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General Knowledge

The Buddha:

• The Buddha also known as Sakyamuni or Tathagata.

• Born in 563 BC on the Vaishakha Poornima Day at Lumbini (near
Kapilavastu) in Nepal.
• His father Suddhodana was the Saka ruler.
• His mother (Mahamaya, of Kosala dynastry) died after 7 days of
his birth. Brought up by stepmother Gautami.
• Married at 16 to Yoshodhara. Enjoyed the married life for 13years
and had a son named Rahula.
• After seeing an old man, a sick man, a corpse and an ascetic, he
decided to become a wanderer.
• Left his palace at 29 in search of truth (also called
‘Mahabhinishkramana’ or The Great Renunication) and wandered for
6 years.
• Attained ‘Enlightenment’ at 35 at Gaya in Magadha (Bihar) under
the Pipal tree.
• Delivered the first sermon at Sarnath where his five disciples had
settled. His first sermon is called ‘Dharmachakrapracartan’ or
‘Turning of the Wheel of Law’.
• Attained Mahaparinirvana at Kushinagar (identical with village
Kasia in Deoria district of UP) in 483 BC at the age of 80 in the
Malla republic.

Buddhist Councils:

• First Council: At Rajgriha, in 483 BC under the Chairmanship of

Mehakassaapa (king was Ajatshatru). Divided the teachings of
Buddha into two Pitakas-Vinaya Pitaka and Sutta Pitaka.
• Second Council: At Vaishali, in 383 BC under Sabakami (King was
Kalasoka).Followers divided into Sthavirmadins and Mahasanghikas.
• Third Council: At Pataliputra, in 250 BC under Mogaliputta Tissa
(King was Ashoka) In this, the third part of the Tripitaka was coded
in the Pali language.
• Fourth council: At Kashmir (Kundalvan), in 72 AD under Vasumitra
(King was Kanishka, Vice-Chairman was Ashwaghosha). Divided
Buddhism into Mahayana and Hinayana sects.
Buddist Literature: In Pali language.
Vinaya Pitaka: Rules of discipline in the Buddhist monasteries.
Sutta Pitaka: Largest, contains collection of Buddha’s sermons.
Abhidhamma Pitaka: Explanation of the philosophical principles of
the Buddhist religion


• Jainism founded by Rishabha.

• There were 24 Tirthankaras (Prophets or Gurus), all Kshatriyas.
First was Rishabhnath (Emblem: Bull).
• The 23rd Tirthankar Parshwanath (Emblem: Snake) was the son of
King Ashvasena of Banaras.
• The 24th and the last Tirthankar was Vardhman Mahavira
(Emblem: Lion). He was born in kundagram (Distt Muzaffarpur, Bihar)
in 599 BC.
• His father Siddhartha was the head of Jnatrika clan.
• His mother was Trishla, sister of Lichchavi Prince Chetak of
• Mahavira was related to Bimbisara.
• Married to Yashoda, had a daughter named Priyadarsena, whose
husband Jamali became his first disciple.
• At 30, after the death of his parents, he became an ascetic.
• In the 13th year of his asceticism (on the 10th of Vaishakha),
outside the town of Jrimbhikgrama, he attained supreme knowledge
• From now on he was called Jaina or Jitendriya and Mahavira, and
his followers were named Jains. He also got the title of Arihant, i.e.,
• At the age of 72, he attained death at Pava, near Patna, in 527
• Mahavira preached almost the same message as Parshvanath and
added one more, Brahmcharya (celibacy) to it.

Social and Cultural Uprising

Brahmo Samaj:
• Founded by Raja Ram Mohan Roy in 1828.
• Criticized Sati Pratha, casteism and advocated widow remarriage.
• He was opposed to Sanskrit system of education, because he
thought it would keep the country in darkness.
• Other important leaders were Devendranath Tagore (father of
Rabindranath Tagore) and Keshap Chandra Sen.

Arya Samaj:
• Founded by Swami Dayanand (or, Moolshankar) in 1875.
• His motto was ‘Go back to the vedas’ & ‘India for the Indians’. He
disregarded Puranas, idol worship, casteism and untouchability. He
advocated widow remarriage.
• Dayanand’s views were published in his famous work, Satyarth
Prakash. He also wrote Veda Bhashya Bhumika and Veda Bhashya.

Ramakrishna Mission:
• Founded by Vivekanand (earlier, Narendranath Dutta) (1863 – 1902)
in 1897, 11 years after the death of his guru Ram Krishna
• Vivekanand attended the Parliament of Religion at Chicago in
• Irish woman Margaret Nobel (Known as sister Nivedita)
popularized it.
Young Bengal Movement:
• Founded by Henry Louis Vivian Derozio (1809-31). He was a
teacher in Hindu College in Calcutta.
• He urged the students to live and die for truth. He also
supported women’s education and their rights.

Veda Samaj:
• Veda Samaj called Brahmo Samaj of South. Started by Sridharalu
• He translated books of Brahmo Dharma into Tamil and Telegu.

Dharma Sabha:
• Initiated by Radhakant Deb in 1830.
• Was opposed to reforms and protected orthodoxy, but played an
active role in promoting western education even to girls.

• Started by Gopal Hari Deshmukh. Advocated western education
and a rational outlook. He advocated female education for the
upliftment of women.
• As a votary of national self-reliance, he attended Delhi durbar in
1876, wearing handspun khadi cloth.

Servants of India Society:

• Formed by Gopal Krishna Gokhale in 1915.
• It did notable work in providing famine relief and in improving
the condition of the tribal.

Radhaswami Movement:
• Founded in 1861 by a banker of Agra, Tulsi Ram, popularly known
as Shiv Dayal Saheb or Swami Maharaj.
• The sect preached belief in one supreme being, the Guru’s
supreme position and a simple social life for the believers (the

Theosophical Society:
• Founded by Westerners who drew inspiration from Indian thought
and culture.
• Madam H P Blavatsky laid the foundation of the movement in US
in 1875. Later, Col.M.S. Olcott of the US Army joined her.
• In 1882, it was shifted to India at Adyar (Tamil Nadu).
• Annie Besant was elected its president in 1907. She founded the
Central Hindu College in 1898, which became Banaras Hindu
University in 1916.
Governor Generals of India

Lord William Bentinck (1828 – 1835):

• Carried out the social reforms like Prohibition of Sati (1829) and
elimination of thugs (1830).
• Made English the Medium of higher education in the country
(After the recommendations of Macaulay).
• Suppressed female infanticide and child sacrifice.
• Charter Act of 1833 was passed; made him the first Governor
General of India. Before him, the designation was Governor General
of Bengal.

Sir Charles Metcalfe (1835 – 1836): Abolished all restrictions on

vernacular press (called Liberator of the Press).
Lord Auckland (1836 – 1842): The most important event of his reign
was the First Afghan War, which proved to be a disaster for the

Lord Ellenborough (1842 – 1844)

Lord Hardinge I (1844 – 1848)

Lord Dalhousie (1848 – 1856):

• Opened the first Indian Railway in 1853 (from Bombay to Thane).
• Laid out the telegraph lines in 1853 (First was from Calcutta to
• Introduced the Doctrine of Lapse and captured Satara (1848),
Jaipur and Sambhalpur (1849), Udaipur (1852), Jhansi (1853) and
Nagpur (1854).
• Established the postal system on the modern lines through the
length and breadth of the country, which made communication
• Started the Public Works Department. Many bridges were
constructed and the work on Grand Trunk Road was started. The
harbors of Karachi, Bombay and Calcutta were also developed.
• Made Shimla the summer capital.
• Started Engineering College at Roorkee.
• Encouraged science, forestry, commerce, mineralogy and industry.
• In 1854, “Wood’s Dispatch’ was passed, which provided for the
properly articulated system of education from the primary school to
the university.
• Due to Ishwar Chandra Vidyasagar’s efforts, remarriage of widows
was legalized by Widow Remarriage Act, 1856).

Viceroys Of India

Lord Canning (1856 – 1862):

• The last Governor General and the first Viceroy.
• Mutiny took place in his time.
• On Nov, 1858, the rule passed on to the crown.
• Withdrew Doctrine of Lapse.
• The Universities of Calcutta, Bombay and Madras were established
in 1857.
• Indian Councils Act was passed in 1861.

Lord Elgin (1862 – 1863)

Lord Lawrence (1864 – 1869):

• Telegraphic communication was opened with Europe.
• High Courts were established at Calcutta, Bombay and Madras in
• Expanded canal works and railways.
• Created the Indian Forest department.

Lord Mayo (1869 – 1872):

• Started the process of financial decentralization in India.
• Established the Rajkot college at Kathiarwar and Mayo College at
Ajmer for the Indian princes.
• For the first time in Indian history, a census was held in 1871.
• Organised the Statistical Survey of India.
• Was the only Viceroy to be murdered in office by a Pathan
convict in the Andamans in 1872.

Lord Northbrook (1872 – 1876):

Lord Lytton (1876 – 1880):

• Known as the Viceroy to reverse characters.
• Organised the Grand ‘Delhi Durbar’ in 1877 to decorate Queen
Victoria with the title of ‘Kaiser – I – Hind’.
• Arms Act(1878) made it mandatory for Indians to acquire license
for arms.
• Passed the infamous Vernacular Press Act (1878).

Lord Ripon (1880 – 1884):

• Liberal person, who sympathized with Indians.
• Repeated the Vernacular Press Act (1882)
• Passed the local self – government Act (1882)
• Took steps to improve primary & secondary education (on William
Hunter Commission’s recommendations).
• The I Factory Act, 1881, aimed at prohibiting child labour.
• Passed the libert Bill (1883) which enabled Indian district
magistrates to try European criminals. But this was withdrawn later.

Lord Dufferin (1884 – 1888):

• Indian National Congress was formed during his tenure.

Lord Lansdowne (1888 – 1894):

• II Factory Act (1891) granted a weekly holiday and stipulated
working hours for women and children, although it failed to address
concerns such as work hours for men.
• Categorization of Civil Services into Imperial, Provincial and
• Indian Council Act of 1892 was passed.
• Appointment of Durand Commission to define the line between
British India and Afghanistan.

Lord Elgin II (1894 – 1899):

• Great famine of 1896 – 1897. Lyall Commission was appointed.

Lord Curzon (1899 – 1905):

• Passed the Indian Universities Act (1904) in which official control
over the Universities was increased.
• Partitioned Bengal (October 16, 1905) into two provinces 1, Bengal
(proper), 2.East Bengal & Assam.
• Appointed a Police Commission under Sir Andrew Frazer to
enquire into the police administration of every province.
• The risings of the frontier tribes in 1897 – 98 led him to create
the North Western Frontier Province(NWFP).
• Passed the Ancient Monuments Protection Act (1904), to restore
India’s cultural heritage. Thus the Archaeological Survey of India
was established.
• Passed the Indian Coinage and Paper Currency Act (1899) and put
India on a gold standard.
• Extended railways to a great extent.

Lord Minto (1905 – 1910):

• There was great political unrest in India. Various acts were passed
to curb the revolutionary activities. Extremists like Lala Laipat Rai
and Ajit Singh (in May, 1907) and Bal Gangadhar Tilak (in July, 1908)
were sent to Mandalay jail in Burma.
• The Indian Council Act of 1909 or the Morley – Minto Reforms was

Lord Hardinge (1910 – 1916):

• Held a durbar in dec, 1911 to celebrate the coronation of King
George V.
• Partition of Bengal was cancelled (1911), capital shifted from
Calcutta to Delhi (1911).
• A bomb was thrown at him; but he escaped unhurt (Dec 23, 1912).
• Gandhiji came back to India from S.Africa (1915).
• Annie Besant announced the Home Rule Movement.

Lord Chelmsford (1916 – 1921):

• August Declaration of 1917, whereby control over the Indian
government would be gradually transferred to the Indian people.
• The government of India Act in 1919 (Montague – Chelmsford
reforms) was passed.
• Rowlatt Act of 1919; Jallianwala Bagh Massacre (April 13, 1919).
• Non – Cooperation Movement.
• An Indian Sir S.P.Sinha was appointed the Governor of Bengal.
• A Women’s university was founded at Poona in 1916.
• Saddler Commission was appointed in 1917 to envisage new
educational policy.
Lord Reading (1921 – 1926):
• Rowlatt act was repeated along with the Press act of 1910.
• Suppressed non-cooperation movement.
• Prince of Wales visited India in Nov.1921.
• Moplah rebellion (1921) took place in Kerala.
• Ahmedabad session of 1921.
• Formation of Swaraj Party.
• Vishwabharati University started functioning in 1922.
• Communist part was founded in 1921 by M.N.Roy.
• Kakory Train Robbery on Aug 9, 1925.
• Communal riots of 1923 – 25 in Multan, Amritsar, Delhi, etc.
• Swami Shraddhanand, a great nationalist and a leader of the Arya
Samajists, was murdered in communal orgy.

Lord Irwin (1926 – 1931):

• Simon Commission visited India in 1928.
• Congress passed the Indian Resolution in 1929.
• Dandi March (Mar 12, 1930).
• Civil Disobedience Movement (1930).
• First Round Table Conference held in England in 1930.
• Gandhi – Irwin Pact (Mar 5, 1931) was signed and Civil
Disobediance Movement was withdrawn.
• Martydorm of Jatin Das after 64 days hunger strike (1929).

Lord Willington (1931 – 1936):

• Second Round Table conference in London in 1931.
• On his return Gandhiji was again arrested and Civil Disobedience
Movement was resumed in Jan 1932.
• Communal Awards (Aug 16, 1932) assigned seats to different
religious communities. Gandhiji went on a epic fast in protest
against this division.
• Third Round Table conference in 1932.
• Poona Pact was signed.
• Government of India Act (1935) was passed.

Lord Linlithgow (1936 – 1944):

• Govt. of India Act enforced in the provinces. Congress ministries
formed in 8 out of 11 provinces. They remained in power for about
2 years till Oct 1939, when they gave up offices on the issue of
India having been dragged into the II World War. The Muslim
League observed the days as ‘Deliverance Say’ (22 December)
• Churchill became the British PM in May, 1940. He declared that
the Atlantic Charter (issued jointly by the UK and US, stating to
give sovereign rights to those who have been forcibly deprived of
them) does not apply to India.
• Outbreak of World War II in 1939.
• Cripps Mission in 1942.
• Quit India Movement (August 8, 1942).

Lord Wavell (1944 – 1947):

• Arranged the Shimla Conference on June 25, 1945 with Indian
National Congress and Muslim League; failed.
• Cabinet Mission Plan (May 16, 1946).
• Elections to the constituent assembly were held and an Interim
Govt. was appointed under Nehru.
• First meeting of the constituent assembly was held on Dec. 9,

Lord Mountbatten (Mar.1947 – Aug.1947):

• Last Viceroy of British India and the first Governor General of free
• Partition of India decided by the June 3 Plan.
• Indian Independence Act passed by the British parliament on July
4, 1947, by which India became independent on August 15, 1947.
• Retried in June 1948 and was succeeded by C.Rajagopalachari (the
first and the last Indian Governor General of free India).

Newspaper Journals

Newspaper/Journal Founder/Editor
Bengal Gazette(1780) (India’s first newspaper) J.K.Hikki
Kesari B.G.Tilak
Maharatta B.G.Tilak
Sudharak G.K.Gokhale
Amrita Bazar Patrika Sisir Kumar Ghosh and Motilal Ghosh
Vande Mataram Aurobindo Ghosh
Native Opinion V.N.Mandalik
Kavivachan Sudha Bhartendu Harishchandra
Rast Goftar (First newspaper in Gujarati) Dadabhai Naoroji
New India (Weekly) Bipin Chandra Pal
Statesman Robert Knight
Hindu Vir Raghavacharya and G.S.Aiyar
Sandhya B.B.Upadhyaya
Vichar Lahiri Krishnashastri Chiplunkar
Hindu Patriot Girish Chandra Ghosh (later Harish Chandra Mukherji)
Som Prakash Ishwar Chandra Vidyasagar
Yugantar Bhupendranath Datta and Barinder Kumar Ghosh
Bombay Chronicle Firoze Shah Mehta
Hindustan M.M.Malviya
Mooknayak B.R.Ambedkar

Comrade Mohammed Ali

Tahzib-ul-Akhlaq Sir Syyed Ahmed Khan
Al-Hilal Abdul Kalam Azad
Al-Balagh Abdul Kalam Azad
Independent Motilal Nehru
Punjabi Lala Lajpat Rai
New India (Daily) Annie Besant
Commonweal Annie Besant
Pratap Ganesh Shankar Vidyarthi
Essays in Indian Economics M.G.Ranade
Samvad Kaumudi (Bengali) Ram Mohan Roy
Mirat-ul-Akhbar Ram Mohan Roy (first Persian newspaper)
Indian Mirror Devendra Nath Tagore
Nav Jeevan M.K.Gandhi
Young India M.K.Gandhi
Harijan M.K.Gandhi
Prabudha Bharat Swami Vivekananda
Udbodhana Swami Vivekananda
Indian Socialist Shyamji Krishna Verma
Talwar (in Berlin) Birendra Nath Chattopadhyaya
Free Hindustan (in Vancouver) Tarak Nath Das
Hindustan Times K.M.Pannikar
Kranti Mirajkar, Joglekar, Ghate

National Activities Part I

The Indian National Congress:

• Formed in 1885 by A.O.Hume, an Englishman and a retired civil
• First session in Bombay under W.C.Banerjee in 1885 (72 delegates
attended it).
• In the first two decades (1885 – 1905), quite moderate in its
approach and confided in British justice and generosity.
• But the repressive measures of the British gave rise to extremists
within Congress like Bipin Chandra Pal, Bal Gangadhar Tilak and
Lala Lajpat Rai (Lal, Bal, Pal).

Partition of Bengal:
• By Lord Curzon on Oct 16, 1905, through a royal Proclamation,
reducing the old province of Bengal in size by creating East Bengal
and Assam out of rest of Bengal.
• The objective was to set up a communal gulf between Hindus
and Muslims.
• A mighty upsurge swept the country against the partition.
National movement found real expression in the movement against
the partition of Bengal in 1905.

Swadeshi Movement (1905):

• Lal, Bal, Pal, and Aurobindo Ghosh played the important role.
• INC took the Swadeshi call first at the Banaras Session, 1905
presided over by G.K.Gokhale.
• Bonfires of foreign goods were conducted at various places.
Formation of Muslim League (1906):
• Setup in 1906 under the leadership of Aga Khan, Nawab
Salimullah of Dhaka and Nawab Mohsin-ul-Mulk.
• It was a loyalist, communal and conservative political organization
which supported the partition of Bengal, opposed the Swadeshi
movement, demanded special safeguards to its community and a
separate electorate for Muslims.

Demand for Swaraj:

• In Dec 1906 at Calcutta, the INC under Dadabhai Naoroji adopted
‘Swaraj’ (Self-govt) as the goal of Indian people.

Surat Session of Indian National Congress (1907):

• The INC split into two groups – The extremists and The
moderates, at the Surat session in 1907. Extremists were led by Bal,
Pal, Lal while the moderates by G.K.Gokhale.

Indian Councils Act or Minto Morley Reforms (1909):

• Besides other constitutional measures, it envisaged a separate
electorate for Muslims.
• Aimed at dividing the nationalist ranks and at rallying the
Moderates and the Muslims to the Government’s side.

Ghadar Party (1913):

• Formed by Lala Hardayal, Taraknath Das and Sohan Singh
• HQ was at San Francisco.

Home Rule Movement (1916):

• Started by B.G.Tilak(April, 1916) at Poona and Annie Besant and
S.Subramania Iyer at Adyar, near Madras (Sept, 1916).
• Objective: Self – government for India in the British Empire.
• Tilak linked up the question of Swaraj with the demand for the
formation of Linguistic States and education in vernacular language.
He gave the slogan: Swaraj is my birth right and I will have it.

Lucknow Pact (1916):

• Happened following a war between Britain and Turkey leading to
anti-British feelings among Muslims.
• Both INC and Muslim League concluded this (Congress accepted
the separate electorates and both jointly demanded for a
representative government and dominion status for the country).
National Activities Part II

August Declaration (1917):

• After the Lucknow Pact, a British policy was announced which
aimed at “increasing association of Indians in every branch of the
administration for progressive realization of responsible government
in India as an integral part of the British empire”. This came to be
called the August Declaration.

Rowlatt Act (March 18, 1919):

• This gave unbridled powers to the govt. to arrest and imprison
suspects without trial for two years maximum. This law enabled the
Government to suspend the right of Habeas Corpus, which had
been the foundation of civil liberties in Britain.
• Caused a wave of anger in all sections. It was the first country-
wide agitation by Gandhiji and marked the foundation of the Non
Cooperation Movement.

Jallianwala Bagh Massacre (April 13, 1919):

• People were agitated over the arrest of Dr. Kitchlu and Dr.
Satyapal on April 10, 1919.
• General O’ Dyer fires at people who assembled in the Jallianwala
Bagh, Amritsar.
• As a result hundreds of men, women and children were killed and
thousands injured.
• Rabindranath Tagore returned his Knighthood in protest. Sir
Shankaran Nair resigned from Viceroy’s Executive Council after this.
• Hunter Commission was appointed to enquire into it.
• On March 13, 1940, Sardar Udham Singh killed O’Dyer when the
later was addressing a meeting in Caxton Hall, London.

Khilafat Movement (1920):

• Muslims were agitated by the treatment done with Turkey by the
British in the treaty that followed the First World War.
• Two brothers, Mohd.Ali and Shaukat Ali started this movement.

Non-cooperation Movement (1920):

• It was the first mass-based political movement under Gandhiji.
• Congress passed the resolution in its Calcutta session in Sept
Chauri –Chaura Incident (1922):
• A mob of people at Chauri – Chaura (near Gorakhpur) clashed
with police and burnt 22 policemen on February 5, 1922.
• This compelled Gandhiji to withdraw the Non Cooperation
movement on Feb.12, 1922.

Simon Commission (1927):

• Constituted under John Simon, to review the political situation in
India and to introduce further reforms and extension of
parliamentary democracy.
• Indian leaders opposed the commission, as there were no Indians
in it.
• The Government used brutal repression and police attacks to
break the popular opposition. At Lahore, Lala Lajpat Rai was
severely beaten in a lathi-charge. He succumbed to his injuries on
Oct.30, 1928.

Lahore Session (1929):

• On Dec.19, 1929 under the President ship of J.L.Nehru, the INC, at
its Lahore Session, declared Poorna Swaraj (Complete independence)
as its ultimate goal.
• On Dec.31, 1929, the newly adopted tri-colour flag was unfurled
and an.26, 1930 was fixed as the First Independence Day, was to be
celebrated every year.

Revolutionary Activities:
• The first political murder of a European was committed in 1897 at
Poona by the Chapekar brothers, Damodar and Balkishan. Their
target was Mr.Rand, President of the Plague Commission, but
Lt.Ayerst was accidentally shot.
• In 1907, Madam Bhikaiji Cama, a Parsi revolutionary unfurled the
flag of India at Stuttgart Congress (of Second international).
• In 1908, Khudiram Bose and Prafulla chaki threw a bomb on the
carriage of kingford, the unpopular judge of Muzaffapur. Khudiram,
Kanhaiyalal Dutt and Satyendranath Bose were hanged. (Alipur
• In 1909, M L Dhingra shot dead Col.William Curzon Whyllie, the
political advisor of “India Office” in London.
• In 1912, Rasbihari Bose and Sachindra Nath Sanyal threw a bomb
and Lord Hardinge at Delhi. (Delhi Conspiracy Case).
• In Oct, 1924, a meeting of revolutionaries from all parts of India
was called at Kanpur. They setup Hindustan Socialist Republic
Association/Army (HSRA).
• They carried out a dacoity on the Kakori bound train on the
Saharanpur-Lucknow railway line on Aug. 9, 1925.
• Bhagat Singh, with his colleagues, shot dead Saunders (Asst. S.P.
of Lahore, who ordered lathi charge on Lala Lajpat Rai) on Dec.17,
• Then Bhagat Singh and Batukeshwar Dutt threw a bomb in the
Central Assembly on Apr 8, 1929. Thus, he, Rajguru and Sukhdev
were hanged on March. 23,1931 at Lahore Jall (Lahore Conspiracy
Case) and their bodies cremated at Hussainiwala near Ferozepur.
• In 1929 only Jatin Das died in Lahore jail after 63 days fast to
protest against horrible conditions in jail.
• Surya Sen, a revolutionary of Bengal, formed the Indian Republic
Army in Bengal. In 1930, he masterminded the raid on Chittagong
armoury. He was hanged in 1933.
• In 1931, Chandrashekhar Azad shot himself at Alfred Park in

National Activities Part III

Dandi March (1930):

• Also called the Salt Satyagraha.
• Along with 78 followers, Gandhiji started his march from
Sabarmati Ashram on March 12, 1930 for the small village Dandhi to
break the salt law.
• He reached the seashore on Apr.6, 1930.
• He picked a handful of salt and inaugurated the Civil
Disobedience Movement.

First Round Table conference (1930):

• It was the first conference arranged between the British and
Indians as equals. It was held on Nov.12, 1930 in London to discuss
Simon commission.
• Boycotted by INC, Muslim League, Hindu Mahasabha, Liberals and
some others were there.

Gandhi Irwin Pact (1931):

• Moderate Statesman, Sapru, Jaikar and Srinivas Shastri initiated
efforts to break the ice between Gandhiji and the government.
• The two (government represented by Irwin and INC by Gandhiji)
signed a pact on March 5, 1931.
• In this the INC called off the civil disobedience movement and
agreed to join the second round table conference.
• The government on its part released the political prisoners and
conceded the right to make salt for consumption for villages along
the coast.

Second Round Table Conference (1931):

• Gandhiji represented the INC and went to London to meet British
P.M. Ramsay Macdonald.
• However, the session was soon deadlocked on the minorities
issue and this time separate electorates was demanded not only by
Muslims but also by Depressed Classes, Indian Christians and Anglo
– Indians.
The Communal Award (Aug 16,1932):
• Announced by Ramsay McDonald. It showed divide and rule policy
of the British.
• Envisaged representation of Muslims, Sikhs, Indian Christians,
Anglo Indians, women and even Backward classes.
• Gandhiji, who was in Yeravada jail at that time, started a fast
unto death against it.

Poona Pact (September 25, 1932):

• After the announcement of communal award and subsequent fast
of Gandhiji, mass meeting took place almost everywhere.
• Political leaders like Madan Mohan Malviya, B.R.Ambedkar and
M.C.Rajah became active.
• Eventually Poona pact was reached and Gandhiji broke his fact on
the sixth day (Sept 25, 1932).
• In this, the idea of separate electorate for the depressed classes
was abandoned, but seats reserved to them in the provincial
legislature were increased.

Third Round Table Conference (1932):

• Proved fruitless as most of the national leaders were in prison.
The discussions led to the passing of the Government of India Act,

Demand For Pakistan:

• In 1930, Iqbal suggested that the Frontier Province, Baluchistan,
Sindh and Kashmir be made the Muslim State within the federation.
• Chaudhary Rehmat Ali gave the term Pakistan in 1923.
• Mohd. Ali Jinnah of Bombay gave it practicality.
• Muslim League first passed the proposal of separate Pakistan in
its Lahore session in 1940.

The Cripps Mission – 1942:

• In Dec. 1941, Japan entered the World War – II and advanced
towards Indian borders. By March 7, 1942, Rangoon fell and Japan
occupied the entire S E Asia.
• The British govt. with a view to getting co-operation from Indians
sent Sir Stafford Cripps, leader of the House of Commons to settle
terms with the Indian leaders.
• He offered a draft which proposed dominion status to be granted
after the war.
• Rejected by the Congress as it didn’t want to rely upon future
• Gandhiji termed it as a post dated cheque in a crashing bank.
National Activities Part IV

The Revolt of 1942 & The Quit India Movement:

• Called the Vardha Proposal and Leaderless Revolt.
• The resolution was passed on Aug.8, 1942, at Bombay. Gandhiji
gave the slogan ‘Do or Die’.
• On Aug 9, the Congress was banned and its important leaders
were arrested.
• The arrests provoked indignation among the masses and, there
being no program of action, the movement became spontaneous
and violent. Violence spread throughout the country.
• The movement was however crushed.

The Indian National Army:

Founded by Rasbehari Bose with Captain Mohan Singh.
• S.C.Bose secretly escaped from India in Jain 1941, and reached
Berlin. In July 1943, he joined the INA at Singapore. There, Rasbehari
Bose handed over the leadership to him.
• The soldiers were mostly raised from Indian soldiers of the British
army who had been taken prisoners by the Japanese after they
conquered S.E.Asia.
• Two INA head quarters were Rangoon and Singapore (formed in
• INA had three fighting brigades named after Gandhiji, Azad and
Nehru. Rani Jhansi Brigade was an exclusive women force.

The Cabinet Mission Plan (1946):

• The struggle for freedom entered a decisive phase in the year
1945-46. The new Labour Party PM.Lord Attlee, made a declaration
on March 15, 1946, that British Cabinet Mission (comprising of Lord
Pethick Lawrence as Chairman, Sir Stafford Cripps and
A.V.Alexander) will visit India.
• The mission held talks with the INC and ML to bring about
acceptance of their proposals.
• On May 16, 1946, the mission put towards its proposals. It rejected
the demand for separate Pakistan and instead a federal union
consisting of British India and the Princely States was suggested.
• Both Congress and Muslims League accepted it.

Formation of Interim Government (Sept 2, 1946):

• Based on Cabinet Mission Plan, an interim government consisting
of Congress nominees was formed on Sept.2, 1946. J.L.Nehru was its
Vice-President and the Governor-General remained as its President.
Jinnah’s Direct Action Resolution (Aug 16, 1946):
• Jinnah was alarmed at the results of the elections because the
Muslim League was in danger of being totally eclipsed in the
constituent assembly.
• Therefore, Muslim League withdrew its acceptance of the Cabinet
Mission Plan on July 29, 1946.
• It passed a ‘Direct action’ resolution, which condemned both the
British Government and the Congress (Aug 16, 1946). It resulted in
heavy communal riots.
• Jinnah celebrated Pakistan Day on Mar 27, 1947.

Formation of Constituent Assembly (Dec 9, 1946):

• The Constituent assembly met on Dec 9, 1946 and Dr.Rajendra
Prasad was elected as its president.

Mountbatten Plan (June 3, 1947):

• On June 3, 1947, Lord Mountbatten put forward his plan which
outlined the steps for the solution of India’s political problem. The
outlines of the Plan were:
• India to be divided into India and Pakistan.
• Bengal and Punjab will be partitioned and a referendum in NEFP
and Sylhet district of Assam would be held.
• There would be a separate constitutional assembly for Pakistan to
frame its constitution.
• The Princely states would enjoy the liberty to join either India or
Pakistan or even remain independent.
• Aug.15, 1947 was the date fixed for handing over power to India
and Pakistan.
• The British govt. passed the Indian Independence Act of 1947 in
July 1947, which contained the major provisions put forward by the
Mountbatten plan.

Partition and Independence (Aug 1947):

• All political parties accepted the Mountbatten plan.
• At the time of independence, there were 562 small and big
Princely States in India.
• Sardar Vallabh Bhai Patel, the first home minister, used iron hand
in this regard. By August 15, 1947, all the States, with a few
exceptions like Kashmir, Hyderabad and Junagarh had signed the
Instrument of Accession. Goa was with the Portuguese and
Pondicherry with the French.


» Galaxies:
Giant clusters of stars; our solar-system is part of galaxy called
'Milky-Way.' »Evolution of Space:
Geocentric Theory: It was founded by Ptolemy in 140 A.D. It states
that earth is at the centre of the universe.
Helio-centric Theory: It was propounded by Copernicus in 1453 A.D.
It states that all celestial body revolves around the sun.
William Herschel: It showed that the sun is a member of galaxy,
the Milky Way and placed at one corner of Milky Way.
Edwin Hubble (1925): He proved presence of other galaxies. He also
proved that galaxies are receding constantly from each other. With
the help of analyzing red shifty Doppler Effect), he also proved the
rate at which galaxies are receding.

» Big Bang Theory:

It was put forth by Abbe George Lemaitre. It states that the
receding movement of galaxies is the result of implosion. Big bang
occurred at least 12 billion years ago. Evidences: Discovery of back-
ground radiation proved by COBE, cosmic background experiment,
discovering uneven ripple of microwave radiation, which suggests
sudden explosion.

» Black- holes:
It is extremely concentrated matter. The pull of gravity is so
powerful that nothing, not even light, can emerge from it. So,
black-hole can't be seen. Black-hole formation indicates ultimate
death of a star. The collapsing star core (due to finishing up of fuel
hydrogen), imparts much energy to star exterior and explosion with
very high luminosity takes place. After the explosion the highly
dense residue of a comparatively smaller star. Mass less than equal
to 1.4 of solar mass is called as Chandrashekhar.

» Pulsating Theory:
It goes beyond Big-Bang theory. It says that receding nature of
galaxy will not continue for ever, and gravity would ultimately stop
expansion and thereafter galaxy will collapse inward and ultimately
forming pre-mordial substance once again.

» Event Horizon: Rim of the black-hole from which nothing could

escape. Across event-horizon matter and energy pass in only one
direction. Event-horizon indicates beginning of black-holes.


» Sun: 4 billion years old. Expected to glow with light and energy
to 4 billion year more, and thereafter, it is expected to become
white dwarf. 90% of the substance of the sun is hydrogen, 8%helium
and 2% other elements. -Nearest star to sun is Proxima Centauri (4,2
light years away). -Brightest star seen is Sirius or Dog-star (8.6
light years away). - Visible part of sun is known as photosphere.
Temperature of photosphere is 6000°C. Core-temperature of Sun is
over million of degree centigrade; sun's, lower atmosphere is called
chromosphere (red). Sun's upper part of at-mosphere is called
chroma, it is visible only during total solar eclipse.

» Sun- spots:
Sun throws hot material towards photosphere and these results in
sun-spots. These are transient dart marking on the visible surface
of the sun caused by a relatively cooler area and are seen between
5° and 35° North or South of the equator of the Sun. Temperature
of sun-spot is 20000 lower than the surrounding photosphere. Sun-
spot indicates volatility of sun. Sun-spots maxima and minima
occur periodically. Time interval between two successive sun-spots
maxima or minima is

» Solar- Flares:
Powerful eruptions or radiations around the sun or associated with
the sun-spot. This occur in the chromosphere of the sun. Solar-
flares emits intense short-wave radiation. That intersects with the
ionosphere of the earth. This may result in temporary period and
appearance of brilliant display of Aurora, at the higher latitudes of
earth closer to Arctic Circle and Antarctic Circles. Aurora is seen in
the ionosphere of the earth. Aurora, is seen more frequently during
sun-spot maximum period.

» Solar- Prominence: It uses gaseous eruption of the sun that

reach the corona of the sun and they are associated with the sun-
spot. They can be seen only during total solar eclipse because of
brightness of sun.

» Solar- wind:
Ionised gas found in the form of persistent stream of charged
particles blowing out of corona and sweeping over the whole solar
system. It is made up of plasma, i.e., ionised gas, mostly hydrogen
and helium containing an equal number of protons and electrons.
Solar wind blows at steady speed of400 km/sec.

» Pioneer-10:
It was the first man-made object to leave the solar system,
followed by Voyager- 1 and 2 which detected the presence of solar
wind at the Helio-pause, which is at the edge of the solar system.
» Quasars:
It stands for Quasi, stellar radio-sources. They are non-steller body
resembling star, emitting intense radiation. It is believed to be at
the edge of universe, considered as the farthest luminous

object from earth.

» Red- shift:
To observer on earth ultraviolet light from receding galaxies appear
as visible light emitted by galaxy will be detected in the infra-red
part of the spectrum. The change of colour is/ called red-shift, a
manifestation of the Doppler Effect.

» Pulsar ( Pulsating star):

It is neutron-star (star with mass 1.4 to 5 solar mass, in dyeing
stage), rotating on its axis at very high regularity emitting intense
radiation at regular intervals. They are distinguished from other
type of celestial radio sources, as their emission instead of being
constant over time scale of years consists of peiodic sequences of
brief pulses.

» Meteor:
It is smaller pieces of matters travelling at high speed in space.

» Meteorid:
If the meteor enters in earth's atmosphere, it is called meteorid.

» Meteorite:
If the meteorid can survive atmospheric friction and falls on the
ground, it is called meteorite.

» Meteor Shower:
When earth's atmosphere encounters the remains/debris of comet
or larger asteroids, the number of meteor that are observed each
hour increases giving the appearance of rain of stars. The annual
meteor shower reaches its peak on 12 August every year.

» Leonid Shower: It was a meteor shower witnessed from the

earth in November, 1998, most prominently in the far-eastern region
of the earth. This shower was due to disintegrated part of Temple-
Shuttle, that entered into earth atmosphere.

Terrestrial and Jovian Planets
Terrestrial planet are smaller in size; rocky in structure; slow rotation
on the axis and have lesser satellite. Inner terrestrial planets are:
Mercury, Venus, Earth, Mars.
Jovian planets are huge in size; spin very fast and have higher
number of satellites. Outer or Jovian planets are: Jupiters, Saturn,
Uranus, Neptune, and Pluto.
- Earth is the densest of all the planets; Saturn has the lowest
density (less than water 0.5)
- Mercury is closest to the sun.
- Sequence of planets' distance from the sun: Mercury< Venus<
Earth< Mars< Jupiter< Saturn< Uranus< Pluto traces elongated
elliptical orbit.
So, from 1980-1999, the distance of Neptune was more than Pluto.
- Uranus and Venus rotates retrograde (i.e., from east to west),
other planet rotates in the same way as earth (from west to east).
- Venus is the only planet whose period of rotation (243 days) is
longer than the period of revolution (225 days) around the sun.
- Uranus is tilted at 90°, so it almost rolls around the sun. Mars
tilted at 23° in the same way as the earth, so experi¬ences four
seasons as earth.
- Mercury is the hottest planet; Venus is the second hottest planet
(600°C), atmosphere mainly made of C02 (90%).
- Mars glows with reddish light because of high iron content; it has
thin atmosphere (containing free oxygen at very low-level), also has
frozen water at polar region. Due to these factors, Mars is
considered as the first planet that will be colonised.
- Jupiter's internal temperature of Jupiter is very high, close to
starting nuclear fusion. Mainly hydrogen is present around the
- Saturn is the second largest planet; it looks yellowish light (due
to the presence of ammonia). Ring around Saturn is made up of
dust particles, frozen ice, and frozen ammonia.

-Uranus grows with blue light.

- Neptune grows with the greenish blue light due to presence of
- Pluto is the coldest, darkest, and the strongest planet. It is
smaller in size and does not fall in giant planet category

» Satellite:
- Mercury and Venus have no satellite.
- Earth has one satellite: moon
- Mars has two satellite: Deimos and Phobos.
- Jupiter has 19 satellites, one of the satellite known is Europa,
containing large number of deep oceans. It contains possibility of
extra-terrestrial life.
- Saturn has 21 satellites (10 discovered by Voyage 1&2)
- Uranus has 17 satellite (12 discovered by Voyage 1&2)
- Neptune has 11,-one of this is tital.
- Pluto's satellite is Charon.

» Asteroids:
Minor planets of the solar system, small rocky structure, revolving
around sun mostly between Mars and Jupiter. These are considered
as debris of large planets existing between Mars and Jupiter as is
evident from the distance between them.
Earth has long history of collision with: (i) comets, and (ii) asteroids.
Sedimentary rocks of 65 million years ago have high iridium content
which gives evidence of collision of celestial body.
- Miss distance: a celestial body coming closer beyond 9,00,000 km,
may not strike earth. This is called as miss distance.

» Comets:
Member of the solar system, found revolving around the sun
beyond the path of Pluto, generally, at outer edges of the solar
Comets are made of pre-mordial substance from which solar
system are made. Since, they are undisturbed due to far location,
study of comets may give more information about evolution of
earth or other planets. Comets are made up of frozen ammonia,
dust par¬ticles and ice crystals and other chemicals.
- Halley Comet: appears after a period of 76 years.
- Halle Bopp: one of the larg¬est comet with 40 km diameter.
- Comet Swift Turtle: calculated to collide on 14 Aug.2126 A.D. in
- Comets making journey towards sun develop small head and long
tail, due to heat only as it approaches Jupiter. Tail extending
millions of kilometers in the outer space. Tail always point away
from the sun. Solar wind is responsible for the formation of tails
since solar winds goes away from the sun.

» Syzygy:
It is the alignment of three celestial bodies along a straight line;
Viewed from one of these bodies, the other two will either be in
conjunction or in opposition. An inferior planet, whose orbit lies
inside that of earth, can, in reference to the sun as seen from the
earth, be either in inferior conjunction or in superior conjunction;
unlike a superior planet, whose orbit lies outside the earth's, and
unlike the moon, it can never be in opposition to the sun as seen
from the earth
-Looks bluish white, body due to the presence of ocean and ice-
- Earth's core is mainly made up of iron and nickle; mantle is
mostly solid.Outer core due to its movement gives magnetic field of
earth manifested in Van-alien Radiation bell. Van-Allen Radiation
belts are two concentric circles. Inner belt is more energetic and
situated at 3000 km above the equator. Outer concentric circle is
less energetic and found at 16000 km above the earth. Van-Allen
radiation belts are formed due to concentration of solar-winds.

Fastest Rotational Period (descending order) -Jupiter > Saturn >

Neptune > Uranus > Earth > Mars > Pluto > Mercury > Venus

Density (Highest to Lowest) -Earth > Mercury > Venus > Mars >
Neptune > Jupiter > Uranus > Saturn

Size (Biggest to Smallest) -Jupiter > Saturn > Uranus > Neptune >
Earth > Venus > Mars > Mercury > Pluto

Minerals and Rocks

The Crust:
There are eight abundant ele-
ments in the earths' crust:
Oxygen 47%
Silicon 28%
Aluminium 8.1%
Iron 6%
Magnesium 4%
Calcium 2.4%
Potassium 2.3%
Sodium 2.1%
There are eight important elements in the whole earth :
Iron 35%
Oxygen 30%
Silicon 15%
Magnesium 13%
Nickel 2.4%
Sulphur 1.9%
Calcium 1.1%
Aluminium 1.1%

Rocks are aggregates of mineral grains or crystals. They are
classified into three major types according to origin: (1) igneous, (2)
sedimentary, and (3) metamorphic.

( I) Igneous rocks are those that solidify from a melt (called

magma, a molten mixture of rock-forming minerals and usually
volatiles such as gases and steam). Since their constituent minerals
are crystallized from molten material, igneous rocks are formed at
high temperatures.

Basic Characteristics: 1.These are solidified from a molten

magma and water cannot percolate through them.
2.They usually do not occur in distinct beds or strata like
sedimentary rocks.
3.Igneous rocks are generally not fossiliferous.
4.Igneous rocks are generally granular and crystalline.
5.It is less affected by chemical weathering as the water does not
percolate in them easily.
6.These rocks are generally weathered by mechanical weathering.

Most of the igneous rocks consist of silicate minerals: (a) Acidic

when 65 to 85 per cent: acid igneous lack in iron.
and magnesium; quartz and feldspar are common minerals and
granite is the common rock.
(b) basic igneous rocks with 45 to 60 per cent silica content are
dominated by ferromag-nesium minerals and have very low amount
of feldspar and basalt, gabbro, dolerite are the examples.
(c) Intermediate igneous rocks have 45 per cent silica and examples
are diorite and andesite.
(d) Ultra-basic igneous rocks have less than 45 per cent silica and
example is Peridotite. The great majority of the igneous rocks are
composed of silicate minerals and oxygen.

>The major mineralogical components of igneous rocks can be

divided into two groups: felsic (from feldspar and silica) and mafic
(from magnesium and ferrous iron).
>The felsic minerals include quartz, tridymite, cristo-balite, feldspars
(plagioclase and alkali feldspar), feldsp-athoids(nephelihe and
leucite), muscovite, and corundum. y Because felsic minerals lack
iron and magnesium, they are generally light in colour and
consequently are referred to as leucocratic.
> The mafic minerals include olivine, pyroxenes, amph-iboles, and
biotites, all of which are dark in colour.
> Supersaturated minerals include quartz and its polymorphs and a
low-calcium orthorhombic pyroxene (called hyper-sthene).
> Extrusive igneous rocks are: Rhyolite (felsic minerals, typically
quartz, feldspars, and mica); Andesite (felsic minerals without quartz,
usually including plagioclase feldspar and amphibole); Basalt (mafic
minerals, typically plagioclase feldspar, pyroxene and olivine).
> Intrusive igneous rocks are: Granite, Diorite, Gabbro and Peridotite.
>Igneous rocks has two parts: Intrusive and Extrusive.

Intrusive has seven parts: l. Plutonic: deep-seated origin; rocks

have coarse grain size; diorite, gabbro, granite, peridotite and
syenite are examples. The largest partially exposed pluton is a

2. Hypabyssal: originates due to cooling and solidification of rising

3. Batholith: large body of igneous rock formed beneath the Earth's
surface by the intrusion and solidification of magma.A well-known
batho¬lith is located in the Sierra Nevada range of California, U.S.;
Murha pahar at Ranchi is another example.

4. Laccolith: in geology, any of a type of igneous intrusion that has

split apart two strata, resulting in a domelike structure; the floor of
the structure is usually horizontal. A laccolith is often smaller than
a stock. A well-known example of a laccolith is found in the Henry
Mountains, Utah.

5. Sill : also called sheet-tabular igneous intrusion emplaced

parallel to the bedding of the enclosing rock. Although they may
have vertical to horizontal orientations, nearly horizontal sills are
the most common.

6. Stocks: with outcrop and mainly composed of granite.

7. Dykes: sheet-like body which rises upward from a magma

chamber and cuts discordantly through the bedding plane of the
country rock. Dyke of Zimbabwe is the largest example.

Extrusive is of two types : Explosive type and Quiet Type:

Bombs are big fragments; lapilli peas size; tuffs are volcanic
materials; breccia or agglomerates mixture of smaller and larger

> Igneous Rocks are divided into six types on the basis of textual
(1) Pegmatitic igneous rocks (very coarse-grained like pegmititic
granites, pegmatitic diorite, pegmatitic synite)
(2) Phaneritic igneous rocks (coarse-grained like granites, diorites)
(3)Aphanitic igneous rocks
(fine-grained rocks like basalt, felsite, rocks of sills and dykes)
(4)Glassy igneous rocks (grainless like pitch stones, obsidians,
pumice, perlite)
(5)Porphyritic igneous rocks (mixed-grained).
(6)FragmentaI igneous rocks (consisting of bombs, breccia, volcanic
dusts, tuffs).

>Coarse- or medium-grained intrusive igneous rock that is rich in
quartz and feldspar; it is the most common plutonic rock of the
Earth's crust, forming by the cooling of magma (silicate melt) at

>Granite may occur in dikes or sills.

>Rocks containing less than 20 percent quartz are almost never
named granite, and rocks containing more than 20 percent (by
volume) of dark, or ferromagnesian, minerals are also seldom called

>The minor essential minerals of granite may include muscovite,

biotite, amphi-bole, or pyroxene.
> Mineral composition of granite: Feldspar(52.3%); Quartz(31.3%); Mica
(11.5%); Hornblende (2.4 %); Iron (2.0%) and others (0.55%)

>Granites are generally resistant to erosion but when the rocks are
well jointed, they are easily weathered and very peculiar landform
is generated, called tors

> Extrusive igneous (volcanic) rock that is low in silica content, dark
in colour, and comparatively rich in iron and magnesium.
> Some basajis are quite glassy (tachylytes), and many are very
fine-grained and compact; it is more usual, however, for them to
exhibit porphyritic structure, with larger crystals (phenocrysts) of
olivine, augite, or feldspar in a finely crystalline matrix (ground-
> Olivine and augite are the most common porphyritic minerals in
basalts; porphyritic plagioclase feldspars are also found. Basaltic
lavas are frequently spongy or pumiceous; the steam cavities
become filled with secondary minerals such as calcite, chlorite, and
> Basalts may be broadly classified on a chemical and petrographic
basis into two main groups: the calc-alkali and the alkali basalts;
> Normal alkali basalt contains olivine and, comm¬only,
adiopsidicortitaniferous augite.
> Feldslpar is most dominant (46.2%); Augite (36.9%); Olivine (7.6 per
cent); Mineral Iron (9.5 per cent).
(2) Sedimentary rocks:
Sedimentary rocks are produced by the weathering of pre-existing
rocks and the subsequent transportation and deposition of the

Important characteristics: 1. It contains strata or layers.

2.The layers are rarely horizontal and generally tilted due to lateral
compressive and tensile forces.

3.It is formed of sediments derived from the older rocks, plants and
animals remains.

4. It covers the 75 per cent of the surface area of the globe.

5.Most of the sedimentary rocks are permeable and porous.

6.1t is characterised by different sizes of joints. These are generally

perpendicular to the bedding plains.

7.The riverine sedimentary rocks develop cracks when exposed to

the sun. These cracks are generally of polygonal shape.

8. The most favourable sites of their formation is shallow sea floor

hording continents.

9.The connecting plane bet¬ween two consecutive beds or layers of

sedimentary rocks is called 'bedding plane'. The uniformity of two
beds along a bedding plane is called conformity (i.e when beds are
similar in all respect).

When two consecutive beds are not uniform or conformal, the

structure is called unconformity. In fact, 'an unconformity is a break
in a stratigraphic sequence resu¬lting from a change in conditions
that caused deposition to cease for a considerable time'. There are
several types of unconformity e-g
(i) non-conformity ( where sedimentary rocks succeed igneous or
metamorphic rocks),
(ii) angular unconformity (where horizontal sedimentary beds are
deposited over previously folded or tilted strata),
(iii) disconformity ( where two conformable beds are seperated by
mere changes of sediment type),
(iv) paraconformity ( where two sets of conformable beds are
separted by same types of sediments) etc.

10. Sedimentation units in the sedimentary rocks having a thickness

of greater than 1cm are called beds. The upper and lower surfaces
of a bed are called bedding planes or bounding planes. Sometimes
the lower surface of a bed is called sole while the upper surface is
called upper bedding surface.There are further sedimentary units
within a bed. The units having a thickness of more than 1 cm are
called as layers or strata whereas the units below 1 cm thickness
are known as laminae. The several strata and laminae makeup a
bed. When the beds are deposited at an angle to the depositional
surface, they are called cross-beds and the general phenomena of
inclined layers are called cross-lamination or cross-bedding.

11.Soft muds and alluviam deposited by the rivers during flood

period develop cracks when baked in the sun. These cracks are
generally of polygonal shapes. Such cracks are called mud cracks
or sun cracks.

12.Most of the sedimentary rocks are permeable and porous but a

few of them are also non-porous and impermeable. The porosity of
the rocks depends upon the ratio between the voids and the
volume of a given rock mass. l,Clastic(Composed of rock and
mineral fragments)

Rock Type - Sandstone (Cemented sand grains, Conglomerate

(Sand-stone with pebbles of hard rock), Mudstone(Silt and clay with
some sand), Clay-stone( Clay ), Shale (Clay, broken into flat flakes
and plates, with thin laminite;rich in organic material; found in
lagoons, shallow seas and tidal flats), Siltstones (Fine grained clastic
rock; carried by rivers). 2.Chemically Precipitated (From sea water or
salty inla¬nd lakes)
Rock Type - Limestone (Calcium Carbonate; formed by sea or lake),
Dolomite (Magnesium and calcium carbonate ),Chert(Silica, a non-
crystalline form of quartz), Evaporites (Minerals formed by
evaporation of salty solutions in shallow inland lakes or coastal
lagoons). 3.Organic (Formation due to organic material). Rock Type -
Coal (It is formed from peat), Petroleum (It is a mineral fuel; found
in liquid hydrocarbon), Natural Gas( It is a mineral fuel; a gaseous

There are three major categories in which sedimentary rocks are

recognized: (l)terrigenous clastic sedimentary rocks, (2)carbonates
(lime-stone and dolomite), and (3)non- carbonate chemical
sedimentary rocks. Terrigenous clastic sedimentary rocks are
composed of the detrital fragments of preexisting rocks and
minerals and are conventionally considered to be equivalent to
clastic sedimentary rocks in general. Because most of the clasts are
rich in silica, they are also referred to as siliciclastic sedimentary
rocks. Silicic-lastics are further subdivided on the basis of clast
diameter into conglomerate and breccia, sandstone, siltstone, and
finer-than-silt-sized mudrock (shale, claystone, and mudstone). The
carbonates, limestones arid dolomites, consist of the minerals
aragonite, calcite, and dolomite.

Limestones and dolostones (dolomites) make up the bulk of the

nonterrigenous sedimentary rocks. Limestones are for the most part
primary carbonate rocks. They consist of 50 percent or more calcite
and aragonite. Dolomites are mainly produced by the secondary
alteration or replacement of limestones; i.e., the mineral dolomite
replaces the calcite and aragonite minerals in limestones during

Sandstones are siliciclastic sedimentary rocks. There are three

basic components of sandstones:
(1) Detrital grains, mainly transported, sand-size minerals such as
quartz and feldspar,
(2) A detrital matrix of clay or mud, which is absent in "clean"
sandstones, and

(3) a cement that is chemically precipitated in crystalline form from

solution and that serves to fill up original pore spaces.
> The colour of a sandstone depends on its detrital grains and
bonding material. Mudrocks : It includes all siliciclastic sedimentary
rocks composed of silt and clay-size particles: siltstone (1/16
millimetre to 1/256 millimetre diameters), claystone (less than 1/256
millimetre), and mudstone (a mix of silt and clay).
> Shale refers specifically to mudrocks that regularly exhibit
lamination or fissility or both. Mudrocks are also loosely referred to
as both lutites and pelites and as argillaceous sedimentary rocks.

> Coal: Coals are the most abundant organic-rich sedimentary

> With increasing compaction and carbon content, peat can be
transformed into the various kinds of coal: initially brown coal or
lignite, then soft or bituminous coal, and finally, with metamorphism,
hard or anthracite coal. In the geologic record, coal occurs in beds,
called seams, which are blanketlike coal deposits a few centimetres
to metres or hundreds of metres thick.
> Many coal seams occur within cyclothems, rhythmic successions
of sandstone, mudrock, and limestone in which nonmarine units are
regularly and systematically overlain by an underclay, the coal
seam itself, and then various marine lithologies.
> Oil and natural gas: Major natural gas varieties, include
methane, ethane, propane, and butane.
> These natural gases are commonly, though not invariably,
intimately assoc¬iated with the various liquid hydrocarbons-mainly
liquid paraffins, napthenes, and aromatics that collectively constitute

(3) Metamorphic rocks are those formed by changes in pre-

existing rocks under the influence of high temperature, pressure,
and chemically active solutions. The changes can be chemical
(compositional) and physical (textural) in character.

Features of Metamorphic:
1. The change is due to change in texture and mineral composition
of the pre-existing rocks.

2. After metamorphism, some rocks become more harder than its

original structure : marble is harder than limestone, quartzite from
sandstone, and diamond from carbon.

3. They do not have fossils

4. The coarse-grained metamorphic rocks are imperfectly foliated ,

e.g, gneises from granites while fine-grained metamorphic rocks are
perfectly foliated, for example schist from shales.

5. It may split along the bedding planes, for example mica-schist.

6. Some of them are impervious (marble and slate) and some of

them are previous for example gneiss.

7. Most of it comprises bands of granular quartz and felspar.

Rock Type Description

1. Slate: Shale exposed to heat and pressure that splits into hard
flat plates.
2. Schist: Shale exposed to intense heat and pressure that shows
the evidence of shearing
3. Quartzite: Sandstone that is welded by a silica cement into a
very hard rock of solid quartz.
4. Marble: Limestone exposed to heat and pressure, resulting in
larger more uniform crystals.
5. Gnesis: Rock resulting from the exposure of clastic sedimentary
or intrusive igneous rocks to heat and pressure.
Chemical Composition :
Despite the wide variety of igneous and sedimentary rock types
that can recrystallize into metamorphic rocks, most metamorphic
rocks can be described with reference to only four chemical
systems: pelitic, calcareous, felsic, and mafic.
(1) Pelitic rocks are derived from mudstone (shale) protoliths and
are rich in potassium (K), aluminum (Al),
silicon (Si), iron (Fe), magnesium (Mg), and water (H20), with lesser
amounts of manganese (Mn), titanium (Ti), calcium. (Ca), and other
(2) Calcareous rocks are formed from a variety of chemical and
detrital sedi¬ments such as limestone, dolostone etc. and are
largely composed of calcium oxide (CaO), magnesium oxide (MgO),
and carbon dioxide (C02), with varying amounts of aluminum, silicon,
iron, and water.
(3) Felsic rocks can be produced by metamorphism of both
igneous and sedimentary protoliths (e.g.,granite and arkose,
respectively) and are rich in silicon, sodium, potassium, calcium,
aluminum, and lesser amounts of iron and magnesium.
(4) Mafic rocks derive from basalt protoliths and some
volcanogenic sediments and contain an abundance of iron,
magnesium, calcium, silicon, and aluminum.

Rock composition: Thermodynamics of metamorphic assemblages

1. The number of mineral phases that can coexist stably in a
metamorphic rock at a particular set of pressure-temperature
conditions is given by the Gibbs phase rule.
2. A typical pelitic rock made up of the six chemical components
silica, aluminum oxide, ferrous oxide, magnesium oxide, potash, and
water would contain no more than six minerals; the identity of
those minerals would be controlled by the pressure and
temperature at which recrystallization occurred.
3. The process of chemical mixing is referred to as metasomatism.

Distribution metamorphic rocks: The central and often dominant

feature of most continents is their vast Precambrian-shield area;
examples include the Canadian Shield, Brazilian Shield, African
Shield, and Australian Shield. They consist of vast areas of granitic
or granodioritic gneisses. Inside them, between them, and
overlapping onto them are belts of sedimentary rocks. These rocks
are frequently metamorphosed in the greenschist, amphibolite, and
granulite facies. The Caledonian orogeny (at the close of the
Silurian Period) produced tectonic metamorphic events along the
east coast of North America! Greenland, the British Isles,
Fennoscandia, Central Asia, and Australia. The Hercynian, or
Variscan, orogeny followed about 300 million years ago, affecting
subparallel regions and the Urals and European Alps. The rock
cycle: It reflects the basic relationships among igneous,
metamorphic, and sedimentary rocks.
Erosion includes weathering (the physical and chemical breakdown
of minerals) and transportation to a site of deposition. Diagenesis is
the process of forming sedimentary rock by compaction and natural
cementation of grains, or crystallization from water or solutions, or
recrystallization. The conversion of sediment to rock is termed

Earth' s Interior
Sources for the study of Earth's Interior:-1. Artificial Sources -
(a) Density
(b) Pressure
(c) Temperature
(d) Meteorites

(a) Average Density of Earth : 5.52 g/cm .Average Density of Earth's

crust:2.6 to 3.3 g/cm This indicates higher density below the crust
and because the acceleration due to gravity is quite uniform
everywhere therefore mass is distributed uniformly in the form of
concentric layers.
(b) Pressure in itself is not responsible for the increase in density,
rather the core is composed of intrinsically heavy metallic materials
of high density.
(c) Temperature increases at the rate of 2° to 3°C on every 100 m
100 km 1100°C
400-700km ISOO-to WC
2900 km 3700"C
5100 km 4300"C (d) Meteorites (hitting earth) allow us to determine
the density, mineralogy and chemistry of the nickel iron core of
bodies having a similar composition to that of the earth.
2. Theories related to the origin of earth -Planetesimal, Tidal and
Nebular Hypothesis
3. Natural sources
(a) Vulcanicity
(b) Evidences from Seismology
Seismology - Study of seismic waves generated during earthquakes.

Seismic waves are of three types:-

1. Primary (Longitudinal or Compressional or 'P') waves-to and fro
motion of particles in line of the propagation of the ray. These
waves can pass through both the solid and the liquid medium
2. Secondary (transverse or distortional or S) waves-particles move
at right angles to the rays. These waves cannot pass through the
liquid. 3. Surface (Long-Period or 'L') waves.

-Affect only the surface of the earth and covers the longest
distance of all seismic waves.
It has lower speed than P and S waves but is of most violent and
destructive nature. These waves get reflected and refracted while
passing through a body having hetero¬geneous composition and
varying density zones at the discontinuities. Many such
discontinuities are expressed as follows -1.Gutenberg discontinuity
-Between outer liquid core and the solid mantle
2. Mohorovicic discontinuity-Between crust and mantle.
3. Conrad discontinuity- Between oceanic (Basaltic or SIMA layer)
and continental (Granites or SIAL layer) Crust- Up to 30-40 km
beneath the continents (greater depth in mountainous regions).
- 10 km deep beneath the oceans

MANTLE - Below the crust and up to 2900 km. It is a solid layer.

CORE - Outer core is liquid in state where as inner core is solid.
Chemically the earth can be divided into following layers:

1. SIAL-
Just below outer sedimentary cover.
> Composed mainly of granites

>Density - 2.9
>50 to 300km thick.

>Rich in silica and aluminium

>It forms the continental layer.

> Acidic in nature
Silicates mainly present are those of sodium, potassium and

2. SIMA.
> Below SIAL
> Composed mainly of basalt
> Source of magma and lava
> Rich in silica and magne¬sium
> Density-2.9 to 4.7
> Thickness - 1000 to 2000 km
> Basic in nature
> Silicate mainly present are those of magnesium, calcium and Iron.

3. NIFE -
> Below SIMA
> Rich in nickel and iron
> Very high density
> Diameter of this layer - 6880 km
> Indicates magnetic property of the earth's interior Mechanically
the earth can be divided into following layers

>The crust and the upper
mantle (40 to 80 km) move as
a unit known as Lithosphere
> Divided into several large fragments called plates.
> Moves over Asthenosphere

> Beneath Lithosphere and up to 300km of depth
>Low velocity zone (that is slow speed of seismic ways in this
>Plastic or less viscous (softer, more pliable).

> Below Asthenosphere
> Whole mantle apart from the portion lying in Asthenosphere and

> It comprises core.
> Outer layer is liquid in state where as the inner core is solid.

1. Tectonics is concerned with the form, pattern and evolution of the
globe's major features such as mountain ranges, pla¬teaus, fold
belts and island arcs.
2. Structural Geology: It concerns smaller structures such as
anticlines, faults and joints.
3. Tectogenesis: It means the study of deformation.

4.Tectostasy and Tectodynamic: J Tricart divided tectonics into two

categories: tectostatic and tectodynamic types. Tectostasy refers to
the actual disposition of existing strata and tectodynamism refers
to the deformations that the rocks underwent at the given time

Uniclinal or Homoclinal Structure: It represents inclined rock strata

at uniform dip angle caused by general regional tilt.
They are subjected to differential erosion wherein resistant rocks
are less eroded than soft rocks.
The differential erosion of dipping strata of varying resistance gives
birth to trellis drainage pattern and a few typical topographic
features such as scrap and vale topography, cuesta and hogback
ridges, etc.

Cuesta: also called Homoclinal Ridge, physical feature that has a

steep cliff or escarpment on one side and a gentle dip or back
slope on the other.
This landform occurs in areas of tilted strata and is caused by the
differential weathering and erosion of the hard capping layer and
the soft underlying cliff maker, which erodes more rapidly. Cuestas
with dip slopes of 40°-45° are usually called hogback ridges. Cuesta
escarpments tend to be cut into rough, hilly country with numerous
ravines and steep valleys, because the short streams flowing down
the steep scarp face rapid erosion. The back slopes commonly are
Cuestas are common in the United States, notably in Ari¬zona and
New Mexico and along the Atlantic and Gulf coasts.

Buttes : The progressive dissection of twin cuestas results in the

formation of isolated flat-topped.

Hogback: The escarpments or ridges having symetrical slopes on

both sides are called hogback ridges.

Strike vales: Rivers form their valleys along soft rock beds due to
comparatively more erosion than the resistant rock beds giving
birth to the formation of strike vales.

Plate tectonics

> Plates: Broad rigid segments of lithosphere that floats on the

underlying Asthenosphere.
> Thickness: 100- 150 km Tectonic activity -Breaking and bending of
lithosphere and boundary interactions between plates.
Plate tectonics -
Scientific achievement of the decades of 1960s.
> Based upon 2 concepts -Continental drift and Sea floor spreading.
> Term 'PLATE' -1st used by Canadian Geophysicist J.T. Wilson (1965).
> W.J. Morgan and Le Pichon elaborated the concept of plate
tectonics in 1968.
> The concept is based upon the theories of continental drift,
paleomagnetism and sea-floor spreading.

Continental Drift:
This theory was propounded by Wegner who was trying to explain
the past climatic changes in different regions. His theory depended
upon the evidences like the juxtafixation of the opposite coast of
Atlantic, presence of coalfields in temperate regions when they
could only be formed in the tropical regions, evidences left by the
glacial flow of the past, evidences of fossil fuels and similarity in
the lithology of the rock structure on the opposite coast of the
Atlantic. According to Wegner, the continents after breaking away
from the Pangea(the unified landmass) moved along two directions
- (l)equatorward movement (2)westward movement. The
equatorward movement of continental blocks was caused by
gravitational differential force and force of buoyancy. The westward
movement of the continents was caused by the tidal force of the
sun and the moon.
According to Wegner the Pangea, that is, the complete landmass as
it was before any disruption, began to sepa¬rate into
Gondwanaland and Angaraland in the Carboniferous period. The
intervening space between these two giant continental blocks was
filled up with water and the resultant water body was called Tethys
Sea, Gondwanaland was disrupted during Cretaceous period and
Indian Peninsula, Madagascar, Australia and Antarctica broke away
from the Gondwana-landand drifted apart under the impact of tidal
force of the sun and the moon. Similarly N. America broke away
from Angaraland and drifted westward due to tidal force. Similarly,
South America broke away from Africa and moved westward under
the impact of the tidal force.
Wegner was later criticized for his illogical consideration of the
nature of forces behind the continental drift. Later on the findings
associated with sea-floor spreading and paleomagnetism clearified
the real forces behind the movement of continents.

Hess' s seafloor- spreadine model:

In this paper Hess, drawing on Holmes's model of convective flow
in the mantle, suggested that the mid-ocean ridges were the
surface expressions of rising and diverging convective flow while
trenches and Benioff zones with their associated island arcs marked
descending limbs. At the ridge crests new oceanic crust would be
generated and then carried away laterally to cool, subside, and
finally be destroyed in the nearest trenches.

Supported and developed by Robert S. Dietz, J. Tuzo Wilson and

Lynn R. Sykes, an American seismologist, showed that the motions
deduced from earthquakes on transform faults conform to the
directions of motion postulated by Wilson and are opposite those
observed on a transform fault.

A magnetic survey of the eastern Pacific floor off the coast of

Oregon and California had been published in 1961 by two
geophysicists, Arthur D. Raff and Ronald G. Mason.

Paleomagnetism It refers to the preservation of magnetic

properties in the older rocks of the earth. It gets magnetized
depending on the presence of iron content in the rock and is
preserved (frozen at temperature below Curie point, which is
generally 600 degree C.

► The direction and inclina¬tion of .the magnetic field of rocks of

different ages have been measured from rock samples collected
from all. over the world, and this information can be used to as
certain the location of the Earth's magnetic pole at the time when
those rocks were formed. The direction of the magnetic field of a
given rock sample indicates the direction in which the magnetic
pole of the Earth lay when the rock formed, while the inclination of
the magnetic field of the rock indicates how far away from the
collection site the magnetic pole was located. For example, if the
inclination of the magnetic field is nearly horizontal, the magnetic
pole of the Earth must have been 90 great circle degrees away
from the collection site because the site was near the magnetic
equator. On the other hand, if the inclination of the magnetic field
of a rock is vertical, the collection site would have been located at
or near the Earth's magnetic pole at the time of rock formation. It
is assumed that if enough rock samples of a given age are
averaged together, the average position of the magnetic pole will
be the same as the average position of the Earth's rotational pole.
Thus, paleomagnetic poles provide the location of the planet's
rotational pole.

► The geocentric axial di-pole magnetic field represents 95 per

cent of earth's total magnetism. Global system of Lithosphere
plates: Depending upon the intensity of boundary activity plates are
di¬vided into greater plates, lesser plates and sub-plates. Greater
plates -Pacific, American (N and S), European (having Persian sub-
plate), African (having Somalia sub-plate), Australian-Indian and
Antarctic plates. Lesser plates -Nazca, Cocos, Philippines, Caribbean,
Arabian, Juan de Fucca, Caroline, Bismark, Scotia plates. Movement
of Plates -Constantly in motion with respect to each other and to
Earth's axis of rotation. Plate velocity varies all along the sphere of
the Earth.

Plate Tectonics

Because all the plates move with different velocities in different

directions and manner, therefore they are in dynamic action with
respect to each other as well as along the Plate Boundaries. There
are three Types of Plate boundaries:-

1. Constructive Margin or Divergent Plate Boundary.

-Zones of tension, where the lithosphere splits and moves apart.
-Hot magma comes up through cracks and forms new crusts;
therefore it is constructive in nature.
-Thus rifting of continents and formation of ocean basins take
-This involves a series of stages:-

(i) Intracontinental Rifting - Rift is formed due to tension and

magma rises into it.

(ii)Interplate thinning - Hot magma rises and melts the lithosphere

thereby de opening the rift. If rift deepens sufficiently, sea water
may enter (e.g. Red Sea).
(iii)Ocean ridge formation- Finally magma wells into the rift at an
increasing rate and the land-mass is gradually separated into two
parts forming a ridge (e.g. Mid -Atlantic Ridge and the Carlsberg
ridge in the Indian Ocean).
-Characterized by volcanic activity with fissure eruptions; formation
of new crust, submarine mountains, ridges and rises and occurrence
of shallow foci earthquakes.

2. Destructive margin or Convergent Plate Boundary

When the plates collide, the leading edge of one (the plate having
higher density) is bent downward, allowing it to descend beneath
the other. Upon entering the hot asthenosphere, the plunging plate
is heated, melted and is completely assimilated in the upper
mantle. Since one of the plates is destroyed here, this boundary is
known as convergent destructive margin, 0cean -There may be
different Collision Rising: types of collisions depending upon whether
the crust of the plate is continental or oceanic:-
(i)Oeean -ocean collision(e.g. collision of Pacific and European
beneath the N.American plate).

-Characterized by mountain building, rock deformation,

metamorphism, earthquakes and volcanic activity.

-Slabs of oceanic crust along with sediments are scraped off by the
over-riding continental material and are incorporated in a mass of
complex mixture of rocks called a melange. Within the melange,
distinctive assemblage of deep-sea sediments, submarine lavas,
peri-dotite and gabbro all together formanophiolite suite.
(iii)Continent -continent collision
-When two plates carrying continental crust collides (e.g. Indo-
Tibetan collision) Characterised by mountain building, ophiolite suite,
earthquakes and remnants of past volcanic activity.

-Two continental plates approach each other and their oceanic

crusts get subducted one below the other .After oceanic crust of
one is completely consumed; the oceanic crust of the other is
con¬sumed into the mantle. Now, continental crusts of each collide.
These are low density crusts and therefore do not subduct, rather
because of the convergence and simultaneous buoyancy effect
upliftment is generated. (E.g. Tibetan Plateau)

-Zone where the two continental crusts are plastered is known as

the SUTURE Zone (e.g. Indus - Tsangpo suture zone).

3. Conservative Margin ( Parallel or Transform fault Boundary)

-At conservative margin the plates slide past each other without
the formation of new crust. It is generally formed at diverging
boundaries (e.g. MOR) where different parts of plates move with
different velocity resulting in formation of faults known as Transform
fault(e.g. San Andreas fault).

EARTH' S MOVEMENT: Endogenetic forces:

The forces coming from within the earth are called as endogenetic
forces which cause two types of movements in the earth, viz, (i)
Horizontal movements, and (ii) Vertical movements. These
movements motored by the endogenetic forces introduce various
types of vertical irregularities which give birth to numerous varieties
of relief features on the earth's surface, eg., mountains, plateaus,
plains, lakes, faults, folds, etc. On an average, the origin of
endogenetic forces is related to thermal conditions of the interior of
earth. Generally, the endogenetic forces and related horizontal and
vertical movements are caused due to contraction and expansion of
rocks' because of varying thermal conditions and temperature
changes inside the earth. The endogenetic forces and movements
are divided, on the basis of intensity, into two major categories:

(i) Sudden forces

(ii) Diastrophic forces

Sudden forces are the result of long period preparation deep within
the earth. Only their cumulative effects on the earth's surface are
quick and sudden. Geologically, these sudden forces are termed as
'constructive forces' because these create certain relief features on
the earth's surface.

Diastrophic forces include both vertical and horizontal movements

which are caused due to forces deep within the earth. These
diastrophic forces operate very slowly and their effects become
discernable after thousands and millions of years. These forces also
termed as constructive forces, affect larger areas of the globe and
Produce meso-level reliefs, for example, mountains, plateau, plains,
lakes, big faults, etc. These diastrophic forces are further subdivided
into two groups, namely, epeirogenetic movements and orogenetic

( A) Epeirogenetic movements: Epeirogenetic word consists of two

words, viz: 'epiros' (meaning thereby con-tinent) and 'genesis'
(meaning thereby original). Epeirogenetic movement causes
upliftment and subsidence of continental masses through upward
movements are, infact, vertical movements. These forces and
resultant movements affect larger parts of the continents. These are
further divided into two types: upward movement and downward

( B) Orogenetic movement: The word orogenetic has been derived

from two Greek words, 'pros' (meaning thereby mountain) and
'genesis' (meaning thereby origin or formation). Orogenetic
movement is caused due to endogenetic forces working in
horizontal movements. Horizontal forces and movements are also
called as tangential forces. Orogenetic or horizontal forces work in
two ways, namely, (i) in opposite direction, and (ii) towards each
other. This is called 'tensional force' when it operates in opposite
directions. Such type of force and movement are also called as
divergent forces. Thus, tensional forces create rupture, cracks,
fracture and faults in the crustal parts of the earth. The-force when
operates face to face, is called compression force or convergent
force. Compressional force causes crustal bending leading to the
formation of fields or crustal warping leading to local rise or
subsidence of crustal parts. Crustal bending: When horizontal forces
work face to face, the crustal rocks are bent due to resistant
compressional and tangential forces. It is in two ways: (i) warping,
and (ii) folding. The process of crustal warping affects larger areas
of the crust wherein the crustal parts are either warped
(raise),upward or downward. The upward rise of the crustal part due
to compressive force resulting from convergent horizontal
movement is called upwarping. While the bending of the crustal
part downward in the form of a basin or depression is called down

Folds are wave-like bends formed due to tangential compressive
forces resulting from horizontal movement caused by the
endogenetic force originating deep within the earth. The two sides
of a fold are called limbs of the fold. The limb which is shared
companion syncline is called middle limb. The plane which Dissects
the angle between the two limbs or middle limb of the syncline is
called the axis of fold or axial plane. On the basis of anticline and
syncline, these axial planes are called as axis of anticline and axis
of syncline respectively. The inclination of rock beds with respect to
horizontal plane is termed as 'dip', the angle of dip is measured
with an instrument called clinometers. The strike of an inclined bed
is the direction of any horizontal line along a bedding plane. The
direction of dip is always at right angle to the strike.

Anticlines: The unfolded rock beds are called anticlines.

Synclines: Downfold rock beds due to compressive forces caused by
horizontal tangential forces are called synclines.
Anticlinorium: It refers to those folded structures in the regions of
folded mountains where there are a series of minor anticlines and
synclines within one extensive anticline.

Synclinorium: It represents such a folded structure which includes

an extensive syncline having numerous minor anticlines and
Monoclinal folds: These are those in which one limb inclines
moderately with regular slope while the other limb inclines steeply
at right angle and the slope is almost vertical.

Isoclinal folds: When the compressive forces are so strong that both
the limbs of the fold become parallel but not horizontal.

Recumbent folds: These are formed when the compressive forces

are so strong that both the limbs of the fold become parallel as
well as horizontal.

Overturned folds: These are those folds in which one limb of the
fold is thrust upon another fold due to intense compressive forces.
Limbs are seldom horizontal.

Plunge folds: These are found when the axis of the fold, instead of
being parallel to the horizontal plane, becomes tilted and forms
plunge angle which is the angle between the axis and the
horizontal plane.

Fan folds: These with anticlinorium or obtuse angle.

Open folds: These are those in which' the angle between the two
limbs of the fold is more than 90 degree but less than 180 degree

Closed folds: These are those folds in which the angle between the
two limbs of a fold is acute angle. Such folds are formed because
of intense compressive force.

Earth' s Interior

► Nappes are the result of complex folding mechanism caused by
intense Horizontal movement and resultant compressive force.
► Both the limbs of a recumbent fold are parallel and horizontal.
► Due to further increase in the continued compressive force, one
limb of the recumbent fold slides forward and overrides the other
fold. This process is called 'thrust' and the plane along which one
part of the fold is thrust is called 'thrust plane'.
► The upthrust part of the fold is called overthrust fold. Due to
continuous compressive and horizontal movement, the bro¬ken limb
of the fold is thrown several kilometers away from the original
place. Such broken limb of the fold is called 'nappe'.

CRUSTAL Fracture
► Crustal fracture refers to displacement of rocks along a plane
due to tensional and compressional forces acting either horizontally
or vertically or sometimes even in both ways. Crustal fracture
depends on the strength of rocks and intensity of tensional forces.
Generally, fractures are divided into: (i) joints and, (ii) faults.
► A joint is defined as a fracture in the crustal rocks where¬in no
appreciable movement of rock takes place, whereas a fracture
becomes fault when there is appreciable displace¬ment of the
rocks on both sides of a fracture and parallel to fault - a fault is a
fracture in the crustal rocks due to tensional movement caused by
the endogenetic forces. Different components of a fault:
Fault Dip: It is the angle between the fault plane and hori¬zontal
Up thrown side: It represents the uppermost block of a fault.
Downthrown side: It represents the lowermost block of a fault.
Hanging wall: It is the upper wall of a fault.
Foot wall: It represents the lower wall of a fault. Fault scarp: It is
the steep wall-like slope caused by faulting of the crustal rocks.
Normal faults: These are formed due to the displacement of both
the walls in op¬posite directions due to frac-ture. Consequently,
there is great stress. The fault plane is usually between 45o and
the vertical.
Reverse faults: These are formed due to the movement of both
the fractured rock blocks towards each other. The fault plane in a
reverse fault is usually inclined at an angle between 40° and the
horizontal. Step faults: When a series of faults occur in any area in
such a way that the slopes of all the fault planes of all the faults
are in reverse direction, the resultant faults are called as step

Rift valley is a major relief fea¬ture resulting from faulting
activities. Rift valley represents a trough, depression or basis
between two crustal parts. Rift valleys are actually formed due to
displacement of crustal parts and subsidence of middle portion
between two normal faults. Rift valleys are generally also called as
'graben' which is a German word which means a trough-like
depression. A rift valley may be formed in two ways, viz:
(i) When the middle portion of the crust between two normal faults
is dropped downward while the two blocks on the either side of the
down dropped block remain stable.
(ii) When the middle portion between two normal faults remains,
stable and the two side blocks on either side of the middle portion
are raised upward.
Rhine rift valley is the best example of a well-defined rift valley
.Death valley in the southern California (USA) The floor of the Jordan
rift valley and Death sea. The Narmada valley, the Damodar valley
and some stretches of the Son valley, the Tapti valley. The central
plain of Scotland, Spencer Bay of Australia, etc. are examples of rift

Covers all processes in which molten rock material or magma rises
into the crust or is poured out on its surface and solidifies. Three
main processes:-
1. Generation of Magma
2. Intrusion of masses of magma
3. Extrusion of molten material on to the surface. Magma - A
molten silicate material which is a combination of liquid, solid and
gas. Its generation is a result of complex interaction of increase in
temperature, decrease in pressure and addition of water (water
increase the melting point of most silicates).
The volcanic material is known as MAGMA below the surface and
separates into lava, gases, vapor, ashes and fragmented material as
it emerges on the surface. Generally, the molten materials are
called magma below and lavas above the surface.
Fragmental or Pyroclastic materials are thrown during explosive
types of eruption. On the basis of size pyroclastic materials can be
represented as:-Volcanic Dust < Volcanic Ash< Lapillis < Volcanic
Constituent of Magma
-Two most important constitu¬ents: Silica (Si) and water - Other
elements - Na, Si, K, Al, Fe, Ca, Mg, and gases. Steam and Vapour -
69-90% of the total gases.
Steam and Vapour comprises phreatic and the magmatic vapor.
Phreatic vapor comes from the water in the Phreatic Zone.
Magmatic vapor comprises carbon dioxide, nitrogen oxide, sulphur
dioxide, hydrogen and carbon monoxide etc. Other Compound -
Sulphurated Hydrogen, Hydrochloric acid, Volatile chlorides of Iron,
Potassium and other metallic matter.

Types of Volcanoes:
They are classified on the basis of:
(i) Mode of eruption
(ii) Period of eruption and the nature of their activities.

♦ On the basis of the mode of eruption, Volcanoes can be

sub-classified as:
(i) Central Eruption type of Explosive Eruption Type (through a
central pipe or small opening accompanied with violent and
explosive gases).
(ii) Fissure Eruption type or Quiet Eruption type (e.g. mid oceanic
ridges). This type can further be divided into following types:-
-Lava flood or Lava flow (highly fluid lava) -Mud Flow
-Fumaroles (of gases issuing from a small hole) Central eruption
type of volca¬noes can further be divided into following types:--
HAWAIAN (quiet and nonviolent) - having long glassy threaded red
lava known as Pele's hair.(e.g.-Kilavea in Hawaii)
-STROMBOLIAN (erupts with moderate intensity)-Eruption comprises
of lava, pumice, scoria and bombs etc, -VULCANIAN (erupts with
great force and intensity)-Highly viscous lava ash laden with
volcanic clouds. -PELEEAN (most violent and explosive type)-Domes
are formed due to eruption and successive eruption blows off these
-VESUVIUS (extremely vio¬lent-Enormous volume of explosive
gases is given off. -PLINIAN (most destructive).
♦ On the basis of periodicity of eruptions, they can be sub-
classified as follows: -ACTIVE: constantly ejects lavas, ashes etc.
(e.g.- Etna and Stromboli. Stromboli is known as the light house of
the Mediterranean.)
-DORMANT: which are quiet for some time and may suddenly erupt.

-EXTINCT: these do not have any indications of future eruptions.

World Distribution: Distribution of volcanoes in the world can be

explained through classification into fol-lowing systems:-
1. Linear Volcanoes e.g.: Hawaiian-Emperor-Seamount Chain (Pacific
Ocean). Line-Tuamotu Chain (Pacific Ocean) and Austral-Marshall-
Gilbert Chain (Pacific Ocean).
2. Chain Volcanoes e.g. Andes, Cascade Mountains (USA)
3. Cluster Volcanoes: e.g. Madeira, Galapagos, Canaries, Azores,
Mauritius and Reunion etc.
4. Ridge Volcanoes: e.g. Mid oceanic ridges and rises
Arc volcanoes: e.g. Kurile, Kamchatka, Japan, Philippines, Sulawesi
(Celebes), New Guinea, Solomon Islands, New Caledonia, New
Zealand, Java, Bali, and Sumatra, Lesser Antilles, Scotia Tyrrhenian
and Aegean Seas and Aleutian Is.

Various Volcanic Belts:-

1. Circum-Pacific Belt (Fire Girdle of the pacific or the fire ring of

the Pacific) Island arcs and Festoons (E.g. Sakhalin, Kamchatka,
Japan, Philippines, Aleutian Island, Hawaii, some Highest volcanic
Peaks -Cotopaxi (S.America), Fujiyama (Japan), Shasta, Rainier and
Hood (W. Cordillera of N. America), Valley of ten thousand smokes
(Alaska), Mt. St. Helens (USA), Kilavea (Hawaii), Mt. Taral, Pinatubo
and Mayon (Philippines).
2. Mid-Continental Belt (Volcanic Zones of convergent continental
plate margins) Volcanes of Alpine Mt. Chains, Mediterranean Sea,
Agean Sea, Fault zone of Africa (Kilimanjaro, Mem, Elgon, Birunga,
Rungwe etc.)
3. Mid-Atlantic Belt- Hekla (Iceland) , Lesser Antilles, Southern
Antilles, Azores, St. Helena, Mt. Pelee (Martinique) in Caribbean Sea.
4. Intra Plate Volcanoes - various chain volcanoes, Columbia
plateau, peninsular India, Parana of Brazil and Paraguay. Flood

Basalts and Shield Volcanoes

Geologists postulate that at various points beneath the lithosphere

there occur mantle plumes which are isolated columns of heated
rock rising slowly within the asthenosphere. Directly above a mantle
plume, crystal basalt can be heated to the point of melting and
produce a Magma pocket. The site of Magma is called a hot-spot.
Where a mantle plume liese beneath a continental lithospheric
plate, the hot spot may generate enormous volumes of basaltic
lava that accumulate layer upon layer and is known as Flood
Basalts. Hot spots also form above mantle plumes in the oceanic
lithosphere. The emerging basalt builds a class of volcanoes known
as shield volcanoes.

Volcanic Features (Topography produced by vulcanity)

(a) Extrusive
(i)From Explosive type of Eruption
(ii)From Fissure type of Eruption

Features formed due to the explosive type of eruption can be

divided into Elevated and Depressed forms. Elevated Forms -Cinder
or ash cones (low height and formed of volcanic dusts)
- Composites Cones (highest of all cones) -stratification of different
materials -Parasite Cones (several branches of pipes come out from
the main central pipe) -Basic lava cones (shield cones) (high degree
of fluidity of lava produces a long cone with significantly low
- Acid Lava cones (highly viscous lava produces high cones)
- Lava Domes (similar to shield cones but are larger and more
- Lava Plugs (Plugging of volcanic pipes and vents when volcanoes
become extinct) Depressed Forms
- Craters (crater lakes)
- Calderas
(b) Intrusive (these can be concordant or discordant) Concordant are
those which have boundaries parallel with beddings of the rocks.
Those which cut through the bedding are known as Discordant.

(i) Major intrusive features are:

♦ Concordant features:
- Lopoliths -Saucer like bodies concordant to the structure of the
rocks and of enormous size. (e.g. Duluth (USA) Bushveld (S.Africa))

♦ Discordant features: -Batholiths or Bathyliths (very large deep

seated discordant intrusions. Largest intrusive bodies)
- Bosses and stocks- small intrusions similar to batholiths. Bosses
have circular whereas stocks have irregular intrusions.

(ii)Minor intrusive features:

♦ Concordant features
-Sills- thin sheet like intrusions injected between bedding planes.
-Laccoliths- when viscous magma pushes into overlying strata and
is bent upward to form a done.
- Bysmaliths- Faulted variants of laccoliths

♦ Discordant features - Dykes (Vertical instrusions cutting across

bedding planes).
- Volcanic Necks (Eroded remnant of solidified lava which formerly
filled the vent of a volcano).
-Diapirs(These are formed from domes when the overlying rocks
are ruptured and the intrusive body forces upwards. An earthquake
is a ruthless demonstration of the power of the tectonic forces
caused by endogenetic thermal conditions.

The earthquake is a form of energy of wave motion transmitted
through the surface layer of the earth in widening circles from a
point of sudden energy release, the focus. The point within the
earth where earthquakes are generated is called focus or
hypocenter. The point on the earth's surface directly above the
focus is called the epicenter.
Four types of earthquake waves are found: three discovered by R.
D. Oldham and one later, by Augustas E. H. Love

Basically, they may be divided into two chief kinds of seismic

(1) Body waves and
(2) Surface waves.

(1) BODY- WAVES: The fastest seismic waves, move through the
earth. Slower surface waves travel along the surface of the earth.
Body waves tend to cause the most earth-quake damage. There
are two kinds of body waves:

(1) compressional waves and

(2) shear waves.

As the waves pass through the earth, they cause particles of rock
to move in different ways. Compressional waves push and pull-the
rock. They cause buildings and other structures to contract and
expand. Shear waves make rocks bend or slide from side to side,
and buildings shake. Compressional waves can travel through solids,
liquids, or gases, but shear waves can pass only through solids.
Compressional or longitudinal waves are the fastest seismic waves,
and they arrive first at a distant point. For this reason,
compressional waves are also called primary (PI waves. ie„ they
have shortest wavelength among the four. Their velocity is 5 to 8
km per second. They can travel through liquids and solids but
travel faster in denser solid media. These waves are like sound
waves and cause any rock in their path to compress and then
expand in the same direction as the waves are travelling. Primary
waves undergo refraction and reflection at the margin of earth's
outer lighter shell and inner dense core. Secondary or S waves
which are of medium wavelength, are also called Shake or Shear
waves. Shear waves, which travel slower and arrive later, are called
secondary (S) waves. Body waves travel faster deep within the
earth than near the surface. For example, at depths of less, than 25
kilometers, compressional waves travel at about 8 kilometres per
second, and shear waves travel at J.8 kilometres per second. At a
depth of 1,000 kilometres, the waves travel more than 11/2 times
that speed.

(2) SURFACE WAVES: are long, slow waves. They produce what
people feel as slow rocking sensations and cause little or no
damage to buildings. There are two kinds of surface waves: (1) Love
waves and (2) Rayleigh waves. Love waves, named after A. E. H.
Love in 1911, travel through the earth's surface horizontally and
move the ground from side to side. Rayleigh waves, named after
Lord Rayleigh in 1885, makes the surface of the earth roll like
waves on the ocean. Typical Love waves travel at about 4.4
kilometers per second, and Rayleigh waves, the slowest of the
seismic waves, move at about 3.7 kilometers per second.

Damage by Earthquakes:
(1) Fault Slippage : Near a fault, both the shifting of large blocks of
the earth's crust, called fault slippage, and the shaking of the
ground due to seismic waves cause destruction. The rock on either
side of a fault may shift only slightly during an earthquake or
several meters.
(2) Liquefaction: In areas with soft, wet soils, a process called
liquefaction may intensify earthquake damage. Liquefaction occurs
when strong ground shaking causes wet soils to behave temporarily
like liquids rather than solids. Anything on top of liquefied soil may
sink into the soft ground. The liquefied soil may also flow toward
lower ground, burying anything in its path. (3) Tsunamis. An
earthquake on the ocean floor can give a tremendous push to
surrounding seawater and create one or more large, destructive
waves called tsunamis, also known as seismic sea waves, other
Causes of Earthquake:
(1) Continental Drift
(2) Sea-floor Spreading
(3) Plate Tectonics
(4) Isostasy and Faulting
(5) Hydrostatic Pressure and Anthropogenic Causes: The introduction
of additional artificial superincumbent load through the construction
of large dams and impounding of enormous volume of water in bog
reservoirs behind the dams cause disequilibrium of already
isostatically adjusted rocks below the reservoirs or further-augment
the already fragile structures due to faults and fractures
(6) Volcanicity Measuring Instruments: (1) Seismograph : The first
electromagnetic seismograph was constructed by Italian scientist in
1855. But the first modern seismograph was devised by John Milne-
in 1880, the author of the book 'Earthquake and Other Movements'.
It is based on the principle of pendulum.
(i) Seismoscope is a qualitative device to indicate the arrival of an
earthquake with human perception may not register if the
acceleration is less than 1 cm/s the minimum acceleration felt by
human beings.
(ii) Seismograph, on the other hand, records an earthquake and this
piece of recording is called a seismogram. A telegraph is what a
seismogram to seismograph is.
(iii) Seismometer lies between a Seismoscope and a seismograph.
The movements of the device are calibrated with known earthquake
parameters. Oldham's array of wooden cylinders is a Seismoscope:
(2) Accelerographs: are specifically designed to measure, the
direction and intensity of ground motions during an earthquake for
application to earthquake engineering.
(3) Inverted Pendulum: are used in the seismograph.
(4) Chronograph: the paper component of a seismograph is called a
chronograph which consists of a drum rotating at a controlled
constant speed around which a time-marked paper moves like a
conveyor belt, just touching the stylus.

Measurement of Earthquake: (1) Richter scale: Probably the

best-known gauge of earth-quake intensity is the local Richter
magnitude scale, developed in 1935 by United States seismologist
Charles Francis Richter. This scale, commonly known as the Richter
scale, measures the ground motion caused by an earthquake.
It is a logarithmic scale that runs from 1 to 9, though no upper
limit exists; a magnitude 7 quake is 10 times more powerful than a
magnitude 6 quake, 100 times more powerful than a magnitude 5
quake, 1000 times more powerful than a magnitude 4 quake, and so
on. An estimated 800 quakes of magnitudes 5 to 6 occur annually
worldwide, in comparison with about 50,000 quakes of magnitudes 3
to 4, and only about one earthquake of magnitudes 8 to 9. Until
1979 an earthquake of magnitude 8.5 was thought to be the most
powerful possible; since then, however, improvements in seismic
measuring techniques have enabled seismologists to refine the
scale, and 9.5 is now considered to be the practical limit. Every
increase of one number in magnitude means the energy release of
the quake is 32 times greater. For example, an earthquake of
magnitude 7.0 releases 32 times as much energy as an earthquake
measuring 6.0. An earthquake with a magnitude of less than 2.0 is
so slight that usually only a seismometer can detect it. A quake
greater than 7.0 may destroy many buildings. There are about 10
times as many quakes for every decrease in Richter magnitude by
one unit. For example, there are 10 times as many earthquakes with
magnitude 6.0 as there are with magnitude 7.0.
The largest earthquake ever recorded on the moment magnitude
scale measured 9.5. It was an interplate earthquake that occurred
along the Pacific coast of Chile in South America in 1960. The
largest intraplate earthquakes known struck in central Asia .and in
the Indian Ocean in 1905, 1920, and 1957. They range between about
8.0 and 8.3.

(2) Mercalli Scale: It was introduced in 1800s by the Italian

seismologist Giuseppe Mercalli, measures the intensity of shaking
with gradations from I to XII. Because seismic surface effects
diminish with distance from the focus of the quake, the Mercalli
rating assigned to the quake depends on the site of the mea-
surement. Intensity I on this scale is defined as an event felt by
very few people, whereas intensity XII is a catastrophic event that
causes total destruction. Intensities II to III on the Mercalli scale are
roughly equal to magnitudes 3 to 4 on the Richter scale, and XI to
XII to 8 to 9.

(3) Rossi-Forel Scale : It is a scale for rating the intensity of

earthquake shocks, devised in 1878. It was modified by the Mercalli

Anything above,600 m (2000 ft) can be regarded as amount
mountain. Hill is smaller than mountain but no specific definition for
absolute elevation. A mountain may have several forms: Mountain
ridge: It is a system of long, narrow and high hills. Generally, the
slope of one side of a ridge is steep while the other side is of
moderate slope but a ridge may also have symmetrical slopes on
both the sides.

Mountain range: It is a system of mountains and hills having

several ridges, peaks, summits and valleys. Mountain chain: It
consists of several parallel long and narrow mountains of different

Mountain system: It consists of different mountain ranges of the

same period. Different mountain ranges are separated by valleys.

Mountain group: It consists of several unsystematic patterns of

different mountain systems.

Cordillera: It is a community of mountains having different ridges,

ranges, mountain chains and mountain systems. The mountainous
region of the western part of North America is the best example of
a Cordillera.
Classification of Mountains: (1) On the basis of HEIGHT:
(1) Low mountains: height ranges between 700-1000m;
(ii) Rough mountains: height - 1000m-1500m;
(iii) Rugged mountains: height - 1500-2000m;
(iv) High mountains: height above 2000m.

(2) On the basis of LOCATION

(i) Continental mountains:
(a) Coastal mountains: Examples are - Appalachians Rockies, Alpine
mountain chains, Western and Eastern Ghats of India, etc.
(b) Inland mountains: Examples are - Ural mountains (Russia),
Vosges and Black forest block mountains (Europe),

Block mountains: These are originated by tensile forces leading to

the formation of rift valleys. They are also called as horst

Dome mountains: These are originated by magmatic intrusions and

upwarping of the crustal surface. Examples are: normal domes, lava
domes, batholithic domes, laccolithic domes, salt domes.

Mountains of Accumulations: These are formed due to accumulation

of volcanic materials. Different types of volcanic cones (e.g., cinder
cones, composite cones, basic lava cones, etc.) come under this
(e) (ii) Circum-erosional or Relict mountains: Examples are-
Vindhyachal ranges, Aravallis, Satpura, Eastern ghats, Western ghats,
etc. (all from India).

(3) On the basis of PERIOD OF ORIGIN:

(i) Pre-Cambrian mountains:
(h) Examples are -Laurentian mountains, Algoman mountains,
Kilarnean mountains, etc. (North America), mountains of Feno-
Scandia, Northwest highlands and Anglessey, etc. (Europe).
(ii) Caledonian mountains:
These are the mountains formed during Silurian and Devonian
periods. Examples are - Taonic mountains of the Appalachian
system, mountains of Scotland, Ireland and Scandinavia (Europe),
Brazi-lides of South America, Aravallis, Mahadeo, Satpura, etc. of
(iii) Hercynian mountains:
These are the mountains formed during Permsari and
Permocarboniferous periods. Examples are - mountains of Iberian
peninsula, Ireland, Spanish Messeta, Brittany of France, South Wales,
Cornwall Mendips, Paris basin, Belgian coalfields, Rhine Mass,
Bohemian plateau, Vosges and Black forest, Frankenn Hartz
mountain, Donbas coalfield (all in Europe), Varsican mountains of
Asia include
Altai, Sayan, Baikal Arcs, Tien Shan, Khingan, Tarim basin, Nanshan
Alai and Trans Alai mountains of Amur basin. North American
Variscan mountains include Applachians; South American Variscan
mountains are Austrian and Saalia folds of San Juan and Mendoza,
mountains of Puna are of Atacama, Gondwanides of Argentina, (iv)
Alpine mountains: These are the mountains formed during tertiary
period. Examples are - Rockies (North America), Andes (South
America), Alpine mountain systems of Europe (mainly Carpathians,
Pyrenees, Dinaric, Alps, etc.), Atlas mountains of north-west Africa;
Himalayas and mountains coming out of Pamir Knot of Asia (Taurus,
Pauntic, Zagros, Elburz, Kunlun, etc.). Atlas mountains of north-west
of Africa.

Motored by endogenetic forces coming from within the earth. Block
mountains are basically of two types, e.g.:
(i) tilled block mountains having one steep side represented by
fault scarp and one gentle side, and,
(ii) lifted block mountains represent real horst and are
characterized by flattened summit of tabular shape and very steep
side slopes represented by two boundary fault scarps. Block
mountains are also called as horst mountains. Block mountains are
found in all the continents, for example:
(i) young block mountains around Albert Warner,
P.Klamath lakes in the Steens mountain district of South Oregon,
Wasatch range in Utah province, etc. in USA.
(ii) Vosges and Black forest mountains bordering the faulted Rhine
rift valley in Europe.
(iii) Salt range of Pakistan, etc. Sierra Navada mountain of
California (USA) is considered to be the most extensive block
mountain of the world and movement of side blocks.

Folded mountains are formed due to folding of crustal rocks by
compressive forces generated by endogenetic forces coming from
within the earth.

Its features are: (a) They are found in great height;

(b)Highest and extensive;
(c)The width is less than height;
(d)Arrow-like shape;
(e)Faults are common cause of mountain uplift and faults in turn
are due to shrinking of the crust;
(f)Fossilsare being found;
(g)Highest peaks are found in folded mountains;
(h) Folded mountains are the youngest on the surface of the earth;
(i)Basically found in the form of sedimentary rqc-ks;
0) Have been Phanerozoic formed in long and shallow seas:
Geosyncline; (k)Are generally formed in arc shape having one side
concave slope and the other convex slope;
(l)Are found along the Archean margins of the continents facing
ocean; Young Fold Mountains: Himalayas, Alps, Rockies, A-ndes

Old Fold Mountains:

Pennines, Appalachians, Cape Ranges of South Africa, Great Dividing
Ranges of A-ustralia.
Oldest: Scotland, Norway. Asia: Himalayas (8848 m.); Arakana Yoma;
Sulaiman; Hindukush; Zagros; Elburz; Pontus; Taurus; Kunlun;
Karakoram (861 lm.). Europe: Caucasus (5630m.); Balkan; Carpethian;
Alps (4810m.); Dinaric Alps;
mass by a few 100 m., for eg., Western Patlands of Ranchi and
Palamu (India)-Jharkhand;

► Due to the deposition of the lava (volcanic), e.g., Dexcan trap,

Entream of Ireland Columbian plateau (USA), Mahabalsstuvar and
Panch gani. It is formed due to depo sition of basaltic lava;
► Due to the adjoining areas which are not folded, but are raised
during the process of mountain building, eg., Cumber-land plateau
to the west of Apalachian mountains;
► Because of the marginal sediment of geo-syncline are folded into
parallel ranges, eg., Tibetan plateau between Kunlun and Tienshan,
and Himalayas, Iranian plateau between Zagros and Elbruz
mountains, Anatolian plateau between Pontus and Taurus mountains
► Erosional or dissected plateau: thick deposits of loose materials of
wind also form plateau. Loess plateau of China is the best example.
Classification of plateaus: There are ten types of plateaus. According
to mode of origin :-(a) Simple plateau:
► Plateaus formed by exoge-netic factor:
It is of three types: (i)Glacial plateau: Examples are - Garhwal
plateau, Greenland.
land plateau, Marg of Kashmir; (ii)Aeolian plateau: Examples are -
Potwar (Pak) and Loess (China) plateaus; (iii)Fluvial plateau: It is
formed due to the rivers. Examples are - Bhandar, Kashmir, Rewa,
Rohtas and Panna plateaus;
► Plateaus formed by endogenetic factors: It is of the following
types: (I)Intermontane plateau: Features of these plateau are:
-Highest and most extensive plateau on the globe; -It is caused by
upwarping of the middle portion of geosyn-cline, known as median
mass; Example:Tibetan plateau : highest (5000 m) and most
extensive (20,64,000 sq.km.) plateau of the world. It is also called the
'roof of the world'. It is surrounded by: -Kunlun mountain: North
-Himalayas: South -Kunlun and Himalayas: West -Chinese mountain:
East Many rivers originate from this plateau in different directions:
-Southern plateau region: Indus and Brahmaputra rivers; -Eastern
plateau region: Hwangho, Yangtze, Salween and Mekong rivers;
-North-east plateau region: Tsaidan swamps. [NOTE: The
endogenetic forces cause high mountains than exogenetic forces.]
Mexican plateau:

It is surrounded; by:
-West: Sierra Madre Occidental Mt. range;
-East: Sierra Madre Oriental Mt. range;
The average height near Mexico city is 2250 m (7410 ft.) and
decreases to 1216 m. (4000 ft.) near the international border with
USA. Plateau of Bolivia and Peru (South America): The Peruvian
plateau is sur-rounded by Cordilera Central ranges and Cordillera
Occiden-tal ranges in the east and west respectively. The average
height is 3648 m. (from sea-level, 12000 ft.). LakeTiticaca, a fresh
water lake, comes out of it.
Gobi plateau in Asia Iranian and Tarin basin Columbian plateau
Great basin
(II) Piedmont plateau: It is formed at the foot hillzone of extensive

► Are flat areas with low height;
► An extensive tract without prominent hills and depressions
► Some plains are only a few mts. above the sea level, examples
argisouth deltaic plains qfBangladesh. Some are quite high,
examples are-the eastern Missisippi plain (450 m high), even higher
than the Piedmont plateau;

► Thus, it should be mentioned that the plains maybe above the or

below the sea levels but not higher than the surrounding regions;
► The slope should be quite gentle, the average fall of the slope
should be 4 mts. and in extreme cases, not more than 50mts.
Mode of Origin:
► Because of endogenetic factors and diastrophic movements, i.e.,
structural plains. Examples are- Great plains of USA, Gulf coastal
plain, Atlantic plain, Russian platform -also called epicontinental
form; Great plains (USA) are bordered by Rockies in the west,
Central lowland province in the east, Mississippi Missouri plateau
and by Reogrande river in south and plains of Canada in the north.
Atlantic coastal plains : It startsfrom Newyork to Gulf of Mexico.Its
average width is 480 kms. and is of Miocene and Pliocene. The
average gradient is 10 ft/mile, the other is Coromandel and
Northern Circar coastal plains, formed due to mile subsidence and
consequent sedimentation. Erosional plains: Due to erosion (it is
formed). It is of four types:
(i)Peneplains: It happens due to weathering and rivers. It is
characterized by convex, concave residual hills, called the
'monadnocks'. Examples are-Chambal, Swaranghati, Mississippi,
South Africa.
(ii)Glacial plains: Glaciers transform highland areas through their
slow but continued erosive works into lowlands. Examples are-
Sweden, Finland, Ladakh, Imphal basin. (Manipur hills), Canada.

(iii)Wind-eroded plains: Reg, Serir and Hamada (Sahara), Aravalli

(arid .plains) near Jaisalmer.
(iv)Karst plains: It is composed of limestones. Examples are-
Yugoslavia's and Mexico's Karst plains.
Depositional plains: It is of five types:
(i)AUuvial plains: Examples are- Mississippi delta, Lomb-ardi plains
(Italy) formed by Po river, Yangtze plain (China), Indus plain (Ganga),
USA plain (Sacramento), Russia (Samarkand), South America (Chile)
plain, Amazon plain, Salween and Mekong plains. [It is formed due
to the rivers]. Delta plain: Ganga delta is the largest delta of the
world (llakh 29 thousand sq.km), the tributaries of delta are called
distributaries. (ii)Glacial plains: These are of two types:
(a)True glacial plains: These are formed of pure glacial materials;
(b)Outwash plains: These are formed due to deposition of materials
after the ablation of glaciers and ice sheets. Glacial plains are
divided into three parts on the basis of structure and composition:
-Till: Finer or coarser materials; Eskars and Drumlins; -Morainic: finer
glacial materials;
-Outwash: Admixture of sands, gravels, silts and clays. Examples
are- West Germany, north-west Russia, north-west USA, central
Canada. (iii)Lacustrine plains: When lakes are filled with sediments;
examples are- Kashmir valley, Imphal basin, Hungary plain, Great
lakes (North America), (iv) Loesses plains: It is formed due to air
transportation of the sand; it is an unstratified, homogeneous,
Examples are- Loesses of China, Europe, USSR, lower Missisippi
(USA), Rhine valley (Alsace), southern Netherlands,
(v)Lava plains: Examples are-France, USA, Iceland, Argentina,
NewZealand. These are economically very important because black
soils are formed due to weathering of lavas. These black soils are
also called 'Regur' soils are good for growing cotton.


Lakes are static bodies of water, usually but not necessarily fresh
water on the land's surface which is surrounded by lands on all
Lakes are not permanent features on the earth's surface. Lakes are
formed, developed and ultimately obliterated due to silteration and
upliftment of lake beds due to diastrophic movements. For example,
several lakes have disappeared in the Kumaon region like SukhaTal
and SarraiyaTal around Nainital. The highest lake of the world Tso
Sekuru (Tibetan plateau) is located at the height of 18284 ft and the
lowest is the Dead sea-1300 ft below the sea level.

Charateristics of a Lake :-
-Are variable and changes with time,
-Height has nothing to do with
-Some lake have greater depths -e.g Baikal lake of Siberia is more
than 1.6 km deep (1600); some are shallow and almost become dry
during the summers and hence are called seasonal lakes. Size does
not matter. It can be as big as the Caspian Sea and csn also be as
small as Tarn Glacier lake (very small).
Preconditions of a Lake:
-Basins, depressions and troughs are the most ideal places for the
development of lakes. Troughs:
(1)A system of low atmospheric pressure; characterized by much
greater length and width.
(2)A valley that has been overdeepened by glacial erosion.
(3)The lowest part of the wave formed between two crests. -There
should be proper and regular supply of water. The water table
should be high.

Classification of Lakes: I)On the basis of salinity:-(a)Fresh Water

Lakes : Very low amount of salt flow of water;
Eg., Kumaon (U.P). Dal and Wular lake of Kashmir. (b)Saline Lakes:--
Are also called salt lakes and ajejelatively common. These are
found mainly in semi-arid and arid regions of warm cli-rnate where
the rate of evaporation is very high. -These are of four types :-
(i)Alkaline lakes : having the dominance of salts of Sodium and
Potassium Carbonate: (ii)Bitter lakes: contains salts ofSpdium
Sulphate; (iii)Borax lakes : have high proportion of Borax; (iv)Mixed
lakes : have a mix-ture of different salts. -Examples of saline/ salt
lakes:- Sambhar and Panch-bhadra lakes (Rajasthan), salt lakes of
Lingtzi Tang (Kashmir), Chilka lake (Orissa), are all in India.
-Examples of saline/salt lakes (outside India) Great Salt lake (Utah-
USA) - a remnant of Bonneville lake, a fresh water lake.
Cursbn lakes, Waker and Honey lakes in USA, Lahontan, Caspian
Sea, Aral Sea, Dead Sea.
II) Diastrophic lakes:
lakes. Examples, Crater lakes of Oregon in USA, Tana lake(Ethiopia),
Nicaragua (Central America).
IV) Lakes formed due to mass translocation of Rock Waste -This
includes land slides etc. -Examples: San CristoBal, Slumgullion
Mudflow (Colorado, USA). In 1968, a landslide took place in
Darjeeling and two lakes were formed due to damming of
Tantakhola - a tributary of Jaldhaka river.
V) Glacial lakes: These are also called moraine lakes. -Examples:
Grand lake of Colorado (USA), Naini/ Nainital lake (UP). lakes of
Canada, Norway, Sweden and Finland.
VI)FluviaI lakes: These are formed due to rivers. They are of two
VII)Oxbow lakes: - e.g.Wjilar lake in Kashmir.

VII)Delta lakes:-Godavari Delta, Ganga Delta called beels.

Ponchastrian lake of Mississippi, Mayeh lake of Nile Delta, Marigot
lake of Niger Delta.

The process of disintegration of rocks in situ (static) is generally
called weathering. Weathering isJhe breakdown and alternation of
minerals . Near the earth's surface to products that are more in
equilibrium with newly imposed physico-chemical conditions. Thus,
weathering may be defined as the mechanical frac-turing or
chemical decomposition of rocks by natural agents at the surface of
the earth. It is obvious that weathering involves two types of
changes in the rocks, for example: physical and mechanical
changes, wherein rocks are disintegrated through temperature
changes, frost-action, biological activities (biotic factor) and wind
(ii)Chemical changes, wherein rocks are decomposed through static
water, oxygen, carbon dioxide and biological activities.
Provided that:
(a)The breakdown of rocks occurs in situ;
(b)There is no large-scale transport of weathered materials except
mass-movement or mass-transaction of weathered materials down
the slope under the force of gravity. The products of rock
weathering tends >to accumulate in a short surface layer called re-
golith; and the regolith grades downward into solid or altered rocks
known as bed rocks. Therefore, regolith is the layer of loose broken
rocky material mantling the surface of the undecomposed bedrock.
The regolith produces the source of sediments consisting of
detached mineral particles deposited and transported a fluid
medium which may be water, air or glacier ice.

Agents of Weathering:
(i) Transportation
(ii) Deposition
(iii) Erosion
(i)Transportation: The wind, running water, moving ice and sea
waves also carry away particles, thus removing one part and
settling it in other part is called the process of transportation.
(ii)Deposition: The material carried out by winds, running water, and
moving ice are deposited in some other place is called deposition.
(iii)Erosion: It is same as weathering, but, it is very much different
at the same time. Weathering is a static process, there is no
displacement and movement of rocks. It does not constitute
depositional features. Whereas erosion is basically more a process
of denudation than weathering. (Denudation is a term used to
denote the action of laying bare by the process of washing away of
the surface materials, such that all surface inequalities would be
reduced to uniformity. It is ba-sically the process oTaegrada-tion.
Erosion is basically a dynamic process, there is always displacement
of rocks,
thus, denudation = weathering + transportation. The depositional
feature is also included in the erosion. Therefore, we see erosion in
a broader concept, because it includes both transportation and
deposition. (1) Block Disintegration Due to Temperature Change: The
repetition* of expansion and contraction of outer rock layers due to
diurnal rangeof temperature in the hot desert areas causes tension
and stresses which introduce parallel joints in the Rocks.
(2)Granular Disintegration Due to Change in Temperature: The
coarse grained rocks are more affected by shattering process in
those hot deserts which are characterised by high range of daily
Shattering Due to Rain Shower and Heat: The outer shells of the
rocks are shattered hot climatic regions mainly in hot desert areas.
(4) Block disintegration due to frost:
Frost action weakens the rocks in two ways:
(i)Due to freeze and thaw of water between the particles of the
(ii)Due to freeze and thaw of water in the crevices and spaces.
(5)Exfoliation due to temperature and wind:
Exfoliation weathering, also known as onion weathering, refers to
peeling off concentrjc shells of rocks due to combined actions of
heat and wind in hot
arid and semi-arid regions and monsoon lands. The outer shells of
rocks become loose due to alternate expansion and contraction due
to high temperature during daytime and comparatively low
temperature during night respectively, and these loosened shells
are removed (peeled off by strong winds).
(6) Disintegration and exfoliation due to unloading: Sheeting refers
to the development of cracks and fractures
Parallel to the surface caused bv removal of super-incurnbent load
resulting into reduction of conflicting pres-sure.

Chemical weathering:
Decomposition and disintegration of rocks due to chemical reaction
is called chemical weathering wherein the minerals of the rocks
weather away. Water vapour and water are the media which
activate several types of chemical reactions within the rocks. Pure
water, distilled water, is chemically inert but when it mixes with the
atmospheric gases, mainly with C02, it becomes potent solvent.
Following are the important chemical reactions:

(I)Solution: It refers to the dissolution of soluble particles and

minerals from the rock with the help of water in motion but a thin
film of water around a solid particle also leads to chemical
dissolution. Common salts are most soluble whereas carbonate
rocks are of moderate solubility. Limestones are more susceptible to
solution process which depends on temperature, C02 content of
water and PH of the solution.
(II)Oxidation: The chemical process of oxidation simply means a
reaction of atmospheric oxygen to form oxides. When water is
mixed with oxygen, its reaction with the minerals of the rocks
forms hydroxide.
(III)Carbonation: It is the reaction of carbonate or bicarbonate ions
with minerals. The process of carbonation is also known as
'solution' wherein atmospheric C02 after mixing with water forms
Carbonic acid (H2C03), i.e.,
C02 + H20 >H2C03,
which after reacting with carbonate rocks, say limestones (CaC03)
forms Calcium carbonate [Ca(HC03)2] which is easily dissolved in

(IV)Hydration: The process of hydration is related to the addition of

water to the minerals. The rocks after having absorbed water
undergo the process of positive change of their volume. The
process of hydration changes feldspar minerals into Kaolinite clays,
this process is known as 'Kaolinization'.
(V)Hydrolysis: It is a chemical reaction between minerals and water,
that is, between hydrogen ions or hydroxyl (OH) ions, and the ions
of the mineral in order to form mineral compounds. Silicate
minerals are most affected by hydrolysis.
(Vl)Chelation: Chelation is a complex organic process by which
metallic cations are incorporated into hydrocarbon molecules.
Chelation is a form of chemical weathering by plants.

Biotic Weathering (i) Faunal weathering: The burrowing of animals,

worms and other organisms help in gradual breakdown of rocks or
fragments thereof. (ii)Floral weathering: Floral weathering does not
take place independently, rather it helps the physical and chemical
process of weathering. Larger plants affect and control weathering
in a number of ways: (a)Cracks are widened by root penetration
and consequent root pressure.
(b)Dense vegetation cover generates distinct micro climate at the
ground surface. (iii)Anthropogenic weathering: The economic and
technological man' lashed with modern technologies was becoming
the most powerful weathering and erosion agent. Biochemical
► It refers to decomposition and disintegration of rocks due to
organic materials of both flora and fauna.
► A complex set of different biochemical processes such as Cation
exchange in roots, chelation, solution by root exudates and
production of different kinds of organic acids such as humic acids,
bacterial acids, microfaunal acids, etc. produced by organic
► Humic Acid active chelation and helps in the decomposition of
silicate minerals. Fulvic Acids derived from peat, help in the
decomposition of rock materials.

Mass Movement-Mass wasting Phenomena: Direction of Movement

of rock is divided into three categories: (i)Vertical: rockfall, collapse
(of roofs of underground caves or cavities or lava tubes) earthfall,
debris fall, topple (rotational fall of rock slab's, or of earthen
material) and settlement (collapse of ground surface due to
withdrawal of water, crude oil, etc.); (ii)Lateral: Blockslide (movement
of materials along a horizontal fracture or interface between two
rock strata), spread (lateral displacement of a series of rock blocks),
cambering (draping of sedimentary units), sackung (lateral spreading
away from anticlinal crests CREEPING: very slow and imperceptible
downslope movement of materials i.e colluvium); and (iii) Diagonal :
soil creep (movement of moistened soils downslope), rockcreep,
talus creep, rockslide, debris slide, slumping (movement of fine
materials along a curved plane), flow (dominant role of water,
downslope transport of water-soaked fine debris), debris flow, mud
flow, solifluction and avalanche.

Fluvial Landforms
► Shaped by running water (overland flow and stream flow)
► Fluvial processes are most important of all the exogenetic
processes as landforms associated with them have overall
dominance in the environment of terrestrial life.
► 3-phase work of fluvial processes - Erosion, Transportation and
► Normal Erosions:which takes place by natural physical forces.
► Accelerated Erosion:That which is produced by man's interference.
Direct force of a falling raindrop (Splashing). Splash

-Surface flow then removes soil in thin layers (Sheet Erosion)
-Steep slopes having torrential rains-produce intense activity -Rill
Erosion (innumerable closely spaced channels are formed) - Grows
larger forming Gullies (Steep - walled canyon like trench) - A
rugged barren topography called Ravines and Badlands are formed.
(e.g. Chambal)
Process or types of erosion -1.Chemical Erosion: Corrosion (or
solution) and Carbonation 2.Mechanical Erosion -Impaction (Effect of
blow upon the river bed or banks by large boulders)
-Cavitation (Due to collapse and implosion of air bubbles.) -Attrition
(Shattering and breaking up of the stream load through collisions
and mutual abrasion)
-Hydraulic Action (Lifting and quarrying effect of rushing water)
-Corrasion or Abrasion (Stream uses its load to scrape away its
bed, particularly in steep confined sections of stream channels.)

Erosional landforms: 1.River valleys

-Formed in the youthful stage of fluvial cycle of erosion. -V-shaped
in the initial stage (caused by vertical erosion or valley deepening)
-3 types of v-shaped valleys:

(i)Gorge - Steep precipitous wall within which a narrow river is

confined (e.g.-Indus, Sutlej, Brahmaputra, Rhine, Zambezi)
(ii)Canyon - A very deep and extended gorge.

(iii)Structual benches - Differential erosion of alternately arranged

hard and soft rocks forming step-like valleys known as structural
benches. Rapids-Current flowing at more than normal swiftness
forms Rapids.
Waterfalls-Formed due to:-(i)Differential erosion of hard and soft
(ii)Plateau scarp formation (Livingstone, Aughrubies, Gersoppa falls)
(iii)Because of fault scarps (Victoria fall on Zambezi River)
(iv)Due to Glacial Hanging valley (Yosemite fall) (v)Fall in sea level
and related rejuvenation
(vi)Other topographical reliefs and earth movements. (vii)Due to
formation of knick point in a rejuvenating stream (Fluvial cycle of
erosion is an exogenetic process which erodes the landforms and
lowers down the relief which was earlier produced by folding, up
warping or emergence of land because of endogenetic forces. Thus
a cycle of emergence and lowering down of the relief because of
erosion continues. A landform in the early stage of the fluvial cycle
of erosion has higher relief and sharp landscape than those in later
stages. If by any means the landscape of a later stage encounters
emergence because of endogenetic forces at work, the relief is
rejuvenated that is the landform seems to have reverted back to
an earlier stage. This is known as river rejuvenation.
Cascade- A fall in steps. Cataract-Larger steps than in a cascade
Pot Holes-cylindrical holes worn in the solid bedrock (formed as a
result of evortion-grinding action of the whirling particles)
Plunge Pools-Potholes of much bigger size Terraces-step like flat
surfaces on either side of the present lowest valley floors are called
Structural Benches-The benches or terraces formed due to
differential erosion of alternate bands of hard and soft rock beds
called structural benches
Meanders-Bends of longitudinal courses of rivers Misfit Meanders-
Meander formed within the extensive former meanders. Meanders
are of three types: Wavy, Horse shoe, Ox-Bow or Bracelet
Incised Meander-Representative features of rejuvenation. They
develop through vertical erosion leading to valley incision or
deepening Ox-Bow Lakes-Formed due to impounding of water in
the abandoned meander loops. Peneplain - It represents featureless
low lying plain having undulating surface and remnants of convexo-
concave residual hills. End product of normal cycle of erosion.
Frequented with low residual hills: Monadnocks.

Transportation : The size and amount of load and the velocity of

stream determine their transporting power. Transportation power is
directly proportional to the sixth power of stream velocity

Transportation is done in various ways:-

(i) Traction (ii) Suspension (iii) Saltation (iv) Solution Deposition:
It is affected by following factors:-
1 .Decrease in channel gradient

2. Spreading of stream water over larger area.

3,Obstruction in channel flow

4.Decrease in the volume and discharge of water

5.Decrease in the velocity of streams.

6.1ncrease in the load etc.

Characteristic of rivers.--
► A river system is an open system (comprising of collecting
transporting and dispersing systems) lying in a drainage basin
surrounded by divides called watersheds.
► Tributaries decrease in number in a mathematic progression
► Length of tributaries increases downstream
► Slope of tributaries increases downstream
► Channels deepen downstream
► Water flows in a laminar form (path parallel to the bed)
► Discharge or volume of water = velocity channel cross-sectional
► Velocity is greatest near the centre
► Base level may be local (a tributary in main river), temporary
(lake), or ground base level (Sea etc.)
► Erosional power is directly proportional to the square of stream

Depositional Landforms Alluvial Fans and Cones : Formed due to

accumulation of materials in the form of fan and cones respectively
at the base of foot hills. Alluvial Cones are made of coarse
materials than the alluvial Fans.
Natural Levees - Narrow belt of ridges of low height built by the
deposition of sediments by the spill water of the stream on its
either bank.
Flood Plain - Surfaces on either side of a stream that are
frequently inundated. Crevasse splays - Formed by breaching of
levees when water escapes through a series of distributary
channels. Backswamps-Plain area adjoining a levee may contain
marshes called Backswamps. Yazoo Streams - Distributions of rivers
occupying lateral positions.
Delta -Triangular deposition at the mouth of a river debouching in
a lake or a sea.

Factors that help in Delta for-mation - (1) Long Courses of rivers

(2) Medium size sediments

(3) Calm or Sheltered sea

(4) Suitable place (shallow sea and lake shores)

(5) Large amount of sediments

(6) Accelerated erosion

(7) Stable condition of sea coast. On the basis of shape delta can
be 1.Arcuate 2. Bird-Foot 3. Estuarine 4. Truncated Arcuate(Lobate
Form) –Semicircular Common in semi-arid region -Growing delta -e.
g.:Nile, Niger, Ganga, Indus, Hwang Ho, Mekong, Irrawady, Rhine,
Volga, . Danube, Rhone, Lena Bird-Foot
-Also called Finger Delta Rivers with high velocity carry suspended
finer load to greater distance inside the oceanic water, (e.g.
Mississippi) Estuarine Delta -Submerged under marine water
-e.g.:Narmada, Vistuala, Elb, Ob, Seine, Hudson.

Drainage Pattern : Spatial arrangement and form of drainage

system in turns of geometrical shapes in the areas of different rock
types, geological structure, climatic conditions and denudational
history. 1 .Trellis-In the areas of simple folds characterised by
parallel anticlinal ridges alternated by parallel synclinal valley.
2.Dendritic-In the region of flat rolling topography, uniform lithology
and impermeable rocks eg. Himalayan rivers.
3 .Rectangular-Confluence angle determine by weaknesses like
faujts, fractures and joints.
4.Radial-This centrifugal pattern is formed by the streams which
diverge from a central higher point in all directions, eg. Sri Lanka,
Hazaribagh plateau, Ranchi Plateau, S.Centripetal- Inland Drainage
region with depression, basin or crater lake.(e.g.- Kathmandu valley).
6.Annular- Developed over a mature and dissected dome mountain
characterised by a series of alternate bands of hard and soft rock
7. Bar bed- When tributaries flow in opposite direction to their
master stream.
8.Pinnate-Formed in a narrow valleys flanked by steep ranges e.g.-
Upper Son,Narmada.
9.Herringbone When broad valleys are flanked by parallel ridges
having steep hillside slopes e.g. Upper Jhelum in Kashmir valley
10. Parallel drainage- On Cuestas or nearly emerged coastal plains (
e.g. Western
Ghats and some on Eastern coastal plains.

Drainage System- 1 .Consequent- follows regional slope They are

the primary streams.

2.Subsequent -Those originate after master consequent and follow

the axis of the anticlines or ridges and the strikes of beds are
called subsequent streams.

3.obsequent -The streams flowing in opposite direction to the

master consequent are called obsequent.
4. Antecedant -Those which are originated prior to the upltftment of
land surfece.

5.Superimposed -It means a river which, flowing on a definite

geological formation and structure, has inherited the characteristics
of its previous form developed on upper geological formation and
structure are superimposed on the lower geological formation of
entirely different characteristics, (e.g. Deccan Rivers).

Karst Landforms
-Produced by chemical weathering or chemical erosion of carbonate
rocks by surface and sub-surface water. -Named after the Karst
Region of Yugoslavia haying typical limestone topography.
-Distribution of Karst Areas:-Erstwhile Yugoslavia; Spanish Andalusia;
S.Indiana, Kentucky, Virginia, Tennesse and Florida (USA); Chalik Area
of England, and France.

Limestone topography has not developed properly in India because

of the absence of extensive thick limestone formations near the
surface. Most of limestones of the Vindhyan formation are buried
under thick covers of sandstones and shales.
Though some Karst regions are present -
► Guptadham Cave (Rohtas Plateau)
► Jammu and Kashmir
► Sahasradhara, Rovers Cave and Tapkeshwar Temple (Dehra Dun,
► Panchmarhi (M.P.)
► Eastern Himalayas
► Bastar district (Chhat-tisgarh)
► Coastal areas near Vishakhapatnam.

Essential conditions for the development of Karst land-forms:

► Massive, thickly bedded, hard, tenacious and well jointed
► Lime stones should not be porous.
► It should be above ground water table.
► Widely distributed in both area! and vertical dimensions.
► Carbonate rocks should be very close to the ground surface.
► Limestone should be highly folded, faulted or fractured.
► Adequate rainfall. -Mechanism of erosion in Karst areas

► Carbonation Erosional Landforms Lappies-Highly corrugated and

rough surface of limestone lithology with low ridges and pinnacles.

Terra Rosa- Weathering residue at the surface. Solution Holes-

Holes produced by dissolution of lime stones by chemically active
rain water.
Sink Holes- Small solution holes.
Dolin - A large solution hole. Swallow Hole- Formed by coalescence
of closely spaced sink holes.
Collapse Sinks- Solution holes formed due to collapse of upper
Solution Pans- Similar to doline with shallow depth and larger areal
Karst Lakes- When Dolines plugged by clay are filled with water.
Karst Window- Formed due to collapse of upper surface of sink
holes or dolines. Uvala - Extensive depression formed by
coalescence of several dolines.
Polje- Most extensive depressions larger than dolines and are
formed due to downfolding and faulting.
Karst Plain- Upper surface having several sink holes. Sinking Creek-
Numerous sink holes located in a line. Blind Valley- When flow is
terminated at a swallow hdle, the valley looks dry valley and is
known as blind valley. Karst Valley- U shaped valleys developed on
lime stones.

Cave - Voids of large dimension below ground surface. It is the

most significant feature. Ponores-Vertical passages that connect the
caves and the swallow holes.
Natural Bridge- Formed due to collapse of the roofs of caves or
due to disappearance of surface streams and their reappearance.

Depositional Landforms Causes of Deposition :-(l)Chemical

reactions (2) Charge in temperature .and. pressure conditions (3)
Loss of Carbon dioxide (4) Evaporation
Speleothems- Deposits in the caves are collectively called
'Speleothems'. Calcite is the common constituent. Travertines-
Banded calcareous deposits are called Travertines'
Drip Stones-Calcareous deposits formed by dripping- of water in
dry caves.

Stalactites- Dripstones hanging from the roof of a cave.

Stalagmites- Growing upward from the bottom of a cave.

Cave Pillars- These are formed when stalactites and stalagmites

meet together.

Drapes or curtains- Numerous needle shaped dripstones hanging

from the cave ceiling.

Helictites- Sideward growth from stalactites.

Helgmites-Sideward growth from stalagmites.

Flowstones-Floor deposits caused by seepage water

Marine Landforms
-Confined only to the narrow coastal zone.
-Produced by joint action of waves, currents and tides. The effect of
waves is predominating.
-As the waves approach the shore the wavelength continues to
decrease while the wave height increases to such an extent that
the crest of the wave, topples over and the wave is transformed
into a 'breaker' which then collapses. -Breakers may be Spilling,
Plunging or Surging breakers.
-They return towards the sea as Backwash or Undertow or Rip
-The turbulent water known as 'Swash' or 'Surf' or 'Uprush', rushes
shore ward with great velocity and force. The distance from the
shore where the wave breaks is known as 'Plunge Line' -Wave
refraction results in the formation of littoral or long shore currents
which move parallel to the sea coast. Coast- Land surfaces
modeled conspicuously by waves, now as well as in the past.
Shore- Narrow strip of land between the low tide water mark and
the high tide mark. Shoreline- Line of contact between land and
water Beach- Deposit made by seas that rest on the shore.
Processes and Mechanism of Erosion
Wave Quarrying- Pressure of waves and oscillatory motion of water
removes the material. Abrasion, Hydraulic Action, Solution and
various weathering processes also activate erosion.

Rate of wave erosion is determined by-

(i) Degree of exposure of the coastal region (ii) Tidal range (iii)
Composition of Coastal bed rock.

Erosional Landforms: Notch-A recess, indicating the point of wave

attack on the coastline.

Cliff - Almost vertical steep precipitous slope above the sea water
on a rocky coast. Wave cut Platform- A platform at the base and
front of cliff formed due to retreat of cliff.

Marine Terraces- Elevated wave-cut platforms marking former high

sea levels Coves or Bays- Where hard and soft rocks lay
alternately, differential erosion will create lesser indentations on the
coast. These are coves or bays. Bight- Feature much larger but
similar to that of a cove or a bay.

Hanging Valley-Rapid retreat of cliff renders small streams

incapable to keep down cutting thereby resulting in hanging valleys.

Sea Caves- Wave action on a headland protruding into the sea

leads to cave formation. Arch- Two caves, developing on opposite
sides coalesce to form an arch.

Stack- Eventually, the arch collapses and an isolated pinnacle

called stack is formed. Blow hole- A hole formed on a cave roof
because of wetness in rock
Geo- When the whole cave roof collapses, an inlet is formed known
as Geo Tidal Pools- Deep depressions on the wave cut platform
due to quarrying.

Rock Reefs- The hard resistant parts of a platform which have

withstood erosion.

Transportation Work: Backwash currents transport the eroded

materials seaward which are brought back to the coast by the Surf
currents. Thus transportation goes both ways.
Long shore currents are generated due to oblique incidence of
waves striking the coast. These currents transport materials parallel
to the shoreline.

Depositional Landforms: Deposition occurs because of: -Decrease

in transporting power of wave
-Interruption of the long shore drift
-River entering the sea -Mutual neutralisation of tidal currents
-Shelter provided by the embankments in the coast. Wave Built
Platform- Formed by sediments derived from the
erosion of cliff and wave cut platforms.

Beaches- A land on shore between the high water mark and the
low water mark. Composed of cobbles, pebbles, boulders, fine silt,
clay and sand. With reference to the type of material involved
beaches can be shell, coral, rock, lava or Shingle beach.

Shingle Beach-It is composed of flat, circular, smooth stones. Beach

Ridges or Berrns- Linear accumulation of shingles on a beach,
parallel to the high water mark.

Beach Cusps- Crescent shaped mass of beach material, ranging

from sand to quite large shingles or cobbles. Ridges and

Runnels-Rises and depressions lying parallel to the shoreline Bars-

The ridges, embankments of sands form by sedimentation through
sea waves parallel to the shore line are called bars

Off-Shore or Long Shore Bars- If the bars are formed in such a

way that they are parallel to the coast but are not attached to the
land, they are called off-shore or long shore bars.

Spits- Sand bars having one end attached to the land and the
other projecting into the sea, are called spits. Hook- A curved Spit.
Connecting Bars- A bar joining two headlands or two islands

Tombolo- A connecting bar which connects a headland or mainland

with an Island. Lagoons- They are formed when the curves or bays
are completely enclosed by bars, (e.g. Chilka and Pulicat) Mudflats-
A specialised vegetation adapted to salt and brackish water
(Halophytes) invade the lagoon region and help to bind the
sediments. The whole lagoon area is finally turned into marsh or
tidal mudflats. Analogous to salt marshes tidal mudflats in mid-
latitudes are the mangrove swamps of the tropics.

Aeolian Landforms
-Aeolian processes involve erosion of dry and loose material along
with transportation and deposition of fine sediments mainly sands
by action of wind. These occur mainly in arid and semi-arid regions
of tropical and temperate environments.
-Besides Aeolian process limited fluvial processes are also operative
in arid and semi-arid regions characterised by inland drainage,
ephemeral and intermittent streams. -Wind erosion is largely
controlled and determined by:-1. Wind velocity 2.Nature and amount
of sands, dusts and pebbles 3.Composition of rocks 4.Nature of
vegetation 5.Humidity, rainfall amount, and temperature

Wind erosion occurs in three ways:-

1.Deflation: Removal and blowing away of dry and loose particles of
sands and dusts. Long and continuous deflation produces
depressions or hollows known as 'Blow Outs'.

2.Abrasion or Sand Blasting: Wind armed with entrained sand grains

as tools of erosion attacks the rocks and erodes them.
3.Attrition: Mechanical wear and tear of the particles.

Erosional landforms Deflation Basins-Depression created through

deflation, also known as Deflation hollows e.g. Quattara depression
(Egypt), Buffalo Hollow (American Great Plain)Big Hollow (Wyoming,
USA), Pong Kiang Hollow (Mongolian Desert)

Mushroom Rocks- Rocks having broad upper part and narrow base
formed due to abrasion at base. Isenberg- Sharply rising residual

Demoiselles- Rock pillars having relatively resistant rocks at the top

and soft rock below. These are formed due to differential erosion.

Zeugens- Abrasive action of wind acting on exposed weakness of

horizontally bedded rocks (hard above and soft below) thereby
producing a tabular mass of resistant capping upon softer rocks

Yardangs- Sinuous ridges and parallel depressions formed' due to

differential abrasion of vertically arranged thin alterations of hard
and soft strata. Typical of Turkistan Desert and also in Tibesti Massif

Ventifacts-Faceted rock boulders, cobbles and pebbles formed due

to prolonged wind abrasion (one abraded face-Einkanter, two
abraded faces-Zweikanter, three abraded faces-Dreikanter).

Stone lattice- Differential erosion of hard and soft portions of rocks

through abrasion produces pitted and fluted surfaces called stone

Transportation Takes place through 1. Suspension-Materials kept in

suspension by upward moving air(e.g. Dust, Haze, Smoke)
2.Saltation-Mechanism of bouncing, leaping or jumping of particles.
3. Surface creep-Transport of loosened materials on the ground

Depositional Landforms Ripples- Wave like features formed by

saltation impact. They may be transverse or longitudinal
Sand Dunes- Heaps or mounds of sands. They are mobile
landforms and may be coastal dunes, riverine dunes, and lacustrine
dunes. Formation of Sand dunes re-quire-
1 .Abundance of sand

2.High velocity of wind

3.Obstacles such as tree, bushes, rocks, forests etc.

4.Suitable places for the accumulation of sands. Nebkhas- Dunes

formed due to shrubs as obstacles

Lunettes- Dunes that develop on the lee of desert depressions.

Fore Dune- Those formed on the windward side of a hill.
Depending upon shape they may be:-
Linear or Longitudinal (or Seif Dunes), Star, Dome, Reverse,
Barachan, Transverse Loess- Thick deposits of non-stratified, non-
indurated well-sorted fine grained sediments consisting of quartz
silt. Sediments for the accumulation of loess are derived from
desert areas, flood plains of river valleys, coastal areas etc. (e.g.
Chinese loess has been deposited from sediments from Gobi
deserts. Hwang Ho flowing through loess plateau acquires enough
sediments that makes it look yellowish in colour) Five Great Desert
1. Sahara- Central Asian Province (Sahara, Arabian, Indian, Karakum,
Kizil Kum, Takla Makan, Gobi)
2. Southern African province (Namib, Karroo, Kalahari)
3.South American dry zone (Atacama, Patagonia) 4.North American
(Mojave, Arizona, Sonoran) 5. Australian
Desert having mobile sands are called Ergs.


About 10% of the earth'ssur-face is covered by glaciers. Glaciers are
formed due to accumulation of ice. Snowline is generally defined as
a zone between permanent and seasonal snow and that height
above which there is permanent snow cover, The snowline is at he
lowest height sea-level in the polar region and increases equator-
ward where it tends to occur between 5000-6000 mt. The areas of
accumulation of huge volume of ice are called snow-fields. The
glaciers grow by gradual transformation of snow into granular snow
and then into firn and neve and finally into solid glacial ice
(granular snow-firn/neve-solid ice).

Types of glaciers: They are basically of three types:

► Mountain glaciers;
► Continental glaciers;
► Icecaps. glaciers. Icecaps: The biggest is called as icecap. It is
broad domes with flattened cross section covering thou-sands
glaciers. There is one difference between icesheets and jcecaps.
Icesheets: Eg., Antarctic and Greenland.
Continental glaciers: It is also a kind of icesheet but since it is
spread oyer the continents, hence are known as continental
Examples are: Antarctic -average thickness is 4000 m; Greenland
-average thickness is 3000m. Other examples are -Arctic, Canada,
Iceland, Norway.
Valley/Mountain/ Alpine glaciers:
Examples are:
(i) Himalayan region: Roopal glacier (16 km), Punma glacier (27 km),
Rjmu glacier (40 km), Himarche glacier, Barche and Milaspin glacier
(all in Kashmir Himalaya).
(ii) Hispar glacier, Baifo glacier (62 km), Baltorp glacier (58 km),
Siachen (72 km), Batura glacier (58 km), Sasaini glacier (158 km), all
in Karakoram range.

Cirque glacier: The armchair shaped or amphfthejatric cirque or

corrie is a horse shoe shaped, steep wall depression representing a
glaciated valley hill. It is known by different names at different
places. It is known as:
► CWN- at Wales;
► CORRIE - at Scotland;
► KAR - at Germany;
- Cirque lake is called 'Tarn'.
Col/Aretes and Horns:
► When it becomes pyramidal called as col and peak;
► When the peak looks like teeth, it is called 'aretes'. Nunatak: the
higher peaks and mounds surrounded J>y_ice from all sides are
called Nuna-tak&
-Milan glacier (19 km), Kedarnath (14 km), Gangotri glacier (25 km),
Kosa (11 km) all in Kumaon Himalayas. -Zemu glacier (25 km),
Kanchenjunga (16 km) - all in Sikkim.
Other sub-types of glaciers:
(l)Piedmont glacier: These are found in colder areas and not in the
tropical or temperate regions. If is to coalescence of several
mountains and valleys or glaciers at the foothill zone for eg.,
Melaspina of Alaska (USA)!
(2)Iceshelf: Floating thick icesheet/icecap attached to the coast. Eg.,
Ross iceshelf, Ronne iceshelf, Filchner iceshelf - all in Atlantic coast.

(3)Niche glacier: It represents a small upland icemass which rests

upon a sloping rockface.

(4)'U' shaped valley: They are 'U' shaped and are associated with
the tributary valleys called hanging valleys. The main glacial valleys
of much greater depth are called hanging valleys.
(5)Crag and Tail: A peculiar landform having vertical eroded steep
side up glacial side and tail-like appearance with lower height,
down glacial side is called crag and tail.

(6) Roches mountains: They are all covered by ice andlakes are
formed at the foothills and are called Beaded lakes and the smaller
lakes are called Paternoster lake.
(7)Morraines: They are ridgelike depositional features of glaciers.
They are long but narrow ridges with height more than 30 m
(8)Drumlins: They look like inverted elliptical or avoid hills.
(9)Eskers: They are long narrow and sinuous ridges of sands and
gravels and are situated in the middle of ground moraines.
(10)Kames: These are small hills or irregular mounds of bedded
sands and grave)s which are deposited by melt of the water near
or at the edge of the retreating icesheets.

(11)Kettles and Hummocks: Kettles are depressions in the outwash

plains. Large kettles are dotted with numerous low mounds and are
called hum-mocks.

(12)Outwash: The melt water caused due to ablation of glaciers at

its snout descents through the terminal morraine and spreads like
sheet water. It is also known as 'sander' and 'braids'.
1.Cirques; These are circular depressions formed by plucking and
grinding on the upper parts of the mountain-slopes. Also known as
Corries or Amphitheatre.

2.Arete: This.name is applied to the sharp ridges produced by glacial

erosion. Where two cirque-walls intersect from opposite sides, a
jagged, knife-like ridge, called arete results, also known as comb or

3.Horn: Where three or more cirques grow together, a sharp-pointed

peak is formed by the intersection of the aretes.

4.Col: Where opposed cirques have intersected deeply, a pass §r

notch called a col is formed.

5.Glacial-trough: Glacier flow constantly deepens and widens its

channel so that after the ice has finally disappeared, there remains
a deep, steep walled, 'U' shaped valley, known as glacial trough.

6.Hanging valley: Tributary glaciers also carve 'U' shaped troughs.

But they are smaller in cross-section,, with floors lying high above
the floor-level of the main trough, i.e., main glacial valley.

7.Fiords; When the floor of a glacial trough open to the sea lies
below sea level, the sea-water will enter as the ice-fronts recedes,
producing a narrow estuary, known as a 'fiord'.

8.Tarns: The bed-rock is not always evenly excavated under a

glacier, so that floors of troughs and cirques may contain rock-
basin and rock-steps. Cirques and upper parts of troughs thus are
occupied by small lakes called tarns.

Glacio- Fluvial Deposits: 1.Outwash plain: It is also known as

overwash plain. Glacial streams carry a huge quantity of rockdebris
and then form fan-like plains beyond the terminus of glaciers.
These are stratified, when they occur on valley floors, such outwash
plains are called valley trains.

2.Karnes or kame terraces: These are formed on the top surface of

a glacier where the surficial melt-waters wash sediments from the
top in to depressions. As the ice melts the material that formerly
filled depressions on top of the gla-cier is dropped and makes
small hills, which are more or less flat-topped and are known as
kames. Terraces, called kame terraces, are built in this way.
3.Eskers: These are winding steep-sided ridge-like features built of
stream borne drift, these are also known as Osser or Oss.
4.Erratics: These are stray boulders of rocks which have undergone
a prolonged glacial transport and have subsequently been deposited
in an area, where the country rocks are of distinctly different types.
At times they are delicately balanced upon glaciated bed-rock, and
are called poking or logging-stone.

5.Kettles: Drifts occurring in the vicinity of a glacier and particularly

those lying near about the ice-terminus are ordinarily found to
contain a number of depressions, some of which may give rise to
lakes or swamps. Such hollows are known as kettles. 6.Varves;
These are layered clays alternating with coarser and finer

Other Important- Processes and Features Associated with

1.Niviation: It is the process of quarrying of rocks mostly by frost-
2. Ablation. Includes processes both evaporation and the melting of
snow and ice.

3.Calving: Within fiords, glaciers come in contact with marine water

and blocks of ice are found to break-off from the mass of the
glacier. This process of wastage of glacier is known as calving.

4.Serace: Similar to a waterfall in a river, in a steeper section of the

valley, the glacier is broken-up into rugged ice-pinnacles and is
known as serace.

5.Iceberg: These are floating ice-hill on the sea water.

6.Crevasses: These are cracks formed due to differential movement

within the mass of glacier. In German, they are known as

7.Nunatak: A rock-mass which projects through an ice-sheet,

generally found at the margins of a sheet where the ice is thinnest,
is known as nunatak.

ATMOSPHERE Composition:
1. Nitrogen (N2) 78.08%
2. Oxygen (O2)-20.9%
3. Argon (Ar)-0.9%
4. Carbon Dioxide (C02)-0.033%. These 4 constitute 99.997%.
5. Water vapour (H20) Trace Constituents:
Neon (Ne) Helium (He) Krypton (Kr) Xenon (Xe) Hydrogen (H2) M
ethane CH4) Nitrous Oxide (N20) Radon (Rn)
Highly variable constituents:
Water vapour Ozone (03) Sulphur dioxide (S02) Nitrogen dioxide (N02)
Carbon Monoxide (CO) Particles (dust, salt)

Characteristics: Nitrogen: When the weathering of igneous rocks

takes place, it adds nitrogen in the atmosphere. It is found between
50-100 km. but dominates the lower 50 km.

Oxygen: It occurs up to 120 km. but up to 6 km. as 02, while above

it occurs in dissociated form or O.

Carbon dioxide: Absorbs heat radiation from the earth in the

atmosphere. It is: transparent and keeps the earth temperature at
high level. The rocks gradually remove away the C02 from the
atmosphere. It dissolves in water to form carbonic acid, a
compound i.e. C02+H20= H2C03. The ocean contains 60 times more
C02 than the atmosphere.

Argon, Neon, Krypton, Xenon: Chemically inactive; present in tiny

proportion; known as noble gases. Water Vapour: Most variable in
proportion and largely concentrated in the lowest Kms.; recycles in
evaporation- condensation. It is mainly found in lowest region: 6 km
of atmosphere. Therefore it becomes less with height. Neon: Bright
Red. Used in Neon sign, tubelights and advertisement boards.

Helium: Chemically inert. It is added in the atmosphere by the oil

fields. The amount of helium has increased 10 times. Since it is
chemically inert hence it can only be lost by escape in the space.
Hydrogen: It is negligible in low atmosphere but present above 1500
km. Protons and electrons are found in hydrogen.

Ozone (03) -Absorbs ultraviolet and infrared radiation and

therefore increases the. temperature above stratosphere. Maximum
production of ozone occurs at 30-40 km above the earth's surface
but its maximum concentration occurs at 20-30 km above the earth.
Ozone hole was first sighted above Antarctica. Ozone immediately
reacts with chlorine. Variations in Atmospheric Composition:
1) Variation with height:
► Water Vapour comprises up to 4% of the atmosphere by volume
near surface but non existent above 10 km. of the atmosphere;
► Ozone is mainly concentrated between 15-35 km.;
► 100-200 km. is the nitrogen layer;
► 200-1,100 km. is the oxygen layer;
► 1,100-3,500 km. is helium layer;
► Above 3,500 km. is the oxygen layer again.
2) Variations with latitude and seasons:
► Above 30° latitude north, C02 is least;
► Ozone content is low over the equator and high over 50 degree
north latitude, particularly in spring.
Atmosphere can be divided into following layers:
Troposphere; Stratosphere; Mesosphere; Ionosphere; Thermosphere;
Exosphere; Magnetosphere Troposphere:


► It is the most important zone for weather phenomenon, because

(a) Gradual decrease of temperature with height i.e. 6.5 degree C
per km. Temperature decreases except at winter pole;
(b) The lowest part of troposphere up to 1.5-2 km. is called friction
layer, where topography greatly influences wind speed and
► It contains all the major atmosphere pollutants. This is also called
Connective layer where the clouds are formed;
► it roughly extends to a height of 8 kms near the poles and about
18 kms. at the equator
► the thickness at the equator is greatest
► it contains dust particles and over 90% of the earth's water
► aviators of jet aeroplanes often avoid this layer due to presence
of bumpy air pockets.
► The upper limit of the troposphere is called Tropo-pause, literally
means zone or region of mixing. Its height is 17 km during January
and July over the equator and the temperature of this height is 700

► From Tropopause to about 50 Km;
► It is an Isothermal region and extremely dry free with clouds,
water vapour and dust; here air is at rest and movement is almost
► Some clouds found are called Mother of Pearls or Nacreous.
► Contains much of Ozone (03); therefore called Ozono-sphere,
especially between 15 kms to 35 km from the sea level. The
combining of atmosphere oxygen 02with individual oxygen results in
the creation of ozone.
► In the lower stratosphere (up to 25 km.) temperature remains
constant, temperature increase gradually with height up to 50 Kms;
and at 50 kms becomes 0° C or 32° F.
► The upper limit of the Stratosphere is called Stratopause.
► Winds decrease with height in the lower stratosphere and then
increase with height in the upper stratosphere.
► Feable winds and Cirrus Clouds are found in the lower

► Chemosphere extends from troposphere to an altitude of 50 kms.
Overlapping both homosphere and heterosphere.
► In this air glove occurs at night especially green and red. It is a
part of Stratosphere.
► In this air glow occurs at night, especially green and red.
► Height from 50 Km to 80 Km.
► The temperature decreases fairly with the height with the
minimum temperature of about -90 degree.
► Mesopause (the top of the layer); above Mesopause temperature
increases with increasing height
► The presence is because of meteoric dust particles.

► The part of the atmosphere beyond Mesopause is known as
thermosphere wherein temperature increases rapidly with increasing
► it is above 200 km. and N02 and 02 are found.
► its lower portion is composed mainly of nitrogen and oxygen in
molecular and atomic forms;
► rapid temperature increase approaching 1700 degree C, at 350
► thermosphere is divided into two layers: (1) Ionosphere and (2)
Exosphere Ionosphere:
► 80 kms. to 640 kms. and above
► Radio waves found; it is a region of electrically charged or
ionized air lying next to Mesosphere
► High electron density;
► 150 kms.-380 kms. known as Appleton;
► Absorbs deadly X-rays;
► The northern lights or aurora borealis are found.
► This layer is called Kennelly Heaviside Layer (99-130 kms) here
interaction takes place between solar-ultra-violet photons with
► Sporadic Layer is associated with high velocity winds. The bulk of
the atmosphere consists of electrically neutral atoms and molecules.
At high altitudes, however, a significant fraction of the atmosphere
is electrically charged. This region is generally called the
It extends throughout the mesosphere and thermosphere but is
most important and distinct at altitudes above about 80 kilometres.
Most of the ionization in the ionosphere is effected by pho-
toionization. Photons of short wavelength (i.e., high energy) are
absorbed by atmospheric gases. A portion of the energy is used to
eject an electron, converting a neutral atom or molecule to a pair
of charged species: an electron, which is negatively charged, and a
com-panion positive ion. Ionization in the Fl region is produced
mainly by ejection of electrons from 02,0, and N2. The threshold for
ionization of 02-corresponds to a wavelength of 102.7 nanometres.
Thresholds for 02 and N2 are at 91.1 and 79.6 nanometres,
respectively. Exosphere:
► 640 kms and above;
► The atoms of oxygen, hydrogen and helium form the tenuous
► The density becomes extremely low and the atmosphere
resembles a nebula because it is highly rarefied. Aurora Australis
and Aurora Borealis are produced- magnetic storms on the sun
discharge electrified particles in the space. The earth's magnetic
poles attract these particles. Aurora Australis (the southern dawn).
Aurora Borealis (the northern dawn).

Chemical Composition:
► It is basically divided into two parts: (1) Homosphere and (2)

(a)It represents the lower portion of the atmosphere and extends
upto the height of 90 km from the sea-level.

(b)The main constituent gases are Oxygen (20.946%), Nitrogen

(78.084%). Others are Argon, Carbon-dioxide, Neon, Helium, Krypton,
Xenon, Hydrogen, etc.
(c)The proportion of different gases is uniform at different levels in
this zone.


(a)This zone extends from 90 km to 10,000 km.

(b)There are four parts of it: (i) Molecular nitrogen layer- it is

dominated by molecular nitrogen and extends upward up to the
height of200 km (90 to 200 km); (ii) Atomic oxygen layer: extends
from 200 to 100 km; (iii) Further upward there is helium layer which
extends up to the height of 3500m; (iv) Atomic hydrogen layer- it is
the top most layer of the atmosphere and extends up to the outer
most limit of the atmosphere.

Temperature is affected by:

l)Latitude: at high latitude there is low temperature and at low
latitude, there is high temperature due to longer and shorter
distances. Thus equator will be affected due to isolation or
sunstroke and tropics will be most affected between 6° north- 6°
south. Because the vertical motion is relatively rapid during its
passage over the equator, but its rate slows down as it reaches the

2)Altitude: places near the earth's surface are warmer, thus the
temperature decreases with the increasing height above the sea
level because of the lapse rate i.e. every 1 km decreases by 6.5
degree c.

3)Continentality: Continental Climate: summer - 70 degree F; winter

- 28 degree F; range - 42 degree F.; Maritime Climate: summer -62
degree F; winter- 48 degree F; range - 14 degree F. 4)Oceanic
Currents and Winds
1) O'-S" North South:
► Called Equatorial Low Pressure Belt;
► Intense heating, with expanding air and ascending convection
► It is the closest point to the sun, therefore, the air is relatively
more hot due to which, the air becomes less denser, lighter and
moves upward.
► It is called DOLDRUMS or calm;
► It is a Zone of Wind Convergence.
2) 10*-15° North and South:
► Due to high pressure belt around this area, there is subtropical
high pressure belt where the air is comparatively dry, light and
► This is very beneficial in maritime trade, hence, is called
maritime trade.
Since the air becomes hotter at the equator, it raises upward and
around 30 degree north and south starts coming down. Due to this,
a high-pressure belt is created. Hence, horse latitude i.e. 25° -35°
north and south, no wind blows.
3) 30°- North- South:
► Subtropical High Pressure Belt;
► Air is comparatively dry and winds are calm and light.
► It is a region of descending air currents of wind divergence with
cyclonic activity;
► Referred as HORSE LATITUDE.
4) 30°-60° North and South:
► It is the area of temperate low pressure belt or the antitrade
wind area. There is rainfall all round the year and cyclones and
anti-cyclones are developed.
► Comparatively, anti-trade winds are faster in southern
hemisphere than in the northern;
► Due to Coriolis force, they become South Westerlies in the north
and North Westerlies in the south.
In the southern hemisphere, due to oceans between 40 de-gree-60
degree South Westerlies blow with much greater force with
regularity throughout the year. Here three types of winds are
found:- Roaring 40s, Furious 50s, and Shrieking or Storming 50s.
5) 60°-North-South:
► Two Temperate Low Pressure Belts which are also zones of
convergence with cyclonic activity;
► The sub-polar low pressure areas are best developed over
6) 90°-North-South
► Temperatures are permanently low, are the Polar High Pressure

HORSE LATITUDE - The dynamically induced subtropical high

pressure belt ex-tends between 30°-35° (25°-35°) latitudes in both
the hemispheres.
-This belt separates two wind systems, viz. trade winds and
-This zone 30°-35° is characterized by weak and variable winds and
calm. -It is known as horse latitude because of the fact that in
ancient times had be sailed through the calm conditions of these

-A belt of low pressure, popularly known as equatorial trough of
low pressure, extends along the equator within a zone of 50 degree
N and 50 degree S latitudes. This is the belt of calm or doldrums
because of light and variable winds. -This belt is subjected to
seasonal and spatial variations due to northward and southward
movement of the overhead sun (summer and winter solstices). Polar
Temperature is permanently low, so this region is the high pressure
belt. In the northern hemisphere, they blow north east and in
southern hemisphere, south east. The polar easterlies blows towards
the temperate low pressure belt. They are extremely cold as they
come from Tundra and Icecap region. They are more regular in the
south than the north. Planetary Winds: Winds tend to blow from the
high pressure belts to the low pressure belts, are the planetary
winds. Coriolis Force or Ferrel's Law of Deflection:

► Instead of blowing directly from one pressure belt to another,

however the effect of the rotation of the earth (Coriolis force) tends
to deflect the direction of the winds. In the northern hemisphere,
winds are deflected to their right and in the southern hemisphere
to their left.
► This is known as Ferrel's Law of Deflection.
► The Coriolis Force is about along the equator but increases
progressively towards the Poles.

Trade Winds:
► These winds blow out from the Sub-Tropical High Pressure Belt in
the northern hemisphere towards the Equatorial low become North
East Trade Winds and those in the southern hemisphere become
the South East Trade Winds. These trade winds are the most
regular of all the planetary winds.
► They blow with great force and in constant direction.
► Therefore , helpful to traders to sail. Trade winds bring heavy
► They sometimes contain intense depressions.
► The word 'trade' comes from the Saxon word'tredan' which
means to tread or follow a regular path.
► They blow from north -east towards the equator, in the northern
hemisphere and from south-east towards the equator, in the
southern hemisphere.

Permanent Winds: They blow throughout the equator.

► From the Subtropical High Pressure Belts, winds blow towards the
Temperature Low Pressure Belts.
► Under the effect of Coriolis Force, they become the South-
Westerlies in the northern hemisphere and North-Westerlies in the
southern hemisphere.
► This warming effect and other local pressure differences have
resulted in a very variable climate in the temperature zones,
dominated by the movement of cyclones and anti-cyclones.
► In the southern hemisphere, where there is a large expanse of
ocean, from 40 degree south to 60 degree south; westerlies blow
with much greater force and regularity throughout the year.
► There is much variation in the weather conditions in their
poleward parts where there is convergence of cold and denser
polar winds and warms and lighter westerlies.
► Their velocity increases south ward and they become .stormy.
They are also associated with boisterous gales. The velocity of the
westerlies be-cpme so great that they are called:
(a)Roaring forties between the latitudes 40-50 degree S; (b)Furious
fifties at 50 degree S latitude; and
(c)Shrieking sixties at 60 degree S'latitude. Polar Easterlies:
► It blows from the Polar Easterlies towards the Temperate Low
Pressure Belts.
► It is extremely cold winds as it comes from Tundra and Ice-Cap
regions. y It is more regular in the south than in the north.
► It is defected to the right to become the N.E. Polar Winds in the
Northern Hemisphere and to the left to become the S.E. Poter
Winds in the Southern Hemisphere.
► These polar cold winds converge with warm westerlies near 60-65
latitudes and form polar front or mid-latitude front or mid-latitude
front, which becomes the centre for the origin of temperate

Fohn and Chinook:

Fohn is a warm, dry and local wind- Northern Alps- Switzerland in
spring; and called climate oasis.
► Chinook is a warm, dry and local wind- Eastern slopes in Rockies
in USA and Canada in winters.
► It increases temperature 35 degree F within 15 minutes.
► It causes Avalanches.
► In North America, it is called Chinook, meaning 'the snow eater'.
► Chinook winds are more common during winter and early spring
along the eastern slopes (leeward side) of the Rocky Mountains
from Colorado (USA) in the south to British Columbia (Canada).

Sirocco is a warm, dry and dusty local wind, which blows in
northerly direction from Sahara desert and after crossing over the
Mediterranean Sea, reaches Italy and Spain,
► Becomes extremely warm and dry while descending through the
northern slopes of the Atlas Mountain.
► It is known as Khamsin in Egypt; Gibli in Libya; Chili in Tunisia;
Simoom in Arabian Desert; Blood Rain in South Italy; Leveche in
Spain; Gharbi in Adriatic and Aegean Sea.

► It is a cold wind which blows in Spain and France from North-
east direction; especially in winter
► The average velocity of mistral is 56-64 km/h to 128 kmph Bora:
► Bora is an extremely cold and dry north-easterly wind in Adriatic
Sea, with a velocity of 128 kmph to 196 kmph
► It is also called Tramontana and Gregale. Harmattan:
► It is warm and dry winds blowing from north-east and east to
west in the eastern part of Sahara desert.
► Called as Doctor in Guinea coastal of Western Africa
► Called Brickfielder in Victoria in Australia; Blackroller in the Great
plains of USA; Shamal in Mesopotamia; Norwester in New Zealand.

► It is a violent stormy cold and powdery polar wind laden with dry
snow and is prevalent in North and South polar regions, Siberia,-
Canada and the USA.
► Northers in the Southern USA and Burran in Siberia. Tropical
Cyclones: Typhoons: It occurs mainly in the region 6 degree and 20
degree North and South of the equator and are most frequent from
July to October. It's velocity is 100 m.p.h. Torrential downpour is
accompanied by Thunder and Lightening. Hurricanes: Same feature,
but only differs in intensity, duration and locality. It has calm,
rainless centres, where pressure is lowest.
Tornadoes: Its velocity is 500 m.p.h. It appears as a dark funnel
cloud. 250-1400 ft. in diameter. It is most frequent in spring.

Atmospheric Pressure:
► Air has weight and therefore it exerts air pressure or atmospheric
pressure. Pressure is felt maximum at the surface and it decreases
with height.
► It is about 2.7 kg per sq. cm i.e. 1013.2 millibar, water vapour
decreases the pressure, the movement of the earth also affects
► At the equator earth rotates with a speed of 1600 km/ hour and
completes a distance of 40,000 km in 24 hour.
► Speed decreases as it goes up and down;
► At 45 degree latitude speed is 1100 km/ hour and becomes 0
degree at the poles, therefore after 60 degree latitude air pressure
is constant.

Types Of Atmospheric Pressure:

(a)Vertical distribution ofpres-sure - the pressure is highest at
surface and at every 300 m above the earth the pressure decreases
by 34 millibar. At 5,500 m. pressure reduces to half and 1/4th at
11000m. (b)Horizontal distribution of pressure - In January, sun is
tilted towards south and therefore in the southern hemisphere there
is low-pressure belt. Therefore in Eurasia and North America high
pressure is developed with low temperature. In July, at Atlantic and
Pacific ocean low pressure is developed especially Icelandic and
Aleutianic. On the other hand, when the sun is tilted towards north
low pressure is shifted to Asia and Africa. However in the lower
Asia, Africa, South Pacific Ocean and South Atlantic Ocean high
pressure is developed.

► There are 7 pressure belts: i)Equatorial Low Pressure Belt;

ii)North of Capricorn- High Pressure Belt;
iii)South Of Cancer- High Pressure Belt;
iv)66 degree North Low Pressure Belt (Northern sub-Polar region);
v)66 degree South low Pressure Belt (Southern sub-Polar region);
vi)North Pole High Pressure Belt;
vii)South Pole High Pressure Belt,

Relation between Pressure and Wind:

l.The temperature increases when wind expands and density
decreases and when the temperature Jails, winds contracts and
density increases. Therefore, where temperature is increased,
density is lowered and any reduction in temperature produces high

2. The earth rotates west to east and therefore, it produces

centrifugal force and due to this force, there is change in the
direction of the wind. There are three laws related to it:-(a)Ferrel's
Law: In the northern hemisphere, wind deflects towards right and in
the southern hemisphere it is vice-versa. This means that in the
north-em hemisphere, the wind deflects clockwise and in the
southern anti-clockwise. This is called deflection of wind and
because of high and low pressure the wind tends to be deflected
instead of being straightened.
(b)Buisballot's Law: In north hemisphere at the right side of your
backside, there would be high pressure and at the left, low
pressure. In the south, it is vice-versa. This would help in
determination of appropriate direction.
(Hadley’s Law: In the northern hemisphere the wind from north to
south deviates right and in the southern hemi-sphere, from south
to north deviates to the left. The left from east to west does not
deflect according to this law. Clouds: Clouds are defined as
aggregates of innumerable tiny water droplets, ice-particles of
mixture of both in the air, generally above the ground surface Acid
-Acidity measured by pH. -PH scale runs from 1 to 14 measures the
balance of Hydrogen ions (H*) & Hydroxide ions (OH) in a 14 point

-Positive and negative balance is pH7.

-If there are more hydrogen ions than hydroxide ion, the pH is less
than the solution is termed acidic, the lower the pH, the higher the
acid content. -Rainfall- somewhat acidic pH: 5.5 to 6 0.
The process of change of water vapour into liquid form is called
condensation. Therefore, condensation is opposite to vaporization
Surface Tension: water has the highest surface tension of any liquid
except mercury. Surface tension is the attraction of molecules of
each other.

Humidity: water in gaseous form or water vapour in the

atmosphere is referred to as humidity. It can also be defined as the
number of molecules of water/unit volume. Vapour Pressure: Vapour
pressure is simply the pressure, exerted by the water vapour
content. Its value increases as the temperature increases.

Specific Humidity: Specific humidity is the ratio of the weight of

moist vapour (gms) to the weight of moist air ( Represents the
actual quantity of moisture in a definite air. It decreases fmm
equator to poles. In Arctic it is 0.2 gm./kg., while in equatorial
region, it is 18 gm./kg. It is used in Climatology

Absolute Humidity: Absolute humidity of the air is the mass or

weight of vapour per unit volume of air

Relative Humidity: It is defined as the ratio of the amount of water

vapour actually present in the air having definite volume and
temperature (Absolute humidity) to the maximum amount the air
can hold.

Forms of Condensation: Mist: Forms on wet surface, lakes or

rivers where the hu-midity is high and condensation in evening
was led to wisps of mist over the fields and water especially in
sheltered spots.
Rime: It is a deposit of white opaque ice crystals formed by the
freezing of super cooled water droplets on the surface . below 0
degree C. Smog: Smoke and Fog. Normal lapse rate:
6.5 degree C/ thousand m. or
3.5 degree F/thousand feet.

Dew Point:
► The temperature at which air becomes saturated is called Dew
► The vapour is limited. If the volume of vapour increases but
there may be a point at which the vapour cannot be incorporated,
this is called saturation point.
► Dew points are the temperaing winter than summer.

Regional Distribution:
According to the ancient Greek thinkers the globe is divided into
three temperature zones on the basis of latitudes: (1) Tropical Zone;
(2) Temperature Zone; (3) Frigid Zone;
(1) Tropical Zone -Extends between the tropics of Cancer (23.50N)
and Capricorn (23.50S).
-The sun is more or less vertical on the equator throughout the
-There is no winter around the equator because of high
temperature prevailing throughout the year.
(2) Temperate Zone
-Extends between 23.5° and 66.5° latitudes in both the hemispheres.
-There is a marked seasonal contrast with the northward and
southward migration of the overhead sun - The range of
temperature is exceptionally high.
(3) Frigid Zone
-Extends between 66.5° latitudes and the poles in both the
-More oblique sun's rays throughout the year resulting into
exceptionally very low temperature characterize it. -The length of
day and night is more than 24 hrs. Isanomalous Temperature -The
difference ot observed ^ temperature of a place and the mean
temperature of the latitude passing through that places called
thermal anomaly. -For example, if the average temperature of 30°N
latitude is 20°C and the temperature of "S" place located on the
latitude is 30°C, then the thermal anomaly is of 10°. -If the
observed temperature of a particular place is more than the mean
temperature of the latitude of that place, the thermal anomaly is
called positive thermal anomaly, but if the observed temperature of
a given place is less than that of the latitude of that place then it
becomes negative thermal anomaly.
-The equal thermal anomaly of several places is called isanomalous
temperature and the lines drawn on the world map joining places
of equal thermal anomaly are called isanomals.

Water Vapour and Evaporation

-The process of transformation of liquid (water) into gaseous from
is called evaporation. -The process of conversion of vapour into
(water) and solid form (ice, snow, frost) is condensation.

Latent Heat
-Energy in the form of heat is required for the conversion of water
into gaseous torm (water vapor). Heat energy is generally measured
in the unit of calorie.
-The potential energy of water is more than ice and that of (vapour
is more than water. This hidden amount of heating water is the

Humidity Capacity -The moisture content (humidity) of the air is

measured in grain per cubic foot or in gram per cubic centimetre.
-Evaporation is the main mechanism through which wa-sher is
converted into humidity. -Temperature and evaporation are directly
positively related and hence humidity and temperature are also
directly positively related.
-The moisture retaining capacity or humidity capacity refers to the
capacity of an air of certain temperature to retain maximum
amount of moisture content.
-Humidity capacity is directly positively related with temperature
-Higher the temperature, higher the humidity capacity and vice-
- The ratio of increase of humidity capacity also increases with the
increasing temperature.

Absolute Humidity
-The total weight of moisture contained (water vapour) per volume
of air at definite temperature is called absolute humidity.
-Evaporation is the main mechanism through which water is
converted into humidity or vapour. Temperature and evaporation are
directly and positively related. -The absolute humidity decreases
from equator towards thepoles and from ocean to the continents.
-The possibility of preeipitation largely depends on absolute
-The air having moisture content equal to its humidity capacity is
called 'saturated air'. -Generally absolute humidity does not change
with increase or decrease of temperature. Specific Humidity -It is
defined 'as the mass of water vapour in grams contained in a kg
Qf air and it represents the actual quantity of moisture present in a
definite air
-It_is seldom affected by change in the air temperature measured
in the units of weight
-It is directly proportional to vapour pressure, which is the partial
pressure exerted by water vapour in the air and is independent of
other gases', and is inversely proportional to air pressure.
-It decreases from equator to pote ward.
-In real sense, specific humidity is a geographer's yardstick of a
basic natural resource water to be applied from equatorial to Polar
Regions. -It is a measure of quantity of water that can be
extracted from the atmosphere as precipitation.
-In Arctic, it is 0.2 gm/kg., while in equatorial region, it is 18gm/kg.

Relative Humidity (RH) Relative humidity is defined as a ratio of

the amount of water
vapour actually present in the air having definite volume and
temperature (i.e., absolute humidity) to the maximum amount the
air can hold (i.e.,humidity capacity).
(Relative Humidity = Absolute Humidity / Humidity Capacity) There
is inverse relationship between air temperature and relative
humidity, i.e., relative humidity decreases with increasing
temperature while it increases with decreasing tem-perature.
When the humidity capacity and absolute humidity of the air are
the same, the air is said to be saturated and relative humidity
becomes lOO percent. Relative humidity (RH) can be changed in
two ways: first, if the absolute humidity increases due to additional
evaporation and secondly, change takes place temperature.
Importance of RH: -The possibility of precipitation depends on it.
-High and low relative humidity is indicative of the possibility of
wet and dry conditions respectively. Distribution of RH: -Equatorial
regions are characterized by highest relative humidity.
-It gradually decreases towards subtropical high pressure belts
where it becomes minimum (between 25°-35° latitude) -Latitudes
largely control seasonal distribution of relative humidity.
-Maximum R.H. is found during summer season between
30°Nand30°S latitudes. Condensation
-The transformation of gaseous form of water (i.e., water vapour)
into solid form (ice) and liquid form (water) is called condensation.
-Condensation is opposite to evaporation.
-The temperature at which an air becomes saturated is called Dew
point temperature. -Condensation depends on:
(a) the percentage of relative humidity of the air; and
(b) the degree of cooling of air.

Cooling of Air and Adiabatic Change

Temperature decreases with increasing height at the rate of 6.5°C
per 1000m or 3.6°F per 1000 feet. This rate of decrease of
temperature with increasing height is called normal lapse rate.
A definite ascending air with given volume and temperature
expands due to decrease in pressure and thus cools. -It is apparent
that there is a change in temperature of air due to ascent or
descent but without addition or subtraction of heat. Such type of
change of temperature of air due to contraction or expansion of air
is called adiabatic change of temperature.
Adiabatic change of temperature is of two types, viz.: (i)dry
adiabatic change (ii)moist adiabatic change. -The temperature of
unsaturated ascending air decreases with increasing height at the
rate of5.50Fper feet or 10°C per 1000m This type of change of
temperature of unsaturated ascending or descending air is called
dry adiabatic rate. -The rate of decrease of temperature of an
ascending air beyond condensation level is lowered due to addition
of latent heat of condensation of the air. This is called moist
adiabatic rats-
-In this case temperature of an ascending air beyond condensation
level decreases (and hence the air cools) at the rate 3°F per 1000
feet. This is also called retarded adiabatic rate.

Stability and Instability of the Atmosphere

-Different types of precipitation (dew, rainfall, frost, snowfall,
hailstorm, etc.) depend on stability and instability of the
-The air without vertical movement is called stable air while
unstable air undergoes vertical movement.
-An air mass ascends and becomes unstable when it becomes
warmer than the surrounding air mass while descending air mass
becomes stable. The stability and instability depends on the
relationship between normal lapse rate and adiabatic change in

Stability: When the dry adiabatic lapse rate of ascending dry air is
higher than the normal lapse rate and if it is not saturated and
does not "attain dew point, it becomes colder than surrounding air
at certain height with the result it becomes heavier and descends.
This process causes stabilityof atmospheric circulation due to which
vertical circulation of air is resisted;
When the ascending parcel of air reaches such height that its
temperature equals temperature of surrounding air, its further
upward movement is stopped. Such air is said to be in the state of
neutral equilibrium.

Mechanical Instability: It is a case of abnormal conditions when

the normal lapse rate is exceptionally very high (15 degree C to 35
degree C per. lOOm.). The upper layers are cold and denser than
the underlying layers, therefore, cold and denser upper layers
automatically descend. Such situation is called mechanical instability
and helps in the formation of tornado.

Conditional Instability: When a parcel of air is forced to move

upward, it cool at dry adiabatic lapse rate (10 degree C per 1000 m.
or 5.5 degree F per 1000 feet), normal lapse rate is 6.5°C per 1000 m.
The air is initially forced to move upward but rises automatically
due to its own properties after condensation point is reached.

Dew: The earth receives radiation fromihe sun during day and
reflects in the night.
► When the earth reflects the heat the surface becomes cooleLand
the air around it also becomes cooler.
► Then the water vapour in the air condenses and then is called
► But there are two preconditions: (1) there must be vapour in the
air; and (2) the surface must be cool enough to condense that
water vapour.
► That's why after rainy season, the water vapour content in the
air increases.
► After the rainy season in the winter, the air becomes cool and
therefore adequate dews are formed in Oct.Nov.

► It is a special type of thin cloud consisting of microscopically
small water droplets which are kept in suspension in the air near
the ground surface arid reduces horizontal visibility.
► Fog is generally associated with inversion of temperature and
occurs in the morning hours but sometimes also continue till noon.
When there is a mixture of smoke and fog, it becomes Smog.

Radiation Fog:
► Radiation fog is formed when warm and moist air lies surface.
Due to this situation overlying warm and moist aircools and the
dew point is reached, with the condensation of water vapour around
hygroscopic nuclei (dust particles and smokes) forms numerous tiny
water droplet and thus fog is originated.
► When fog is combined with sulphur dioxide it becomes poisonous
and causes human deaths. Such fog is called urban smog.

Advectional Radiation Fog:

► The fog formed due to mixing of warm moist air and cold air
due to arrival of warm and moist air over cold ground surface is
called advectional radiation.
► The fogs occurring over sea surfaces are called sea fogs, which
are generally formed, near the coastal areas frequented by cold
ocean currents.

Steam Fogs:
Steam fogs are in fact advectional fogs, which are formed when
cold air moves from land over oceanic surface and there is
evaporation of large quantity of moisture from water surface to
saturate the overlying cold air. They are also called evaporation

Upslope or Hill Fogs:

It originate when continental warm and moist air rises upslope
along the hill slopes because the rising air is saturated due to
cooling and condensation of moisture around hygroscopic nuclei and
forms fogs which cover the lower segments of hill slopes.

Frontal Fogs: Fronts are formed when two contrasting air masses
(warm and cold air masses) converge along a line. Warm air is
pushed upward by cold air and hence overlying warm air is cooled
from below due to underlying warm air is cooled from below due to
underlying cold air and fogs originate after condensation. Frost:
► When the temperature falls below freezing point, it forms a frost.
Temperature either 0° C or less, than the water droplets take the
form of ice cubes. Rime:
► It is a deposit of white opaque ice crystals formed by the
freezing of super cooled water droplets on the surface below 0°C.

Origin of Rainfall
► The presence of warm, moist and unstable air and sufficient
number of hygroscopic nuclei are prerequisite condition for rainfall.
► The warm and moist air after being lifted upward be
comes saturated and clouds are formed after condensation of water
vapour around hygroscopic nuclei (salt and dust particles) but still
there may not be rainfall unless the air is supersaturated.
► The process of condensation begins only when the relative
humidity of ascending air becomes 100% and the air is further
cooled through dry adiabatic lapse but first condensation occurs
around larger hygroscopic nuclei only. Such droplets are called
cloud droplets.
For condensation there are following pre conditions:
► The air becomes warm and goes vertical and then spreads;
► To come into contact of warm air with high mountains and then
to climb over then and to come close to the top layer of ice and
become cool;
► To become cool by approaching the colder latitudes;
► To come in contact with colder air or currents.

Theories of Rainfall Cloud Instability:

Theory of Bergeron Findeisen: This theory was postulated in

1933; also called Icecrystal theory.
► This theory is based on the fact that relative humidity of air is
greater with respect to an icesurface than with respect to water
► Air temperature ranges between 5°C to 25°C, then water droplets
become supersaturated.
► The aggregation of ice crystals is more prevalent when air
temperature ranges between 0 degree to 50 degree C
► When the ice crystals fall and pass through layer of air with
temperature more than 0 degree C, they change into raindrops.

Collision Theory:
► The Bergeron process could not explain the mechanism of rainfall
in tropical areas.
► The Collision Theory involving collision, coalescence and sweeping
for the formation and growth of rain drops was postulated by many
► According to this theory, the collision may cause splitting and
scattering of cloud droplets.
► Longmuir modified this theory saying that the larger drops fall
with greater velocity than smaller drops hence absorbing them.

Types of Rainfall: Conventional Rainfall

► Occur due to thermal convention currents caused due to
insolational heating of ground surface.
► Prevalent especially in equatorial areas;
► Warm air rises up and expands, then reaches at a cooler layer
and saturates and then condenses mainly in the form of cumulus
or cumulonimbus clouds and normally precipitation takes place in
the second half of the noon;
► Also rains in the tropical, subtropical and little in temperate
► But there must be two pre conditions:
Abundant supply of moisture through evaporation to air so that
relative humidity becomes high;
Intense heating of ground surface through incoming shortwave
electromagnetic solar radiations.

Features of Conventional rainfall:

1 .It occurs daily in the afternoon in the equatorial region.
2.1t is for very short duration but occurs in the form of heavy
3. They make Cumulonimbus clouds.
4.1n hot deserts it is not regular, but is irregular and sudden.

Cyclonic or frontal rainfall:

► Occur due to upward movement of air caused by convergence of
extensive air masses
► It happens due to the convergence of two different air masses
with different temperature. The worm air rises over cold air and
cyclonic rain occurs;
► Cold air pushes up warm air and the sky is clear again.

Orographic Rainfall occurs due to ascent of air forced by

mountain barrier. The preconditions are:
(a) there should be mountain barrier across the wind direction, so
that the moist air is forced on obstruction to move upward e.g.
Aravali in Rajasthan is parallel to Arabian Sea and thus forms rain
shadow area;
(b) there should be sufficient moisture in the air;
(c) the height of the mountain also affects rainfall; and
(d) if the height is more but more distance from sea, lesser rainfall;
if the height is less but nearer to sea, more rainfall.

Features of Orographic rainfall:

► The windward slope. E.g. Mangalore is located in the western
windward slope and receives 2,000 mm of rainfall, whereas
Bangalore is in rain shadow area and hardly receives 500 mm.
rainfall. Similarly Coast Ranges of North America receives 2,000 mm.
but eastern slope doesn't.
► The maximum rainfall occurs near the mountain slope and
decreases away from the foothills. E.g. in Shimla, 1520 mm.; Nainital,
2,000 mm. and Darjeeling receives 3150 mm. rainfall because
Darjeeling is nearest to Himalayan slopes. Patna 1000 mm.,
Allahabad 1050 and Delhi 650 mm.
► If mountain is of moderate height, the maximum rainfall doesn't
occur at the top rather it occurs on the other side.
► Cumulus clouds while the leeward side by Stratus clouds
characterizes the windward slope of mountain at the time of
► The amount of rainfall increases with increasing height along the
windward slope of mountain up to a certain height but the amount
of rain decreases with increasing height because of marked
decrease in the moisture content of air. This situation is called
'inversion of rainfall';
► This type of rainfall may occur in any season. Inversion Point:
maximum rainfall line is at 24,000 feet or 7,000 m. at the equator
whereas in the Himalayas, it is 12,000 feet or 3600 m.; at Alps 21,000
or 6,300 m. and at Pyrenees mountain 18,00012,000 feet.

Distribution of Rainfall:
► Rainfall is related with air temperature and atmospheric humidity,
while humidity is closely related with temperature through the
process of evaporation.
► The regions having high temperature and abundance of water
receive higher amount of rainfall e.g. Equatorial regions.
► SubTropical regions also have the same conditions but the
western parts receive least rainfall due to anticyclonic conditions.
► Mean annual rainfall for the whole globe is 970 mm. but is
unevenly distributed.
► Some places receive less than 100 mm. of rainfall e.g. Hot deserts
like Kalahari, Thar etc., while some receive more than 12,000 mm.
like Cherrapunji in India.
► The equatorial regions receive rainfall throughout the year, while
the other areas have seasonal rainfall.
► The Mediterranean region receives most of the annual rainfall
during winters.

Other Forms of Precipitation

1 .Ice: If the temperature of the entire atmosphere is below 0°C, the
condensation will lead to ice formation and snowfall.
2.Snowfall: The fall of larger snowflakes from the clouds on the
ground surface is called snowfall. It occurs when the freezing level
is less than 300m from the ground surface. These crystals reach the
ground , without being melted in a solid , form of precipitation as
3 .Sleet: In U.K. it refers to a mixture of snow and rain but in
American terminology it means falling of small pellets of
transparent and translucent ice having a diameter of 5 mm.or less.
4.Hail: It consists of large pellets or spheres of ice. In fact hail is a
form of solid precipitation wherein small balls or pieces of ice,
Known as.Hail or stones, having a diameter of 550 mm fall
downward as hail storms! They are very destructive and dreaded
form of solid precipitation because they destroy agricultural crops
and claim human and animal life. After condensation, if the
temperature is below 0 degree C, than the water drops would take
the form of hails.
5.Drizzle: The fall of numerous uniform minute droplets of water
having diameter of less than 0.5 mm. is called drizzle. They fall
continuously from low stratus clouds but the total amount of water
received on the ground surface is significantly.


1. Meaning and Characteristics "An air mass may be defined as

a large body of air whose physical properties, especially
temperature, moisture content, and lapse rate, are more or less
uniform horizontally for hundreds of kilometres." According to A.N.
Strahler and A.H. Strahler: " a body of air in which the upward
gradients of temperature and moisture are fairly uniform over a
large area is known as an air mass." An air mass may be so
extensive that it may cover a large portion of a continent and it
may be so thick in vertical dimension that it may vertically extend
through the troposphere.
► An air mass is designated as cold air mass when its temperature
is lower than the underlying surface while an air mass is termed
warm air mass when its temperature is higher than the underlying
► The boundary between two different air masses is called front.

II. Source Regions

► The extensive areas over which air masses originate or form are
called surface regions whose nature and properties largely
determine the temperature and moisture characteristics of air
► An ideal source region of air mass must possess the following
essential conditions:
► There must be extensive and homogenous earth's surface so that
it may possess uniform temperature and moisture conditions;
► There should not be convergence of air; rather there should be
divergence of air flow so that the air may attain the physical
properties of the region.
► Atmospheric conditions should be stable for considerably long
period of time so that the air may attain the characteristics of the
► There are six major source regions of air masses on the earth's
1.Polar oceanic areas (North Atlantic Ocean between
Eurasia and North America, and Arctic region during winter season),
3.Tropical oceanic areas (anticyclonic areasthroughout the year),
4.Tropical continental areas (North AfricaSahara, Asia, Mississippi
Valley zone of the USA most developed in summers),
5 .Equatorial regions (zone located between trade windsactive
throughout the year), and
6. Monsoon lands of S.E. Asia

Ill) Classification of AM: There are two approaches to the

classification of air masses, e.g., (a) Geographical Classification and
(b) Thermodynamic classification. Geographical Classification:
► The geographical classification of air masses is based on the
characteristic features of the source regions.
► Trewartha has classified air masses on the basis of their
geographical locations into two broad categories, viz., (i) Polar air
mass (P), which originate in the polar areas. Arctic air masses are
also included in this category; (ii) Tropical air mass (T), which
originate in tropical areas. Equatorial air masses are also included
in this category.
► These two air masses have been further divided into two types
on the basis of the nature of the surface of the source regions:
(a) Continental air masses (indicated by small letter V) and
(b) maritime air masses ('m') Thermodynamic Modifications and
Classification of Air Masses

► Thermodynamic modifications of an air mass involves its heating

from below while passing through different surfaces away from the
source region.
► The modification of air masses depend on 4 factors: (i)Initial
characteristics of air mass in terms of temperature and moisture
(ii)Nature of land or water surface over which a particular air mass
(iii)Path followed by the air mass from the source region to the
affected area, and
(iv) Time taken by the air mass to reach a particular destination.
► A warm air mass (w) is that whose temperature is greater than
the surface temperature of the region visited while if the air mass
is colder than the surface temperature it is called cold air mass(k).

Such mechanical modifications are introduced due to cyclonic and

anticyclonic conditions, Based on the thermodynamic and
mechanical (dynamic) modifications air masses are divided into:
1. cold air mass; and 2.warm air mass.

Fronts: Usually, air mass from one region gradually moves to the
other region occupied by some other air mass. When a warmer and
a lighter air mass moves against a cold and more dense air mass,
the former rides over the latter. Such a front is called a warm front.
On the contrary, if the cold air mass forces its way under a mass
of warmer air and pushes the latter upwards, the front will be
called a cold front.

General Frontal Characteristics: (i)Temperature: Great difference

in temperature are recorded across a front. But the change in the
temperature may be abrupt or gradual depending upon the nature
of the opposing air masses. The width of frontal transition zone is
dependent on the temperature contrast. Besides the fronts are
always characterized by the temperature inversion layers because
of ascent of warm air over a wedge of cold and dense air mass.
(ii)Air Pressure: there is an abrupt change in the pressure as well as
the pressure gradient across a front.
(iii)Winds: Abrupt wind shift at the fronts.
(iv)Clouds and Precipitation: Frontogenesis:
The term was for the first was used by Tor Bergeron. It is a process
of regeneration of the old and the decaying fronts or it means the
creation of altogether new fronts.

Frontolysis: The process means the dying of a front. Fronts do not

come into existence out of a sudden, rather they appear only after
the process of frontogenesis have been in operation for quite some
time . In the same way the act of vanishing of the existing fronts is
not accomplished suddenly. The process of frontolysis must
continue for some time in order to destroy an existing front.
Convergence of the wind toward a point or contraction toward a
line augments the process of frontogenesis. On the contrary,
divergence of the wind from a point, or is helpful to the process of
frontogenesis .

Frontogenesis there for is likely to occur when fronts move into

regions of divergent air flow. That is why in crossing the subtropical
high pressure regions, the front generally disappears. Cyclones
facilitate development of fronts whereas anticyclones do not allow
the formation of the fronts.

Classification of fronts: 1.Cold front 2.Warm front 3.0ccluded front

4.Stationary front Cold Front:

A cold front is a front along Which cold air is invading the warm
air zone. Since the colder air masses denser, it remains at the
ground and forcibly uplifts the warmer and lighter air mass. In fact,
when pressure distribution is such as to force the cold air to
advance and the warm air to retreat, the zone of transition is
called a cold front. The steepness of the front is closely related
with its velocity. Higher velocity results in the steeper slope, while
the lower velocity makes the slope of the front rather gentle. The
slope of the cold front varies from 1 : 50 to 1 :100. Depending upon
the instability of the overrunning warm air, convective clouds or
even thunderstorms may occur along the leading edge of the cold
front. The type of front slopes backward instead of forward, so
there is no warning far in advance often approaching cold front and
no preceding cloudiness until the front is near. The cold front in
general is associated with narrow band of cloudiness and
precipitation. The cold front passes more rapidly. The sky becomes
clear soon after the passage of the front. However, the weather
produced along the cold front is valid. At the actual front, the
clouds are of Nimbostratus and Cumulonimbus type which produce
heavy rainfall. In certain cases precipitation falls ahead of the front,
while on occasions it is behind the same. If cold front moves
rapidly, the secondary cold fronts may develop at some distance
behind. With the passage of cold front, the sky becomes rapidly
clear and the weather improves. There is a sudden drop in the
temperature. The wind shift from south to west or northwest
generally accompanying the frontal passage. There is marked
decrease in the specific and relative humidity. The weather after a
cold front has passed, is dominated by subsiding and relatively cold
air mass. In winter, the passage of a cold front is followed by a
cold wave which further reduces the surface temperature.

Warm Front: The slope of warm front is 1 : 100 to 1 : 200.

Cirrostratus clouds halos around the sun and the moon. Mackerel
sky is produced by Cirrocumulus clouds. As the front approaches
the viewer, the clouds become lower and thicker. The thick cloud
sheet overlying the surface position of the front gives steady
precipitation extending over a long distance ahead of the front.
Warm fronts usually yield moderate to gentle precipitation over a
relatively larger area for several hours. This is in conformity with
the gentle slope of the front. Convective activity is generally absent
along a warm front. The passage of a warm front is , marked by a
rise in the temperature and pressure. The specific humidity arises

Occluded Front: An occluded front is a front formed when a cold

front overtakes a warm front, the cofd front moves rapidly than the
warm front. Ultimately, the cold front overtakes the warm front and
completely displaces the warm air at the ground. A long backward
swinging occluded front comes into the existence.
There are two types of occlusion :
(i)Cold front occlusion which is most common, and (ii)Warm front
occlusion. The weather that is produced along an occluded front is
usually a combination of the cold front and the warm front weather
conditions. Stationary Front: It is a front in which the surface
position of the fronts do not move.

Zones of Frontogenesis:
The fronts do not form everywhere. There development is confined
to certain defined zones. Fronts usually develop in those areas of
the world where air masses have strong temperature contrasts.
(i)Atlantic Polar Front: This is the most important zone, which is
developed maximum in winter. It is an area between Great lakes,
Iceland, Portugal and West Indies. (ii)Atlantic Arctic Front:
(iii)Mediterranean Front: This front lies over Mediterra. nean and
Caspian Sea region which develops in winter. (iv)Pacific Arctic Front:
This front lies between Rocky mountains and Great Lake regions. In
winter, it shifts equatorward.
In winter, two pacific polar fronts develops: (i) near the coast of
North America; (ii) near the Asian coast. The winter rainfall along
the Pacific coast of North America is produced by the storms
developed on these fronts. The Polar fronts over western Atlantic
and Pacific deyelop 10 degrees further north in summer than in
winter. The summer Polar Fronts develop over Eurasia in Middle
North America. In the southern hemisphere the average position of
the polar front is about 45 degrees south in January. In July, there
are two polar fronts (i) originating over South America and (ii) the
other at 170 degrees west.


Cyclone is a system of low atmospheric pressure in which the

barometric gradient is steep. Winds circulate, blowing inwards in an
anticlockwise direction in the Northern hemisphere and clockwise
direction in the Southern hemisphere. Cyclones are classified into
two parts: (l)Tropical Cyclone (2)Temperate or Extratropical Cyclone

( l)Tropical Cyclone: A system of low pressure occurring in tropical

latitudes, characterized by its very strong winds; found mainly in
Indian Ocean, Indonesia, and Australia. Tropical Disturbances are
classified into three parts :
(a)A Tropical Depression is a system with low pressure enclosed
within few isobars and the wind speed is. 33 knot or 61 tens and it
lacks a marked circulation.
(b)A Tropical Storm is a system with several closed isobars and a
wind circulation of 115 Kms.
(c)A Tropical Cyclones is a warm core vortex circulation of tropical
origin with a small diameter often of an approximately circular
shape; they occur only in oceanic areas where the sea
temperatures exceed 27 degree C.

Different Names of Tropical Cyclones:

Hurricanes -N. America & Caribbean

Typhoons - Western North Pacific

Willywillies- Australia
Bagulo- Philippine Islands
Taifu- Japan
Cyclones- Indian Ocean

Structure of the Tropical Cyclones:

► It is essentially radially symmetrical
► It has six regions (1) The eye is the centre of the storm which is
characterised by more or less circular with comparatively clear
skies, lowest pressure, the highest temperature and highest relative
(2) The eye is surrounded by a wall of cumulonimbus known as
eyeball. Strongest wind is found;
(3) Spiral bands or Rainbands or Feeder bands contain many
individual thunderstorms which produce heavy rainfall;
(4)Annular zone is characterized by cloudiness and high
temperatures and low humidities;
(5) Outer Convective band;
(6) Main cloudmass. Horizontal structure of tropical cyclone

Eye the innermost or central portion of the mature cyclone is the

'eye'. It is about 10 to 30 km in diameter, depending upon the size
of the.storm and is a more.or less calm region with little or no
clouds and some subsidence. The eye or the calm centre can be
described variously as the: Pressure eye (where mean sea level
pressure is lowest), Wind eye (light or calm wind conditions), Radar
eye (the eye seen in radar echoes) and the Satellite eye (clear or
dark spot seen in the cloud mass in satellite imagery).

Eye Wall or Inner Ring Surrounding the eye is a tight 'inner ring'
of hurricane winds. This core of maximum winds is at the centre of
a solid thick wall of towering Cumulonimbus clouds and is called
the 'eye wall'.

Outer Ring An outer ring of cyclonic circulation lies beyond the

eye wall, where the speed decreases steeply and clouds and rain
diminish rapidly outwards.

(2) Temperate Cyclone: It is also called 'Depressions'. It has low

pressure at the centre and increasing pressure outward. It has
varying shapes such as near circular, elliptical or wedge, therefore,
it is also called Low or Troughs or Mid Latitude Depressions.

Secondly, they are formed in the regions extending between 35

degree to 65 degree latitudes in both the hemispheres.

Thirdly, Tropical Cyclone is confined strictly over sea, whereas

Temperate Cyclone form over both land and sea.

Fourthly, Tropical cyclone is produced in summer and autumn and

Temperate cyclone largely in winter.

Fifthly, Temperate cyclone has low pressure gradient, whereas

tropical cyclone has steep pressure gradient; and

finally, rainfall in temperate cyclones is slow and continuous,

whereas in tropical cyclone the rainfall is violent and torrential.

Anticyclone: A system of atmospheric pressure in which the

isobars on a synoptic chart indicate a relatively, highpressure in the
centre and decreasingly low pressures outwards to the periphery of
the system. The isobars are generally widely spaced, indicating light
winds which may be absent near the centre. Air movement is
clockwise in the Northern hemisphere and anticlockwise in the
Southern hemisphere. The term anticyclone was coined by Galton in
1861 Anticyclones do notexperience any precipitation and tend to be
dry. It is characterized by larger, slow moving and more persistent
with a high pressure at the centre but with a weaker pressure
gradient and light variable winds diverging from the centre.
► They are usually circular in shape but sometimes also assume 'V
► They are much larger in size and area than temperate cyclones
as their diameter is 75% larger than that of the latter.
► Anticyclones do not have fronts.
► Winds descend from above at the centre and thus weather
becomes clear and rainless.

Fohn Winds: (Latin: meaning growth) A warm and relatively dry

wind which descends on the leeward side of a mountain range.
Fohn winds are :

Chinook- Andes and Rockies

Yamo- Japan
Tramontane- C. Europe
Samun- Iran
Norwester- New Zealand
Berg- S. Africa
Santa Ana- California
Zonda- Argentina

Depression Winds: A moving wind involves air masses originating

both on its poleward and equatorward side, therefore, both warm
and cold wind result.
Depression winds are:
Sirocco- Italy
Leveche- Australia
Khamsim- Egypt
Gibli- Tunisia
Brickfielders- Victoria (Australia)
2. Cold
Southerly Burster- New South Wales
Pampero- Argentina
Friagem or Surazo- Brazil
Papagayo- Mexico
Mistral -Rhone Valley (France)
Levanter- West Mediterranean
Etesian- East Mediterranean
Bora- Adriatic Coast
Convectional Wind: They are basically desert winds with dusty and
gusty surface winds
Karaburan - Tarim Basin
Haboob -Sudan
Harmattah- West Africa
Tornadoes: A rapidly rotating column of air developed around a very
intenselow pressure centre. It is associated with a dark funnel
shaped cloud and with extremely violent wind blowing in a
counterclockwise spiral; but accompanied by violent down draughts.
Common in USA.

There are four principal climate regions:
1.Tropical (hot)
2.Subtropical (warm)
3.Temperate (cool)
4.Polar Regions (cold)

What is a natural region?

Natural region is an area of earth throughout which there are
similarities in conditions of relief,
rainfall, temperature, vegetation and human activities.
Climate Zone:

Equatorial Region: Also called Amazon type, Selvas (in S.America),

which in Portuguese means forest; winters of the Tropic. Area under
this climate region are from 0°10° North and South of the equator.
In Central America (Panama), in S. America come Brazil, there it is
called Amazon low land, Coast Guyana. In Africa: Congo basin i.e.
Liberia, Ivory coast, Ghana, Togo, Nigeria, Gabon, Congo, Zaire, Gulf
of Guinea. In South East Asia: Malaysia, Indonesia, New Guinea and
parts of Philippines. Temperature:25-30oC or 75°90° F; average
temperature is 26° C. Annual range of temperature is 3° C

Rainfall: 100-250 cm. and is of convectional type.Mean monthly

rainfall is 15 cm. and humidity is very high.

Natural Vegetation: Equatorial Rainforest type.

Leaves are found viz. Mahogany, Ebony, Rosewood, Greenheart,

Cinchona and Rubber, Coconut Palms, Mangroves, Oil Palms.

Important Tribes: Semang in Malaysia, Kubus in Sumatra, Daykas in

Borneo, Pygmies in Congo Basin, Amazon Indians in Brazil.
Climate: InterTemporal Convergence Zone (ITCZ) is dominated by
warm, moist, maritime equatorial and maritime tropical air masses
yielding heavy convectional rain.

Hot Zone: Between 10°30° North and South, this comprises:

( a) Tropical Monsoon or Indian Type:

Regions: India, Pakistan, SriLanka, Bangladesh, S.China,
Thailand,Myanmar, N.Australia, Cambodia, Laos and Vietnam.
Temperature: Between March and June 2646° C, between June and
Oct. 4620° C, between Nov. to Feb. 200° C. Annual temp, range17° C
Rainfall: Maximum 300 cm. Heavy summer rain up to 60 inches..
Vegetation: Monsoon forest i.e. Deciduous forest viz. Teak, Rosewood,
Deodar, Bamboo, Sal.

( b) Tropical Marine:
Regions: Central America, N.E. Australia, West Indies, C6astal low
lands of Brazil and East Africa, E. Malagasy and Philippines.
Temperature: 29° C, annual temperature range 8°C. Rainfall: Summer
rain upto 4080 inches, both convectional and orographic. Vegetation:
Deciduous forest viz. Teak, Rosewood, Deodar, Bamboo, Sal.

( c) Sudan Type or Savanna or Tropical grassland/

Region: 720° N and most ideally 515° N & S of equator. In S.
America Brazilian highlands (Savanna region is locally called
Cerado), parts of Bolivia, Paraguay, Llanos, Valley of Columbia,
Venezuela, Argentina.
In Central America Cuba, Jamaica, Caribbean Islands. In AfricaSudan,
Mali Guinea, Niger, Senegal, Chad, Ghana, Congo, Kenya, Tanzania,
Zimbabwe, Angola, Uganda, Dahomey. In Australia Northern regions
and Queensland. Temperature: In summer 32° C, in winters 21° C
and annual temperature range is 1 PC. Average Temp. 22°37° C.

Rainfall: Convectional type; of 25150 cm. Humidity high in summers.

Vegetation: Elephant grass, Bottle trees, Baobaps, Savanna (tropical

Tribes:Masai or Kraal (in African Grassland), Kikuyus in Kenya,

Hausas in Sahara and Llanos in Venezuela.

( d) Sahara region or Tropical Desert climate:

It is a region of land which has less than 25 cm. of rainfall in a
year. It has three types: 1 .Tropical Desert e.g. Sahara; 2.Temperate
or midlatitude desert e.g. Gobi and Turkistan; 3.Cold desert: Tibet
and Tundra Regions: In US lower California and Mexican Desert. In
S. America Atacama Desert. In Africa Namib, Sahara Desert (main
countries which come in this are Tunisia, Libya, Algeria, Egypt,
Sudan, Mali, Niger, Chad and Mauritania) and Kalahari Desert (in
Namibia and Angola). In Asia Iranian, Arabian and Thar Desert. In
Australia The Great Australian Desert.

Temperature: 1049°C; maximum temperature in Jacobabad (Pakistan)

is up to 51.7° C, in California's Death Valley is 58°C, highest is in
Azizia58.7°C. Annual temperature range 39°C.
Vegetation: Shrubs Cactus, Spines, Prickly Pear.
Tribes: Tuaregs (Western Sahara Desert), Bedowins (Arabian Desert),
Bindibus (Australian Desert), Bushmen (Kalahari Desert).

Temperate Zone/ Climate: Between 30°45° N and S There are

three types of climates in it:

( a) Western margin or Mediterranean type:

Regions: 30-40° N and S. In Europe: Spain, Portugal, Israel, Turkey,
Southern France, Greece, Syria, Lebanon. In Africa: Morocco, North
Algeria, Tunisia, Upper Libya, Upper Egypt.
In N. America: large parts of California.
In S. America: Central Chile. In Australia: Adilade, Melbourne,
Northern Island of New Zealand.
Temperature: In summer 20-26°C and in winter 7-5°c

Rainfall: 20-30 inches mainly in winters.

Four important winds are Sirocco in Sahara, Santa Ana (S.
California). Mistral and Bora in MediterraneanVegetation: Chapparel
in California, Malleg Scrub in Australia. Maguis or Garigue in France.
Macchia in Italy, Fymbosch in S. Africa, Mediterranean forest and
shrub. Olive trees. Citrus Fruits, Evergreen Forest, Myrtle, Rosemary,
Laurel, Holly. Madrona and Cork Oak,

( b) Central Continental/ Light summer/ Temperate

grassland/ Steppe Type:
Regions: North Coastal Africa Morocco, N. Algeria, Tunisia and North
of Bengasia in Libya.
Temperature: 65°F. Rainfall: Light Summer rain 25-75 cm.
Vegetation: Steppe or Temperate Grasslands; Oaks of Spain,

( c) Eastern Margin/ China Type/ Gulf Type/ Natal Type:

Region: 25-40°N&S;
In Asia areas of North and Central China, S. Japan (islands Kyushu,
Shikoku and portion of Honshu), Southern Korea.
In N. America:South Eastern States of US.
In S. America: South Paraguay, N. Argentina, Uruguay and S. Brazil.
In Africa: East Central Coastal Regions, specially Natal area of S.
In Australia: New South Wales and South Queensland.

Temperature: It varies between 21°-27degree C in summer and

between 5-2° C in winters.

Rainfall: 75-125 cm., rainfall is heavier in summer (45 inches) than in

Vegetation: Warm and Wet forests (Deciduous), Pines, Beech, Oak,
Magnohas, Camehas, Camphor, Eucalyptus, Mulberry, Mate, Walnuts,

( d) Temperate Grassland/ Prairie Type:

Region: 4050°N&S North America: Prairie; South America: Pampas,
(from Andes mountains to Atlantic Ocean);
S.Africa: Velds (Transvaal) Europe: Pustaz in Hungary; Asia: Steppe in
Russia (S.W. Siberia and Mongolia) Australia: Downs, (MurrayDarling

Temperature: in summers 18 to 24°Gand in winters 4 to 2°C.

Rainfall: in spring and early summer, 2565 cm. and of convectional

type. Vegetation: short grass.

Tribes:Kirghiz in Central Asia, Red Indians (N. America), Hottentots (S.


Cool Temperate Zone:

It is of four types:

( a) Western Margin/ British Type/ Marine West Coast:

Region:40°60" N & S;
Europe: (W. France, Belgium,West Germany , Denmark,Luxemburg,
Netherlands, British Isles, S. Norway upto Baltic Sea)
N. America: (W. Canada and N. W. USA Washington and Oregon
State of USA)
S. America: ( S. W. Coast of Chile Puerto Montt to Cape Horn).
Australia: Islands of Tasmania, most parts of Victoria, and south
island of N. Zealand, Temperature: Winter: 8° -0° C; Summer: 18-
25°C. Rainfall: Throughout the year, but maximum in winters; of
cyclonic type; average 50-120 cm.; sometimes windward side it is
250 cm.
Vegetation: Deciduous Forest; Oak, Elm, Maple, Beech, Ash, Birch,
Poplar, Hornbeam, Chestnut.In New Zealand Kaury tree is found; in
N.America Douglas, Fir, Redwood, Sequoir, Western Hemlock, Western
Cedar, Sitka Spruce.

( b) Central Continental/ Siberian Type/ Taiga Type/ Cool

Temperate Central Type/ Corniferous Type: Region:55°70°
Northern Hemisphere; South Alaska, S.Canada, parts of Norway,
Sweden, Finland, N. Russia, N.Siberia and Sakhalin island.
Temperature: in winters upto 50°C and in summer 15°C.
Rainfall: 25-100 cm. and is of cyclonic type.
Natural Vegetation: Coniferous (Pine, Fir, Hemlock, Larch, Cedar,
Spruce) and evergreen trees shed their leaves after 5 years. Here,
Timber is called Delwood. Lumbering is done especially in Canada,
harvesting is also done

( c) Eastern Margin/ Lauretian Type:

Region:45°60° North Hemisphere;
In North America: St. Lawrence low land (therefore called Lauretian
Type) and East USA, Eastern Canada, New Foundland.
In Asia: Manchuria, Amur river region of Siberia and in N. Japan
region of Hokkaido. Temperature: in winters, 3° to 17° C and in
summer, 18°-24°C.
Rainfall: 50-125 cm. Vegetation: Coniferous trees and Deciduous
trees like Maple, Beech, Ash, Chestnut, Elms, Spruce, Fir, Larch,
Korean Pine.

( d) Cool Temperate Interior/ Tundra/ Cold Desert:

Region: above 65°N Southmost parts of Canada, Saskatchewan and
Manitoba Province of Canada, N. Central and mid West of USA,
Alberta, Alaska, N. Scandinavia, Iceland, Spitzbergeu in Svalbard
island, E. Europe, Western Russia and Siberia. Temperature: 19°to
18°C Rainfall: up to 25 cm, and of cyclonic type.
Vegetation: Bush Tundra and Grass Tundra.
Tribes:Eskimo Igloo. Transport by Dog Driver, Huskies, boat like
Kayak and Umyak.

Cold Zone:
Region: 65°-90° North, Arctic or Polar; Canada, Alaska, Icecaps of
Greenland. Temperature:29° to 40°C in winters; in summer 10°C.
Rainfall: very light in summer, 10 inches.
Vegetation: Turidra; Mosses, Lichens.
Tribes:Samoveds in Arctic circle, Yaktus in Trans Baikalia, Chukchis in

Grasslands Continents/ Countries

1. Prairies - N America.
2. Pampas - S America
3. Pretoria - S Africa
4. Veld- S Africa
5. Steppes - Eurasia
6. Downs - Australia
7. Pusta - Hungary
8. Cantaburry Grasslands- N. Zealand
9. Manchuria Grassland- China


Distribution of Sea:
► Hydro sphere is36,10,60,000 sq. km about 71% of the lithosphere
(3/4th of the globe).
► Total surface area of the globe is 5,09,950,000 sq. km. (Lithosphere).
► Important oceans are Pacific Ocean (16,50,00,000 sq. km); Atlantic
ocean (8,20,00,000 sq. km); Indian Ocean (7,30,00,000 sq. km).
► Average depth of the ocean (hydrosphere) 3800 m and average
height of lithosphere is 840 m from the sea level.
► The height and depth of lithosphere and hydrosphere are
► The ocean basins have 4 relief zones:
1) Continental shelves
2) Continental slopes
3) Deep Sea plains
4) Oceanic Trenches

Continental Shelf:
► It is partly submerged in water while partly exposed;
► Its average depth is 100 fathoms;
► Its slope is gentle i.e. from 1° to 3° towards the sea;
It is 8.6% of total area of ocean basins, but the highest area is in
Atlantic i.e. 13.3%, 5.7% in Pacific and 4.2% in Indian ocean;
► The shelves are narrow where high mountains are close and
parallel to the coast;
► The narrowest shelf is in western coast of South America i.e. 16
km. because of Andes mountain;
► The shelves are wider where the coast lands are wide plains. The
average width is 48 km. The widest is in North America i.e. from 96
to 120 km.;
►It is mainly created by marine erosion and fluvial deposits;

Continental Slope:
► Slope is 5"60°;
► 40°near St.Helena; 30°at the Spanish Coast; 62° near St. Paul; 5°-
15° near Calicut.
► It constitutes 8.5% of total area of the ocean basin : Atlantic
ocean 12.4%, Pacific ocean 7% and Indian ocean 6.5%.
► Most extensive continental slope are found between 20° N 50" N
latitude and on 80° N and 70°S. Most important continental slope is
the SubMarine Canyons.
► Due to steep slope, marine deposits doesnttake place; Deep Sea
► Found in the depth of 3000 m. to 6000 m. and constitutes 75.9% of
total ocean basin;
► 80.3% in Pacific, 80.1% in Indian Ocean, 54.9% in Atlantic Ocean.

Ocean Deep or Trenches:

► There are 57 deeps in the world;
► Highest in Pacific i.e. 32,19 in Atlantic and 6 in Indian Ocean;
1. Mariana or Challenger Trench North Pacific 11,022 m.
2. Aldrich or Tonga Central South Pacific i 0,882 m.
3. Swire or Philippine Trench N. West Pacific — 10,475 m.
4. Nares or Puerto Rico Trench West Indian Island 8,385 m.
5. Kurile Trench Kamchatka 10,498 m.
6. Tizard or Romanche Trench S. Atlantic 7,631m.
7. Java Trench Indian Ocean 7,450 m.
8. Karmadee Pacific Ocean 10,447 m.
9. PeruChile Trench Pacific 8,025 m.
10. Aleutian Trench Pacific 7,679 m.
11. Middle America Pacific 6,562 m.

Submarine Canyons:
► It has originated because of various types of earth movement
► Are long narrow and very deep valleys or trenches located on
the continental shelves and slopes with vertical walls
resemblirflefriecontinental Canyon.
Submarine Canyon
1. It is similar lot the youthful river valleys on the land but are
2 The course is generally straight
3 The gradient of are steeper near islands i e 13 8%
► They have coarser materials which includes clays, silts, gravels
and pebbles.

Distribution of Submarine Canyons:

► There are as many as 102 submarine canyons.
► Generally they are more abundantly found along the straight
coast than highly indented and crenulated coastline.
► They are more commonly found Off the east mm of US from
Canada to Cape Hatteras.
► They are also found off the Californian and Mexican coast,
Mediterranean, east coast of India, Aleutian lands, Japan, Philippines.

Reliefs of Ocean Basin: 1) Pacific Ocean:

► It is one third of the globe: has a triangular shape:
► Average depth is 4572 m
► It has highest number of islands (more than 2,000), grouped in
three categories:
1. Continental Islands: Aleutian islands, Chilean islands, British
Columbia (islands of Canada);
2. Island Arcs and Festoons:Kurile islands, Japanese Archi
3.Scattered and Smaller Islands: Hawaiian islands, Fiji islands,
Micronesian islands (Marshal island),
Continental Canyon
1. It is lesser deeper.
2. It's course is dendritic.
3. It is less steeper.
4. The width is lesser.
► Important seas in the Pacific ocean are Bearing sea, Okhotsk sea,
Japan sea, Coral sea, Yellow sea, Java sea, China sea, Tasman sea,
Arafura sea.
2. Atlantic Ocean:
► 1/6 of the geographical area (8,20,00,000 km sq.) and half the area
of Pacific ocean;
► It is located between North and South America in the west and
between Europe and Africa in the east;
► It is'S' shaped;
► Its width is minimum between Liberian coast and Cape Sauroque
► About 24% of Atlantic is 915 m:' deep.
Continental Shelf in the Atlantic Ocean:
► Width 2.24 km. more than 80 km.;
► It is narrowest at the bay of Biscay, Cape of Good Hope and the
Brazilian Shelf i.e. 5° S to 10°S latitude and widest near New
► Important Continental Shelf are found at Hudson Bay, Baltic sea,
North sea, Davis Strait, Denmark Strait, British Isles, Iceland, St.
Helena, West Indies, Trinidad, Falkland, S. Orkneys, S. Shetland, S.
Georgia, S. Sandwich, Canary island, Cape Verde, St. Pierre and
Miquelone island, Madeira island.

Mid Atlantic Ridge:

► Dolphin Rise and Challenger Rise north of Equator
► Wyville Thompson Ridge or Challenger Rise, south of equator;
► Telegraphic Plateau between South of Greenland and Iceland;
► New Foundland, Azores Rise, Sierra Leon, Para Rise, Unea Ridge.
► In North Atlantic North American Basin; Puerto Rico Basin ( 8,000
m. deep).
► In the South Atlantic east South American Coast; Argentina Basin;
South Atlantic Ridge; Walvis Ridge; Cape Basin; Cape Town.

Indian Ocean
► It is smaller than the Atlantic and Pacific Ocean;
► Average depth is 4,000 m.;
► Formed by the blocked mountains of Gondwana land;
► Important seas are:Mozambique Channel, Red Sea, Persian Gulf,
Andaman Sea, Arabian Sea, Bay of Bengal;
► Important islands. Madagascar, Sri Lanka, Suqutra or Socotra
Island, Zanzibar Island, Comoros Island, Mauritius, Reunion Island,
Rodrique Island, Caragos Island, Chagos Archipelago and Diego
Garcia Island, Mayotte Island, Seychelles Island, Victoria, Mahe,
Addabra Island, Prince Edward Island, St. Paul, Maldives,
Lakshwadeep, Andaman and Nicobar, Christmas Island, Crozet Island.

1.Mid Oceanic Ridge: Average width is 320 km. and includes:
Lakshwadweep.Chagos Ridge or Maldives ridge; It is called Chagos
St. Paul Ridge between Equator and 30°South; It is called
Amsterdam St. Paul Plateau between 30°50° South latitude; After 50°
it bifurcates; Western branch is called Kergulian Gaussberg Ridge:
48°63° South latitude . eastern branch is called the Indian Antarctic
2.Central Ridge: Socotra Chagos Ridge, also known as Charlesberg
Ridge, emerges from the central ridge at 5° South latitude and
extends in NORTHWESTERLY direction in almost accurate shape upto
GARDAPHOOL Peninsula of N.E. Africa.
3. Seychelles Mauritius Ridge: bifurcates from the main ridge around
18° South latitude near Mauritius island and runs upto Amirante
4.Madagascar Ridge: It extends upto 40°S latitude; at 40°48° South it
is called Prince Edward Crozet Ridge'. 5.90 East Ridge: Extends from
the Continental Shelf off the Irrawadi river mouth and runs in
almost northsouth direction, parallel to 90° east longitude and upto
40° south, where it merges with Amsterdam St. Paul plateau.

Pacific Ocean:
1.Philippines East PHILIPPINES to South Japan: 5,000-6,000 m.

2.Fiji 10°32° S latitude: 4,000 m.

3.East Australian Australia and New Zealand 5,000 m.
4.Peru 5°-24° South latitude 4,000 m.
5.South west Pacific 20°-50° South latitude 4,000 m.

Atlantic Ocean: l.LabradorBetween Greenland in North and New

Foundland in South, i.e., between 40°-50°North 4,0004500 m.
2.North American 12°-40° North latitude 5,0006,00 m.
3.Brazilian 30°South latitude from equator, east coast of Brazil in the
west to above Para rise in the east 4000 m
4.Spanish From Iberian peninsula to 50°N. 5,000 m.
5.Cape Verde 10°-23.5°N. 5,000 m.
6.Giunian From Giunia Ridge to Sierra Leonne 5,000 m.
7.Angola From equator to 30° S. 5,000 m.
8. South and North Canary Near Morocco 5,000m.

Indian Ocean: 1.Oman Near Oman 6,658 m.

2.Arabia Between Laccadine and Socotra.
3.Somali Between Socotra and Seychelles 3600 m..

4.Mauritius 3,6006,391 m.
5. Mascarene Between Madagascar and Seychelles

6.Agulhas Natal Near Corozet Ridge 3,600 m.

Temperature of Ocean Water:

With respect to temperature, there are three layers of ocean from
the surface to the bottom in the Tropics:
1. First layer temperature 20°-25° C.
2.Thermocline layer or middle layer it is characterized by rapid rate
of decrease of temperature with increase in the depth.
3.Third layer colder than the above two layers. Within 24 hrs., the
difference between maximum and minimum temperature is only 1°
C in the ocean, this is called the 'daily range of temperature'.
► Annual range of temperature it means bigger the size of ocean,
lesser the annual range. That's why Atlantic ocean records higher
annual range of temperature than the Pacific ocean because the
size of Atlantic is smaller than Pacific.

Factors affecting the temperature of oceans:

1. Latitude regions near the equator will be hotter.
2.Size of waters bigger the size of ocean, lesser the annual range.
3.Prevailing wind
► The rate of decrease of temperature with increasing latitude is at
the rate of 0.5° F per altitude.
► The average temperature becomes 22°C (73°F) at 20° latitude; at
40° latitude the temp, is 14°C (57°F); near the poles temp, is 0°C
► The average temperature of all the oceans is 17.2 °C (63°F), in
Northern Hemisphere19.4° C (67°F), in the Southern Hemisphere
16.1°C (61°F).

Vertical Distribution of Temperature:

► The temperature will get lesser from surface to bottom: Sun is
the major source of heating but infact the solar rays very
effectively penetrates upon 20 m. depth and they seldom go
beyond 200 m. depth.

Salinity: It is defined as the ratio between the weight of the

dissolved material and the weight of sample sea water.
► Generally salinity is defined as the total amount of solid material
in gm. contained in one kg. of sea water and is expressed at part
1000 means 30 gm.
► The average salinity of 35% is recorded between 10°30° latitude in
the southern hemisphere.
► The zone between 40°60° latitude in both the hemisphere records
lowest salinity where it is 31%-33%
1. Pacific Ocean:
► Near the equator, salinity is 34.85%;
► It increases to 35% between 15°20° latitude in the north
hemisphere; But in the southern hemisphere, it increases to 36% i.e.
more than sea;
► Besides salt, silver, gold and radium also occur but in minute
proportion in sea water.
► These elements are 0.3 (silver), 0.006 (gold) and 0.0000002
mg/metric tonne or part/1000 million.

2. Atlantic Ocean:
► average salinity is 35.67%;
► highest is between 15°20° latitude;
► in 5° North latitude, salinity is 34.98% and in 15° North, it is 36%;
► in 15° South, salinity is 37.77%.

3. Indian Ocean:
► from 0°10° North latitude, salinity is 35%;
► 10°30° North, the salinity is 33.5%;
► near Persian Gulf, 40%; highest is in Red sea, 3641%. (In the
landlocked sea, lowest salinity js in Caspian sea, i.e. 14% in the
northern part. But in the Kara Bnpa? bav salinity is highest i.e.
► near Salt Lake (US), salinity is 220%. In Red sea, salinity is 240%, in
Lake Van (Turkey) is 330%, in Dead sea, it is 238%.

Distribution of Salinity: the average salinity in the oceans and

the sea is 35%.
Horizontal Distribution: on an average, salinity decreases from
equator towards tne poles. The equator accounts only 35% of
► The highest salinity is observed between 20°40°N.. because this
zone has high temperature, high evaporation, but low rainlall
least i.e. 31%, near Manchurian, it is 34%, this salinity in Manchuria is
severe because of Oyashio current coming from Berring Strait.
► in the Southern hemisphere, lowest is near the Peruvian and
Chilean coast i.e. 33%.


1. Gravels: its diameter 2 mm-256 mm; are sediments and are

deposited near the coast on the 256 mm. (diameter), cobbles-64
mm., pebbles -4 mm., granules- 2 mm.

2. Blue Mud: materials derived through the disintegration of rocks

rich in Iron sulphide. It is especially found in Atlantic ocean,
Mediterranean sea and Arctic sea and has 35% of calcium carbonate
3.RedMud: rocks rich in Iron oxides, contains 32% of calcium
carbonate and found at Yellow sea, Brazilian Coast

4. Green Mud: contains green silicates of potassium (K) and

Glauconite (form of iron) and contains 0-56% of CaCo3 and found
mainly in Japanese, Australian and African coasts, at the depth of
100-900 fathoms.

5. Calcareous Oozes: contains lime and generally found is of two

a. Peteropod Ooze: has 80% of CaCo3, found in tropical oceans,
especially Canary island, entails mid Mediterranean ridge;
b. Globigerina Ooze: 64.46 Ca, 1.64% silica, found in tropical and
temperate zones of Atlantic ocean between the depth of 2,000-4,000

6.Red Clay: has silicates of alumina in abundance (85. 35%) and

oxides of iron, calcium.

Ocean Currents:

Atlantic Ocean :

Warm Currents: 1. North Equatorial Current: it is formed between

equator and 10° N latitude. It has two branches (a) Antilles, is
diverted northwards and flows to the east of West Indies island and
helps in the formation of Sargasso sea (which is between 20°40°N.
latitude). Sargasso seaiia&maxjmmn salinity in Atlantic and mean
temperature is 28° C; (b) Caribbean current enters Gulf of Mexico
and becomes Gulf Stream.
2. South Equatorial Current: it is 20° S latitude from the equator. It
basically originated under the stress of the trade wind.
3. Counter Equatorial Current: it flows from west to east, also called
Guinea stream or Compensation current.
4. Gulf Stream: originates in Gulf of Mexico, around 20° N latitude. It
has three branches
(a) Florida Current, the average temp, of water at its surface is 24°C
or 75° F, while salinity is 36%. At 30° N latitude, its temperature falls
upto 6.5° C or 43.7° F;
(b) Gulf Stream, was first discovered by PoncedeLeon in 1513. The
Florida Current after having water of Antilles current is known as
Gulf Stream beyond Cape Hatteras (Near Washington);
(c) North Atlantic Drift or Current, 45° N latitude and 45°. W
longitude, the Gulf Stream is divided into many branches. All the
branches are collectively called North Atlantic Drift/Current. It has
two branches:
(i) Northern branch it has two branches, one goes towards
Norwegian sea and second one goes towards South Iceland and
here it is called Irminger Current,
(ii) Eastern branch one branch enters Mediterranean sea near
Gibraltar and second branch is
called Rennell Gmren near Bay of Biscay.
After Sargasso sea, the temperature is reduced to 410° C and here,
a round Gulf of St. Lawrance near Halifax, the Gulf Stream is called
'Cold Wall'. It loses its original characteristic near 40° N latitude
because it meets the cold Labrador current. 5. Brazilian Current:
flows up to 40° S latitude and merges with Gold Falkland Current.

Cold Currents: 1. Labrador Current: originates in Baffin Bay and

Davis Strait and merges with Grand Bank (Gulf Stream) around 50°
W longitude. Big icebergs are found near New Foundland and Grand
2. Canary Current : flows along the western coast of North Africa
between Maderia and Cape Verde.
3. Falkland Current: 30°S latitude.
4.South Atlantic Drift: is the Eastward continuation of Brazilian
Current 400 S latitude.
5.Benguela Current: flows from South to north along the western
coast of Africa. Later merges with south Equatorial current.
Sargasso Sea has 3 currents : a) North Equatorial Current; b) Canary
Current; c) Gulf Stream.
Water is very calm and motionless; found between 20° N-40° N
latitude. between 35°- 75° W longitude. highest salinity is 37%.

Pacific Ocean
Warm Currents:
1.North Equatorial Current: originates of the western Coast of Mexico
and flows in western lie direction and reaches the Philippine coast.
This originates because of Californian Current and NE. Monsoon. It is
joined by Kuroshio Current near Taiwan and counter equatorial
current near Japan.
2.South Equatorial Current: originates due to SouthEast Trade winds
and.flow from east to west, bifurcated near New Guinea.
3.Counter Equatorial Current: it extends upto Panama Bay. Its
average temp, is 27.5° C and the salinity is 34.5%. 4.Kuroshio System:
startefrom Taiwan from the Bering Strait and has five currents
(a)Kuroshio Current 30° N latitude; from Taiwan to Raiku Ridge.
(b)Kuroshio Extension 42° N latitude and Oyashio current (a cold
(c)North Pacific Drift up to Aleutian Current and becomes a part of
(d)Tsushima current; between Japanese sea and western coast of
Japan. It is warm and enters Japan sea by the name of Tsushima
(e)Counter Kuroshio Current between Hawaiian island and American
5.East Australian Current: 40° S; is warm.
6.Counter or El Nino Current: 3°- 30° S; along Peruvian Coast.

Cold Currents:
1.California Current: near Mexico.
2.Peru Current: is also called 'Hobalt' or 'Humboldt' Current. Annual
temperature is 14° 17°C.
3.West Wind Drift: also called roaring 40s between Tasmania and
South American Coast. 40° 50° S.
4.0yashio Current: known as Kurile Cold current. From Berring Strait
to Arctic sea; divides into two parts at 50° N latitude one merges
with Aleutian and Kuroshio Current and second moves upto the
Japanese coast.

Indian Ocean
The currents flowing in the Indian Ocean change their flow direction
twice a year due to North east and South West Monsoon winds.

Warm Currents: 1.North East Monsoon Current: 5° N latitude;

originates in the Bay of Bengal reaches to Arabian Sea. 2.1ndian
Counter Current: 2°- 8° S latitude: mainly concentrated to Zanzibar
to Sumatra.

3.South West Monsoon Current.

4.Indian Equatorial Current: 10°- 15° S; from Australian to African
Coast and is obstructed by Madagascar. One major branch flows
southwards, known as 'Agulhas Current' which is warm.
5.Mozambique Current: it is a part of Indian equatorial; joins Agulhas
Current near 30° S latitude.
6.West Wind Drift: 40° N latitude; 110° East; known as 'Roaring 40s';
one branch flows as west Australian cold current along the Western
Coast of Australia and near the Tropic of Capricorn turns towards
the left.

Ocean Tides
► The rise and fall of sea water due to gravitational forces,
centripetal of the Sun and Moon are called tides. The sea waves
generated by the tides are called Tidal Waves.
► The earth rotates from west to east and revolves around the sun
following an elliptical orbit. Similarly, the moon rotates from west to
east and revolves around the earth following an elliptical orbit. The
period of the farthest distance between the moon and the earth
(4,07,000 km) is called 'APOGEE'. While the period of the nearest
distance (3,56,000 km) is called 'PERIGEE'.
► The surface of the earth with its diameter of 12,800 km (8000
miles) is 6400 km nearer to the moon then its centre
► The centre of the moon is 3,84,800 km (2,40,000 miles) away from
the centre of the Earth. The earth's outer surface is 3,77,600 km
away from the outer surface of the moon.
► Therefore the gravitational force of the moon will be maximum at
the earth's surface facing the moon, while it will be minimum at
the opposite side of the earth.
► Consequently the water of the earth's surface facing the moon is
attracted and pulled and high tides occur. At the same time low
tide is formed at the opposite side of the Earth.
► Therefore, two tides and Ebbs are experienced twice at every
place on earth's water surface within 24 hours.
The moon. Thus the tide centre takes 24 hours 52 min. to come
under the moon.
► The average difference in water level between high and low tides
at any place is called 'AMPLITUDE' of the tide.
► The tidal range is generally 13 m. In the Mediterranean and
Baltic, the range is very small but highest tide is experienced in
the Bay of Fundy (East Canada), the tide may rise 1520m

Types Of Tides:
1) Spring Tides: The spring tides are the highest when the moon,
earth and the sun are in the straight line. They occur at new and
full moon; especially on 1 Jan it is highest. The straight line is
called 'SYZYGY', and this position is called 'CONJUCTION'. When the
position of earth is in between sun and moon it is called
2) Neap Tides: The position is quadrature i.e. sun, earth and moon
are in a position of right angle. They occur at the moon's first and
third quarter i.e. on the 7th and 8th day of every fortnight and the
direct force is produced by the sun and the Working in opposite
direction and thus low tide is formed. The height neap tide is 20%
lower than general tides.
3) Tropical and Equatorial Tides: like the sun, there is also northward
and southward position of the moon in relation to the equator of
the earth. If the sun completes its northward and southward
position in one year (nearly 365 days), the moon completes it in 29.5
days (1 synodic month). When there is maximum declination of the
moon to the north of the equator, the moon's rays fall vertically on
the tide centres (near the Tropic of Cancer) hence spring tides are
caused. Such tropical tides move westward along the Tropic of
Cancer and also occur along the Tropic of Capricorn which is
opposite to the Tropic of Cancer. The tides occurring along the
Tropics of Cancer and Capricorn are called the 'Tropical Tides'.
4). Apogean and Perigean tides.
5). Daily and Semidiurnal Tides.
6). Equinocital tide.

Theories related to origin of Tides:

1. Equilibrium Theory by Newton.
2. Progressive Way Theory by William Whewell.
3. Canal Theory by G.B.Airy.
4. Stationary Wave Theory by R.A.Herish.
5. latitudes.

Coral Reefs: They are significant sub marine features. They are
formed due to accumulation and compaction of skeletons of
limesecreting organisms known as 'Coral Polyps'. Coral Polyps thrive
in the Tropical Oceans confined between 250 N to 25°S
Coral Reefs are formed due to formation of a shell calcereous at
suitable depth.
Preconditions for formation of Coral Polyps:
(a) corals are formed mainly in Tropical Oceans because they
require high mean annual temperature ranging between 20°C to
21°C or 68°F to 70°F their survival;
(b) corals do not live in deeper waters i.e. not more than 200-250
feet or 60-77 m. below the sea level, because of two factors (i) due
to lack of sufficient sunlight; and (ii) due to lack of oxygen;
(c) there should be clean sediment free water;
(d) fresh water is also required;
(e) a very high oceanic salinity is also injurious for growth because
such water contains little amount of CaCo3 Salinity should be 27-
(f) the corals grow in open seas and oceans but die in lagoons and
small enclosed seas because of lack of supply of food.

Types of Coral Reefs:

1. Fringing Reef
2. Barrier Reef
3. Atoll

1. Fringing Reef: (i) in between land and continental shelf and it is

closed to the shore
(ii)the upward slope is steep and vertical while the landward slope
is gentle;
(iii)though fringing reefs are attached to the coastal land but
sometimes there is gap between them and in this gap water -boat
(iv)Fringing coral reefs are generally long but narrow in width. E.g.
Sakan island, Southern Florida, Mehetia Island (of society group of
(v) it develops along the continental margin.

2. Barrier Reefs:
(i) the largest coral reef off the coastal platforms but parallel to
coast are barrier reef;
(ii) the average slope is about 45°,jiome barriers are characterized
by 1525° slope;
(iii) it is separated from the coast by a much wider and deeper
channel or lagoon:
(iv) the reef is partially submerged
(v) in this the lagoon, sometimes its depth goes upto 240- 340feet; ,
(vi) examples are Great Barrier Reef off the coast of Queensland, it
stretches upto 1920 km. or 1200 miles which covers 2/3 of the
coastal length of Queensland province of Australia.
3. Atolls:
(i)Atolls are similar to barrier reefs except that they are circular in
(ii)enclosed by a shallow lagoons without any land in the centre
(iii)generally found along an island;
(iv)the depth of lagoons ranges between 240-420 feet or 40-70
(v)Atolls are of 3 types:(a) True Atoll: characterized by circular reefs
enclosing a shallow lagoon
(b)Shapeless reefs.

(c)Coral Pinnacles small ridges which rise within the lagoon.

Theories Regarding Origin of Coral reefs:

1. Subsidence theory of Darwin.
2. Standstill theory by Murray.
3. Glacial Control theory by Daly.


The soil system is the product of environmental and biological
processes in interrelation with climate, vegetation (flora), animals
(fauna), underlying rocks, topography and time which affect the

Components of soil

1.Living organisms and organic matter (5 -12 %)

2.Mineral matter (38- 47 %)

3.Soil solution (15- 35%)

4.Soil atmosphere (10-15 %)

Regolith - Loose and unconsolidated weathered rock materials.

Soil Structure- The aggregation of individual soil particles in the

form of lumps or clusters is called soil structure.

1.Translocation of materials through illuviation, capillary action

upward movements, melanization, leucinization, compaction and
induration. Darkening of the colour of a section of soil profile
through organic matter is known as Melanization. Lightening of the
colour of a section of the soil profile mainly in the of of the soil
profile mainly in the zone of maximum eluviation is known as
Leucinization. The hardening of a section of the soil profile such as
kahkar pan, iron pan, calcrete, alcrete, silcrete etc. is known as
Induration. The process through which water percolates downward
thereby removing humus, soluble bases and sesquioxides from the
upper horizon is known as Leaching.

2.Transformation of materials (it includes processes like

audification, neutralization, oxidation, reduction, solution precipitation,
hydration, dehydration, hydrolysis, decomposition, humification and
mineralization. The formation of soluble organic metallic complexes
and the dissociation of clay humus thereby making them
susceptible to leaching is known as Podzolization. In seasonally
heavy rainfall region, the silica is removed from the upper soil
rather than the iron or aluminum thereby leading to Laterization. In
an anaerobic or water logged condition, the reduction of iron takes
place and this process is known as Gleyisation.

Classification of Soils:

Primarily soils can be classified into Zonal, Azonal and Intrazonal


zonal soils are fully matured soils which have developed under the
conditions of good soil drainage over a long period of time.

Azonal soils do not have well developed soil horizons but there is
uniformity in the soils from top toottom.

Intrazonal soils are those that are formed in waterlogged areas.

Intrazonal soils have high content of calcium carbonate soluble salts
and sodium.

Zonal soils can be classified as follows:

1.Laterite soils These are found in high rainfall areas (e.g. equatorial
rain forests) having hot and humid conditions. It is also found in
areas of wet and dry conditions. They are charectrerised by
leaching, accumulation of sesquioxides. Crust formation, acidic
nature and red color.

2. Red soils these soils are also found in tropical areas having high
rainfall. They are highly leached having residues of iron and
aluminum oxides. This deeply weathered soil is low in fertility.

3. Red and yellow soils: Found in regions having high temperature

and abundant rainfall. This soil is affected by leaching, podzolization
and laterization and has a well developed horizon. It is susceptible
to erosion and gives a good response to agriculture when mixed
with fertilizers.
4 Black soils these soils are formed on the basaltic bed rock formed
because of lava flow. Such soils are highly water retentive and are
good for production of dry crops.

5. Red Desert soils Found in arid tropical areas and is characterized

by underdeveloped horizon, coarse texture, and moderate to high
fertility. This soil becomes productive when irrigation is applied and
salt content is rationalized. The most important characteristic of
these soils is the saline nature and encrustation of its surface.
Because of excessive dryness lime is brought to the surface.

6. Chernozem Found in temperate grassland areas of the world

which receives low and light precipitation. Thick accumulation of
humus gives it a characteristic black color and therefore it is also
known Black Earth. The moderate rainfall which the region receives
resulting in balanced leaching and evaporation, does not allow the
humus to percolate. Further it is characterized by clayey texture,
basic nature and high fertility.

7.Chestnut As these are found in the arid margins of the

Chernozem belt they have lower humus content, are of lighter color
and fertile than the chernozems.

8.Seirozems These are found in the mid latitude continental deserts

of central Asia and N. America and are characterized by poor
horizon development, low humus content, lime concentration and
grey color . Under irrigation they become productive.

9. Podzols These are found in humid mid latitude forests and the
coniferous forest regions having moderate to low rainfall. Melting of
snow in these colder regions allow adequate water flow for leaching
to take place resulting in high acidity. Thick forest vegetation allows
slow organic matter decomposition and subsequent podzolization.
Though they have low fertility, but it can be enhanced by the
addition of lime and fertilizers.

10.Grey Drown podzolic soils: These are found in the mid latitude
deciduous forests on the western margin of continents and parts of
East Asia. They are characterized by lesser leaching and acidity and
more Humus content than podzols. They are reasonably fertile.

11.Tundra soils These are found along the polar margins in the
Tundra region. These are characterized by acidic reaction, slow
chemical and organic changes, homogenous soil profile and low
fertility. This is a permafrost region arid is affected by water
melting and logging during summers.

Azonal soils can be classified as follows

Soils of a different classification expressed in terms of soils of
above classification.
Entisols -Azonal soils.
Inceptisols- Alluvial soils
Aridisols- Desert soils
Mollisols- Chestnut and Chernozem
Spodosols- Podzols
Alfisols- Grey Brown podzolic
Ultisols -Red brown podzolic
Oxisols- Laterite soils
Histosols- Peaty or Bog soils.

World Biomes ( Flora and Fauna )

Tropical Evergreen Rainforest Biome

Also called optimum biome (optimum condition for development of
plants and animals). It has largest number of plant species.
Trees are the most significant members.
Creepers or climbers: Belong to the category of Vines. Long woody
climbers are known as Lianas. Another type of climbers is Epiphytes
which do not have their roots on the ground surface. The epiphytes
provide certain habitats to micro organisms such as planarians,
earthworms, snails, woodlice, millipedes, centipedes, termites, ants,
grasshoppers, earwigs, scorpions, snakes, tree frogs, lizards and a
host of insect larvae. Micro epiphytes include moss, lichens, algae

Vertical stratification: There are five layers of strata from the

ground surface to the uppermost canopy of the tropical evergreen
rainforest biome:

1 .Top layer (or dominant layer) Tallest trees (3090 m)

2.Second layer (or codominant layer) Tress (25 -30 m)

3.Third layer Small trees

4.Fourth layer Herbaceous and shrub layer

5.Fifth layer Herbaceous plants and ferns.

Animal life : Vertical stratification of the floral biome has largely
affected the life forms of animals. Even animal life shows
stratification. Upper air animal community Birds like Asian Falconets,
swifts, seviftlet, curassows, tinamous, opossum, kinkajous and
armadillos etc. Main canopy animal community : Toucans, parakeet,
barbets, contingas, and bill birds etc.
Middle zone flying animal community. Mostly flying birds and
insectivorous bats. Middle zone climbing animal community Squirrels
and civets.

Large ground animal community, Mouse deer, cassowaries and

members of pig family. Small ground animal community,
Insectivorous such as Argus, pheasant, peacocks and fowls such as
Guinea fowl.
Monsoon Deciduous Forests number of plant species is less in
the tropical deciduous biome than the tropical evergreen rain forest
biome. There are four strata or layers in the vertical structure of
the tropical deciduous forests:
1. Uppermost Trees
2. Second layer Trees
3. Third layer Shrubs
4. Herbaceous plants. Most trees are deciduous. Shrubs of the third
stratum are evergreen.

Trees have large hydromorphic leaves or small, hard xeromorphic

leaves. (The large hydromorphic leaves enable the trees to trap
more and more rainfall during wet seasons, but these large leaves
are shed in dry periods to conserve moisture. Where as small and
hard xeromorphic leaves enable the trees to withstand dry weather
and water deficiencies.) There are numerous lianas and epiphytes
but they are less in number than the rain forest biome.
Animal life There are comparatively less number of animal species
than the rain forest biome.

Very small animals (microorganisms to very large bodied animals

like elephants, horses, hippopotamus, rhinos, lions etc.
The biome represents the largest number of domesticated
mammals because of the development of agriculture. (The lions of
Gir forest of Gujarat, together with other animals like leopards,
spotted deer, sambhar deer, Indian gazelle, Nilgai antelope, wild
boar etc. are now endangered species because of enormous
destruction of the Gir forest Ecosystem.)

Savanna Biome Vegetation has three distinct layers:

1. Ground strata Grasses and herbs.
2. Middle layer Shrubs and woody plants.
3 Top or canopy layer Trees Savanna grasses Hyparrhenia (elephant
grass), Panicum, Pennisetum, Aridropogen and African.
Trees have in built mechanism to reduce evapotranspirationreduced
size of leaves, sunken stomata and thickened suticles etc.
Tress may have very deep roots which can penetrate deeper into
soil for water. Some trees are fire resistant (pyropytic) as they have
thick bark and thick budscales. The savanna biome is characterized
by the monotony of tree species as there are tree species as there
are very few tree species per unit area. Acacia, Baobao, Isoberlinia,
Pom palm (African Savanna). Eucalyptus such as Eucalyptus
Marginata and Eucalyptus calophylla (Australia), Pine

Animals African Savanna has the largest number and greatest

variety of grazing vertebrate mammals in the world. African Buffalo,
Zebra, Giraffe, Elephants, Antelopes, Hippopotamus etc. South
American and Australian Savanna do not have large number of
grazing mammals similar to the African savanna is invariably found.
Marsupials. Around 50 species of Kangaroo are found in Australia
varying from the Red Kangaroo to the small species of Wallaby.)
South America Large grazing mammals including deer and guanaco.
Toucans, parrots, night kingfishers, parakeets, wood peckers are also
Savanna Birds Courses, bustards, game birds, ostrich, gazelle and

Mediterranean Biome Vegetation has sclerophyll characteristic as

they are stiff and hard and the stems have thick barks.
Range from Mediterranean mixed evergreen forests to woodland,
dwarf forest and shrubs.
Shrubs are differently named: Maquis or Garrigue S. Europe
Chaparral California Fybos or Fynbosch Africa Malle Scrub Australia.
To withstand dry conditions, they have some Xeromorphic structure
thickened suticles, grandular hairs, sunken stomata etc.
Trees Evergreen Oak, Deciduous Oak, Jarrah (Australia) and shrubs
like Arbutus, Pistacia, Rhammus, Ceratania etc.
Animals Mule deer , Chilean Guanaco, Squirrels, Wood rats, Wolf,
Mountain lion , Grizzly bear, Rabbits, Cyote, Chilean Fox, Lizards,
Snakes, birds( kites, falcons, hawks), Quagga (a type of antelope),
Bontebok( a type of antelope)

Temperate grassland Biome Vegetation in this biome comprises

perennial grasses (family Gramineae).
Grass steppes — Tussock forming species of Steppe. Semi arid
Xerophytic Steppe which is associated with Chestnut soil.
North American Pampas humid and sub humid Pampas. Important
grasses of Pampas include Briza, Lolium, Paspalum, Panicum and
Bromus etc.

Velds of S. Africa: This may be classified into Themada, Veld (having

red grasses), Sour Veld (having grasses like Aristida, Eragrostis and
Llyparrhenia etc.) and Alpine Veld( having Festuca and Bromus along
with Themada veld) Animals Buffalo, pronghorn, antelope, wild
horse, saiga antelope, guanaco, wolf, coyote. Kangaroo and
wallaroos are found in Australia. Rhea is a bird found in Pampas.
Bisons are found in N. America

The Boreal Forest Biome or Taiga biome

Adapted to the extreme environmental conditions of the Siberian
type of climate of this Biome.
Richest source of softwood in the world.
Important trees include Pine (white, red, scots, and jack), Fir
(Douglas, Balsam), Spruce, and larch, Birch, Poplar and Alder.
Animals Caribou, Moose, Timber wolf, Lynx, Red Squirrels, Owls and
Tundra Biome
Lithosols in this region only supports vegetation like mosses and
lichens. Animals Musk Ox, Arctic Foxes and Stoat, Reindeer and
Birds Waterfowl. Ducks. Swans, Geese and Ptarmigan.

Natural Regions of the World

Introduction: A natural region is a group of areas where the
conditions of relief, temperature, rainfall, natural vegetation and
consequently the cultural environment are more or less similar.
There are 7 regions of the world:
1. Equatorial Region
2. Savanna Region
3. Hot Desert Region
4. Mediterranean Region
5. Temperate Grassland
6. Coniferous Forests
7. Tundra Region

1. Equatorial Region:
Location : it stretches along the equator in the form of a belt
roughly between the latitude of 10°Nand 10°S. It includes the
Amazon lowlands and the coast of Guyana in S.America; Congo
basin and Guinea coast of Africa and Malayasia, Indonesia, New
Guinea and South Philippines of the Asian Continent.

Natural Environments:
(a) Climate: It is a hot wet climatic region, temperature about 27°c
throughout the year. Diurnal ranges are also not significant. It is a
humid region where the humidity is very high. Rainfalls throughout
the year but is heavier after the position of Equinoxes on two
occasions after 21s' March and 23"1 Sept. No change in the season.
Average annual rainfall between 150300 cm. Rain is of conventional

(b) Natural Vegetation: Forest is the natural vegetation and are the
world's densest forests, also known as Selvas.

(c) Animal life: The tsetse fly is dangerous because of its poisonous
sting. The Hippopotamus, Rhinocerous and the Elephants are found
in abundance. Hippos are found in swampy areas. Other animals
are the Gorillas, Chimpanzees, Monkeys, Apes, Sloths, Lizards and
Jaguars are also found.

2. Savanna Region:
Location: The Savanna regions are located on either side of the
Equatorial Forest Region. They lie between 10°20° latitudes in both
the hemispheres. The biggest area of Savanna is found in Africa
and Sudan. Savanna region is also called sudantype region. The
Savannas are the grasslands of the tropical zones and are also
called Tropical Grasslands. Natural Environments:

(a) Climate: It is generally hot and the average temperature is

about 37°c and is generally dry. Diurnal ranges are generally higher,
rainfall is seasonal and is received mostly in summers. It is a
region TradeWind Belt and the trade wind winds are Dry Belts.
Average rainfall is between 25150 cms.

(b) Natural Vegetation: it is a region of seasonal rainfall and the

main vegetation is the grass. Trees of medium height, belonging to
the deciduous variety, are also found here. The trees shed their
leaves during winter. The Savannas are natural grasslands and look
like Park Lands. Average height of the grass is 4mts. e.g. Elephant
grass. Other types of grasses are Campos in Brazil; Llanos in the
Orinico basin and Parkland in Africa.

(c) Animal Life: native animals are of two types1 .Grasseaters

Giraffe, Zebra, Gazelle, Bear and Antelopes, Elephants, Wild
Bufalloes and Rhinoes. 2. Flesheaters Lion,
Tiger,Leopard,Panther,Hyena, Jaguar and Puma .Other animals are
Ostrich,Kangroo found in Australia, Chinchilla, Capybra, Viscacha etc.

3. Hot Desert Region:

Location: hot desetrts are located between 20°30° latitude in both

the hemisphere on the western coast of the continents. They are
also called Tropical Deserts. They are different from the midlatitude
deserts and cold deserts, hot deserts are found in High pressure
belts along the Tropics in the trade winds region. Distribution Of
Hot Deserts: (i)Asia Thar desert and the Arabian Desert; (ii)Africa
The Sahara and the Kalahari; (iii)N. America Lower California and
Arizona states of USA; (iv)S. AmericaAtacama desert; (v)Australia The
Great Australian desert. The Sahara desert of Africa is the biggest
hot desert of the world. The Hot desert regions are located in the
subtropical high pressure belts, which are not favourable regions for

Natural Environments : (a) Climate: Very high temperature because

of dryness of air, cloudless sky, intense insolation and high rate of
evaporation. Coastal strips don't have high temperature because of
seabreezes and cool currents. Trade winds are dry, relative humidity
is low. Rain is of conventional type.
(b)Natural vegetation: Xerophytic type plants Cactus,
grass,scrubs,weeds and bulbous plants are found here.Treesdate
plants are found in Oasis. The desert plants have leaves of needle
shape, hairy and waxy,

(c) Animal Life: Camel is the most common animal found in the
desert. Other animals like Antelops, Jackals, Foxes, Hyenas, Badgers
and Rabbits. Burrowing animals Snakes, Lizards, Ants are also found

4. Mediterranean type Region:

Location: This region is located on the western margins of the
continents between 30°40° latitudes in both hemispheres. Shifting of
wind belts is the basic cause of this type of climate. Rainfall is in
winters. This region is also called Winter Rain Temperate Region.
The Mediterranean coast land is the single biggest area of this
climate and hence the region is known as the Mediterranean Type.
Areas: Europe Coastal regions of Spain, Portugal, France, Italy and
Greece; Asia Coastal regions of Turkey, Israel, Syria and Lebanon;
Africa Coastal region of Algeria, Tunisia and Morocco in the North
and South Western tip of Cape Province of S.Africa in South;
Australia Southern and Southwestern Coastal regions of Australia;
N.America Western margin of California; S.America Central Chile.

Natural Environments: (a)Climate: this region is transitional between

the Dry Sub Tropical Trade Wind belt and the Rainy Cool Temperate
Maritime Westerlies belt. During summers, the wind belts shift
Poleward and the area comes under the influence of Dry Trade
Winds and during winters it shifts Equatorwards and comes under
the influence of Rainy Westerlies. The average summer temp, is
between 20°c to 26°c, relative humidity is low. Rainfall is received
during winters from the OnShore Westerlies with temperate
cyclones. The normal rainfall is between 3575 cm. Sunshine is
always abundant and winters are mild. Local Winds: Sirocco also
known as Chili in Tunisia; Ghibli in Libya; Leveche in Spain; Khamsin
in Egypt and Malta; Gharbi in the Adriatic and Aegean sea; Mistral
and Bora.

(b)Natural Vegetation: it is of evergreen type. Vegetation types are:

1.Evergreen broad leaved forests: Eucalyptus in Australia, Evergreen
Oaky in S.Europe, Red Wood in California, Jarra and Karri.
2. Bushes and Scrubs: Laurel, Myrtle, Lavender etc. are bushes.
Maquis, Chaparral and Mallee are the scrubs.
3. Evergreen Coniferous trees: Found in highland areas, are tall and
have needle shaped leaves Pines, Firs, and Cedars etc.
5. Temperate Grassland:

Location: are situated in the interiors of the Continent between 40°

and 55° latitude in both hemispheres; are known by different names
in different regions: Steppes (Eurasia); Pampas (S.America); Velds
(S.Africa); Downs (Australia). Areas: Asia: Manchuria and Russian
Turkestan; Europe:Southern part of European Russia and Hungary;
N.America: South Central Canada and North Central USA; S.America:
North Argentina and Uruguay; Africa: Transvaal state of S.Africa;
Australia: Murray Darling Basin of the Province of Southem Australia.

Natural Environments:

Climate: Temperate Grassland of North have a different climate

compared to that in the Southern hemisphere, because of the

6. Coniferous Forests:

Location:it is found only in Northern hemisphere between55° to 70"

latitude and is bordered by temperate grasslands in South and
Tundra region in North.

Areas: Asia: Northern Siberia; Europe: Northern part of European

Russia, Poland, Finland and Sweden; N.America: Northern Canada
from Labrador coast to the Eastern boundary of Alaska. These
forests are also known as Taiga (Russia).

Natural Environments: (a) Climate: temperature below freezing

point(45°c) during winters. During summers average temp.is
15°c.Rainfall between 25-75 cm.

7. Tundra Region:
Location: arc cold deserts situated roughly beyond 65°N latitudes.
Summer isotherms of 10°c and 0"c denotes the limits of Tundra.

Areas: N.America: Northern coastal region of Alaska and Canada and

islands near coastal fringe of Greenland; Europe: Northern
Scandinavia, Iceland, Spitsbergen Islands and North coastal region of
European Russia; Asia: Northern coastal region of Siberia.

Natural Environments: (a)Climate: very low temperature; winters are

long and severe while summers are short and cool, the Sun does
not set for 2 to 3 months in summer.. Average summer temp, is
12°c, rainfall is light and hardly 25 cm.

(b)Natural vegetation: temp, is too low for germination of seeds and

the area is marshy where soil is permanently frozen. Xerophytic
vegetation is found: bush tundra scrubby bushes like Alders,
Birches, Willows and Junipers; grass tundra Moss, Lichens and
Sedge; flowering plants Poppies, Lillies, Buttercups and Violets.

(c)Animals: Reindeer. Caribou, MuskOx, Blue Fox, Sable, Polar Bear

and Lemmings. Marine Animals like Seals, Walruses, Whales and
variety of Fishes like Salmon, Halibut etc. Insects: many mosquitoes
and insects.


Agricultural Typology
1 . Nomadic Simplest form of pastoralism. Herds graze on natural
vegetation. Pastoral nomads depend primarily on animals rather
than crops for survival. Seasonal pattern of movement of Nomads
along with their herds between mountains and lowland pastures is
known as Transhumance.
Fulani -W. Africa
Masai -East Africa (Tanzania and Kenya)
Nuba - Ethiopia
Tuareg - Sahara
Hottentots - Botswana
Bedoins - Saudi Arabia
Khirghiz, Kazakhs and Kalmuk - Central Asia
Yakuts, Samoyeds, Koriaks and Lapps - Scandinavia

2. Simple Subsistence Farming

Better known as Shifting cultivation
Slash and burn agriculture A plot of forest is set on fire and
cleared and the cultivation is carried for sometime. When land gets
exhausted, they shift to other areas (Field rotation) It is known by
different names in different regions.
Milpa - Central America
Roca - Brazil
Ladang - Malaysia
Humah - Indonesia
Kaingin - Philippines
Taungya - Burma
Chena - Sri Lanka
Jhum or Bewar- India.

3. Sedentary Subsistence Agriculture In Tropical lowlands

Crop rotation along with field rotation
Subsistence farming along with cultivation of cash crops and
collection and sale of forest products
Prevalent in South East Asia and West Africa
4. Intensive Subsistence Agriculture ( Oriental Agriculture)
Marked by intense rice cultivation
Usually in Monsoon lands East Asia, South Asia and S. E. Asia.
Intensive cultivation on wet lowlands and terraced uplands supports
dense population This agricultural system is of two types
(i) Dominated by wet paddy
(ii) That without paddy (dominated by sorghum, sugarcane, maize

5. Subsistence crop and livestock farming

Farmers produce crops and raise livestock mainly for their own
subsistence and sell nothing to the local market Turkey, Iran, Iraq,
southern Mexico etc.

6. Mediterranean Agriculture
In bordering areas of Mediterranean sea, California, Central Chile,
S.W. Africa, and S. Australia.
It includes cultivation of cereals and vegetables with the aid of
seasonal precipitation along with plantation crops of olives, figs,
dates and grapes. Farming is both subsistence and commercial and
also involves livestock farming (small animals which graze on
highlands). Olives and grapes are most important commercial crops.
It is a major wine producing area.

7. Livestock Ranching
Characterized by commercial grazing of livestock over an extensive
Ranches have a continuous vegetative cover (either native grasses
or legumes such as Lucerne, cloves and alfalfa).
They are known by different names in different areas: Llanos
(Venezuela) Sertao (Brazil) Pampas (Uruguay and Argentina)
Patagonia (Argentina) Karroo of South Africa
Semiarid areas of Australia and New Zealand. In Europe ranching is
not common, but some ranches are found in Spain and Portugal.

8. Extensive Commercial Grain Farming

-Wheat cultivating regions of the world
-It is a wheat monoculture region (spring and winter)
-Highly mechanized cultivation
- Extensive farming means large size of holdings, greater use of
machinery and little labour employment. Steppes (Eurasia) Prairies
(N. America) Pampas (Argentina) Veld (S. Africa) Cantebury Plains
(New Zealand) Pustaz (Hungary) Downs (Australia)

9. Mixed Farming ( Commercial liverstock and crop farming)

- Integration of crops and liverstocks.
-Extensive use of agricultural inputs (fertilizers, manures, techniques
-Wide varriety of crops are grown.
-In Europe, N. America (to the immediate west of Appalachians),
South Africa, North East Argentina, S. E. Australia and New Zealand.
10. Commercial Dairy Farming
-Prevalent on permanent pastures of temperate regions.
-It is characterised by high productivity, commercialization, and high
labour intensity.
-N. E. United States, NW Europe, Australia, New Zealand (North
Island), parts of Argentina, Middle Chile, S. Africa, Russia and Japan.

11. Market gardening or Truck farming

-Fruit and vegetable farming in suburban areas.
-Though farming is capital Intensive and scientifically managed, it is
done on small and intensive scale
- Prevalent in USA and North Western Europe

12. Collective Farming

-Collective farms in Russia are known as Kolkhuzi and state farms
as Sovkhozi.
- In China there are state farms which are known as Communes.
-Israeli collective farms are known as Kibbutzim.
-This type of farming is still managed and aims at egalitarian
agricultural social system.

13. Plantation Agriculture

-Cash crops are produced in a highly capitalised and centralized
cultivation system on large scale for exports.
-It is prevalent in tropical areas especially in equatorial rain forests
and monsoon lands
--Important plantation crops cotton, sugarcane, coffee, rubber and
-Plantation agriculture is a colonial legacy in the third world


-Originated in Asia Minor and Middle East Temperate and
Subtropical crop
-Grown mechanically on extensive farms
-Temp.: 15°C (July isotherm of 15.5°C marks the northern limit of
wheat cultivation in the northern hemisphere)
-Where wheat could not be grown in winter (because of extreme
cold), It is grown in spring.
- Best wheat comes form Chernozem soils (Ukranian Black Earth),
brown prairies and grey brown podzolic soils of the deciduous forest
- The Polder Lands (reclaimed from sea) Belgium and the
Netherlands with their fertile marine clay or riverine silt gives high
wheat yields.
-An open, rolling topography with adequate drainage is needed
Terraced wheat farming is unusual, except in Japan and China
-Spring wheat is grown in colder north of the Canadian Prairies and
in parts of the Continental steppes and Siberia. Elsewhere, winter
wheat is grown.
-Hard Red Spring Wheat: Colder and drier Russia, Canada and
-Hard Red Winter Wheat Southern CIS, Danube Basin of C.
Europe, wheat crescent of Argentina and central USA
- Soft Red Winter Wheat Western Europe and the eastern states
of USA.
-Soft White Wheat Western USA, Australia, S.Africa, Chile, Europe
and most of Asia.

-Grown under humid conditions in tropical areas receiving good

-Requires (20° 30°C) of temperature .Rainfall (100-250 cm).

-Intensive cultivation is practiced in monsoonal Asia where it is
grown for subsistence purpose.
-Compared to wheat, Rice has not much commercialized in the
world trade.

-Most ancient crop.
-Greatest tolerance for arid conditions
- grown in a wide range of climate, topographical and soil
environment, where wheat fails to survive. -Can be grown in:
1. Subarctic regions
2. Semiarid regions
3. High Altitudes
4. Light Limey Soils
-Used as human food, animal feed and malting (beer and whiskey)
- Major beer drinking countries are therefore major barley
producers e.g. France, U.K, Germany, Denmark.
-Europe accounts for half of the world's total production.
-Russia and China are the major producers.
-International trade is small.

-18-270C of temperature
-60-115cm of rainfall
- Grown on wide range of soils.
-In mountainous areas where soils may be thin and slopes are
steep, maize can survive when other cereals fail to take root. 75-90%
of world's production is consumed for feeding animals.
-Used for preparing industrial alcohol
-USA, China, Brazil are major producers

-It is the latex of 'Hevea brasiliensis' tree.
-Other latex plantsbalata, funtunia elastica and gutta pecha.
-Rubber tends to become sticky in hot and brittle in cold weather;
therefore it is vulcanized (i.e. mixed with sulphur)
-Needs 21-27°C of temperature
-(50-250 cm) of rainfall, evenly distributed throughout the year.
-Deep, friable well drained soils are ideal. Acidic soils are also
-Land should be flat or gently undulating
-Rubber tree sheds its leaves annually despite its equatorial
habitat. This is known as Wintering.

Oil Palm
-Originated in W. Africa -Constant high temperature, plenty of
sunlight and evenly distributed heavy rainfall. (200cm.).
-The crop is not ideally suited to small holder cultivation as it
requires regular attention in the field to combat pests and must
also be quickly processed.

-Tree of tropical coastlands -High temperature and rainfall is

-Ideal habitat: sandy soil

-Grow best around the shores of Indian and Pacific oceans

-COPRA dried of the net

-Flower can be made into a fermented drink called Toddy, widely
used in Southern India and Malaysia.

-Leguminous plant. -Originated in Brazil
-Warm temperature and light to moderate rainfall is required (38cm
in coastal area, with high humidity and 6090 cm in drier interior
region) -Grown in seasonally dry tropical and subtropical climates
(Savanna of West Africa, monsoonal climates of India and China, as
well as in Southern U.S.A
-In West Africa, it is grown in rotation or intercropped with millet
and Guinea corn by peasant farmers.
- Senegal has some large mechanized farms -In USA, the
groundnuts are grown in the same regions as cotton, which also
yields oilseeds.

Soya Beans
-Traditional crop of China - Warm temperate to cool temperate
-Temperature requirement 21°C and moderate rainfall of 100cm
-Moisture retentive soils are ideal but a low atmospheric humidity
is better than a moist atmosphere (require same conditions as
-In USA, they are grown extensively in the Corn Belt.

-Temperature requirement more than 18°C
-Moderate rainfall and rich, regularly fertilized, soil is required.
-Requires large labour force -Tropical tobacco is poor in quality
than temperate
-High Quality Tobacco W. Cuba, Deli area of Sumatra and
Connecticut valley (USA)

- Four main types of tobacco

1. Virginia
2. Turkish or Oriental
3. Cigar
4. Other tobacco

► Animal fiber sheep, goats, alpacas, vicunas, camels, silkworms
► Vegetable fiber cotton, flax, jute, hemp, sisal and abaca
► Artificial or Synthetic fiber Rayon, Nylon, Acrilan, Polyster

-A major export of the tern
-Native of tropical America
-Now grown in almost every country with a warm temperate,
subtropical or tropical climate.
- Types of wool:1 .Merino Finest wool of high quality
2.Crossbred Medium grade
3.Carpet Wool Coarse, thicker and more variant in quality. Produced
in marginal sheep rearing areas like India, Iran and Ethiopia -Wool
from animals other than sheep Angora Goats (from Asia minor).
Kashmir Goats (Pashmina), Alpaca and Vicuna ( Animal related to
Llama), Camel Hair.
-Sheep farms are very large in Australia. These are known as
-Australia In the interior sheep rearing is the principal agricultural
occupation while in more favoured areas sheep are part of farming
economy. Drought is a problem

- Sheep production for wool in Europe is often a less economic

form of land use than the of raising of sheep for meat or arable

-Wool production declined but the woolen textile industry remained

in the traditional areas in the industrial countries of the northern
hemisphere, except for small scale development in India. This
position is almost the reverse of that in the cotton textile industry
which is now dominated by the cotton growing countries. (May be
because woolen industry requires fewer workers than cotton textile
industry and markets for woolen goods are in the colder northern

-Temperature more than 16°C
►Production cost is high in Japan and low in China
-Silkworms feed on Mulberry trees.

►Origin Eurasia.
1.Long staple (Egypt, Sudan, Peru and USA).
2.Medium staple (Bulk of world cotton output Mainly in USA and
3.Short staple (Mainly in Asia. But many regions have now shifted to
medium and long staple cotton).
-Requirements Warm climate (25°C or more), (50-110 cm) of rainfall.
-It does badly in wet conditions
-Medium loamy soils with good drainage
-Bollworm and Boll Weevil are pests which destroy crops.

-Grown in hot tropical condition with plenty of moisture. -Heavy
rainfall and rich alluvial soil are favorable

-Grows best in cool, temperate conditions
From 16-18°C of Temperature and 50-75 cm of rainfall - From the
stem of the 'FLAX' plant

-Native to hill slopes of Monsoon Asia
-One of the hardiest tropical shrubs
-Cultivation in the tiny tea gardens of China and the large tea
estates of India is basically similar
-Two main kinds of tea:1.Black Tea (from India and Sri Lanka) Used
in Europe and America
2. China Tea or Green Tea (or Sencha): Consumed in Far East
Requirements: Temperature 1525°C, rainfall 100cm (evenly
distributed), well drained acidic soils.

-Native of Southern Ethiopian highlands (Kaffa district) Dutch
introduced coffee in East Indies (highly flavoured Java Coffee)
-Mocha (from Arabian Peninsula)
-Blue Mountain coffee (Jamaica and other West Indies)
-Species of the trees: 1.ArabicaMost important in world trade. Grown
in Brazil and East Africa

2.Robusta West African variety. It is hard and poorer in quality.

3.Liberica High yielding, moderate quality

- Indigenous to Tropical America
-The consumption of cocoa is greatest where the standard of living
is highest
-Varieties Cacao Carioua (Tropical America) and Cacao Forastero
(West Africa)

- Unlike tea or coffee, it thrives in a tropical lowland environment.

Often grown with banana.
-Viticulture or vine culture
-National drink in France and Italy
-Rice wine is produced in Japan China and S. E. Asia Beer Barley
and Hops Cider Apple Barley Rum Molasses Brandy Grapes
-Inferior grapes are dried in J the sun to form Currants (Shores of
the W. Mediterranean), Sultanas(Asia Minor) or Raisins (USA)

-From Sugar cane, Sugar beet or Sugar maple. It is also extracted
from the date palm and other palm trees.
-Sugar Cane mainly from tropical countries.
-Sugar beet mainly grown in temperate countries
-Sugar beet consumed locally
Sugar cane important export commodity.
- Sugar cane is usually grown as a monoculture crop either in USA,
Central and South America, on moderately sized .owner occupied
farm, as in Australia, or peasant holdings, by small holders, who
either own or rent small plots, e.g. in the West Indies.

-The British consume great quantities of lamb where as the
continental Europeans eat mainly beef and veal -Beef cattle
Hereford and Aberdeen Angus.
-Dairy cattle Ayrshire, Jersey and Guernsey.

-Dual purpose Shorthorn and Galloway

-Draught Zebu (Asia and Africa).
-While beef cattle can be kept on relatively poor pastures at great
distance from markets, dairy cattle are confined to the most
favoured areas.

-For dairying, the climate should with a moderate to heavy rainfall

and the ground should be moisture retentive. Lowland areas are
more suitable than Uplands

-In China, dairy farming is poorly developed, where as in Japan,

increasing westernization of the diet has led to the growth of dairy
-India has the world's largest cattle and buffalo population and is
also the largest milk producing nation.

-Vital source of food in countries like Norway, Iceland and Japan.
-Fishing includes Fish, Seals, Pearls, Crustaceans (lobsters, crabs,
prawns, shrimps), Molluscs (oysters, mussels, cockles, clams),
Sponges and Seaweeds
-Advanced countries where meat is easily available such as the U.K,
USA or Australia tend to consume little fish.
-Major commercial fishing grounds are located in the cool water, of
the northern hemisphere in comparatively high latitudes especially
where warm and cold ocean currents meet.
-Reasons for concentration in High latitudes:
1. Planktons which is readily available in cool shallow waters.

2.Cool climate
3. Physical and environmental influences like indented coasts,
sheltered inlets and estuarine coasts.
4.Moderate or large population -Sturgen and Cavier fishes are found
in Black and Caspian Sea.

► Types of fishes.
1. Salt Water Fish
(a) Pelagic (living at or near the surface) e.g. Herring, Mackerel,
Sardines, Pilchards. Anchovies, Menhaden(Caught by drifters, seine
(b) Demersal (found in deep waters) e.g. Cod, Haddock, Halibut,
Hake and Tuna (Caught by trawlers)
2. Fresh water Fish e.g. Trout, Perch and Pike
3. Anadromous fish (spawned in the inland rivers, but spend most
of their time in sea), e.g. Salmon

Who owns the Oceans - Territorial waters over which a state has
full sovereignty are recognized as extending for 19km from the
- A further 19km contiguous zone is recognized in which the
coastal state can take action against those who break the law.
-A 320km of Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ), which starts at the
same base line as the Territorial waters.
-States may claim rights to seabed resources for at least 320km
and may extend these rights to the edge of the shelf as much
1280km in some cases.

-A robber industry

-Forestry in some parts especially in Europe is more akin to

agriculture than to traditional methods.
-Types of forests:
1.Tropical Hardwood Forests -Evergreen rain forests and tropical
monsoon forests.

-In monsoon forests trees are deciduous.

-Broadleaved and hardwood trees. Teak, Ebony, Mahogany etc.
2. Coniferous Forests -Lies north of the temperate hardwood
-Conifers are tall, straight, evergreen trees with narrow, needle like
leaves. Only a few conifers like Larch are deciduous
-Most coniferous trees are softwoods and are light in weight
-Although there is a wide variety of species in the Spruce, Pine, Fir
and Larch families, the trees usually occur in pure stands consisting
of one particular specie.
-Most dense, luxuriant coniferous forests are found in Western
North America.
-Areas: 1 .Western N. America (California, Washington, Oregon and
SW Alaska in USA and British Columbia in Canada) Some of the
largest trees like gigantic California Redwood or Sequoias are found
in this region.
2.Central and Eastern N. America (more continental climate and thin
soils of the Laurentian shield support less luxuriant and often more
scattered type of coniferous forest) 3.Southern USA (Virginia to
4.N. Europe (Scandinavia) and adjacent Russia) along with some
areas in north Britain, Germany and Central Europe uplands
5.Asiatic Russia Much of Northern Siberia

Highways in Germany, called Autobahns.
-Some other European countries like Belgium, France, Italy and
Britain have also constructed major highway networks known by
various names like Auto routes (France), Autos trade (Italy) and
Motorways (England). -Road network in USA are known as
- Tourism has been facilitated by the construction of good, long
distance roads in many countries e.g. in South America Pan
American highway, and the Brasilia Belem road connects the south
to the Amazon.

Rail transport
-The first ever public railway was started between Stockton and
Darlington in northern England in 1825.

-Gauges are used in rail construction according to the topography,

the alignment of the track and the speed of the travel.

-On level ground surfaces Broad Gauge (1.51.7 m) is used e.g. Trans
Siberian Railway.

- Narrow Gauge (1 m) is mainly used in hilly areas where there are

many sharp curves to deal with e.g. in SE Asia and many parts of

-The Standard Gauge (1.4 m) is adopted over the greater part of

the globe because it is the most efficient for all purposes.

-The fastest and the heaviest trains of the world are all found on
the Standard Gauge e.g. in the USA, Canada, China, Middle East and
most of Europe.

- Trans Siberian Railway which runs from St. Petersburg (formerly

Leningrad) and Moscow in the west to Vladivostok in the east is the
most important railway in Asia. The Trans Siberian Railway has its
connections with Odessa in Ukraine, Baku in Caucasus, Tashkent in
Uzbekistan, Ulan Bator in Mongolia, Shenyang in Manchuria and
Beijing in China.

-ln Japan the Railway network is very good but still railways are
not financially prosperous, because commuter trains are only used
in rush hours and run empty during much of the day. -In Thailand
due to lack of high standard road network the railways are an
efficient form of passenger transport, whereas in Malaysia, where
conditions of roads are good, taxies, buses and Lorries provide
cheaper and much faster transport and more direct communications
have greatly reduced the profits of railways.

-The only Trans continental railway in South America is one which

links Buenos Aires (Argentina) with Valparaiso (Chile) through the
Uspallata Pass across the Andes.

-Australian Trans Continental Railway from Freemantle (near Perth)

to Sydney, passing through Kargoorlie, Adelaide, Melbourne and

-The Canadian Pacific Railway runs from Vancouver (British

Columbia) to St. John's (New Brunswick) on the Atlantic coast.

-The Canada National Railway runs from Vancouver to Halifax in

Nova Scotia.

-Benguela railway which runs through Angola to the Katanga

Zambia copper belt and the Tanzara railway from Zambia copper
belt to the sea at Dar–e- salaam are important railway routes in

-The densest railway network in Africa is in South Africa because of

the mining of gold, copper and diamonds.

-In Europe the greatest railway densities are found in the industrial
regions of the Western Europe. Belgium has the greatest railway
density in Europe.

-In North America the greatest railway density is found in the east
central USA and southern Canada, south of the great Lakes, and on
the Atlantic sea board where most of the main cities are linked by

Water transport
- Water transport has its edge over other modes of transport on
two fronts. First, that it uses existing routes e.g. rivers, seas, and
needs no special tracks except in the case of canals and secondly
that it is the cheapest form of transport for large, bulky goods.

Inland waterways
- Inland waters are basically of three types, namely rivers, rivers
which have been modified or canalised, and specially constructed

- Rivers like Ob, Yenisey, Lena, Mackenzie have their courses

through empty and inhospitable lands into the frozen Arctic Ocean
due to which these rivers despite of their great length and volume
have little economic significance.

-Rivers in Japan, Indonesia, Korea, Philippines and New Zealand are

of little navigational value because of the narrowness of the
countries or smallness of the island.
The Paraguay River which is an important route way for. Landlocked
Paraguay is very difficult to navigate because of much silting and
frequent shifting of channel's position.

-The importance of canals in inland waterways can be noticed in

regions of northern Europe, where together with modified rivers
they form a very extensive network linking all the major industrial
areas and providing a cheap form of transport for raw materials
such as ores, coal and grains.

-Some important canals

- France Canal , Burgandy Canal, Marne and Rhine Canal, and
Rhone and Rhine Canal.
Germany Mittelland Canal, Kiel Canal (between Baltic Sea and the
North Sea), Dortmund Ems Canal, Ludwig Canal. The Netherlands
Albert Canal, North America Soo Canal (between Lake Superior and
Lake Huron) , Welland Canal (between Lake Erie and Ontario), Erie
Canal and Houston ship Canal.

Ocean transport Major trade routes.

The North Atlantic route -This is the busiest sea route and carries
the foreign trade greater than that of rest of the world combined
altogether. Some of the largest terminals are located in Rotterdam,
Antwerp, London, New York, Boston and Philadelphia.
2.The Cape of Good Hope route.
3.The Mediterranean Suez Asiatic route This route was once
considered as the lifeline of Britain The is route provides the fastest
way of transporting oil to Europe.
4. The Panama Canal West Indian Central American route The
Panama canal joins the Atlantic Ocean with the Pacific Ocean and
called as "The Gateway to the Pacific'.
5. The South Atlantic route
6. The Trans Pacific route Honolulu (Hawaii Islands) is the
convergence point and known as the 'Crossroads of the Pacific'.
Air transport
North America
-The greatest amount of air traffic is found in the USA.
-Great distances and the high standard of living have ensured a
large potential market for air services.
-The USA is served by four large air corporations: the United
Airlines, Tran world Airlines, Pan American Airlines and Eastern
-The largest airline company in Canada is the Trans Canada
-London's Heathrow airport is the busiest in the world.

Major Airlines:

Britain - British Airways,

Virgin- Atlantic
The Netherlands –KLM,

Germany – Lufthansa,

Italy- AlItalia,

France - Air France

Norway, Sweden and Denmark (Scandinavian countries) -SAS
Rest of the world: Japan Japan Airlines, India Air India, Australia
Qantas, Russia Aeroflot, Singapore Cathay Pacific, Pakistan
PIA,Bahrain Gulf Air.


Europe and CIS

Wheat: Despite their intensive system of wheat cultivation by

which yields, sometimes three times as high as those of the
average extensive wheat farm, are obtained, Western European
nations are not wheat exporters.
Ukraine, France, Turkey, Germany, Romania and Italy are major

-The continent as a whole is the greatest wheat importer. Mainly

comes from Canada, the USA, Argentina and Australia.
-Denmark which used to be a wheat exporter has switched to
dairying and market gardening,
► Areas in Europe where wheat is grown:
1. Steppes (Ukraine Black Earth)
2.The Paris Basin
3.TheLombardy Plains of Italy
4.The Puztaz of Hungary
5.The lower Danube Basin of Romania and Bulgaria
6. Scania in Sweden and
7. Central Spain
-Characteristics of wheat cultivation in Europe:
1. High yields
2. High cost of production (There many countries have subsidized
wheat cultivation and imposed tariffs on imported wheat)
3. Grown on great varieties of topographical and climatic areas.

Rice: In the North Italian Plain, the Ebro Basin of Spain, the Rhone
Delta of France and scattered areas in the Balkans.
Corn Used as a green fodder or winter feed as silage. West
European countries are the chief importers of maize where it is
used as an animal feed and for industrial uses.

Cotton C.I.S
- Leading producer: Uzbekistan
-Azerbaijan and Armenia also grow cotton.
-The large state and collective farms are highly mechanized and
almost all of the cotton is grown in irrigated fields.
-The hottest area in Central Asia, where the relative humidity is
very low, have the highest cotton yields.

- Cotton textile industry around Moscow Others Leningrad , the

Baltic states of Estonia and Latvia and Ukraine, Armenia,

-Largest producer CIS, Second largest Poland - Areas North
European Plain
-Largest producer in W. Europe France. Production in Belgium and
the Netherlands, long famous for their high quality Linen, has
declined North Ireland is the traditional linen manufacturing area.

-Silk manufacture, originally based on locally produced silk is now
dependent on important supplies.
-Frances, Italy and Switzerland Traditional silk manufacturing
countries are major importers.
-Manufacturing centers Lyons, Grenoble France Milan Italy Krefield,
Germany, Britain Wool
-CIS has largest number of sheep in the world (mostly in Asiatic
Russia) but has lower wool production than Australia.
-Most textile production are in European Russia including Moscow
and Leningrad, Kiev (Ukraine) and Alma Ata (Kazakhstan)
Britain, Italy, Germany and France are only minor producers today,
but once they were important.

-Many of the large British tea companies, which have been in
business for generations, especially in Mincing Lane in London,
blend and market tea as well as own tea estates in various parts
of the Commonwealth. More than half the world's tea trade goes
through London, where much is loaded, packed and re exported. CIS
countries also grow some tea for home consumption

-About two third of the world's wine come from the Mediterranean

- Italy and France Greatest producer and consumers.

- France is a major exporter but is a net importer of wine.

Types of Wine
1. Asti Turin- (Italy)
2. Chianti Tiber basin-(Italy)
3. Marsalis Sicily-(Italy)
4. Champagne Paris Basin-(France)
5. Burgundy Upper Rhone, Saone Valleys (France)
6. Beaujolais Upper Rhone, Saone valleys (France)
7. Cognac Aquitaine (brandy) basin(France)
8. Sherry Cadiz(Spain)
9. Malaga Port of Malaga(Spain)
10. Port Oporto and Douro basin (Portugal)
11.Tokay -(Hungary)
12.Hocks- (Germany) Rhine
-Apart from climate, pedagogical factors and the unrivalled wine
preparation skills handed down from generation to generation have
contributed to the superiority of the wine industry.
-In Spain, the major vine growing areas are along the coasts in
Valencia and Andalusia, and in the river basins of Ebro, Douro,
Tagus, Guadiana and Guadalquivir.
-Frelburg is the centre of the German wine industry.

Sugar Belt
-Sugarcane is the major source of sugar in tropical and subtropical
areas, where as the colder countries of temperate region are
dependent on Sugar beet for local sugar production. Russia and
other countries of CIS are jointly the largest producers.
-Ukraine Grows it in a belt between Kiev and Voronezh along with
the northern shores of the Black sea. Poland, Germany, Italy,
France, Britain, Czech Republic and Slovakia are major producers.
Spain, Belgium, the Netherlands and the Scandia region of Sweden
are other producing areas.

Mainly grown in the Mediterranean shore land. -Italy, Spain, Greece,
Tunisia, Turkeys, Portugal, Morocco and Syria.

Tobacco: Greece, Turkey, Bulgaria, Italy and Poland

North America
Wheat: USA
-Grown mainly by extensive mechanized farming.
-Average yield is not high.
-Leading wheat states Kansas, North Dakota, Nebraska and Montana
-Varieties and their regions: 1.Hard Red spring wheat N and S
Dakota, Montana, and Minnesota
2.Hard Red winter wheat Nebraska, Kansas, Missouri, Oklahoma, and
N. Texas.
3.Soft Red winter wheat Illinois, Indiana, Ohio, Pennsylvania and
most of mid Atlantic states.
4.Soft White wheat Region Around Michigan and Huron and on the
west coast (California, Columbia plateau, Oregon and Idaho)
-Kansas is the leading wheat producer.
-Almost all the wheat from Canada is spring wheat and 95% of the
total comes from the Prairie provinces of Saskatchewan, Alberta and
-Factors that have contributed to the rise of Canadian Prairies:
1 .Availability of extensive cheap land
2.Extensive Railway network

3 .Fertile Prairie soils (Chernozem)

4.Undulating Topography

5.Suitable Climate (early melting of ice because of Chinook Wind

results in longer growing season)
6.Access to Markets (handled through Winnipeg, Port Arthur and Fort
William on L. Superior and the Great lakes St. Lawrence water
ways) Corn (Maize) USA
-Corn leads all other crops in total acreage and a highly developed
Corn belt has evolved south of the great lakes,
-It is the largest maize producer and exporter (especially to Japan
and North West Europe)
-Corn belt includes Ohio, Indiana, Illinois, Iowa and Minnesota.
-Corn belt is by no means a monoculture region, but it is a highly
developed mixed farming region.
-One of the most prosperous agricultural regions of the world.
-Iowa leads in corn production followed by Illinois

-Com and animals have led to the development of such large cities
as Chicago, St. Louis, Omaha, Cincinnati and Kansas City

-Several important changes have altered the entire economy of the
old cotton belt. The most important has been the westward shifts in
cotton growing. Advantage of west fertile soils, climate and labour.
Texas is the largest producer.
-Sheep are relatively unimportant
-Lamb is not a favorite meat in USA.
-The sheep are kept in the drier western states, the greatest
concentration being on the Edward Plateau of Texas
-Woolen textile industry is located in North England (extreme
North East USA)

Dairy Farming -The chief dairying region is the Hay and Dairy
Belt south of the Great lakes in the states of Wisconsin, Dakota and
-Wisconsin leads every state in almost all categories of dairy

Beef Cattle
-Greatest beef producer in the world.
-Large local demand and therefore little surplus for export.
-Cattle are raised in W. Prairies and then taken to cattle fattening
-Processed in towns such as Chicago, St. Louis. Omaha and Kansas
-Most of America's Pigs are found in the Com Belt
-Americans and Canadians consume a great deal of pork.
-Greatest rearing area Corn Belt (Iowa and Missouri)

1.North West Atlantic Fishing Grounds:
- It was traditionally the world's richest Cod fishing region
- Centered on the Grand Banks
- Fishes like Cod, Herring and Mackerel are caught in the surface
waters (Pelagic). Halibut, Haddok, Hake and Flounder in the deeper
waters (Demersal).
-Inshore fishing shellfish and crustaceans (important in the
urbanized North East).

-Reasons for the development of fishing:

(a)Vast continental shelf
(b) Convergence of cold Labrador and warm Gulf Stream off New
(c)Lack of natural resources on land.
(d)Cool temperate climate not only favors large scale commercial
fishing, but also the preservation and storage of fish.
-Fishery and Marine industry.
-Important in the Maritime Provinces of Canada (Nova Scotia, New
Brunswick, Prince Edward Island)

2. North East Pacific -Alaska to California.

-Salmon most valuable species , but greatly depleted.

-Amongst Demersal (found in deep water) fish Hake is important

-In recent years, catches of Alaska Pollack has become important.
Tuna and Sardine Off California
- Leading fishing states Alaska, Massachusetts, California, Delaware
and New Jersey
- Major fishing ports Gloucester, New Bedford, Baltimore
-Crustaceans and Shellfish are an important part of the American
fishing industry.

-Salmon, Cod and Lobsters are important fishes.

–Cod at Newfound land and Lobsters at Nova Scotia

–Salmon New Brunswick and Nova Scotia

-Fishing in British Columbia is centered at Vancouver -Inland

fisheries R.Skeena, R.Fraser, Gr.Lakes, Gr. Slave lakes(Salmon, Trout,

-Canada largest producer of Newsprint

Pines. (Centered at Quebec, Toronto, Montreal and Ottawa)

-Bowater's plant of Comer Brook is probably the largest newsprint

mill in the world.

CHINA (Areas): 1. Chang Jiang (Yangtze Kiang) and Xi River (Si Kiang)
2.South East Coastlands

3.Sichuan (Szechwan) Basin

4.Hill slopes south of the Chang Jiang (Yangtze)

Rising of dietary standards has given wheat a greater prominence.
BANGLADESH Rice fields in the Ganges Delta region are nil
JAPAN: High Yield and produced in Northern Honshu
Malaysia large paddy settlement Schemes Kubang Pasu, Kedah,
Tanjong Karang, Selangor.(Irrigation schemes)

1. Hwang Ho Basin
2. Manchuria
-Flood control measures have helped wheat cultivation on the
northern side of the Chang Jiang (Yangtze Kiang)

-Wheat is the staple food of the Northern China as rice is of the

southern China.

-Also grown in North Korea and Japan (N. Honshu) Maize India and
China. Barley Upper Ganges Basin
SOUTH EAST ASIA: Rice: 1. Indonesia Mostly in Java (rich volcanic
soil). Raised as either Sawah (wet Paddy) or Huma(dry paddy)

2.Mekong Delta, Annam coastland, Tonle Sap area of Cambodia and

Vietnam are all natural sites for paddy cultivation.

Oats: North China Manchuria and around Hwang Ho Millet and

Sorghum Southern and Western India, North Eastern China, Indo
China peninsula, S. Borneo, Myanmar, Japan (S. Honshu), Eastern
Kamchatka Peninsula.


-Introduced in 1870s after blights had destroyed almost all coffee
trees in the Central Highlands.
Yields are low, though the tea is of high quality

-Competition has increased for India and Sri Lanka because of rise
in production in East Africa (Kenya etc.)
CHINA -Export is much smaller than those of India and Sri Lanka.

- Areas Chang Jiang (Yangtze) Valley, Sichuan (Szechwan) Basin.

-Tea gardens are small.

-Oolong Tea is produced in Taiwan.

INDONESIA -Java, introduced in Sumatra as well.
-Black tea is exported to the Netherlands.
BANGLADESH - Exported through Chittagong
-Main areas Surma Valley
Peninsular MALAYSIA -Cameroon Highlands (Picking is done by
immigrant Tamil women from southern India and Sri Lanka)

- Java coffee (Java and Sumatra)
-Mocha (Yemen) -India, Malayasia, Vietnam, and Philippines also
grow coffee. Cocoa
-Papua New Guinea is the main S.E. Asian producer

-Also grown in eastern Sabah (Malaysia)

-India, Pakistan (production has increased because of irrigation),
China (Si kiang basin), Taiwan, Thailand (leading producer in S.E.
Asia), Philippines (Panay, Negros, Cebu and Luzon islands)
- Sugarbeet (Northern China)
Plantations in South East Asia
► Rubber plantations were established in most of the South East
Asian countries.
► Philippines is the only South East Asian country which grows no
► Thailand presently is the largest producer of rubber in the world.
► Immigrants from China and South India flocked to South East
Asia to get work on the estates. As a result of immigration, while
people of Indian extraction account for about 10% of the Malaysia
population. the proportion of Chinese people is around 38% in
► Malaysian estates and plantations are perhaps the most efficient
and wellrun in the world. Government in Malaysia had allowed the
large estates to coexist with small holdings.
► Where as political stability in Malaysia has led to better
developmental performance on various economic fronts, other
countries in South East Asian have witnessed retarded growth
because of prolonged struggles for independence, confiscation of
estates, struggle for power and frequent incidents of coups.

-Most important crop in Malaysia
-Expansion of rubber growing efficient, methodology, research and
replanting along with establishment of Rubber
Research Institute in Kuala Lumpur and political stability have led to
the growth of rubber industry.
-Since most of the lands in Java were owned by peasant farmers,
most of the rubber estates were set up in Sumatra.
THAILAND -Presently the largest producer in the world.

- Grown in southern region because seasonally dry climate in other

parts prevent rubber growing.
-Grown mostly by smallholders and small estate owners of Chinese
CAMBODIA -Rubber was grown mainly in the east of the country
but production has been interrupted by the war and subsequent
political instability.
VEITNAM -Main Area North East of Ho Chi Minh city
SRI LANKA-After tea, rubber is the most important export crop.

Palm Oil
MALAYSIA- Largest producer in the world. Grown on estates as well
as on small holdings.
INDONESIA-Mainly in southern Sumatra
Copra (Coconut)
Philippines, Indonesia, India and Sri lanka along with Papua New
Guinea, Fiji and New Hebrides.

-India largest producer - China North China Plains)
-Also grown in Indonesia and Myanmar
Soya bean
-China : North China Plains and Manchuria

-Japan and Indonesia also grow Soya bean

- Turkey and Syria Tobacco
-Turkey and South West Asia, South Asia and South East Asia
-China and India are major producers
-Greece and Turkey produce aromatic Turkish tobacco Indonesia
also produces tobacco.

Dairy: Cattle
-India largest producer of milk in the world.

-Japan has a large number of important dairy industries.

-Dairy Industry is not well developed in China because of

traditional reasons.

Sheep: -Middle East including Turkey, Iran, Afghanistan and some

other countries, is the leading sheep farming region in Asia. Sheep
rearing is also important in dry areas of India and China as well.

-China kept on extensive farms in the western province of Xinjiang

(Sinkiang) and in Inner Mongolia

Pig: -China Most important pigrearing country.

-Also important in Korea, Japan, Philippines and continental South

East Asia.

South America
1. Greatest rice growing nation in the southern continents.

2.Growing in SE Brazil (heavy precipitation, swampy coastal lowlands

and abundant sunlight)

Wheat Argentina
1. Method of cultivation similar to USA and Canada
2. Greatest concentration in the wheat crescent of the Pampas from
Rosario to Bahia Blanca
3. Dense network of railway supports transportation to costal ports
of Buenos Aires and Bahia Blanca. Outside Argentina, only Uruguay
and Central Chile have considerable wheat cultivation

Argentina, Brazil and Mexico Coffee Brazil Factors for the rise of the
Brazilian coffee industry:
1.Land (well drained and rolling plateau)
2. Climate (Warm and Humid) The prevailing S.E. trade winds from
the S. Atlantic Ocean blow onshore and are favorable.
Fazendas (or coffee estates) are usually located at some elevation,
away from the cold valley bottoms. This is to avoid chilling frosts.
3. Soil: Variable soils of SE. Brazil are suitable for coffee production
(Terra Rossa is the best among them)

4.Labour and land tenure Most of the land in Brazil is owned by

rich land owner, comparatively little land is in small holdings.
5.Accessibility Intricate system of roads and railways. -Sao Paulo is
the centre ofthe coffee trade (Its outport is Santos)
-Sao Paulo, Santos and Rio De Janeiro (all in SE) are the most
prosperous in Brazil. Now it is increasingly grown further north in
Minas Gerais.
- Chief coffee centers Medellin, Manizales and Tolima
-Columbian coffee has an excellent flavor and fetches higher prices
than Brazilian one.
-Ecuador, Venezuela and Peru are the chief producers

-In Central America coffee is the chief crop having high yields.
Mexico, El Salvador and Guatemala are the major coffee producers
(Also in the Blue Mountains of Jamaica)
-Growing region Bahia and Esparto Santo

-The red clay soils of the crystalline rocks are ideal for the crop
-On Guayaquil Lowlands Other producers Venezuela, Peru, Columbia,
and Trinidad and Tobago
Central America W. Indies grown on abandoned banana lands (e.g.
Costa Rica) Other producers in Central America are Mexico, Haiti,
Dominican Republic and Costa Rica
Chile Central valley around Santiago Argentina Around Mendoza and
San Juan
-Production mainly from North East and South East of the country.
-Plantations have also been established in the Chaco.

-Not a major textile producer.

-Has a long cotton growing tradition (Mainly in the oasis
settlements in the Atacama Desert)
Other Producers Mexico, Columbia, Nicaragua, other C. American
states and W. Indies Wool Argentina
-In the dry windy plateau country of Patagonia

-Majority of Argentina's production is of medium and poor grade

Uruguay Fairly important wool producer
Other producers Brazil and Chile. There is little woolen textile
manufacture in Latin America.

-Fisheries are less developed in the temperate waters of the
southern hemisphere.
- In Argentina, S. Africa, Australia and New Zealand meat is more
-Tropical waters have less potential for fishing in general because
fish of commercial species are fewer.
-Well developed in regions off Peru and Chile.
-Anchovies are common.
-Upwelling cold waters help Plankton development.
-Bulk of fish caught not used for food but for fertilizers.
-The rise of fishing industry has endangered the Guano (bird
droppings rich in phosphate) industry because the birds can no
longer find sufficient food in coastal waters.
-Chile's catch is mainly used for industrial purposes rather than

-Huge reserves exist but relatively unimportant producing area.
-Brazil is the only major commercial timber producer (but wood
comes from Parana pine rather than Amazonian forests. This is
because of difficulties in transporting the logs to the main industrial
and population centers in the south east and also because of the
greater versatility of conifers for industrial use.)

-Columbia and Haiti produce timber mainly for fuel.

-Chile and Argentina have mall production of industrial woods.
-Brazil, Argentina and Paraguay are major producers of Quebracho


-It is of little importance except in the extreme south, in parts of
Cape Province and in northern Africa (Egypt, Morocco, Algeria and

-Elsewhere in Africa, maize is much more important than wheat.

-Egypt (Nile Delta and valley)
Though Basin irrigation is still used, huge dams like Aswan have
helped in the development of perennial irrigation system.
-Minor producers Congo, C.A.R., Guinea, Sierra Leone, Liberia, Ivory
Coast, Mali and Madagascar.
-S. Africa is the major producer.
- Production is often small in African countries but the crop is
relied on as a staple food and therefore has an importance in the
economy greater than mere production figures would indicate.
Oat and Barley in Africa these are grown in eastern, southeastern
and southern pockets.

Millet and sorghum -Millet is an important subsistence crop. It is

often called Durra or Guinea

Corn. -Main producers Nigeria, Sudan, Niger, Chad, Mali and Egypt.
(a) Starchy tubers (i) Manioc or Cassava (Zaire and Nigeria)
(ii) Yams (common food crops in Africa ,S.E. Asia and the Pacific
islands and are grown by shifting cultivators and subsistence
farmers). Major producers Nigeria, Togo, Benin, Ivory Coast.

(a) Tropical fruits (i) Dates (Desert areas of Sudan and Algeria (ii)
Bananas (W. Africa)
(iii) Pineapples (Zaire and Ivory Coast)
(b) Sub tropical and warm temperate fruits Citrus fruits like Grapes
in S.Africa.

-Clove Pemba and Zanzibar
-Vanilla Malagasy (Elsewhere Vanilla is grown in Mexico and

- Kenya, Malawi, Mozambique and Uganda

-Kenyan tea is of high quality and is grown on highlands around

Java coffee (Indonesia) ,Mocha (Yemen)
- Ivory Coast, Zaire and Cameroon are chief producers.

-Kenya, Uganda and Angola also grow coffee. Cocoa

-Ghana, Nigeria, Ivory Coast and Cameroon -Mainly on small

-Brazil and Ivory Coast (new producers) have higher yields than
Ghana and Nigeria.
-The greatest concentration is in the cocoa triangle (including
Accra, Kumasi and Takoradi) Forests
-Nigeria, Ethiopia and Sudan are major timber producers.

-Many countries have turned to commercial extraction Nigeria,

Cameroon, Gabon and Zaire
-Forests are less extensive and often less luxuriant than in Latin
America or South East Asia.
-Though largest forest area is in Zaire Basin, transportation is

-Major Exporter

-Method of cultivation similar to USA and Canada

-Yields are low (Wheat farms are not all that prone to climatic
hazards in the southern continents as they are in the north
because of maritime locations)

-Irrigation is necessary in Victoria and NS. Wales

- Wheat cultivation is intensified in the Riverina district of the

MurrayDarling Basin and in Swanland (W. Australia)

-Chiefly from S. Australia, around Adelaide.

-Minor area Murray Darling Basin of Victoria and New South Wales
Centered at Mildura.

-Leading producer

- Two third of produced wools belong to Merino Class

-Concentrated in New South Wales, especially in the rolling Downs

on the western side of the GreDividingRange.

-New Zealand has astonishing numterjifsheerj. Maritime climate

and,better pasture are helpful. Out of total threefourth belongs to
the Rodney Marsh (British). New Zealand fleeces are the heaviest

-Australia has little natural forest It has some reserves in the
moister south east and in Tasmania,
- Major tree type Eucalyptus (poor quality timber) Also possess
valuable Jarrah and Karri. (Found in south west of the country in
Swanaland in W. Australia)
-Australia has few local softwood resources but many conifers have
been planted in order to provide larger supplies.

-New Zealand has some small softwood reserve. (Most in less

fettled south island which has Kauri Pine.)

POPULATION Anthropological geography

By comparing the biology of man with that of other animals and so
determining the degree of their relationship (Taxonomy) and by
looking at fossils and so determining their age and development
(Paleontology), the evolution of man can be predicted.
Geochronological evolution of mankind.
Paleocene and Eocene Prosimains (pre monkeys) ,Oligocene
Prosimians decreased during this period, Miocene Dryopithecines
(group of apes), End of Miocene Ramapithecus (progressive animal;
with rounded dental arcade and human like teeth, was clearly a
human ancestor), Pliocene Australopithecines (southern ape man,
upright in stature and used crude tools), Pleistocene Homo erectus
(erect walking primitive man), Late Pleistocene Appearance of
Neanderthal (skulls more massive than that of present man. Their
tools were finely constructed than homoerectus.
Second interglacial stage other Pleistocene Appearance of modern
An early group of Homosapiens are called Cromagnon.

Races of the world

Races can be primarily classified into Caucasiod, Mongoloid and

-Skin colour reddish white to olive brown.
- Stature medium to tall -Head long to broad and short
-Face narrow to medium broad
-Hair light blonde to dark brown
- Eye light blue to dark brown
- Mainly found in Europe.
- Also along the northern belt of Africa, Asia Minor (Turkey),
Afghanistan, Iran to Baluchistan and Northern India.
- Subraces of caucasoid Mediterranean, Ainu, Celtic, Nordic, Alpine
and East Baltic.
- some composite races Armenoid, Dinaric. Predominantly white
ones include Australian, Indo Dravidian and Polynesian. Residual
mixed type include Nordic Alpine and Nordic Mediterranean.

-Skin colour saffron to yellow brown, some are reddish brown.
-Stature Medium tall to medium short.
-Head Predominantly broad ( Brachycephals)
-Face Medium broad to very broad.
-Hair brown to brown black.
-Eye brown to dark brown, medial epicanthic fold very common.
- Mainly Asiatic or oriental race.
-Also found in central, eastern and SE Asia and western parts of
Americas ( Red Indians etc.), Arctic region (Eskimos in Canada,
Greenland and Yakuts in Siberia).
- Sub races include classic mongoloid and Arctic mongoloid.
- Composite races include those that are predominantly mongoloid
like Malaya mongoloid, Indonesian mongoloid and American Indians.

-Skin colour brown to brown black
- Stature tall to very short -Head predominantly long, height low to
-Face medium broad to narrow
-Hair colour brown black
-Eye brown to brown black, vertical eye fold common.
- Characterized by prognathism that is protrusion of the jaw.
-Some are also affected by steatopygia (bulky hips) e.g. Hottentots.
- Sub races include African Negro, Nilotic negro and Negrito.
-Composite races including those that are predominantly negroid
like Melanesians and papuans.
-Secondary subraces include Bushmen of Kalahari and hottentots of
southern Africa.
By 8,000 B.C hunters and gatherers had migrated from Africa
through out Europe and Asia, to Australia and across the Bering
Strait and southward the length of America. Only Antarctica was
totally uninhabited by mankind. Major revolutions like Agricultural
Revolution (10,000 years before). Industrial Revolutions (1779 A.D) and
Medical Revolution (20th century) were marked by distinct rise in
world population.

Factors affecting distribution of population

- Availability of arable land and water The plain areas having fertile
soil and appropriate climate for the cultivation of crops are the
regions of high density of population .Areas having incidence of
anthropogenic innovations like irrigation etc. also tend to have high
population density.

-Area of civilization The longer a place has been continuously used

by farmers, the larger is the density and the population. (E.g.
Eastern China plains and Indo Gangetic plains)
- Accessibility: Accessible places are those that can easily be
connected by transportation to other places. Such areas always
tend to have high population. A higher relief would result in lower
population density. 56 percent ofthe world's population is confined
to. an altitude of less than 200 m. Only about 20 percent of the
world's total population is found in regions with an altitude of more
than 500 m. Japan provides the classic example of relationship
where the demographic relief is opposite of its physiographic relief.
- Restrictions of National boundaries: Crossing of international
boundaries by the people of one country to another are not
allowed by the proviso of international law. Most governments
restrict immigration and several countries control emigration as
well. Therefore the population density is not uniform throughout the
Inhabited regions of the world are known as Ecumene areas,
whereas the uninhabited areas are known as Non Ecumene areas.

Population Distribution
The world can be divided into densely and sparsely populated

Densely populated regions are those having density greater than

hundred persons per square kilometers. It includes the following
areas-East Asia (China, Japan, S. Korea and Taiwan)

-South Asia (India, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Sri Lanka and Nepal)

- North Western Europe (France, UK, Germany, Netherlands, Poland,
Belgium, Luxembourg, Ireland, Denmark, Spain, Portugal and Italy).
- Eastern North America (NE USA and SE Canada)
Apart from the above four, following regions also have high density:
-Deltas of Mekong, Menam and Irrawady.
- Indonesian island of Java (high population density is because of
rich volcanic soil)
- Linear concentration along the Nile Valley in Egypt. Ring of
settlement around Lake Victoria and the coastal area of Nigeria.
-Central Mexico.
-Coastal areas of Venezuela, Brazil and Argentina.

Sparsely populated areas are as follows:

-Desert, arid and semiarid areas (generally they are thinly
populated by nomadic hunters and gatherers like the Bushmen of
Kalahari and nomads like the Badawins of Arabia and Sahara etc.).
Exceptions occur where towns have emerged in deserts owing to
the mining of gold and other precious metals (e.g. Kalgoorlie and
Coolgardie in Australia and Cripple Creek in USA etc.) -Ice caps and
cold regions. (Very sparsely inhabited, usually by hunters like
Eskimos) Exceptions occur where minerals are available and men
have settled there to exploit them (e.g. iron ore in Gallivare in
Sweden, gold in Yukon Valley and Fort Yukon in Alaska.)
- Mountainous Regions. Exceptions occur where minerals are found,
like some pockets in Peru and Bolivia. In Kishtwar (Bhadarwah
district of J&K), mining of precious stones have led to the
emergence of settlements.
In tropical regions where climate at lower altitudes is not conducive,
most of the towns, cities and settlements have developed around
2000 m above sea level Addis Abab (Ethiopia), Kampala(Uganda),
Nairobi (Kenya), Quit(Euador), Ooty(India), Kandy(Sri Lanka)

Most populated countries in world:


ASIA ( countries in sequence of their population)

S. Korea
N. Korea
S. Arabia
Sri Lanka

Factors affecting distribution of population

- Availability of arable land and water The plain areas having fertile
soil and appropriate climate for the cultivation of crops are the
regions of high density of population .Areas having incidence of
anthropogenic innovations like irrigation etc. also tend to have high
population density.

-Area of civilization The longer a place has been continuously used

by farmers, the larger is the density and the population. (E.g.
Eastern China plains and Indo Gangetic plains)
- Accessibility: Accessible places are those that can easily be
connected by transportation to other places. Such areas always
tend to have high population. A higher relief would result in lower
population density. 56 percent ofthe world's population is confined
to. an altitude of less than 200 m. Only about 20 percent of the
world's total population is found in regions with an altitude of more
than 500 m. Japan provides the classic example of relationship
where the demographic relief is opposite of its physiographic relief.
- Restrictions of National boundaries: Crossing of international
boundaries by the people of one country to another are not
allowed by the proviso of international law. Most governments
restrict immigration and several countries control emigration as
well. Therefore the population density is not uniform throughout the
Inhabited regions of the world are known as Ecumene areas,
whereas the uninhabited areas are known as Non Ecumene areas.

Population Distribution
The world can be divided into densely and sparsely populated

Densely populated regions are those having density greater than

hundred persons per square kilometers. It includes the following
areas-East Asia (China, Japan, S. Korea and Taiwan)

-South Asia (India, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Sri Lanka and Nepal)

- North Western Europe (France, UK, Germany, Netherlands, Poland,
Belgium, Luxembourg, Ireland, Denmark, Spain, Portugal and Italy).
- Eastern North America (NE USA and SE Canada)
Apart from the above four, following regions also have high density:
-Deltas of Mekong, Menam and Irrawady.
- Indonesian island of Java (high population density is because of
rich volcanic soil)
- Linear concentration along the Nile Valley in Egypt. Ring of
settlement around Lake Victoria and the coastal area of Nigeria.
-Central Mexico.
-Coastal areas of Venezuela, Brazil and Argentina.

Sparsely populated areas are as follows:

-Desert, arid and semiarid areas (generally they are thinly
populated by nomadic hunters and gatherers like the Bushmen of
Kalahari and nomads like the Badawins of Arabia and Sahara etc.).
Exceptions occur where towns have emerged in deserts owing to
the mining of gold and other precious metals (e.g. Kalgoorlie and
Coolgardie in Australia and Cripple Creek in USA etc.) -Ice caps and
cold regions. (Very sparsely inhabited, usually by hunters like
Eskimos) Exceptions occur where minerals are available and men
have settled there to exploit them (e.g. iron ore in Gallivare in
Sweden, gold in Yukon Valley and Fort Yukon in Alaska.)
- Mountainous Regions. Exceptions occur where minerals are found,
like some pockets in Peru and Bolivia. In Kishtwar (Bhadarwah
district of J&K), mining of precious stones have led to the
emergence of settlements.
In tropical regions where climate at lower altitudes is not conducive,
most of the towns, cities and settlements have developed around
2000 m above sea level Addis Abab (Ethiopia), Kampala(Uganda),
Nairobi (Kenya), Quit(Euador), Ooty(India), Kandy(Sri Lanka)
Most populated countries in world:

ASIA ( countries in sequence of their population)

S. Korea
N. Korea
S. Arabia
Sri Lanka

WORLD: Major Producing Regions

Rice Production

Wheat Production
China India USA France Russian Federation Canada Australia
Germany Turkey Pakistan Cereals China USA India France Indonesia
Russian Federation Canada Brazil Germany Australia

Barley: Germany Canada Russian Ferderation France Turkey Spain

UK USA Denmark China Maize USA China Brazil Mexico Argentina
Romania India Italy Indonesia Canada

Oats: Russian Federation Canada USA Australia Poland Millet India

Nigeria China Niger Burkina Faso

Rye: Russian Federation Germany Poland Belarus Ukraine Sorghum

USA India Nigeria Mexico China Argentina Sudan Australia Ethiopia
Burkina Faso

Sugar Cane: Brazil India China Pakistan Thailand Mexico Australia

Columbia Cuba USA

Tea: India China Sri Lanka Kenya Indonesia Turkey Japan Vietnam
Iran Bangladesh

Wine: France Italy Spain USA

Jute: India Bangladesh China Myanmar Uzbekistan Nepal Tobacco

China India USA Turkey Zimbabwe Greece Indonesia Italy Malawi

Coconuts: Indonesia India Philippines Brazil Mexico

Natural Rubber: Thailand Indonesia Malaysia India China

Freshwater Fish:
Russian Federation

Marine Fish:
South Korea

Crude Oil: USA
Saudi Arabia

World : Mineral and Power Resources and Industries


-Chikugo (N.W. Kyushu), Ishikari (Hokkaido), Johan and Ube (Honshu).
-Has to import coking coal. -High Production costs and low quality
coal makes mining unprofitable and Japan relies heavily on
imported oil and on HydroElectric Power. Lignite Deposits are fairly
well scattered throughout Japan.
Hydro Electric Power (H.E.P.)
-Lack of coal and oil, a rugged topography well distributed heavy
precipitation and an enormous industrial demand has lead to the
development of H.E.P.
-It's unstable geological situation with frequent earth quakes are a
deterrent to the building of really large dams even if the mountain
streams were large enough to warrant them.
-H.E.P plants In Japanese Alps.
Thermo Electricity It contributes twothird of Japan's total energy
requirement. IronOre Imported from Philippines, Malaysia, India and
Copper Japan produces appreciable quantities but has started
importing now. Found in north and north east of Tokyo and northern
Zinc Central and Northern Honshu
Japan also produces Lead, Gold and Sulphur
- Shortage of industrial raw materials and solid fuels.
- Indented coastline and many large ports
- Technically biased educational system.
- Regions:
1.KEIHIN Region (Kwanto Plain)
-TokyoElectrical Engineering
- YokohamaShip building, oil refining, Petrochemicals
-KawasakiMarine engineering, cement, glass.
2.HANSHIN (Kinki Plains) Industrial conurbation comprising of Osaka
Textiles. -Kobe Shipbuilding, Oil refining, and Petrochemicals. -Kyoto
Handicrafts, Porcelain.
3.ICE BAY Region (Dominated by Nagoya) (Nobi Plains).
-Nagoya Textiles Machinery, Automobiles, Locomotive, Aircraft.
-Hamamatsu Musical Instruments
4.KITAKYUSHU (Northern Kyushu) Based on Chikugo Coal fields.
- Centered at Yawata Kokura and Moji. Extends southward to
Fukuoka and Nagasaki. -This region specializes in Steel, Ships,
Machine parts and Textiles.
5.Other Industrial Cities
- Muroran Iron and Steel. -Akita and Nigata Oil refining.
-Hiroshima Engineering
- Hakodate and Sapporo (Hokkaidu) also have <=ome industries.

-A1 types of coal are found. -Shanxi, Shaanxi and Inner Mongolia.
Also in Gansu, Henan, Hebei and Shandong. -Manchurian coal fields
including those at Jilin, Liaoning, Heilongjiang. -Szechwan (Sichuan)
basin. Coal mining centres Fushun, Fuxin, Kailan, Hegang
HydroElectricity -Projects both for power and flood control.
- Several dams along Hwang Ho. Other projects on Yang Tze Kiang,
Si kiang and some in Manchuria.
Iron Ore
Largest deposit Manchurian deposits at Anshan Other regions
Maanshan and Tayeh (Lower Yangtze) -Iron Steel Industries are
centered at Anshan, Taiyun, Shanghai, Wuhan, Chongquing,
Guangzhou, Shandong, Xinjiang, Hainan Islands. Copper Western and
SW China Tungusten
-One of the largest producers in the world -Hunan and Jiangxi
Lead, Manganese, and rock salt are also found. Kaolin or China clay,
a fine clay formed by the alteration of granite by metamorphism is
found in huge quantities.

Industrial Regions
1 .Manchuria (Iron Steel Engineering)
- Centered at Anshan Fushun Shenyang .These three forms Mukden
Triangle 2,Tianjin Beijing
- Tianjin Shipbuilding, Chemicals
-Beijiing Light Industry, Textiles and Machine making 3.Shanxi
Baotou Based on China's largest coal field Shanxi and Shaanxi.
Centered at Baotou, Taiyuan and Datong. These three are centers of
Iron and steel industry.
4.Lower Yangtze Kiang (Oldest industrial centre). -Shanghai Cotton
Textile (also a premier port). 5.Wuhan Area (Central Yangtze Kiang
and Han Basin). - Centered at Wuchang Hanyang Hankou. These
three forms the conurbation of Wuhan Main industries in this region
are Metallurgy, Heavy industries, Ship Building, Railway Equipment.
6. Si Kiang Delta Region Centered at Guangzhou (Canton Iron and
Steel Shipbuilding Textiles, Chemicals, Brewing, Handicrafts, Food
7. SichuanCentered at Chongquing and Chengdu Iron and steel,
Textiles, Pulp and Paper
Other industrial cities In the mountainous Yunnan and the empty
lands of Xinjiang (Sinkiang) isolation hamper industrial development
despite the rich mineral resources. Some towns, such as Anning,
Kiuchvan (Iron and steel) Yumen and Hangzhou (oil refining) and
Kunming (Chemicals, textiles) have industrial development.

H.E.P North Korea Shuifeng Dam across Yalu River Iron Ore North
Korea Tungsten North and South Korea
Mica South Korea
Industries (South Korea)
-Taegu Electronics

-Pohang Iron and steel

-Ulsan Petrochemical, Shipbuilding

-Changwon Machinery
HONG KONG Light Industries


-Hongay Vietnam -Omibilin (Sumatra) Indonesia.
-Samarinda (Kalimantan) Indonesia
-Cebu Island Philippines

-Krabi (In kra Peninsula)Thailand

-Batu Arang and Sabah Peninsular Malayasia H.E.P Abu Bakar Dam
Cameroon Highlands (Peninsular Malaysia) Iron Ore Malaysia and
Copper Myanmar, Sarawak (Malaysia) and Irian Jaya (Indonesia)

Tin: Malaysia (all fields in peninsular Malaysia) Kinta Valley, Larut

Plain, Kelang Valley, Jelebu Valley. Smelting is done at Penang and
Singapore Thailand Kra Peninsula, Pukhet (off shore Island) Indonesia
Banga, Billiton, Singkep.
Also found in Burma and Vietnam.
Nickel Philippines and Indonesia
Tungsten Thailand Gold Philippines Chromium Philippines

Petroleum: Indonesia:Sumatra Palembang, Jambi (Refineries) and

Singapur ; Kalimantan Balikpapan, Tanjung ; Irian Jaya Klamono
Brunei Seria, Kuala, Belait Myanmar Singu, YenangYaung, Indaw,
Minbu (Syriam refineries and Yangon refineries)
Malaysia Off shore Sarawak, East Coast of Peninsular Malaysia
-Singapore -Oil Refinery, Electronic Assembly (Processing of Rubber,
Copra, and Lumber) -ShipBuilding -Tourism
Thailand Automobile Assembly plants, Electrical Items
Malaysia Furniture, Soap, Fertilizers, Electronic Goods.
Philippines Paper and Wood Products, Electrical Appliances, Fishery


-Iran Kermanshah -Pakistan Quetta and Kalabagh

Pakistan Sukkur, Mangla, Guddu, Tarbela, Taunsa, Triple Canal Project,

Turkey Guleman, Tithye Petroleum
-Major pipelines from inland fields or field on Persian Gulf to the
Mediterranean Coast.
- Saudi Arabia Dammam , Dharan Exported to Ras Tanura (Bahrein)
or Port Saida. Oil refineries at Ras Tanura and Damman. -Iran
Masjid- E- Sulaiman, Nafi -I -Shah ,Lali, Agha-Jari (send to Abadan
on persian gulf and Kermanshah for refinery)
-Iraq Alaband, Khanaquin Kirkuk. Refinery at Daura, near Baghdad.
New fields Gulf coast west of Basra and Mosul.
- Mediterranean ports Banias (Syria), Tripoli (Lebanon), Haifa(Israel)
-KuwaitBurgan oilfields (exported as crude oil through Mina Al
Ahmadi Port Others Bahrein, Qatar, Abu Dhabi, U.A.E

North America
U. S. A:

-Pennsylvanian Anthracite
- Appalachian Bituminous

-Pittsburgh N.Appalachians (Iron and steel Capital of the world)

- Birmingham S. Appalachians (Pittsburgh of the south)
- Interior Provinces (Indiana, Illinois, Iowa, Missouri, Kansas,
Oklahoma, Arkansas)

-Gulf Provinces (Texas, Alabama, Arkansas)

-Rocky Mountain Provinces (Utah, Colorado, Wyoming, Montana, N.
Mexico, N. Dakota)
-Pacific Provinces (Washington, Oregon, California)

-Alaska (future reserves)

H . E. P
- Fall Line (Appalachians), Rockies, Mississippi Basin, Laurentian
Shield, Great Lakes, St. Lawrence, Grand coulee Dam , R. Columbia
(Washington), Bonneville Dam R. Columbia (Washington), Hoover
Dam or Boulder Dam(reservoir L. Mead) R .Colorado, Davis Dam and
Parker Dam (R. Colorado in Arizona), St. Lawrence Seaway with
generating stations at Beauharnais, Cornwall, Prescott, Kingston,
Montreal), St. Anthony falls (Minneapolis), Long Sault Rapids
(Massena). Dams along Mississippi and Missouri (Fort peck, Garrison,
Fort Randall, Gavin's Point).Tennessee Valley Project on R. Tennessee.

Petroleum and Natural Gas

1 .Midcontinental region (Texas, Oklahoma and Kansas)
- 1930 Oklahoma City became the heart of American oil industry.
- Also a great Natural gas area.

2. Gulf coasts region

- (S. Texas, Louisiana, Mississippi and Arkansas)
- Extends under the continental shelf of the Gulf of Mexico.

3 Rocky Mountain Regions

- Wyoming, Colorado, Montana, N. Mexico
- Mining difficult and expensive (because of scattered deposits,
folding and faulting)
4. Californian Region
- Centered at Los Angeles, Long Beach and S. San Joaquin
5. Appalachian and Eastern Interior Region (Pennsylvania, Kentucky
and Ohio)
6. Alaska Region (A pipeline for shipment to USA From Alaska to

Iron Ore
1 .Lake Superior region (Hematite) e.g. Mesabi (Iron ore is shipped
from Duluth)
2 North East region Adirondacks (New York) and Cornwall
3. South East region Birmingham (Alabama) (Red Mountains)
4.Western region Scattered fields at Utah (Iron Mountain), Nevada,
Wyoming, California (Eagle Mountain) Steelworks at San Francisco
Los Angeles Pueblo (Colorado) Provo (Utah) Copper
- Arizona Globe Morenci Largest single copper mine Bingham (Utah)
-Montana Butte
- Nevada and New Mexico (new Producers)

Tin -U.S is very short of tin and therefore imports and stockpiles
large quantities. -American stockpile release drastically affects tin
prices Bauxite
- Due to great bulk of the Bauxite, concentration is due at
seaboard Locations. -Mobile (Alabama) -Baton Rouge (Louisiana)
Lead Rockies, Ozark Plateau of Missouri, Idaho, Utah, Arizona, and

Zinc Missouri, Oklahoma, Kansas

Tungsten Nevada, Utah, Idaho

Molybdenum Leading producer. Climax mine of Colorado is

probably the world's largest molybdenum mine.

Platinum California

Mica Largest produces are Eastern Rockies and Appalachians

Sulphur Texas (major producer)

Silver, Vanadium and Uranium are also found.

Industrial Regions
Southern New England -Centered at Boston -Boston (Shipbuilding,
Textiles, Shoemaking, Footwear Machinery)
- Lowell Providence (Woolen Textile)
-New Bedford (Worsted Textiles)
-Fall River (Cotton Textiles) -Hartford (Aircraft and Armaments)

Mid Atlantic States

- Depends upon Pennsylvanian anthracite Iron ore, Coal and oil
from Appalachians (Industrial conurbation from New York to
Iron and Steel industries, Engineering, electrical goods etc.

Pittsburgh Lake Erie region -Iron and steel Region

- Pittsburgh (Iron Steel capital of the world), Cleveland (Steel,
Wearing apparel), Wheeling (Steel), Akron (Rubber), East Liverpool
(Pottery), Buffalo (Flour milling chemical metal goods)

Detroit Region
-Detroit Greatest automobile manufacturing region
- Centered at Detroit, Lansing and Toledo Automobile and related

Lake Michigan Region -Chicago (Focal point at the convergence of

roads and railways from all over the USA) Iron and Steel, Meat
Packing, Grain milling, Agricultural machines, Rail Engines and
-Milwaukee Steel Engineering Textiles -Gary Iron and Steel

Southern Appalachian Region -Birmingham Iron and Steel. (The

region gets its H.E.P from the Appalachian fall line).
Eastern Texas
- Industrial development dependent upon oil. The area has world's
largest known deposits of Sulphur.
- Known for Oil, Chemical and cotton Industries.
- Shift westward of cotton belt has provided raw material and
Created markets.
- Assisted by the construction of Intra coastal waterway running
parallel to the coast.
- Houston Oil refineries, chemical plants, synthetic rubber
- Dallas and Fort Worth are twin cities lying in this region. Dallas, a
major cotton market is known for clothing and fashion. Fort Worth
is known for Cattle, aircraft and aerospace. These two cities share
the world's largest airport and are also major financial centers
owing to vast oil wealth.

Other Industrial Cities -St Louis Meat Packing, Flour Milling and
Agricultural machines
-Kansas City Agricultural machine, Aircraft, Oil refining
- Omaha, Cincinnati, Indianapolis, Denver, St. Paul, Minneapolis, and
Memphis these places have Flour milling, Meat packing, Cotton
textiles, Food processing and other agricultural industries.
-New Orleans Oil refining, Chemicals and Cotton textiles -San
Francisco Oil refining, steel, aircraft engineering, food processing.
-Los Angeles and San Diego -Oil refining, steel, aircraft engineering,
food processing, television
-Seattle Aircraft, Lumbering, Fish Canning, aluminum smelting.

Coal Cape Breton Island, Vancouver Island (Lies in British Columbia
and feeds the Sydney Steel Plants) and Alberta.

H . E. P
-Vancouver, Duncan, Bridge river, Arrow Lakes, Corner Brook,
Kemono, Churchill falls (formerly Hamilton falls).

-St. Lawrence Niagara falls -Rapids at Salt Ste Marie -Nipigon River
(Port Arthur and Fort William)
- Winnipeg River -Kitimat scheme (R. Nechaka) Petroleum
-Prairie provinces of Alberta and Saskatchewan (centered at
Edmonton, Calgary and Turner valley), Grand Bank, Athabasca Tar

-Trans Canadian gas pipeline supplies gas from Alberta gas fields to
Toronto and Montreal. Iron Ore
-Knob Lake (Labrador), Steep Rock (N. of Lake Superior) Baffin
Copper Sudbury, Flin Flon, Sheridan, Lynn Lake and Coppermine
Nickel Sudbury, Lynn Lake, Hope, Thompson Lead, Zinc and Silver
Sullivan Mines (British Columbia). Also in Manitoba and North West
Territories Industries
1.Lake Peninsula to Montreal -Good Accessibility, Cheap H.E.P
American investment Toronto Engineering, Automobile, Chemicals,
Textiles, Pulping and Food processing Hamilton (Birmingham of
Canada) Heavy engineering and Iron and Steel. Windsor Automobile,
Tyre making- Kingston Locomotive
2. St. Lawrence region Montreal Ship Building, Oil Refining, Paper
and Pulp and Food Processing. It is a Leading Grain port.
Quebec Marine Engineering, Ship building, Food Processing
Ottawa Saw milling, Paper and Pulp

3.Continental interior (Canadian Prairie)

Winnipeg Agricultural, industries, Fur, Dressing textiles Edmonton Oil
extraction, Natural gas

4. Vancouver Lumbering Timber industries Fish canning

Some other industries Paper Corner Brook (Newfound land)
Aluminum refining Kitimat Iron and Steel Sydney, Nova Scotia and

urope and CIS

Coal: CIS: Donetz (Donbas) Ukraine, Moscow Tula Russia, Kuznetsk

(kuzbas) Kazakhstan, Karaganda Urals Kazakhstan, Tungus and Lena
Basin Siberia,
Scottish coalfields- Lanark shire, Fifeshire, Ayrshire, Midlothian
Pennine coalfield Northumberland, Durham, Yorkshire, Derbyshire,
Nottinghamshire Midland coalfields N. Staffordshire, S. Staffordshire,
Warwickshire, Leicestershire Welsh coalfields S. Wales
German Rhur Westphalia Aachen Saar Cologne (Lignite) Bavaria
FRANCE Pas de Calais Nord Alsace Lorraine
BELGIUM Kempenland coalfields Franco Belgium and coalfields in
Sambre Meuse Depression
POLAND Upper and Lower Silesia
SPAIN Northern Spain, around Oviedo
Other countries Erstwhile Czechoslovakia and Yugoslavia, Bulgaria,
and Hungary

H. E. P- Dnieper Combined Scheme RUSSIA

- Two huge dams at Volgogarad and Kuybyshev (River Volga)
-Other dams at Irkutsk Bratsk, Krasnoyarsk, Beloyarsk, Ufa,
ITALY Italian Alps and Apennine Streams FRANCE Pyrenees, Central
Massive and French Alps, Dams on Saone and Rhone, Grenoble on
-Per capita output of HEP is greatest in the world.
- Sharpsborg (Oslo fiord), Notodden (South of Oslo), Mo I Rana
(Steel Works) SWEDEN Trollhattan Falls (Gota)
GERMANY Grevenbroich, Innerwerk, Bitterfield SWITZERLAND Rugged,
glaciated upland and numerous falls, rapid and lakes in ALPS.
Geothermal Energy Iceland, Italy ( Larderllo) Tidal Power Ranee
Estuary (Brittanny, France)
Iron Ore
-Krivoi Rog Ukraine
- Kuzbas (Kustanay) Kazakhastan
-Angara (E. Siberia) -Ural region (near Magnitogorsk, Russia)
- Kiruna, Gallivare, Dannemoa, Grangeborg and Kopparberg in
- Lorraine, Normandy, Pyrenees and Central Massif in France
-Bilbao, Santander, Oviedo (Spain)
- Scunthorpe, Frodingham (Britain)
-Siegerland (Germany) Copper Ural, Balkhash and Dzhezkazgan in
CIS Aluminium Smelting at Invergorgon (Scotland), Holy island
Lead Lake Baikal (Russia), C. Siberia (Russia). Also found in erstwhile
Yugoslavia and Bulgaria

- Britain and Belgium are important Zinc smelting countries
- Ireland and Germany also produces zinc
Uranium France, Russia Nickel Ural (Russia) Manganese Nikopolo
(Russia), Chaitura (Urals) and Russian Turkestan
Chromium Urals (Sarany) in Russia, Kazakhstan, Finland, Albania
Tungsten Russia, Portugal, Austria

1. Midland Region
-Centered at Birmingham
- Power presently comes from thermal electricity and imported oil.
(a) Based on S. Staffordshire coal field Centered at Birmingham,
Dudley, Wolver Hampton. These are known for Iron and steel and
(b) Warwickshire coalfields Coventry Automobile industry.
(c) Leicestershire coal field. Burton on Trent (brewery), Derby
(textiles and Engineering), Nottingham (Hosiery, Pharmaceuticals and
Cigarettes and Tobacco).

2. North East England (Based on Northumberland and Durham

coalfields) New Castle (Shipbuilding), Darlington (Locomotives)

3. Yorkshire, Nottinghamshire and Derby shire -Bradford and Halifax

(Worsted textiles), Leeds( Garments), Sheffield (World's largest
cutlery town, Iron and steel and Engineering)

4. Lancashire Region
-Manchester (cotton textile centre of the world), Liver pool (port),
Birkenhead (Ship Building)

5. Greater London Industrial Region

- London (Financial centre), Thames Estuary (Cement, oil refineries).
6. Central Scotland -Glasgow (Iron and steel) Port Glasgow
(Shipbuilding) Clyde side (Shipbuilding)

7. Belfast Region (Ireland) -Traditionally noted for Shipbuilding and

Linen industry

8. South Wales (A classic example of the effect of decline in the

importance of coal and changes in industrial locations).
- Centered at Cardiff, Swansea, Port Talbot, New Port

a) North East Industrial region -lron and Steel, Textiles, Engineering
-Based on Coal fields Nord and Pas De Calais
- Dunkirk (Iron and Steel), Lille (cotton, woolen, linen and synthetic
(b) Lorraine region
Iron and Steel, Rolling mills and tin plating
- Centered at Metz, Nancy, Thionville, Longwy.
(c) Greater Paris -very wide range of goods
(d) Isolated industrial towns -St. Entienne (Armaments, bridges),
Clemont Ferrand (Tyres), Lyon (Great silk making city)

(a) Ruhr Westphalia Region -Essen and Dortmund (Iron and Steel,
Heavy Industries Engineering), Dusseldorf (Heavy Chemicals),
Gelsenkirchen (Engineering), Krefeld and Wuppertal (textiles)
(b) Middle Rhine Area
- Frankfurt Railway Engineering, Electrical engineering, Automobile
engineering, financial centre
-Mainz Leather, Brewery
(c) East Germany
-Based on Saxony coalfields and Stassfort salt deposits. R. Elbe
provides water transport. -Leipzig(Optical instruments), Dresden
(Porcelain), Berlin (Engineering, Textiles and Electrical equipments)
(d) Other cities of Germany
-Hamburg (Shipbuilding, Marine Engineering), Munich (Beer, musical
instruments, scientific instrument), Stuttgart (Automobiles, Optical
equipments and watches), Hanover (Metal and Chemicals),
Achen(Iron and Steel, Engineering)

-Liege (Iron and Steel, Heavy industries), Brussels (Textiles,
chemicals and paper), Antwerp (diamond cutting, Shipbuilding, oil
refining, petrochemicals), Ghent (Linen textiles)

-Major industries are at Esch, Dudelange, Differdange

THE NETHERLANDS -Rotterdam (marine Engineering and

Shipbuilding), Utrecht (Light Machinery), Eindhoven (Electrical
Engineering and Linen), Arnhem (Rayon, Tin smelting), Amsterdam
(Diamond cutting), Rotterdam( major port, port industries) Europort
(Oil Refineries)

- Stockholm Stockholm's engineering products can be transported
by the Gota Canal to Goteborg (premier port and leading
shipbuilding centre) -Eskilstuna Sheffield of Sweden( Cutlery and
Ornamental goods)

- Leading industries Marine EngineeringShipbuildingFish canningPulp
and paper -MoIRana (Iron and Steel), Oslo (Pulp mills, Shipyard,
Chemical plants, Fish canning), Bergen and Stavanger (Fishing and

-Centralized at Copenhagen in Zealand
- Important industries Dairying, Agricultural industries -Aarhus
Agricultural industries.

- Basel and Baden (Engineering industry), Zurich (Engineering and
Textiles), Jura Towns La Chauxde Fonds, Biel Le Locle (Clocks and
-HEP from the Italian Alps and natural gas exploitation in Emilia
and the Po delta has contributed greatly to the industrial needs of
the north. -Genoa (Iron and Steel, Chemicals, Textiles, Automobiles
Fiat, Lambretta etc.), Turin (Automobiles, Rail Coaches, Aircraft), Milan
(silk textiles and Engineering works)


HEP: Africa has least output of hydroelectricity but its potential is

the greatest in the world. Much of Africa are plateaus dropping
abruptly to the coast or to rift valleys thereby forming natural
-River fluctuation A problem in the savanna region

Petroleum Central and southern Africa are poor in petroleum

resources because of existence of ancient crystalline rocks and
absence of sedimentary strata
Libya Dahara, Beda, Zelten, South of Gulf of Sidra Algeria Hassi
Nigeria Niger delta region (Refinery at Port Harcourt) Other
Producers Egypt, Gabon Iron Ore
- South Africa, Liberia (Bomi Hills, Mt. Nimba), Mauritania (Sourest),
Algeria, West Africa including Sierra Leone and Nigeria

Zambia and Zaire (Katanga
Zambia Copper Belt) -Mining Centres atNechanga, Kitwe and
Lumumbashi. Tin
-Nigeria (centered at Bauchi and Jos on the Bauchi Plateau), Zaire
(Manono and Maniema) Bauxite Guinea Lead Morocco
Uranium South Africa, Niger, Gabon Nickel South Africa Manganese
South Africa (Postmasburg Krugersdorp), Gabon, Ghana

Chromium South Africa (Rustenberg), Zimbabwe (Selukwe, Kildonan)

Tungsten South Africa Cobalt Katanga District (Zaire), Kilemba
(Zambia), Morocco

Vanadium S. Africa (World's largest producer) and Namibia _Gold

TJS. Afnca (Witai; ersrand, Odendaalrus, Lydenburg), Zimbabwe,
Ghana, Zaire (KiloMoto Mines, Kasai Valley), Sudan (Red Sea Hills)
Platinum S. Africa (Rustenburg)

Diamonds Zaire, S. Africa, Ghana, Namibia, Sierra Leone, Angola,

Botswana, Central African Republic Asbestos S. Africa, Zimbabwe

Phosphate Morocco, Tunisia, Togo, S. Africa

- Smelting and refining of copper in Zambia and Zaire.
- Processing of rubber, oil palm fruits etc in W. Africa.
- Petrochemical industries Nigeria
-S. Africa Industrially developed country.
-Main region Witwatersrand (Iron and Steel, Engineering,
Locomotives, Chemicals Textiles).
- Other Places: Salisbury (new name Harare), Par E Salaam, Nairobi
Such cities have cement, brewing, food processing and light
industries mainly geared to import substitution.

South America and Mexico

-Like Africa, S. America with its pre Paleozoic rocks and rugged
Andean ranges, has few coal reserves. This is because coal is found
in sedimentary strata of carboniferous and post carboniferous
-Concepcion (Central Chile), S. E. Brazil (low grade coal) Scattered
deposits are also found in uplands of Peru, Columbia and W.
Argentina. Hydro Electricity Brazil (At Paulo Alfonso on Sao Francisco
River in North East),.Argentina and Venezuela Significant H. E. P

-Mexico ( Baja California etc.),Venezuela ( Gulf of Maracaibo, inland
Puerto La Cruz, Llanos, Orinocco Delta). Much oil is also shipped to
the Dutch islands of Aruba and Curacao.
- Small oil Deposits Trinidad (Famous for its Pitch Lake an almost in
exhaustible source of viscous asphalt or bitumen) Bermudez Pitch
Lake of Venezuela is a similar phenomenon.
- Columbia Caribbean coastal lowlands and Magdalena valley.

-Ecuador Coastal lowlands and Amazonian region

-Peru both on coast and inland (Lobitos and Negritos near Talara).
- Oil refinery at Talara. Upper Amozon basin at Ganzo Azul and is
sent to the refinery at Iquitos on the Amazon for export down river.
- Bolivia Eastern region at Camiri, Rio Bermejo and Sanandita
(Pipelines run to Sucre and Cochabamba) -Chile Near Punta Arenas
and on Tierra del Fuego
- Argentina largest producer after Venezuela. Found near Mendoza
In the North West and in South.
Paraguay has no oil resources but Brazil has recently found
significant oil deposits.

Iron Ore
-Brazil Itabira, MinaGerais, Carajas (Iron and Steel works at Volta
Redonda, Belo Horizonte)
- Venezuela Guiana Highlands
-Chile Algarrobo

-Peru Nazca Marcona

Copper Chile (Chuquicamata, El Teniente), Peru (Morococha,


Tin Bolivia (Potosi and Oruro) Also in Brazil and Argentina

Lead and Zinc Peru and Mexico

Nickel Cuba and Dominican Republic

Manganese Brazil (Amapa), Mexico

Chromium Brazil Tungsten Bolivia

- Argentina, Brazil (Best developed)
- Argentina and Uruguay (Along the shore of Plate estuary
extending inland as far as Rosario).
-Buenos Aires, Rosario and Cordoba

-Ship building -La Plata Chemicals, textiles, aircraft, steel

- Pampas Lands Meat Packing dairying flour milling
- Brazil (Chief region is in South East)
-Sao Paulo Steel, Chemicals, motor vehicle assembly, paper, cement
and beer.
- Rio De Janeiro Shipbuilding and aircraft engineering -Belo
Horizonte Metallurgy and Iron and Steel
-In Chile, main industries are at Santiago, Valparaiso and

Malthusian Theory of Population Growth

Thomas Malthus, the English economist and demographer, in his 'An
Essay on Principle of Population' (1798) had propounded a theory
which traces an economic approach to demography. According to
him population tends to increase faster than the means of
subsistence. The fast increase in population absorbs all economic
gains unless controlled by what he termed 'preventive and positive
'checks. He elaborated that if unchecked the population tended to
increase at geometric rate while subsistence increased at arithmetic
rate. 'Positive' checks according to him included wars, disease,
poverty and especially lack of food. His 'preventive' checks included
principally 'moral restraint, postponement of marriage and vice' in
which he included birth control, abortion and adultery. He was also
not in favour of contraceptive methods, since their use did not
generate the same drive to work hard as would a postponement of

Demographic Transition Theory

This theory was propounded by W.S Thompson and Frank W. Note
stein. It is characterized by five transition stages:
Stage 1 High and fluctuating birth and death rates and slow
population growth.

Stage 2 High birth rates and declining death rates and rapid growth
of the population

Stage 3 Declining birth rates and low death rates and declining rate
of population growth.

Stage 4 Low birth and death rates, and slow population growth.
Stage 5 Birth and death rates approximately equal which in time
will result in zero population growth.
Optimum population: A country is said to have an optimum
population if the number of people is in proper balance with the
available resources.

Population Problems Population problems of the Developing

1. Rapid growth of population
2. Unemployment
3. Poor standard of Living and Malnutrition
4. Mismanagement of the Agricultural Resources
5. Slow growth of the Industrial Sector
6. Orthodoxy
7. Problem of Under Population (some of the under developed
countries are under populated leading to problems like shortage of
skilled labour, e.g. some countries of Africa and Latin America)

Problems of the Developed Countries

1. Long span of Life leads to smaller proportion of productive
younger people.
2. Small work force
3. Rural people in these countries out migrate and settle in cities.
4. Problems because of urbanization.

► In India a voluntary Family Planning Policy has been adopted

right from the beginning of 1960s.
► In the 1970s the Chinese government adopted a more rigid policy
and commenced a program to limit family size to two children. By
1980 the goal was changed to one child per family. The marriage
age in China is generally over 24 years for women and 26 years for
men and pre marital sexual relations are uncommon.

Most Spoken Languages of the World

Malay Indonesia
Wu (China)
Min (China)

Major Religions of the World

("Most Adherents') Christianity Islam Hinduism Chinese Faith
(Confucianism and Taoism) Buddhism Shintoism Judaism
Some Facts on Religion
► Among the total population of Muslims in the world, Sunnis
constitute five times that of Shia population.
► Shias are concentrated mainly in Iran, bordering areas of Iraq,
some in India, Pakistan, Syria .and Lebanon etc.

► After the Japan's defeat in the Second World War, Shintoism no

longer remained the state religion.
► In Bali Island of Indonesia Hinduism is still prevalent as a
predominant religion.
► In China a matrix of intermingling of Buddhism, Taoism, and
Confucianism seemed to have developed, being true to the Chinese
tradition of moulding the foreign influence rather than letting their
own society get influenced or moulded by foreign penetrations
► Among the followers of the Christianity, Roman Catholics may
seem to be more widespread in comparison to their Protestants
► There are areas even within Europe where there exists almost a
balance between Catholics and Protestants. E.g. Switzerland (48 %
Catholics and 44 % Protestants), Germany (26% Catholics and 24%
Protestants), Netherlands (36% Catholics and 26% Protestants).
► Areas dominated by Roman Catholics:
1. Atlantic Europe Ireland, France, Belgium., Spain, Portugal.
2. Mediterranean Europe Italy, Greece, Monaco, Vatican City, San
3.Central Europe Austria, Slovenia, Poland, Hungary, Croatia, Czech
Republic, Lithuania, Slovakia. 4. In Latin America and French
speaking Quebec (Canada)
► In Canada as a whole Catholics are in minority.
► In USA Protestant population is larger than that of Catholics.
► One isolated pocket of Roman Catholics does exist in the old
world the Philippines.
► Protestants areas in Europe Great Britain , N. Ireland, N.
Netherlands, Scandinavia, Finland, N and C Germany, Denmark and
► Protestants predominates among Christians of S. Africa and
► In Europe as one moves eastwards into the former so called Iron
Curtain (the virtual boundary between the Western and the
Communist World from Trieste to Stetin in Eastem Europe) Russian
Orthodox Church predominates, where Russian speaking people
It covers East Europe, Eurasia and the Caucasus.
► In Ethiopia in East Africa too, the Christians virtually have an
independent church.
► In Europe Islam has its influence in the areas like Albania, Bosnia,
and Southern Serbia.
► In Central Asia apart from tribal faith, Islam is a major religion.
► Hinayana branch of Buddhism has its influence in Sri Lanka.,
Myanmar, Thailand, Laos, and Cambodia.
► Mahayana school of Buddhism has its influence in Tibet, Sin
kiang, Mongolia, Taiwan, Japan, Malaysia, Brunei etc.
Some demographic features of South Asia
Birth Rate ( descending order)
Sri Lanka

Death Rate ( descending order)

Sri Lanka

Doubling Period ( descending order)

Sri Lanka

Life Expectancy ( descending order)

Sri Lanka

Sri Lanka

Percentage Urban Population ( descending order)



Sri Lanka





► Latitudinal extent 11°N55° S

► Longitudinal extent 35° W81°W
► Largest country (area wise)
► Brazil
► Largest country (population)
► Brazil
► South America and Latin America are different. Latin America
comprises all the countries of South America along with Mexico and
Caribbean countries.
► Countries Area wise Brazil, Argentina, Peru, Columbia, Bolivia,
Venezuela, Chile
► Landlocked countries Bolivia and Paraguay
► Countries according to the length of coast line Brazil, Chile,
Argentina, Peru
► Main rivers and their tributaries: Amazon : Madeira, Tapajos,
Parana: Paraguay, Pilcomayo Uruguay (forms Argentina's boundary
with Brazil and Uruguay)
Orinoco (in Venezuela) Magdalena (Columbia) Colorado, Salado and
Negro (in Argentina)
► In South America equator passes through Ecuador, Columbia and
► Tropic of Capricorn passes through Chile, Argentina, Paraguay and
► Deserts Atacama (Chile) and Patagonia (Argentina)
► Bolivian plateau It is an inter montane plateau, also known as
Bolivian altiplano
► Physiographic regions Amazon Basin [Equatorial rain forests
(Selvas), Catingas, Plateau of Mato Grasso, Campos (Tropical
grassland),Plateau of Borborema, Sertao, Brazilian Highlands (Ancient
rocks), Gran Chaco (Great low land having warm temperate forests
and grasslands),Serra De Mantiqueira, Entre Rios, Pampas
(Temperate grass lands), Patagonia (Desert),Andes (having Bolivian
Plateau) (Peaks Bolivar, Cotapaxi, Chimbarazo, Misti, Ojas Del Salado,
Cerro Aconcagua), Western, Central and Eastern Cordillera, Llanos
(Tropical grass lands), Guiana Highland, Atacama (World's driest
► Brazil forms boundaries with all other countries in S. America
except Ecuador and Chile
► Amazon Basin and Western Columbia around Isthmus of Panama
are very high Rainfall regions
► Peruvian coast (because of cold Peru or Humboldt Current),
Northern Chile and western and southern Argentina receive least
► Brazilian coast, Southern Uruguay area around, Rio de la Plata
and Buenos Aires in Argentina, around Santiago in Central Chile,
Peruvian coast, mountain regions of Ecuador and Columbia are
densely populated.
► Mediterranean climate and vegetation is found in Central Chile
► Livestock ranching is very important in Argentina
► La Paz (Bolivia) is the highest capital city in the world.
► Brasilia (capital of Brazil) lies in the Campos region
► Sao Paulo (Brazil) is the largest urban agglomeration in the
southern hemisphere.
► Coffee estates in Brazil are known as 'Fazendas'.
► Rio de Janeiro is known for Sugar Loaf Mountains.
► Manaus major rubber collecting centre in the upper part of the
Amazon Basin.
► Belem situated near the mouth of the Amazon River and is a
chief port of the Amazon basin
► Recife (Brazil) is a port which exports sugarcane
► Chuquicamata (Chile) is the world's largest copper town.
► Punta Arenas is the southernmost inhabited city in the world.

► Latitudinal Extent 37°N 35° S

► Longitudinal Extent 51°E- 16°W

► Countries (Area wise) Sudan, Algeria, Zaire, Libya, Chad, Niger,

Angola, Mali

► Land locked countries in Africa Mali, Niger, Chad, Burkina Faso,

Central African Republic (CAR), Zambia, Zimbabwe, Malawi, Burundi,
Rwanda, Uganda, Ethiopia, Botsv/ana, Lesotho and Swaziland.

► Longest coastlines (Leaving Madagascar)Somalia, Mozambique, S.

Africa, Egypt

► Namibia has a panhandle (the protruding part) in order to have

access to the Zambezi River. It is a colonial legacy and is known as
Caprivi Strip.

► Lesotho is completely surrounded by S. Africa, where as

Swaziland lies trapped between Mozambique and S. Africa. This
makes South Africa a perforated state.
Latest country to gain independence in Africa Eritrea.

► Equator passes through Gabon, Congo, Zaire (Democratic Republic

of Congo), Uganda, Lake Victoria and Kenya)

► Tropic of cancer passes through Western Sahara, Mauritania, Mali,

Algeria, Libya, Egypt.
► Tropic of Capricorn Namibia, Botswana, S. Africa and Mozambique

► Colonial Rules in Africa Britain Egypt, Sudan, Uganda, Zambia,

Zimbabwe, S. Africa, Botswana, Nigeria, Ghana, Sierra Leone, British
East Africa (Kenya) British Somalia land.
France Algeria, French East Africa (including Mali, Niger,Barkina Faso,
Benin, Mauritania), Morocco, Madagascar, French Equitorial Africa
(Chad, C.A.R., Gabon) Belgium Congo, Zaire. Germany Togo,
German East Africa (Tanzania), Italy Libya, Italian Somalialand,
Eritrea; Spain Western Sahara, Spanish Morocco,
Potugal Portugese Guinea, Angola and Mozambique

► Liberia was formed as a country of settlement of slaves from

United States of America (USA).

► Capital of Liberia that is Monrovia has been named af V ter the

President Monroe of USA.

► Ethiopia and Liberia were never colonies.

Physiographic features: Atlas mountains (Morocco and Algeria),
Ahaggar mts.(Algeria), Libyan Desert (Libya and Egypt), Qattara
Depression (a deflation hollow) in Egypt, Western Desert (West of
Nile in Egypt), Sinai peninsula (Egypt), Tibesti .Massif(Chad), Nubian
Desert ( Sudan and Egypt). Ethiopian Highlands (Highest Peak Ras
Dashan) in Ethiopia, Mt. Elgon and Mt. Kenya(Kenya), Mt. Kilimanjaro
(highest peak of Africa) in Tanzania (near Tanzanian boundary with
Kenya) Mitumba mts. (Zaire), Katanga Plateau (Known for Copper
deposits is inZaire and Zambia), Muchinga mts. (Zambia), Kalahari
Desert (Botswana), Okavango swamps and Makagadikgadi salt pan
(because of internal drainage) is in Botswana, High Veld (S. Africa),
Drankensberg and Great Karroo ( S. Africa), Namib Desert (because
of cold Benguela current), Bie Plateau (Angola), Congo Basin(Zaire),
Adamawa Highland (Cameron andNigeria),Jos Plateau (Nigeria), Sudan
region (Savannah region south of Sahara), Nimba Mts (Guinea),
Fouta Djallon (Guinea) Sahel region (Lying south of Sahara is a
transition zone between Sahara desert and savannah region. It is
the least developed region.

► Horn of Africa Countries including Eritrea, Djibouti, Somalia and

Ethiopia lie in a region having a horn shape.

► Lakes (largest Lake Victoria lies in Uganda, Kenya and Tanzania).

Lake Victoria does not from part of East African Rift valley Lakes
lying in rift valley LTurkana
. L.Albert, L.Edward, L.Kivu, L. Tanganyika,
L. Malavi (also known as L.Nyasa)

► Latitudinal Extent 36°N 71°N

► Longitudinal Extent 63°E 10°W (excluding Iceland) 63°E 24°W

(including Iceland).
► Largest countries Ukraine, France, Spain, Sweden, Germany,
Finland, Norway, Poland, Italy.

► Landlocked countries Luxemburg, Switzerland, Liechtenstein,

Andorra, Austria, Hungary, Czech Rep., Slovakia, .Macedonia, Moldova,

► Smallest Countries (area wise) Vatican City (inside Rome, Italy),

Monaco (Bordering France and Mediterranean Sea), San Marino
(inside Italy), Liechtenstein (Between Switzerland and Austria), Malta
(Island in Mediterranean), Andorra (trapped between Spain and
France on the Pyrenees mountain range).

► Monte Carlo, one of the biggest gambling centers in the world is

the capital of Monaco.

► Scandinavian countries (Norway, Sweden and Denmark)

► United Kingdom comprises Wales, England, Scotland and Northern


► The British Isle including Wales, England and Scotland forms the
Great Britain.

► Gibraltar is the territory of UK on the Spanish coast.

► Ceuta and Melilla are Spanish territory on the African coast of

the Mediterranean Sea.

► Islands in the Mediterranean Sea Sicily (Italy), Sardinia (Italy),

Corsica (France), Balearic Islands(
Majorca, Minorca and Ibiza) are part of Spanish territory ,Crete
(Greece), Malta (Malta), Cyprus (Cyprus)

► The physiography of Europe can be divided into North Western

Highlands, North Europian Plains, Central uplands and Alps and
southern highlands.

► North Western highlands comprises highlands of Norway, Sweden

and northern Britain. Almost all of Norway lies in the highland
region which is good for hydroelectricity but poor for agriculture .
Norwegian coast is known for fiords. Northern Sweden comes under
the coniferous forest belt.

► North European plains are vast stretch of plains extending from

France upto Russia.The plain is drained by numerous rivers flowing
into North Sea(Rhine,Ems,Weser and Elbe) , Baltic Sea(Oder, Vistuala)
and Gulf of Boothnia.

► The central uplands comprises Black Forest, Swabian Jura and

Bohemian Forest in Bavaria(Germany), Moravian heights in Czech
Republic, Sudeten on Czech Poland border, Carpathian mountains in
Poland, Ukraine, Slovakia and Romania. The central Russian upland
is an isolated upland lying near the western boundary of Russia
with therest of Europe.The plain area towards the east of this
upland is drained by Dnieper and Dniester rivers flowing into the
Black Sea. Pripet river , a tributary of Dnieper has formed Pripet
Marshes to the east of the central Russian upland. The lowland
lying east of Central Russian Upland is drained by Don flowing into
the Sea of Azov (marginal sea of Black sea) and the Volga river
flowing into the Caspian sea.
River Danube flows through Bavaria (Germany), Austria, Hungarian
plain, Yugoslavia and then along the Bulgaria Romania border into
the Black Sea.
Southern highland include vast stretch of Alps including S. France,
Switzerland, Northern Italy, Dinaric Alps in Croatia, Bosnia and
Herzegovina and Yugoslavia. Other ranges include Transylvanian
Alps (Romania), Balkan Mts. (Bulgaria), Pindus Mts. (Greece),
Appenines in Italy,Central Massif (France), Pyrenees (France, Spain
and Andorra), Cantabrian Mts. (Spain).

► A series of parallel ranges or highlands (Cantabrian mts., Old

Castle, New Castle, Sierra Morena and Andalusia and Rivers like
Ebro, Douro,Tagus, Guadiana, and Guadilquivir mark the topography
of Spain. R. Ebro flows into the Mediterranean Sea where as the
rest flow towards the Atlantic Sea.

► Highest peak of Europe is Mt. Elburz (5633 m) in the Caucasus.

► Mt. Blanc(4807 m) is the highest peak in Alps lying on the border

of France, Italy and Switzerland.

► Mt. Matterhorn (4478 m) lies on the Swiss Italian border.

► Pico de Aneto is the highest peak of Pyrenees.

► Corno Grande is the highest peak of Appenines.

► Mt. Tatra is the highest peak of Carpathian mountains.

► Crimea is the land portion of Ukraine protruding into the Black


► Strait of Kerch joins the Black Sea to the Sea of Azov.

► Strait of Bospurus joins the Black Sea to the Sea of Marmara.

► Dardanelles joins Marmara and the Agean Sea.

► Strait of Otranto joins the Adriatic Sea to the Ionian Sea.

► Strit of Messina lies between Sicily and the Italian mainland.

► Srait of Bonafacio lies between Corsica (France) and Sardinia

► Ionian peninsula Greece Iberian peninsula Spain and Portugal.

Pymees range forms boundary between France and Spain Oder
river forms boundary between and Germany Shetland, Orkney and
Hebrides Islands are in UK Faroe Island forms part of Denmark.
Kaliningrad is a Russian enclave on the Baltic Sea. Baltic States
Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, Poland.

► Latitudinal Extent 80° N to 10° S
► Longitudinal Extent 160° W to 33°E
► Largest country area wise Russia.
► Largest country (population) China.
► Largest Countries (Area wise) Russia, China, India, Kazakhstan,
Saudi Arabia, Indonesia, Iran, Mongolia, Pakistan, Turkey, Myanmar,
► Russia and Turkey lies both in Asia and Europe.
► Equator passes through Sumatra, Borneo, Celebes (Sulawesi) in
► Tropic of Cancer passes through S. Arabia, United Arab Emirates
(UAE), Oman, India, Bangladesh, Myanmar, China and Taiwan.
► Arrangement of sea (North to South) Sea of Okhotsk, Sea of
Japan, Yellow Sea, East China Sea, South China Sea.
► Physiogaphy

Rub Al Khali and An Nafud deserts (Saudi Arabia); Akhdar mountains
(Oman); Kuwait, Qatar and UAE are more or less plain countries and
Qatar is a peninsula; Dead Sea (Jordan; Mesopotamia (Iraq); Syrian
desert (Iraq, Syria and Jordan);
Pontus Mountains (N.Turkey);Taurus Mountains (S.Turkey); Anatolia
Plateau (Inter montane plateau in Turkey); Elburz mountains
(Caspian coast of Iran, highest peak mt. Damanad); Zagros montains
(S. Iran); Dasht e Kavir desert (N. Iran); Dasht e Lut(E. Iran);
Rivers Kizil (Turkey), Euphrates and Tigris (Iraq, Baghdad is on Tigris)

Gobi desert lies south of plateau of Mongolia in Mongolia and
Altai mts. is near W. Mongolia Chinese border. Takla Makan desert
and Tarim Basin (NW China);Kunlun Shan (Central West Cnina);
Dzungarian Basin (China, trapped between Mongolia and
Kazakhstan); Qaidam Basin (Central China). The Great Wall of China
stretches from midnorth to northeast China south of Inner Mongolia
(Chinese province lying south of Mongolia). Hwang Ho river crosses
the wall twice.
Loess plateau of China lies in northern China and is drained by R.
Hwang Ho which while passing through it acquires enough
sediments that the river itself becomes muddy and is therefore
known as yellow river. Siltation of river bed because of these
enormous sediments leads to frequent floods creating havoc in the
region . Therefore the river is also known as' Sorrow of China. It
drains into the Gulf of Po Hai.
Szechwan(Sichuan) basin lies in southcentral China and is drained
by the Yangtze kiang (Chiang Jiang) river. Industrial centers of
Chengdu and Chongquing lie in the basin. Shanghai is situated near
the mouth of Yangtze Kiang river. Yunnan Plateau lies in S.E. China
and is drained by Si Kiang (Xi Jiang) river. Hong Kong is situated
close to the mouth of this river. Macau port lies west of Hong kong.
Hainan island is situated close to the Gulf of Tongking. Manchurian
plains lie in extreme N.E. China. Great Khingan Mts. lie west of
Manchurian plains. Xinjiang province lies in the northwest and is
inhabited by muslim tribals Uighurs. Islands of Japan (north to
south) Hokkaido, Honshu, Shikoku, Kyushu, and Ryuku. Asahi Dake is
the highest peak ofHokkaiduo. Important cities in Hokkaido are
Sapporo, Muroran and Hakodate. Tsugaru strait separates Honshu
from Hokkaido. Highest peak of Japan is Mt. Fujiyama which lies in
Honshu. Important urban centers in Honshu are Tokyo, Kawasaki,
Yokohama, Shizuoka, Hamamatsu, Nagoya, Kyoto, Osaka, Kobe and
Hiroshima (lying on the southern coast from east to west). Akita
and Nigata lie on the northern coast.
Important urban centers in Kyushu are Kitakyushu, Fukuoka and
Nagasaki. American base of Okinawa is part of Ryuku group of

SOUTH EAST ASIA: Colonies in south east Asia Myanmar British

Malaysia British Indonesia Dutch Laos French Cambodia French
Vietnam French Philippines Spanish and then American
Thailand was never a colony. Arakan Yoma and Pegu Yoma are
parallel ranges in NS dierection in Myanmar and R. Irrawady flows
between the two. R. Chidwin is a right bank tributary of Irrawady
river and R. Salween flows through E. Myanmar.
Dawna and Bilauktaung ranges are in southern protruding land of
Myanmar. Isthumus of Kra is the portion of Thailand that connects
Malaysia to the mainland Asia. R. Mekong flows through China, Laos,
Thailand, Cambodia and then makes delta in Vietnam.
Korat plateau is in Thailand and Laos.
Annam mts. lie along the LaosVietnam border. L. Toba and Barisan
mts. are in Sumatra.
Krakatau volcanic Island lies in Sunda Strait (between Sumatra and
Singapore is a small island lying south of peninsular Malaysia.
Brunei is trapped by Malaysia on all sides on the Borneo Island.
Rest of Bornoe is part of Indonesia.
Highest peak of Borneo: Mt. Kinabalu is also the highest peak of
Borneo Jakarta and Bandung lies in Java island of Indonesia.
Southern Islands of Indonesia (from west to east) Sumatra, Java,
Bali, Lombok, Sumbawa and Flores.
Western half of the New Guinea Island is called Irian Jaya and lies
in Indonesia. Eastern half is known as Papua New Guinea which lies
outside Asia.
Seas of S.E. Asia: Andaman Sea East of andaman and Nicobar Is.
Great channel seperates Andaman Nicobar Island and Sumatra.
South China Sea Between Vietnam and Philippines. Sulu Sea
Between Philippines and Borneo. Celebes Sea North of Celebes or
Sulwesi Is.
Molucco Sea Between Celebes and Moluccas Islands (lies east of
Celebes), Ceram Sea South of Molucca Is. and north of Coram Is.
Banda Sea North of East Timor and south of Molucca and Ceram
Arafura Sea South of Irian Jaya and north of Australia. Flores Sea
South of Celebes or Sulawesi Is.
Java Sea North of Java Is. Lakes Baikal(Russia), Balkhash(Kazakhstan
and Uzbekistan), Aral sea (Kazakhstan and Uzbekistan), Van (Turkey),
Buhayrata -Asad (Saudi Arabia), LakeUrmia (Iran), Lop Nur (Chinese
nuclear explosion site), Qinghai (China), Poyang (China),
Dongtins(China), Tonle Sap(Cambodia)
Caspian Sea (World's largest Lake) borders Kazakhstan,
Turkmenistan, Iran, Azerbaijan and Russia (clockwise manner).

North America
► Latitudinal extent 50 W to 170 W
► Longitudinal extent 8 N to 83 N
► Tropic of Cancer passes through Mexico and Bahamas Islands.
► N America comprises Canada, USA (including Alaska), Mexico and
the Central American countries including the Caribbean ones.

► Central American countries (north to south) Belize, Guatemala,

Honduras, El Salvador, Nicaragua, Costa Rica, Panama.
► Central American countries (west to east) Guatemala, El Salvador,
Belize, Honduras, Nicaragua, Costa Rica, Panama.
► Central American counties (area wise) Nicaragua, Honduras,
Guatemala, Panama, Costa Rica, El Salvador, Belize.

► Belize borders only the Caribbean Sea and El Salvador borders

only the Pacific Ocean. Rest of the countries borders both the
Pacific Ocean and the Caribbean Sea.
► Central American countries are known as the 'banana republic'.

► Canada has three main physical divisions: the Canadian Shield,

the interior plains and the Cordillera region.
► Canadian Shield is an old shield and is also known as Laurentian

► Interior plains of Canada comprise mainly the prairie region and

are drained by Mackenzie and Saskatchewan rivers.
► Mount Logan (6050 m) lying in western most Canadian Rockies , is
the highest peak in Canada.

► Mount Waddington (404 1 m) in the southern region and Mount

Robson (3954 m) on the border of Alberta and British Columbia
provinces are other important peaks.
► Apart from Great Lakes, important lakes in Canada are
Great Bear Lake, Great Slave Lake and Athabasca Lake. Almost all
the lakes in Canada are of glacial origin, especially the great lakes
which were formed due to glacial expansion in the Pleistocene age
and their subsequent retreat.
► Quebec province of Canada is dominated by the French speaking
people where as rest ofthe Canada is dominated by English
speaking people.

► Toronto (on NW shore of Lake Ontario) is the largest city of

Canada followed by Montreal. Toronto is the capital of the province
of Ontario and is the leading cultural and educational centre in
► Winnipeg, the capital of Manitoba is the wheat city of Canada.
► Hamilton (lying on the western end of the Lake Ontario) is known
as the 'Pittsburgh of Canada'

► Halifax, the capital of Nova Scotia is an important icefree port in

► Canada has the longest shoreline in the world.
► The physiography of USA can be divided into the Western
Cordilleras, the Central Lowlands and the Eastern or the
Appalachian highlands.

► Western Cordilleras comprises mainly the Rocky mountain system

having the Front range in the Colorado province; Wyoming Basin or
the Great Divide Basin, Uinta mountains, Wasatch range and the Big
Horn basin in the middle region; and the Yellow stone national park,
Great plains province, the Snake river plain and plain of the
Columbia river in the northern Rockies of USA.
► Columbia plateau is the largest lava plateau in the world. It is
drained by Snake and Columbia Rivers.
► Colorado plateau is a plateau of well stratified sedimentary rocks.
Colorado River has cut a deep canyon known as the Grand Canyon
(largest Canyon in the world) in the plateau region of Arizona.

► Las Vegas (one ofthe largest casino centers in the world) lies
west of Grand Canyon. The centre got developed in the wake of
the construction of the Hoover or the Boulder dam on the Colorado
River. The reservoir of this dam is called Lake Mead.
► California is the largest state of USA both in area and the
► California is marked by Mediterranean climate and is known for
orchard farming.

► Some of the largest city got developed on the western coast of

USA as a result of the 'Gold rush'.
Hollywood, the film city is in Los Angeles. Around San Francisco in
California there is a great fault zone known as the San Andreas
Fault. It is a transform fault formed due to interaction of North
American and Juan de Fucca plates.
► Gulf of Mexico and the states lying along its coast including
Texas, Louisiana, Mississippi and Alabama are very rich in petroleum
► Cities like Houston, Baton Rouge and New Orleans have
developed because of oil and the region is presently one of the
wealthiest in USA.
► Florida is most affected by hurricane (i.e. the tropical cyclone). It
is also known for oranges. The famous NASA center JFK in Cape
Canaveral lies in Florida.
► Mississippi and Missouri rivers meet at St. Louise in the Missouri

► The Appalachian highlands cover a vast area that extends from

Newfoundland to Alabama.
The highlands have distinct topographic regions including the
Appalachian Plateau, the ridge and valley area, the Blue Ridge
Mountains, the piedmont and the New England region.
► Appalachian plateau is marked by well defined escarpment the
Allegheny Front in the north and the Cumberland escarpment in the

► The piedmont region lies to the immediate east of the

Appalachian Mountains. The contact region between the piedmont
and the coastal plain is known as the 'Fall line' having large
number of falls and rapids and therefore it has huge potential for
Hydro Electricity.
► New England region comprises of extreme NE states including
Maine, New Hampshire, Vermont, Massachusetts, Rhode Island and

► D.C. stands for the 'District of Columbia' in Washington D.C.

► Com belt of USA comprises the region lying south of the Great
Lakes. Chicago in Illinois, which is known as the windy city is the
focal point of transport routes.
► The region lying west of the great lakes including the states of
Minnesota, Wisconsin and others form the dairy belt.
► Cotton belt lies in the southern USA mainly in the Texas province.
Dallas in Texas, the city where John F. Kennedy was assassinated is
known for cotton textile industries.

► Latitudinal extent 10 N to 43 S
► Longitudinal extent 115 E to 154 E
► Tropic of Capricorn cuts it into two halves.

► Australia has eight federal units:

1. Western Australia (Capital Perth)
2, Northern Territory (Darwin)
3. South Australia (Adelaide)
4. Queensland (Brisbane)
5. New South Wales (Sydney)
6. Victoria (Melbourne)
7. Australian Capital Territory (Canberra)
8. Tasmania (Hobart)

► Australia is flanked by the Great Dividing Range and the New

England Range in the east
► The Darling River emerges from the Great Dividing Range and
drains major part of the New South Wales province besides others.
► Australian Alps are in south east having Mt. Kosciusko (2228m) as
the highest peak. Flinders ranges lying in north south direction in
the eastern portion of South Australia is an example of Block
► Nullarbor plain is a long extensive plain lying along the southern
coast. It is through these plains that the transcontinental Railway of
Australia connects the East and the Western extremity.
► The West and the North Western region of Australia comprises
mainly of deserts including the Great Sandy desert , Gibson desert,
Great Victoria desert, Tanami desert and the Simpson desert.

► MacDonnell and Musgrave ranges lie in Central Australia.

► The Physiographic regions of Australia comprises of:

1. The Great Western plateau or Western Australian Shield (also

known as the 'Australian Outback'). A conspicuous Isenberg called
Ayres Rocks lie on the barren plains at the centre of the continent.
It is characterised by red rocks.
2. The Eastern Lowlands extends from the Gulf of Carpentaria to
the Spencer Gulf.
It has the great Artesian Basin characterised by lowlands and
abundant wealth of subsurface aquifer layers. Drilling in this region
produces spontaneous gush of water because of natural hydro
static pressure. Such wells are known as Artesian wells.
3. The Eastern Uplands comprise the Great Dividing Range, the
Australian Alps, and the Tasmania.

► A significant feature of the NE Australia is the presence of the

Great Barrier Reef in Queensland which is the longest reef in the
These are generated by the accumulation of coral polyps, the
calcareous remains of micro organisms.
► An internal drainage system in the form of Lake Eyre exists in
the north east of the province of the South Australia.

► Other significant features include:

1. Great Australian Bight (southern coast)
2. Bass strait (separates Tasmania from the mainland)
3. Cape York Peninsula (northern Queensland)
4. Shark Bay (western coast)
5. Joseph Bonaparte Gulf (west of Arneh land in northern Australia)
6. Gulf of Carpentaria (largest gulf in Australia)
7. King and Flinders Islands (between Tasmania and mainland
8. Fraser Island (eastern coast)

► Indigenous people of Australia are known as Aborigines (e.g.

► Animal species found only in Australia Koala, Kangaroo, Platypus,
Dingo, and Wombat.
► Great Dividing Range is also known as the 'Snowy Mountains'.

► Australia is the largest producer of the Bauxite in the world.

► Sheep rearing farms in Australia are called as Stations.
► Tasmania sea separates Australia from New Zealand is divided
into two islandsthe Northern Island and the Southern Island.
Southern Island is dominated by the Southern Alps having Mt. Cook
as the highest peak.

► North Cape lies at the northern extremity of the New Zealand.

► Cook strait separates the two islands of the country.

► Bay of Plenty lies north of the Northern Island.

► Foveaux strait separates a small .island (Stewart Island) lying
south of the Southern Island and the Southern Island itself.
► Wellington, the capital lies in the Northern Island. Other cities of
Northern Island areHamilton, Napier, and Auckland
► Cities of Southern Island are Christchurch, Dunedin, and

Uighurs : live for the most part in northwestern China, in the
Uighur Autonomous Region of Sinkiang; a small number live in the
Central Asian republics. Their principal food crops arc wheat, corn
(maize), kaoliang (a form of sorghum), and melons. The chief
industrial crop is cotton, which has long been grown in the area.
Many Uighur are employed in petroleum extraction, mining, and
manufacturing in urban centres. The chief Uighur cities are Urumchi,
the capital of Sinkiang, and Kashgar. The Uighur of Sinkiang are
Sunnite Muslims.

Kirghiz: also spelled Kirgiz, or Kirghiz, Turkic speaking people of

Central Asia, most of whom live in Kyrgyzstan. Small numbers
reside in Afghanistan, in western China, and in Kazakhstan,
Uzbekistan, Tajikistan, and Turkey. The people are Muslim in religion..
From 1926 to 1959 there was a heavy influx of Russians and
Ukrainians into the area, and the proportion of Kyrgyz in the total
population fell from about 66 percent to 40 percent. The
development of agriculture and heavy industry, along with the
growth of cities, did much to change the traditional Kyrgyz way of

Kazaks: also spelled Kazakh, an Asiatic Turkic speaking people

inhabiting mainly Kazakhstan and the adjacent parts of the Uighur
Autonomous Region of Sinkiang in China. The Kazaks are the
second most numerous Turkic speaking people in Central Asia after
the Uzbeks. The Kazaks were traditionally pastoral nomads, dwelling
year round in portable, dome shaped tents (called yurts)
constructed of dismountable wooden frames covered with felt. The
Kazaks migrated seasonally to find pasturage for their livestock,
including horses, sheep, goats, cattle, and a few camels. The diet
consisted largely of milk products supplemented by mutton.
Fermented mare's milk (koumiss) and horse flesh were highly
esteemed but usually available only to the prosperous. Their
nomadic life was gradually curtailed by the encroachment of settled
agriculture on the pasturelands. In the 19th century an increasing
number of Kazaks along the borders began to plant some crops.
Most Kazaks are now settled farmers who raise sheep and other
livestock and grow crops. In Sinkiang, however, many nomadic
groups remain.

Vupik : also called Asiatic, or Asian, Eskimo, Western Eskimo group

of Siberian Asia and of Saint Lawrence Island and the Diomede
Islands in the Bering Sea and Strait. They are culturally related to
the Chukchi. The traditional economic activity of the Yupik speaking
Eskimo was the hunting of sea mammals, especially seals, walrus,
and, until the latter half of the 19th century, whales. Trade with the
Russians developedattheendofthel9th century. The Yupik also traded
with neighbouring reindeer breeders and with Alaskan Eskimo.
Kayaks (one person, closed skin boats), bidarkas (open, flat
bottomed boats), and whaleboats provided coastal transportation;
dog teams and sleds were used on land.
The Yupik practiced shamanism and believed in benign and harmful
spirits. Under Soviet and Russian administration, new equipment
was made available for sea hunting, and new occupations (e.g.,
processing products from skins and cooperating with Chukchi in
reindeer breeding) were introduced, but such measures as forced
exile from "unproductive" traditional settlements have disrupted if
not destroyed a once highly efficient and self reliant culture.

Eskimo Aleut Language : family of languages spoken in

Greenland, Canada, Alaska, and eastern Siberia by the Eskimo and
Aleut peoples. Aleut is a single language with two surviving dialects.
Eskimo consists of two divisions: Yupik, spoken in Siberia and
southwestern Alaska, and Inuit, spoken in northern Alaska, Canada,
and Greenland. Each division includes several dialects. Eskimo and
Aleut are related but quite distinct languages; they have no known
outside relatives.

Ibos : also called Ibo people living chiefly in southeastern Nigeria

who speak Igbo, a language of the BenueCongo branch of the Niger
Congo language family. The Igbo may be grouped into the following
main cultural divisions: northern (Onitsha), southern (Owerri), western
(Ika), eastern (Cross River), and northeastern (Abakaliki). Before
European colonization, the Igbo were not united as a single people
but lived in autonomous local communities. By the mid20th century,
however, a sense of ethnic identity was strongly developed, and the
Igbodominated Eastern region of Nigeria tried to unilaterally secede
from Nigeria in 1967 as the independent nation of Biafra. By the
turn of the 21st century the igbo numbered some 20 million. Most
Igbo traditionally have been subsistence farmers, their staples being
yams, cassava, and taro. Trading, local crafts, and wage labour also
are important in the Igbo economy, and a high literacy rate has
helped many Igbo to become civil servants and business
entrepreneurs in the decades after Nigeria gained independence. It
is notable that Igbo women engage in trade and are influential in
local politics.

Yorubas : one of the three largest ethnic groups of Nigeria,

concentrated in the southwestern part of that country. Much
smaller, scattered groups live in Benin and northern Togo.. They
speak a language of the BenueCongo branch of the Niger Congo
language family. Most Yoruba men are fanners, growing yams, com
(maize), and millet as staples and plantains, peanuts (groundnuts),
beans, and peas as subsidiary crops; cocoa is a major cash crop.
Others are traders or craftsmen.

Hausa : people found chiefly in northwestern Nigeria and adjacent

southern Niger. They constitute the largest ethnic group in the area,
which also contains another large group, the Fulani, perhaps one
half of whom are settled among the Hausa as a ruling class, having
adopted the Hausa language and culture. The language belongs to
the Chadic group of the Afro Asiatic (formerly Hamito Semitic)
family and is infused with many Arabic words as a result of Islamic
influence, which spread during the latter part of the 14th century
from the kingdom of Mali, profoundly influencing Hausa belief and
customs. A small minority of Hausa, known as Maguzawa, or
Bunjawa, remained pagan.
The Hausa economy has rested on the intensive cultivation of
sorghum, com (maize), millet, and many other crops grown on
rotation principles and utilizing the manure of Fulani cattle
Agricultural activity has yielded considerably more than subsistence,
permitting the Hausa to practice such craft specializations as
thatching, leatherworking, weaving, and silver smithing. The range
of craft products is large, and trading is extensive, particularly in
regularly held markets in the larger towns. The Hausa have settled
in cities (of pre European origin, such as Kano), towns, and hamlets;
but the great majority of the population is rural, for the headman
of the compound.

Abaza Language : language spoken primarily in the western part

of the Caucasus Mountains and in northeastern Turkey. Abaza is
related to Abkhaz, Adyghian, Kabardian (Circassian), which constitute
the AbkhazoAdyghian, or Northwest Caucasian, language group.

Gutob Language : also called Gadaba, language spoken in India,

one of the Munda languages, belonging to the AustroAsiatic family
of languages. Dialectsinclude Gadba and Gudwa. Gutob is spoken in
the Koraput district of Orissa and the Srikakulam and
Vish(khapatnam districts of Andhra Pradesh.

Sre language : dialect spoken in Vietnam, one of the

approximately nine dialects of the Koho language, belonging to the
Bahnaric sub branch of the Bahnaric branch of the Mon Khmer
family, which is a part of the Austroasiatic stock.
Evenk Language : also called Evenki, also spelled Evenky, formerly
Tungus one of the largest members of the ManchuTungus language
family (a subfamily of the Altaic languages).

Chuang language : Pinyin Zhuang language spoken by the

Chuang ethnic minority in southern China, mostly in the Chuang
Autonomous Region of Kwangsi.

Ket language : one of two surviving members of the Yeniseian

family of languages spoken by about 500 peopTe living in central
Siberia, (The other, a moribund close relative called Yug [Yugh], or
Sym, is sometimes considered a dialect of Ket.)

Afrikaans language : also called Cape Dutch, West Germanic

language of South Africa, developed from 17thcentury Netherlandic
(Dutch) by the descendants of European (Dutch, German, and
French) colonists, indigenous Khoisan peoples, and African and Asian
slaves in the Dutch colony at the Cape of Good Hope. Afrikaans
and English are the only
Indo European languages among the many official languages of
South Africa.

Aluct Language : Aleut Unangam Tunuu, one of two branches

ofthe EskimoAleut languages.

Amoritc Language : one of the most ancient of the archaic

Semitic languages, distributed in an area that is now northern Syria.

Amharic language : also called Amarinya, Amharinya, or

Kuchumba, one of the two main languages of Ethiopia (along with
the Oromo language).

Avestan language : also called (incorrectly) Zend Language,

eastern Iranian language ofthe Avesta, the sacred book of

Aramaic dialects survived into Roman times, however, particularly in

Palestine and Syria.

Brahui Language: isolated member of the Dravidian family,

spoken in western Pakistan.

Breton Language : Breiza member of the Brythonic group of

Celtic languages, spoken in Brittany in northwestern France.

Major Linguistic Groups

Burushaski Language : language spoken by the Burusho people

living in the Gilgit territory of northwestern Kashmir. Burushaski is a
"language isolate," not known to be related to any other language
of the world.

Chakchiquel Language : member of the Quiche group of Mayan

languages, spoken in central Guatemala. Carian language : ancient
language spoken in the southernmost area of western Anatolia.

Catalan language : CatalaRomancc language spoken in eastern and

northeastern Spain, chiefly in Catalonia and Valencia. It is also
spoken in the Roussillon region of France, in Andorra, and in the
Balearic Isles.

Palauan Language : major language of Palau, in the western Pacific

Ocean. It is classified as belonging to the eastern branch of the
Austronesian (MalayoPolynesian) family of languages.

Cebuano Language : also spelled Sebuano, also called Sugbuhanon,

member of the Western, or Indonesian, branch of the Austronesian
(MalayoPolynesian) language family.

Cherokee Language : a North American Indian language, member of

the Iroquoian family, spoken by the Cherokee people originally
inhabiting Virginia, North Carolina, South Carolina, and Georgia.
Coptic Language : AfroAsiatic (formerly HamitoSemitic) language
that was spoken inEgypt from about the 2nd century Ad and that
represents the final stage of the ancient Egyptian language. Cornish
Language : a member of the Brythonic group of Celtic languages,
formerly spoken in Cornwall in southwestern Britain; it became
extinct in the 18th or early 19th century as a result of displacement
by English. Dari language : member of the Iranian branch ofthe
IndoIranian family of languages; it is, along with Pashto, one of the
two official languages of Afghanistan. Dari is the Afghan dialect of
Farsi (Persian).
Eblaitc Language : archaic Semitic language, probably the most
ancient to survive in substantial form, dating from the third quarter
of the 3rd millennium BC. As a Northern Central Semitic language,
Eblaite is affiliated with the AfroAsiatic (formerly HamitoSemitic)
family of languages such as Old Akkadian. Llaniite language :
extinct language spoken by the Elamites in the ancient country of
Elam, which included the region from the Mesopotamian plain to
the Iranian Plateau.
Etruscan Language : language isolate spoken by close neighbours of
the ancient Romans.

Dogon language : language of the NigerCongo language family

spoken by some 600,000 Dogon people in northeastern Mali to the
east of Mopti and along the border between Mali and Burkina Faso.

Yukagir Language : language spoken by not more than a few

hundred persons in the Kolyma River region of Sakha (Yakutiya)
republic of Russia. Yucatec language : also called Maya, American
Indian language of the Mayan family, spoken in the Yucatan
Peninsula, including not only part of Mexico but also Belize.

Chuvash language : member of the Turkic branch of the Altaic

language family, spoken in Chuvashia and nearby regions along the
middle course of the Volga River, in the central part of European

Yoruba language : one of a small group of languages that comprise

the Yoruboid cluster of the Defoid subbranch of the BenueCongo
branch of the NigerCongo language family. The other Yoruboid
languages include Igala and Itsckiri.

Wolof Language: an Atlantic language of the Niger Congo language

family genetically related to Fula and Serer.

Volscian Language: an Italic language or dialect, closely related to

Umbrian and Oscan and more distantly related to Latin and

Votic Language: member of the Finno Ugric group of the Uralic

language family, very nearly extinct.

Welsh Language : Cymraeg, member of the Brythonic group of the

Celtic languages, spoken in Wales.

Wu Language : variety of Chinese spoken in southeastern Kiangsu

Province and in Chekiang Province by more than 8 percent of the
population of China. Major cities in which Wu is spoken include
Taichou, Shanghai, Soochow, Ningpo, and Wenchou. Xhosha
Language: Xhosa also spelled Xosaa Bantu language spoken by
seven million people in South Africa, especially in Eastern province.
Xhosa is a member of the Southeastern, or Nguni, subgroup of the
Bantu group of the BenueCongo branch of the Niger Congo
language family. Other Southeastern Bantu languages are Zulu,
Swati (Swazi), Sotho, Tswana, Venda, and Ndebele.

Sakha or Yakut Language : also called Yakut language or

SakhaTylamember of the Turkic subfamily of the Altaic language
family, spoken in northeastern Siberia (Sakha republic), in
northeastern Russia.

Yiddish Language : the language of Ashkenazic Jewry (central and

eastern European Jews and their descendants).

Tagalog language : member of the Central Philippine branch of the

Austronesian (Malayo-Polynesian) language family and the base for
Pilipino, an official language of the Philippines, together with English.
Syriac Language : Semitic language belonging to the Northern
Central, or Northwestern, group; it was an important Christian
literary and liturgical language from the 3rd through the 7th century

Synthetic language : any language in which syntactic relations

within sentences are expressed by inflection (the change in the
form of a word that indicates distinctions of tense, person, gender,
number, mood, voice, and case) or by agglutination (word formation
by means of morpheme, or word unit, clustering). Latin is an
example of an inflected language; Hungarian and Finnish are
examples of agglutinative languages. Highly synthetic languages, in
which a whole sentence may consist of a single word (usually a
verb form) containing a large number of affixes are called poly
synthetic. Eskimo and many American Indian languages are

Thracian Language : language spoken by the inhabitants of Thrace

primarily in pre Greek and early Greek times. Tigre Language :
Semitic language of the Tigre people of northwestern Eritrea and
smaller areas of neighbouring Sudan.

Tigrinya Language : also spelled Tigrigna, also called Tigray, or

Tigrai, Semitic language of the Tigray people of northern Ethiopia
and central Eritrea.

Tulu Language : also spelled Tugu, language of the Dravidian family,

spoken in southern Karn(taka (formerly Mysore) state, India.

Sedang Language : also called Roteang, Hadang, Hatea, or Hoteang,

North Bahnaric language of the MonKhmer family, which is itself a
part of the Austroasiatic stock. Shan Language : Shan Tai language
spoken in the northern and eastern states of Myanmar (Burma) and
belonging to the Southwestern group of the Tai language family of
Southeast Asia.

MonKhmer Language : language family included in the Austro-

asiatic stock. Mon Khmer languages constitute the indigenous
language family of mainland Southeast Asia. They range north to
southern China, south to Malaysia, west to Assam state in India,
and east to Vietnam.

► Baro -W. Amazon Basin.
► Bantu -sNegroes of central and southern Africa.
► Sakai- Malaya Island.
► Semang -Malaya hilly area.
► Papuan -Pacific ocean.
► Bushman -S. Africa's Kalahari Desert.
► Pygmies- Extremely shortstatured people of the Congo (Zaire)
► Bedouins -Arab (Hamad and Nefad desert).
► Berbers -Tribals of Morocco, Algeria and Tunisia.
► Bindibu- Natives of Western Australia.
► Gaucho- Nomads of Pampas in Uruguay and Argentina.
► Hamites -Dark-skinned Muslims in N.W.Africa.
► Masai-Tanganika, Kenya, East Uganda.
► Khirghiz -People of the steppe type region (Central Asia, Russia).
► Kikuyu -A tribe in Kenya.
► Lapps -People of European tundra.
► Eskimo- Greenland, Alaska and Tundra.
► Samoyed- People of the Asiatic tundra Western Siberia (North
► Semites- Jews and Ethiopeans.
► Yukagir- Siberia.
► Punan -Central Boroneao.
► Kazak -Russia.
► Masai- A Negro tribe of east Africa.
► Maya -Mexico, Guatemala and Honduras.
► Maori -New Zealand.
► Magyar -Hungary.
► Papuans- Tribal’s of New Guinea.
► Red Indians -Aborigines of North America.
► Tartars- A mixed group of people in Siberia.
► Veddas- The racial stock of Srilanka
► Yakuts -People in the tundra region in the USSR.
► Boer -S.Africa.
► Afridi -Pakistan.
► Zulu -S.Africa (Natal).
► Kossaks- (Black sea).

Regional Human Geography:

Ethnic groups: Pashtun (38 percent), Tajik (25 percent), Hazara (19
percent), Minor ethnic groups (Chahar Aimaks, Turkmen, Baluchi,
Nuristani, and others) 12 percent, Uzbek (6 percent). Languages:
Afghan Persian (Dari) 50 (percent), Pashto (35 percent), Turkic
languages (primarily Uzbek and Turkmen) (11 percent), 30 minor
languages (primarily Balochi and Pashai) (4 percent).
Religious affiliations: Sunni Muslim (84 percent), Shia Muslim (15
percent), Other (1 percent).

Ethnic groups Albanian 95 percent Greek 3 percent Other (Vlachs,
Roma [Gypsies], Serbs, and Bulgarians) 2 percent.
Languages Albanian (Tosk is the official dialect; Gheg is spoken
primarily in the north), Greek.
Religious affiliations Muslim 70 percent Greek Orthodox 20 percent
Roman Catholic 10 percent.

Ethnic groups Arab 83 percent Berber 16 percent European Less
than 1 percent.
Languages Arabic (official), Berber dialects, French.
Religious affiliations Muslim (Islam is the official religion) 96 percent
Nonreligious 3 percent Christian, Jewish, and other 1 percent.

Ethnic groups Ovimbunda 37 percent Mbundu 25 percent Bakongo or
Kongo 15 percent LundaChokwe 8 percent Nganguela 6 percent
European 1 percent Other 8 percent.
Languages Portuguese (official); Bantu and other African languages.
Religious affiliations Roman Catholic 65 percent Protestant 20
percent Indigenous beliefs 10 percent Other 5 percent.

Ethnic groupsDescendants of European immigrants 85 percent
Mestizo, Native American, and other 15 percent. Languages Spanish
(official), English, Italian, German, French, indigenous languages.
Religious affiliations Roman Catholic 91 percent Jewish 1 percent
Nonreligious 2 percent Other 6 percent.

Ethnic groups Armenian 93 percent Azeri 3 percent Russian 2
percent Other 2 percent. As of the end of 1993, most Azeris had
emigrated from Armenia. LanguagesArmenian 96 percent Russian 2
percent Other 2 percent. Religious affiliations Armenian Apostolic 94
percent Other 6 percent.

Ethnic groups Caucasian 95 percent Asian 4 percent Aboriginal and
other 1 percent.
Languages English (official), indigenous languages.
Religious affiliations Roman Catholic 29 percent Anglican 22 percent
Protestants 14 percent Other Christian 15 percent nonreligious 14
percent Other 6 percent.

Ethnic groups German 99.4 percent Croatian 0.3 percent Slovene 0.2
percent Other 0.1 percent. Languages German (official), Bosnian,
Croatian, Serbian, Slovenian, Turkish, Polish, Slovak, Hungarian,
English. Religious affiliations Roman Catholic 76 percent Protestant 5
percent Nonreligious 7 percent Muslims 2 percent Other 10 percent.

Ethnic groups Azeri 90.0 percent Dahestani 3.2 percent Russian 2.5
percent Armenian 2.3 percent Other 2.0 percent Almost all
Armenians live in the separatist Nagorno Karabakh (disputed) region.
Languages Azeri 89 percent Russian 3 percent Armenian 2 percent
Other 6 percent.
Religious affiliations Muslim 93.4 percent Russian Orthodox 2.5
percent Armenian Apostolic 2.3 percent Other 1.8 percent.

Ethnic groups Bahraini Arab 63 percent Asian 13 percent Other Arab
10 percent Iranian 8 percent Other 6 percent.
Languages Arabic (official), English, Persian (Farsi), Urdu.
Religious affiliations Shiite Muslim 60 percent Sunni Muslim 25
percent Christian 9 percent Oilier 6 percent.

Ethnic groups Bengali 98 percent Other 2 percent.
Languages Bangla (official), Urdu, English.
Religious affiliations Muslim 86 percent Hindu 12 percent Other 2

Ethnic groups Belarusian 77.9 percent Russian 13.2 percent Polish 4.1
percent Ukrainian 2.9 percent Other 1.9 percent. Languages
Belarusian (official), Russian (official), Polish, Ukrainian, other.
Religious affiliations Eastern Orthodox 49 percent Roman Catholic 13
percent Atheist 9 percent Nonreligious 24 percent Other 5 percent.

Ethnic groups Flemish 55 percent Walloon 33 percent Mixed or other
12 percent.
Languages Dutch (official) 56 percent French (official) 32 percent
German (official) 1 percent Legally bilingual (divided along ethnic
lines) 11 percent. Religious affiliations Roman Catholic 81 percent
Protestant 1 percent Muslims 4 percent Nonreligious 6 percent Other
8 percent.

Ethnic groups Mestizo 44 percent Creole 30 percent Maya 11 percent
Garifuna 7 percent Other 8 percent. Languages English (official),
Spanish, Maya, Garifuna (Carib). Religious affiliations Roman Catholic
62 percent Protestant 30 percent Other 6 percent None 2 percent.

Ethnic groups African (42 ethnic groups, the largest being Fon, Adja,
Yoruba, and Bariba) 99 percent Other 1 percent.
Languages French (official), Fon and Yoruba (most common
vernaculars in south), Bariba and Somba (most common vernaculars
in north), indigenous languages.
Religious affiliations Indigenous beliefs 65 percent Muslim 15 percent
Christian (largely Roman Catholic) 20 percent.

Ethnic groups Bhutia 50 percent Ethnic Nepalese 35 percent
Sharchops 10 percent Indigenous or migrant groups 5 percent.
Languages Dzongkha (official); the Bhutia speak various Tibetan
dialects; the Nepalese speak various Nepalese dialects.
Religious affiliations Lamaist Buddhist 75 percent Indian and
Nepaleseinfluenced Hindu 25 percent.

Regional Human Geography:

Ethnic groups Quechua 30 percent Mestizo 30 percent Aymara 25
percent European 15 percent.
Languages Spanish (official), Quechua (official), Aymara (official).
Religious affiliations Roman Catholic 88 percent Protestant
(Evangelical Methodist) and other 12 percent. BOSNIA HERZEGOVINA
Ethnic groups Muslim 40 percent Serbian 38 percent Croatian 22
percent Languages SerboCroatian (official) 99 percent Other 1
percent. Religious affiliations Muslim 40 percent Orthodox Christian
31 percent Roman Catholic 15 percent Protestant 4 percent Other or
nonreligious 10 percent.

Ethnic groups Tswana 75 percent Kalanga, Basarwa, and Kgalagadi 4
percent Other 21 percent. Languages English (official), Setswana.
Religious affiliations Indigenous beliefs 50 percent Christian 50

Ethnic groups Caucasian (includes Portuguese, German, Italian,
Spanish, and Polish) 55 percent Mixed Caucasian and African 38
percent African 6 percent Other (including Japanese and Arab) 1
Languages Portuguese (official), Spanish, English, French. Religious
affiliations Roman Catholic (nominal) 90 percent Spiritists and African
Brazilian religions, such as Candombl, Maoumba, and Umbanda 4
percent Nonreligious 2 percent Other 4 percent.

Ethnic groups Malay 64 percent Chinese 20 percent Other 16
percent. Languages Malay (official), English, Chinese.
Religious affiliations Muslim (Islam is the official religion) 67 percent
Buddhist 14 percent Christian 10 percent Indigenous beliefs and
other 9 percent.

Ethnic groups Bulgarian 85.3 percent Turkish 8.5 percent Roma
(Gypsy) 2.6 percent Macedonian 2.5 percent Armenian 0.3 percent
Russian 0.2 percent Other 0.6 percent.
Languages Bulgarian (official); secondary languages closely
correspond to ethnic breakdown.
Religious affiliations Bulgarian Orthodox 85 percent Muslim 13
percent Other 2 percent.

Ethnic groups Mossi, Gourounsi, Senufo, Lobi, Bobo, Mande, Fulani.
Languages French (official); tribal languages belonging to Sudanic
family are spoken by 90 percent ofthe population. Religious
affiliations Muslim 50 percent Indigenous beliefs 40 percent Christian
(mainly Roman Catholic) 10 percent.

Ethnic groups Hutu (Bantu speakers) 79 percent Tutsi (Hamitic) 20
percent Twa 1 percent.
Languages Kirundi (official), French (official), Swahili (along Lake
Tanganyika and in the Bujumbura area). Religious affiliations Roman
Catholic 62 percent Indigenous beliefs 32 percent Protestant 5
percent Muslim 1 percent.

Ethnic groups Khmer 90 percent Vietnamese 5 percent Chinese 1
percent Other 4 percent.
Languages Khmer (official), French. Religious affiliations Theravada
Buddhist 85 percent Indigenous beliefs 4 percent Muslim 2 percent
Nonreligious 2 percent Other 7 percent.

Ethnic groups There are some 200 groups, the largest of which are
the Fang, Bamileke, Fulani, and Pahouin (Beti). Most groups make up
less than 1 percent of the population. Languages 24 major African
language groups, English (official), French (official). Religious
affiliations Christian 53 percent Indigenous beliefs 25 percent Muslim
22 percent.

Ethnic groups British Isles origin 35.0 percent French origin 25.0
percent Other European origin 20.0 percent Indigenous peoples
(designated in the census as 'Aboriginal") 3.0 percent Other 17.0
Languages English (official), French (official), Chinese, Italian, Punjabi,
Spanish, indigenous languages. Religious affiliations Roman Catholic
45.2 percent United Church 11.5 percent Anglican 8.1 percent Other
Protestant 7.9 percent Other or nonreligious 27.2 percent.

CENTRAL AFRICAN REPUBLIC Ethnic groups Baya 34 percent Banda

27 percent Mandjia 21 percent Sara 10 percent Mboum 4 percent
M'Baka 4 percent Languages French (official), Sango.
Religious affiliations Indigenous beliefs 60 percent Protestant 18
percent Roman Catholic 17 percent Muslim 5 percent.

Ethnic groups In northern and central Chad, Muslim peoples are
dominant, including the Toubou, Hadjerai, Fulbe, Kotoko, Kanembou,
Baguirmi, Boulala, Zaghawa, and Maba. NonMuslim peoples make up
the majority of the population in southern Chad. These groups
include the Sara, Ngambaye, Mbaye, Goulaye, Moundang, Moussei,
and Massa.
Languages French (official), Arabic (official); more than 100 different
languages and dialects are spoken. Religious affiliations Muslim 50
percent Christian 33 percent Indigenous beliefs and animist 17
Ethnic groups Mestizo 93 percent Native American 3 percent
European 2 percent Other 2 percent. Languages Spanish (official).
Religious affiliations Roman Catholic 78 percent Protestant 3 percent
Atheists 2 percent Nonreligious 7 percent Other 10 percent.

Ethnic groups Han Chinese 92 percent Zhuang, Mongolian, Tibetan,
Uygur, Miao, Yi, Korean, Yao, Bai, Tujia, Hani, and other nationalities 8
percent. Languages Standard Chinese, or Mandarin (Putonghua,
based on the Beijing dialect); Yue (Cantonese), Wu (Shanghainese),
Minbei (Fuzhou), Minnan (HokkienTaiwanese), Xiang, Gan, and Hakka
dialects; minority languages.
Religious affiliations Officially atheist, but traditionally eclectic.
Nonreligious 42 percent Buddhist 8 percent Atheist 8 percent
Christian 7 percent Muslim 1 percent Other 34 percent. COLOMBIA
Ethnic groups Mestizo 58 percent White 20 percent Mulatto (people
of mixecfblack and white ancestry) 14 percent Black 4 percent
Mixed blackNative American 3 percent Native American 1 percent.
Languages Spanish (official). Religious affiliations Roman Catholic 96
percent Protestant 2 Percent Nonreligious 1 percent Other 1 percent.

Ethnic groups White (including mestizo) 96 percent Black 2 percent
Native American 1 percent Chinese 1 percent. Languages Spanish
(official), English. Religious affiliations Roman Catholic 90 percent
Other 10 percent.

Ethnic groups There are some 60 groups, the largest of which are
the Akan (Baule, Agni), Kru, Mande (Mandinke, Bambara), Senufo,
Dan, Guro, Gagou, and Lobi. There are 2 million Burkinabe, 100,000
to 300,000 Lebanese, and 30,000 French.
Languages French (official); Akan, Dioula, 60 native dialects. Religious
affiliations Muslim 39 percent Indigenous beliefs 35 percent Christian
26 percent.

Ethnic groups Croatian 78 percent Serb 12 percent Other 10 percent.
Languages Croatian 96 percent Other 4 percent.
Religious affiliations Roman Catholic 76.5 percent Orthodox Christian
11.1 percent Islam 1.2 percent Protestant 0.4 percent Other and
unknown 10.8 percent.

Regional Human Geography:

Ethnic groups Mixed race 51 percent White 37 percent Black 11
percent Other 1 percent.
Languages Spanish (official). Religious affiliations Roman Catholic 40
percent Traditional African beliefs and other (especially Santeria) 17
percent Atheist 7 percent Protestant 2 percent Nonreligious 30
percent Other 4 percent.

Ethnic groups Greek 85 percent Turkish 12 percent Other 3 percent.
Languages Greek, Turkish, English. Religious affiliations Greek
Orthodox 85 percent Muslim 12 percent Maronite, Armenian
Apostolic, and other 3 percent.

CZECH REPUBLIC Ethnic groups Czech 94.0 percent Slovak 3.0

percent Roma (Gypsy) 0.7 percent Polish 0.6 percent German 0.5
percent Hungarian 0.2 percent Other 1.0 percent.
Languages Czech (official), Slovak, German, Russian, English.
Religious affiliations Roman Catholic 40 percent Protestant 3 percent
Atheist 5 percent Nonreligious 32 percent Other 20 percent.


Ethnic groups There are more than 200 African ethnic groups. The
largest culture groups are the Lunda, Luba, Kuba, Bakongo (Kongo),
Mongo, Mangbetu, and Azande. Other Bantu, NiloSaharan,
AfricanAsian, European, and Asian groups also exist.
Languages French (official), Lingala, Kikongo, Tshiluba, Swahili, other
indigenous languages.
Religious affiliations Roman Catholic 52 percent Protestant 20
percent Kimbanguist (indigenous Christian) 10 percent Muslim 2
percent Other syncretism sects and traditional beliefs 16 percent.

Ethnic groups Danish, Inuit (Eskimo), Faroese, German.
Languages Danish (official), Faroese, Greenlandic (an Inuit dialect),
German. Religious affiliations Protestant 88 percent Roman Catholic
1 percent Nonreligious 5 percent Other 6 percent. DJIBOUTI
Ethnic groups Somali (largely lssa) 60 percent Afar 30 percent
French, Arab, Italian, other 10 percent. Languages French (official),
Arabic (official), Somali, Afar. Religious affiliations Muslim 97 percent
Christian and othecs 3 percent.

Ethnic groups Mestizo 55 percent Native American 25 percent
Spanish 10 percent Black 10 percent. Languages Spanish (official),
Native American languages (especially Quechua).
Religious affiliations Roman Catholic 94 percent Protestant 2 percent
Nonreligious 1 percent Other 3 percent.

Ethnic groups Eastern Hamitic (Egyptians, Bedouin, and Berbers) 99
percent Greek, Nubian, Armenian, other European 1 percent.
Languages Arabic (official); English and French widely understood by
the educated.
Religious affiliations Muslim (mostly Sunni) 94 percent (official
estimate) Coptic Christian and other 6 percent (official estimate).
Ethnic groups Mestizo 90 percent White 9 percent Native American
1 percent.
Languages Spanish (official), Nahuatl, Kekch, English Religious
affiliations Roman Catholic 85 percent Protestant 10 percent Other 5

Ethnic groups Tigrinya 50 percent Tigre, Kunama 40 percent Afar 4
percent Saho 3 percent Bilen, Hedareb, Nara, Rashaida 3 percent.
Languages Tigrinya, Tigre, Arabic, Afar, Bilen, Hedareb, Kunama,
Nara, Rashaida, Saho, English. Religious affiliations Muslim, Coptic
Christian, Roman Catholic, Protestant.

Ethnic groups Estonian 64 percent Russian 29 percent Ukrainian 3
percent Belarusian 2 percent Finn 1 percent Other 1 percent.
Languages Estonian (official), Russian, Ukranian, Belarusian, Finnish,
Latvian, Lithuanain, German, English. Religious affiliations Protestant
17 percent Orthodox Christian 16 percent Other Christian 13 percent
Atheist 11 percent Nonreligious 25 percent Other 18 percent.

Ethnic groups Oromo 40 percent Amhara, Tigrean 32 percent Sidamo
9 percent Shankella 6 percent Somali 6 percent Afar 4 percent
Gurage 2 percent Other 1 percent.
Languages Amharic (official), Tigrinya, Tigre, Orominga, Ge'ez,
Gurage, Somali, Arabic, English.
Religious affiliations Ethiopian Orthodox 40 percent Muslim 45
percent Indigenous beliefs 12 percent Other 3 percent .

Ethnic groups Macedonian Slavs 67 percent Albanian 23 percent
Turkish 4 percent Serbian 2 percent Roma (Gypsy), other 4 percent.
Languages Macedonian 70 percent Albanian 21 percent Turkish 3
percent SerboCroatian 3 percent Other 3 percent.
Religious affiliations Orthodox Christian (mostly Macedonian
Orthodox) 60 percent Muslim 29 percent Nonreligious 7 percent
Other 4 percent.

Ethnic groups Fijian 50 percent Indian 45 percent European, other
Pacific Islander, Chinese, other 5 percent. Languages English
(official), Fijian, Hindustani.
Religious affiliations Protestant (mostly Methodist) 46 percent Hindu
33 percent Roman Catholic 10 percent Muslim 7 percent Other 4
percent NOTE: Fijians are mainly Christian, Indians are Hindu or
Muslim, and Chinese are Christian or Buddhist.

Ethnic groups Finn 93 percent Swede 6 percent Saami, Russian 1
percent. Languages Finnish (official) 92 5 percent Swedish (official)
5.7 percent Small Saami and Russian speaking minorities 0.5 percent
Others 1.3 percent. Religious affiliations Protestant (Evangelical
Lutheran) 86 percent Finnish Orthodox 1 percent Nonreligious 5
percent Atheist 1 percent Other 7 percent.

Ethnic groups Celtic and Latin with Teutonic, Slavic, and Nordic;
North and West African, Caribbean, Indochinese. and Basque
minorities. Languages French, regional dialects and languages
(Provencal, Breton, Alsatian, Corsican, Catalan, Basque, Flemish),
English, Arabic.
Religious affiliations Roman Catholic 81 percent Protestant 2 percent

Ethnic groups Fang 36 percent Mpongwe 15 percent Mbete 14
percent Punu 12 percent Other 23 percent. Languages French
(official), Fang, other indigenous languages Religious affiliations
Christian 60 percent Animist 39 percent Muslim 1 percent.

Ethnic groups Georgian 70.1 percent Armenian 8.1 percent Russian
6.3 percent Azeri 5,7 percent Ossetian 3.0 percent Abkhazian 1.8
percent Other 5.0 percent.
Languages Georgian (official), Russian, Armenian, Azerbaijani, other.
Religious affiliations Orthodox Christian 58 percent Muslim 19
percent Atheist 3 percent Roman Catholic 1 percent Nonreligious 15
percent Other 4 percent.

Regional Human Geography:

Ethnic groups German 91.5 percent Turkish 2.3 percent Italian 0.7
percent Greek 0.4 percent Polish 0,4 percent Other 4.7 percent.
Languages German (official), English, Russian, Sorbian.
Religious affiliations Protestant 37 percent Roman Catholic 35
percent Muslim 4 percent Nonreligious 17 percent Other 7 percent.

Ethnic Divisions Adangbe, Akuapem, Akyem, Ashanti, Bono,
Dagomba, Ewe, Fante, Ga, Gonja, Kwahu, Mamprusi, Nzima, and
Languages English (official), Akan, Nzima, Dagbane, Ga, Ewe, other
African languages .
Religious affiliations Ethnoreligionists or indigenous beliefs 24
percent Muslim 20 percent Protestant 17 percent Independent
Christian 14 percent Roman Catholic 10 percent Other 15 percent.

Ethnic groups Greek 98 percent Other 2 percent NOTE: The Greek
government states that there are no ethnic divisions in Greece.
Languages Greek (official), Turkish, English, French.
Religious affiliations Greek Orthodox 94 percent Muslim 3 percent
Nonreligious 2 percent Other 1.

Ethnic groups Ladino (mestizo) 56 percent Native American 44
percent. Languages Spanish (official); more than 20 Native American
languages, including Quich, Cakchiquel, and Kekch Religious
affiliations Roman Catholic 90 percent Protestant, traditional Mayan,
others 10 percent.

Ethnic groups East Indian 51 percent Black African, mixed 43
percent Native American 4 percent European, Chinese 2 percent.
Languages English (official), Hindi, Urdu, Native American dialects.
Religious affiliations Hindu 33 percent Protestant 20 percent Roman
Catholic 10 percent Anglican 9 percent Muslim 9 percent Indigenous
beliefs 2 percent Other 17 percent.

Ethnic groups Black African 95 percent Mixed race and European 5
percent Languages French (official), Creole (official).
Religious affiliations Roman Catholic 80 percent Protestant 17
percent Nonreligious 1 percent Other 2 percent Nearly onehalf of
the population also practices Vodun (also called Vodou or voodoo).

Ethnic groups Mestizo 90 percent Native American (primarily Miskito,
Payas, Xicaques, Zambo) 7 percent Black African 2 percent White 1
percent. 7 Languages Spanish (official), Native American dialects,
Creole, English. Religious affiliations Roman Catholic 94 percent
Protestant, other 6 percent.

Ethnic groups Hungarian (Magyar) 89.9 percent Roma (Gypsy) 4.0
percent German 2.6 percent Serbian 2.0 percent Slovak 0.8 percent
Romanian 0.7 percent.
Languages Hungarian (Magyar) (official) 98.2 percent Other 1.8
percent. Religious affiliations Roman Catholic 63 percent Calvinist 20
percent Lutheran 5 percent Atheist 4 percent Nonreligious 7 percent
Other 1 percent.

Ethnic groups Javanese 45 percent Sundanese 14 percent Madurese
8 percent Coastal Malay 7 percent Other (350 distinct ethnic groups)
26 percent. Languages Bahasa Indonesia (modified form of Malay;
official), English, Dutch, Sundanese, Arabic, Chinese, and local
dialects, especially Javanese (about 300 languages and dialects are
spoken). Religious affiliations Muslim 87 percent Protestant 6 percent
Roman Catholic 3 percent Hindu 2 percent Buddhist 1 percent Other
1 percent.
Ethnic groups Persian 60 percent Azerbaijani and other Turkic 25
percent Kurdish 7 percent Lur 2 percent Baluchi, Turkmen, and other
6 percent. Languages Persian (Farsi) and Persian dialects 58 percent
Turkic and Turkic dialects 26 percent Kurdish 9 percent Lluri, Balochi,
Arabic, Turkmen, and other 7 percent.
Religious affiliations Shiite Muslim 93 percent Sunni Muslim 6
percent Zoroastrian, Jewish, Christian, and Baha'i 1 percent.

Ethnic groups Arab 7580 percent Kurds 1520 percent Turkmen,
Assyrian, Jews, and other 5 percent. Languages Arabic (official),
Kurdish (in Kurd occupied areas), Assyrian, Armenian.
Religious affiliations Muslim 96 percent Shia 6065 percent Sunni 3136
percent Christian 3 percent Other 1 percent.

Ethnic groups Celtic, English Languages Irish (Gaelic) is spoken
mainly in areas along the western seaboard. English is the language
generally used. Both Irish and English are official languages.
Religious affiliations Roman Catholic 85 percent Church of Ireland
(Anglican) 4 percent Protestant 1 percent Nonreligious 3 percent
Other 7 percent.

Ethnic groups Jewish (Israelbom 62 percent, Europe/Americas/Oceara
born 26 percent, Africabora 7 percent, Asiaborn 5 percent) 82 percent
Non Jewish (mostly Arab) 18 percent. Languages Hebrew (official),
Arabic used officially for Arab minority, English Religious affiliations
Jewish 77 percent
Muslim (mostly Sunni Muslim) 12 percent Christian 5 percent
Nonreligious 4 percent Other (including Druze, Bahai) 2 percent.

Ethnic groups Italian (includes small clusters of German, French, and
Slovene Italians in the north and Albanian and Greek Italians in the
south), Sicilian, Sardinian.
Languages Italian (official), German, French, Slovenian, Ladin,
regional Italian dialects.
Religious affiliations Roman Catholic 98 percent Other 2 percent.

Ethnic groups Japanese 99.4 percent Other (mostly Korean), including
Ainu 0.6 percent.
Languages Japanese (official). Religious affiliations Buddhist 55
percent Christian 4 percent Shintoist 3 percent Nonreligious 10
percent Other (including "new religions") 28 percent. JORDAN
Ethnic groups Arab 98 percent Circassian 1 percent Armenian 1
percent. Languages Arabic (official), English widely understood
among educated population.
Religious affiliations Muslim (Islam is the official religion; almost all
Sunni Muslim) 93 percent Christian 4 percent Nonreligious 2 percent
Other 1 percent.
Ethnic groups Kazakh (Qazaq) 46 percent Russian 35 percent
Ukrainian 5 percent German 3 percent Uzbek 2 percent Tatar 2
percent Other 7 percent. Languages Kazakh (Qazaq, official
language); Russian (language of interethnic communication).
Religious affiliations Muslim 43 percent Atheist 11 percent Orthodox
Christian 10 percent Roman Catholic 3 percent Nonreligious 29
percent Other 4 percent.

Ethnic groups Kikuyu 21 percent Luhya 14 percent Luo 12 percent
Kalenjin 11 percent Kamba 11 percent Kisii 6 percent Meru 6 percent
Other 19 percent. Languages English (official), Swahili or Kiswahili
(official), Kikuyu, Luo, numerous other indigenous languages.
Religious affiliations Protestant 43 percent Roman Catholic 23
percent Indigenous beliefs 12 percent Anglican 10 percent Muslim 7
percent Hindu 1 percent Other 4 percent.

Ethnic groups Kuwaiti 45 percent Other Arab 35 percent Indian,
Pakistani 9 percent Iranian 4 percent Other 7 percent. Languages
Arabic (official), English widely spoken.
Religious affiliations Sunni Muslim 45 percent Shia Muslim 40
percent Roman Catholic 9 percent Hindu 3 percent Nonreligious 1
percent Other 2 percent.

Ethnic groups Kyrgyz 57 percent Russian 18 percent Uzbek 14
percent Ukrainian 2 percent German 2 percent Tajik, other 7 percent.
Languages Kyrgyz (official), Russian. Religious affiliations Muslim 70
percent Russian Orthodox 20 percent Other 10 percent.

Regional Human Geography:

Ethnic groups Lao Lum (lowland Lao),
including Lao and Tai 66 percent Lao
Thoeng (Lao of the mountain slopes),
including Khamu, Lamet, Laven,
Sedang, and Nyaheun 24 percent Lao
Sung (Lao of the mountaintops),
including Hmong and Yao (Mien) 10
percent. Languages Lao (official),
numerous indigenous languages and
dialects, French, English.
Religious affiliations Buddhist 60
percent Animist, Christian, Muslim 40

Ethnic groups Latvian 55 percent
Russian 32 percent Belarusian 4
percent Ukrainian 3 percent Polish 3
percent Other 3 percent.
Languages Latvian (official), Russian,
Religious affiliations Lutheran, Roman
Catholic, Eastern Orthodox.

Ethnic groups Arab 93 percent
Armenian 5 percent Other 2 percent.
Languages Arabic (official), French,
Armenian, English Religious
affiliations Muslim 70 percent (5
legally recognized Islamic groups:
Shia, Sunni, AJawite, Druze, Isma'ilite)
Christian 30 percent (11 legally
recognized Christian groups: 4
Orthodox Christian, 6 Catholic, 1

Ethnic groups Indigenous African
ethnic groups (Bassa, Gio, Kpelle,
Kru) 95 percent AmericoLiberians
(descendants of repatriated slaves) 5
percent. Languages English (official)
20 percent Mande, KruBassa, other 80
percent. Religious affiliations
Indigenous beliefs 70 percent Muslim
20 percent Christian 10 percent.

Ethnic groups Indigenous African
ethnic groups (Bassa, Gio, Kpelle,
Kru) 95 percent AmericoLiberians
(descendants of repatriated slaves) 5
percent. Languages English (official)
20 percent Mande, KruBassa, other 80
percent Religious affiliations
Indigenous beliefs 70 percent Muslim
20 percent Christian 10 percent.

Ethnic groups Lithuanian 80 percent
Russian 8 percent Polish 8 percent
Belarusian 2 percent Ukrainian 1
percent Other 1 percent. Languages
Lithuanian (official), Russian, Polish,
English Religious affiliations Roman
Catholic 84 percent Orthodox
Christian 3 percent Protestant 1
percent Nonreligious 11 percent
Other 1 percent.

Ethnic groups Celtic base (with
French and German blend) 75
percent Guest workers and residents
from other European countries,
including Portugaland Italy 25
Languages Luxembourgisch, German,
French, English Religious affiliations
Roman Catholic 94 percent Protestant
2 percent Nonreligious 3 percent
Other 1 percent.

Ethnic groups Merina 27 percent
Betsimisaraka 15 percent Betsileo 12
percent Tsimihety 7 percent Sakalava
6 percent Antaisaka 5 percent Other
28 percent.
Languages French (official), Malagasy
(official), Hova and other dialects
Religious affiliations Indigenous
beliefs 52 percent Christian 41
percent Muslim 7 percent.

Ethnic groups Chewa, Nyanja,
Tumbuka, Yao, Lomwe, Sena, Tonga,
Ngoni, Ngonde, Asian, European
Languages English (official),
Chichewa, other indigenous
languages Religious affiliations
Protestant 55 percent Roman Catholic
20 percent Muslim 20 percent Hindu,
indigenous beliefs 5 percent.
Ethnic groups Malays and other
indigenous groups 59 percent
Chinese 26 percent Indian 7 percent
Other 8 percent.
Languages Bahasa Malaysia (official),
Chinese (various dialects), English,
Tamil, Iban, other indigenous
languages Religious affiliations
Muslim 48 percent Folk religions 24
percent Christian 8 percent Buddhist
7 percent Hindu 7 percent Other 6
Ethnic groups Sinhalese, Dravidian,
Arab, African.
Languages Divehi (official; dialect of
Sinhala), English Religious affiliations
Muslim (Islam is the official religion;
mostly Sunni Muslim).

Ethnic groups Sinhalese, Dravidian,
Arab, African.
Languages Divehi (official; dialect of
Sinhala), English Religious affiliations
Muslim (Islam is the official religion;
mostly Sunni Muslim).

Ethnic groups Maltese 96 percent
British 2 percent Other (including
Sicilian, French, Spanish, and Italian)
2 percent Languages Maltese
(official), English (official), Italian
Religious affiliations Roman Catholic
93 percent Other 7 percent.

Ethnic groups Moor 30 percent Mixed
Moor, black 40 percent Other
(including Fulani and Wolof) 30
percent Languages Arabic (official),
Fulfulde, Soninke, Wolof, French
Religious affiliations Muslim (Islam is
the official religion; almost all Sunni
Muslim) 100 percent.

Ethnic groups Indian Mauritian 68
percent Creole 27 percent Chinese
Mauritian 3 percent French Mauritian
2 percent Languages English (official),
Creole, French, Hindi, Urdu, Hakka,
Bhojpuri, other.
Religious affiliations Hindu 52 percent
Christian 28 percent Muslim 17
percent Buddhist, other 3 percent.

Ethnic groups Mestizo (Native
AmericanSpanish) 60 percent
Amerindian 30 percent European
ancestry 9 percent Other 1 percent.
Languages Spanish (official), various
indigenous languages, English.
Religious affiliations Roman Catholic
89 percent Protestant 3 percent
Nonreligious 3 percent Other 5

Ethnic groups Mongol 90 percent
Kazakh 4 percent Chinese 2 percent
Russian 2 percent Other 2 percent.
Languages Khalkha Mongolian 90
percent Turkic, Russian, English, other
Mongolian dialects 10 percent.
Religious affiliations Indigenous
beliefs 3 i percent Tibetan Buddhist
(Lamaist) 23 percent Atheist 9
percent Muslim 5 percent
Nonreligious 30 percent Other 2

Ethnic groups Arab, Berber, mixed
ArabBerber 99 percent Other 1
percent Languages Arabic (official),
Derija (Moroccan Arabic), Berber
dialects, French.
Religious affiliations Muslim 98
percent Christian 1 percent
Nonreligious and other 1 percent.

Ethnic groups Makua, Yao, Makonde,
Tonga, Tsonga, Chopi, Shona, Nguni,
Languages Portuguese (official);
Swahili, indigenous dialects, including
Makua, Ronga, Tsongan, and Muchope
Religious affiliations Indigenous
beliefs 55 percent Christian 30
percent Muslim 15 percent.

Ethnic groups Burman 68 percent
Shan 9 percent Karen 7 percent
Arakanese (Rakhine) 4 percent
Chinese 3 percent Mon 2 percent
Indian 2 percent Other 5 percent.
Languages Burmese (official);
minority ethnic groups have their
own languages.
Religious affiliations Buddhist 73
percent Indigenous beliefs 12 percent
Protestant 6 percent Muslim 3
percent Hindu 2 percent Other 4

Ethnic groups Black 86.0 percent
White 6.6 percent Mixed 7.4 percent
NOTE: About 50 percent of the
population belongs to the Ovambo
group and 9 percent to the Kavango
group. Other ethnic groups include
(with approximate share of total
population) Herero 7 percent, Damara
7 percent, Nama 5 percent, Caprivian
4 percent, San or Khoikhoi 3 percent,
Baster 2 percent, and Tswana 0.5
Languages Although English is the
official language, most Namibians
speak at least one indigenous
language at home. Afrikaans and
German are also spoken.
Religious affiliations Christian 90
percent Other or nonreligious 10

Ethnic groups Newar, Bihari, Tibetan,
Gurung, Magar, Tamang, Thakali,
Bhutia, Rai, Limbu, Sherpa.
Languages Nepali (official), English,
almost 20 other languages divided
into numerous dialects.
Religious affiliations Hindu (Hinduism
is the official religion) 86 percent
Buddhist 8 percent Muslim 4 percent
Other 2 percent.

- 7th largest country (AREA) Total
Area = 32, 87, 263 Sq Km. (i) 3, 214
Km= North to South (ii) 2, 933 Km=
West to East
-Latitudinal extent 8°4'N to 37°6'N
-Longitudinal extent 68°7'E to 97°25'E
(For mainland) -Southern most point
Indira point or Pygmalion Point
(Andaman and Nicobar Island) 64°5'N
-Indian Ocean is encircled by 46
countries (27 littoral including
Australia, 7 island states and 12
landlocked countries).
- Palk Strait and Gulf of Mannar
separates it from Sri Lanka
-Coastline is 6,100 Km (along main
land mass) and 7,516 Km

-Border Distances
China India 4, 225 Km
India Pakistan 4, 090 Km
India Bangladesh 3, 910 Km
India Myanmar 1, 450 Km
Boundary Lines:
Durand Line: Pakistan and
Mac Mohan Line: India and China
Radcliff Line: India and Pakistan
Maginot Line: France and Germany
Hindenburg Line: Poland and
Order Niesse Line: Poland and
38th Parallel: North and South Korea
49th Parallel: USA and Canada
Mannerheim Line: Finland and Russia

-PreCambrian (600 Million Years ago)
Archaean Gneissic and Granites.
Igneous Activities, subsequent
Metamorphism andfolding of the
Dharwarian Group (Bijawars)
Igneous activities and intrusions.
Calcareous and Arenaceous deposits
(Cuddapah and Vindhvanbasins).
Gondwana system (carboniferous)
permacarboniferous glaciation and
extensive glaciofluvial deposition.
Fracturing of Gondwanaland, further
uplift of Vindhyan sediments
formation of western ghats.
Lava flow and formation of Deccan
Collision of the Indian plate with
Eurasian plate leading to Himalayan
Himadri (Greater Himalayas)
Rajmahal Garo gap or the Malda gap
and upheaval of IndoGanga divide
(Potwar Plateau).

-The intensity of the earthquake is
measured by Modified Mercalli (MM)
Scale which is expressed in Roman
numerals from I to XII (I Feeble, XII
Catastrophic). -Based on intensities
of the earthquakes recorded on MM
Scale, the Indian Standards Institute
has divided India into 5 Seismic
Zone I: Intensity V or below (Feeble)
Zone II: Intensity VI (Strong)
Zone III: Intensity VII (Very Strong)
Zone IV: Intensity VIII (Destructive)
Zone V: Intensity IX or above
- Another popular scale is Richter
It has 9 divisions starting from 1 to 9
with feeblest at magnitude of 3.5 and
most catastrophic known at a
maximum of 8.9.
-According to seismological studies,
about 2/3 rd of India is earthquake
-The whole country is divided into
three Seismological Zones:
Himalayan Zone. Most prone (J and
K, HP, Uttaranchal, Nepal Bihar
Border, Bihar, North Eastern
States). This zone is seismic due to
plate tectonics. Himalayas have not
yet attained isostatic equilibrium and
are still rising.
Indo Gangetic Zone. To the south of
the Himalayan zone. Most
earthquakes in this zone lie in 6 6.5
on Richter scale. This zone is called
the zone of comparative intensity
and it is more harmful because of
high population density. Peninsular
Zone Stable mass. It is the zone of
minimum intensity.
- Other isolated regions including
reservoir induced seismicity e.g.
Koyna, Idduki.

-At present no active volcanoes
except on the Barren Island (A/N
- The geological evidences show 6
areas of vulcanicity:
1. Dharwar Basalt traces found in
Dalma (Bihar)
2. Cuddapah Cuddapah, Bijapur and
Gwalior area.
3. Vindhyan Malani (Jodhpur), Kirana
4. Palaeozoic Kashmir, N.Punjab and
Himachal Pradesh.
5. Mesozoic Raj Mahal Hills
(Jharkhand), Abor Hills (Arunachal
6. Cretaceous Lava flow and
formation of Deccan Trap

- Hot springs are associated with
the area of volcanic activity (present
or past).
- Water from hot spring contains
minerals viz. sulphur, borax etc.
J and K: Kashmir Valley, Vardhman
Valley, Ladakh Valley, and Puga
Himachal Pradesh: Kullu, Kangra and
Sutlej Valley., Manikaran (near Kullu)
and near Jwalamukhi (Kangra).
Bihar/Jharkhand: Rajgir, Hazaribagh
and Santhal Pargana
Madhya Pradesh: Hoshangabad,
Gwalior, and Chhindwara
Gujarat: Tawa (Panch Mahal), Uni
Maharashtra: Thane
Uttaranchal: Sahasradhar (Dehradun),
Gangotri and Yamunotri.
Rajasthan: Talbrich (Alwar), Naraini
Haryana: Sohana

Physiographic distribution can be
expressed in percentage of total area
as follows: 10.6 % Mountains 18.5%
Hills 27.7% Plateaus 43.2% Plains
Indian physiography can be divided
into four major categories:
1. The Northern Mountains
2. Great Plains
3. Peninsular Uplands
4. Indian Coasts and Islands

The Northern Mountains

It can be divided into Himalayas and
the Purvanchal (North Eastern
Highlands) Himalayas can further be
divided into Western, Central and
Eastern Regions, Western Himalayas
consists of:
Kashmir Himalayas include
Karakoram, Laddakh Plateau, Kashmir
Valley and Pir Panjal Range.
Punjab Himalayas include Kangra,
Lahul and Spiti (Longitudinal Valleys).
Kumaon Himalayas include Gangotri,
Yamunotri and Badrinath.
- Central Himalayas consist of Nepal
-Eastern Himalayas consist of
Bhutan, Sikkim and Darjeeling
Himalayas and Arunachal Pradesh
except Tirap district,
-All the three regions that is
Western, Central and Eastern
Himalayas can further be classified
Siwaliks (outer Himalayas), Himachal
(Lesser Himalayas), and Himadri
(Greater Himalayas).


Western Himalayas include Jammu
2.Himachal of Western Himalayas
include Pir Panjal, Dhaula Dhar, Nag
Tigga, Mussorie Range and flat
structured Valley (Doons Dehradun,
Kothri, Patli)
3. Himadri (Bahirgiri) of Western
Himalayas include snowbound ranges
and glaciers of Jammu and Kashmir,
Zauskar range having mounts Nanga
Parbat, Mt. Kamet, Nanda Devi, Gurla
Mandhata and passes Burzil and Zoji
La (J and K) and Bara Lacha La and
Shipki La(H.P).


Central Himalayas include Dhang,
Dundwa and Churia Ghati
2.Himachal of Central Himalayas
include Mahabharat Range and Valley
of Kathmandu. 3.Himadri of Central
Himalayas include some of the
highest peaks include: Mt. Everest,
Dhaulagiri, Makalu, Manaslu,


Eastern Himalayas include Miri,
Abhor, Mishmi in Arunachal along
with Gorges of Tista and Raidak
2. Himachal is very indistinctly
present in the eastern Himalayas.
3. Himadri includes Bhutan, Sikkim,
Darjeeling and Arunachal Pradesh. It
also includes passes Nathu La and
Jelep La
- Siwaliks (6001500m): These are
characterized by fault scarps,
anticlinal Crests and Synclinal Hills.
Himalayan Rivers have formed deep
gorges in them,
- Himachal or Lesser Himalayas
(10004500m): Linear Longitudinal
Ranges with Orthoclinal structural
plan (steeper southern and gentler
northern slopes) which gives it a
Hogback type look.
- Himadri or Greater Himalayas
(45006100m): Orthoclinal structural

1. Trans Himalayas: Karakoram (abode
of largest glaciers in the world
Siachen, Baltoro, Biafo, Hisper and
Rimu of Pakistan, It also contain
ranges like Mt. K2 and Gasherbrum)
and Ladakh range, uplands, Madhya
Bharat Pathar, Bundelkhand uplands,
Malwa plateau, Vindhyan scarpland
and range.
2. Deccan Plateau including Satpura
and Maikal Range, Maharashtra
Plateau. Tejangana.Plateau and
Karnataka Plateau (Malnad and
3.Western Plateau: including
Baghelkhand Plateau, Chhotanagpur
Plateau and Garhjat Hills, Mahanadi
Basin and Dandkarnya Region.
4.Eastern Ghats: including Khondlite,
Charnokite, Madugula Konda Range,
Cuddapah Kurnool Region, Nallamalai,
Velikonda, Shevroy and Javadi Hills.

It lies south of Bhabar and runs
parallel to it
- 2030 km wide
-Composed of comparatively finer
-Underground stream of the Bhabar
reemerge on the surface and give
birth to marshy areas.
- Most part of the terai area is
reclaimed for agriculture.
5. Western Ghats this can be divided
into regions lying north of 16°N and
South of 16°N.

Indian Coasts and Islands

It includes:
1. Eastern Coastal Plains
2. Western Coastal Plains
3. Andaman and Nicobar Islands
4. Lakshadweep Islands.

More on Great Plains:

-The great plain extends for 3200 Km
between the mouths of. Ganga and
Indus all along the foot of the
mountains with a width varying
between 150 300 Km.
-Great Plains are classical examples
of an aggradational plain which
resulted form an infilling of initial
depression by the incessant work of
the Himalayan rivers.
- Generally the plain is recognized
as consisting of 4 division each
characterized by surface relief and
known as Bhabar, Terai, Bhangar and
the Khadar.
- Marusthali i.e. desert proper: Arid
Rajasthan Bagar i.e. Semi Desert:
Semi Arid Region Western Marusthali
is land covered by shifting sand
dunes locally known as the Dhrian.
(To the south of Jaislmer, a number
of playa lakes occur which are called
Ranns and are characterized by
centripetal drainage).
Bagar contains salt soaked playa
lakes locally known as Bagar is
drained by a number of short
streams originating from the Aravalli
Fertile tracts in Bagar are known as
Rohi. Commonest type of dune in
Thar U Shaped Parabolic Dunes.
These are few simple longitudinal
dunes (siefs) locally know as Bhits.
Large numbers of depressions
occupied by alkaline lakes are called
Dands or Dhands.
The altitude of the Punjab plain
varies from 300m in the North to
200m in the South. Doab of 5 rivers
in Punjab
1. Sindh Sagar Doab Indus and
2. Chaj Doab Chenab and Jhelum
3. Rechna Ravi and Chenab
4. Bari Beas and Ravi
5. Bist (Jalandhar Doab) Beas and
Broad flood plains of Khadar flanked
by bluffs are called Dhaya in Punjab.
The northern part of the
PunjabHaryana Plain adjoining the
Siwalik Hills has witnessed intensive
erosion leading to gully formation by
network of streams called Chos.
- Like N.Bihar, the south Bihar plains
also has swamps and marshes called
Jal near Patna and Tai in east of
-The Ganga delta has its seaward
face more influenced by the tidal
activity than by the waves with the
result that the indented coastline
has a maze of sandbanks, mudflats,
mangrove swamps, islands and
-Ganges Deltaic Tract:
Extends for 430 kms
Width 480 Kms

Geography Notes:

More on the Himalayas:

Mt. Everest 8848m
Godvin Austen (K2) 8611 m
Kanchenjunga 8598m
Makalu 8481m
Dhaulagiri 8172m
Mansalu 8156m
Nanga Parbat 8126m
Annapurna 8078m
Gasherbrum 8086m
NandaDevi 7817m
Kamet 7756m
Gurla Mandhata 7728m

More on Peninsular Plateau:

-General Elevation: 600-900m -fit
remained above the sea level for a
larger part of the geological history,

- Aravalli Range: Oldest Relict

Mountains Length 700km General
elevation (400-600m) Reduced to the
level of alluvial plains near Delhi and
continues up to Haridwar under
Widens southward Passes: Barr, Pipli
Ghat, Dewair, and Desuri. Highest
peak: Guru Shikhar (1,722m)
Hill station: Mt. Abu. Of Rajasthan
Uplands: Drained by Banas 250-500
m high Ancient crystalline rocks of
Madhya Bharat Pathar: Ancient
Vindhyan sediments through which
Chambal river has cut deep and
wide valley and has formed Ravines
and Badlands.
-Bundelkhand Uplands: Old erosional
surface Granitic and gneissic rocks of
Malwa Plateau: Mostly of lava Rolling
surface and flat topped hills
-Vindhyan Scarpland and Ranges:
Series of tablelands separated from
each other by a prominent sand
stone scarp. General elevation
(300650m) Strong sandstones of the
Kaimur, Rewa and the Bhander series
are the principal scarp makers.
-Satpura Range: Between Narmada
and Tapti Extends through the
Mahadeo Hills to the Maikal ranges
Mostly occupied by Deccan Trap
Rises to 900-1000m. Peaks: Astamba
Dongar (1325m) and Dhupgarh (13
50m) (it is the highest peak of
Madhya Pradesh). Widens
considerably in the central part
(Mahadeo Hills in north and
Gawaligarh Hills in south)
-Maharashtra Plateau: Formed of
plateau basalt Rolling plains with
intervening shallow valleys,
-Telangana Plateau: Unlike the
Maharashtra plateau, which is made
of Deccan basalt, the plateau of
Andhra Pradesh and Karnataka are
carried out of Archaean Gneissic
Surface of the plateau is dotted with
low hills and shallow depressions. In
such a depression, the twin city of
Hyderabad and Secunderabad is
-Karnataka Plateau: Northern portion
drained by Krishna and its
tributaries. Mysore Plateau loftiest
and most well defined plateau in
South Asia.
Physiographically Mysore Plateau can
be divided into Malnad and Maidan.
Malnad this comprises hilly Western
Ghats with average elevation of
1000m. Dissected into valleys and
covered with dense forests.


► Located between the western
ghats and the Arabian sea coast
► Narrow plain width 54Km
► Drained by several short and swift
streams which are unable to form
► There are several lagoons
especially in the southern part of
this plain.
► The western plain has indented
coast which supports many ports.
Mt is a submerged coast and hence
tilting has left no scope for
depositional action of the rivers.
Maidan Area of rolling plains with
low granitic hills

-Baghelkhand Plateau: East of Maikal

range and norh of Mahanadi basin
and bounded by Son on north.
Antclinal hills and synclinal valleys of
sandstones and limestone; occur to
the south. Singauli basin is
considerably dissected.

-Chhotanagpur Plateau: Topography

is marked by roundel granitic hills
(exfoliation domes) and elevated
terraces of older flood plains. Plateau
is deeply dissected around it, edges
giving rise to steep escarpments
locally known as Ghats. Higher
plateaus have flat laterite capped
summits know as Pats.
The Garhjat Hills in Orissa extend
from southern border of the Ranchi
Plateau upto the Mahanadi river.

- Mahanadi Basin (Chhattisgarh

Low lying tract with elevation of 600
to 100m and surrounded by hills in
all sides, Dandkaranya Fegion: Lying
south of Chhattisgarh basin and
drained Indravati river.

- The peninsular plateau continue

into North East as Shillong Plateau,
the gap separating these two
plateaus is known as Rajmaha Garo
-Located between the Eastern Ghats
and the Bay of Bengal coast
-Comparatively broader (average
width 80100Km)
-Big rivers like the Mahanadi, the
Godavari, the Krishna and the
Cauvery have formed large deltas
- Lagoons are comparatively less in
this plain
-The eastern plain has more or less
a straight coast where good ports
are lacking.
-Mostly of emergent type,
characterized by offshore bars, fine
sea beaches, sand ridges and
Western Coastal Plain: -This straight
coast is quite indented and is
marked by caves (small sheltered
recess in ' the coast) and creeks
(small tidal inlets or estuaries of
small streams)
Gujarat plains built up of alluvium of
the Sabarmati, Mahi, Narmada and
the Tapti rivers.
Only on the Malabar Coast it is that
there are a number of lakes, lagoons
and backwaters locally called the
Kayals. Eastern Coast: f From N to S,
the coastal plains are known as the
Utkal, Andhra and the Tamil Nadu
Plains it has lakes, like Chilka, Koleru,
and Pulicat.
-The islands of Srisailam,
Srirangapattamand Sivasamudram
are found in the Kaveri basin.
More on Western Ghats:
- Length 1600Kni
- These block mountains were
formed due to the down warping of
a part of the land into the Arabian
Sea. Up to 16° N latitude they are
mainly composed of basalt
- Harishchandra, Mahabaleshwar,
Kalsubai and Salher are important
peaks in this region. Thalghat and
Bhorghat are the important passes
for roads and railways
-South of Goa they are composed of
granites and gneisses and have
more rugged topography.
-Average elevation is 1220 m. Few
peaks are above 1500 m like,
Kudremukh (1892) and Pushpagiri
(1714) fin the Nilgiris the Eastern
Ghats join the Sahyadris (W Ghats)
to form a mountain knot where
highest point is Doddabetta (2637m)
South of Nilgiri lies the Palghat Gap
which connects Tamil Nadu with
Kerala South of Palghat, Anaimudi
(2695m) is a knot, which is joined by
three hills, viz. the Anaimalai hills
(1800-2000m) in the north, the Palni
hills (9001200m) in the N.E. and the
Cardamom or Elamalai hills in the
south, The Anaimalai constitutes a
series of plateau with rolling
topography. Here hill slopes support
tea, coffee, cinchona and Kodaikanal
hill station (2195m) is located on the
southern edge of the Palni hills,
Tambraparni has it source near
Agastya Malai forming a series of
waterfalls (Bajiatirtham and

More on Eastern Ghats:

Depict True Mountain characteristic
between Mahnadi and Godavari
(peaks Nimalgiri (Koraput),
Mahendragiri (Ganjam) Dominant
rocks: Khondalites (metamorphosed
sedimentary) and Charnokites
(intursive rocks resembling granites)
Between the Krishna River and
Chennai they continue as the
Kondavidu hills mainly composed of
Quartzites and Slates.
The Nallamalai (9001100m) and
Palkonda hills are composed of
Cuddapah and Kurnool formations.
Their continuation is to be seen in
the Javadi, Shevroy and Biligiri
Rangam hills of Salem and
Nilgiris (blue mountains) provide the
converging site for three mountain
ranges: the Sahyadri joining opposite
of the Makurti peak; the Southern
Ghats across the Palghat in the
south and the Eastern Ghats in the
north eastern corner.

Rivers of India
1. Indus: Rises Tibet, Near
Mansarovar lake. Direction of flow
West and Northwest and falls into
Arabian Sea Drainage Area 11,65,000
km2, India has a share of32,190 km2

2. Jhelum: Rises Verinag at the

foothills of Pirpanjal. Direction of flow
Northwards from direction and meets
Chambal near Sawai Madhopur.

3. Son: Originates from the

Amarkantak Plateau. It merges into
Ganga as its right bank tributary
near Ramnagar.

4. Ramganga: It rises in the Kumaoun

Himalayas. Enters the Ganga plain
near Kalagarh. It joins the left bank
of the Ganga near Kannauj.

5. Sarda: It rises in the Eastern

Himalayas and is known as Kali in
Himalayas, the Sarda in Pilibhit and
Kheri districts and Chauka before it
joins the right bank of the Ghaghara
near Bahramgaht. The Sarda runs
along the IndoNepal boundary and
leaves Himalayas at Brahmdeo.

6.Ghaghara: Rises in Karnali, is of

Himalayan origin and crosses the
western part of the Nepal Himalayas
and joins Ganga near Chapra (Bihar)
as its left bank tributary. The Rapti
joins Ghaghara's left bank at Barhaj.

7.Gandak: Rises near China, Nepal

boundary and enters Champaran
(Bihar) and joins the left bank of the
Ganga at Sonepur.

8.Kosi: Rises in Nepal and joins the

left bank of Ganga at Karagola near
Bhagalpur. The rivers is notorious for
shifting its course, leads to floods
and hence known as the 'Sorrow of

9.Damodar: Rises in the Palamu dist,

in Chota Nagpur plateau (Jharkand).
It is better known as the 'Sorrow of
Bengal' and joins the Bhagirathi,
Hugly in West Bengal

10.Brahmaputra: Tsangpo, runs to the

South along the eastern blank of
Namcha Barwa and crosses the
Assam Himalayas, under the name of
Dhiang and enters Assam valley and
called Brahmaputra.
Tributaries are Subanshi, Bharati,
Manas on the right bank and Dibang,
Luhit BariDihing, Dhansiri, Kapili on
the left bank, Drainage area: 3,40,000
km2 in India. In Bangladesh it is
known as Meghna

11.Cauvery: Rises Brahmagiri range of

Western Ghats (Coorg dist.)
(Karnataka). Direction of flow: to Bay
of Bengal ( East, South East); It is
called 'Ganga Daksin'. Tributaries: on
left bank: Ilemavati and Shinusha,
Arkavati. On right bank: Kabani,
Bhavani and Amaravati. Drainage
area: 87,900km2

12.Krishna: Rises Near

Mahabaleshwar, Western Ghats
(Maharashtra). Direction of flow: flows
through Satara and Dangli districts
of Maharashtra, northern Karnataka
and southern Andhra Pradesh,
Tributaries: Kaya, Malprabha,
Ghatprabha, Bhima, Tungbhadra.
Drainage Area: 2,51,830km2

13.Godawari: Rises inTrimbak plateau

near Nasik (Maharashtra) and flows
eastward in the gorge upto Nasik
town. Direction of flow: It drains
eastern and south eastern
It is the longest river in Indian
Peninsula. Tributaries left bank Darna,
Penganga, Wardha, Wenganga,
Indravati, Sabri, Pravara, Purna,
Manpla, Maner, Pranhita. Right bank:

14.Mahanadi: Rises in Dandkaranaya

and Southern part Chhattisgarh.
Direct on of flow: after flowing
northwards, it receives Sheonath in
bank a little above Sheonarayan.
Tributaries Sheonath, Hasdeo, Mand
on left bank and Jank, Ung Tel on
right bank. Drainage area: 1,41,600km2

15.Narmada: Rses in Amarkantak in

Madhya Pradesh. Drainage area:
98,786 km2 Tributaries: Burhner Tawa,
Sher, Dudli, Shakkar, Hiran, Tedoni,
Brrna, Anjal, Machak, Kundi, Joi,
Karyan. The famous wasrfall
'Dhuandhar' is on Nirmada River
near Jabalpur. The river forms an
Estuary at the mouth of the sea.

16.Tapti: Rses: in Multai (Betul dis)

M.P (Satpura Range). Tributaries:
Gomai, janjal, Arunavati. Left bank;
Veghar, Girna, Puma, Pujhara.
Drainage area 65,145m2

17.Luni Rises in Annasagar in Ajmer

cst.(RajasJfian). Drainage are:
42,240km2 This river drains into Rann
of Kutch. Tributaries Bandi, Sutri, and

18.Sabarmati: Rises in JaiSamand lake

in Udaipur dist,(Rajasthan), Drainage
area: 21,674km2 Tributaries Wakal,
Harrow, Neshwa, Hathmati.

19.Subarnrekha: Rises: Interposed

between Ganga and Mahanadi.
Drainage area 19500km2

20.Mahi: Rises in Aravallis in Udaipur

dist. Direction south southwest into
the Gulf of Cambay

21.Pennar: Rises in Kolar dist

(Karnataka). Direction flows through a
gorge of Cuddappah and enters the
sea near the city of Nellore.
22.Ken: Rises in Vindhyas in M.P.
Direction flow northwards to join

Lakes and Lagoons

- Largest fresh water lake in India
Wular (Jammu and Kashmir)
- Largest fresh water lake in
Rajasthan Jaisamand
- Largest lake in Rajasthan Sambhar
- Asia's largest brackish water lake
Chilka (orissa)
Some important Lakes
Pulicat Lake Andhra Pradesh,

Kolleru Lake Andhra Pradesh,

Loktak Lake Manipur,

Lonar Lake Maharashtra,

Nakki Lake Mount Abu (Rajasthan),

Deedwana Lake Deedwana
Panchbhadra Lake Rajasthan,

Dal Lake Srinagar (J and K),

Lingtzi Tang Jammu and Kashmir,

Tso Murari Jammu and Kashmir,
Govind Vallabh Gagar U.P,

Pichola Lake Rajasthan,

Sukhna Chandigarh,

Ashtamudi Kerala.

Sources of Irrigation
- Mainly three types of sources are
used for irrigation purposes in India.
These are Wells (including tube
Tanks and Canals.
- 55.68% of the total irrigated area is
irrigated by Wells (Including tube
well and pumping sets)
-Canals irrigate about 32.04% of the
total irrigated land
- Tanks contribute 5.8%, and 6.47% is
contributed by other sources.
- Uttar Pradesh has the largest
number of tube wells in the country.

Top 5 states using Tank

Tamil Nadu
Andhra Pradesh

Top 5 states using Canal

Jammu and Kashmir: 94.3%
Assam : 63.3%
Haryana : 49.8%
Orissa : 45.4%
Karnataka : 41.3%

Top 5 states using Well

Uttar Pradesh

Total Irrigated land area under

Canals ( in ,000 Hectares)
Uttar Pradesh : 3,075
Madhya Pradesh : 1,796
Andhra Pradesh : 1,539
Rajasthan : 1,497
Haryana : 1,375

Total Irrigated land area under

Tanks ( in, 000 Hectares)
Andhra Pradesh
Tamil Nadu
Orissa West

- Punjab and Haryana Upper Bari
Doab (Ravi) Western Jamuna Canal
Sirhind Canal (Sutlej) Bhakra Canal
(Bhakradam) Nangal Canal (Nangal
dam) Upper Bari Doab (Jamuna) of
Uttaranchal and Uttar Pradesh
Lower Ganga Canal (Ganga) Upper
Ganga Canal (Ganga) Eastern Jamuna
Canal (Jamuna)
Agra Canal (Jamuna) Sharda Canal
(Sharda) (longest canal of U.P) Betwa
Canal (Betwa) -Bihar
Son Canal (Son)
Triveni (Triveni)
-Madhya Pradesh and Chhattisgarh
Mahanadi Canal (Mahanadi) Waiganga
Canal (Waiganga) Tandula Canal
-Rajasthan: Indira Gandhi Canal
(Satluj, Beas), Jawai Project (Jawai)
- West Bengal Maymurakshi Project
-Maharashtra: Pravara river Canal
(Pravara) Nira Canal (Yelwandi) Mutha
Canal (Mutha)
- Andhra Pradesh Kurnool
Cuddappah Canal Pochampad Project
Kadam Project
Bukingham Canal Longest navigable
canal in India. (Godawari Cauvery
- Tamil Nadu Grand Anicut Canal
Vadavar Canal Lower Bhawani
Manimutthar Parambikulu Aliyar
- Orissa Taldanda Canal Hirakund
- Kerala Periyar Project Malam
- Karnataka: Ghatprabha Valley
Scheme Bhadra Project Malprabha
- Gujarat Mahi project Kadana
project Dantiwada Project Ukai

The climate of India belongs to the
'Tropical monsoon type'. Although a
sizeable part of the country lying
north of the tropic of Cancer falls in
the northern temperature zone but
the shutting effects of the Himalayas
and the existence of the Indian
Ocean have played significant role in
giving India a distinctive
characteristics of Salient features of
the Indian climate:
1. Seasonal Reversal of winds
Winter season Winds blow from NE
to SW
Summer season Winds blow from SW
to NE
2. Formation of Alternatively High
and Low Pressure Areas over the
Winter season due to low
temperature conditions high pressure
area is formed. Summer season
Intense heating of the land leads to
the formation of thermally induced
low pressure cell over NW part of
the country.
3. Seasonal and Variable Rainfall
Over 80% of annual rainfall is
obtained during the five month of
the rainy season.
There is variability in rainfall so far
time and place are considered.
There is considerable spatial
variation in the general distribution
of rainfall.
4. Plurality of Seasons That is
constantly changing weather
5. Characterized by National
-The word 'Monsoon' is derived from
the Arabic word 'Mausim' Monsoon is
flow pattern of the general
atmosphere circulation over a wide
geographical area, in which there is
a clearly dominant wind in one
direction in every port of the region
concerned, but in which this
prevailing direction is reversed (or
almost reversed) from winter to
summer and from summer to

Concepts of the origin of

1. Thermal concept: From Classical
Theory of Hally (1686)
- Generated by the differential
seasoned heating of continental and
oceanic areas. High pressure is
developed over the continent (near
Lake Baikal and Peshawar), where
low pressure over southern Indian
ocean. Therefore outflow of air from
the high pressure land areas to the
low pressure areas resulting into NE

2. Aerological Concept - Given by

a German Meterologist R. Seherhag
According to him the changes in the
direction of winds at all levels in the
atmosphere are directly related to
the temperature changes in the air
above the friction layer.

3. Dynamic Concept-Propounded
by Flohn (1951): Based on the
dynamic origin of monsoons.
According to him monsoon is the
seasonal migration of planetary
winds and presure belts following the
sun. Over the land the annual
temperature changes are relatively
larger because of which the seasonal
shifts of temperature and pressure
belts amount to many degrees. 4
Due to the shifting the major part of
the Indian subcontinent comes under
impact of Equatorial Westerlies.
During winter due to southward
shifting of pressure and wind belt
(he planetary system of northeast
trade winds is established over the
region. Hence this theory explains
the existence of monsoon not by the
temperature, contrasts between land
and sea, but by the annual migration
of thermally produced planetary
winds and pressure belts.

4. Recent Concepts ( a) Jet

Jet streams are high altitude
geostrophic winds (i.e. blowing
parallel to equator) blowing between
middle latitude at high speed in a
meandering course.
During winter season the upper air
westerly jet streams are positioned
in Asia. These are bifurcated in two
branches due to Tibet Himalayan
obstruction. North branch blows
north of Himalayas and the Tibetan
Plateau. Southern branch blows south
of the mighty mountains
The southern branch inscribes an
anticyclone (Clockwise) arc across
Afghanistan followed by a cyclonic
(Anticlockwise) are along the
southern flank of the Himalayas. A
high pressure system gets formed
south of the jet stream over
Afghanistan and NW Pakistan where
air tends to subside leading to
atmospheric stability and dry
conditions there by causing NE
winter monsoons. The jet stream
helps disturbances in the NW of the
subcontinent, which tend to follow
paths immediately beneath the jet
stream. These disturbances move
long the eastern Mediterranean and
into NW India appearing here as
waves rather then as well developed
frontal cyclones.
During summer season as sun falls
vertically over the Tropic of Cancer
the polar surface high pressure is
weakened and upper air circum polar
whirl shift northward as a result of
which the upper air westerly jet are
also withdrawn from southern slopes
of the Himalayas.
The removal of jet stream to north
of the Tibetan plateau results in
reversal of the curvature of How of
free air to the north and north west
of the subcontinent. This event may
well be the trigger that sets off the
'burst' of the monsoon.

( b) Tibet Plateau
4 In 1973, the Monsoon Expedition
(MONEX) was organized under the
joint auspices of the erstwhile Soviet
Union and India. Experiments
concluded that summer time heating
of Tibetan Highland plays a dominant
role in the origin of Monsoon
circulation. 4 Due to its protected
height Tibetan plateau receives 23°C
more insolation than the neighboring
areas. The plateau affects the
atmosphere in two ways (a) as a
mechanical barrier and (b) as a high
level heat sources. Infact the plateau
accentuates the northland
displacement of the jet stream. 4
The summer time heating of the
Tibetan Plateau makes it a high level
heat source, which produces thermal
anticyclone over this region, thereby
weakening the western subtropical
jet stream south of the Himalayas
and intensifying the move of S.W

( c) Effect because of ocean

El Nino a warm ocean current
appears along the Peru coast in
December. It replaces the Peru or
Humboldt Cold Ocean current flowing
over this region during normal years.
Under normal times the layer over
the eastern Pacific is cool and
shallow, while over the western
Pacific it is warm and deep. Such
conditions are helpful for strong
southwest monsoons. The
appearance of El Nino reverses the
conditions (warm condition over
eastern Pacific and cold in western
Pacific). Since El Nino represents
large atmospheric perturbations to
which the ocean responds with warm
of colder surface temperature, it
lands to extreme events, such as
drought, flood and poor monsoons.
The Southern Oscillation is the name
ascribed to a seesaw pattern of
meteorological changes that are
often observed between the Pacific,
the pressures over the Indian Ocean
tend to be low, and vice versa. The
oscillation was discovered by Sir
Gilber Walker and is therefore also
known as "Walker circulation". The
oscillation has a period varying from
27 years. The intensity of the
Southern Oscillation is measured by
the difference in sea level pressures
of Tahiti and Port Darwin
El Nino Southern Oscillations

( d) The Somali Current: It is one

of the few currents, which reverse its
direction with the overlying wind.
Summer Flows northward Winters
Flows southward

Weather conditions

Cold Weather Season Southerly

branch of the jet stream occupies its
position south of the Himalayas,
which is accompanied with the
restoration of light northeast trade
winds (monsoons) to the surface,
withdrawal of the inter tropical
convergence zone, formation of anti
cyclonic cell over north western India
and dry weather prevailing, over
most of the areas in the country

Temperature conditions: General

increase of temperature from North
to South, Isotherms run almost
parallel to the latitudes (in January
the 21 °C isotherm runs through the
middle of the country connecting
Tapti estuary to the Mahanadi delta)
in the east. West India Punjab,
Haryana West U.P and Northern
Rajasthan Less than 15°C.

In South India the isotherm, tend to

bend southward and run parallel to
the coast. The western coast is
warmer than the eastern one by
about LT C. This season is
characterized by the inflow of
depression from the west and the
North West. These low pressure
systems originate in West Asia near
the Mediterranean Sea and are
known as Western Disturbances.
Their average frequency is four to
five depressions per month and
highly intensified Between December
and February. (Rainfall due to these
disturbances is highly helpful for
RABI crops) Fine weather, clear skies,
low humidity, absence of rainfall, low
temperature and a large diurnal
variation in it are the usual features
of the winter season.

-North East parts of India also get

some rainfall during this season.
A low pressure area occupies the
northern parts of the Bay of Bengal
during October, which moves
southward and get deflecting
towards, the coromandal coast
thereby producing rains on this
coast. The presence of inter tropical
convergence and the easterly
depression are responsible for these
rains. Hot and Dry Weather is
characterized by low pressure
system high temperature, unstable
pressure and wind circulation. -The
dust storms of Punjab and Haryana,
the Loos of UP, the Norwesters
(Kalbaisakhis) of W. Bengal and
cyclonic depressions of the eastern
coast produce a stormy and
turbulent weather.

-The rains caused by thunderstorm

in Karnataka are called 'Cherry
Blossoms'. These are beneficial for
coffee plantation. Elsewhere in South
India they are known as 'Mango
- Dry and dusty westerly winds flow
in the northern western parts of the
country which make the outdoor life
difficult are known as Loo. The Wet
Season: The southern branch of the
western jet is withdrawn from south
of the Himalaya thereby leading to
the formation of a dynamic
depression over the surface thermal
low. The ITC shifts northwards
allowing equatorial westerlies to in
the subcontinent.

- Indian subcontinent receives bulk

of its rainfall (around 80%) from the
- The Arabian Sea current causes
rainfall all along the Western Coast,
Western Ghats, Gujarat, Maharashtra,
parts of M.P and Rajasthan.
- While crossing the Sahyadris
(Western Ghats), the monsoonal
current produce heavy rainfall on the
windward and scanty rainfall on the
leeward side thereby producing a
rain shadow area. The rainfall is also
erratic on the leeward side, which
results in frequent drought in
Maharashtra and Karnataka

-The Tamil Nadu coast goes dry in

this season.
- The Arabian Sea branch meets the
Bay of Bengal branch over
ChhotaNagpur Plateau producing
copious rainfall.
-Absence of moutain barrier in
Kutch, parallel position of the
Aravalli, effect of the hot and dry air
results in failure of Arabian Sea
branch to produce adequate rainfall.
The Bay of Bengal branch,
obstructed by the eastern hill is
deflected westward towards the
Ganga Plain. Entrapped in the valleys
of Meghalaya, the current produces
very heavy rainfall [Cherapunji
(1087cm) and Mawsynram (1141 cm)]

- The weather is also affected by a

number of cyclonic depressions
entering the country through the Bay
of Bengal and the Arabian Sea.
About 20 to 25 such depressions
develop during monsoon period.
- With the exception of J & K and
Parts of Tamil Nadu, most of the
country receives heavy rainfall.
Season of Retreating Monsoon
- South West begins to retreat from
the second or third week of

- Unlike the Sudden burst, the

retreat is highly gradual.
-The southerly branch of the jet
stream returns to its winter position
by October and this is
accompanied by the restoration of
light North East trade winds to the
- Cloudiness and moisture are low
except in the southern parts of the
- It is this retreating monsoon which
brings rain to the Tamil Nadu coast
as North East Monsoon.

The Indian council of Agricultural
Research has indentified eight main
types of soil in the country.
Soil cover in India (%)
1.Alluvial Soil 43.4
2.RedSoil 18.6
3.BlackSoil 15.2
4.Lateritic Soil 12.2
5. OtherSoil 17.9

The main soil types are:

ALLUVIAL SOIL: It covers 15 lakh
The Indian council of Agricultural
Research has indentified eight main
types of soil in the country.
Soil cover in India (%)
1.Alluvial Soil 43.4
2.RedSoil 18.6
3.BlackSoil 15.2
4.Lateritic Soil 12.2
5. OtherSoil 17.9
The main soil types are:
ALLUVIAL SOIL: It covers 15 lakh
Km2 of area.
- Greater parts of Rajasthan, Punjab,
Haryana, U.P, parts of Assam, Orissa,
W.Bengal, valleys of Narmada and
- Depth of soil exceeds 600m below
the ground surface
- Divided into newer and older; finer
and newer alluvium is called Khadar
-Khadar is light coloured and is less
- Bhangar: older alluvium more
clayey in composition and generally
of dark colours; also becomes
Alkaline and is called Bhurs;
- Khadar soils are more sandy in
composition that Bhangar soils
1.The fertility of the soil is because
of the following reasons: Lit is due to
more mixing up the debris from the
rocks of the Himalayas rather that
the prevalence of nitrogenous
matters or humus.
2.These soils are composed of
material drawn from different rocks
and therefore contain a great variety
of salts.
3.These soils are very fine grained,
highly porous and light so that they
are easily tilled and are therefore
the best agricultural soils of the
Crops: rice, sugarcane, tobacco,
banana, cotton, wheat, jute, maize,
oilseeds and vegetables.
RED and YELLOW SOIL: It covers
about 6.1 lakh km2 of area.
- Western Tamil Nadu, Karnataka,
Southern Maharashtra, Chhattisgarh,
Andhra Pradesh, Orissa and
Chotanagpur plateau of Jharkhand.
Scattered patches can be found in
Birbhum (W.Bengal), Mirzapur, Jhansi,
Banda, Hamirpur (U.P), Udaipur,
Chiltisgarh, Dungarpur, Banswara and
Bhilwara dist. (Rajasthan)
-The colour is mainly due to ferric
oxides occuring as thin coatings on
the soil particles while the iron oxide
occurs as haematite or as hydrous
ferric oxide, the colour is red and
when it occurs in the hydrate form
as limonite the soil gets a yellow
-These soils are poor in phosphorus,
nitrogen and lime contents and are
acidic like laterite.
- Red soils develop generally on
metamorphic rocks
- It is sandier and less clayey
- It is rich in potash
covers an area of 5,46,000 Km2
-Tracts in A.P, Maharashtra (Tapi,
Godavri, Bhima and Krishna),
Karnataka (Bijapur, Gulbarga, Bidar,
Belgaum, Dharwar and Raichur),
Gujarat (Surat, Bharuch, Vadodra), M.P
(Narmada, Vindhya and Satpura
plateau), Tamil Nadu, Rajasthan (Kota,
Bundi, Jhalawar); U.P(Jalawn, Hamirpur,
Banda and Jhansi) -The black colour
is due to the presence of titaniferous
magnetite compound of iron and
aluminum silicate. It is also believed
that black colour is due to admixture
with humus on cultivation.
-These are rich in iron, lime, calcium
and magnesium carbonate and
alumina. Black soils are poor
phosphorous and nitrogen
-The soil is clayey and fine texture
with dark colour Crops: cotton,
wheat, chilies, linseed, jawar, Virginia
tobacco, castor, millets
- It develop cracks in hot weather
- Black soils are ideal for dry
farming due to their moisture
retentive quality.
-It becomes sticky due to high
percentage of clay and so difficult to

- It covers an area about 1.26 lakh
-Laterite is a typical soil of the
tropical regions which receives heavy
seasonal rainfall.
- Iron and aluminum compounds
dominate in its composition
- It is found in W.Bengal (Midnapur,
Burdwan, Birbhum and Bankura),
Orissa (Cuttack and Ganjam),
Maharashtra (Ratnagiri, Satara,
Kolaba, Kanara dist.), Karnataka
(Shimoga, Hasan, Kadur, Mysore),
Kerala (Malabar)
-The soils are generally poor in
nitrogen, potassium and organic
-Fertilizers are necessary
-Cannot retain moisture while in
plains they consist of heavy loam
and clay and easily retain moisture
Crops: rice, ragi, sugarcane,


- It covers an area of 68,000 km2
- Tracts in Rann of Kutch,
Sundarbanns, Bihar, UP, Haryana,
Punjab, Rajasthan and Maharashtra
- It is known by different names:
Thur, Reh, Kallar, Rakar, Usar, Kari
and Chopan
-Texturally they are sandy to loamy
-Alkaline soils are deficient in
calcium and nitrogen
- Peaty saline soils are called Kari in
- Main salts: calcium, sodium and
magnesium these soils can be
reclaimed by providing good
drainage applying lime or gypsum
and cultivating salt resistant crops
(like berseem, rice and sugarcane)
-These soils are utilized in the
cultivation of a wide variety of crops
like rice, wheat, cotton, sugarcane
and tobacco etc.

MOUNTAIN SOILS: It is of three

types a) Brown Forest Soils: height
900-1800m; rich in humus and are
b) Podzol: 1800m (height); thick
coniferous forest, maize, wheat and
orchids: phosphoric content
c)Alpine Meadow Soil: sandy loam
-These soils are silty loam to loam
in texture and dark brown in colour
-These are found in hills of deccan,
eastern ghats, western ghats, valley
and hill slopes of Himalayas etc.
-These are deficient in potash,
phosphoric acid and lime

- It covers an area of 14,200km2
- Tracts in Rajasthan, Haryana, south
of Punjab, Thar desert occupies and
area of 1,06,000 alone
-Clay content is poor and is less
than 8%
-These are reddish brown
- Sandy soils are called Bhur -Rich
in phosphates and poor in nitrogen
- Contains high content of soluble
salts but low moisture content
-The soil is sandy to gravelly
-These soils may be reclaimed with
the proper development of irrigation
facilities For example, the
Ganganagar district benefited by the
Indira Gandhi Canal has become a
leading producer of cereal and
Crops: millets, jawar bajra jowar and
coarse grains


soils occur mainly in the western
parts of Kottayam districts and parts
(peaty) of Alappuzha dist. of Kerala
-Soil are black and heavy and highly
-Highly saline, rich in organic matter
but deficient in phosphate and
potash. -Marshy soils are found in
the coastal regions of Orissa,
W.Bengal and Tamil Nadu; Central
portion of North Bihar and in Almora
district of Uttaranchal.
-Marshy soils are the result of water
logging anaerobic condition of the
soils, and the presence of iron and
varying amount of organic matter.


Factors influencing soil erosion

Slope of topography
Nature of the soil
Soil moisture
Wind velocity

Causes of soil erosion

Faulty cultivation methods
Shifting cultivation
Diversion of natural drainage
channels by railway embankments
and roads Lack of proper surface
Forest fires
Effects of Soil Erosion Loss of top
soil Harmful effects of erosion on
organic matter and soil structure.
Decline in soil capacity Depostion of
sand and gravel on agricultural land
Flooding of streams

Methods to check soil erosion a)

Biological Measures Improving the
existing surface cover Strip cropping
Crop rotation Stubble mulching
Vegetative binding Using organic
manures Other measures(checking
overgrazing, reducing surplus cattle,
stripping shifting cultivation and
taking preventative measures against
forest fires)
b) Mechanical Measures: Contour
tillage, Contour bunding ,Terracing,
Constructing proper drainage
channels and plugging the gullies,
Basin lifting, Water harvesting,
Scientific slope management.

Forest Cover ( areawise Km2)

1.Madhya Pradesh 1,31,195
2.Arunachal Pradesh 68,602
3.0rissa 46,941
4. Maharashtra 46,143
5.Andhra Pradesh 43,290
6.Karnataka 32,403
7.Bihar 26,524
8.Assam 23,824
9.Jammu & Kashmir 20,440
10.Mizoram 18,775
11.Manipur 17,418
12.Meghalaya 15,657
13.Nagaland 14,221
14Gujarat 12,578
15.Himachal Pradesh 12,521
16. Kerala 10,334
17.Punjab 1,387
18.Goa 1,255
19.Haryana 1,604

Forest Cover (% of the total

1. Mizoram 89.06
2.Nagaland 85.78
3.Arunachal Pradesh 81.92
4Manipur 78.04
5Meghalaya 69.80
6Goa 33.90
7.Assam 30.37
8 Orissa 30.15
9Madhya Pradesh 29.58
lO.Kerala 26.59
11.Himachal Pradesh 22.49
12.Karnataka 16.89
13.Andhra Pradesh 15.74
14.Bihar 15.25
15. Maharashtra 14.99
16Jammu & Kashmir 09.20
17. Gujarat 06.41
18.Punjab 02.75
19. Haryana 01.37
- Botanical survey of India (1890)
-Zoological survey of India (1916)
- Forest survey of India (1981)
Dehradun. Its four zonal offices are
located at Bangalore, Kolkata,
Nagpur, Simla.

-To preserve the genetic diversity in
representative ecosystem
- So far 13 Biosphere Reserve have
been set up 1.NandaDevi: Uttaranchal

2.Nilgiris:Tamil Nadu Kerala, Karnataka

3.Lokrek: Meghalaya 4.Great Nicobar:
Nicobar Island
5.Gulf of Mannar: Tamil Nadu
6.Manas: Assam
7.Sunderbans: West Bengal
8.Simlipal: Orissa
9,Dibru Daikhowa: Assam
lO.Dehang Debang- Arunachal
11.Kanchenjunga: Sikkim
12.Agasthyamalai: Kerala
- Three of them are recognized on
world network of Biosphere Reserve
by UNESCO Nilgiris, Sunderban, Gulf
Of Mannar

Jammu and Kashmir Wular, Tsomurari
Himachal Pradesh Chandratal , Pong
dam, Renuka,
Punjab Harike, Konili, Ropar
Rajasthan Keoldeo. Sambhar, Pichola
Others: Gujarat Nalsarovar,
Maharashtra Ujni, Kerala Ashtamudi,
Vembanad, Sastham Kotta
Chandigarh: Sukhna, Madhya Pradesh
Bhoj, Bihar Kabar, West Bengal East
Calcutta Wet land, Orissa Chilka,
Gahirmatha, Andhra Pradesh Kolleru,
Manipur Loktak, Tamil Nadu-Point

Four coral reefs have been
indentified for conservation and
management. These are: Gulf of
Mannar (fringing reef) Andaman and
Nicobar Islands (fringing reef)
Lakshdweep Islands (atoll reef) Gulf
of Kutch (platform reef)

Salt tolerant forest ecosystems found
mainly in the tropical and sub
tropical inter tidal regions of the
world Northern Andaman and
Nicobar Islands Sunderbans
(W.Bengal) Bhitakanika (Orissa)
Mahanadi delta (Orissa) Coringa
Krishna estuary (Andhara Pradesh)
Godavari delta (Andhara Pradesh)
Pichavaram (Tamil Nadu] Point
Calimere (Tamil Nadu) Goa
Gulf of Kachchh (Gujarat) Coondapur
(Karnataka) Vembanad (Kerala) Achra
Ratcagiri (Maharastra)

Multipurpose Projects

1. Bhakra Nangal Project

- it is the largest in India on Sutlej
River. It's a joint venture of Punjab,
Harayana and Rajasthan.
- it has five purposes:
Two dams at Bhakra and Nangal
Nangal hydel channel
Powerhouse of 1,204 MW
Electric transmission
Bhakra canal system for irrigation
Bhakra Dam is near Roopnagar,
Ropar dist. The dam is 226m in
height, 518m in length, 312m in
width; behind it is Govind Sagar
Lake. Nangal Dam13 km from Bhakra
dam, its height is 29m, length 305m,
and width 121m.
- Nangal Hydel Channel 64.4km long,
42.65m wide and 6.28m deep
- Powerhouse of 1204 MW first near
Gangunal. Second Kotla, third near
Roopnagar and fourth and fifth near
- Bhakra canal 171 km long,
maximum water at Haryana (46.7%),
then Punjab (37.7% and then
Rajasthan (15.6%)

2. Damodar Valley Project

- Damodar is a tributary of Hughly
river in Bengal and has four dams. It
was setup on 19th Feb 1948 on the
recommendation of W.L. Vordouin, the
person who setup TVA in America.
The four dams are: Tilaiya dam on
Basakar River; started in 1950 and
completed in 1953. Its length is 366m,
and maximum width is 30m. It is the
only concrete dam in the area. It has
two power stations of 2,000 KW each.
-Konar dam on Konar River is in
Hazarihagh. 3549 m long, maximum
height 49m, completed in 1955. It
supplies electricity to Bokaro Steel
Project. Maithan dam on the
confluence of Basakar and Damodar
Rivers, 994m long and maximum
height is 49m, completed in 1958,
capacity is 60 MW.
-Panchet hill dam on Damodar river,
completed in 1959, dam is 2545m
long and maximum height is 49m,
generates 40MW. In addition, three
more dams have not being
completedBel, Pahari and Bokaro.
Durgapur Barrage23km from Raniganj,
stores irrigation water of 4 DVC
dams, it is 83 lm long and 12m high.

3. Hirakud Dam: 61m high, 4801m

long, on Mahandi rivers(orissa)
- It is the largest dam in India and
one of the largest dams of the world
with the gross storage capacity of
8100 Million cubic meters.
-Two more dams have been built on
Mahanadi Tibrapar and Naraj

4. Kosi Project
- It was started in 1955 with give
Flood control
Power generation
Land reclamation
Fishing and Navigation
- There are three units at this Kosi
A barrage near Hanumannagar
(Nepal), 1149m long 72m high,
Constructed in 1965.
Flood embankments, built 1959,
270km Eastern Kosi canal, 43.5km
long, a powerhouse of 20 MW, has
been installed, which is shared by
both India and Nepal.

5. Rihand Valley Project -934m

long. 92m high dam on river Rihand
a tributary of Son), near Pipri in
-Govind Ballabh PantSagar, is the
largest map made reservoir in India.
-One more project has been built at
Ovea on Rihand River.

6. Chambal Valley Project

- It is a joint venture of M.P and
Rajasthan started in 1954 on
Chambal River (tributary of Yamuna)
- In the first stage the dam was
64m high and 514m long, was called
Gandhi Sagar Dam, it is in
chaurasigarh near Bhanpura, built in
- In the second stage, one more
dam was built which was 54m high
and 1143m long was named
Ranapratap Masonry Dam. It is 56km
from Rawatbhata.
- In the third stage, the dam was
548m long and 45m high called
Jawahar Sagar dam at Kota Dam,
constructed in 1971.

7 . Tungbhadra Multipurpose
- It is a joint venture of Karnataka
and Andhra Pradesh
- The dam is 50m high and 2,441m
long on Tungbhadra River (a tributary
of Krishna)
- It is built in Bellary dist. of
- There are canals on both sides of
the dam.
-There are three power stations

8. Gandak Project
- Joint venture of Bihar and U.P
- This project has 7.47m long and
9.81m high barrage at Bhansolotan in
Valmikinagar in Bihar
-The project was completed in
- Head Regulator is at Triveni
-The barrage has four canal two
each for India and Nepal

9. Narmada Valley Project

- Narmada originates near
Amarkantak Plateau (M.P)
- It is the fifth largest river in India.
-The project aims to have 29 major
and 3,000 small dams -The project
was concieved in 194546.
-The largest project is Sardar
Sarovar Project has the capacity of
77 lakh hectare and will provide is
irrigation to 17.92 lakh hectares in
-Two power stations will produce
1,450 MW of hydroelectricity
- Second major project is Narmada
Sagar project started in 1984.

10. Nagaraiuna Sagar Project

- Started in 195556, the dam is on
Krishna River in Nalgonda dist
- Its height is 124.7m and length is
- It has two canals Jawahar on the
right and Lai Bahadur canal on the
- The powerhouse has two units, 50
MW each.

11. Vyas Project ( BEAS)

- It is a joint venture of Punjabi,
Haryana and Rajasthan
- It has two parts, Beas Sutlej link
and Pong dam
- Beas Sutlej is 61 m high and is in
Pandoh (H.P), and Pong is 116m, high
at Dhauladhar in Pong near Beas.

12. Ramganga Project

- Ramganga is a tributary of Ganga
- Aim of the project is to provide
irrigation facilities to about 6 lakh
hectares of land in western U.P, to
supply 20 cusecs of drinking water to
Delhi and to control the floods in
western and central U.P
- This project includes:
A 625.8m long and 125.6m high earth
and rock filled dam across the
Ramganga river and a Saddle dam
of height 75.6m across the Ghuisot
steam near Kalagarh in dist of
Garhwal Across the river a 546m long
weir at Hereoli
A feeder canal, 82km in length
originating from Hereoli River
Remodelling of 3388km of existing
dam and 3880km long new branch
canals A powerhouse on the river at
its right bank with an installed
capacity of 198 MW.

13. Mayurakshi Project

- Mayurakshi is a tributary of the
Hugh River
- Purpose behind this project is four
Create irrigation potential Generate
power Contral floods and Control
- A barrage is constructed across
the Mayurakshi River at Tilpara.
-Two irrigational canals are attached
with the Tilpara barrage with total
length of 1367 km and providing
irrigation in West Bangal and Bihar
4,000 KW of electricity is supplied to
Birbhum, Murshidabad and Santhal
Pargana, which is generated by this

Multipurpose Projects
14. Indira Gandhi Canal Project
- It is the world's largest irrigation
project to provide irrigation to semi
arid and arid regions of Rajasthan.
- Water from Pong barrage built
over Beas River is being utilized.
- Indira Gandhi canal once
completed will provide irrigation to
about 12.51akh hectares of land in
Bikaner, Jaisalmer and Ganganagar
dist of Rajasthan.
- It has two stages, in the first stage
construction of the Rajasthan feeder,
189 km long Rajasthan main and
about 3,183km long distribution have
been taken. The second stage
comprises the construction of the
remaining part of the Rajasthan main
canal and 5,409km long distributaries.

15. Pochampad Project -This

irrigation project is the second
largest project in Andhra Pradesh.
- It involve 812m in length and 43m
of height masonry dam on the
Godavari River in Adilabad district.
-The storage capacity of the dam is
230.36 cross m3 -A canal of length
112.63km will provide irrigation
facilities in Karimnagar and Adilabad

16. Tehri Dam Project

- Alaknanda is the river on which
this dam is being constructed in
Tehri district of Uttranchal
- Motives behind this project is to
collect the flood water of the
Bhagirathi and the Bhilangana rivers
in a large reservoir behind the dam
Hydroelectricity generation, To
provide irrigation facilities to
agricultural land in the westem U.P.
-Tehri dam has a distinction of
highest rock fill dam in the country
-2,70,000 hectares of agricultural land
in western U.P and Delhi with the
supply of 300 cusecs is going to be
facilitated by this project
2,400 MW is the installed capacity of
power generation A concrete dam at
Kateshwar, 22km away from the Tehri
dam will impound water released by
the Tehri dam, from where another
400 MW of electricity will be

17. Farraka Barrage Project -River

Navigation and to augment the
water flow river is the main
objective of this project. A barrage
across the Ganga River, 2,240 in
length to maintain 271akh cu sec of
flood discharge
60,000 cusec of floodwater flow to be
maintained by a barrage across the
Bhagirathi river length will be 213 m.
A feeder canal 38.38km in length to
divert 40,000 cusecs of water to Hugh
River Providing infrastructure to
develop river navigation and To build
a rail cum road bridge to connect
West Bengal with North East India.

18. Machkund Project

-It is a joint venture of Andhra
Pradesh and Orissa
- A dam of height 54m and 410 m in
length, has been constructed on
Machkund river
- Project includes a powerhouse with
115 MW as the installed capacity

19. Parambikulam Project

-This Project is a joint venture of
Kerala and Tamil nadu
- Under this project 185 MW of
electricity will be generated and 1.01
lakh hectare of land will be irrigated
- Water of 8 small rivers would be

20. Mahi Project

- It is on Mahi River, which has its
origin in Vindhyas in Dhardis of M.P.
- Is stage 796 m in length and 21m
of height dam is being constructed
at Banakbori village. This stage also
has 74km long canals to irrigate 1.86
hectares of land.
- 2nd stage construction of a dam of
1,430m in length and 58 m high to
irrigation 80,000 of area near kodana.
- A generation of 40 MW of
electricity with irrigation of 2.75 lakh
hectares of land is going to be done
by this project.

21. Kakrapara Project

-Project is in Gujarat on Tapti River.
-Project involves a dam 14 m high
and 621m long
- 2.27 lakh hectares of land will be
irrigated with the help of two canals
of 505 km and 837 km in length.

22. Koyna Project

- In Maharashtra, on Koyna river
- Project involves construction of a
dam 250 m in height

23. Hansdev Bango Project

- Project involves construction of a
85m high stone dam on Hansdev
river in M.P
-It will irrigate 3.28 lakh hectares of
land and also be used for industrial

24. Bargi Project

- It is on river Bargi near Jabalpur in
- It is a multipurpose project once
completed will irrigate 2.45 lakh
hectares of land. 25, Bhima Project
- This project includes construction
of two dams -One dam on river
Pabna near Pune in Maharashtra,
whichj will be 1,319 m long and 42m
- Other dam with a length of 2467m
and a height of 56.4m will be
constructed on river Krishna in
Sholapur district of Maharastra.

Some other Projects are:

- Jayakwadi Project: on Godavri in
- Ukai Project: on River Tapti in
- Puma Project: on River Puma in
- Periyar Project: on River Periyar in
- Saharawasi Hydel Project: near Jog
water falls in Karnataka.
- Tawa Project: on Tawa River. M.P.
- Mata Teela Dam: on River Betwa,
Jhansi; U.P,
-Kunda Project: Tamil Nadu.
- Sabrigiri Project: Kerala.
- Balimela: Orissa.
- Salal: on River Chenab
- Kalindi: Karnataka
- Idduki: Kerala
- Bhadra: on River Bhadra,
- Kukadi: Maharashtra
- Naptha Jhakri: Himachal Pradesh.
- Dulhasti: Jammu and Kashmir on
river Chenab.
- Girna: on river Girna, Maharashtra
- Jawai Project: on River Jawai,
- Jakham Project: Rajasthan
- Parwati Project: River Parwati,
- Orai Project: River Orai, Rajasthan
- Singrauli Super Power Project: Uttar

Hydroelectric Plants
- AndhraPradesh: lower silent, upper
Sileru, Machkund, Nizam, Sagar,
Nagarjun Sagar, Shri Sailam (Krishna)
- Bihar: Kosi
-Gujarat: Ukai (Tapi), Kadana (Mahi)
- Punjab and Himachal Pradesh:
Bhakara Nangal on Satluj, Dchar on
Beas, Giri Bata, Andhra, Binwa, Rukti,
Rongtong, Bhabanggar, Bassi, Baira
Siul, Chamera, Nathpa Jhakri on
Sutlej (biggest hydel power project in
- Jharkhand: Subarnarekha, Maithon,
Panchet, Tilaiya (all three under DVC)
- Karnataka: Tungbhadra, Sarawati,
Kalinadi, Mahatma Gandhi (Jog fall),
bhadra, ShivaSamudram(Kaveri),
Shimasapur, Munirabad, Lingnamakki
- Kerala: Idduki (Periyar), Sabrigiri,
Kuttiaddy, Sholayar, Sengulam,
Pallivasal, Kallada, Neriamangalam,
Parambikulam Aliyar, Poringal,
- Madhya Pradesh: Gandhi Sagar
(Chambal), Pench, Bargi (Narmada),
- Maharashtra: Koyana, Bhivpuri(Tata
Hydroelectric works), Khopli, Bhola,
Bhira, Purna, Vaiterna, Paithon,
Bhatnagar Feed.
- Orissa: Hirakund (Mahanadi),
- Rajasthan: Ranapratap Sagar and
Jawahar Sagar (Chambal)
- Uttar Pradesh: Rihand, Khodri,
Chibro (Tons).
- Uttaranchal: Tehri Dam (Bhagirathi)
-Tamil Nadu : Pykara, Mettur, Kodyar,
Sholayar, Allayar. Sakarpathi, Moyar,
Suruliyar, Papanasam.
- West Bengal Panchet. -Jammu and
Kashmir Lower Jhelum, Salal
(Chenab), Pool Hasti ,and Karrah.
-North Eastern States: Nagaland
Dikhu, Doyang , Tripura Gomuti,
Manipur Loktak, Assam Kopi,
Meghalaya Khandong and
Kyrdemkulai, Mizoram Selrui and
Barabi, Arunachal Pradesh Ranganadi.

( TRANSPORT) Road Transport

- India has one of the largest road
networks in the world aggregating to
about 3.3 milion kilometres.
-43.5% of the total roads is surfaced
- Roads are classified into six
classes according to their
1.Golden Quadrangle Superways, 2.
National Highways, 3. State Highways,
4. Border Roads, 5. Major District
Roads 6. Rural Roads including other
district roads.

Target to be completed by 2007
Estimated cost of Rs. 54,000 Cr.
Project being implemented by
National Highways Authority Of India
(NHAI) NHDP has two components:

1.Golden Quadrilateral comprises the

National Highways connecting the
four metro cities, viz. Delhi, Mumbai,
Chennai and Kolkata. The component
has a total length of 5846km and is
scheduled for substantial completion
by December 2003.

2.The North South Corridor comprises

the National highways connecting
Srinagar to Kanyakumari including
Salem spur and the East West
Corridor comprises the National
Highways connecting Silchar to
Porbander.The project has a total
length of about 7300km and is
scheduled for completion by
December 2007.
-National Highways These are
primary road systems, which are laid
and maintained by the Central Public
Works Department (CPWD). The total
length of the National Highways is
57,700 km. 1 constitutes only two
percent of the total road length but
carry 40% of the total road traffic.
Some important National Highways
NH 1 Delhi to Amritsar o NH 2 Delhi
to Kolkata 2£y
-NH 6 passes through Sambalpur,
Raipur and Nagpur and is the second
longest trunk route.
- NH 7 passes through Jabalpur,
Nagpur, Hyderabad, Bangalore and
Madurai and is the longest one with
the total length of 2369 km.

State Roads
- Constructed and maintained by the
State Public Works Department.
- Roads linking state capital with
different district headquarters are
state roads. -These roads constitute
5.6% of total length of all roads. Other
- These are classed as rural roads
and interlink rural areas and village
with towns.
- More than 93% of the total roads
belong to this class. Types Length
(,000 km) All 2,465.9, Surfaced 1,394.1,
National Highways 34.8, State
Highways 137.1
- Density of all roads (length of
roads per 1000 sq. km of area)
Lowest in Jammu and Kashmir (10
Highest in Kerala (375 km) National
Average (75 km)
- Density of metalled roads: National
average (42.4 km) Goa has the
highest density (153.8 km)
Jammu and Kashmir has the lowest
density (3.7 km)
-Length of surface roads
( statewise in descending order):
Uttar Pradesh
Tamil Nadu
West Bengal
-Length of unsurfaced roads
( statewise in descending order):
Madhya Pradesh
Uttar Pradesh
Andhra Pradesh
Tamil Nadu
West Bengal
- Total Length of Roads
(statewise in descending order):
Maharashtra Orissa Uttar Pradesh
Tamil Nadu Madhya Pradesh Andhra
Pradesh Kerala Karnataka Rajasthan
Gujarat Bihar
-Length of National Highways
(statewise in descending order):
Madhya Pradesh Andhra Pradesh
Maharashtra Uttar Pradesh Rajasthan
Assam Bihar Tamil Nadu Karnataka
West Bengal Orissa Gujarat

- Indian Rail transport is largest in
Asia and fourth largest in the world.
-The first train was started in 1853
from Mumbai to Thane.
-At present it covers the route of
62,759 km.
- 12, 670 trains run everyday
connecting 6,867 stations. -23% of the
total route is electrified.
-There are in all 16 railway zones
Central -Mumbai (Chhatrapati Shivaji
Eastern- Kolkata
Northern- Delhi
Southern- Chennai
Western- Mumbai (Churchgate)
North East- Gorakhpur
N.E Frontier - Malegaon (Guwahati)
South East- Kolkata
South Central -Secundrabad
East Coast -Bhubneshwar
East Central- Hajipur
North Central - Allahabad
North Eastern - Jaipur
South Western - Bangalore
West Central - Jabalpur
Bilaspur - Bilaspur


-Units manufacturing rolling stocks

run by Indian Railways are:
1.Chittaranjan locomotive works:
Chittaranjan (W.Bengal).
2.Diesel locomotive works: Varanasi
(Uttar Pradesh).
3.Integral Coach factory: Perambur
(Tamil Nadu).
4.Rail Coach factory: Kapurthala
5. Wheel and Axle plant: Bangalore.
6.Diesel Component works: Patiala
(Punjab). Two other units are: 1.M/s
Jessops (Kolkata), 2.Bharat
Earth Movers Ltd, (Bangalore)
- Railway Track Density:
1.High Density (-25 km/ lOOOsq.km):
Delhi, Punjab, Bihar, W. Bengal,
Haryana, Assam, Chandigarh,
Pondicherry, Tamil Nadu, and Gujarat
2.Medium Density (1525 km/ 1000
sq.km): this covers the western part
of the peninsula incorporating Goa,
Maharashtra, Karnataka, Andhra
Pradesh, Kerala and Rajasthan.

3.Low Density (515km/ 1000 sq.km):

eastern part of the peninsular India.
Orissa and Madhya Pradesh
(undulating topography, low
population density and poor
economic development have led to
low density of rail network.).

4. Very Low Density (<5 km/ 1000

sq.km): Jammu and Kashmir,
Himachal Pradesh, Uttaranchal,
Nagaland, and Tripura. The states of
Sikkim, Arunachal Pradesh,
Meghalaya and UTs of Andaman and
Nicobar Islands, Lakshadweep,
Daman and Diu are devoid of rail
Besides the hilly regions of the
north, Rajasthan desert (west of
Jodhpur) , forested and hilly tracts of
the North East and the tribal areas
of the central India are other such
low density areas.
- Public Undertakings
Five undertakings that come under
Ministry of Railways are:
1. RITES: Rail India Technical and
Economic Services Ltd.
2. IRCO: Indian Railways Construction
Company Ltd.
3. IRFC: India Railway Finance
Corporation Ltd.
4. CONCOR: Container Corporation of
India Ltd.
5. CRIS: Centre for Railway
Information System. Besides these
five undertakings, Research, Design
and Standard Organisation (RDSO) at
Lucknow is the R&D wing of Indian

- Inland Waterways Cheapest means
of transport. India has 14, 500 km of
navigable waterways.
The Inland Water Ways Authority of
India was set up in 1986 for the
regulation, maintenance and
development of National Waterways.
There are three National waterways
in the country: NW 1: Allahabad to
Haldia -1620 km.
NW : Sadiya to Dhubri (Brahmaputra)
891km. NW3TRottapuram to Kollam
(west coast canal) 205km. -Apart
from these three ten other
waterways have been proposed.
- Navigable. Waterways in length (in
descending order) Uttar Pradesh
West Bengal Andhra Pradesh Assam
Kerala Bihar

The vast coastline of India is about
7516 km.
Over two million sq. km of Exclusive
Economic Zone
India has 12 major ports and 184
minor and intermediate ports.
-Major Ports in India:
1. Mumbai:
Natural harbour.
Biggest port.
Handles petroleum products and

2. Nhavasheva (J.L NEHRU):

Off the Mumbai port.
Developed to release pressure of the
mumbai port. Highly mechanised.

3. Kandla (Gujarat)
Developed to release pressure on
Mumbai after partition and loss of
It is a tidal port.

4. Marmagao (Goa)
Natural harbour
Export handle iron ore, fish products,
coconut and spices. Import handle
fertilizers, chemicals, food articles

5,New Mangalore (Karnataka): Caters

to export of iron ore from
Kudremukh Also handles fertilisers,
petroleum products, edible oils,
coffee, tea etc

6. Cochin (Kerala) Handles crude

petroleum and petroleum products
along with raw materials and
fetilizers Caters to the needs of
south western Tamil Nadu, South
Karnataka and Kerela

7. Kolkata
A riverine port
It is a tidal port and requires
constant dredging of the Hooghly
In order to maintain a minimum
level of water to ensure its
navigability, water is supplied from
the Farrakka barrage on Ganga.

8. Haldia
Constructed to remove the
congestion at Kolkata port It handles
petroleum and its product,
Engineering goods, Machines,
Chemicals, Iron and Steel, Jute and
Tea etc.

9. Paradip (Orissa)
It handles coal and Iron ore

10. Vishakhapatnam (A.P)

It is the deepest, landlocked and
protected port,

11. Chennai
One of the oldest and an artificial
port on the east coast It handles
Iron ore, Fertilizers, Petroleum and its
produts and general cargo.
Because of the shallow waters near
the coast, it is suited for large ships.

12. Ennore (Tamil Nadu) Developed to

minimize pressure on Chennai port.

13. Tuticorin (Tamil Nadu) Deals with

food grains, Edible oils, Sugar,
Chemicals, Petroleum products and

Airport Authority of India (AAI)
provides for safe efficient air traffic
and aeronautical communication
services in the India Air Space. The
Authority manages 11 international
and 112 domestic Airports.
It also manages 28 passenger
terminals at defense airfields.
International Air Ports are:
Mumbai (Chhatrapati Shivaji
International Air Port), Delhi (Indira
Gandhi International Air Port), Kolkata
(Subhash Chandra Bose), Chennai
(Meenambakkam), Trivendrium
(Thiruvananthpuram, Ahmedabad
(Sardar Vallabh Bhai Patel Air Port),
Cochin (Needumbassery I.A), Goa
(Dabolim LA), Guwahati (Lokpriya
Gopinath Bardoloi LA), Hyderabad
(Rajiv Gandhi LA), Amritsar, Banglore.
Civil Aviation Training College
(Allahabad) provides training on
various operational areas.
National Institute of Aviation
Management and Research (NIAMAR)
at Delhi is managed by AAI.
Indira Gandhi Rastriya Udan
Academy at Fursat Ganj in U.P is an
autonomous body under Ministry of
Civil Aviation. It imparts training to
the parts.

Bharatpur- Rajasthan
Nal Sarovar- Gujarat
Khijadiya - Gujarat
Ratan Mahal- Gujarat
Ghatprabha - Karnataka
Adichunchagiri -Karnataka
Ranganthitoo - Karnataka
Vettangudi -Tamil Nadu
Point Calimere- Tamil Nadu
Vedantangal - Tamil Nadu
Pulicat- Andhra Pradesh
Kolleru - Andhra Pradesh
Neelapattu-Andhra Pradesh
Sultanpur- Haryana
Chandraprabha- Uttar Pradesh
Chilka- Orissa
Pakhiralaya - W.Bengal

- Jammu and Kashmir : Dachigam,
Kishtwar, Hemis high altitude
-Himachal Pradesh: Great Himalayan
-Uttaranchal: Valley of flowers, Rajaji,
Corbet, Nandadevi
- Uttar Pradesh: Dudhwa
- Rajasthan: Desert (Tihar), Sariska,
Nahargarh, Keoldeo Ghana,
- Madhya Pradesh: Panna, Satpura,
Pench, Bandhavgarh, Kanha„Fossil
- Chhattisgarh : Sanjay, Kangar
- Gujarat: Marine, Velvahar, Gir,
-Goa: Bhagwan, Mahavir
- Maharashtra: Sanjay Gandhi,
Nawegaon, Tadoba, Indravati, Panch.
- Karnataka: Bannerghata, Nagorhole,
-Kerala:Eravikulam, Periyar, Silent
- Tamil Nadu: Guindy
-Orissa: Simlipal
- Jharkhand: Palamu
- Sikkim: Kanchenjunga, Neora valley,
- Assam: Kaziranga, Manas
- Meghalaya: Balphakaran, Nokrek
- Manipur: Sirohi, Keibul Lamjao
- Arucachal Pradesh: Namdapha
-Andaman and Nicobar: Saddle peak,
Button, Mt. Harriett

Names States
Renuka -Himachal Pradesh
Kinwat -Maharashtra
Bor -Maharashtra
Nagzira- Maharashtra
Ratnagiri- Maharashtra
Ranibennur- Karnataka
Mudumalai - Tamil Nadu
Annamalai - Tamil Nadu ,
Mandanthruai - Tamil Nadu
Kalakad -Tamil Nadu
Kanwal -Andhra Pradesh
Srisailem- Andhra Pradesh
Pocharam- Andhra Pradesh
Eturnagaram -Andhra Pradesh
Pakhal -Andhra Pradesh
Nandankannan- Orissa
Lothian Islands- W. Bengal
Parmadan- W. Bengal
Saznakhali -W. Bengal
Bethuadhari- W. Bengal
Hazaribagh- Jharkhand
Jaldapara- W. Bengal
Mahananda- W. Bengal
Orano -Assam
Sonai Bupai- Assam
Dampa -Mizoram

Some more facts:

-Kaziranga in Assam is famous for
one horn Rhinocerous
-Periyar in Kerala is famous for
-Sunderbans are well known for
Bengal Tigers
-Rann of Kuchchh in Gujarat is the
habitat for Wild Ass Asiatic Lions are
found in Gir forests
-Siberian Cranes migrate to some of
the wetlands in Northern India
including those like Keoladeo Ghana
in Rajasthan and other in U.P and
-Hemis High Altitude is the largest
national park in India
-Madhya Pradesh is also known as
Tiger state
-Corbett was the first national park
in India
-Some important conventions and
conferences for the conservation and
protection of organisms have been
held since 1970. Some are:
- Man and Biosphere convention
(UNESCO) 1970
-Ramsar (Iran) convention for wet
lands and waterfowl habitat 1971
-CITES for endangered species! 973
- FAO for genetic resource material
- Rio convention by UNCED 1992
- In India the Wild Life Protection
Act came into force in 1972.
- Some other projects to protect
different species are Project tiger
(1.4.1973) Girjion project (1972)
Crocodile breeding project (1.4.1975)
Rhinoceros project (1987) Snow
leopard project (1988) Project
elephant (1988) The Central
Directorate of WildLife Preservation
and the WildLife Institute of India,
Dehradun are the nodal agencies
initiating and monitoring the
programs and projects concerning


The diversity that is found in India is
hard to find anywhere else in this
world. Whether it is physiograpic
divisions or the different aspects of
India's population, India since time
immemorial has been successful in
evolving a unique distinction of its
own on the world map. Here we
have attempted to facilitate you with
the colourful picture of India.

Racial Groups Of India

1 .Negroids: Structure: Negro race is

characterised by; a) Short stature, b)
dark, brown skin, c) wooly hair, d)
Bulbous head, e) broad flat nose, f)
protrusion of jaw.
Today, they are found in Andaman
Islands and also at Urali region of
Nilgiris, Khadurs of Kochi, and
Pulyans of Palni Hills. The Angami
Nagas of north coast and Badgis of
Rajmahal are very similar to Negros.
They were probably the earliest
arrivals into India.

2.Proto Australoids: They came after

Negroids. Structure: a) black skin
colour b) wavy to curly hair, c) broad
and flat nose, d) fleshy and everted
lips, e) proganthous jaws. They are
mostly found in the hilly and
forested tracts of central and
southern India and tribal groups in
India. Important tribes are: Veddhas,
Malveddhas, Irulas, Santhal, Kol, Bhil,
Kurumba, Munda, Kherwar, Malpahari,
Chenchus, Malayan etc. The main
difference between Proto Australoids
and Negroids is that the latter don't
have wavy hair.

3. Mongoloids: China and Mongolia is

considered as their original
homeland. Structure:
a) broad head, b) high cheek bones,
c) long flat nose with little or no hair
on the body, d) slanting eyes.
In India, Mongoloids can be divided
into two sub groups: - Paleo
Mongoloids: These are further divided
into a) broad headed and b) long
headed. They are found in Assam
Himalayas and Myanmar border.
-Tibetan Mongoloids: Found in
Sikkim, Bhutan and Trans Himalayan
regions. The tribes of Mongoloid race
are: Garo, Khasi, Lepchas, Jaintias,
Chakmas, Daffla.

4. Mediterraneans: Structure: a)dark

skinned b) long hair c) medium
structured d)more body hair e) low
skull and long chin.
They were probably the chief
architects of Indus valley civilisation.
Dravidians are Mediterranean

5.Brachycephals: They are broad

They are of three types a) Alpinoids:
are found in Baluchistan, Sindh,
Kathiawar, Gujarat, Maharashtra,
Karnataka and Tamil Nadu,
b) Dinarics: in Ganga valley,
c) Armenoids: are found in Chitral,
Gilgit, Kashmir and Nepal.
In India Coorg, Parsis and Kayasthas
of Bengal are Brachycephals.
6.Nordics: They came latest and
spoke Aryan language.

- Scheduled Tribes of India:

Angamis -Nagaland
Ao - Nagaland
Apatani – Arunachal Pradesh
Badagas -Niligiris (T.N)
Baiga - Madhya Pradesh
Bakkarwals- J & K
Bhils - M. P and Rajasthan
Bhotias- Uttranchal
Bhuia- M. P
Birhars - Chhattisgarh, Jharkhand
and Orissa
Chenchus-Andhra Pradesh
Gaddis - Himachal Pradesh
Garo - Meghalaya
Gonds - M. P
Gujjars - J&K, H. P
Irula - Tamil Nadu
Jaintias - Meghalaya and Assam
Jarawas- Andaman and Nicobar Is,
Kanikar- Tamil Nadu
Katkari- M. P
Kharia- M. P
Khasa -Uttaranchal
Khasis -Meghalaya
Khonds -Orissa
Kol -M. P, Maharashtra
Kolam- Andhra Pradesh
Kolas -Tamil Nadu
Kuki- Manipur
Lahaulas- Himachal Pradesh
Lepchas- Sikkim
Lushai -Mizoram
Murias- M. P and Chhattisgarh
Mikirs - Assam
Moplas- Kerala
Munda -Jharkhand, W. Bengal
Naga- Nagaland
Oraon- Jharkhand
Onge- Andaman and Nicobar Is.
Sabra- M.P
Santhal -Jharkhand
Sema- Nagaland
Sentinelese- Andman and Nicobar Is.
Shompens – Andman and Nicobar Is.
Todas - Tamil Nadu
Uralis - Kerala
Varlis - Maharashtra
Yurva - Tamil Nadu

Scheduled Castes
- In 1991 there were 138 million
persons constituting 16.48% of India's
total population under the category
of scheduled castes.
- Top 5 states with highest
population of Scheduled castes (% of
India's total SCs population)
Uttar Pradesh ...21.18
West Bengal ...11.60
Bihar ...9.09
Tamil Nadu ...7.75
Andhra Pradesh ...7.65
-Territories of Lakshdweep and
Andaman and Nicobar Islands do not
have Scheduled Castes population.

-Total population of India (as on
March 1st 2001) 1,027 million. Males
(531.3 million), Females (495.7 million)
- India supports 16.7% of the total
world's population.
- India's 'Decadal Growth' of
population (19912001) = 21.34% (Inter
census period 1961-1971 marked the
maximum decadal growth of
population at 24.8%).
- Statewise lowest decadal growth
rate of population is shown by
Kerala (9.42%) and highest has been
registered that of Nagaland (64.41%).
- The percent decadal growth rate
has declined during the census
decade 19912001 as compared to the
previous census decade i.e. 1981-
- Among the states/UT's which have
not shown any decline in their
percentage decadal growth rate
during intercensal period of 19912001
as compared to previous census
decade are: Harayana, U.P. Bihar,
Sikkim, Nagaland, Manipur, Gujarat,
Daman and Diu, Dadar and Nagar
Haweli. -Decadal Growth (1991 2001)
- Population density in 2001 is
324 persons/sq.km.

Most Densely Populated (in

descending order): West Bengal Bihar
Kerala U. P Punjab Tamil Nadu
Haryana Goa Assam Jharkhand
Maharashtra Tripura Andhra Pradesh
Karnataka Gujarat Orissa Madhya
Pradesh Rajasthan Chhattisgarh
Nagaland Himachal Pradesh Manipur
Meghalaya Jammu and Kashmir
Sikkim Mizoram Arunachal Pradesh

- Density of Population ( North

Eastern state)

Arunachal Pradesh

- Percentage of state' s
population to the total
population of India.
Uttar Pradesh 16.17
Maharashtra 9.42
Bihar 8.07
West Bengal 7.81,
Andhra Pradesh 7.37
Tamil Nadu 6.05
Madhya Pradesh 5.88
Rajasthan 5.20
Karnataka 5.14
Gujarat 4.93
Orissa 3.57
Kerala 3.10
Jharkhand 2.62
Assam 2.59
Punjab 2.37
Haryana 2.05
Chhattisgarh 2.03
Delhi 1.34
J and K 0.98
Uttaranchal 0.83
Himachal P. 0.59
Tripura 0.31
Manipur 0.23
Meghalaya 0.22
Nagaland 0.19
Goa 0.13
Arunachal P. 0.11
Pondicherry 0.09
Chandigarh 0.09
Mizoram 0.09
Sikkim 0.05
Andaman and
Nicobar Islands 0.03
Dadar and Nagar Haveli 0.02
Daman and Diu 0.02
Lakshdweep 0.01

- State wise population (North

eastern states) Assam Tripura
Manipur Meghalaya Nagaland
Arunachal Pradesh Mizoram Sikkim

- Most Populated Districts: Midnapore

(West Bengal) 24 Parganas (West
Bengal) Mumbai
Thane Pune

-Least populated Districts: Mahe

(Pondicherry) Tawang (Arunachal
Pradesh) LahulSpiti (HP) Upper Siang
(Arunachal Pradesh) Yanam

- Salient features of Indian

1. Population too large for area
2. Overwhelming proportion of rural
3. Ethnic diversity
4. Lopsided age structure

- Causes of Rapid Growth of

1. High birth rate and declining
death rate
2. Near universal incidence of
3. Early marriage of girls
4. Economic backwardness
5. Want of male child
6. Climatic factor (tropical climate
leads to early puberty)
7. Conservative social institutions
lead to early marriages of women
- India's population growth during
the 20th century can be chartered
into four distinct phases:
1. 1901 -1921: Stagnant Population
2. 1921-1951: Steady Growth
3. 1951-1981: Rapid Growth
4. 1981-2001: High Growth with
definite signs of slowing down

- Million plus Cities in India

City Population (in m)
Greater Mumbai ...16.37
Kolkata ...13.22
Delhi ...12.79
Chennai ... 6.42
Bangalore ... 5.69
Hyderabad ...5.53
Ahmadabad ...4.52

Special Attributes of villages
(199 1) :
1. Number of Villages (state wise in
decreasing order) Uttar Pradesh
Madhya Pradesh Bihar Orissa
Maharashtra West Bengal Rajasthan
2. Rural Population (State wise in
decreasing order) Uttar Pradesh Bihar
Madhya Pradesh West Bengal Andhra
Pradesh Maharashtra Tamil Nadu
Other places satisfying all the three
under mentioned conditions:

1. Population greater than 5000
2. Having at least 75% of the male
working population engaged in
nonagricultural pursuits
3. The density of population exceeds
400 per square km. -All towns and
urban agglomerations are grouped
into six classes according to
population size.
Urban centres with less than one
lakh is called a town

- City Urban centres with population

of more than one lakh.
-Metropolitian Cities Cities
accommodating population between
one to five million

- Mega Cities Cities with more than

ten million population.

-Urban Agglomeration An urban

agglomeration may consists of:
A town and its adjoining outgrowth,
Two or more contiguous turns with
or without their outer growth
A city and one or more adjoining
towns with their outgrowths together
forming a contiguous pattern.

-Conurbation: An Urban reason

consisting of huge Metropolis and a
number of small towns

- Phases of Urbanization:
1. Period of slow Urbanisation 1901-
2. Period of medium Urbanisation
3. Period of rapid Urbanisation 1961

What is Urbanization? The term

urban is referred to towns of cities
having marked secondary and
tertiary functions along with
municipality or notified area
[ Urbanization on the other hand a
process of population increase in
urban areas.

Urban Regions of India:

Year Population residing in Urban
1901 10.9%
1941 14.1%
1951 17.6%
1961 18.3%
1971 20.21%
1981 23.7%
1991 26.0%
Entire urban regions of India can be
divided into six zones Regional
Urban Geography

Himachal Pradesh: total urban

population is 74,44,824.
It has 55 urban centres smallest is
Naina Devi (500), largest is Shimla
(1,09,840). Chamba is most dense
(4,000 people/sq. km.; least dense is
Narkanda (300). only 10% of total
population resides in urban areas,
important urban centres are:
Shabatha, Dagshai, Jutosh, Kassanti,
Solan, Yole, Dalhousie etc.
Chamba is situated on Ravi and
Kullu Manali on Beas. Shimla is at
the altitude of 2205 m.In 1861, it was
made the summer capital of India.

Madhya Pradesh: has 433 towns and

15 million people live in urban areas
which is 15% ofthe total population of
M.P. important cities are Indore (it is
the best and most well planned city
and has 10,86,000 people), Bhopal
(10,63,000), third is Jabalpur (88,000),
Murwara, Mahalda, Balaghat,
Narsinghpur, Ambikapur, Umaria,
Kaimur (all these are mining and
industrial towns and cities).
Most important city is Raipur, Bhilai,
Rajhara and Nandini. There are some
planned cities like Panchsheel Nagar,
Shankar Nagar.

Total population 40 million; 4 crore
live in urban areas i.e. 25% of the
total population; it has 291 urban
centres; earliest towns are Paithan,
JunnarKarad, Deogiri. Market towns
are Sholapur and Barsi (Bhima
Valley), Satara in Krishna Valley,
Nandurbar, Bhulia (Tapti Valley).
towns during MarathasSangli,
Kurundwad, Miraj, Ichalkaranji,
Phattan, Bhor, Aurangabad, Kolhapur,
Pune, Mumbai.
Greater Mumbai has largest
population (1 crore,26 lakh) than
Kalyan, Thane, Udhampur, Navi

42 lakh population in urban areas.
Has 119 urban centers & 1011 %
people live in urban areas.
Important industrial towns Rourkela
(Sundargarh dist.), Hirakud
(Sambalpur dist.), Balagir.
Mining towns areDhenkanal, Kyonjhar
and Mayurbhanj.
Historical townsBhubneshwar, Cuttack
and Konark. Commercial towns
Sonpur, Besllanguntha, Jharsuguda,
Kalahandi and Korapat.

Tamil Nadu:
260 urban centres, 190 million
population in urban areas, important
towns are centred around Nilgiri &
Vellore, Salem and Chennai (54

14 million urban areas, 225 urban
Important centres are Vadodra,
Rajghat, Jamnagar, Bhavnagar,
Ahemdabad & Surat.
Port city is Kandala. Religious centres
are Dakor, Dwarka & Somnath.
Gandhinagar is on Sabarmati river.

254 urban centre, 14 million people.
Oldest towns: Vatapi, Pampapur,
Gokhran, Singeri, talakad, Halebid,
Fort towns: Belgaun, Bijapur,
Gulbarga, Kalyani Jalikot, Devanbali,
Parvada, Shinaripur, Hosadwarja.
industrial towns: Mandya, Godag,
Jainagar, Gandhingar. Banglore has 41
lakh people.

Andhra Pradesh: 18 millions in urban

areas, 213 urban centres, historical
cities are Kurnool, Mothagudam,
Sirpur, Mancheriyal etc.
Hyderabad is the largest urban
centre (40 lakh), then Vizag. Uttar
Pradesh: 28 million, 702 urban
centres; highly urbanized sector is
Yamunapur (30.4%). Kanpur has largest
population (19.62 lakh), Lucknow (15.92
lakh), then Varanasi (9.29 lakhs), then
Agra, Allahabad and then Meerut.

60 lakh in urban, 119 urban areas,
30% population in urban areas.
Ambala is highest urbanized, then
Amritsar, Ludhiana, Jallandhar, Patiala,
then Gurudaspur.

10 million in urban areas, 214 urban
areas; Largest population in Jaipur,
Jodhpur, Kota, Bikaner, Ajmer,
Udaipur, Alwar, Bhilwara, Ganganagar

Jammu and Kashmir: 49 urban

centres, 23.89% of population in urban
areas. Anantnag, Baramula, Sopor in
Srinagar Valley; Mirpur, Udhampur,
Poonch and Leh are also urban

West Bengal: 27.39% in urban areas,

19 million, 160 urban centres.

Manipur: 27% in urban areas, 30 urban

centres; Imphal is largest.

Assam: 221 urban centres, 25 lakh in

urban centres.

Class V 2.6%; 735 towns. Class VI
0.30%; 196 towns. India has 35 such
cities whose population is more than
10 lakh or 1 million. Western India is
more urbanized than Eastern India.
Southern India is more urbanised
than Northern India.

Energy resources

► Oil pipelines 7.5 thousand km. in

first pipeline was laid in Assam in
Nunmati to Barauni, 1167 km., now
extended to Kanpur; second in
Salaya in Gujarat to Mathura in U.P.,
12.56 km. , it is being extended to
Panipat and Jalandhar and finally to
Koyali in Gujarat; third is Mumbai to
Pune; fourth is from Rajbandh to
Maurigram in W.Bengal;
HEP: Tamil Nadu: Mettur, Pykara,
Papnasham, Kadamparai, Pandiyar,
Kodayar, Kundah and Periyar projects.

Punjab: Bhakra dam, Ganguwal and

Kotla projects on Sutlej river, Pong
dam on Vyas,
U.P.: Bahadurabad, Mohammadpur
Chitura, Salwa, Bhola, Plara, Sumera,
Sardar Sarovar, Ramganta, Matatila
dam near Jhansi on Betwa, Rihand
project on R. Rihand.
Kerala, 100% electricity is generated
through hydro electric projects Idukki,
Kuttyadi, Sabargiri, Sholayar,
Manantvadi, Chalkudi, Puyankutti,
lower Periyar, Pallinsal.
Maharashtra: Lonavala grid (which
has 3 powerhouse is in Khopoli, in
Vjbhpuri and third in Bhira, Konya
project (tributary of Krishna), Puma,
In Orissa are Hirakund, Bhimakund,
Rengali and In Himachal Pradesh
Mandi project in Jogindernagar, Pando
project on Vyas river. In J&K Chenab,
Sind, Jhelum and Salal projects.

► Thermal Power: Maharashtra

Chola and Trombay, Kolhapur Diesel
Turbine, Uran Gas Turbine,
Chandelpur, Bhusawal, Khaparkheda,
Dhabol and Ujjahi.
In Gujarat: Banas, Gandhinagar,
Kuchchh, Sabarmati, Wanakbori,
Kawas, Sikka, Malwa, Uttran, Shahpur,
Porbandar, Kandla,Ahmedabad,
In U.P. are Obra in Mirzapur,
Harduaganj at Aligarh, Renusagar,
Rosa, Jawaharpur, Unchahar, Rihand,
Kanpur, Mau in Ajamgarh, Gorakhpur,
Dohrighat, Moradabad, Tundla and
West Bengal Bundel, Calcutta,
Durgapur, Murshidabad, Kalaghat,
Titagarh, Mejia, Santhaldih.
MP/Chhattisgarh: Korka in Bilaspur,
Bishrampur, Vindhyachal, Busingpur,
Badhghat, BALCO pinch, Satpura.
T.N.: Neyvelli, Mettur, Ennore. Andhra
Pradesh: Ramgudam, Kothagudam,
Nellore, Vijayavada, Bhodrachalam
and Manuguru.
In Bihar are Muzaffarpur, Barauni,
Tenughat and Bokaro.
Punjab: Bhatinda and Rupnagar;
in Haryana Panipat, Faridabad and
Rajasthan: Kota, Palna, Sawai
Madhopur and Banswara.
Karnataka: Raichur;
Assam Namrup, Bonaigaon and
Orissa Talchar;
Delhi Badarpur, Indraprastha and
In NonConventional Energy Sources:
In India, solar energy was
commercialized in 1983. In India, solar
energy is generated @ 20 M.W. per
mt. per year.

► Thar deserts has been declared as

the biggest powerhouse of the earth
by 2010 generating 10,000 m.w

► The first two projects of 100 kw.

have been started in Kalyanpur and
Saraisadi in Mau of U.P. and in
Gurgaon (Haryana).

Wave Energy: Largest in Vinzingzam

in Tiruvanantpuram in Kerala, then in
Andaman Nicobar.

Atomic Power Plants

1. Tarapur-Maharashtra - Atomic
Power Plant, in India based on U.S.
2.Rawatbhata Rajasthan. Based on
Canadian design
3,Kalpakkam TamilNadu only Atomic
Power Plant located in coal rich
4.Narora Uttar Pradesh only Atomic
Power Plant used for Agricultural
5. Kakrapara Gujarat
6.Kaiga Karnataka
7.Kudankulam Tamil Nadu (Fuel
Supplied by Russia) More on Power
of The breakup of Electricity
generation through different sources
is as follows:
Thermal 82.0 %
Hydroelectric 14.9%
Nuclear Power 3.4%

- Region wise domination of

sources of power is as follows:
Karnataka Meghalaya Kerala
Nagaland Himachal P. Tripura J and K
Delhi Jharkhand Haryana
Chhattisgarh Punjab M.P. Assam
Gujarat W. B U.P. Bihar Maharashtra
NUCLEAR POWER Rajasthan (This
state being deficient in both coal
and waterhead, Nuclear energy
contributes around 54% of its total
commercial energy) Nuclear Power:
Atomic energy Institute was
established at Trombay in 1954.
It was renamed as the Bhabha
Atomic Research Centre' (BARC) in
1967. At present production of
nuclear energy is facilitated by ten
units located at six centres:
Tarapur (Maharashtra)
Rawatbhata (Rajasthan)
Kalpakkam (T.N)
Narora (U.P)
Kakrapara (Gujarat)
Kaiga (Karnataka)
Nuclear electricity

Nuclear Power Plant- Year of

Completion- Capacity (M.W.)
Tarapur- 1969 -320
Ranapratap Sagar in Kota- 1972,
1980- 440
Kalpakkam nearChemul -1984, 1986
Narora near Bulandshahar- 1989, 1991
Kakrapara in Gujarat- 1992- 220.

Mineral Resources
► The Geological Survey of India is
working since 1851 and has taken
considerable interest in locating and
harnessing mineral resources.
The Indian Bureau of mines is at
► Statewise production of minerals
in India:
MP / Chhattisgarh
Andhra Pradesh
W. Bengal
Tamil Nadu
► India is deficient in the following
minerals: Silver, Nickel, Cobalt,
Copper, Zinc, Lead, Tin, Mercury,
Gold, Tungsten, Platinum, Graphite,
Asphalt, Potash, Sulphur, Cadmium,
Bismuth, Molybdenum and Petroleum.
► Mineral belts in India: Chota
Nagpur Belt
Midland Belt (Chhattisgarh, MP,
Andhra Pradesh and Maharashtra)
Southern Belt (Karnataka and Tamil
Western Belt ( Rajasthan, Gujarat and
Maharashtra) South Western Belt
(Karnataka, Goa and Kerala)
Himalayan Belt (valuable minerals in
pockets and vaults of 'stratic faults')
The Indian Ocean (manganese
nodules, phosphorite nodules, and
barium sulphate concretions).
Phosphorite nodules are mainly
found near the Andaman Is. The
Arabian Sea is richer in phosphate
than the Bay of Bengal.
► The new mineral policy came in
1993. Under the new policy the need
was felt to liberalize the mineral
sector and open it for the private
investors to promote better mineral

Iron Ore
► India produces four types of iron
ores Haematite, Magnetite, Limonite
and Siderite.
► Total iron ore reserves2,158.3 crore
► Largest reserves Jharkhand, Orissa,
Karnataka, MP/ Chhattisgarh, Goa,
Maharashtra, Andhra Pradesh, Kerala,
Assam, Rajasthan, Tamil Nadu.
► Statewise production of iron ore:
MP/Chhattisgarh, Goa, Jharkhand,
Karnataka, Orissa, Andhra Pradesh,
Maharashtra and Rajasthan.
► Areas:
1.Jharkhand: Noamundi and Gua
mines and other areas in Sighbhum,
near Daltonganj in Plamau. Also
found in Ranchi, Dhanbad,
Hazaribagh and Santhal Pargana
2.Karnataka Bellary, Chitradurga,
(Bababudan hills) Chikmaglur, Bijapur,
Dharwad, Tumkur, Uttar Kannada,
Dakshin Kannad and Shimoga.
3.0rissa:Mayurbhanj, Keonjhar and
4.Andhra Pradesh: Anantpur,
Khammam, Krishna, Kurnool,
Cuddapah.and Nellore.
5.Maharashtra: Chandrapur and
Ratnagiri. Also in Bhandara.
6.Rajasthan: Bhilwara, Udaipur and
7.Tamil Nadu: Salem, North Arcot,
Nilgiris and Dharmapuri.
8.Other areas: Gujarat (Junagarh,
Bhavnagar and Vadodara); Haryana
(Mahendergarh); J&K(Rajauri, Jammu
and Udhampur); Damiida series of
Jharkhand and W. Bengal; Uttaranchal
(Garhwal and Nainital); UP (Mirzapur
and Sonbhadra); H.P.(Kangra and

► Occurs mainly in the Dharwar
system of rocks.
► Pyrolusite is the main ore.
► India is the third largest producer
after Russia and Ghana.
► Distribution of ore (statewise):
Karnataka, Orissa, MP/Chhattisgarh,
Maharashtra, Goa, Andhra Pradesh,
Gujarat, Rajasthan and Jharkhand.
► Statewise production: Orissa,
Karnataka, MP/Chhattisgarh,
Maharashtra, Andhra Pradesh, Goa
and Bihar/ Jharkhand.
► Areas:
Orissa: Keonjhar, Sundargarh, Koraput,
Kalahandi and Bolangir.
Karnataka: Bellary, Uttar Kannad,
Shimoga, Tumkur, and Belgaum
MP: Balaghat, Chhindwara, Jabalpur
and Jhabua. The belt is the
continuation of the Nagpur Bhandara
Maharashtra: Nagpur Bhandara Belt
and Ratnagiri.
Andhra Pradesh: Associated with
Khondalite rocks. Srikakulam and
Jharkhand: Birmitrapur near Chaibasa,
Singhbhum, Hazaribagh, Dhanbad,
Gaya and Munger.
Gujarat: Vadodra, Panchmahal,
Banaskantha and Sabarkantha.
Rajasthan: Banswara and Udaipur.
W. Bengal: Medinapur.

► Ore of aluminum metal.
► Used in aeroplanes, automobiles,
► Chief places: Amarkantak plateau
comprising Sarguja, Raigarh.and
Bilaspur, Maikal Range including
Shahdol, Durg and Balaghat and
Katni and Jabalpur in M.P; Ranchi,
Palamau, Lohardaga and Muri
(Jharkhand); Ratnagiri, Thane, Satara,
Kolhapur in Maharashtra; Bhavnagar,
Junagadh, Amreli and Jamnagar
(Gujarat), Kalahandi and Koraput
Two types of Bauxite: one found at
Panchpatmali (largest) second found
at Gandhamardan.
► Largest reserves: Orissa, Andhra
Pradesh, M.P., Maharashtra, Gujarat,
Bihar, Jharkhand.
► Largest producers: Orrisa, Bihar,
Jharkhand, Maharashtra, Gujarat, M.P.
Chhattisgarh. Lead
► It occurs in the pre Cambrian
rocks and the Vindhayan sediments.
► Rajasthan produces about 80% of
the countries total production.Mainly
from the Zawar region of Udaipur.
Other areas in Rajasthan include
RajpuraDariba area of Bhilwara and
Aimer, Alwar, Banswara and Sawai
► Orrisa: Sambalpur, Kalahandi, and
► Andhra Pradesh: Cuddapah, Guntur,
Kurnool andNalgonda.
► Largest producers : Rajasthan,
Orissa, Andhra Pradesh and Sikkim.

► Chief ore: Sphalerite (ZnS)
► Largely used for galvanizing or
coating iron and steel
► Zawar in Udaipur(Rajasthan) is the
main area . This area has two main
zones of mineralization:
(1) Pipli Khan to Barla Khan;
(2) Mochia Magra, Balaria.
► Bhilwara, Ajmer, Alwar and Sawai
Madhopur areas of Rajasthan,
Bhotang of Sikkim, Riasi of J&K and
Almora and Tehri Garhwal of
Uttaranchal also produces Zinc.
► Rajasthan and Sikkim are the
largest producers.
► India imports zinc concentrates
from Australia, Peru Mexico, Canada,
Russia and Zaire.

Copper Ore
► Mosabani and Rakha in Singhbhum
district (Jharkhand).
► Rangpo (Sikkim) and Gharwal
district (UP).
► Khetri Belt (Aravalli Range) in
Jhunjhunu, the Kho Dariba near
Alwar, Delwara and Debari of
Udaipur and the sikar district of
► Agnigundala (Guntur), A.P.
► Malanjkhand (Balaghat) M.P.
► MP (36%), Rajasthan (35.4%) and
Bihar (27%).
► Hindustan Copper Limited (HCL)
incorporated in 1967 as a public
sector enterprise, is the leading
producer of primary copper in the
At present, it has four main units (1)
Khetri copper complex in Rajasthan,
(2) Indian Copper Complex in
Jharkhand, (3) Malajhkhand Copper
project in Madhya Pradesh and (4)
Taloja Copper Project in Maharashtra.

► (CaCo3), it is either composed of
calcium carbonate or double
carbonate of calcium and
► M.P. is the largest producer (25%).
► Limestone is mainly used in
cement industry.
► In M.P. areas are Jabalpur, Bilaspur,
Betul, Raigarh, Raipur, Damoh, Durg,
Sagar and Rewa.
► Second is Andhra pradesh (18%),
Cuddappah, Kurnool, Guntur, Krishna,
Nalgonda, Adilabad, Warangal,
► Third is Rajasthan (10.5%):
Jhunjhunu, Banshara, Bundi, Jodhpur,
Sirohi, Ajmer, Bikaner, Kota, Tonk,
Alwar, Dungarpur, Sawai Madhopur,
Chittor, Pali, Nagaur and Udaipur.
► Fourth is Gujarat (9.5%), Kutch,
Surat, Kheda, Junagarh and
► Fifth is Karnataka (9%), Gulbarga,
Chitradurg, Tumkur, Mysore, Shimoga,
Bijapur, Belgam.
► In addition are Sikkim (8%),
Maharashtra (7.8%) (Chandrapur,
Nanded and Ahmadnagar), Orissa
(2.5%) Sundargarh, Sambalpur and

► Limestone with 10% more
magnesium is called dolomite
► It is mostly used in fertilizer
► Largest producer is Orissa (48.43%):
Birmitrapur, Sundargarh, Koraput,
Sambalpur, Gangapur (Sukra).
► Second is M.P. (21%), Balaghat,
Bastar, Bilaspur, Durg, Chhindwara,
Hoshangabad, Jabalpur and Jhabua.
► Third is Gujarat (14%), Bhavnagar
and Vadodra dist.
► Fourth is Bihar (5.85%), Chaibasa,
Banjari in Rohtas and Palamu.

► Its an alternative produce of
deunite (or peridotite).
► Tamil Nadu is the largest producer:
chalk hills near Salem, Coimbatore,
Dharmapuri, north Arcot, Nilgiri,
► Second is Karnataka: Hassan,
Mysore and Kodagu.
► Third is Rajasthan: Ajmer, Udaipur,
► Fourth is Uttaranchal: Almora; fifth
is Himachal Pradesh: Chamba; sixth
is J&K: Udhampur.

► It occurs in metamorphic
aluminous rocks.
► Largest producer is Bihar (55%),
Lapsaaburu, Kharsawan, Ghagidih,
Badia, Bakra, Mohanpur,
Jagannathpur, Bhakar, Hathiland,
Singpura, Dauntauri, Padampur.
► Second is Maharashtra (41%)
Bhandara andNagpur;
► Third is Karnataka (2.9%),
Chikmaglur, Chitradurg, Mandya,
Mysore, Dakshin Kannada, Shimoga.

► Largest producer is Karnataka,
Hassan, Mysore, Dakshin Kannada.
► Second is Maharashtra, Bhandara.
► Third is Meghalaya, Khasi hills;
fourth is Orissa, Ganjam. Gypsum
► Jamsar near Bikaner richest 28% of
► Also found at Sermur (H.P), Uri
► 9/10th produce Rajasthan.
► Important consumer of Gypsum is
Cement industry.

► India is poor in phosphate
minerals, viz. apatite and rock
► Apatite deposits are located in
Singhbhum and Vishakapatnam dist.,
West Bengal.
► Recently it has been found at
Udaipur (Rajasthan)
► Rock phosphate: Jhabua (M.P.),
Jaisalmer, Nainital.
► Tunisia and Jordan are the leading
► Rajasthan produces 65.4%, and

Common Salt
► Heavy chemicals namely Caustic
Soda Chlorine and soda ash other
sources are salt lakes Sambhar,
Didwana, Pachbhadra
► Gujarat is the largest producer.
► Maharashtra 711%.
► Tamil NadiTT620% (second).
► Kharaghoda is the leading centre
of salt industry of the Raina.

► A sulphuric acid plant in Sindri
► Pyrites: found at Amjor near
Rohtas (Bihar). Ingaldhal in
Chitradurga (Karnataka), Taradevi
(Shimla), Saladipura (Sikar, Rajasthan).
► Ores of Zinc, Lead and Copper
have compounds of sulphur in it.

► Hutti Mines and Kolar Gold
► Ramagiri: Andhara Pradesh, Wynad:
Kerala, Nilgiri: TN

► Leading supplier in the world,
4/5th producer.
► A nonconductor of electricity.
► Nothern fringe of Bihar Plateau:
Kodarma, Giridih, Domchanch.
► Bihar produces 57%. Nuclear

► Uranium: mined at Jaduguda


► ThoriumKerala (south of Quilon)

also rich in Monazite, Ilmenite rutile,

► Uranium, the only atomic fuel

used for the generation of nuclear
power at present is available in India
but deposits of Pitchblende (the
principle source of Uranium) are
poorer than those of Monazite (chief
source of Thorium).

► Natural Thorium is not a fissile

metal. It is first converted into
Uranium 233. India has been able to
convert Thorium into Uranium.
► A factory for processing Monazite
has been constructed at Alwaye in

Atomic Minerals:
1. Uranium
► Singbhum, Gaya, Hazaribagh,
Saharanpur's sedimentary rocks in
► The greatest source of Uranium is
monagite sand.
► India produces only 2% of world

2. Thorium
► Also derived from monazite which
contains 10% thoria and 0.3% Urania.
► It is found in Kerala, Bihar,
Tamilnadu and Rajasthan.

3. Beryllium Oxide
► It is used as moderator in nuclear

4. Lithium
► Found in spodumene and
► In Bihar and Bastar (M.P).
5 Zirconium
► Found in Kerala, Ranchi and

► The new seed policy came in 1988.
There are three types of seeds:
Breeder seeds of the primary stage,
Foundation seeds of the intermediate
stage and the certified or the quality
seeds that is actually distributed.
Total seed production is presently
hovering around 100 lakh quintals.
National seeds corporation (NSC),
State Farm Corporation of India
(SFCI), State seed Corporations and
State seed certification agencies are
the primary agencies working in the
seed sector.

Maize is a kharif crop.

► Require about 80 to 95 days to
► Average yield: 1606 kg/hectare.
► U.P., Bihar, Rajasthan, M.P., Punjab
are important maize producing zone.
► Karnataka highest yield 2943 kg/h.

Jowar (Sarghum vulgare)

► Temperature: 26°33°
► Rainfall: less than 100 cm

Rubber (Hevea Brasiliensis)

► Many species of this give milk like
juice called latex which on drying or
coagulating gives new rubber.
► The principle source of rubber is
the Hevea tree (also known as Para
Rubber Tree) native to the Amazon
region in South America.
► Rubber plantation was first
introduced in 1902 in India on the
banks of the Periyar.
► Temperature: 21°C 35°C.
► Rainfall: 200cm to 400cm
► Alluvial soil
► Kerala produces 91% and Tamil
Nadu: 5%.
► Synthetic rubber: raw materials
used are Benzene and Ethyl alcohol.
► Plant set up at Borada.
► Process: wet process called
Plantation or Parchment Dry Process
called Cherry or Native Method.
► Production: Karnataka (Chikmanglur
first plantation, Hassan, Shimoga,
Coorg, Mandi); Kerala (Palaghat,
Kottayam and Trivandrum) Tamil
Nadu (North Aracot to Tirunvelli).
► Trade: India exports USA, Canada,
Europe, Australia.
► India occupies the 12th position in
coffee production.

Jute (Corchorous Capsularies)

► Production yearly 40% of the world
► It is also called Brown Paper of
wholesale trade.
► Temperature 27°C34°C
► Humidity: 8090%
► Rainfall: 170200 cm
► Soil: Sandy, clayey, alluvial soil
► Sowing: Mar.-Apr.
► Harvesting: July-Sept.
► Jetting: It is a microbiological
process; it loosens the outer bark
and facilitating removal of fibre from
► Yield : 1300 kg/hr.
► Variety: JRO7835, (Basudev)
► Production : West Bengal (2/ 3rd),
Assam, Bihar

Cotton (Gossypium)
► Largest area under cultivation in
world 40% of total cultivation area.
Produces only 8-10% of total world
► 4th important after USA, China,
► It is a subtropical crop.
► Required temperature: 21°C27°C.
► Rainfall: 50 cm to 80cm.
► Precaution : frost free period 200
► Soil: Regur or Black; clayey soils
containing lime and phosphates.
► Area: mainly in the area west of
80°E Meridian.
► Production : as a Kharif crop
► Punjab, Haryana, Rajasthan, UP, MP
(April/May to Oct.); Tamil Nadu (sown
in Jan.).
► Best Cotton: Sudan and Egypt.
► Ginning: which consists of
separating the seeds from the raw
► Variety: Hybrid4, introduced in
Gujrat, DHC32.
► Yield: 265 kg/hr.
► Production: Gujarat 15.4% (24.9%),
Maharashtra19.4%, Punjab21.5% (16»3%)
and Karnataka 7.8%.


► Rainfall: 50- 80cm.
Soil: Sandy Loam soil should be rich
in Potash, Nitrogen, Magnesium,
Phosphoric Acid.
► India has 17% of total area under
► Variety: Nicotiana Tabaccum and
Nicotiana Rustica.
► Flues: Virginia tobacco is procured
in special chambers known as Barns
with artificial heat passing through
metal pipes called Flues. Hence it is
known as Flues cured Virginia
► Export: second largest exporter
after USA.
► Area : Andhra Pradesh, Gujarat,
Tamil Nadu, Karnataka and
Maharashtra in the Deccan, Bihar,
Orissa, UP, West Bengal.
► Production : Average 1000 leaf/ha
Andhra Pradesh largest producer,
Guntur heart of tobacco trade.
► Exported to UK, EEU.
► Two important ports : Madras and

Sugarcane (Saccharum Officinarium)

► Belongs to grass family.
► Contains canesugar (Sucrose).
► It is basically a tropical crop.
► Temperature: 20°30°, not above
50°C, not less than 20°C
► Rainfall75cm 120cm.
► Soil clay loams, Alluvial; should be
rich in Nitrogen, Phosphoric and
► Setts : All commercial plantations
are made of stalk cuttings of two or
three joints.
► Ratoon crops : After the first crop
has been cut , the stem begins to
grow again.
► Average Yield : 65375 kg/ ha
Highest in Tamil Nadu
► Production : UP the largest
producer, Bihar, Punjab, Haryana.

Tea (Camellia tea)

► India is the leading producer and
leading exporter.
► Varieties: Black tea leaves are
dried in the sun and then fermented;
Green tea far east China and Japan,
there is no fermentation.
► Climate: temp. 13°c and 35°c;
rainfall 150250 cm.; protection against
long dry weather.
► Soil: Sandy loams are best; iron in
soil is beneficial.
► Cultivation : Assam 54.7%; Assam
24.3%; Tamil Nadu9.2%.
► Production: Assam21.48%;
W.Bengal21.48%; Tamil Nadu13.32% and
► Export: Britain chief buyer, Russia,
USA and Australia.

Coffee (Coffea)
► Oldest among the plantation.
► It is the highland crop of the
► Temperature : 15°C 28°C
► Protection : sensitive to cold and
frost and to be protected from hot
dry winds.
► Sun rays are injurious.
► Varieties : Arabica, Robusta and
Coffee Liberica (75%)
► Rainfall 125 cm 200 cm.
► Height of the crop 910 mts.
► Plucking time :Coffee Arabica
between Oct.-Nov. ; Coffee Robusta
between Jan-Feb.
► Production (state wise) Karnataka,
Kerala, Tamil nadu, Andhra pradesh.
► Yield (state wise) Karnataka, Tamil
Nadu, Kerala and Andhra Pradesh.
Sesamum (Sesamum Indicum)
► It is both a Kharif crop (N. India)
and Rabi (S. India).
► Seed contains 46%52% oil.
► Light and Sandy soils and Black
Cotton soils.
► Temperature21°c23"c.
► Rainfall4050cm.
► India produces l/3rd of the total
► Orissa, Gujarat, Maharashtra,
Karnataka, M.P., Tamil Nadu.

Groundnut (Arachis Hypogea)

► Leading in the world.
► Needs tropical climate.
► Susceptible to frost.
► Khrif Crop (N. India), Rabi (S. India).
► Rainfall50-100cm.
► Sandy Loams.
► Sown in June-July and harvested
in four months.
► Deccan Plateau and Gujrat.
► Highest yield in Gujarat.
► Temperature20°c25°c.

Rapeseed and Mustard seed

► Rapeseed is also known as Sarson,
Toria and Taramira.
► Mustard seed is also known as
► It is a Rabi corp.
► Alluvial soil.
► Rainfall2540cm.
► Maturity7590 days.
► Leading producers : U.P.; Rajasthan;
Punjab and Haryana.


► India produces 10% of the world
► It is a rabi crop.
► U.P.; M.P.
► Clay Loams as well as Clayey
Black soils of the Central and
Peninsular India.
► Rainfall: 4575cm.
► Oil seed contains 33% 47% of oil.
Castor seed (Ricinus Communis)
► India produces 1/5th of the total
world production.
► It is a tropical and subtropical
► It is both a Rabi (S. India) and
Kharif (N. India) Crop.
► Gujarat and Andhra Pradesh (67%)
► Temperature : 20°c26°c.
► Rainfall: 5075cm.
► Soil : Deep loamy soils.
► Sown in June-July .
► Maturity : 6months.
► Seed Contains 35%-38% oil.

► It is a Rabi crop.
► Seed contains 24% to 36% oil.
► Solis : Alluvial Loams and Black
► Maharashtra (2/3rd); Karnataka;
Andhra Pradesh (leading producer).

► Introduced in 1969.
► Photo intensive crop.
► Annual rainfall less than 50cm.
► Rabi and Kharif crop.
► Maturity; 90100 days
► Loam soil.
► Sown during mid Dec.-mid Feb.
► Harvested in mid July-August.
► Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka and
Tamil Nadu.

► Warm Temperature to cool
► Temperature : 21°c13°c.
► Rainfall: 100cm.
► Oil content only 20%.
► Very rich in protein.
► M.P., U.P.
► Kharif crop.
► Rizobium : a nitrogen fixing
► Fariable Loams : PH value 6.0 to
► Sown in June.

► A kharif crop.
► Sown hiJimeJ_uly.
► Harvested in DecJan.
► Mainly produced in Orissa M.P.
► Soil : deep regur.

Cotton Seed
► A substitute of Olive oil.
► Maharashtra, Punjab, Haryana, M.P,
Andhra Pradesh and Tamil Nadu,
Gujarat (24.44%).

► A millet crop and kharif crop.
► Karnataka is the chief producer.
► Gram (tur) Red gram, Urd (Black
gram) and Moong (Green gram).
► It is a Kharif crop.
► Khisari and Masur are Rabi.
► Crop are Leguminous and fixes
nitrogen in the soil.

Millets ( Sorghum, Jowar, Bajra

and Ragi)
► In India Sorghum is known as
Jowar; Milo in Africa and Kaoling in
► Temperature: 27°c 32"c
► Rainfall: 50-120cm.
► Deccan area

► Winter season
► U.P; M.P; Rajasthan; Haryana 4/5th
of total production.
► In Bengal, Gram is most important
pulse contributing about 40% of the
total production.
► Rabi crop.
► Rainfall: moderate (50100 cm.)
► Seeds sown in mid Oct. to
beginning of Nov.
► Matures in 150 days.

► Rainfall more than 120 cm.
► Kharif crop.
► Maharashtra, M.P, U.P.


► Lignite or Brown coal occurs in
Neyveli in Tamil Nadu, Palu fields in
Rajasthan, Raisi in Kashmir and
► India is the 7th largest producer of
Places where Lignite is produced:
(1) Raniganj
(2) Jharia
(3) Bokaro
(4) Karanpura
(5) Giridih
(6) Thalchar (Orissa)
(7) Kanan Valley (M. P.)
(8)Wardha Valley (Maharashtra)
(9)Singarem (Andhra Pradesh)
(10) Nayveli (Tamil Nadu).
► Lignite Tamil nadu has 91% of
reserve and 80% of production,
Neyvelli, South Arcot, Jayamkond
acholapur (in Trichi distt.), Manargudi.

► Amounts to 60% of total electricity
► 65% of the commercial needs of
► Raniganj coal field is the oldest in
India (1814).
► Indian coalfield belongs to two
geological era Gondwana and
tertiary. Gondwana category accounts
for 99.5 % of the total reserve.
► Gondwana category is inferior to
the tertiary coal.
► Tertiary coalfield is found in the
Northeast and J&K.
► Jharia largest in India.
► Per capita production of Coal180
► Important coalfields Jharkhand :
Jharia, Bokaro, Giridih, Karanpura,
Ramgarh, Auranga, Hutar, Daltonganj,
Deogarh and Rajmahal. W.Bengal :
Raniganj, Barjora and Darjeeling.
Andhra Pradesh : Godavari valley
(Singareni coalfields) MP/
Chhattisgarh: Singrauli, Korba,
Chirmiri, PenchKanha Tawa valley,
Hasdo Arand, Jhilmili and Mohpani
Maharashtra : Chanda, Kamte, Umrer
and Bander. Orissa Talcher and IB
► Coal reserve (statewise) Jharkhand,
Chhattisgarh, W. Bengal, Andhra
Pradesh, Maharashtra, UP, Meghalaya,
Assam, Arunachal Pradesh and
► Largest Mine reserves Jharia,
Raniganj, Godavari valley.North
Karanpura, Singrauli and Talcher.
► Statewise production MP/
Chhattisgarh, Bihar, Orissa, Andhra
Pradesh, Maharashtra, W. Bengal, and
Uttar Pradesh.
► Utilisation of coal in various
industries (in sequence) : Power,
Steel, Cement, Fertilizer, Chemical
and Paper.
► In order to increase the availability
of indegenous coking coal for steel
plants , new coal washeries are
being set up and capacities of
existing coal beneficiation plants are
being increased.
► There are around eighteen coal
washeries in the country .Seven
washeries ( Dugda, Bhojudih,
Patherdih, Lodna, Sudamdih and
Munidih) produce high grade coking
coal. Similarly Kargali, Kathera,
Sawang, Gidi, Barora and Nandan
washeries manufacture medium
grade coking coal. Durgapur I
washery is under W.Bengal
government and those of Jamdoba
and W. Bokaro is under Tata Iron and
Steel Co., that of Nawrozabad under
Western coalfield limited and Lodna
and Durgapur II under the Bharat
Coking Coal Ltd.
► Problems of coal mining: poor
quality coal uneven distribution
transport bottleneck obsolete
methods of mining, power shortage
recession in coal mining
environmental pollution wastage of
► Found in Nilgiri hills, Jhelum and
Ganga delta in W. Bengal.

► It is also called mineral oil.
► Oilfields in North east India
(a) Digboi north east of Tipam hills
in Dibrugarh distt., it is the oldest
(b) Naharkatiya fields 32 km. from
started in 1953.
(c)Moranhugugan started in 1956, 40
km. southwest of Naharkatiya.
(d)Rudrasagar, Sibsagar, Lakura,
Galeki, Badarpur, Barhola and Anguri
are newly discovered oilfields.
(e)In Arunachal Pradeshoilfields are in
Manabhum, Kharsang, Charali.
(f) In Tripura, oilfields are in
Mamunbhang, Baramura, Dcntamura
Subhang, Manu, Ampibagar
► In Western India Gujarat
(a) Ankleshwar 80 km. of Vadodara,
J.L. Nehru called Ankleshwar as
fountain of prosperity;
(b) Khambat or Lunej (near
Ahmadabad) field started in 1958;
(c) Ahmadabad and Kalol.
► New oilfields are Kosamba,
Mahesana, Sanand, Kathana, Olkad,
Dholka, Arjol, Khadi, Sandkhurd,
Siswas, Nandsan, Bhandarat,
Sabhasam and Vadesar.
► Offshore oilfields of India
(a)Mumbai high, Sagar Samrat is its
(b) Bassein;
(c) Aliabet near Bhavnagar.
► Production is largest in Mumbai
high (62%), Gujarat (20%), Assam (16.5%),
then in Tamil Nadu (1%).
► Oil refineries in private sector
(a)Reliance Petroleum in Jamnagar.
(b)International Petro Parmar in Surat;
(c)Ashok Leylands in Daitori in Orissa;
(d)Essar Petro in Vadimar, Gujarat;
(e)Black Gold in Vyag;
(f)Petrodyne in Karaikal, Pondichery;
(g)Jindal ferro Alloy in Vizag;
(h)Portmardi TIDCO in Tuticorin, T.N.
(i)Abon LLyod Chales in Tuticorin;
(j)Moplac Udyog in Haldia.
► Joint venture refining (a)Mangalore
refining; (b)Bhakat Oman's Bina in
(c) H.P. Oman's Devgarh in Matra;
(d) IOCKNPC in Daitari, Orissa.

Manufacturing Industries
Cotton Textile Industry
► First modern cotton Textile mill
was set up in 1818 at Fort Gloster
near Calcutta. Second important was
founded in 1854 in Bombay by C.N.
► Third mill in 1861 in Shahpur
(Ahmadabad), then Calico mill in 1863
also in Ahmadabad.
► Till 1875: 76, 46 mills were set up
out of which 60% were located in
Bombay alone.
► Till 1940, mills rose to 271, in 1926
it rose to 334, till 1939 389 and till
1945 they rose to 417.
Present Scenario:
► Cotton industry is the largest
organised modern industry in India in
which about 16% of Industry capital
and about 20% of industrial labour is
► Till 31 March 1996, there were 1569
cotton mills in India: 188 were in
public sector, 146 in cooperative
sector and 1.235 in private sector.
► Highest is Maharashtra in Cotton
textile Production 42.49%, but in
Cotton Yarn Maharashtra produces
only 16.65%. In Maharashtra there are
total 122 mills out of which 63 mills
are in Mumbai, so Mumbai is called
1. Mumbai enjoys humid climate
which is essential for cotton industry
because thread does not break so
2. Mumbai has a big port which
helps in import of machinery.
3. Cheap hydro electricity.
4. Black cotton soil in the hinterland
provides cotton as the basic raw
5. Better communication.
6. Facilities for washing .
► Other centres in Maharashtra are
Sholapur, Pune, Kojjiapur, Satara,
Nagpur, Aurangabad, Amravati and
► Second highest Gujarat, which
produces 23.5% of cloth and 8% of
yarn of India.
► It has 118 mills, out of which 73
are in Ahmadabad, other mills are in
Surat, Vadodra, Rajkot, Porbandar,
Maurvi and Bhavnagar.

► Third is Madhya Pradesh7.07% of

cloth and 1.82% of yarn production in
India. Centres are Gwalior, Ujjain,
Indore, Dewas, Ratlam, Jabalpur and
► Fourth is Tamil Nadu 6.18% of total
cloth but highest in India in cotton
yarn production 34.21%.
T.N. has 439 mills in which 200 are in
Coimbotore, therefore called
Manchester of South India.
► Other areas are Chennai, Madurai,
Tiruchirapalli, Salem, Perambur,
► Fifth is West Bengal 3.87% of total
cloth and 2.94% of cotton yarn.
► Most important centre is
Murshidabad, others are in Howrah,
Hugli, Syampur, Shrirampur and
► Sixth is U.P. 3.86% of the cloth, but
7.835 of cotton yarn.
► Kanpur is the largest centre and
called Manchester of U.P., out of 52
mills in U.P, Kanpur has 10.
► Others are Moradabad, Varanasi,
Agra, Bareilly, Aligarh, Modinagar,
Saharanpur, Rampur, Etawa, Lucknow
and Mirzapur.
► Seventh is Pondicherry
2.61% of Cotton Textile and 1.16% of
► Eighth is Rajasthan2.34% of textile
and 3.62% of yarn. Centres are Pali,
Beawar, Vijaynagar, Kishangarh,
Ganganagar, Bhilwara, Udaipur, Jaipur,
Kota and Ajmer.
► Ninth is Karnataka 2.28% of cloth,
4.68% of yarn. Centres are Bangalore,
Belgam, Mangalore, Chitradurg,
Gulbarga, Chenapatnam and Mysore.
► Orissa : 2.03% of cloth and 1.87% of
► Punjab: 1.78% of cloth, 5.91% of yarn;
Amitsar, Ludhiana and Fagwara are
► Kerala: 1.09% cloth; 2.03% yarn;
centres are Kollam, Trichur,
Tiruvanantpuram and Alleppey.
► Bihar: 0.34% of textile, 0.19% of yarn.
Centres are Gaya, Patna, Bhagalpur.
► Andhra Pradesh: 0.33%of cloth, 5.20%
in yarn. Centres are Hyderabad,
Sikandarabad, Guntur, E. Godawari
and Udaigiri.

► Problems of Cotton Textile Industry

(in hierarchy):
1. Shortage of raw cotton: due to
1947 partition, as Sindh was an
important centre of cotton.
2. Obsolete machinery.
3. Erratic power supply.
4. Low productivity of labour.
5. Stiff competition, especially with
6. Silk mills.
► India exports cotton textile highest
to U.S, then to Russia and then to

Manufacturing Industries:

Jute Industry
► It is second most important after
► First Jute Mill in 1855 in Rishra.
► In 1859, first power loom was
started. Till 1884, they rose to 24,
further 76 in 191819 and 112 in 1947.
► In partition, 81% of jute output
went to East Pakistan
► Today, there are 73 mills in India,
out of which 85% are between Naihati
and Calcutta Distribution:
► First in W. Bengal; out of 73, 56
mills are in W.Bengal, produces 14%.
► Second is Andhra Pradesh10% of
total production.
► In W. Bengal, centres are Balli,
Rishra, Serampore, Budge Budge,
Shamnagar, Saikia, Bansberia,
Uluberia, Titagarh, Agrapora,
Causes of Mills in Bengal (in
1.The Ganga Bhrahmaputra delta
grows about 90% of India's jute and
therefore provides raw material to
jute mills.
2. Coal is easily obtained from
3. Abundant water is available for
processing, washing and dyeing of
4. Humid climate is very convenient
for spinning and weaving.
5. Calcutta is a big city of import
and export.
6. Population is high so labour is

► Mills in Andhra Pradesh are at

Guntur, Ongole, Eluru,
Vishakhapatnam, Nellimorala (near
Ongole), Chellivelsa and Eburu.
► Mills in U.P are at Kanpur and
► Mills in Bihar are in Purnea,
Katihar,Samastipur, Gaya.
► In M.P., Raigarh; in OrissaCuttak.
► Problems of Jute Mills: The overall
demand for jute product is
decreasing in international market.
The input coast for jute product in
India is quite high. Basically jute is
export oriented industry, in the
international market they have
developed substitute of jute.
► The greatest importer from India
is USA, Canada, Australia, Russia,
Czech. Republic and U.K.
► 60% of the total production was
exported, now, it is only 20%.

Woolen Textile
► First woolen modern industry is Lal
imli, near Kanpur in 1876.
► Dhariwal in Punjab in 1881, Mumbai
in 1882 and Bangalore in 1886.
► Today there are 621 big and small
mills in India.
► Distribution:
1. Punjab has 297 mills, maximum in
Dhariwal, other centres are Amritsar,
Ludhiana and Kharar.
Causes: hydroelectricity Bhakara
Nangal dam; water from Kashmir and
Kumoun region.
2. Maharashtra has 31 mills largely in
3. U.P. has 37 mills mainly at Kanpur
(birth place of woolen industry),
Shajahnpur, Mirzapur, Varanasi, Agra
4. Gujarat has 10 mills : important
centers are Jamnagar, Ahmadabad
and Vadodara.
5. Harayana: 160 small mills in
Panipat, Gurgaon, Faridabad and
6. Rajasthan: 72 small mills at
Bikaner, Alwar, Bhilwara, Sikar,
Nagaur, Pushkar and Ajmer.
7. Karnataka: mills at Bangalore,
8. West Bemgal: at Howrah and

► Woolen Carpets: India has 240

units; 90% ofthe production is
exported to USA, Britain, Canada and
► Hosiery: Ludhiana is the largest.
► Problems of woolen textiles:
1.Shortage of raw wool (a)
productivity of Indian sheep is very
low: 0.86 kg/annum, whereas in
Australia 4.08 kg/ annum.
(b)the quality of wool is not good.
2. lack of market; lack of modern
3. fluctuating export market.

Silk Textile
► There are 4 variations of silk:
mulberry, tassar, muga and irie.
1 .Karnataka: 70% of mulberry silk of
the country; impotant centres are
Mysore, Banglore, Kolar, Mandya,
Tumkur, Belgaun and Kodagu.
2.West Bengal: 13% of total silk
mainly mulberry; important centres
are Murshidabad, Bankura, 24
Parganas and Bir Bhum.
3. J&K: 10% at Anantnag, Baramullah,
Jammu and Udhampur.
4.Bihar/Jharkhand: 8% of total silk;
largest producer of tassar silk;
important centres are at Patna, Gaya,
Palamu, Hazaribagh, Bhagalpur and
5. M.P./Chhattisgarh : 2.5% of total
silk; at Balaghat, Bastar, Bilaspur and
6. U.P.: below 2% ; Mirzapur,
Pratapgarh, Shajahanpur.
7. Punjab: Amritsar, Ludhiana,
Jullandhar, Gurdaspur and Hoshiarpur.
8.Tamil Nadu: Coimbatore,
Tiruchurapalli, Dharampur, Nilgiri,
Salem, Tanjore, Tirunelveli.
9. Assam: Golpara, Kamrup and
10. Maharashtra: Pune, Nagpur,
Sangli.Chandrapur and Sholapur.
► Exports to USA, Russia and Saudi

Synthetic Fibre:
► Travancore Rayons ltd. is at
Raipuram, Kerala in 1950.
► National Rayon company is at
► Sirsilk Ltd. Hyderabad.
► There are 6 types of Synthetic
(a)Rayon: centres at Kagajnagar (A.P.),
Junagarh (Gujarat), Raipuram (Kerala),
Udhana (Gujarat), Birlagram (H.P.),
Nagada (M.P), Kota (Rajasthan),
Kalyan, Pimpri, Pune, Goregaun
(Maharashtra), Mettupalayam (T.N.),
Kanpur (U.P), Triveni (W.B)
(b) Nylon Filament Yarn Unit : at
Kota, Pimpri, Pune, Bhosari, Mumbai,
Nagpur, Modinagar, Vadodara,
Chennai, Banglore, Barauni,
Triuvananthpuram, Kanpur, Ujjain and
(c) Nylon Stable Fibre: at Kota and
(d) Nylon Tyre Cord Unit: at Kota,
Mumbai, Chennai, Kalyan, Kanpur,
Goregaon, New Delhi, Udhna
(e) Polyster Staple Fibre : Thane,
Ahmedabad, Vadodra,, Gaziabad,
Mandi, Kota.
(f) Polyster filament YarnUnit: Mumbai,
Kota, Pimpri, Pune, Modinagar, Ujjain,
Udhna and

Iron and Steel:
► First modern unit was established
in 1830 at Porto Novo in T.N. but the
real beginning of modern factory was
in 1907 named TISCO in Jamshedpur
(formerly Sakchi); IISCO in
1919atBurnpur (W.B);
► Mysore Steel Works Bhadrawati
1923, now called Visvesaraya Iron and
Steel Works.
► Second Five Year Plan came up
with 3 plants 1. Bhilai; 2. Rourkela; 3.
► India is the tenth largest producer
in the world.
► In 1973, SAIL was established, it
started to manage following
industries: Bhilai; Durgapur; Rourkela;
Bokaro; Burnpur; Alloy Steel Plant at
Durgapur and Salem Steel Plant;
Visvesraya Iron and Steel Ltd. in
► Top 10 Steel plants are:
1. TISCO (1907) by Jamshedji Tata;
causes for its establishment:
High grade haematite ore was
available from Nauwa Mundi mines
of Singbhum and Gurumahisani
mines in Mayurhanj.
Coal was available in Jharia and
Manganese from Joda mines of
Keonjhar dist. of Orissa. Dolomite,
Limestone and fireclay was available
at Sundargarh (Orissa).
Sufficient water from Suwarnarekha
river. Better transport and high
population density in Bihar. TISCO's
storage is at Gopalpur (Orissa).
2. IISCO: it has three plants, Kulti in
1864; Hirapur 1908; Burnpur 1937, all
in W.B.; all these merged to become
IISCO in 1937.
Why IISCO was formed: iron ore is
available from Guna mines in
Singhbhum and from Gurumahisani,
from Mayurbhanj.
Gets power from DVC and coal from
Raniganj. Connected to Calcutta.
Cheap labour.

3. Visvesraya Iron and Steel Ltd:

Earlier name was Mysore ISCO,
established in 1923. Located at
Bhadravati, Shimoga dist. in
Karnataka. It was put under state
control in 1962 and named
Visvesarya Iron and Steel Ltd. Why
at Bhadrawati: Bhadrawati valley is
13 km. wide, as a result of which
enough land is available. High grade
haematite iron is brought from
Kemang Gundi mines, Chikmaglur.
Availability of power from Saraswati
power project. Limestone is available
at Bhundi Guda.
Shilong and Chitradung supply

4. Bhilai Steel Plant: 1957, in

Durgadist. of M.P; in collaboration
with USSR. Why at Bhilai:
Rich hematite iron are from Dhalli
Rajhara mine. Coal is obtained from
Korba and Kargali fields. Limestone
was from Nandini mines.
Bhandhara (Maharashtra) and
Balaghat (M.P.) supply Manganese.
Korba Thermal Power supplies
electricity. Dolomite from Bilaspur.

5. Rourkela Steel Plant: Hindustan

Steel Ltd. is the plant in Sundergarh
dist. of Orissa, set up in collaboration
with W. Germany in 1959. Why in
Rourkela: Iron ore from Sundergarh
and Keonjhar.
Coal from Jharia and Thalcher.
Hydro electricity from Hirakud.
Manganese from Barajmada.
Dolomite from Baradwar.
Limestone from Purnabani.

6. Durgapur Steel Plant: in Burdwan

dist. (W.B), established in 1959 with
the help of U.K.; project was started
in 1962.
Why at Durgapur:
Iron ore from Bolani mines in
Coal from Jharia and Raniganj.
Limestone from Birmitrapur in
Sundergarh distt. Manganese from
Keonjhar. Dolomite from Birmitrapur.
Kolkata Asansol rail network.
Manganese from Keonjhar.
7. Bokaro: collaboration with USSR,
started production in 1972.
Why Bokaro:
Iron ore from Kiriburu (Orissa).
Coal from Jharia. Limestone from
Palamu. Electricity from DVC. Fourth
Five Year Plan:

8. Salem Steel plant 1982, became


9. Vishakhapatnam Steel project

(Rashtriya Ispat Nigam) 1982, Coastal

10. Vijaynagar Steel Plant. Paradeep

Steel Plant.

► Consumption of steel:
20 kg. per capita; while the world
average is 143 kg.
► Production:
Maximum on the basis of crude
steel; maximum saleable steel;
maximum pig ironBhilai.
Then comes Bokaro in crude and
saleable steel. Second in pig iron is
IISCO; Third is Rourkela in crude and
Third in pig iron is Durgapur.

► Problem of Indian Iron and steel

Huge capital investment is required.
Lack of technology Low productivity.
Low potential utilization like strike,
energy crisis, raw material crises.
Heavy demand.

Aluminum Industry
► Aluminum smelting is the second
important metallurgical industry after
iron and steel in India.
► About 50% of total aluminum in
India is consumed in the generation
and distribution of electricity.
► 20% used for utensils and industrial
ware; building and architecture5%;
transport12%; packing 8% and
► Per capita consumption of
aluminium in India is 500gm whereas
in America it is 5.9 kg.
► In 1937, Aluminium Corporation of
India was formed at Jay Kay Nagar
in W.Bengal.
► In 1943, Indian Aluminium
Company Limited (INDAL) started and
the plant was set up in Allupuram
► During 2nd FYP, two more plants
were established: (1) Indian
Aluminium Company, estd. in Hirakud
(Orissa); (2) Hindustan Aluminium
Corp. (HINDALCO), Renukut (U.P.)
► In 1965, BALCO established at
Korba in M.P.
► Another plant was established at
Ratnagiri in 1975.'
► In 1965, MALCO (Madras Al
Company Limited) was established in
► In 1981, NALCO (National Al Comp.
Ltd.) was established at Daman Jodi,
near Jaypore at Koraput Dist. of
► NALCO is the largest
► In 198889, another unit was set up
at Ankul in district Dhenkanal
► The production cost is quite high
in India because: (1) costly electricity;
(2) interruption in the supply of
bauxite; (3) inadequate supply of
electricity; (4) inadequate supply of
some rawmaterials like petroleum,
coke, cryolite, caustic soda and
aluminium fluoride.

Copper Industry
► In 1924, Indian Copper Company
(ICC) was set up
► In 1924, a plant was set up in
Singhbhum (Ghatshila), Bihar.
► In 1967, Hindustan Copper Limited
came into being, took over the work
of ICC in 1972, since then, the HCL is
sole major producer of copper in
► Copper is produced at two units: 1.
Maubandhar, near Ghatshila; 2.Khetri
in Jhunjhunu district, Rajasthan.
► Maubandhar receives copperore
from Mausabani, Rakha, Dhobani,
Rajdah, Tampohar, Turamdih.
► Khetri copper complex at Khetri
has been erected by HCL, production
started from 1974 onwards.
► It receives copper ore from Khetri,
Kolihan, Chandmari, Dariba
► Malanjkhand mines at Balaghat,
M.P. also supplies copperore to
► A new project is comingup in
Agnigundala in Guntur, AP.
► Per capita copper consumption in
India is 250 gm.
► Presently, India produces only
l/12th part of its requirement rest is
imported from Zambia, Zaire, Chile
and USA

Zinc Industry
► At present, four zinc smelter are
there in the country: Alwaye, Debari,
Chanderia (Rajasthan) and
► Jawar near Udaipur has the largest
reserve of zinc core.
► Rampura Agucha of Bhilwara dist.
► India produces half of its
requirements and imports rest.
► Hindustan Zinc Limited was set up
in 1965.

Lead Industry
► First lead smelting plant was set
up at Tundu near Dhanbad in 194243.

Machine Tools
► In 1930s, Kirloskar Bros. Ltd. but,
the first large scale modern factory
was Hindustan Machine Tools Ltd
(HMT) in 1953 at Bangalore with
Swiss collaboration.
It has multiunit: Pinjore (in Haryana),
Kalamessary in Kerala (1964)
Hyderabad (1965).
Ajmer (grinding unit).
. ► Another is Heavy Machine Tools
Plant at Ranchi, in 1966 wiuTCzech.
► Third is, Parag Tools Limited at
► National Instrument Factory,
► The Instrumentation Limited at
Kota and Palaghat.

Heavy Mechanical Equipments

► Heavy Engineering Corporation,
Ranchi, 1958.
► Mining and Allied Machinery Corp.
Ltd. at Durgapur.
► Tungabhadra Steel Products Ltd.,
setup in 1947.
► Triveni Structural Ltd. at Naini,
Allahabad with the assistance of
► Bharat Heavy Plate and Vessels
Ltd. established in 1956 at
► Messers Jessop & Co. Ltd., Calcutta.
► Richardson & Cruddas Ltd. Mumbai.
► Larsen & Toubro Ltd., Powai,

Heavy Electrical Equipment

► 1956, Heavy Electricals Ltd.
► 1964,Bharat Heavy Electricals; later
both merged to form BHEL.
► BHEL exports boilers to Malaysia,
Libya and Egypt.
► It has six units: Bhopal,
Tiruchirapalli, Ramchandrapuram
(near Hyderabad), Bangalore, Jammu
and Haridwar.
► Electric fans: Mumbai, Kolkata,
Chennai, Delhi, Secunderabad.

► Chittaranjan Locomotives Works
(CLW), Chittaranjan, Burdwan dist., W.
Bengal, 1950. It produced first engine
in 1952.
► Diesel Locomotives Works at
Varanasi, 1964.
-The Tata Engineering and
Locomotive Works (TELCO),
Jamshedpur in 1952.
► The Integral Coach Factory at
Perambur near Chennai with Swiss
collaboration in 1955.
► Bharat Movers, Bangalore.
► Rail Coach Factory, Kapurthala,

► India ranks second in Asia next to
Japan in Shipbuilding
► Hindustan Shipyards,
Vishakhapatnam, setup by M/ S
Scindia Steam Navigation Company,
1941. It produced first ship in 1948.
► Cochin Shipyard Ltd., Kochi, 1976.
► Garden Reach Workshops, Kolkata.
► Mazgaon Dock, Mumbai, builds esp.
for Indian Navy.
► Goa Shipyards, builds fibreglass

► First started by General Motors
India Ltd. Mumbai, 1928.
► Ford Motors in 1930, Chennai.
► Daewoo, 1995 (Korea), Noida.
► Premier Automobiles, Kurla
Mumbai, 1947.
► Hindustan Motors Ltd., Kolkata,
► Maruti Udyog Ltd., Gurgaon, 1983.
► TELCO, famshedpur.
► Hyderabad.
► Pithampura, M.P.
► Asron, Ropar in Punjab.
► Surajpur Light Motor Vehicle
► Mobikes Dharuhara (Haryana);
Akundi, (Pune); Hosur (Tamil Nadu);
► Scooters Lucknow; Satara; (Akundi)
Pune; Panki; Odhav
► India ranks second in two
wheelers after China.

► 1940; Hindustan Aircraft Ltd.,
► 1964, it merged with Aeronautics
India Ltd. to form Hindustan
Aeronautic Ltd. (HAL) in Bangalore.
► HAL has three divisions: 1. MIG
Complex, Nasik; 2. Koraput;
3.Hyderabad. Bicycles
► First manufacturing factory was
set up in 1940, Mumbai.
► India exports bicycles to Pakistan,
Afghanistan and Srilanka.
► Main centres: Mumbai, Asansol,
Sonepat, Delhi, Chennai, Jalandhar
and Ludhiana.

Sugar Industry:
► India is the 2nd largest after Cuba,
but India is the largest producer of
Gur and Khandsari.
► First factory set up in 1840 in
North Bihar with Dutch help.
► Difference between sugar industry
of North and South India:
Previously, north India used to
produce 90% of lndia's sugar but now
it is reduced to 3040%, because:
Peninsular India has tropical climate
which gives higher yields per unit
area as compared to north.
The sucrose content is also higher in
the tropical variety of sugarcane in
south India. The crushing season is
also much longer in south (78
months, Oct. to May) than in north (4
months, Nov. to Feb.). The
cooperative sugar mills are better
managed in south than in north.
Most of the mills in south are new
which are equipped with modern
► Problems of sugar industry: 1.Low
yield of sugarcane, 67 tonnes/hectare
while in Java, it is 90 and in Hawaii
121 tonnes/ hectares. 2.Short
crushing season. 3.Low rate of
recovery, are 10%, while in Java and
Hawaii, it is 1416%, highest recovery
rate is in Gujarat followed by
Maharashtra. 4.High cost of
production. 5.Small and uneconomic
size of mills. 6. Old and obsolete
machinery. 7. Low per capita
consumption, only 9.2 kg. per year
per capita, while in cuba it is 72.2 kg.

Cement Industry
► Mainly made from limestone and
► A mixture composed of 21 3rd
limestone, with low magnesium
content and 1/3rd clay.
► Iron oxide and bauxite is also
added to make cement.
► Bauxite assists quick setting of
cement; Gypsum is also added for
the same.
► On an average 250 kg. of coal is
required to produce 1 tonne of
cement which is 40% of the total
► 6065% cost is in limestone, 2025%
silica and 512% in alumina.
► 4 kg. gypsum, 0.4 kg. bauxite and
0.2 kg. clay is required to produce
one tonne of cement.
► Limestone deposits used for
Assam Shivsagar, Naogaon
Meghalaya E and W Khasi hills and
Jaintia hills.
Jharkhand: Palamu, Singhbhum,
M.P / Chhattisgarh: Satna, Siddhi,
Jabalpur, Durg, Bilaspur, Raipur,
Rajasthan: Jaipur, Ajmer, Pali,
SawaiMadhopur, Jhunjhunu, Bundi,
Chittorgarh, Udaipur, Sirohi and
Gujarat: BanasKantha, Amreli,
Junagarh, Kheda,Panchmahal, Kutch.
Maharashtra: Chandrapur, Yawatmal,
Andhra Pradesh: E.Godavari,
Nalgonda, Khammam, W.Godavari,
Krishna, Guntur, Cuddappah.
Shimoga, Gulbarga, Bijapur.
T.N.: Salem ,Coimbator, Tiruchurapalli,
U.P.: Mirzapur, Dehradun.
J&K :Jammu and Anantnag.
Growth of Cement Industry :
► First in 1904, in Chennai.
► Second in 191213, Indian Cement
Company Ltd., set up in plant at
► 1915 Katni Cement Co., at Katni
► 1916, Lakheri, Killick Nickson's
Bundi Portland Cement Co.
established a plant.
► In 1922,-23, 6 new plants came at
Dwarka (Gujarat), Japla (Bihar),
Banmore, Mehgaon, Kymore (all in
MP), Shahbad (Karnataka).
► In 1934, 10 out of 11 companies
merged into Associated Cement
Companies (ACC).
► Dalmia Cement Group started
establishing plants after 1937.
► The factories: 1. Dalmianagar
(Bihar), 2. Dalmiachakari Dadri
► By 1948, there were 18 cement
factories in India.
► Today, India ranks 4th after China,
Japan, and USA.
► By 2010, India is likely to become
2nd next to China.

Paper Industries
► In India paper is made from: 6062%
bamboo (a cellulosic raw material);
79% sabai grass; bagasse; rice and
wheat straw; eucalyptus; pine;
► Chemical used: caustic soda, soda
ash, sodium sulphate, chlorine,
calcium bisulphate, sulphuric acid,
raisin and clay, lime, ferric alumina,
► One tonne of paper production
requires 3.54 tonnes of coal.
First factory 1816, in Chennai; second
1832, in Serampore, both failed. Third
factory 1870, Royal Bengal Paper
Mills, Bellyganj, near Kolkata. 1879
Lucknow, 1882Titagarh 1887 Pune
1892Raniganj 1892 Kaukinara
1918Naihati By 195051, there were as
many as 17 mills News Print:
► first factory (1955), Nepanagar in
Hoshangabad (M.P).
► Second factory (1981), Mysore
Paper Mills, Shimoga, Karnataka.
► Third is 1982, Hindustan Paper
Mills, Vellore, Kottaiyam, Kerala.
► Fourth, 1985, Tamil Nadu News
Print and Paper Ltd., Pugalur in
► Till 1996, there were 26 news print
mills were there in India.
► Per capita paper consumption in
India is 3 kg., in .European country
300 kg. Trade:
► Pulp and waste paper is imported
from Norway, Sweden, Canada,
► Paper board, Newsprint is imposed
from Poland, Sweden, Czech Republic,
Slovakia Republic and Canada.
► Problems of Paper Industry: 1.
Scarcity of raw materials because of
degradation of forest; 2.Costly
unconventional raw material.
3.Growing consciousness for the
preservation of forests and
maintenance of ecology balance and
4.Very low rate of consumption,
population 16% of world, paper
production 1% of world.
5.Small size of uneconomic
manufacturing units.

Fertilizer Industry:
► Indian soils being generally
deficient in fertilizing elements,
namely P and K.
► 1906, first superphosphate factory
was set up at Ranipet in T.N.
► In 1951, Fertilizer Corporation of
India (FCI), set up a plant at Sindri.
► Public Sector Fertilizer Co.FCI
incorporated in 1961; it has 4 units:
a. Sindri;
b. Gorakhpur;
c. Talcher;
d. Ramagundum (A.P).
NFL established in 23 Aug. 1974, has
5 units:
a. Nangal: Calcium almunium nitrate
and Urea;
b. Bhatinda;
c. Panipat;
d. Vijaypur.
It is largest producer of Nitrogenous
Fertilizers and Chemicals Travancore
Ltd.(FACT) has three units:
a. Udyog Mandal;
b. Two units at Kochi.
Rashtriya Chemicals and Fertilizers
Ltd. it is a gas based fertilizer plant
at Thai.
Hindustan Fertilizers Corp. Ltd.(HFCL):
it has 5 units at Namrup (Assam),
one at Durgapur (W.B), one at
Madras Fertilizers Ltd.: it is a joint
venture of India and Iran; established
at Manali near Chennai.
Pyrites Phosphates and Chemicals
Ltd. (PPCL): set up in March 1960,
units at Amjher (Bihar, manufactures
super phosphate), Salodipura
(Rajasthan for exploration and
production of Pyrites), Mussorie
(Uttaranchal where mining of rock
phosphate ore is done).
Project and Development India Ltd.
(PDIL): formerly Fertilizer Planning
and Development India Ltd., famous
for engineering.
► Cooperative Sector: IFFCO (Indian
Farmers Fertilizer Cooperative Ltd.)
has 24,000 cooperative societies,
incorporated in 1975; has four units:
a. Kalol (Gujarat); b. Kandla (Gujarat);
c. Phulpur (U.P); d. Anola (U.P).
Krishak Bharti Cooperative Ltd.
(KRIBHCO) started in 1985; has a gas
based urea ammonia plant at Hazira
► Private Sector
IEL (Kanpur); SRC (Kota); DCM (Delhi);
Coromandal(Vishakhapatnam) ZACL
(Goa); EID (Pary of Ennore); GSFC
(Vadodra); SBIC (Tuticorin); MFC
► Imports 1/4th ofthe requirements,
from USA, Russia, Canada, Japan.
► India imports largely Nitrogenous
fertilizers then Potash, then
Phosphate (NKP).
► Nitrogenous Fertilizer is produced
by Gujarat (19.9%); U.P (14.5%); T.N
(11.8%); Punjab (9.6%); Maharashtra
(8.0%); Bihar (5.4%).
► In Phosphatic Fertilizer (P205),
highest is Gujarat (31.7%), T.N. (23.1%),
then Maharashtra (14%). Leather
► First tannery was set up in Kanpur
in 1867, then Chennai and Kolkata,
Agra, Bangalore, Mokama, Phulbari
(Orissa); Sherbang (Gujarat),
Kapurthala (Punjab), Paldavaram
(Tiruchirapalli), Perambur and Alluru.
► The Central Leather Research
Institute (CLRI) is situated at
► India exports to USA, UK,
Germany, Japan, Russia, Australia.

► Mumbai, Delhi, Calcutta, Chennai,
Bangalore, Vadodara, Vapi, Amritsar,
Coimbatore, Amritsar, Barauni, Pimpri,
Boniagaon, Kanpur, Mettur, Durgapur.
► Central Institute of Plastics
Engineering and Technology (CIPET),
► Exports to UAE, Kuwait, Egypt,
Kanya, Nigeria, Saudi Arabia.

Drugs and Pharmaceuticals

► Public Sector Units: India Drugs
and Pharmaceuticals Ltd (IDPL):
Established in 1961 (5th April); has 5
1. Rishikesh synthetic drugs.
2. Chennai surgical instruments.
3. Gurgaon formulations.
4. Muzaffarpur drugs and chemicals
(intermediate) IDPL has 3
subsidiaries: 1. Rajasthan Drugs and
Pharmaceuticals Ltd. (RPDL), Jaipur; 2.
U.P Drugs and Pharmaceuticals Ltd.
(UPDL), Lucknow; 3.Orissa D&P Ltd.,
Hindustan Antibiotics Limited in 1954:
1. Maharashtra Antibiotics and
Pharmaceuticals Ltd., Nagpur;
2. Karnataka A&P Ltd., Bangalore;
3. Manipur A&P Ltd, Imphal Bengal
Immunity Limited (BIL), Kolkata.
Bengal Chemical and
Pharmaceuticals Ltd. (BCPL), Kolkata.
Smith Stanistret Pharmaceuticals Ltd.
(SSPL), Kolkata.

► Hindustan Insecticides Ltd:
1. Udyog Mandal, Kerala;
2. Rashayani, Maharashtra and Delhi.
► Subsidiary: Southern Pesticides
Corporation (SPC) at Kavour.
HIL produces BHC, DDT, Malatheon,

Dye Stuff
► First unit was Associated Research
Lab. (AR Lab.), 1947, Pune.
► Atul Products, 1947, Balsar.
► Amar Dyechem, 1954.
► Indian Dye Stuff Ind., 1954.
► Alic Ind., 1956.
► Suhrid Gaigi.
► Kallu Chem: Bayer, Hoechst, Ghai,
Sandoz India, Kolshed, 1961.

► First factory was established in
1941 in UP.
► Rawmaterial used: sodaash,
feldspar, limestone, dolomite,
manganese dioxide, barium oxide,
sulphur and copper.
► Distribution:
UP: 100 factories; important centres
are: Ferozabad(Agra), Bahzoi, Naini,
Hirangau, Shokohabad, Hathras,
Sasni, Jaunpur.
West Bengal: 34 factories; important
places: Kolkata, Howrah, Raniganj,
Belgachia, Belgharia, Bellur,
Sitarampur, Rishra, Durgapur, Asansol
(gets sandstone from Mangalghat
and Palaghat). Maharashtra: 22
factories; Important centres: Mumbai,
Talegaon, Satara, Nagpur, Kolhapur

► China clay is found in Rajmahal
Hills (Bihar).
► First factory established in
Patharghat (Bihar).
► Second, Barn & Co. Raniganj (W.
► Centre: Wankaner, Thanagarh,
Ranipet, Roopnarayanpur, Jabalpur,
Nazarbagh, Gwalior, Jaipur.
► India exports to: Iran, Iraq, Saudi
Arabia, Kuwait; imports from: China &

Chemical industries: Sulphuric

► Fertilizer, synthetic fibre, plastic,
paint, dyestuff.
► India imports 90% of its
► Important Centre: Kerala,
Maharashtra, Gujarat.
Nitric Acid
► Used in fertilizer and explosives.
► Main producer: FCL's Trombay Unit
► Common salt, limestone, coal.
Soda ash
► Okhla, Mithapur, Dharandhar
► Used in glass, paper, soap,
Caustic Soda
► Detergents, textiles, soaps, paper
and pulp.
► Mettur is the largest centre.
► Comes from naphtha, coal.
► Centre: Koyali, BombayPetroleum
Naphtha, Durgapur (coal gas).
► Used in dyestuff.
► First factory was established in
Ahmedabad in 1921.
► Western India Match Co. (WIPCO)
1923; has 5 units: produces 65% of
India's production:
1.Baraeli; 2.Kolkata; 3.Chennai;
4.Ambarnath, Mumbai; 5.Dubri, Assam.
Concentration and Distribution:
W.Bengal: Jharia, Raniganj Tamil
Nadu: Ramnathpuram, Tirunavelli,
Chennai, Chingalput.
Maharashtra: Pune, Thane, Chanda,
Mumbai. Gujarat: Ahmedabad, Petlad,
UP: Barelli, Meerut, Allahabad,
Varanasi Karnataka: Shimoga Kerala:
Thiruvanathpura A.P.: Hyderabad,
Warrangal Assam: Dubri Rajasthan:
Kota Madhya Pradesh/Chhattisgarh:
Bilaspur, Jabalpur.

► The insect, Cerria Laca produces
Laca; it lives in trees.
► Climatic requirements: temp. 12°C
and rainfall-150cm.
► Stick lac is its crude form (like
► Main producer: FCL's Trombay Unit.

► Highest livestock population: UP,
Rajasthan, MP, Andhra Pradesh.
► Highest cattle density W. Bengal
173/sq km; all India average: 59/sq
► Buffalos: Haryana 76/sq km; Punjab
91/sqkm; all India average density:
21/sq km.
► Sheep: Jammu and Kashmir
(highest): 42/sq km; all India average:
► Goats: W.Bengal 123/sq km; all
India average density 29/ sq km.
► Female Buffalos (milk and dry)
Chandigarh: 114/ sq km.; Punjab 41
sq km. and all India average 111 sq

► India has largest number in the
world, total 20% of world.
► Maximum cattle is in MP -14% of
total Indian cattle.
► Second is UP; third is Bihar; fourth
is West Bengal; fifth is Maharashtra.
► Sixth Orissa; seventh Karnataka
and eighth Rajasthan.
► Average yield of cow is 1 It. per
day, whereas New Zealand produces
3040 It. per day, therefore Indian cow
is called 'TeaCup Cow'.
► Highest density is in W. Bengal
(173 cattle/sq. km.), then UP, Bihar,
Assam, Kerala, Orissa.
► Minimum in Nagaland.
► Milch breed cattle in India are Gir,
Sindhi, Red Sindhi, Sahiwal, Thar
Parkar and Deoni.
► Gir is in Saurashtra, Sindhi in
Gujarat, Rajasthan and Maharashtra,
Red Sindhi in Sindh (Pakistan),
Sahiwal in Pakistan, Punjab, Haryana
and Rajasthan, Deoni is found in
Andhra Pradesh.
► Drought breeds include Nagori in
Jodhpur, Haryana, U.P and M.P.
► Bauchaur in Bihar, Mahi in M.P.,
Kenkatha or Kenwaria
in Banda dist. of U.P, Kherigarh in
Kheri dist. of U.P, Halikar and
Amritmahal in Tumken, Hassan and
► Khillari in Sholapur and Satara,
Bargur and Kangyam in Coimbatore,
Siri in Darjeeling and Sikkim.
► Dual purpose breed i.e both Milch
and drought breeds are Thar Parkar
in Sindh , Gujarat and Rajasthan,
Mewati in Mathura, Bharatpur and
Alwar, Kankrej in Gujarat, Rath in
Haryana, Nimari in Narmada (M.P),
Dhangi in Nasik, Ahmadnagar, Thane,
Claba, Gaobao in Chindwara, Wardha
and Nagpur, Ongole in Nellore and
► Overall density of cattle is 59 per
sq. km.

►10% of the total buffalo of the world
is India and it is 18% of total
livestock of India.
► Highest density of buffalo is in
Punjab (104), Haryana (98), U.P (68).
► All India density of Buffalo is 25
per sq. km.
► Highest number of Buffaloes are in
Andhra Pradesh,
M.P., Rajasthan, Maharashtra, Bihar,
Gujarat, Punjab. Name of Breed and
Place l.Murrah (draught breed):
Rohtak, Hissar, Gurgaon. 2. Bhadwari:
Agra and Etawa, some parts of M.P
and Rajasthan; 3. Jafrabadi: Gir in
Gujarat; 4. Surti: Gujarat; 5. Nagpuri:
Nagpur; 6. Nilirani: Ferozpur (Punjab);
7. Mehsana (Gujarat)
► There are 7 cattle breeding forms
in India :
Suratgarh (Rajasthan), Dhamrod
(Gujarat), Alamadhi (T.N.), Chiplima
(Orissa), Simligurhi (Orissa), Andesh
Nagar (U.P), Hisargatha (Karnataka).
► Important fodder production
termology centres are at Hissar,
Kalyani (W Bengal), Gandhinagar,
Alamadhi, Suratgarh and Shehoma

► All India average is 15%.
► India has 6th position in the world.