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GSM Frequency Planning and Neighbor Cell Planning


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Chapter 1 Frequency planning Chapter 2 Tight frequency reuse Chapter 3 Frequency hopping Chapter 4 Neighbor Cell Planning

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Content of Frequency planning


Frequency resource of GSM system Requirement for interference and carrier-to-interference ratio Signal quality grade coding Concept of frequency reuse

4*3 frequency reuse

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Frequency Resource of GSM System

GSM 900 :

890

915

935

960

Duplex distance : 45 MHz

GSM 1800 :

1710

1785

1805

1880

Duplex distance : 95 MHz

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Frequency Band Configuration


GSM900:

BTS receiver (uplink ): f1 (n) =890.2+ (n-1)*0.2 MHz BTS transmitter (downlink ): f2 (n) =f1 (n) +45 MHz

GSM1800:

BTS receiver (uplink ): f1 (n) =1710.2 + (n-512) * 0.2 MHz BTS transmitter (downlink ): f2 (n) =f1 (n) +95 MHz

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Requirement for Interference and Carrier-toInterference Ratio

C/I =
Useful signal

All useful signals All useless signals

carrier interference

Noise from environment

Other signals

GSM standard: C / I >= 9 dB In practical projects: C / I >= 12dB


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Requirement for Interference and Carrier-ToInterference Ratio

C/I =
Useful signal

All useful signals All useless signals

carrier interference

Noise from environment

Other signals

GSM standard: C / I >= 9 dB In practical projects: C / I >= 12dB


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Effect of Interference
Decrease of signal quality

Bit error Recoverable: channel coding, error correction Irrecoverable: phase distortion System interference model Unbalanced: uplink interference downlink interference Asymmetrical: the interference is different at the MS and BTS ends

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Signal Quality
Receiving quality (RXQUAL parameter) Level of receiving quality (0 ... 7)

Bit error rate before decoding and error correction


RXQUAL class 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Mean BER (%) 0.14 0.28 0.57 1.13 2.26 4.53 9.05 18.1 BER range from... to < 0.2% 0.2 ... 0.4 % 0.4 ... 0.8 % 0.8 ... 1.6 % 1.6 ... 3.2 % 3.2 ... 6.4 % 6.4 ... 12.8 % > 12.8 %

Good Fairly good Acceptable Intolerable

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Concept of Frequency Reuse

Macro-cell system

{fi,fj..fk}

d Micro-cell system
{fi,fj..fk}
.. {fi,fj..fk} .. {fi,fj..fk}

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The Reason of Frequency Reuse


Frequency resource is limited. If there is 8MHz frequency

resource, 8 MHz = 40 channels * 8 timeslots = 320 ==> max. 320 users can access the network at the same time.

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Reuse Density
Reuse density is the number of cells in a basic reuse cluster.
4*312 n*mn*m

n: BTS number in a basic reuse cluster m: Frequency group number in a BTS


Tighter reuse
0 10

Looser reuse
20

Higher frequency reuse


efficiency, but interference is serious. More technique Is needed.

Little interference, but frequency

reuse efficiency is low.

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Problem of Frequency Reuse

[fn]
R

[fn] D

[fn]

Reuse of a frequency causes the co-channel interference

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Interference (C/I) Estimation

C q 1 I 6

1 / 2

q = D / R = ( 3 k )

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Frequency Reuse Patterns


Purpose: to minimize the interference in the whole network with the final frequency allocation plan Theoretically

Regular hexagon cell


Regular network distribution Cell cluster Multiplexing distance D = R *sqrt(3*K)
R D

This old-fashioned frequency distribution mode is not recommended

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4*3 Frequency Reuse


C1 C2 A1 A2 C3 D1 C1 C2 D2 A3 B1 A1 A2 B2 D3 C3 D1 D2 B3 A3 B1 C1 C2 C1 C2 B2 D3 A1 A2 A1 A2 B3 C1 C3 D1 C3 D1 C2 A3 D2 A3 D2 A1 A2 B1 B2 B1 B2 C3 D1 D3 C1 D3 D2 B3 C2 B3 A3 B1 A1 B2 D3 A2 C3 D1 D2 B3 A3 B1 B2 D3 B3

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Illustration of Frequency Allocation of 4*3 Frequency Reuse


A1 B1 C1 D1 A2 B2 C2 D2 A3 B3 C3 D3 34 34 35 36 37 38 39

40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 80 81 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 89 90 91 92 93 94 95

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Chapter 1 Frequency planning Chapter 2 Tight frequency reuse Chapter 3 Frequency hopping Chapter 4 Neighbor Cell Planning

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Tight Frequency Reuse Technology


Multi-layer reuse pattern Underlaid and overlaid cell 1*3 1*1

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Multi-layer Reuse Pattern

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Multi-layer Reuse Pattern

BCCH: n1
TCH1: n2 TCH2: n3 TCHm-1: nm n1 n2n3 n4 ...... nm

And n1+n2+...+nm=n

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Multi-layer Reuse Pattern Frequency Allocation


Suppose that the available frequency carrier is 10MHZ, channel

number is 4694, the Multi-layer reuse pattern should be:

RC type BCCH TCH1 TCH2 TCH3 TCH4 TCH5


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Allocated frequencies 46~57 58~66 67~74 75~82 83~88 89~94


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Number of available frequencies 12 9 8 8 6 6


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Multi-layer Reuse Pattern Frequency Allocation


{f1,f2,f3,f4,f5...f40}

{f1,f3,f5...f23}

{f2,f4..f22,f24...f40}

BCCH

TCH1

TCH2

TCH3

TCH4

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Advantages of Multi-layer Reuse Pattern


Capacity increase when reuse density is multiplied:

Supposing there are 300 cells Bandwidth: 8 MHz (40 frequency) Normal 4*3 reuse: reuse density=12 ==> network capacity = 40/12 * 300 = 1000 TRX Multiple reuse: cap. N BCCH layer: re-use =14, (14 frq.) Normal TCH layer: re-use =10, (20 frq.) Aggressive TCH layer:re-use = 6, (6 frq.) ==> Network capacity = (1 +2 +1)* 300 = 1200 TRX

BWi re use i

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Advantages of Multi-layer Reuse Pattern


Capacity increases when reuse density is multiplied:

Supposing there are 300 cells Bandwidth: 8 MHz (40 frequency)


Normal 4*3 reuse: reuse density=12

==> network capacity = 40/12 * 300 = 1000 TRX re-use =14, (14 frq.) (20 frq.) (6 frq.)

Multiple reuse:

BCCH layer:

Normal TCH layer:

re-use =10,

BWi cap. N re usei

Aggressive TCH layer:re-use = 6,

==> Network capacity = (1 +2 +1)* 300 = 1200 TRX

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Underlaid/Overlaid Frequency Allocation

Overlaid-cell Underlaid-cell

The inner circle covers a smaller area, and the frequency can be reused more tightly.

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Overlaid/Underlaid Frequency Configuration


Super fn

Super fn Regular fm

Super fn Regular fm

Regular fm

BCCH 15f

Regular 24f

Super 12f

BCCH

Reuse density: 15

R TCH TRX reuse density: 12

S TCH

TRX reuse density: 6

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1*3 and 1*1 Reuse Patterns


BCCH14+TCH36
1BCCH+3TCH 1BCCH+12TCH

1BCCH+3TCH

1BCCH+3TCH

1BCCH+12TCH

1BCCH+12TCH

1*3

1*1

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Illustration of 1*3 TCH Frequency Allocation

TRX1 TRX2 ... TRX7


TRX1 TRX2 ... TRX7

TRX8 TRX9... TRX14 TRX8 TRX9... TRX14 TRX15 TRX16...TRX21

TRX15 TRX16...TRX21

The red items are BCCH RCs


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Frequency Planning Principle


There should be no co-channel frequency carriers in one BTS.

The frequency separation between BCCH and TCH in the same cell should

be not less than 400K.


When frequency hopping is not used, the separation of TCH in the same

cell should be not less than 400K.


In non-1*3 reuse mode, co-channel should be avoided between the

immediately neighbor BTS.


Neighbor BTS should not have co-channels facing each other directly. Normally, with 1*3 reuse, the number of the hopping frequencies should be

not less than twice of the number of frequency hopping TRX in the same cell.
Pay close attention to co-channel reuse, avoiding the situation that the

same BCCH has the same BSIC in adjacent area.


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Example of Frequency Planning


. An example network in a specific place, BTS are densely located. The topography is plain. The maximum BTS configuration is S3/3/2
Initial planning:

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Example of Frequency Planning


Final frequency planning:

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Example of 1*3 Frequency Reuse


Suppose 900 band: 96124 BTS configuration: S3/3/3 BCCH layer: 96109 reuse pattern: 4*3 TCH layer: 110124

reuse pattern: 1*3

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TCH Consecutive Allocation Scheme

Group 1 (MA1): 110 111 112

113

114

Cell1

Group 2 (MA2): 115 116 117


Group 3 (MA3): 120 121 122

118
123

119
124

Cell2
Cell3

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TCH Interval Allocation Scheme

Group 1 (MA1): 110

113

116

119

122

Cell1

Group 2 (MA2): 111


Group 3 (MA3): 112

114
115

117
118

120
121

123
124

Cell2
Cell3

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Comparison Between Multi-layer reuse and 1*3


For Multi-layer reuse pattern, either Base band hopping or RF hopping can

be used. But for 1x3 reuse, only RF hopping can be used.


Multi-layer reuse pattern is a gradual process for TCH frequency planning.

In other words, the reuse is rather loose in TCH1 layer and it is quite close in the last TCH layer (such as TCH5). The reason for this pattern is that base band hopping is used in the Multi-layer reuse pattern. When there are rather few frequency carriers, the hopping gain is small. Therefore, more frequency carriers should be allocated for the layer with small TCH and then the reuse coefficient is relatively large. When RF hopping is used in the Multi-layer reuse pattern and there are a large number of frequency carriers, the hopping gain is high and the reuse coefficient can be very small. In addition, the Multi-layer reuse pattern is of a free pattern. It is different from base band hopping, in which the reuse must be loose in the first TCH layer and more close in inner layers.

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Comparison Between Example of Frequency Planning and 1*3


The frequency planning for the 1x3 mode is simple and it is easy to plan

the frequency for new added BTS.


1x3 mode requires a rather regular BTS location distribution. For the cells with fixed number of TRX, when the traffic is heavy, the 1x3

provides higher service quality than that of Multi-layer reuse pattern.


TRX can be easily added to the 1x3 network, but TRX number of hopping

should not exceed the product of the allocated hopping frequency number and the max RF load ratio.
BCCH of Multi-layer reuse pattern can take part in the frequency hopping,

while BCCH in 1x3 mode can not.

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Chapter 1 Frequency planning Chapter 2 Tight frequency reuse Chapter 3 Frequency hopping Chapter 4 Neighbor cell planning

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Content of Frequency Hopping


Class of hopping Advantages of hopping Parameter of hopping Collocation of hopping data

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Content of Frequency Hopping


Class of hopping Advantages of hopping Parameter of hopping Collocation of hopping data

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Frequency Hopping

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Class of Hopping
Hopping can be implemented in two ways

Base-band hopping RF hopping


Class according to the min hopping time unit

Timeslot hopping
Frame hopping

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Base Band Hopping Principle

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RF Hopping Principle

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Class of Hopping
Frame hopping

Frequency changes every TDMA frame. The different channel of one TRX uses the same MAIO.
Timeslot hopping

Frequency changes every timeslot. The different channel of one TRX uses the different MAIO.

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Advantages of Hopping
Get an agreeable radio environment.

Provide a similar communication quality for every user.

Tighter reuse patterns are possible to be used for larger

capacity.

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Frequency Diversity of Hopping

Smoothen the rapid fading (Rayleigh fading)

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Interference Diversity of Hopping

Smoothen and average the interference


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Hopping Parameters
All the parameters which are related to hopping are configured

in cell/configure Hopping data


Hopping mode: the mode used by the BTS system, including

three options: not hopping, base band hopping and RF hopping.


MA (Mobile Allocation Set): the set of available RF bands when

hopping, containing at most 64 frequency carriers. The frequency being used must be those of the available frequency

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Description of Hopping Parameters


HSNhopping sequence number063. HSN=0cycle hopping. HSN0random hopping. Every sequence number

corresponds a pseudo random sequence.

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Hopping Parameters
MAIO (Mobile Allocation Index Offset): used to define the initial frequency

of the hopping.
Be careful to configure the MAIO of same timeslot in all channels,

otherwise interference occurs.

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Description Hopping Parameters


At the air interface, the frequency used on a specific burst is an

element in MA set. MAI is used for indication, referring to a specific element in the MA set.

MAI is the function of TDMA FN, HSN and MAIO.

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Chapter 1 Frequency planning Chapter 2 Tight frequency reuse Chapter 3 Frequency hopping Chapter 4 Neighbor cell planning

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Why
Handover is based on the neighbor relationship. Existing problem of neighbor planning

No neighbor relationship, no handover

Co-BCCH and co-basic between adjacent cells lead to handover failure.


redundant neighbors missing neighbor

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Neighbor Cell Description


There are table BA1 and table BA2. Table BA1 describes BCCH frequencies of the adjacent cells to be

measured when the MS is in idle mode.


Table BA2 describes BCCH frequencies of the adjacent cells to be

measured when the MS is in dedicated mode.


There are two kinds of neighbors

bidirectional neighbors unidirectional neighbors


Bidirectional neighbors are common, and unidirectional neighbors are

used in special condition, such as overshooting

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Overshooting and Unidirectional Neighbor


The signals of cell A covers some areas far away from this
cell. It is overshooting. When MS moves from this area towards B and C in dedicated mode, the signal is worse and worse. since cell B and C is not the cell As neighbor, call drop will occur finally. There are three solution: Adjust the downtilt of the antenna Adjust the transmitting power of the BTS Add B and C as the neighbor of cell A, no need to add A to B and C, that is unidirectional neighbor.
(make sure that there are no co-BCCH and co-BSIC in neighbor list)

B
A

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Neighbor Planning Principle


The cells of co-site must be set as neighbor cells The cells confronting directly must be added to neighbor list The cells facing toward the same direction should be neighbors

The cells shooting by the original cell The cells shooting at the original cell
The cells, one site apart, face to face should be neighbor cells.

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Demonstration (ideally)

Original cell co-site cell Confronting cell same directional cell one site apart face to face cell

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