retum to tbe Hgora
othcrcarcprobIcms, thcdcccntraIizcrssay.utisthcrcanyrcaI
aItcativc Ycs thcrc is thc town. lt was invcntcd scvcraI miIIcnnia
ago and has pcrsistcd as a rcmarkabIy consistcnt and uscfuI form.
Lct mc citc cst Chcstcr, PcnnsyIvania, my homctown. lt has a
numbcrofthcadvantagcsofsuchtowns. Foroncthing,thcscttIcmcnt
pattcrn is compact and cmcicnt. lt was Iaid out in thc cIassic grid
bcstowcd on southcastc PcnnsyIvania by survcyor Thomas HoImc.
Thcrc is a hnc and compIctc stock of housing ranging from singIc-
famiIy dctachcd to doubIc houscs and row houscs.
AII of thc houscs arc within waIking distancc of thc ccntcr of
town. That docs not mcan pcopIc actuaIIy waIk thc whoIc distancc.
Thcy arc Amcricans. ut thcy couId ifthcy had to.
Downtown is intact. ack in thc l 950s thc town fathcrs turncd
down urban rcncwaI whcthcr from torpor or forcsight, no onc is
surc. ut as a rcsuIt thc ccntcrwas sparcd dcmoIition. A fcw individ
uaI buiIdings wcrc torn down that shouId not havc bccn. such as thc
TurksHcadHotcI,thctown'soriginaIonc. utthankstosomccranks
and prcscrvationists thc bcst oId buiIdings stand, and by standing,
havc gaincd a ncw functionaIism. Thc banks arc an cxampIc.
Out by thc intcrchangcs thcrc arc drivc-in banks. cst Chcstcr
has ualk-in banks. You waIk right in othc strcct. You dont nccd a
car to gain admittancc. Thc architccturc of thc two Icading banks is
contcxtuaI. Thcy havc whitc marbIc Grcck tcmpIc fronts. Thcy say
bank.
Thcrc was a cIcar cdgc bctwccn town and country, a boon that
was fatcd to disappcar. Anothcr portcnt was thc construction by
!amcsRouscofthcExtonquarcMaII,hvcmiIcsnorthoftown. Fora
whiIc it Iookcd as ifit was going to knock ocst Chcstcr's down-
town. MostcIIcr's Dcpartmcnt torc cIoscd down and so did scvcraI
othcr storcs.
Rousc had said that atown suchas cst ChcstcrcouIdcompctc
vcry wcII with maIIs in spcciaIty rctaiIing and rcstaurants. That is thc
way it has workcd out. cvcraI spcciaIty shops havc bccn doing wcII,
andonc,!ancChaIfants,isoutstanding. ThcrcarcgoodpIaccstocat.
ThcuakcrTcaRoomonEastGaytrcctwastakcnovcrbyaFrcnch
coupIcand rcopcncd as LaCocottc. Thc oroughHaIIwas convcrtcd
into a rcstaurat. o was part otc old arplcs cparator orks.
Lawycrs arc thc principaI industry ofthis county scat. Thcy arc
Iocatcd onc ncxttoanothcr and form astabIc constitucncy for down-
town. Thc Chcstcr County Courthousc itscIf is quitc dccIarativc. lts
cIock stccpIc and thc hvcstory Facrs and Mcchanics uiIding arc
thchighpointsoftown. Yousccthcmfromfaraway whcnyouarcon
thc castcrn approachcs and thc sight ofthcm is oddIy rcassuring.
l fccI vcry much as RusscII akcr did about his Main trcct.
"hcn youstoodonMaintrcct,"hcwrotc, "youcouId tcIIyourscIf,
A
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C000I00C0 l0 8 w000
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L00l0I LlQ l08lll lS
00l 0l0-l0C0. PS 8I 8S
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C00C000, ll 08S lll0
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I00C0.
L
Thisisthcccntcr,thcpointonwhichaIIthingsconvcrgc,'andfccIthc
incxpIicabIc but noncthcIcss vitaI comfort that rcsuIts from knowing
whcrc you stand in thc worId and what thc scorc is . . On thc
shopping maII, pcopIc know thcy arc standing not at thc ccntcr, but
somcwhcrc vagucIy o0toward thc cdgc ofa ccntcr that has faiIcd to
hoId."
Thcscnsc ofpIaccthatatowncan givcis most fcItby thoscwho
Iivc within it. ut is is aIso important for thosc who Iivc bcyond. A
wcII-dchncd town with a tight corc can givc cohcrcncc to a whoIc
countrysidc. lt'sabcttcrpIacc toIivcin ifthcrcissomcpIacctogoto.
ThcrcisaIsorcasontocxpandatownonitspcriphcryrathcrthan
Icapfrog dcvcIopmcnt way bcyond it. Thc town is an cmcicnt modcI.
Had Wcst Chcstcr bccn cxtcndcd in thc hhics and sixtics about two
bIocks on cach of its sidcs, somc thirty ycars ofgrowth couId havc
bccn takcn carc ofhandiIy. lt was not PoIiticaI rcaIitics bcing what
thcyarc, thccxpansion rcquircd scvcraI hundrcd squarcmiIcsofIand
and umptccn thousand miIcs ofutiIitics.
l'm not suggcsting that what happcncd was aII wrong. Somc of
thc dcvcIopmcnts wcrc wcII handIcd, thc cIustcr dcvcIopmcnts cspc
ciaIIy. Thc county did a numbcr of things right, such as acquiring
rcgionaIparks. Thankstoan outstandingcascmcntprogram, thcIovc
Iicst strctchcs of thc randywinc wcrc savcd from dcvcIopmcnt. Thc
fact rcmains, howcvcr, that had morc ofthc cxpansion bccn contigu
ous to thc town, thc cnd rcsuIt wouId havc bccn morc amcnabIc as
wcll as morc cconomc. o would thavcccn or many othcr towns
across thc country.
And so it couId bc in thc ncw growth arcas too. WhiIc it is too
Iatcformaorshiftsindircction, thcappIicationofthctownprincipIc
couId hcIp tightcn up a pattcm that badIy nccds it. Thcrc has bccn
somc progrcss aIongthcscIincs, as in thccrcation ofcombincd shop-
ping, hotcI, and omcc ccntcrs at ForrcstaI iIIagc. ut thcbcstprccc
dcnt, as l notcdcarIicr, hasbccn cIIcvuc, Washington,andthctrans
formation ofan incipicnt omcc park into a city.
For thosc who scc thcsuburban growth arcas as thccitics ofthc
futurc, thckcy word is "tcchnoIogy. "Thcy havc apoint, butitisonc
that shouIdbcstoodonits hcad. ltis thcgcniusofthcccntcrcitythat
itisnot high-tcch.WhatisrcmarkabIc,indccd,ishowIittIctcchnoIogy
itdocs usc. Thcrc arc cIcvators, tcIcphoncs, crox machincs, and air-
conditioning. ut that is about it. ThcrcaIIy fancy stuis outon thc
pcriphcry
SociaIIy,thccityis avcrycompIcxpIacc. PhysicaIIy,itiscompar
ativcIy simpIc. For thc busincss of thc ccntcr, it must havc strccts,
Retam to tbe Xgora

buIdngs, and pIaccs to mcct and taIk As far as csscntaIs arc con-
ccd, t has IttIc morc than thc agora ofanccnt rcccc
l am gong to quotc from . E. WychcrIcys hnc study of thc
agora lts not stranng an anaIogy toscc nthc hstoryofthc agora
somcIcssonsforctcs todayThcparaIIcIsarcconsdcrabIc, cspccaIIy
so n thc surprsng tu thc agoras hnaIIy took

ltbcgan n a smpIcway "AfarIyIcvcI opcn spacc was aII that
was nccdcd, "wrtcs WychcrIcy "Agood watcrsuppIywasmportant
and satsfactory dranagc A roughIy ccntraI stc was adoptcd, sncc
thcagorahadtoprovdcaconvcncntfocusforctyIfcngcncraIand
forthc man strccts Thcsamc frcc spacc sumccd foraIIknds of
purposcs crc thc pcopIc couId asscmbIc to bc harangucd, thc onIy
cqupmcntnccdcd was somc sortoftrbuncforthc spcakcrs, andpos
sbIy scats for mcn ofdgnty "
As tmcwcnton,buIdngswcrcaddcd. ThcrcwouIdbcacouncI
houscfor magstratcs. Thc stoa, or opcn coIonnadc, scrvcd as a gcn-
craIpurposc structurc and cvcntuaIIy bccamc thc framc for rows of
shopsThcagorawasagoodpIaccthroughwhchtoambIcthcrcwcrc
rowsoftrccsforshadc(pIanctrccsmostIy)andanumbcrofconvvaI
pIaccs at whch to stop(thcfountan housc, for cxampIc, orthc wnc
shops)
"NocIcarInc,"wrtcsWychcrIcy, "wasdrawnbctwccncvcccn-
trc and markct Thc pubIc buIdngs and shrncs wcrc n thc agora,
mcat and hsh and thc rcst wcrc soId n thc samc agora" ookscIIcrs
had thcrstaIIs, andsoddbankcrs, knownasmcn-wth-tabIcs "Mar-
kctngwhcnthcagorawasfuII,c. ,nthcmomng,musthavcbccna
nosy and ncrvc-rackngbusncss. Thc hshmongcrs had a partcuIarIy
bad rcputaton, gIarcd at thcr customcrs, askcd cxorbtant prccs"
Thc agora was a socabIc pIacc PcopIc wouId drh from spot to
spot, pausng to chat undcrthcpIanc trccs orbyoncofthc fountans
To somc obscrvcrs Arstophancs, for thcsc wcrc vuIgar, undc-
srabIc fcIIows c saw no good purposc scrvcd whatsocvcr by
"dIcrs, suchasSocratcs NorddArstotIc LkcsomcmodcpIan-
ncrs, hcwantcdthcvarousfunctonsscparatcdoutandcontancd c
rccommcndcd that thcrc bc two agoras for ordnary commcrcc
andthcothcrofarcIgousnaturc, frcc ofdIcncssandvuIgaractvty
"ut thc rccks thoroughIy mxcd up thc cIcmcnts of thcr
Ivcs," WychcrIcy ponts out, "and for bcttcr or worsc ths fuson s
cIcarIy sccn n thc agora. " lt ssccn physcaIIy too, for thc agora was
partofthcstrcctnctworkofthccty, twas notcncIoscdorscgrcgatcd
from thc rcst ofthccty but vtaIIy Inkcd wth t
Thcn, about thc thrd ccntury A.O. - thc agora bcgan to Iosc ts
ccntraIty Wth thc advcnt ofthc cncIoscd pcrstyIc court, thc agora

L
was sccIudcd from thccityaround it, cvcntuaIIywithcompIctc cncIo-
surc. Thcrc was a grcatcr tcndcncy," says WychcrIcy, to pIan thc
mainagorasquarcasawhoIconthisprincipIc, to makcitancncIoscd
buiIding turning in on itscIf. City Iifc had Iost somcthing of its oId
quaIity, and thc agora had a Icss vitaI part to pIay, a Icss intimatc
rcIation with aII thc varicd activitics of thc community . . . Whcn
thcagorabccamcamcrcbuiIding,howcvcrgrand,thismcantaccrtain
disintcgration ofthc city. "
ThcwithdrawaIandsccIusionofthcagoraisuncomfortabIysimi-
Iartothcdircction so manyciticshavcbccntaking. ltdocsnotfoIIow
thatthcy,too, wiIIdccIinc,butthc wamingsignaIsarc worthhccding.
As in Grcccc, many a city is moving its kcy pubIic spacc out of thc
strcctsystcmitismovingthcspaccawayfromthctrucccntcr,putting
waIIsaroundit,andmakingitastructurctumcdinonitscI Forgood
mcasurc, citics arc adding two scparators thc Grccks did not havc,
concourscsandskyways. Thc onIycncouragingnotcis howbadIythc
mcgastructurcs havc farcd. A fcw morc bankruptcics among such
proccts, and citics might concIudc that thcy wcrc doing somcthing
wrong.
ThcagoraatitshcightwouIdbcagoodguidctowhatisright. lts
charactcristics wcrcccntraIity, conccntration, and mixturc, and thcsc
arc thccharactcristics ofthc ccntcrsthat workbcst today. PhysicaIIy,
thcrc arc vast di0crcnccs, but in thc gutty, cvcryday Iifc ofthc strcct
thcy wouId probabIy bc rcmarkabIy simiIar. l wouId givc anything to
c ac to mount a tmc-apsc camcra atop a stoa and m thc fc of
thcagora. lwouIdbccspcciaIIyintcrcstcdtosccifthcrcwcrcaconsid-
crabIcnumbcrofpcrccntconvcrsationsinthcmiddIcofthcpcdcs-
trianow.l wouIdthinkthcrcwouIdbcpcopIcdonotstandthatway
cxccpt in pIaccs whcrc thcy fccI comforabIc. ln such pIaccs, thcidIc
gossipthatso annoycdAristotIc and annoysmany pcopIc today oftcn
bccomcs vuIgar, noisy, and argumcntativc, but it is thc truc currcncy
ofthc city word ofmouth.
ls word of mouth obsoIctc7 EIcctronics has not dampcncd our
IovcoftaIking GoouttothccorporatchcadquartcrsthatrcIocatcdin
suburbia,andyouwiIIhndpIcntyofwordofmouththcrc.ThcywouId
go baImy if thcrc wcrcn't. Thc onIy troubIc is that it is primariIy
companypcopIctaIkingtocompanypcopIc. To thcdisappointmcntof
thcsc companics, nowhcrcncaras many pcopIc havcbccn comingout
to scc thcm as thcy cxpcctcd.
lncrcascd communications and travcI havc not obviatcd facc-to
facc intcrchangc thcy havcstimuIatcdit. Thcrc arcnorcIiabIchgurcs
on thc point, but thcrc docs sccm to havc bccn a Iargc incrcasc in
confcrcnccs, mcctings, focus groups, scnsitivity workshops, and othcr
forms of taIk, thc whoc scrviccd by a Icaguc of cxpcditcrs and

4
Retam to the Xgora
faciIitators. OutIying Iocations arc oftcn favorcd. Many mcctings arc
convcncdatairportmotcIs, whichshowsyouhowarpcopIcwiIIgoto
bc facctofacc.
ut thc city is stiII thc primc pIacc. lt is so bccausc ofthc grcat
IikcIihood ofpIanncd, informaI cncountcrs or thc staging ofthcm.
Asl havc notcd, strcctcocrsarc grcatpIaccsforthis. Thcy arcaIso
grcatforbargaining, with no party havingan advantagc ovcrthcoth-
crs l havc watchcd scorcs of cxccutivc groups going through thcir
cIaboratcIy casuaI postIunch goodbycs, and l havc to marvcI at thc
dcftncss with which somconc wiII hnaIIy gct thcm aII to thc point.
EIcvator Iobbics arc good pIaccs too, so arc cIubs and rcstaurants,
which providc cxccIIcnt opportunitics for working thc room.
lt is bccausc of this ccntraIity that thc hnanciaI markcts havc

staycd put. lt had bccn widcIy forccast that thcy wouId movc out cn
massc,hnancaIworkbcingamongthcmostquantitativcandcomput-
crizcd offunctions. A Iot ofthc backomcc work has bccn rcIocatcd.
Thc main busincss, howcvcr, is not rccord kccping and support scr-
viccs,it ispcopIcsizingupothcrpcopIc,andthcccntcristhcpIaccfor
that This is trucofmost ofthcmaorhnanciaI markcts ofthcworId.
With fcw cxccptions, thcy rcmain right whcrc thcy startcd out.
Thc probIcms, ofcoursc, arc immcnsc. To bc an optimist about
thc city, onc must bcIicvc that it wiII Iurch from crisis to crisis but
somchow survivc Ltopia is nowhcrc in sightandprobabIy ncvcrwiII
bc. Thc city is too mixcd up for that. lts strcngths and its iIIs arc
incxtricabIy bound togcthcr. Thc samc conccntration that makcs thc
ccntcr cmcicnt is thc causc ofits crowding and thc dcstruction ofits

sunand Iightand its scaIc. Manyothc citysprobIcms, urthcrmorc,
arccxtcmaIinorigin forcxampIc,thccrucIdcmographicsofpcriph-
craI growth, which arc dimcuIt cnough to forccast, Ict aIonc do any-
thing about.
WhathasbccntakingpIaccisabrutaIsimpIihcation.Thccityhas
bccnIosingthoscfunctionsforwhichitisnoIongcrcompctitivc Man
ufacturnghasmovcdtowardthcpcriphcry,thcbackomccsarconthc
way. Thc computcrs arcaIrcady thcrc. ut as thccityhasbccn Iosing
functions it has bccn rcasscrting its most ancicnt onc a pIacc whcrc
pcopIc comc togcthcr, facc-tofacc.
orc than cvcr, thc ccntcr s thc pIacc or ncws and gossip, or
thccrcationoidcas, formarkctingthcmandswipingthcm,orhatch
ingdcaIs, forstartingparadcs. Thisis thcstuofthcpubIic Iifcofthc
city by no mcans whoIIy admirabIc, oftcn abrasivc, noisy, contcn
tious, without apparcnt prposc.
ut this human congrcss is thcgcnius ofthcpIacc, its rcason for
bcing,itsgrcatmarginaIcdgc.Thisisthccnginc,thccity'struccxport.
Whatcvcr makcs this congrcss casicr morc spontancous, morc cnoy
abIc is not at aII a friII. lt is thc hcart ofthc ccntcr ofthc city.
L
Lct mcappcnd amcthodoIogicaI notc.
l havctricdtobcobcctivcinthisbook,butl mustconfcss abias.
ln comparing notcs with fcIIow obscrvcrs, l hnd that l sharc with
thcm a sccrct vicc. hubris.
Obscrvation is cntrapping. lt is Iikc thc scaIc modcIs architccts
bcguiIc you with, start Iifting o0 thc roofs and you gain a scnsc of
powcr. Soit is with thcobscrvation ofapIacc oncc youstartmaking
IittIc maps of it, charting whcrc pcopIc comc and go, you bcgin to
posscss thcpIacc. Youdonotposscss it, ofcoursc. Thc rcaIity contin
ucstocxistquitcindcpcndcntofyouoranythoughtsyoumayprocct
ontoit.utyouyouposscssit,andyoucandcvcIopsuchapropri-
ctary rcgardforitastobccomcpcttiIycaIousifanyonccIscarrogatcs
it.
A furthcr tcmptation bcckons. As timc gocs on, youbccomc fa
miIiarwith thcrhythmsofthcvarious strcct cncountcrs ! pcrccnt
convcrsations, proIongcd goodbycs, rcciprocaI gcsturcs, straight man
and principaI. Now you can prcdict how thcy arc IikcIy to dcvcIop
and, by prcdicting thcm, gct thcscnsc that youarc somchow causing
thcm as wcII. Thcy arc your pcopIc out thcrc. Shccr dcIusion, of
coursc,butthcrcisnothingsosatisfying tosccthcmaIIoutthcrcon
thc strcct doing what youcxpcct thcy shouId bc doing.
ThrccmcnatthccocrarcinaproIongcdgoodbyc. Oncofthcm
issIowIyrockingbackandforthonhishccIs.NoonccIscis. AtIcngth,
thcmanstopsrockinbackandforth.lchuckIctomyscIf. lknowthat
inafcwmomcntsanothcrofthcmcnwiIItakcupthcrockingmotion.
Timcpasscs. Morctimcpasscs. Nooncbudgcs. Morctimcpasscs. At
Icngth,oncofthcmcnshiftshiswcight,sIowIy,hcbcginsrockingback
and forth on his hccIs. l am vcry pIcascd with myscIf

DlGEST OF OPENSPACE ONlNG POlSlONS
NEW YO ClTY
n Vb Ncw York Cty cnactcd a zonn rcsoluton that avc dcvclopcrs a hoor-arca
bonusIor provdnplaza spacc. lor cach squarc Ioot oIplaza spacc, thcbuldcrwas
allowcd IcctoIaddtonalcommcrcalhoorarca. JhcrcqurcmcntoIthcplazaswas
that thcy bcacccssblc to thc publc at all tmcs. Jhat, as t tumcd out, was aboutall
thcy wcrc.
Jhc V3 amcndmcnts rcqurcd that plazas bc 0m0h000 to thc publc as wcll
and lad down spcchc udcln Ior nsurn that thcy would bc. Jhc udclncs arc
prcscntcd hcrc n slhtly abrdcd Iorm.
I1
g
Jhcrc shall bc a mnmum oI lncar Ioot oIscatn Ior cach J squarc Icct oI
urban plaza arca cxccpt that Ior urban plazas Irontn upn a strcct havn a radc
chancoIatlcast2. 25Icctn IcctorIor throuh-blockurbanplazasthcrcshallbc
mnImum Cl ncat lCCt Cl 8calIng lCt cach suarc Icct oI urban pla arca.
5catn shall havc a mnmumdcpth oI b nchcs. 5catn wthbacks at lcast
nchcs hh shall havc a mnmum dcpth oI 4nchcs. 5catn J nchcs or morc n
dcpth shall count doublc provdcd thcrc s acccss to th sdcs.
5catn hhcr than Jb nchcs and lowcr than 2 nchcs abovc thc lcvcl oI thc
ad|accnt walkn surIacc shall not count toward mcctn thc scatn rcqurcmcnts.
Jhc tops oIwalls ncludn but not lmtcd to thosc whch bound plantn bcds,
Iountans and lsmaybccountcd as scatn whcnthc conIo to thcdmcnsonal
standards abovc.

[
3 4 4
] P L 7 P
MovabIc scatnor chars, cxcIudnscatnoIopcn arcaIcs, maybc crcdtcdas
3 nchcs oIlncar scatn pcr char.
No morc than 5 pcrccnt oIthc crcdtcd Incar scatn capacty may bc n mov
abIc scats whch may bc storcd bctwccn thc hours oI t.N. and A.N.
5tcps, scats noutdoor amphthcatcrs, and scatnoIopcn ar caIcs do not count
toward thc scatn rcqurcmcnts.
lor thc bcncht oIhandcappcd pcrsons, a mnmum oI5 pcrccnt oIthc rcqurcd
scatn shall havc backs.
Bntng Bn0 1tcc8
At Icastonc trccoI3. 5nchcscaIpcrormorcshaIIbcpIantcd Ior cach25IcctoI
thc cntrcstrcctIrontacoIthc zonnlot. JhcyshaIIbcpIantcdwthratnshushto
radc n at Icast 20 cubc Icct oIsoI pcr trcc, wth a dcpth oI sol at Icast 3 Icct b
nchcs.
r00S wlIhlh 0h ur00h 0]0h S]0c0. lor an urban pIaza , 50squarcIcctormorcn
arca, 4trccsarcrcqurcd. lor anurbanplaza 5, squarcIcctormorcnarca, b trccs
arc rcqurcd. lor an urban plaza 2, squarcIcct ormorcn arca, l trcc s rcqurcd
Ior cvcry 2, squarc Icct, or Iracton thcrcoI oI urban pIaza arca. Whcrc trccs arc
pIantcdwthnan urbanopcn spacc, thcyshalImcasurcat lcast 3. 5nchcsncaIpcrat
thc tmc oI pIantn. Jhcy shaII bc pIantcd n at Icast 20 cubc Icct oI sol wth a
dcpth oI sol oI at Icast 3 Icct b nchcs and bc pIantcd cthcr wth ratns ush to
radc, ornapIantnbcdwthacontnuousarcaoIatIcastT5squarcIcct cxclusvcoI
boundn waII, and at a maxmum spacn oI25 Icct apart.
0hIlhg. WhcnpIantnbcdsarcprovdcd,thcy shallhavcasoldcpthoIatlcast
2 Icct Ior rass or othcr round covcr, and 3 Icct Ior shrubs.
MctB t0ntBgc
Lxccpt Ior thatporton oIa sdcwalk wdcnn alon a narrow strcct, at Icast 5
pcrccntoIthctotaI IrontacoIbuldnwaIlsoIthc dcvcIopmcntIrontnonan urban
Y
opcn spacc, orIrontnon an arcadc ad|onn anurban opcn spacc, cxcIusvcoIsuch
IrontacoccupcdbyvcrtcaI crcuIatoncIcmcnts, buIdnIobbcs, andIrontacus
Iorsubway acccss, shaIlbc alIoatcdIor ocupancyby rctaIor scrvcccstabIshmcnts
pcnttcd by thc applcabIc dstrct rcuIatons, but not ncludnbanks, loan omccs,
travcI acnccs, or arInc omccs. n addton, Ibrarcs, muscums, and art aIlccs
shaIlbcpcrmttcd. AIIsuchuscsshallbcdrcctIyacccssbIcIromthcurbanopnspacc
or ad|onn arcadc.
gbtng
Urban opcn spaccs shaII bc Ilumnat throuhout wth an ovcralI mnmum
avcrac IcvcI oIIIumnaton oI not Icss than 2 horzontaI Ioot candIcs (Iumcns pcr
Ioot). 5uchIcvcloIIIumnaton shaIIbcmantancdthrouhoutthchoursoIdarkncss.
LlcctrcaI powcr shaII bc suppIcd by or morc outlcts Iumshn a totaI oI ,20
wattsoIpowcrIor cvcry4, sq. h.,orIractonthcrcoI, oIanurbanopcnspaccarca,
cxccpt Ior a sdcwaIk wdcnn.
P L 7 P
LtculBt0n Bn0 ccc88
An urban plaza shall bcopcn to usc by thc publcat all tmcs, wth drcctacccss
Iroman adjonnpublcsdcwalkorsdcwalkwdcnnalon atlcast 50pcrccntoIts
total lcnth oI Irontac. Alon thc rcmann lcnth oI Irontac, n ordcr to allow
maxmum vsblty Irom thc strcct to thc urban plaza, no wall may bc constructcd
avcran hhcrthan 3nchcs abovcnorat any pont hhcr than 5 Icctabovccurb
lcvcl oIthc ncarcst ad|onn strcct.
Jhc lcvcl oIan urban plazashall notatanypontbc morcthan 3 Icct abovcnor3
Icct bclow thc curb lcvcl oI thc ncarcst ad|onn strcct.
Whcrc thcrc s a radc chanc oIat lcast 2.25 Icct n l0 alon a porton oIa
strcctIrontcd upon IoradstanccoIat lcast T5Icctby an urbanplazawth an arcaoI
l0, squarc Icct or morc, thc lcvcl oI such urban plaza may bc at any clcvaton
whchsnot morcthan cthcr 5 Icct abovcorbclow curblcvcl oIthcncarcstadjonn
strcct. Alon thc lcnth oI Irontac not rcqurcd Ior acccss, no wall hhcr than 3
nchcs abovc thc lcvcl oIthc urban plaza may bc constructcd.
Whcrc an cntry to a subway staton cxsts n thc sdcwalk arca oI a strcct on
whch an urban plaza Ironts and such cntry s not rcplaccd wthn thc urban plaza
tsclI, thc urban plaza shall b dcvclopcd at thc samc clcvaton as thc ad|accnt sdc
walk Ior a dstancc oIat lcast l 5 Icct n all drcctons Irom thc cntry supcrstructurc.
5uch urban plazaarcaaround asubway statoncntryshall bc Ircc oIall obstrtons.
Whcrc an cntry to a subway staton s provdcd wthn thc urban plaza tsclI,
stars shall havc a mnmum wdth oI l0Icct.
An urban plaza or porton oIan urban plaza cxtcndn throuh thc block and
conncctn 2 strccts whch arc parallcl or wthn 45 dcrccs oIbcn parallcl to cach
othcr shall havc a mnmum wdth oI+ Icct.
Any porton oIa buldn wall ad|onn such urban plaza Ior a lcnth rcatcr
than l 25 Icct shall bc lmtcd to a maxmum hcht oIB5 Icct abovc thc urban plaza
lcvcl, and abovc such hcht thcbuldn shall bc sct back not lcss than l 5 Icct Irom
thc urban plazaboundary, provdcd thatsuch rcstrcton shall not apply to anybuld
nwall adjonnan urbanplazawhchurbanplazahasamnmumwdthoIT5Icct.
ccc88 0t tbc bj8cBllj L8Bblc0
Jhcrc shall bc at lcast path oItravcl to cach oI thc Iollown.
thc major porton oI thc urban opcn spacc
any buldn lobby acccssblc to thc urban opcn spacc
any usc that may bc prcscnt on, or adjaccnt to, thc urban opcn spacc
5uchpathsshallhavcamnmumwdthoI5Icct,cxccptwhcrcspcchcprovsons
rcqurc a rcatcr wdth, Ircc and clcar oIall obstructons.
Kamps arc to bc provdcd alonsdc any stars or stcps Ior such paths. Kamps
shall havc a mnmum wdth oI 3 nchcs, a slopc oI not rcatcr than n l2, a
nonskdsurIacc, and,Ioropcn-cdcd ramps, a 2-nch-hhsaIcty curb. Atcach cndoI
aramp thcrc shall bc a lcvcl arca, whch may bc publc sdcwalk, at lcast 5 Icct lon.
All stars or ramps wthn such paths shall provdchandrals. Handrals shall bc
32 nchcs hh, havc a mdral 22 nchcs hh, and shall cxtcnd at lcast l B nchcs
bcyond thc star or ramp cnds.
T

P L 7 P
Whcrc stars arc uscd to ccct chancs oI radc Ior such paths, thcy shall havc
closcd rscrs, no projcctn nosns, a maxmum rscr hcht oI T. 5 nchcs, and a
mnmum trcad wdth oI l l nchcs.
000 Bctc8 ctmttc0 Lb8ttuct0n8
Urban opcnspaccshallbunobstructcdIrom tslowcstlcvcltothcskycxccptIor
thc Iollown obstructons, whch arc pcrmttcd only n urban plas and opcn ar
concourscs, but not pcrmttcd n sdcwalk wdcnns. any Icaturcs, cqupmcnt, and
appurtcnanccsnmallyIoundnpublcparksandplayrounds,suchas Iountansand
rchcctn pools, watcrIalls, sculpturcs and othcr works oI art, arbors, trcllscs,
bcnchcs, scats, trccs, plantn bcds, lttcr rcccptaclcs, drnkn Iountans, and bcyclc
racks, opcn ar caIcs, kosks, outdor Iumturc, lhts and lhtn stanchons, ha
plcs, publctclcphoncs, tcmprary cxhbtons, awnns, canopcs,llards, and sub-
way staton cntranccs whchmay ncludccscalators. Kosks, opn ar caIc, andopcn
aramphthcatcrsand cc-skatnrnkswhchcharcadmssonmaybplaccd wthn
thc arca oI an urban opn spacc upon ccrthcaton by thc Cha an oI thc Cty
Flannn Commsson and thc Board oI Lstmatc to thc Commssoncr oI Buldns.
Whcrc a kosk s provdcd, tshall bca -story structurc, prcdomnantly oIlht
matcrals,such asmctal, lass, plastc,orIabrcwhchdsnotcxcccd l 50squarcIcct
4
H arca.
Whcrc anopnarcaIcsprovdcdt shallbcapcrmancntlyuncncloscd catnor
drnknplacc, pcrmttcd byapplcablcdstrctrclatons,whchmay havcwatcror
tablcscrvcc, ands opcntothcskycxccptthattmayhavcatcmporaryIabrcroIn
conIormancc wth Buldn Codc.
Anopcn arcaIcmustbc acccssblcIromallsdcswhcrcthcrcsaboundarywth
thc rcmandcr oIthc urban opcn spacc.
An opcn arcaIc may ocupy an arcatc arca not morc than 20 pcrccnt oIthc
total arca oIthc urban opcn spacc.
No ktchcn cqupmcnt shall bc nstallcd wthn an opcn ar caIc. Ktchcn cqup-
mcnt may bc contancd n a kosk adjonn thc opn ar caIc.
AnopcnarcaIcqualIynas apcrmttcdobstructonshall bccxcludcdIromthc
dchnton oIhoor arca.
Outdoor catn scrvccs or uscs ocupyn kosks may scrvc customcrsonurban
opcn spacc throuh opcn wndows.
lor whcclchar uscrs, whcrc drnkn Iountans arc placcd n an urban opn
spacc, at lcast on Iountan shall bc 30 nchcs hh, b hand and Iot opcratcd, and
dsplay thc ntcmatonal 5ymbol oIAcccss.
NBntcnBncc
Jhc buldn owncr shall bc rcsponsblc Ior thc mantcnancc oIthc urban opn
spacc ncludn, but not lmtcd to, thc conhncmcnt oI pcrmttcd obstructons, lttcr
control, and thccarc and rcplaccmcnt oIvcctaton wthn thc zonn lot and nthc
strcct sdcwalk arca adjaccnt to thc zonn lot.
PL 7 P
J 47
]

E0RE 0R
Frortoobtannanyccrtcatcotocupancy trom thc OcpartmcntotBuldns, thc
buldn owncr shall provdc to thc Comptrollcr ot thc Cty ot Ncw York, a prtor-
mancc nd or thc Cty sccurtcs to cnsurc thc mandatory trcc plantn, movablc
scatnand thclttcr-trcc mantcnanccotthc urbanopcn spacc ncludnthc rcplacc-
mcnt otsuch trccs and movablc tumturcdurn thc ltc otthc dcvclopmcnt.
nthccvcnt ota talurc n thc rcqur pcrtormancc, thc Charman ot thc Cty
Flannn Cmmsson shall notty thc buldn owncr n wrtn ot such talurc and
shall stpulatc thc pr ot tmc n whch thc buldn owncr has to corrcct thc
talurc. tthctalurcsnotcorrtnthcstpulatcdtmcthcCha anmay dcclarc
thc buldn owncrn dctault n thc rcqurcd prtormancc, and thcCty may cntorcc
thc oblaton by whatcvcr mcans may bc appropratc to thc stuaton, ncludn
lcttn contracts tor don any rcqurcd plantn, nstallaton or mantcnancc and
paynalllar, matcralandothcrcostsconntcdwthsuchworktromthcbondor
Cty surtcs thc buldn owncr s rurcd to provdc.
Bguc
A plaquc or othcr prmancnt sn shall b dsplay n a promncnt loaton on
anyurbanopcnspacctorwhchabonussrantcd. 5uchsnshallndcatcnumbcrot
and numbr ot movablc chars, and any othcr tcaturcs whosc lstn may b
rcqurcdby thcCtyFlannnCmmsson, thcnamcotthcowncrand whomcvcrhc
has dcsnatcd to mantan thc urban opcn spacc.
X6t0g &
lor plazasbultprortothsamcndmcnt, kosks andcatcs mayb placcd wthn
thcarcaotthcplaupnccrtcatonbythccharmanotthcCtyFlannnComms-
son and thc Board otLstmatc that such U would promotc publc usc and cn|oy-
mcnt, stblzc dcrablc usc n thc surroundn arca, arc part ota cncral mprovc-
mcnt ncludn morc scatn andlandscapn, andthat thcuscs wll bmantancdby
thcowncr.
Ltbct t0V6006
ton and orcntaton. 5outhcm cxpsurc s rcqurcd whcrcvcr pssblc. Jo
prott thccontnutyotthc strcct wall, thc trontac a plaza can ocupy srctrctcd
whcn thcrc arc othcr larc spaccs ncarby.
Vroportona rcstrctons: o dscouragc strp pazas, wdth ol pazas must not O
lcs than a thrd otthc lcnth.
Opcn-arconcoursc. apply tospaccsad|accnttosubwaystatonsandwcrc
wrttcn wth thc propos 5ccond Avcnuc subway n mnd. Jhcy call tor a sunkcn
plaza at mczzannc lcvcl otno lcss than 4, squarc tcct nor morc than B, . At
strt lcvcl thcrc should b walkways at lcast 20 tcct wdc, and, spacc pcmttn, a
strt-lcvcl plaza.

#
MANDATlN OF ETAllNAT STEET EE
ln thc l T5 thtcnn oIrcqurcmcnts Ior opcn-spacc bonuscs, thc Ncw York Cty
FIannn Commsson tok a hrst stcp toward bannn bIank-waII Irontacs. lt rc-
qurcdthatas acondtonoIthcbonusat Icast 50pcrccnt oIthcIrontacon thcplaza
c cvoc o rca uscs.
lnthc l B2rcvsonoImdtownzonn, thc commssonwcntIurthcr. ltrcqurcd
that a oI thc Irontac on rctal strccts b uscd Ior rctaIn, whcthcr thcrc was a
nusornot.5torcshad tobacccssblcIrom thc strcct, and thcIassIrontshadtobc
oI transparcnt lass.
Bclow s thc commsson's "plan Lnlsh" cxpIanaton, and thc abrdcd tcxt.
Bl -42 KctaI Contnuty aIon Ocsnatcd 5trccts
JhcvtaltyoIrctaIcommcrcaIstrcctsdcpcndsuponacontnuousrow
oIrctaIcstabIshmcntswhchcandrawpcdcstranshoppcrsalonthcIcnth
oIthc strcct. Arcas occupcd by opn spacc or non-rctaI uscs can ntcrrupt
thc ow oI shoppn pcdcstrans and mpar rctaI actvty aIon ncarby
Irontacs. Jhc provsons oI ths sccton arc dcsncd to protcct thc rctaI
actvty aIon dcsnatcd strccts by rcstrctn round hoor occupancy to
thosc commcrcal uscs whch wll cnhancc thc cxstn rctaI charactcr.
Abrdcd tcxt.
Bl -42On dcsnatcdrctal strccts . . . abuIdn'sstrcctIrontacshaII
balloatcxcIusvcIyto rctaI, pcrsonaIscrvcc,oramuscmcnt uscs . . .
Muscums and lbrarcs sha b pcrmtt . . . 5torc Ironts Ior thc pcrmt
tcd round hor uscs shaII b not morc than l0Icct Irom thc strcct Incor,
whcrc an arcadc s provdcd wth supportn coIumns at thc strcct Inc, not
morc than tcn Icct Irom thc supprtn coIumns .
P L 7
+
lnnocvcntshallthcamount oIstrcct Irontacoccupcdbylobbyspacc
or cntrancc spacc or a bldn cntrancc rcccss cxcccd Icct.
Bl l42 On wdc strcct Irontacs n undcrlyn C5 commcrcal dstrcts, at
lcast 50 pcrccntoIabuldn's strcct wall surIaccshall b lazcd and trans-
parcnt at round hor lcvcl.
Ncw York Cty Flannn Commsson, mldI0wh Z0hlhg (Ncw York. lB2).
(Avalablc Irom thc commsson at T LaIaycttc 5trcct, Ncw York, N. Y.
T.)
N
LbBtct J. 1bc 0cB c 0 tbc ttcct
p. B Jhc ordnarycncountcrsoIcvcryday strcct lIccanbc hlmcd qutc unob-
trusvcly. Onc way s to shoot Irom aIar wth a tclcphoto lcns. Jhs
pcrspcctvcs allrhtIor tracknshotsand pcdcstranhows. Buttsall
wron Ior most strcct actvty. lor that you should ct upclosc, and thc
closcr thc bcttcr. lacal cxprcssons, hand csturcs Icct movcmcnts. you
want to movc n lor thcsc. hc probcm, of coursc, s Io do ths wthout
your sub|ccts' bcn awarc oI your ntcrcst. But on a busy strcct thcy
usually pay you no hccd. Jo kccp t that way l hnd that t s mprtant
not to hold thc camcra up to cyc lcvcl and pont t at thcm. l mount a
sprtlcvclatopmycnccamcras. lI lookdownattthccamcracradl
n my arms, can bc rcasonably surc thc sub|ccts arc propcrly Iramcd. l
uscavcrywdcanlclcnstoassurcths and tovcmccnouhdcpthoI
hcld Ior Iocus. l stand oto onc sdc and try to kccp thc pcoplc at
thc cdc oI my pcrphcral vson. ncvcr lok at thcm drcctly. lIthcy
catch you don thsthcyarc on toyoummcdatcly and you arc at
n that whch you arc studyn. !an Gchl's contnun studcs oI
Copcnhacn'sstrcctlIcshowcdasnhcantncrcascn actvty. Bctwccn
l Band lB, thcccntcrctypopulaton dcclncd 33pcrccnt. Jhcnum-
bcr oI pdcstrans usn thc arca, howcvcr ncrcascd 5 prccnt. Jhcrc
was a qualtatvc mprovcmcnt too. Fcoplc wcrc not only comn to thc
ccntcr morc Ircqucntly, thcy wcrc stayn loncr whcn thcy camc.
p. l0 An cxccllcnt study oIwatnbchavorhas bccn carrcd outbyFroIcssor
Hdctosh Kato and somc oIhs studcnts at Jokyo's Gakushun Unvcr-
sty.Jhc watnplacc. thc plazanIrontoI 5hbuya5taton,Jokyowth
thc statuc oIIathIul do Hachko. Hachko was thc pt oIa FroIcssor
Unco. Lvcry mon Hachkowould o to thc staton to% hs mastcr

Lb
p.
o, and cvcry cvcnn hc wouId rcturn to rcct hm. Onc day FroIcssor
nc dcd and dd nt cmc back Oay acr day Hachko wouId o to
thc staton to rcct hm. FcopIc wcrc touchcd by ths IoyaIty. Hachko
bccamcIamous. FcopIccontrbutcdmoncytohavcastatucoIhmpIaccd
outsdc thc staton. t bccamc thc Icadn rcndczvous pIacc oIJokyo.
FroIcssor Kato mountcd a tmc-Iapsc camcra abovc thc squarc and
rccordcd thcdaIyactvty. HsstudcntsntcrvcwcdthcpcopIc whowcrc
watn Ior somconc. FcopIc wcrc consstcnt n thcr chocc oIpIaccs to
wat, thc numbcr-onc Iocaton bcn sIhtIy o-ccntcr Irom thc statuc
FcopIcwcrcconsstcntaIson thcrbcnchusc. Aswth Ncw York sttcrs,
thoscwho sat Ior Ion pcrods wcrc stronIy outnumbcrcdby thosc who
sat Ior short pcrods but thc Ion-tcrmcrs accountcd Ior thc rcat buIk
oIthcavaIabIc scat mnutcs. Avcracd cIapscd tmc oIwatn was thr-
tccn mnutcs durn thc day, nncn thc cvcnn. JhcJapancsc arc vcry
punctIous and can cxhbt consdcrabIc annoyancc whcn watn
ovcrIon. AmcrcansarcmorccasuaI about ths, but thcn thcy arc morc
casuaI about tun up on tmc.
MostIthcwatnsrcqutcd,butsomctmcstsnot. Jo FroIcssor
Kato thc squarc s thcatrc. "Jhs s thc pIacc," hc says, "whcrc youn
Iovcrssay hcIIo tocachothcrat J .N. andsay ood nhtat V .N. Jhs
s thc pIacc whcrc thc drama bcns and thc drama cnds. Happy storcs
and sad storcs."
Hdctosh Kato, "A 5tudy oIWatn Bchavor," n H L0m]0r0Il90
Iud}0jIr00I Q0. 0K}0, m0hl0, 0hd^0w 0rK, Hdctosh Kato, Kan-
doIph Oavd, WIIam H. Whytc (Jokyo. Gakushun Unvcrsty, V).
Our counts showcd a IarIy consstcnt dstrbuton oI pcopIc by szc oI
roup. At 5caram FIaza thc proporton oI pcopIc aIonc avcracd J
pcrccnt, thc proportonnroups, b pcrccnt. FcopIcnpars, J pcrccnt,
n thrccsomcs, pcrccnt, n Iours or morc, pcrccnt At thc Lxxon
FIazathc proportonaIoncwas +! pcrccnt n roups, JJ pcrccnt. FcopIc
n pars, J+ pcrccnt n thrccsomcs, pcrccnt, n Iours or morc, pcr-
ccnt. Counts wcrc oIpcopIc sttn, wth thc cxccpton oIstandccs who
wcrc part oIa sttn roup.
Low pcrccntacs oIpcopIc n roups arc an ndcaton somcthn s
wron. Jhc stcps oI thc Ncw York FubIc Lbrary whch had bccn a
popuIarpIaccIorsttcrs, had aIcvcIoIonIy JJ pcrccntnroupsn V!+.
Jhc pIacc wasnIcstcd wth drudcaIcrs. 5nccthcnthcankntcrraccs
havcbccn rccIamcdwthIood kosks andcharsandtabIcs. Jhcpcrccnt-
ac IpcopIcn roups sback around J. On thc strccts oImdtown
NcwYorkthcrccntacoIpcdcstranswhoarcnroups runsabout .
W. K. Bcrkowtz's study oIroup pcrccntacs n varous countrcs
ndcatcd that oIpcopIc on man avcnucs, b . b pcrccnt nJurkcy, ran,
AIhanstan wcrc n roups oItwo or morc b pcrccnt n LnIand Jb.
pcrccnt n 5wcdcn J .+ pcrccnt n taIy, +.V pcrccnt n thc Untcd
5tatcs.
W. K. Bcrkowtz, "A Cross-natonaI Comparson oI 5omc 5ocaI
Fattcrns oIUrban Fcdcstrans," J0uO0 0jLr0SS-LuIur0 S}ch00@ :
V-++.
p. An cxchanc n thc Ncw York lm0S has promptcd an cxccIIcnt dchn-
tonoIschmoozn. nanartcIcon thcsub|cct,wrtcrWIIamGcsthad
N
W
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S80 I W8S Ic S8mc 8S kDIZug. 0I S0, S80 N0II0u cuc0, C8Im8u
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u 8 Ic8Xc0, 8m8Dc, mc8u0cIug C0uVcIS8I0u. LO 8m0Zug S 8u
cg8I8I8u, C08bI8IVc c0II. DIZug S C0mQIIVc, m0Ic kc IcQ8I-
Icc. P ucc0c cIc, 8 D0u m0I IcIc, 8 QuQ, 8 QuI-00Wu, 8 u0u ScQuIuI
8Ic Ic kDIZcIS SI0k u II80c. u0cc0, Ic kDIZcI S 8 Q8I8SIc W0
VcS 0 Ic SCm0ZcI.
L8V0 LI0u, 0SIur0, 0C0, 0hd LuIur0 {N8SI0I: c M8guc V!) V4
!, J cXCcIQIc0 u h0 0d} 00d0r. c0. c0 ccmuS {cW
X0Ik, 8uIc0u 0kS, V!).
P IcuI8IVc SIu0 0 S0mc 0 Ic SQ8I0-IcmQ0I8 8u0 uguSIC
8SQCIS 0 Ic gc8IuI8 D8V0I 0 SIcD JcWS 8u0 b0uIcD I88uS u
cW X0Ik LI, Vug uu0cI Sm8I 8S Wc 8S 0cIcuI cuVI0umcuI8
C0u0I0uS.
LBtct ttcct c0c
Q. b I S u 0I0cI I0 D 8S uu0DIIuSVc 8S Q0SSDc, DuI u SIu0ug 8 Q8IICu8I
SuC 8S LcXugI0u PVcuuc u Ic LQQcI HcS Ic Icgu8IS SQI
0u VcI QuCk. 0u 8Ic I8uk WI Icm 8u0 cXQ8u W8I 0u 8Ic uQ
I0, Ic C8u D QuIc cQu. Lu LcXugI0u Wc cu0c uQ ku0Wug 8 8IgcI
uumDI 0 Icgu8IS I8u Wc cXQIc0 I0 D IcIc: QI0QIcI0IS 0 Sm8
SI0IcS 8ICuIIug cI8DSmcuIS, 8u0 IcI 8WkcIS 8u0 8u0D Q888-
cIS DuS 0SQ8ICcIS, II8mC Q0Qc, V8I0uS SS 8u0
ScVcI8 0 Ic SX 0Vc C0uVcIS8I0u8SIS W0 uSc0 I0 c8u 0uI Ic
II0-0I Wu00W 0 Ic LcXugI0u 8Q LuD. bIIccI Vcu00IS C0u0 D 8
grobcm. hcy tcnd to O vcry susgcous, gartcuary of gcogc wth
C8mcI8S. L0Q 0ccIS 8Ic Ic W0ISI. X0u ucVcI C8u Dc SuIc W0 S 8 00Q

0c8cI 8u0 W0 SuI. u S0mc 8Ic8S, 0u Rm u 8u 0IcCI0u 0u 8Ic


QuIc kc I0 Rm 8 00Qc II8uS8CI0u, WcIcI 0u Ic8Zc I 0I u0I. c
0c8cIS 00 u0I kc IS 8I 8. u I8uI 8Ik, WC Ic 0ug Icg8I0c0
8S IcI IcIII0I, I W8S ISk I0 cVcu C8II 8 C8mcI8.
Q. b P S8uIc S u 0I0cI. cu Wc SI8IIc0 0DScIVug QoQc 0u Ic SIIccIS 0
0k0, Wc 0uu0 I8I 8u 8V0 0DScIVcI 80 DOu 00ug Ic S8mc Iug
RI c8I8 Dc0Ic. Mc W8S 8]I0 0u, 8 u0Ic cIu00gSI 0 u0c8Ig8-
Dc CuI0SI. Mc C8IIc0 Ic 08 0WS 0 SIu0cuIS 8S Ic WcuI I0
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WI 8 0cI8c0 DIc8k00Wu 0 IcI 0IcSS, 8QQ8IcuI 8gc, 8u0 0CuQ8I0u.
Mc u0Ic0 0W m8u Qc0Qc WcIc u gI0uQS {!3 QICcuI 0u LuZ8 SIIccIS),
8u0 0W 8I Ic W8kc0. Mc cVcu Q0IIc0 Ic 08I0uS 0 SuC0c u
MD88 8Ik.
Q. !

8]I0 0u, 0g0hg0Ku. Iud0S 0jIh0 0I 0hdr0S0hI { VJ Ic-

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0I SIu0cS u m0cD00g, I0 0cSCID S W0Ik.
c mQII8uCc I0 SIIccI Vcu00IS 0 cQIS 8u0 8cS S u0Ic0 u 8u-
00Q L8V0S Ruc SIu0 0 N8u8S SIIccI c: u 800I0u I0 Ic QCc
Ic QI8CIC8 QI0DcmS 0 Vcu0ug 8Ic Ic SmQc QI0DcmS 0 SuIVVug 8
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Lb
J 5 J
]
mcaI or usn thc toIct whIc onc'swarcs contnuc tobcon dspIay. lor
aII thcsc nccds, a companon s nccdcd. And, ndccd, t sccms standard
poIcy Ior vcndors to o at Icast n pars. navodabIy, a numbcr oI
vcndors wII not bc abIc to brn a companon. n such cascs, IcIIow
vcndors tcnd to assumc thc rcsponsbIty Ior assstn onc anothcr. Wc
havc obscrvcd that Ior nstancc, ambuIant vcndors ccctvcIy pIay thc
roIc oIcompanon to many oIthcrstatc and scm-statc countcrpars."
p. 3B An ntcrcstn part oI Judc Aspcn's dccson n rl0drlch 9. Lhlc0g0
concccd brcak dancn. As n Ncw York, so n Chcaobrcak dancn
surIaccd as a Iad n l B3. Lvcrywhcrc onc Iookcd, t sccmcd, youn
bIacks wcrc stakn out Iarc swathsoIsdcwaIk and don acrobatcsto
musc Ioud musc. 5omc oIthcmwcrctcrrbIc.aIcw ncptpcopIcjump-
n up and down to a portabIc tapc pIaycr. But somc wcrc rcaIIy qutc
taIcntcd and put on a show that attractcd Iarc crowds. t was thcsc
crowds, !udc Aspcn notcd, that causcd most oIthc mschct.
But brcak dancn pcakcd n l B4 and s now pcrto cd onIy spo-
radcaIIy. Jhs rascs a qucston. I brcak dancn was thc onIy ma|or
thrcat to pubIc saIcty and I t has IarcIy dsappcarcd, why thcn thc
ordnancc? n ascctonthat couIdbc subttIcd "MuchAdo About Brcak
Oancn," Judc Aspcn tackIcd thc qucston.
"It s truc that brcakdancn has onc thc way oIthc huIa hoop
and s a Iadcd Iad, thcn pcrhaps thc Ircqucncy oI Iarc audcnccs has
substantaIIy IaIIcn . . . Jhus, I thc Cty chooscs to rcncw thc ord-
nancc ncxt ycar, t wouId bc wcII advscd to consdcr thc passn oI thc
brcakdancn phcnomcnon n ts cvaIuaton. It has passcd, and as
thc cvdcncc showcd most othcr pcrIormcrs attract onIy smaII crowds,
thc consttutonaI undcrpnnnsoIthc ordnanccmayhavcvanshcdIor
Iuturc ycars."
lrcdrch v. Cty oI Chcao, l l. 5upp. l l 2 (N.O. II. l B5),
90c0I0d l 2d, (Tth Cr. Novcmbcr 25, l B) Judc Marvn L. Aspcn.
LbBtct + 1bc Kc0 c0c8ttBn
p. Lrvn Goman has vcn us thc bcst dchnton oIthc pcdcstran com-
pact. "Cty strccts, cvcn n tmcs whch dcIamc thcm, provdc a scttn
whcrc mutuaI trust s routncIy dspIaycd bctwccn strancrs. YoIuntary
coordnaton oIacton s achcvcd n whch cach oIthc two partcs has a
conccpton oI how mattcrs ouht to bc handIcd bctwccn thcm, thc two
conccptons arcc, cach party bcIcvcs ths arccmcnt cxsts, and cach
apprccatcs that ths knowIcdc about thc arccmcnt s posscsscd by thc
othcr. n brcI, thc structuraI prcrcqustcs Ior ruIc by convcnton arc
ound. Avodancc oIcoson s onc campc oIhc conscucnccs."
Lrvn Goman, 00Il0h5 lh u0lc (Ncw York. Harpcr CoIophon,
l T2), lT.
p 5B lor aun pcdcstran spccds, thc smpIcst and mostaccuratc tcchnquc
s toIoIIow pcdcstranswth astopwatchovcrasct dstanccand notcthc
cIapscd tmc. Ncw York's avcnucs arc convcncntIy Iad out Ior ths, thc
north-south bIockIronts runnn 20 Icct Irom buIdn Inc to buIdn
Inc. On lIth Avcnuc at mdmornn on a mId day, mcn wII travcrsc
thc 20Icct n + to42 scconds on avcrac abut 30Icct amnutc, 3.4
mcs an hour. Jhc ranc oI spccds s broad, runnn Irom 32 to

Q. J!
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