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COAL TAR FUELS

Mushahid Ali, Minaam William, Raza Ur- Rehman, Muhammad Ali Hashmi, Aneeq Ahmed,

School of Chemical and Materials Engineering (SCME)

Table of Contents
COAL TAR: .............................................................................................................................. 3 Types of Coal Tar: ................................................................................................................ 3 Low temperature tar: ........................................................................................................ 3 High temperature tar: ....................................................................................................... 3 Recovery of Tar:................................................................................................................... 3 Distillation of Tar: ................................................................................................................ 3 Uses of tar:.......................................................................................................................... 4 COAL TAR FUELS (C.T.F.): .......................................................................................................... 4 Uses of CTF: ........................................................................................................................ 5 Pitch Cresote Mixture (PCM): .................................................................................................... 5 Combustion Properties of Coal Tar Fuel (C.T.F.): ...................................................................... 6 KNOCK: .................................................................................................................................. 7 Reasons for knocking:........................................................................................................... 7 Effects of Knocking: .............................................................................................................. 7 OCTANE NUMBER:................................................................................................................... 7 Definition of Octane Number: ............................................................................................... 8 Determination of Octane Number:......................................................................................... 8 Octane number of Indian Petrol:............................................................................................ 8 Significance of Octane Number: ............................................................................................. 8 Limitation of Octane Number as a guide: ................................................................................ 8 Means to improve octane number: ........................................................................................ 8 Advantages of High Octane Number of Petrol: ........................................................................ 8 Anti-Knock Value: ................................................................................................................ 9 Lead Response:.................................................................................................................... 9 Octane Number of Blends: .................................................................................................... 9 CETANE NUMBER: ................................................................................................................... 9 Values of Cetane Number of Diesel: ....................................................................................... 9 Motor Fuel from Crude Oil: ..................................................................................................10 Production of Petrol (Gasoline) from Crude Oil: ......................................................................10 REQUISITE OF GOOD GASOLINE: ..............................................................................................11 Refining of Petrol: ...............................................................................................................12 Additives in Petrol (Gasoline): ..............................................................................................12 Aviation Gasoline: ...............................................................................................................12 1

DIESEL: ..................................................................................................................................13 Requisites of Good Diesel: ...................................................................................................13 FUEL OILS FROM PETROLEUM: .................................................................................................14 Properties of Fuel Oils: ........................................................................................................14 Analysis of Fuel Oil: .............................................................................................................15 Typical specification of Fuel Oil: ............................................................................................15 Combustion Characteristics of Fuel Oil: .................................................................................16

COAL TAR FUELS


COAL TAR:
It is a black to brown oily and viscous fluid of characteristic odor produced during high or low temperature carbonization of coal during coke manufacture. Or Coal tar is a brown or black liquid of high viscosity, which smells of naphthalene and aromatic hydrocarbons. Coal tar is among the by-products when coal is carbonized to make coke or gasified to make coal gas. Coal tars are complex and variable mixtures of phenols, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), and heterocyclic compounds, about 200 substances in all.

Types of Coal Tar:


There are two types of coal tar. 1. Low temperature tar 2. High temperature tar Low temperature tar: Tar produced during low temperature carbonization of coal (700 oC) is called low temperature tar. Its yield is about 10% of dry coal. It is a brown colour oily liquid having very low viscosity, hence flows readily. It is paraffinic in nature. Its typical analysis is C=84%, H=8%, S=0.5%, O and N=7.5%. High temperature tar: Tar produced during high temperature carbonization (1100 oC) is called high temperature tar. It is a thick, high viscosity, black colored liquid with an aromatic nature. It contains more amounts of useful aromatics like phenol, naphthalene, creosote, anthracene, benzol, pyridine etc. Its free carbon content is high (5-10%) and the yield is lower (3% of dry coal). Specific gravity is more as compared to low temperature tar.

Recovery of Tar:
During the carbonization o fcoal in by-product coke oven, the tar vapors present in the coke oven gas are separated by cooling it by ammoniacal liquor resulting in its condensation. Remaining tar is separated in primary cooler and electrostatic tar precipitator thereby recovering the bulk of tar present in the coke oven gas.

Distillation of Tar:
Tar contains around 1000 chemicals. Hence to recover some of these chemicals economically and to produce better fuel, tar is distilled. The main fractions of tar (which are recovered by distillation), their constituents, yield and boiling ranges are given in the following table.

Table1.1. Main fractions of Tar and Their Yields

Fractions Light Oil Middle (or carbolic) oil Heavy (or creosote) oil Anthracene oil Pitch

Boiling range, o C Upto 170 oC 170 230 oC 230 270 oC 270 350 oC Residue

Yield 2 4% 5 7% 15 25% 14 17% 60 70%

Main constituents of the fractions Benzol, Naphtha and Phenol Phenol, naphthalene and pyridine Naphthalene and creosote oil Anthracene and wash oil
___

Uses of tar:
Tar is used as a furnace fuel. Its calorific value may be 8500 Kcal/Kg. Use of crude tar as a fuel possesses a number of disadvantages viz. The presence of volatile components which are lost on storage and which increase the fire hazard. The presence of water in tar which reduces the calorific value, causes corrosion and its irregular combustion. The presence of solid impurities such as a coke dust which may choke the burners and pipelines. Besides, the fact that tar is a storehouse of chemicals', its direct use as a fuel is discouraged. Coal tar is also used as a binder for coal briquettes and for road making purposes.

COAL TAR FUELS (C.T.F.):


Coal tar fuels are the liquid fuels obtained by mixing the different tar distillation products (fractions). Though the different products of tar distillation contain valuable chemicals, the demand for them is limited, hence large parts of tar is prepared into a series of coal tar fuels. Six types of C.T.F. are prepared and designated as: 1. CTF 50 2. CTF100 3. CTF 200 4. CTF 250 5. CTF 300 6. CTF 400 The number indicates the temperature in oF to which the fuel (CTF) should be preheated to reduce its viscosity (upto maximum 25 centistokes) so as to make it suitable for atomization through burner. For example, CTF 200 is the fuel which should be preheated at 200 oF to decrease its viscosity for smooth atomization. CTF 50 does not need any preheating. CTF 50 and CTF 100 are the mixture of carbolic oil, creosote oil and anthracene oil and residual pitch. CTF 400 is nothing but residual medium soft pitch having a softening point of 75-80 oC. this pitch can be pulverized and used as a pulverized fuel in the furnace. Pitch is also used for

coating of roof and pipeline for guarding against corrosion. Soft pitch having a softening temperature of 30 oC can be used as liquid fuel after preheating.
Table1.2. Properties of Coal Tar Fuels (CTF)

Properties
Calorific Value, Kcal/Kg Water content (volume %) maximum Ash content (weight %) Softening point, oC Flash Point Sulfur Content (weight %)

CTF 50 9150 to 9750 1 Nil -60 <1

CTF 100 9150 to 9750 1 Nil -100 <1

CTF 200 9000 to 9450 1 0.1 -1000 to 1500 <1

CTF 250 9000 to 9300 1 0.1 --<1

CTF 300 8900 to 9200 0.5 0.2 33.38 -<1

CTF 400 8750 to 9050 0.5 0.2 75.80 -<1

Normally carbon content increases and hydrogen & oxygen content decreases in the series CTF 50 to 400. C/H ratio increases from 11 to 16.5 in this series.

Uses of CTF:
Because of low sulfur content and high flame emissivity, it is one of the ideal fuels for metallurgical furnaces. Besides, it is used for power generation, rotary kilns in calcination and cement units and glass melting furnaces.

Pitch Cresote Mixture (PCM):


This liquid fuel is mainly a mixture of a soft pitch and creosote and is a fuel like fuel oil. As a matter of fact this PCM is nothing but CTF 200. PCM or CTF 200 is the most popular coal tar fuel. A typical analysis and properties of PCM are given below: Names Properties Carbon 90% Hydrogen 6% Nitrogen 1% Sulfur 0.5% Oxygen 2.5% Specific gravity 1.1 Preheating temperature 200 oF Viscosity at 20 oC, Redwood 1 seconds 6000 seconds o Specific heat at 40 C 0.3 to 0.38 Kcal/Kg oC Flash point 65 oC Net value 9000 Kcal/Kg PCM is the most suitable for metallurgical furnaces where low sulfur and high emissivity is desired.

Combustion Properties of Coal Tar Fuel (C.T.F.):


Calorific values (Kcal/Kg) of all the C.T.F. are lower than the corresponding petroleum fuel oils. Average carbon/hydrogen ratio for C.T.F. burns with a luminous flame which has a high emissivity factor (0.6-0.9). Higher emissivity factor of C.T.F. flame results in higher heat transfer rate by radiation given by: Q = CR (T14 __ T24) Where, Q = radiation heat transfer rate Kcal/hour.m2 C = Steefan-Boltzman constant = 4.97 * 10-8 Kcal/hr.m2k4 = 5.67 * 10-8 W/m2.k4 E = Emissivity factor varies from 0.1 to 0.9 T1= Flame temperature of C.T.F., oK T2= Temperature of the substance being heated, oK. High emissivity factor implies higher heat transfer rate resulting in high thermal efficiency of the furnace. Higher heat transfer rate means lesser time for heating a substance i.e. higher production rate of the furnace. C.T.F. (produced from high temperature carbonization tar) is aromatic in nature as compared to paraffinic structure of fuel oils. Since the emissivity factor of aromatic hydrocarbons are 25% higher than paraffins, the former has higher emissivity factor and hence higher radiation heat transfer rate. Hence consumption (in kg) of C.T.F. is 10% less than petroleum fuel oil. Sulfur content of C.T.F. is much lower (< 0.5%) than the corresponding petroleum fuel oils (up to 4%). This makes it the most suitable for heating the metallurgical furnaces like open hearth furnace, soaking pit, reheating furnace, annealing furnace etc. as the high sulfur petroleum fuel oil causes the brittleness of steel slabs are contaminated with sulfur. Lighter C.T.F. can be atomized similar to petroleum fuel oil. Heavier C.T.F. are difficult to atomize. Steam or compressed air is used for atomization of fuel. A mixture of compressed air and steam are the most effective giving short, luminous flame with a high heat release rate. Because of low percentage of hydrogen (up to 6%) in C.T.F. (as compared to upto12% in fuel oil), the difference between gross and net calorific value is less (up to 325 Kcal/Kg) for C.T.F as compared to 625 Kcal/Kg for fuel oil. Because of less difference, the heat losses due to hydrogen in fuel are much less in case of C.T.F. as compared to fuel oil. Theoretical air required for combustion of C.T.F. is bit less than that for fuel oil, hence the volume of flue gas generated on combustion is less. The dew point of flue gas generated by combustion of C.T.F. is lower compared to that by fuel oil. Hence more waste heat recovery from flue gas is possible in case of C.T.F. than fuel oil. Specific heat of C.T.F. is 0.3-0.4 Kcal/KgoC. Higher specific heat improves fuel cooling capacity (by high heat transfer rate) and reduces the heat transfer area. Calorific value of C.T.F. is (9000 Kcal/Kg) less than that of corresponding fuel oil (10000 Kcal/Kg).

ANTI-KNOCK VALUE
KNOCK:
When the fuel-air mixture undergoes very fast or intermittent combustion inside the combustion chamber of an internal combustion engine, then a sort of rattling noise develops from the combustion chamber (due to uneven, unsteady and uncontrollable combustion) which is called knocking or detonation.

Reasons for knocking:


Knocking in petrol (gasoline) and diesel engines are due to different reasons. In case of petrol engines, the carburetor (which mixes petrol and combustion air) supplies the petrol air mixture to the combustion chamber which is ignited by the spark from the spark plug. If the first portion of the fuel burns in a normal manner and the last portion burns instantaneously, then a large momentary pressure imbalance is caused which sets up a pressure or shock wave in the combustion chamber resulting in knocking. This is a characteristic of petrol constituents. Another reason is the pre-ignition of petrol before the regular spark occurs. It occurs at high compressive ratio (which is the ratio of cylinder volume at the end of suction stroke to the mixture in the combustion chamber above ignition point even before spark occurs. Hence the fuel ignites before the spark occurs. This pre-ignition of petrol causes uneven and unsteady combustion resulting in knocking of engine. In case of diesel engine (compression ignition engine) there is no spark plug and the combustion is initiated by increasing the temperature of air by compression inside the combustion chamber by piston till the ignition temperature is achieved. In diesel engines, as soon as the fuel is injected into the combustion chamber, it should instantaneously ignite. If it does not ignite instantaneously i.e., if there is an ignition delay, then more and more quantity of un-burnt diesel gets accumulated in the combustion chamber which burns at once causing knocking of the engine. This is called diesel knock. Hence for a good diesel, its spontaneous combustion should take place as soon as it is injected into the cylinder. Knocking depends upon the characteristics of fuel, design of engine and the operation of engine. If the engine is operated at high load and low speed, knocking results. if the petrol and diesel are adulterated then also knocking results.

Effects of Knocking:
Knocking is an engine results in wear and tear of cylinder, piston and other engine parts. Besides, it lowers the efficiency of the engine. Knocking reduces life of the engine.

OCTANE NUMBER:
Octane number expressed the anti-knocking characteristics of petrol. Normal heptane (a constituent of petrol) when burnt in a petrol engine knocks it very badly i.e., the anti-knock value of n-heptane is very poor and it is assigned an octane number equal to zero. On the other hand, iso-octane (also a constituent of petrol) has got very good anti-knock characteristics, hence it is assigned on octane number of 100.
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Definition of Octane Number:


Octane number of petrol is the percentage by volume of iso-octane in a mixture of isooctane and normal heptane with the same knocking tendency as the petrol in question. If the octane number of petrol is 80 then it mean s that this petrol gives as much knocking as a mixture of iso-octane and normal heptane with same knocking tendency as the petrol in question. If the octane number of petrol is 80 then it mean that this petrol gives as much knocking as a mixture of 80% iso-octane and 20% normal heptane.

Determination of Octane Number:


The petrol whose octane number is to be determined in burnt in a standard spark ignition internal combustion test engine and its knocking tendency with the standard chart in which the value of octane number corresponding to the knockmeter reading is given. This gives the octane number of the petrol. Three methods are used for O.N. determination. 1. Motor method for low O.N. determinations 2. Research method for high O.N. motor fuels 3. Aviation method for very high O.N. aviation fuels

Octane number of Indian Petrol:


Petrol having octane number 87 is sold in India for use in motor vehicles. In U.S.A. the octane number of premier gasoline is 94. The octane number of petrol used in air-crafts is more than 100 and they are designated by performance number.

Significance of Octane Number:


Higher octane number of petrol means higher efficiency and higher power output by the engine. Hence, higher the octane number, better the petrol.

Limitation of Octane Number as a guide:


Tendency of petrol to knock depends not only on its octane number but it depends also upon the design and operation of the engine. So the octane number of gasoline is simply an empirical figure and not related to the actual knocking in an automobile engine.

Means to improve octane number:


Octane number of petrol is increased by adding some additive compounds in it. The most important additive is Tetra Ethyl Lead (TEL). Quantity added is 3.6 cc/gallon of motor petrol and 5.6 cc/gallon of aviation petrol. TEL is extremely poisonous; hence petrol containing TEL is always colored for identification and safety. The use of petrol having higher octane number then necessary to avoid knocking is not at all useful as it is more susceptible to pre-ignition and gum formation on storage.

Advantages of High Octane Number of Petrol:


As per an estimate , as the octane number increases from 87 to 100, the increase in speed of climb by 80% and the maximum attainable height increases from 8000 meters to 11000 meter. The required take-off distance decreases from 800 meters to 600 meters and pay load also increases by 2 tons. These all are very important for aeroplanes.
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Anti-Knock Value:
Anti-knock value of the hydrocarbons present in petrol increases with increase in the compactness of the molecules, cyclic structure and double bond. Thus butane has an octane number of 90 whereas heptane has 0. Anti-knock value i.e., octane number increases in the order paraffins olefine naphthenes iso-paraffins aromatics. It means that aromatics have highest anti-knock value whereas paraffins have lowest anti-knock value (hence octane number). So, presence of maximum quantity of aromatic and minimum quantity of paraffins is desirable in petrol. In case of paraffins and olefins, anti-knock value (i.e., octane number) decreases with increasing chain length. In case of naphthenes, the larger the size of the ring and the length of the side chain, the lower is the anti-knock value. In case of aromatics, side chain addition up to 3 carbon atoms length improves the octane number, but afterwards, the octane number decreases in proportion to the length of the longest chain.

Lead Response:
The response of gasoline to the addition of tetra ethyl lead [(C2H5)4 Pb] for increasing its octane number is different for different for different categories of hydrocarbons. The order of decreasing effect of TEL addition (called lead response) is paraffins naphthenes olefins aromatics. Alcohols, sulfur compounds and lubricating oils respond negatively.

Octane Number of Blends:


When two paraffins are blended, then the octane number of the resultant blend is directly proportional to the percentage of each paraffin in the blend. With blends of paraffins and aromatics, the octane number of the resultant blend is lower than expected from a linear relationship.

CETANE NUMBER:
Cetane number is the measure of knocking in a diesel engine. Cetane (C 16H34) has a very short ignition delay hence its cetane number is taken as 100 whereas alpha methylnaphthalene (C11H10) has a very large ignition delay hence its cetane number is taken as 0. The cetane number of a diesel is defined as the percentage of cetane (by volume) in a mixture of cetane and alpha methyl naphthalene which has same ignition delay as the diesel under test.

Values of Cetane Number of Diesel:


The cetane number of low speed, medium speed and high speed diesels are 25, 35 and 45 respectively. Engine Speed, rpm >1500 800-1500 400-800 100-400 <100 Suitable Cetane Number, range 50-60 45-55 35-50 30-40 15-30 Cetane number of diesel can be increased by adding additives like ethyl nitrate and acetone peroxide.
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Cetane number increases in the order aromatics iso-paraffins naphthenes olefins paraffins (AINOP) whereas the octane number decreases in this order. Therefore, an oil of which gives petrol of high octane number gives diesel of low cetane number.

Motor Fuel from Crude Oil:


Two important fuels namely gasoline and diesel are produced from crude oil. Petrol is the commercial name of gasoline.

Production of Petrol (Gasoline) from Crude Oil:


Petrol is produced from crude oil by the following processes: Distillation of crude oil (produces straight run gasoline). Cracking of fuel oil produced from crude oil to produce cracked gasoline. Alkylation and polymerization of refinery gases produced during distillation of crude oil. Reforming of heavy gasoline and naphtha to get reformed gasoline. Condensation of natural gas to get natural gasoline called "casing head gasoline". This gasoline produced by the distillation of crude oil is called straight run gasoline which is 20% of the crude and has a low octane number of 55-60. Gasoline produced by cracking of heavy fuel oil at high temperature and pressure is called cracked gasoline and has a high octane number of 90. Refinery gases produced during distillation of crude oil are subjected to some auxiliary processes like polymerization (gasoline produced in this case is called polymer gasoline), alkylation and isomerization to produce high octane number (90-98) gasoline. Reforming process of heavy gasoline and naphtha produces reformed gasoline of high octane number (90-98). There are still other methods called hydro-cracking and hydro-reforming of heavier fractions of crude oil to produce superior gasoline with high octane number.

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Requisites of Good Quality Gasoline, Diesel and Fuel oil


REQUISITE OF GOOD GASOLINE:
It should have high octane number to develop more power at higher compression ratio without knocking. It should have controlled volatility and vapor pressure. Very low vapor pressure of petrol causes starting trouble in the engine whereas very high vapor pressure of petrol causes vapor locking of fuel pipelines. Its calorific value should be high for higher efficiency. C.V. of petrol is around 1000010500 Kcal/Kg. Its freezing point should be low to avoid the shaking of fuel lines of air-crafts flying at high altitude where the temperature is low and for engines operated during cold season. It should not contain abrasive, corrosive and gum forming substance otherwise it will cause abrasion, corrosion and choking respectively of fuel lines, carburetor jets etc. It should have optimum flash point for easy starting of engine and avoidance of explosion and fire hazards during storage.
Table3.1. Specification for Motor Gasoline

Characteristic Color, visual Octane Number (Research Method), Min. Lead Content a) as lead, g/l, Max. Distillation a) Initial Boiling Point b) Recovery up to 70oC, percent by volume, Min. c) Recovery up to 125oC, percent by volume, Min. d) Recovery up to 180oC, percent by volume, Min. e) Final boiling point, oC, Max. f) Residue, percent by volume, Max. Reid vapor pressure at 38oC, Kg/cm2, Max. Sulfur, total, percent by weight, Max. Residue on evaporation, mg/100 ml,

79 Octane Gasoline Orange 79 0.42

83 Octane Gasoline Orange 83 0.56

93 Octane Gasoline Red 93 0.80

-10 50 90 215 2 0.70 0.25 4

-10 50 90 215 2 0.70 0.25 4

-10 50 90 215 2 0.70 0.25 4


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Max. Oxidation stability, minutes, Min. Copper-strip corrosion for 3 hours at 50 oC


Density at 15 oC

360 Not worse than No. 1


--

360

360 Not worse than No.1


--

--

Refining of Petrol:
The crude petrol is refined by treating with sulfuric acid to remove sulfur compounds present in it (the process is called 'sweetening' of petrol). It is then passes through a bed of fuller's earth to remove its color, which is due to the presence of gum in it. Finally, the dissolved gases in it are driven off by a process called stabilization. Tetraethyl lead or other additives are then added to increase the octane number (if the need be) or to inhibit the gum formation before the petrol is ready for use.

Additives in Petrol (Gasoline):


Commercial grade motor gasoline contains the following additives: 1. Anti-knocking agents', e.g., tetraethyl lead (TEL). Currently unleaded petrol (without TEL) is being sold/used in some metropolitan cities of India as toxic lead in petrol causes atmospheric air pollution. 2. 'Antioxidants' to prevent gum formation e.g., 2, 6-ditertiary butyl-4-methyl phenol. 3. 'Metal deactivators' to prevent gum formation due to trace metals like iron and copper. 4. 'Combustion deposit modifier' e.g., (TCP). 5. 'Anti-icing agents'. 6. 'Anti rust agents'. 7. 'Cleaning agents' to prevent deposits in the fuel supply system. 8. 'Dying agents' to give distinctive colors to different brands and names.

Aviation Gasoline:
Petrol used in the airplanes has comparatively higher volatility and higher octane number (>100) than motor gasoline. Though higher proportion of TEL (4.6 c.c/U.S. gallon) is added in aviation gasoline, other additives are lesser in number and quantity. The main components of aviation gasoline are iso-paraffin alkylates and aromatic reformates. A typical specification of aviation gasoline is tabulated below in the table:
Table3.2. Typical Specification of Aviation Gasoline

S.No. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9.

Patameters Reid vapor pressure at 37.8 oC (100oF) Freezing point, maximum Performance number Aromatic content, minimum Diesel index, minimum Net calorific value, minimum Total sufur, maximum Tetra ethyl lead Oxidation stability (16 hours ageing)

Units Kg/cm2 o C -% by volume -Kcal/Kg % by weight mg/liter

Value 0.385-0.490 60 130-145 5 75-90 10390-10500 0.05 Nil

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10.

Gum, maximum Precipitate, maximum I.B.P/F.B.P.

mg/100 ml mg/100 ml o C

6 2 <75/170

DIESEL:
It is a straight run product of crude petroleum oil distillation obtained in between kerosene and lubricating oil. Diesel obtained from paraffinic crude are the most suitable as higher amount of paraffin present in it increases its cetane number. Diesel is also produced by cracking of heavy fuel oil and vacuum distillation of atmospheric distillation residue. Though the most desired components of diesel fuels are the straight run distillates from paraffin and mixed base crude oils, these are often used as feedstock for gasoline production via cracking. Since, there is some overlap in the boiling ranges of kerosene and diesel fuel hence diesel is prepared from heavy distillates obtained from catalytic cracking unit. Since, the distillates are rick in aromatics and iso-paraffins (having low cetane number), additives are added to improve the cetane number of diesel fuel. The suitable volatility is obtained by blending with light fraction. Residual oils are also used in significant proportions in meeting large demand of diesel fuel.

Requisites of Good Diesel:


It should have a high cetane number It should contain very low amount of sulfur, ash and carbon residue so that fouling corrosion and wear of engine parts would be minimum. Its calorific value should be high. Its flash point should not be less than 65oC to avoid fire and explosion hazard. It should have a low freezing point so that it can be successfully used as a jet fuel after blending with kerosene or naphtha. Indian standard specification for diesel oils is tabulated below:
Table3.3. Specification for Diesel Oils

Characteristic

Grade Special

Grade A

Flash point, (Pensky-Martens, closed)oC, Min. Kinematic viscosity, centistokes at 37.8oC Carbon residue (Ramsbottom), percent by weight, Max Cetane number, Min Diesel Index, Min Distillation, percent recovery, at 366oC, Min. Copper-strip corrosion for 3 hours at 100oC

38 2.0 to 7.5 0.20 42 45 90 Not worse than No. 1

38 2.0 to 7.5 0.20 40 43 90 Not worse than No. 1

Grade B (LDO) Light Diesel Oil 66 2.0 to 7.5 1.50 ---Not worse than No. 2
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Water content, percent by volume, Max. Sediment, percent by weight, Max Ash, percent by weight, Max Acidity, inorganic Acidity, total percent by weight, Max. Sufur, total percent by weight, Max. Pour point, oC, Max.

0.05 0.05 0.01 Nil 0.50 1.0 6 6

0.05 0.05 0.01 Nil 0.50 1.0

0.25 0.10 0.02 Nil -1.8 12 for winter 18 for summer

Winter November to February Summer March to October Special grade and grade A cover distillates of low volatility. Grade B covers the class of more viscous distillates and blends of these distillates with residuum oil. Diesel fuel for naval application shall have a flash point of 66oC, Min. and cetane number of 45, Minimum.

FUEL OILS FROM PETROLEUM:


Fuel oils are the fraction distilled between lubrication oil and bitumen. The heavy fuel oil is thermally cracked/decomposed at high pressure and temperature (process is called visbreaking) to reduce its viscosity before it is used as fuel oil. At times, heavy fuel oil is blended with naphtha, gas oil and light fuel oil to improve its atomizing capability through burners. On one extreme is the light fuel oils produced from cycle gas oil of cracking units and on the other extreme is heavy fuel oils produced from residues of crude distillation units, thermal catalytic cracking units, and coker (cooking unit). Intermediate grade/viscosity of fuel oils is made by blending of distillates and residual stocks. 'Visbreaking" of residual stocks is a very important process in the production of fuel oils. Cycle gas is filtered through clay and hydrofined. Tricresyl phosphate and sludge dispersing agent are added to improve combustion in burners. Magnesium bearing additives are used in case of residual fuel oils to eliminate fouling and corrosion.

Properties of Fuel Oils:


Desirable properties of fuel oil are given in the following table: Table3.4. Desirable properties of fuel oil

Propeties Viscosity

Remarks It should be low for its proper atomization through burner and low pressure drop during pumping. Pour point and freezing It should be low to permit easy flow in cold weather. point Sulfur content Should be low to avoid corrosion, pungent odor and increase in dew point of flue gases. Sludge, gummy Should be low to avoid chocking of pipelines, erosion of material and ash furnaces/engines and contamination of products.
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Calorific value Specific gravity Flash point Water content

Should be high. It varies between 9000-9400 Kcal/Kg. Should be low as the pressure drop on pumping it will be low. Should be high for avoiding evaporation loss and fire hazards Should be very low as it decreases the calorific value of oil.

Analysis of Fuel Oil:


A typical analysis of fuel oil is give below: Carbon = 86%, Hydrogen = 12%, Sulfur = 1%, Water = 0.6%, Sediments = 0.4%.

Typical specification of Fuel Oil:


Calorific Value = 9200 Kcal/Kg o Specific gravity at 25 C = 0.9 Flash point = 75oC Viscosity at room temperature = 85 centistokes Theoretical flame temperature = 1900oC Maximum freezing point = 15oC Storage temperature = minimum 20oC Atomization temperature = 125-140 oC Emissivity factor = 0.5-0.7 Indian standard specification for fuel oils is tabulated below:
Table3.4. Indian Standard Specification of Fuel Oils

Characteristic Low Viscosity Flash point (Pensky-Martens) (closed), C,Min. 66 Kinematic viscosity, centistokes at 50oC, Max. 80 Water content, percent by volume, Max. 1.0 Ash, percent by wt., Max 0.1 Sulfur, total percent by wt., Max. 3.5 Sediment, percent by wt., Max. 0.25 Acidity, inorganic nil

Grades Medium Viscosity 66 125 1.0 0.1 4.0 0.25 nil

High Viscosity 66 370 1.0 0.1 4.5 0.25 nil

A typical specification of low sulfur heavy stock (LSHS) fuel oil produced at Barauni Refinery is given in the following table:
Table3.5. Typical Specification of LSHS

Characteristics
Kinematic viscosity (at 100 C), centistokes Specific gravity Gross calorific value, Kcal/Kg, minimum Pour point, oC, maximum Flash point, oC minimum Sulfur content, weight %, maximum Ash content, weight %, maximum Moisture, weight %, maximum
o

Value
26 0.93 10000 60 66 1 0.1 1 15

Combustion Characteristics of Fuel Oil:


Combustion of fuel oil take place initially in vapor state, hence atomization must be sufficient to initiate combustion. In case of heavy fuel oil, cracking of hydrocarbons takes place at the surface of droplets of oil resulting in liberation of carbon particles which burn with a luminous flame having higher emissivity factor, hence higher radioactive heat transfer capacity. Higher the aromatic content of fuel oil i.e. higher the carbon/hydrogen ratio, the more luminous is the flame and higher the emissivity factor. About 15 Kg air per Kg of fuel oil is required for complete combustion with low excess air to the tune of 10% only. The shape and size of flame affects thermal efficiency. Optimum flame can be produced with fuel oil by suitable burner and combustion air control. With 10% excess air (preheated to 200oC), the flame temperature obtained from fuel oil is around 1700oC which will radiate energy at the rate of 1000000 Kcal/m3 of combustion volume (e=0.5). High amount of sulfur present in fuel oil leads to high dew point (up to 160 oC) of flue gas. Hence the flue gas going out of chimney cannot be cooled below this temperature otherwise SO2 and SO3 present in it will condense and corrode the boiler parts, induced draught fan blades and chimney checker bricks etc. Sodium and vanadium in the ash of fuel oil are corrosive and get deposited on the hot pressure parts of boilers.

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