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87 ok Equations / Ch. 3 uic method for form. The so(usolution is to be rmulation offers he only requireement or several I .

the state-space on by computer is to be accorninarily simpler to

I Problems
in Appendix E-4.1. Consider also the analysis of resistive ladder es rks as described in references in Appendix E-4.2. For specific sugg see Huels , reference 7 of Appendix E-I0, for the resistive network man ated to the solution of simultaneous equations in Chapter 7 and the ion of equations for the RLC networkS of Chapter 6. More advanced bilities include the solution of state equations by methods described ferences given in Appendix E-4.3 and the use of canned programs for ork analysis as given in Appendix E-8.4.

PROBLEMS
What must be the relationship between C. and Cl and C in (a) of the figure of the networks if (a) and (c) are equivalent? Repeat for the network shown in (b).
0-

I Book Company, cusses a graphical ms. in Linear Circuits Theory, McGraw1 and 12. Viley & Sons, Inc., ring Circuit Analy'ork,1971. Theory: An Intronnpany, Reading, and Bacon, Inc., vetworks for ElectVinston, Inc., New
(a)

,
(b) (a)

.."
(c)

Fig. P3-1. What must be the relationship between Le. and Lt. L2 and M for the networkS of (a) and of (b) to be equivalent to that of (c)?

]
(c) (b)

the State Variable ark, 1970. Analysis, Prenticeis a programmed of state equations.

Fig. P3-2. Repeat Prob. 3-2 for the three networks figure. shown in the accompanying

~s
(e) (b)

e digital computer . . described in refernethod from refer-

la)

Fig. P3-3.

88 3-4.

Network Equations / Ch. 3 The network of inductors shown in the figure is composed of a J-H inductor on each edge of a cube with the inductors connected to the vertices of the cube as shown. Show that, with respect to vertices a and b, the network is equivalent to that in (b) of the figure when Leq = i H. Make use of symmetry in working this problem, rather than writing Kirchhoff laws.

Ch. 3/ Problems The series ( tain to the netwo specified in the ta connection of ele connection of elet to zero. For the st mine 'VI in the for on a cathode ray 0 and so on.

10--1
?L,q
1'~ 2
(a) (a) (b)
V2

Fig. P3-4.

3-5.

In the rietworks of Prob. 3-4, each I-H inductor is replaced by a J-H capacitor, and L,q is replaced by C,q' What must be the value of C eq for the two networks to be equivalent? This problem may be solved using the two Kirchhoff laws and voltagecurrent relationships for the elements. At time to after the switch K was closed, it is found that t'2 = +5 V. You are required to determine the value of i2(lo) and di2(tO)/dl.
V2

3-6.

-3
(c)

'K
+ 10 v-=-

111 111 211


~h

volts

+1 -1
(e)

Fig. P3-6.

3-7.

This problem is similar to Prob. 36. In the network given in the figure, it is given that 1'2(10) ~ 2 V, and (dl:2/dt)(to) = -10 V/sec, where la is the time after the switch K was closed. Determine the value of C.

",[

rations / Ch. 3 ;ed of a I-H ected to the :0 vertices a figure when ilern, rather

Ch. 3 / Problems

89

The series of problems described in the following table all pertain to the network of (g) of the figure with the network In A and B specified in the table. In A, two entries in the column implies a series connection of elements, while in B, two entries implies a parallel connection of elements. In each case, all initial conditions are equal to zero. For the specified waveform for V2, you are required to determine VI in the form of a sketch of the waveform as it might be seen on a cathode ray oscilloscope. Evaluate significant amplitudes, slopes, and so on.

90

Network Equatiolls /

c. J
Ch.

3/

Problems

Network of A 3-8. 3-9. 3-10. 3-11. 3-12. 3-13. 3-14. 3-15. 3-16. R=2 C=! C=

Network of B L =:lL= 1

Waveforms of

V2

a, b, c, d, e,f
a,
(I, (I,

v(t)

b,

e,

d, e.f

f, R

= 1

L=2 L =~, R = J C= 1 R = 2, C = 1 R = I, C = 1 R=l,C=!

b, c, d, e.f b, c, d, e,f

C=J,R=t R =2 R = 1 R = 2 L=1: L= 1,R=


1

b,d,f b,d,f

s.a.]
b,d,f b,d,f

R=l,C=!

3-17. For each of the four networks shown in the figure, determine the number of independent loop currents, and the number of independent node-to-node voltages that may be used in writing equilibrium equations using the Kirchhoff laws. R2
2

(b)

fi0
C

RI L
v(t)

v(t}

~
4
(a)

R3

(b)

v(t}

3
(c)

3-19. Demonstrate the so establish a inductor into an


C
v(t}

Rr;J

C2

3-20. Demonstrate tha 3-21. Write a set of appropriate 1 3-17.

3
(d)

R3 Fig. P3-17.

3-18. Repeat Prob. 3-17 for each of the four networks on page 91.

shown in the figure

3-23. Write a set 0 network in one controll equations

Ch. 3 / Problems

91

v{t)

(a)

v{t)

(b)

(cl

Fig. P3-18.

3-19. Demonstrate the equivalence of the networks shown in Fig. 3-17 and so establish a rule for converting a voltage source in series with an inductor into an equivalent network containing a current source. 3-20. Demonstrate that the two networks shown in Fig. 3-18 are equivalent. 3-21. Write a set of equations using the Kirchhoff voltage law in terms of appropriate loop-current variables for the four networks of Prob. 3-17. 3-22. Make use of the Kirchhoff voltage law to write equations on the loop basis for the four networks of Prob. 3-18. 3-23. Write a set of equilibrium equations on the loop basis to describe the network in the accompanying figure. Note that the network contains one controlled source. Collect terms in your formulation so that your equations have the general form of Eqs, (3-47).

92

Network Equations I Ch. 3

Fig. P-3-23. 3-24. For the coupled network of the figure, write loop equations using the Kirchhoffvoltage law. In your formulation, use the three loop currents which are identified.

3-25. The network of the figure is that of Fig. 3-30 but with different loopcurrent variables chosen. Using the specified currents, write the Kirchhoff voltage law equations for this network.

vlt)

Fig. P3-2S. 3-26. A network with magnetic coupling is shown in the figure. For the network, M \2 = O. Formulate the loop equations for this network using the Kirchhoff voltage law.

YM23
L3 R2

f:\

i2)R3

Fig. P3-26.

ci. 3 I Problems
3.27. Write the loop-basis voltage equations network of Fig. P5- 22 with K closed. for the magnetically

93

coupled

3.28. Write equations using the Kirchhoff current law in terms of nodeto-datum voltage variables for the four networks of Prob. 3-17. 3.29. Making use of the Kirchhoff current law, write equations basis for the four networks of Prob. 3-18. on the node

3.30. For the given network, write the node-basis equations using the node-to-datum voltages as variables. Collect terms in your formulation so that the equations have the general form of Eqs. (3-59).
2

AIIR~~ohm All C~ ~ farad

Fig. P330.

3.31. The network in the figure contains one independent voltage source and two controlled sources. Using the Kirchhoff current law, write node-basis equations. Collect terms in the formulation so that the equations have the general form of Eqs. (359).

n,

~i2

"'t_Cl
he
rk

-1--R---L,2

__

f....--=-.l.....-.~--.J

R6

Fig. P3-31.

).32. The network of the figure is a model suitable for "rnidband" operation of the "cascode-connected" MOS transistor amplifier. Analyze the

Fig. P3-32.

94

Network Equations / Ch. 3

network on (a) the loop basis, and (b) the node basis. Write the resulting equations in matrix form, but do not solve them. 3-33. In the network of the figure, each branch contains a 1-n resistor, and four branches contain a I-V voltage source, Analyze the network on the loop basis, and organize the resulting equations in the form of a chart as in Example 11. Do not solve the equations.

2h

2h

Iv

Fig. P3-33.

2h

2h

Fig. P3-34

3-34. Repeat Prob. 3-33 for the network of the accompanying figure. In addition, write equations on the node basis, and arrange the equations in the form of the chart of Example 13. 3-35. In the network of the figure, R = 2 n and RI' = 1 n. Write equations on (a) the loop basis, and (b) the node basis, and simplify the equations to the form of the chart used in Examples 11 and 13.
R R R

Fig. P3-3S.

3-36. For the network shown in the figure, determine the numerical value of the bi ~11ch current i I. All sources in the network are time invariant.
2fl

H2

2v

Fig. P336.

3 e d n

ci. 3/

Problems

95 Determine

3-37. In the network of the figure, all sources are time invariant. the numerical value of i2

a
2v

Fig. P3-37. 3-38. In the given network, all sources are time invariant. branch current in the 2-0 resistor. Determine the

In ns

ahe

Fig. P3-38. 3-39. In the network of the figure, all voltage sources and current source are time invariant, and all resistors have the value R = O. Solve for the four node-to-datum voltages.

All R=~ ohm

Fig. P3-39. 3-40. In the given network, node d is selected as the datum. For the specified element and source values, determine values for the four node-todatum voltages.

96

Network

Equations

/ Ch. 3

Fig. P3-40.

3-41. Evaluate the determinant:


2 -1 O. -2 0 0 -1 -1 3 -2 3 -1 2 0 0 0

3-42. Evaluate the determinant:


1 -1 2 4 3 -2
4

0 -1 1 4 1 3 -2

3 1 1 2 -1

4 0 3

0 -2

3-43. Solve the following system of equations for i 1> iz, and i3, Cramer's rule.
3i 1 -2il
-

2i2

+ Oi3 = 5
- 4i3

+ 9i2

Oil - 4i2

+ 9i3

= 10

3-44. Solve the following system of equations for the three unknowns, i 1> iz, and i3 by Cramer's rule.
8i1 -3il -5il
-

3i2 7i2 -

5i3 = Oi3

5 -10

+ Oiz +

1113 = -10

ci. 3 / Problems
3-4S. Solve the equations 3-46. Solve the equations 3-47. Determine of Prob. 3-43 using the Gauss elimination of Prob. 3-44 using the Gauss elimination

97 method. method.

il, i2, iJ, and i, from the following Si , 2il -Sil Si2
-

system of equations.

10iJ

4i2 + 5iJ + 20i2 + 14iJ :'-il + 7i2 + 2iJ

+ +

12i. 6i4

= = =

S 33 10

-- 16i.

- 10i4 = -15

3-48. Consider the equations 3x y -

3z = 1 z = I
=

x - 3y 4x

+ Oy

-- 5z

(a) Is (4, 2, 3) a solution? Is (- I, -1, -I) a solution? (b) Can these equations be solved by determinants? Why? (c) What can you conclude regarding the three lines represented by these equations? 3-49. Find duals for the four networks 3-S0. Find the dual networks of Prob. 3-17. given in Prob. 3-IS.

for the four networks of Prob. 3-31.

3-S1. Find the dual of the network

3-S2. If one exists, find a dual of the network 3-S3. Analyze the network lation. 3-S4. Consider the network shown in Prob. using appropriate state variables. 3-SS. Analyze the network formulation. 3-S7. Apply the method in Fig. P3-31.

of Prob. 3-40.

of Prob. 3-17(c) using the state variable formu3-23. Analyze this network

shown in Fig. P3-IS(b) using the state variable

3-56. Analyze the network of Prob. 3-30 using state variables. of state variables to analyze the network shown

3-S8. The element represented by the equations sing Find the two-element

in the network is a gyrator which is described


'VI

=
=

Roi2 ---Roil network shown in (b) of the figure.

V2

equivalent

rns,

(a)

Fig. P3-SS.

98

Network Equations

t Ch. 3

3-59. For the gyrator-RL network of the figure, write the differential equation relating VI to il Find a two-element equivalent network, as in Prob. 3-49, in which neither of the elements is a gyrator.

Fig. P3-59.

3-60. In the network of (a) of the figure, all self inductance values are 1 H, and mutual inductance values are i H. Find L.q, the equivalent inductance, shown in (b) of the figure.

l~Leq l'~
(a) (b)

Fig. P3-60.

3-61. It is intended that the two networks of the figure be equivalent with respect to the pair of terminals which are identified. What must be the values for Cl, L2' and L3 ?

In this chapter of the simplest coefficients whi written

(a)

(b)

Fig. P3-61.

3-62. It is intended that the two networks of the figure be equivalent with respect to two pairs of terminals, terminal pair I-I' and terminal pair 2-2'. For this equivalence to exist, what must be the values for Ct. Cz, and C3?
~I

1$?t?L
l'().o ----.L------;o

II
2'

In these equati variable, is us independent ;'a" ing a linear co solution of the vet) is someti Assume sources which' and currents. system is alte or closing of obtain equati

Fig. P3-62.

112

First-Order Differential Equations I Ch. 4


CYRUS W., AND WILLIAM L. REUTER,

Cox,

The Macmillan Houghton

Company,

Circuits, Signals, and Networks, New York, 1969. Chapter 4.


VALKENBURG,

4-3.

CRUZ, JOSEB., JR., AND

M. E. VAN Miffiin Company,

Boston,

Signals in Linear Circuits, Mass., 1974. Chapter 5.

HUELSMAN, LAWRENCE

Prentice-Hall,
LEaN, BENJAMIN

P., Basic Circuit Theory with Digital Computations, Inc., Englewood Cliffs, N.J., 1972. Chapter 5.

J., AND PAUL A. WINTZ, Basic Linear Networks Jar Elettrical and Electronics Engineers, Holt, Rinehart & Winston, New York, 1970. Chapter 2.

DIGITAL

COMPUTER

EXERCISES
4-4.

Exercises relating to the topics of this chapter are concerned with the numerical solution of first-order differential equations in Appendix -6.1, and the solution of the RLC series circuit in Appendix E-6.2. In particular, see Section 5.2 of Huelsman, reference 7 in Appendix E-IO.

PROBLEMS
4-1.

In the network of the figure, the switch K is moved from position I to position 2 at I = 0, a steady-state current having previously been established in the RL circuit. Find the particular solution for the current i(/).

4-5.

Fig. P4-t. 4-2. The switch K is moved from position a to b at I ~ U, having been in position a for a long time before I ~--O. Capacitor C2 is unchargedat t --- O. (a) Find the particular solution for i(t) for t > O. (b) Find ti't particular solution for 1'2(t) for t > O.

4-6.

Fig. P42.

I Ch. 4
elworks,

ci. 4 I Problems
43. In the network such that 1",(0) (a) Find given,
~c

113

the initial

voltage
1',(/)

on C. is V, and on C2 is 1'2 0, the switch


I',('Y.)
\

V, and 1"2(0) = If~. At 1= (b) Find

K is closed.
I'~(/)

iuuits, 5.

i(1) for all t imc.

for I "

O. (c) Find
0,

for

I> O. (d) From your results on (b) and (c). show that (e) For the following values of the ctcrncnts, R C2 = ~F, 1'1 -- 2 V, I': I V, sketch i(1) and lime com,lam of each,
~c I'""

"',(cy

l.
\

n,

Cl

~c

F, the

amI idcntify

Fig. P43.

44.

In the network period of time. before-break"

of the figure, At I

the switch Find


1'2(1)

K is in position using initial the

a for a long
values 2-1 i

0, the switch
Assume

is moved the

from a to b (by a "make-

mechanism),

numerical

given in the nctw ark. inductor is zero.

that

current

in the

IQ

~
FiJ,:. P44.

-1

Iv

I_h-L

_L __ ~

45. The network


open, given, sketch constant,

of the figure the current

reaches

a steady Find i(/)

state

with

the switch

At I = 0, switch

K is closed.
waveform,

for the numerical the value

values

and indicate

of the lime

30 C!

20n

t-een in ged at md the

20V1-~' '7)
10 v-=-

.J:

Fig. P45.

-L
a steady state in position i(/) and show 2 and
'I'

4-6.

The network
I =

of Prob,

4-5 reaches sketch

the switch

is moved

to position

1, Find

for the numerical the valt.e

values given for the element, of the time constant. 47. In the given If the network, is
t', ~

the waveform,

e : for 12:0 and is zero


unchargcd, find t'2(1), sketch

for Let "2(t)

all

<0
10,

capacitor

initially

R ,~-'

R2 -, 20, and C = -to' F, and for these values the value of the ti.nc constant on the sketch.

identifying

114

Fig. P4-7. 4-8. In the network shown in the figure, switch K is closed at I = necting a Source e-t to the RC network. At t = 0, it is observ the capacitor voltage has the value re(O) = 0.5 V. For the e values given, determine t'2(t).

Fig. P4-8. 4-9. In the network shown, Vo = 3 V, RI == 10 n, Rz =c 5 n, and H. The network attains a steady state, and at t = 0 switch closed. Find V.(I) for t ~ O.

Fig. P4-9. 4-10. The network of the figure consists of a current source of val (a constant), two resistors, and a capacitor. At I.' 0, the swit is opened. For the element values given on the figure, determine for t ~ O.

+ 1 !!

Fig. P4-10. 4-11. We wish to multiply the differential di -;- P(I)i dt equation

== Q(I)

by an "integrating factor" R such that the left-hand side of the eq uon equals the derivative d(Ri)/df. (a) Show that the required i

'nsl Ch. 4

c 4 / Problems
115

grating factor is R eS "", (b) Using this integrating solution to the differential equation that corresponds

factor, find the to Eq. (4-30).

= 0 conrved that element

4-12. In the network shown in the accompanying figure, the switch K is closed at I 0, a steady-state having previously been attained. Solve for the current in the circuit as a function of time.

+ V-=-

Fig. P4-I2.

andL = 'tch K is

4-13. In the network shown, the voltage source follows the law L-(/) o.~ Ve 'at, where (I, is a constant. The switch is closed at I '= O. (a) Solve for the current assuming that (I, oF R/L. (b) Solve for the current when
(J,'

R/L.

K
vlt)

L -lH

Fig. P4-13.

4-14. In the network: shown in Fig. P4-13, V(/) = 0 for I < 0, and vet) = t for I ~ O. Show that i(/) "', I .- I .,- e-t for 12: 0, and sketch this waveform, 4-15. In the network shown, the switch is closed at I = 0 connecting a voltage Source r(t) - V sin WI to a series RL circuit. For this system, solve for the response i(t).

Fig. P4-15.

4-16. Consider

the differential

equation

.u -;: at . dl

= Jr (t )
k

where a is real and positive. Find the general solution of this equatio.. if all J~ ~ 0 for I < 0 and for I 2. 0 have the following values: (a)!1 kIt (e)!s = sin- i (b)J~' te=> (f) !6 cc cos- I (c) Ji sin Wol (fJ,)f~ " I sin '21 (d) f~ cos Wot (h) J8= e- sin 2t
c~ t

116

First-Order

Differential

Equations

Ch. 4

4-17. In the network (If the figure, the switch K is open and the network reaches a steady state. At I = 0, switch K is closed. Find the current in the inductor for I :> 0, sketch this current, and identify the time constant.

10 10

+ -=5v

2H

Fig. P4-17. 4-18. Repeat Prob. 4-13, determining the voltage at node a, v.(I) for
I

> O.

4-19. The network of the figure is in a steady state with the switch K open. At I = 0, the switch is closed. Find the current in the capacitor for I > 0, sketch this waveform, and determine the time constant.

Fig. P4-19. 4-20. In the network shown, the switch K is closed at 1 = O. The current waveform is observed with a cathode ray oscilloscope. The initial value of the current is measured to be 0.01 amp. The transient appears to disappear in 0.1 sec. Find (a) the value of R, (b) the value of C, and (c) the equation of i(t).

Fig. P4-20. 4-21. The circuit shown in the accompanying figure consists of a resistor and a relay with inductance L. The relay is adjusted so that it is actuated when the current through the coil is 0.008 amp. The switch K is closed at 1 -~ 0, and it is observed that the relay is actuated when I = 0.1 sec. Find: (a) the indu.:tance L of the coil, (b) the equation of
i(1) with all terms evaluated.

Ch..4 / Problems
~ 10,0000

117

100V~

Fig. P4-21. 4-22. A switch is closed at ( = 0, connecting a battery of voltage V with a series RC circuit. (a) Determine the ratio of energy delivered to the capacitor to the total energy supplied by the source as a function of time. (b) Show that this ratio approaches 0.50 as 1 -, 00. 4-23. Consider the exponentially decreasing function i ~~ Ke=u? where T is the time constant. Let the tangent drawn from the curve at t = (1 intersect the line i = 0 at 12' Show that for any such point, i(lI), (2 11 = T.

current 'tialvalue pears to ofC, and

of a resistor

so that it is
. Theswitch uatedwhen equation of

132

Initial Conditions in Networks / Ch. 5

ci. 5/ Proble
5-7. In the solve r, and C

PROBLEMS
5-1. In the network of the figure, the switch K is closed at t = 0 with the capacitor uncharged. Find values for i, di/dt and d+iidt? at t = 0+, for element values as follows: V = 100 V, R = 1000 n, and C = l.uF.

5-8.

The ru Solve and L

Fig. PS-I. 5-2. In the given network, K is closed at t = 0 with zero current in the inductor. Find the values of i, di/dt, and d+iidt? at t = 0+ if R = 10 L = 1 H, and V = 100 Y.

n,

5-9.

In the switch given,

Fig. PS-2. 5-3. In the network of the figure, K is changed from position a to b at = O. Solve for i, di/dt, and d+ildt? at t = 0+ if R = 1000 n, L = 1 H, C = 0.1 .uF, and V = 100 Y.

Fig. PS-3. 5-4. 5-5. 5-6. For the network and the conditions stated in Prob. 4-3, determine the values of dvJ!dt and dVz/df at f = 0+. For the network described in Prob. 4-7, determine values of dZvz/dtZ and d3vz/dt3 at t = 0+. The network shown in the accompanying figure is in the steady state with the switch K closed. At t = 0, the switch is opened. Determine the voltage across the switch, VK, and dVK/dt at t = 0+. 5-10. In tH state

Fig. P5-6.

h.5

cs. 5 / Problems
5-7.

133

In the given network, the switch K is opened at t = O. At t = 0+, solve for the values of v, dcldt, and d+rl dt? if I ~" I 0 amp, R == lOOOn, and C ~= IILF.
v

the It,

Fig. PS-7.

5-8. The network shown in the figure has the switch K opened at t = O.
Solve for 1', doldt, and d+oldt at t and L = 1 H.

0+ if 1=
v

1 amp, R

100

n,

the

Fig. P5-S. 5-9. In the network shown in the figure, a steady state is reached with the switch K open. At t = 0, the switch is closed. For the element values given, determine the value of v.(O-) and v.(O+).
10 ~!

at
10 I! 20 ~!

+ 5 V-=-

Fig. P5-9. the 5-10. In the accompanying figure is shown a network in which a steady state is reached with switch K open. At t = 0, the switch is closed.
lOQ

ate ine
+

lOH

20Q
vb

"-1

Ton
Fig. PS-lOo

J"

134 Initial Conditions in Networks / Ch.. 5

Problems

For the element v.(O+).

values given, determine

the values of v.(O-)

an

5-11. In the network of Fig. P5-9, determine ditions stated in Prob. 5-9.

iL(O +) and i ( L

(0)

for the cor

5-12. In the network given in Fig. P5-1O, determine the conditions stated in Prob. 5-10.

Vb(O+) and Vb(oo) fo

5-13. In the accompanying network, the switch K is closed at t = 0 wit! zero capacitor voltage and zero inductor Current. Solve for (a) t'_IS. and V2 at t = 0+, (b) VI and V2 at t = 00, (c) dVI/dt and dV2/dt a t = 0+, (d) d2V2/dt2 at t = 0+.

!,~ the given m rh; switch K

R2'

I Mr!,

t . , 0; .

S-19. In the circui connecting a (a) dil/cll and 5-14. The network of Prob. 5-13 reaches a steady state with the switch K closed. At a new reference time, t = 0, the switch K is opened. Solve for the quantities specified in the four parts of Prob. 5-13.
Fig. PS-l3.

5-15. The switch K in the network of the figure is closed at t = 0 connecting the battery to an unenergized network. (a) Determine i, dildt, and 2 2 d i/dt at t = 0+. (b) Determine 1'1, do-Jdt, and d2Vl/d/2 at t = 0+.

Fig. PS-IS.

5-20. In the net open with and C I integrodifli closed. (b)

5-16. The network of Prob. 5-15 reaches a steady state under the conditions specified in that problem. At a new reference time, t = 0, the switch K is Opencd. Solve for the quantities specified in Prob. 5-15 at t = 0+. 5-17. In the network shown in the accompanying figure, the switch K is changed from a to b at I = 0 (a steady state having been established at position a). Show that at f = 0-1 ,
V

ks / Ch. 5
0-) and

a: 5 / Problems

13S

: the con-

Fig. PS-17. =0 with 'or (a) t'l dvz/dt at 5-18. "~ the given network, the capacitor Cl is charged to voltage Vo and rh, switch K is c'osed at T ,,0. When RI 2 Mn, Vo 1000 y, 2 2 Rz I Mn, c, 10 J1F, and c, - 20 J1F, solve for d iz/dT at t .0; .

Fig. PS-IS. ~-19. in the circuit shown in the figure, the switch K IS closed at t ~. 0 connecting a voltage, Vo sin WT, to the parallel RL-RC circuit. Find
(a) dil/df

and (b) diz/df

at T

0 i .

switch K 'led. Solve onnecting difdT, and t T = O-l .

Fig. PS-i9. 5-20. In the network shown, a steady state is reached with the open with V . lOO Y, RI" 10 n, Rz 20 n, RJ --= 20 n, and C I J1F. At time f 0, the switch is closed. (a) integrodifTerential equations for the network after the closed. (b) What is the voltage Vu across C before the switch K L I H, Write the switch is switch is

:onditions the switch


III =

0+.

witch K i, stablished
_-L----

Fi~. PS-20.

136

Initial Conditions

ill Networks

Ch. 5

Ch. 5 / Problems

closed? What is its polarity? (c) Solve for the initial value of i, ami i2Ct ~= 0+). (J) Solve for the values of di.ldt and di-f dt at I '" 0+. (c) What is the value of di-fdt at t ~= co? 5-21. The network shown in the figure has two independent node pairs. If the switch K is opened at t = 0, find the following quam ities at t = 0+: (a) VI, (b) V2, (c) do-f dt, (d) dV2/dt.

5-24. The given netv I' 0, the swin V sin (I/./MC /,.(0+)
= 0,

Fig. PS-2I. 5-22. In the network shown in the figure, the switch K is closed at the instant t = 0, connecting an unenergized system to a voltage source. Let M 12 = O. Show that if v(O) = V, then: di .) dt1 (0 -t(L1

5-25. In the network network has at an expression f parameters are what is the val dVK/dt (O+)?

+ L3 + 2M13)(L2 + L3 + 2M23)

(L3

+ M13 + M23)2

di2(0+ ) dt

5-26. In the network connecting the age Va at t = O

Fig. PS-22. 5-23. For the network d i1(0+) dt2


2

of the figure, show that if K is closed at t

0,

= _1- (-1
R1lR1C

[v(O) _ dV(O)-J_ d v(0)} R1C dt dt2

5-27. In the network I = 0-, all cap node-to-datum and dc d dt at t V3 and dV3/dl at fig. PS-D.

Ch. 5

ci. 5 !Problems

137

it and ~ 0+. pairs. ties at

5-24. The given network consists of two coupled coils and a capacitor. At t : 0, the switch K is closed connecting a generator of voltage, r(f) V sin (If"'; MC). Show that
~o

/,.(0+) = 0,

(;;/(0+)

(V/L)"'; M/C,

and

(/2V(O+) df2
a

~ K + Viii

1-~L
C

+ v.

Fig. P5-24.

at the source.

5-25. In the network of the figure, the switch K is opened at t = 0 after the network has attained a steady state with the switch closed. (a) Find an expression for the voltage across the switch at f = 0+. (b) If the parameters are adjusted such that i(O+) = I and dildt (0 +) ~, - I, what is the value of the derivative of the voltage across the switch. dVK/dt (O+)?

Fig. P5-2S.

5-26. In the network shown in the figure, the switch K is closed at t = 0 connecting the battery with an unenergized system. (a) Find the voltage v. at t = 0+. (b) Find the voltage across capacitor Cl at t = CD.

r
-=-V

,0,
Fig. PS-26.

5-27. In the network of the figure, the switch K is closed at t ,-c O. At t 0 -, all capacitor voltages and inductor currents are zero. Three node-to-datum voltages are identified as '1.'1,1'2, and 1'3. (a) Find VI and dvr/df at t = 0+. (b) Find 1'2 and de2/df at t = 0+. (c) Find V3 and dVl/df at t = 0-1.
e-c,

138

Initial Conditions ill Networks I Ch. 5

vitl

Fig. PS-27. 5-28. In the network of the figure, a steady state is reached, and at t = 0, the switch K is opened. (a) Find the voltage across the switch, 1"K at t ~= 0+. (b) Find dVK/dt at t = 0+.

Fig. PS-28.

5-29. In the network of the accompanying

figure, a steady state is reached with the switch K closed and with i 10' a constant. At t = 0, switch K is opened. Find: (a) t'2(0-), (b) t'2(0+), and (c) (dt"2/dl) (0+).
O~

The differential eq uations of the we will continue restrictions as to The mathematic under the head in the classical met differential equat conceptual adva transformation is which are ordin more easily deve be reserved for t

6-1. SECONDO EXCITATIO Fig. PS-29.

A second-o
stant coefficients

The solution of the solution itsel

Ch. 6 / Problems

Continued / Ch. 6

163

otherwise this . the derivative

(6-137)

(6-138) ise is (6-139) ne appearance : Rcn and the or the current :ten (6-140) idition of the

current will be sustained indefinitely. However, if there is resistance present, the current through the resistor will cause energy to be dissipated, and the total energy will decrease with each cycle. Eventually all the energy will be dissipated and the current will be reduced to zero. If a scheme can be devised to supply the energy that is lost in each cycle, the oscillations can be sustained. This is accomplished in the electronic oscillator to produce audio frequency or radio frequency sinusoidal signals.

FURTHER

READING

BALABANIAN, NORMAN,Fundamentals of Circuit Theory, Allyn and Bacon, Inc., Boston, 1961. Chapter 3. CHIRLlAN, PAUL~t, Basic Network Theory, McGraw-Hill New York, 1969. Chapter 4. Book Company,

CLEMENT, PRESTONR., AND WALTER C. JOHNSON, Electrical Engineering Science, McGraw-Hill Book Company, New York, 1960. Chapter 7. CLOSE, CHARLES M., The Analysis of Linear Circuits, Harcourt, World, Inc., New York, 1966. Chapter 4. Brace &

HUELSMAN, LAWRENCE P., Basic Circuit Theory with Digital Computations, Prentice-Hall, Inc., Englewood Cliffs, N.J., 1972. Chapter 6. r)] (6-141 ) (6-142) SKILLlNG, HVGH H., Electrical Engineering Circuits, 2nd ed., John Wiley & Sons, Inc., New York, 1965. Chapter 2. WYLlE, CLARENCE R., JR., Advanced Engineering Mathematics, 3rd ed., McGraw-Hill Book Company, New York, 1966. Chapters 2,3, and 5.

(6-143) e is shown in ng factor and I envelope or ermines how es zero, the IS result. .ult may be 1 the electric rage element tored in the rergy, When ) the electric s as long as e oscillatory

DIGITAL

COMPUTER

EXERCISES

References that are useful in designing exercises to go with the topics of this chapter are cited in Appendix -6.3 and are concerned with the numerical solution of higher-order differential equations. In particular, the suggestions contained in Chapters 5, 6, and 7 of Huelsman, reference 7, Appendix E-10, are recommended.

PROBLEMS
6-1.

Show that equation

ke=> and i di
2

= ke= are solutions of the differential


0

dt

+ 3 dt di + 2' = I

164

Differential Equations, Continued / Ch, Ch. 6 / Problems Show that i = ke= and i equation di dt?
2

6-2.

kte= an: solutions


-I- .
I

of the differenti subject to the initial conditions d+ildt? = --I at t = 0.+. 6-11. The response of a network is fr i= Kite:'

+ 2 dt' di

6-3.

Find the general solution dZ' (a) -.-! dt2 (b) d2i dtZ (c)

of each of the following equations:


Z' d' -~ 6i (e) d --.! -i- _l.. df2 dt'

d' 3 -.: dt

+ 2i =
-

= =

where (J., is real and positive. i maximum value. 6-12. In a certain network, sion

+ 5 dt di + 6' I
7 ::

- 0

(0 df~ -T' d:
( ) dl; g d{2'
(h) d2i
-L

d2'

di

+-

2i

it is found

;t21 +

12;

=
0

2 di .: '= 0 dt r I
4 di -"4'

Show that i(t) reaches a maxi t =-1X1-

(d) d2i df2 6-4.

+ 5 dt di + 4' = I

d{2'

-L

dt

1-

-- 0.

Find the general solution differential equations: d2L' (a) dt2

of each of the following

homogeneo

+ 2 dt + 20 =

dv

0.

d 21) (d) 2 dt Z

d,; , 16. + 8 dt -;- t--

6-13. The graph shows a damped si form Ke-at si From the graph, determine n

(b) d2V +: ? dv dt2 - dt d- ; do (c) dtZ -r- 4dt 6-5.

+ 4 v = 0. + 2v =
0 (f) d 0 dt 2
2

+ 3 do + 5v dt
equations

- 0. of Prob. 6-)

Find particular solutions for the differential subject to the initial conditions: i(O+)

I,

di dt (0+)

0. equations of Prob, 6.)

6-6.

Find particular solutions for the differential subject to the initial conditions: i(o'+)

2,

di (0 +-) dt

co

.;

I equations of Prob. 6-4 Fig. given in Prm 6-14. Repeat Prob. 6-13 for the wa

6-7.

Find particular solutions to the differential subject to the initial conditions: r(O+) 0= I, ~~ (0 +-) ,--

I equations

6-8.

Find particular solutions to the differential 6-4, given the initial conditions: ('(0.+) ~, 2, dO(o'_r) clt

6-9.

Solve the differential 3~ dt

equation
J

J'

I- 8

d" dt ?

--=:

-j-

di 10 -.: ., 3i dt

0.

'" '"

a. E

6-10. Solve the differential


J

equation

d ; -;- 9 d~; -:- 13 dr d; __ 6,' == 0. 2c1tJ dt2 Fig.

Continued I Ch. 6 the differential

Ch. 6 I Problems subject to the initial conditions d2i/dt2 = -1 at t = 0+. 6-11.The response of a network i(O+) = 0, dildt

165

1 vt t

0+, and

is found to be

uations: =0 =0 , =0 li =0 g homogeneous where (I, is real and positive. maximum value. 6-12. In a certain network, sion

f::::: 0
Find the time at which i(t) attains a

it is found that the current is given by the expres-

Show that i(t) reaches a maximum t

value at time In
(l,lK1 (l,2Kz

=
(1,1 -

1
(1,2

6-13. The graph shows a damped sinusoidal waveform form Ke:= sin(eui -;- ifJ) From the graph, determine -, numerical

having the general

16v

values for K,

(1,

co,

and ifJ.

Iv = 0

'.

5v
lOS

=0
of Prob. 6-3

lOS

of Prob.

6-3

ms of Prob.

6-4
Fig. P6-13.

IS

given in Prob.

6-14. Repeat Prob. 6-13 for the waveform


+1

of the accompanying

figure.

/"

r-.

'" '"

a. E

o
-1

V
o

-,
I"", <; /
V
2
t, msec

1/
4 5

-H--

Fig. P6-14.

166
Differential Equations,

6-15. In the network of the figure, the switch K is closed and is reached in the network. At f = 0, the switch is 0 expression for the current in the inductor, i (t).
2

-=- 100 v
Fig. P6-15. 616. The capacitor of the figure has an initial voltage vc(o-) at the same time the current in the induct or is zero. At switch K is closed. Determine an expression for the vel

Fig. P6-16. 6-17. The voltage SOurce in the network of the figure is descri equation, VI = 2 cos 2t fer t ~ 0 and is a short circuit p' time. Determine V2(t). Repeat if '1.1 = KIt for t ~ 0 and s
t

< O.

Fig. P6-17. 6-18. Solve the following nonhomogeneous differential equationsI


( ) d2i a dt2 (b) dt?
2

+ 2 dt di + i =

g:.! + 3 dt di + 2i = St
+ 3:: + 2i +
Sdq dt
=

(c) ;t ;
(d) d2q dt2 (e) ;t2~

10 sin lOt

6q 6v

= te= = e= + Se-3r

5;~ +

6-19. Solve the differential equations given in Prob. following initial conditions:
x(O+) = 1

and

dr(O+)

dx

= -1

where x is the general dependent variable.

167 is closed and a steady sta switch is opened. Find u '2(t).

Find the particular solutions

to the differential
dx dt(O+)

equations

of Prob,

6-18for the following initial conditions:


x(O+)

and

-1

where x is the dependent variable in each case.

~ll. Solvethe differential equation


dJ' 2dt~ P6-15. 'oIt~ge vC<O-) = VI> and tor IS zero. At t = 0, the n for the voltage V2(t).
' + 9d dt~ + 2

di 13 d;

+ 6i =

Kote- sin t

which is valid for t ~ 0, if i(O+) = 1, di/dl(O +) = -1, and d+il dl'(O"t') = O.

~ll. A special generator has a voltage variation


t,l)

given by the equation

is connected to an RL series circuit, where R = 2 nand L = I H, at urne 1 = 0 by the closing of a switch, Find the equation for the current as a function of time i(t). which is approximated as te-r strikes a transmission line having resistance R = 0.1 n and inductance L = 0,1 H (the line-to-line capacitance is assumed negligible). An equivalent network is shown in the accompanying diagram. What is the form of the current as a function of time? (Thiscurrent will be in amperes per unit volt of the lightning; likewise
1'(1)

1 V, where t is the time in seconds and 1 ~ O. This generator

6-13. A bolt of lightning having a waveform


'6-16. igure is described by the ~hort circuit prior to that :or t ~ 0 and VI = 0 for

vlt)

Fig. P6-23.

the time base is normalized.) 6-24.In the network of the figure, the switch K is closed at 1 = 0 with the capacitor initially unenergized. For the numerical values given, find i(I). i-17. itial equations for t ~ O. Fig. P6-24. 6-25. In the network shown in the accompanying figure, a steady state is reached with the switch K open. At r = 0, the switch is closed. For the element values given, determine the current, i(t) for 1 ~ 0,
R-103
(l

r::\,5IlF
ilt))

ob. 6-18 subject

to the

Fig. P6-2S. 6-26. In the network shown in Fig. P6-2S, a steady state is reached with the switch K open. At t = 0, the value of the x resistor R is changed to the critical value, Ra defined by Eq, (6-88). For the element values given, determine the current i(t) for
1

-1

2 O.

168

Differential Equations, Continued I Ch. 6

Ch.,6 I Problem! 6-33. A switch series RI of time i: w (b) Find tion of t steady-si as 1-" in the st 6-34. In the s frequent (1) CO = (2) CO =

6-27. Consider the network shown in Fig. P6-24. The capacitor has an initial voltage, Vc = 10 V. At I = O. the switch K is closed. Determine i(t) for I :2: O. 6-28. The network of the figure is operating in the steady state with the switch K open. At t = 0, the switch is closed. Find an expression for the Voltage, v(l) for t :2: O. +

10 sin wt

t
K

u( t)

Fig. P6-28. 6-29. Consider a series RLC network which is excited by a voltage source. (a) Determine the characteristic equation corresponding to the differential equation for i(t). (b) Suppose that Land C are fixed in value but that R varies from 0 to 00. What will be the locus of the roots of the characteristic equation? (c) Plot the roots of the characteristic equation in the s plane if L = 1 H, C = 1 J.l.F, and R has the following values: 500

These f experim when th steady-s the rna: is, whic greater'

n. 1000 n, 3000 n, 5000 n.

6-30. Consider the RLC network of Prob. 6-16. Repeat Prob. 6-29, except that in this case the study will concern the characteristic equation corresponding to the differential equation for V2(t). Compare results with those obtained in Prob. 6-29. 6-31. Analyze the network given in the figure on the loop basis, and determine the characteristic equation for the currents in the network as a function of Kt. Find the value(s) of Kt for which the roots of the characteristic equation are on the imaginary axis of the s plane. Find the range of values of Kt for which the roots of the characteristic equation have positive real parts.

Fig. P6-31. 6-32. Show that Eq. (6-121) can be written


i

in the form

Ke-'W"'cos(con~i

+ 1/

Give the values for K and I/> in terms of K, and K6 of Eq. (6-121).

Continued / Ch. 6 :apacitor has an osed. Determine y state with the n expression for

o. 6/

Problems

169

6-33.A switch is closed at t = 0 connecting a battery of voltage V with a series RL circuit. (a) Show that the energy in the resistor as a function of time is
WR

V2( R

2L c: R'L +R
t

L 2Re-

2R'L
t, -

3L). 2R

JOU

Ies

-0

(b) Find an expression for the energy in the magnetic field as a function of time. (c) Sketch WR and WL as a function of time. Show the steady-state asymptotes, that is, the values that WR and WL approach as I eo. (d) Find the total energy supplied by the voltage source in the steady state.
-4

)(t)

6-34.In the series RLC circuit shown in the accompanying frequency of the driving force voltage is
(I) W =

diagram,

the

eo,

(2) W = Wn~

(the undarnped natural frequency) (the natural frequency)

voltage SOurce. ig to the differfixed in value of the roots of characteristic ) the following ). 6-29, except istic equation rnpare results .is, and detere network as : roots of the s plane. Find

These frequencies are applied in two separate experiments. In each experiment we measure (a) the peak value of the transient current when the switch is closed at I = 0, and (b) the maximum value of the steady-state current. (a) In which case (that is, which frequency) is the maximum value of the transient greater? (b) In which case (that is, which frequency) is the maximum value of the steady-state current greater?

100 sin wt

!It,)

lJ1F

Fig. P6-34.

charactensnc

~q. (6-121).

i Network Theorems / CIr.9

". 9/ Problems
FURTHER READING

271

CHoo.IAN, PAULM., Basic Network Theory, McGraw-Hill New York, 1969. Chapter 5.

Book Company,

DfsoER, CHARLES A., AND ERNESTS. KUH, Basic Circuit Theory, McGrawHill Book Company, New York, 1969. Chapters 16 and 17. Kuo, FRANKLlN F., Network Analysis and Synthesis, & Sons, Inc., New York, 1966. Chapter 7.
(b)

2nd ed., John Wiley

: 6 for which the

DIGITAL

COMPUTER

EXERCISES

rolled source

which

The topics of this chapter are not directly related to the use of the digitalcomputer, since new concepts and theorems are stressed. Use the timeavailable for computer exercises in completing more of those suggested at the end of Chapter 3.

(9-94)
find the impedance ng a voltage source rrent I(s) under the zero, meaning that

PROBLEMS
9-1. In the network of (a) of the accompanying figure, '1:1 = Voe-Zt cos t u(t), and for the network of (b), i, = loe-t sin 31 u(t). The impedance of the passive network N is found to be Z(s) = (s
(s

" VI

'k(S)

(9-95) impedance (a) With N connected to what will be the complex (b) With N connected to what will be the complex 92. Repeat Prob. 9-1 if 2s' Z(s) =
(S2

+ 2Xs + 3) + IXs + 4)

equired

(9-96)

the voltage source as in (a) of the figure, frequencies in the current i, (t)? the current source as in (b) of the figure, frequencies in the voltage VI(t)?
+

(a)

(9-97)

+ 3s + 5s + Ss + + IX2sz + 2s + 4)
3 2

VI

Solve part (b) only. 93. Consider the two series circuits shown in the accompanying Given that VI(t) = sin 103t, vz(t) = e-IOOOtfor t > 0, and C

(9-98)

figure. I j.l.F.

(b)

Fig. P9-1.

rk

is constructed

R
C

L' C

seful

artifice that he operation of Ig the amount of rnplish this.

~
(a)

~
(b)

Fig. 1'9-3.

Impedance Functions and Network Theorems / Ch. 9

Ch. 9 / Problems

(a) Show that it is possible to have ;1(t) = ;z(t) for all t > Q. (b) Determine the required values of Rand L for (a) to hold. (c) Discuss the physical meaning of this problem in terms of the complex frequencies of the two series circuits. 9-4. In the network of the figure, the switch is opened at t = 0, a steady state having previously been established. With the switch open, draw the transform network for analysis on the loop basis, representing all elements and all initial conditions.

9-8.

For the RC ance, Z(s), i


p(s) andq(s

of Prob. 9-1 9-9. Repeat Pro

rr-

V -

0::Fig. P9-4.

9-10. Repeat Pr figure.

9-5.

This problem is similar to Prob. 9-4, except that the transform network required should be prepared for analysis on the (a) loop basis, and (b) node basis. In this network, initial currents and voltages are a consequence of active elements removed at t = O. 9-11. Repeat P this case

Fig. P9-S.

9-12. Two blac known th contains the input


(b) Inves

9-6.

In the network of the figure, the switch K is closed at t = 0 and at t = 0 - the indicated voItages are on the two capacitors. Repeat Prob. 9-4 for this network.

network. conditio!
rr :

I I I I

1
I I I I I

Fig. P9-6.

1 0>---+-1-

9-7.

Determine the transform impedances for the two networks shown in the accompanying figure.

L.

z~g'1~\ I
Fig. P9-7.

9-13. Repeat
panying

5Slepian, 6Macklel September, 191

seorems I CIr. 9 all t> Q. (b) d. (c) Discuss complex fre= 0, a steady

a. 9/ Problems

273

f.I. For the RC network shown in the figure, find the transform impedance, Z(s), in the form of a quotient of polynomials, p(s)/q(s). Factor pes) and q(s) so that Z(s) may be written in the form of the impedance ofProb.9-1. ,.9. Repeat Prob. 9-8 for the LC network of the accompanying figure.

2F

2F

z~
Fig. P9-S.

~ open, draw iresenting all

Fig. P9-9.

,.10. Repeat Prob. 9-8 for the RC network figure,

shown in the accompanying

nsform netloop basis, /oltages are


Fig. P9-10.

9-11.Repeat Prob. ~-8 for the RLC network of the figure, except that in this case determine yes) rather than Z(s). 9-12.Two black boxes with two terminals each are externally identical. It is known that one box contains the network shown as (a) and the other contains the network shown as (b) with R = ..; L/e. (a) Show that the input impedance, Zin(S) = Vin(s)/Iin(s) = R for both networks.' (b) Investigate the possibility of distinguishing the purely resistive network. Any external measurements may be made, initial and final conditions may be examined, etc.
r-----------,

O-------r------,

zIH

~ 0 and at peat Prob.

Fig. P9-11.

.------------,
I
I

:
I

R
CRI

:R- VC fT
I

I
L J

shown in
(a)

L (b)

I
J

Fig. P9-12.

9-13.Repeat Prob. 9-12 by comparing the network shown in the accompanying figures to that given in (a) of the figure for Prob. 9-12. ~Slepian,J., letter in Elec. Engrg., 68,377; April, 1949. 6Macklem, F. S., "Or. Slepian's black box problem," Proc. IEEE, 51,1269; September,1963.

Ch. 9 / Problems 274 Impedance Functions and Network Theorems / Ch. 9

r----------,
I

R R=

,fF. c

c
Fig. P913. 918. The accom

914. The network shown in Fig. P9-4 is operated with switch K closed until a steady-state condition is reached. Then at t = 0 the switch K

is opened. Starting with the transform network found in Prob. 9-4, determine the voltage across the switch, Vk(t), for t :2: O.
915. If the capacitors are uncharged and the inductor current zero at t = 0-, in the given network, show that the transform of the gen-

sources in network, fi expression

erator current is
ll(s)

(S2

IO(s2 + s + 1) lXs2 + 2s + 2)

IH
IF 10

919. Th1netwo

current so determine
Fig. P91S.

916. Repeat Prob. 9-15 for the network given to show that the generator

current is given by the transform


I s _ l( ) - (S2

+ 4s +

s(s

+ 2X5s + 6) 13XlOs2 + 18s + 4)


920. The ne
1n

this netw RL
Fig P916.

917. For the network of the figure, show that the equivalent Thevenin

network is represented by
Vs

V --t (1 + a + b -

ab)

and 3-b z, =-2-

Theorems /

cs. 9
1n

275

Fig. P9-17. 9-18. The accompanying network consists of resistors and controlled sources in addition to the independent voltage source v,. For this network, find the Thevenin equivalent network by determining an expression for the voltage V8 and the Thevenin equivalent resistance.

switch K closed - 0 the switch K d in Prob. 9-4, ~ O. current zero at orm of the gen-

fig. P9-1S. 9-19.ThJnetwork of the figure contains three resistors and one controlled curfent source in addition to independent sources. For this network, determine the Thevenin equivalent network at terminals I-I',

It the generator

Fig. P9-19. 920. The network shown is a simple representation this network, determine the Thevenin equivalent RL of a transistor. For network for the load

rlent Thevenin

Fig. P920.

276

Impedance Functions and Network Theorems I Ch. 9

9-21. The network in the figure contains a resistor and a capacitor in addition to various sources. With respect to the load consisting of RL in series with L, determine the Thevenin equivalent network.

+
111
IJ

Fig. 1'9-21.

9-22. Using the network of Prob. 9-18, determine the Norton equivalent network. 9-23. For the network used in Prob. 9-19, determine the Norton equivalent network. 9-24. Determine the Norton equivalent network for the network given in Prob.9-20. 9-25. Determine the Norton equivalent network for the system described in Prob.9-21. 9-26. In the given network, the switch is in position a until a steady state is. reached. At t = 0, the switch is moved to position b. Under that condition, determine the transform of the voltage across the 0.5-F capacitor using (a) Thevenin's theorem, and (o) Norton's theorem.

Fig. 1'9-26.

9-30. Using alent ditions.

9-27. In the network of the figure, the switch K is closed at 1 = 0, a steady state having previously existed. Find the current in the resistor R3 using (a) Thevenin's theorem, and (b) Norton's theorem.

10 n

Fig.P9-17.

9-31. The values dete equiva

eorems /

cs. 9

Ch. 9 I Problems

277

lcitor in addisting of RL in ~rk.

J.28. Thenetwork shown in the figure is a low-pass filter. The input voltage VI(t) is a unit step function, and the input and load resistors have the value R = ...; LIe. By using Thevenin's theorem, show that the transform of the output voltage is

R n equivalent Fig. P9-28. n equivalent

~Itl

>rk given in described in


JaOY state is,

929.In the network shown in the accompanying sketch, the elements are chosen such that L = eRr and RI = Rz. If v\(t) is a voltage pulse of I-V amplitude and T-sec duration, show that vz(t) is also a pulse, and find its amplitude and time duration.

Under that the O.S-F s theorem.

Fig. P9-29.

9-30.Using either Thevenin's or Norton's theorem, determine an equivalent network for the terminals a-b in the figure for zero initial conditions.
I, a steady :sistor RJ

Fig. P9-JO.

9-31. The network given contains a controlled source. For the element values given, with v\(t) = u(t), and for zero initial conditions: (a) determine the equivalent Thevenin network at a-a', (b) Determine the equivalent Thevenin network at bob'.

Impedanc

Functions and Network Theorems

I Ch.

Fig. P9-3I.

9-32. For the given network, determine the equivalent Thevenin network to compute the transform of the current in RL

Fig. P9-31.

9-33. Assuming zero initial voltage on the capacitor, determine 1 he equivalent Norton network for the resistor Rx.
+ -

In this char admittance extended. F different par mathematic, functions arl

101. TERMI]

Fig. P9-33.

Consid elements. T( represented I fastened to a access, the en are required necting some ments. The IT the terminal! another pair name terminc

I Terminal This results in: this chapter.

tnd Zeros / Ch. 10

o, /0 I Problems

317

i). The stability

whichis a quad, indicating that pes) has two zeros in the right halfplanefrom the quad. Dividing Eq. (10-123) into Eq. (10-121) gives the factor 2S2 s 1 which may be analyzed by the quadratic formula.

+ +

aial or an odd e even polynoS" ja)(s - ja)

FURTHER
DESOER,

READING

other possibiIlay be reached D-31 which are

;b) (10-120)
) if b > a. In on applies for

CHARLES A., AND ERNESTS. KUH, Basic Circuit Theory, McGrawHill Book Company, New York, 1969. Chapter 15. KARNI, SHLOMO,Intermediate Network Analysis, AlIyn and Bacon, Inc., Boston, 1971. Chapter 6. LATHI, B.P., Signals, Systems, and Communication, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., New York, 1965. Chapter 7. MELSA, JAMESL., AND DONALD G. SCHULTZ, Linear Control Systems, McGraw-Hill Book Company, New York, 1969. Chapter 6. PERKINS, WILLIAMR., AND Joss B. CRUZ, JR., Engineering of Dynamic Systems, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., New York, 1969. Chapter 8.

DIGITAL

COMPUTER

EXERCISES

Two topics of this chapter which lend themselves to computer solutionare the determination of the roots of a polynomial and the determination of the locus of roots. The sections of Appendix E devoted to these topicsare E-l and E-9.5. In particular, see Huelsman, reference 7, Appendix E-IO, and his discussions of root-locus plots in Section 10.3, and MeCracken, reference 12, Case Studies 21 and 23.
.rr

zeros, symvith respect to irm a quad of

PROBLEMS
10-1. For the network Z12 = V2(s)jII(s). shown in the accompanying figure, determine

(l0-121)

(10-122)
10-2. :) is G Consider the RC two-port network figure. For this network show that 12 -

Fig_ PlO-I. shown in the accompanying ]

r
l..$2

(10-123)

S2 + (R1C1 + R2C2)SjRIR2CIC2 + 1jR R2C C2 + (R1C1 + R C2 + R2C2)SjRtR2CIC2 + 1jR R2C C2


1 1 1 1 1

318

Network Functions; Poles and Zeros I Ch. 10

a..

10 I Problems For the net' specified, dr

10-7.

Fig. PlO-I. 10-3. (a) For the given network, show that with port 2 open, the input impedance at port 1 is 1 (b) Find the voltage-ratio transfer function, G12 for the two-port network.

n.

10-8.

Fur the RI

+ 10

10

~------r---------~2 +
10

2F

10-').

For the g

~------------------------~~--------~2
Fig. PI0-3. 10-4. For the resistive two-port network of the figure, determine numerical value for (a) G12, (b) Z12, (c) Y12, and (d) tX12 the and dete

U!

1n

Fig. PI0-4. 10-5. The resistive bridged-T, two-port network shown in the figure is to be analyzed to determine (a) G\2, (b) Z12, (c) Y12, and (d) tX12 The given network contains resistors this network, compute G12 = Vz/V!.
I ~

10-10. For the transfer

Fig. PIO-5. 10-6.

and controlled

sources.

For

v,u::Jln
1n
2V;

Fig. PI0-6.

10-11. Foreal a volta V. at I

~eros/

cs. 10

u: 10 I Problems
10-7. For the network of the accompanying specified, determine IX 12 = 12//1,

319

figure and the element values

In

\' the input lnsfer func108. Fur the RC two-port G 02 -12 -

Fig. PIO-7. network shown in the figure, show that 1/R1R2CIC2

iLS2

+ (RICI + RIC2 + R2C2)S/RIR2CIC2

] 1/R1R2CIC2

Fig. PlO-So 10). For the given network, 2 and determine show that
YI2

(s

K(s

1)

2)(s

4)

the value and sign of K.

ine the

Fig. PIO9. 1010. For the network shown in the figure, show that the voltage-ratio transfer function is

re is to
1%12.

G 12 I H
+

(S2 + 1)2
5s4 I H

+ 5s2 +

s. For

~T_l

_
Fig.

______lll~2
r-io-io.

10-11. For each of the networks shown in the accompanying figure, connect a voltage source VI to port I and designate polarity references for V2 at port 2. For each network, determine G 12 = V2/ VI'

320

Network Functions; Poles and Zeros / Ch. 10

Ch. 10/ Problems

R
Z(s)

(a)

1n

if

10-17. A system has a which may be a system to a step of K, as a funcii done by the .l0-18.

(g)

Fig. PlO-H. 10-12. For the network given in Fig. PlO-ll(a), terminate port 2 in a I-Q resistor and connect a voltage source at port I. Let 11 be the current in the voltage source and 12 be the current in the I-n load. Assign reference directions for each. For this network, compute G12 = V21V1 and 0(12 = 12112, 10-13. Repeat Prob. 10-12 for the network of Fig. PIO-ll(b). of Fig. PlO-Il(g). 10-19. A system has s = -3, and One term of K3e-r sin (t + of a between

10-14. Repeat Prob. 10-12 for the network

10-15. For the network of Fig. PlO-II(g), connect a current source 11 at port I and a I-n resistor at port 2. Assign reference directions for all voltages and currents. For this network, compute Z12 = V21I1 and 0(12 = 121/1, 10-16. The network shown in (a) of the figure is known as a shunt peaking network. Show that the impedance has the form Z(s)

K(s

ZI)

(s - Pl)(S

- P2)

and determine ZI, p i, and P2 in terms of R, L, and C. If the poles and zeros of Z(s) have the locations shown in (b) of the figure with Z(jO) = I, find the values for R, L, and C.

id Zeros / Ch. 10

Ch. JOI Problems

321

s plane

jw

JTITrr-2
I

1.5

(J

ZlsI L

-3

vrrr
2

I I I I

*-- -(c)

Ibl

Fig. PIO-16. 1017.A system has a transfer function with a pole at s = - 3 and a zero which may be adjusted in position at s = -a_The response of this system to a step input has a term of the form K,e:, Plot the value of K( as a function of a for values of a between 0 and 5. This may be done by the graphical procedure of Section 10-7. 10-18.A system has a transfer function with poles at s = -1 j 1 and a zero which may be adjusted in position at s = -a. The response of this system to a step input has a term of the form K2e-r sin (t + rjJ). Plot the value of K2 as a function of a for values of a between 0 and 5. This may be done graphically.
rrt 2 in a I-Q

re the current load. Assign npute G12 =

1019.A system has a transfer function with poles at s = -1 j 1and at s = - 3, and a zero which may be adjusted in position at s = - a. One term of the response of this system to a step input is of the form K3e-r sin Ct + rjJ). Plot the value of K3 as a function of a for values of a between 0 and 5.
jw
x

j1

source I( at lirections for Z12 = V2/1(

-a

-4

-3

-2

-1
x

(J

j1

hunt peaking

Fig. PIO-19. 1020. Apply the Routh-Hurwitz criterion to the following equations and determine: (a) the number of roots with positive real parts, (b) the number of roots with zero real parts, and (c) the number of roots with negative real parts. (a) 4s3 + 7s2 + 7s + 2 = 0 (b) S3 + 3s2 + 4s + 1 = 0 Cc) 5s3 + S2 + 6s + 2 = 0 (d) SS + 2S4 + 2s3 + 4S2 + l l s + 10 = 0

he poles and 'e with ZUO)

322 10-21. Given the equation S3

Network Functions; Poles and Zeros / Ch. 10

5s2

Ks

1 =0

(a) For what range of values of K will the roots of the equation have negative real parts? (b) Determine the value of K such that the real part vanishes. 10-22. Repeat Prob. 10-20 for the equations: (a) 5s4 + 6s3 + 4S2 + 2s + 3 = 0 (b) S4 + 3s3 + 2S2 + s + 1 = 0 (c) 2S4 + 3s3 + 6s2 + 7s + 2 = 0 (d) 3s6 + S5 + 19s4 + 6s3 + 81s2 + 25s

10-28. For the Dete . the syst equation 10-29. The am analyzed. for the istic eq without and K? amplifier

25 = 0

10-23. Repeat the tests of Prob. 10-20 for the following equations: (a) 720s5 + 144s4 + 214s3 + 38s2 + 10s + 1 = 0 (b) 25s5 + 105s4 + 120s3 + 120s2 + 20s + 1 = 0 (c) S5 + 5.5s4 + 14.5s3 + 8s2 - 19s - 10 = 0 (d) S5 - S4 - 2s3 2S2 - 8s + 8 = 0 (e) S6 1 =0

10-24. For the the (a) (b) (c)

the following polynomials, (I) determine the number of zeros in right half of the s plane, (2) determine the number of zeros on imaginary axis of the s plane. Show method. 2s6 + 2s5 + 3s4 + 2s3 + 4S2 + 3s 2 = PI(S) S6 + 2s5 + 6s4 + 1Os3 + l1s2 + 12s + 6 = P2(S) 2s6 2s5 + 4S4 + 3s3 + 5s2 4s + 1 = P3(S)

10-25. For the following polynomial, determine the number of zeros in the right half of the s plane, the left half of the s plane, and on the imaginary axis (the boundary) of the s plane: (a) PI(S) = 2s7 + 2s6 + 15s5 + 17s4 + 44s3 + 36s2 + 24s + 9 (b) S6 + 3s5 + 4S4 + 6s3 + 13s2 + 27s + 18 = P2(S) (c) S8 + 3s7 + 5s6 + 9s5 + 17s4 + 33s3 31s2 + 27s + 18 = P3(S).

10-30. The ne oscil/at gmRL~ = 29 is

10-26. Consider

the equation aos4 + als3

a2s2

a3s

+ a4

Use the Routh-Hurwitz criterion to determine a set of conditions necessary in order that all roots of the equation have negative real parts. Assume that all coefficients in the equation are positive. 10-27. For the network of the figure, let RI = R2 = 1 Cl = 1 F and C2 = 2 F. For what values of k will the network be stable? In other words, for what values of k will the roots of the characteristic equation have real parts in the left half of the s plane?

n,

Fig. PI0-27.

tnd Zeros /

cs. 10
Cl. 10 I Problems 323 11-28. For the network of Prob. 10-27, let k = 2, Cl = 1 F and Rz = 1 n. Determine the relationship that must exist between RI and Cz for the system to oscillate, that is, for the roots of the characteristic equation to be conjugate and have zero real parts. 10-29. The amplifier-network shown in the accompanying figure is to be analyzed. (a) What must be the relationship between RI, Rz, and K for the system to be stable (real parts of the roots of the characteristic equation are zero or negative)? (b) For the system to oscillate without damping, what must be the relationship between RI> Rz, and K? What will be the frequency of oscillation? Assume that the amplifier has infinite input impedance and zero output impedance.

e equation have eh that the real

itions-

er of zeros in . of zeros on Fig. PIO-29.

Amplifier gain -K

+
V2

cJ

zeros in the and on the 24s

10-30. The network of the accompanying figure represents a phase-shift oscillator. (a) Show that the condition necessary for oscillation is gmRL ~ 29. (b) Show that the frequency of oscillation when gmRL = 29 is Wo = 1/../6 RC.

+9
+
Vg

18 Fig. PIO-30.

:onditions tative real tive, 1 F and 'In other :tic equa-

1031. Show that with Z.Zb panying figure,

Rij in the bridged-T Vz


VI = 1 1

network

of the accom-

+ Z./Ro
Zin

and the input impedance

at port 1 is

Ro.

Fig. PIO-31. 10-32. An active network is described


S2

by the characteristic
I 2

equation

+ (3 + 6K )s +- 6K

=0

324

Network Functions; Poles and Zeros / Ch. 10 It is required that the network be stable and that no component of its response decay more rapidly than Kte-31 Show that these conditions are satisfied if K2 > 0, I Kt I < i, and K2 > 3Kt. Crosshatch the area of permitted values of Kt and K2 in the Kt-K2 plane.

10-33. Values for the elements of the Routh array can also be expressed in terms of second-order determinants multiplied by - 1. Thus the formulas shown in Fig. 10-30 become

a5 \

b5

Using the indexing scheme suggested on page 312, give a general formula for the elements of the Routh array.

We next turn 0 is useful in de to describe an tions are like I restrictions im open or be sho

In the I identified+tw and currents box enclosing voltages and important ina transformq and V2 and 11 the four vari of them dele specified, then four variabl depending on variables. In in Table 11-1.

342

Two-Port

Parameters

( Ch. I

DIGITAL

COMPUTER

EXERCISES

In connection with the matrix multiplication of the ABeD parameter matrices for networks connected in cascade, see the exercises in references cited in Appendix E-3.1. The determination of the other parameters involves ordinary network analysis with the special condition that the one pair 01 network terminals be either open or shorted. These topics are considered in references cited in Appendix E-8.

PROBLEMS
In the problems henrys. 11-1. 11-2.
1~2

to follow, all element values are in ohms, farads, or for the two simple networks shown in

Find the y and z parameters the figure if they exist. For the two networks eter's if they exist.

shown in the figure, find the z and y paramfor the resistive network of the accom11-8. The and det

11-3.
1'0>__------02'
la)

Find the y and z parameters panying figure.

1~2
~ I1

1'~2' (bl

1"0

--'

-'-_~

2' Fig. Pll3. current

Fig. PIl-l.

11-4.

The network of the figure contains a current-controlled source. For this network, find the y and z parameters.

(a)

Fig. Pll4. 11-5.


l:n

11-9.

Find

Find the y and z parameters for the resistive network containing a controlled source as shown in the accompanying figure.

11-10. The

[
(b)

Ideal

Fig. Pll-2.

Fig. PllS.

343

SES
e ABeD parameter ercises in referel1Cel parameters involveI that the one pair 01 cs are considered iD

The accompanying figure shows a resistive network containing a singlecontrolled source. For this network, find the y and z parameters.

:,
~

2Q

IQ

~
Fig. Pl1-6.

ohms, farads, or etworks shown in e z and y paramk of the accom-

117. Thenetwork of the figure contains both a dependent current source and a dependent voltage source. For the element values given, determinethe y and z parameters.

Fig. PH-7.

118. The accompanying network contains a voltage-controlled source and a current-controlled source. For the element values specified, determine the y and z parameters.

rolled current
).

+
+ 2\l

+ \.j

f--,-----jf---,-----o2
1 \1

1'0-----'-------'---02'

Fig. PHS. 119. Find the y and z parameters for the RC ladder network of the figure.

Fig. PH-9.

containing a

1110. The network of the figure is a bridged- T RC network. For the values given, find the y and z parameters. Il-Il, Determine the ABCD (transmission) parameters for the network of Prob. 11-10. n12. The accompanying figure shows a network with passive elements and two ideal transformers having I: I turns-ratios. For the element

~F

~~
1~02

1'0

1F
2

02'

values specified, determine the z parameters.

Fig. PH-lOo

344

Two-Port Parameters

/ Ch. 11

r-----<> 2

1'0-------'-------"
f\fv--+~\.f\fv~-~2

'------02'

Fig. PH-12. 11-13. The network of the figure represents a certain transistor over a given range of frequencies, For this network, determine (a) the h param-

1'0-------'-------02'

Fig. PH-13.

eters, and (b) the g parameters. Check your results using Table 11-2.
11-14. The network of the figure represents the transistor of Prob. 11-13 over a different range of frequencies. For this network, determine (a) the h parameters, and (b) the g parameters.

11 o--'----AJV''v--+--il-----'---<>2 11-15. Show -

that the standard T section representation of a two-port network may be expressed in terms of the h parameters by the equations shown in the accompanying figure.

1'0-----'-------02'

Fig. Pll14.

1'0------'----------<>2'

Fig. PH-IS. 1116. The network of the figure may be considered as a two-port network

embedded in another resistive network. The resistive network is


1/2 f!

+
la 2f!
J'

+
N

V;

~
2'

If!

Fig. Pll-16.

Parameters /

c 11

Ch.lJ / Problems

345

described by the following short-circuit admittances: YII = Y22 = 2 U, Y21 = 2 U, and Y12 = 1 U. If la is a constant equal to 1 amp, find the voltages and the two ports of the network N, VI and V2
1117.The network shown in the figure consists of a resistive T-and a resis-

tive It-network connected in parallel. For the element values given, determine the Y parameters.
1/2 I! 02' 1n

2n
10-2

stor over a given (a) the h paramising Table 11-2. . of Prob. 11-13 'k, determine (a) a two-port net'y the equations
Fig. PH-17.

1118. The resistive network shown in the figure is to be analyzed to determine the Y parameters.
In

2n

In

I'o------~L...---'------'-.--'--

.<J2'

Fig. PH-IS.

-port network e network is

11-19.The accompanying figure shows two two-port networks connected in parallel. One two-port contains only a gyrator, and the other is a resistive network containing a single controlled source. For this network, determine the Y parameters.
K

1n

Fig. PH-19.

346

Two-Port Parameters / Ch. 11

11-20. In the network of Fig. 11-16, let Z. = s/2, Zb = 2/s, and Ro For these specific element values, determine the y parameters.

I.

11-21. The network of the figure is of the type used for the so-called "notch filter." For the element values that are given, determine the y parameters.
2F 2F

IF

III

1'0---------'.--...L.-------o2'

Fig. Pll-21. 11-22. Let the element values for the network shown in Fig. 11-15 be as follows: Cl = C2 = 1 F, RI = 1 Q, R. = Rb = 2 Q, C. = t F. Using these values, determine the y parameters. 11-23. The figure shows two networks as (a) and (b). It is asserted that one is the equivalent of the other. Is this assertion correct? Show reasoning. If it is, might one network have an advantage over the other as far as the calculation of network parameters is concerned?

-II C3 Cl C2
lal

-12

V;

II

~R'

E fk~ IR'
It
Ib,

C3

+~

12

Fig. Pll-23. 11-24. Two two-port networks are said to be equivalent if they have identical y or z parameters (or other of the characterizing parameters). In this problem, we wish to study the conditions under

eters /

cs. J J
347

and Ra = 1. meters. called "notch they param-

which the z-network of (c), is equivalent to the T-network Show that the two networks are equivalent if Ya where

of Cb).

Z2 D'

Yb

= 75'

Z3

an

Y =Zt D
C

f---,.----o2

1 "C>---'-----'---o2'
(a)

1:!L:2
r
2'
(b)

Fig. Pll-24.

1-15 be a5

c, = i-F.

1125. Derive equations similar to those given in Prob. 11-24 expressing ZI> Z2, and Z3 in terms of Yr, Yb, and Ye' This result and that given in Prob. 11-24 are used in obtaining a T-7t transformation. 1126. Apply the T-7t transformation of Prob. 11-24 or 11-25 to the network of the figure to obtain an equivalent (a) T-network, (b) zr-network.

that one is easoning. er as far as

1 !!

211

1F

r----o

+
Fig. Pll-26.
1'0>------L-----_02'

l~y~2
1127. Apply the T-n transformation to obtain an equivalent (a) T-network and (b) zr-network for the capacitive network given in the figure. 1128. Apply the T-7t transformation as many times as is necessary to the inductive ladder network shown in the accompanying figure in order to determine the numerical values for the equivalent (a) T-network, (b) z-network.
l'o~----

2F
02'

Fig, Pll-27.

--0

Fig. Pll28.

1'0

13JI2
1H 1H 2 H

2'

, have X1ramunder

1129. The network given in the figure is known as a lattice network; this lattice is symmetrical in the sense that two arms of the lattice have impedance Z, and two have impedance Zb' For this network, (a) determine the z parameters, and (b) express Z; and Z; in terms of z parameters.

Fig. Pll-29.

348

Two-Port Parameters / Ch. If

ll-30. In this problem, we consider two-port networks having a symmetry property illustrated in (a) of the figure: If the network is divided at the dashed line, the two half networks have mirror symmetry with respect to the dashed line. The two half networks are connected by any number of wires as shown, and we will consider only the cases in which these wires do not cross. If a network meeting these specifications is bisected at the dashed line, then with the connecting wires open, the input impedance at either port is Z 1/20c as shown in (b). Similarly, with the connecting wires shorted, the impedance at either port is ZI/2,c as shown in (c). A theorem due to Bartlett states that these impedances are related to those given for the arms of the lattice in Prob. 11-29 by the equations

This is known as Bartlett's bisection theorem, and permits an equivalent lattice network to be found for any symmetrical network. Prove the theorem.

11

---12

~,

~N

r---L--l
I

!N

I
~N

~,
11-35. Th z

(a)

:,0,-1

~N

~----~
(b)

:,,,-1

r----~
11-36. Th

(c)

Fig. Pll-30. 11-31. Apply the theorem of Prob. 11-30 to the network given in Prob. 10-2 with the terminating resistor at port 2 removed, and so obtain a lattice equivalent network. 11-32. Apply the theorem of Prob. 11-30 to the network of Prob. 10-31 with the terminating resistor Ro removed to find the lattice equivalent of the given network. 11-33. (a) Show that the network of the accompanying figure satisfies the requirements described in Prob. 11-30. (b) Find the lattice equivalent of the network.

ha

11-37. T ZL

tters / Ch. J I 349 'ng a sym, network is nirror syrn:tworks are ill consider Irk meeting h the con~ ZI/20c as heimpedhe to Barten for the
Cl

0--L-fV\/v--,--JV\/V __ ~2

Fig. Pll-33.

1'0------------'---

--<:

2'

U34, Find the lattice equivalent


n equivark. Prove

of the network of the accompanying figure making use of the results of Prob. 11-30.

12

V2

~~~/\/\~-+-J\AJ\'~~2

r--o

Fig. Pll-34.

1'0--

_____ T_

3 F _ 02

JIJS, The network N in the accompanying figure may be described z parameters. Show that with port 2 open,

by the

---Fig. Pll-3S. Prob. obtain


10-31

JI36. The network N in the figure is terminated having impedance ZL = Jf YL. Show that

at port 2 with a network

uivaes the valent

Fig. PII-36. 1l37. The network N of the figure is terminated at port 2 in impedance ZL = J/ r L Show that the transfer impedance for the combination is Z
12

Z21 Z22

ZL +ZL

350

Two-Port Parameters / Ch. //

Fig. Pll-37. 11-38. The figure shows two two-port networks connected in cascade. The two networks are distinguished by the subscripts a and b. Show that the combined network may be described by the equations

and
_ Y 12 -Y12aY12b Y11b

Y22a

for the transfer

functions.

Fig. Pll-3S.

Stated in function when s= In generated swinging these dev' voltage is

366

Sinusoidal Steady-State Analysis I Ch. 12

Ch. 12 I Problems 12-3. Starting \\ similar to

FURTHER

READING

BALABANIAN,NORMAN, Fundamentals of Circuit Theory, Allyn and Bacon, Inc., Boston, 1961. Chapter 4. CHIRLIAN, PAUL M., Basic Network Theory, McGraw-Hill New York, 1969. Chapter 6. Book Company, Brace Jovan-

12-4.

Given the sin determin

CLOSE, CHARLES M., The Analysis nf Linear Circuits, Harcourt ovich, Inc., New York, 1966. Chapter 5.

12-5.

Show tha

HUANG, THOMASS., AND RONALD R. PARKER, Network Theory: An Introductory Course, Addison-Wesley Publishing Co., Inc., Reading, Mass., 1971. Chapter 10. LEO"'",.BENJAMINJ., AND PAUL A. WINTZ, Basic Linear Networks for Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Halt, Rinehart & Winston, Inc., New York, 1970. Chapter 4. MANNING, LAURENCEA., Electrical Circuits, McGraw-Hill Book Company, New York, 1965. Chapter 6. WING, OMAR, Circuit Theory with Computer Methods, Holt, Rinehart Winston, Inc., New York, 1972. See Chapter 7. &

In other arbitrar a sinuso 12-6. 12-7. Using t in term Using equati in Cha di (a) lit
(b) di

DIGITAL

COMPUTER

EXERCISES

dt

This chapter is devoted to a discussion of networks operating in the sinusoidal steady state. Analysis of large systems in this condition is straightforward but tedious if done with pencil and paper, and the computer can be used to advantage. See the references cited in Appendix E-8.3 for suggested exercises. In particular, see Chapters 9 and 10 of Huelsman, reference 7 in Appendix -10, and Chapters 3 and 11 of Ley, reference I1 in Appendix

Cc) ;'
(d) d
1

E-I0.

12-8.

Repe onl
(a)

PROBLEMS
121. 12-2. Let v(t) = VI cos Wit for Eq, (12-1) and carry out the derivation leading to a result similar to Eq, (12-9). For the sinusoidal waveform of the figure, write an equation for vet) using numerical values for the magnitude, phase, and frequency.
I I
l,v(t)

(b) (c) 12-9. Thl o~ del

f-+lO
v

J 0
I

12-10. In is 12 12-11. F N Fig. Pl1-2. 12-12. 11 f

0.1 1\
j f-

02

t',~fI I I I

I-

f--lO

lysis /

cs.

11

Starting with the rotating phasors, e->', show by a construction similar to that illustrated in Figs. 12-4 and 12-5 that

and Bacon,
Given the equation

sin?

WI

+ cos-

WI =

Company,
sin 377t

+ 3ft

sin (377t

+ ~)

A cos (377t

+ e)

race JovanAn Introing, Mass., for ElecInc., New


12.6.

determine A and 125. Show (ha t

e.
Aksin
(WIt

i:
k"1

+ CPk)

= Csin(wlt

+ e)

In other words, show that the sum of any number of sinusoids of arbitrary amplitude and phase angle but all of the same frequency is a sinusoid of the same frequency.
Using the equation of Prob. 12-5 with in terms of AI, A2, CPI,and CP2'
1/

2, determine

C and

~ompany,
127.

nehart &

Using the method of Section 12-3, solve the following differential equations for the steady-state solution (called the particular integral in Chapter 6):
Ca )

di dt

+ 2'I + 3i

. 2 = Sin t

Cb) :;.
Ig

+ i = cos
=

3t

in the straightter can

(c) :: (d) ~:;

cos (21 -I- i .


=

+ 45)
5 sin (2t -I- 30)

+ 2 :~
1

Cor sug:ference

d2i. (e) dt2 -I-

2 Sin t equations, solving Fig. P12-9.

!)pendix

128. Repeat Prob. 12-7 for the following differential only for the steady-state solution: d+! di (a) dt~ + 2 d; + 2i = 3 cos (I + 30) dt i (b) dl~

+ 4i
-I- 2i

= 3 cos (21
=

+ 45)
t

Ivation
or vet)
ncy,

(c) :: 12.9.

sin 2t

+ cos

The network of the figure has a sinusoidal voltage source and is operating in the steady state. Use the method of Section 12-3 to determine the steady-state current i(t) if VI = 2 cos 2t.

Fig. P12-10.

12.10. In the network of the figure, i, = 3 cos (t + 45) and the network is operating in the steady state, Make use of the method of Section 12-3 to determine the node-to-datum voltage VI(t). 12.11. For the given network, find v.(t) in the steady state if Make use of the method of Section 12-3. 12.12. In the resistive network shown in the figure, VI for all t. (a) Determine i.Ct). (b) Determine ib(t).
= VI =

VI

L'd

2 sin 2t. Fig. PI2-lI.

2 sin (2t -I- 45)

368

Sinusoidal

Steady-State

Analysis

I Ch. 12

Fig. P12-12.

12-13. The network shown in the accompanying figure is operating in the steady state with sinusoidal voltage sources, If t'l ,= 2 cos 21 and V2 = 2 sin 21, determine the voltage v.Ct).

~F

12-14. The inductively coupled network of the figure is operating in the sinusoidal steady state with 1'1(1) = 2 cos I, Jf LI ~-,L: - I H, M = H, and C = 1 F, determine the voltage dO,

'---_~_.L-13
*
M
+
Va

Fig. P12-13.

c
Fig. P12-I4.

12-15. The network of the figure is operating in the sinusoidal steady state, In the network, it is determined that 1'. ,= 10 sin (10001 -- 60) and t'b = 5 sin (10001 - 45), The magnitude of the impedance of the capacitor is 10 Q. Determine the impedance. at the input terminals of the network
+

N.

Fig. Pl2-IS.

12-16. In the network shown, the network is operating given, determine

1'1

10 sin 106t and i, 10 Cl)S JO"t. and in the steady state, For the ,'kment values
c-

the node-ta-datum

voltage

/'/t),

talvsis /

ci. Il

Ch.12 I Problems

369

ating in the 2 cos 21 and

Fig. P12-16.

1217. For the hridged-Tnetwork of the accompanying figure, t'l =2 cos t and the system is in the steady state, For this network, (a) determine i.Ct), and (b) determine ib(t),

+
t'l

ting in the Lz - 1 H,

Fig. P12-17.

12111.The network of the figure is operating in the steady state with 1'1 . 2 sin 21 and K I ,= -~, Under these conditions, determine i2Ct). The following series of problems are intended to give practice In constructing phasor diagrams. The network shown in the figure for Prob. 12-19 is assumed to be operating in the sinusoidal steady state, In the element values given in the table, a double entry in column 1 implies a series connection, in column 2 a parallel connection, For each problem, (a) determine VICt), (b) Draw a complete phasor diagram showing all voltagcs and all currents, as well as all relationships between the voltages and the currents,

ady state, 60') and cc of the rerlllinals

If!

Fig. P12-18.

16/.

and I values
Fig. P\2-19.

cz= V", sin (wt+CP)

370

SinusoidalSteady-State Analysis / Ch. 12

Network 1

Network 2 C=2 C=1 C=! L=2 R=1 R =2 C=1 L=! L=2 C=! R = 1 R = I, L = 2 R=I,C=! R = I, C = 1 R = I, L = 2

Vm
2 10 1 100 10 3 10 1 2 2 10 10 1 100 1

eo

ifJ

12-19. 12-20. 12-21. 12-22. 12-23. 12-24. 12-25. 12-26. 12-27. 12-28. 12-29. 12-30. 12-31. 12-32. 12-33.

R = 1 R =2 R = 20 R =2 L=1 C=2 L=3 C=1 R = I, C = 1 R = I, L = 2 L=I,C=2 R = I, C = 1 R = 3, L = 2 L = I, C = 2 L = I, C = 2

1
2 0.1

!
1

!
2 1 1

!
1

!
1 1

-30 45 0 30 0 45 -45 0 30 45 0 90 0 -90 0

12-34. The network of the figure is operating in the sinusoidal steady state and it is known that V3 = 2 sin 21. For the element values given, determine V z/V 1 = AeJ~.
+ +

Fig. P12-34.

12-35. The network of the figure is adjusted so that RL = Re = ..; LIe. (a) Draw a complete phasor diagram showing all voltages and currents (and their relationships to each \other) for the condition \ lL \ = \le \. (b) Let the frequency for the condition of part (a) be Wt. Draw a phasor diagram for a frequency W2 > Wt. (c) Repeat part (b) for a frequency W3 < Wt.

Fig. PI2-3S.

Analysis

cs. 12

Ch.12 / Problems

371

co

!
2 0.1

! !
1

!
2
1 1

-30 45 00 30 00 450 -45 00 30 45


0 0 0 0 0 0

1236. The network of the figure is adjusted so that RI Cl = R2C2 = T. Let the phase angle of '1:2 with respect to VI be cp. (a) Show how cp varies with T. (b) For a fixed T, show how cp varies with CD. (c) For a fixed T, show how the maximum amplitude of V2 is related to the maximum amplitude of VI as a function of CD.

+
"2

Fig. P12-36.

!
1

00
900 00 -90
0

!
1 1

00

soidal steady values given,

= -.!L/C.

es and Cur: condition t (a) be CDJ .epeat part

-:
408 Frequency Response Plots I Ch. 13
["11.

13/

13-7.

PROBLEMS
13-8. 13-1. Sketch the (a) magnitude, (b) phase, (c) real part, and (d) imaginary part variation of the following network functions with ro for both ro> 0 and ro < 0; (a) 1

+ j2ro + +

1 (b) 1 _ j2ro ( ) c
2H
111

(1 - 2roZ) jro 1 j2ro

13-2.

Consider the RLC one-port network shown in the figure. For this network, determine the driving-point functions Z(jro) and Y(jro). For each of these functions, plot the magnitude, phase, real part, and imaginary part as a function of frequency for ro > 0 and ro < O. For the two-port network of the figure, determine the voltage-ratio transfer function, Gll(jro) = VZ(jro)/V1(jro). Plot the variation of this function with ro for the two methods employed in Fig. 13-7.

Fig. Pl3-1.

13-3.

13-5

13-4.

The two-port network of the figure shows an RL network. the plots specified in Prob. 13-3.

Repeat

Fig. P13-4. 13-5. Repeat Prob. accompanying 13-3 for the RC two-port figure.
0

13 shown in the

network

'VV'v
RI

VI

Fig. Pl3-5. 13-6.

lR' T

V2

0
1

Show that the locus plot of Eq. (13-15) shown in Fig. 13-7 is a semicircle centered at Gll(jro) = 0.5 + jO for the frequency range

0<

ro

<

co.

s / Ch./J

409 Consider the locus plot required in Prob. 13-5. Show that this locus is a circle for the frequency range, - 00 < Cl) < 00. Determine the center of the circle and its radius.

aginary for both

Jl.8. Consider the RLC series circuit shown in the fipure. (a) Suppose that this network is connected to a sinusoidal voltage source. Plot the variation of the current magnitude and phase with frequency. (b) Suppose that the same network is connected to a current source of a sinusoidal waveform. Plot the variation of the voltage across the three elements using the same coordinates as in part (a). Element values are in ohms, farads, and henrys.
+

or this
Y(jw).

f7)
VI

,and <0. -ratio on of -7.

il

t
~F
(b)

V2

~F
(a)

Fig. P13-S. 139. The figure shows a network which functions as a low-pass filter. For this network, determine the transfer function V2/11 and plot the magnitude and phase as a function of frequency for this ratio.

Fig. P13-9. 13-10. The network shown in the accompanying figure serves a similar function to that considered in Prob. 13-9, namely, it is a low-pass filter. For this network, determine the transfer function V2/11 and plot the magnitude and phase as a function of frequency.

Fig. PI3-10. 13-11. A network is analyzed and it is found that the transfer function is

v;- = S3 + 2S2 + 2s + 1

V2

410

Frequency Response Plots I For this function, plot the magnitude frequency for the range 0 < Cl) < 4.

13 of

cs.

)J
1F 2\1

and phase as a function

~H

13-12. For the RLC network shown in the figure, plot (a) the locus of the impedance function, and (b) the locus of the admittance function. 13-13. Plot (a) the admittance locus, and (b) the impedance RLC network shown in the figure. locus for the

13-1

Fig. Pl3-12.

13-14. The four-element network shown in the figure is to be analyzed to determine (a) the locus of the impedance of the network, and (t) the locus of the admittance function for the network.
IF

13-15. For the network of the figure, plot (a) the locus of the impedance function, and (b) the locus of the admittance function.

Fig. Pl3-l3.
2F

1\1

I~
Fig. Pl3-15.

~F

13-16. The RL network shown in (a) of the figure has element values such that the phase of the voltage measured with respect to the current is

Fig. Pl3-14.

(a)

+0'

+30'

r-.r-.
o
10 20

13

f
V

------ I---- l--30


Frequency
(b)

Phase of voltage with respect. to current in series RL circuit

I--

+60'

60
70

+90'

40
in cycles/sec

50

Fig. Pl3-16.

/ ci. 1J
et ion of s of the nction. for the zed to d (t) dance

(1.13/ Problem s that shown in (b) of the figure. From this information, pole and zero locations for Y(s).
1),17. The figure shows the variation

411

determine

the

of the magnitude of the current with for an RLC series network with an applied sinusoidal voltage of constant magnitude. From the figure, determine the locations of the poles and zeros of the admittance of the network.

r----,.----,

+j5

1.00

0.80

Frequency response of RLC series circuit

1 pole

I----t-"*----j

+j4

~.

III 0.60

ch t is

0.40

/
/ ~

I I
30

\
40
in cycles/sec.

1----+-----1

+)3

<, ~

1----t----1

+j2

<,

----1----

--

+jl

0.20

1 zero

/
10 20 50 60
Frequency

1----: :---+---:- ----jOj)0 2 1

'--------

-jl

Fig. P13-17.
-----=j?

13-18. The pole-zero configuration shown in the figure represents the admittance function for the series RLC circuit. From the pole-zero configuration, determine: (a) the undamped natural frequency Wn, (b) the damping ratio (, (c) the circuit Q, (d) the bandwidth (to the half-power points), (e) the actual frequency of oscillation of the transient response, (f) the damping factor of the transient response, (g) the frequency of resonance, (h) the parameter values (in terms of L if the values cannot otherwise be uniquely determined). (i) Sketch the magnitude of the admittance I Y(jw) I as a function offrequency. (j) If the frequency scale is magnified by a factor of 1000, how do the values of the parameters, R, L, and C change? 13-19. The figure shows two configurations of poles and zeros for a certain transfer function. Use a graphical procedure to determine the varialion of the magnitude of the network function for the two configurat ions. Superimpose the two plots on the same system of coordinates.

t------

------

- j3

1 pole

-- ------

-- ...---

- j4

'-- __

-1- __

--' -

j5

Fig. P13-JS.

412

Freouency

Response Plots / Ch. J3

Ch. I

13-0.5+j2.0x -0.5+j 1.5 x


jca

-0.5+j2x
(Scale factor -1)

jw

(Scale factor - 1)

-0.5+j1x

3 zeros

3 zeros
<T <T

-0.5-jl -0.5 - j 1.5 x -O.5-j2


(a)

-O.5-j2x
(b)

13-

Fig. P13-19. 13-20. Show that the bandwidth a series RLC circuit. B varies inversely with the circuit Q for

13-

13-21. Show that for an RLC series network the product of I Y Imax and the bandwidth B equals I/L, where L is the inductance ..
jw

Fig. P1322.

13-22. The two poles and zero shown in the s plane of the accompanying sketch are for the transfer function of a two-terminal-pair network, G(s) = V2(s)/ VI (s). The zero is on the real axis at a position to correspond with the same real part of the poles. The poles have positions corresponding to ( = O.707() ~ 45); eo, is the distance from the origin to the pole as shown. In this problem, we will investigate the effect of the finite zero by computations with and without the zero. (a) The bandwidth of the system is modified from the definition given in the chapter as the range of frequencies from ()) = 0 to the half-power point. Compute the bandwidth of the system with the pole-zero configuration shown above; compute the bandwidth with the zero removed. In which case is the bandwidth greater and by what factor? A graphical construction is suggested. 13-23. The Q of a series RLC network at resonance is 10 The maximum amplitude of the current at resonance is I amp when the maximum amplitude of the applied voltage is 10 V. If L = 0.1 H, find the value of C in microfarads. 13-24. A coil under test may be represented by the model of L in series with R. The coil is connected in series with a calibrated capacitor. A sine wave generator of 10 V maximum amplitude and frequency (l) =1000 radians/sec is connected to the coil. The capacitor is varied and it is found that the current is a maximum when C = lOO J.l.F. Also, when C = 12.5 J.l.F, the current is 0.707 of the maximum value. Find the Q of the coil at ()) = 1000 radians/sec,

13-

/ c.

11

413

1),25. The network of the figure is found to have the driving-point ance Z(s) = (s From this information,

imped-

-+-

106(s + I) + jlOOXs + I - jlOO) the values of R J, Rz, L, and C.

determine

Fig. P13-25.

1J26. For the following network function, plot the straight-line asymptotic magnitude response and the phase response. Use 4- or 5-cycle semilog paper.

for
]327.Given the network the

G(s)

s(l

+ O.OlsXI + O.OOIs) + O.IsXI + O.Ols) + sXI + O.OOls)


response and the phase

100

function,
G(s)

(1 (l

Plot the straight-line asymptotic magnitude response. Use 4- or 5-cycle semilog paper. 13-28.Plot the straight-line asymptotic for the network function
G(s) = 100(1

magnitude
S2

response and phase angle

+ 0.17sXI + 0.53s)

Use 3- or 4-cycle semilog paper. e 13-29.(a) Plot the straight-line asymptotic magnitude response, and (b) determine the actual (or true) response for the network function G( ) = 1000(1 s (1
(c)

e
h y

+ 0.25sXI + O.ls) + s)( I + 0.025s)


Use 4-

On the same coordinate system, plot the phase response. or 5-cycle semilog paper for the plotting. 13-30. Repeat (a) G(s) Prob. 13-29 for the following network functions:

50~~1-~

o~~~~~
1000s

(b) G(s) = (I (c) G(s) =

+ O.OlsXI + 0.0025s) ~(l + O.Ols) 180(1 + 0.05sXl + O.ools)

13-31. (a) Plot the straight-line asymptotic magnitude response, and (b) determine the actual (or true) response curve for the network

414

Frequency Response Plots I Ch. JJ

G.

function
(l G(s)

= 120s(S2 + 2s + 10)

+ 0.2s)

(c) On the same coordinate system, plot the phase response. Use 3or 4-cyc1e semilog paper. 13-32. Repeat Prob. 13-31 for the fo\1owing network functions: s (a) G(s) = 1000(1 + O.OOlsXI+ 4 x to-5s + 10 8S2) (b) G(s)

= (I +

+ 0.Ss2XI +

lOOs

O.4s

+ 0.2s2)

13-33. We are required to construct a network function G(s) satisfying the fo\1owing specifications: The asymptotic curve should have a lowfrequency response of 0 db/octave slope, and the high-frequency response has a slope of - 24 db/octave. The break frequency between these two slopes is at (J) = 1 radian/sec. At no frequency should the difference between the asymptotic and the true response exceed 1 db. 13-34. The figure shows two straight-line segments having slopes of n6 db/octave. The low-and high-frequency asymptotes extend indefinitely, and the network function the response represents has first-order factors only. Find G(s) and evaluate the constant multiplier of the function.
Fig. PI3-36.
M

db

~ :1

J2F IFJ~2
Fig. PI3-37. Fig. Pl3-34.
+

..,(Iog scale)

13-35. Repeat Prob. 13-34 if the response is changed only by the highfrequency asymptote having a slope of -18 db/octave. 13-36. For the two-port network shown in the figure, determine V1/VI and plot the magnitude response (Bode plot) showing both asymptotic and true curves. 13-37. Prepare a Bode plot for the network function V1/VI for the network shown in the accompanying figure. 13-38. Prepare a Bode plot for the voltage-ratio transfer function GIl V1/VI for the two-port network shown in the figure.

Fig. PI3-38.

Fig. PI3-39.

13-39. The figure shows an RLC network. For this two-port network, plot the transfer function GIl = V2/V\ showing both the asymptotic and true curves.

415 Consider the following


(a) G(s)H(s)
= K s

transfer functions:
I

s-1 s

(b) G(s)H(s) (c) G(s)H(s)

= Ks _

1 1

= s(

+ 0.05s)

For each of these functions: (a) plot GUw)H(jw) in the complex w = 0 to w = 00 with K = 1. (b) Determine the range of values of K that will result in a stable system by means of the Nyquist criterion.
CH plane from

13-41. For the locus plot shown in Fig. 13-45, sketch the corresponding Bode plots for the magnitude and phase, making some assumption as to the frequency scale. Estimate the gain and phase margins and indicate these on the Bode plots. 13042. Repeat Prob. 13-41 for the locus plot shown in Fig. 13-48.

1343. Starting with the locus plot shown in the figure for Prob. 13-4;. sketch the corresponding magnitude and phase plots using Bode coordinates. Make an assumption about the frequency scale along the locus. Indicate on the figure the gain and phase margins. 1344. The Nyquist plot of the figure is made for a system for which P == O. Analyze the system by applying the Nyquist criterion, indicating whether the system is stable, conditional\y stable, or unstable.
j ImCH

Re CH

0+ Fig. P13-44. 13-45. The locus plot is made for a system for which P = O. It is given that A = -0.75, B = -1.3, and C = -2. Assuming that the plot is
jlmCH

Fig. Pl3-45.

416

Frequency

Response

Plots / Ch. 13

Ch.

made for a gain K, what is the range of values of gain for which the system will be (a) stable, and (b) unstable. 13-46. Repeat Prob. 13-45 if P= 1. 13-47. The figure shows a locus plot made for a system for which P = O. Is the system stable? Determine your answer to this question by applying the Nyquist criterion. Repeat if P = I, P = 2.
jlmGH

13-~

Re GH

13

Fig. Pl3-47.

13-48.' The locus plot shown in the figure is made for a system with P = 2, two poles with positive real parts. Apply the Nyquist criterion to this system to determine the stability of the system.
j Im G(jwl
H(jw)

Fig. PI3-48.

13-49. The locus plot of G(jw)H(jw) shown in the figure is made for a system with P = O.For this system, apply the Nyquist criterion to study the stability of the system.
j lm Gfjw) H(jw)

GH plane

Re GfjuJ I H(juJ)

Fig. PI3-49.

ponse Plots / Ch. J3 gain for which the

Ch. 13 / Problems

417

1350. The accompanying figure shows a plot of the locus of G(jw)H(jw) from w = 0 to o: = DJ. From this plot determine everything you can about G(s)H(s) as a quotient of polynomials in s.
j Im GH

for which P = this question by


t>=2.

o.

w=o"
Re GH

Fig. P13-S0. 13-51. The figure shows the feedback system for which the Nyquist criterion has been developed. For this problem, let H = 1, and G(s) _ K - (s - aXs 2Xs

+ 3)

Make use of the Nyquist for the case a = 1.

criterion

to study this system for stability

ern withP
ist criterion

= 2

t;

Fig. P13-SI. 13-52. Repeat 13-53. Repeat Prob. 13-S1 if a Prob.


=

2.

13-S1 if a = 4. functions IOS which relate to the

13-54. A system is described by the transfer system of Fig. P13-S1. G(s) iade for a sys:rion to study

(s

+ 2Xs + IOXs + 20)


criterion
TO

and H = 1. Make use of the Nyquist system is stable.

determine

if this

13-55. Repeat Prob. 13-S4 for the given G(s), but for a new feedback transfer function H(s)

s t020

This causes cancellation in the product H(s)G(s) and is a form of compensation of a system to improve stability. Comment on the effectiveness of this compensation function.

4111

Frequency Response Plots I Ch. J 3

~3-S6. The figure shows a model of a feedback amplifier. For this system, identify G(s) and H(s) as in Fig. P13-51 and express each as a quotient of polynomials in s. Is this system capable of oscillation? Make use of the Nyquist criterion in answering this question and in a general study of the system stability.

Fig. Pl3-56.