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Transformer Design

OUTPUT EQUATION: - It gives the relationship between electrical rating and physical dimensions
of the machines.
Let
V
1
= Primary voltage say LV
V
2
= Secondary voltage say HV
I
1
= Primary current
I
2
= Secondary current
N
1
= Primary no of turns
N
2
= Secondary no of turns
a
1
= Sectional area of LV conductors (m
2
)
=

1
I
a
1
= Sectional area of HV conductors (m
2
)
=

2
I
= Permissible current density (A/m
2
)
Q = Rating in KVA
We place first half of LV on one limb and rest half of LV on other limb to reduce leakage flux.
So arrangement is LV insulation then half LV turns then HV insulation and then half HV turns.
(1) For 1-phase core type transformer
Rating is given by
Q =
3
1 1
10

I V KVA
= ( )
3
1 1
10 44 . 4

I N f
m
KVA
( )
1 1
44 . 4 N f V
m

= ( )
3
1 1
10 44 . 4

I N B fA
m i
KVA -----------(1)
) (
m i m
B A
Where
f = frequency

m

= Maximum flux in the core



i
A
= Sectional area of core

m
B
= Maximum flux density in the core
Window Space Factor
) (
w
w
A Area Window
Window in Windings of Area Section Cu Actual
K
w
A
N a N a
2 2 1 1
+

) / & / (
) / ( ) / (
2 2 1 1
2 2 1 1


I a I a
A
N I N I
w

+

w
A
N I N I

2 2 1 1
+


So
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1
L
V
L
V
L
V
L
V
H
V
H
V
H
V
H
V
1-phase core type transformer with
concentric windings
Window
) (
2
2 2 1 1
1 1
N I N I r Transforme Ideal For
A
N I
w

) 2 (
2
1 1

1
]
1

w w
A K
I N


Put equation value of N
1
I
1
form equation (2) to equation (1)
KVA
A K
B A f Q
w w
m i
3
10
2
44 . 4



) 3 ( 10 22 . 2
3


KVA A K B A f Q
w w m i

(2) For 1- phase shell type transformer

Window Space Factor
K
w
w
A
N a N a
2 2 1 1
+

) / & / (
) / ( ) / (
2 2 1 1
2 2 1 1


I a I a
A
N I N I
w

+

w
A
N I N I

2 2 1 1
+

) (
2
2 2 1 1
1 1
N I N I r Transforme Ideal For
A
N I
w

So
) 4 (
2
1 1

w w
A K
I N


Put equation value of N
1
I
1
form equation (4) to equation (1)
KVA
A K
B A f Q
w w
m i
3
10
2
44 . 4



) 5 ( 10 22 . 2
3


KVA A K B A f Q
w w m i

Note it is same as for 1-phase core type transformer i.e. equ (3)
(3) For 3-phase core type transformer
Rating is given by
Q =
3
1 1
10 3

I V KVA
= ( )
3
1 1
10 44 . 4 3

I N f
m
KVA
( )
1 1
44 . 4 N f V
m

= ( )
3
1 1
10 44 . 4 3

I N B fA
m i
KVA -----------(6)
) (
m i m
B A
Window Space Factor
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2
L
V
L
V
H
V
H
V
L
V
L
V
H
V
H
V
3-phase core type transformer with
concentric windings
L
V
L
V
H
V
H
V
Window
1-phase shell type transformer with
sandwich windings
LV
HV
LV
HV
LV
LV
HV
LV
HV
LV
Window
) (
w
w
A Area Window
Window in Windings of Area Section Cu Actual
K
w
A
N a N a ) ( 2
2 2 1 1
+

[ ]
) / & / (
) / ( ) / ( 2
2 2 1 1
2 2 1 1


I a I a
A
N I N I
w

+

w
A
N I N I

) ( 2
2 2 1 1
+

) (
2 2
2 2 1 1
1 1
N I N I r Transforme Ideal For
A
N I
w

So
) 7 (
4
1 1

w w
A K
I N


Put equation value of N
1
I
1
form equation (7) to equation (6)
KVA
A K
B A f Q
w w
m i
3
10
4
44 . 4 3



) 8 ( 10 33 . 3
3


KVA A K B A f Q
w w m i

(3) For 3- phase shell type transformer
Window Space Factor
K
w
w
A
N a N a
2 2 1 1
+

) / & / (
) / ( ) / (
2 2 1 1
2 2 1 1


I a I a
A
N I N I
w

+

w
A
N I N I

2 2 1 1
+

) (
2
2 2 1 1
1 1
N I N I r Transforme Ideal For
A
N I
w

So
) 9 (
2
1 1

w w
A K
I N


Put equation value of N
1
I
1
form equation (9) to equation (6)
KVA
A K
B A f Q
w w
m i
3
10
2
44 . 4 3



) 10 ( 10 66 . 6
3


KVA A K B A f Q
w w m i

CHOICE OF MAGNETIC LOADING (B
m
)
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3
3-phase shell type transformer with
sandwich windings
Window
(1) Normal Si-Steel 0.9 to 1.1 T
(0.35 mm thickness, 1.5%3.5% Si)
(2) HRGO 1.2 to 1.4 T
(Hot Rolled Grain Oriented Si Steel)
(3) CRGO 1.4 to 1.7 T
(Cold Rolled Grain Oriented Si Steel)
(0.14---0.28 mm thickness)
CHOICE OF ELECTRIC LOADING
( )
This depends upon cooling method employed
(1) Natural Cooling: 1.5---2.3 A/mm
2
AN Air Natural cooling
ON Oil Natural cooling
OFN Oil Forced circulated with Natural air cooling
(2) Forced Cooling : 2.2---4.0 A/mm
2
AB Air Blast cooling
OB Oil Blast cooling
OFB Oil Forced circulated with air Blast cooling
(3) Water Cooling: 5.0 ---6.0 A/mm
2
OW Oil immersed with circulated Water cooling
OFW Oil Forced with circulated Water cooling
CORE CONSTRUCTION:
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4
(a) U-I type (b) E-I type
(c) U-T type
(d) L-L type
EMF PER TURN:
We know
) 1 ( 44 . 4
1 1
N f V
m

) 2 ( 44 . 4 /
1
1

m t
f
N
V
E Turn EMF So
and
Q =
3
1 1
10

I V KVA (Note: Take Q as per phase rating in KVA)


= ( )
3
1 1
10 44 . 4

I N f
m
KVA

) 3 ( 10
3
1 1


KVA I N E
t

In the design, the ration of total magnetic loading and electric loading may be kept constant
Magnetic loading =
m

Electric loading =
1 1
I N
So
) 3 ( ) " " ( tan
1 1
1 1
eqution in put
r
I N r say t cons
I N
m m



KVA
r
E Q
m
t
3
10




Or
KVA
r f
E
E Q
t
t
3
10
44 . 4


using equation (2)
Q r f E
t


) 10 44 . 4 (
3 2
Or Turn Volts Q K E
t t
/
Where
3
10 44 . 4

r f K
t
is a constant and values are
K
t
= 0.6 to 0.7 for 3-phase core type power transformer
K
t
= 0.45 for 3-phase core type distribution transformer
K
t
= 1.3 for 3-phase shell type transformer

K
t
= 0.75 to 0.85 for 1-phase core type transformer
K
t
= 1.0 to 1.2 for 1-phase shell type transformer
ESTIMATION OF CORE X-SECTIONAL AREA A
i
We know
) 1 ( Q K E
t t
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5
(e) Mitred Core Construction (Latest)
45
o
m t
f E 44 . 4
Or
) 2 ( 44 . 4
m i t
B A f E
So
) 3 (
44 . 4

m
t
B f
E
A
i
Now the core may be following types
d = Diameter of circumscribe circle
For Square core
Gross Area
2
5 . 0
2 2
d
d d


Let stacking factor

9 . 0
i
K
Actual Iron Area
2
5 . 0 9 . 0 d A
i

2
45 . 0 d (0.45 for square core and take K as a general case)
2
d K
So
2
d K A
i

Or
K
A
d
i

Graphical method to calculate dimensions of the core


Consider 2 step core
Steps of No n
n
o

+
,
1
90

o
o
n e i
30
1 2
90
2 .

dSin b
dCos a So


Percentage fill
4
2
2
d
K Kd
le circumcirc of Area
core Stepped of Area Gross
i


core Step for
d
d
4
) (
4
9 . 0 / 625 . 0
2
2

= 0.885 or 88.5%
No of steps 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 9 11
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6
d
d/2
1-Step
Or Square- Core
2-Step
Or Cruciform- Core
3-Step Core
4-Step Core
K= 0.45 0.56 0.60 0.625
2-Step
Or Cruciform- Core

b
a
b
a
% Fill 63.7% 79.2% 84.9% 88.5% 90.8% 92.3% 93.4% 94.8% 95.8%
ESTIMATION OF MAIN DIMENSIONS:
Consider a 3-phase core type transformer
We know output equation
KVA A K B A f Q
w w m i
3
10 33 . 3


So, Window area
2
3
10 33 . 3
m
K B A f
Q
A
w m i
w

where K
w
=Window space factor
KVA upto for
HigherKV
K
w
10
30
8
+

KVA upto for


HigherKV
K
w
200
30
10
+

KVA upto for


HigherKV
K
w
1000
30
12
+

For higher rating K


w
= 0.15 to 0.20
Assume some suitable range for
D = (1.7 to 2) d
Width of the window W
w
= D-d
Height of the window
) (
w
w
W window of width
A
L

) (
w w
A W L
Generally
4 2 to
W
L
w

Yoke area A
y
is generally taken 10% to 15% higher then core section area (A
i
), it is to reduce the iron loss in
the yoke section. But if we increase the core section area (A
i
) more copper will be needed in the windings
and so more cost through we are reducing the iron loss in the core. Further length of the winding will
increase resulting higher resistance so more cu loss.
A
y
= (1.10 to 1.15) A
i
Depth of yoke D
y
= a
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d
L
W
D
(D-d)
W
w
=
H
h
y
3-phase core type transformer
2-Step
Or Cruciform- Core
b
a
b
a
Height of the yoke h
y
= A
y
/D
y
Width of the core
W = 2*D + d
Height of the core
H = L + 2*h
y
Flux density in yoke
m
y
i
y
B
A
A
B
ESTIMATION OF CORE LOSS AND CORE LOSS COMPONET OF NO LOAD CURRENT I
C
:
Volume of iron in core = 3*L*A
i
m3
Weight of iron in core = density * volume
=
i

* 3*L*A
i
Kg

i

= density of iron (kg/m3)


=7600 Kg/m
3
for normal Iron/steel
= 6500 Kg/m
3
for M-4 steel
From the graph we can find out specific iron loss, p
i
(Watt/Kg ) corresponding to flux density B
m
in core.
So
Iron loss in core =pi*
i

* 3*L*A
i
Watt
Similarly
Iron loss in yoke = p
y
*
i

* 2*W*A
y
Watt
Where p
y
= specific iron loss corresponding to flux density B
y
in yoke
Total Iron loss P
i
=Iron loss in core + Iron loss in yoke
Core loss component of no load current
I
c
= Core loss per phase/ Primary Voltage
I
c

1
3V
P
i

ESTIMATION OF MAGNETIZING CURRENT OF NO LOAD CURRENT I


m
:
Find out magnetizing force H (at
core
, at/m) corresponding to flux density B
m
in the core and at
yoke
corresponding to flux density in the yoke from B-H curve
( ) m at B m at B
yoke c core m
/ , /
So
MMF required for the core = 3*L*at
core
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MMF required for the yoke = 2*W*at
yoke
We account 5% at for joints etc
So total MMF required = 1.05[MMF for core + MMF for yoke]
Peak value of the magnetizing current

1
,
3N
required MMF Total
I
peak m

RMS value of the magnetizing current
2
,
,
peak m
RMS m
I
I
1
,
2 3 N
required MMF Total
I
RMS m

ESTITMATION OF NO LOAD CURRENT AND PHASOR DIAGRAM:
No load current Io
2 2
m c o
I I I +
No load power factor
o
c
o
I
I
Cos
The no load current should not exceed 5% of the full the load current.
ESTIMATION OF NO OF TURNS ON LV AND HV WINDING
Primary no of turns
t
E
V
N
1
1

Secondary no of turns
t
E
V
N
2
2

ESTIMATION OF SECTIONAL AREA OF PRIMARY AND SECONDARY WINDINGS
Primary current
1
3
1
3
10
V
Q
I

Secondary current
1
2
1
2
3
2
3
10
I
N
N
OR
V
Q
I

Sectional area of primary winding

1
1
I
a
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9
I
c
I
m
I
o
V
1
=-E
1
E
2

0
No load phasor diagram
Sectional area of secondary winging

2
2
I
a
Where is current the density.
Now we can use round conductors or strip conductors for this see the IS codes and ICC (Indian Cable
Company) table.
DETERMINATION OF R
1
& R
2
AND CU LOSSES:
Let L
mt
= Length of mean turn
Resistance of primary winding
) (
) (
10 021 . 0
2
1
1
6
75 , , 1
m a
m N L
R
mt
dc
o


o o
dc ac
R to R
75 , , 1 75 , , 1
) 20 . 1 15 . 1 (
Resistance of secondary winding
) (
) (
10 021 . 0
2
2
2
6
75 , , 2
m a
m N L
R
mt
dc
o


o o
dc ac
R to R
75 , , 2 75 , , 2
) 20 . 1 15 . 1 (
Copper loss in primary winding Watt R I
1
2
1
3
Copper loss in secondary winding Watt R I
2
2
2
3
Total copper loss
2
2
2 1
2
1
3 3 R I R I +
) ( 3
'
2 1
2
1
R R I +
p
R I
2
1
3
Where
side primary to referred ce resis Total
R R R R
p
tan
'
2 1 01

+
Note: On No load, there is magnetic field around connecting leads etc which causes additional stray losses
in the transformer tanks and other metallic parts. These losses may be taken as 7% to 10% of total cu losses.
DETERMINATION OF EFFICIENCY:
Efficiency
Power Input
Power Output

Losses Power Output
Power Output
+

100
+ +

loss Cu Loss Iron Power Output


Power Output

%
ESTIMATION OF LEAKAGE REACTANCE:
Assumptions
1. Consider permeability of iron as infinity that is MMF is needed only for leakage flux path in the
window.
2. The leakage flux lines are parallel to the axis of the core.
Consider an elementary cylinder of leakage flux lines of thickness dx at a distance x as shown in following
figure.

MMF at distance x
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10
x
x
a
b
1
b
2
dx
N
1
I
1
=N
2
I
2
L
c
MMF Distribution
x
b
I N
M
x
1
1 1

Permeance of this elementary cylinder


L
A
o

c
mt
o
L
dx L

(L
c
=Length of winding)

,
_


S
Permeance
A
L
S
o
1
&
1

Leakage flux lines associated with elementary cylinder


Permeance M d
x x

Flux linkage due to this leakage flux
x x
d associated is it which with truns of No d

c
mt
o
L
dx L
x
b
I N
b
I N

1
1 1
1
1 1
dx
b
x
I
L
L
N
c
mt
o
2
1
1
2
1

,
_

Flux linkages (or associated) with primary winding



,
_

1
0
2
1
1
2
1
'
1
b
c
mt
o
dx
b
x
I
L
L
N
,
_

3
1
1
2
1
b
I
L
L
N
c
mt
o

Flux linkages (or associated) with the space a between primary and secondary windings

a I
L
L
N
c
mt
o o 1
2
1

We consider half of this flux linkage with primary and rest half with the secondary winding. So total flux
linkages with primary winding
2
'
1 1
o

,
_

+
2 3
1
1
2
1 1
a b
I
L
L
N
c
mt
o

Similarly total flux linkages with secondary winding
2
'
2 2
o

,
_

+
2 3
2
2
2
2 2
a b
I
L
L
N
c
mt
o

Primary & Secondary leakage inductance

,
_

+
2 3
1 2
1
1
1
1
a b
L
L
N
I
L
c
mt
o

,
_

+
2 3
2 2
2
2
2
2
a b
L
L
N
I
L
c
mt
o

Primary & Secondary leakage reactance

,
_

+
2 3
2 2
1 2
1 1 1
a b
L
L
N f fL X
c
mt
o

,
_

+
2 3
2 2
2 2
2 2 2
a b
L
L
N f fL X
c
mt
o

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11
c
mt
o
L
dx L
x
b
I N

1
1 1
Total Leakage reactance referred to primary side

,
_

+
+
+ a
b b
L
L
N f X X X X
c
mt
o P
3
2
2 1 2
1
'
2 1 01

Total Leakage reactance referred to secondary side

,
_

+
+
+ a
b b
L
L
N f X X X X
c
mt
o S
3
2
2 1 2
2 2
'
1 02

It must be 5% to 8% or maximum 10%
Note:- How to control X
P
?
If increasing the window height (L), L
c
will increase and following will decrease b
1
, b
2
& L
mt
and so we can reduce the value of X
P
.
CALCULATION OF VOLTAGE REGULATION OF TRANSFORMER:
100 . .
2
2 2 2 2 2 2

E
Sin X I Cos R I
R V
o o

100
/
100
/
2 2
2 2
2 2
2 2
t
I E
Sin X
I E
Cos R
o o

2 2 2 2
% % Sin X Cos R
o o
t
TRANSFORMER TANK DESIGN:
Width of the transformer (Tank)
W
t
=2D + D
e
+ 2b
Where D
e
= External diameter of HV winding
b = Clearance width wise between HV and tank
Depth of transformer (Tank)
l
t
= D
e
+ 2a
Where a= Clearance depth wise between HV and tank
Height of transformer (Tank)
H
t
= H + h
Where h=h
1
+ h
2
= Clearance height wise of top and bottom
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b
b
a
a
W
t
l
t
D D
D
e
L
W
(D-d)
W
w
H
h
y
Tank of a 3-Phase transformer
CALCULATION OF TEMPERATURE RISE:
Surface area of 4 vertical side of the tank (Heat is considered to be dissipated from 4 vertical sides of the
tank)
S
t
= 2(W
t
+ l
t
) H
t
m
2
(Excluding area of top and bottom of tank)
Let
= Temp rise of oil (35
o
C to 50
o
C)
12.5S
t
=Total full load losses ( Iron loss + Cu loss)
So temp rise in
o
C
t
S 12.5
losses load full Total

If the temp rise so calculated exceeds the limiting value, the suitable no of cooling tubes or radiators must be
provided
CALCULATION OF NO OF COOLING TUBES:
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13
H
W
h
1
h
2
H
t
Specific Heat dissipation
6 Watt/m
2
-
0
C by Radiation
6.5 Watt/m
2
-
0
C by Convection
Let xS
t
= Surface area of all cooling tubes
Then
Losses to be dissipated by the transformer walls and cooling tube
= Total losses

( ) losses Total 5 . 8 5 . 12 +
t t
xS S
So from above equation we can find out total surface are of cooling tubes (xS
t
)
Normally we use 5 cm diameter tubes and keep them 7.5 cm apart
A
t
= Surface area of one cooling tube
mean tube tube
l d
,

Hence
No of cooling tubes
t
t
A
xS

WEIGHT OF TRANFORMER:
Let
W
i
= Weight of Iron in core and yoke (core volume* density + yoke volume* density) Kg
W
c
= Weight of copper in winding (volume* density) Kg
(density of cu = 8900 Kg/m
3
)
Weight of Oil
= Volume of oil * 880 Kg
Add 20% of (W
i
+W
c
) for fittings, tank etc.
Total weight is equal to weight of above all parts.
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14
d= 5 Cm
7.5 Cm
Tank and Arrangement of Cooling tubes
6 W-Raditon+6.5 W=12.5 Convection 6.5*1.35 W 5 . 8 ( 35% more) Convection only