P. 1
Effective English Teaching in Colleges

Effective English Teaching in Colleges


|Views: 1.136|Likes:
Publicado porJoy Kirt
EFFECTIVE ENGLISH TEACHING IN COLLEGES- Need of the Hour with reference to colleges in India
EFFECTIVE ENGLISH TEACHING IN COLLEGES- Need of the Hour with reference to colleges in India

More info:

Categories:Types, Research
Published by: Joy Kirt on May 07, 2009
Direitos Autorais:Attribution Non-commercial


Read on Scribd mobile: iPhone, iPad and Android.
download as DOC, PDF, TXT or read online from Scribd
See more
See less





1 EFFECTIVE ENGLISH TEACHING IN COLLEGES- Need of the Hour Joy Kirt Sidhu Himalaya College of Education, Ranwar, Karnal

Abstract Teaching of a language is an art, a skill and a science. Teaching and learning by its very nature is an interactive process which involves active participation of the college student in the actual process as opposed to the conventional passive lecture method. There are certain common problems in both teaching and learning of English language which act as a barrier in colleges. The students come from diverse backgrounds and the college teaching has to be similarly modulated and adjusted to be able to cater to the needs of the college level learner. Different boards of senior secondary school education have a well structured syllabus for English language teaching but actual teaching practices being followed vary vastly at school levels depending on region to region and family to family same as in colleges. The main difference being that at the school level standardization is the main purpose of the board examination whereas at the college level there is a fundamental paradigm shift in the expectations from both the teacher and the taught. Career and communication skills are directly interlinked and the onus falls inevitably on the shoulders of the English language teachers particularly in the present global scenario when the brand name of the college is a hallmark of competence. The students have to be prepared from many points of view. Interviews and group discussions are an integral part of the selection process for all competitive examinations for which the syllabus at the college level does not cater to. Quality conscious institutions pay close attention to youth development through well integrated activities drawn from many sources since the syllabus has its typical limitations handed over by the British as a legacy to cater to the human resource crunch in the lower level bureaucratic ladder. Effective teaching of English language depends on a fair command on all the four fundamental factors of language learning like listening, speaking, reading and writing. It also depends on the fundamental principles of communication which is the basis of the teaching-learning process. Effective English teaching also depends on sound classroom management skills, knowledge of the subject area, the ability to explain well, an enthusiasm for the subject and an understanding of the students. Teaching and learning the language should empower and not weaken the spirit of the learner. It should inspire and awaken in the learner the desire to make language learning a lifelong process. The role of the teacher has to be redefined as that of a facilitator, a coordinator and an organizer who is both creative and sensitive to the needs of the diverse learners. Effectiveness of language teaching and learning has to be interpreted and evaluated according to many perspectives which need to be our area of focus in designing and interpreting the needs of the college level learner.

“To teach is to love.” Love for the subject, love for teaching and love for the learner, all three combined together result in effective teaching-learning at all levels. “Thinking back

2 about my favorite, most inspiring, teachers, I have found that they are the ones who not only have classroom management skills, know the subject area, and can explain well, but those who have an enthusiasm for the subject and an enthusiasm for their students.” (Davis, 2009). Why Teach English Language in Colleges? English has emerged as a universal language since it is used in almost all parts of the globe, thanks to the British colonial past by virtue of which they ruled the empire where the ‘sun never set’ thereby establishing a base for the language. A language with this applicability and outreach definitely brings together the divergent regions. The example of the North-South divide in India is a strong case in justification of English and the need for learning and teaching it. India and as to that matter the entire world is broken up in tiny fragments of narrow regions and barriers. There are so many divisive forces at work that to have something like a language to bring people closer is a great idea to aspire to and work for. English language has also established itself as a language of technology, science and research. No regional language has so successfully established itself as a language most suitable for scientific reporting and publishing. English language has broken down barriers of culture and art as well and the evolution of English music and literature has definitely played a big role in bringing cultures and peoples together. English has by its adaptable nature acquired the stature of an international medium of communication and commerce. The computer systems and the entire IT industry owe a debt of gratitude to the English language for its widespread applicability and usability. It has emerged as a language for the global citizens of the new age. The new age heralds an era of open communication channels and delimitation of narrow spaces. The most important reason and need of all is our survival in the modern scenario. We need to master this language among other skills to be able to command the attention of the world and aspire to be the world leaders we have every right to work and dream for. Mastery over the English language has definitely added value to our global presence and we have to continuously monitor the latest changes and incorporate them in our educational institutions for implementation so that we remain ahead of the game to recapture our place among the world leadership. Purpose and Aim of Education

3 According to Swami Vivekananda, the aim and purpose of education should be to “create in the learner the desire and the ability to serve mankind.” Every achievement and attainment has to have a purpose to make it fit as an object for attainment. “Gyan”, “Moksha” and “Nirwana” have long been the aims of education in the past. Every Karma has been directed towards sublimation of self with the divinity,”Atma” with “Paramatma”, the divine cord which runs through us all and binds us in the bond of common brotherhood. The procedure to follow this is called “Dharma”. Indian thought and philosophy is very comfortable with the concept of brotherhood of man since ages. To fulfill and meet the edicts of education it becomes imperative that the learner on one hand is trained and made capable to serve humanity and on the other to have the desire to do so. Therefore education will have to do something to change the very behaviour of the learner. To make the learner a productive and useful member of the society he inhabits is then the aim of education. Language learning is needed to bring us all closer to each other and to have the ability to communicate with each other. The idea of brotherhood makes sense only when we begin to communicate with fellow beings. “Man is a social animal”, and has to abide by the rules laid down by the society he lives in. To be able to understand the laid down rules and laws man has to have the ability to understand and comprehend what transpires around him. Problems in both teaching and learning of English language which act as a barrier in colleges There are certain common problems in both teaching and learning of English language which act as a barrier in colleges. The students come from diverse backgrounds and the college teaching has to be similarly modulated and adjusted to be able to cater to the needs of the college level learner. They have to be prepared from many points of view. Effectiveness of language teaching and learning has to be interpreted and evaluated according to many perspectives. Career and communication skills Career and communication skills are directly interlinked and the onus falls inevitably on the shoulders of the English language teachers. Interviews and group discussions are an integral part of the selection process for all competitive examinations for which the syllabus at the college level does not cater to.

4 Students in colleges come from different backgrounds due to the fact that higher education is open and within reach without discrimination. The students come from a mixed background. Some are from the rural areas and the others from the cities and yet others from the sub-urban areas. They all have studied from different categories of schools ranging from the government schools to the government aided schools to the urban private schools and elite public schools under different boards of education. The college students come from different economic backgrounds and that too has a direct bearing on the extent of English language acquisition of the learners from different economic backgrounds. Geographic regions also have a direct bearing on the quality of English language known to the learners at the time of starting college education. The geographically remote regions have lesser access and exposure to the language variations as opposed to the plains which are better populated and relatively more exposed to outer influences. On the other hand some remote hilly areas are tourist spots and are richer in terms of linguistic influences because of the tourists from different parts of India and abroad. An Indian has a vocabulary of at least two hundred English words. How many other so called Indian languages can we proudly claim to know as well? Manipuri, Tamil or Maithili? How exactly would we have communicated with a south Indian or someone from the northeast if it had not been for English? Parents and family have a strong influence in learning a language at the college level because the environment in the family determines the level of exposure and practice a learner gets outside the classroom. Learning is a continuous process which does not remain limited to classroom only. We learn all the time. The same can be said of the environment at the college. If the teachers and the other people around the learner communicate comfortably in English then the learning goes on outside the classroom as well and the learner gets practice. Our syllabus is still under the influence of our British colonial past. It still has not been able to evolve into being suitable for the modern Indian college student who is neither a slave nor an aspiring brown sahib. The modern Indian college student is getting ready to join the global milieu as an equal and as a leader. The educational needs of a world leader have to be designed to cater to the future needs of a global citizen. Unfortunately the curriculum, the examination system and the activities do not match the profile requirements. They need to be redefined so as to be relevant now and today for tomorrow. The main problem and barrier in effective teaching of English in colleges is the lack of

5 good communication between the teacher and the taught. The syllabus does not provide for communication and interaction. The teachers are in a hurry to ‘finish’ the syllabus. English is taught at times without using English as a medium of instruction. Facts are transferred but love for the language is not. Communication occurs between two people and it is a living 2-way process. A communication is said to be made when a message is sent by a sender to a receiver. The receiver then decodes the message, processes it and sends back a feedback. The feedback is then decoded by the receiver and a modified message is re-sent to the receiver. This to and fro movement of a communication in a series is communication. Unfortunately in the present day college teaching communication is incomplete because inputs move only from one side and there is no provision of getting feedbacks or processing them. Therefore the communication process is incomplete and we keep on wondering why English is not being learnt despite our best efforts. It’s like expecting our learner to learn swimming by watching us swim while he sits outside and ‘learns’. The first language teacher is our mother or the maternal influence. The rest of the family follows suit. The mother communicates with the baby using every form of communication. She sings to the baby and talks to it knowing fully well the baby does not comprehend a single syllable she utters but she does it with a smile, automatically, constantly. The baby coos and gurgles out some responses and the mother replies. The baby watches the mother and the family and learns to communicate before it learns to talk. Even mute and dumb babies communicate. The mother has no syllabus or time constraint but her teaching encompasses the entire value system an individual inherits for a lifetime. The family is the next teacher and then the school where the child is taught the principles of English language formally. The exposure the child gets is directly proportional to the level of language acquired. Teaching is an act of love, it’s a creative process in which the teacher reaches out to the learner and draws out from within the inherent knowledge with skillful interaction. Teaching is nothing else but a planned and a systematic sequence of learning experiences provided by the teacher to the learner. The teacher works on the feedback received from the learner and then modifies the next input accordingly. Teaching of a language is an art, a skill and a science Teaching of a language is an art, a skill and a science. It’s an interactive process which involves active participation of the college student as opposed to the conventional passive

6 lecture method. The study by the Ford Foundation on learning has found the following interesting facts: “ I remember 3% of what I hear, 20% of what I hear and see and 80% of what I hear, see and do.” This helps in arriving at the conclusion that as a method of teaching the lecture method is least effective as opposed to the practical approach. “Chalk and Talk” are not the best methods of teaching a language. Teaching-learning is possible when all the senses get adequate stimulus and the learner gets the opportunity for self-expression. It is the teacher who has to provide the right avenues and opportunities to the learner for self-expression fearlessly. The learner is often ashamed and embarrassed when a weakness is exposed publicly and this causes a severe setback in learning the language as well as damaging the self-esteem. This can be disheartening for the teacher too. Courage and patience are the keys to success. A creative teacher recognizes creativity in the learner and if that gets rewarded learning the language becomes faster. If creativity and ingenuity are recognized, appreciated and rewarded teaching English becomes most effective. Language learning is a skill. It is a skill like learning how to make chapattis, riding a bicycle or playing a musical instrument. All it needs is constant practice in all situations and circumstances. To master a language one needs to constantly practice and master the four skills of LSRW. Listening, Speaking, Reading and Writing. Listening Listening is what we are born doing. We start listening right from the womb and the moment we learn to talk we stop listening. The moment we stop listening we stop learning the new language. We learn our mother tongue simply because we listen so intently because we do not know how to speak or formulate words out of the sounds we make. We move our lips and slowly start attempting to make the corresponding sounds. The mother picks the baby up at every attempt be it a failure or a success and rewards the baby. Learning becomes a game and a pleasure. The best way to learn English is to listen to English songs, poetry and jokes. Listening to conversations, arguments or a dialogue between two or more people silently helps in watching the lip movement, the gestures and the style. Attending telephones is a good training in practical listening. Attending discourses, speeches or discussions helps in understanding the norms of behaviour and right address. Listening to stories is a dying art. Very few people tell stories in an interesting way. No opportunity should be missed to

7 listen to a story being told as it is a great experience in sound play and effective use of silences and voice modulations. Listening to radio and television programmes is a practice in contemporary listening. It helps in increasing knowledge as well as vocabulary building. Films and theatre are a complete art. Some films could be filmed for the benefit of the students and the teachers can have these in their personal collections. ‘The Sound of Music’, ‘My Fair Lady’, ‘Pretty woman’, ‘Seven Brides for Seven Brothers’, ‘Annie’, ‘Chitty Chitty Bang Bang’ are some examples to name just a few. Book adaptations are also available and they can be used for teaching the language effectively. The use of music and sounds to denote different emotions and create and atmosphere without actually changing anything gives a great opportunity to venture in a new world of imagination. There are some interesting games to sharpen our listening skills. The Chinese Whisper is one which is often played by children where children form a circle and sit down. The first person whispers something into the ears of the next person without repeating it or saying it out aloud. This continues till the last person is reached who then says the whispered word aloud for all to hear which most often is nothing remotely similar to what was said originally. Speaking We begin speaking long before we learn to read or write. It is the second skill we acquire while learning a language. Conversations and dialogues are the basic skills to master which if truth be told not many people master in a lifetime. Most of us damn ourselves the moment we open our mouths to speak. It takes a lot of courage to speak and to that too, to speak sense continuously without hurting yourself or paining others. English language can be learnt effectively through this skill. Answering questions gives us a directional basis for speaking. Poetry recitations help us to master the important aspects of RSVP i.e. Rhythm, speed, volume and pitch which makes speaking a pleasure. Correct diction and pronunciation is the key area to master here which the teacher can sensitize the students to through the use of tape-recorders so that the students can play back the piece and learn from it. Public speaking, debates, declamations, welcome addresses, vote of thanks and delivering speeches builds confidence as well as critical thinking and an analytical mind. Brevity is the soul of wit. A speech it is said should be like a lady’s dress, short enough to remain interesting and long enough to cover the vital points. The teachers can plan events where

8 the students get to make announcements, anchor shows and hold quiz or question answer sessions on a given topic or event. Group discussions on topics, presenting papers and delivering them at seminars are a very effective way to get the students to use the language. Presence of mind and eloquence need constant practice which is amply acquired through regular group discussions. The gift of narration can be mastered through narrating incidents, episodes, story building and story telling. Theatre is a great teacher and a complete art form which is most suitable for effective teaching of English. Teachers can also resort to using games for building up this skill. JAM, just a minute is a game in which the speaker picks up a topic from the bowl and speaks on it for a minute, without a pause. Reading Reading and comprehension go hand in hand. Reading is a skill which has to be taught and the teachers have a tough time getting the students to read the newspapers and journals. Reading is a complete topic in itself. The teachers’ cup of woes also contains the sad fact that the students are no longer as interested in reading as they used to be in the past. Each teacher is battling with this burning question right from the schools till the colleges. The learners no longer wish to read. They would rather browse the internet or watch television. The college student is no different. They read only what is relevant and that too if they have no other option or choice. All they seek are ready made guides and solutions to learn for the examinations. The only way to get the students to practice this skill is by making them do it in the class. The students need to learn to read silently without moving the lips or the fingers along the line or to read aloud with correct pronunciation. The rules and underlying principle are the same for loud reading and speaking. The only difference is that reading is done with a book or some written material while speaking is done almost without any such medium. The main focus has to be on divining the meaning of the piece as a whole and not getting lost into the intricacies of grammar, syntax and usage. The ability to work out the meaning from the indicators given in the passage is the skill which needs to be practiced. Unseen passages in prose and poetry lend themselves for this purpose. The second faculty is the ability to pick up relevant information from the given passage and make notes. Making notes is a skill which needs to special attention especially in higher education. The ability to make sound and meaningful notes will help the students to make abstracts and summarize the pieces. Comprehension of unseen passages and abstracts from

9 different literary sources is given to the students for sharpening their reading and comprehension skills. The teacher has to lay stress on punctuation marks and paragraphs so that the learner understands the meaning of each symbol used in the written piece. Interest in reading can be built up by the teacher by narrating interesting incidents from books or reading out portions from lives of great people the learners identify with i.e. Shaheed Bhagat Singh or Kalpana Chawla etc. Writing Writing is the most often used skill by the teachers in teaching English at all levels of education. Professor Higgins in “My Fair lady says that “the English speak good English, the Indians write good English and the Americans spoil good English”. The reason is again our colonial past in which the main focus was to train the Brown Sahibs so that the clerical work of the British Empire could run smoothly. This legacy of the past has stood us well but now we have to change the strategy for teaching-learning of writing skills to meet the needs of present day communication. ELT, English Language Teaching has undergone a transition in the present usage and it now being perceived as CLT, Communicative Language Teaching from the junior most level of learning. Comprehension of unseen passages and the focus on critical and analytical thinking is the main thrust area in English language learning. The writing skills include compositions like writing reports, designing posters and invitations, drafting business letters and letters to the editors. Visual and verbal clues can be given to the students as inputs without any additional inputs from the teachers and the students can be asked to form stories, narratives, conclusions, reports and criticisms. The teachers can plan events and special days to spread awareness for a social issue or against a social evil or disease and get the students to design the campaign in the form of letters to the editors, posters, brochures, handbills, websites, magazine articles, poetic jingles and reviews. The students can be asked to write articles and criticisms. Effective teaching of English language Effective teaching of English language depends on all the factors on which effective teaching of all the languages depends. It depends on the fundamental principles of the communication process which is the basis of the teaching-learning process. Effective

10 English teaching depends on sound classroom management skills, knowledge of the subject area, the ability to explain well, and an enthusiasm for the subject and an understanding of the students. Teaching and learning the language should empower and not weaken the spirit of the learner. It should inspire and awaken in the learner the desire to make language learning a lifelong process. We, the teachers of English need to form a partnership with the student so that we can form a winning team to play a winning match. Win the trust of your student and make him realize that we are a team together and playing on the same side and not in the opposite teams. Make the student have faith in your capability to help and support in his quest for learning. Preparation time is never ones best time. A building under construction is hardly a beauty and the same awkwardness is there in the students too which needs patient handling. The college level learner will learn better with a little creative effort by the colleges and the teachers of English. It would be good to have a college magazine for which the students could be encouraged to write different pieces. Wall magazines at different focal points in the college would be an effective tool to encourage students to be creative and express an opinion on issues relevant to them. Forming discussion forums related to different subjects would be an effective way to have discussions on different subjects in English. Visits and planned field trips are an effective tool to get the students to widen their perceptions and get them to vocalize them in narratives and travelogues. Hiking and biking are great tools too along with mountain climbing and adventure sports which gives the students the spirit to venture and dare and to master the language of that specific sport. All the teacher has to do is to open up the horizons and provide vistas for inner growth and strength. Campus radio is another way for keeping the breaks interesting and creative where birthday announcements and event details can be handled by the students. Theatre and plays allow the students to use the language effectively to denote varied emotions. Simple one act plays and skits could be attempted by a group of students on any issue of contemporary relevance and then the enactment before the larger group. It would add tons of confidence to the learner. Letters to editors is one of the most powerful tools of a democracy and with the diversity of issues and the national stature of dailies in English the teacher has this hitherto unexplored territory to get the students to venture into without fear. Success and reward depend on being accepted and what an achievement for the teacher to get her students letter accepted for publication. This technique gets the students to read the newspapers regularly and also critically search for news which merit a response.

11 Organizing events right from its inception to its execution under the guidance of the teacher would not only get the students to come out with creative ideas but also make them read, write and compose speeches, articles and reports in English. They would learn the skills of planning and management along with gaining confidence in their own abilities. As it is we teachers have to depend on our students to help us organize events so why not do it purposefully and meaningfully. The students can be trained to handle the announcements, design invitations and posters and deliver welcome addresses and propose vote of thanks. At college level the student is an adult and such training is needed for all the students and not just the select few. Participation in competitions held at different levels is another positive way of getting the students to gain confidence and learn from their mistakes. Teachers take on the job themselves because the effort of training the students is too much but trust me it would be a one time effort if you tried. The best unexplored territory could be to get the college students enrolled into youth exchange programmes and travel to different parts of this world. This hitherto rarely used technique has lots to recommend. It is inexpensive but most effective in making the students well rounded personalities with a good command over their communication skills. The ability to adjust to new situations and adapt to new environment takes away the fear of failure or ridicule which is the fundamental fear of every aspiring student of English. Effective teaching of any subject should promote knowledge, understanding, analytical and critical abilities of that subject and also promote love for learning as a lifelong process. The teacher has to keep the spark alive by nurturing the spark and by giving fuel to the spark. Always have goals in teaching-learning because human nature strives for improvement so as to be able to achieve its full potential. There is ceaseless striving for the next level. Perfection is not the aim but regular, balanced, gradual striving for it. “Where the mind is without fear and the head is held high, Where knowledge is free, Where the world has not been broken up into fragments by narrow domestic walls, Where tireless striving stretches its arms towards perfection, Where the clear stream of reason has not lost its way Into the dreary desert sands of dead habit, Where the mind is led forward by thee into ever widening thought and action, Into that heaven of freedom, my Father let my country awake.” Rabindra Nath Tagore

12 References: Adler, R. B. and Rodman, G. (1991). Understanding Human Communication. Chicago; Holt, Rinehart, and Winston. Adler, R. B., Rosenfeld, L. B., and Towne, N. (1996). Interplay: The Process of Interpersonal Communication. New York; Harcourt Brace. Atkinson, R, C" and Crothers, E, J. (1964). A comparison of paired-associate learning models having different learning and retention axioms,i· Psychol.1, 285-315 Barker, L. L. and Barker, D. L. (1993). Communication. Prentice Hall. Becker, S. L. and Roberts, C. L. (1992). Discovering Mass Communication. HarperCollins. Berger, C. R. and Chaffee, S. H. (1988). On Bridging the Communication Gap. Human Communication Research, 15.2, pp. 311-318. Berko, R.M., Wolvin, A.D., & Curtis, R. (1986). This Business of Communicating. Dubuque, IO: WCB. Bittner, J. R. (1996). Mass Communication. Boston; Allyn and Bacon. Bovee, C.L., & Thill, J.V. (1992). Business Communication Today. NY, NY: McGrawHill. Burgoon, M., Hunsaker, F. G., and Dawson, E. J. (1994). Human Communication. Thousand Oaks, CA; Sage. Burnett, M.J., & Dollar, A. (1989). Business Communication: Strategies for Success. Houston, Texas: Dane.

13 Cappella, J. (1991). Book Reviews: Theories of Human Communication. Communication Theory. v1.2. May, 1991, p. 165-171. Craig, R. T. (1999). Communication Theory as a Field. Communication Theory, 9, p. 119-161. Devito, J. A. (1994) Human Communication: The Basic Course. New York; HarperCollins. Gibson, J.W., & Hodgetts, R.M. (1990). Business Communication: Skills and Strategies. NY, NY: Harper & Row. Gibson, J. W. and Hanna, M. S. (1992). Introduction to Human Communication. Dubuque, IA; William C. Brown. Giddens, A. (1986). The Constitution of Society: Outline of the Theory of Structuration.University of California Press. Hillix, W. A., D. M. Rumbaugh, and A. Hillix. (2004). Animal Bodies, Human Minds: Ape, Dolphin, and Parrot Language Skills. Plenum. Innis, Harold A. (1950). Empire and Communications. Oxford University Press. Katz, E. (1957). The Two-Step Flow of Communication. Public Opinion Quarterly, 21, p. 61-78. Lasswell, H. (1948). The structure and function of communication in society. In "The Communication of Ideas". Bryson, Lymon (ed). New York: Institute for Religious and Social Studies, p. 37-51. Levinson, P. (2001). Digital McLuhan: A Guide to the Information Millennium. Routledge.

14 Masson, J. M. and S. McCarthy. (1995). When Elephants Weep: The Emotional Lives of Animals. New York, Delacorte. McLuhan, Marshall. (1964). Understanding Media: The extensions of man. McGrawHill. Meyrowitz, J. (1986). No Sense of Place: The Impact of Electronic Media on Social Behavior. Oxford University Press. Ong, W. (1982). Orality and Literacy. Methuen and Company. Pepperberg, I. M. (2002). The Alex Studies: Cognitive and Communicative Abilities of Grey Parrots. Harvard University Press Pinker, S. (2000). The Language Instinct: How the Mind Creates Language. Perennial. Shannon, C. E. A (1948). Mathematical Theory of Communication. Bell System Technical Journal, vol. 27, pp. 379-423 and 623-656, July and October, 1948. Skinner, B. F. (1957). Verbal behavior. New York: Appleton-Century. Stevens, M. Sinclair, (2002).Language is a Communication Skill. www.zanthan.com/japan/archives/000248.html, Nippon daze. Tagore, Rabindranath. (1910). Where the mind is without fear. Geetanjali, Offering of Songs. Walston, H. (2006). Speaking a second language: A skill everyone should master.ooapers.com. Waraich, G.P.S. (1988). Promoting love for learning. Himalaya Public School Magazine. Wood, J. T. (2002). Interpersonal Communication: Everyday Encounters.

Wadsworth/Thomson Learning.

You're Reading a Free Preview

/*********** DO NOT ALTER ANYTHING BELOW THIS LINE ! ************/ var s_code=s.t();if(s_code)document.write(s_code)//-->