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Exergy Analysis

Thermodynamics
Definitions
Exergy (also called Availability or Work Potential): the
maximum useful work that can be obtained from a
system at a given state in a given environment; in other
words, the most work you can get out of a system
Surroundings: outside the system boundaries
Environment: the area of the surroundings not affected
by the process at any point (For example, if you have a
hot turbine, the air next to the turbine is warm. The
environment is the area of the surroundings far enough
away that the temperature isnt affected.)
Dead State: when a system is in thermodynamic
equilibrium with the environment, denoted by a subscript
zero; at this point no more work can be done

Example
A coal-fired furnace is used in a power plant. It delivers
5000 kW at 1000 K. The environment is at 300 K. What
is the exergy of the added heat? You can use two steps
to solve this problem.
Determine the maximum percentage of the heat that can be
converted to work.
Using your answer from the first part, determine the maximum
work possible.
This is the maximum work output possible between the
given state and the dead state, i.e., the heats exergy. In
this case, 30% of the 5000 kW is unavailable energyit
cant be converted to work.
Why Study Exergy?
In the last several decades, exergy analysis has
begun to be used for system optimization.
By analyzing the exergy destroyed by each
component in a process, we can see where we
should be focusing our efforts to improve system
efficiency.
It can also be used to compare components or
systems to help make informed design decisions.

Reversible Work
W
rev
(reversible work): the maximum amount of
work its possible to produce (or minimum
necessary to input) in a process between given
initial and final states. Note that this is different
from an isentropic process where we were given
an inlet state and solved for the exit state using
s
2
=s
1
. Since the exit and inlet states are both
fixed, the process is not necessarily isentropic.
What two conditions will cause a process to be
isentropic?
Irreversibilities
Irreversibility, I: exergy destroyed; wasted
work potential. It represents energy that
could have been converted into work but
What are some sources of I?
To have high system efficiency, we want I
to be as small as possible.
I, cont.
I=W
rev
,
out
W
u
,
out
(work output device, like a
turbine) OR
I=W
u
,
in
W
rev
,
in
(work input device, like a
pump)
W
u
: useful work; the amount of work done that
can actually be used for something desirable
W
u
=W-W
surr
where W=actual work done

Surroundings Work, W
surr
Here some work is
used to push the
atmospheric air (the
surroundings) out of
the way; that work
cant be used for
other purposes.

( ) positive
1 2 0 0
}
= = V V P dV P W
surr
Surroundings Work, W
surr,
cont.

Here P
atm
helps push the
piston in; this is gained
work. In a process where
the piston goes in and
out continually, the
surrounding work values
cancel out.

What is W
surr
for a control
volume?
( ) negative
1 2 0
V V P W
surr
=
Second Law Efficiency, q
II
Thermal efficiency tells us what we get out
compared to what we put in.
The second law efficiency tells us how
much we get out compared to the
maximum possible we could get out, given
the inlet and exit conditions.

Second Law Efficiency, cont.
q
th,max
=1-T
L
/T
H
=1-300/800=0.635
Say q
th
=0.45
q
II
=0.45/0.625=0.72
We want a high q
th
and q
II
Another way to look at this:
for a work output device
q
II
=W
u
/W
rev
Second Law Efficiency, cont.
A general definition:

supplied exergy
(I) destroyed exergy
1
beginning) at the available s (what' supplied exergy
process) after the available s (what' recovered exergy
=
=
II
q
Three Efficiency Definitions
The second two are defined for work
OUTPUT devices

rev
u
II
isentropic
actual
in
net
W
W
W
W
Q
W
=
=
=
q
q
q
Law 2
Isentropic
Thermal
nd
s
th
Example
A freezer is maintained at 20F by
removing heat from it at a rate of 75
Btu/min. The power input to the freezer is
0.70 hp, and the surrounding air is 75F.
Determine a) the reversible power, b) the
irreversibility, an c) the second-law
efficiency of this freezer.
Ref: Cengel & Boles, Thermodynamics, An Engineering Approach, 4th edition, Mc-Graw Hill, 2002.):
Exergy
We can calculate the exergy, X (work potential) at a
given state. The work potential is a function of the total
energy of the system.

(remember that in a control mass, there will be no flow work)
X
KE
(exergy due to kinetic energy): V
2
/2 (on a per unit
mass basis
X
PE
: gZ
X
internal

energy
: u-u
o
+P
o
(v-v
o
)-T
o
(s-s
0
)
To see a derivation of this last equation, see the
appendices on the web site. The o stands for the dead
state (atmospheric conditions). If a piston is at
atmospheric pressure and temperature (the dead state),
it cant do any work.
KE PE internal energy flow work
X X X X X = + + +

Exergy of a Closed System
Exergy of a closed system, per unit mass , can be
found be adding all the terms

This gives us the maximum work we could possibly get
out of a system.
Usually we will be more interested in the change in
exergy from the beginning to end of a process.
For a closed system,

( ) ( ) ( )
2
2
o o o o o
V
u u P v v T s s gZ | = + + +
2 1
? | | | = A =
For a control volume
X
cv
=X
closed
+X
flow

work
=X
cv
/m (exergy per unit mass)
X
flow work
=W
flow
-W
against

atmosphere
=Pv-P
o
v

Now combine terms: u+Pv=h; u
o
+P
o
v
o
=h
o

( ) ( )
o o o o o o o o cv
v P Pv gz
V
s s T v P v P u u + + + + =
2
2

( ) ( ) gz
V
s s T h h
o o o cv
+ + =
2
2

Change in exergy
If we only have one fluid stream

If we have multiple streams
( ) ( ) ( )
1 2
2
1
2
2
1 2 1 2 1 2
2
z z g
V V
s s T h h
o
+

+ = A =
|
|
.
|

\
|
+ +
|
|
.
|

\
|
+ + = A

1
2
1
1 1 1 2
2
2
2 2 2
2 2
gz
V
s T h m gz
V
s T h m
o o

Exergy Balance
We will use these equations in an exergy balance to
solve for such quantities as reversible work or exergy
destroyed.
X
in
-X
out
-X
destroyed
=AX
sys

X
destroyed
is potential work that was destroyed due to
irreversibilities like friction.
Exergy can be transferred (X
in
-X
out
) by heat, work, and
mass flow

Exergy Transfer by Heat Transfer
As we add heat to a system, we
increase its ability to do work.

See Appendix B on web for a
discussion of how to deal with cold
sinks.

|
|
.
|

\
|
= = =
H
o
H H heat
T
T
Q Q X W 1
max max
q
Exergy Transfer by Work and Mass
Flow
If we do work on a system, we increase its
ability to do work.
X
work
=W-W
surr
for boundary work
X
work
=W for all other kinds of work
Remember
X
mass
=m

( )
1 2 0
V V P W
surr
=
X
destroyed
X
destroyed
=I=T
o
S
gen
See Appendix C on the web for a
derivation.
Review from ME 297
AS
sys
=S
in
-S
out
+S
gen

Entropy Generated, S
gen
For a steady-state control volume, this leads us to

For a control mass, this becomes

Here T
k
is the temperature of the heat source or heat
sink (not the system temperature).

=
k
k
in
i i
out
e e gen
T
Q
s m s m S

=
k
k
gen
T
Q
S S S
1 2
Final Equation for AX
sys
for control
mass
( ) | |
1 2 1 2
1 X X S T V V P W Q
T
T
gen o o k
k
o
=
|
|
.
|

\
|

Terms in [ ] are W-W

surr
=W
u
If we want to find W
rev
, then T
o
S
gen
=0 and
W
u
=W
rev
Note that if heat transfer is to/from the
surroundings, the Q term drops out.
Example
A 12-ft
3
rigid tank contains R-134a at 30 psia
and 40% quality. Heat is transferred now to the
refrigerant from a source at 120F until the
pressure rises to 60 psia. Assuming the
surroundings to be at 75F, determine a) the
amount of heat transfer between the source and
the refrigerant and b) the exergy destroyed
during the process.
Ref: Cengel and Boles
Final Equation for AX
sys
for control
volume
( ) | |
1 2 1 2
1 X X m m S T V V P W Q
T
T
e e i i gen o o k
k
o
= +
|
|
.
|

\
|

( ) 0 1 = +
|
|
.
|

\
|

e i gen o k
k
o
m S T W Q
T
T

For multiple fluid streams, unsteady flow:
For one fluid streams, steady flow:
To find W
rev
, set S
gen
=0. If adiabatic, Q=0.
Set up the following problems.
1. Refrigerant at T
1
and P
1
is throttled to a pressure of P
2
.
Find the reversible work and exergy destroyed during
this process. The atmosphere has a temperature of T
o
.
2. Air at T
1
and P
1
with a velocity of V
1
enters a nozzle
and exits at P
2
and T
2
with a velocity of V
2
. There is a
heat loss Q from the nozzle to the surroundings at T
o
.
Find the exergy destroyed during this process.
3. Air enters a compressor at ambient conditions (T
o
and
P
o
) and leaves at P
2
and T
2
. The compressor is
deliberately cooled, and there is a rate of heat loss of
Q to the surroundings. The power input to the
compressor is PWR. Find the rate of irreversibility, I,
for this process.
Example
See handout
Exergy Analysis for a Cycle, 1 fluid
( )
|
|
.
|

\
|
=
(
(

|
|
.
|

\
|
+
|
|
.
|

\
|
+
|
|
.
|

\
|
+
|
|
.
|

\
|
=
+ + + =
=
=

in k
in
out k
out
o
lake
in cond
o
turbine
chamber comb
boiler
o
pump
cond gen turbine gen boiler gen pump gen gen
k
i e gen
gen o
T
Q
T
Q
m T I
T
Q
s s
T
Q
s s
T
Q
s s
T
Q
s s m
S S S S S
T
Q
s s m S
S T I
, ,
.,
4 1 3 4
.
2 3 1 2
. , , , ,

: component a for

Second Law Efficiency for a Cycle
I W
W
W
W
actual net
actual net
reversible net
actual net
II

+
= =
,
,
,
,
q