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Research Paper in Sociology

Sociology and Anthropology

Submitted by: Manapol, Paola Mae S. Marao, Rodelen C. 3NU03

Submitted to: Mr. Elias Sampa

Introduction Sociology and Anthropology are two different branches of science which probes a around a single idea; the core of both sciences which is man. This paper will be a drawing its focus on the two aforementioned sciences and its different components. The first and second parts will be a discussion on the definition and components of the individual disciplines. The third subdivision, on the other hand, will be about the scientists who contributed to the development of each field. The last part will be an interrelation of the two sciences. It will also include a summary of the whole discussion. These two fields play a very important role in our daily lives or daily routines. To further understand these, the following literature has been rendered. Sociology: Man in connection with society Sociology, from the Greek words socius, which means group or partners and logus which means science, is mainly about human behaviour towards himself or the society of which he belongs to. Apart from the meaning and implications of sociology and anthropology, this study will also be tackling the different theories of which these fields developed from (Palispis, 2007). As defined by Rodney Starks, a sociologist, sociology deals with the study of patterns and processes of human relations (Palispis, 2007, p.3). It primarily deals with how man interacts with the society in the small scope, as well as in the larger one. And

being also a science that is in connection with how the society works, it tackles issues on community problems, issues, beliefs, ethnic relations and other similar subjects (Palispis, 2007). Sociology as being called a science is a systematized body which uses methods or technique in yielding information regarding the social world (Ibid.). There are seven areas in the said study which can further explain the components this specific study has. First is the social organization which deals mostly on the social institutions, social groups, ethnicity, politics and economics. This is more on the external aspects, a certain society or community has. Second is the social psychology. It involves topics on how man acts or behaves with regards to his group involvement. Third is the social change and social disorganization. This probes more on the disparities which are experienced or which can be experienced by a society. Next is human ecology, as the fourth component which deals more on the nature and behaviour of a given population and its relationship to the groups present social institutions. Fifth, is the population or demography which is about the general statistic on the different races of man. Second to the last is sociological theory and method which is concerned with the applicability and usefulness of the principles and theories of group life as bases to the regulation of mans social environment. And finally, applied sociology is an area that utilizes the findings of pure sociological research in various fields such as criminology, community development and many more (Ibid.).

As a whole, Sociology is the study of society and the social forces that affect human behaviour. A central goal of sociology is to provide insights into how our own lives are influenced by the social relationships around us (RIT, n.d). Anthropology: Man from then till now The second branch of science involved is Anthropology. The title mentioned also was derived from two Greek words logos and anthropos, which means study and man, respectively. Anthropology defines itself as a discipline of infinite curiosity about human beings (Palispis, 2007). The essence of anthropology has been, since its tradition, a cross-cultural comparison (Ingold, 2008). It is a culture of past and present in a global perspective, tackling every culture in each domain. Being focused on the concept of man, it probes around the achievements, works, and developments of/in man. Anthropologists also take interest in the biological foundations of physical features and its similarities with others. There are also different classifications under the study Anthropology. First is Physical Anthropology. It primarily deals with the biological features of humans. Apart from that, it wills to relate it with culture. It traces the evolutionary history of man and attempts to answer inquiries pertaining to the variations present in each generation that has passed. This sub discipline follows through the racial history of man, palaeontology and human genetics. (Palispis, 2007)

Second is the Cultural Anthropology which is also known as social anthropology. From the word social, it means that it is most concerned with the variety of customs, traditions and beliefs of human beings; from the primitive era up to the present time. This culture was therefore being passed from one generation to another. Under this discipline, ethnography, ethnology and social anthropology take much importance. (Ibid.) Ethnography is a qualitative research design aimed at exploring cultural phenomena (Geertz, 1973 as cited in Hoey, 2012). Through this study, the way of life of a certain group may be described. Ethnology, on the other hand, is the analysis, comparison and contrast of cultures of people. And finally, social anthropology is where summarization of the findings yielded in the two previously mentioned fields as to determine the social life and behaviour of man (Palispis, 2007). Third sub discipline of Anthropology is archaeology. Archaeology, as we all know, is a science which involves searching for remnants of previous life-forms on earth and the way life as during the primitive times. This includes fossils and artefacts. But being a discipline in combination with anthropology, it deals with the previous way of living of men. It can be a very effective tool on finding out mans ancestors (Ibid.). The last sub discipline is linguistics. Other experts have classified it as a branch or subdivision of social cultural anthropology. it is mostly involved in the origin and evolution of language. Specialists in this field study how language changed over time and how they may be related with the historical linguistics ( Ibid.). Like other branches of science, Anthropology collects and acquire information and clues on the whole human existence systematically and is evidence-based.

Anthropology, as a whole, provides insights on how human beings across the globe live and work and shape their cultural world in families, cities, societies, ethnic groups, and nations. One of the goals of anthropology is to promote understanding among peoples -- an increasingly important venture in our vastly interconnected global community (RIT, n.d). A Blast from the past Anthropology started during the time of explorations from the 15th century to the 18th century and to the days of modern exploration. During that time, discoveries of ancient artefacts proved that man existed million years ago. According to Haviland, these discoveries took place during the advancement of physics and chemistry when peoples interest in science aroused (Palispis, 2007). As soon as man developed a means of communication, sociological inquiry started as well. In the early part of 18th century and the first quarter of 19th century when scientific curiosity was at its peak social philosophers became interested in the natural development of sciences that lead to the development of society. The following are some of famous philosophers that had big contributions to the study of sociology and anthropology. August Comte was a French philosopher who coined the word sociology. He was also known as the father of sociology due to his contribu tion on the said matter. He encouraged the idea of positivism to understand occurrences. He suggested that he key to a mans success is to use empirical investigation. According to him, the

idea of positivism is necessary for rebuilding society on a rational basis. He inspired a lot people to enter the field of sociology (Palispis, 2007). Another important person in this field is Herbert Spencer, who is sometimes called the second founder of sociology. This is because he carried on Comtes traditions. Herbert Spencer received little formal education because of his poor health condition. He was taught at home. Almost all knowledge he acquired was through reading (Ibid). Spencer was a railroad engineer for years (Palispis, 2007, p.24). After that, he became interested in journalism and became an editor for the Economist. At that time, he also wrote his first book Social Statistics, this book is most often called the first sociology textbook (Palispis, 2007). The application of Darwins evolution theory to social life was the central focus os Spencers work. He believed in the Survival of the fittest which means that like in the animal world there is competition in every persons social life. He believes that survival of the fittest will lead to social progress (Ibid.). Emile Durkheim, on the other hand, was a French scholar who is greatly influenced by Comte. He taught social science at the University of Pari in 1893. Durkheim is the first sociology professor. As a sociologist, he focused the factors that contribute to the solidarity of a society. He believed that social solidarity was based on shared values and beliefs of the members of a society (Palispis, 2007).

Sociology and Anthropology as interrelated sciences Sociology and Anthropology are two separate disciplines which are greatly related with each other. It has been said that these two fields are concerned with the study of human life - how we are shaped by the world around us as well as how we shape and construct the social and cultural world in which we live (UMS, 2005). In general, both disciplines synthesize and generalize data about human behaviour and social systems (Palispis, 2007, p.15). Both sociology and anthropology are social sciences with much connection with other social sciences namely psychology, history, economics, and political science. It deals with human behaviour and the comparison of mans way of life among different generation or era since the primitive age up to the present time. It deals with the relationship of man to its society of which he belongs to and it involves topics regarding the factors that binds the life of each human being. Study of this special field can be referred to as very important for it injects information which can therefore help us in understanding the human culture and how, the current world were experiencing now, came out to be. This will also help us understand the differences between each individual despite same ancestry. This information can help us understand each other leading us to respect each and everyone in spite of dissimilarities.

Synthesis Through the previous discussions, sociology and anthropology had been individually defined; sociology being the study of man and the society, while anthropology is the study of man and its origin. Both sciences have been referred to as connected with each other for both deals with the study of man and society. The different components of each fields have also been elaborated, and the different notorieties who contributed to the expansion of the studies in sociology and anthropology. Insights Because of this study, we were able to look at sociology and anthropology at a different perspective. We were able to understand the relationship between men and their society. This will help us improve the way we interact with other people. These studies also made us realize that there are many ways to understand and deal with different kinds of people. This will be very helpful especially in our profession as future nurses since we will be dealing with different kinds of people with unique personalities every day. It is very important that we understand how we should deal with people that could render a better and holistic care to our patients.

Review Questions: 1. It is defined as human behaviour towards himself or the society of which he belongs to. 2. It is a discipline of infinite curiosity about human beings. 3. It is a sub discipline involved in the origin and evolution of language. 4. He was the one who coined the word sociology. 5. He is the first sociology professor.

Emile Durkheim Sociology Auguste Comte

Anthropology Linguistics

References: Hoey, B. (2012). What is Ethnography. Retrieved December 11, 2012 from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ethnography. Ingold, T. (2008). Anthropology is not ethnography. Retrieved December 11, 2012 from proc.britac.ac.uk/tfiles/154p069.pdf Palispis, E., (2007). Introduction to sociology and anthropology. 1st ed. Manila: Rex. RIT-Rochester Institute of Technology (1903). Definition of sociology., Retrieved December 11, 2012 from http://www.rit.edu/cla/sociology/index.html. UMS-Universiti Malaysia Sarawak (2005). Anthropology and sociology., Retrieved December 11, 2012 from http://www.fss.unimas.my/index.php?option=com_content&view=category&id=31 &Itemid=62.