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PNF - Techniques

PNF - Techniques

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Published by: bpt2 on May 13, 2009
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04/03/2014

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PNF - Techniques

Classification of Techniques

Techniques directed to agonists Techniques using antagonists to facilitate contraction of agonists Techniques using antagonists for relaxation of antagonists

The techniques described are:  ∗       Rhythmic Initiation
       

∗       Combination of Isotonics. ∗       Reversal of Antagonists ∗       Dynamic Reversal of Antagonists (incorporates Slow Reversal) ∗       Stabilizing Reversal ∗       Rhythmic Stabilization ∗        Repeated Stretch (Repeated Contraction) ∗        Repeated Stretch from beginning of range ∗       Repeated Stretch through range

Rhythmic Initiation (def)

Rhythmic motion of the limb or body through the desired range, starting with passive motion and progressing to active resisted movement

Rhythmic Initiation

Goals
 Aid

in initiation of motion  Improve coordination and sense of motion  Normalize the rate of motion, either increasing or decreasing it  Teach the motion  Help the patient to relax

Indications
∗ ∗ ∗ ∗

Difficulties in initiating motion Movement too slow or too fast Uncoordinated or dysrhythmic motion General tension

Combination of Isotonic

Combined concentric, eccentric, and stabilizing contractions of one group of muscles (agonists) without relaxation. For treatment, start where the patient has the most strength or best coordination

Goals
 Active

control of motion  Coordination  Increase the active range of motion  Strengthen  Functional training in eccentric control of movement

Indication
 Decreased

eccentric control  Lack of coordination or ability to move in a desired direction  Lack of active motion within the range of motion  Decreased active range of motion

Reversal of Antagonists

Dynamic Reversals Stabilizing Reversal

  Dynamic Reversals

(Incorporates Slow Reversal) Active motion changing from one direction (agonist) to the opposite (antagonist) without pause or relaxation. In normal life we often see this kind of muscle activity; throwing a ball, bicycling, walking etc

Goals
* * * * *

Increase active range of motion Increase strength Develop coordination (smooth reversal of motion) Prevent or reduce fatigue Increase endurance

Indications
* * * *

Decreased active range of motion Weakness of the agonistic muscles Decreased ability to change direction of motion Exercised muscles begin to fatigue

Stabilizing Reversal –
Alternating isotonic contractions opposed by enough resistance to prevent motion. The command is a dynamic command ("push against my hands", or "don't let me push you") and the therapist allows only a very small movement.

Goals
* * *

Increase stability and balance Increase muscle strength Increase coordination between agonist and antagonist

Indications
* * *

Decreased stability Weakness Patient is unable to contract muscle isometrically

Rhythmic Stabilization

- Alternating isometric contractions against resistance, no motion intended

Goals
 Increase

active and passive range of motion  Increase strength  Increase stability and balance  Decrease pain

Indications
 Imitated

range of motion  Pain, particularly when motion is attempted  Joint instability  Weakness in the antagonistic muscle group  Decreased balance
Contraindications * Cerebellar involvement * The patient is unable to follow instructions due to age, language difficulty, and cerebral dysfunction

Repeated Stretch from Beginning of Range

-stretch reflex elicited from muscles under the tension of elongation

Goals
* * * * *

Facilitate initiation of motion Increase active range of motion Increase strength Prevent or reduce fatigue Guide motion in the desired direction

Indications
* * * *

Weakness Inability to initiate motion due to weakness or rigidity Fatigue Decreased awareness of motion

Contraindications
* * * *

Joint instability Pain Unstable bones due to fracture or osteoporosis Damaged muscle or tendon

eated Stretch (Repeated Contractio Repeated Stretch from Beginning of Range stretch reflex elicited from muscles under the tension of elongation  Goals   ∗       Facilitate initiation of motion  ∗       Increase active range of motion  ∗       Increase strength  ∗       Prevent or reduce fatigue  * Guide motion in the desired direction

Indications ∗       Weakness ∗          Inability to initiate motion due to weakness or rigidity ∗       Fatigue ∗       Decreased awareness of motion  Contraindications  ∗       Joint instability  ∗       Pain  ∗        Unstable bones due to fracture or

Repeated Stretch-The stretch reflex elicited from muscles under the tension of contraction. Increase active range of motion Increase strength Prevent or reduce fatigue Guide motion in the desired direction

Goals
* * * *

Indications * Weakness * Fatigue * Decreased awareness of desired motion Contraindications * Joint instability * Pain * Unstable bones due to fracture or osteoporosis * Damaged muscle or tendon

Contract-Relax
-Resisted isotonic contraction of the restricting muscles (antagonists) followed by relaxation and movement into the increased range. Goal * Increased passive range of motion

Indication * Decreased passive range of motion

Hold-Relax: Direct Treatment-Resisted isometric contraction of the antagonistic muscles (shortened muscles) followed by relaxation Goals * Increase passive range of motion * Decrease pain

Indications * Decreased passive range of motion * Pain * The patient's isotonic contractions are too strong for the therapist to control

Contraindication
*

The patient is unable to do an isometric contraction

PNF STRETCHING
PNF stretching uses the neuromuscular patterns of each muscle group to help improve flexibility.  A series of intense contractions and relaxations using a partner or equipment to help him stretch.  The PNF technique allows for greater muscle relaxation following each contraction and increases the ability to stretch through a greater range of motion.

the hold-relax

This technique is also called the contract-relax. After assuming an initial passive stretch, the muscle being stretched is isometrically contracted for 7-15 seconds, after which the muscle is briefly relaxed for 2-3 seconds, and then immediately subjected to a passive stretch which stretches the muscle even further than the initial passive stretch. This final passive stretch is held for 10-15 seconds. The muscle is then relaxed for 20 seconds before performing another PNF technique

the hold-relax-contract This technique is also called the contract-relax-contract, and the contract-relax-antagonist-contract (or CRAC). It involves performing two isometric contractions: first of the agonists, then, of the antagonists. The first part is similar to the hold-relax where, after assuming an initial passive stretch, the stretched muscle is isometrically contracted for 7-15 seconds. Then the muscle is relaxed while its antagonist immediately performs an isometric contraction that is held for 7-15 seconds. The muscles are then relaxed for 20 seconds before performing another PNF technique

Hold- relax Passive stretch Isometric contraction

Passive stretch

Concentric contraction

Contract-relax

Concentric contraction Full range

Passive stretch

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