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Authors Declaration

I hereby certify that I am the sole author of this thesis and that no part of this thesis has been published or submitted for publication. I certify that, to the best of my knowledge, my thesis does not infringe upon anyones copyright nor violate any propriety rights and that any ideas, techniques, quotations, or any other material from the work of other people included in my thesis, published or otherwise, are fully acknowledged in accordance with Harvard APA referencing 5th Ed standards. Furthermore, to the extent that I have included copyright material that surpasses the bounds of fair dealing within the meaning of the United Kingdom Copyright Act, I certify that I have obtained a written permission from the copyright owner(s) to include such material(s) in my thesis and have included copies of such copyright clearances to my appendix. I declare that this is a true copy of my thesis, including any final revisions, as approved by the thesis committee at the Architecture School, University of Portsmouth, UK, and that this thesis has not been submitted for a higher degree to any other University or Institution.


List of Figures
Figure 01. Tidal Surge Diagram Figure 02. Site Map Figure 03. Flood Levels Portsmouth City Council (2012) Landscape Character Assessment: Portsea Island Coastal Defence Flood Risk Areas, Retrieved January 08, 2013 from http://www.portsmouth.gov. uk/media/LCA_Complete_report_-_Portsea_Island.pdf Figure 04. Open Spaces in Portsmouth Portsmouth City Council (2012) Landscape Character Assessment: Portsea Island Coastal Defence Flood Risk Areas, Retrieved January 08, 2013 from http:// www.portsmouth.gov.uk/media/LCA_Complete_report_-_Portsea_Island.pdf Figure 05. Flooding Typologies RIBA. (2009). Designing for Flood Risk. Retrieved December 10, 2012, from http://www.architecture.com/Files/RIBAHoldings/PolicyAndInternationalRelations/Policy/ Environment/2Designing_for_floodrisk.pdf Figure 06. Portsmouth Coast Defences & Tidal Flooding Portsmouth City Council (2012) Landscape Character Assessment: Portsea Island Coastal Defence Flood Risk Areas, Retrieved January 08, 2013 from http://www.portsmouth.gov.uk/media/LCA_Complete_report_-_Portsea_Island.pdf Figure 07. Section Through Pier, Clarence Parade and Rear Site Figure 08. Panoramic of Portsmouth Esplanade & South Parade Pier Portsmouth City Council (2012) Landscape Character Assessment: Portsea Island Coastal Defence Flood Risk Areas, Retrieved January 08, 2013 from http://www.portsmouth.gov.uk/media/LCA_Complete_report_-_Portsea_Island. pdf Figure 09. Panoramic Brighton Pier and Tiered Flood Defences/Public Space Wessex Tourist Board (2012) Retrieved January 15, 2013, from www.wessex.me.uk Figure 10. Population at risk from 2m sea level rise Jha, A. (2010, January 29). Cost of UK flood protection doubles to 1bn a year. The Guardian, Retrieved November 28, 2012, from http://www. guardian.co.uk/environment/2010/jan/29/cost-of-uk-flood-protection Figure 11. Graph of sea level rise over time Hinton, C., Ian, H., Townend, Nicholls, R.J. (2007). Coastal Process. In C.R. Thorne, E.P. Evans, E.C. Penning-Rowsell (Eds.), Future Flooding and Coastal Erosion Risks (pp. 132-147). London: Thomas Telford Publishing. Figure 12. PICSS Flood Strategy Zones Portsmouth City Council. (2011). Strategy Approval Report: The Portsea Island Coastal Strategy Study. (Version 4). Retrieved December 3, 2012, from Havant Goverment: http://www.havant.gov.uk/sites/default/files/documents/1.0_Portsea-StAR2_11_FINALExec-Summary_RevC.pdf Figure 13. Flooding Response Strategies Institution of Civil Engineers, & RIBA. (2009). Facing Up to Rising Sea Levels. Retrieved November 29, 2012, from Building Futures: http://www.buildingfutures. org.uk/assets/downloads/Facing_Up_To_Rising_Sea_Levels.pdf Figure 14. Potential Water Encroachment Institution of Civil Engineers, & RIBA. (2009). Facing Up to Rising Sea Levels. Retrieved November 29, 2012, from Building Futures: http://www.buildingfutures. org.uk/assets/downloads/Facing_Up_To_Rising_Sea_Levels.pdf Figure 15. Natural & Urban Catchment Diagrams Susdrain (2012) Retrieved January 06, 2013, http:// www.susdrain.org/images/catchments_resized_png.png Figure 16. Site of Adaption Measures for SLR City of Boston. (2010). A Climate of Progress. Retrieved December 13, 2012, from Boston City: http://www.cityofboston.gov/Images_Documents/A%20 Climate%20of%20Progress%20-%20CAP%20Update%202011_tcm3-25020.pdf Figure 17. Increased Flooding with SLR in Boston City of Boston. (2010). A Climate of Progress. Retrieved December 13, 2012, from Boston City: http://www.cityofboston.gov/Images_ Documents/A%20Climate%20of%20Progress%20-%20CAP%20Update%202011_tcm3-25020.pdf Figure 18. Flood Resistant Architecture Typologies BACA Architects. (2009). LifE: Long Term Initiatives for Flood-risk Environments. Retrieved November 25, 2012, BACA Architects, from http://www.baca. uk.com/#/projects/view/058-6 Figure 19. Lamb Drove Sustainable Drainage Susdrain (2012) Retrieved January 07, 2013, http://www. susdrain.org/images/cs_ld_10.jpg Figure 20. Swale Diagram Susdrain (2012) Retrieved January 06, 2013, http://www.susdrain.org/ images/Swale_Resized.png Figure 21. Infiltration Diagram Susdrain (2012) Retrieved January 06, 2013 http://www.susdrain.org/ delivering-suds/using-suds/benefits-of-suds/flood-risk-management.html Figure 22. Krishna Avanti Primary School - Photographs of Green Roofs Utilized as Part of Drainage Strategy Anthony Coleman (2012) Retrived January 01, 2013, from http://www.archdaily.com/192729/ the-krishna-avanti-primary-school-cottrell-vermeulen-architecture/ Figure 23. Section Describing SUDS Drainage Scheme RIBA. (2007). Living With Water: Visions of a Flooded Future. Retrieved December 03, 2012, from the RIBA: http://www.architecture.com/Files/ RIBAHoldings/PolicyAndInternationalRelations/Policy/Environment/LivingWithWater.pdf Figure 24. Greenwich Riverbank Terrace NPA, (2009) Retrieved January 06,2013, http://www. npaconsult.co.uk/images/projects/1108/538.jpg Figure 25. BACA Architects Proposed Scheme of Flood Resilient Units in Dordrecht BACA Architects. (2009). LifE: Long Term Initiatives for Flood-risk Environments. Retrieved November 25, 2012, BACA Architects, from http://www.baca.uk.com/#/projects/view/058-6 Figure 26. Maasbomel Housing Section Alix Kroger (2007) Dutch pioneer floating eco-homes, Retrieved January 06, 2013, http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/europe/6405359.stm Figure 27. Maasbomel Housing Photograph Alix Kroger (2007) Dutch pioneer floating eco-homes, Retrieved January 06, 2013, http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/europe/6405359.stm

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List of Figures continued

Figure 28. FLOAT Home ISO Morphosis Architects. (2012). The FLOAT House. Retrieved December 07, 2012, http://www.archdaily.com/259629/make-it-right-house-morphosis-architects/ Figure 29. FLOAT Home Photograph Morphosis Architects. (2012). The FLOAT House. Retrieved December 07, 2012, http://www.archdaily.com/259629/make-it-right-house-morphosis-architects/ Figure 30. Flood Resistant Home Watson, D., Adams, M. (2011). Design for Flooding: Architecture, Landscape, and Urban Design for Resilience to Climate Change. Hoboken, New Jersey: John Wiley & Sons Inc. Figure 31. Cavity, Solid & Timber Frame Wall Construction Industry Research and Information Association. (2003). Advice sheet 4: Flood-resilient walls. Retrieved January 10, 2013, from CIRIA : http://www.ciria.org.uk/flooding/pdf/CIRIA_Advice_sheet_4.pdf Figure 32. Engineering Brick Wall JPCorry, (2010). Retrieved December 04,2012, from http://www. jpcorry.com/DatabaseImages/prd_5734794_wienerberger_blue.jpg Figure 33. Non Return Valve Renoline, (n.d.), Retrieved December 04, 2012, from http://www.renoline. co.uk/products/Non_Return_Valves-4.jpg Figure 34. Smart Air Brick Revetment, (n.d.), Retrieved December 04, 2012, from http://shop.revetment. uk.com/wp-content/uploads/2012/02/Smart-airbrick-montage.1.jpg Figure 35. Rendered Facade Avant, (n.d.), Retrieved December 04, 2012, from http://www. avantcoatings.co.uk/photos/Wall_Rendering/1_cement_render.JPG Figure 36. Drainage Diagram Chudley, R., & Greeno, R. (2006). Building Construction Handbook (6th ed.). London: Elsevier. Figure 37. Services Diagram Watson, D., Adams, M. (2011). Design for Flooding: Architecture, Landscape, and Urban Design for Resilience to Climate Change. Hoboken, New Jersey: John Wiley & Sons Inc.

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How will flood protection affect architecture in the UK? As climate change brings rising sea levels, and more violent weather patterns, we must inevitably look to our coastlines,flood plains, and our defences both structural and architectural. This is to attempt to mitigate the potential dangers and damages that could be effected by these changes. Architecture has already been affected by climate change with a new level of concern being shown regarding green development, but with rising sea levels we will see our urban landscape affected on a grander scale. The rising sea levels that we have already experienced to a certain degree over recent decades are caused in part by the thermal expansion of the ocean as it warms with the climate, and also by the melting of land based ice into the ocean. As a point of reference -no one is suggesting the possibility - if the entire mass of glaciers and ice sheets were to melt, global sea level would rise by approximately 80m. (Watson & Adams, 2011, p. 211) In addition warming seas can also lead to an increase in stormy weather. (Lamond, Proverbs, Booth & Hammond, 2011, p.2)
Stormy Climate change is creating Winds an environment where it is becoming a necessity to Low Pressure wave setup Wave Runup integrate urban design, flood defences and infrastructure Surge Currents into the existing environment. Total Storm Coastal flooding is generally Surge Mean Sea Level the result of high tides and High Tide stormy conditions; tidal surges can be caused Figure 01. Tidal Surge Diagram by a combination of low atmospheric pressure and a high tide. (The Environment Agency, 2009, p. 4)

The UK is an island with many low lying areas and flooding is a particular problem in low lying, dense urban areas like Portsmouth. In the UK in total there are 490,000 properties at serious risk of flooding which is likely to increase to 830,000 by 2035 due to the effects of climate change on our flooding patterns. (Environment Agency, 2012) In more rural areas flooding is important to our ecosystem as biodiversity in river channels depends on the frequency of flooding. (Watkinson, Nicholls, Sear, & Ledoux, 2007, p. 29) Despite this, these kinds of areas, along with salt marshes can be damaged by infrequent large floods so we should look to provide as stable environment as we are able to when investigating possible flood protection and prevention measures. As we continue to develop flood plains, due to the inflated value of land in some areas of the country it can become a complex task identifying where we should be allowed to build on flood plains e.g. much of Southern London lies on a flood plain but is particularly well protected. (Barclay, 2012, p. 2)

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For my thesis design project I am looking to design a block of housing and a retail centre that also helps form a public space fronting onto Southsea Common & Clarence Parade Road. This block of housing is to be located directly opposite a run down pier site in need of regeneration. Obviously both of these sites are adjacent to the sea and are consequently at risk of tidal flooding, despite the existing defences. One example of such risk was when, In March 2008, the tide reached 5.53 metres (2.8 metres above sea level) [...] and caused flooding in Clarence Parade, Southsea. (Portsmouth City Council, 2012, p. 2)

1.8 Open Space & Recreation

The principle land use along the north, east and south sections of Portsmouths coastline is recreation and tourism. There is a diverse range of public open spaces, including large formal areas such as Alexandra Park, Hilsea Playing Fields, Southsea Common and Canoe Lake Park as well as extensive informal areas such as Milton Common and Hilsea Lines. Southsea Common is the venue for several large-scale events througout the year, including the Great South Run and the Kite Festival. There are long, formalised paths such as the Tipner Lake route and the Victorian seafront promenade, used for recreation by numerous cyclists, runners and walkers. On the northern and eastern shoreline you can walk all the way from Mountbatten Centre at Tipner through the Hilsea Lines, across the Eastern Road and down the narrow coast path along Langstone Harbour to Milton Common and beyond. The eastern side links smaller patches of open space sandwiched between the busy Eastern Road and the shoreline. Likewise the seafront coastline allows open access along its entire length from one harbour mouth to the next. Together these openly accessible spaces make a very valuable resource that is unusual in a large city.

Figure 02. Site Map

Trafalgar Bicentenna

Over the course of this piece of writing I will be looking not only at how flooding has Only a small area at Kendalls Wharf on the northeast shore is privately owned land for handling and sorting of shingle aggregates, with a footpath skirting this to affected architecture but also at how it will commercial directly affect my design work.
the land side. In addition the eastern end of Eastney beach is owned by the MOD, but public access is allowed. At the farthest point access around the tip is only possible at low tide.

of flinty marine and valley gravels, of gravel and brickearth. Underlying ne of which forms Portsdown Hill h natural fault and cutting (for the M27 down from these hills, where there are

e changed the landform of the island, affected by tidal erosion and rising continue to amend the shoreline, as ore, tidal areas influence greatly the y.

Pompey FA Cup Win

Figs. 11a, 11b, 11c

Areas at risk of flood (January 2011) Zone 3 0.5% chance of flood by sea (1 in 200) Zone 2 0.1% chance of flood by sea (1 in Gross dwelling density (dwellings per 100 or more 75 to 100 50 to 75 Land height above sea level (metres) 121 70 25 to 50 Up to 25

h Geological Society Fig. 4 - Portsmouth Topography Source - Urban Characterisation Study PCC Planing Department

Fig. 10 - Portsmouth Open Space Source: Urban Characterisation Study - PCC Planning Department

Figs. 11e, 11f, 11g

, and demonstrates how large a part nd 5b illustrate the natural form of the 5c, 5d, and 5e illustrate the harbour illustrates the salt water lake at Hilsea fence purposes to create moats and

30 10 3 0 Population density 2010 (persons per hectare) in output area 150 or more 100 to 150 50 to 100 Up to 50 Protected open space

Figure 03. Flood Levels

Figure 04. Open Spaces in Portsmouth

4 Figure 02 Outlines both of my sites. Figures 03 & 04 show the flood risk across Portsmouth and the distribution of open spaces across the city.
Transport infrastructure Bus priority corridor Railway station Railway line Motorway Major roads Ferry Major junction

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Climate change is creating an environment where it is becoming a necessity to integrate urban design, flood defences and infrastructure into the existing environment. There are six different types of flooding that we experience in UK. Tidal Flooding can affect both sea and river fronts. Tidal flooding is generally a result of low pressure weather systems and tidal levels affected by the lunar cycle. The cumulative effect of these systems can result in seas or rivers overwhelming their defences. This type of flooding can be quick onset and of high velocity meaning that it can be highly dangerous to both property and people. (Flood and Coastal Erosion Risk Management FCERM hereafter) (RIBA, 2009, p. 4) Fluvial flooding takes place in river floodplains when excessive precipitation upstream in the catchment area causes the river to rise over its capacity level further downstream. This type of flooding is relatively slow onset but can cause flash flooding in steep catchment areas. The floodwater itself is slow moving but can carry Fluvial Flooding debris.Part (RIBA, A:2009, p. 4) The Sources of Flooding
There are six recognised sources of flooding: Tidal Flooding or breached by a combination result of water rising up from overtopped a permeable layer of and is typically caused by prolonged low pressure weather systems and peak high rainfall raising the water table to above ground level. Ground water flooding is slow tides. Storms with high wind speeds cause tall and powerful waves and low pressure fronts onset and relatively easy to predict but can be problematic as the water takes cause sea levels to rise above normal levels. High tide levels vary through the lunar and longer to dissipate given that the ground is already saturated. Even if the water can solar cycle and when superimposed upon Flooding from rivers has in recent years been other tidal variations exceptionally high experienced in the Severn Valley, in Sheffield, be removed (through the use of a pump) it is difficult to dispose of given that the tides result. in Hull from the river Humber in 2007 and Carlisle on the river Eden in 2006. The onsetbe, of flooding from the sea and tidal saturated. surrounding area will also, likely completely (RIBA, 2009, p. 5) rivers is often sudden and the extreme forces driving it present a significant danger to life. The east coast storm surge of 1953 claimed 307 peoples lives in the UK and 1,835 in Holland. A similar storm surge tide in September 2007 came within a few centimetres of breaching a number of the UKs coastal defences. The onset can be quite slow in some catchments with steadily rising water levels. However, flash flooding can occur in steep catchments and is far more immediate. Both sea and river defences may be Flooding occurs in the floodplains of rivers when the capacity of water courses is exceeded as a result of rainfall or snow and ice melts within catchment areas further upstream. Blockages of water courses and flood channels or tide locking may also lead to ponding and rising water levels. River defences may then be overtopped due to increased water levels, or breached by large objects of debris carried at high water velocities.

Flood Risk Ground Water flooding typically takes places underlain by aquifers. The flooding is a in Context

Pluvial flooding is caused by rainwater run off from landscape with low levels of absorbency. This type of flooding has inevitably increased in frequency Flooding from rivers, particularly in recognised with greater floodplains, can usually be predicted with urban density and larger urban centres composed, of impermeable good accuracy.primarily, However flash floods from sudden downpours such as those in Carlisle surfaces. This type of flooding is difficult to ofpredict as it often occurs outside of It is often possible to forecast this type continue to challenge the capability of flooding with reasonable accuracy, due to the detection and forecasting systems. recognised flood plains. It can also be quick onset and high level, as such this type predictability of the tide and trackability of Water over about 250mm in depth may low pressure systems. The duration of this of flooding is particularly dangerous. (RIBA, 2009, p. 5) particularly in urban locations carry debris type of flooding is also limited by the cycle
of the tides where drainage is available. and can also be very cold. Even travelling at low speeds this can make it extremely hazardous to people caught in it.

Ground water flooding Flooding from man-made infrastructure Tidal flooding

Fluvial flooding Flooding from sewers Pluvial flooding

Figure 05. Flooding Typologies

Figure 1 The Sources of Flooding

4 Flood Risk in Context

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weather in Britain. During the summers, temperatures average 25C / 77F, peaking at more than 30C / 86F on the sunniest days, with pleasantly warm evenings& due 1.2 -often FLOODING TYPOLOGIES SITE to the urban heat effect of the citys buildings. The Portsdown Hills to the north of the city protect it from the worst of the northerly winds, but its proximity to the English Channel mean that wintersoften tend to be a little wetter in Portsmouth, they remain verywhose mild, Sewer flooding occurs where there combined although storm and foul sewers with temperatures rarely falling below freezing. Furthermore rainfall cansort still of bebackup high in can capacity is exceeded by a high level of surface water run off. This summer months in spite of warm temperatures. also be caused by blockages in the system. There are severe dangers from this type Strong winds from the south-west are somewhat tempered by the Isle of Wight to the can be quick onset and difficult to predict. (RIBA, 2009, p. 5) south, however the seafront is still quite exposed, and is vulnerable to turbulent weather patterns and seasonal storms. The low-lying coastline is prone to flooding, and in coming Infrastructural Flooding can occur where man made structures likeas canals, reservoirs years faces rising sea levels and more unpredictable weather patterns a result of global are overwhelmed by run off. This type of flooding also encompasses systems like climate change.

of flooding, both to property and people through contaminated water. The flooding

pumping stations causing flooding through mechanical failures. (RIBA, 2009, p. 5)

The city of Portsmouth is a particularly dense centre of population with a very limited amount of permeable surface for water infiltration meaning that sewer flooding is a clear risk, especially given the combined storm and foul sewer system. The city is also at a greater risk of sewerage flooding from overflowing drains due to the limited capacity of the sewerage network and the Victorian drainage system. (Climate South East, n.d., p. 1) Both of my chosen sites are directly affected by the sea and are at risk of tidal flooding despite the existing defences. One example of such risk when, In March 2008, the tide reached 5.53 metres (2.8 metres above sea level) [...] and caused flooding in Clarence Parade, (Portsmouth City Council, 2012, Summer event at bandstand green,Southsea. 2009 Outdoor cafe terrace, Mozzarella Joesp. 2)

Violent seafront storm, 2008

Figure 06. Portsmouth Coast Defences & Tidal Flooding

Violent seafront storm, 2008

Figs. 6a, 6b, 6c, 6d - Illustrations of Portsmouths Seafront Climate

The other half of my chosen site proposal is based on the regeneration and redevelopment of South Parade Pier which sits at a slightly raised elevation from the existing tidal flood defences. I will be looking to try and improve the general 1.6 Historical character of the Overview area through the enhancement of these defences as they are a significant cultural, historical and topographical feature in one the largest areas of A full historical report has beenThrough carried out by Wessex Archaeology of forflood the Initial public space in Portsmouth. a thorough examination defences and Assessment, and should be referred to for a complete background to the archaeology how they affect architecture and our landscape I hope to be able to propose a and history of Portsea Island. It also identifies key assets, potential opportunities and scheme that responds in appropriate manner to the inherent risks of the site as well vulnerabilities. as gaining an understanding of how current systems might be improved.

Figure 07. Section Through Pier, Clarence Parade and Rear Site

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The other half of my chosen site is based on the regeneration and redevelopment of South Parade Pier which sits at a slightly raised elevation from the existing tidal flood defences. I will be looking to try and improve the general character of the area through the enhancement of these defences as they are a significant cultural, Landscape Character Type B feature Traditional Seaside Piers areas of public space in historical and topographical in one the largest Local Character Area: B2 South Parade Pier Portsmouth.


South Parade - promenade & streetscape overlooking beach

Figure 08. Panoramic of Portsmouth Esplanade & South Parade Pier

Pier - vi

The pier itself is unlikely to be severely affected by rising sea levels and storm surges given its elevation, although the cost of the routine maintenance that needs to take place on pier structures would likely increase. The proposed music venue will be carefully designed using a palette of resistant materials to minimise the effects of strong winds and damp sea air.

Promenade on western section, with Pier ahead

Figure 09 Panoramic Brighton Pier and Tiered Flood Defences/Public Space

Figure 09 shows a set of tiered flood defences on Brighton bridge with Brighton Pier in the background; these defences are an example of how an engineered response to tidal flood risk can contribute to an environment.


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We should look carefully at the environmental and economic effects when implementing flood management schemes, whether architectural, infrastructural or risk management based. (RIBA, 2007, p. 24) (RIBA, 2009, p. 5) Otherwise in the UK we can look at other methods of creating greater density in urban areas, such as developing less valuable areas of green belt land and allowing brownfield areas to return to floodplain land to try and offset the loss; or we could relax planning codes to allow for greater density in the development of our cities and towns. Flooding also represents a major economic issue in our country. Currently damages to commercial and residential properties are estimated at 2.5bn per annum (Jha, 2010, para. 9). A balance must be struck between the provision of flood defences, a potentially costly method which helps prevent flooding to peoples homes, and flood risk management. These strategies are key in helping homes retain their value as the damage done to possessions is not the only problem after flooding as insurance providers may in the future simply refuse to insure an property that has already flooded, although there is currently an agreement to insure properties with a less than 1 in 75 year flood event risk this agreement will expire in July 2013.

Figure 10. Population at risk from 2m sea level rise

The costs of annual damage from flooding could rise from the present level of approximately 1-2 billion to between 20-70 billion in the worst case scenario. (Evans, Simm, Thorne, Arnell, Ashley, Hess, Lane, Morris, Nicholls, PenningRowsell, Reynard, Saul, Tapsell, Watkinson & Wheater, 2008 p. 51) The cost of flood damages is typically borne by the insurers of a property. The government currently has an agrement in place with the insurers based in the UK to provide flood risk insurance to all properties even if at high risk of flooding. There have however been complaints made about this provision as some see it as an encouragement of construction and dwelling in floodplains. The UK policy on insuring flood prone locations is somewhat uncommon in that the insurance is not government subsidised but rather maintained by a competitive market (cost is managed through cross subsidization (charging higher prices for one group to allow reasonable prices for another group.)) (Parker, 2000, p. 52)

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Looking at a long term investment strategy for flood risk management the EA concluded that we would have to double our current spending (2009) over the next 25 years to even maintain a status quo regarding the number of properties in England at risk, this rises to triple the current spending in Wales. If we were to look to reduce the number of significant and moderate risk homes (total reduction from 138,000 to 107,000 homes) we would be looking at quadrupling our current expenditure (Lamond, Proverbs, Booth & Hammond, 2011, p. 92). It is estimated that a rise of 2 degrees would increase the annual insured loss on Britain by 8% (from 47mil to 600mil) (Lamond, Proverbs, Booth & Hammond, 2011, p. 96) The aforementioned problems are likely to expand with any further building on flood planes, particularly in the denser areas of the UKs population. This practice of building on flood prone land could be further integrated into building regulations encouraging, if not enforcing, the construction of responsible, flood resistant architecture in addition to risk management schemes already in place through local and government initiatives. Building Regulations H: Drainage and Waste Disposal SI 2010 No.2214 covers building and land drainage but only touches lightly on the specific issue of flooding. The new Technical Guidance to National Planning Policy Framework (NPPF hereafter) retains the key information from Planning Policy Statement (hereafter PPS) 25: Development and Flood Risk which, requires that runoff from developments should not increase flood risk elsewhere in a catchment area and that sustainable drainage systems should be incorporated wherever practicable. This dovetails into encouragement across the UK for Sustainable Urban Drainage [SUDs] based schemes being used to take over, or provide relief to, the current system of piped surface water drainage running to the sewer. (Tourbier & White, 2007, p. 15) (HM Government, 2010, pp. 135-150) While these schemes are encouraged there is a lack of a clear incentive which would likely have to be a economic incentive to instigate action in those apathetic about the subject. In Berlin, Germany land is charged at approximately 1.30 euros per square meter of impervious surface unless there is a system for managing the run off on site. (Tourbier & White, 2007, p. 15) Our previous planning document PPS3 (Housing) placed pressure on housing developers to increase the building density to between 30 and 50 dwellings per hectare. This is against a traditional number of 23 dwellings per hectare for suburban estates (Construction Industry Research and Information Association, 2003, p. 17). This has now however been replaced by the NPPF which is intended to create a system reliant on local authorities which would seem a positive step,it does still place an emphasis on increasing housing supply although it aims to do so a sustainable manner. (HM Government, 2012, p. 12) Increased development could lead to a reduction in available space for some SUDS components and above ground storage areas so the councils will need to carefully set out their own policies regarding these schemes. (Balmforth, Digiman, Kellagher, & Butler, 2006, p. 149) These residential developments are still encouraged in the light of current social and economic issues.

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There has been a good deal of disagreement over the figures regarding sea rise as a consequence of climate change. The 2010 report by the US national Academy of Sciences supported both the IPCC and the 2007 UN Study regarding the causes of climate change although they are now thought to be conservative and proposes a potential sea level rise of as much as 6.25 feet (1.9m) by 2100 if greenhouse gas reduction efforts are not effective. (Watson & Adams, 2011, p. 221) This report also tells us that even if GHG emissions are reduced the sea level will continue to rise, albeit at a lower rate, for several centuries which helps underline the requirement for a design, policy and construction based response. (Watson & Adams, 2011, p. 222) The Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries and Food (MAFF hereafter) have come to play a larger part in the planning of flood defences as they discourage defences that have a severe impact on the natural environment around them. (Thorne, Evans & Penning-Rowsell, 2007, p. 4) Unchanged however is the principle that all defences implemented should have a benefit to cost ration of at least parity to be eligible for a government grant.(Thorne, Evans & Penning-Rowsell, 2007, p. 5) Much of current government policy regarding flood defence comes from the Foresight: Flood and Coastal Defences Project which proposed flood management through integrated, sustainable portfolios of responses, covering a wide rage of non structural as well as engineering responses. (Thorne, Evans & Penning-Rowsell, 2007, p. 11) The Government in the past decade has moved away from engineered flood defences and more towards risk management where local authorities react to risks preemptively to mitigate both potential damages, and the necessity for expensive flood defence infrastructure. (Thorne, Evans & Penning-Rowsell, 2007, p. 4). Given that government policy in the United Kingdom and across Europe appears to be moving towards encouraging property owners to protect themselves. (Ashley, Blanksby, Chapman & Zhou. 2007, p. 415) This situation would seemingly create an environment where the localised planning and integration of flood protection into architecture would be of primary importance in preserving the safety of the public and their possessions, there has only been limited interest in these schemes given the high perceived costs involved in flood protection. The economic response to urban flooding is difficult to manage given the expansive investment required to modify the environment. Given this a likely response is adaptation, whereby there will be a shift of the burden and responsibility on to the individual and away from the state. (Morris & Wheater, 2007, p. 68) The ideal of local government responding to their own flood risk which in some ways seems ideal given that it should minimise confusion and unnecessary bureaucracy is also risky given that the growth of wealth in the UK is not forecast to increase in proportion with flood risk meaning that plans will need to be abandoned or modified to remain economically viable. It is likely that in certain areas this strategy would require retreat from floodplains and coastal areas allowing water to claim or reclaim areas of land. (Watkinson, Nicholls, Sear, & Ledoux, 2007, p. 36) We have seen the government attempt to move in this direction with the introduction of the NPPF which places a greater emphasis of local council schemes as oposed to regional schemes.

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In further support of a community lead process it has been observed that while flood management is a multidimensional problem, the solutions are often myopic with little regard for methods other than engineering lead technical construction. This position has changed somewhat over the course of the last 30 years with some movement from the 1980s onwards towards less structural, more planning and warning based systems as a way managing both cost and risk. (Parker, 2000, p. 66) Another cause in the shift away from overarching government policies is the increasing professionalisation of knowledge in industrialised societies. (Parker, 2000, p. 282) This has resulted in worldwide networks of specialists separating their knowledge into their own sectors preventing people from accessing their expertise in an economical manner. This can to some extent be counteracted by the fact that many of local communities at risk already have much of the knowledge required to make the appropriate decisions regarding flood risk and need only be facilitated by government management. In part the government seems to be hoping that a shift towards this brand of traditional knowledge will provide a more cost effective option than previous engineering lead schemes. Another course of action might be a more in depth interrogation of traditional building methods, which in some places will verge on a vernacular architecture, to look at how people have, in the past, dealt or coped with flood risk. In terms of documentation providing advice on flood risk to architects builders and designers there are few specific stipulations regarding flood risk in the current building regulations (limited mention is made of floor protection measures in both, Building Regulations H: Drainage and Waste Disposal SI 2010 No.2214 & Building Regulations C: Resistance to Contaminants and Moisture SI 2010 No.2214, despite recommendations that clearer guidelines should at least be suggested. (HM Government, 2012, para. 28)

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In general terms flood risk management can be grouped into one of three responses, reduction of a physical hazard, reduction of exposure to the hazard or reduction of the loss and vulnerability to flooding along with an increased ability to recover. (Burton, Kates, & White, 1993 p. 6) The primary risk in Portsmouth and across my would would be inundation from the sea, most likely be caused through a storm surge accompanying already rising sea levels due to climate change. Storm surges are determined by the geography of the area as well as the weather system that causes them. For a 1 in 50 year storm surge in Portsmouth the projected level would be between 1.25 and 1.5m higher than the average sea level for that time. (Hinton, Ian, Townend, & Nicholls, 2007, p. 138) Portsmouth is also at risk from various other flood risks including pluvial flooding given the prevalence of impermeable surfaces. Sewer flooding is also a possibility given the combined storm water and foul water sewers which Southern water have acknowledged are at risk. (Southern Water, 2012)
Figure 11. Graph of sea level rise over time

Portsmouth has already taken one of the more common steps in providing sea front protection, across a large part of the southern boundary of the city, in the long linear park which provides both a possibility for a conservation area and also creates a buffer zone between the built landscape and the water but this is simply one of many necessary measures over the course of the next decade to ensure that flood risk doesnt increase dramatically. Flood risk is typically managed in the construction industry through the completion of flood risk assessments which are either level 1,2 or 3 indicating a rising level of risk. A level 1 assessment will be primarily focussed on surface water run off and preventing and increase in this area. Areas in flood zone 1 will be assessed as having a 1 in 1000 annual likelihood of flooding and the risk assessment would be required of sites exceeding 1 hectare. (Environment Agency, n.d., p. 1) A level 2 assessment incorporates All applications with a site area less than 1 ha in Flood Zone 2 which are: i) more vulnerable; ii) less vulnerable; iii) water compatible development (no accommodation); or iv) essential accommodation for water compatible developments. (Environment Agency b, n.d., p. 1) A level 3 assessment would be looking at an area with a 1 in 100, or higher, annual likelihood of flooding or a 1 in 200 probability of sea flooding anually. As such my site would probably fall into the Level 3 flood risk assessment category. This would require an extensive analysis of the risks presented in the area. (Environment Agency c, n.d., p. 1)

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Currently Portsmouth has a significant risk of flooding as the UKs only island city, particularly given the relatively low land levels. It is currently estimated that around 4200 residential, 360 commercial and 50 MoD properties are at risk of flooding from a 0.5% annual exceedance probability of flooding (AEP hereafter) meaning a 1 in 200 year flooding event. The island itself has a frontage circumference of roughly 27km over which a variety of flood defences have been placed. The Portsea Island Costal Strategy Study (PICSS hereafter) tells us that of this 27km of defences 14km have a residual life* of less than 10 years and 6.5km provide a standard of protection less than that indicated for the land use type, this is due to rise to approximately 11.5 km over the next 50 years due to the effects of climate change. (Portsmouth City Council, 2011, p.2) The PICSS report divides Portsmouth into 7 independent flood prone zones and has formulated a set of objectives specific to each zone. The measures undertaken in the first and second cells (Southsea and Eastney) are based on raising and repairing the existing sea walls as well as sustainably retaining beach materials. In cells 3,4,6 and 7 (Eastney Lake, North Portsmouth, continental ferry port and H.M Naval Base) the intention is simply to raise the height of the sea wall relative to sea level rise, replacing defensive structures when necessary. In Cell 1 (Southsea) the intention is to construct new sea and flood defence walls approximately 1m above existing level along the esplanade while also maintaining the existing flood Key Plan 1 Studyground Area defences. The majority of measures needed to be undertaken to complete this 7 block plan are included in a 10 year plan while a few of the longer term measures extend up to 30 years.
Portsmouth City Council Portsea Island Coastal Strategy Study

This is a reserved and measured plan with careful cost analysis of every move proposed but they do propose potential opportunities to enhance Portsmouths urban and natural environment. These opportunities might offer an economic way to offset some of the costs through social and economic benefits to the city. My site falls within the eastern end of Flood cell 1 (shaded in pink) and falls within the current 1 in 200 year flood Figure 12. PICSS Flood Strategy Zones risk area.

April 2011

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These plans to help improve Portsmouths environment include things like What choices can We maKe? improvements to the Southsea Esplanade and would inevitably in integrated into the local councils plans for the area which already list regeneration of the promenade as What iF We LooK at the Long FutuRe oF ouR coastaL cities an aim. (Southsea Sea teRm Front Masterplan)
anD imagine What stRategies might neeD to be aDopteD? What choices Do We have toDaY to ensuRe that bY the next centuRY seaLeveL Rise WiLL generated have been manageD in a WhoLLY positiveto manneR? Others have more radical schemes respond to the challenges posed theRe aRe thRee bRoaD appRoaches to the FutuRe oF coastaL by climate change. One study undertaken by Building Futures and the Institution of management: RetReat? DeFenD? anD attacK?


Civil Engineers looked at the extreme solutions in Portsmouth if the strategy for flood management was solely based around either retreating, defending or attacking. (Institution of Civil Engineers, RIBA, 2009, p. 24)

in Ju a De vaRi engi anD inFR ouR

We c KinG


While many schemes actually implemented are likely to encompass all or more than one of these options it is an interesting exercise to look at the extreme hypothetical and then try and generate a practicable solution from that point. This set of schemes seems to tie in with the IPCC coastal zone management sub groups who defined three strategic responses required to protect human life and property from impacts of sea level rise. These schemes were retreat, accommodation (living with flood risk) and protection. (Watson & Adams, 2011, p. 211) The first scheme looks at retreating from the majority of Portsmouths coastline with the conversion of some areas to beach land while the displaced residents can relocate to new settlements built towards Portsdown Hill. The military docks are defended due to their importance to the nation and the economy but otherwise the coastline of Portsmouth is shrunk dramatically. Proposals are made for converting some of the northern floodplain to a salt marsh sheep farm.
riBa and iCe: reproduced with the kind permission of the ordanance survey

To retreat is to step back from the problem To defend is to ensure the sea water does and avoid a potentially catastrophic blow. not enter the existing built environment. it is to move critical infrastructure and This will require built defences to ensure housing to safer ground and to allow the standard of protection will be met the water into the city to alleviate flood in the distant future as sea-levels rise. risk. This is critically different from although it is currently an expensive policy to adopt, can the defences themselves abandonment, as we propose a long-term be designed in a way to make them planned and managed process. economically and commercially viable? Managed retreat, or Managed Many of the hard engineered realignment is a method of removing defences of the 20th century have been or breaching coastal defences, allowing criticised for being unsustainable, reducing tidal seawater to flood areas previously access to water, damaging to coastal protected. The line of defence is then habitats and costly to maintain and improve. relocated landwards. an advantage of this however, they have provided protection is to reduce the flood risk to vulnerable and reduced risk from flooding, allowing sites further inland and along the coast activities to go on uninterrupted in the by moderating the tide and wave energy. built environment. But what if the defences however, the main driver is a reduction of whole-life costs to the defence scheme and themselves served a dual function? For instance, could the defence structure be a increased long-term sustainability. Much part of a commercial development allowing needed inter-tidal habitat is also created, for the developer to benefit from the such as salt-marsh and mud-flats. proximity to water? alternatively, there in retreating, investment in existing are several land uses suitable to locate structures and infrastructure is lost as poRtsmouth RetReats within the inter-tidal zone that could be the area is claimed or reclaimed by the incorporated into a sustainable response sea. new investment must also be made in What iF the Long coastLine suRRounDing poRtsmouth anD its haRbouRs too gReat a Length to DeFenD? We couLD RetReat FRom the FRinges to rising sea-levels, including public relocating communities and becomes infrastructure to the higheR gRounD Within the centRe oF poRtsea isLanD. this Loss oF recreational space. out of harms way. however, money is saved DeveLopeD LanD WouLD neeD to be compensateD FoR anD neW, teRRaceD hiLLsiDe settLements couLD taKe on anD maintain the existing anD gRoWing popuLation. By choosing to defend, the existing by significantly decreased investment in What LanD uses WouLD be appRopRiate at the Wet FRinges oF the citY? built infrastructure of a city is protected flood defences. from floods and does not need to be To date, several pilot sites of relocated to higher ground or rebuilt after managed realignment have been 2025 created 2100 flooding. however, as mentioned above and the monitoring process is showing 01 flood defence is an extremely costly promising results. however, these endeavour. sites were previously free from human 08 07 practice is Currently, defensive habitation. hoW do We reTreaT FroM 07 conducted in a piecemeal fashion, owing to a PoPulaTed area, and one WiTh the number of bodies involved and funding inFrasTruCTure CriTiCal To The available. Could a CiTyWide deFenCe naTion? is it possible and practical to 02 sCheMe Be iMPleMenTed and retreat from such an area? 2050 CreaTiVely FinanCed, ProTeCTinG 06 The CiTy FroM any seVere 06 Tidal Flood? The proposed line of defence is 05 able to hold, advance, or03 retreat the existing line of defence where necessary to accommodate the future needs of the city.

Figure 13. Flooding Response Strategies


To attack is to advance and step seaward of the existing coastline. There is massive development potential to be gained for coastal cities by building out onto the water. This further reduces the need to sprawl into the countryside and ensures their sustained social and economic vitality. although it leaves parts of the city still vulnerable to flooding, can the long term benefit of new development outweigh this risk? We have several means of building out onto the water and they have been practiced for centuries. stilts that allow waters to rise, fall and surge underneath inhabitable space have been used on piers around the world, as well as individual buildings. Floating structures, from boats to pontoons, have been used for housing and civil infrastructure. land reclamation is practiced extensively in some parts of the world, creating new land for development. hoW Can These PraCTiCes oF neW Marine deVeloPMenTs Be iMPleMenTed in a susTainaBle Manner? These strategies of attack could unlock a vital planning tool and give flexibility to our extremely dynamic 21st CenTury cities. Moreover, it could encourage a new breed of developers to fill this gap as demand for the prime waterfront sites grows. This commercial competition will need to be matched in long-term management and responsibility. if new development in coastal cities starts to prepare for rising sea-levels now, the livelihood of the city could be maintained for generations to come.

RetR scen as se has be freque We ha hard e sustai it has risk to is to r move actual

appR to co How cont Whi retr Doe exis lowe Wha mar Doe prog Wha rec If w acce arch keep Are with Abo only allev of su

dickon r aJ davy


10 04

Figure 14. Potential Water Encroachment

01 The M27 that served as the east to west link across the south coast from southampton to Chichester was relocated to safer ground behind the hills to the north of the city. although this relocation was costly, it was a smaller investment than protecting the existing route from long-term flooding. 05 The fringes of the east of Portsea island were planned for salt marsh restoration in 2010. Within 20 years a fully established marsh had formed and was naturally accreting. it compensated for the habitats slowly lost to rising sea-levels. now the recreational area is visited daily by thousands of residents and tourists alike. it boasts diverse wildlife, including several rare species of bird. 06 The uKs largest urban salt-marsh sheep farm was established by 2030, providing a revenue stream for the work undertaken. salt-marsh lamb sells at a premium. The sheep will be able to move 08 over the 21st century, the existing buildings on the edges of Portsea island found new uses that are more appropriate to flood risk. residential houses began to dwell on the top floors; repositioning the access routes above ground level and linking the buildings together for times of floods.

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The major elevated artery connects the mainland and M27 traffic to the shrunken island. it also serves the through-traffic heading to the continent via the ports.
02 03

The hayling island coast is now host to a variety of industries that work with the water; for instance algae farming and alternative energy production.
09 10 after lengthy consultation it was accepted that the loss of some national monuments such as coastal

due to their importance to national security


Throughout Europe there has been an increase in the frequency and depth of flooding with the related property damage and loss of life. The causes are the spread of urbanisation and the associated impervious surfaces, then exacerbated by climate change, which affects the intensity and frequency of precipitation. In Germany for example, built up urban areas have more that doubled in the last 70 years, from 5.1% to 12.3%. (Tourbier & White, 2007, p. 14) Flooding represents one of the most consistent and dangerous risks to settlements and therefore we have always sought to manage or mitigate the risk. Still despite consistent efforts major natural events can still cause loss of life, damage to built and natural environments and massive disruption in the lives of affected populations and in the long term can cause health problems, general distress and financial hardships which can last for years or even decades. (Lamond, Proverbs, Booth & Hammond, 2011, p. 2) In the UK the development of floodplains is creating a significant risk factor. Our landscape relies on floodplains to act as protection and run off areas but as waterfront developments have become increasingly popular for aesthetic & lifestyle reasons we need to either discourage the practice of building in these areas or look to architecture and urban design to provide ecologically and environmentally sound solutions. These floodplains also carry out less obvious functions such as filtering out sediment in floodwaters preserving water purity in the surrounding ecosystems. This is just an example of one of the various functions that flood plains undertake with the purposes varying in accordance with the location. (Morris & Wheater, 2007, p. 68) In addition to the pressure to develop brownfield sites already at risk of flooding, the greater urban density and reduction of natural soak away has placed areas not currently within floodplains at greater risk of flooding from surface water. (RIBA, 2009, p. 5) In the US in the 1990s the Federal Emergency Management Agency (hereafter FEMA), after repeated lobbies from local citizens frustrated with a construction and engineering based approach, designed a multidimensional approach to the flooding in the area around the city of Tulsa. The approach incorporated the purchasing of high risk land and converting this land to lower risk recreational possibilities. This would be a sensible route for our government to try and manage areas that frequently suffer from flood damage as properties become too costly to maintain. There was also a concerted effort to include the ecological and recreational properties of the river into the future planning process. (Parker, 2000, p. 67) While the idea of the recreational properties of an area could seem like a side issue when dealing with a high level risk it has been shown in a survey of residents surrounding the River Thames that their concern over with living in increased flood risk was lessened by proximity to the river and its environmental advantages, the greater the proximity, the greater the risk they were willing tolerate. (Parker, 2000, p. 68)

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2.1 - THE RISK

Through looking at American examples of flood proof architecture we can see the possible measures that we will have available to us to offer protection from the harsher weather and rising sea levels forecast by climate change. The majority of guidelines seem to favour either a dry proofing strategy or an elevation based strategy. In instances of particularly severe flooding. Even the preservation of particularly carefully constructed an resilient buildings can be rendered partly irrelevant by the destruction of the surrounding area which inevitably decreases the value of the retained property. (Watson & Adams, 2011, p. 54) The 2007 floods which affected homes across England and Wales caused 180,000 insurance claims and ran a total bill of 3 billion (Association of British Insurers, 2008, p. 9). Despite the fact that in many of these homes this was either the second or third flood they had experienced most of the homes were restored or replaced on a like for like basis. Obviously the likely result is repeated flooding which will make it very difficult to insure the home fully and is indicative to our lack of knowledge and proactivity regarding flooding in this country. In dense urban areas the effectiveness of flood proofing and resilience measures are directly affected by attached properties and the extent of the steps they have taken towards flood proofing themselves. Cavity walls and continuous cavities provide a major risk area which can be difficult to access for repair or resistance measures. (Construction Industry Research and Information Association, 2003, p.2) Portsmouth is at risk of flooding from two primary areas. The first and most obvious is coastal flooding through erosion and storm surges. The second flooding risk is flash flooding; given Portsmouths urban density and the predominance of impermeable landscape there is a strong risk of flooding from torrential rainfall as seen in the 2000 floods. The EA estimates that two thirds of the 2007 UK floods were caused from surface water flooding, which even if not the primary cause of flooding often contributes to the problem. (HM Government, 2010, pp. 116) Figure 12 gives a clear indication of the problems associated with draining urban areas when compared to to a natural catchment where the water can freely infiltrate into the ground replenishing the water table. (Environment Agency, 2010, para. 4)

Figure 15. Natural & Urban Catchment Diagrams

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The CLIMB (Climates Long-term Impacts on metro Boston) analysis of infrastructure and development in metropolitan Boston provides a clear comparison of possible costs associated with four common responses to increased coastal flood risk. They also compared the impacts on health, the environment, infrastructure, communication and water management. In providing this analysis they looked at a sea level rise (SLR hereafter) of either 0.62m or 1m over the course of the next 100 years. This study provides an excellent example of comparing the overall costs of several different large scale schemes combatting flooding in an urban area. The study also unfortunately highlights the flaw in this highly detailed, technical type of analysis as the project ran for 3 years and cost nearly $900,000. This may be a feasible cost for a city the size of Boston but would be an issue for smaller centres of population.
The City Government is involved in adaptation activities at many levels with the Commonwealth of Massachusetts. State law now requires that all state agencies, in issuing permits, licenses and other administrative approvals and decisions,consider reasonably foreseeable climate change impactssuch as predicted sea level rise. In 20092010, Boston representatives sat on the Massachusetts Climate Change Adaptation Advisory Committee, a state-wide committee charged with developing adaptation recommendations, and its working groups. Also in 20092010, City Government worked with the Massachusetts Office of Coastal Zone Management (CZM) to survey policies that could be used to respond to sea-level rise. City Government is also having discussions with the Massachusetts Transportation Department (MassDOT), the Boston Public Health Commission, and the Massachusetts
Increased Storm Flooding with Sea-Level Rise


Department of Public Health to determine effective means of partnership. Staff from MassDOT recently joined a Boston City Government-led team that participated in a three-day academy focused on climate adaptation.

Boston City Government is a member of the Metropolitan Area Planning Council (MAPC), the lead organization for regional transportation issues, important in both climate mitigation and adaptation. The MAPC develops for Boston its Natural Hazards Mitigation Plan (see below). Recently, Boston joined a coalition led by the MAPC that received a federal $4-million Sustainable Communities Regional Planning Grant. City Government is working with MAPC on how to include climate change more explicitly in the grant-funded activities ranging from rewriting local zoning bylaws to developing transitoriented neighborhoods.


Figure 16. Site of Adaption Measures for SLR

Figure 17. Increased Flooding with SLR in Boston

In the first scenario they proposed a continuation of current development in flood plain and waterfront areas which would result in a cumulative threefold increase in flood area when combined with the expected SLR. The damages costs for a 0.62m rise would be $20 billion or for a 1m rise, $36 billion. These costs include adaptation and emergency costs. The second scenario proposes continued development rate without floodproofing buildings although it is now assumed that after the first 1 in 100 year storm event the region would construct further seawalls and bulkheads to provide further protection to the area. This protection would mitigate flood losses, with damages from a 0.62m sea level rise costing $5.9 billion. The defence construction would cost $3.5 billion and there would be relatively high maintenance costs associated with the scheme along with a large environmental and visual impact on the seafront. The third scheme proposed the new developments in the 100 and 500 year flood plains would be flood proofed using both wet and dryproofing where appropriate. This flood proofing would be implemented for existing residences as well as commercial and industrial buildings being resold. The refitting of the residential properties was estimated to cost between $3500 and $17,000 per property. The total expenditure of flood proofing was estimated at $1.8 billion and the expected damages from a 0.62m sea level rise was $4 billion. (City of Boston, 2010, p. 9) (Watson & Adams, 2011, p. 227)

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The fourth scheme proposed stopping new residential, commercial and industrial development in flood plains as well as preventing rebuilding of residential structure after flood damage regardless of the level of damage. The costs associated with this scheme are estimated at $17.1 billion given the high value of inner city land and buildings although this scheme does have the lowest environmental impact. This analysis shows the clear economic consequences associated with continued development and lack of action regarding flood risk. While the figures for the first scenario are probably inflated by an improbable lack of reaction in local communities the figures do at least clearly show the benefit in having a clear action plan regarding flood risk. (City of Boston, 2010, p. 9) (Watson & Adams, 2011, p. 227)

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CHAPTER 3 - ARCHITECTURAL & DESIGN SOLUTIONS Architectural & Landscape Design Solutions
Through the integration of architectural solutions into our built environment we can start looking towards a solution to flooding in flood prone areas that doesnt negatively affect the existing environment. Unpredictable environmental hazards e.g. The development of levees or dikes around New Orleans, alongside the building of the Harbour Navigation Canal, resulted in the lowering of the water table across the area which in turn caused subsidence in various areas of up to 2.4m. We can look at minimising this type of risk with larger scale environmental solutions and smaller scale architectural solutions. (Karlin & Dunford, 2009, p. 40) Rainwater Harvesting and local storm water use has been generally recommended for use at a household level and avoids the problems offered by complex siphonic (drainage systems operating on the principle of atmospheric pressure differentials) drainage systems which can be difficult to integrate into the main drainage network as the standards for designing these systems are only now being set out. (Tapsell & Ball, 2007, p. 322) (Scott, Wright, & Swaffield, 2004, p. 794) One of the more common ways of managing flood risk is by simply raising all habitable rooms above the base flood level (required by the EA when building on floodplains) .This is generally achieved either by extending the building foundations CASE STUDY: of by extending the external walls, the latter solution isFlood moreRisk commonly seen in Assessment American examples of flood resistant architecture and will generally create a crawl space under the ground flood level. When elevating a building a full storey with parking and garages being placed on the ground floor, there is a problem however with lifeless and uninteresting street elevations. (Watson & Adams, 2011, p. 11) The idea of large landscaped areas being used as water detention areas, which will eventually allow the water to infiltrate back into the ground, has already been covered Resilient but Units man made structures can also serve the same function if carefully designed. carparks, stadia and courtyards all used have the and potential to At higher Underground levels a mix of dryproof and wetproof construction techniques are to resist cope with waterdetention inundation respectively. Secondary accessis decks and escape serve as water areas if the intention planned for. routes are provided above ground floor during times of flood to allow continued use of the property and access for (Sustainable Architecture and Urbanism: Design, Construction, Examples pg 52)
emergency services.

Floating Units

Amphibious Units

Resilient Units

Site cross section in 1 in 1000 year flood

Figure 18. Flood Resistant Architecture Typologies

*A swale is a low track of land, generally one that is moist or marshy, the can be either natural or artificially created. They are often used to manage water run off as well as providing greater water infiltration and filtering pollutants from the water that runs into them.

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Another suggestion made in regard to these larger open areas is the movement to permeable or semi permeable surfaces in much the same way as some schemes have already suggested for pavements and smaller walkways. The materials used in these areas can range from stabilized turf, grass of permeable paving. The point is also made that lawn areas can be nearly as impervious as pavement and should if possible be allowed to return to the state appropriate to the region. Otherwise grading the lawns direct run off towards natural planting areas can improve the situation. (Watson & Adams, 2011, p. 110) A way of helping to encourage these permeable surfaces in denser urban areas might be to require a certain amount of infiltration into the soil to help relieve the pressure on the citys drainage and to keep the water table at its natural level. In Germany several Lnder (similar to counties or states) have required that landowners dispose of water within the boundaries of their own properties, which has prompted a move towards SUDS as a cost effective and environmentally sound solution to their problems. (Gauzin, 2002, p. 52) The Construction Industry Research and Information Association (hereafter CIRIA) recommend that When deciding on the drainage of a new development, the designer should identify and consider the use of natural flood pathways in the undeveloped area. As a general principle, the closer artificial drainage and above ground flood pathways follow the natural layout, the more effective the drainage system will be. (Balmforth, Digiman, Kellagher, & Butler, 2006, p. 36) Development layout can significantly affect how flows will be conveyed and may even contribute to property flooding. In particular, channels and areas that may act as conveyance pathways and storage areas should be identified early in the process. (Balmforth, Digiman, Kellagher, & Butler, 2006, p. 149) Run off can be minimised by retaining natural drainage features, good run off control procedures, clustering buildings together and by minimising earthworks and ground disturbance. (Balmforth, Digiman, Kellagher, & Butler, 2006, p. 152)

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The planning policy statement regarding drainage design suggests that for new developments the best way to reduce flood risk is to either control the water at the source through the use of SUDS or to consider the exceedance and the likely paths that the surface water exceedance of the designed drainage will take. (HM Government, 2010, pp. 135-150) The risk of flooding can be managed through the use of Sustainable Urban Drainage Systems (hereafter SUDS) integrated with the landscape and buildings in a plan to control ground run off. (RIBA, 2009, p. 22) Figure 15 shows a case study of various SUDS techniques being integrated into a housing development. The run off from the roofs goes to either water butts for use in the garden, or flows directly into grass channels (swales). Water falling on roads and paths either passes through permeable paving to stone below which helps to filter the water or the water will run off of impermeable surfaces to grass channels with stone beds beneath to filter the run off water (these beds can also help with water infiltration). These channels are in turn linked to the larger SUDS system through rain pipes, both solid and perforated. These pipes run through to a series of swales and detention ponds allowing the water to infiltrate into the ground. This system provides a measure of protection for those downstream as the detention ponds will only fill in heavier rain and otherwise provide an attractive natural environment from which water can be collected for use in the local environment.

Figure 19. Lamb Drove Sustainable Drainage

Figure 15 shows a careful consideration of the falls across every area of the site, most specifically in areas with impermeable surfaces allowing for a complete understanding of the likely water run off direction and accumulation over the site.

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Given the risks inherent in the site I will be looking at I will try to integrate SUDS schemes into the rear of the housing site which should help manage the drainage of the site while providing a visual break in hard materials. This scheme should also lessen the load on the already overused sewer system. It would also be beneficial to provide protection from tidal flooding at the side adjacent to the sea as this is the only area where the built environment runs directly up to the esplanade

Figure 20. Swale Diagram

The measures would be primarily focused on the inclusion of permeable surfaces, drainage basins, swales, rainwater harvesting and green roof systems. This should reduce or preferably eliminate any reliance upon Portsmouths drainage system. Infiltration techniques like those mentioned above can be used across a site to facilitate drainage, with porous materials and coverings used in public space to aid drainage, even on cramped sites the inclusion of green roofs or rainwater harvesting can help to reduce surface water run off which can contribute to flooding.

Figure 21. Infiltration Diagram

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The Krishna Avanti primary school, by Cottrell & Vermuelen Architects, in Harrow, London stands as an excellent example of rainwater harvesting and other SUDS systems being integrated into architecture. The roofs of the building are either green roofs which allow for water retention or have harvesting systems built into the design which are in turn linked with drainage basins on the site. The whole building was developed along sustainable principles which were felt to be in keeping with the Hindu faith, with ecological zones incorporated into the drainage strategies in the surrounding landscape.

Figure 22. Krishna Avanti Primary School - Photographs of Green Roofs Utilized as Part of Drainage Strategy

In larger cities the height of the buildings can restrict air movement which can result in the air at street level is renewed frequently enough resulting in a polluted and unhealthy environment with unnaturally high temperatures and low humidity. Through the implementation of green roofs this effect can be reduced; the water retained in the roof will in part evaporate contributing to the levels of humidity in the area while also helping to settle airborne dust. These green roof schemes are encouraged in Germany through tax and planning incentives which help to offset the up front cost of a green roof. (Gauzin, 2002, p. 60) Green roofs are either one of two different types, intensive or extensive. An intensive green roof will have a relatively deep and nutrient rich substrate layer (between 150mm-1000mm) in which a larger scale of planting take place. An extensive green roof will have a shallower substrate layer (between 60mm-150mm) and should be relatively self sustaining. A green roof will improve storm water attenuation and can generally retain between 70 and 80% of rainwater run off, as would be expected ,the greater the thickness of substrate and planting, the greater the water attenuation offered. (Environment Agency b, 2012, table 1) The planting that makes up the roofs also helps to act as a filtering system for the water falling onto the roof helping to remove nitrates from the water. (Sutton Council, n.d., p.12) If considered early on in the development of urban areas we can do our best to encourage the development of large urban green areas Stuttgart is an example of a city with large amounts of green surfaces which help protect from the flooding that the area was previously liable to. (Gauzin, 2002, p. 64) Only 40% of the ground is built on making Stuttgart one of Europes greenest cities, this is achieved by making use of a 8km long green U strip which wraps itself around the major transport hub, the train tracks and station.

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In talking about flooding Designing for flood risk, a policy statement from the RIBA, SUDS are described as ranging from green roofs, rainwater harvesting systems and permeable paving through to networks of swales, filter beds and detention ponds. In many cases rainwater harvesting can be incorporated into sustainable drainage systems to help reduce volumes of water entering the storm water system. (RIBA, 2009, p. 22) In situations where soak away is not possible and in confined urban areas it may be necessary to supplement the limited amount of rainwater storage that green roofs can provide with over-sized drainage pipes, rain crate systems and underground attenuation tanks. (RIBA, 2009, p. 21) It is also possible in some cases to design specific water detention areas, typically designed into public or private open spaces; these areas can either use the existing topography or rely on small scale changes to the existing topography which can be used as part of the landscape design scheme.





Figure 23. Section Describing SUDS Drainage Scheme

While these defences can be an excellent way of managing the ecological, social and economic aspects of sustainabilty they can also fail to take into account that flooding is larger scale problem. (Tourbier & White, 2007, p. 15) It is recommended that SUDS systems could be amended to include conveyance systems that would help the individual SUDS systems work as a larger scale solution to the problem of exceedance overflows. Then they could be effectively included in a flood management scheme which needs to tackle the overarching issues of prevention, protection, preparedness, emergency response and recovery.

Living with water 2

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A successful example of flood defences being incorporated into the landscape as a piece of sustainable design is the Greenwich Peninsula riverbank regeneration which was managed by Atkins landscape architecture branch. This project involved the terracing the banks of the River Thames where protection and refurbishment was required and using these terraces to create a wetland area that served as both flood protection and an ecological site. Areas at risk of fluvial flooding typically choose to turn their backs on the river using impermeable hard defences which often exacerbate the situation downstream this represents a clear step forwards. (Environment Agency, 2006, p. 19) This idea of terracing flood defences is bought Figure 24. Grenwich Riverbank Terrace up again in proposals by KCA Architects. Landscape design like that seen on the previous page has long been present in the Netherlands, at both a similar and larger scale, where the populace organised a system of dikes, ditches, canals and lakes which served to protect their low coastline and vulnerable properties. It is perhaps this tradition that has also created an environment where urban design and environmental art stands at the forefront of society. (Benjamin, 1983, p. 7) The current system involves the municipality (The Netherlands is divided into twelve municipalities) taking initial control of land acquired for housing developments and then drawing up urban development plans for the site including issues like, environmental impact, traffic management and water management. The situation in the Netherlands is well described by the text Designed for Dry Feet. Over the past 2,000 years the consequences of human habitation and natural events have combined to make life in this region challenging. To use low-lying land for agriculture required removal of excess water by the construction of field drains and ditches. Once dry, the clay and peat soils subsided, requiring further deepening of the drainage network. This began an irreversible pattern of land subsidence that continues today. (Hoeksema, 2006, p.1) This situation has left the Dutch with a landscape that requires constant maintenance which often results in carefully considered public space. This sense of public space being maintained as a way of life would be a good quality to instill in a development and as such I will attempt to create a similar environment in my project through the careful design of open public spaces capitalizing on the unique sea adjacent site.

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In 2005 Baca Architects developed the LifE (Long term initiatives for flood risk Environments) project focussed on both, reducing the causes of climate change (carbon emissions), and mitigating the effects of flood damage. (BACA Architects, 2009, para. 3) (Barker, 2011, p. 195) The strategy developed by Baca focuses on the current emphasis of non defensive flood risk management which helps to maintain floodplains and the natural capacity of the land to store floodwater. (Barker, 2011, p. 195) An example of a more radical architectural response to flooding is design for the flood proof pilot project in Dordrecht, Holland, again proposed by Baca Architects, which lies in a floodplain outside the historic city of Dordrecht and offers several prototypes for flood proof dwellings. First in the proposal are deep section floating plinths on which lightweight, timber frame houses are built. Second are amphibious units which again use lightweight timber frame construction, though in this instance placed on concrete decks that rest within a dry dock allowing the decks to form gardens when the floodplain isnt underwater. Finally resilient units are made using a mix of dryproof and wetproofing construction techniques to prevent water inundation while access routes are provided above the ground. (Dhonau, & Lamond, 2011, p.293)

Figure 25. BACA Architects Proposed Scheme of Flood Resilient Units in Dordrecht

Dry proofing solutions refer to solutions that will prevent water from entering into a property. (Dhonau, & Lamond, 2011, p.293) This type of flood protection is suitable when the flooding is likely to be short term and the majority of damage is caused from the initial flow of water through a property. This method is only suitable for short term flooding because there are many different routes through which water can enter a building. Another approach to waterproofing is called either wet proofing or resilience where water is allowed into the buildings lower level, with plans in place to recover quickly and minimise damage like the use of waterproof coatings and materials that dry quickly and absorb water slowly. This strategy can be employed in most buildings but should be carefully considered as it can damage the structural integrity of the building if the water is evacuated too slowly, these measures are generally used as a back up rather than as primary flood protection measures, although if implemented thoroughly throughout a new build they could represent a possible route to efficient and economic flood protection. (Watson & Adams, 2011, p. 174)

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When looking at lift based schemes the methods used can be divided into two separate camps. Vertical lift elevation schemes which allow a building to rise vertically only, and boat schemes which allow vertical and horizontal movement relying on an anchor to prevent damage to surroundings or the structure itself. (Han, Davis, Hu, Lan, Maren, & Twyman, 2002, p. 11) There are different possibilities when looking at how give the structure the required buoyancy to rise with the flood level. If no measure is taken then the flood level will likely rise well above the base of the walls before the house attains the required lift meaning that extensive wet proofing would be required. A wetproofed basement can be filled with a lighter than water substance like air or helium to add to the buoyancy of the structure. Another option is to elevate the building placing it on a raft structure and eliminate the need for wetproofing the base level of the house. (Han, Davis, Hu, Lan, Maren, & Twyman, 2002, p. 11) Along the Meuse in Maasbommel, Holland there is a development, by the architect Dura Vermeer, of 36 amphibious and 14 floating homes. This group of homes was intentionally built in an area where the water levels are frequently high and lie outside the towns ring of protective dikes. The foundations of the homes are built on concrete hulls. These hulls are tied to mooring posts and allow the foundations to rise with the floodwater up to a level of 5.5m, this is an example of the boat type lift scheme. The hulls mentioned help to give the structure rotational stability. This scheme gives the residents a dynamic environment to live in and allows them to connect with the environment a new fashion. (Hawbaker, 2011) If we were to proceed along the lines of this development in the UK it would probably be best if we tried to provide the structures in the form of pre-fabricated units or at least offered them as such; if this is not done then this type of living situation would likely be outside of most peoples economic means. (RIBA, 2007, p. 22)

Figure 26. Maasbomel Housing Section

Figure 27. Maasbomel Housing Photograph

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The FLOAT home developed by UCLAs Architecture department alongside the architectural firm Morphosis designed this prototype of a floating home acting on similar principles to the Maasbommel floating houses where the house is built on a prefabricated chassis of polystyrene foam coated in glass fibre reinforced concrete which acts as a raft, which is moored on posts allowing for movement in accordance with flooding. (Morphosis Architects, 2012)

Figure 28. FLOAT Home ISO

Figure 29. FLOAT Home Photograph

A sometimes less radical and more economic solution is simply to move the proposed building to elevated ground that lies above the base food elevation. Another option on a site without a natural fall, or where the re-siting of the building would be an impractical option, is a man made hill that can be built with the consultation of geotechnical and structural engineers.

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When dealing with coastal or fluvial flooding the implementation of stilts or columns should often be avoided given the fast flowing nature of the flood which can easily cause the build up of debris around the bases of the supports, creating a dam like effect which can damage the structure and heighten the effects of the flood. (RIBA, 2009, p. 4) When looking at the foundations of building in flood prone areas there are obviously various additional factors to take into consideration. The subsoil conditions in waterfront sites are often unsuitable for supporting shallow foundations.(Watson & Adams, 2011, p. 176) This is necessary because of the potential of erosion to undermine and scour shallow footings or slab foundations. In some regions in America closed foundations are recommended and in other areas it is recommended that buildings be elevated, resting on piers or columns. When this method of construction is used it is recommended that the piers should be well braced and then bolted to the piling; corrosion resistant bolts should be used.This bracing should be situated parallel to the flood waters flow to minimise the build up of debris. (Watson & Adams, 2011, p. 178) Determining the land type can be useful when trying to work out the likelihood of below ground flooding. In clay soils for instance it is unlikely given the soils impermeability although this can be compromised by drainage channels.

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The property shown in the image (right) is in St Louis Mississippi and was proved capable of withstanding a 7ft high flood surge and 125 mph winds when Hurricane Katrina struck in 2005. The house, by Unabridged Architects, has proved to be a excellent piece of flood resistant architecture although, as mentioned in chapter 2, the house has survived with minimal damage it is now a neighbourhood that has been ruined by flood damages.

Figure 30. Flood Resistant Home

The house was constructed along American best practice guidelines with an elevated base construction of slab on grade (concrete poured into ground mould over gravel bed, typically used in warmer US climates). It was also built along a continuous path structural design; this construction type requires structural elements laid out on a grid, preferably symmetrically to resist lateral loads. The structural elements should also be on a rectangular grid to minimise torsional forces which can cause deflection and damage non structural elements of the building. The structural materials were also used to provide resistant finishes to the building and an heavy extensive green roof to help reduce run off. (Watson & Adams, 2011, p. 176) One of the primary considerations when building in a flood prone area is the chosen palette of construction materials. (Watson & Adams, 2011, p. 189) A list of some of the more common materials would be comprised of glazed brick, concrete, concrete blocks, stone, steel trusses, naturally decay resistant lumber, recycled plastic lumber , marine grade plywood, clay/concrete/rubber/steel tiles, cement board, cement fibreboard, mastic, silicone, polyurethane, closed cell plastic foam insulation, pvc, water resistant glue, polyester epoxy paint and stainless steel fixings.

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Advice sheet 4: Flood-resilient walls.

This sheet provides guidance on identifying different types of wall, and reducing the flow of Solid No cavity. floodwater through them by sealing cracks, joints and brickwork and applying suitablewalls May consist of closely spaced bricks or treatments. Particular attention should be paid to the section on Important Considerations blocks or stone inner and outer faces with a before carrying out schemes any work. rubble infill. The already examined are of a larger scale looking manage flood risk


through Types of walls

the landscape or to create prototypes for new buildings at risk of flooding. It is possibly of greater importance for most UK residents to look at simpler ideas It is important to know the type of wall in your property and the consequences this has designed to be into standardised construction. I will look at how various during flooding, before carrying out integrated flood improvement measures. There are three common types of wall construction in UK homes: type of common construction practices stand up to flooding and how these practices Cavity walls with bricks and/or blocks Solid brick or masonry walls be improved or better integrated into the construction process in the could possibly Timber framed walls. future.
Type of wall Cavity walls Description Issues

When looking at flood resistance in wall construction there are several weaknesses Present in almost all modern houses, Floodwater can pass in construction weathering that through can cause problems. Firstly and cracks or common after aboutor 1930. the outer leaf of Have an air gap (typically measuring the cavity wall, through intentional gaps, such as weep holes can allow water into a cavity or to permeate between 50 and 100mm wide) between an cracks and gaps. Floodwater can porous seep inner wall and Water an outer wall. a solid wall. can also permeate through building materials and once The walls are constructed of blocks, bricks through the bricks, water has entered a Solid cavity it can travel laterally and can extremely difficult to No cavity. can pass be Outer face Floodwater of timber-framed walls is Timberor stone (each typically about 100mm thick) blocks and mortar. May consist of closely spaced bricks or normally made walls through the solid wall, of brick or masonry framed FloodwaterA can build up and the inner wall may of different extricate. (CIRIA , be 2003, p.2) See Appendix for further details. blocks or stone inner and outer faces with a through cracks and
material to the outer. walls in the cavity, saturate rubble infill. the insulation, and soak into the inner leaf. Cavity allows water to migrate along the walls and can make it difficult to dry out.

F t t g F t b W i f w c W t w S r c d

May have a render coating. gaps, Floodwater can seep through the bricks, blocks and mortar. Will dry out from the internal and external faces, but thick solid walls may take a considerable time to dry. Will only dry out from the internal face if the wall finishes allow. Some solid walls have a rubber infill in the centre; this will delay drying considerably.

F t t g F t b W t t c E t d i a f

Figure 31. Cavity, Solid & Timber Frame Wall Timberframed walls Page 1 of 8

Outer face of timber-framed walls is Floodwater can pass normally made of brick or masonry through the outer leaf How to find out the typethrough of wall cracks and May have a render coating. There are various measures that can be taken a part of common construction 22 as May 2003 gaps. The types of walls the age and style of construction. If the withFloodwater can seep practice to increase the flood resistance of walls. Applying avary breathable sealant is stated in your building survey, or not known by your neighbours or lo through the bricks, one measure which has the benefit that it can beable applied after Raising to find out whatconstruction. type of walls and you mortar. have by looking at the inside a blocks makingwaters, some small, drilled holes. Water can build up in or the DPC will also help prevent the ingress of flood Otherwise external the cavity and soak into internal tanking can be applied to the walls. See Wall Appendix A for further details. surfaces may be covered can hide the main wall material. thewhich inner timber frame can be used to identify the type of material your property is made of: construction. If the outside of the is fair-faced (without wall Exposing the frame andfurther coating) it wall is of brick or stone. the outer leaf to replace damaged boards and internal finishings can assist in drying after Page 2 of 8 flooding if necessary.

How to find out the type of wall The types of walls vary with the age and style of construction. If the type of wall is not stated in your building survey, or not known by your neighbours or local builder, you will be able to find out what type of walls you have by looking at the inside and outside surfaces and making some small, drilled holes. Wall surfaces may be covered which can hide the main wall material. The following methods can be used to identify the type of material your property is made of: If the outside of the wall is fair-faced (without further coating) it should be obvious if the wall is of brick or stone.

Page 2 of 8

22 May 2003

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When looking to increase the resistance of internal finishes there are various options which offer greater resistance that commonplace plasterboard e.g. lime plaster or ceramic tiles. (CIRIA , 2003, p.7) When considering insulation resistance to flooding it should be noted that lightweight and blow insulation materials are generally damaged by flood waters and can be difficult to remove, closed cell foam or self draining insulation slabs offer a preferable solution in new build projects. (CIRIA , 2003, p. 8) It should be noted that while these solutions deal with water based damage they dont tackle the issue of structural integrity which is likely to be threatened if a flood elevations exceeds 3ft. (Han, Davis, Hu, Lan, Maren, & Twyman, 2002, p. 8) The solutions listed above and in Appendix A & B are primarily for managing flood risk to existing structures there are various materials suitable for increasing the flood resistance of a new build structure a study on designing a flood proof house writes that there are many kinds of concrete blocks used all over the world, including concrete composite blocks, empty concrete blocks and aircrete slabs that can be used [...] if their surface is treated in advance. They are high quality, light weight and possess sound insulation. Furthermore, they are energy efficient and assemble quickly. Another advantage of such new materials is that they can be mass produced in factories. (Han, Davis, Hu, Lan, Maren, & Twyman, 2002, p. 10) Door and window fittings as the entries and exits to buildings provide a primary point of penetration for flood waters so looking at resistance requirements is of particular importance. There are various simple measures that can be undertaken e.g. Wooden frames should be treated with oil based or water proof treatments to prevent warping which could create gaps in the building envelope, also various sealants can be used in different situations to fill gaps between 1-50mm wide. For smaller gaps a liquid penetrating sealant may be more appropriate. See Appendix C for further information. When looking at suspended floors a low point should be created in the cavity subfloor which should be drained or allow for infiltration and for all solid floors a good connection between DPC and DPM is necessary. See appendix C for further information. See Appendix B for further details. See Appendix C for further details.

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Flood Proofing to has been examined in various different ways including practical measures like barriers to water entry at building openings and products to seal wall openings. Specific flood protection including smart air bricks, protective coverings, prefabricated composite products and sealants to walls and floors. These products can come in the form of specifically formed flood protection products or standard building materials like engineering bricks. (CIRIA b, 2003, p.2)

Figure 32. Engineering Brick Wall

Figure 33. Non Return Valve

There are also various products to prevent back flow from plumbing and resilient materials can be used throughout buildings at risk areas. All points in a buildings walls that could potentially allow for water ingress should be sealed, this can be done either through the use of a complete facade treatment like render or though sealing with foams at specific points e.g. TV & telephone cables. These products provide simple and relatively cost effective ways of providing flood protection in standard domestic settings.

Figure 34. Smart Air Brick

Figure 35. Rendered Facade

These methods would fall under the heading of resilience measures which are deemed appropriate when a building cannot be moved from the area of possible flooding and when flooding is likely to reach or exceed 600mm. These are all mostly measures that could be easily incorporated into an initial design or into repair work following a flooding even but are often neglected due to a lack of interest in the construction industry. Commercial buildings can be a greater challenge when dealing with flood risk given the open nature of the frontages in many commercial buildings. This can make temporary defensive measures, like flood skirts and other temporary barriers a necessity.

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Drainage Effluents
Effluent ~ can be defined as that which


flows out. In building

drainage terms there are three main forms of effluent :-

Roof drainage is a key aspect of dealing with water run off, a primary cause of pluvial flooding.
the earth primarily to lower the water table to level in the subsoil. from storm sewer It is sometimes possible for roof downspouts be disconnected It is considered to be clean and therefore requires no treatment and rather be allowed to discharge into vegetated areas. The land surrounding the and can be discharged direct into an approved water course. building in this situation should be graded away from the building to avoid pooling. Stormwater planters are often placed adjacent to external downspouts to absorb the 2. Surface water ~ effluent collected from surfaces such as roofs roofs run off. These planters should designed to to be allow water and paved areas and like subsoil water be is considered clean and to either infiltrate into the landscape or direct discharge the storm water sewer course to negate can be discharged into into an approved or the possibility of soakaway overflow. 1. Subsoil Water ~ water collected by means of special drains from

Figure 36. Drainage Diagram

trade waste and poorly will require treatment to render it clean before and in the worst Guttering is often designed to deal with storm conditions it can be discharged into an approved water course. cases which are often valley gutters where the run off from large spans of roof surface is joined there can be structural damage through overflow, especially when dealing with timber framed construction. (Harrison, Saunders, & Trotman, 2009, p. 93) The standards for drainage for various pitch roofs and gutter types are included in the Building Regulations H: Drainage and Waste Disposal SI 2010 No.2214. These guidelines are sometimes ignored and in other cases the gutters are incorrectly hung resulting in overflow or blockages. 3. Foul or Soil Water ~ effluent contaminated by domestic or

The seams between lengths of gutter are also a common area for the system to break and will likely require some maintenance given the forces they are under. Otherwise seamless or continuous gutters which are rolled aluminium profiles which only have seams at the building corners significantly reducing the risk of breakages. (Balmforth, Digiman, Kellagher, & Butler, 2006, p. 100)

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Services Resistance is an important issue when dealing with flood risk and often a small initial outlay can result in larger savings in the case of a flooding event. Electricity meters and fuse boxes should be raised above expected flood level. Modern wiring is rarely affected by flooding although some wiring may need replacing in case of prolonged flooding. It can be prudent to move the ground floor ring main cables up to first floor with drop down cables for the first floor sockets. Alternatively the circuits could be set up so that the ground floor ring main can be switched off. All service meters should be raised above expected flood level including electricity, gas, oil fired boilers and associated pumps. Raising wiring and sockets is a measure that can be relatively easily implemented as part of repair works in a flooded property typically costing less than 1000 in a domestic situation. Pipes below expected flood elevation should be insulated with closed cell insulation. (CIRIA b, 2003, p.2)

Figure 37. Services Diagram

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In this piece if writing I have attempted to give an overview of flood protection techniques, primarily in the UK, and provide and examination how these techniques might be more effectively utiliized. Through this process I hope to promote simple solutions which could easily save people a great deal of suffering and grief while also contributing to creating a pleasant living environment There is myriad information published on the subject of flood risk and flood risk management in the UK from various different sources and levels of government bodies as well as independent groups. It is then somewhat surprising to find that the majority of literature and debate on the subject is currently coming to similar conclusions regarding the need for the simplification of the tiered approach in flood defence so that various fields of expertise can be assimilated into local knowledge. Where the process falls down somewhat is the actual implementation of these intentions regarding flood defence at a localised level into construction projects. This falls in part to developer and builders lacking a clear incentive to add expense when dealing with an issue which most consumers give little thought or will disregard when warned of the potentially extravagant costs. Amendments to building regulations to explain clearly the benefits and costs of including flood resistance as a component of repair or new build would be helpful in passing on knowledge to contractors, developers, architects and the general public as currently, while drainage of both buildings and landscape is relatively well covered, there seems to be no information dealing with flooding as an inevitable conclusion as it is in certain areas. When looking at flood protection at a larger scale we must continue to promote SUDS based schemes which already have gained some traction in the U.K. These schemes offer us a chance to create multipurpose green areas within urban surroundings that can help lessen our reliance on mechanised drainage systems while actively contributing to our environment by lessening our carbon output. An architectural solution to flood damage should be looking to minimise flood damage to a property, it would be useful if this solution could be incorporated into most building typologies while working with larger scale solutions to combat flooding in the environment. As such it seems likely that the path taken would be that of resilience treatments or wetproofing combined with some measure resistance to protect from lesser floods. These measures are already included to a lesser degree in most buildings but by upgrading the expected and required standards we can ensure safety for thousands of people at risk across the country, and as the CLIMB (P.15) analysis showed us, the most damaging choice would be to take no action.

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In terms of an architectural response to my site I will look in part towards what I have written about flood resistant design but I will also look to the local community group we are working with regarding proposals for the existing pier who all have ties to the local area and will serve as a good example of the local knowledge taking precedence over government policies. If this line of research were to continue I would hope that it could be used to produce a practical piece of documentation to provide to those in the construction industry and to the general public that would inform people about flood risk and about potential solutions to their problems. In conclusion it seems as though the temptation of innovation and romanticised schemes associated with water have clouded the role that architects can take in regard to flood risk, with the result that we have a raft of impractical solutions, often involving elevated or raft based structures, when simple measures will often suffice; if these measures could be integrated into common building practice it could easily reduce flood risk and damages over the coming years. This is not to say that we shouldnt look for ways innovatively interact with the water through architecture but rather that these investigations and proposals should take place in a outside the forum of flood recovery and resistance efforts so as not to cloud peoples views. This should allow landscape, urban and practical construction solutions to come to the fore.

Adam Smith, January 2013

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Appendix A Wall Construction type Resistance Cavity Walls Water can pass through cracks and gaps e.g. weep holes Water can permeate through porous materials e.g. certain bricks Water can build up in cavity, soak insulation and soak into inner leaf Cavity allows water to move laterally along the wall spreading the damage and making the water difficult to remove. (CIRIA advice sheet 4) Brick walls perform best when the cavity is ventilated properly so complete sealing is often inadvisable but it also makes flooding a greater risk, the CIRIA recommend that this is determined on a case by case basis. (CIRIA , 2003, p.1) Solid walls Water can pass through cracks and gaps Water can permeate through porous materials e.g. certain bricks or blockwork Will dry out eventually from the internal and external exposed faces but this may be a slow process depending on wall thickness and this is dependent on the internal finish. If there is a rubber infill in the centre this can delay drying time (CIRIA , 2003, p.2) Timber Framed Walls Water can pass through cracks and gaps Water can permeate through porous materials Water can build up in cavity and soak into the internal timber frame compromising the structure. Removal of boards due to flood damage can help lower drying times for the framework. (CIRIA , 2003, p.2) Measures for Improving Wall Flood Resistance Apply breathable sealant Raise DPC Tanking involves applying a waterproof layer to floors or walls, most effective when applied to external side of wall or underside of floors although this is obviously not always appropriate. Internal tanking operates in the same way as external tanking but if water does manage to pass through the barrier it will take longer for the wall to dry out. These tankings can be easily perforated by nails or screws e.g. for attaching skirting boards. (CIRIA , 2003, p.5)

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Appendix B Internal finishing resistance Gypsum plasterboard is cheap but has little resistance to flooding although it does provide the possible benefit of being relatively easy to remove if it is necessary to try and dry the walls internal structure. Alternate options with greater water resistance include water resistant plaster, lime plaster finish, hydrated lime coatings or ceramic tiles. (CIRIA , 2003, p.7) Ceramic tiles should be level cement or sand layer using water resistant grout. Dont use over layers of gypsum plaster. Plastic and glued on skirtings are less likely to require replacement and will be easier to remove should the wall require ventilation, otherwise treated wood skirting that is covered on all sides Insulation Resistance Lightweight and blown insulation materials are likely to be damaged by flooding and can be particularly difficult to remove. Suggested products are water resistant, low absorption products like polystyrene sheets or self-draining mineral wool slabs. Cavity walls can be filled with closed cell foam which shouldnt be damaged by flooding and can help reduce the penetration of water into the wall. (CIRIA , 2003, p. 8)

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Appendix C Window and Door Fittings Resistance Requirements Wherever floodwater must come into contact with glass a robust floor board should be used to protect the glass from the water pressure (deflection could lead to the glass shattering) Wooden frames should be treated with oil based or water proof treatments to prevent warping which could create gaps in the building envelope Various sealants can be used in different situations to fill gaps between 1-50mm wide. For smaller gaps a liquid penetrating sealant may be more appropriate. Floor Type Resistance Suspended timber floors These floors will typically have a vent to the outside to prevent damp from building up underneath the floor. The flood risk here can be reduced by using a periscope ventilator typically used post 1960 The cavities in these floors can be difficult to dry and clear after flooding. Solid concrete slab DPM below slab typically in post 1950s properties Generally stop water rising through the floor and suffer less damage than suspended timber floors. In all solid floors a good connection between DPC and DPM is necessary Suspended concrete floors These are simple beam and block floors that use precast concrete beams set on sleeper walls, the DPC will be placed level with the base of the beams. Like the suspended timber floor the cavity will require cleaning and drying after a severe flooding event. For suspended floors a low point or well can be created in the cavity subfloor, this is particularly effective if a pump is linked to this well to extract the water. Alternatively the void can be filled to water build up. Temporary coverings should be attached with Velcro or hook and eye fixings to allow for easy removal. Floor boards should also be relatively simple to remove.

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Hoeksema, R. (2006). Designed for Dry Feet : Flood Protection and Land Reclamation in the Netherlands. Retrieved January 05, 2013, http://site.ebrary.com/ lib/portsmouth/Doc?id=10435358&ppg=14 Han, D., Davis, J., Hu, Z., Lan, G., Maren, E. Twyman, C. (2002). Design Studies on Flood-Proof House. Retrieved December 18, 2012, from the University of Bristol: http://www.bris.ac.uk/civilengineering/research/water/projects/flood-proof-house. pdf Hinton, C., Ian, H., Townend, Nicholls, R.J. (2007). Coastal Process. In C.R. Thorne, E.P. Evans, E.C. Penning-Rowsell (Eds.), Future Flooding and Coastal Erosion Risks (pp. 132-147). London: Thomas Telford Publishing. Harrison, H.W., Saunders, G.K., & Trotman, P.M. (2009). Roofs and roofing: performance, diagnosis, maintenance, repair and the avoidance of defects (3rd ed.). Garston: IHS BRE Press 2009. Hawbaker, L. (2011). Living on Water. Retrieved November 30, 2012, from http:// tyglobalist.org/front-page/theme/living-on-water/ HM Government. (2010). Planning Policy Statement 25: Development and Flood Risk. Retrieved December 01, 2012, from the Government UK: https:// www.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/7772/ pps25guideupdate.pdf HM Government. (2012). National Planning Policy Framework. . Retrieved December 21, 2012, from the Government UK: https://www.gov.uk/government/ uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/6077/2116950.pdf HM Government. (2012). Policy Context. Retrieved January 15, 2013, http://www.local.gov.uk/web/guest/local-flood-risk-management/-/journal_ content/56/10171/3572110/ARTICLE-TEMPLATE#building Institution of Civil Engineers, & RIBA. (2009). Facing Up to Rising Sea Levels. Retrieved November 29, 2012, from Building Futures: http://www.buildingfutures. org.uk/assets/downloads/Facing_Up_To_Rising_Sea_Levels.pdf Jha, A. (2010, January 29). Cost of UK flood protection doubles to 1bn a year. The Guardian, Retrieved November 28, 2012, from http://www.guardian.co.uk/ environment/2010/jan/29/cost-of-uk-flood-protection. Karlin, A., & Dunford, L. (2009). New Orleans: City Guide. London: Lonely Planet. Lamond, L.E., Proverbs, D.G., Booth, C.A., Hammond, F.N., (2011). Flooding in the Built Environment: Changing Risk and an Overview of Impacts. In Lamond, L.E., Proverbs, D.G., Booth, C.A., Hammond, F.N. (Eds.), Flood Hazards: Impacts and Responses for the Built Environment (pp. 1-9). New York: CRC Press.

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Tourbier, J.T., White, I. (2007). Sustainable Measures for Flood Attenuation: Sustainable Drainage and Conveyance Systems SUDACs. In R.M. Ashley (Ed.), Advances in Urban Flood Management (pp. 13-29). Andover: Thomson Publishing Services. Watkinson, A.R., Nicholls, R.J., Sear, D.A.,& Ledoux, L. (2007). Environmental Impacts of Future Flood Risk. In C.R. Thorne, E.P. Evans, E.C. Penning-Rowsell (Eds.), Future Flooding and Coastal Erosion Risks (pp. 29-44). London: Thomas Telford Publishing. Watson, D., Adams, M. (2011). Design for Flooding: Architecture, Landscape, and Urban Design for Resilience to Climate Change. Hoboken, New Jersey: John Wiley & Sons Inc.

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Glossary Alphabetically arranged list of specialist terms, abbreviations and acronyms used in this essay. CIRIA - EA - FCERM - IPPC - MAFF - PICSS - PPG - PPS - SLR - SUDS - Construction Industry Research and Information Association Environment Agency Flood and Coastal Erosion Risk Management Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change The Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries and Food The Portsea Island Costal Strategy Study Planning Policy Guidelines Planning Policy Statement Sea Level Rise Sustainable Urban Drainage Systems

Aquifers - Underground layer of water bearing permeable rock or unconsolidated material e.g. gravel Swale - Swales are grass lined channels which transport rainwater from a site as well as controlling flow and quality of surface runoff. Some of the flow infiltrates into the groun. There may be an overflow at the end into another form of infiltration device or a watercourse. They are particularly suitable for treatment of runoff from small residential development, parking areas and roads. (BR Document H pg48)

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