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MEASLES

(RUBEOLA)

GERMAN MEASLES
(RUBELLA)

INTRODUCTION
DEFINITION: A highly contagious respiratory infection that's caused by a virus. It causes a totalbody skin rash and flu-like symptoms, including a fever, cough, and runny nose.

ETIOLOGY
MEASLES Causative Agent: Measle Virus (Paramyxoviruses) GERMAN MEASLES Causative Agent: Rubella Virus (Togaviruses)

MEASLES

GERMAN MEASLES
AIRBORNE DROPLETS

MODE OF TRANSMISSION

DIRECT CONTACT WITH NASAL AND THROAT SECRETIONS OF INFECTED PERSON ARTICLES FRESHLY SOILED WITH NOSE AND THROAT SECRETIONS INCUBATION PERIOD 10-12 DAYS 14-21 DAYS

SIGNS AND SYMPTOMS


MEASLES
HIGH FEVER COUGH CORYZA CONJUNCTIVITIS

GERMAN MEASLES
PRE-ERUPTIVE STAGE FEVER HEADACHE COLD COUGH SORE THROAT CONJUNCTIVITIS

SIGNS AND SYMPTOMS


MEASLES
RASHES ELEVATED PAPULES

GERMAN MEASLES
ERUPTIVE STAGE RASHES MACULOPAPULAR

BEGIN ON THE FACE, AND BEHIND THE EARS


SPREAD TO TRUNK AND EXTRIMITIES STAIN RED TO DARK BROWN BEFORE DISAPPEARING

STARTS BEHIND THE EARS THEN SPREAD TO FACE AND NECK


SPREADS TO REST OF THE BODY RASHES LAST 3-5 DAYS BEFORE FADING GLANDS ARE SWELLING

SIGNS AND SYMPTOMS


KOPLIKS SPOT
a prodromic viral enanthem of measles manifesting on the first day of rash. They are characterized as clustered, white lesions on the buccal mucosa near each Stenson's duct and are pathognomonic for measles. Koplik spots is ulcerated mucosal lesions marked by necrosis, neutrophilic exudate, and neovascularization. They are described as appearing like "grains of salt on a wet background"

SIGNS AND SYMPTOMS


FORCHEIMERS SPOT
a fleeting enanthem seen as small, red spots (petechiae) on the soft palate in 20% of patients with rubella. They precede or accompany the skin rash of rubella. They are not diagnostic of rubella, as similar spots can be seen in measles and scarlet fever

PATHOPHYSIOLOGY
MEASLES VIRUS TRANSMITTED VIA DROPLETS INFECTS EPITHELIAL CELLS OF THE NOSE AND CONJUNCTIVAE VIRUS MULTIPLIES

VIRAEMIA AND PRESENCE OF VIRUS IN TISSUE AND ORGANS CEASES

EXTENDS TO REGIONAL LYMPH NODES PRIMARY VIRAEMIA CONTINUES TO REPLICATE ON EPITHELIAL AND RETICULOENDOTHELIA L TISSUE OVER THE NEXT FEW DAYS PRODROMAL PHASE KOPLIKS SPOT MAY DEVELOP ON BUCCAL MUCOSA SECONDARY VIRAEMIA

VIRAEMIA GRADUALLY DECREASES

VIRUS CAN BE FOUND IN BLOOD, SKIN, RESPIRATORY TRACT AND OTHER ORGANS RASHES DEVELOP

INFECTION BECOMES ESTABLISHED ON THE SKIN AND OTHER TISSUES INCLUDING THE RESPIRATORY TRACT

MEASLES

GERMAN MEASLES

NURSING MANAGEMENT INCREASE INTAKE OF FLUID ENCOURAGE EXTRA REST GOOD HYGEINE TREATMENT AND PREVENTION VITAMIN A HELPS REDUCES EYE DAMAGE ANTIBIOTICS FOR COMPLICATIONS SUCH AS PNUEMONIA ANTIPYRETICS FOR FEVER ASPIRIN HELPS REDUCE INFLAMMATION AND FEVER

IMMUNIZATION WITH THE MMR VACCINE