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Abracadabra (2005)

Frank Ticheli

Abracadabra (2005)
Frank Ticheli

Table of Contents

Basic Information...3 Program Notes...4 Historical Information ...4 Formal Analysis..8 Errata.9 Performance Notes9 Glossary of Terms10 Major Skills or Concepts...11 Objectives for Students11 Strategies for Students and the Teacher12 Terms Handout13 Terns Worksheet..14 Terms Quiz..15 Rhythm Worksheet...16 Rhythm/Articulation Quiz...17 Scale Worksheet/Quiz..18 Playing Test Guidelines19 Practice Guide..19 Evaluation21 Resources.22

Basic Information
Abracadabra
Frank Ticheli Publisher: Manhattan Beach Music Grade: 3 publisher, 2 Teaching Music Through Performance in Band Style: Key: Meter: Tempo: A playful and mysterious style is appropriate throughout most of the piece, but bright and jovial are called for at certain times The general tonal center is G minor, but the relative major, B-flat major, is also used frequently. C major, F major, D-flat major, D minor, and G major are also visited briefly throughout the piece. The piece occurs only in 4/4 time. A variety of tempos occur in the piece beginning with q=138. A ritardando to q=84 happens approximately in the middle of the piece ending with a fermata and a subito Tempo I following. Toward the end, there is an accelerando to q=168, which concludes with a subito q=112 for two bars with a fermata, and finally the piece ends back at Tempo I for two bars.

Performance time: c. 4:30 Instrumentation: Piccolo Flute I-II Oboe I-II Bassoon I-II B-flat Soprano Clarinet I-II-III B-flat Bass Clarinet E-flat Contrabass Clarinet E-flat Alto Saxophone I-II B-flat Tenor Saxophone E-flat Baritone Saxophone B-flat Trumpet I-II-III Horn in F I-IITrombone I-II Euphonium Score type: full, transposed Tuba Timpani Xylophone Percussion I-II Triangle Vibraslap Small Tom Temple Blocks Snare Drum Suspended Cymbal Bass Drum Slapstick

Range concerns (concert pitch): F7 for piccolo, C6 for oboe 1, D6 for clarinet 1, B-flat5 for clarinet 2, G1 for E-flat contrabass clarinet, G5 for trumpet 1, D5 for trumpet 2, Bflat4 for horns 1/2, F4 for euphonium, G1 for tuba Additional requirements: Horn I needs straight mutes, grace note rips in upper woodwinds, saxes, horns, and euphoniums, dynamics pp to ff 3

Program Note
Abracadabra, composed and orchestrated in 2004, is a playful piece written for grade 3 ensemble by Frank Ticheli. In his program note, he writes that his son, Joshua, who sometimes is mischievous, was an inspiration for the piece as were Halloween costumes and jack-o-lanterns. As indicated by the title, this piece has a very mysterious nature, but it is very light-hearted. With only a few simple melodic materials presented in the four and a half minute piece, it has a heavy emphasis on stylization for interest. One can hear various disappearing acts, rabbits being pulled out of hats, and maybe a person or two being sawed in half. Dr. Frank Ticheli, a graduate of the University of Michigan, is a world-renowned composer, most notably for his wind band works of various grade levels. Now a colleague of H. Robert Reynolds who was a mentor to him as a student, he is Professor of Composition at the University of Southern California Thornton School of Music. He served as composer in residence with the Pacific Symphony from 1991 to 1998, a time in which a large number of his orchestral works were composed. Additionally, he has received numerous awards for his compositions for wind ensemble, orchestra, and choir and still remains a highly performed composer throughout the world.

Historical Information
Abracadabra was composed in the summer of 2004, and was orchestrated the following November during a residency at the MacDowell Colony. The piece is dedicated to my son, and is at once playful and serious, innocent and mischievous. A sense of mystery pervades as the dark key of G minor is balanced by sudden shifts to bright and sunny major keys. Throughout the composition I was thinking about magic, not in an evil or frightening sense, but as a source of fun and fantasy. My wonderfully playful, sometimes mischievous young son was always in the back of mind, as were images of Halloween with its costumes and jack-o'-lanterns. As the piece nears its conclusion, the music rushes toward what seems to be an explosive finish. But the woodwinds interrupt, fanning out to a questioning whole-tone cluster. They are answered by a puff of sound, a final disappearing act.

In strictly musical terms, the piece is as clear an example of musical economy as anything I've composed. Almost everything is derived from the opening bars of the main theme. Indeed, virtually every note can be traced to the main melody or its accompaniment. Because of this heightened sense of unity, I had to choose other ways to achieve musical variety. The most important solution was through the sudden and frequent shifts of mood, mode, and tonality. Frank Ticheli Genoa, Italy This work has a very child-like feel making it very appealing to young students. It is full of imagery, which is clear from Tichelis inspirations for the piece. It isnt necessarily programmatic, but one could easily assign a story to this piece and everything it entails making it extremely accessible to performers and audiences alike. It is truly a gem that would keep students involved and wanting to play their instruments. Abracadabra was commissioned by the Driscoll Middle School Band from San Antonio, Texas directed by Richard Gonzalez with funding from DC Music Festivals. It is written to his son Joshua. Frank Ticheli grew up primarily in Louisiana in several cities to a rather humble family life. He is one of four siblings, but the only professional musician in his immediate family. As a young child, he did quite a bit of moving around between Monroe and LaPlace, LA and Hot Springs, AK. It was in LaPlace, LA that Ticheli began beginning band as a trumpeter. When I was nine years old, he took me to a pawnshop in the French Quarter to buy my first instrument. In the shop window were an old silver clarinet and a badly dented copper-belled trumpet. I was attracted to the shinier clarinet, but it was $80, and the trumpet was only $45. He said, Son, youre going to play the trumpet. Because of a rocky instrumental program in LaPlace, Ticheli ended up dropping out of band for a short period of time, but when his family moved for a job opportunity for his father, he rejoined band in Richardson, TX. In the Richardson public schools, Ticheli was challenged musically, and the high school band director offered Ticheli many opportunities such as arranging

music for the marching, concert, and jazz bands. He attributes his inspiration for composing educational music for young musicians to said high school director, Robert Floyd (ibid citation). Ticheli pursued music composition and education at Southern Methodist University, but really focused much of his energy into composition later in his studies as his passion grew. Even at SMU, he was allowed to arrange charts for its marching band, no small accomplishment. Several composers were brought in as guest composers including Joseph Schwantner and Leslie Bassett, teachers at the Eastman School of Music and the University of Michigan respectively. Both of them encouraged his pursuance of composition formally. Following graduation, Ticheli worked for a semesters time as an assistant band director at a high school, a job that he really didnt want, prior to his graduate studies in composition. While he struggled in the job, it was very valuable in that he learned what students actually can do as players, something that attributed later to his wind band compositions for young players. After applying to several programs, he decided to pursue studies at the University of Michigan with Leslie Bassett. Tichelis masters thesis consisted of a ten-minute orchestral work entitled Images of a Storm which at the time was entered in a contest where he didnt win, but eventually he submitted it to other such contests for which he won. The first was the Texas Sesquicentennial Competition in 1986 for which he won first place and $8,600. He also received the Charles Ives Scholarship from the American Academy of Arts and Letters and $5,000 for his skills as a composer. Both of these awards truly jumpstarted his career during his doctoral studies, which also occurred at the University of Michigan under William Albright and George B. Wilson. His first work for band, a commission by the trombone professor at U of M at the time, was Concertino for Trombone and Band, which won him yet another award from a contest sponsored by the Virginia chapter of the College Band Directors National Association. At this point, H. Robert Reynolds, under whom Ticheli had played trumpet for some time, contacted Bob Margolis with 6

Manhattan Beach Music and managed to get Tichelis Concertino published and began a long-running representation of Tichelis music. Prior to his appointment as an Assistant Professor of Composition at the University of Southern California Thornton School of Music, Ticheli struggled to find a job. Even for a short time, he was working as a phone surveyor for Dominos Pizza just to sort of make ends meet. He wrote incidental music for a small price which ended up as melodic material in his first few young band pieces (Portrait of a Clown and Fortress). Luckily after a lot of hard times, he finally found a job at Trinity University in San Antonio, Texas for three years before he was persuaded to join the faculty at USC. Initially, Ticheli was concerned with cost of living in Los Angeles, where USC was established, but a counter offer giving him the position of composer in residence with the Pacific Symphony was enough to persuade him to move to California and accept both positions. The last decade of American history has been very eventful throughout the world, but little or none of it had much bearing on Tichelis composition Abracadabra. Unlike American Elegy, which was composed in honor of the Columbine High School shooting, this piece has no real dedication other than to his son Joshua which is of little historical significance. However, surrounding 2004 when the piece was written, several events occurred in American and world history. In the year 2004, Spain underwent an attack from Al-Qaeda killing more than 200, seven countries joined NATO, gay marriage was legalized at the state level for the first time in US history, 1,200 schoolchildren and others were taken hostage in Russia and approximately 340 were killed in militant explosions, Afghanistan held first popular election for presidency, and potentially the largest tsunami in hundreds of years devastates Asia and kills approximately 225,000.

Formal Analysis
Exposition
Introduction and Theme mm. 1-13 Episode mm. 14-16 Modulating link mm. 17-20 Theme 2 (+ Episode 1) mm. 21-40 G minor; six-measure introduction; m. 7, Theme 1 in clarinet 1 forming horned fifths with clarinet 2; m. 10 lower saxophones, horns, and euphonium interjection E-flat major; abrupt tonal shift from G minor to E-flat major; lyrical material in contrary motion derived from the main theme Moving three-note motive derived from the main theme B-flat major (short C major segment); melodic imitation in trumpets and upper woodwinds, rhythmic accompaniment in bassoons, horns, trombones, and snare drum; m. 25 subito piano builds quickly but is interrupted in m. 39 by clarinets and muted horn 1 melting back into Theme 1

Development
Theme 1 mm. 41-48 G minor; exact repeat of the main theme with the melody now in the alto saxophones mm. 49-57 call-and-response rhythmic games; rising three-note patterns mm. 57-65 F major, D-flat major, E-flat major; Material from the episode and main theme are combined, developed, and put through a series of modulations (citation 11 from Teaching Music??) Moving; trumpets lead B-flat major (short C major segment); exact repeat except first and second ending material from earlier is switched; ritardando into transition

Minor third motive mm. 49-65 Episode (Theme 1) mm. 66-74 Modulating link mm. 75-78 Theme 2 mm. 79-97

Transition into Recapitulation mm. 98-105 D minor, B-flat major, G major, E-flat major; q=84; main theme material is passed between flutes and oboes, trumpets 1/2, clarinets 1/2, and alto saxophones 1/2, ritardando into fermata

Recapitulation
Theme 1 mm. 106-113 G minor; Tempo I; new material presented in flute 1, a descending and ascending chromatic scale spanning a tritone Episode and modulating link from exposition are replaced with a short statement of the minor third motive 8

Minor third motive mm. 114-117

Theme 2 mm. 118-135 Coda mm. 136-156

In G minor Poco a poco accelerando to m. 150 at q=168; dynamics also build from piano to fortissimo; mm. 153-154 subito tempo change, q=112, upper woodwinds fan out to a questioning whole tone cluster (ibid); mm. 155-156 subito tempo change to Tempo I; woodwinds resolve the piece in G minor at pianissimo

Errata
None found on http://www.manhattanbeachmusiconline.com/frank_ticheli/index.html.

Performance Notes
Three concepts in this piece that will need the most work with students are style, rhythm, and harmony. From Tichelis program note, style seems to be a big factor in the piece. He writes, The piece is dedicated to my son, and is at once playful and serious, innocent and mischievous Throughout the composition I was thinking about magic, not in an evil or frightening sense, but as a source of fun and fantasy. Those statements imply that style is a huge consideration. From an articulation standpoint, players see staccato, slur, accent, tenuto, marcato accent with staccato, tenuto under a slur/tie, and tenuto-staccato. For an eighth grade band, this will be overwhelming and many articulations will not be distinguishable if not carefully worked on. Rhythm is a key element to the development of this piece, and thus is also cause for concern. There isnt a lot of rhythmic consistency to help out young players in this piece, and there is a tone of independence in the parts. Realistically, he does a lot of cutting and pasting, but will switch around which instruments carry which rhythmic idea for timbre purposes. As mentioned before, young players will struggle if the parts are not somewhat predictable in this way. If incorporated into

warm-ups and practice guides, the rhythm is certainly attainable, but if ignored, it will cause many problems amongst students. The third big concern in Abracadabra is harmony. From a chordal analysis standpoint, you would note that the piece centers around G minor for a majority of the time. However, Ticheli uses harmony to create interest, so he will modulate away from G minor all over the place and for only a few measures. Accidentals are carefully notated and will help students out, but this could raise some problems of intonation when keys like C major appear. Other things to note when performing this piece are that Ticheli has written in many cues to aid bands with smaller instrumentation. Especially in the case of oboe and bassoon, important lines are cued elsewhere in the ensemble. There are only four percussion parts (xylophone, timpani, and two mixed percussion parts), which are all very accessible for middle school percussionists. Ticheli does not write the percussion parts to be the central tempo keepers like in many compositions. Rather, they are carefully written for color and style.

Glossary of Terms
a2: all players on that part play the same notes Accelerando: tempo speeds up Accent: emphasis placed on a note Bell tone: note begins loudly, but gets suddenly quieter Fermata: extends the length of the note, most likely cut off by conductor Grace notes: musical ornaments played just before the larger-print note that follows them Legato: played smoothly with no separation between notes Marcato: marked, stressed, emphasized Mute: a cone-shaped device that adjusts the tone of an instrument
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Poco a poco: little by little Ritardando: tempo slows down Slur: only articulating the first note under a curved line of notes Soli: important musical phrase played by multiple people Staccato: detached Subito: suddenly Tempo I: same as the first tempo in the piece Tenuto: held, sustained to full value Tutti: all players on that part play

Major Skills or Concepts


As mentioned in the performance notes, students must be able to achieve the stylistic, rhythmic, and harmonic demands of Abracadabra. The articulation mostly dictates the style of the piece, though the dynamic range also contributes (pianissimo to fortissimo). The essentially hocket-style rhythms throughout the piece create forward motion, but if unclean will hold back the momentum. Assignments and warm-ups would be necessary for an eighth grade band to fully understand these independent rhythms. The rapid-fire key modulations also are disconcerting from an accidentals and intonation standpoint. Furthermore, for students to be thinking about harmony, they need to be exploring the various tonal centers represented in the piece.

Objectives for Students


Students will play accurately all articulation markings and will play in all tonal centers represented in the piece with age-appropriate intonation on top of note and rhythm accuracy.

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Strategies for Students and the Teacher


To achieve reasonable success with the objectives, students need to be assessed and evaluated on material that either applies directly or indirectly, in which case application will need to be explained. The creation of worksheets will assess knowledge of terms imperative to the piece (see Glossary pgs. 10-11), counting of rhythms, and understanding of various scales found in the piece (chosen from C major, D-flat major, D minor, E-flat major, F major, G major, G minor, B-flat major). Written quizzes covering this material would be in a similar format. Playing/oral tests would be used to evaluate independence with difficult rhythms and articulation building on instrument fundamentals (posture/instrument carriage, embouchure, breathing, tone/intonation). Additionally, articulation, rhythms, and scales would be incorporated into warm-up routine each day according to what needs to be worked on most. As a teacher, any worksheets and quizzes presented in a unit plan must be thoughtfully dispersed into the timeline. It should clearly coincide with what students are being asked to know and be able to perform. In any sort of evaluation of knowledge or ability, the teacher must also provide clear feedback instead of just a numeric or letter grade.

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Terms Handout
Name _______________________ Class __________________ Date _______________

a2: all players on that part play the same notes Accelerando: tempo speeds up Accent: emphasis placed on a note Bell tone: note begins loudly, but gets suddenly quieter Fermata: extends the length of the note, most likely cut off by conductor Grace notes: musical ornaments played just before the larger-print note that follows them Legato: played smoothly with no separation between notes Marcato: marked, stressed, emphasized Mute: a cone-shaped device that adjusts the tone of an instrument Poco a poco: little by little Ritardando: tempo slows down Slur: only articulating the first note under a curved line of notes Soli: important musical phrase played by multiple people Staccato: detached Subito: suddenly Tempo I: same as the first tempo in the piece Tenuto: held, sustained to full value
Tutti: all players on that part play

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Terms Worksheet

_______/18 pts.

Name _______________________ Class __________________ Date _______________

Matching (each worth 1 pt.): a.) a2 g.) legato m.) soli _______ _______ _______ _______ _______ _______ _______ _______ _______ _______ _______ _______ _______ _______ _______ _______ _______ _______ b.) accelerando c.) accent h.) marcato i.) mute n.) staccato o.) subito 1.) 2.) 3.) 4.) 5.) 6.) 7.) 8.) 9.) 10.) 11.) 12.) 13.) 14.) 15.) 16.) 17.) 18.) d.) bell tone e.) fermata f.) grace notes j.) poco a poco k.) ritardando l.) slur p.) tempo I q.) tenuto s.) tutti

Note begins loudly, but gets suddenly quieter Musical ornaments played just before the larger-print note that follows them A cone-shaped device that adjusts the tone of an instrument Marked, stressed, emphasized Important musical phrase played by multiple people Tempo slows down Tempo speeds up Same as the first tempo in the piece All players on that part play All players on that part play the same notes Suddenly Little by little Extends the length of the note, most likely cut off by conductor Played smoothly with no separation between notes Held, sustained to full value Emphasis placed on a note Only articulating the first note under a curved line of notes Detached

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Terms Quiz

_______/24 pts.

Name _______________________ Class __________________ Date _______________

Matching (each worth 2 pts.): a.) staccato g.) legato _______ _______ _______ _______ _______ _______ _______ _______ _______ _______ _______ _______ b.) accelerando c.) tenuto h.) slur i.) mute 1.) 2.) 3.) 4.) 5.) 6.) 7.) 8.) 9.) 10.) 11.) 12.) d.) poco a poco e.) fermata f.) grace notes j.) bell tone k.) ritardando l.) tutti

A cone-shaped device that adjusts the tone of an instrument Held, sustained to full value Extends the length of the note, most likely cut off by conductor Note begins loudly, but gets suddenly quieter All players on that part play Tempo speeds up Only articulating the first note under a curved line of notes Tempo slows down Played smoothly with no separation between notes Detached Little by little Musical ornaments played just before the larger-print note that follows them

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Rhythm Worksheet

_______/18 pts.

Name _______________________ Class __________________ Date _______________

Write in the counts above the rhythms in 4/4 time (e.g. 1 & 2 [& 3 &] 4 [&]). Please write legibly. (3 pts. each) 1.) 2.)

3.)

4.)

5.)

6.)

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Rhythm/Articulation Quiz

_______/20 pts.

Name _______________________ Class __________________ Date _______________

Students will pick 10 rhythms from the Rhythm Worksheet out of a hat and will sing each one with an articulation chosen by the teacher. One point for each correct rhythm and one point for each correct articulation. 1.) 2.) 3.) 4.) 5.) 6.) 7.) 8.) 9.) 10.) ________ pts. Notes:______________________________________________________ ________ pts. Notes:______________________________________________________ ________ pts. Notes:______________________________________________________ ________ pts. Notes:______________________________________________________ ________ pts. Notes:______________________________________________________ ________ pts. Notes:______________________________________________________ ________ pts. Notes:______________________________________________________ ________ pts. Notes:______________________________________________________ ________ pts. Notes:______________________________________________________ ________ pts. Notes:______________________________________________________

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Scale Worksheet/Quiz

_______/16 pts.

Name _______________________ Class __________________ Date _______________

Fill in the staff with the specified scale starting on tonic of your instruments written pitch. The scale given is in concert pitch (e.g. trumpets would write a B-flat scale with accidentals if A-flat major is indicated). Any octave or clef is suitable. Please write notes legibly. (2 pts. each) G minor C major E-flat major

B-flat major

G major

D minor

D-flat major

F major

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Playing Test Guidelines


All students must be prepared to play excerpts from the literature in class. Students will be asked to play alone and will be given a letter grade based on their performance. Students must remember to practice these parts ahead of time. They should be familiar enough with the parts by now from band rehearsal and reference recordings. Those students receiving below a C will be required to keep a practice log of at least five hours per week to be signed by their parent/guardian until the end of District Band Festival.

Piccolo/Flute/Oboe/Clarinet/Alto Sax/Tenor Sax mm. 53-61 (with pickup) Bass Clarinet/Bassoon/Bari Sax mm. 41-48 Trumpet 1/Horn/Trombone/Euph/Tuba mm. 49-56 Trumpet 2 and 3 mm. 53-56 and mm. 114-117 Percussion mm. 49-61

Practice Guide
Playing Tests
Each student is required to perform a playing test, so it is prudent for each of you to work through the sections assigned to your instrument group. Refer to the Playing Test Guidelines for your assignments. When preparing for your test, remember to start slowly. I would rather hear accurate playing under tempo than sloppiness up to tempo. If you are struggling with rhythm, dont be afraid to write in the counts or beats or sing the rhythm to yourself. If its a difficult passage for fingers or 19

tongues, slow practice with a metronome is the only way to start. I guarantee that a metronome will be your best friend if you use it diligently or worst enemy if I turn it on for your playing test and you havent practiced with one. If you have any questions, talk to me or one of your peers. I want everyone to be successful, and I am willing to take extra time to meet with anyone who asks for help.

Rhythm

For each rhythmic example in the Spring 2011 Rhythm Handout, write in the counts, practice clapping, singing, and then playing (a single note in a comfortable range). Be prepared to apply the rhythmic example in scale warm-ups in class. Articulations will also be applied staccato, legato, marcato, accent. There will be a singing only quiz for which you will pull 10 rhythms out of a hat and I will ask you to sing them with one of those four articulations we are working on chosen at random.

Scales

The scales on the Spring 2011 Scale Handout will be used in warm-ups throughout the District Festival period. You are responsible to know these, preferably from memory for rehearsal efficiency. We will use them in a chorale format applying articulation as necessary staccato, legato, marcato, accent. The rhythms in the Spring 2011 Rhythm Handout may also be applied. If there are multiple octaves, practice the scale in the most comfortable range for you.

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Evaluation
Included in the assignments are written and performance quizzes which test recall of vocabulary terms, ability to sing rhythms and articulations, perform small segments of Abracadabra alone in front of the band, and organize eight major and minor scales in written pitch. These sorts of evaluation offer a teacher the chance to know if students are preparing music, understand music concepts, and can apply them in and outside of the music. The practice guide also serves as a sort of indirect evaluation. Rather than just mindlessly sending home arbitrary practice assignments, teachers can apply what is asked in those guides in the classroom. In this case, not only is the playing test an obvious evaluation, but the application of short rhythmic motives to scale warm ups with varying articulation challenges students to think beyond just seeing whats on the page in front of them. The grading criteria for the written quizzes are very self-explanatory. There are point totals on each of the sheets so that students have a concrete idea of what they need to do to get an A on the quiz. Playing tests are slightly more ambiguous, but grading could be treated as A work is most if not all correct notes, good tone and intonation, and proper dynamics and articulation. B work is a majority of the right notes, decent tone and intonation, and good dynamics and articulation. C work is half of the notes correct, average tone and intonation, and fair dynamics and articulation. D work is less than half of the notes correct, fair tone and intonation, and poor dynamics and articulation. E work is few notes correct, poor tone and intonation, and no dynamics and articulation.

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Resources
Recordings Referenced
Corporon, Eugene. "Teaching Music Through Performance in Band." Volume 6, Grades 2-3. GIA Publications, Inc. CD-683. compact disc

Bibliography
Blocher, Larry, Eugene Corporon, Ray Cramer, Tim Lautzenheiser, Edward S. Lisk, Richard Miles. Abracadabra, in Teaching Music Through Performance in Band, Volume 8, (Chicago: GIA Publications, 2009), 158-165. Moorhouse, Linda R. A Composer's Insight, Volume 3, (Galesville: Meredith Music Publications, 2003) 199-269. Pearson Education, Inc., "2004 World History." Last modified 2007. Accessed December 2, 2011. http://www.infoplease.com/ipa/A0930462.html. Randel, Don Michael, ed. The Harvard Dictionary of Music, fourth edition, (Cambridge and London: The Belknap Press of Harvard University Press, 2003). Ticheli, Frank. Abracadabra (Brooklyn: Manhattan Beach Music, 2005). Ticheli, Frank. Manhattan Beach Music, "The Music of Frank Ticheli: Bio." Accessed December 3, 2011. http://www.manhattanbeachmusiconline.com/frank_ticheli/ html/bio-text.html.

Related Items

By the composer: Portrait of a Clown (grade 2), Sun Dance (grade 3), Cajun Folk Songs (grade 3), Nitro (grade 4) Similar works: Snake Charmer (grade 2) Randall D. Standridge, Alligator Alley (grade 3) Michael Daugherty, In the Forest of the King (grade 3) Pierre LaPlante

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