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KINEMATICS IN TWO DIMENSIONS chapter Section 3.1 Displacement, Velocity, and Acceleration 1.

A park ranger wanted to measure the height of a tall tree. The ranger stood 9.50 m from the base of the tree; and he observed that his line of sight made an angle of 73.5 above the horizontal as he looked at the top of the tree. What is the height of the tree? (a) 5.84 m (b)11.7m (c) 8.77 m (d) 20.6 m Ans. (d)

2. A toolbox is carried from the base of a ladder at point A as shown in the figure. The toolbox comes to a rest on a scaffold 5.0 m above the ground. What is the magnitude of the displacement of the toolbox in its movement from point A to point B? (a) 19m (b) 11m (c) 8.1 m (d) 15m Ans. (d)

3. A delivery truck leaves a warehouse and travels 2.60 km north. The truck makes a right turn and travels 1.33 km east before making another right turn and then travels 1.45 km south to arrive at its destination. What is the magnitude and direction of the trucks displacement from the warehouse? (a) 2.40 km, 45.0 north of east (b) 1.15 km, 59.8 north of east (c) 1.76 km, 40.8 north of east (d) 1.33 km, 30.2 north of east Ans. (c) 4. A car travels due east at 20 m/s. It makes a turn due south and continues to travel at 20 m/s. What is the change in velocity of the car? (a) 22 m/s, due east (b) 22 m/s, due south (c) 31 m/s, 45 south of west (d) 28 m/s, 45 south of east Ans. (d) 5. A train travels due south at 60 m/s. It reverses its direction and travels due north at 60 m/s. What is the change in velocity of the train? (a) 120 m/s, due north (b) 120 m/s, due south (c) 60 m/s, due north (d) 60 m/s, due south Ans. (a)

6. A car travels along a highway with a velocity of 24 m/s, west. The car exits the highway; and 4.0 s later, its instantaneous velocity is 16 m/s, 45 north of west. What is the magnitude of the average acceleration of the car during the four-second interval? (a) 2.4 m/s2 (c) 1.2 m/s2 2 (b) 11 m/s (d) 4.2 m/s2 Ans. (d) 7. An electronic tracking device is placed on a police dog to monitor its whereabouts relative to the police station. At time t1 = 23 min, the dogs displacement from the station is 1.2 km, 33 north of east. At time t2 = 57 min, the dogs displacement from the station is 2.0 km, 75 north of east. Find the magnitude and direction of the dogs average velocity between these two times. (a) 0.67 m/s, 21 west of north (b) 1.4 m/s, 31 west of north (c) 1.6 m/s, 42 north of east (d) 0.52 m/s, 88 north of east Ans. (a) Questions 8 through 11 pertain to the situation described below: During a one-hour trip, a small boat travels 80.0 km north and then travels 60.0 km east. 8. What is the boat's displacement for the one-hour trip? (a) 20 km (c) 100 km (b) 140 km (d) 280 km Ans. (c) 9. What is the boat's average speed during the one-hour trip? (a) 20 km/h (c) 100 km/h (b) 140 km/h (d) 280 km/h Ans. (b) 10. What is the magnitude of the boat's average velocity for the one-hour trip? (a) 100 km/h (c) 140 km/h (b) 20 km/h (d) 10 000 km/h Ans. (a) 11. What is the direction of the boat's average velocity for the one-hour trip? (a) due east (c) 41.7 north of east (b) 36.9 north of east (d) 53.1 north of east Ans. (d) Section 3.2 Equations of Kinematics in Two Dimensions Section 3.3 Projectile Motion 12. An eagle is flying due east at 8.9 m/s carrying a gopher in its talons. The gopher manages to break free at a height of 12 m. What is the magnitude of the gophers velocity as it reaches the ground? Note: effects of air resistance are not included in this calculation. (a) 22 m/s (c) 18 m/s (b) 11 m/s (d) 9.8 m/s Ans. (b) 13. At time t = 0 s, a puck is sliding on a horizontal table with a velocity 3.00 m/s, 65.0 above the +x axis. As the puck slides, a constant acceleration acts on it that has the following components: ax = 0.460 m/s2 and ay = 0.980 m/s2. What is the velocity of the puck at time t = 1.50 s? (a) 1.83 m/s, 62.0 above the +x axis (b) 2.04 m/s, 71.3 above the +x axis (c) 1.25 m/s, 65.2 above the +x axis (d) 2.20 m/s, 55.0 above the +x axis Ans. (c)

14. An airplane traveling north at 400 m/s is accelerated due east at a rate of 50 m/s2 for 6 s. If the effects of air resistance and gravity are ignored, what is the final speed of the plane? (a) 500 m/s (c) 300 m/s (b) 400 m/s (d) 700 m/s Ans. (a) 28 Chapter 3 Kinematics in Two Dimensions Questions 15 and 16 pertain to the following situation. A spaceship is observed traveling in the positive x direction with a speed of 150 m/s when it begins accelerating at a constant rate. The spaceship is observed 25 s later traveling with an instantaneous velocity of 1500 m/s at an angle of 55 above the +x axis. 15. What was the magnitude of the acceleration of the spaceship during the 25 seconds? (a) 1.5 m/s2 (c) 28 m/s2 (b) 7.3 m/s2 (d) 57 m/s2 Ans. (d) 16. What was the magnitude of the displacement of the spaceship during the 25 seconds? (a) 1.0 104 m (c) 2.8 104 m 4 (b) 1.4 10 m (d) 2.0 104 m Ans. (d) 17. A football is kicked at an angle with respect to the horizontal. Which one of the following statements best describes the acceleration of the football during this event if air resistance is neglected? (a) The acceleration is 9.8 m/s2 at all times. (b) The acceleration is zero m/s2 at all times. (c) The acceleration is zero m/s2 when the football has reached the highest point in its trajectory. (d) The acceleration is positive as the football rises, and it is negative as the football falls. Ans. (a) 18. A baseball is hit upward and travels along a parabolic arc before it strikes the ground. Which one of the following statements is necessarily true? (a) The x-component of the velocity of the ball is the same throughout the ball's flight. (b) The velocity of the ball is zero m/s when the ball is at the highest point in the arc. (c) The acceleration of the ball is zero m/s2 when the ball is at the highest point in the arc. (d) The acceleration of the ball decreases as the ball moves upward. Ans. (a) 19. A physics student standing on the edge of a cliff throws a stone vertically downward with an initial speed of 10.0 m/s. The instant before the stone hits the ground below, it is traveling at a speed of 30.0 m/s. If the physics student were to throw the rock horizontally outward from the cliff instead, with the same initial speed of 10.0 m/s, what is the magnitude of the velocity of the stone just before it hits the ground? (a) 10.0 m/s (b) 30.0 m/s (c) 20.0 m/ (d) 40.0 m/s Ans. (b) 20. A tennis ball is thrown from ground level with velocity vo directed 30 above the horizontal. If it takes the ball 1.0 s to reach the top of its trajectory, what is the magnitude of the initial velocity? (a) 19.6 m/s (c) 11.3 m/s

(d) 4.9 m/s

Questions 21 and 22 pertain to the situation described below: A projectile is fired at an angle of 60.0 above the horizontal with an initial speed of 30.0 m/s. 21. What is the magnitude of the horizontal component of the projectile's displacement at the end of 2 s? (a) 20 m (c) 10 m (b) 40 m (d) 30 m Ans. (d) 22. How long does it take the projectile to reach the highest point in its trajectory? (a) 1.5 s (c) 2.7 s (b) 4.0 s (d) 6.2 s Ans. (c) Questions 23 through 28 pertain to the situation described below: A projectile fired from a gun has initial horizontal and vertical components of velocity equal to 30 m/s and 40 m/s, respectively. 23. Determine the initial speed of the projectile. (a) 50 m/s (c) 60 m/s (b) 40 m/s (d) 70 m/s Ans. (a) 24. At what angle is the projectile fired (measured with respect to the horizontal)? (a) 37 (c) 45 (b) 53 (d) 40 Ans. (b) 25. Approximately how long does it take the projectile to reach the highest point in its trajectory? (a) 1 s (c)8 s (b) 2 s (d) 4 s Ans. (d) 26. What is the speed of the projectile when it is at the highest point in its trajectory? (a) 0 m/s (c) 40 m/s (b) 20 m/s (d) 30 m/s Ans. (d) 27. What is the acceleration of the projectile when it reaches its maximum height? (a) 9.8 m/s2, downward (b) zero m/s2 2 (c) 4.9 m/s , downward (d) less than 9.8 m/s2 and non-zero. Ans. (a) 28. What is the magnitude of the projectile's velocity just before it strikes the ground? (a) zero m/s (c) 50 m/s (b) 9.8 m/s (d) 40 m/s Ans. (c) 29. A quarterback throws a pass at an angle of 35 above the horizontal with an initial speed of 25 m/s. The ball is caught by the receiver 2.55 seconds later. Determine the distance the ball was thrown. (a) 13 m (c) 36 m

(b) 52 m Ans. (b)

(d) 18 m

30 Chapter 3 Kinematics in Two Dimensions 30. A projectile is fired horizontally with an initial speed of 57 m/s. What are the horizontal and vertical components of its displacement 3.0 s after it is fired? Horizontal Vertical (a) 44 m 29 m (b) 170 m zero m (c) 170 m 44 (d) 210 m 44 m Ans. (c) 31. A spring-loaded gun is aimed horizontally and is used to launch identical balls with different initial speeds. The gun is at a fixed position above the floor. The balls are fired one at a time.

R If the speed of the second ball fired is twice the speed of the first ball fired, how is the horizontal range (denoted R in the figure) affected? (a) The range for both balls will be the same. (b) The range of the second ball will be half as much as that of the first ball. (c) The range of the second ball will be twice as large as that of the first ball. (d) The range of the second ball is about 1.4 times larger than that of the first ball. Ans. (c) Questions 32 through 34 pertain to the situation described below: A shell is fired with a horizontal velocity in the positive x direction from the top of an 80-m high cliff. The shell strikes the ground 1330 m from the base of the cliff. The drawing is not to scale.

32. Determine the initial speed of the shell. (a) 4.0 m/s (c) 82 m/s (b) 9.8 m/s (d) 330 m/s Ans. (d) 33. What is the speed of the shell as it hits the ground? (a) 4.0 m/s (c) 82 m/s (b) 9.8 m/s (d) 330 m/s Ans. (d) 34. What is the magnitude of the acceleration of the shell just before it strikes the ground?

(c) 82 m/s2 (d) 170 m/s2

35. An arrow is shot horizontally from a height of 4.9 m above the ground. The initial speed of the arrow is 45 m/s. Neglecting friction, how long will it take the arrow to hit the ground? (a) 9.2 s (c) 6.0 s (b) 1.0 s (d) 1.4 s Ans. (b) 36. A cannonball at ground level is aimed 30.0 above the horizontal and is fired with an initial speed of 125 m/s. How far away from the cannon will the cannonball hit the ground? (a) 125 m (c) 1380 m (b) 138 m (d) 1040 m Ans. (c) 37. A basketball is launched with an initial speed of 8.0 m/s and follows the trajectory shown. The ball enters the basket 0.96 s after it is launched. What are the distances x and y? Note: The drawing is not to scale. x y (a) 5.4 m 0.73 m (b) 5.4 m 0.91 m (c) 7.7 m 0.91 ( d) 5.7 m 0.73 m Ans. (b) 38. A puck slides across a smooth, level tabletop at height H at a constant speed vo. It slides off the edge of the table and hits the floor a distance x away as shown in the figure.

What is the relationship between the distances x and H? (a) x=v0 Ans. (a) 39. A bullet is aimed at a target on the wall a distance L away from the firing position. Because of gravity, the bullet strikes the wall a distance y below the mark as suggested in the figure. Note: The drawing is not to scale. If the distance L was half as large and the bullet had the same initial velocity, how would y be affected?
Target

2H g

v2 (b) x= 2gH

H (c) x= v0 g

v2 (d) x= 2gH

L
Bullet y

(a) y will be one fourth as large. (c) y will be four times larger. Ans. (a)

(b) y will be half as large. (d) y will double.

32 Chapter 3 Kinematics in Two Dimensions Questions 40 through 43 pertain to the statement and diagram below: A tennis ball is thrown upward at an angle from point A. It follows a parabolic trajectory and hits the ground at point D. At the instant shown, the ball is at point B. Point C represents the highest position of the ball above the ground.

40. While in flight, how do the x and y components of the velocity vector of the ball compare at the points B and C? (a) The x components are the same; the y component at C is zero m/s. (b) The velocity components are non-zero at B and zero at C. (c) The x components are the same; the y component has a larger magnitude at C than at B. (d) The x component is larger at C than at B; the y component at B points up while at C, it points downward. Ans. (a) 41. While in flight, how do the x and y components of the velocity vector of the ball compare at the points A and D? (a) The velocity components are non-zero at A and are zero m/s at D. (b) The velocity components are the same in magnitude and direction at both points. (c) The velocity components have the same magnitudes at both points, but their directions are reversed. (d) The velocity components have the same magnitudes at both points, but the directions of the y components are reversed. Ans. (d) 42. Which statement is true concerning the ball when it is at C, the highest point in its trajectory? (a) The balls velocity is perpendicular to its acceleration. (b) The balls velocity and acceleration are both zero. (c) The balls velocity is not zero, but its acceleration is zero. (d) The balls velocity is zero, but its acceleration is not zero. Ans. (a) 43. At which point is the velocity vector changing most rapidly with time? (a) A (b) B (c) It is changing at the same rate at all four points. (d) D Ans. (c) Questions 44 through 46 refer to the statement below: A football is kicked with a speed of 18 m/s at an angle of 65 to the horizontal.

44. What are the respective horizontal and vertical components of the initial velocity of the football? (a) 13 m/s, 8.4 m/s (c) 8.4 m/s, 13 m/s (b) 16 m/s, 7.6 m/s (d) 7.6 m/s, 16 m/s Ans. (d) 45. How long is the football in the air? Neglect air resistance. (a) 1.1 s (c) 3.3 s (b) 1.6 s (d) 2.0 s Ans. (c) 46. How far does the football travel horizontally before it hits the ground? (a) 18 m (c) 36 m (b) 25 m (d) 48 m Ans. (b) Questions 47 and 48 pertain to the situation described below: A rock is kicked horizontally at a speed of 10 m/s from the edge of a cliff. The rock strikes the ground 55 m from the foot of the cliff of height H as suggested in the figure, which is not drawn to scale. Neglect air resistance. 55 m 10 m/s H

47. How long is the rock in the air? (a) 1.0 s (c) 3.4 s (b) 5.5 s (d) 1.2 s Ans. (b) 48. What is the approximate value of H, the height of the cliff? (a) 150 m (c) 27 m (b) 54 m (d) 300 m Ans. (a) Questions 49 through 51 refer to the statement below: A projectile is fired horizontally with an initial speed of 50.0 m/s. Neglect air resistance. 49. What is the magnitude of the displacement of the projectile 3.00 s after it is fired? (a) 29.4 m (c) 156 m (b) 44.1 m (d) 150 m Ans. (c) 50. What is the speed of the projectile 3.00 s after it is fired? (a) 58.0 m/s (c) 29.4 m/s (b) 50.0 m/s (d) 79.4 m/s Ans. (a) 51. What is the magnitude of the acceleration of the projectile 3.00 s after it is fired? (a) 9.8 m/s2 (c) 29.4 m/s2 (b) 16.6 m/s2 (d) 5.42 m/s2 Ans. (a)

52. A motorcycle has a velocity of 15 m/s, due south as it passes a car with a velocity of 24 m/s, due north. What is the magnitude and direction of the velocity of the motorcycle as seen by the driver of the car? (a) 9 m/s, north (b) 9 m/s, south (c) 15 m/s, north (d) 39 m/s, south Ans. (d) 34 Chapter 3 Kinematics in Two Dimensions 53. A tennis ball is thrown vertically with an initial speed of 20.0 m/s at time t = 0 s. Approximately, what is the initial speed of the ball relative to an observer in a car that moves horizontally past the launch location with a constant speed of 30 m/s? (a) 10 m/s (c) 36 m/s (c) 20 m/s (d) 30 m/s Ans. (c) Questions 54 and 55 pertain to the statement below: A football is kicked with a speed of 22 m/s at an angle of 60.0 relative to the positive x direction. At that instant, an observer rides past the football in a car that moves with a constant speed of 11 m/s in the positive x direction. 54. Determine the initial velocity of the ball relative to the observer in the car. (a) 11 m/s in the +y direction (b) 19 m/s in the +y direction (c) 19 m/s at 60 to the +x direction (d) 33 m/s at 60 to the +x direction Ans.(b) 55. Complete the following statement: According to the observer in the car, the ball will (a) follow a parabolic path. (b) follow a path that is straight up and down in the y direction. (c) follow a hyperbolic path. (d) follow a path that is straight across in the +x direction. Ans. (b) Questions 56 and 57 pertain to the situation described below: Two cars approach each other on a straight and level road. Car A is traveling at 75 km/h, due north and car B is traveling at 45 km/h, due south. Both velocities are measured relative to the ground.

56. What is the velocity of car A relative to an observer in car B? (a) 75 km/h, north (c) 120 km/h, north (b) 30 km/h, north (d) 120 km/h, south Ans. (c) 57. At a certain instant, the distance between the cars is 15 km. How long will it take from that instant for the two cars to meet? (a) 720 s (c) 450 s (b) 900 s (d) 1200 s Ans. (c) 58. A ferry can travel at an optimal speed of 8 km/h in still water measured relative to the shore. What is the optimal speed of the ferry, relative to the shore, if it moves perpendicular to a 6 km/h current? (a) 4 km/h (c) 8 km/h (b) 10 km/h (d) 14 km/h

Ans.(b) 59. A boat that can travel at 4.0 km/h in still water crosses a river with a current of 2.0 km/h. At what angle must the boat be pointed upstream (that is, relative to its actual path) to go straight across the river? (a) 30 (c) 60 (b) 27 (d) 63 Ans. (a) Questions 60 and 61 pertain to the situation described below: A man at point A directs his rowboat due north toward point B, straight across a river of width 100 m. The river current is due east. The man starts across, rowing steadily at 0.75 m/s and reaches the other side of the river at point C, 150 m downstream from his starting point.

60. What is the speed of the river? (a) 0.38 m/s (c) 6.7 m/s (b) 0.67 m/s (d) 1.1 m/s Ans. (d0 61. While the man is crossing the river, what is his velocity relative to the shore? (a) 2.00 m/s, 56 north of east (b) 1.35 m/s, 34 north of east (c) 1.74 m/s, 34 north of east (d) 2.11 m/s, 34 north of east Ans. (b) 62. Two cars A and B approach each other at an intersection. Car A is traveling south at 20 m/s, while car B is traveling east at 17 m/s. What is the velocity of car A as described by the passengers in car B? (a) 37 m/s, eastward (b) 26 m/s, 40 south of east (c) 26 m/s, 50 south of east (d) 26 m/s, 50 south of west Ans. (d) 63. A passenger at rest on a flatbed train car fires a bullet straight up. The event is viewed by observers at rest on the station platform as the train moves past the platform with constant velocity. What is the trajectory of the bullet as described by the observers on the platform? (a) a straight horizontal path in the direction of the train's velocity (b) a straight vertical path up and down (c) a circular path centered on the gun (d) a parabolic path Ans. (d) 64. Airplane One flies due east at 250 km/h relative to the ground. At the same time, Airplane Two flies 325 km/h, 35 north of east relative to the ground. What is the velocity of Airplane One relative to Airplane Two?

(a) 16 km/h, due west (b) 270 km/h, due north (c) 190 km/h, 85 south of west (d) 170 km/h, 15 north of east Ans. (c)S WE 36 Chapter 3 Kinematics in Two Dimensions 65. A police car is in pursuit of a stolen pickup truck. At one instant, the car has a speed of 34 m/s and is 164 m behind the truck. At the same time, the truck has a speed of 32 m/s. If neither vehicle accelerates, how long will it take the police to catch up to the truck? (a) 4.8 s (b) 24 s Ans. (c) (c) 82 s (d) 51 s

66. A bicyclist is riding at a constant speed along a straight-line path. The rider throws a ball straight up to a height a few meters above her head. Ignoring air resistance, where will the ball land? (a) behind the rider (b) in the same hand that threw the ball (c) in front of the rider (d) in the opposite hand to the one that threw it Ans. (b) 67. A basketball player is running at a constant speed of 2.5 m/s when he tosses a basketball upward with a speed of 6.0 m/s. How far does the player run before he catches the ball? Ignore air resistance. (a) 6.0 m (b) 4.5 m (c) 7.5 m (d) 3.1 m 68. A ball is fired at an angle of 45, the angle that yields the maximum range in the absence of air resistance. What is the ratio of the balls maximum height to its range? (a) 1.0 (c) 0.25 (b) 0.75 (d) 0.50 Ans. (c)