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.~~!an BASIS Building OF DESIGN CodeStandard AND

ACTIONS

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STRUCTURES

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Ministryof Works& UrbanDevelopment


Addis Ababa, Ethiopia

1995

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Ministry of Works & Urban Development

Addis Ababa,Ethiopia 1995

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EBCS-1
BASIS OF DESICN AND ACTIONS ON STRUCTURES
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Project Council Members Abashawl Woldemariam (Chairman) Almayehu Gizawt Bekele Meknonnen Negussie Tebedge Siefu Birke Wouhib Kebede Technical Committee Members Bekele Mekonnen (Secretary) Assefa Desta Negussie Tebedge

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Editor Prof.NegussieTebedge

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FOREWORD
The Proclamationto define the powers and duties of the Central and Regional Executive Organsof the Transitional Governmentof Ethiopia No. 41/1993 empowersthe Ministry of Works and Urban Developmentto preparethe Country's Building Code, issue Standardsfor designand constructionworks, and follow up and supervisethe implementationof same. In exerciseof thesepowers and in dischargeof its responsibility,the Ministry is issuing a series of Building Code Standards of generalapplication. The purpose of these standards is to serve as nationally recognized documents, the application of which is deemedto ensurecomplianceof buildings with the minimum requirements for design, constructionand quality of materials set down by the National Building Code.

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-professional -consideration

The major benefits to be gained in applying these standardsare the harmonization of practice and the ensuringof appropriatelevels of safety, healthand economywith due of the objective conditions and needsof the country.

As these standardsare technical documentswhich, by their very nature, require periodic updating, revised editions will be issuedby the Ministry from time to time as appropriate. The Ministry welcomescommentsand suggestions on all aspectof the Ethiopian Building Code Standards. All feedbackreceived will be carefully reviewed by professionalexperts in the field of building construction with a view to possible incorporation of amendmentsin future editions.

Haile Assegidie Minister Ministry of Works and Urban Development 1995

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-CHAPTER 1 -BASIS

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T ABLE OF CONTENTS
OF DESIGN 1 -Ii
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1.1

INTRODUCTION 1.1.1 Scope 1.1.2 Assumptions 1.1.3 Definitions 1.1.4 Symbols REQUIREMENTS 1.2.1 Fundamental Requirements 1.2.2 Reliability Differentiation 1.2.3 Design Situations 1.2.4 Design Working Life 1.2.5 Durability 1.2.6 Quality Assurance LIMIT STATES 1.3.1 General 1.3.2 Ultimate Limit States ServiceabilityLimit States Limit StateDesign ACTIONS AND ENVIRONMENTAL INFLUENCES CharacteristicValues of Actions 1.4.3 Other Representative Values of Variable and AccidentalActions 1.4.4 EnvironmentalInfluences

1 1 1 2 6 9 9 9 10 11 11 12 12 12 12 12 13 13 14 15 16 16 17 17 17 17 18 18 18 18 19 20 20 20 21 21 21 22 22

1.2

1.3

-1.3.3 -1.3.4 -1.4 -1.4.2

1.5 1.6 1.7

MATERIAL PROPERTIES GEOMETRICAL DATA MODELLING FOR STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS AND RESISTANCE 1.7.1 General 1.7.2 Modelling in the Case of Static Actions 1.7.3 Modelling in the Case of Dynamic Actions DESIGN ASSISTED BY TESTING 1.8.1 General 1.8.2 Types of Tests 1.8.3 Derivation of DesignValues VERIFICATION BY THE PARTIAL SAFETY FACTOR METHOD 1.9.1 General 1.9.2 Limitations and Simplifications 1.9.3 DesignValues 1.9.3.1 Design Values ofActions 1.9.3.2" Design Values of the Effects ofActions 1.9.3.3 Design Valuesof Material Properties 1.9.3.4 Design Values of GeometricalData

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1.9.3.5 DesignResistance 1.9.4 Ultimate Limit States 1.9.4.1 Verifications of StaticEquilibrium and Strength 1.9.4.2 Combination ofActions 1.9.4.3 Partial SafetyFactors 1.9.4.4 ' Factors 1.9.4.5 Simplified Verification for Building Structures 1.9.4.6 PartialSafetyFactorsforMaterials 1.9.5 ServiceabilityLimit States 1.9.5.1 Verification ofServiceability 1.9.5.-3 Partial SafetyFactors 1.9.5.4 ' Factors 1.9.5.5 Simplified Verificationfor Building Structures 1.9.5.() Partial Safety Factors for Materials 22 23 23 23 25 27 27 27 28 28 29 29 29 29 ~

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CHAPTER 2 -ACTION ON STRUCTURES-DENSITIES, SELF-WEIGHT AND IMPOSED LOADS 31 2.1 GENERAL 2.1.1 Scope CLASSIFICATION OF ACTIONS 2.2.1 Self-Weight 2.2.2 ImposedLoads DESIGN SITUATIONS 2.3.1 General 2.3.2 Self-Weight 2.3.3 ImposedLoads DENSITIES OF BUILDING MATERIALS AND STOREDMATERIALS 2.4.1 Definitions 2.4.2 Tables SELF-WEIGHT OF CONSTRUCTIONELEMENTS 2.5.1 Representation of Actions 2.5.2 Load Arrange~ents 2.5.3 Self-Weight-Characteristic Values 2.5.3.1 Assessment ofSelf-Weight IMPOSED LOADS ON BUILDINGS 2.6.1 Representation of Actions 2.6.2 Load Arrangements 2.6.2.1 Horizontal Members 2.6.2.2 VerticalMembers 2.6.3 ImposedLoads-Characteristic Values 2.6.3.1 Residential,Social,Commercialand AdministrationArea 2.6.3.2 Garageand VehicleTraffic Areas -2.6.3.3 Areasfor Storageand Industrial Activities 2.6.3.4 Roofs 31 31 31 31 32 32 32 32 32 32 32 33 41 41 42 42 42 43 43 44 44 44 44 44 46 48 48

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-2.6.4 Horizontal Loads on Partition Walls and Barriers due to Persons CHAPTER 3 -WIND ACTIONS 3.2 3.3 3.4 CLASSIFICATION OF ACTIONS DESIGN SITUATIONS' REPRESENTATION OF ACTIONS 3.4.1 Expansionof the Wind Actions and the Response of the Structures 3.4.2 Modelling of Wind Actions WIND PRESSUREON SURFACES 3.5.1 Field of Application 3.5.2 External Pressure 3.5.3 Internal Pressure 3.5.4 Net Pressure WIND FORCES 3.6.1 Wind Forcesfrom Pressures 3.6.2 Friction Force REFERENCE WIND 3.7.1 ReferenceWind Pressure 3.7.2 ReferenceWind Velocity 3.7.3 Annual Probabilitiesof Exceedence other than 0.02 WIND PARAMETER Mean Wind Velocity 3.8.2 Roughness Coefficient 3.8.3 Terrain Categories 3.8.4 TopographyCoefficient 3.8.5 Exposure Coefficient CHOICE OF PROCEDURES 3.9.1 General 3.9.2 Criteria for the Choice 3.9.3 Dynamic Coefficient for GustWind Response 3.9.4 Vortex Shedding,AeroelasticInstability and Dynamic InterferenceEffects 3.9.4.1 General 3.9.4.2 Field of Application 49 51 51 51 51 51 52 52 52 53 53 53 53 53 54 55 55 55 56 57 57 57 57 58 60 61 61 61 61 67 67 67 69 69 69 69 70 71 73 75 78

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Appendix A -Aerodynamic Coefficients A.1 A.2 GENERAL BUILDINGS A.2.1 General A.2.2 Vertical Walls of Rectangular Plan Buildings A.2.3 Flat roofs A.2.4 Monopitch Roofs A.2.5 Duopitch Roofs A.2.6 Hipped Roofs

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A.2.7 MufrispanRoofs A.2.8 Vaulted Roofs and Domes A.3 A.4 CANOPY ROOFS FREE-STANDING BOUNDARY WALLS, FENCES AND SIGNBOARDS ,A.4.1 Solid BoundaryWalls A.4.2 PressureCoefficientsfor PorousFences A.4.3 Signboards STRUCTURAL ELEMENTS WITH RECTANGULAR SECTIONS STRUCTURAL ELEMENTS WITH SHARPEDGED SECTION STRUCTURAL ELEMENTS WITH REGULAR POLYGONAL SECTION CIRCULAR CYLINDERS A.8.1 ExternalPressureCoefficients A.8.2 Force Coefficients 78 80 84 88 88 90 90 91 91 94 95 95 97 .

A.5 A.6 A.7 A.8

A.9 A.IO A.II A.12

SPHERES 98 LATTICE STRUCTURESAND SCAFFOLDINGS 99 FRICTION COEFFICIENTS CFR 100 EFFECTIVE SLENDERNESS)' AND SLENDERNESSREDUCTION FACTOR Vt>. 102

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1.1.1

INTRODUCTION
Scope

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(1) This Chapter establishesthe principl~s and requirements for safety lli'1dserviceability of structures, describes the basis for design and verification ar.d gives guidelin=s for related aspects of structural reliability .f~t~

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(2) This Chapter provides the basis and general principles for the structural design of buildings and civil engineering wor~s including geotecfillical ~spectsand sh~ll b~ ~sed in conjunc.tion w~th the ,ot~er parts of EBCS 1. This Chapter relates to all CIrcumstancesm "whIcha structure IS requIred to give adequateperformance, including fir~ and seismic events. (3) This Chapter may al~o be used as a ?asis for .the design of s(ructures not c.overed in EBCS 2 t.:) 8 and where other matenals or other a:::tl0nsoutsIde the scope of EBCS 1 are mvol'/ed. (4) This Chapter is also applic~ble to stTUctural.desig~for the execu~ionstage and structural design temporary structures, provided that approprIate adjustments outside the scope of ENV 1991 are

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This Chapter also gives some simplified methods of verification w}-Jchare applicable to buildings and other common construction works. (6) Design procedures .lnd data relevant to the design of bridges and other construction works which are not completely covered in this Chapter may be obtained from other Chapters ,)f EBCS 1 ami oth,:;r relevant Eurocodes. (7) This Chapter is not directly intended for the structural appraisal of existing construction in developing the design of repairs and alterations or assessingchanges of use but may be so used where applicable. (8) This Chapter does not completely cover the design of special construction works which require unusual reliability considerations, such as nuclear structures, for which specific design procedures
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(9). This Chapter does not completely cover the design of structures where deformations modip} direct actions. .1.1.2 -The ~~. -(b) Assumptions following assumptions apply: (a) The. choice of the ~tructural sysrem and the design of a structure is made by appropriately qualIfied and expenenced personnel. Execution is carried out by personnel having the appropriate skill and experience.

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(c) Adequatesupervisionand quality control is provided during executionof the work, i.e. in designoffices, factories, plants arid on site. (d) The construction materialsandproductsareusedasspecifiedin this Codeor in ENVs EBCS 2 to 8 or in the relevantsupportingmaterialor productspecifications. (e) The structurewill be adequately maintained. (f) The structure will be used in accordance with the designassumptions. (g) Design proceduresare valid only when the requirements for the materials, executionand , workmanshipgiven in EBCS 2 to 8 are also compliedwith. 1.1.3 Definitions

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(1) Unless otherwisestatedin the following, the terminologyused in the InternationalStandard ISO 8930:1987is adopted. Note: Most definitions are reproducedfrom ISO 8930:1987. (2) The following terms are used in cornmonfor EBCS 1 to 8 with the following meaning: (a) Construction Works: Everythingthatis constructed or resultsfrom construction operations. This definition accords with ISO 6707: Part 1. The term covers both building and civil engineering works. It refers to the completeconstruction works comprisingstructural, III structuraland geotechnical elements. (b) Type of building or civil engineeringworks: Type of construction works designating its intendedpurpose,e.g dwelling house, retainingwall, industrialbuilding, road bridge. (c) Type of construction: Indication of principal structuralmaterial, e.g. reinforcedconcrete construction, steelconstruction,timber construction,masonryconstruction,compositesteel and concreteconstruction. (d) Method of construction: Manner in which the executionwill be carried out, e.g. cast in place, prefabricated,cantilevered. (e) Construction material: Material used in construction work, e.g. concrete,steel, timber, masonry.II (t) Structure: Organizedcombinationof connected partsdesigned to provide somemeasu.eof.rigidity. ISO 6707: Part 1 gives the same definition but adds It or a constructionworks having such an arrangement". (g) Form of structure: The arrangement of structuralelements,suchas beam, column, arch, foundationpiles. Forms of structureare, for example,frames, suspension bridges. (h) Structural system: The load-bearing elementsof a building or civil engineering works and the way in which theseelementsfunction together. (i:) Structural model: The idealizationof the structuralsystem usedfor the purposes of analysis and design. (j) Execution: The activity of creatinga building or civil engineering works. The term covers work on site; it may also signify the fabricationof components off site and their subsequent erectionon site.
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Special terms relating to design in general are: (a) Design criteria: The quantitative formulations ~'hich describe for each limit state the conditions to be fulfilled. (b) Design situations: Those sets of physical conditions representing a certain time interval for which the design will demonstrate that relevant limit states are not exceeded. (c) Transient ~esign si~ati~n: Design situation which .is relevan~during a ~e:iod much shorter that the desIgn working lIfe of the structure and WhIChas a hIgh probabIlIty of occurrence. It refers to temporary conditions of the structure, of use, or exposure, e.g. during construction or repair. (d) Persistent design situation: Design situation which is relevant duri?g a period of the same order as the design working life of the structure. Generally it refers to conditions of normal use
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(e) Accidental design situation: Design situation involving exceptional conditions of the structure or its exposure, e.g. fire, explosion, impact or local failure. (I) Design working life: The assumedperiod for which a structure is to be used for its intended purpose with anticipated maintenance but without substantial repair being necessary. .-(g) ..dimensions.
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Hazard: Exceptionally unusual and severe event, e.g. an abnormal action or environmental influence, insufficient strength or resistance, or excessive deviation form intended

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(h) L,oad'arrangement:

Identification of the position, magnitude and direction of a free action.

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(i) Load case: Compatible load arrangements, sets of deformations and imperfections considered simultaneously with fixed variable actions and permanent actions for a particular verification. (j) Limit states: Statesassociatedwith collapse, or with other similar forms of structural failure. They generally correspond to the maximum load-carrying resistance of a structure or structural part.

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(k) Ultimate limit states: States associated with collapse, or with other similar forms of structural failure. They generally correspond to the maximum load-carr)ing resistance of a structure or structural part. (I) Serviceability limit states: States which correspond to conditions beyond v,.hich specified service requirements for a structure or structural element are no longer met.

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(m) Irreversible serviceability limit states: Limit stateswhich will remain permanently exceeded when the responsible actions are removed. (n) Reversible serviceability limit states: responsible actions are removed. Limit states which will not be exceeded when the

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(0) Resistance: Mechanical property of a component, a cross-section, or a member of a structure, e.g. bending resistance, buckling resistance. .1 1995 3

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ETHIOPIAN BUILDING CODE STANDARD FOR LOADING (p) Maintenance: The total set of activities perfoqned during the working life of the strucrllre to preserve its function. (q) Strength: (r) Reliability: Mechanical property of a ffiCl.terial, usually given in units of stress. Reliability covers safety, serviceability and durability of a structure. .-

(4) 'Terms Telating to actions are (a) Action:I (i) Force (load) applied to the structure (direct action)I (ii) An imposed or constrained deformation or an imposed acceleration caused for example, by temperature changes, moisture variation, uneven settlement or earthquakes (indirect action). (b) Action effect: stress, strain. (c) Pennanent action (G): A.ction which is likely to act throughout a given design situation and for which the variation in magnitude with time is negligible in relation to the mean value, or for which the variation is always in the same direction (monotonic) until the action attains a certain limit value. (d) Variable action (Q): Action, which is unlikely to act throughout a given design situatior'" or for which the variation in magnitude with time is neither negligible in relation to the mean value nor monotonic. (e) Accidental action (A) Action, usually of short duration, which is unlikely to occur with a significant magnitude over the period of tirrie under consideration during the design working life. An accidental action can b~ expected in many casesto causesevere consequencesunless special measures are taken. (I) Seismic action (AJ: Action which arises due to earthquake ground motions. The effect of actions on structural members, e.g.. internal force, moment,

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(g) Fixed action: Action which may has a fixed distribution over the structure such that the magnitude and direction of the action are determined unambiguously for the whole structure if this magnitude and direction are determined at one point on the structure. (h) Free action: Action which may have any spatial distribution over the structure within given

limits.
(i) (j) Single action: Static action: Action that can be assumedto be statistically independent in time and space Action which does not cause significant acceleration of the structure or ~ -f

of any other action acting on the structure.

structural members. (k) Dynamic action: members. Action which causes significant acceleration of the structure or structural

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(I) Quasi-static action: Dynamic action that can be described by static models in which the dynamic effects are included. (m) Representative value of an action: Value used for the verification of a limit state. (n) Characteristic. value of an action: The principal representative value of an action. In so far as this characteristic value can be fixed on statistical bases, it is chosen so as to correspond to a prescribed probability of not being exceeded on the unfavourable side during a "reference period" taking into account the design working life of the structure and the duration of the design situation. (0) Reference period: See (n) above.

(p) Combination values: Values associated with the use .of combinations of actions {see (t) below to take account of a reduced probability of simultaneous occurrence of the most unfavourable values of several independent actions. (q) Frequent value of a variable action: (i) (ii) The value determined such that:

the total time, within a chosen period of time, .during which it is exceeded for a specified part, or the frequency with which it is exceeded, is limited to a giv

(r) Quasi-permanent value of a variable action: The value determined such that the total time, within a chosen period of time, during which it is exceeded is a considerable part of the chosen period of time. (s) Design value of an action F d: The value obtained by multiplying the representative value by the partial safety factor 'Y F" (t) Combination of actions: Set of design values used for the verification of the structural reliability for a limit state under the simultaneous influence of different actions.

(5) Terms relating to material properties (a) Characteristic value Xg: The value of a material property having a prescribed probability of not being attained in a hypothetical unlimited test series. This value generally correspopds to a specified fractile of the assumed statistical distribution of the particular property of the material. A nominal value is used as the characteristic value in some circumstances. (b) Design value of a material property Xd: Value obtained by dividing the characteristic value by a partial factor 'YM or, in special circumstances, by direct determination. , .: (6) Terms relating to geometrical data are: (a) Characteristic value of a geometrical property at: The value usually corresponding to the dimensions specified in the design. Where relevant, values of geometrical quantities m~y to some prescribed fractile of the statistical distribution.

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.ETHIOPIAN BUILDING CODE STANDARD FOR LOADING

(b) Design value of a geometrical property ad: Generally a nominal value. Where relevant, values of geometrical quantities may correspond to some prescribed fractile of the statistical distribution. 1.1.4 Symbols
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(1) For the purposes of this Code, the following symbols are used. The notation used is based on

ISO 3898:1987.
A
A A

accidental action
area loaded area , '

Ad Ad AEK Afr AK Art! .Cd E Ed Ed,dst Ed, sib F Fd Ffr Fk Frtp Fw G Gd Gd,in! Gd,sup Gind Gkj Gk,in/ Gk Gk,sup H I Iv KJ Lt Lu P Pd Pk Q Qd Qind

design value of an accidental action design value of seismic action characteristic seismic action area swept by the wind characteristic value of an accidental action reference area nominal value, or a function of cenain design propenies of materials effect of an action design value of effects of actions design effect of destabilizing action design effect of stabilizing actions action design value of an action resultant fri~tion force characteristic value of an action representative value of an action resultant wind force permanent action design value of a permanent action lower design value of a permanent action upper design value of a permanent action indirect permanent action characteristic value of permanent action j lower characteristic value of a permanent action characteristic value of a permanent action upper characteristic value of a permanent action height of a topographic feature imponance factor turbulence intensity shape parameter effective length of an upwind slope actual length of an upwind slope prestressing action design value of a prestressing action characteristic value of a prestressing action variable, action design value of a variable action indirect variable action

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EBCS. 1 1995

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-Qki Qk Qk Qkl R Rd Re Rk X. Xd Xk ad anom ak b CALT Cd CD1R Ce cf CJO cp -cr .ct clEM --d e g gk h k kT 1 n p qk qref r s t Vm vref w x -".
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characteristic value of the non-dominant variable action i characteristic value of a single variable action concentrated load characteristic value of the dominant variable action resistance design value of the resistance reynolds number characteristic resistance material property design value of a material property characteristic value of a material property design value of geometrical data nominal value of geometrical data characteristic dimension width offactor the structure altitude dynamic coefficient direction factor exposure coefficient force force coefficient coefficient of structures or structural elements with infinite slenderness ratio pressure coefficient roughness coefficient topography coefficient temporary factor depth of the structure, diameter eccentricity of a force or edge distance peak factor weight per unit area, or weight per ,unit length height of the structure equivalent roughness terrain factor length of a horizontal structure exponent annual probability of exceedence uniformly distributed load, or line load reference mean velocity pressure radius factor plate thickness mean wind velocity reference wind velocity wind pressure horizontal distance of the site from the top of a crest height above ground reference height for local and internal pressure
roughness length minimum height

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rETHIOPIAN BUILDING CODE STANDARD FOR LOADING

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Indices e fr i j external, exposure friction internal, mode number current number of incremental area or point of a structure

m ref,
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mean reference
vertical direction

Upper case Greek letters () <I> <I>B torsional angle upwind slope obstruction factor

Lower case Greek letters CYan 'Y 'Y 'Y A 'YF reduction coefficients bulk weight desity

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partial safety factor (safety or serviceability) partial safety factor for accidental actions partial safety factor for actions, also accounting for model uncertainties and dimensional variations 'YGA as 'YGbut for accidental design situations 'Y G partial safety factor for permanent action 'YGAj as 'YGjbut for accidental design situations 'YG.in/ partial safety factor for permanent actions in calculating lower design values 'YGj partial safety factor for permanent action j 'YG.sup partial safety factor for permanent actions in calculating upper design values 'Y M partial safety factor for a material property, also accounting for model uncertainties and dimensional variations 'Y", partial safety factor for a material property 'Y p partial safety factor for prestressing actions "(PA as 'Ypbut for accidental design situations 'YQ partial safety factor for variable actions 'Y Qi partial safety factor for variable action i 'Y rd partial safety factor associated with the uncertainty of the resistance model and the dimensional variations 'YR partial safety factor for the resistance, including uncertainties in material properties, model uncertainties and dimensional variations 'Y Rd partial safety factor associated with the uncertainty of the resistance model 'Ysd partial safety factor associated with the uncertainty of the action and/or action effect mQdel oa change made to nominal geometrical data for particular design purpose, e.g. assessmentof effective imperfection 1] conversion factor A slenderness ratio v expected frequency, Poisson ratio, kinematic viscosity ~ reduction factor p air density cf> ~ngle of repose

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-':I. Jtto -~2 V;, Jttl <p reduction factor of force coefficient for structural coefficient for combination value of a variable action coefficient for quasi-permanent value of a variable action reduction factor of force coefficient for square sections with rounded corners, coefficient for frequent value of a variable action solidity ratio :" lit ~' ~ ~ I

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1.2
1.2.1

REQUIREMENTS
F\U1damental Requirements

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(1) A structure shall be designed and executed in such a way that it will, during its intended life with appropriate degrees of reliability and in an economic way:
If:

(a) remain fit for the use for which it is required; and (b) sustain all actions and influences likely to occur during execution and use. (2) Design according to (1) above implies that due regard is given to structural safety and serviceability, including durability, in both cases. (3) A structure shall also be designed and executed in such a way that it will not be damaged by events.l~kefire, explosion, impact or consequencesof human errors, to an extent disproportionate to the ongmal cause. --(4) The potential damage shall be avoided or limited by appropriate choice of one or more of the following: (a) avoiding, eliminating or reducing the hazards which the structure may sustain; (b) selecting a structural form which has low sensitivity to the hazards considered; (c) selecting a structural form and design that can survive adequately the accidental removal of an individual element or a limited part of the structure, or the occurrence of acceptable localized damage; (d) avoiding as far as possible structural systems which may collapse without warning; (e) tying the structure together. (5) The above requirements shall be met by the choice of suitable materials, by appropriate design and detailing, and by specifying control procedures for design, production, execution and use relevant to the particular project. 1.2.2 Reliability Differentiation

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(1) The reliability required for the majority of structures shall be obtained by design and execution according to EBCS 1 to 8, and appropriate quality assurancemeasures. (2) A different level of reliability may be generally adopted: .(a) -(b) --" for structural safety; for serviceability; (3) A different level of reliability may depend on:

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,.,, ETHIOPIAN BUILDING CODE STANDARD FOR LOADING

(a) the cause and mode of failure; (b) the possible consequencesof failure in terms or risk to life, injury, potential economic losses and the level of social inconvenience; (c) the expense and procedures necessaryto reduce the risk of failure; (d) different degrees of reliability required at national, regional or local level. (4) J)ifferentiation of the required levels of reliability in relation to structural safety and serviceability may be obtained by the classification of whole structures or by the classification of structural components. (5) The required reliability relating to structural safety or serviceability may combinations of the following measures: - be achieved by suitable

(a) Measuresrelating to design:


-Serviceability requirements; -representative values of actions; -the choice of partial factors or appropriate quantities in design calculations; .consideration of durability; -consideration of the degree of robustness (structural integrity); -the ~ount and quality of preliminary investigations of soils and possible environmental influences; -the accuracy of the mechanical models used; -the stringency of the detailing rules. (b) Measures relating to quality assuranceto reduce the risk of hazards in: ~ . .

-gross humanerrors;
-design; -execution. (6) Within individual reliability levels, the procedures to reduce risks associatedwith various potential causes of failure may, in certain circumstances, be interchanged to a limited extent. An increase of effort within one type of measure may be considered to compensate for a reduction of effort within another type. 1.2.3 Design Situations

(1) The circumstances il'l which the structure may be required to fulfil its function shall be considered and the relevant design situations selected. The selected design situations shall be sufficiently severe and so varied as to encompass all conditions which can reasonably be foreseen to occur during the execution and use of the structure. (2) Design situations are classified as follows: (a) persistent situations, wh~ch refer to the conditions of normal use; (b) transient situations, which refer to temporary conditions applicable to the structure, e.g. during execution or repair; (c) accidental situations, which refer to exceptional conditions applicable to the structure or to its exposure, e.g. to .fire, explosion, impact; (d) seismic situations, which refer to exceptional conditions applicable to the structure when subjected to seismic events. ", ~.

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-

(3) Information for specific situations for each class is given in other Parts of EBCS 1 to 8, 1.2.4 Design Working Life

(1) The design working life is the assumedperiod for which a structure is to be used for its intended purpose with anticipated maintenance but without major repair being necessary, (2) An indication of the required design working life is given in Table 1.1. Table 1.1 Design Working Life Classification Class 1 2 Required Design W k or mg I lie (years)
"

'.

Examples
Temporary structure Replaceable structural parts, e.g gantry girders, bearings ,

1-5 25,

3 4

50 100

Building structures 3.'1dother common struc-

tures
Monumental building structures, bridges, and other civil engineering structures 1.2.5 -.(1) Durability "

It is an assumption in design that the durability of a structure or part of it in its environment is such that it remains fit for use during the design working life given appropriate maintenance. (2) The structure should be designed in such a way that deterioration should not impair the durability and performance of the structUre having due regard to the anticipated level of maintenance. (3) The following interrelated factors shall be considered to ensure an adequately durable structure: (a) (1) (c) (d) (e) (f) (g) (h) (i) the intended and possible future use of the structure; the required performance criteria; the expected environmental influences; the composition, properties and performance of the materials; the choice of the structural system; the shape of members and the structural detailing; the quality of workmanship, and level of control; the particular protective measures; the maintenance during the intended life.

.
-(5) -.'

(4) The relevant EBCS 2 to 8 specify the appropriate measures, The environmental conditions shall be appraised at the design stage to assesstheir significance in relation to durability and to enable adequateprovisions to be made for protection of the materials and products.

EBCS -1

1995

11

I
j f

ETHIOPIAN BUILDING CODE STANDARD

FOR LOADING

(6) The degree of deterioration may be -estimated on the basis of calculations, experimental investigation, experience from earlier constructions, or a combination of these considerations. 1.2.6 Quality Assurance

: j

(1) It is assumed that appropriate quality assurancemeasuresare taken in order to provide a structure which' corresponds to the requirements and to the assumptionsmade in the design. These ll',easures comprise definition of the reliability requirements, organizational measuresand controls at the stages of design, execution, use and maintenance. 1.3
1.3.1

l' ~ J

LIMIT
General

STATES
'

;
;\

",

(1) Limit states are states beyond which the structure no longer satisfies the design performance requirements. (2) In general, a distinction is made between ultimate limit states and serviceability limit states. Verification of one of the two limit states may be omitted if sufficient irJormation is available to prove that the requirements of one limit state are met by the other. (3) Limit states may relate to persistent, transient or accidental desigil situations. 1.3.2 Ultimate Limit States . ~

(1) Ultimate limit states are those associated with collapse or with other similar forms of structural failure.

(2) States prior to structural collapse, which, for simplicity, are considered in place of the collapse itself are also treated as ultimate limit states. (3) Ultimate limit states concern:! (a) the safety of the structure and it contents; (b) the safety of people. (4) Ultimate limit states which may require consideration include: (a) loss of equilibrium of the structure or any part of it, considered as a rigid body; (b) failure by excessive deformation, transformation of the structure or any part of it into a mechanism, rupture, loss of stability of the structure or any part of it, including supports and (c) failure caused by fatigue or other time-dependenteffects. 1.3.3 Serviceability Limit States .

foundations;

(1) Serviceability limit states correspond to conditions beyond which specified service requirements for a structure or structural element are no longer met. ~- -.-

12

EBCS -1

1995

-.
CHAPTER 1: BASIS OF DESIGN .(2) The serviceability requirements concern: (a) the functioning of the construction works or parts of them; (b) the comfort of people;

(c) the appearance.


(3) A distinction shall be made, if relevant, between reversible and irreversible serviceability limit

states.
(4) Unless specified otherwise, the serviceability requirements should be determined in contracts and/or in the design. (5) Serviceability limit states which may require consideration include: (a) deformations and displacements which affect the appearanceor effective use of the structure (including the functioning of machines or services) or cause damage to finishes or nonstructural elements; (b) vibrations which cause discomfort to people, damage to the structure or to the materials it supports, or which limit its functional effectiveness;. (c) damage (including cracking) which is likely to affect appearance, durability or the function of the structure adversely; (d) Observable damage caused by fatigue and other time-dependent effects. ~ .(1) 1.3.4 Linlit State Design

Limit state design shall be carried out by: (a) setting up structural and load models for relevant ultimate and serviceability limit states to be considered in the various design situations and load cases; (b) verifying that the limit states are not exceeded when design values for actions, material properties and geometrical data are used in the models. (2) Design values are generally obtained by using the characteristic or representative values in combination with partial and other factors as defined in EBCS 1 to 8. (3) In exceptional cases, it may be appropriate to determine design values directly. The values should be chosen cautiously and should correspond to at least the same degree of reliability for the various limit states as implied in the partial factors in this Code. 1.4 1.4.1 ACTIONS AND ENVIRONMENTAL Principal Classifications INFLUENCES

(1) An action (F) is: -(a) .caused, a direct action, i.e. force (load) applied to the structure; or (b) an indirect action, i.e. an imposed or constrained deformation or an imposed acceleration for example by temperature changes, moisture variation, uneven settlement or

-.earthquakes. (2) Actions are classified:

EBCS -1

1995

13

i
i.

ETHIOPIAN BUILDING CODE STANDARD

FOR LOADING

(a) by their variation in time: (i) (ii) (iii) permanent actions (G), e.g. self-weight of structures, fixed equipment and road surfacings; variable actions (Q), e.g. imposed loads, wind loads or snow loads; accidental actions (A), e.g. explosions, or impact from vehicles.

(b) by their spatial variation: (i) fixed actions, e.g. self-weight; (ii) free actions, e.g. movable imposed loads, wind loads, snow loads. (c) by their nature and/or the structural response: (i) (ii) static actions, which do not cause significant acceleration of the structure or structural

member;

dynamic actions, which cause significant acceleration of the structure or structural

member.
(3) In many cases, dynamic effects of actions may be calculated from quasi-static actions by increasing the magnitude of the static actions or by the introduction of an equivalent static action. (4) Some actions, for example seismic actions and snow loads, can be considered as either accidental and/or variable actions, depending on the site location (see other Parts of ENV 1991). (5) Prestressing (P) is a permanent action. Detailed information is given in EBCS 2,3 and 4. 1 ~ (6) Indirect actions are either permanent Gind, (e.g. settlement of support), or variable Qind, (e.g. temperature effect). and should be treated accordingly. (7) An action is described by a model, its magnitude being represented in the most common casesby one scalar which may take on several representative values. For some actions (multi-component actions) and some verifications (e.g. for static equilibrium) the magnitude is represented by several values. For fatigue verifications and dynamic analysis a more complex representation of the magnitudes of some actions may be necessary. 1.4.2 Characteristic Values of Actions

(1) The characteristic value of an action is its main representative value. (2) Characteristic value of actions F K shall be specified: (a) in the relevant parts of ENV 1991, as a mean value, an upper or lower value, or a nominal value (which does not refer to a known statististical distribution); (b) in the design, provided that the provisions, specified in EBCS 1 are observed. Note: The provisions may be specified by the relevant competent authority. (3) The characteristic value of a permanent action shall be determined as follows: (a) if the variability of G is small, one single value GK may be used;~

14

EBCS-1 1995

t
-.~r CHAPTER 1: BASIS OF DESIGN "

.(b)

if the variability of G is not small, two values have to be used; an upper value GK,sup and a lower value GK.inf' (4) In most cases the variability of G can be assumed to be small if G does not vary significantly during the design working life of the structure and its coefficient of variation is not greater than 0.1. However in such cases when the structure is very sensitive to variations in G (e.g. some types of prestressed concrete structures), two values have to be used even if the coefficient of variation is

small.
{5) The following may be assumed in most cases: (a) Gkis the mean value (b) GkinfS the 0.5 fractile, and Gksup is the 0.95 fractile of the statistical; distribution for G which may be assumed to be Gaussian. (6) The self-weight of the structure can, in most cases, be represented by a single characteristic value and be calculated on the .basis of the nominal dimensions and mean unit masses. The values are given in Chapter 2. (7) For variable actions the characteristic value (Q~)corresponds to either. (a) an upper value with an intended probability of not being exceeded or a lower value with an probability of not falling below, during some reference period; a nominal value which may be specified in caseswhere a statistical distribution is not known.

.intended -(b) ~.

Values are given in Chapter 2 a.'1d3 (8) The following may be assumed for the time-varying part for most casesof characteristic values of variable actions: (a} the intended probability is 0.98; (b) the reference period is one year. However in some casesthe character of the action makes another reference period more appropriate. In addition, design values for other variables within the action model may have to be chosen, which may influence the probability of being exceeded for the resulting total action. (9) Actions caused by water should nonnally be based on water levels and include a geometrical parameter to aiiovi for fluctuation of water level. Tides, currents and waves should be taken into account where relevant. (10) For accidental actions the representative value is generally a characteristic value Ak corresponding to a specified value. :

,. \ r I I

(11) Values of AEdfor seismic actions are given in EBCS 8. (12) For multi-component actions (see Section 1.4.1 (7) the characteristic action is represented by groups of values, to be considered alternatively in design calculations. 1.4.3 Other Representative Values of Variable and Accidental Actions

(1) ill the most common casesthe other representative values of a variable action are:

EBCS-1

1995 1 5

.ETHIOPIAN BUILDING CODE STANDARD -""_"6~ --~FOR LOADING

(a) combination value generally represented a product: 'l' 0 Qk (b) the the frequent value generally represented as aas product:'l' I Qk; . (c) the quasi-permanent value generally represented as a product:'l'2 Qk (2) Combination values are associated with the use of combinations of actions, to take account of a reduced probability of simultaneous occurrence of the most unfavourable values of several inde{)endentactions. (3) The frequent value is determined such that: (a) the total time, within a chosen period of time, during which it is exceeded for a specified" part, or (b) the frequency with which it is exceeded,
j ..

is limited to a given value. (4~ !he part of the chosen period of time .or the frequenc~, mentioned in (3) above should be c~osen wltfi due regard to the type of constructIon works consIdered and the purpose of the calculatIons. Unless other values are specified the part may be chosen to be 0.05 or the frequency to be 300 per year for ordinary buildings. (5) The quasi-permanent value is so determined that the total time, within a chosen period of time, during which it is exceeded is a considerable part of the chosen period of time. (6) The part of the chosen period of time, mentioned in (5) above, may be chosen to be 0.5. The quasi-permanent value may also be determined as the value averaged over the chosen period of time. (7) These representative values and the characteristic value are used to define the design values of the actions and the combinations of actions as explained in section 9. The combination values are used for the verification of ultimate limit states and irreversible serviceability limit states. The frequent values and quasi-permanent values are used for the verification of ultimate limit states involving accidental actions and for the verification of reversible serviceability iimit states. The quasipermanent values are also used for the calculation of long term effects of serviceability limit states. More detailed rules concerning the use of representative values are given, for example, in EBCS 2 ,I

,;

.
.

to 8
(8) For some structures or some actions other representative values or other types of description of actions may be required, e.g. the fatigue load and the number of cycles when fatigue is considered. 1.4.4 Environmental Influences

The environmental influences which may affect the durability of the structure shall be considered in the choice of structural materials, their specification, the structural concept and detailed design. The EBCS 2 to 8 specify the relevant measures.

1.5

MATERIALPROPERTIES
;

.
~. \.:-

(1) Properties of materials (including soil and rock) or products are represented by characteristic values which correspond to the value of the property having a prescribed probability of not being attained in a hypothetical unlimited test series. They generally correspond for a particular property to a specified fractile 'of the assumed statistical distribution of the property of the material in the structure.

16

EBCS -1

1995...

-.
CHAPTER 1: BASIS OF DESIGN .(2) Unless otherwise stated in EBCS 2 to 8, the characteristic values should be defined as the 5 % fractile for strength parameters and as the mean value for stiffness parameters. (3) Material property values shall normally be determined from standardized tests performed under specified conditions. A conversion factor shall be applied where it is necessary to convert the test results into values which can be assumedto represent the behaviour of the material in the structure or the ground (see also EBCS 2 to 8). (4) A material strength may have two characteristic values, an upper and a lower. In most cases only the lower value will need to be considered. In some cases, different values may be adopted depending on the type of problem considered. Where an upper estimate of strength is required (e.g. for the tensile strength of concrete for the calculation of the effects of indirect actions) a nominal upper value of the strength should normally be taken into account. (5) Where there is a iack of information on the statistical distribution of the property a nominal value may be used; where the limit state equation is not significantly sensitive to its variability a mean value may be considered as the characteristic value. (6) Values of material properties are given in EBCS 2 to 8. 1.6 .(1) -directly -' GEO)IE~fRICAL DATA ,
71 5'

). J :ti t

~~

I
iii ~!

;! "~i I~ !"
:()\

.,. J I ~,j "

Geometrical data are represented by their characteristic values, or in the case of imperfections by their design values.

~ :i I I j t ,I ;. f f !
~

(2) The characteristic values usually correspond to dimensions specified in the design. (3) Where relevant, values of geometrical quantities may correspond to some prescribed fractile of the statistical distribution. (4) Tolerances for connected parts which are made from different materials shall be mutually compatible. Imperfections which have to be taken into account in the design of structural members are given in EBCS 2 to 8 1.7 MODELLING FOR STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS AND RESISTANCE

t , i'

1.7.1 General
(1) Calculations shall be performed using appropriate design models involving relevant variables. The models shall be appropriate for predicting the structural behaviour and the limit states considered. (2) Design models should normally be based on established engineering theory and practice, verified experimentally if necessary . .1.7.2 Modelling in the Case of Static Actions (1) The modelling for static actions should normally be based on an appropriate choice of the farce .deformation relationships of the members and their connections.

't

-state

(2) Effects of displacements and deformations should be consider~d in the context of ultimate limit verifications (including static equilibrium) if they result in an increase of the effects of actions by more than 10%. -1 19,,95 1 7

1 ,
.\

-EBCS

ETHIOPIAN BUILDING CODE STANDARD FOR LOADING

(3) In generalthe structuralanalysismodelsfor serviceabilitylimit statesand fatigue may be linear. Modelling in the Case of Dynamic Actions (1) Whendynamic actionsmay be considered asquasi-static, the dynamicparts are considered either by including them in the static valuesor by applyingequivalent dynamic amplificationfactors to the sta\ic actions. For someequivalent dynamicamplificationfactors, the naturalfrequencies haveto be determined. (2) In somecases(e.g. for cross wind vibrationsor seismic actions)the actionsmay be defined by provisions for a modal analysisbased on a linear material and geometricbehaviour. For regular structures,where only the fundamental modeis relevant,an explicit modalanalysismaybe substituted by an analysis with equivalentstatic actions, dependingon mode shape, natural frequencyand damping. (3) In somecases the dynamicactionsmaybe expressed in terms of time histories or in the frequency domain, for which the structural responsemay be determined by appropriate methods. When dynamic actions may cause vibrations that may infringe serviceability limit states guidance for assessing theselimit statesis given in annexC, togetherwith the models of someactions.
1.8 DESIGN ASSISTED BY TESTING ~

..

1.8.1

General

(1) Where calculationrules or materialpropertiesgiven in EBCS 2 TO 8 are not sufficient or where economymay resultfrom testson prototypes,part of the designproceduremaybe performed on the basis of tests. Someof the clausesin this sectionmayalsobe helpful in cases wherethe performance of an existing structureis to be investigated. (2) Testsshall be setup and evaluated in sucha way thatthe structurehasthe samelevel of reliability with respect to all possible limit states and design situations as achieved by design based on calculationprocedures specifiedin EBCS2 to 8. (3) Samplingof testspecimens and conditionsduring testingshouldbe representative. (4) Where EBCS 2 to 8 include implicit safetyprovisions related to comparablesituations, these provisions shall be takeninto accountin assessing the test results and may give rise to corrections. An exampleis the effect of tensile strengthin the bendingresistanceof concretebeams, which is normally neglectedduring design. 1.8.2 Types of Tests

(1) The following testtypes are distinguished: (a) teststo establish directly theultimateresistance or serviceability propertiesof structuralparts e.g. fire tests; (b) teststo obtain specific materialproperties,e.g. ground testing in situ or in the laboratory, testing of new materials; (c) tests to reduceuncertaintiesin parametersin load or resistancemodels, e.g. wind tunnel testing, testingof full size prototypes,te~tingof scalemodels; (d) control tests to check the quality of the delivered products or the consistency of the productioncharacteristics, e.g. concretecubetesting;
18 EBCS -1 1995

.CHAPTER
..;

1: BASIS OF DESIGN

!
!

(e) tests during execution in order to take account of actual conditions experienced e.g. post.tensioning, soil conditions; (f) control tests to check the behaviour of the actual structure or structural elements after completion, e.g. proof loading for the ultimate or serviceability limit states. (2) For test types (a), (b) and (c), the test results may be available at the time of design; in those cases the design values can be derived from the tests. For test types (d),(e) and (f) the test results may not be available at the time of design; in these casesthe design values correspond to that part of the production that is expected to meet the acceptancecriteria at a later stage. 1.8.3 Derivation of Design Values , t

j' ij
I.

;:

(1) The derivation of the design values for a material property, a model parameter or a resistance value from tests can be performed in either of the following two ways:

(a) by assessinga characteristic value, which is divided by a partial safety factor and possibly multiplied by an explicit conversion factor; (b) by direct determination of the design value, implicitly or explicitly accounting for the conversion aspects and the total reliability required.. (2) In general method (a) above should be used. The derivation of a characteristic value from tests should be performed taking account of:

.(a) -(b) .the

the scatter of test data; statistical uncertainty resulting from a limited number of tests; (c) implicit or explicit conversion factors resulting from influences not sufficiently covered by tests such as: (i) (ii) (iii) (iv) time and duration effects, not taken care of in the tests; scale, volumes and length effects; deviating environmental, loading and boundary conditions; the way that safety factors as partial factors or additive elements are applied to get design values. The partial safety factor used in method (a) above should be chosen in such a way that there is sufficient similarity theverifications. tests under consideration and the 1.3.4). usual application field of the partial safety factor used inbetween numerical (see also Section

;'

(3) When for special casesmethod (b) above is used, the determination of the design values should be carried out by considering: the relevant limit states; the required level of reliability; the statistical and model uncertainties; the compatibility with the assumptions for the action side; the classification of design working life of the relevant structure according to Section 2; (4) Further prior information knowledgemay from be similar found cases in EBCS or calculations. 2 to 8. (a) (b) (c) (d)

.(e) !. -(f)
-I
..ji'

~
~

",,;

EBCS -1

1995

19

"1

ETHIOPIAN 8UILDING CODE STANDARD FOR LOADING

.: ,.

1.9

VERIFICATION BY THE PARTIAL SAFETY FACTOR METHOD

1.9.1 General
(1) In EBCS 2 to 8 the reliability accordingto the limit state conceptis achievedby applicationof the partial factor safetymethod. In the partial safetyfactormethod, it is verified that, in all relevant designsituations,the limit states are not exceeded whendesignvaluesfor actions,materialproperties artd geometricaldata are used in the designmodels. (2),In particular, it shall be verified that: (a) the effects of design actions do not exceedthe design resistanceof the structure at the ultimate limit state; and (b) the effects of designactionsdo notexceed the performance criteria.for the serviceabilitylimit state. Other verifications may also needto be considered for particularstructurese.g. fatigue. Details are presentedin EBCS 2 to 8. (3) The selecteddesignsituations shall be considered and critical load casesidentified. For each critical load case,the designvalues of the effects of actionsin combinationshall be determined. (4) A load caseidentifiescompatibleload arrangements, setsof deformations and imperfectionswhich shouldbe consideredsimultaneously for a particularverification. (5) Rules for the combinationof independent actionsin designsituationsare given in this section. Actions .which cannot occur simultaneously,for example,due to physical reasons,should not be consideredtogetherin combination. (6) A load arrangement identifies the position, magnitude and direction of a free action. Rules for different arrangements within a single actionare given in Chapters2 and 3. (7) Possibledeviationsfrom the assumed directionsor positionsof actionsshouldbe considered. (8) The designvaluesused for different limit states maybe different and are specified in this section. 1.9.2 Limitations and Simplifications . . -

.
I

.I

(1) Application rules in Chapter1 are limited to ultimateand serviceabilitylimit statesfor structures subjectto staticloading. rhi~ includescases wherethe dynamiceffectsare assessed using equivalent quasi-staticloadsand dynamic amplificationfactors,e.g. wind. (2) Simplified verification basedon the limit stateconceptmay be use1: (a) by consideringonly limit statesand load combinationswhich from experienceor special criteria are known to be potentially critical for the design; (b) by using the simplified verification for ultimate limit statesand/or serviceability limit states as specifiedfor buildings in Sections1.9.4.5 and 1.9.5.5; (c) by specifyingparticular detailingrulesand/orprovisionsto meetthe safetyand serviceability requirementswjthout calculation.

-" . -

20

EBCS -1 1995

..
.1.9.3 Design Values '

CHAPTER 1: BASIS OF DESIGN

f'

I.
l.

1.9.3.1 Design Values of Actions (1) The design value F d of an action is expressed in general terms as: Fd = 'YFF,ep (1.1)

where

'YF is the partial safety factor for the action considered taking account of: (a) the possibility of unfavourable deviations of the actions; (b) the possibility of inaccurate modelling of the actions; (c) uncertainties in the assessmentof effects of actions. F,epis the representative value of the action.

(2) Depending on the type of verification and combination procedures, design values for particular actions are expressed as follows: Gd Qd Ad .Pd
-AEd

= = = =
=

'YGGk or Gk 'YQk' 'YQ'oQk''IQkorQk 'Y~k or Ad 'Y~k or Pk


AEd

(1.2)

.(3) -actions,

Where distinction has to be made between favourable and unfavourable effects of permanent two different partial saftey factors shall be used. (4) For seismic actions the design value may depend on the structural behaviour characteristics (see

EBCS 8).
1.9.3.2 Design Values of the Effects of Actions (1) The effects of actions (E) are responses(for example intern~Jforces and moments, stresses, strains and displacements) of the structure to the actions. For a specific load case the design value of the effect of actions (Ed) is determined from the design values of the actions, geometrical data and material properties when relevant: Ed = E(Fdll Fd2,...adl' adz, ",Xdl' Xdz,"') where Fdl'.'" (1.3)

adl,..' and Xdl' ...are chosen according to Sections 1.9.3.1, 1.9.3.3 and 1.9.3.4,

respectively. (2) In some cases, in particular for non-linear analysis, the effect of the uncertainties in the models used in the calculations should be considered explicitly. This may lead to the application of a coefficient of model uncertainty 'Ysd applied either to the actions or to the action effects, whichever is the more conservative. The factor 'Ysd may refer to uncertainties in the action model and/or the effect model. (3) For non-linear analysis, i.e. when the effect is not proportional to the action, the following simplified rules may be considered in the case of a single predominant action.

-0 -action

!
I

1
i

EBCS -1

1995

21

t -

,
ETHIOPIAN BUILDING CODE STANDARD FOR LOADING

,::

&.

(a) When the effect increases more than the action, the partial safety factor is applied to the representative value of the action. (b) When the effect increases less than the action, the partial safety factor is applied to the action effect of the representative value of the action. In other cases more refined methods are necessary which are defined in the relevant Codes (e.g. for

prestressed structures).

1.9.3.3 Design Values of Material Properties (1) The design value Xd of a material or product property is generally defined as: Xd = l1X/'YMor Xd = X/'YM where (1.4)

'YM is the partial saftey factor for the material or product property, given in EBCS 2 to 8 which covers (a) unfavourable deviations from the characteristic values; (b) inaccuracies in the conversion factors; and (c) uncertainties in the geometric properties and the resistance model.

11is the conversion factor taking into account the effect of the duration of the load, volume and scale effects, effects of moisture and temperature and so on. In some cases the conversion is implicitly taken into account by the characteristic value itself, as indicated by the definition of 11,or by 11M' 1.9.3.4 Design Values of Geometrical Data (1) Design values of geometrical data are generally represented by the nominal values:
ad = allOm (1.5)

Where necessary EBCS 2 to 8 may give further specifications. (2) In some cases when deviations in the geometrical data have a significant effect on the reliability of a structure, the geometrical design values are defined by: I
i

ad = allOm+~a

(1.6)'

where

~a takes account of the possibility of unfavourable deviations from the characteristic i

values
~a is only introduced where the influence of deviations is critical, e.g. imperfections in buckling analysis. Values of ~a are given in EBCS 2 to 8. ,
~

1.9.3.5 Design Resistance (1) Design values for the material properties, geometrical data and effects of actions, when relevant, shall be used to determine the design resistance Rd from: Rd = R(ad/,ad2' ",Xd/l Xd2' ...J where ad/, ...is defined in Section 1.9.3.4 and ~/, ...in Section.1.9.3.3. (1.7)

:~c:IIIIIIIIII.!,J5~
'. \,1. :2 EBCS .1 1995

,...

-CHAPTE:'~"~:~:~::.."__.'
.the (2) Operational verification formulae, based on the principle of expression (1.7), may have one of following forms: Rd = R{Xk !-YM'anom} Rd = R{Xk, anom}/"IR Rd = R{Xk /"Im' anom}/"I1ri where (1.7a) (1.7b) (1.7c)

"IR is a partial safety factor for the resistance; "1m is a material safety factor; "Ilri covers uncertainties in the resistance model and in the geometrical properties.

(3) The design resistance may also be obtained directly from the characteristic value of a product resistance, without explicit determination of design values for individual basic variables, from: Rd = R/"IR (1.7d)

This is applicable for steel members, p'iles, etc. and is often used in connection with design by testing. 1.9.4 Ultimate Limit States of Static Equilibrium and Strength

1.9.4.1 Verifications

.a

(1) When considering a limit state of static equilibrium or of gross displacement of the structure as rigid body, it shall be verified that: Ed,d.sl oSEd,slb where Ed,dsl Ed, sib is the design value of the effect of destabilizing actions; is the design value of the effect of stabilizing actions. (1.8)

In some cases if may be necessaryto replace eq. (1.8) by an interaction formula. (2) When considering a limit state of rupture or excessive deformation of a section, member or connection it shall be verified that: Ed oSRd where (1..9)

Ed is the design value c.f the effect of actions such as internal force, moment or a vector representing several internal forces or moments; Rd is the corresponding design resistance, associating all structural properties with the respective design values.

In some cases it may be necessary to replace'eq. (1.9) by an interaction formula. The required load casesare identified as described in Section 1.9.1. .1.9.4.2 i ;; Combination of Actions (1) For each critical load case, the design values of the effects of actions (Ed) should be determined by combining the values of actions which occur simultaneously, as follows: (a) Persistent and transient situations: Design values of the dominant variable actions and the combination design values of other actions.
EBCS -1 1995 23

ETHIOPIAN BUILDING CODE STANDARD FOR LOADING (b) Accidental situations: Design values of pennanent actions together with the frequent value of the dominant variable action and the quasi-pennanent values of other variable actions and the design value of one accidental action. (c) Seismic situations: Characteristic values of the pennanent actions together with the quasipennanent values of the other variable actions and the design value of the seismic actions. (2) When the dominant action is not obvious, eachvariable action should be considered in turn as the dominant action. (3) The above combination process is represented in Table 1.1. Table 1.1: Design Values of Actions for use in the Combination of Actions Single variable actions Qd . actIons Ac~idental Ad

-..Pennanent esIgn sItuatIon

Dominant

Others

actIons or ... seIsmIc actIons

Persistent transient Accidental Seismic

and 'YGGk ('Y~J 'YGAGk ('YPAPJ Gk 17QIQkl 'l'llQkl 17 Ql'l'QiQkj 'l' 2iQki 'l' 2iQkj 'Y~k or Ad AEd .

Symbolically the combinations may be representedas follows (a) persistent and transient design situations for ultimate limit states verification other than those relating to fatigueI, L
j ~1

-I

'YGkj + 'YPI+'Yqi+ L 'YQi It-oiQkj


i >/

(1.10)

Note: This combination rule is an amalgamation of two separate load combinations: L


j ~ I

'YGkj + 'YP,+'Yqi+ L It-OIQk/ + L 'YQi It-OIQkj


i >/

(1.10a)

Lj

~I 'YGkj + 'YP,+'Yqi + Llt-ol

Qk/ + i~/'YQiIt-OI Qkj

(1.10b)

~ is a reduction factor for 'YGjwithin the range 0.85 and 1. (b) Combinations for accidental design situations 1:: L 'YGAj Gkj + 'YPA Pk + Ad + It-il Qk/ + L 1t-2i Qkj (1.11)

(c) Combination for the seismic design situation

24

EBCS -1 1995

.CO",;

" 0/

"

..,

--CHAPTER

1.. BASIS

OF DESIGN

.LGkj

Pk + A&f +

L1/I2i Qkj

(1.12)

"+" "implies" to be combined with" E implies "the combined effect of"; Gkj is the characteristic value of permanent actions; Pk is the characteristic value of a prestressing action; QkJ is the characteristic value of the variable action; Qkj is the characteristic value of the variable actions; Ad is the design value of the accidental action; A&f is the design value of seismic action; 'Y Gj is the partial factor for permanent action j; 'YGAj is the same as 'YGj'but for accidental design situations; 'YPA is the same as 'Yp' but for accidental actions; 'Yp is the partial factor for prestressing actions; 'YQi is the partial factor for variable action i; ' are combination coefficients (see 1.4.3). (4) Combinations for accidental design situations either involve and explicit accidental action (A (e.g. fire or impact )or refer to a situation after an accidental event (A=O). For fire situations, apart from the temperature effect on the material properties, Ad refers to the design value of the indirect thermal action. --(5) Equations (1.10) and (1.11) may refer to either actions or action effects; for non-linear analysis, see Section 1.9.3.2 (3). Where components of a vectorial force are partially correlated, the factors to any favourable component may be reduced by 20 %. (7) Imposed deformations should be considered where relevant. (8) In some caseseqs. (9.10) to (9.12) need modification; detailed rules are given in the relevant parts of EBCS 1 to 8. 1.9.4.3 Partial Safety Factors (1) In the relevant load cases, those permanent actions that increase the effect of the variable actions (i.e. produce unfavourable effects) shall be represented by their upper design values, those that decrease the effect of the variable actions (i.e. produce favourable effects) by their lower design values. (2) Where the result of a verification may be very sensitive to variations of the magnitude of a permanent action from place to place in the structure, the unfavourable and the favourable parts of this action shall be considered as individual actions. This applies in particular to the verification of static equilibrium. (3) For building structures, the partial safety factors for ultimate limit statesin the persistent, transient and accidental design situations are given in Table 1.2. The values have been based on theoretical" considerations, experience and back calculations on existing designs.

-.(6)

.
.:

.EBCS

-1

1995

25

l.

I:,

.ETHIOPIAN BUILDING CODE STANDARD FOR LOADING

Table 1.2 Partial Safety Factors: Ultimate Limit States for Buildings Case!) Case A Loss of static equilibrium;strength of structural material or ground insignificant (see Section 1.9.4.1 Action Permanent actions: self weight of structural and non-structural components, permanent actions caused by ground, groundwater and free water -unfavourable -favourable Variable actions -unfavourable Accidental actions Case BS) Failure of structure or structural elements, including those of the footing, piles, basementwalls etc., governed by strength of structural material (see Section 1.9.4.1) Case CS) Failure in the ground Permanent actions 6) (see above) -unfavourable -favourable Variable actions -unfavourable Accidental actions Permanent actions (see above) -unfavourable -favourable Variable actions -unfavourable Accidental actions P: Persistent situation T: Transient situation 'YGsup4) 1.303) 'YGinf4) 1.003) 'YQ 'Y A 1.60 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 . Symbol

-,.
f':"-

Situations
PIT A

'YGsup4) 1.102) 'YGinf4) 0.902)

1.00 1.00

'YQ 'Y A

1.60

1.00 1.00

, -

'YGsup 4) 'YGinf4)

1.00 1.00

1.00 1.00

'YQ 'Y A

1.30

1.00 1.00

'

A: Accidental situation

:iJ'C ,,~~

(1) The design should be verified for each A, B and C separately as relevant. (2) In this verification the characteristic value of the unfavourable part of the permanent action is multiplied by the factor 1.1 and the favourable part by the factor 0.9. More refined rules are given in EBCS 3 and EBCS 4. (3) In this verification the characteristic values of all permanent actions from one source are multiplied by 1.3 if the total resulting action effect is unfavourable and by 1,0 if th~ total resulting action effect is favourable. (4) In caseswhen the limit state is very sensitive to variation of permanent actions, the upper and lower characteristic values of these actions should be taken according to Section 1,4.2 (3), (5) For casesBand C the design ground properties may be different, see EBCS 7. (6). Instead of using 'YG(1.30 and 'YQ= (1.60) for lateral earth pressure actions the design ground properties may be introduced in accordance with EBCS 7 and a model factor 'Y sdis applied.

c,. t:

26 E8CS -1 1995

CHAPTER 1: BASIS OF DESIGN

:-

1.9.4.4 'if Factors (1) ' factors for buildings are given in Table 1.3. For other applicationsseerelevantChapterof this code. Table 1.3 'if Factors for Buildings Action Imposedloads in buildings 1) categoryA: domestic,residential categoryB: offices. categoryC: congregation areas categoryD: shopping categoryE: storage Traffic loads in buildings categoryF: vehicle weight ~ 30kN categoryG: 30kN < vehicle weight ~ 160kN categoryH: roofs Wind loads on buildings Temperature(non-fire) in buildings ' 0 0.7 0.7 0.7 0.7 1.0 0.7 0.7 0 .0 0.6 0.6 ' I 0.5 0.5 0.7 0.7 0.9 0.7 0.5 0.5 0.5 ' 2 0.3 0.3 0.6 0.6 0.8 0.6 0..3 0 0 0

(1) For combinationof imposedloads in multistoreybuildings, see Chapter2.

1.9.4.5 SimplifiedVerification for BuildingStructures


(1) The process for the persistentand transient situations described in Section 1.9.4.2 may be simplified by consideringthe mostunfavourablefor the following combinations: (a) Designsituationswith only one variable action Qkl E 'YGi Gkj + 1.6 Qkl
j ~I

(1.13)

(b) Designsituationswith two or more variable actions Qk,i


E 'YGj + 1.35 E Qkj (1.14)

j ~I

In this case the effect of actionsshould also be verified for the dominantvariable actions using Eq. (1.13). (2) The 'YG valuesare given in Table 1.2. 1.9.4.6 Partial Safety Factorsfor Materials Partial safetyfactors for propertiesof materialsand productsare given in EBCS2 to 8.

EBCS -1

1995

27

'.

ETHIOPIAN BUILDING CODE STANDARD F(}R LOADING

1.9.5 Serviceability Limit States


1.9.5.1 Verification of Serviceability

(1)- It Shall be verified that: , where ,,'-.y ~Ed~ Cd (1.15)

Cd is a nominal value or a function of certain design properties of materials related to the design effects of actions considered; and Ed is the design value of the action effect (e.g. displacement, acceleration), detennined on the basis of one of the combinations defined in Section 1.9.5.2.

1.9.5.2 Combination of Actions (1) The combination of actions to be considered for serviceability limit states depends on the nature of the effect of actions being checked, e.g. irreversible, reversible or long tenn. Three combinations designated by the representative value of the dominant action are given in Table 1.4. Table 1.4 Design Values of Actions for use in the Combination of Actions Permanent actions Gd Characteristic (rare) Frequent Quasi-permanent Gk (PJ Gk (PJ Gk (PJ Variable actions Qd Dominant Qkl ' IIQkl '21Qkl Others 1/I0iQki '' 2iQki '2iQki -

Combination

Note: For serviceability limit states, the partial factors (serviceability) "fa "fQ are taken as 1.0 except where specified otherwise. (2) Three combinations of actions for serviceability limit states are defined symbolically by the

following expressions:
(a) Characteristic (rare) combination E Gki "+" (b) Frequent combination E Gkj "+" Pk"+" 'lIQkl"+" (c) Quasi-permanent combinati<;>n
r
i.J

Pk "+"

Qkl "+"

E'olQki

(1.16)

E'iI.'iQki

(1.17)

G "+
kj

"

Pk "+" E ' 2iQki

. ) ( lIB

Where the notation is as given in Sections 1.1.6 and 1.9.4.2 (3) Loads due to imposed deformations shoul"dbe considered where relevant.

:-

28

EBCS -1

1995

-"~--"~

-.
.(4)

CHAPTER 1: SA SIS OF DESIGN

In some casesEqs. (1.16) to (1.18) may require a modification; dttailed rules are given in EBCS 1 to 8. 1.9.5.3 Partial Safety Factors The partial safety factors for serviceability limit statesare equal to 1.0 except where specified otherwise,e.g. in EBCS2 to 8. 1.9.5.4 'l' Factors Values of ' factors are given in Table 1.3 1.9.5.5 Simplified Verification for Building Structures (1) For building structuresthe characteristic(rare) combinationmay be simplified to the following expressions, which may also be usedas a substitutefor the frequentcombination. (a) Designsituationswith only one variable action Qkl
'\:'"' L.,
j ~I

Gkj

Qkl

(1.19)

(b) Designsituationswith two or more variable actions, Qkl ~;,.i! L


j ~l

Gkj + 0.9 E Qkj


j ~I

(1.20)

In this case the effect of actionsshould also be verified for the dominant variable action using Eq. (1.19). (2) Where simplified prescriptiverules are given for serviceabilitylimit states,detailedcalculations using combinations of actionsare not required. 1.9.5.6 Partial Safety Factorsfor Materials Partial safetyfactorsfor the propertiesof materialsand productsare given in EBCS2 to 8.

EBCS~ 1 1995

29

ETHIOPIAN BUILDING CODE STANDARD FOR LOADING


..

-[TillS PAGE INTENTIONALLY LEFf BLANK]

!:

IIII_IE

...I~

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EBCS -=--11995

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CHAPTER 2 ACTION ON STRUCTURES -DENSITIES, SELF-WEIGHT AND IMPOSED LOADS

.2.1

GENERAL

2.1.1 Scope
(1) Designguidanceand actionsare provided for the structural designof buildings and civil engineering works including some geotechnical aspects for the following subjects: (a) Densitiesof construction materialsand storedmaterials; (b) Self-weightof construction elements; (c) Imposedloads (2) Section 2.4 gives characteristicvalues for densities of specific building materials, and stored .materials. In addition for specific materials,the angle of reposeis provided. (3) Section2.5 provides methodsfor the assessment of the characteristicvalues of self-weight of .construction elements. (4) Section 2.6 givescharacteristic valuesof imposedloadson floors androofs in building structures. (5) Thesecharacteristicvaluesare defined accordingto categoryof use as follows: (a) (b) (c) (d) areasin dwellings, offices etc; garageand vehicle traffic areas; areasfor storageand industrialactivities; roofs

(6) The loads on traffic areasgiven in Section2.6 refers to vehiclesup to a gross.weightof 160kN. {7) For barriers or partition walls having the function of barriers, horizontal forces due to persons are given. (8) Section2.6 does not specify fatigue loads and dynamic loads causingvibrations or dynamic effects. .2.2 CLASSIFICATION OF ACTIONS

.
i
I
'

2.2.1 Self-Weight
(1) Self-weightsof constructionelementsare classified as permanent actionsand generallyalso ar'" fixed actions(see Chapter1).

lI

EBCS

-1

1995

31

.I !

.
ETHIOPIAN BUILDING CODE STANDARD FOR LOADING I ..

(2) Earth loads on roofs and terracesshall be considered asvariable actions. Pressureon basement walls induced by earth loads shall howeverbe considered a permanent action. Pore water pressure shall also be considereda permanent action. (3) Loads due to ballast snaIlbe consideredasvariableactions. 2.2..2 , Imposed Loads ..~

(.1)Imposed loads are classified asvariable and free actions(seeChapter1). (2) Imposed loads should be consideredas static loads, non resonantdynamic effects being considered. 2.3 DESIGN SITUATIONS

2.3.1 General
(1) The relevant self-weights and imposed loads shall be determinedfor each design situation identified in accordance with Chapter1. 2.3.2 Self.,Weight I ! i.

(~) P~st -executionadditionalnewcoatings and!or distributionconduitsshoul~be considered in design situations. (2) The source and moisture contentof bulk materialsshouldbe consideredin designsituationsof buildings used for storagepurposes. 2.3.3 Imposed Loads (1) For casesinvolving interactionwith other types of load (e.g. wind), the total imposedload on a building shall be consideredas a single action. (2) Where the characteristicvalue of the imposedload is reducedby 1/1 factors in combinationwi.th other actions, the loads shall be assumed in all storeyswithout reductionby the factor an, I I (3) This Chapterdoes not specify fatigue loads. (4) In the case of productionareaswhere the numberof load variationsor the effects of vibrations may causefatigue, a fatigue.load model shall be established for the particularcase. 2.4 DENSITIES OF BUILDING MATERIALS AND STORED MATERIALS

.;,:
~

.'10.

"

2.4.1 Definitions
(1) The bulk weight densityis the overall weight per unit-volume of a material, including a normal distribution of voids an.dpores. In everydayusagethis term is frequentlyabbreviatedto 'density' (which is strictly massper unit vqiume). (2) The angle of reposeis the angle which the naturalslope of the sides of a heapedpile of loose material makesto th.ehorizontal.

,~"

32

EBCS -1 1995 !~".;


:JMi

I
CHAPTER 2: ACTIONS ON STRUCTURES. DENSITIES, SELF-WEIGHT AND IMPOSED LOADS

!
~-2.4.2 Tables
(1) The densitiesand anglesof repose provided in Tables2.1 to 2.8 of somematerialsmay vary from those indicateddependingon moisturecontent, settlement and depthof storage. Table 2.1 Construction Materials Materials concret~ lightweight
normal weight heavyweight

Density 'Y [kN/m3] 9-20


24' > 28 ,,~ j,
I

reinforcedand prestressed concrete unhardened concrete

+ 1 + 1

mortar
cementmortar gypsummortar lime mortar masonry units basalt limestone granite sandstone Trachyte 23 17 19

27 25 27 23 26 27 83 83 87 71 76 112 77 71

metals
aluminium brass bronze copper iron, cast iron, wrought lead steel zinc

'density may be in the range20-28 depending on local material

c'

EBCS -1

1995

33

;,-

""~k'-~

ETHIOPIAN BUILDING CODE STANDARD FOR LOADING

..
Table 2.1 Construction Materials (cont'd) Density
Material 'Y

[kN/m3] wood Bahir Zaf (EucalyptusGlobulus Labill) Kerero (PouteriaFerrginea) Samba(EkebergiaRueppeliana) Tid (JuniperusProcera) Zegba (Podacargus Gracilior) plywood: raw plywood (softwoodand birch) laminboardand blackboard particleboards: chipboard cement-bonded particleboard flakeboard,orientedstrandboard, waterboard fibre building board: hardboard,standardand tempered medium densityfibreboard softboard other materials glass, in sheets plastics: acrylic sheet. polystyrene,expanded, granules slate 25 12 0.25 29 8.5 6.5 6.5 7.5 6.0

6 4

8 12 7I

I
. .

10 8 4

"

. .
34 EBCS -1 1995

t '

"

..'i'

"'.

.-'

---"-,

.CHAPTER

2: ACTIONS

ON STRUCTURES.

DENSITIES, SELF-WEIGHT AND IMPOSED LOADS

.
Table 2.2 Stored Materials -Building and Construction Materials Density 'Y
[kN/m3]

Angle of repose
<t>[O]

aggregates
lightweight (pumice) lightweight (scoria) normal gravel sand brick sand, crushedbrick, broken bricks
venniculite.

7 12 14 14 14 15 1 6 -9

30 30 30 35 30 .

exfoliated, aggregate for concrete crude bentonite loose shaken down .cement .in .in bulk bag

8 11-

40

16 1510 -14 2515 15 13 13 126.4 5.9 11.81310~-

28

fly ash glass, in sheets gypsum, ground lignite filter ash lime limestone, powder magnesite, ground
plastics,

25 25 20 25 27
,

polyethylene,polystyrol granulated polyvinylchloride, powder polyesterresin glue resins water, fresh

--

t-,

EBCS -1

1995

35
\

1
~,.
ETHIOPIAN BUILDING CODE STANDARD FOR LOADING
-~-

:~~
~
.

Table 2.3 Materials

Stored Materials -Agricultural Density 'Y


[kN/m3]

Angle of repose
ct> [O]

,
fannyard
manure (minimum' 60% solids) manure (with dry straw) dry chicken manure slurry (maximum 20% solids) fertiliser, artificial NPK, granulated basic slag, crushed phosphates, granulated potassium sulphate urea fodder, green, loosely stacked

7.8 9.3 6.9 10.8

45 45 -

:':~ I I

8 -12 13.7 10 -16 12 -16 7 -8 3.5 -4.5

25 35 30 28 24 -

grain
whole (~ 14% moisture content unless indicated otherwise) general barley beans brewer's grain (wet) coffee herbage seeds 7.8 8.0 7.0 7.0 8.8 8.0 30 30 30 30 30 30

corn
maize in bulk maize in bags

3.4
7.4 8.0

30
30 30

legumes oats
oilseed rape

5.05.0
8.0

30
30

sorghum rye
tef wheat in bulk wheat in bags

6.4 9.0
7.0 7.8 7.5-

25 25
30 30
-

' A

36

EBCS-11995

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-.,
.i

CHAPTER 2: ACTIONS ON STRUCTURES -DENSITIES, SELF-WEIGHT AND IMPOSED LOADS

:
, ;

Table2.3 StoredMaterials-Agricultural (contn'd)


Material grass cubes hay (baled) (rolled bales) hides and skins hops malt meal ground cubes 1 -3 6 -7 8 -9 1 -2 4 -6 7 7 9.5 25 Density 'Y
[kN/m3]

Angle of repose
<p [O]

7.8

40

45 40 -

silage straw
in bulk (dry)

5 -10
0.7

baled
tobacco in bales wool in bulk baled

1.5
3.5 -5 3 7 -13

., '.-';~;'"

I
I

EBCS -1

1995

37

ETHIOPIAN BUILDING CODE STANDARD FOR LOADING

.
.

Table 2.4 Stored Materials -Foodstuffs Materials Density 'Y


[kN/m3]

Angle of Repose
ct>[O]

,
bltter eggs, in stands flour bulk bagged

9.54 -5

6 5-

25

fruit
loose boxed honey milk 8.3 6.51310.59.5 16.0 4530

sugar
bulk (loose) sacks(compact) vegetables, green cabbages lettuce vegetables,legumes beans general soya -

,f
.peas

8.1 7.47.8-

35

vegetables, root
general beetroot carrots onions 8.87.4 7.8 7 40 35 35

potatoes
in bulk in boxes 7 4.435

-.t
.Table

I
CHAPTER 2: ACTIONS ON STRUCTURES -DENSITIES, SELF-WEIGHT AND IMPOSED.LOADS

2.5 Stored Materials -Liquids


Materials Density 'Y

[kN/m3]

beverages
beer milk water, fresh wine natural oils castor .oil linseed oil 10.3 10.1 9.8 10

9.3 9.2

organic liquids and acids alcohol


ether hydrochloric acid (40% by weight) methylated spirit nitric acid (91 % by weight) sulphuric acid (30% by weight) acid (37 % by weight) white spirit

7.8
7.4 11.8 7.8 14.7 13.7 17.7 8.3

.sulphuric -turpentine, .hydrocarbons

aniline benzene (benzole) coal tar creosote naphtha paraffin (kerosene) benzine (benzoline) oil, crude (petroleum)

9.8 8.8 10.8 -12.8 10.8 7.8 8.3 6.9 9.8 -12.8

diesel fuel
heavy lubricating p~trol (gasolene,gasoline)

-8.3. 7.8 -9.8


12.3 .8.8 7.4 5.7 5.0

liquid gas
butane propane ! other liquids

,t
i-red

mercury
lead paint white lead, in oil

133
59 38

sludge, over 50% by volume water

10.8

EBCS -7
F'

7995

39

ETHIQPIANBUILDING

CODE STANDARD FOR LOADING

.-

.
Table 2.6 Stored Materials -Solid Fuels Materials Density "Y
[kN/m3]

Angle of Repose
ct> [O]

charcoal air-filled air-free firewood

4155.4 45I

Table 2.7 Stored Materials -Industrial and General M .1 atena


-:-

Density "Y
[kN/m3]

Angle of Repose
ct> [O] -,

books and documents booksand documents .denselystored filing racks and cabinets garments and rags, bundled ice, lumps leather, piled
paper

6 8.5 6 11 8.510 11.0 15.010 -17 22 12 32.5 5 14-

-. -,~,
-j..'!

layers rolls rubber rock salt salt sawdust dry, bagged dry, loose wet, loose tar, bitumen

-c"

45 40

45 45

.
,.

40

EBCS -1

1995

-.CHAPTER

2: ACTIONS ON STRUCTURES -DENSITIES,

SELF-WEIGHT AND IMPOSED LOADS

.
Flooring

Table 2.8 Flooring and Walling Materials Density


kN/m3

clay tiling Marble tiling Parquet, timber board PVC covering Rubbercovering Granulithic, terrazzopaving

21 27 9 16 17 23

Walling
Solid brick Perfuratedbrick Concretehollow-block
.';;f

22 19

,; ~

S~one ag.gregate.14-20* LIghtweIght (pumIce)aggregate Asoestoscementsheet .brous p I asterboard FI 'Lower values for smallersize thicknesses (100mmto 200mm) ~. .2.5.1 2.5 SELF-WEIGHT OF CONSTRUCTION ELEMENTS Representationof Actions (1) Construction elements in,cludestructuraland non-structuralelements.

10-14* 17 10

.:t~ ~ ,:";j :;f; .,J" i'l

(2) For the purposeof this section,the self-weightof non-structural elements shall includethe weight of fixed machinery.

(3) Non-structuralelementsinclude: (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) (f) (g) (h) (i) roofing s~rfacingand coverings non-structuralpartition walls and linings handrails, safetybarriers, parapetsand kerbs wall cladding suspended ceilings insulation fixed machinery earthand balast

(4) Fixe~ machineryincludes: (a) lifts and moving stairways (b) heating, ventilating and air conditioningequipment electrical equipment (d) pipes without their contents (e) cable trunking and conduits.

.(c)

EBCS -1

1995

41

.ETHIOPIAN BUILDING CODE STANDARD FOR LOADING

(5) Loads due to movablepartitions shallbe treatedasimposedloads(seeSection2.6). (6) The self-weightof industrial equipment shouldbe considered as an imposedload. Only the selfweights of equipment incorporatedinto the construction shallbe classifiedas permanentactions. (7) Where there is a reasonable likelihood that serviceswill at sometime be relocated within the building, loadsdue to theseservicesshallbe considered asimposedloads. 2.5.2 Load Arrangements

(1) In the case where the self-weight is classified as a fixed action it may be assumedthat the variationsof densitiesas well asthe differencesbetweennominaland actualdimensionsof construc:, tion elements do not changewithin a given structure. 2.5.3 2.5.3.1 Self-Weight -Characteristic Values Assessmentof Self-Weight ...

2.5.3.1.1 CharacteristicValue (1) The weights of parts of structuresand of non-structural elementsshall be determinedfrom the weights of the elementsof which they are composed. (2) Unless more reliable data are available(i.e. from product standards,the supplier or by direct weighing), the characteristics value of the weight of individual elementsshall be estimatedfrom nominaldimensionsand the nominaldensitiesof their constituent materials. (3) However, in accordance with ChapterI, it may be necessary to considerboth upper and lower characteristicvalues for the self-weight. This may apply to thin concretemembersor in casesof uncertaintyaboutthe precisevalue of self-weight,or where dimensional alternativesand the type of materialsto be used remain openat the designstage.

. .
.

2.5.3.1.2Dimensions
(1) In generalnominal dimensions shouldbe thoseas shownon the drawings. (2) In general,wherethe weight of thin finishesis small in comparison in comparison with the weight of the elements to which they are applied, it is not necessary to considervariation in finish thickness.
However variation in thickness may need to be considered when the thickness depends on the

deflectionof the structuralcomponent to which the finish is appliedor whenthe maintenance of the finish may includethe addition of further layers of material. 2.5.3.1.3 J)ensities (1) For the assessment of nominaldensitiesSection2.4 shouldbe used. (2) If the density of the material is likely to deviate significantly from the specified value, such deviation shallbe considered. (3) For structureswheremore accurate valuesare required,fo!," example,where a designis likely to be particularly sensitiveto variations,inpermanent 10ad,a representative sampleof the materialsto .

-~

.
.c

---

42

EBCS -,',995

L;';'

"

-.;
.I

f!
CHAPTER 2: ACTIONS ON STRUCTURES -DENSITIES, SELF-WEIGHT AND IMPOSED LOADS :

should then be deteffilined accordingto Chapter1. (4) For somematerialsthe bulk weight densityhas significant variability and may be dependent on the source and moisturecontent. 2.5.3.2 Self-Weightfor Buildings

f\

2.5.3.2.1 Floors and Walls and Partitions (1) For determiningthe effect of the self-weightdueto partitions, an equivalent uniformly distributed load may be used. (2) Account shouldbe takenof voids madefor the purposeof theffilal insulationor for the reductton of weight. (3) For suspended beamand block floors and beamand hollow-pot floors, data may be provided by the manufacturer. Whenthe dimensions of thin concreteslabsare unlikely to be controlled to within :I::5 % of their nominal valuesa range of valuesfor the permanent load shall be taken into account arid treatedas indicated in Chapter1.
-:;:1(1:-

.
4

(4) For deteffiliningthe weight of umendered masonrywalls the weight of mortar shall be takeninto account. 2.5.3.2.2 Roofs

.(1)

The weights shall be calculatedfrom the weight of the component materialsand the geometry (e.g. pitch tiles/sq.metreetc). (2) Infoffilation may be takenfrom documents provided by the manufacturer. 2.5.3.2.3. Claddingsand Finishes

(1) For, the purpose of this sectioncladdings shall be consideredto include curtain walling (and fixings), overcladding(and fixings) a.'1d roof coverings. (2) When designingindividual structuralelements the estimationof weight shall include the weight of claddingsand finishes,' unlessalternativeprovisionhas beenmade(seeSection2.5.3.1). Finishes include in-situ finishes (suchasplasterand screeds), prefabricatedwall-paneltjnishes, and timber and other floor finishes. 2.6 j -j2.6.1 IMPOSED LOADS ON B1J1LDINGS Representation of Actions

(1) Imposedloads on buildings are thosearising from occupancy. They may be caused by: (a) normaluse by persons; (b) furniture and moveableobjects(e.g. lightweightmoveable partitions, storage,the contentsof containers) ; (c) machinesand vebic1es~_~ ;;

EBCS -1

1995

43

~.
ETHIOPIAN BUILDINGCODESTANDARDFORLOADING (d) exceptional use, suchas exceptional concentrations of personsor of furniture, or the moving or stackingof commoditieswhich may occur during reorganization or redecoration. (2) The self-weightof structuralandnon-structural components and of fixed equipmentshallbe taken into accountaccordingto Section2.5. ! \3) Imposedloadsare modelledby uniformly distributedloadsor concentrated loadsor combinationof-theseloads. (4) The characteristicvalues of the loadsare determined for a referenceperiod, ( See Chapter1). (5) The characteristicvalues of the loads are composed of long-term, medium-termand short-term components that, accordingto their duration, mayhavedifferenteffectson materialssensitiveto time:dependent actions. 2.6.2 Load Arrangements
n

..

2.6.2.1 HorizontalMembers
(1) For the designof the elementsof a floor structurewithin one storeythe action shall be assumed as a free action on the most unfavourabletributary zone of the influencearea. Where the loads on other floors are relevant, they may be assumed to be distributed uniformly (fixed actions). (2) Imposed loads from a single occupancymay be reducedaccordingto the tributary area by a reduction factor aA accordingto Sections 2.6.3.1.2(3)and 2.6.2.2(4). (3) To ensure a minimum local resistanceof the floor structure a separateverification shall be performed with a concentrated load that, unlessstatedotherwise, shall not be combined with the uniformly distributed loads or other variable loads.

2.6.2.2 VerticalMembers
"

(1) For the designof columnsor walls actingas vertical members,loaded from severalstoreys,the loads on the floor of eachstorey shallbe assumed to distributed uniformly (fixed actions). (2) Where the imposed loads from severalstoreysare relevant, the loads may be reduced by a reductionfactor an accordingto Sections 2.6.1.2(4) 2.6.3 Imposed Loads -Characteristic Values

2.6.3.1

Residential, Social,Commercial andAdministration Area

2.6.3.1.1 Categories
(1) Areas in residential, social, commercial and administrationbuildings are divided into five categoriesaccordingto their specificusesshownin Table.2.9.

'",6..1

44

EBCS -11995

-.

Table 2.9 Categories of Building Areas Category


A

Specific Use
Area for domestic and residential activities

Example
Rooms in residential buildings and houses; rooms and wards in

Areas where people may congregate(with the exception of areasdefined under categoryA,B,D, and E)

hospitals;bedroomsin hotelsand hostels;, kitchensand toilets Cl: Areas with tables,etc. e.g. areasin schools,cafes,restaurants, dining halls, readingrooms, receptions etc. C2: Areas with fIXedseats,e.g. areasin churches,theatresor cinemas,conferencerooms, lecturehalls, assembly halls, waiting rooms, etc. C3: Areas without obstacles for moving people, e.g. areasin museums,exhibitionrooms, etc and access areasin public and administrationbuildings, hotels, etc.

,.
...J .\ 'i 1,
.'1;

C4: Areas susceptible to overcrowding, e.g. dancehalls, gymnasticrooms, stages,etc. cs: Areas susceptible to overcrowding,e.g. in buildings for public-events like concerthalls, sportshalls includingstands,terracesand access are~, etc.

~,.

D E

Shoppingareas Areas susceptible to accumulation of goods,including access areas

Dl: Areas in g~neralretail shops, e.g. areas warehouses, stationery -andoffice stores, etc. in Areas for storageuse includinglibraries. The loadsdefined in Table 2.1-0 shall be takenas minimum loadsunlessmore appropriateloadsare defined for the specificcase. Further guidanceis given in Table2.7.

2.6.3.1.2 Values ofActions (1) The characteristicvaluesq;.and Q;.are given in Table 2.10. (2) For local verifications a concentrated load Q;. acting alone shall be taken into account. The characteristic valuesQ;.are given in Table2.9. Whereconcentrated loadsfrom storageracksor from lifting equipment may be expectedQ;. shall be determinedfor the individual case (see Section

2.6.3.3).
The local concentrated load shallbe considered to act at any point on the floor, balconyor stairsand to have an applicationarea comprisinga squarewith a sOmmside. (3) The reduction factor aA for categories A to E shouldbe determined asfollows: With the restriction for categories C and D: aA ~ 0.6

EBCS -1

i ..co

f~

ETHIOPIAN BUILDING CODE STANDARD FOR LOADING

.(2.1) .

aA

A ~ 1.0 = 5/7. 1/1+ ~


0 A

where
,

1/10is the factor according to Chapter 1.


Ao 10.0m2 j

is the loaded area

'- --.'--r-""
.il ';: ,t,

"

",;

(4) The reduction factor an for categories A to E should be determined as follOws:


-2+(n-2) a-. n

",,'

I
, where

1/10

(2 2)

n is the number of storeys (> 2) above the loaded structural elements Table 2.10 Imposed Loads on Floors in Buildings

Loaded area
Category A -general

qk (kN/m2)

Qk (kN)

2.0

2.0

-stairs
-balconies Category B Category C -Cl -C2 -C3 -C4 -C5 -D1 -D2

3.0
4.0 3.0 3.0 4.0 5.0 5.0 5.0 5.0." 5.0 6.0

2.0
2.0 2.0 4.0 4.0 4.9 7.0 4.0 4.0 7.0 7.0

Category D

Category E

2.6.3.2

Garageand Vehicle Traffic Areas

2.6.3.2.1 Categories
; (1) Traffic areas in buildings are divided into two categories according to their accessibility for vehicles as shown in Table 2.11. ---

",

46

EBCS -1 1995

..,.-

"""""'~-c'Tq"

: c"";',;",C-

---'-'-

-.CHAPTER

2: ACTIONS ON STRUCTURES DENSITIES,SELF-WEIGHTAND IMPOSED LOADS

, Table 2.11 Traffic Areas in Buildings Category F Specific Use Traffic and parking areasfor light vehicles(~ 30 kN total weight and ~ 8 seatsnot including driver) Traffic and parking areasfor mediumvehicles(>30 kN, ~ 160 kN total weight, on 2 axles) Example e.g, garages; parking areas,parking halls

e.g. access routes; delivery zones; zonesaccessible to fire engines (~ 160 kN total weight)

(2) Accessto areasdesigned to categoryF shallbe limited by physicalmeansbuilt into the structure. (3) Areas designedto categoriesF anc;i G shouldbe postedwith the appropriatewarning signs. ! 2.6.3.2.2 Values of Actions (1) The characteristic values for the concentrated loadsQkrepresenting a singleaxle with dimensions accordingto Fig. 2.1 and the distributed load qkare gi"venin Table 2.12.

.
;

-'. :

qiG!~~-0,1..0 1

1.So

~~la I :IJI.+ q 1.0

Figure 2.1 Dimensions of Axle Load

Table 2.12 Imposed Loads on Garagesand Vehicle Traffic Areas Traffic areas

qk (kNfm2)
2.0

~ (kN)
10

CategoryF
vehicle weight: ~30, ~ 160 k1~ Category G weight: > 30, ~ 160 kN
45

.vehicle

1-5.0

, -(2)

Both the concentratedlqad Qkand the uniformly distributed.load q:t shaltbe consideredto act

together.

r:BCS -1

1995 47!

I
ETHIOPIAN BUILDING CODE STANDARD FOR LOADING

.-

(3) Each concentrated load shall be applied on a squaresurfacewith a 200nun side in the positions which will producethe most adverseeffects. (4) The reductioncoefficient aAfor categoriesF and G shallbe considered as follows:

aA = 1.0

(2.3)

(5) The reduction coefficient an for categoriesF and G shall be considered as follows: an = 1.0 2.6.3.3 Areasfor Storage and Industrial Activities (1) The characteristicvalue of the imposedload and also the loading arrangement (free or fixed actions) shall be defined, respectively, by the maximumvalue taking account9f dynamic effects if appropriateand the most unfavourableconditionallowed in use. (2) The maximumpennitted loadsshouldbe indicatedby sings in the rooms concerned. (3) The characteristicvalues of vertical loads in storageareasmay be derived by taking the values given in Section 2.4 and upper designvalues for stackingheights. When stored material exerts horizontalforces on walls etc., the horizontalfor may be detenninedfrom specialistliterature. Any effects of filling and emptying shall be takeninto account. (4) Loads for storageareas for books and files shall be detenninedfrom the loaded area and the height of the book casesusing the densityvalues in Section2.4. (5) Loads on industrial areasmay comprisemachines,productionunits, heavy rolling enginesthat canhavea definedlane, suspended cranes,etc. t~atcannot be modelledby unifonnly distributedloads but needmore detailedmodelling. (6) The imposedloads to be consideredfor serviceabilitylimit state verifications shall be specified in accordancewith the service conditionsand the requirementsconcerningthe perfonnance of the structure. (2.4)

2.6.3.4 Roofs
2.6.3.4.1 Categories (i) Roofs are divided accordingto their accessibilityinto three categories as shownin Table 2.13. Table 2.13 Categorization of Roofs Category H I Specific Use Roofs not accessible exceptfor nonnal maintenance, repair, painting and minor repairs Roofs accessible with occupancy accordingto categoriesA -G Roofs accessible for specialservices,suchas helicopterlandings I

.',

8i'

'"X'

i"

;~;::::;,
48 EBCS-1.1995

-J.

I
,

"~ ,

1 1
-.,.

CHAPTER 2: ACTIONS

ON STRUCTURES.

DENSITIES, SELF-WEIGHT AND hWPOSED LOADS

.(2)

Loads for roofs of category H are given in Table 2.13 Loads for roofs of category I are given in Table 2.10 and Table 2.12 according to the specific use. For roofs of category K the loads should be established for the particular case.

2.6.3.4.2 Values of Actions


(1) The characteristic values Qkand qkare given in Table 2.14. They are related to the projected area of the roof under consideration. Table 2.14 Imposed Loads on Roofs

R00 f s
Category H Flat roof Sl6ping roof

qk (kN/m2)

Qk (kN)

0.5 0.25

1.0 1.0

ti

"1
(2) Separate verification shall be performed for the concentrated load Qkand the uniformly distributed load qk, acting indepenQently.

.',1 ~,.,

,.~ (.

-(4) ~

.
,

(3) For local checks the concentrated load Qk is given in Table 2.14. The application area of Qk comprises a square with a 50mm side. The reduction coefficient aA for category i-I shall be considered as follows: aA = 1.0 (2.5)

(5) Access ladders and walkways shall be assumed to be loaded according to Tabie 2.2 for a roof slope < 20. For walkways which are part of a designated escape route qk shall be assumedto be: q; = 3.0 kN/m2 (6) The effects of water ponding on roofs should be considered. 2.6.4 Horizontal Loads on Partition 'Valls and Barriers due to Persons (2.6)

(1) The characteristic values of the line load qk acting at the height of the hand rail but not higher than 1.20m are given in Table 2.15.

Table 2.15

Horizontal Loads on Partition Walls


and Barriers due to Persons

Loaded areas .Category A Category Band C1 Categories C2 -C4 and D Category C5

(k~im) 0.5 1.0 1.5 3.0

(2) For areas susceptible to significant overcrowding associated with public events e.g. for sports stadia, stands,stands, stages, assembly halls or conference rooms, the line load shall be taken according to category C5.

EBCS -1

1995

49

.THIOPIAN BUILDING CODE STANDARD


:~~---~~---

FOR LOADING

,
I

.
[TillS PAGE INTENTIONALLY LEFT BLANK]

":'

.
..

50
l-

EBCS -1

1995

.-

.
: 3.1 SCOPE

CHAPTER 3
WIND ACTIONS

t
(1) This Chaptergives rull.~s and methodsfor calculatingwind loadson building structuresup to a height of 200m, their1compc'l1ents and appendages. (2) Wind loads shallbe calculatedfor eachof the loadedareasunderconsideration. Thesemay be: (a) the whole structure (b) parts of the structure, i.e components,claddingunits and their fixings (3) This Chapter alsogivesrules for chimneysand othercantilevered structures. Special requirements for lattice towers are not given. 3.2 CLASSIFICATION OF ACTIONS

..
.3.3

(1) Wind action are classified asfree actions,see Chapter1. DESIGN SITUATIONS The relevantwind actions shall be determinedfor eachdesignsituationidentified in accordance with Chapter1. (2) The effect of changesof the form of the construction works which may modify the externaland internalwind pressure(such asdoors normally closedbut left openunder storm conditions)shall be considered. (3) Structuressusceptible to dynamic effect shall be designedfor fatigue loading. 3.4 3.4.1 REPRESENT A TION OF ACTIONS Expansion of the Wind Actions and the Responseof t~1e Structures

..

-(1)

(1) Wind actionsare fluctuating with time. They act directly on the externalsurfacesof enclosed structuresand, through porosity of the externalsurface,also act indirectly on the internal surfaces. They may also directly affect the internal surface of openstructures. Pressures act on areasof the surface producing forces normal" to the surface for the structure or for individual cladding components. Additionally, when large areasof structuresare swept by the wind, frictional forces acting tangentiallyto the surface, maybe significant. To achievethe designaims accountshallbe takenof: -(a) turbulentwind acting over part or all of the structure"(seeSection3.5 and 3.6 respectively) (b) fluctuatingpressures inducedby the wake behind the structure(see Section3.9.4) (c) fluctuatingforces inducedby the motion of the structure(see Section3.9.4).

EBC$ -1

1995

51

1:;

ETHIOPIAN BUILDING CODE STANDARD

FOR LOADING

(2) The total responseof structuresand their elements may be consideredas the superpositionof a "background" component,which acts quasi-statically and "resonant"components due to excitation close to natural frequencies. For the majority of structuresthe resonant components are small and the wind load canbe simplified by considering the backgroundcomponent only. Suchstructurescan be calculatedby a simplified method. The limits to suchstructuresare set down in Section3.9. (3) The dynamiceffectsare divided into different types accordingto the physicaleffect of the wind: ,(a) stochasticand resonantresponse(alongwind, crosswind and torsional direction) due to turbulenceand wake effects (b) response due to vortex shedding (c) galloping (d) interference (e) divergenceand flutter. (4) In this Chapter,the wind action is represented by a set of quasi-static pressures or forces whose effects are equivalentto the extreme effects of the wind. Slenderstructures such as chimneys, observationtowers, componentelementsof open frames and trusses,and in some caseshigh rise buildings shall be designedto resist the dynamic effect of vortex shedding. General rules for evaluating such situations are provided in Section3.9.4. Criteria are also given for aeroelastic instability. 3.4.2 Modelling of "Vind Actions

: l

~ ~

(Ii The wind action is represented either as a wind pressureor a wind force. The action on the structurecausedby the wind pressureis assumed to act normalto the surfaceexceptwhereotherwise specified; e.g. for tangentialfriction forces. (2) The following parameters are used severaltimes and are definedbelow: q'~f referencemeanwind velocity pressurederived from referencewind velocity as defined in Section3.7.1. It is used asthe characteristic value c~(Z) exposurecoefficient accountingfor the terrain and heightaboveground z given in Section 3.8.5. The coefficient also modifies the meanpressureto a peak pressureallowing for turbulence z referenceheightdefined in Appendix A appropriateto the relevantpressurecoefficient (z = z~) for externalpressure and force coefficient, z = Zjfor internalpressurecoefficient) Cd dynamic coefficient accountingfor both correlationand dynamic magnification given in Section3.9. WIND PRESSURE ON SURFACES 3.5.1 Field .of Application )

I"' ..3.5 ~

(1) The representation of the wind pressuregiven in this Sectionis valid for surfaceswhich are sufficiently rigid to neglecttheir resonant vibrationscausedby the wind, as is normally the case. (2) If a naturalfrequencyof vibration of the surfaceis low (i.e. less than5 Hz), thesevibrations may becomesignificant, and they shall be taken into account. These effects are not covered by this Chapter.'

52

EBCS -1

1995

r
-..~

-1
3.5.2 External Pressure

CHAPTER 3: WIND AC770NS~

'!
I

~ f

"",:, .,it;

91'

(1) The wind pressureacting on the externalsurfacesof a structure Weshall be obtainedfrom: We= qrt/ ce(ze) Cpt where Cpt is the externalpressurecoefficientderived from AppendixA. 3.5.3 Internal Pressure (3.1)

t
i

1
J

'j ..

l~

(1) The wind pressureactingon the internal surfacesof a structure ~ shall be obtainedfrom: ~ = qre/ ce(z)Cpi where Cpi is the internalpressurecoefficientobtainedfrom AppendixA. 3.5.4 Net Pressure (3.2)

(1) The net wind pressureacrossa wall or an elementis the difference of the pressureson each surfacetakingdue account of their signs. (Pressure, directedtowardsthe surfaceis takenaspositive, and suction, directed away from the surfaceasnegative). Examplesare given in Figure 3.1.

"':,

~.~,

ntg
~-~

"
--nl9 -pm-

Mg
-; --r.tq

!~~

(a)

(b)

-w:

X~ ~

= = WeJ

==

3[J .-= -, -"==11


~ n~
w:

(c)

~)

Figure 3.1 Pressure on Surfaces

3.6
.

WIND FORCES
Wind Forces from Pressures

3.6.1

;:

r:, ..

(1) The wind forces acting on a structureor a structural component maybe determinedin two ways: (a) by meansof global forces as a summationof pressures acting on surfacesprovided that the structureor the structural component is not sensitiveto dynamic response (Cd < 1.2 see Section3.9).
EBCS -1 1995 53~

.(b)

,.

ETHIOPIAN BUILDING CODE STANDARD FOR LOADING

(2) The global' force F w shall be obtained from the following expression: Fw = qrtf Ct(Zt)Cd Cf Art! where
,

-(3.3)

Cf is the force coefficient derived from Section 3.10 Art! is the reference area for Cf (generally the projected area of the structure normal to the wind) as defined in Section 3.10 ,'.

(3) For lattice structures and for vertical cantilevered structures with a slenderness ratio heig~t/width > 2 and with nearly constant cross-section (e.g. tall buildingis', chimneys, towers) the force F wjon the incremental area Aj at the height Zjis: Fwj = qrt! Ct(Zj)Cd C.uAj where ..(3.4)

Zj is the height of the centre of gravity of incremental area Aj C.u is the force coefficient for incremental area Aj as defined in Section 3.10 Aj is the incremental area

(4) Torsional effects due to inclined or non correlated wind may be represented on non circular nearly symmetric structures by the force F w acting with the eccentricity e:

b e = -(3.5)
10 where b is the dimension of the cross section transverse to the main axis considered (see Fig.3.~).

~-~

._0_.+._0_'
.
~$;~
I

.
3.6:2 Friction Force

Fw

Figure3.2 Wind ForceActing on CrossSection


(5) More detailed values of the eccentricity for special cross sections are presented in Section 3.10.

'c,

'"

(1) For structures with large area swept by the wind (e.g. large free standing roofs), friction forces, F fr may be significant. They shall be obtained from:
54 _4 EBCS.11995 EBCS- 11995 , 0,
, ~::(;;~'

f~,,;;;.

i
~ -.' CHAPTER 3: WIND ACTIONS I ,"

~'

...

1l

Ffr = qrt/ ce(Ze)cfr Afr


.,11 .0,

(3.6)

where

Cfr is the friction coefficient derived from Section 3.10.13 Afr is the area swept by the wind WIND

3.7 3.7.1

REFERENCE

Reference Wind Pressure

(1) The reference mean wind velocity pressure qref shall be determined from:
p Vrt/ 2 qrt/ = "2

where

Vrt/ is the reference wind velocity as defined in Section 3.7.2 p is the air density ,

The air density is affected by altitude and depends on the temperature and pressure to be expected in the region during wind storms. A temperature of 20C has been selected as appropriate for Ethiopia and the variation of mean atmospheric pressure with altitude is given in Table 3,1. Table 3.1 Values of Air Density p ~t;~ , .", ~ .500 Site Altitude(m) Above sea level 0 1000 1500 2000 3.7.2 Reference Wind Velocity p( kg 1m3 1.20 1.12 1.06 1.00 0.94

(1) The reference wind velocity vrei is defined as the 10 minute mean wind velocity at 10m above ground of terrain category II (see Table 3.2) having an annual probability of exceedence of 0.02 (commonly referred to as having a mean return period of 50 years). (2) It shall be determined from: Vref = CDIR Cn;:.v CALT Vreto where Vreto VDIR Cn;:.v CALT (3.7)

~ ~:-

is the basic value of the reference wind velocity to betaken as 22m/sec is the direction factor to be taken as 1.0. is the temporary (seasonal) factor to be taken as 1.0. is the altitude factor to be taken as 1.0. 'I
i J

(3) For temporary structures, which are: (a) structures during construction (which may require temporary bracing supports (b) structures whose life time is known and is less than one year

t ~
!;~

EBCS-1199555,&
r'

~1

ETHIOPIAN BUILDING CODE STANDARD FOR LOADING


~

a reduction of the referencewind velocity may be allowed depending upon: (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) the duration of the situation ) the possibilities of protecting or strengthening of the structureduring wind storms the time neededto protect or strengthen the structure the probability of occurrenceof wind storms the possibilities of forecastingwind storms

B~sedon Section3.7.3 and/or on special local climate situationthe temporaryfactor CTEM according to Eq. (3.7) describesthis redu~tion. (4) Transportablestructures which may be dismantledand rebuilt at any time in the year are not consideredto be temporarystructures. 3.7.3 Annual Probabilities of Exceedenceother than 0.02

(1) The referencewind velocity Vref (P)for annualprobabilitiesof exceedence p other thanthe value of 0.02 (see Section3.7.2 (1) canbe found usingthe following expression: -V

[ l-K1ln[ -In (1-p)] ] n


ref l-K1ln(-lnO.98)

(3.8)

fn) ref'l'"

where- v ref k] n

is the referencevelocity with an annualprobability of exceedence of 0.02 (see Section3.7.2) shapeparameter. The representative value K] = 0.2 canbe used. exponent. The representative valuen = 0.5 canbe used. 0.005 0.01
I

. -

0.02
p I
+ 0.05

:
I
I

0.1

0.2
0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1.0 1.1 1.2

vre ,(p)/ /' vref


I

Figure 3.3 Ratio Vrejp) vref for k1 = 0.2 and n = 0.5

5iJ;:: ",I

.
~

I I.5

I
1

EBCS -1 1995

..'-"

.
CHAPTER 3: WINDACTIONS ,

A.
3.8 WIND PARAMETER

3.8.1 Mean Wind Velocity


(1) In order to define the Reynoldsnumberin A.8 andthe wind coefficientsand other parametersof this Chapter,the meanwind velocity v",(z)is required. It is definedby: v",(z)= c,(z) c,(z)V,q where V,q c,(z) -cAz) 3.8.2 is the referencewind velocity (Section3.7.2) is the roughness coefficient (Section3.8.2) is the topographycoefficient (Section3.8.4) (3.9)

RoughnessCoefficient

(1) The roughness coefficient c,(z)acCQunts for the variability of meanwind velocity at the site of the structuredue to: (a) the height aboveground level (b) the roughness of the terrain depending on the wind direction. (2) The roughness coefficient at height z is defined by the logarithmicprofile: -c ,(z) = kT In(zlzo) c,(z) = c,(z",;J where kT Zo Zmin for for Zmin ~ Z ~ 200m z < Zmin (3.10) (3.11)

is the terrain factor is the roughness length is the minimum height

Theseparameters dependon the terrain categoryas given in Table 3.2. (3) At heightsmore than 200m aboveground level specialistadviceis recommended. 3.8.3 Terrain Categories

(1) The terrain categoriesare defined in Table 3.2.


--~

1EBCS -1
!~

1995

57
[

.1

"'

ETHIOPIAN BUILDING CODE STANDARD FOR LOADING

Table 3.2 Terrain Categoriesand Related Parameters Terrain Category I Lakes with at least 5km fetch upwind and smoothflat country without obstacles kr 0.17 0.19
.

zo(m) 0.01 0.05 0.3

Zmin(m} 2 4 8

II Farmland with boundaryhedges,occasional small farm structure,housesor trees III Suburbanor industrial areasand permanent forests .IV Urban areasin which at least 15% of the surface is covered with buildings and their average height exceeds15m

0.22

0.24

16

(2) If the structure is situatedneara changeof terrain roughness at a distance: (a) less than 2km from the smoothercategoryI (b) less than 1km from the smoothercategories II and II the smootherterrain categoryin the upwind directionshouldbe used. (3) In the abovetransitionzonessmall areasof differentroughness shouldbe ignored (less than 10% of the area under consideration). (4) Whenthere is any doubt aboutthe choicebetween two categories in the definition of a givenarea, the worse caseshouldbe taken. (5) Table 3.3 gives roughness coefficient c,(z}for selected values of height Z Table 3.3 RoughnessCoefficient c, Terrain Category I II III IV 3.8.4
z(m)

-,

2 0.90 0.83 0.72 0.67

16 1.25 1.10 0.87 0.67

30 1.36 1.22 1.01 0.82

50 1.45 1.31 1.13 0.94

100 1.57 1.44 .1.28 1.11

200 I
I

1.02 1.14 0.83 0.96 0.72 0.72 0.67 0.67

1.68 1.58 1.43 1.27

Topography Coefficient

(1) The topographycoefficient CAZ) accountsfor the increaseof meanwind speedover isolatedhills and escarpments (not undulatingand mountainous regions). It is relatedto the wind velocity at the base of the hill or escarpment. it shall be considered for locationswithin the topographyaffected zone (seeFig. 3.5 and 3.6). It is definedby: Ct = 1 Ct = 1 + 2 s if! Ct = 1 + 0.6 s for for for if! < 0.05 0.05< if! < 0.3 if! > 0.3

.
(3.12) -

-;~

58

EBCS -1 1995

-.CHAPTER

3: WIND ACTIONS

Where s

If> Le L" Ld H x' Z

is the factor to be obtainedby interpolationfrom the value of s = 1.0 at the crest of a hill, ridge or escarpment and the value s = 0 at boundary of the topography affectedzone. (seefigs. 3.5 and 3.6). Interpolationshallbe linear with horizontaldistancefrom crest and with heightabovethe local ground level. is the upwind slopeH/L" in the wind direction (seefigs. 3.6 and 3.7) is the effective length of the upwind slope, defined in Table 3.4 is the actuallength of the upwind slope in the wind direction is the actuallength of downwind slope in the wind direction is the effective height of the feature is the horizontaldistanceof the site from the top of the crest is the vertical distancefrom the ground level of the site Table 3.4 Values of Le Slope (If>= H/L,,)

Shallow (0.05 < If>< 0.3):


Le = L"

Steep(If>> 0.3)
Le = H/0.3

(2) In valleys, cJz) may be setto 1.0 if no speedup due to funnelling effects is to be expected. For structuressituatedwithin steep-sided valleyscare shouldbe takento accountfor any increaseof wind speedcausedby funnelling.
5=0

O.SLe 5=0

W" ni

X+
0.75 Le 1.5 Le

-TOEQ.GRAPHY

AFFECTED ZONf.

: 6

Figure 3.5 Factor s: Cliffs, and Escarpments

EBCS -1

1995

59

"'

",

'?, ,

'"

ETHIOPIAN BUILDING CODE STANDARD

FOR LOADING

"

5= 0

r.y

O.SL~
$=0 5=0

Wi~

O'~le

O.SLeI

0.754

TOPOGRAPHY AFFECTED ZONE

Figure 3.6 3.8.5 Exposure Coefficient

Factor s: Hills and Ridges ". . -

(1) The exposure coefficient, Ce(Z) takes into account the effects of terrain roughness, topography and height above ground on the mean wind speed and turbulence. It is defined by: ce(z) = c2,(Z) c2/(z)[1 + 2gIv(z)] :;. I
r '
'"

(3.13)

where

g Iv (z)

is the peak factor is the turbulence intensity, given by:

,," , .};~ 'ii


.I

I,,(z) =

kT
C ' (z)' C / (z)

(3.14)
'

'I
,

(2) For codification purposes it has been assumed that the quasi-static gust load is determined from: c(z) = c;(z) c;(z)
e
--

1+

7k T
c,(z) c/(z)

(3.15)

,,~~
where kT c,(z) c/(z) is the terrain factor as defined in Section 3.8.2 is the roughness coefficient as defined in Section 3.8.3 is the topography coefficient as defined in Section 3;8.4

-~ . ..

,
'!

(3) The exposure co~fficient c.(z)is given in Table 3.5 for e.ach 'terrain category defined in \ Section 3.8.2. -'
! I

"c-'r:;: ~ -';:' i#'4

l' ..,

60

EBCS -1 1995

CHAPTER 3:

WIND ACTIONS

(4) For structures which need to be designed by a detailed dynamic analysis method, the simplification in (2) above is not used. 3.9 CHOICE OF PROCEDURES

3.9.1 General
(1) Two procedures for calculating wind loads are required. (a) the simple procedure of this Code applies to those structures whose structural properties do not make them susceptible to dynamic excitation. This procedure can also be used for the design of mildly dynamic structures by the use of the dynamic coefficient Cd, The value of this coefficient dependsupon the type of structure (concrete, steel, composite), the height of .the structure and its breadth. (b) a detailed dynamic analysis procedure is required for those structures which are likely to be susceptible to dynamic excitatiQn and for which the value of the dynamic coefficient Cd is greater than 1.2. (2) The dynamic coefficient Cdtakes into account the reduction effects due to the lack of correlation of pressures over surfaces as well as tIle magnification effects due to the frequency content of turbulence close to the fundamental frequency of the structure. (3) Section 3.9.2 defines the field of application of this section, and the criteria for choosing between simple and detailed procedures. (4) Section 3.9.3 sets down the values of Cdfor use with the simple procedure (in-wind response). (5) Section 3.9.4 gives criteria for vonex shedding and galloping. 3.9.2 Criteria for the Choice

(1) The simple procedure may be used for buildings and chimneys less than 200m tall provided the value of Cd(see Section 3.9.3) is less than 1.2 (in-wind response). In all other cases a detailed dynamic analysis is required in accordance with specialist literature. 3.9.3 Dynamic Coefficient for Gust Wind Response

(1) Values of Cdset out in Figs. 3.7 to 3.13 are based on typical values of the relevant parameters and simplified equations for natural frequencies of structures. (2) Values of Cdfor buildings are set out in Figs.3. 7 to 3.9 depending on the material of construction. (3) Values of Cdfor chimneys are set out in Figs. 3.10 to 3.13 depending on the form of construction. (4) For values of 1.0 ~ Cd ~ 1.2 it is recommended that a detailed procedure should be used.
,

'.

EBCS -7

ETHIOPIAN BUILDING CODE STANDARD FOR LOADING


,

Table3.5 ExposureCofficientc.CATEGORY I
z(m)

.,

c1

16

30

50

100

200

1.0
1.1

1.88
2.16

2.25
2.59

2.64
3.05

3.07
3.55

3.47
4.02

3.82
4.43

4.31
5.02

4.84
5.63

1.2 1.3
1.4

2.45 2.76
3.09

2.95 3.33
3.73

3.48 3.94
4.42

4.06 4.60
5.17

4.61 5.24
5.90

5.09 5.78
6.52

5.77 6.57
7.41

6.49 7.39
8.36

1.5

3.43

4.15

4.93

5.78

6.60

7.30

8.31

9.38

CATEGORY II
z(m) c1 1.0 1.1
,

2 1.80 2.06

4 1.80 2.06

8 2.21 2.54

16 2.66 3.06

30 3.09 3.57

50 3.47 4.00

100 4.01 4.64

200 4.58 5.31

1.2 1.3 1.4


1.5

2.33 2.61 2.91


3..22

2.33 2.61 2.91


3.22

2.88 3.24 3.62


4.02

3.48 3.92 4.40:


4.89

4.07 . 4.58 4.60 5.18 5.16 5.82


5.75 6.49

5.31 6.02 6.7&


7.57

6.09 6.92 7.80


8.73

CATEGORY III
z(m) cI
1.0

2
1.63

4
1.63

8
1.63

16
2.11

30
2.59

50
3.00

100
3.60

200
4.25

;~ ,-

1.1 1.2
1.3 1.4

1.86 2.09
2.33 2.58

1.86 2.09
2..33 2.58

1.86 2.09
2.33 2.58

2.41 2.72
3'.04 3.39

2.96 3.35
3.76 4.20

3.44 3..90
4.39 4.91

4.14 4.71
5.32 5.96

4.90 5.59
6.32 7.09

1.5

2.84

2.84

2.84

3.74

4.Q5

5.45

6.63

7.91

CATEGORY IV
z(m)

cI
1.0
1.1 1.2 1.3

2 1.56

4 1.56

8 1.56
1.77 1.98 2.20

16 1.56
1.77' 1.98 2.20

30 2.04
2.31 2.61 2.91

50 2.46
2.80 3.16 3.54

100 3.08
3.52 3.99 4.48

200 3..75
4.31 4.89 5.51 " "

, 1..77 , 1.77 , 1.98 1.98 2.20 2.20

1.4 1.5

2.43 2.67

2.43 2.67

2.43 2.67

2.43 2.67

3.23 3.56

3.94 4.35

4.99 5.53

6.16 6.84

62

EBCS -1 1995

/-

..

; " It (" i: ,, [! if I
'c ..II c

\'1 It

.'
.,

CHAPTER

3;

WIND

ACTIONS

it.

:
I'

I
ii'
'

; !

t
I

..

j;
~ ,IN

"I 1 !

" "' J"I


.1-"

. I" .

b ..-=-.f

,;i;

LD
)"

fh
I 'K)O

not of
prQcticQt
interest

SO

height h ( lira

~
20

.5 .tx-.adth

10

10

20 b (m)

100

Figure 3.7 Cd Values for Concrete and Masonry Buildings


Note: The criteria set down in this figure do not address comfort conditions at serviceability. If this is likely to be of concern, more detailed procedures should be used.

-.

-EBCS

-1

1995

63

~ I

~~/AN

BUILDING CODE STANDA~~~ADING

~
, .)"

~rh W
SO

not of proctlcal
Intlrlat

40
height hIm)

~
20

10

20 brladth b 1m)

100

Figure 3.8 CdValues for Steel Buildings

m
150

~
~

m not of
proc tical
in~erest

~
,~;, ';:, hlighthfm)

!:~~~,,;;;,~~;,'~::
t ."' Y',j

30

I
~

10
5 10 20 breadth b (m) SO ,/ 100

Figure 3.9 CdValues for Composite (Steel/Concrete)Buildings

64

EBCS -1 -"995

,-

" -CHAPTER

3;

WIND ACTIONS

.'ZOO

,CO

For Cd> 1.2use dynamic metf1od

.' crlttnJ

f or

vortex sheddi~

(6.~.~)
SO

height h {mJ
20

-~>-

'0

,0,5
"

5
di.ame~r b (m)

10

Figure 3.10 C; '"a1uesfor Unlined Welded Steel Chimneys

100

'I,

.l

crl,erl; 'tONal

r~r sl1tddi"9

{6.141
SO

h!igh,th (m)

-.,/ >-

" ~

,
0, S 1 2 S 10
c'

"i;

diameter " -Figure

b (tn)

,;,,1
cO

3.11 Cd Values for Lined Steel Chimneys

C,!!ji!i':C \c:~i;~

~ c.

:~

EBCS -1

1995

65

-.
ETHIOPIAN BUILDING CODE STANDARD FOR LOADING

200

'100
I

criteri~
vortex

for
sheOdiilg

SO height h (m) b

'"
20 c
0-

-.,/.,"-

II

"8

10 0.5

2
diimet~

5
b (m)

10

Figure 3.12 Cd Values for Brick Lined Steel Chimney

'-

100

crite-ii

sh~lng

~or vortex

I
4 he~ht h (m)

50

,/,.L

.
2
10

t
~J

0,5

2
diimeter

5
b (m)

Figure 3.13 CdVlaues for Reinforced Concrete Chimney

!.

t;: t;:

CQr'~

of of aa~

..
CHAPTER3: WIND ACTIONS3.9.4 Vortex Shedding, Aeroelastic Instability and Dynamic

Interference Effects

3.9.4.1 General
(1) For slender structures the following phenomena of dynamics and instability effects have to be

considered:
(a) (b) vortex shedding galloping

(c) flutter (d) divergence


(e) interference galloping

(2) Rules for analyzing such phenoIllena may be obtained from specialist literature. (3) Criteria for the field of application of vortex shedding and galloping are given in Section 3.9.4.2. i 3.9.4.2 Field of Application
!

."

(1) Buildings whose geometric dimensions satisfy the criteria gi~n in fig. 3.14 need not be checked for vortex shedding and galloping. Buildings which do not satisfy these criteria shall be checked for vortex shedding and galloping.

.(2) Elongated structures, such as chimneys, whose geometric dimensions satisfy the criteria given in ~ figs. 3.10 to 3.13 and need not to be checked for vortex shedding, galloping, flutter and interference galloping. Such structures which do not satisfy these criteria shall be checked for these phenomena. field of ~plication of~x heigh ~ ~ ~"Q" ~ Ir ~ ~ ~ '?

,"" L. ? "

'\.Ir ~~/o"';)b'~

fl:D
Wind/
f--:-{

20

no sensitivity to

vortex shedding

10

: -Figure

3.14 Ciriteria

b for Buildings for Vortex Shedding and Galloping

10

20

50

breadth

1m]

EBCS -1

1995

67

ETHIOPIAN BUILDING CODE STANDARD FOR LOADING

..

[TillS PAGE INTENTIONALLY LEFT BLAl"ll'K]

68 EBCS77995

""

"'
0 -, ' .f "

t; ,. 1:\ '" i"

.-Appendix .Aerodynamic
A.l GENERAL

A Coefficients

C
'I, .,

(1) This section presents the aerodynamic coefficients of the following structures, structural elements and components: -Buildings (Section A.2) -Canopy roofs (Section A.3) -Free-standing boundary walls, fences and signboards ( Section A.4) -Structural elements with rectangular Section ( Section A.S) -Structural elements with sharp edged Section (Section A.6) -Structural elements with regular polygonal Section (Secion A.7) -Circular cylinders (Section A.8) -Spheres (Section A.9) -Lattice structures and scaffoldings (Section A.I0) -Friction coefficients (Section A.ll) -Effective slenderness and slenderness reduction factor (Section A.12)

A.2
A.2.1

BUILDINGS
General

.size -for

(1) The external pressure coefficients Cpt for buildings and individual parts of buildings depend on the of the loaded area A. They are given for loaded areas A of 1m2and 10m2in the relevant tables the appropriate building configurations as Cpt,land Cpt,IO respectively -For other loaded areas the variation of the values may be obtained from fig. A.l. Note: The loaded area is the area of the structure, which produces the wind action in the section to be calculated.

Cpe
C pe, 1
,!1

'.. ,

C~, 10

it

8 ~

A [ m2}

Figure A.l

Variation of External Pressure Coefficient for Buildings with Size of the Loaded Area A.

Note: The Figure is based on the following:

: ,

Cpt; Cpt,)
Cpt= Cpt,}+ (Cr-e,IO -cpt.l)logloA
A ?; 10m2

A S 1m2
1m2< A < 10m2
Cpt = Cpe,IO

EBCS -1

1995

69

"

.-Appendix .Aerodynamic
A.I GENERAL

A Coefficients

(1) This section presents the aerodynamic coefficients of the following structures, structural elements and components: -Buildings (Section A.2) -Canopy roofs (Section A.3) -Free-standing boundary walls, fences and signboards ( Section A.4) -Structural elements with rectangular Section ( Section A,S) -Structural elements with sharp edged Section (Section A.6) -Structural elements with regular polygonal Section (Secion A.7) -Circular cylinders (Section A.8) -Spheres (Section A.9) -Lattice structures and scaffoldings (Section A.IO) -Friction coefficients (Section A,II) -Effective slenderness and slenderness reduction factor (Section A.I2)

A.2 A.2.I
.size -for

BUILDINGS General

(1) The external pressure coefficients Cpt for buildings and individual parts of buildings depend on the of the loaded area A. They are given for loaded areas A of 1m2and 10m2 in the relevant tables the appropriate building configurations as Cpt! and cpe,10 respectively. For other loaded areas the variation of the values may be obtained from fig. A.I. Note: The loaded area is the area of the structure, which produces the wind action in the section to be calculated.

Cpe
Cpe,1

C~.1O

I.

e ~

A ( m2J

Figure A.I

Variation of External Pressure Coefficient for Buildings with Size of the Loaded Area A.

Note: The Figure is based on the following: : -Cpt = Cpt,] Cpt= Cpe,] + (C~.IO -Cpe.U1OgloA A ~ 10m2 A ~ 1m2, 1m2< A < 10m2 Cpt = Cpe.l0

EBCS -1

1995

69

ETHIOPIAN BUILDING CODE STANDARD FOR LOADING

(2) The values Cpe,lO and Cpe,l in Tables A.l to A.5 are given for orthogonalwind directions00,90, 180but representhighestvaluesobtainedin a range of wind direction () = :t 45 either side of the relevantorthogonaldirection.I (3) Thesevaluesare only applicableto buildings. A.2.2 Vertical Walls of Rectangular Plan Buildings

(1) The referenceheight, Ze' for walls of rectangular plan buildings dependson the aspectratio h/bI and ~sgiven in Fig. A.2 for the following three cases. (a) Buildings, whose heighth is less than b, shallbe considered to be one part. (b) Buildings, whose heighth is greaterthan b, but less than 2b, shall be considered to be two -parts, comprising: a lower part extending upwardsfrom the ground by a height equalto b and an upperpart. (c) Buildings, whose height h is greater than 2b, shall be consideredto be in multiple parts, comprising: a lower part extendingupwards from the ground by a height equalto b; an upper part extendingdownwardsfrom the top by a height equalto b and a middle region, betweenthe upper and lower parts, divided into as many horizontalstrips with a maximum height of b as desired. b: crosswioowidth : -T
\

h >~ Z.- h b< h< ~ ~ Z.- h. b . '.

h<b

'TZ.-h

Tz.-z

1: -h

T z.-b

TZ.-b

(a)

(b)

(c)

Figure A.2 Reference Height ZeDepending on hand b. (2) The externalpressurecoefficientsCpe.lO and Cpe,l for zoneA, B, C, D, and E defined in Fig. A.3 are given in Table A.l dependingon the ratio d/h. Intermediate valuesmaybe interpolatedlinearly. (3) Friction forces should be consideredonly for long buildings (seeSection3.6.2),

-.

70
~

EBCS -1 1995

"

r ..~ APPENDIX A: AERODYNAMICCOEFFICIEN~

ELEVATlON

case d>e --

P LAN
Id-j -~

~~..-!
'AI B

i
I c , Th
.

wind'\

.0

Eb

~~e d~
8/5

':

VI !!!L ~[=~l
.,
.A

Th
,

~ I
.e=b .whichever

B.
or 2h is smaller

Figure A.3 Table A.I

Key for Vertical Walls

External Pressure Coefficients for Vertical Walls of Rectangular Plan Buildings

Zone
d/h

A
Cpe,IO Cpe, 1

B,B'
Cpe,lO Cpe,1

C
Cpe,IO 1 Cpe,l

D
Cpe,IO Cpe, I

E
Cpe,lO 1 Cpe,1

~1 ~4 A.2.3 .(1) -(2) (3) .(4) .-(5)

-1.0 -1.0

-1.3 -1.3

-0,8 -0.8

-0.1 -0.1

-0.5 -0.5

+0.8 +0.6

+1.0 +1.0

-0.3 -0.3 ,

Flat roofs

Flat roofs are defined within a slope of :1:4. The roof should be divided into zones as shown in Fig. A.4 The reference height Zeshould be taken as h. Pressure coefficients for each zone are given in Table A.2. For long roofs friction forces should be considered (see Section 3.6.2).

EBCS -1

1995

71

ETHIOPIAN BUILDING CODE STANDARD FOR LOADING

-.
r

Parapets

Cur.-edIl'd mansard,ave.s

ret.rlnc8height:

:.-h
d I .b or 2h

I./4

--I F

whichever is smaller
b : crosswind dimlNion

wind ~
#'G H I b

/ 01" I F
I
t-

I. 1/10
I/2-i

Figure A.4 Key for Flat Roofs

72 EBCS-11995

..
i APPENDIX A: AERODYNAMIC COEFFICIENTS

.Table

A.2 External Pressure Coefficients for flat roofs


Zone F
C!"IO Cpt 1 C!",IO

G
Cpt,l C!",IO

H
C!",I Cpt,IO

I
CPt,1

Sharp eaves Hplh = 0025


Witt

-1.8 -16 -1,4 -1.2


-1,0

-2.5 -2.2 -2.0 -1.8


-1.5

-1.2 -1.1 -0.9 -0.8


-1.2

-2.0 -1.8 -1.6 -1.4


-1.8

-0.7 -0.7 -0.7 -0.7


-0.4

-1.2 -1.2 -1.2 -1.2

:t 0.2 :t 0.2 :t 0.2 :t 0.2


:to.2

H,,/h = 0.05
I

parapets

Hp/h = 0.10
r/h=0.05

d urve

r/h = 0.10
r/h = 020 a = 30"

-0,7
-0.5 -1.0

-1.2
-0.8 -1,5

-0.8
-0.5 -1.0

-1.4
-0,8 -1.5

-0.3
-0.3 -0.3

:t 0.2
:t O.:? :to.2

eaves

mansard
eaves

a = 45"
a =60"

-1 2
-1.3

-1.8
-1.9

-1.3
-1,3

-1.9
-1.9

-0.4
-0.5

:t 0.2
:to.2

Notes: .intermediate -(ii) ~.

(i)

For roofs with parapets or curved eaves, linear interpolation may be used for values of hp/h and r/h. For roofs with mansard eaves, linear interpolation between a = 30", a = 45, a = 60, may be used. For a > 60" linearly interpolate between the values

for
(iii) (iv) a = 600and the values for flat roofs with sharp eaves. In Zone I, where positive and negative values are given, both values shall be considered. For the mansard eave itself, the external pressure coefficients are given in Table 3.2.4 "External pressure coefficients for duopitch roofs: wind direction 0" Zone F and G, depending on the pitch angle of the mansard

eave.
(V) For the curved eave itself, the external pressure coefficients are given by linear interpolation along the curve, between values on the wall and on the roof.

A.2.4

Monopitch Roofs

(1) The roof should be divided into zones as shown in Fig. A.S (2) The reference height Z. should be taken as h. .(3) Pressure coefficients for each zone are given in Table A.3 (4) For long roofs friction forces should be considered (see Section 3.6.2). -.(5) For elongated roof corners (see Fig. A,S) the zone R is under the same pressure as the corresponding vertical wall. This rule is also applicable for roofs of other types.

~l

EBCS -1

1995

73

..
ETHIOPIAN BUILDING CODE STANDARD FOR LOADING
-

t-q118W

NQ h NY8

e .0- 1ow~_~"_= II

eo ., eo- h r r=~--r

..,.
-

.1

(a) general

rlfttlnC8 height : z. .h

8/4 I F

wind '"
.H b

8/4 I F
,.
1/10 I8 It'\d e .180"

e .b or 2h
whichever is smaller

(b) wind directions g .0"

wind

b/2 -

hIg"~
Q

b : crosswind dimension

.-/
'-

.b

b/2 I ' HI.


~ I18

."

8/10
8/2
-8 I

~~

(c) wind direction e = go8

Figure A.5 Key for Monopitch Roofs

~~~;

74

EBCS -1 1995

..
APPENDIX A: AERODYNAMIC COEFFICIENTS

Table A.3

External Pressure Coefficients for Monopitch Roofs


direction 0 = O' Zone for wind direction 0 = 180.

Zone for wind

Pitch
angle a Cpr,lO

F
Cpr,t Cpr,lO

G
C",,! Cpr,tO

H
Cpr,! Cpr,tO

F
Cpr,l Cpr.IO

G
Cpr,! Cpr,to

H
Cpr.t

50 150

-1.7 -0.9

-2.5 -2.0

-1.2 -0.8

-2.0 -1.5

-0.6 -0.3

-1.2

-2.3 -2.5

-2.5 -2.8

-1.3 -1.3

-2.0 -2.0

-0,8 -0.9

-1,2 -1.2

+ 0.2
300 -0.5 -0.2 -1.1 -2.3 -0.8 -1.5 -0.8

+ 0.4 450
600 750

+ 0.7
+0.7 +0.8

+ 0.7,
+0.7 +0.8

+ 0.6
+0.7 +0.8

-0.6
-0.5 -0.5

-1.3
-1.0 -1.0

-0.5
-0.5 -0.5

-0.7
-0.5 -0.5

.Zone

for wind

direction

0 = 90.

Pitch
.angle .Cpr.tO a Cpr. to

F
Cpr I Cpt.tO

G
Cpr,t

H
Cpt,t Cpt, 10 Cpt.t

50 150 300 450 600 750

-1.6 -1.3 -1.2 -1.2 -1.2 -1.2

-2.2 -2.0 -2.0 -2.0 -2.0 -2.0

-1.8 -1.9 -1.5 -1.4 -1.2 -1.2

-2.0 -2.5 -2.0 -2.0 -2.0 -2.0

-0.6 -0.8 -1.0 -1.0 -1.0 -1.0

-1.2 -1.2 -1.3 -1.3 -1.3 -1.3 -0,7 -0,8 -0,9 -0,7 -0.5 -1.2 -1.2 -1.2 -1.2

Note: (i) (ii)

At () = 00the pressurechanges rapidly between positive and negativevaluesaround a pitch angle of 1 = + 150 to + 30", so both positive and ne.gative valuesare given. Linear interPolationfor intermediatepitch angles may be used betweenvalues of samesign.

A.2.5

Duopitch Roofs

(1) The roof should be divided into zonesas shown in Fig. A.6 --(2) .(3) -. The referenceheightz. shouldbe takenas h. The pressurecoefficients for eachzone are given in Table A.4 (4) For long.roofs friction forces shouldbe considered (seeSection3.6.2)

EBCS -1

1995

75

-.
ETHIOPIAN BUILDING CODE STANDARD FOR LOADING
wi'Id ~ -~

-~"'.:"'."~.
..""""""

dvw.-;-.w-~ face

~ >0

fIC8

wW'Id .-0-

t2C8 downwV'ld fact

-]

'... '..

~,

...00 ,

:::::::~:::::::::::::::::::::::::::::: h
,

h':::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::'
-;;

Pitchlngl. positlv.

PitCh anglenegattlle

(I) genera! ~ face v ,*~ ~

.,

8/4 , wind""
.1-00 a H

,!, 'd

f
a Jib

8/4

'
..." 8/10 1-8/10

.
rt',ranC9 height:
:. .h .

(b) wind dlrectJon e .0.I

I 8/4
wind""

20

or 2..,

~
-H I
/lid;I ~ rough Q

which

r i~ smaller

b : ero5..-wind dimension

.I-~

.'

8/4 ,
~

I~
,.

H
I .8110

t/2 .,

(c)winddirection e .90.
Figure A.6 Key for Duopitch Roofs

4.

76

EBCS -1

1995

~.
-.
APPENDIX A: AERODYNAMIC COEFFICIENTS

.Table

A.4 External Pressure Coefficients for Duopitch Roofs


Zone ~ormnd direction 8 = 00 Pitch
angle a Cpo,tO

F
Cpo.! Cpo,tO

G
Cpo. I Cpo.IO Cpo, I' Cpo.IO

J
Cpo, I

-450 -300 -ISo -50 50 150 -1.1 -2.5 -2.3 -1.7 -0.9

-0.6 -2.0 -2,8 -2.5 -2.5 -2.0 + 0.2 -0.8 -1.3 -1.2 -1.2 -0.8

-0.6 -1.5 -2.0 -2.0 -2,0 -1.5 + 0.2 -0,5 + 0.7 +0.7 + 0.7 + 0.8 -1,5 -0.9 -0.8 -0.6

-0.8 -0.8 -1,2 -1,2 -1,2 .0.3 + 0.2 -0.2 + 0.4 +0.6 + 0.7 + 0.8

-0.7 -0.6 -0.5 -0.3 -0.3 -0.4

-1.0 -0.8 -0.7 -0.3 -0.3

-1,5 -1,4 -1.2

-1.0 -0,4 -0,5 -0.2 -0.2 -0.2 -0.3 -0.3 -0.3

-1.5

300

-0.5 + 0.7

-1:5

450 600 .750

+0.7 + 0.7 + 0.8

.Zone ":
C

for mnd direction 8 = 90. F G H I


I

-450 -300 -150 -50 50 150 300 450 600 750

-.1.4 -1.5 -1.9 -1.8 -1.6 -1.3 -1.1 -1.1 -1.1 -1.1

-2.0 -2.1 -2.5 -2.5 -2.2 -2.0 -1,5 -1.5 -1.5 -1.5

-1.2 -1.2 -1.2 -1.2 -1.3 -1.3 -1.4 -1.4 -1.2 -1.2

-2.0 -2.0 -2.0 -2.0 -2.0 -2.0 -2.0 -2.0 -2.0 -2.0

-1.0 -1.0 -0.8 -0.7 -0.7 -0.6 -0.8 -0.9 -0.8 -0.8

-1.3 -1.3 -1.2 -1.2 -1.2 -1.2 -1.2 -1.2 -1.0 -1.0

-0.9 -0.9 -0.8 -0.6 -0.5 -0.5 -0.5 -0.5 -0.5 -0.5

-1.2 -1.2 -1.2 -1.2

.Notes: -.windward .(ii) -.between

(i) At 8 = 00the pressurechangesrapidly between positive and negativevalues on the face around a pitch angle of 1 = + 15to + 300,so both positive and negativevaluesare given. Linear interpolation for intermediatepitch angles of the same sign may be used valuesof the samesign. (Do not interpolatebetween a = + 5 anda = -5, but use the data for flat roofs in SectionA.6.

EBCS -1
: ~

1995

77

.ETHIOPIAN BUILDING CODE STANDARD FOR LOADING


-

A.2.6

Inpped Roofs

(1) The roof should be divided into zonesasshown in Fig. A.7. (2) The referenceheightz. shouldbe takenas h.

(3) The pressurecoefficientsare given in Table A.5.

.~ AI.
z.."
r.f.~ h~ :

8~ ~
..bat2h wtIJd\.,. Itsmall.
b : crosswind dimension

J.I

... I
T

..

1110
4..10 I ~ -~ .~

*1 10

wind'"
M

..00

-\.
/

.., t ~.;IO
'

l
~10

T
b

1 ".
T

.L
+8'10

...i ~ "T.~.

.10

".10
(8) wind dr.CUon e .0-

.-2
(b) wind direction 9 .90-

Figure A.7 A.2.7 Multispan Roofs

Key for Inpped Roofs

(1) Pressurecoefficients for eachspanof multispanroofs shouldbe derived from SectionA.2.4 for monopitchroofs modified for their position according to Fig. A.8. (2) The referenceheightz. shouldbe takenas h.
--

(3) For long roofs friction forces shouldbe considered (seeSection3.6.2).

-.

78

EBCS -1

1995

..

.
"l '"'
bI)

APPENDIX A: AERODYNAMIC

COEFFICIENTS

-.~
-Q bI)
.., qq !"I q
Q. ~ 0/)

'
.~ ~ ~ ~

~
U ...~ cu

!"I !"I qqq

!"I

~ t

~ ~ u .':

, ,l ,""
-0/)

-,

I"!

!"I

; ..,. ..,. ..'oJ 9 9 -~ ~ > ...>. "'g =' cu Q l""! ~ ~.S. ~~~ ~ 8 ,~
o~u ~...~ "'CU~!;:

--.~ " OC! 9 0 <";i


!"I !"I 0 0/)

I"!

I"!

'=5

~ ~ -.~ t,)l 9 000 <";i<";i<";i .-~-< ~ ~ o:S Q "';'


CU .0 ~
CU =' 0/)

~ 9

OC! 9

~ :
'g ~ 2!"1""""'"

-.00 t,)l '<";i<";i

=
c.,.

t,)l",;,",;,",;,",;,
-,
'~N '"" > ...; E

"';'
0 > ~
V"\ ~

~ E

0
~ 0 0 ~ > Q ~ ~ on'oJ'" ~ 'Oo'~ ~ ~

>.O~ CU";;'~

..,;

\Q

bI)

'0 !.
Q, ~ ~

~ II
0 .c
'"'

i U"';' -.V"\!"I
, ,"
\Q q 099 " \Q ~ ~ .-> ~ ~
CUO/)O/)~Q ~ ...~

I"!

Q~~.s~ 'g~~~.s ~ E ~ -= ~
'" ~
0 0.>0/)";\= .-~

~
Coo. 0 .~ OJ rIJ"O"" -"0

~
~

> 0 0~ 0 bI)
.-

.-~

~
U ,9

.5
-.~ ...V"\
q

r--:

5 ~ '00 II ~
on Q

0/)

e.E. ~ U N
t,)l ...q

~~cu~~
..,.
q q q q >. CU,': CU CU -0.0 ~ ~~~Ir)U 'O,'~ ~ + .oS 0/) 0 ~;: -' \Q ~ 9
"'.!"I .0

"'g '5 -g ~

~
~ ~
~

= rI1
t,)l l U'!"I""
-.!"I

I-t

CU..0/) ~

~ E
~ ~ ~

r-+ 9
'0000

~ + + + +

U -.-'" ~ 0 ...

Q...~...~
...~Q~.CU 0

II ~ ~ ~ ~
Q

~
.O/) --"'~

~
9

,~

~ ~

2. l

~ =' C"\ 0 o~ 'r:, Q.o 0 ~ ~

II')

U
-.0. t,)l
~ -!"I

~+cu_~

-<
OJ :c ~ = ~

.--0V"\ ":i"';
~

:i:;ge.e-on
"1 "';' rr000
+ +

~
+

0 ~ B ~ 0 '!3 .s .5 '5 1I1I~0.'"


() t ...; ,9
~ CU...Q. ~...

<o~-~
-, V"\

0 ~

~ ~

.&.
--'

!"I

..

!"I ,

r0

r-

:
.t,)t

r.;:

0\
q

-,v

-:';:;" v

.v

-.~
-.JA.
~

.cu

,.9.0

o~

~"Co :Q:;

1111 .~II

...~

~
'~'~I I

. ~
V"\

I I I I
EBC$-1 1995

,. +

.V"\

r+

.
.ETMOPIAN BUILDING CODE STANDARD FOR LOADING

.
Cpt r
I

O.SCpt

0.6 Cpt

0.6Cpt

I
I

,..",:.'.
,

,
C~ ~0
CPlcO .h

C I.
Cpt. -O.lt -0.4 -0."

]
Cp. Cpt

~rlfltinci hligh~ z.. h


CPI

0.8CpI

0.6CpI

0.6C.

..h
Figure A.S Key to Multispan Roofs A.2.S Vaulted Roofs and Domes (1) This sectionappliesto circular cylindrical roofs and domes. (2) The roof shouldbe divided into zonesas shownin Figs. A.9 and A.1O. (3) The referenceheight shouldbe takenas: Ze = h + 1/2 (4) The pressurecoefficientsare given in Fig. A.9 and Fig. A.1O. 1.11111.
':.;;' -80

(5) Pressure coefficientsfor the walls shouldbe takenfrom A.2.2.


EBCS-11995

-.

-APPENDIX

A: AERODYNAMIC

COEFFIC/~

.
A

~
( pe L h+f ~10

~j
" t'

..f
Ii -r .I h

0,8

0,6 0,4
02

~ I

,
0

01

;'

I " -0,2
.I --O~

0,4

0#5
(

f/d

; \ '

.-0',6
."

A(h/d~O,5)
\
-0,8

.
"

-10

";
-: -I

-12

.I
,

I
A (hId ~ 0,5)

I~--"~

I~

--

B
, ,

Note (i) (ii) (iii)

for 0 ~ hid ~ 0.5, Cpe,10 is obtainedby linear interpolation for 0.2 ~ lid ~ 0.3 and hid ~ 0.5, two valuesof Cpe,10 have be considered the diagramis not applicablefor flat roofs

Figure A.9 External PressureCoefficients for Vaulted Roofs with Rectangular Base and ll(h + j) ~ 10

. ..Note:
.between -.same I

Cpe,10 is constantalong arcs of circles, intersectionsof the sphereand of planesperpendicular to the wind: it can be determinedas a first approximationby linear interpolation the values in A, Band C along the arcs of circles parallel to the wind. In the way the valuesof Cpe,10 in A if 0 < hid < 1 and in B or C if 0 < hid < 0.5 canbe obtainedby linear interpolationin the figure above.

.EBCS

-1

1995

81

;~--~~~
I

f
I
I

ETHiOPIAN BUIi.DING CODE STANDARD FOR LOADING


-

.-

..-.." A;(--.:..
CPe

4 , t,
1

~"

;'

...

,-r

If

'~--, -

.Ih
.1.0
.0.8

-..
'- -A

.0.6
-O.t.

.0.2

0,0 -0.2
-Of.
-0,

O.Sf i'd

((h/d=OI

.((h/d~O.S)

-0.

-1,
-1 B(h/d=O)

-1,
-\

B(h/d~O.S)..

Figure A.10 External Pressure Coefficients Cpt,tO for Domes with Circular Base A.2.9 Internal Pressure

(1) The internal pressure coefficient Cpi for buildings without internal partitions is given in Fig. A.II a,ndis a function of the opening ratio 1/., which is defined as I/. = -L L area of openings at the leeward and wind parallel sides area of openings at the winward, leeward and wind parallel sides (A.2)

(2) The reference"height; without internal partition and floors is the mean height of the openings with homogeneous distribution of height of the dominant opening. an opening is regarded as dominant, if the ratio of its area to that of the remaining openings is larger than 10. (3) the reference height; for buildings without internal partitions but with compartmentation -by

. -'

~-

internal floors is the mean height of the level considered.

82

EBCS -1

1995

"'"",

..

APPENDIX A: AERODYNAMIC

COEFFICIENTS

.0
0,8

"'0---,

-.-,

0,5

'pi
0
-0, 25

-0,5 0 0,1 0,5 0,75 0,9 1

fA'

.
Figure A.I! Internal Pressure Coefficient Cpifor Buildings with Openings in the Walls (4) For a homogeneous distribution of openings f9r a nearly square building the value Cpi= -0.25 shall be used. (5) The worst values have to be considered for any combination of possible openings. (6) For closed buildings with internal partitions and opening windows the extreme values: Cp;= 0.8 or Cpi = -0.5 (A.3) If ':
",

(7) In figure the most intensive suction is assumed to be Cpi= -0.5 (lowest point of the curve).

one or more dominant openings exist in areas with more intensive suction than -0.5, then the curve continues down to the lower value. (8) Internal and external pressures are considered to act at the same time. :. .,. i -.,;~ (9) the internal pressure coefficient of open silos is: Cpo = -0.8 The reference height Zj is equal to the height of the silos. (A.4); " '.

"

~.~~
-;; i

;j
;;'

EBCS -7

7995

83

ETHIOPIAN BUILDING CODE STANDARD FOR LOADING

A.3

Canopy Roofs

(1) Canopy roofs are roofs of buildings, which do not have permanent walls, such as petrol station canopies, dutch barns, etc. (2) The degree of blockage under th~ canopy is shown in Fig. A.12 It depends on the solidity ratio cp,which- is the ratio of the area of possible obstructions under the canopy divided by the cross area ooder-the canopy, being both areas normal to the wind direction. cp = '0 represents an empty canopy, cp = 1 represents the canopy fully blocked with contents to the down wind eaves only (this is not a closed building). (3) The net pressure coefficients Cp,net are given in Table A.7 to A.9 for cp = 0 and cp = 1. Intermediate values may be linearly interpolated. (4) Downwind of the position of maximum blockage, Cp,net are given in Table 10.3.1 to 10.3.3 for cp = 0 and-cp = 1. Intermediate values may be linearly interpolated. (5) The overall coefficient represents the resulting force. The local coefficient represents the maximum local force for different wind directions. (6) Each canopy must be able to support the maximum (upward) loads as defined below: .(i) for monopitch canopy (Table A.7) the centre of pressure shall be taken at w/4 from the windward edge (w = alongwind dimension, Fig. A.13) (ii) for duopitch canopy (Table A.8) the center of pressure shall be taken at the center of each slope (Fig. A.14.) In addition, a duopitch canopy must be able to support one pitch with the maximum or minimum load, the other pitch being unloaded. (iii) for multibay duopitch canopy each bay can be calculated by applying the reduction factors ..given in Table A.9 to the Cpn~t values given in Table A.8. In case of double skin, the impermeable skin and its fixings shall be calculated with Cp,n~t and the permeable skin and its fixings with 1/3 Cpn~t. (7) Friction forces should be considered (see Section 3.6.2). . .

=
'////.1'//.1'////////////////////////////

-""--.::::::~:~~"'" ::::--=> " ~ ~


~ ' ". ~

=--~-;?~~...~~--=

= ~~~i~~m;",~ .~..~
-~

""::;>
/ .
--

Figure A.12 Airflow over Canopy Roofs


..

(8) Loads on each slope of multibay canopies shown -in Fig. A.lS are determined by applying the factors given in Table A.9 to the overall coefficients for isolated duo-pitch canopies.

84
;, _f~';}

EBCS -1
~~.'.

1995

~
..APPENDIX A: AERODYNAMIC COEFFICIENTS --

Table A.7 Cp.ntt VaIues for Monopitch Canopies Roof angle a [deg.] Blockage cp Overall coefficients Local coefficients

1/10

~~~~.--tt
w

w (1 0

0
0 Minimumallcp Minimum cp=O Minimum cp=l Minimum all cp Minimum cp=O Minimumcp=l all cp Minimum cp=O Minimumcp=1 all cp Minimum cp=O Minimum cp=J. Minimumallcp Minimum cp=O Minimum cp=1 Minimum allcp Minimum cp=O Minimumcp=1 Minimum allcp Minimum cp=O Minimumcp=l + down zref= h
-up

~
+1:8 -1.3 -1.8 + 2.1 -1.7 -2.2 + 2.4 -2.0 -2.6 + 2.7 -2.4 -2.9 +2.9 -2.8 -2.9 + 3.1 -3.2 -2.5 + 3.2 -3.8 -2.2

+1.1 -1.4 -2.2 + 1.3 -1.8 -2.5 + 1.6 -2.1 -2.7 + 1.8 -2.5 -3.0 +2.1 -2.9 -3.0 + 2.3 -' 3.2 -2.8 + 2.4 -3.6 -2.7

+0.2 -0.5 -1.3 + 0.4 -0.7 -1.4 + 0.5 -0.9 -1.4 + 0.7 -1.1 -1.4 +0.8 -1.3 -1.4 + 1.0 -1.6 -1.4 + 1.2 -1.8 -1.4

+0.5 -0.6 -1.5 + 0.8 -1.1 -1.6 + 1.2 -1.5 -2.1 + 1.4 -1.8 -1.6 + 1.7 -2.2 -1.6 + 2.0 -2.6 -1.5 + 2.2 -3.0 -1.5

.Minimum --10

.
-Minimum 15

20

25

30

Note (i) (ii)

..

EBCS -1

199!i. 85

ETHIOPIAN BUILDING CODE STANDARD FOR LOADING

..
,

h~

~
W ~ h

,~

~
J

::::-P
p

,.

".~

,,'~~ cp<O

';-~~'-'.!:

C1:::
h
~~,
I

CP<O

"':~

..h

---':~

i
" C

;1;11 I

"

.I

'

.I
Figure A.13 Load Arrangements for Monopitch Canopies .

..

86

EBCS -1

1995

..APPENDIX A: AERODYNAMIC COEFFICIENTS

-Table
Roof angle a Blockage tp

A.S Cpo"t' Values for Duopitch Canopies


Overall

[deg.]

coefficients

.J
.1/10 w/10

i/10

-20

Minimum all tp Minimum (,'=0 Minimum tp= 1 Minimumalltp Minimum tp=O Minimum tp=l Minimum all cp Minimum cp=O Minimum tp=l Minimum all cp Minimum cp= 0 Minimumtp=l Minimum all cp Minimum cp=O Minimumcp=l Minimumallcp Minimumcp=O Minimum cp=l Minimum all cp Minimum cp=O Minimum cp=l Minimum all cp Minimum cp=O Minimumcp=l Minimum all cp Minimum cp=O Minimum cp= 1 Minimum all cp Minimum tp=O

-0.7 -0.7 -1.3 +0.5 -0.6 -1.4 + 0.4 -0.6 -1.4 + 0.3 -0.5 -1.3 + 0.3 -0.6 -1.4 +0.4 -0.7 -1.3 + 0.4 -0.8 -1.3 + 0.6 -0.9 -1.3 + 0.7 -1.0 -1.3 + 0.9 -1.0 -1.3

D__+ 0.8 -0.9 -1.5 +0.6 -0.8 -1.6 + 0.6 -0.8 -1.6 + 0.5 -0.7 -1.5 + 0.6 -0.6 -1.3 +0.7 -0.7 -1.3 + 0.9 -0.9 -1.3 + 1.1 -1.2 -1.4 + 1.2 -1.4 -1.4 + 1.3 -1.4 -1.4 + 1.6 -1.3 -2.4 + 1.5 -1.3 -2.7 + 1.4 -1.3 -2.7 + 1.5 -1.3 -2.4 + 1.8 -1.4 -2.0 +1.8 -1.5 -2.0 + 1.9 -1.7 -2.2 + 1.9 -1.8. -2.2 + 1.9 -1.9 -2.0 + 1.9 -1.9 -1.8

+0.6 -1.6 -2.4 +0.7 -1.6 -2.6

+1.7 -0.6 -0.6 +1.4 -0.6 -0.6 + 1.1 -0.6 -0.6 + 0.8 -0.6 -0.6 + 0.4 -1.1 -1.5 +0.4 -1.4 -1.8 + 0.4 -1.8 -2.1 + 0.4 -2.0 -2.1 + 0.5 -2.0 -2.0

-15

-10

+ 0.8 -1.5 -2.6 + 0.8 -1.6 -2.4 + 1.3 -1.4 -1.8 +1.4 -1.4 -1.8 + 1.4 -1.4 -1.6 + 1.5 -1.4 -1.6 + 1.6 -1.4 -1.5 + 1.6 -1.4 -1.4

-5

+ 5

+ 10

+ 15

+ 20

+ 25

.+ 30 -.Minimumcp=l .Note -(i) (ii)

+ down
-up

zref= h

EBCS .1

~;

ETHIOPIAN BUILDING CODE STANDARD

FOR LOADING

Cp>O

~~-b~ hG; ~~-\ hl~ ~

--~---jh l~~~

\-4h[!:C

t~ ~ Ih~7~~:~""-'-'7 ht::~~

Cp>O h f~t--':'~-1 ~ h ,-1-:---:-h ,~--~:---\ -

t~-! ;\ -,--.!--: \hl.,,"~:~ ~ hl~~:~"'7 '7"'" h 1:::::::.

ll~;;;;:;;;~. ~""",~~:,~"", ~",~~ ;'~'r'_,","

Figure A.14 Load Arrangement for Doupitch Canopies

Table A.9 Cp,nel Values for Multibay Canopies Factorsfor all <p Bay 1 2 3 A.4 A.4.1 Location end bay secondbay third and subsequent bays on maximum (downward) overall coefficient 1.00 0.87 0.68 on minimum (upward) overall coefficient 0.81 0.64 0.63

Free-Standing Boundary Walls, Fencesand Signboards Solid Boundary Walls

(1) The wall shouldbe divided into zonesas shown in Fig. A.16 (2) Values of net pressurecoefficients cp,nel for free-standing walls and parapets,with or without return comers, are given in Table A.10 for two values of solidity. Solidity <p= 1 refers to solid walls, while <p= 0.8, refers to walls which are 80% solid and 20% open. The referencearea in both cases is the. gross area. (3) Linear interpolation'for solidity ratio may be used in the range0.8 < <p< 1. For porouswalls' with solidity less than0.8, coefficientsshouldbe derivedas for planelattice frames(seeSection A.10).
1
" 88 EBCS -1 1995

~ , -" --

"~
.",

:';'

,
.
~

'--~

'.'

-'

'.

I!!~
A: AERODYNAMIC COEFFICIEN~

-.-APPENDIX

.
~1

~\'\/~'\\VII"\~\",I"'\,/I"\\,~/I\VI .2 .3_3 .3__.


, , , , , "

.L

-rT , ,.,., .,

, , , ,. , ,,/' T' T,. , , , "r"Tr

Figure A.15 Multibay Canopies (4) The slenderness factor ~J (see"Section A.12) may be applied. (5) The referenceheightZeshouldbe takenas h. Table A.10 Net Pressure Coefficients for Free-StandingWalls Solidity .without -corners Zone return = 1 With return Ip=O.8 ABC 3.4 2.1 1.2 2.1 1.8 1.2 1.7 1.4 1.2 D 1.2 1.2 1.2 ~ .,;,

;}c~

'.:~;~ \~'; .';

;::$

-;:;'l!
.Ip
.corners

~,:;.
Jjo'~;' ;.., 'jf/:

:.i:

O.3h

\-

2h

(a I Key to zon.,

ze=h

I
u ~.~L ~ corner

..;.

~I Without ret1.Kncorner
: -Ib)

~I With return

Key to wind angle Figure A.16 Key to Boundary Walls

-.
EBCS -1 1995 89

ETHIOPIAN BUILDING CODE STANDARD FOR LOADING -

A.4.2 Pressure Coefficients for Porous Fences (1) Porousfenceswith solidity ratio ~ ~ 0.8 shouldbe treatedas a planelattice usingthe provisions of SectionA.10.

A.4.3 Signboards
f ':!, (f) The force coefficients for signboards,separatedfrom the ground by at least d/4 height (see Fig. A.17), is givenby:
cf = 2.5 ~A (A.5)

where ~~ slenderness reductionfactor (seeSection10.12)

r
b !

Q.."-j

r'"
.+.
i'/4b i1/4b~

...,
~

-+-'T.t I ..

"-1-.

+r

11.1 1/,b
74 14

Ze

Zg

Figure A.I7 Key for Signboards

-~

Note: (i) (ii) (iii)


90

reference: Z. = Zg+ d/2 reference area: Art! = b d Zg~ d/4 if not assumed as boundarywall

.-

EBCS -1 1995

cc;:-,
,.

" .

..
.(2) the board, with an horizontal eccentricity of:

APPENDIX A: AERODYNAMIC

COEFFIClcNTS

The resultant force nonnal to the signboard should be taken to act at the height of the center of

e = :to.25 b A.S Structural Elements with Rectangular Sections

(A.6)

(1) The force coefficient cf of structural elements of rectangular section and with wind blowing normally to a face is given by: Cf= Cfo'/Ir '/I), where (A.7)
"

cfo force coefficient of rectangular sections with sharp comers and infinite slenderness ratio}.. (}.. = lib, 1 = length, b = width of element) as given in Fig, A.18. '/Ir reduction factor for square sections with rounded comers, '/Ir are given in Fig. A.19. '/I), reduction factor for elements with finite slendernessratio as defined in Section 10.12.

.'.

(2) The reference area Are[is:


..;,

Are[ = 1 b .The -.(3) .higher A.6 reference height Zeis equal to the height above ground of the section being considered.

(A.8)

;:.

For plate-like sections (dlb < 0.2) lift forces at certain wind angles of attack may give rise to values of Cf up to an increase of 25% (for example, see Section A.4 signboards). Structural Elements with Sharp Edged Section

(1) The force coefficient cfof structural elements with sharp edged section (e.g. elements with cross sections such as those shown in Fig. A.20) is given by: cf = cfo '/Ir~ where (A.9) ,

Cfo force coefficient of stmctural elements with infinite slend~rnessratio}.. (A = l/b, 1 = length, b = width), as defined in Fig. A.18. It is given for all sections and for both I . d d lrectlons as: cfo = 2,0 wm -'
"

~;" :'. ~,

'/IA slenderness reduction factor (see Section A.12)

.
-

".

a:

,i:

EBC.s. 1 1995 91

I
~~/AN BUILDING CODE STAND~~LOADI

2,8
2,5 2.1.

-~

r-~l
,-

~10b

~ d~

2.35 1
2

V68J.
~

I\.~

1,S

0,

,1.2

.6,7 1

10

SO d/b

Figure A.IS Force Coefficients Cf,o of Rectangular Section with Sharp Corners and SlendernessA = lib = ~ and Trubulence Intensity of Iv ~ 6%

...92

EBCS-11995

I
~r
APPENDIXA: AERODYNAMIC COEFFICIENTS
~

-.1--OrJ
0,5

0 0 0,1 0.2 0,3 0,1.

rib

Figure A.19 Reduction Factor '/Ir for a Square Cross-Sectionwith Rounded Corners

I=:V L I

[ F ~r}
1]

Lx

--

Note: L = length A.20 Sharp Edged Structural Section

. ..

--Figure

EBCS -1

1995

93

ETHIOPIAN BUILDING CODE STANDARD FOR LOADING

.-.
(2) The referenceareas: In x-direction: Art!x = Ib In y-direction: Ar.!y = Ib , (3) In all casesthe referenceheightz. is equalto the heightaboveground of the sectionbeing

considered.
A.7 Structural Elements with Regular Polygonal Section (1) The force coefficient cfof structuralelements with regularpolygonalsectionwith 5 or more sides is given by: cf = cfo 1/1~ ! (A. 10)"

where cfo force coefficient of structural elementswith infinite slenderness ratio>.. (>" = lIb, I = length, b = diameterof circumscribed circumference, seeFig. A.21)as defined in Table A.ll. 1/1~ slenderness reductionfactor as defined in A.14

bU

..

~~
Figure A.21 Regular Polygonal Section (2) The referenceareaArof is: A,of = lb (A. 11) (3) The referenceheightz. is equalto the heightaboveground of the sectionbeing considered.

-.
.-

.
94 EBCS -1 1995

""--""".' "r '~


r ."

..

~
?i8 .!

'i
~,

..APPENDIXA:
~

AERODYNAMIC

COEFFICIENTS

Table A,ll Number of d es SI

Force Coefficient Cj.olfor Regular Polygonal Sections of Surface and 0f Corners Reynolds Nurnber Re C:r .0

.Finish ectlons

5 6

pentagon hexagon

all all
surface smooth rib < 0.75(2)

all all
Re ~ 2.4 .105 Re ~ 3 .105 Re ~ 2 .105 Re ~ 7 .105

1.8 1.6
1.45 1.3 1.3 1.1

octagon surface smooth rIb < 0.75(2)

10

decagon

all
surface'smooth (3) comers rounded

all
2 .lOS < Re < 1.2 .106 < 2 .lOS Re ~ 4 .lOS Re < 2 .105

1.3
0.9' 1.3 1.1 like ~ircular cylmders 0.7 like circular

12

dodecagon
...Re all other snrface smooth (3) comers rounded

..2 .surface .18 smooth (3) comers rounded

16

.105 ~ Re < 1.2 .106 R 2 105 e< .cylinders 2 .105 ~ Re < 1.2 .1OS

0.7

Note: (1) Reynold number, Re, is defined in Section A.8 (2) r = comer radius, b = diameter (3) from tests in wind tunnel with galvanised steel surface and a section with b = 0.3m and comer radius of 0.06 b A,S A,S,I CIRCULAR CYLINDERS

External Pressure Coefficients

(1) Pressure coefficients of circular sections depends upon the Reynolds numbers Re defined as: Re = ~ (A.12)

v where b
.v : .vm(z.) = .(2)

diameter
kinematic viscocity of the air (v = 15.10-6m2/S) mean wind velocity as defined in Section 3.8.1

The external pressure coefficients c~ of circular cylinders is given by: c~ = cp.o~>"a where cpo 0 external pressure coefficient for infinite slenderness ratio>.. (see (3) below) (A.13)

,.
'.:~J
"" ~',.

"

--.EBC~-'I:

~ii19~5 95
~;tI:~ " ~

ETHIOPIAN BUILDING CODE STAIVDARD FOR LOADING

~Xa slenderness reduction factor (see (4) below) (3) The external pressure coefficient Cp.ois given in Fig.A.22 for various Reynolds numbers as a function of angle a.

(4) The slenderness reduction factor ~"a is given by: ~~a = 1 ~"a = 'Ji" where for for 00 ~ a ~ CiA 3600 -aA ~ a ~ 360' aA ~ a ~ 360' aA (A.14)

aA position of the flow separation (see Fig. A.23) ~" slenderness reduction factor (see Section A.2)

P!~cpO
I --A

'1

_tp!

= cpqn '~).,

1a08
-2

Note: (i) Intermediate values rilay be interpoiated linearly (ii) typical values in the above Fig. are shown in the Table below

Re 5 x 105 2 x 106 107 wher~ amin cpo.min aA Cpo.h

amin 85 80 75

Cpo.min -2.2 -1.9 -1.5

aA 135 120 105

Cpo,h -0.4 -0.7 -0.8

position of the minimum pressure value of the minimum pressure coefficien! position of the flow separation base pressure coefficient

(iii) The above Fig.is based on an equivalent roughness K/B less than 5.10-4. Typical values of roughness height k are given in Table A.12. Figure A.22 Pressure Distribution for Circular Cylinders for Different Number Ranges and Infinite Slenderness Ratio Reynolds

.-

!~
..96 EBCS -1 1995 -"'"

r-

:
.(5) The reference area Art[ is:

APPENDIX A: AERODYNAMIC COEFFICIENTS

Art[ = lb

(A.lS)!

(6) The reference height Zeis equal to the height above ground of the section being considered A.8.2 Force Coefficients

(1) The force coefficient Ct' for a finite circular cylinder is given by: Ct = c/,o1/1). where c/,o force coefficient of cylinder with infinite slenderness (see Fig. A.23) c~ slenderness reduction factor (see A.12). (A.16)

Cf.
1.2
c
,.

I I
I

10 10.3

klb .2

;~ -:

1.0

0.8

10.4 10-5

.-0.6 0.4 01

0
104 10 2

'
345678106 2

I
345678107 2 345 Re

Figure A.23 Force Coefficient Cl.O for Circular Cylinders with Infinite Slenderness Ratio and

for Different Equivalent RoughnessK/B

(2) Values of equivalent surface roughness k are given in T3.ble A.12 (3) For stranded cables c1,0is equal to 1.2 for all values of the Reynolds number Re.

.-~

EBCS -1 1995 97

ETHIOPIAN

BUILDING

CODE

STANDARD

FOR LOADING

Table A.12 Equivalent Surface Rou~hlless k


,

.
Equivalent

Type 0 f surlace &

Equiv;Jlent

roughness k(Q'~1')
0.01)15

roughness .{(mm)

, polished metal fine paint spray paint bright steel cast iron (3) The reference area At! is:

0.002 1!.(J{!6 1.1.\'1

I smooth conc;-ete

.....:}, i st~e I I g:1 11<;(;( I


j, r~J'.1gt; 1,;'.J.r!~ ~tte

O..
.

")

02 1.0 2.0

ruSt 0.05 0.2


brick\!,ofk

30
.

Art! = lb

(t\.

t7)

(4) The reference height z.. is equ:II to the heigp.t~bf)Vr;grolmd of the sect~ot1 being cl)nsidert-;d. (5) For cylinders near a plane surface with a di~ta:1ceri'!':'tl :::.:,1[: < 1.5 (see Fig A.24) .specia.! a,j,:j,~~~
is necessary.

,..,/..,-~ --"'---'-"r

~::{::>

(.)
" ~'---+-

b
z

LT7

7--"

;"~'-r'~~7'-"-.1-7"""'~'

Figure

A.24

Cylinder near a Plane Surface

A.9 SPHERES (1) The alongwind force coefficient Ctxof spheres is given in Fig. A.25 as a function of the Reynolds number Re (see A.8.1) and the equivalent roughne~s Klb (see Table A.12) (2) The values in Fig. A.25 are limited to values z~ > b12, where Zgis the distance of sphere from a plain surface, b i$ the diameter, Fig. A 26 r or z~ < bl2 the force coefficient Cr., shall be multiplied by a factor 1.6. ,

98

EBCS -1 1995

.,
:i" ..
~

APPENDIJI.-A: AERODYNAMIC

COEFFICIENTS

.) w

T[~;: venical for::~ coefficient ..-of s;",p.er:;s ~jiill be assumed to be: ;. cf,: = 0
C!;~

for Zg > b!2


() 6 f 'or 7 ~g '-:. r h:J .J, -

(A.I8)

= ..
I

r) In both cases the refereni.:carea ,4,"1is:

~~
4 The referen:.:1.' hcigh( should be t.ikeil as: Z~ --; -~.
I- ,') ,- [1-

(A.19)
(A.2Q)

.~,.-Ct,x

0,6

.k/b

.
..10-4
.~

0.1.

_.'

1C-3

0.1

'0-')

2 f.~i~UfeA.25 Aj,;ngwllld

2 FO[Ll' Coefficient of a Sphere

Re

j'
c::~=!.;> (~

" --X" b
2g
, 7--'-

--+
,.. -,
: -Figure . .-

, r7-'7->-,-,-"--r.1h-~,
A.26

Sphere near a Plaiu Surface

.U -cf

.-A.I0

Lattice Structures and Scaffoldings (1) The force coefficient Cj' of lattice structures and scdffuldings is given by: = cl.O 1,t-~ 1,t-sc
EBCS. 1 1995

(A.2I)
99

ETHIOPIAN

BUILDING

CODE STANDARD

Fon

LOADING

-i

-.~

where

cf,o force coefficient of lattice structures and scaffoldings with infinite slenderness h (h = lb , 1 =length, b = width, Fig. A.27). It is given by Figs. A.28 to A.30 as a function of solidity ratio cp(2) and Reynolds number Re re Reynolds number given by Eq. A,12 and calculated using the member diameter bi 1f'h slenderness reduction factor (see A.12) 1f'screduction factor for scaffolding without-air tightness devices and affected by solid building faces (see-Fig. A;31) plotted as a function of the obstruction factor <l>B'

I:~::~~:~~~:.:~~::~~=~~::~:::S; 1 b.

A.

Figure A.27 Lattice Structures or Scaffolding (2) The obstruction factor is given by:
CPB = --:-

AB n
AB,g

(A.22)

where

Ab,n AB,g

net area of the face gross area of the face

..~

(3) Solidity ratio, is defined by: cp = A/Ac where A (A.23)

..

Sums of the projected area of the members and gussetplates of the face = Eb./. + E A Ac the area enclosed by the boundaries of the face projected normal to the face = b
J I I gl

1 b bili Agi

length of the lattice width of the lattice width and length of the individual member i area of the gussetplate i

(4) The reference area Ar.i.is.defined by: Art! = A (5) The reference height z. is equal to the height of the element above ground. (A..24)

~
:

A.11 Friction Coefficients Cfr


.'

.
-: --

;,

(1) Friction coefficients cfr' for long walls and roof surfaces are given in Tabie A.13 (2) The reference areas swept by the wind Art! are given Fig. A.32

'" '1;\
i "

100

EBCS -1

1995

r
~I
~. .-APPENDIX A: AERODYNAMIC COEFFICIENTS i

. .
.:

(,0
I.Z

1.0

0.'
O.~
OJ ~ Z )~5

"0

"0

1,'
'.~
1.2 1.2

g.ZS'9'tO,6

.A

1,0 0,8 101. Z ) ~5

1.0 0,8 .,.. Z] Co 5 "JQ~

1,2

1.0

Figure A.30

Force Coefficient cf,Ofor Plane and Spatial -Lattice Structure with Members of Circular Cross-Section

'"
I I
I I

] r1 1--II II

LJ

I
-~ I

~
.,...
1.D~
vitti ~..~..';'." waUs Q,D3 ~ till Go'

. ...Figure

.m

A.31

Reduction Factors for the Force Coefficients.of Scaffoldings without AirTightness Devices, Affected by Solid Building-Face Versus Obstruction
Factor cIB

EBCS. 1 1995101

-~~.

~~"~"--'--~

"

ETHIOPIAN BUILDING CODE STANDARD FOR LOADING

(3) The referenceheightZeshouldbe takeninto accountaccordingto Fig. A.32

..

;(~ ~~~~~~~~~~~~~n d.. t. .


L
h
I

~ Arl

"rJ,.. II
II

""" b
a

.z.

= h + 0,5 t
r"'rwf -

A.

-2b.1

-L

..Jr

z.

= 0,6 h

Ar., = 2h"1
,
Key to ReferenceArea Areffor Walls and Roof Surfaces
4

L
Figure A.32

.
.

Table A.13 Frictional Coefficients cfr for Walls and Roof Surfaces Surface smooth (i.e. steel, smoothconcrete rough (i.e rough concrete,tar boards) very rough (i.e. ripples, ribs, folds) Friction coefficient Cfr 0.01 0.02 0.04

A.12 EFFECTIVE SLENDERNESS A AND SLENDERNESSREDUCTION FACTOR ~A (1) The effective slenderness A is defined in Table A.14 i (2) The slenderness reductionfactor ~A' versusthe effective slenderness A and for different solidity ratios 'P is given in Fig. A.33. .: .

.
-~

102

EBCS -1 1995

--~

! :),
, ,

APPE~DIX~:

AERODYNAMIC

COEFFICIENT~

...+tie1 I j

-.
~ .Structures No 1

Table A.14

Effective SlendernessA for Cylinders, Polygonal Sections, Rectangular Sections, Sign Boards, Sharp Edged Structural Section.~and Lattice . EffectIve slenderness A

Positionof the structure, . d rrna1 th I WIn no to e p ane 0f the page

I
for I~

t
b

1
lib

,J;J=~"""'r!:Ib

~~

01 ~
(""

t, -i4
bJ
",,7r

I ~ b [==:::~~
"for'61

3
-b

f1

~ b,s1.5b Hh,s1.5b
t l

~
~

lib ~70

--l..
4

b$ I t '

-..
,.

bL~==~
~I--f

---1 T.

217,.,.t~~~ --J ...f


5 JI
~1

t-lb--l

ni::r l
~

lib ~ 70

..c;~:~~ ~

2 b

.-

. -.'

--

-EBCS
-'~

-1

1995103

II r
~ !:

;1
ETHIOPIAN BUILDING CODE STANDARD FOR LOADING w -

0 -

10
0.9 , 0.8

'J!;t,

0.7
0.6
Figure A.33

10

~O 200

SlendernessReduction Factory 1J' A as a Function of Solidity Ratio I/' Versus SlendernessA

(3) The solidity ratio IPis given by ( seeFig. A.34):


IP = A/Ac (A.24)

where. A

sum of the projectedareasof the members

-"J
..
~',~

Ac enclosed area Ac = lb

r~

~
Figure A.34 Definition of Solidity Ratio Ip

= bot

104

EBCS -1

1995

I
~ .INDEX
.Design24 Accidenul action 4' Accidenul actions 14, IS, 24 Accidental situation 26 Accidenul situations 10, 24 Action 4 Action 6ffect 4 Action on structures 31 Actions 13, 21, 24 Administration Area 44 Aerodynamic coefficients 69 Aeroelastic InsUbility 67 Aggregates 35 Agricultural 36 Air density 55 Angles of repose 33 Annual Probabilities of Exceedence56 Assumptions 1

~.
.
.ccidenul

assisted by Designcriteria 3 testing 18 Designmodels 17 Designresistance22 Design situation 24 Designsituations 3, 10, 27, 51 Designvalue 23 Designvalue of a geometrical property 6 Designvalue of a materialproperty 5 Designvalue of an action 5 Designvalues 19,21, 22, 24, 28 Designvalues of actions 21 Designworking life 3, 11 Destabilizingactions 23 Dimensions 42 Direct action 13 Divergence 52, 67 Domes 80 Dominantaction 24 DuopitchCanopies 87 canopy 84 DuopitchRoofs 75,77 Durability 11 Dynamic InterferenceEffects 67 Dynamic action 4 Dynamic actions 14, 18 Dynamic Coefficient 61 Dynamic effects 52 Effective slenderness69, 103 Effects of Actions 21 Effects of displacements17 Environmental influences II, 13, 16 EquivalentSurfaceRoughness 98 Escarpments59 Execution 2 Explosion 3, 9 ExposureCoefficient 60 ExposureCofficient 62 ExternalPressure 53 ExternalPressureCoefficient 69
External pressure coefficients 69-71, 73, 75, 77, 79, 95

B amers .Duopitch 49
Basis of design 1 Beverages 39 Brick lined steel chimney 66 Building materials 32 Buildings 69, 70 ~ 4 ..Cement : Canopy roofs 69, 84 Categoriesof building areas 45 35 Characteristic 28 Characteristicvalue 5, 23, 42 Characteristicvalue of a geometricalproperty 5 Characteristicvalue of an action 5 Characteristicvalues 24, 42, 44 Characteristicvalues of actions 14 Circular cylinders 69, 95, 96 Civil engineering 2 Civil engineeringworks 2 Claddings 43
Classification of actions ~ I, 51 Cliffs 59

~ ~ .Flat -.-efinitions -.Densities

Combinationof actions 5, 23, 24, 28 Combinationvalue 16 Combinationvalues 5 Commercial 44 Composite(steel/concrete) buildings 64 Concrete 33 Concreteand masonrybuildings 63 Constructionmaterial 2 Constructionmaterials 31, 33, 34 ConstructionWorks 2 Control tests 19 Cylinders 103

Factors ;,9
)

Failure in the ground 26 Failure of structure 26 Farmyard 36 Fatigue 16, 18, 20 Fences 69, 88 Fertiliser 36 Finishes 43 Fire 9 Fixed action 4 Fixed actions 14, 31 roof 49 Flat roofs 71,72 Flooring 41 Floors 43

2 31,33,42 Derivation of the design 19

-EBCS

-1

1995105

--~c,c

--::-

ETHIOPIAN

BUILDING

CODE

STANDARD

FOR LOADING

.. .

Fluctuatingforces 51 Fluctuatingpressures 51 Flutter 52, 67 Foodstuffs 38 Force Coefficients 97 Form of structure 2 Free action 4 Free actions 14 Free-standing boundarywalls 69 Free-Standing Walls 89 Freq~ency of vibration 52 Frequent 28 Frequentvalue 16 Frequent value of a variable action 5 Friction coefficients 69, 100 Friction Force 54 Friction forces 84 Frictional Coefficients 102 Fundamental Requir~ments9 Galloping 52, 67 46 arage Garages 47 Geometricaldata 17, 21, 22 Global force 54 Grain 36 GustWind Response 61 Hazard 3 Hills 60 Hipped Roofs 78, 79 Horizontal Loads 49 Horizontal Members 44 Hydrocarboqs 39

Loss of static equilibrium 26

M aintenance 4
Masonry units 33 MATERIAL PROPERTIES 16,22 Materials 29 Mean Wind Velocity 57 Metals 33 Method of construction 2 Modelling 17 Modelling of Wind Actions 52 MonopitchCanopies 85 Monopitch canopy 84 MonopitchRoofs 73-75 Monumental building 11 Mortar 33 Multibay Canopies 88 Multibay duopitchcanopy 84 MultispanRoofs 78

N et Pressure 53
Net pressurecoefficients 84 Non-linearanalysis 21 Parking areas 47 Partial Safety Factors for Materials 29 Partial safetyfactor 19,21-23 PARTIAL SAFETY FACTOR METHOD 20 Partial SafetyFactors 25, 26, 29 Partial SafetyFactorsfor Materials 27 PartitionWalls 49 Partitions 43 Performance criteria 11 Permanent action 4, 14, 32 Permanent actions 14, 24, 28 Persistent and transient 24 Persistent and transientsituations 23 Persistent designsituation 3 Persistent situation 26 Persistent situations 10 Plastics 35 PolygonalSections i03 PorousFences 90 Potentialda:mage 9 Pressureon SIJrfaces53 Pressures 53 Prestressed structures 22 Prestressing 14 Propertiesof materials 16 . . ...

mpact 3, 9 Imposedloads 27, 31, 32, 48 IMPOSED LOADS ON BUll..DINGS 43 ImposedLoads on Floors 46 Indirect action 13 Industrial Activities 48 Industrial areas 48 Intendedprobability 15 Interference 52 Ipterferencegalloping 67 InternalPressure 53, 82 Irreversible serviceabilitylimit states 3

attice structures 69, 99, 103 Limit State Design 13 Limit states 3, 12

Q uality assurance 10, 12


Quasi-permanent16,24,28 Quasi-permanent value of a variable action 5 Quasi-staticaction 5 ." . ~ :
ectangular sections

Limitations 20 Lined SteelChimneys 65 Liquids 39 Load arrangement3 Load 42, 44 L d Arrmgements 3


oa case

103

.-

Local failure 3

Reductioncoefficient 49

106

EBCS -1

1995

1r:
-INDEX
.Reduction .Reference .Reference factor 46 period 5, 15 wind pressure 55 Referencewind velocity 55, 57 Regular polygonalsections 95 Reinforcedconcrete chimney 66 Reliability 4, 9 Reliability differentiation 9 Representation of actions 41, 43, 51 Representative value of an action 5 Representative value of the action 22 Representative values of variable 15 Requirements 9 Residential 44 Resistance 3 Resonant response 52 Reversibleserviceability limit states 3 Ridges 60 Robustness 10 Roofs 43, 48 Roughness coefficient 57, 58 Structuralsystem 2 Structure 2 Symbols 6

emperature 27 Temporarystructure 11 Temporarystructures 55 Terrain Categories 57 Tolerances 17 Topographycoefficient 57, 58 Torsional effects 54 Traffic loads 27 Transientdesignsituation 3 Transientsituation 26 Transientsituations 10 Turbulent 51 Type of building 2 Type of construction 2 Types of Tests 18 Ultimate limit states 3, 12, 16,23,26 Unfavourabledeviations 22

S
caffoldings 69, 99 Seismic 24 Seismicactior. 4 Seismicactions 15, 24 Seismicsituations 10, 24 .Self-weight 31, 32, 42 .Self-Weight of constructionelements 41 " Serviceability 9, 10 --Serviceability limit states 3, 12, 13, 28, 29 , Sharpedged structural sections 103 Shoppingareas 45 Sign boards 103 Signboards 69, 88, 90 Simplifications 20 Simplified verification 20, 27, 29 Single action 4 Single variable actions 24 Slenderness reduction factor 69 Sloping roof 49 Social 44 Solid boundarywalls 88 Solid fuels 40 Spatial variation 14 Spheres 69, 98 Stabilizing actions 23 Static action 4 Static actions 14 17 Static equilibriu~ 23 SteelBuildings 64 Storageareas 48 Stored materials 31, 32, 35, 36, 40 .Strength ..Structural : -Structural -Structural
\

V alues of Actions 47, 49


Variable action 4 Variable actions 14, 15, 32 Vaulted Roofs 80 Vegetables 38 Vehicle traffic area 47 Vehicle traffic areas 46 Verification 20, 21 Verification of serviceability 28 Verifications 23 Vertical members 44 Vertical walls 70,71 Vortex shedding 52, 67 Vortex sheddingand galloping 67 alkways 49 Walling 41 Walls 43, 88 Waterponding 49 W~lded s~eel chimneys 65 W~ndactIons 51 Wmd forces 53 Wind loads 27,51 Wind pressureon surfaces 52 Wood 34 Workmanship II 'l' Factors 27, 29

..
r

4, 23 elements 69 elementswith rectangularsections 91 elementswith regular poiygonal section 94 Structural Elementswith SharpEdged Section 91 Structural model 2 Structural safety 9

,
EBCS -1 1995107