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Paige Shaw Comparative Method Lesson Plan Target language: Spanish Grade level: 200 level college Proficiency:

Intermediate low Instructional objectives: 1. By the end of the lesson students will be able to identify cognates with 70% accuracy. 2. By the end of the lesson students will have a better understanding of language families. 3. By the end of the lesson students will be able to identify the types of words that can be used for the comparative method with 80% accuracy. Standards for Foreign Language Learning involved:

Standard 1.1: Students engage in conversations, provide and obtain information, express feelings and emotions, and exchange opinions Standard 1.2: Students understand and interpret written and spoken language on a variety of topics Standard 1.3: Students present information, concepts, and ideas to an audience of listeners or readers on a variety of topics. Standard 4.1: Students demonstrate understanding of the nature of language through comparisons of the language studied and their own

Materials/equipment needed: Handouts Introduction/Warm up: Introducing cognates and the comparative method (15 min) Teacher instructions: Ask students to define the word cognate. Explain if no one knows, explain it. Then explain the various reasons a word may sound similar in different languages. Now have your students brainstorm as many cognate words as they can think of. Student instructions: Piensen en unas palabras que son cognados y escrbanlos o dganlos a la clase. (Think about some cognates and write them or say them to the class.) Activity 1: Worksheet (10-15 min) Teacher instructions: Hand out the worksheet. The students may work by themselves or in groups of two. Section A lists some words that English has borrowed from Spanish, and asks the student to list two more to any of the sections listed. Section B lists some Spanish cognates and the student must supply the English equivalent. As they go through this list, tell the

Paige Shaw student to place a checkmark by the words would be good to use for the comparative method. When they have finished, call on students and have them tell their answers. Student instructions: En seccin A, lean la lista de palabras y escriben dos ms en ingls. Estas palabras son prestamos de espaol. En seccin B, escriban la palabra en ingles que corresponde a la palabra en espaol. Tambin como siguen la lista, marque las palabras que podan usar para el mtodo comparativo. (In section A, read the list of words and then try to think of two more English words that were taken from Spanish. These are loaned words from Spanish. For section B, you are given a list of Spanish cognates. Write the English word that corresponds with each Spanish word. Also as you go through the list, place a checkmark by the words you could use for the comparative method.) Activity 2: Write a paragraph (20 min) Teacher instructions: Tell the student to write a paragraph of at least 5 sentences in Spanish using as many cognates as they can. The paragraph can be on any topic as long as they use cognates. Student instructions: Escriban un prrafo de cinco oraciones, usando tantos cognados que puedan. (Write a paragraph of at least 5 sentences in Spanish using as many cognates as you can.) Ex: Soy estudiante. Vivo con mi familia Activity 3: Recite the paragraph (5-15 min) Teacher instructions: Depending on the amount of time left in the classroom, ask for any volunteers or call on students to recite their paragraphs in Spanish to practice their pronunciation. Student instructions: Lean los ensayos a la clase para practicar la pronunciacin. (Read your paragraphs aloud to practice your pronunciation.) Conclusion: Teacher instructions: Now that students know what cognates look like, they can be introduced to false cognates. Give them a worksheet with some definitions and the correct way to say what the false cognate sounds like. Have them study it for the next classs lesson on false cognates. Student instructions: Estudien el papel de cognados falsos para la prxima clase! (Study the handout of false cognates for the next class!)

Paige Shaw Student evaluation: Students will be evaluated based on their participation, percentage of correct answers on their worksheets, and use of vocabulary and sentence structure in their paragraphs. Follow up activities: 1. Call out some cognates as well as some false cognates in English or Spanish and have the students reply with the other language. Try to keep it as quick as possible so its like a brainstorming activity. 2. Give the students a fill in the blank worksheet with false cognates. 3. Play a jeopardy-like game where there are two words listed, one cognate and one false cognate, and the students have to choose which the true cognate is. This would be a group game, where the groups take turns answering, or it could be the first group that answers gets the points.

Paige Shaw Introduction lecture information: You may have noticed that many words in Spanish and English sound and look similar. This is because many many centuries ago, the languages were different than the ones we speak now and there were fewer. Many of the languages in Europe and the Americas came from Latin. The languages that are the most closely related to Latin are called the Romance languages. Spanish is one of these. (ask if anyone can name the others) Other widely known ones are French, Portuguese, and Italian. (Does anyone know how this was figured out?) There is a whole branch of science that deals with how languages change, what kinds of changes occur and why. Scientists that study language are called linguists, and the branch of studying the history is called historical and comparative linguistics. These linguists use a method of comparing certain words in different languages to find similarities so that we can find out which language came from the same linguistic ancestors. This method is called the comparative method. In the comparative method, only certain categories of words can be compared because some similar sounding words can be due to things like new technology (computer, computadora), or could have been brought to the language later through things like trade (many names of foods). Therefore only categories such as parts of the human body, numbers 1-10, family names(daughter, father), natural phenomenon (wind, fire), and basic qualities (large, hard) should be used to compare languages. Categories such as abstract qualities, scientific terminology, commercial items, sports, and military names should not be used. This knowledge is just for better background understanding of why some languages sound similar and to provide some scientific and historical information that demonstrates the importance of language. Now lets learn some cognates!

Paige Shaw


Fecha: Cognados de Ingls y Espaol


A. Usamos muchas palabras en ingls que vienen del espaol. Ya saben muchos de estos. Animales: armadillo, pinto Edificios: adobe, patio Ropa: sombrero, chaps(chapas) Expresiones: ol, adios Comida: salsa, tortilla Palabras oestes: rodeo, lariat Geografa: canyon(can) El tiempo: hurricane(huracn) Msica/Danza: mariachi, tango Gente: amigo, hombre Nombres de lugares: Amarillo, Los Angeles, Colorado, Nevada Piensen en dos ms y adanlas a la lista (en ingls). B. Llamamos el espaol una lengua romance porque viene del latn, la lengua de los romanos. Latn tena una influencia grande en ingles tambin, entonces hay muchas palabras en espaol que parecen y/o suenan como palabras ingleses. Estos se llaman cognados. Escriben las palabras en ingls, y marquen en los que puede usar el mtodo comparativo (cuerpo humano, nmeros 1 a 10, nombres de parientes, fenmeno natural, y cualidades bsicas). 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Aplicacin ________________ Bisbol _______________ Conversar _______________ Delicioso _______________ Diente _______________

Paige Shaw

6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20.

Fabuloso ______________ Laboratorio ________________ Septiembre ________________ Arquitecto ________________ Chofer _________________ El fotgrafo _______________ Largo __________________ Fuego _______________ Futbol _______________ Medico ________________ Banana ________________ Agua _________________ Chimpanc _____________ Secretario _____________ El piloto ______________

(Ahora, escriban un prrafo de por lo menos 5 oraciones, usando los cognados.)

Paige Shaw

Spanish False Cognates

Beware of words that are not what they seem! A word that looks or sounds similar to one in English but actually has a totally different meaning is called a false cognate. Below are some of these tricky little guys.
spanish word actual English definition how to really say English version actually - la verdad es que assist/help - ayudar carpet - alfombra choke - ahogar/sofocar embarassed - avergonzado exit - salida large - grande parents - padres realize - darse cuenta record - grabar sensible - razonable, sensato support - mantener ultimately - al final vase - jarrn

actualmente asisistir carpeta chocar embarazada xito largo parientes realizar recordar sensible soportar ltimamente vaso

at present to attend folder to crash pregnant success long relatives to actualize remember sensitive put up with lately drinking glass

Paige Shaw

References Pharies, D. (2007) La genealoga del espaol. Breve historia de la lengua espaola. (21-32). Chicago: The University of Chicago Press. English Spanish Cognates http://www.esdict.com/English-Spanish-Cognates.html Spanish/English Cognates Worksheet http://dlc.k12.ar.us/sharon.fergusson/PDF/WkshtsSp1Sem1/SpI9wks1WkShts/cognates1. pdf Spanish False Cognates http://www.musicalspanish.com/tutorial/false-cognates.htm