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Cement Composition

Oxide composition
CaO (C) Calcium oxide

SiO2 (S) Silicon dioxide

Al2O3 (A) Alumnium oxide

Fe2O3 (F) Ferric Oxide

Minor oxides (MgO, SO3, Na2O, K2O)

How oxide composition is determined?

Chemical analysis X-ray diffraction Optical microscopy Scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive X-ray analysis Electron microprobe analysis Selective dissolution Thermal analysis

Cement Compounds

Chemical compounds Tricalcium Silicate Dicalcium Silicate Tricalcium aluminate Tetra calcium Alumino ferrite Gypsum

Formula 3CaO.SiO2 2CaO.SiO2 3CaO.Al2O3 4CaO.Al2O3.Fe2O3


Abbreviation C3S C2S C3A C4AF


Potential Compound composition

Using Bogue equations, oxide compositions are converted into approximate compound compositions % C3S = 4.071C 7.600S 6.718A 1.430F 2.852SO3 % C2S = 2.867S 0.7544(% C3S)
% C3A = 2.650A 1.692F % C4AF = 3.043F

Assumptions in Bogue equations

No impurities such as MgO, TiO2, Mn2O3 and alkalis inaccurate!! A/F 0.64

All aluminoferrites are present in the form of C4AF not true! Many solid solutions exist. System is in equilibrium
Do not account for the presence of free lime

When A/F < 0.64 (from ASTM C 150)

A calcium aluminoferrite solid solution (expressed as ss(C4AF + C2F)) is formed. Contents of this solid solution and of tricalcium silicate shall be calculated by the following formulas: ss (C4AF + C2F) = (2.100 % Al2O3) + (1.7023 % Fe2O3)

Tricalcium silicate = (4.071 % CaO) (7.600 % SiO2) (4.479 %Al2O3) (2.859 % Fe2O3) (2.852 % SO3)
Dicalcium silicate shall be calculated as previously shown. No tricalcium aluminate will be present in cements of this composition.