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68166 QUEEN OF CORONA SURVEILLANCE

68166 QUEEN OF CORONA SURVEILLANCE

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Publicado pordrmhomes
MY PERSONAL SURVEILLANCE PROGRAM HIDDEN AWAY UNDER A VARIETY OF PROGRAM !!GOOD GOING.
MY PERSONAL SURVEILLANCE PROGRAM HIDDEN AWAY UNDER A VARIETY OF PROGRAM !!GOOD GOING.

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Published by: drmhomes on Jun 24, 2009
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02/04/2013

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Cuba today faces daunting water-supply and sanitation issues,
including inoperative sewage treatment plants. In the entire country, there
are only five municipal wastewater plants, and only four percent of the
sewage effluent has some degree of treatment. Water and sewer pipeline
networks are in shambles. Havana’s population of over two million people
uses a sewer system designed for a population of 600,000. Havana’s
wastewater flow receives primary treatment only, and excess flow is
discharged with minimal, if any, treatment.

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Insufficient levels of wastewater treatment and the lack of sewer
pipelines have caused a degradation of water quality. Runoff from heavily
treated fields with fertilizers, pesticides, and herbicides, as well as the
discharge of untreated effluents from cities and industries such as sugar
mills, sugar-by-products, food processing plants, and mining operations, also
severely pollute surface and groundwater in Cuba. As a result, only 62
percent of Cubans have reasonable access to disinfected water. Trash
pickup is intermittently undertaken, which perpetuates the proliferation of
mini-dumpsites in populated areas and near the perimeters of boarding
schools and students/workers' camps. There are also alarming difficulties in
the hygienic conditions of dumpsites and deficient handling and disposal of
hazardous waste from hospitals, which creates a serious health risk.

In light of these conditions, the Cuban Transition Government may
request U.S. Government and other donor support to prevent and control the
possible outbreak of sanitation-related infectious diseases in rural and urban
areas.

If requested, the U.S. Government could support efforts to ensure
critical water and sanitation services for the Cuban people. The U.S.
Government can work with the Cuban Transition Government, international
agencies, and other donors to: (1) ensure access to adequate quantity and
quality of potable water; (2) develop accessible human-waste and
wastewater disposal facilities; (3) ensure access to garbage/solid-waste
collection and disposal facilities; (4) assist local communities in the planning
and implementation of environmental-health interventions; (5) help prevent
sanitation-related disease; and (6) offer assistance to local operations and
management to improve the existing operation of sanitation facilities.

Should the Cuban Transition Government request U.S. assistance to
address critical water and sanitation needs, the U.S. Government could do
the following:

• Help address the needs for potable water and sanitation in major urban
and rural populations;
• Provide chlorine or other water-treatment materials;
• Assist with water trucks to deliver water to needy communities;
• Provide technical assistance and other materials for the construction
of new wells in needy and vulnerable communities;

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• Assist with garbage trucks to collect and dispose of garbage in major
urban (or rural) areas, and in vulnerable population centers;
• Provide soap, disinfectant, and cleaning materials to vulnerable
groups;

• Support infectious disease surveillance, especially in areas identified
to have an increased risk of disease outbreaks; and
• Support hygiene-education programs in any sanitation-related
interventions, and provide technical assistance for mass-media public-
information campaigns health and sanitation.

Should the Cuban Transition Government request U.S. assistance
once critical needs have been addressed, the U.S. Government could provide
the following assistance during the recovery phase:

• Help ensure sanitation facilities are operational, adequately staffed
and functioning;
• Work with the Cuban Transition Government to ensure local
communities are actively involved in identifying and addressing their
ongoing critical needs, and in monitoring and evaluating the
effectiveness of existing sanitation interventions; involve local and
city governments to develop and implement environmental-health
education programs using internationally recognized models such as
Community Participation Problem-Solving: The Participatory
Hygiene and Sanitation Transformation (PHAST) Approach or the
Assessing Community Excellence in Environmental Health (PACE-
EH) approach promoted by the National Association of County and
City Health Officials (NACCHO); and
• Work with the Transition Government to ensure national policies and
infrastructure increase the long-term capacity of local communities to
manage effectively the operation and maintenance of water and
sanitation facilities through training and technical support.

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